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Full text of "A bibliography of printing : with notes and illustrations"

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A 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING 



VOLUME I. 



\'A// Rights of reproduciiim reserved.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

PRINTING 



WITH 



NO TES & ILLUS TRA TIONS 



COMPILED BY 

K. C. BIGMORE and C. VV. H. WVMAN 



A— L INCLUSIVE 



LONDON 
BERNARD OUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY 

MDCCCLXXX 




GENERAL 



R 





HE Compilers of this Bibliography 
of Printing, the first of its kind 
published in England, had been 
for some years engaged inde- 
pendently in the collection of 
materials for such a work as the 
present, when, by the good offices 
of Mr. Bernard Quaritch, of 
Piccadilly, they became personally 
acquainted and for the first time aware of their several 
labours and common intention, and thereupon agreed to 
combine their resources and pursue the task conjointly. 
It was arranged that the Bibliography should first appear, 
by monthly instalments, in the Printing Times and Litho- 
grapher ; and then, after careful revision and correction 
(for which this serial mode of publication afforded special 
facilities), be eventually issued in a more complete and 
permanent form. 

In the year 1874 the "Typographical Bibliography" of 
Mr. John F. Marthens, of Pittsburgh, United States, 
was printed in the pages of the Quadrat. A few months 
after the first announcement of the present Bibliography, 
Mr. William Blades, the historian of England's first printer, 
informed one of the Compilers that he had also for a 



64860 



vi BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING. 

long time contemplated a similar work. An effort was 
then made to enlist Mr. Blades's valuable co-operation, 
but in vain, for he doubtless felt that he was strong 
enough to stand alone, while it was uncertain how far 
he would benefit by the proposed collaboration. Mr. 
Blades, therefore, proceeded to issue the English portion 
of his "Bibliotheca Typographica" in the Printer's Register, 
intending to complete it as the several technical journals 
of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, &c., might offer him 
similar facilities with regard to the works in the languages 
of these respective countries. The fact that three inde- 
pendent works, each more or less aiming to furnish a 
Bibliography of Printing, should be simultaneously pro- 
jected and be announced within a twelvemonth, is suffi- 
ciently remarkable to be here recorded. 

In February, 1873, ^ preliminary intimation of this work 
was published. Various other notifications were issued 
from time to time, until the actual production of the first 
instalment in January, 1876, in the Frifiti?ig Times and 
Lithographer. In this publication it has ever since ap- 
peared monthly, and is still being continued. While 
touching on these matters it seems proper to add, that 
this compilation was begun for private use only, but that 
a daily experience of the need of such a work soon led 
to the project of attempting to supply, however imper- 
fectly, a real public want. Hence, without any preten- 
sions to the great learning, ample leisure, and literary 
ability, which such an undertaking properly demanded, 
the Compilers found themselves embarked in the present 
enterprise. Their chief qualifications they feel to consist 
in that technical knowledge which long experience in their 
respective occupations has given them. They confess also 
to some enthusiasm for the subject. They were, however. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING. vii 

from the outset encouraged with many promises of assist- 
ance, which have been since amply redeemed, and are 
gratefully acknowledged. 

And here should be recorded the generous aid, in re- 
vising and correcting the proofs and supplying deficiencies 
in this work, of Mr. Theodor Goebel, of Stuttgart, 
many years Editor of the Journal fiir Buchdruckerkunst^ 
the oldest periodical devoted to typography in existence ; 
of Mr. F. MuLLER, of Amsterdam ; of Mr. Louis Mohr, 
of Strasbourg ; of Mr. Theo. L. de Vinne, of New York ; 
and of other correspondents in various parts of the world, 
not omitting the constant assistance and courtesy of the 
learned staff of the British Museum. Moreover, in the 
autumn of 1878, Mr. William Blades, having relinquished 
his idea of completing the publication of his own work in 
the manner he had proposed, spontaneously and most 
liberally placed the whole of his valuable notes at 
the service of the Compilers. These materials have since, 
as far as possible, been embodied in these pages, the latter 
portion of which have also been further benefited by the 
revision of Mr. Blades. This enumeration would not, 
however, be complete without mention of the important 
service rendered by Mr. John Southward, who, in 
addition to possessing the qualifications of a practical 
printer, has devoted himself for several years to the 
study of the literature and antiquities of Printing.- The 
Compilers esteem themselves fortunate in having had the 
advantage of his intelligent aptitude and zealous co- 
operation throughout the progress of the work, which 
owes much to this gentleman's literary ability and special 
knowledge. 

The means adopted by the Compilers to avail themselves 
of the assistance so generously and so widely given were. 



viii BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING. 

primarily, the distribution of rough proofs, in which the re- 
cipients inscribed their proposed corrections and additions. 
This new matter, after being revised and augmented, was 
printed monthly in the Printing Tifnes and Lithographer^ 
and the large circulation by that means given to it pro- 
duced much correspondence and suggested various im- 
provements. The whole was again submitted in proof to 
several of the gentlemen co-operating, before the matter 
was finally printed in its present form. The foregoing 
details may afford some slight idea of the labour incurred 
in the collation and revision of the immense amount 
of material from which these pages have been elaborated. 

The scope and plan of the work have next to be stated. 
The Compilers have limited the signification of the word 
" Printing," by rejecting photographic printing, calico 
printing, telegraphic printing, &c., as irrelevant processes 
which are not utilised for literary purposes. In fact, the 
works cited are those treating of typographic, lithographic, 
copperplate printing, &c., with the cognate arts of type- 
founding, stereotyping, electrotyping, and wood-engraving. 
The subjects of Paper and Bookbinding are not included, 
although it would have been an interesting task to deal 
with them, as would also have been the case with Copyright 
and Laws regulating the Press ; but, though they bear very 
closely on the subject, they seem to belong rather to the 
results and outcome of printing than to printing itself. 

The several books cited are arranged in Alphabetical 
order under the names of the writers, in every case wherein 
the authorship is noted on the title-page or was known to 
the Compilers \ the names in the latter case being inserted 
in brackets. Anonymous works are placed according 
to the wording of the title, the first noun in such cases 
determining the alphabetical position in this Bibliography. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING. ix 

Every system of arrangement is open to objection ; but it is 
hoped that the one adopted will best facilitate reference 
to any book required, and therefore will prove more con- 
venient than the chronological method ; but in several cases 
wherein it is interesting to mark the evolution of a subject 
during successive years, an historical note has been given 
for the purpose. The article on "Koster," for instance, 
summarises the theories of various authors who have written 
on the subject of the " Haarlem Legend." Investigation, it 
is hoped, has been rendered easier by the employment of 
cross references. 

Great pains have been taken with the annotations, which 
the Compilers venture to think form, as a whole, a valuable 
collection of material towards a future History of Printing. 
In some instances by personal research, in others by 
correspondence with authorities, official and private, in 
various parts of the world, a very large number of 
hitherto unrecorded facts have been collected, while 
some important verifications or corrections of statements 
hitherto generally accepted have been secured. In this 
way the Compilers have endeavoured to present a con- 
siderable amount of matter which the future collector 
of historical facts will find acceptable and indeed 
necessary. There may be mentioned, for example, the 
section devoted to Societies, which embodies materials 
for an account of the trade organizations of printers for 
above a century. It is largely founded on original docu- 
ments not hitherto described, and on reminiscences and 
the collections formed by one of the Compilers, who, 
himself a printer and the son of a printer, had for many 
years taken an active part in the transactions of the 
Master Printers' Association of London. Either as a 
member of various committees appointed to legislate on 



X BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRINTING. 

the current trade movements, or as chairman of this Asso- 
ciation, he has had opportunities of practically acquaint- 
ing himself with contemporary trade politics, as they 
affected both employers and employed. The historical 
value of such details, although not always appreciated, 
ought not to be underrated ; for the events here recorded 
have, during the present century, considerably influenced 
the conditions under which the art of printing has been 
practised, and, to some extent, affected its products in this 
country. 

The list of Periodical Publications is undoubtedly 
the most complete that has yet been compiled. It 
was felt that the technical journals were the current 
medium wherein the history of the arts dealt with is 
recorded, and that a careful register of those periodicals 
would be of great value. 

Under the heading Parliamentary Papers are in- 
cluded Acts of the Legislature, proclamations, minutes 
of evidence before parliamentary committees, and reports 
of Royal commissioners, in so far as they bear on the 
subjects included within the scope of the present work. 
A chronological arrangement has been adopted here, and 
it is hoped that this matter will be rendered thereby 
more easy to consult, as well as more intelligible, than 
could have been the case had the alphabetical system 
been followed. 

These pages have been illustrated by a large number of 
interesting cuts, derived from various sources. Most of 
those representing the printers' devices were engraved with 
his own hand by Mr. J. Ph. Berjeau, and originally 
published in his little volume on "Printers' Marks," and 
in his Bookworm. Both of these works being out of print, 
and almost unattainable, the blocks were acquired, and 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING. xi 

they are here given in order, under the names of the 
printers who used them. A large number of other blocks 
(chiefly reproductions from very old standard and rare 
books) were obtained through the kindness of the author 
of " The Invention of Printing." Indeed, these pages are 
enriched with probably the largest and most representative 
collection of delineations of typographical monuments, and 
of portraits of notabilities, that has ever been presented in 
one work. 

Absolute accuracy is even less attainable in a biblio- 
graphical enterprise than in one of any other kind. Not- 
withstanding the extent of the list of books presented, the 
Compilers are conscious that there will be many titles which 
have escaped notice ; especially those of books of which 
only a few copies exist in places difficult of access, or of 
works which, being privately compiled for trade or other 
purposes, have not come upon the ordinary market. In 
fact, while the sheets of this work were going through the 
press not a few omissions have been discovered. All 
such items, so far as ascertained, will be placed in the 
Supplement, at the end of Volume II. A note of any 
shortcomings that may be detected by the reader will be 
gratefully received, and gladly turned to account. 

It may be mentioned, not only as an instance of the 
difficulties inherent in such a compilation as the present, 
but as a somewhat curious example of "printers' errors," 
that some of the " Dictionaries of Printers," " Memoirs of 
Printers," &c., mentioned in bibliographies and book- 
catalogues were found on examination to refer to Painters ; 
and that *' Typography " not infrequently is a misprint for 
Topography, an instance of the last being an entry under 
Nichols in Watts's " Bibliotheca Britannica." The ex- 
planation of these errors lies in the fact that the boxes in 



xii BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTING. 

the printers' case containing the types "a" and " r," and 
those of " o" and "y " respectively, adjoin each other, and 
the letters are therefore easily misplaced. 

Had the Compilers realized at the outset half that their 
task might demand of them, they would never have had 
the courage to attempt it; but they were first stimulated 
by a belief in and experience of its usefulness, and their 
enthusiasm was sustained by the encouragement of those 
whose judgment they knew was entitled to respect. They 
may not yet speak of the completion of the undertaking, 
for this is but the first, and perhaps the smaller of the two 
volumes to which the work is intended to be confined ; yet 
they are confidently pursuing their way. 

In entering so fully as they have done into the origin 
and progress of this Contribution to the History of 
Printing, the Compilers have no desire to escape just 
criticism. Of its faults, both of omission and commission, 
they are very sensible ; but they feel that they may fairly 
urge the novelty and the magnitude of the undertaking 
in extenuation of some of its shortcomings, and that they 
are entitled to such consideration as may attach to the fact 
that the labour was not only vast, but without prospect of 
pecuniary recompense. 



74, Great Queen Street, London. 
January, i8So. 




A Bibliography of Priiitiitg. 



Observations sur I'lntroduction au Cata- 
logue d'Estampes de M. D. G. de A. 
1 86 1. 8vo. 

The name of the author of this book, pub- 
lished under the above initials, is stated by the 
authorities of the British Museum to be Ro- 
cheaux, a printseller of Paris. 

Aa (C. van der). lets over de Uitvin- 
ding en Voortgang der Boekdnik- 
kunst. Utrecht : 1803. 8vo. 

Chr. Ch. Hendrik van der Aa was an eminent 
Dutch LiUheran minister and theological writer, 
born at ZwoU, 25th Aug., 1718; died 1793, in 
which year he had celebrated the jubilee, or fiftieth 
anniversary of his ministry at Haarlem, when a 
medal, by the artist Holtzhey, was struck on the occasion. He devoted his leisure 
hours, however, to science, and was one of the secretaries of the Scientific Society 
(Maatschappij der Wetenschappen) established at Haarlem in 1752. The work 
named above treats of the discovery and progressive development of the Typo- 
graphic Art. 

Aanmerkingen op de Gedenkschriften wegens het 4e Eeuwgetyde 
van de Uitvinding der Boekdrukkunst. 's Hage. 1824. 8vo. 
Supposed to have been written by the Baron Westreenen van Tiellandt. 

Abbott (Jacob). The Harper EstabHshment ; or, How the Story 
Books are made. New York : 1855. 4to. 




— Franklin, the Apprentice Boy. 
pp. 160 ; woodcuts. 



New York : 1855. i6mo. 



2 Bibliography of Printing, 

Abhandlung von der Buchdruckerkunst, und einigen dahin gehorigen 
Stiicken des Alterthums ; bei Gelegenheit des dritten Jubeljahres 
so in diesem Jahr wie in den meisten beriihmten Stadten Deutsch- 
lands, also auch u. s. w. in Bremen u. s. w. gefeyert worden. 
Bremen: 1740, 8vo. 
A treatise on Typography and the early products of the printing-press. 

Abney (Capt). Instruction in Photography. London : 1874. Crown 
Svo. pp. 168. 

Contains, beside other matter, excel- pared for private circulation amongst the 

lent instructions in Photo- Lithography officers and men of the corps of Royal 

and Zincography, and also a description Engineers, and is essentially a work of 

of the author's method, called Papyro- a practical character, 
type. This Manual was originally pre- 

About (Edmond). La Justice et la Liberte dans I'lndustrie Typo- 
graphique. Paris : 1865. Svo. 

About Printing. Article in Fine Arts Quarterly Review, June, 1866. 
pp. 145-160. London : 1866. Royal Svo. 

Abranches. Catalogo alfabetico des Obras impressas de J. A. de 
Macedo. Por A[ntonio] M[anoel] de R[iego] A[branches]. Lisboa : 
1849. 4to. 

Account. An Account of the Expence of Correcting and Improving 
Sundry Books. 4 pp. fo. About iScx). A pamphlet. 

Account of the Rise and Progress of the Dispute between the Masters 
and Journeymen Printers, exemplified in the Trial at Large ; with 
Remarks thereupon, and the Speeches of Messrs. Knapp, Raine, 
and Hovell, both on the Trial and at the time of passing sentence. 
"With Notes and Illustrations upon the whole. Published for the 
benefit of the men in confinement. London : 1799. Svo. 

The five defendants, E. Atkinson, L. the number of their apprentices. The 
Ball, J. Turk, J. Warwick, and N. Lyn- charge was proved, and each was sen- 
ham, were the Committee of the Society tenced to two years' imprisonment in 
of Journeymen Pressmen, and the action Newgate. Lynham died in jail, 
was for interfering with the masters as to 

Account. A short Account of the first Rise and Progress of Printing, 
with a complete list of the first books that were printed. London : 
[1763]. 32mo. 

ACHARD. Epreuve des Caracteres de ITmprimerie d'Achard. Mar- 
seille : 1S22. Svo. 

AcKERMAN (Rudolph).— 6"^^ Senefelder. 

ACKERSDYCK (W. C. ). lets over het nageslacht van den vermaarden 
Mentzischen boekdrukker Petrus Schoffer, naar's Hertogenbosch 
verhuisd, en al daar uitgestorven. Amsterdam : 1S17. Svo. 

Acts of Parliament relating to Printers. — See Parliamentary Papers. 



Bibliography of Printing, 



Adams. Proef van Letteren die te bekomen zyn, by de Weduwe van 
Joannis Adamsz en Abraham Ente, Lettergieter in de niewe 
Lely-straat in de Batavier tot Amsterdam. [About 1660.] 4to. 
Two large post broadsides, issued as typefounders' specimens, by Adamsz and 
Ente. They show eighteen founts of roman and italic, from double-pica to non- 
pareil, well cut. 

-Adams (Thomas F.). Typographia ; or, the Printer's Instructor. A 
Brief Sketch of the Origin, Rise, and Progress of the Typographic 
Art, with Practical Directions for conducting every Department in 
an Office, Hints to Authors, Publishers, &c. Philadelphia : 1837, 
i2mo. pp. 380; 1845, i2mo. 

Adamson (John). Bibliotheca Lusitana ; or, Catalogue of Books and 
Tracts relating to the History, Literature, and Poetry of Portugal. 
Newcastle : 1836. i2mo. 
Contains notices' of the earliest Portuguese printers. 

Adamus, M. Vita J. Fausti typographi ; Vita J. Froben. ; Vita 
J. Guttembergii, ex variis auctoribus collecta. Articles in the 
Vitse Theolog. , Juriscons., Philosoph., &c., of Adamus. Franco- 
furti ad Moenum: 1706. Fo. 

Adrianus. Explicit Liber de Remediis fortuitorum Casuum, noviter 
compilatus et impressus. Colonic, per Arnoldum Therhoernen, 
finitus 147 1. 4to. 



A book concerning the Reme- 
dies of Accidents, newly com- 
piled and printed at Cologne, 
by Arnold Therhoernen. In- 
teresting to printers as being 
(on the authority of the " Biblio- 




theca Spenceriana ") the first 
book printed with numbering of 
folios (not pages), the figures 
being placed in the end of the line 
on the middle of each right-hand 
page. 



Adry (J. F. ) Notice sur les Imprimeurs de la Famille des Elzevirs, 
par un ancien Bibliothecaire. Paris; 1806. 8vo,, pp. 60. 
Only fifty copies printed. 

Catalogue chronologique des Imprimeurs et Libraires du Roy, 

public par le Roux de Lincy. Paris : 1849. 8vo. 

He left behind him several works in manu- 



script, one of them being the Histoire de 
la Famille des Elzevirs ; another a " Dic- 
tionnaire des Graveurs et Peintres." For 
Memoir see "Annales Encyclopedi- 
ques," par Millin, 1818, ii. 321-323; 
"Biographie des Hommes Vivans," and 
Querard, " La France Litteraire." 



Jean Felicissime Adry was a biblio- 
grapher and writer of considerable merit, 
born at Vincelotte, near Auxerre, in the 
year 1749. He became librarian to the 
Maison de I'Oratoire, at Paris, and on the 
suppression of this house devoted himself 
to study, maintaining himself by his lite- 
rary labours. He died 20th March, 1818. 

Aebi (J. L.). Die Buchdruckerei zu Beromiinster im funfzehnten 
Jahrhundert. Eine Festschrift zur Jubelfeier im jahre 1870. 
Einsiedeln (Switzerland) : 1870. 8vo. pp. 40. Two photographs 
and a facsimile. 
A short history of the first Swiss printer and printing-house. 

Affo (Ireneo). Saggio di Memorie sulla Tipografia Parmense del 
Secolo XV. Parma : 1791. 4to. 
B 2 



4 Bibliography of Printing. 

Affo (Ireneo). Giunte e Correzioni dall' Avvocato Ang. Pezzana. 
Parma : 1827, 4to. 
Ireneo Affo was born at Busseto, in the having written more than one hundred 
duchy of Parma, in 1741, studied at separate works. The first of the works 
Bologna, and entered the Franciscan named above is An Essay on the Typo- 
order. In 1767 he was appointed pro- graphy of Parma in the fifteenth century, 
fessor of philosophy in the Convent of Home says that this is— "A work of 
the Minori Osservanti at Parma, and in great research. It is divided into two 
1768 to the chair of philosophy in the parts, the first of which discusses the 
public school of Guastalla. During his history of printing at Parma ; and in the 
long residence in the latter city he ran- second is given a chronological notice of 
sacked its archives for literary and his- fifty editions of the fifteenth century, 
torical purposes. He was afterward Tiraboschi mentions Affo as one of the 
appointed sub-librarian of the ducal first geniuses of Italy." Of the Additions 
library at Parma, and in 1785 he was and Corrections by Pezzana, fifty copies 
made head librarian. He died in 1797, were separately printed. 

AiTSiNGER (Michael) Leo Belgicus. Colonise : 1583. 
Repeats the Haarlem Legend. 

Albert (Andreas). Der Maschinenmeister an der Schnellpresse. 
Leipzig : 1 853. i2mo. 
This is a practical guide for pressmen and machine-minders. 

Albrecht. Proben der neuesten Schriften aus der Albrecht'schen 
privil. Hof-Buchdruckerei. Nebst einem Anhange, die Correctur- 
zeichen der Buchdruckerei enthaltend. Weimar : 1835. ^^o, 

Albrltius (H.). Catalogus alphabetice dispositus Librorum Typis et 
Sumptibus H. Albritii impres.sorum. Venetiis : 1720. i2mo. 
An alphabetical list of the books printed by Albritius, the celebrated Italian typo- 
grapher. 

Album van Feestliederen en Gezangen, te zingen door de Typo- 
graphische Vereenigingen, die deel zullen nemen aan de onthullings 
Feesten, op den i6den Julij, 1856, te Haarlem. Plaarlem : 1856. 
Small 8vo. 
A collection of fifty- two songs, cantatas, &c., in honour of Koster. 

Alden (H. M.). Why the Ancients had no Printing Press. Article 
in Harper's New Monthly Magazine^ vol. xxxvii. New York : 
1868. 8vo. 

Origin of Printing. Article in the same volume. New York : 

1868. 8vo. 

Alden Type- Composing Machine. An Article, with a View of the 
Machine, in the Printer's Journal. January 7, 1867. 

Alkan aine. Les Femmes Compositrices d'Imprimerie sous la 
Revolution Fran9aise en 1794, par un ancien Typographe. Paris 
(Dentu) : 1862. Sm. 8vo. 

A curious picture of the women printers of the time of the French Revolution, 
edited with notes by M. Alkan. 

Alken (Henry). The Art and Practice of Etching ; with Diiections 
for other Methods of I^ight and Entertaining Engraving. London : 
1849. 8vo. 



Bibliography of Printing, '5 

Allan. The Life of the late George Allan, Esq., F.S. A., to which 
is added a Catalogue of Books and Tracts printed at his Private 
Press, at Blackwell Grange, in the County of Durham. Edited by 
Robert Henry Allan, Esq., F.S. A. Printed for Private Use, Sun- 
derland : 1829. 8vo. pp. 84. Portrait and Plate of Arms. 

Almeloveen (Theodoor Janson ab). De Vitis Stephanorum celebrium 

Typographorum Dissertatio epistolica, in qua de Stephanorum 

stirpe, indefessis laboribus, varia fortuna atque libris, quos orbi 

erudito eorundem officinae emendatissime impressos unquam exhi- 

buerunt, subjecto illorum Indice accuratius agitur : atque obiter 

multa scitu jucunda adsperguntur. Subjecta est H. Stephani 

Querimonia Artis Typographicas. Ejusdem Epistola de statu 

su3e Typographicse ad virum clarissimum Joan. Georg. Graevium. 

Amstelsedami : 1683. Small 8vo. Title : Portrait of R. Stephens, 

vi\\\\ commendatory verse on back, pp. 212 ; Address to the 

Reader, pp. 2 ; Index librorum Stephanorum, pp. 83 ; Errata, 

I leaf. 

An epistolary dissertation concerning grapher. He was born July 24, 1657 , 

the lives of the celebrated printers, the near 'Utrecht, his mother being Mary 

Stephenses, their labours, and the books Janson, daughter of the celebrated 

which they have published, &c. &c. Amsterdam printer. As the latter had 

Theodore Janson von Almeloveen was no male issue, the name of Janson was 

an eminent Dutch physician, but is re- added to Almeloveen. He died in 1712. 

membered chiefly as a scholar and biblio- 

Alnander (JoannisO.), Historiola Artis Typographicae in Svecia ; 
publica et solenni exercitatione sub moderamine celeberrimi viri 
M. Fabiani Torner, eloq. profess, regii et ord. Upsalise, anno 
1722, mense Junio primum proposita. Nunc vero ob argu- 
menti tum prestantiam, turn jucunditatem in Germania recusa. 
Rostochi et Lipsise : 1725. i2mo. pp. vi. loi, 4. 
A short history of the Art of Typography in Sweden. 

Alonnier (Decembre). Typographes et Gens de Lettres. Paris : 
1864. i2mo. pp. viii. and 332. 

A most characteristic description of the life of printers, especially compositors, in 
France ; with an appendix of original poetry by French printers. 

ALrHABET arabe, turc, et persan, a 1' Usage de ITmprimerie orientale 
et fran9oise. Alexandrie : an VI. (1798). 4to. 
Specimens of founts of Arabic, Turkish, and Persian, for the use of the Oriental 
and French printing-office, Alexandria. 

ALrHABETE Orientalischer und anderer Sprachen zum gebrauch fiir 
Schriftsetzer. Leipzig : 1843. ^vo. 
Oriental and other alphabets, for the use of compositors. 

Alphabetical List of the Names of the several species of Writing 
Papers, Printing Papers, Copperplate Printing Papers, Wrapping- 
up Papers, &c. &c.; with their Size and Value per Ream or 
Bundle, and the different Duties as laid thereon according to Act 
of Parliament passed in 1781. Broadside. April 25, 1781. 
For fiscal reasons — then of great importance- the sizes of the papers are here 

specified with extreme minuteness. 



6 Bibliography of Printing. 

Altenburg. Druckproben der Hofbuchdruckerei in Altenburg. 
Altenburg : 1828. 4to. 

Alvin. Les Commencements de la Gravure aux Pays-Bas. Bruxelles : 
1857. 8vo. 

Amadutius (J. C). Catalogus Librorum qui ex Typographia S. 
Congregationis de Propaganda Fide variis Unguis prodierunt, cum 
prefatione. Romse : 1773. 8vo. pp. 55. 

Several editions of this Catalogue were issued — one in 1639 ; the above is the 
seventh; the eighth in 1782; ninth, 1793, pp. 31. Another, without the preface, 
was published, with the title " Elenchus Librorum," &c., 1817, pp. 23. 

Amateur Printing. Specimens of Amateur Printing, These Speci- 
mens of Amateur Printing were effected by means of the ingenious 
little Press invented by Mr. Cowper and manufactured by Messrs. 
Holtzapffel & Co. [London] : 1840. 4to. 

Amati (Giacinto). Manuale di Bibliografia del Secolo XV. ossia 
notizia di tutti i libri rari e preziosi impressi dall' origine della 
stampa fino al 1500. Milano : 1854. 8vo. 

Ricerche storico-critico-scientifiche sulle Origini, Scoperte, In- 

venzioni e Perfezionamenti fatti nelle Lettere, nelle Arti, e nelle 
Scienze, con alcuni tratti biografici della vita dei piii distinti 
autori nelle medesime. 5 vols. Milano : 1828-30. Royal 8vo. 

The first of these works is a manual of which G. C. Trivulzio largely contri- 

the Bibliography of the Fifteenth Cen- buted, is devoted entirely to the history 

tury. The second is a manual of histori- of the early days of printmg. It contains 

cal, critical, and scientific researches on many new and curious notices, which are 

the origin, discoveries, inventions, and not to be found elsewhere, relative to 

improvements made in Letters, Arts, Italian Typography at Milan and other 

and Sciences, &c. The fifth volume, to places in Italy. 

Ambrose (Joshua). Specimens of Wood Letter. Joshua Ambrose, 
Merton, Surrey, S. 4to. 

Amerbach (Joh.). Bibliotheca Amerbachiana. Basil. : 1659. 4to. 

John Amerbach, a learned printer of place in 1515, prevented his finishing 

the fifteenth century, was born at Rut- them, and he left them to the care of 

tingen, in Suabia, and settled at Basle, his sons, by whom they were published. 

He was the first who made use of the The Bibliotheca Amerbachiana is among 

round Roman type instead of the Italic the books of importance in the history of 

and Gothic. In 1489-95 he printed the printing, as it mentions many old editions 

first edition of the works of St. Augustine, not enumerated in bibliographical works, 

which he edited himself, and the character The library was founded by Erasmus, the 

used in it has since borne the name of celebrated reformer, and Boniface, son of 

"St. Augustine." He began the works Jean Amerbach, the executor of Erasmus. 
of St. Jerome, but his death, which took 

America (Printing in). A series of articles in Notes and Queries, II. 
iv. 105, 126 ; iii. 286 ; III. v. 222; IV. vi. 358. 
These articles present the early history of printing, publishing, paper-making, and 
journalism in the United States. 

Ames (Joseph). Typographical Antiquities ; being an Historical Ac- 
count of Printing in England, with some Memoirs of our Antient 
Printers, and a Register of the Books printed by them from the 
year 1471 to 1600 ; with an Appendix concerning Printing in 
Scotland and Ireland to the satne time. By Joseph Ames, F. R.S., 



Bibliography of Printing. 7 

and Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. London : 1749. 

4to. 
Contains 598 pages, with six preliminary leaves, and fourteen leaves of index at 
end, not paged. Eight ^plates. The "Catalogue of English Printers from 1471 
to 1600 " was issued separately, on two leaves, 4to. 

Ames (Joseph). Typographical Antiquities ; or an Historical Account 
of the Origin and Progress of Printing in Great Britain and Ireland, 
containing Memoirs of the Ancient Printers, and a Register of 
Books printed by them from the year 1471 to the year 1600. 
Begun by the late Joseph Ames, F.R. and A.SS., and Secretary 
to the Society of Antiquaries. Considerably augmented, both in 
the Memoir and in the number of books, by William Herbert, 
of Cheshunt, Herts. 3 vols. 4to. 

Vol. I., London, 1785, contains pp. xliv. and 684, five preliminary leaves, and a 
leaf of Index at end. Vol. II., London, T786, pp. 685 to 1308, and a leaf of Index. 
Vol. III., London, 1790, pp. 1309 to 1875. The plates are the same as in Ames's 
ori^nal edition. 

Typographical Antiquities ; or, the History of Printing in 

England, Scotland, and Ireland, containing Memoirs of our 
Ancient Printers, and a Register of the Books printed by them. 
Begun by the late Joseph Ames, F.R. and A. SS.; considerably 
augmented by William Herbert, of Cheshunt, Herts ; and now 
greatly enlarged with copious Notes, and illustrated with appro- 
priate Engravings ; comprehending the History of English Litera- 
ture, and a View of the Progress of the Art of Engraving in Great 
Britain. By the Rev. Thomas Frognall Dibdin. 4 vols. 4to. 

Vol. I., London, 1810, contains pp. xx., 95, cxxxviii., and 390, with 15 plates. 
Vol. II., London, 1812, pp. v. and 614, with .several insertions, as shown on direc- 
tions for binder at end. Vol. III., London, 1816, pp. iii. and 615, with five plates. 
Vol. IV., London, 1819, pp. ii. and 623, three plates. Sixty-five copies were printed 
on large paper, with extra plates. 

Joseph Ames, the celebrated tj^o- did his industry stop there, as is evidenced 
graphical historian, was born at Yar- by his copy of the book, now in the library 
mouth, January 23, 1688-9, and died of the British Museum, interleaved, and 
in London, October 7, 1759. The bound in six volumes, with a very large 
Typographical Antiquities is the great number of additions in manuscript, 
storehouse for the History of English This copy was formerly in the possession 
Printing. The original edition, for the of Dr. T. F. Dibdin, and was used by 
time in which it appeared, is a very him in his enlarged edition of Ames — a 
complete undertaking. Herbert was work the magnificent promise of which he 
no less industrious than the original never fulfilled. The four volumes of 
compiler, and from the many more Dibdin's edition describe only the print- 
sources of information opened to him ers of London, so that both Herbert's 
than were available to Ames, he ex- and Dibdin's editions are necessary to 
tended the work to three volumes. Nor the student. — .' ee Lewis, Joseph. 

Amoretti (C). Lettera suU' Anno natalizip d' Aldo Pio Manuzio ed 
alcune Stampe Manuziane, diretta al Sig. Abate Gaetano Marini. 
Roma : 1804. 8vo. 

Carlo Arnoretti was born at Oneglia, sacred for a secular calling. In 1775 he 

in the territory of Genoa, in the year began, in conjunction with Padre Soave, 

1740. He studied theology, and took to publish a collection of the most in- 

the vows of ,the order of St. Augustine, teresting essays and memoirs of the 

but obtained license to renounce the European literati. He wrote many 



Bibliography of Printing. 



works on art and antiquarian subjects, 
and edited in 1808 a periodical com- 
menced by a literary society in Milan, 
called Giornale della Societa d'lncorag- 
giamento delle Scienze c delle Arti stabi- 
lita in Milano," and contributed to it, 
among other papers, one of the first 
notices of the invention of lithography 



that appeared in Italy. He died 25tii 
March, 1816. The work above named 
is a Letter on the Birthday of P. Manu- 
zio (Aldus). For memoir, see Lombardi, 
" Storia della Letteratura Italiana del 
Secolo XVIII," Modena, T828; "Life 
of Amoretti," by Weiss, in the Supple 
ment to the "Biographic Universelle. " 



Amougies (J. B. G. Camberlyn d'). Ars Costeriana. Gandavioe : 
[1820]. 4to. 

Ample Page of Knowledge, rich with the Spoils of Time : No. i. 
Printed by Morison's Patent Ophinine Process. [London.] 8vo. 

Ampzing (S,). Beschryvinge ende lof der Stad Haarlem in rijm 
bearbeyd, ende met veele oude ende nieuwe stucken buy ten Dicht 
uyt verscheyde Kronijken . . . ende diergelijke Schriften verk- 
laerd. Mit.sgaders P. Scriverii Laurekranz voor L. Koster, eerste 

vinder van der Boekdruckerye. Haerlem : 161 6. 4to. Second 

edition. Haerlem : 1621. 4to. Third edition. Haerlem : 

1628. 4to. 

Maer nu 'tons schrijver doet, so sta ik 

wat ter sijden" ; 
"Warmly to fight for this I here had 

ta'en in hand. 
But since Scriverius does't, aside I well 
may stand " ; — 



Samuel Ampzing was a Dutch Reformed 
minister and poet, who lived in the first 
half of the seventeenth century ; born in 
1591, he died July 29, 1632. He wrote 
the above-named " Description and Praise 
of the City of Haarlem," a minute descrip- 
tion and history of that city, with twelve 
fine plates by J. Van der Velde, one 
giving a view of the market-place, with 
the house of Coster. He was a vehe- 
ment partisan of his countryman's claim 
to the invention of printing, but forbears 
to» enlarge on the subject, observing : — 
" Ik had hier nu gedacht daer heftig 
voor te strijden 

Amstel. See Ploos van Amstel. 

Anastatic Printing. Notes and Qtiei-ies, I. x. 288, 364, 423 ; xi. 52 ; 
xii. 154- 
A discussion relative to Anastatic Printing, with a reference to certain books on 
the subject. 

Andencken, gepriesenes, von Erfindung der Buchdruckerey wie 
solches in Leipzig beym Schlu.ss des dritten Jahrhunderts von den 
gesammten Buchdruckern daselbst gefeyert worden. Leipzig : 
1740. 4to. pp. Ivi. 176. 



And proceeds to add that he shall append 
the work of Scriverius to his own. The 
" Laure Crans voor Laurens Coster," or 
" Laurel Wreath for Laurens Coster," 
of Scriverius, was thus first printed in 
conjunction with Ampzing's work, and 
properly forms a portion of it. 



Menzius and J. A. Ernesti ; in German 
by J. C. Gottsched and J. F. Mayer ; 
and eulogistic Poems in Hebrew, Latin, 
German, &c. On page 93 is a short 
Latin poem by Emanuel Swedenborg. 



The title bears a vignette showing the 
interior of a printing-office. The volume 
contains a full account of the public pro- 
ceedings at Leipzig to celebrate the third 
centenary of the invention of printing, 
including orations in Latin by Fred. 

Andenken an das Fest vom 24. Juni als Gedachtnissfeier Gutenbergs 
und der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. Lubeck : 1840. 8vo. 

Andrea. Proben aus der Schriftgiesserey der Andreaischen Buch- 
handlung in Frankfurt am Main. 1826, 8vo.; and 1834, oblong 8vo. 
See Handbuch. 



Bibliography of Printing. 9 

Andrewe (Lawrence). This printer, who was a native of Calais, was 
a man of learning, and the translator of various works, before he 
applied himself to the art of printing. His office was for some 
time situated at the Golden Cross, in Fleet Street, near the Fleet 
Bridge. The full titles of four of his books are set out in Herbert's 
edition of Ames ; viz., the "Great Herbal," 1527 ; the " Book of 
Distillation," 1527 ; the " Mirror and Description of the World " 
and the "Directory of Conscience," both without date. The 




LONDON :. 1499 — 1527- 

following is an heraldic description of the above device : — 
St. Andrew Cross, between A and L crossed saltirewise, the .A 
surmounted with a cross. "The first typographers were accus- 
tomed to denote their publications by marks or vignettes, the 
invention of which is ascribed to the elder Aldus, whose example 
was soon followed by the most eminent printers. An acquaintance 
with these marks is useful to the bibliographer in order to ascer- 
tain the names of the printers of early works, especially where 
C 



lo Bibliography of Prhiti?ig. 

those names have been concealed. But besides these vignettes, 
most of the ancient printers made use of monograms or ciphers 
containing the initial letters of their names or other devices curi- 
ously interwoven. The knowledge of these is essential to fix the 
identity of ancient editions in which the printer's name does not 
appear." — Hornets Introduction. Some particulars of Lawrence 
Andrewe and his productions will be found in Notes and Queries^ 
2nd series, vol. i. pp. 153, 180. 

Anecdotes of Books and Authors. London: 1836. i6mo. 

Contains many anecdotes of printers and their relations towards authors ; printers 
of bibles, Franklin, correctors of the press, printers' errors, Baskerville, the P. D., 
publishers, &c. 

Anfangsgrunde der Buchdruckerkunst. Leipzig : 1743. 8vo. 

A practical work, treating in a rudimentary manner of the processes of printing. 

Angus (G.), the Printer, of Newcastle. Notes and Queries, IIL xii. 446, 

Particulars concerning this famous Northern printer. He produced large numbers 
of chap-books, ballads, &c., in the style of Catnach. 

Anisson-Duperron (Etienne Alexandre Jacques). Description d'une 
nouvelle Presse executee pour le service du Roi. Paris : 1783. 
8vo. 
This work, which was republished as a part of the following book, was originally 
published anonymously. It is not folioed, but consists of 36 pages and four plates. 

Lettre du Directeur de I'lmprimerie Royale sur I'lmpression 

des Assignats. Paris : 1790. 8vo. pp. 8. 

Premier Memoire sur I'lmpression en Lettres suivi de la de- 



scription d'une nouvelle presse executee pour le service du Roi, 
et public par ordre du Gouvernement. Paris : 1785. 4to. 
pp. 40. 4 plates. 

Anisson is the name of a family of named work, containing four plates, is a 
distinguished printers at Lyons ui the memoir on Letterpress printing and a de- 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, six scription of the new press (which he calls 
in all, who contributed greatly to revive the "presse a un coup," i.e. the one-pull 
the ancient reputation of their city for press). This memoir was read by the 
typography. The first was Laurent author before the Academy in 1783, and 
Anisson, echevin of Lyons, 1670. His published in vol. x. of " Memoires de 
son, Jean Anisson, was appointed by I'Academie des Sciences." The Messrs. 
Louis XIV., in 1690, director of the Didot, however, claim the priority of in- 
Imprimerie Royale, an office he held vention {see Didot, " Epitre sur les Pro- 
imtil 1702. Etienne Alexandre Jacques gres de I'lmprimerie," at the end of his 
Anisson-Duperron, grandson of Jean " Essai de Fables Nouvelles," 1786, 
Anisson, was born at Paris in the year i2mo., p. 137). Other papers by this 
1748. In 1783 he was appointed director writer, or concerning his invention, may 
of the Imprimerie Royale, and in 1790 be found in the " Memoires de Mathe- 
published a letter on the printing of matique et de Physique," vol, x, pp. 613, 
assignats. He was one of the victims of 625, 627, 629. 
the revolutionary tribunal. The first- 

Anleitung zum Satz mathematischer Werke. Leipzig : 1872. 8vo. 
pp. 21. 
Instructions in the composition of mathematical works. 



Bibliography of Printing. 1 1 

Anleitung zum Tabellensatz. Leipzig : 1872. 8vo. pp. 41. 
A handbook to the composition of tabular matter. 

Anleitung zur Herstellung von Buchdruckplatten mittelst Zinkatzung. 
Leipzig. Svo. pp. 28. 
Instructions for the production of printing-plates by means of zincography. 

Anleitung zur Holzschneidekunst. Leipzig : 1873. Svo. pp. 143. 

An illustrated guide to the art of wood-engraving. 
Anleitung zur schriftlichen Geschaftsfiihrung fiir Buchdruckereien. 
Durch Beispiele erlautert. Eisenach : 1844. Svo. 

Anmerkungen von der alleraltesten und ersten gedruckten Ausgabe 

der Lateinischen Bibel in der Konigl. Bibliothec zu Berlin, und 

andern daselbst befindlichen alten Lateinischen Bibel-Ausgaben. 

[Berlin: 1747-8.] Svo. 

A series of three articles in the "Berlinsche Bibliothec," vols. 5. and ii., on the 

first printed Latin Bible in the Royal Library at Berlin, and also remarks on other 

early printed Latin Bibles preserved there. 

Antiquarian Researches among the early Printers and Publishers of 
Friends' Books. Extracted from the American Friend, published 
in Philadelphia. Manchester : 1S44. i2mo. pp. 63. 
Printing in the City of Brotherly Love had to contend with many difficulties in 

its establishment there. See Philadelphia. 

Antiquity of the Art of Printing. Gent. Mag. xxii. 77. . ' ' 

An article in the form of a Letter to wood, than which a bolder or more 

Mr. Urban, signed " Y. D.," which does spirited method of expression has not yet 

not contain much original matter. Inci- been invented, as the works of Albert 

dentally it refers to "the late attempts Durer, Hugo de Carpi, Lucas of Leyden, 

you have made in your magazine (1752) Holbein, Ecman, &c., show." 
to revive the ancient art of cutting upon 

Antonelli. Biografia del Cavaliere Giuseppe Antonelli, tipografo. 
Venezia : 1862. Svo. Portrait. 

Antonelli (Giuseppe). Ricerche bibliografiche sulle Edizioni Fer- 
raresi del Secolo XV. Ferrara : 1S30. 4to. pp. xii. and 115, 
w^ith three plates of watermarks. 

Intended as an introduction to the History of Printing in Ferrara, which the 
author never published. 

Antrim. Pantography and the Science of Letters. Philadelphia : 
1843. i6mo. 

Anweisung zum korrigiren, fiir diejenigen besonders brauchbar, die 
ihre Schriften selbst korrigiren woUen. Leipzig : 1819. Svo. 

Apianus (Petrus). This printer was a distinguished mathematician 
and artist. He had a printing-press established in his house at 
Ingolstadt, and published several books, — some of them remark- 
able for their illustrations, — from 1526 to 1534. The device an- 
nexed is taken from the last page of the " Inscriptiones sacro- 
sanctse," 1534, folio. The title is in red and black, and there 
are numerous woodcuts ; all the pages are surrounded by woodcut 
borders. The device represents a man working the "jack," an 
instrument for raising heavy weights, known in the very early 
C 2 



12 



Bibliography of Printing. 



days of mechanics. It is curious to see it as annexed, nearly of 
the same form as is now retained in many countries. 




IFG^0LSI5fiI)ILM.l>.XXXimv * 



Ai'iARiUS (Malhias). 




STKASBURG 



INGOLSTADT : 1526-1534. 

This printer established himself at Strasburg in 
1536, and removed to Bern in 
1539' At the latter place he is 
supposed to have continued. the 
practice of the art of printing 
to the close of 1540, and his 
principal works were issued from 
his press there. "Yet Bern is 
rather too important a town, in 
the annals of the Swiss press, 
to be passed over without some 
mention, however slight, of one 
of its ancient typographical 
artists. Take, therefore, the 
very singular and striking device 
— being a pun upon his own 
name — which we observe in the 
volumes of Apiarius. This de- 
vice appears in one of those 
volumes entitled " Catalogus 
Annorum et Principum Geminus 
ab homine condito usque in proe- 
sentem, a nato Christo MDXL, 
&c., per D. Valerium Anselmam 
1336. Ryd." 1540. Fol. It is the 



Bibliography of Frintiiii^ 



n 



frontispiece of the book; the text of which has a profusion 
of woodcut ornaments, especially of portraits, in the margin. 
These portraits are often repeated ; and in point of style of 
art, and merit of execution, are much upon a par with those 
in Sebastian Munster's " Cosmographia Universalis." — Dibdin's 
'■'■Bibliographical Decameron,'" yo\, ii. p. 202. The device is 




BERN, 1539—1540 (?) 

founded on the old fable of the Bees (apes, hence adopted by 
Apiaritcs) and the Bear. The latter is climbing the tree in search 
of honey, while the bees are flying around ; a mallet hangs from 
a branch. This printer did not use a motto. 

Api'EL au Monde civilise pour celebrer dignement la Fete seculaire de 
I'Art de ITmprimerie par I'erection d'un Monument en I'honneur 
de son Inventeur Jean Gensfleisch dit Guttemberg. Mayence : 
1832. 4to. [A Prospectus.] 

An address designed to aid in the erec- ment here suggested was inaugurated, 

tion of a suitable monument of Guten- will be found in the Foreign Quarterly 

berg. An account of the jubilee of the Review, vol. xxv. p. 446. See Guten- 

invention of printing, at which the monu- bekg Statue. 



14 Bibliography of Priiiting. 

Applegath (Augustus) and Cowper (Edward). A Description of 
Applegath and Cowper's Horizontal Machine, and of Applegath's 
Vertical Machine for Printing the Times. JExtracted from John 
Weale's "London and its Vicinity." London: 1 851. 8vo. (A 
Pamphlet. ) 

Augustus Applegath, in conjunction " Rolls Chapel Reports," eighth re- 

with his brother-in-law and business as- port, p. 123 ; 

sociate, was the inventor of several of the Newton's London Jo^imal, vol. 4, p. 

most important improvements in printing 57 ; vol. 7, p. 7 ; vol. 8, p. 169 ; vol. 10, 

machinery made during the present cen- p. 14 ; 

tury. In 1827 they constructed a machine NewtorC 5 London Journal, conjoined 

for the Thnes \i\\}n. four cylinders, print- series, vol. i, p. 414; vol. 15, p. 440; 

ing from 4,000 to 5,000 per hour, and Patent Journal, vol, 2, pp. 484, 516, 

afterwards constructed a much improved 527, and 550 ; vol. 3, p. 150 ; 

machine, of which the above gives a de- " Register of Arts and Sciences," vol. 

scription. The tj^pe is placed on a large i, p. 136 : new series, vol. 6, p. 16 ; 

cylinder revolving on a vertical axis. Practical Mechanics^ Jourtial, vol. x. 

Their machine was superseded by that p. 248 ; 

of Hoe. A full account, with views and Artizan, vol. 7, p. 265: 

sectional plans, of the T^/w^'j machine, Mechanics'Mag.,\o\. sifV^P- '^9^^^'2^- 

which was set up in 1848, will be found These present, in the aggregate, a 

in " Bohn's Pictorial Handbook ofLon- complete history and description of Ap- 

don," p. 76. Applegath's various ma- plegath's improvements. Applegath died 

chines are described and illustrated 9th February, 1871, at Dartford, aged 

respectively in the following : — eighty-four. In Notes and Queries, 4th 

"Repertory of Arts," second series, series, vol. iii. p. 485, andvii. 153, will be 

vol. 36, p. 69 ; enlarged series, vol. 20, found some particulars of the life of this 

p. 124 ; inventor. 

Arber (Edward). See Milton, and Stationers' Company. 

Archimowitz (Th.). Neues franzosisches Stereotyp-Verfahren. Carls- 
ruhe : 1856-8. 8vo. 

Die Papierstereotypie in ihrem ganzen Umfang im Grossen und 

Kleinen. Nach den neuesten Erfahrungen, Verbesserungen und 
Vereinfachungen. Carlsruhe : 1862. 8vo., woodcuts. 
The first -named work treats of what was then known as "The New French 

Process of Stereotyping," that is, from paper moulds ; and the second is a practical 

handbook for the papier-inachi process. 

Aresti. Lithozographia, or Aquatinta stippled gradations produced 
upon Drawings washed or painted on stone. Published by the 
Author, Joseph Aresti, Chromo-lithographer to Her Majesty, 61, 
Greek Street, Soho. London : 1856. 8vo. 

Aretin (J. C. F. von). Ueber die friihesten universalhistorischen 
Folgen der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst und den Nutzen ihrer 
naheren Kenntniss, vorgelesen in einer offentlichen Versammlung 
der chur. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Munchen : 1808. 4to. 
An essay on the discovery, early days, and influence of the art of Printing. Trans- 
lated into Dutch as follows : — 



— Over den Oorsprong en Voortgang der Boekdrukkunst. Am- 
sterdam : 1 8 10. 8vo. 

— Von den altesten Denkmalern der Buchdruckerkunst in Baiern 



und dem Nutzen ihrer naheren Kenntniss, vorgelesen in einer 
offentlichen Versammlung der churflirstlichen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften. Miinchen : 1801. 4I0. pp. 39. 
An account of the earliest specimens of Bavarian Typography 



Bibliography of Pri7iting. 15 

Argelati. See Saxio. 

Argues (Gerard d'). Maniere de Graver en taille douce et a I'eau 
forte. 

This is a practical manual of Engraving on Copperplate and of the Etching 
Process. The author, who was a geometrician, was bom at Lyons in 1597, and died 
there in 166 1. 

Arrest du Conseil d'^Etat, qui maintient et garde I'art de la Graveure 
de Taille-douce, au burin et ^ I'eau forte et autre maniere telle 
qu'elle soit, et ceux qui font profession d'icelui, tant regnicoles 
qu'etrangers, en la liberte qu'ils ont toujours eue de I'exercer dans 
le royaume, sans qu'ils y puissent ^tre reduits en maltrise, ni corps 
de metier, ni sujets a autre regie, ni controlle, sous quelques noms 
que ce soit. Du 26 Mai 1660. Paris. 4to. 

Arret du Conseil d'Etat, contenant divers Reglements pour les Impri- 
meurs et Libraires et pour I'impression, vente, et debit des livres. 
Paris : 1699. 4to. 

Decree of the State Council, containing various regulations for Printers and Pub- 
lishers, and for the sale of books. 

Arr^t du Conseil d'Etat du Roy, qui ordonne a tous les Auteurs, 

Libraires, et Imprimeurs, de i-emettre sans frais aux Syndics et 

Adjoints des Livres et Imprimeurs, huit exemplaires en blanc des 

livres qu'ils imprimeront. Paris : 1704. 4to. 

Proclamation by the King, ordering all Authors, Publishers, and Printers to send 

without expense to the Censors of Books and Printers eight copies of the books they 

print. 

Arr^t du Parlement, portant Defenses \ tous Imprimeurs d'imprimer 

et exposer en vente aucuns ouvrages et autres ecrits concernant les 

affaires publiques sans permission registree au greffe. Paris: 

1649. 4to, 

Act of Parliament warning all Printers from printing and exposing for sale any 

works or other writings concerning public affairs without authority of the Censor of 

the Press. 

Ars Moriendi. Editio Princeps. Photographisches Facsimile des 
Unicum im Besitze von T. O. Weigel in Leipzig. Leipzig : 1869. 
Folio. 

Twenty-four leaves. A photographic tory of early wood engraving. Only 100 

reproduction of the celebrated and copies were printed. The original was 

unique copy of the first edition of the sold by auction in the collection of Mr. 

"Ars Moriendi," in the possession of Weigel, in May, 1872, when it produced 

Herr T. O. Weigel, of Leipzig, with an 7,150 thalers (about £,\,i,oo). 
introduction by him treating on the his- 

Art and Mystery of Printing. Gent. Mag. ii. 948. 

A bald account, occupying two columns, book lately published entitled ' The His- 

of the origin of printing. It is reprinted tory of Printing,' by the late celebrated 

from the Weekly Rei^ister, No. 126, for Mr. Samuel Palmer ; sold for the benefit 

September 9, 1732. It adopts as autho- of his family by Mr. Roberts in Warwick 

rities Dr. Wallis and Hadrianus Junius, Lane." 
but ends by referring the curious to "a 

Art of Printing (The). In the Oxford Prize Essays, vol. ii. p. 275. 

Oxford : 1836. 8vo. 
Art (The) of Printing, Historical and Practical. Combining Historical 

Digest and Young Printer's Elementary Guide; being Easy 



1 6 }3ihIiography of Piinfhig. 

Schemes for Economization of Labour. Manchester : published 
by the Author, 13, Nesbit-street, Huhne. Royal 321110. 
Articles des Statuts, Reglements et Ordonnances faits et accordez 
entre les maistres tailleurs graveurs de la ville et fauxbourgs de 
Paris, pour etre a I'avenir gardez et observez entr'eux, sous le bon 
plaisir de sa Majeste. 21 Juin, 1660. Paris : 1700. 4to. 

Artikel iiber die Sparcasse des Buchdrucker-Vereins in Hannover zu^ 
Feier des Buchdrucker-Jubilaums ini Jahre 1840. Hannover • 
1838. 8vo. 

Arvidsson (Truls). Psalmi Davidici, idiomate originali Ilebraeo, 
adscripta ad latus literis Italicis vocum lectura, ubi simul supra 
syllabas tonicas accentuum usus in distinguendis membris et sen- 
tentiaram spatiis ad sensum sacrum recte perspiciendum perspicue 
monstratur. vStockholni : 1705. i2mo. 
This is a very singular book, and one was frustrated by his death, in 1705. 
of the curiosities of music-printing. It Arvidsson was born about the middle of 
is an endeavour to give what the author the seventeenth century, at Westervik, 
conceived to be the original music of the studied at Upsal, and Ijecame copper- 
first seven of David's Psalms. The whole plate engraver to the Antiquarian Ar- 
work was engraved on copper plates by chives. He travelled abroad to improve 
himself, and besides giving a description himself in the art of engraving, on a 
of his mode of working, he announces stipend allowed by the Swedish govern- 
his intention of publishing the whole ment. 
Psalter on a similar plan. This, however, 

Arwidsson (A. I.). Bibliotek. Stockholm. 1848. 

Adolphe Iwar Arwidsson, who was writer of authority on bibliographical 
born at Padasjoki, in Finland, in 1791, subjects, especially upon the ancient 
was the curator of the Royal Library at manuscripts of his native country. He 
Stockholm, and secretary of the Typo- died at Wibourg, June 21, 1858. 
graphic Society of that city. He wa§ a 

Ashley (Alfred). Art of Etching on Copper. London : 1849. 4to. 
pp. vi. 18 ; with 14 plates. 

AsSENSio Y Mejorada (Francisco). Geometria de la Letra Romana 
Mayuscula y Minuscula en 28 laminas finas, y su Explicacion. 
Madrid : 1780. Small 4to. 

Title, pp. 72, and 28 engraved plates illustrative of the proportionate measurements 
of the Roman Capitals and Lower Case. This work is an elaborate attempt to fix 
the geometrical proportions of the letters. 

Assyrian Printing. — The illustrations annexed (which are copied 
from Hansard's " Typographia "), are interesting as exempli- 
fying a process of printing which was practised long anterior 
to the invention of movable types. Printing, in fact, has its 
origin soon after the time of the Deluge, for the idea con- 
veyed by the word — that of pressure, producing an image of some- 
thing—was known to the Assyrians, whose antiquities are the 
most remote of any of which we have authentic records. In 
presenting these pictures, Hansard remarked that it is *' very 
doubtful whether the utmost efforts of human skill will ever be 
able to explain their true signification." Within the last few years, 
however, great progress has been made in deciphering the cunei- 
form characters, and at least one authority on the subject — Mr. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



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1 8 Bibliography of Printing. 

George Smith, of the British Museum — has been able to interpret 
them to such a degree of perfection as to extract a connected ac- 
count of events as remote as some of the earliest described in the Holy 
Scriptures. Hansard says that the Babylonians " were accustomed 
to imprint on their bricks certain allusions to astronomical pheno- 
mena, having some signal astrological import. Particular configu- 
rations of the heavens, which distinguish the several seasons, as 
they related to the business of husbandmen, might also be regis- 
tered in this way, to serve as a sort of calendar ; and some impres- 
sions are imagined to contain historical details relative to the 
founders of those stupendous structures originally composed of 
the bricks in question. Struck at once with a sense of the anti- 
quity of these vestiges of art — of the numbers presented to view — 
and of the variety of devices they bear (for every furnace-baked 




-an assyrian stamped brick, known as 
"Nebuchadnezzar's brick." 



brick found amidst those vast ruins is imprinted with some emble- 
matical design), the spectator, in the moment of his astonishment, 
feels almost disposed to concur with Pliny in the opinion — Literas 
semper arbitror Assy Has. " There are several specimens of these 
bricks deposited in the British Museum, in the Library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and in the East-India Company's Museum, 
now called the India Museum, and located at South Kensington. 
Hansard went to Cambridge twice in order to satisfy himself that the 
blocks were identical with the originals, and to discover if possible 
the method by which the characters were impressed. He arrived 
at the conclusion that the whole of the brick was stamped at once ; 
that it was not originally moulded with the inscription upon it, 
but that, as had been previously understood, the representations 




D 2 



20 Bibliography of Printing. 

were impressed upon it while in a plastic condition ; and, in short, 
that had a pigment been applied to the stamp, which was of 
course in relief, and the latter impressed upon paper or any suitable 
surface, the operation would have differed in no respect from that 
of printing. The small engraving (Fig. 2) gives an idea of the 
shape of the bricks and of the situation of the print. The comer 
of the brick has been accidentally broken off. The printing of 
the ancients, however, was not confined to bricks, for at the 
Trinity College Library in Cambridge there is a cylindrical 
article, composed of brick -earth, with inscriptions beautifully 
executed, which displays a higher development of the art. Hansard 
engaged Mr. Harraden to make a draMang of this extraordinary 
relic of antiquity, which is not less than 4,000 years old, and 
we present to our readers an engraving (Fig. i) taken after this 
sketch. * ' Its rounded surface made it capable of containing a mul- 
tiplicity of items in a much more compact manner than they could 
have been inserted on flat tablets ; while its figure was perhaps the 
most substantial and the least liable to be injured by common acci- 
dent of any that could have been devised." We have submitted the 
blocks to a gentleman at the British Museum, who has paid great 
attention to the subject of cuneiform alphabets, and he has 
pronounced them to be accurate copies of the originals. In 
Hansard the large block (which is a perfectly legible and de- 
cipherable representation of what is now known as " Nebuchad- 
nezzar's Brick," found in the ruins of Babylon) is placed upright, 
which is incorrect, for the characters ought to be read across, in 
a horizontal direction, from left to right. We have also modified 
the position of the cylinder, which Hansard stands up on one 
end, and represented it in the manner in which similar cylinders 
are mounted by the authorities of the British Museum. An 
Account of the Assyrian cylinders, bricks, language, writing, and 
literature will be found in Mr. T. Nichols's "Handy-Book of 
the British Museum." 

AsTLE (Thomas). The Origin and Progress of Writing, as well Hiero- 
glyphic as Elementary ; illustrated by Engravings taken from 
Marbles, Manuscripts, and Charters, Ancient and Modem ; also, 
some Account of the Origin and Progress of Printing. London : 
1784. 4 to., pp. viii., XXV., 235. 
The chapter on the Origin of Printing occupies 15 pages. Considerable stress 

is laid on the probability that printing originated in China. 

The same. Second Edition, with additions. London : 1803. 

pp. viii. , xxiv. , 240. Folio, large paper. 

Thomas Astle was an eminent English acquired by the Royal Institution. In the 

antiquary, who paid especial attention to Moiithly Re^new, May, 1784, is a review 

the deciphering of ancient manuscripts, containing some very acute remarks on 

He was Keeper of the Records, and was the above work, and In the same Review 

engaged in the preparation of the Cata- for October, 1802, is a portrait and 

logue of the Harleian Manuscripts at memoir of Astle. 
the British Museum. His library was 

Athias (Joseph). Proeven van Letteren die gesneden zijn door wylen 
Christoffel van Dijck, welke gegoten werden by Jan Bus, ten 



Bibliography of Printing. 



21 



huyse van S*"- Joseph Athias, woonende in de Swanenburg-straet, 

tot Amsterdam. [About 1660.] 
A demy broadside, exhibiting in four issued an edition of the Old Testament 
columns five founts Titling, sixteen Ro- printed with Hebrew type specially cut 
man and Italic, eight Black, and two by Van Dijck, said to have been the most 
Music, all cut by Van Dijck, and cast in beautiful till then seen. The foundry 
the foundry of Joseph Athias by Bus. on the death of Athias passed through 
Van Dijck's letters are enthusiastically several hands, and was purchased in 
mentioned by Moxon. Athias was a 1767 by John.Enschede, of Haarlem, in 
Jewish rabbi, type-founder, printer, and which firm it still remains. — Blades. See 
publisher of Amsterdam. He succeeded Ensched^. 
to the Elzevir Foundry, and in 1662-3 

Atkyns (Richard). The Original and Growth of Printing. A Broad- 
side in two columns small type. Folio. 

This broadside bears no date, but the drawing " off some of the workmen 

authorities of the British Museum assign from Harlem, in Holland, where John 

it to the year 1660. Although the story Guttenberg had newly invented it, and 

alleged "by Atkyns has been shown by was himself personally at work." The 

Middleton and other writers to be apocry- execution of the design was committed 

phal, it forms so important an episode in to Mr. Robert Turnour, a personal at- 

the History of Printing, that we feel tendant of the king, who " took to his 

justified in giving the following account assistance Mr. Caxton, a Citizen of good 

of it :— After citing the authority of abilities, who, trading much into Holland, 

Stowe, Baker, and Howell that Guten- might be a Creditable Pretence." One 

berg commenced printing at Mayence of the workmen, Frederick Corsellis, was 

about 1459, and that Caxton brought it at length induced to come to England, 

to England about .1471, Atkyns records and was placed by the Archbishop at 

the existence of a book printed at Oxford Oxford, where he worked "ten years 

in 1468, and of a MS. among the Records before there was any Printing in Europe 

of Lambeth House, of which he had (except at Harlem and Mentz)." The 

been presented a copy, " though I hope, remainder of the broadside is an attempt 

for publick satisfaction, the Record itself, to show that from that time printing has 

in its due time, will appear." This MS. been one of the prerogatives of the 

purports to show that Archbishop Bour- Crown in England. 

chier moved Henry VI. to use all possible This broadside was, by the addition of 

means to procure a " printing-mold," and other relative matter, enlarged into the 

gave 300 towards the 1,000 marks be- pamphlet of which the following is the 

lieved to be necessary to procure it by title. 

The Original and Growth of Printing in England, collected 

out of History and the Records of this Kingdom ; wherein is 
also demonstrated that Printing appertaineth to the Prerogative 
Royal, and is a Flower of the Crown of England. London : 
1664. 4to. pp. 24, with five preliminary leaves. 
In the course of his dedication of this 

pamphlet to King Charles II., Atkyns 

says: "That pnnting belongs to your 

majesty, in your publique and private 

capacity, as supream magistrate, and as 

proprietor, I do with all boldness affirm, 

and that it is a considerable branch of the 



regal dower will no loyal person deny. 
.... That this power, which is intire 
and inherent in your majestie's person, 
and inseparable from your crown, should 
be divided, and devolve upon your officers 
(though never so great and good) may be 
of dangerous consequence. You are head 
of the church and supream of the law : 
shall the body govern the head? .... 
Printing is like a good dish of meat, 



which, moderately eaten of, turns to the 
nourishment and health of the body ; but 
immoderately, to surfeits and sickness. 
.... Cannot this abuse be remedied? 
.... How were the abuses taken in 
Queen Elizabeth, King James, and the 
beginning of King Charles his time? . . . 
Was it not by fining, imprisoning, seizing 
the books, and breaking the presses of 
the transgressors by order of Council 
board?" An Epistle to the Lords and 
Commons which follows states that the 
author has "spent more than One Thou- 
sand Pounds in vindicating the King's 
Grant of Printing the Common Laws of 
England and His Lawful Power to grant 
the same." 



22 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Atkyns (Richard). The Vindication of Richard Atkyns, Esq., as 
also a relation of several passages in the Western War wherein he 
was concerned, together with certain sighs or ejaculations at the 
end of every chapter. Dedicated to his particular friends, and 
to no other. London : printed 1669. 4to. 80 pp. 
Atkyns was born in Gloucestershire in " Vindication " was published by him in 
1615, and his exertions to procure the consequence of the neglect of the king to 
establishment of the prerogative of the second him in his efforts. His allega- 



Crown in printing having failed, he fell 
from affluence to poverty, and is believed 
to have died in the Marshalsea a prisoner 
for debt, September 14, 1677. 1'his 



tions were investigated in the course of 
a lawsuit reported in the '" Journal of the 
House of Lords," vol. viii. p. 622, and 
vol. xi. p. 700. 



The King's Grant of Privilege for sole printing of Common 

Law books defended, and the legality thereof asserted. London ; 
printed by John Streater, 1669. 

This is a 4to. pamphlet of sixteen pages, in every man's reason and observation is. 
It is catalogued at the British Museum and in the act for regulating pnnting is 
as probably written by Richard Atkyns, prefaced to be matter of public care and 
and there is internal evidence supporting great concernment. ... In the reign of 
the supposition. It is printed in black King Henry VI., the art of printing was 
letter, but the quotations and emphatic first invented. And, as some manuscripts 
words, which modern printers would relate, the same King Henry VI. pur- 
italicise, are here set in roman. The chased the first discovery of the art, and 
following is an extract : " The king can thereby became proprietor thereof at his 



dispense with laws, can pardon offences, 
can license matters prohibited, can pro- 
hibit matters tolerated, and can privilege, 
restrain, or qualify new accidents, as he 
in wisdom and deliberation shall judge 
expedient and best for the public good, 
which judgment and deliberation is pecu- 



own charge ; whereby the same came to 
be taught and used in England, but for 
the printing of such matters only as the 
king licensed and privileged, and by the 
sworn servants of the king only, and in 
places appointed by the king, and not 
elsewhere." Atkyns's name is not men- 



liar and proper to the king, who alone tioned, but the privilege of which he was 
comprehendeth the estate of public then in possession was stoutly main- 
things, and it is a duty and consequence tained. 
of his supreme magistracy. Now printing 

AucHiNLECK Press. Lines on erecting a Printing-press in Bamsdale 
Poultry-yard, June 23rd, 181 5. Twenty-two lines, small 4to. 



Dr. Johnson. A list of the productions 
of the Auchinleck Press will be found 
in Bohn's edition of Lowndes's " Biblio- 
grapher's Manual," vol. iv. p. 197. 



This was printed at the "Auchinleck 
Press," erected at Auchinleck House, 
near Cumnock, Dumfriesshire, the seat 
of the late Sir Alexander Boswell, Bart., 
son of James Boswell, the biographer of 

AuDiFFREDi (J. B.). Catalogus Editionum Italicanim Soeculi XV. 
Romae : 1 794. 4to. 
John Baptist Audiffredi, an able astronomer and mathematician, was born at 
Saorgio, near Nice, in Provence, 1714 ; died, 1794. 

Catalogus Historico-Criticus Romanarum Editionum Sseculi 

XVL Rome: 1783. 4to. 

A valuable work, illustrated with a fine was so deeply affected by the criticism of 

quarto plate of printers' vignettes or Audiffredi, that he quitted Italy in dis- 

marks, together with a specimen of the gust ; but it is necessary to say tiiat Rive 

Lactantius printed at Subiaco, 1465. The did not always maintain the dignity of 

"Specimen Historicum Typographiae " his pen, and his bad temper often 

of Laire is criticised. Some omissions of prompted his attacks upon contempo- 

Maittaire, of Orlandi, and of Laire, are raries. — Peigiiot. 
supplied, and Rive declared that Laire 



Bibliography of Printing. 23 

AUDIFFREDI (J. B.). Catalogus Librorum typis impressorum Biblio- 
thecse Casanatensis proestantioribus, notis et observationibus illus- 
tratus. 1 762-88. 4 vols, folio. 

Catalogus Romanarum Editionum Sseculi XV. Romse : 1783. 

4to. 

Lettere Tipografiche dell' Abate Nicola Ugolini. 1778. 8vo. 



A satirical attack on Father Laire, author of the " Historical Essay on the Roman 
Typography of the Fifteenth Century." 

AUER (Alois). Album der k. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei in Wien : 
Naturselbstdruck, Moose, glatzte Steine, Versteinerungen, Spitzen 
und Stoffe : Verschiedenes. Wien : 1853. Folio, 69 plates. 

Collection of Specimens of the Imperial Royal Government Printing-office at 
Vienna. 

Das Benehmen eines jungen Englanders namens Henry Brad- 



bury. Wien : 1854. 8vo. 

Treats on Nature Printing, which Henry Bradbury, who had been working some 
time at the Imperial Printing-office, claimed as his own invention. 

Discovery of the Natural Printing Process. Vienna : 1854. 



Folio, pp. 75 ; plates. In. English, German, Italian, and French. 

An account of the discovery by which of fine specimens are added on twenty 

plates for printing copies of plants, ma- plates ; there are also six pages of fac- 

terials, embroideries, &c., showing their simile letters of Henry Bradbury, who 

natural textures, are produced in a rapid claimed priority in the invention ; but, as 

and simple manner without the aid of Auer shows by producing these letters, 

drawing or engraving. A great number Bradbury first saw the process at Vienna. 

Eigenthumstheil bei neuen Erfindungen, besonders bei dem in 

der k. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei in Wien entdeckten Natur- 
selbstdrucker. Wien : 1853. 8vo. 

Geschichte der k. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei in Wien. 2 



Thiele ; i, Geschichten ; 2, Beschreibung. Vienna: 1851. 8vo. 
Plates. 
An illustrated history and description of the Imperial Printing-house at Vienna. 

Der polygraphische Apparat, oder die verschiedenen Kunst- 



facher der k. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei zu Wien. Wien 
1853. 8vo. pp. 51 ; two unnumbered leaves, and 28 plates illus- 
trative of the various modes of reproduction. Wien : 1855. 8vo. 

A description of the different processes in use at the Imperial Royal Printing- 
office at Vienna. 

Ueber das Raumverhaltniss der Buchstaben. Wien : 1848. 



Imp. 4to. 
Treats on type sizes, &c. 

AUFRUF um das herannahende Sacularfest der Buchdruckerkunst 
durch Errichtung eines Monuments zu Ehren ihres Erfinders Joh. 
Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg wiirdig zu feiem. Mainz : 1832. 4to. 



24 Bibliography of Printing. 

AURIVILLIUS (Carl). Catalogus Librorum impressorum Bibliothecse 
Regise Academiae Upsaliensis. Upsalise : 1814. 4to. 
Contains notices of the early printers, bibliographer, and possessed a library 
Carl Aurivillius was born at Stockholm, containing about 7,000 volumes, which 
1 6th August, 171 7, and died at Upsal, was always open to students. 
1786. He was an eminent linguist and 

Author's Printing and Publishing Assistant ; including interesting 
Details respecting the Mechanism of Books. New York : 1839. 
i2mo. 

Printing and Publishing Assistant (The) ; comprising explana- 



tions of the process of printing, preparation and calculation of 
manuscripts, choice of paper, type, binding, illustrations, publish- 
ing, advertising, &c., with an exemplification and description of 
the typographical marks used in the correction of the press. 
London : 1839. i6mo. pp. 58. 
Many similar publications to the above have been issued, but they are mostly of 
the nature of trade circulars and advertisements. 



ABBAGE (Charles). On the Economy 
of Machinery and Manufactures. 
London: 1832. 8vo. Large paper. 

Chapter XI. is entitled " Of Copying," and 
relates to the various processes of printing 
from cavities, such as copperplate, music- 
printing, &c., and printing from kurfaces, such 
as wooden blocks, movable type, lithographic 
stone, &c. 

A second edition, enlarged and revised, was 
published in 1835. The author was a well- 
known mathematician and writer on political 
economy. He invented a calculating machine, 
which was used for compiling " Tables of 
Logarithms," published in 1827 (8vo.). In the 
Introduction to this work will be found a 
lengthy description of the manner in which 
the work was composed and corrected, as well as some practical hints on the best 
style of figures for setting up table-work. The book itself is printed on yellow paper, 
that colour being, as the author concluded after making an elaborate series of experi- 
ments, the least trying to the eyes of the reader. Mr. Babbage also considered that 
black figures on yellow paper were the most legible. He was understood to have 
been experimenting for some years on the invention of a type-composing machine. 
He was the author of the treatise on Machinery in the Bridgewater Series, which 
contains an eloquent eulogium on the advantages to human progress of the invention 
of printing. 




Bachelier. Specimen de I'lmprimerie de Bachelier, 
Jardinet. Paris : 1842. 4to. Paris : 1849. 410. 



12, Rue du 



In the preface it is stated that this 
establishment was founded in 1791 by 
Jean Marie Courcier, and that M. Bache- 
lier, who was a relation of his, succeeded 
to its possession in 1822, after Madame 
Courcier. It is " entirely devoted to the 



production of books relative to science 
and art, especially those on mathemati- 
cal subjects." The work consists of a 
series of specimen pages of the latter 
kind of works. M. Bachelier died about 
1852. 



Bachmann (J. H.). Der Buchdrucker an der Handpresse. Leipzig : 
8vo. pp. 109. 

A practical treatise on presswork. 



Leitfaden fiir Maschinenmeister an Schnellpressen. Ein Hand- 

buch fiir jeden gebildeten Buchdrucker. Braunschweig : 1871. 

Guide for machine-minders and steam-pressmen, elucidated by 41 woodcuts, 
reprinted from the Journal fiir Buchdruckerkunst. A second edition was issued 
in 1873. 



26 Bibliogt'aphy of Printing. 

Bachmann (J. II,) Neues Handbuch der Buchdruckerkunst. 
Weimar : 1876. Cr. 8vo. pp. xiv. 405. 

A compendious historical and practical handbook of type-founding, letterpress 
printing, steam printing, stereotyping, and of the reproductive processes — chalco- 
graphy, lithography, chemitype, zincography, galvanography, &c. 



Die Schriftgiesserei. Fiir Praktiker und Laien, insbesondere 

fiir Buchdmcker fasslich dargei-tellt. Leipzig : 1868. 4to. pp. 43. 

A practical illustrated treatise on type-founding, especially as concerns the printer. 



Die Schule des Musiknoten-Satzes, Ein praktischer Leit- 

faden zum Selbstiinterricht. Leipzig : 1865. 4to. 

An elaborate treatise on composition in music types, consisting of 78 large 4to. 
pages, with remarks on the configuration of the notes, the lay of the music-case, &c. 
A second edition was published in 1875. 



Die Schule des Schriftsetzers. Ein Handbuch fiir Praktiker 

und Laien, insbesondere fiir Setzerlehrlinge. Braunschweig : 1858. 
4to. 

A handbook for compositors, particu- printing-house of W. Gronau. He was 

larly adapted for the use of apprentices ; for many years a contributor to the 

a reprint from the Journal /iir Buck- Brunswick technical periodical, the y^^z^r- 

dmckerkunst. 7ial/iir Biichdntckerkttnst, the editor of 

1'he author of these works died at which, Herr Th. Goebel, gave an ex- 
Berlin on the 25th July, 1876, aged 56. tended biographical notice of the de- 
Up to the time of his death he had occu- ceased in the number for August, 1876, 
pied the position of overseer of the Berlin 

Back (Godefroy). 

In the archives of the confraternity of that of J, de Breda, of Deventer (q. v.). 
St. Luke at Antwerp we read that Back published a large number of good 
G. Back, a binder of books, married, on books during his typographical career, 
the 19th of November, 1492, the widow which ended with a work dated 25th 
of the printer. Van der Goes. After the November, 1511. He died in 1516. 
marriage he continued the printing-office Accounts ot the products of his press 
of his predecessor. The matrices of his will be found in the articles of P. C. van 
types are preserved in the celebrated der Meersch and of M. F. A. G. Camp- 
foundry of Enschede at Haarlem. {See h&i\, \nihe Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige, 
Ensched6, a. J.) He lived in a house tom. ii. pp. 236-249, and torn. iii. pp. 
called the Vogelhuis, which had as a sign 55-62. The opposite device is taken from 
a cage of birds, and adopted the bird- one of Back's productions — a school book, 
cage as his device. It was altered seve- The plate appears to have got broken 
ral times, however. In 1496 the device during the printing ; we reproduce it as 
consisted simply of G. B. ; later on, the it appears, with the fracture across it. 
initials G. B. were replaced by a device The design represented inside the cage 
of a bird ; and later still, the cage was is the letter M surmounted with the Bur- 
again introduced. In some of his books, gundy device— a wand upholding a St. 
however, he used a device similar to Andrew's cross. 

Backer (Aug. de). See Ruelens. 

Badensis (Thomas Ans^lmus). Thomas Anselmus, or Anshelmus, 
Badensis, was, as the patronymic implies, a native of the Grand 
Duchy of Baden. Established in the Swabian town of Pfortzheim, 



Bibliography of Printing. 



27 



not very distant from his native province, he published there 
several books, and among them five successive editions (1502- 
1510) of the " Rationarium Evangelistarum," the quaint woodcuts 
of which are a close imitation of the block-book known as the " Ars 
Memorandi." In the colophon of " Magnencii Rabani Mauri de 




ANTWERP: 1493-1500. \yide(^. Back, p. 26. 

E 2 



28 



Bibliography of Pi'iiiting. 




PFORTZHEIM : 1502 — 1526. 

[Vide Badbnsis, p. 26. 



Laudibus Sanctae Crucis," 
1503, fol., we read : — 

" Sed patriam si vis : no- 
menet artificis ? ' 

Est natale solum Baden : 
sedes rnihi Phorcys : 

Dicor et Anshelmi Bib- 
liopola Thomas." 

In fact, Anselmus Badensis 
seems to have been the 
only printer in Pfortzheim 
from 1502 to 15 1 1. 

Badius (Ascensius). Jodo- 
cus Badius Ascensius vas a 
scholar, critic, and printer, 
to whom the following 
references are made in 
Dibdin's ** Decameron," 
vol. ii. p. 215: — "Few 
characters stood upon 
higher ground than did 
this distinguished man, 
and his enthusiasm for 
the art of printing was equally manifested by his selection (the 
first, I believe, upon record) of a press for his device, by the 
number of most admirably-useful works which he published, and 
by eating his Christmas dinner (as we must take it for granted he 
did) with his three sons-in-law, also printers of eminence, who par- 
took of turkey and quaffed burgundy by the side of him ! Happy 
banquet ! where new works of curiosity or of interest were pro- 
jected, anecdotes, perhaps, of Jenson, Gering, or Froben, imported, 
and avowals of friendship, or of enthusiastic attachment to the art 
which they professed, made and re-echoed the livelong night, even 
till the snow upon the surrounding country became tinged with the 
pinky light of the morning ! To speak soberly, I told you, if you 
remember, that Ascensius chose a press for his device, but whether 
first at Paris, where he first commenced business, I am not able to 
speak with decision." Dibdin proceeds to describe two of the de- 
vices of Ascensius, one of which we are enabled, by the courtesy 
of Messrs. Clowes & Sons, to reproduce herewith. It will be 
noticed that the compositor on the right-hand side of the engraving 
holds the composing-stick in his ri^i^ht hand. The other device, 
which was first used by Badius in 1521, and which bears that date, 
corrects this error, but represents the compositor as a female. The 
press, it appears, became shortly afterwards a very usual ornanient to 
the frontispiece of a book, and was adopted by Vascosan, Roigny, 
and others ; yet Ascensius warns his readers * ' not to pay attention 
to works in which his name is surreptitiously introduced, but to 



Bibliography of Prijiting. 



29 



look well after his device of the press." Ascensius commenced his 
career at Lyons as corrector of the presses of Trechsell and De 
Wingle, and afterwards married Thelif, the daughter of Trechsell. 
On the death of his father-in-law, he went to Paris with a view to 
establish himself as a printer there. At first he printed in conjmic- 
tion with Petit, Bocard, Roche, and others, but soon afterwards 
began business on his own account. He returned to Lyons 
about 1516 or 1518, and from that time to his death, in 1535, 
was the intimate associate of the most distinguished literary charac- 
ters of the day. He issued a number of editions of the best Latin 




THE PRESS OF ASCENSIUS. 

classics, and was a great admirer and imitator of Aldus, whom he 
equalled in diligence and perseverance. His decease was com- 
memorated by numerous epitaphs, among them the following, 
Latinized from the Greek by Henry Stephens, the son of Robert : — 
'* Hie, liberorum plurimorum qui parens. 

Parens librorum plurimorum qui fuit. 

Situs loDocus Radius est Ascensius. 

Plures fuerunt liberis tamen libri 

Quod jam senescens coepit illos gignere. 

i^tate florens coepit hos qu6d edere." 



OFTHE "^ 

UNIVERSITY 



30 Bibliography of Printing. 

A full memoir of this celebrated printer will be found in Mait- 
taire's "Annal. Typog.," vol. ii. p. 72. The inscription on the 
press is '* Prelum Ascensianum," — the Ascensian Press. The 
word " prelum," in Latin, is applied to the ancient wine-presses, 
after which, in fact, the first printing-presses were modelled. The 
platen came down with a dead weight, and there was no contri- 
vance for enabling it to regain its position except by screwing it up 
again. The press of Ascensius continued in use with few, if any, 
improvements until the time of Blaew, and an idea of the next 
form of the printing-press may be obtained by examining that 
figured under the name Franklin, pos^. 

Badecker (G. D.). Proben von Schriften aus der Buchdruckerei, 
Essen. 1802. 

Badeker (Karl). Die Einweihung der neuen Offizin von G. D. Badeker 
in Essen am 26. September 1 85 1. Essen. 8vo. 

Account of the opening of the new offices of Badeker, the printer of the celebrated 
Continental guide-books bearing his name. 

Baer (Carl Ernst von). Bericht iiber eine typographische Seltenheit, 
die in der Bibliothek der Akademie der Wissenschaften gesucht 
wird, von dem Akademiker von Baehr, als Bibliothekar der aus- 
landischen section der akademischen Bibliothek. In the Bulletin 
de la Classe des Sciences de V Academic Imph'iale de St. Petersbourg, 
Nos. 123, 124. 1849. 8vo. 

An account of a typographic curiosity deposited in the library of the St. Peters- 
burg Academy of Sciences, and which was subsequently missed. C. E. von Baer, 
the author, was the librarian of the foreign section of this library. 

[Baer (F. C.)] Lettre sur I'Origine de I'lmprimerie, servant de re- 
ponse aux observations publiees par Fournier jeune sur I'ouvrage de 
Schoepflin intitule: Vindiciae typographicse. Strasburg : 1761. 
8vo. 

Bagelaar (E. W. J.). Verhandeling over eene nieuwe manier om 
Prentleckeningen. Harlem: 181 7. 8vo. 

Bagford (John). An Essay on the Invention of Printing. By Mr, 
John Bagford ; with an Account of his Collections for the same by 
Mr. Humfrey Wanley, F. R. S. Communicated in two Letters to 
Dr. Hans Sloane, R.S. Sectr. In Philosophical Transactions, 
vol. XXV., page 2397 (London, 1705, 4to.). 

Bagford ascribes the first invention of printing to Haarlem. Reprinted in Latin in 
Wolf, " Monumenta Typographica," and in "Memoirs of the Royal Society," v. 50. 
—See Harleian MSS. 

Proposals for a History of Printing, Printers, Illuminators, 

Chalcography, Paper-making, &c. &c. On subscription, los., and 
los. more on the delivery of a volume in folio, containing about 
200 sheets. 

These Proposals were printed on a half Caxton, first printer in the Abbey of 
sheet ,of foolscap, with a specimen on Westminster, with a list of his books." 
another, containing the "Life of William There are several copies of these Propo- 



Bibliography of Prhiting. 



31 



sals in the British Museum, Harleian 
MSS., 59Q5. The following account of 
Bagford is taken from Dr. John Calder's 
Annotations on "The Tatler." The 
author says that Bagford " was no very 
common man, and there is but little 
known of him in print." John Bagford 
was born in London, in 1675. He was 
brought up to the business of a shoe- 
maker, and published a curious and en- 
tertaining tract on fashions in shoes and 
the art of making them, which may be 
seen in the British Museum, Harleian 
MS., 591 1. He seems to have been led 
very early to enquire into the antiquities 
of his own country, and the origin and 
progress of its literature. He possessed 
a great knowledge of old English books, 
prints, and other literary curiosities, 
which he carefully picked up at low 
prices, and re-sold. In this kind of 
traffic he spent much of his life, and tra- 
velled widely to carry it out. A number 
of booksellers gave him commissions, 



workmen. They prevailed on one, Fre- 
derick Corsellis, to leave the printing- 
office in disguise, who immediately came 
over with them, and first instructed the 
English in the famous art, at Oxford, the 
same year, 1459." In the margin of the 
card is printed, in capitals, " Mr. John 
Bagford," and the four following lines : — 

" All you that walk upon the Thames, 
Step in this booth, and print your 

names, 
And lay it by, that ages yet to come 
May see what things upon the Thames 
were done. 
— Printed upon the frozen river Thames, 
January 18, 1715-16." 

Bagford was much employed by Lord 
Oxford, Dr. John Moore, first bishop of 
Norwich, afterwards of Ely, Sir Hans 
Sloane, and other eminent collectors. It 
is believed that Dr. Moore procured for 
him an admission to the Charterhouse as 
a pensioner on the foundation. He died 



which he was remarkably successful in at Ishngton, May 15, 1716, aged 65, and 
discharging. Many of his bills and ac- was buried in the cemetery of the Char- 
counts are preserved in the Harleian col- terhouse. In 1728, a portrait of him was 
lection. He took especial pains to be- engraved by Mr. George Vertue, from a 
come acquainted with the history of picture by Howard. A memoir of Bag- 
printing, and the arts connected with it. ford will be found in Nichol's "Literary 
Bagford did not confine himself solely to Anecdotes," vol. ii., p. 462, and some of 
the theory of printing, for it appears that his correspondence, with particulars of his 
he practised the art. There is a card pre- proposals for the Life of Caxton and the 
served in the Harleian MSS. which nms History of Printing, in the " Illustrations 
as follows: — " The noble art and mystery of the History of the Eighteenth Cen- 
of printing being invented and practised tury," vol. ii. 735 ; iv, 140, 144, 155, 
by John Gottenburg, a soldier at Harlem, 198, 201, 210, 216, et seq. Dibdin's 
in Holland, anno 1440, King Henry VI., "Bibliomania "(pp. 316-331) contains also 
anno 1450, sent two private messengers some interesting particulars of this singu- 
with 1500 marks to procure one of the lar man. 

Baille (Lodovico). Vicende tipografiche di Sardegna. Cagliari : 
1847. 8vo. 

Baillet (Adrien). Jugemens des Savans sur les principaux ouvrages 
des Auteurs. Corriges et augmentes par M. de la Monnoye, de 
1' Academic Franfaise. 7 vols. Paris : 1722. 
Vol, I, contains the "Jugemens sur les principaux imprimeurs." 

Baine. a Specimen of Printing Types, by John Baine and Grandson 
in Co. , Letter Fomiders. Edinburgh: 1787. 

John Baine and Grandson established a type-foundry in Philadelphia at the close 
of the revolutionary war, the first successful attempt in America. The elder Baine 
died in 1790, and the grandson returned to England soon after. — Blades. 

Baker (Peter C). European Recollections. An Address delivered 
before the New York Typographical Society on Franklin's Birth- 
day, Jan. 17, 1 86 1. Published by request of the Society. New 
York: 1861. Svo. 
Among the " Recollections" are those his preference being very decided for the 
of a visit to the office of Messrs. Clowes former. He animadverts upon what he 
& Sons, and the Times. The author con- deems the tasteless, vulgar appearance of 
trasts American and English printing, most English job printing. 



32 Bibliography of Printing. 

Baker (Peter C.)- Franklin ; an Address delivered before the New 
York Typographical Society, on Franklin's Birthday, Jan. 17,. 
1865. New York : 1865. 8vo. 

This is an interesting sketch of the character of the Anmerican " Patriot, Philan- 
thropist, Philosopher, Printer.'' 

Baker (W. S.). American Engravers and their Works. Philadelphia: 
1875. 8vo. pp. 184. 
Contains brief notices of the lives, and catalogues of the works of the chief 
American engravers, living and deceased. The information is compiled from 
original sources and personal inquiries. 

The Origin and Antiquity of Engraving, with some Remarks 

on the Utility and Pleasures of Prints. Philadelphia : 1872. 
8vo. pp. 62. Second edition, with 23 Heliotype illustrations. 
Boston : 1875. Small 4to. 

William Sharp, engraver. With a descriptive Catalogue of 



his works. Philadelphia : 1875. 8vo. pp. I2I. 

Prefixed is a heliotype reproduction of Sharp's productions in the possession of 

an engraved portrait of William Sharp. John S. Phillips, Esq., of Philadelphia, 

I'he introduction gives a biographical and it is the first descriptive catalogue of 

sketch of the celebrated line engraver, the works of this artist ihat has hitherto 

with critical remarks on his genius and appeared. William Sharp was born in 

works. I'he remainder of the book was London, January 29, 1749, and died at 

chiefly compiled from a collection of Chiswick, July 25, 1824. 

Baldinucci (Filippo). Cominciamento e progresso dell' arte di In- 
tagliare in rame, con le vite de' molti piu eccellenti maestri della 
stessa professione. Firenze : 1686. 4to. Milano : 1808. 8vo. 

Ball (William). A briefe Treatise concerning the regulating of Print- 
ing. Humbly presented to the Parliament of England. London : 
1651. i2mo. pp. 35. 
Proposing a number of restrictions and penalties upon the Press, which hath been 
" notoriously depraved by vaine, contentious, and seditious Persons; to the great 
confusion of Doctrinall Tenets, and Disturbance of State-Affairs." 

Ballerstedt (Gustav). Vollstandiges Handbuch der Steindruckerei. 
Quedlinburg und Leipzig : 1837. 8vo. pp. 48. 
A handbook of Lithography, of no great value. 

Ballhorn (Fried.). Alphabete Orientalischer und Occidentalischer 
Sprachen zum Gebrauch fUr Schriftsetzer und Correctoren. Leip- 
zig : 1844. 8vo. Leipzig : 1856. 8vo. 
The original edition, as above, con- in the British Museum contains important 
tained 26 pages. A second edition was corrections interpolated in MS., and 
published by Brockhaus, of Leipzig, in some new alphabets. Another edition 
1852, consisting of 40 pages, several addi- was published in 1856, extending to 56 
tional alphabets having been included, pages ; another in it 64. A translation 
and the book has since gone through into English was published by Triibner 
about ten editions. A copy of the work & Co., entitled : — 

Grammatography, a Manual of Reference to the Alphabets of 

Ancient and Modern Languages. London : 1861. 8vo. 

This is a very useful book to the printer the characters are numbered consecu- 
who has occasion to employ foreign or tively, and these numbers may be referred 
Oriental types. In some of the founts, to instead of the letters themselves. This 



Bibliography of Printing. 33 

plan of using reference numbers would, compendious introduction to the reading 

if generally adopted, be a great con- of the most important ancient and 

venience to printers. If the types were modern languages. Simple in its design, 

numbered on the stem according to a it will be consulted with advantage by 

plan previously understood, the most the philological student, the amateur lin- 

difficult foreign composition would be guist, the bookseller, the corrector of 

rendered as simple as a line of numerals, the press, and the diligent compositor." 

The author of the German original, Mr. As a specimen of printing the book is very 

F. Ballhorn, was one of the overseers at curious, for notwithstanding the multipli- 

Mr. F. A. Brockhaus's printing-house, of city of the alphabets, they are all printed 

Leipzig. It is stated that " the Gram- from separate metal types. Ballhorn 

matography is offered to the public as a died in 1873 or 1874. 

Bamberg. Fortsetzung der altesten Buchdruckergeschichte von Bam- 
berg. Article of 35 pages in Litterarisches Magazin fur Katholi- 
ken und deren Freunde. Part 6 of vol. i. Coburg : 1795. 8vo. 

A continuation of an account of the early printers of Bamberg, and of their 
works. 

Bancelin-Dutertre (Ch.). Annuaire des Imprimeurs et des Li- 
braires. Paris : 1829. i2mo. 

Bandini (Angelo Maria). De Florentina Juntarum Typographia, 
ej usque censoribus ex qua grgeci, latini, turci scriptores, ope codi- 
cum manuScriptorum a viris clarissimis pristince integritati resti- 
tuti in lucem prodierunt. Accedunt excerpta uberrima prsefationum 
libris singulis praemissarum. 2 vols. Lucse : 1791. 8vo. 

Annals of the press of Giunta, the celebrated printer of Florence, Venice, and 
Lyons. Further accounts of this press will be found in Dibdin's " Decameron," 
Ebert (" Bibliographisches Lexicon"), and Renouard (" Annales des Aide ")• 

Bandtkie (George Samuel), De Primis Cracovise in arte Typographica 
Incunabulis. Cracoviae : 181 2. 4to. pp. 8. 



— Historya Drukarii Krakowskisch od zaprowadzenia drukow do 
tego Miasta az do czasow naszych, Wiadomoscia o Wynalezieniu 
Sztuki Drukarskiey Poprzedzona. Krakowie : 1815. 8vo. 



— Historya Drukaru w krolestwie Polskiem i Wielkiem Xiestwie 
Litewskiem, jako i w Kraiach Zagranicz, nych, w ktorych Polskie 
Dzieta wychodzity. 3 vols. Krakowie : 1826. 8vo. 



List of Printing-Offices in Poland before the year 1850. In 

Krasinski's History of the Reformation in Poland. 8vo. 1838. 

The author was the librarian of the University of Cracow, and author of a history 
of that library. 

Bangs (Charles). The Country Printer. St. Louis : 1874. 

Bankes (H.). Lithography; or the Art of making Drawings on 
Stone for the purpose of being multiplied by Printing. London : 
1 81 3. 8vo. pp. 23, with frontispiece. 
F 



34 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Bankes (H.). Lithography; or the Art of taking Impressions from 
Drawings and Writing made on Stone, with Specimens of the 
Art. Second Edition, with considerable alterations. 1816. 8vo. 
pp. 28. Six plates. • 

A very early English book on the art Mr. G. J. Volweiller, who had been an 



of Lithography. It was published anony- 
mously ; but from an announcement at 
the end, to the effect that "the litho- 
graphic printing apparatus, with the 
stone and necessary materials," can be 
had of " Mr. Bankes, 148, New Bond- 
street," it is supposed that he was the 
writer ; indeed, the book is attributed to 
him in the catalogue of the British Mu- 



assistant to the elder Mr. Andre. Vol- 
weill'^r published a series of numbers 
from drawings by eminent masters (such 
as Benjamin West), but in consequence of 
their poor sale he returned to Germany 
in 1807. Since that time the process, 
says the author, had been wholly ne- 
glected in this country, except in so far 
as it was used, in a rough style, in the 
Quartermaster-General's Office, at the 
Horse Guards, for copying maps and 
plans. Mr. P. H. Andre introduced it 
as Polyautography, but Bankes says that 
he substituted for it the word Litho- 
graphy. At this early time the ultimate 
application and the capabilities of the art 
seem not to have been discerned, as this 
book says, " It can never equal an en- 
graving on copper for multiplying copies 
of writing, or, indeed, answer any pur- 
pose to which the graver is applied." 
The use of transfer-paper for drawing 
upon is mentioned. The six plates are 
executed in the most wretched manner. 



seum. In the opening, it is stated that 
" the art of taking impressions from 
drawings made on stone is said to have 
.been discovered by a gentleman of Mu- 
nich, M. Aloisius Senefelder, and by him 
communicated to Mr. Andre, who ap- 
plied it to the printing of music with 
great success at Frankfort. Mr. P. H. 
Andre, his son, a merchant in London, 
first introduced the art into this country 
about the year i8oi,and entered a caveat 
at the Patent Office, to secure, if neces- 
sary, the advantages of the exclusive 
exercise of the invention to himself; but 
he took out no patent, lest the process 

should be discovered by the specification the last giving a view of the printing- 
he would be obliged to make." It pro- press then used. It consisted of two 
ceeds to say that Mr. P. H. Andre com- cylinders, the upper one being turned by 
municated the capacities of the art to a handle, the stone passing between them ; 
the most eminent masters in London, and a screw in the head of the framework 
obtained from them many fine drawings giving increased pressure. The arrange- 
on the stone, which he proposed to pub- ment was similar to that of the domestic 
lish in numbers. Being compelled to wringing or mangling machines now in 
leave this country for Germany, he was common use. 
succeeded in the practice of the art by 

Barber (John). John Barber, City Printer, Common Councilman, 

Alderman, and Lord Mayor of London. An impartial History of 

his Life, Character, Amours, Travels, and Transactions. London : 

1 741. 8vo. 

John Barber, " City Printer," was the first of his craft who attained the dignity of 

Lord Mayor of London. The above curious (and scurrilous) work is contained in 

the library of the Corporation of London, Guildhall. 

Barbera (Piero). Ricordi biografici di Vicenzo Batelli, tipografo 
Fiorentino. Firenze : 1872. 8vo. 
Reprinted from L'A rte della Stampa. 

See Cennini. 

Barbier (C). Tableau de Typographic confidentielle : application 
d'expeditive fran9aise approuve par I'Academie des Sciences pour 
sa grande simplicite et la facilite de sa mise en pratique. Paris : 
1 83 1. A broadside. 

[Barletti de Saint Paul (F.).] Nouveau Systeme Typographique, 
ou moyen de diminuer le travail et les frais de composition, de 



Bibliography of Printing. 3 5' 

correction et de distribution, decouvert en 1774, par Madame 
de * * *. Paris : 1776. 4to. Another edition, folio. 

[Barletti de St. Paul (F.).] Nouveau Systeme Typographique 
dont les experiences ont ete faites en 1 775 aux frais du gouverne- 
ment. Paris : 1 792. 4to . 

Barnheim. Catalogue of a Bibliotheca Typographica, sold by 
Auction at Berlin, 8 May, 1873. 

This was a library of typographical works collected by Justice Councillor Barn- 
heim during a period of nearly fifty years. Works on Bibliography and the Inven- 
tion of Printing were in very large numbers. 

Bartolini (Antonio). Saggio Epistolare sopra la Tipografia del 
Friuli nel Secolo XV. Aggiuntavi una lettera tipografica del 
Jacopo Morelli. Udine : 1798. 4to. 
" An uncommonly splendid work, con- bibliographer Morelli, describing an edi- 
taining much curious information relative tion of Catullus, and another of Claudian 
to the earliest printed books in the Vene- de Raptu Proserpinae, neither of which 
tian Friuli, and particularly at Udine. had before been noticed." — Home, In- 
Pi. letter is annexed from the celebrated trodiiction to Bibliography. 

Bartoloccius (J.). Dissertatio de Origine Irapressionis Librorura 
Hebrceorum, deque Typographiis Judaicis, prtesertim in Italia. 
Romas : 1675. Folio. 

Portion of his "Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica" (Rome: 1775-93, 94; folio), 
Part I. pp. 432. 

Baruffaldi (Girolamo). Saggio della Tipografia Ferrarese dall' anno 
1471 sino al 1500. Firenze : 1777. 8vo. 

The period comprised is from the year 1-171 to 1500. "A valuable work, and 
enriched with much literary information." — Clarke s Bib. Misc., ii. 54. 

Basan (F.). Dictionnaire des Graveurs, anciens et modernes, depuis 
I'origine de la gravure, avec une notice des principales estampes 
qu'ils ont gravees, suivi des Catalogues des QLuvres de Jacques 
Jordaens et de Corneille Vischer. Paris: 1767. 3 vols. i2mo. 

Seconde edition, mise par ordre alphabetique, considerable- 

ment augmentee, et ornee de cinquante estampes par difFerents 
artistes celebres. Paris : 1789. 2 vols. i2mo. 
Some copies of the second edition were issued with a new title, dated 1809, to 

which was added "Notice Historique sur I'Art de la Gravure en France," by 

Choffard. 

Baschet (Armand). Aldo Manuzio. Lettres et Documents, 1495- 
15 1 5, collexit et adnotavit. Venetiis : 1867. 8vo. 
160 copies printed, not for sale. This bered copy belonging to the British 
book contains the result of some success- Museum (No. 57) is inserted an inter- 
ful researches made by the author, in esting autograph letter of the author to 
1865, during a long sojourn at Mantua, " cher Monsieur Thompson," who is the 
among the archives of the princely house assistant keeper of the manuscripts at 
of Gonzaga, for reliques of the printer the British Museum, and written from 
Aldus Manutius. It is dedicated to the Travellers' Club, London, dated 
M. Henry Plon, of Paris. In the num- May, 1871. 

Basel. Beytrage zur Basler Buchdruckergeschichte. Basel : 1840. 4to. 
Contributions to the History of the Typography of Basle. Published on the 
occasion of the typographical jubilee of 1840 by I. Stockmeyer and R. Reber. 

F 2 



36 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Baskerville (John). This celebrated printer was bom in 1706, at 
Wolverley, in Worcestershire. At the age of twenty he kept 
a writing-school in the Bull-ring, Birmingham, and afterwards 
engaged in the business of cutting letters on tombstones and memo- 
rials. He then adopted the trade of japanning, and was very 
successful ; so much so, in fact, that he amassed a considerable 
fortune. About the year 1750, his artistic tastes and his love for 




JOHN BASKERVILLE. 



literature directed his attention to the art of printing, which he 
found in a very unsatisfactory condition. He began by establish- 
ing a type-foundry, and used unceasing efforts to excel all of the 
existing English founders, who, with the exception of Caslon, were 
producing types of a very inferior kind. Baskerville engaged the 
best punch-cutters that could be had, and superintended their 
work with untiring care. He spent a sum of about ;^6oo before 



Bibliography of Printing. 37 

he obtained one letter that came up to his ideal. His type is ad- 
mired for its elegance even at the present day, and books printed 
by him now bear a very high value. Baskerville made, not only 
his own type, but his moulds for casting, his chases, his ink, and 
his presses. He introduced great improvements in nearly every 
branch of printing, and produced many masterpieces of typography. 
The paper he used was of a fine, thick quality, rather yellow in 
colour. His ink had a rich purple-black tint, and great attention 
was paid to securing uniformity of colour throughout his books. 
His sheets had imparted to them a fine lustre by their being in- 
serted, immediately they were taken off the tympan, between hot 
copper plates. The heat expelled the moisture, set the ink, and 
imparted a beautiful gloss simultaneously. Several of Baskerville's 
productions are exhibited to the public in show-cases at the British 
Museum ; but the books are sadly discoloured now, and probably 
would give little satisfaction to their scrupulous printer. This re- 
sult is probably due to this mode of hot-pressing. Baskerville's first 
production was a quarto Virgil, issued in 1756; and for several 
years he printed a number of extremely beautiful books, which 
attracted the attention of bibliophiles throughout the world, and 
brought him great celebrity. The monetary produce of his press, 
however, was not so satisfactory : the number of persons who 
could, at that time, appreciate his work was very limited, and the 
publishers were disinclined to cater for so few. He was Univer- 
sity printer at Cambridge from 1758 to 1766. In 1762 Basker- 
ville wrote to Horace Walpole complaining that " the booksellers 
did not choose to encourage him," and declaring that he was 
heartily tired of the business of printing, which he would wish 
never to have attempted. After 1765, little or nothing appeared 
from his press, and he wrote to Benjamin Franklin, then in Paris 
on a diplomatic mission, to see if the latter could dispose of his 
type for him. Franklin replied that the condition of P" ranee at 
the time was such as to prevent his making a purchase of the kind. 
Baskerville died January 8th, 1775, and in April of that year his 
widow relinquished the printing business. His type lay idle until 
1779, when it was bought by M. de Beaumarchais, who, at vast 
expense, established a printing-office at Kehl, and lost an immense 
sum in printing a magnificent copy of the works of Voltaire. It 
is not known to us what ultimately became of the type ; it is said 
to have been melted into bullets. It may interest our readers 
to know that the portrait annexed is printed from the original 
wood-block engraved for Hansard's *' Typographia," and, with 
several others from the same work, was most kindly lent to us by 
the author's son, whose liberality and courtesy we have great plea- 
sure in gratefully acknowledging : it was copied from an oil-painting 
executed for the late Mr. Knott of Birmingham. A series of 
articles in Notes and Queries (1. iv. 40, 123, 211 ; v. 209, 355, 
618 ; viii. 203, 349, 423) has set at rest several disputed points 
in the history of John Baskerville. G. C. says that he was 
informed in 1835 that the coffin containing the body of Basker- 
ville was then lying in a timber-yard, under a pile of deals. 



38 Bibliography of Pmiting. 

and asks if it is still (1852) in the same place ; also, whether there 
are any authentic portraits, engraved or otherwise, of Baskerville. 
— Mr. St. Johns says that Baskerville was interred in grounds 
attached to the house in which he lived, near Easy-row, Birming- 
ham. The land became valuable as a building site, and the body 
was removed, after lying there for nearly half a century. It was 
taken to the workshop of a lead-merchant named Marston, in 
Monmouth-street, Birmingham, and while there he (Mr. St. Johns) 
saw the remains, which were in a wooden coffin enclosed in one 
of lead. That was about 1826. The person who showed him the 
coffin was either Mr. Marston or one of his employes. The nose 
and lips of the body were gone, and two front teeth ; but as to 
the latter, it was known who had them, and they would be re- 
stored. The shroud was perfect, but discoloured. About 1849, 
while in Birmingham, a snuff-box was shown to him, on the lid 
of which was a painted portrait of Baskerville, which fully agreed 
with the description given to him many years before by a person 
who had known the original. — Cranmore quotes on this subject 
from Hansard's " Typographia," preface, xii. xiii.— Mr. William 
Cornish (of New-street, Birmingham) says that the body now 
reposes in the vaults of Christ Church, Birmingham. — Rt. says 
that he had been in possession for many years of a manuscript 
written by a friend, to the effect that Baskerville, in his early 
days, cut inscriptions on tombstones, and quotes one of his inscrip- 
tions. [His window-sign, cut on slate in exquisite letters, was in 
Birmingham a few years ago.] — ^J. B. Whitborne says that there is 
a beautiful portrait of Baskerville in the possession of Messrs. 
Longman, Paternoster-row, painted by Gainsborough. Of this 
a private plate was engraved on copper, which he possesses, and 
which formed part of a proposed collection of portraits of Wor- 
cestershire worthies. He also remarks that in Merridew's " Cata- 
logue of engi-aved Worcestershire Portraits " (p. 4), there is a 
reference to a woodcut from a portrait in the possession of the 
late Mr. Thomas Knott, of Birmingham. [This is the portrait 
copied by Hansard and reproduced above.] — Este refers to Pye's 
*' Modern Birmingham" (1819), which speaks of a gravestone at 
Handsworth Church, cut by Baskerville, and with his name at 
the top as sculptor. [All traces now lost (1876).] — R. W. Elliot 
refers to Baskerville's burial in unconsecrated ground, and gives 
his epitaph, with a manuscript note relative thereto, in a book 
belonging to Archbishop Nares. — J. H. M. refers to the allusion 
to this matter in Nichol's " Literary Anecdotes." — B. H. C. refers 
to the account of the Birmingham Riots of 1791 in the Historical 
Magazine, vol. iii., which bears on the subject of Baskerville's 
residence and burial-place. — R. says that one of his great-uncles 
owned the Baskerville property ; that Baskerville was actually 
buried in the grounds belonging to his house, and that it was 
solely owing to the growth of the town that his remains were 
disturbed. A biography of Baskerville is now (1876) in prepara- 
tion by Mr. Samuel Timmins, of Birmingham, who has had special 
sources of infon.iation at his command. 



Bibliography of Printing. 39 

Baskett. a previous View of the Case between John Baskett, Esq., 
one of His Majesty's Printers, Plaintiff, and Henry Parsons, 
Stationer, Defendant. 4to. Edinburgh. Printed by James 
Watson, one of His Majesty's Printers. 1720. 4to. 35 pp. and 
appendix, 3 pp. 

J. Watson, author of a " History of Baskett, King's Printer in England, 

Printing," claimed, as printer to His while claiming the privilege of printing 

Majesty in Scotland, the right of printing Bibles and selling them in Scotland, pro- 

the Bible and of selling it anywhere in secuted Mr. Parsons for selling in Eng- 

the United Kingdom. Henry Parsons land Bibles printed by Mr. Watson in 

was his agent. There can be little doubt Scotland. Incidentally is mentioned the 

that Watson wrote this clever tract, and fact of Baskett having leased the printing- 

his argument is that the Act of Union house at Oxford for Bible-printing, as did 

between England and Scotland having also Thomas Guy (founder of Guy's 

stipulated equality and complete freedom Hospital) for a few years. — Blades. 
of trade between the two countries, Mr. 

Bate (John). Art of Engraving. In Mysteries of Nature and Art. 
London : 1634-5. 410. 

Battenberg. Fonderie Typographique de Battenberg, Graveur k 
Paris. 

100 leaves, with engraved title. Printed for the Paris Exhibition of 1855. 

Baudouin (F. J.). Esquisse d'un Projet de Reglement pour I'lmpri- 
merie, la Librairie, et autres professions y relatives, redigee d'apres 
les lois anciennes et nouvelles. Paris: 1810, 410. 

Draft of proposed legislation for the printing and correlated trades, digested in 
accordance with the old and new laws. 

Baudouin (P. A. ). Anecdotes Historiques du Temps de la Restauration, 
suivis de recherches sur I'origine de la Presse, son developpement, 
son influence sur les esprits, ses rapports avec I'opinion publique, 
les mesures restrictives apportees a son exercice. Paris : 1853. 
Svo. 

This consists chiefly of a synopsis of the press laws of France, and on the laws 
affecting printing, copyright, libel, &c. It treats the subject historically, and offers 
various suggestions for necessary reforms. 

Bauer (E. Ch.). Primitiae Typographiae Spirensis, oder Nachrichten 
von der ersten und beriihmten Drachischen Buchdruckerey in der 
Reichs-Stadt Speyer und denen in dem XVten bis zu Anfang des 
XVIten Seculi daselbst gedruckten merckwiirdigen Biichern. Wie 
auch dem ersten und raren Speyrischen Neuen Testament. 
Speyer : 1764. 8vo. 

A treatise on the earliest typography of Spire, and on the first and rare edition 
of the New Testament printed there. The first book printed at Spire was "Trac- 
tatus de quatuor Virtutibus cardinalibus," printed by H. Arimin, 1472. 

Bauer (H.). Geschichte der Buchdruckerei im frankischen Wirtem- 
berg, namentlich Druckgeschichte Halls, von Plauser. In Der 



40 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins fur das Wirtembergische 
Franken. Vol. vi. part I. Kiinzelsau : 1 862. 8vo. 

History of Typography in Franconian Wirtemberg, with especial reference to 
the town of Halle. 

Baumgaertner (J. A.). Erwiederang des Aufsatzes in Nr. 22. des 
Borsenblattes, mit der Ueberschrift : Die sogenannte Hochdruck- 
Lithographie oder Vie! Larm um Nichts. Supplement to the 
Borsenblatt fur den deutschen Buchhandel, &c. Number 22. 
30. Mai, 1834. 4to. 

Reply to a treatise entitled " The so-called Relief Lithography ; or, Much Ado 
about Nothing," which appeared in an issue of the Borsenblatt for May, 1834. 

Baumgarten-Crusius (L. F. O.). Festrede bei der Akademischen 
Sascularfeier von der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst zu Jena. 
Jena : 1840. 8vo. 

An oration delivered on the occasion of the centennial celebration by the Academy 
of Jena of the invention of printing. 




OLMiJTZ, 1501-1502; BRESLAU, 1503-1505 ; FRANKFURT AN DER ODER, 1507-1514 ; 
LEIPZIG, 1514 — 

Baumgarthen (Conrad). 

Baumgarthen was the second printer shows the arms of the town itself. This 
established at Breslau, but he had before device is to be found on " Marri Tullij 
i.,.„j .. -. /-wi_"_._ _ , ^ i_ Ciceronis Epistolse familiares " (Wratis- 



lived two years at Olmiitz, and subse 
quently removed to Frankfurt an der Oder. 
The W on one of the shields is the initial 
of Wratislau, the Polish name of Breslau. 
The female saint on the other shield 



lavise, 1505, 4to). At the end of the 
book are the arms of Poland— a white 
eagle displayed. 



Bibliography of Printing. 41 

Baur (F.), Malten (H.), Wetter (J.). Gedenkbuch der vierten 

Jubelfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst in Mainz, 1840. 

Mainz : 1841. 8vo. pp. xxii. and 362 ; 4 plates. 

Containing an historical account of the statistical description of Mayence in 1840 ; 

different localities at Mayence connected and, finally, an account of the festivities 

with the invention of typography; an in connection with the jubilee celebrated 

essay on its influence on mankind ; a in the same vear. 

Bau-Rede gesprochen am '4. Julius 1822. Dem Bauherrn Herrn 
F. A. Brockhaus gewidmet, s. nota. 8vo. 

Bautz (J. B. B.). Die Lithographie in ihrem ganzen Umfange. 2nd 
edition. Augsburg: 1836. 8vo. 
A comprehensive treatise on Lithography. 

[Baverel (J. P.) et Malpez.] Notices sur les Graveurs qui nous 
ont laisse des Estampes marques de Monogrammes, ChifFres, 
Rebus, Lettres initiales, etc., avec une description de leurs plus 
beaux ouvrages et des planches en taille-douce, contenant toutes les 
marques dont ils se sont servis ; suivies d'une table qui en donne 
I'explication. 2 vols. Besan5on : 1807, 1808. %so. pp. xv. 360; 
322, lix. ; 5 plates of engravers' marks. 

Bazin (A.). Revision du Tarif des Ouvriers Typographes. Un mot a 
M. Leneveux, retire des affaires. 2nd edition. Paris : 1861. 8vo. 

Some observations addressed to M. Leneveux on the Revision of the French 
printers' tariff". 

Beadnell (Henry). A Guide to Typography, in two parts — Literaiy 
and Practical ; or, the Reader's Handbook and the Compositor's 
Vade-mecum. London : 1859. Fcap. 8vo. 

A Key to one of the main Difficulties of English Orthography, 

being an Alphabetical Collection of nearly 3,000 words resembling 
others in' sound, but differing in sense, spelling, or accentuation. 
London : 1867. i6mo. 

Orthographical Difficulties Elucidated. A work devoted 

more especially to an elucidation of the changes which words 
undergo in inflection and composition ; together with lists of 
the prefixes and affixes which occur in the English language, 
and explanations of their meaning, &c. &c. London : 1877. 
Small 8vo. 

The two latter of the above works were written with especial reference to the 
requirements of the printer. The last treatise originally appeared in 1875-6, in the 
Printitig Tttnes and Lithographer. 

The before-mentioned author served young people, Mr. Beadnell, in his 
his time to the Printing business in the earlier years, paid his devoirs to the 
country ; but has been principal reader Muses, and wrote, among other things, 
in the office of Messrs. Wyman & Sons and published, a poem of several 
for many years. In addition to being a pages on a subject of domestic interest, 
writer or. Printing, Mr. Beadnell has which shows at least some signs of poetic 
written a learned treatise on Greek power ; at a later period, in 1855, he 
Accentuation, and other works relating produced a pamphlet showing the in- 
to philology, a science in which he is justice of the then prevailing system of 
deeply versed. Like the majority of levying the income-tax, and advocating 

G 



42 Bibliography of Printing. 

the policy of remitting a portion of the is seldom that so wide a range and so 

income of small amounts from the pur- deep a knowledge are united in a working 

view of the tax. He received the thanks printeras in the subject of these comments, 

both of Mr. Disraeli and Mr. Gladstone whose great industry and abilities are 

for his suggestion, which was carried into equalled by his modesty and worth. It 

effect by the latter. He also published, may with truth be affirmed, that a 

in 1868, another pamphlet, on the advan- printer's reader is "bom, not made," 

tages to be derived by the State from and Mr. Beadnell is an example of a 

Church Establishments, both from a learned printer's reader of the very 

political and a moral point of view. It highest type. 

Beaumont (Capt. Fred.), R.E. Report prepared by Order of the 
Council of Education, on the Printing and Paper-making Appa- 
ratus in the Paris Exhibition, 1867. 

Reprinted in the Printers' Journal, new series, vol. i. pp. g, 25, 40, 55, 71, gi, 

108, 124, 155, 171, 314. 

Beaupre. Notices bibliographiques sur les Livres de Liturgie des 
Dioceses de Toul et de Verdun imprimes au XV® Siecle et 
dans la premiere moitie du XVP- Nancy : 1843. 8vo. pp. 74. 

• Notice sur quelques Graveurs Nanceens du XVIIP Siecle. 

Nancy : 1862. 8vo. 

Recherches sur les Commencements et les Progres de I'lm- 

primerie dans le Duche de Lorraine et dans les villes de Toul et 
Verdun. Nancy : 1841-42. Bvo. pp. 187. 47 copies printed. 

Recherches historiques et bibliographiques sur les Commence- 
ments de rimprimerie en Lorraine, et sur ses progres jusqu'a la 
fin du 17'°* Siecle. St. Nicolas-de-Port : 1845. 8vo. pp. vii. 
541. One plate. 

Only 300 copies printed. This ad- takes high rank among the many local 

mirable monograph, from the historical histories of printing that have been 

and literary interest given to it in the issued. A supplement to the book was 

minuteness of its bibliographical details, issued with the following title : — 

Nouvelles Recherches de Bibliographic Lorraine. Nancy : 



1855. 8vo. 

Four chapters, the first treating of the years 1500-1550, in 52 pages ; the second, 
1550-1600, in P16 pages ; the third, 1600-1635, in 88 pages ; and the fourth, 1635- 
1700, in 64 pages, with four pages of index. 

Beck. Schriftproben der Beck'schen Buchdruckerei in Nordlingen. 
1854. 
Specimens of the types used in the printing house of Beck, of Nordlingen. 

Becker (Carl). Jost Amman, Zeichner und Formschneider, Kup- 
feratzer und Stecher. Nebst Zusatzen von R. Weigel. Leipzig : 
1854. 4to. 17 woodcuts. 

A biography of Jost Amman, the designer, wood-engraver, and chalcographer. 
With additions by R. Weigel. 

Becker (F. P. ). Specimens of Engraving by the Omnigraph. Lon- 
don : [1850]. 4to. 

Becker (Rod. Zach.). Gravures en bois des anciens Maitres alle- 
mands, tirees des planches originales recueillies par Jean Albert de 



Bibliography of Printing, 43 

Derschau, publiees avec un Discours sur la Nature et I'Histoire de 
la Gravure en Bois, en Allemand et en Francois. Three parts. 
Gotha : 1808, i8io, 181 6. Folio. 

Beckmann (J.). Nachrichten von der Buclidruckerey zu Constanti- 
nopel. In Hajinoverisches Magazin^ volume for 1768, pp. 
385-394. 
Treats on printing in Constantinople. 

Bedford (H.). Douglas Jerrold ; a Lecture delivered March 30, 
1870. London : 1870. 8vo. 

The celebrated wit, Douglas Jerrold, was at one time a printer's reader in the 
oflfice at which the present work is printed, and several amusing reminiscences of 
him will be found in this volume. 

Beeloo (A. ). Eeuwzang bij het Vierde Eeuwgetijde van de Uitvinding 
der Boekdrukkunst. In Werken der Hollandsche Maatschappij, 
vol. vii. part i. Leyden : 1824. 8vo. 20 pages. 

B]£gat (Prosper). Notice sur I'Imprimerie a Nevers. Nevers : 1864, 
8vo. 

Beichlingen (Zacharias von). Fons Bibliothecarum insestimabilis : 
das ist, Wahrer Unterricht von Uhrsprung, Fortgang, Lobe, 
Nothwendigkeit, Nutzen, Freyheit, Rechten und Gerechtigkeit 
der Buchdruckereyen oder derselben Officianten und Verwandten. 
Eisleben : 1669. 4to. 24 leaves. 
Discusses the origin, progress, utility, &c., of printing. 

Beifreude liber die Erfindung und den Wachstum der edelen Kunst 

der Buchdruckerei, bei Gelegenheit ihres zum dritten Mai gefeier- 

ten Jubel-Festes, bezeuget von einem Liebhaber schoner Kiinster. 

Idstein : 1740. Folio. 

This contribution to the history and progress of Typography was published on the 

occasion of the third jubilee of its invention. 

Bekker (Ernst). Das Buckdrucker-Wappen. Ein Versuch demsel- 
ben seine urspriingliche Gestalt und Bedeutung wieder zugeben. 
Als bescheidener Beitrag zur Verherrlichung Gutenberg's. Ent- 
worfen bei Gelegenheit der Inauguration seines Monuments am 
14. August, 1837. Darmstadt : 1837. 8vo. Two vignettes. 

An essay on the design and signification of the heraldry of printing, with an eulo- 
gium of Gutenberg on the occasion of the inauguration of a monument to him at 
Mayence. 

Belinfante (J. J.). L. J. Coster, Uitvinder der Boekdrukkunst te 
Haarlem, omstreeks 1423. Oprigting van het Standbeeld tot 
Coster's Eere, der stad Haarlem aangeboden als hulde van Neer- 
lands volk. Amsterdam [about 1820], 4to.; and Haarlem, 1857, 
4to. 

lets over de Verdiensten der Israelieten ars Boekdrukkers 

(s'Hage : 1859). Svo. Privately printed. 

Bell (John Gray).— 6"^^ Bewick. 



44 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Bellermann (C. ). Awpoj/ Ba(nXt/coj^, oder das mehr als konigliche, 
ja gottliche Geschencke der Buchdruckerey, deren Erfindung, 
Nutzen, Missbrauch und beriihmtesten Meister, ingleichen der 
Historic von Erfindung der Druckerey. Erfurt : 1740. 8vo. 

A treatise on the invention, utility, and abuse of the "divine" art of printing ; 
with a list of celebrated printers. 

Bellermontanus (N.). Dissertatio Historica de Typographia. 
Portion of his Dissertationes Politicce, pp. 96-107. Francofurti ad 
Moenum : 1628. Svo. 



Beloe (W.). Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books. 
London : 1807-12. 8vo. 

The writer was an under-librarian at 
the British Museum, ahd says he "formed 
the determination of selecting such 
printed books as were the more extraor- 
dinary for their intrinsic value, or sought 
after for their rarity, and to give such 
account of them as might be interesting 
and useful both to the student and col- 
lector." While so engaged, some one to 



6 vols. 

whom he had entrusted valuable property 
in his custody, purloined many books, and 
absconded, whereupon the author was 
dismissed. Vol. II. treats of the Greek 
Books by Aldus, without a date, but 
before 1500, and a brief account of early 
printers is given. Vol. IV. comprises 
"miscellaneous remarks on Early Typo- 
graphy." 

Beltz (Julius). Orthographie der Worter von zweifelhafter Schreibart, 
wie sie gegenwaitig in der deutschen Sprache vorwiegend ge- 
brauchlich ist. Ein Handbiichlein zunachst fiir Lehrer, Schrift- 
steller, Correctoren und angehende Langensalza. 1867. 8vo. 
pp. iv. 96. 
A handbook of orthography for the compositor and printer's reader. 

Beniov^'^ski (Major). Improvements in Printing. London : 1854. 
i2mo. 



The author strove for years to carry 
out his logotype system in London, but 
entirely without success, although he 
was aided by considerable resources and 
by influential friends. His plant was put 
up to auction not many years since, but 
we believe it did not secure a buyer. 



He invented a composing-machine, which 
was tried at the office of Messrs. Clay, 
being pitted against a compositor, the 
latter gaining the victory for speed. The 
Major had a shop for several years in 
Bow-street, where he died, March 20th, 
1867, aged 66. 



Bensley (B.). Specimens of Types. Woking : 1842. 8vo. 

Bensley (Thomas). Azotes and Quei-ies, I. v. 233. 

A discussion having arisen as to the possession of Mr. Tylor. The Gentle- 
site of Dr. Johnson's house in Bolt-court, man's Magazine for 1819, part 1, p. 575, 
Fleet-street, Tee Bee says he is in a posi- gives an account of the fire, and refers to 
tion to assure the correspondent that Dr. the view of Dr. Johnson's house which 
Johnson'.s house was burnt down in iSig, appeared in the European Magazine in 
the premises having long previously been 1810. B. B. says that Bensley succeeded 
occupied by Thomas Bensley, the printer. Allen in business in 1783. Somewhere 
The house of Johnson's friend Allen, the about 1804 to 1807 Bensley purchased 
printer, was not destroyed by the fire ; both houses at a sale by auction, but it 
indeed, only one corner of it was injured, was about 1814 when he obtained posses- 
and it stands, with that exception, as .it sion, and appropriated the two houses to 
was built shortly after the great fire of his printing-office. It was there that 
London. Allen's house stands at the steam printing was first practised. Bens- 
head of Bolt-court ; Dr. Johnson's was ley occupied the premises till the fire in 
to the left. On the site of the latter was 1819. His eldest son survived him, and 
erected, after the fire, a spacious printing- succeeded to the business in 1820. He 
office, and both were then (1852) in the reconstructed the premises, but did not 



Bibliography of Printing. 45 

build on the site of Dr. Johnson's house, being to the left, at the head of Bolt- 
though a part of it has since been altered, court, approached through an iron gate 
The property remains (1852) in Bensley's and up a flight of stone steps, 
family. Tylor's office is described as 

Bentkowsky (F.). [Researches on the oldest books issued by J. 
Haller at Cracow. Warsaw.] 181 2. 8vo. In Polish. 

This work on the early press of Poland without a printer's name. III. Books 

is divided into the following classes : — with place and printer denominated, but 

I. Books printed without date, place of without date. _IV. Books having place 

impression, or name of printer. II. Books of impression, with the name of Haller as 

bearing date and place of impression, but printer, and with date. 

Bentley (Thomas). Verses to the Printing Press at Strawberry 
Hill. 
Twenty-eight lines on a quarto sheet. Mentioned by Lowndes, but not in the 
British Museum. Printed August 25, 1757, by Muntz, at the Strawberry Hill Press. 



See Strawberry Hill Press. 



Bepalingen omtrent den Boekhandel en Drukpers in Nederland. 
Bijeenverzameld door J. H. D. Munnik. Joure : 1853. 8vo. 

Bequignole (J. C). De Statu Typographias superiorum temporum 
ad hodiernum comparato Dissertatio. Halse Salicae : 1750. 4to. 

BfiRANGER (Pierre Jean de). Ma Biographic, ouvrage posthume, avec 
un Appendice par Paul Boiteaii. Paris : 1858. 8vo. 

Pierre Jean de Beranger, the celebrated in the printing-office of M. Laisnez, at 

French poet, was the son of a poor, im- Peronne, he published his first poems, the 

provident Parisian tailor, who was negli- success of which induced him soon after 

gent of his family, and lost in vain dreams to forsake his employment as a printer, 

of an illustrious ancestry. He was born Although he only spent two years of his 

in 1780, and died in 1857. At the age of life as a compositor, he was, however, 

about ten years he became tavern-boy to always pleased to acknowledge his con- 

an aunt, who kept a small cabaret in the nection with typography, and, when able, 

suburbs of Peronne. His pride rebelling was very ready with both advice and as- 

against this duty, he entered the work- sistance for a distressed "typo." Be- 

shop of a jeweller, where he did not learn ranger has described his own career thus 

much ; he then found a place as clerk to far in a single line : " Gargon d'auberge, 

a notary, and next, being still quite a imprimeur, et commis." His autobiogra- 

youth, he entered the employ of M. phy is full of interest. — 6"^^ Portrait given 

Laisnez. While working as a compositor on page 46. 

B^RARD (Auguste Simeon Louis). Essai bibliographique sur les edi- 
tions des Elzevirs les plus precieuses et les plus recherchees, pre- 
cede d'une notice sur ces imprimeurs celebres. Paris : 1822. 
8vo. pp. 302. Frontispiece of the Elzevir Arms. 

Only fifteen copies of this work were printed on carre velin, and ten on grand 
raisin velin. It was not issued for sale. 

Beraud (C). Code dela Presse, ou Recueil methodique des Lois et 
Reglements concernant les Imprimeurs en Lettres, les Fondeurs 
en caracteres d'imprimerie, les Imprimeurs et Dessinateurs litho- 
graphiques, les Libraires, Auteurs, Graveurs, Journalistes, Edi- 
teurs, Crieurs d'ecrits, Afficheurs, et les Delits de la Presse, etc., 
etc. Avec la Jurisprudence de la Cour de Cassation. Paris : 
1834. i6mo. 



Bibliography of Printing, 47 

Berceau de rimprimerie, ou Additions et Remarques sur le livre de 
Beughem, intitule : Incunabula Typographise. Portion of the 
Singularitts Historiques et Littiraires of J. Liron. Paris : 1 740. 
i2mo. Vol. IV., pp. 513-533- 

Bergellanus (Joannes Arnoldus). De Chalcographiae Inventione, 
Poema encomiasticum. Moguntise : 1541. 4to. 12 leaves. 

This is a poem containing 456 heroic Arnold de Bergel, was a corrector of the 

verses on the origin of printing, to which press. Marchand has reprinted his poem 

the author assigns the year 1450, and in- in page 21 et seq. of his " Histoire de 

dicates Strasburg as the locality of the I'lmprimerie." It is also to be found in 

first printer, Gutenberg, or at least as the Wolf's " Monumenta Typographica," i. 

place where he made his first attempts. 13, et seq., and in Daunou, "Analyse," 

He adds that Gutenberg worked more pp. 47, 48. It has also been reprinted by 

successfully at Mayence with the assist- Verderius, 1585 ; Beyerlinck and Tentzel, 

ance of Fust, and especially of Schoeffer, 1704 ; and Joannis (G. C.) Scriptorum 

who cut the matrices and cast letters Historiae Moguntenensi, 1727, folio, 
from them. The author of this book, 

Berger (K.). Vierte Sakularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunst. Ein Festdenkmal fiir Jedermann. Enthalt die Feier in 
Basel, Berlin, Braunschweig, Bremen, Carlsruhe, Christiania, 
Dresden, Frankfurt-am- Main, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Hannover, 
Heidelberg, Kopenhagen, Leipzig, Lorrach, Mainz, Strassburg, 
Stuttgart, und Philadelphia. Carlsruhe : 1840. 8vo. 

Gives an account of the different celebrations of the fourth centenary of the in- 
vention of typography, both in Europe and America. 

Berger-Levrault (Vve.) & Fils. Imprimeurs-libraires k Strasbourg. 
Notice. Strasbourg : 1867. 4to. 
Printed for the Exposition Universelle at Paris. 

. Imprimeurs-libraires k Strasbourg. Notice. Strasbourg : 

1863. 4to. 
Originally printed for the International Exhibition of London, 1862. 

Bergmann (Liborius). Kurze Nachrichten von rigischen Buch- 
druckern iiberhaupt und den Stadtbuchdruckern insbesondere, von 
der altesten bis auf die jet/ige Zeit. Riga: 1795. 4to. pp. 22, 
with an appendix of 12 pp., containing specimens of types then 
in use at Riga. 

A description of the introduction of printing into Riga, and a narrative of the 
lives of all the succeeding printers until its publication. 

Bericht, stenographischer, der Verhandlungen deutscher Buch- 
druckereibesitzer im Saale des " Casino zum Gutenberg" in Mainz 
am 15. August, 1869, bei der Griindung eines Vereins deutscher 
Buchdruckereibesitzer. Leipzig : 1869. 4to. 

An account of the transactions of a meeting of German master printers, held at 
Mayence in August, 1869, at which it was resolved to form a German Master 
Printers' Society. 

Bericht iiber die Nationaldruckerei in Lissabon, mit erklarendem 
Verzeichniss von den ausgestellten Producten auf der Weltausstel- 
lung in Wien, 1873. Lissabon : 1873. 8vo. 100 pp. 

An account, in German and French, of the history and management of the 
National Printing-office at Lisbon, and its products exhibited at Vienna. 



48 



Bibliography of Printing. 

Proeve van bewerking einer beschrijving 



Bericht van Uitgave en Proeve van bewerking einer beschrijving 
van boekdrukken en letter-gieten (by C. Ploos van Amstel) 
Amsterdam : 1766. 4to. pp. 39, with two plates. 

Bericht von Erfindung der Buch-Truckerey in Straszburg. Straszb. 
M. Carlen. 1640. 4to. 

Berjeau (J. Ph.). Biblia Paupenim, reproduced in facsimile from 
one of the copies in the British Museum, with an historical and 
bibliographical introduction. London : 1859. Folio, pp. 38. 
36 plates. 

The Introduction says : " Many biblio- and printed it ; who painted the whole of 
graphers in the last, as well as in the pre- its contents on the stained windows of the 
sent century, have mentioned or described Convent of Hirschau ; what artists imi- 
the 'Biblia Pauperum,' but they have tated, and sometimes copied it entirely, 
left so many questions undecided that in their compositions ; and, lastly, what 
much remains to be said on this remark- bibliographers have mentioned or de- 
able block-book ; for down to the present scribed it, raising various conjectures or 
time the author who compiled it, the theories upon its name, its object, its 
artist who designed the cuts, and the en- author, and the time of its publication, 
graver, are equally unknown, and even The conclusion is arrived at that Laurence 
the date of its publication is now more Coster was the engraver of the original 
than ever uncertain." M. Berjeau, there- edition; that the designs were by John 
fore, gives a short description of the book. Van Eyck ; and that the text was drawn 
and examines what evidence there is as up by Vincent de Beauvais, the author of 
to the writer and illustrator of the original the Speculum. 
manuscript, — who engraved it on wood 

8vo. pp. 42. No. I., January, 

of typographic errors, of mistakes, of ad- 
venturous hypotheses, and of extraordi- 
nary blunders, and " defigurant avec un 
sangfroid si barbare tous les noms etran- 
gers qui lui tombent sous la main." Only 
the two numbers above noted were issued. 

Le Bibliophile Illustre. London. 8vo. pp. 192. No. I., 

August, 1 86 1, and published monthly to July, 1862. Royal 8vo. 

*rhe prospectus of the first volume of 
this magazine stated that it was to con- 
sist of reviews of rare and curious books, 
with facsimiles engraved on wood or on 
metal, in relief; of short notices of cele- 
brated printers, with their marks ; of en- 
gravings and descriptions of ancient and 

Le Bibliophile. Revue mensuelle illustree des livres rares et 

cui-ieux, des gravures anciennes, et des manuscrits. Illustre. Vol. 
II. (No, 13, January, 1863, to No. 25, January, 1865.) Royal 
8vo. London : 1867. 



Le Bibliomane. London. 

1861 ; No. II., July, 1861. 
" Une sorte de recueil destine a nous 
faire connaitre les tresors bibliographiques 
de la litterature anglaise." — Preface. 
In the same, mention is made of Sotheby's 
" Principia Typographica," in which it is 
said the author has piled a Pelion on Ossa 



modern bookbinding ; of rectifications of 
errors of collation, &c., in bibliographic 
works ; and the correspondence of book- 
lovers and collectors everywhere. The 
engravings as well as the text are by the 
same hand. 



The prospectus of the second volume 
of this monthly review stated that it was 
intended to form a supplement to the 
"Repertoire Bibliographique," by L. 
Hain, in regard to the books printed in 
the fifteenth century ; to the Catalogue 
of Books on vellum by Van Praet ; to 
give facsimiles of the types used by all 



the known and unknown printers of the 
fifteenth century, as well as of engravings, 
titles, printers' marks, and bookbinders' 
designs ; and a special bibliography of 
works relative to the occult sciences and 
to freemasonry. The magazine was dis- 
continued at the end of the second 
volume. 



B ihlio^i!;raphy of Printing. ^9 

BerjeAU (J. Ph.). Canticum Canticorum, reproduced in facsimile 
from the Scriverius copy in the British Musemii, with an histori- 
cal and bibliographical introduction. London : i860. Folio, 
pp. 36, 16 pages of plates. 
The Introduction gives an account of Church, or whether it is simply a love- 
the canonical book known as the Can- song to be sung at a bridal feast. The 
tides, or Song of Solomon, m-.d a di-^- author proceeds to describe the celebrated 
sertation upon the meaning of it ; whether block-book, and traces up its history, 
— as now generally received — it contains appending the opinions of paleotypo- 
mystical references to Christ and the graphers upon it. 

Catalogue Illustre des Livres xylographiques. Londres : 1865. 

Svo. pp. viii. 116. 
Onlj' 105 copies printed. This was compiled to supply the want then existing of a 
complete catalogue of the Block-books. It contains many reproductions in facsimile 
of the most characteristic features of the works of which it treats. 

Early Dutch, German, and English Printers' Marks. London : 

1866. Svo. 
Consists of facsimile reproductions of now quite out of print, but the proprietors 

early printers' marks. At the end there of this work have acquired from M. Ber- 

are alphabetical lists of printers, of towns, jeau nearly the whole of the blocks of the 

and of emblems ; a list of books contain- printers' marks contained in his book, and 

ing notices of printers ; and a list of several more besides, all of which will be 

mottoes of printers. Only 250 copies found in these pages, together with many 

were printed ; the Work being stated to other illustrations constituting important 

be finished March, 1869. There are 100 materials towards the yet unwritten 

designs, and 36 pp. of letterpress. It is History of Printing. 

Geschiedenis van het heylighe Cruys ; or. History of the Holy 

Cross. Reproduced in facsimile from the original edition printed 
by J. Veldener in 1483. London : 1863. 4to., with xii. and 
60 pages of preliminary matter. 

The preface gives an account of Veldener's typographical labours in Holland, and 
of the famous block-book which is here reproduced by wood-engraving. 

Mirabilia Romse (Reproduction of the Block-Book so called). 

S. I. et a. 

The "Mirabilia Romse," or the Won- class of block-books, and an evidence that 

ders of Rome, was a kind of illustrated the works reproduced in xylography were 

guide-book for the use of visitors to the not all of a theological or mystical cha- 

shrines of ancient Rome. It is especially racter. 
interesting as the type of the popular 

Speculum Humanx Salvationis : le plus ancien monument de la 

xylographie et de la typographic reunies. Reproduit en facsimile, 
avec Introduction historique et bibliographique. Londres : 1 86 1. 
4to. pp. Ixxii. 33. 

The Introduction has reference to the what order were the four Costerian edi- 

following questions: — i. Who was the tions of the Speculum produced? 5. 

author of the Speculum? 2. Who was Conclusion. The writer is, as is well 

the engraver of the Speculum ? 3. Who known, a stout adherent of the Haarlem 

was the printer of the Speculum ? 4. In claims. 

See Periodical Publications, Bookworm, and Ottley. 



Berlin. Katalog der Bibliothek des Yereins Berliner Buchdrucker und 
Schriftgiesser gegrlindet September, 1863. Berlin : 1872. Svo. 
H 



50 Bibliography of Printing, 

pp. 92. Erster Nachtrag des Katalogs, &c. Berlin : 1875. 

8vo. pp. 93-132 and viii. 
The above is an excellently compiled catalogue of the library of the Printers' 
Union at Berlin. The typographical literature, 136 numbers, occupies 13 pp. of the 
catalogue, and (215 numbers) 18 pages of the supplement. 

Berlin. Verzeichniss von Incunabeln, Aldinen, Etiennen, Elzevieren 
und andern werthvollen Werken, welche in der k. Bibliothek ver- 
kauft werden sollen. Berlin: 1851. 8vo. pp. 126. 

Bernard (Auguste Joseph). Antoine Vitre et les Caracteres orientaux 
de la Bible Polyglotte de Paris. Origine et vicissitudes des pre- 
miers caracteres orientaux introduits en France, avec un specimen 
de ces caracteres. Paris : 1857. 8vo. 

Les Estienne, et les types grecs de Fran9ois Ter, complement 

des annales Stephaniennes, renfermant I'histoire complete des types 
royaux, enrichie d'un specimen de ces caracteres, et suivie d'une 
notice historique sur les premieres impressions grecques. Paris : 
1856. 8vo. pp. 72. 
The first part of this work is stated to have been extracted from the Bulletin de la 

Societe de Protestantisme Franqaise, 4 an., ch. 4 and 5. 

Les Estiennes. 

Article in the " Biographic Generale," a few copies having been separately struck off. 
Geofroy Tory, peintre et graveur, premier imprimeur royal, 



reformateur de I'orthographe et de la typographic sous Fran9ois 

ler. Paris : 1 85 7. 8vo, pp. xvi. 246 ; 14 woodcuts in the text. 

This is the first edition of this celebrated of French printers, as well as a king's 

work. It is dedicated to Ambroise printer, to which class M. Didot belonged. 

Firmin-Didot, who defrayed the expense The author mentions that he was for- 

of its publication, desiring to make known merly an entployd in the Didot printing 

the history of one of the most illustrious establishment. 

Geofroy Tory, peintre-graveur, premier imprimeur royal, re- 



formateur de I'orthographe et de I'imprimerie sous Francois ler. 
Deuxieme edition, entierement refondue. Paris : 186 15. Royal 
8vo. 

This is an elegantly printed volume gravings by Tory and his pupils, and the 

from the printing-office of M. Jouaust, trade-marks of publishers and printers 

rue St. Honore, Paris. It is thus di- signed with the cross of Lorraine. 'J'here 

vided; — i. Biography; 2. Bibliography; are also given the verses in honour of 

3. Iconography ; with an appendix in- Tory, a note on his printing-offices, on 

eluding a list of royal printers who prac- his introduction of the apostrophe, the 

tised in Paris from 1530 to 1600. The accent, and the cedilla in the literature 

general contents include an account of and printing of France, and memoranda 

the works written or annotated by Tory, on bookbinders and royal libraries. Tory 

the Books of Hours edited by him, his is worthy of remembrance, not merely as 

works printed for King Francis I., and an eminent printer, but as the writer of 

the other works printed by Tory for the_/fr.y/ technicnl book on printing that 

various patrons. Then follow a descrip- was ever published. This was the book 

tion of the manuscripts illuminated by called Champfleury. See ToRV. 
Tory, the works ornamented with en- 

Histoire de I'imprimerie Royale du Louvre. Paris ; 1867. 

Royal 8vo. 

The contents include: An historical XIII.; (3) the establishment of the Royal 

;*m:/jof(i),the Greek types of Francis I.; Printing-office of the Louvre, and the 

(2) the Oriental characters of Louis Roman characters of Louis XIV. ; a 



Bibliography of Printing 



51 



chronological catalogue of printed books, 1716 to 1736, the inventory of its con- 

and a supplement of those with uncertain tents, with a list of all its founts, made 

dates ; and an appendix containing the in 1691 and in 1791, and a list of its di- 

expenses of the Royal Printing-office from rectors. 

Bernard (Auguste Joseph). Historique de la Proposition clu Con- 
gres Typographique. [Paris : 1855.] 8vo. 

Notice historique sur I'lmprimerie Nationale. Paris : 1848. 



i6mo. 

This little work is dedicated to Beran- 
ger. Its contents are: i. Origin of the 
National Printing-office, formerly known 
as the Royal Printing-office ; 2. History 
of the office up to the Revolution of 1789 ; 
3. Reforms in the office, and its esta- 
blishment as a Government printing- 



office ; 4. Its history under the Republic, 
the Empire, the Restoration and the 
Government of Louis-Philippe ; 5. Its 
condition in 1848. There is an appendix 
containing the rules of the institution and 
the salaries of its officers, a list of its 
foreign types, &c. 



— De rOrigine et des Debuts de I'lmprimerie en Europe. 2 vols. 
Paris : 1853. 8vo. Part I., pp. xvi. 316, 13 plates of facsimiles ; 
Part II., pp. iv. 468. 



The first part treats of the invention 
and of the inventors of typography, chap- 
ters being devoted to — i. The first pro- 
ducts of printing ; 2. Laurence Coster 
and his school ; 3. J. Gutenberg at 
Strasburg ; 4. Gutenberg at Mayence ; 
5. Fust and Schceffer ; 6. SchoefTer and 
Conrad Fust. The second part treats of 
the spread of printing, and the first pro- 
fessors of the art in Germany, Italy, 
France, England, and Spain. The plates 
consist of facsimiles of original documents 
and of types taken chiefly from the 
originals in the " Bibliotheque Nationale," 
Paris. This is the principal work of its 
author, and is characterized by great 
clearness and precision. A review of the 
book, by M. Charavay, appeared in 
No. 136 of L' hnpriinerie (Paris). In 



the library of M. A. de Vries, of Haerlem, 
is a copy to which the following pieces 
are added : — 

1. A. Bernard, Avis aux possesseurs de 

ce livre, avec de tables, corrections, 
et additions. 

2. Prospectus et annorice de cet ouvrage, 

2 pieces. 

3. A. Bernard, Lettre au Biilletht dii 

Bibliophile Beige du 10 Juin, 1853, 
contre une reclamation de M. Brunet. 

4. A. Firmin-Didot, Critique de I'ouvrage 

de M. Bernard dans rAthencEutn 
Frangaise du 9 Juillet, 1853. 

5. A. Bernard, Proposition d'un Congres 

typogr. a tenir a Paris en 1855. 

6. ■ Historique de la proposition 

du Congres typogr. 



— Voyages Typographico-Archeologiques en Allemagne, en Bel- 
gique, en Hollande, en Angleierre, &c. Bruxelles : 1853. 8vo. 
pp. 48. 



Only 100 copies separately printed, 
from the Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige, 
2nd series, vol. i. This is an account 
of two typographico-bibliographical ex- 
cursions in the west of Europe, and 
especially on the borders of the Rhine, 
undertaken by the author with the view 
of collecting materials for his History of 
the Origin of Printing. He does not in- 
trude his impressions of the countries and 
people visited, but confines himself to 
facts relative to printing or bibliography 
— the principal object of his peregrina- 
tions. He first of all visited the British 
Museum, but was prevented from seeing 
the libraries of Lord Spencer and Mr. 



Perkins. Then he went to Lille, Brus- 
sels, Antwerp (he gives a good account 
of the Plantin printing-office), Rotterdam, 
Mayence, Strasbourg, Bale, and Lyons. 
The late Auguste Joseph Bernard was 
born at Montbrison, France, January i, 
1811. He was the son of a printer who 
carried on business in his native town, 
and he followed his father's profession. 
He devoted all his leisure moments to 
study in the libraries of the locality, and 
in 1835 produced the " Histoire de Forez." 
He wrote several works on local history 
and topography, but was better known as 
a bibliographer and a contributor to the 
literature of typography. 



5 2 Bibliography of Frifiting. 

Bernardi (Jacopo). Michael Manzolo e I'Arte della Stampa nel 
Secolo XV. in Treviso. In " L' Arte della Stampa. " Firenze : 
1870. 4to. 

Vita di Giambattista Bodoni. Saluzzo : 1872. 8vo. 

Zenghelltni (Antonio) e Valsecchi (Antonio). Intorno a 

Panfdo Castaldi da Feltre e alia invcnzione di caratteri niobili per 
la vStampa, memoria e dissertazione. Milano : 1866. 4to. 

A dissertation on the alleged introduction into Italy of type-printing by Castaldi 
of Feltre, 

Berner (F.). Die Druckerei in ihrem ganzen Umfange. 2 vols. 
Stuttgart: 1853. i6ino. 

Bernhart (J. B.). Das Druckjahres der Kosmographie des Ptole- 
maeus 1462 ; Namen der Buchdrucker des Joannis de Turrecre- 
mata explanatio in Psalterium Cracis impressa. Schreiberziige 
im Theuerdank 1517. Kennzeichen und Alter von Gutenberg 
and Faust in Mainz gedruckter lateinischen Bibel. [Miinchen : 
1804-5]. 8vo. 

Bernhart (Matthias). Maine Ansicht von der Geschichte der Entste- 
hung, Ausbildung und Verbreitung der Buchdnickerkunst. Bey 
Veranlassung des neu-entdeckten Kalenders, " ein Manung der 
Cristenheit widder die Durken," fiir das Jahr 1455. Miinchen : 
1807. 8vo. pp. 46. 

Comprises a history of the invention and development of typography, with special 
reference to a recently discovered printed almanac for the year 1455. 

Bernstorf (J. J.). Oratio .de egregiis Typographioe Commodis. 
Helmstadii: 1721. 4to. 

Berri (D. G.). The Art of Printing. Second edition. London : 
1865. Sm. 8vo. pp. 64. 
A guide, intended for the use of mere amateurs. 

Berthiaud. Nouveau Manuel complet de I'lmprimeur en taille- 
douce, redige par Boitard. Orne de planches. Paris : 1837. 
24mo. 

Bertoletto (A.). — &^ Cennini. 

Bertrand-QuinQUet. Traite de rimprimerie. Paris : an VII. 
[1799]* 4^0- PP- 288, with 3 preliminary leaves and 10 plates. 

Dedicated to P. Didot, "Premier Im- 180S, is only remembered by this work, 

primeur de 1' Europe." Twenty pages which is a very ingenious and well- written 

are devoted to the history of printing, treatise on the origin, progress, and 

the remainder of the book being of a mechanism of printing, 
practical nature. Bertrand, who died in 

Beschluesse der ersten National-Buchdrucker-Versammlung zu 
Mainz, am ii,, 12., 13., und 14. Juni, 1848. Frankfurt-am-Main : 
1848. 8vo. 

Resolutions passed at the first general meeting of working printers held at 
Mayence in June, 1848. 



Bibliography of Printing. * 53 

Beschreibung der elastischen Auftrage-Walzen in den Buchdrucke- 
reien, deren Anfertigung, etc. Leipzig : 1823. 8vo., 2 litho- 
graphic plates. 
A treatise on the mode of making the then newly-invented printing-roller com- 
position. 

Beschreibung der Feier des vierten Sacular-Festes der Erfindung der 
Buchdruckerkunst in der Officin von L. W. Krause. Am 21. 
Juli, 1840. Berlin : 1840, i6mo. 

An account of how the fourth centenary of the invention of printing was cele- 
brated at the printing-office of L. W. Krause, in Berlin. 

Beschreibung des vierten Sacularfestes der Erfindung der Buch- 
druckerkunst, gefeiert in der Offizin von Julius Sittenield, Berlin : 
am 28. Juni, 1840, 8vo. 

An account of the fourth centenary of the invention of typography, as celebrated 
at J. Sittenfeld's printing-office, at Berlin. 

Beschreibung der vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buch- 
druckerkunst, wie dieselbe den 24., 25., 26. Juni in Leipzig, 1840, 
gefeiert wurde. Leipzig. 8vo. Plate. 

An account of the fourth centenary celebration at Leipsic of the invention of 
printing. 

Beschreibung *^ollstandige, und Sammlung alles dessen, viras bey 
dem den 29ten Junii, 1740, zu Coburg, wegen der vor drey hun- 
dert Jahren erfundenen edlen Buchdruckerkunst gefeierten Jubilseo, 
vorgefallen und abgehandelt worden. Coburg : 1740. 8vo. 

An account of the third centenary celebration of the invention of typography 
in Coburg. 

Beschrijving, Korte, der Boeken door Lour. Jansz. Koster, te 
Haarlem, tusschen de jaren 1420 en 1440 gedrukt ; alsmede van 
eenige merkwaardigheden tot de geschiedenis van L. J. Koster 
betrekkelijk, bij gelegenheid van het vierde eeuw-feest van de 
uitvinding der boekdrukkunst, in de kerk der doopsgezinde 
gemeente aldaar ten toon gesteld op den 10 en 11 Julij, 1823. 
8vo. 

A short description of the books printed by Coster, at Haerlem, between the 
years 1420 and 1440, which were exhibited in the church of the Baptist Commune at 
Haerlem on the occasion of the fourth centenary of the invention of printing. 

Beschrijving, Korte en beknopte, der hedendaagsche Boekdrukkerye. 

Haarlem : 1780, 8vo. 
A handbook of typography. 
Besley (R.), General Specimen of Printing Types. London : 1847. 

4to. Supplementary Sheets. 1848. 4to. 

Besley & Co. (R,). New Specimens of Mathematical Combina- 
tion Borders and other Typographical Ornaments. London : no 
date. 4to. 

See Reed & Fox. 

Mr. Alderman Robert Besley died came to London in his youth, and en- 
on the 18th December, 1876, aged 83 tered the service of the celebrated Fan- 
years. He was a native of Exeter, but street Type-foundry. He travelled for 



54 Bibliography of Printing. 

the foundry for some years, and after- by Mr. Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) 
wards became a partner, the house being Reed, whose partner Mr. Fox then be- 
long known as Thorogood & Besley. He came ; and in 1875 Mr. Andrew Holmes 
was a Justice of the Peace, and had filled Reed also was admitted into the firm, 
the office of Lord Mayor of London. whose style was then, and still remains, 
Mr. B. Fox was a practical type- Reed & Fox. Mr. Fox died at his 
founder, having originally been in the residence (19, Highbury New Park) on 
service of the firm as their chief punch- the 15th January, 1877, of heart disease, 
cutter. He became a partner of the late aged 05 years ; thus surviving Mr. Alder- 
Mr. Alderman Robert Besley in the year man Besley, his late partner, only four 
1849. When, in 1861, that gentleman weeks. Mr. Fox deservedly enjoyed a 
retired from business, he was succeeded very high reputation as a punch-cutter. 

Besnard (J, ). Epreuves des Vignettes et Fleurons polytypes, graves 
sur cuivres en tallies de relief, a I'usage de I'imprimerie. Paris : 
1 812. Folio. 

Besoldus (Christ.). IIENTAS Dissertationum Philologicarum .... 
III. De Inventione Typographise. Tubingae : 1620. 4to. 

Reprinted in Wolf's " Monumenta Christopher Besoldus is of opinion that we 

Typographica," Part I., pp. 171-208. are not indebted to the Chinese for the 

This eminent lawyer and law professor discovery of typography, as they only 

was born at Tubingen, 1577, and died practise block-printing— the Germans of 

1638. A list of the works he published the fifteenth century having no commu- 

is to be found in Saxii Otiomasticjim, nication with that secluded people. He 

and other authors, but it is incomplete, does not decide upon the respective 

and the missing titles are given in a short claims of Strasbnrg, Mayence, and 

notice in the Bookworm, June, 1870. Haarlem. 

Besso (B.). Le grandi Invenzione Antiche e Moderne. Vol. i. 
part I, ** La Stampa." Milano : 1870. 4to. 

Bettoni (Nicolo). Lettere Tipografiche da Milano. Milano : 1821. 
8vo. 

■ Memorie biografiche di un Tipografo Italian©. Parigi : 1836. 

8vo. The continuation of this work was issued in French : Me- 

moires Biographiques d'un Typographe Italien. Paris : 1845. 8vo. 

Saggio di Guerra Tipografico, lettera alia vedova Pomba. 

Milano: 1820. 8vo. 

Beughem (C. a). Incunabula Typographiae, sive Catalogus Librorum 
Scriptorumque proximis ab inventione typographise annis, usque 
ad annum Christi 1500 inclusive, in quavis lingua editorum : 
opusculum saepius expetitum, notisque historicis, chronologicis et 
criticis intennixtum. Amstelodami : 1688. i2mo. 

Bewick (Thomas). This celebrated wood-engraver was bom August 
12, 1753, and died Nov. 8, 1828. He has been styled "the 
Father of Modern Wood-Engraving," for after the art had been 
supplanted by copperplate-engraving in all good publications, and 
had fallen into such a state of decay that only the rudest and 
roughest forms of woodcuts were produced, he restored it to more 
than its pristine glory. In early life he displayed great skill in 
drawing, which led to his choice of copperplate-engraving as a 
business, and at the age of fourteen he was bound apprentice to 
Mr. Ralph Beilby, a copperplate-engraver. Some time after- 
wards, Dr. Charles Hutton, the mathematician, who desired 



Bibliography of Priiiting, 



55 



copperplates to illustrate a book on Mensuration, was advised by 
Mr. Beilby to .employ woodcuts instead. This advice being 
taken, the mathematical illustrations were executed in wood 




THOMAS BEWICK. 



so satisfactorily by Bewick, that he directed his chief atten- 
tion ever afterwards to the long-neglected art of wood- 
engraving. After his apprenticeship had expired, Bewick was 
made a partner in his master's business, and his brother John 



56 Bibliography of Frifiting. 

became their apprentice. The publication of an edition of Gay's 
Fables afforded an opportunity to the Bewicks for displaying 
their talents in the higher branches, of wood-engraving. One of 
these, the "Old Hound," obtained the premium offered by the 
Society of Arts in 1775 for the best specimens of wood-engraving. 
The publication of the "History of Quadrupeds," which, after 
being carefully prepared, made its appearance in 1790, was the 
means of introducing Bewick to a gentleman who possessed a 
museum remarkable for the number and variety of its specimens, 
living and dead, and of these Bewick was invited to make draw- 
ings, which tended greatly to enrich all his subsequent publica- 




BEWICK S BIRTHPLACE. 



tions. His pictorial embellishments exhibit boldness of design, 
variety and exactness of attitude, correctness of drawing, and dis- 
crimination of general character. A spirit of life and animation 
pervades every figure, and thus a lively idea of each different 
animal is conveyed. A great and unexpected charm was attached 
to this History of Quadrupeds, — this was the profusion of vignettes 
and tail-pieces with which the whole volume was adorned. These 
exhibited remarkable delicacy of execution, inventive genius, and 
a skill in catching the very lineaments in which the peculiar expres- 
sion of the species resides, such as was never before equalled. Under 
the auspices of William Bulmer, of the Shakespeare Press, the 
Bewicks embellished Goldsmith's "Descried Village," Parnell's 



BihliograpJiy of Printing. 



57 



*' Hermit," and Somerville's " The Chase," all of which met with 
success. In 1797 appeared the first volume of the " History of 
British Birds," comprising the land-birds, the letterpress being fur- 
nished by Mr. Beilby. Before the publication of the second volume 
on British Water-birds, a separation of interests took place, so 
that its compilation and completion devolved on Bewick, who was 
assisted by a literary friend. In 18 18 he published the Fables of 
^sop, and two or three years afterwards a volume of Select 




BEWICK S WORKSHOP. 



Fables. The number of blocks engraved by the Bewicks is almost 
inconceivable, and it is impossible to particularize here the various 
works which were embellished by Thomas Bewick and his pupils, 
of whom he had a continued succession. A list of Bewick's 
works, with specimens of many of them, will be found in "The 
Bewick Collector," by the late Rev. T. Hugo. Some of his pupils 
have done him great honour, and contributed to carry the art of 
wood-engraving to a state of perfection at which he himself confessed 
he never supposed it was capable of arriving. We append several 



58 Bibliography of Printing. 

interesting memorials of Bewick, reproduced from Jackson and 
Chatto's "Wood Engraving," by the kind permission of Messrs. 
Chatto & Windus. Tlie first is a picture of Bewick's birthplace, 
■ a humble cottage at Cherry Burn, in the county of Northumber- 
land, but on the south side of the Tyne, about twelve miles west- 
vi'ard of Newcastle. His father rented a small colliery at Mickley 
Bank, in the neighbourhood of his dwelling, and it is said that, 
when a boy, the future wood-engraver sometimes worked in the 
pit. We take from the same admirable work a view of Bewick's 
workshop, in St. Nicholas's Churchyard, Newcastle. "The 
upper room, the two windows of which are seen in the roof, was 
that in which he worked in the latter years of his life. In this 
shop he engraved the cuts which will perpetuate his name, and 
there, for upwards of fifty years, was he accustomed to sit, steadily 
and cheerfully pursuing the labour that he loved. He used always 
to work with his hat on, and when any gentleman or nobleman 
called upon him, he only removed it for a moment on his first 
entering. He used frequently to whistle when at work, and he 
was seldom without a large quid of tobacco in his mouth. The 
prominence occasioned by the quid, which he kept between his 
under-lip and his teeth, and not in his cheek, is indicated in most 
of his portraits." There is a good bust of Bewick, by Bailey, in 
the library of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle. 
The best engraved portrait is said to be that of Burnet, after a 
painting by Ramsay. The portrait here given is from Jackson 
and Chatto, who describe it as "another attempt to perpetuate 
the likeness of one to whom the art owes so much." 

Bewick (T. & J.). A Descriptive and Critical Catalogue of Works 
illustrated by Thomas and John Bewick, wood-engravers, of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; with an appendix of their miscellaneous 
engravings, brief sketches of their lives, and notices of the prin- 
cipal pupils of Thomas Bewick. London : 1851. Imp. 8vo. 
PP- 79- 

This catalogue was compiled by the late John Gray Bell, a bookseller and inde- 
fatigable collector of the works of the Bewicks. He for some time had a shop in 
Covent Garden, whence he removed to Manchester. 

Bewijzen, Geloofwaardige, dat de Boekdrukkunst te Haarlem is uitge- 
vonden. Midd. : 1806. i2mo. 

Beyer (C). Praktisches Handbiichlein der Steindruckerei. Miin- 
chen : 1863. i6mo., 7 plates. 

A practical handbook of lithography. 

Beyschlag (D. E.). Beytrage sur Kunstgeschichte der Rcichstadt 
Nordlingen. 7 parts. Nordlingen : 1 798-1801. 8vo. 

Part I. treats on letter- cutting ; II., on letter-cutting and book -printing ; III., on 
book-printing and book-selling ; IV. and V., on book -binding, paper, and the art of 
coining ; VI. and VII., on the art of coining. 



Bibliography of Printing. 5 9 

Beyschlag (F. J.). Spicilegium ad Zeltneri vitam J. Luftii. Portion 
of his Sylloge Variormn Opusculorum. Halae Suevor. : 1729. 
8vo. Vol. I. pp. 369-445. 

Hans Luft, Zeltner's life of whom is the subject of this article, was the printer o 
most of Martin Luther's original works, and of his translation of the Bible. 

Beytrag, Magdeburgischer, zum Lobe Gottes wegen der erfundenen 
Buchdruckerkunst. Magdeburg: 1 640. 4to. 

The literal rendering of the title in English is, "A Magdeburg contribution to the 
praise of God, because of the invention of Typography." 

Beytrag, Weimarischer, zu feyerlicher Begehung des dritten hundert- 
jahrigen Jubel-Festes eiiier wohlloblichen Buchdrucker-Kunst. 
Weimar : 1 740. 8vo. 

An account of the third centenary cele- druckerey " and Wolffg. Adolph Schron's 

bration, at Weimar, of the invention of " Kurtzer Entwurff der Historic von der 

typography, included in which are : Jacob Hoch - Fiirstlich Sachsen - Weimarischen 

Carpov's " Vergleichung der Kunst in Hof-Buchdruckerey." 
Erfinding des Schreibens und der Buch- 

BiANCHi (Isidoro). Sulle Tipografie Ebraiche di Cremona nel Secolo 
XVI. Col Ragguaglio di un Salterio Ebraico stampato in detta 
Citta nel secolo medesimo, dissertazione storico-critica. Cremona : 
1807. 8vo. pp. viii. 56. 

A Treatise on the Hebrew Typography of Cremona in the i6th Century, with a 
review of a Hebrew Psalter printed in that city in the same century. 

BiANCHi (T, X.). Notice sur le premier Ouvrage d' Anatomic et de 
Medecine imprime en Turc a Constantinople en 1820, suivie du 
catalogue des livres Tares, Arabes et Persans imprimes a Con- 
stantinople depuis I'introduction de I'imprimerie en 1726-27 
jusqu'en 1820. Paris : 1821. 8vo. 
The latter list comprises 68 articles. 

BiANCHiNi (G.). Apologia de le Stampe d'lialia, scritta in una let- 
tera al Signor Giovanni Casotti. In " Raccolta d'Opusculi scienti- 
fici filologici." Vol. II. pp. 89-173. Venezia : 1729. i2mo. 
A vindication of Italian typography, in the form of a letter to Sig. G. Casotti. 

BiBLiA Pauperum nach dem Original in der Lyceumsbibliothek zu 
Constanz, herausg. von Laib und Schwarz. Zurich : 1867. Folio. 

Beschrijving van een nieuwlings ontdekt exemplar van de 

Biblia Pauperum en de Ars Moriendi. Amsterdam : 1839. 8vo. 

A description of a copy of the celebra- Amsterdam, produced at his sale ^25. 

ted Block-book now known as the "Biblia Another reproduction of the "Biblia 

Pauperum," which, with a copy of that Pauperum " is described under the name 

called the "Ars Moriendi," belonging of Berjeau (q. v.). 
to the late D. Groebe, bookseller, of 

BiBLiOTHECA antiqua Vindobonensis Civica, seu Catalogus Librorum 
antiquorum cum manuscriptorum tum ab inventa Typographia ad 
annum 1 560 typis excusorum. Viennx-Austriac : 1750. 4to. 
A catalogue of the early printed books in the Vienna City Library. 



6o Bibliography of Printing. 

BiBLiOTHECA instructissima, quern illustris quondam Comes de Palm 
collegerat particula, monumentorum quiie in Bibliotheca extant, 
typographicorum, sive librorum sa^c. XV. editorum selectum, etc. 
\x\. y ournal de la Litteratiire Etrangcre, 1812, p. 517. 

A list of typographical monuments of the fifteenth century, in the library col- 
lected by the Count de Palm. 

BiHLiOTHfeQVE des Avthevrs, qvi ont escript I'Histoire et Typographie 
de la France, divisee en devx parties, selon Tordre des temps et 
des matieres. Paris : i6i8. 8vo. pp. 236. 
The allusions to typography are regarded as curious and valuable. 

Bi DWELL (George H.). Printer's New Handbook: a treatise on the 
imposition of forms, embracing a system of rules and principles 
for laying the pages, applicable to all forms, with instructions for 
making margin and register, turning and folding the sheets, &c., 
and diagrams of all the standard forms, showing their relation to 
each other, with explanations of their variations and transposi- 
tions ; also tables of signatures, &c., useful to compositors, press- 
men, and publishers. New York : 1866. i8mo. pp. no. 

Printer's New Handbook. A treatise on the Imposition of 

Forms, with Tables of Signatures, &c. New York: 1875. i8mo. 
pp. 118. 

This was first read as a paper by masters of the art, are copious In 

before the New York Typographical diagrams of almost every conceivable 

Society and Printers of New Vork in kind of imposition then in use ; but 

1865, and afterwards published. 'J'he the novice will turn over their leaves 

second edition comprises a few slight in vain for an exposition of the prin- 

alterations and additions. The treatise ciples on which all impositions are 

embraces a system of rules and principles founded. Mr. Bidwell begins his work 

for laying pages, applicable to all forms ; with an explanation of technical terms 

and diagrams of all the standard forms, and the principles of imposition, as pre- 

with exp'anatlons of their variations and sented in a simple form of four pages, 

transpositions. Also tables of signatures, From this diagram of four pages, he 

showing the proper signatures and signa- ascends to octavos, duodecimos, up to 

ture pages in all forms of book-work, the highest possible forms, showing the 

with the quantity and sizes of paper ne- analogy pervading all, and the simpli- 

cessary for any book, table of tokens of city of method, even In the largest 

press-work, &c. It is the most exhaust- forms. Each diagram Is accompanied 

ive, though not the first book of the by explanations, interspersed with direc- 

kind that has attempted to explain tions and suggestions concerning the 

the reason why pages should be laid In making of margin, the most approved 

certain positions. " Savage's Dictionary" methods of folding, and the relative ad- 

and " Hansard's Typographia," written vantages of dlflferent kinds of impositbii. 

The Prompt Computer, for the use of Book, Newspaper, and 

Job Printers, in Computing Earnings of Employes. New York : 
1875. Royal 8vo. pp. 80. 
The author in his explanatory preface measure from 14 ems up to 70 ems 
says: "The book comprises six series in a line, by gradations of one em, and 
of tables, viz.- ist. Tables of Measure- from one line to 3,600 lines, rt-ckonlng by 
ments ; 2nd. Tables of Weekly Wages ; single lines up to 100 lines, and by hun- 
3rd. Tables of Hourly Wages ; 4th. dreds above 100 up to 3,600 lines. No 
Prices per 1,000 ems ; 5th. Prices per more than the addition of two numbers 
j)age ; 6th. Make-up. 'J'hc measure- is necessary in any case within the limits 
nicnts show the number of ems in any of the tables ; and as the number of ems 



Bibliography of Prhitin^ 



61 



given above 100 lines is always even 
hundreds, the combination, when neces- 
sary, may readily be made. As an ex- 
ample, say you have 1,879 lines 27 ems 
wide ; 1,800 lines is 48,600 ems, and 79 
lines 2,133, making 50,733. The tables 
of weekly wages embrace fifty-two dif- 
ferent rates, and range from $3 to §45 per 
week, by gradations of 50 cents per week 
up to §12, and of §1 per week above $12 ; 
and by hours from a quarter of an hour 
to 120 hours. The tables of hourly 
wages embrace fifty-two different rates, 
and range from 11 cents to 74 cents per 
hour, by gradations of one cent per hour ; 
and by hours from a quarter of an hour 
to 120 hours. The tables of prices per 
1,000 ems embrace seventy-five different 
rates, and range from 20 cents to 61, by 



gradations of one cent up to 88 cents and 
of two cents above 88 cents ; and from 
the smallest fraction of a thousand under 
each price to 99,000 ems, or to 100,000 
nicluding the fractional parts. The tables 
of prices per page embrace 208 different 
rates, and range from 13 cents to §2.20 
by gradations of one cent per page ; and 
from one-eighth of a page to 50 by single 
pages, and by fives above 50 to no pages, 
in the lower rates ; from one-eighth to 62 
pages in the medium rates ; and from 
one-sixteenth to 54 pages in the higher 
rates. The prices of make-up embrace 
twenty-six different rates, and range from 
4 cents to 29 cents, by gradations of one 
cent per page : and by single pages 
from I to 100, and above 100 by tens 
to 360." 



EiDWEix (George H.), Treatise on the Imposition of Forms. 
York : 1866. i2mo. 



New 



BiGNAN (A.). Epitre a quelques ennemis des Lmnieres, sur la 
Decouverte de I'lmprimerie, qui a obtenu X Accessit au Jugement 
de I'Academie Frangaise, dans la seance publique du 25 Aoiit, 
1829. Paris : 1829, 8vo. pp. 16. In verse. 

BiLDERHEFTE. — See Lempertz. 

BiLLiG (J, C. G.). Guttenberg-Lieder. Weih-Gabe zur vierten Sacu- 
larfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst (am 24. bis 26. Juni, 
1840). Warburg : 1840. 8vo. 



-Binder (E.) and Rohlacher (C). 
gen : 1851. 4to. 



Der Steiniiberdruck. Meinin- 



Binger. Glyphographie uit het Etablissement van M. H. Binger. 
Amsterdam, (1854) 4to. pp. 17. 

• An account of the Glyphographie process as practised at Binger's establishment at 
Amsterdam, with numerous specimens of the work produced. 

Bin NY and Ronaldson. A Specimen of Metal Ornaments cast at 
the Foundry of Binny and Ronaldson. Philadelphia : 1809. 



Specimen of Printing Types from the Foundry of Binny and 

Ronaldson. Philadelphia : 181 2. 

Type-founding in America was first in America ; they were followed in 

practised at Philadelphia, by Christopher 1816 and 1822 by the specimen-books 

Sauer, 1735, and the specimen-books of James Ronaldson, successor to Binny 

above described were the first issued & Ronaldson. 



]3ircii-Pfeiffer (Charl,). Johannes Guttenberg, Original-Schauspiel 
in drei Abtheilungen. 2*^ Auflage. Mit einer Ansicht der 



62 



Bibliography of Priitting. 



Statue Guttenbergs in Mainz. Nebst einer kurzgefassten Ge- 
schichte der Buchdruckerkunst, von ihrem Urspninge bis ziir 
Gegenwart, und einem Programm der Festlichkeiten am 24. 25. 
und 26. Juni, in verschiedenen deutschen Stadten. Berlin : 1840. 
8vo. 




cologne; 



1562-1592. 



BiRCKMANN (Arnold and Frederick). 



The above device is taken from the 
Cologne edition, dated 1592, in 4to., of 
" Joannis [Peachain] Archiepiscopi Can- 
tuariensis Prospectiva,' printed by Arnold 
Birckmann. In an oval border is the 
motto, " Vtilia semper nova ssepius pro- 
fero." The chief feature of the device is 
he hen under a tree, a figure used by 
many of the Mediaeval printers both 
before and after the Birckmanns, and 
concerning which Dibdin, in the "De- 
cameron " (vol. ii. page 103) has some 
humorous remarks. Frederick Birckmann 
published a fine octavo edition of the 
Latin Bible in 1526, on the frontis- 
piece of which was a device consisting 
of a hen with five of her brood partly 
under her wings, and one on her 



back. The motto attached to the device 
was : — 

" Quoties volui congregare filios tuos, 
Quem ad modum Gallina congregat 

puUos suos." 
Underneath these were also the lines : — 
" Prostant in pingui Gallina, cum Ant- 

werpiae apud portam 
Camerae tum coloniae circa templum 

cathedrale." 
The successors of the Birckmanns used a 
device in which a hen under a tree was 
the principal feature ; but there was a 
scroll below, displaying the name of the 
founder of the house, Arnold Birckmann. 
The imprint used was, " Coloniae : Apud 
Haeredes Arnoldi Birckmanni." 



BiRRETA [or De Birretis] (Joannes Antonius). The first book 
issued by this printer was in partnership with Franc. Gyrardenghi, 
and dated i486. The latter was established in the same place 
from 1480 to 1498. In the same year, 1480, Birretis published a 
few books on his own account, although the names of the two 



Bibliography of Printing. 



63 



partners remain associated on the books down to the year 1491. 
We append the device of J. A. Birretis, which consists of the 
monogram lAB surmounted by a Latin cross. 




AVIA, 1486-1492 ; VENICE, 1488. 



Bishop (John George). Practical Printers' Companions, designed and 
executed by John George Bishop. 



These Companions consist of tables, 
printed on separate cards, useful in book- 
work, news-work, and job-work respec- 
tively. They are adapted to the Caslon- 
standard. The following is a synopsis 
of the tables : — 

^^(?/t-7twr/t.— Table of widths to pica 
ems ; the depth, pica ems, of 1,000 of 
various types ; the number of pages 
which a sheet of one sized type will make 
if set in a different-sized type ; the number 
of pages, &c., that sheets of various types 
increase by the insertioti of 4, 6, and 8 to 
pica leads ; average number of words in 
lines of various types; average number 
of ens per 1,000 words ; number of thou- 
sands in sheets of various types ; schemes 
of imposition ; table of signatures and 
folios. 



Neius-work. — The number of ens in 
lines of various types in various widths ; 
the increase in depths of various types 
when leaded ; depth in pica of various 
numbers of lines of types in various 
widths ; proportion of lines to thousands ; 
average number of words in lines ; prices 
per thousand. 

Job-work. — Table of widths to pica 
ems ; depths of 1,000 and 5,000 of various 
types ; comparative depth of various 
types which set in the same widtVi ; in- 
crease in depth of matter when leaded ; 
depth of types in inches ; tables for giving 
out paper and cards : sizes of paper and 
cards ; wood furniture, its bodies ; scheme 
of reglets to pica ems for combination ; 
broadside lengths ; combinations of brass 
rules. 



Blackburn (Henry). The Art of Popular Illustration. A paper 
read before the Society of Arts, March 10, 1875, and printed in 
the Journal oi the Society, March 12, 1875. 

This paper advocates the greater use tends that our present pictures are too 

of graphic illustration by automatic me- elaborate and costly, which is a bar to 

thods of engraving, in popular literature, their being multiplied to the extent that 

especially periodical literature, and con- is desirable 



64 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Blades (William). Bibliotheca Typographica. Published in the 
Printers' Register, 1875-6. 

This is a list of publications in the adopted is chronological, and the annota- 

English language, practical, historical, tions, which are original, are derived 

and biographical, which treat of letter- from a perusal of the books themselves, 
press-printing or printers. The order 

A Catalogue of Books printed by or ascribed to the Press of 

William Caxton. London : 1865. 8vo. 
This work contains a bibliographical collation of all the works printed by or attri- 
buted to Caxton. It is rendered especially useful by the fact that the present 
locality of the specimens is given, and to those in the British Museum the press-marks 
are added. 

Common Typographical Errors, with especial reference to the 

Text of Shakespeare. An article in the Athemcum, January 27, 
1872. 
This article shows how the ordinary ty- posed. Mr. Blades refers to three distinct 
pographical accidents of composing may classes of errors : j. Errors of the ear, 
have altered the text of some of our stan- 2. Errors cf the eye, 3. Errors of a foul 
dard authors, and how, for instance, a case. To illustrate his views he gives a 
"case" in which some of the types were plan of the cases in use in the 17th cen- 
wrongly distributed may have led to tury with the various ligatures, S:c., now 
errors and variations in the words com- obsolete. 



Du Castel's "Morale Prouerbes," With an Introduction by 

William Blades. London : 1859. 4to. 

This is a reprint of Caxton's edition of printed from movable pewter types 

Du Castel's " Moral Proverbs," one of closely imitated from the original, and at 

the quaintest of his productions. The in- the end are various explanations, a his- 

troductory essay describes the nature of tory of the circumstances under which it 

the book, and points out its peculiar in- was printed, &c. 
terest to bibliographers. The text is 

Early Greek Types of the Royal Printing-Office, Pari.s, and 

the Chancellor of Cambridge University. 
Article in the Bookworm, January, 1869. 



— The Early Schools of Typography. 
worm, March, 1870. 



An article in the Book- 



The author draws attention to some facts In "the celebrated cause of ' Mayence 
V. Haarlem,' " which he believes have not hitherto been taken into consideration, 
and suggests that the invention was truly but independently made at both places. 



The First Printing-Press in England, as pictorially presented. 

An article in the Bookworm, October, 1869. 
The writer criticises, "as an artisan who has paid some attention to the antiqui- 
ties of his craft," the pictures which are in vogue of the origin of printing in this 
country, and exposes the anachronisms which characterize them. 



- — The Gouernayle of Helthe. With an Introduction by William 
Blades. London : 1858. 4to. 
A reprint of a Caxton recently dis- pewter, in order that their appearance 



covered. In the Introduction Mr. Blades 

gives a bibliographical and typographical 

account of Caxton's work. The book 

itself is printed from movable types characters! 

designed after the original, but cast in 



when printed may more closely assimi- 
late to those of Caxton. At the end the 
poem is given in the ordinary Roman 



Bibliography of Printing 



65 



Blades (William). Mow to Tell a Caxton, with some Hints where 
and how the same may be Found. London : 1870. i2mo. 



The design of this little volume, as 
stated by its author, "is not to instruct 
the professed biblipgrapher, though even 
he may find a book of reference occasion- 
ally useful, but to draw attention to the 
existence of many collections of old books 



mence and carry through an earnest and 
systematic search for the precious relics 
of our earliest printed literature ; and 
lastly, to show that the search is not diffi- 
cult, that it is full of interest, and that 
very important discoveries must be its re- 



hitherto unexplored ; to induce owners of ward if carried on energetically." At 
ancestral libraries, as well as all persons the end are fifteen plates illustrating the 
having access to old libraries, to com- peculiarities of Caxton's type. 

The Life and Typography of William Caxton, England's First 

Printer. With evidence of his typographical connection with 
Colard Mansion, the printer at Bruges. Compiled from original 
sources. 2 vols. Vol. L (London, 1861), pp. 298; Vol. II. 
London, 1863, pp. 312. 4to. 



Many biographies of Caxton have been 
written, and will be found set out among 
the items of our Bibliography ; among the 
most important of them being those of 
Lewis, Oldys, Ames, and Dibdin. Mr. 
Blades, however, by his painstaking re- 
search, has cleared up many doubtful 
points in the career of our proto-printer, 
and his book is in every way worthy of the 
importance of its sutject. It was under- 
stood, before the appearance of this book, 
that Caxton obtained his knowledge of 
printing from Ulric Zell, when at Cologne 



The Biography and Typogi 

first Printer. Loudon : 1877. 

This is, to a great extent, a reprint of 
the author's former work in two volumes. 
It traces Caxton's history and the in- 
fluence which surrounded him in youth 
and manhood. It shows why he became 
a printer and of whom he learnt the art. 
There is a minute account of Caxton's 
printing-office and the typographical 
habits of his workmen. His types are 
classified, and their chronological se- 
quence shown, and the great advantage. 



with the Duchess of Burgundy ; but Mr. 
Blades shows, by a careful comparison 
of the types used and of various peculiari- 
ties, that the subjectof his memoir learned 
the art from Colard Mansion, although he 
does not deny that Caxton may have 
been acquainted with Zell's productions. 
It seems Caxton found the money and 
Mansion the implements and skTit. Cax- 
ton's first works were printed at Bruges. 
He probably came to this country in 
1476.-6"^^ Caxton. 



aphy of William Caxton, England's 
Medium 8vo. Plates. 

bibliographically speaking, to be derived 
fiom their systematic study. All the 
books at present known to have issued 
from his press are described, and remarks 
made upon them, various minor matters 
being also treated. This edition was 
produced in connection with the Caxton 
Celebration, held in London in June, 1877, 
in commemoration of the Quarcentenary 
of Printing in England. 



— A List of Medals, Jettons, Tokens, &c., in connection with 
Printers and the Art of Printing. London : 1869, 87 plates. 4to. 



Only 25 copies printed. This is the 
nucleus of a contemplated work to be en- 
titled, " Numismata Typographica, a de- 
scriptive catalogue of medals, medallions, 
jettons, historical seals, &c., belongmg to 
printers or the typographic art." It was 
to treat : a. of Personal Medals, struck 
in honour of private printers or particu- 
lar printing offices ; b. Medals of Corpo- 
rations, with remarks on the origin and 
nature of these corporations of printers, 
and biographical notes on the printers 
composing them ; c. Medals of jubilees, 
centenaries, and other celebrations, with 



a review of the fetes, &c. , held at different 
epochs throughout Europe in honour of 
the inventors or the invention of printing, 
from 1540 up to the present day, with a 
description of the medals struck on each 
occasion ; d. Jettons of commerce, or 
coins employed by printers as currency ; 
and lastly a supplement, comprising the 
medals of printers struck, not in their 
quality as typographers, but in honour 
of distinguished services in some other 
occupation ; such as those of Albert 
Duerer, the artist, Benjamin Franklin, 
the savant and statesman, &c. 



66 Bibliography of Printijig. 

Blades (William). The Literaiy Almanack. London : 1875. 8vo. 

This compilation (issued at the end of Southward's "Dictionary of Typography," 
2nd edition) comprises a large number of dates of events connected with printing 
and publishing. 

Palseotypography. A series of articles contributed to Notes and 

Queries, 1 870. 

The author points out a great deficiency are made, how matrices are struck, how 

in all bibliographical works, which deal moulds are used, and how, as a result, 

only with the literary aspect of the types are cast. "To make progress in 

science and those superficial features of the classification of doubtful books, we 

the tj'pography which force themselves must with loving perseverance compel 

upon the attention. No one, it is re- them to yield up the Internal evidence of 

marked, can extract from a book all it origin which each one enfolds In its 

can reveal of its own origin unless he un- leaves." 
derstahds such matters as how punches 

Shakspere and Typography : being an attempt to show 

Shakspere's personal connection with, and technical knowledge of, 
the Art of Printing ; also Remarks upon some common Typo- 
graphical Errors, with especial reference to the text of Shakspere. 
London : 1872. 8vo. 

This is an ingenious and curious work, tablish the assertion that Shakespere 
The extraordinary variety and univer was a printer ! In that portion of the 
sality of Shakespere's knowledge has book referring to the corruptions In the 
afforded grounds for many conjectures text of Shakespere, Mr. Blades has 
concerning his origin ; some persons find- brought to bear his knowledge of the 
ing in his works reason for believing he mechanical processes of the art of print- 
followed one occupation, and others ing, and has thereby accounted for many 
another. Mr. Blades has searched variations that had hitherto proved close 
Shakespere for typographical allusions, mysteries to non-technical annotators. 
and the result is almost sufficient to es- 

Some Early Type Specimen Books of England, Holland, 

France, Italy, and Germany. Catalogued by William Blades, 
with explanatory remarks. London : 1875. 8vo. 

This is a series of notices of such type-founders' specimen-books, anterior to the 
year 1820, which the author has been able to meet with. The annotations are very 
interesting, and display considerable research. 

Typographical Notes. The Early Schools of Typography ; 



the Enschede Foundry. London : 1870. 8vo. 

This is a reprint of two articles origin- don, has for many years devoted himself 

ally published in the Bookworm, and to typographical research, and, in addi- 

referred to above. tion to his separately published works, 

Mr. Blades, who Is a partner in a well- contributes frequently to the technical 

known printing-house in the city of Lon- and literary periodicals. 

Blanc (Charles). Traite de la Gravure a I'eau forte. Paris : 1866. 
8vo. 
A practical treatise on the art of etching. 

Blanck (Johann Leonhard). Bildnisse beriihmter Kiinstler, Buch- 
handler, Buchdrucker und anderer Manner, welche sich sowohl 
in als ausserhalb Teutschland verdient gemacht. Erster Theil. 
Nlimberg. 1725. Folio. 50 portraits. 



Bibliography of Printing. 67 

Blansch (H. le). Beknopte en volledige Handleiding tot het over- 
slaan van Drukvormen. s'Gravenhage : 1844. Oblong 8vo. 



Hulde aan de Boekdrukkunst. Haag : 1847. 8vo. 



Bleekrode (S.). Het Bankbillet. De Kunstbewerkingen en de 
Waarborgen voor zijne echtheid, volgens A. Smee en H. Bradbury 
behandeld. Amst. [1856]. 8vo. pp. 33. Two plates of specimen 
notes, and one of a bank-note printing-machine. 



De Tentoonstelling te Londen. s'Gravenhage : 1853. 



A long account of printing-machines, &c., at the Exhibition of 1851. 

Blick, Ein, auf die Geschichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 
In Sonntags-Blatt. Ni-. 14-17. Berhn, 1867. 4to. 

Blind (Printing for the). Key to T. M. Lucas's System of Reading 
for the Blind. 
One copy dated May, 1853 ; one copy dated June, 1858. Both printed by W. M. 
Watts. 

Key to T. M. Lucas's System of Reading for the Blind, as modi- 
fied by the Committee in 1858, under the revision of the Rev. 
W. J. Gowring, M.A. With specimens of the printing. 



Specimens of Printing, embossed by W. M. Watts, Ci 



Court, Pickett Place, Temple Bar. 

The Lord's Prayer in modified Roman but an imperfect sense of touch, or are 

and in T. M. Lucas's system (2 varieties), employed in hard mechanical labour, 

and the alphabet and double letters. Mr. \yatts printed many volumes in it, 

Lucas's System of Printing is an arbi- especially a Bible, which extended to 

trary one, and capable of easy acquire- thirty-six volumes, 
ment, particularly by those who enjoy 

Blind (Type for). Leer, en Leesboek. 4 parts. 1808. Small 4to. 
Printed in embossed type. 



See Stevens. 



Blon (J. C. le). L'Art d'imprimer les Tableaux. Traite d'apres les 

ecrits, les operations et les instructions verbales de J. C. le Blon. 

Seconde edition. Paris : 1768. 8vo. pp. 180 and vi. Three 

folding plates. 

The process described in this work is the subject of English Patent No. 423, of 

the year 1719. It is a method for printing paintings in their proper colours. 

Blumauer (Alois). Die' Buchdruckerkunst. Wien : 1786. 4to. 
In verse. 

Blumenfeld (J. C). Die drei Tage Gutenbergs in Strassburg. 
Strassburg : 1840. i2mo. 

Bochius (Joannes). Epigrammata funebra : ad Christophori Plantin. 
architypographi regii manes ; cum nonnullis aliorum ejusdem 
argumenti elogiis. Antverpiae : 1590. folio. 9 leaves. 
An extremely rare work on the death of the celebrated Antwerp printer, Plantin. 

Two portraits of the printer are attached, one engraved by Goltzius, the other by 

Boulonois. 



68 Bibliography of Printing. 

BocKENHOFFER (Joh. Phil.). Brevis relatio de Origine typo- 
graphite, ex Danico Latine versa. In Wolf, "Monumenta Typo- 
graphica," vol. ii. pp. 965-978. Hamburg : 1740. i2mo. 

Exempla Literamm Typographicarum, quse reperiuntur in 



Regioe Majestatis et Academige Hafniensis Typographia. Hafnse : 
1 69 1. Folio. 

BoDEMANN (Eduard). Xylographische und Typographische Incuna- 
beln der Koniglichen offentlichen Bibliothek zu Hannover. Mit 
41 Flatten typographischer Nachbildungen der Holzschnitte und 
Typenarten; und 16 Flatten mit den Wasserzeichen des Fapiers. 
Hannover : 1866. 4to. 

The Incunabula in this Royal Collection plates are devoted to each of the block- 
comprise three block-books— Biblia Pau- books, and the facsimiles of type, wood- 
pcrum. Speculum, and Ars Moriendi ; and cuts, and water-marks are very numerous 
243 books printed before 1500. Four and admirably executed. 

I30D0NI (Giambattista). Essai de Caracteres Russes graves et fondus 
par Jean Baptiste Bodoni. Farma : 1782. Folio. 

-. Iscrizioni esotiche a Caratteri novellamente incisi e fusi. 



Parma : 1774. 4to. 

A collection of congratulary stanzas, &c., on the occasion of the baptism of 
Ludovico, Prince of Parma. 

Lettere al Marquis * * * sulla forma e numero de' caratteri 



tipografici. Parma : 1785. 4to. 

— Manuale Tipografico. Parma : 1788. 4to and 8vo. 



Only 100 copies of each of these editions of specimens of the famous Bodoni 
Press were issued. The types represented are 100 Roman, 50 Italic, and 25 Greek. 
Of the octavo edition, six copies were printed on vellum. 

Manuale Tipografico. 2 vols. Parma (presso la Vedova) : 

1818. Royal 4to. pp. Ixxii, 268 pages of type specimens; Vol. 
II., 279 pages of specimens. 

At the beginning there is a fine steel- occurring before its completion, it was 

engraved portrait of the author, with the finished by his widow as a worthy monu- 

inscription beneath :— ment to his memory. More than 250 

*' Hie ille est Magnus, typica quo nullus specimens of type and ornaments of all 

in arte kinds are given, and the volumes present 

Plures depromsit divitias, veneres." an idea of the richness and variety of 

This work was intended by Bodoni to the materials employed by the great 

form his credentials to a place in the first Italian printer, 
rink of printers of his time. His death 

La Prefazione al Manuale Tipografico di Giambattista Bodoni, 

seguita da una Dissertazione estetica di Giuseppe Chiantore, edite 
per cura di Salvadore Landi. Firenze : 1874. 8vo. pp. xvii. 
73. Index, I leaf. 

Medaglia d' onore decretata dal pubblico di Parma al celebre 



tipografo G. B. Bodoni. Parma : 1806. Folio. 
Account of a medal struck by the people of Parma in honour of Bodoni. 



Bibliography of Printing. 69 

BoDONi (Giambattista). Memorie aneddote per servire un giorno 
alia Vita .del Signer Giovanbattista Bodoni, tipografo di sua Maesta 
Cattolica e direttore del Parmense tipografeo. Parma : 1804. 
8vo. pp. ii. 186. 

Serie de' Caratteri Greci. Parma : 1788. 8vo. 30 leaves. 

Separately printed, 150 copies, from the Manuale Tipografico. 

Vita del Cavaliere Giambattista Bodoni, Tipografo Italiano, e 

Catalogo cronologico delle sue edizioni, [by G. de Lama]. 2 vols. 
Parma : 181 6, small 4to. Vol. I. Portrait, 6 prel. leaves, pp. 231 ; 
Vol. II. front., 9 prel. leaves, pp. 252. 

The first volume contains the life of Bodoni, the second a list of the works issued 
from his press. 

Bodoni Number oi VArtedella Stampa. Florence : 1872. 

This is a special number of the Italian ment to Bodoni in Saluzzo, his native 

typographical journal, consisting chiefly city, on the 20th October, 1872. A com- 

of a chronology of the facta et gesta of plete biography appeared in the same 

the great Parmesan printer. It was pub- journal August 25, 1869. 
lished apropos of the erection of a monu- 

BoDONi Statue. 

The following thirteen small books 6. Elogio biografico di Bodoni. 

were published by different Italian pub- 7. II pio istituto di Milano a Saluzzo. 

hshing houses in commemoration of the 8. Inno musicato. 

unveiling of the statue of Bodoni, the 9. Epigrafe di Bodoni. 

prmter : — • ^ ^ lo. Cenni biografici. 

1. Deir Invenzione di Stampa. 11. Sestine per I'inaugurazione. 

2. Vita di Bodoni. 12. Gazetta di Saluzzo. 

3. Cenni su Bodoni. 13. Omaggio a Bodoni. 

4. Sonetto a Bodoni. 

5. Epigramma poliglotto (in ii lan- 

guages). 

BoECKEL (E. G. A.). Die Buchdruckerkunst und die Kirchenver- 
besserung. Prcdigt am Reformationsfeste 1840 gehalten. Olden- 
burg : [1840]. 8vo. pp. 16. 

BOECLERUS (Joannes Henricus). Oratio habita kalend. Octobr. anno 
1640, cum publice Magistros et Baccalaureos crearet : in qua 
de Typographiae, Argentorati inventae, divinitate et fatis, saeculari 
pietate disseritur. [Printed at the end of Schmidt (Johannes) Gott 
zu Lob, Drey Christliche Predigten. Gotha : 1740.] 8vo. Also 
reprinted in Wolf, "Monumenta Typographica. " 

An oration pronounced in 1640, before the civic and university authorities of 
Strasbourg, on the invention of typography in that city. 

BOEDEKER (Hermann Wilhelm). Die Geschichte und hohe Bedeut- 
samkeit der Buchdruckerkunst. Auf Anlass der vierten Sacularfeier 
ihrer Erfindung fiir die Hannoverschen Volksschulen dargestellt. 
Hannover : 1840. i2mo. pp. 32. 

BOEHLAU (H.). Zur Geschichte der Hof-Buchdruckerei in Weimar. 
Weimar : 1858. 8vo. 



70 Bibliography of Printing. 

BoEHMERT (Dr. v.). Tarifbewegung unci Arbeitseinstellung der 

Buchdruckergehilfen in Zurich. Zurich, 1873. 8vo. pp. 42. 

A history of the printers' strike at Zurich in 1873, its causes and consequences. 

BOEKDRUKKUNST. 1423-1823 (Lcydcn, 1823). 8vo. 

Reprinted from the literary review De Weegschaal, 1823, No. i. It is founded 
on the menaoir by the Baron d'Aretin on the early days of printing. 

BoHN (Henry George). The Origin and Progress of Printing. A 

lecture delivered at Twickenham, April 8th, and repeated by 

desire at Richmond, April 21, 1857. [Privately printed by the 

Philobiblon Society, 1857.] 8vo. pp. 108 ; and list of members 

of the Philobiblon Society, 4 pp. 

Mr. Bohn, the veteran publisher and him, added much to the literature of our 

bookseller, who was born January 4, subject. His Guinea Catalogue, pub- 

1796, has contributed much during his lished in 1841, was up to that time the 

long, laborious, and useful life to the his- biggest advertisement ever put forward 

tory of literature. Although this is by a bookseller for the sale of his stock ; 

believed to be his only direct contribution and in the compilation of that immense 

to typographical history, he has, in his volume, concerning which see some 

edition of "Lowndes's Bibliographer's curious correspondence in the iSc'^^^^e/Z^'r, 

Manual" and his supplement to "Tim- July to November, 1872, many interest- 

perley's Cyclopaedia," 1842, besides addi- ing typographical facts and anecdotes 

tions to the numerous books edited by were unearthed by him. 

BoiLDiEU. Outillage typographique. Paris : 1864. 4to. Cuts. 

A catalogue of typographical materials manufactured by M. Boildieu, the cele- 
brated press and machine-maker of Paris, who has made several improvements in 
the art of stereotyping. 

BoiTEAU d'Ambly (Paul). Produits de I'lmprimerie et de la Librairie 
[Exposition Universelle de 1867]. Paris : 1867. ^vo. 
A catalogue raisormS of the specimens of printing exhibited at the Universal 
Exhibition at Paris in 1867, by this extensive firm of publishers. 

Bolt (H.). Ars Typographic. Harlem : 1765. 4to. pp. 8. 

BoNi (Mauro). Lettere sui primi libri a Stampa di alcune citta e terre 
dell' Italia superiore, parte sinora sconosciuti, parte nuovamente 
illustrati. Venezia : 1794. 4to. pp. cxxxii. 
Treats of the typographical monuments of Genoa in the fifteenth century ; also of 
those of Pavia and Brescia. 

BoNNARDOT (Alf. ). Histolre artistique et archeologique de la Gravure 
en France. Paris : 1 849. Royal 8vo. 
Three hundred copies printed, of which 15 were o\\ papier de Hollande. 

BoNNfi (D.). Het Boekdrukken, boertende zamenspraak met Zang 

tusschen Klaas, een Zetter, en Jan, een Drukker. Ter Eere van 

den Uitvinder dier Kunst Laurens Janszoon Koster. Dordrecht : 

1823. 8vo. 

A Dialogue in verse between Klaas, a Compositor, and Jan, a Pressman ; written for 

the Coster Festival, 1823. 

BoNNEWELL (H.) and Co.'s Specimens of Wood Letter, &c. 4to. 
London, 76, West Smithfield : [186-]. 
Mr. W. H. BonnewcH's factory, now situate in the Old Bailey, is perhaps the 
largest in this country specially devoted to the production of wood letter. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



71 



Book of English Trades and Library of tlie Useful Arts. With 
Seventy Engravings. A new edition, enlarged. London : 18 18. 
Small 8vo. pp. vi. 442. 
This book was intended " to acquaint the upper and lower cases that were in 
the rising generation with our various use at the time ; the drawing of this, as 
trades and their origin and history." It of the press, showing that the illustrator 
is illustrated with views of the several did not possess much technical knowledge 
operatives at work in their particular of printing. The author of the literary- 
avocations. Thus we have, inter alios, part of the book tells over again the 
the bookbinder, the bookseller, the cop- Coster and Corsellis legends, and gives 
perplate-printer, the engraver, the paper- a very bald account of the art. The 
maker, the printer, and the typefounder, article on typefounding is better done, 
all arranged alphabetically. The printer owing to the processes having made so 
is pulling away at an old wooden press, little improvement for generations pre- 
and in the same apartment is shown a ceding, 
compositor at work on a case combining 

Booksellers' Petition on the Cost of Printers', &c., Corrections of 
Certain Books. London : 1774. Folio, pp. 4. 

The heading of this is as follows : — "In Mr. Ainsworth for the first 
behalf of the Booksellers now petitioning edition of his Dictionary £666 17 6 

the Honourable House of Commons for Ditto's executors for the 

relief, it may be truly said that there is second edition 250 o o 

scarce an instance of a new edition of Ditto, to Dr. Patrick for 

any living author's work printed without his improvements, &c. loi 11 9 

submitting it to his correction and im- Ditto, to Dr. Ward, of 

provement ; for, though a bookseller buys Gresham College 26 5 o 

an author's absolute' right, yet he pays _ 

him for his trouble in correcting every The second edition cost ... 377 \6 9 

edition, and in those works (as most are rp, ^ tux^A ^A•.^•, *^ at.. 

,1 c • A ^u ..I- I he thira edition, to Mr. 

capable of some improvement) the authors Kimber 

sometimes receive, in the course of the ^j^^ ^^^^^^ edidon; ' to Mr: ° ° 

sale, as much money for corrections and n^u^.„„^ 

' ^ .. £ .. -J r inomas lo^ o o 

improvements as was at first paid for ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^.^. ^^ j^^ 

the copy. Many are a continual expense Morell 288 

to the printers of them ; every edition ^^^ f^,;^ "yditionrVo" Mr." 
must be carefully corrected, and for die- Vouna- 84 

tionaries, lexicons, &c some hundred ^^^ J^ edition,' 'io^Mn 

pounds are often paid for their improve- ^^^^^^ ' g ^g ^ 

ment. Ihe following extract illustrates 'r^.„i ; j ■ ^ ..u^ c^^ ^a; 

the character of this petition :- ^"'"ion ....'?......!.!. .: ^;;^^9 

Booth (Joseph). An Address to the Public on the Po]ygrai:)hic Art, 
or the copying or multiplying pictures in oil-colours by a chemical 
and mechanical process, the invention of Mr. Joseph Booth, por- 
trait-painter. London : printed at the Logographic Press. No 
date. 4to. — London : 1788. 8vo. pp. 21. 

This is an eulogistic pamphlet written word signifying multiplication. But the 

by the inventor, but it contains no account gentlemen who have united themselves 

whatever of the processes or nature of with the inventor into a society for the 

his invention. It is stated that "the purpose of protecting and patronizing this 

multiplying or copying pictures in oil- ingenious art, have determined to design 

colours by a mechanical and chemical it in future by the title of Polygraphic, 

process, as invented by Mr. Booth, was a term which is calculated to distinguish it 

at first styled ' Polyplasiosmos,' a Greek from other attempts at copying pictures. " 

BORAO (Geronimo). La Imprenta en Zaragoza, con noticias pre- 
liminares sob re la Imprenta en general. Zaragoza : i860. 8vo. 
pp. 96. 

The first book printed at Saragossa was " Manipulus Curatorum," printed by 
Mateo Flandro in 1475. 



72 Bibliography of Printing. 

BORIES (J.) et BONASSIES (F.). Dictionnaire pratique de la Presse, 
de I'Imprimerie, et de la Librairie, suivi d'un Code complet, con- 
tenant les lois, ordonnances, reglements, arrets du conseil des 
motifs, et rapports sur la matiere, 2 vols. Paris : 1847. 8vo. 
Vol. I. pp. ix. 611 ; Vol. II. pp. 552. 
A practical dictionary of printing and publishing, with an exposition of the 

French laws relating to printing and publishing, arranged in the form of an 

encyclopaedia. 

BoRSTius (Gerard). Oratio de Typographicoe laudibus. Amstel. : 
1728. 4to. 

BoRY (J. T. ). Les Origines de I'Imprimerie a Marseille, recherches 
historiques et bibliographiques. Marseille : 1858. Royal 8vo. 
Two leaves, pp. 177. 
Only 100 copies printed. The work formed a series of articles in the RevKe de 
Marseille, 1856-57, those articles forming 102 pp. of the book ; the remainder con- 
sists of important additions, notes, and an appendix. 

Boss (Henry R.). Early Newspapers in Illinois. A Paper read before 
the Franklin Society of Chicago. Chicago : 1870. 4to. pp. vi. 48. 
This volume, which is printed in magni- section of the United States. The author 
ficent style, in all the luxury of thick is Secretary of the Franklin Society of 
toned paper, wide margins, and rubricated Chicago, and editor of its journal, the 
initials, contains incidentally many curious Prhiting Press. 
facts concerning the early printers of that 

BosscH (Hermann). Memoria Hieronymi de Bosch rite celebrata a 
D. J. van Lennep, et Carmen de Inventge Typographic Laude 
Kostero Harlemensi potenter tandem asserta : auctore Hermann© 
Bosscha. Amstelodami : 181 7. 4to. 

BOSSE (Abraham). Traicte des Manieres de Graver en taille douce, sur 
I'airin, par le moyen des eaux fortes et des vernix durs et mols. 
Ensemble de la fa^on d'en imprimer les planches, et d'en construire 
la presse, et autres choses concernans lesdits arts. Paris : 1645. 
8vo. pp. 75, 19 plates. 

This is the first edition of a work which was issued at Amsterdam, 1662, i2mo. 

is notable for its completeness for the time The second edition was issued in 1701, 

of its production, and for its plates, which "augmentee de la nouvelle maniere dont 

have been reproduced by most subsequent se sert M. le Clerc, graveur du Roi." The 

writers on the art. A Dutch translation third edition bore the following title : — 

De la Maniere de Graver a I'eau forte et a burin, et de la Gra- 

vure en maniere noire. Paris : 1745. 8vo., with 19 plates. 
The augmentations to this book were written by the celebrated engraver Cochin. 
A fourth edition was issued with the following title :— 

De la Maniere de Graver a I'eau forte et au burin, et de la 

Gravure en maniere noire. Avec la fa9on de construire les presses 
modernes et d'imprimer en taille-douce. Nouvelle edition, aug- 
mentee de I'impression qui imite les tableaux, de la gravure en 
maniere de crayon, et de celle qui imite le lavis. Paris : 1758. 
8vo. pp. xxxii. 207, 21 plates. 

Sentimens sur la Distinction des diverses Manieres de Pein- 

ture, Dessein, et Graveure, et des originaux d'avec leurs copies. 



Bibliography of Printing. 73 

Ensemble du choix des sujets et des chemins pour arriver faci le- 
nient et promptement a bien portraiture. Paris : 1649. i6mo. 
pp. xvi. IIS; frontispiece and two plates. 

Abraham Bosse was a French engraver, born at Tours, and was the first who gave 
lessons in perspective at the Academy of Painting, Paris. He died in 1660. He had 
great judgment in the art of engraving. 

Boston Traveller. Description of the Daily Evening Traveller Build- 
ings, and Great Power Press. Boston : 1852. 32mo. 

Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry. Specimens of Printing Types. 
John G. Rogers, agent. Boston : 1828. 8vo. 
The Boston Type and Stereotype made for the company, and the system 
Foundry is chiefly remarkable in the promised to be successful for a time, but 
annals of American type-founding for the type was found defective, and after 
the assistance it afforded to Starr and the loss of a large portion of their capital 
Sturdevant while they were experiment- the company fell back into the old system 
ing upon the construction of a machine of hand-casting, 
for casting type. Several machines were 

BoUBERS (Jean Louis de). Epreuves des Caracteres de la Fonderie. 
Bruxelles : 1777. 8vo. 128 leaves. 

BoucHEL (B.). Recueil des Statuts et Reglemens des Libraires et Im- 
primeurs de Paris. Paris : 1620. 4to. 

BouDON (J. A.). Specimen des Caracteres de I'Imprimerie de J. A. 
Boudon. Paris : 1837. 8vo. 

[BouFARTiQUE (H.).] La Typographic et les Arts qui s'y rattachent. 
Toulouse : 1868. 8vo. 
Only 40 copies of this treatise on printing and the arts in connection with it were 
printed. 

BouLARD (S.). Le Manuel de ITmprimeur, ouvrage utile a tons ceux 
qui veulent connaitre les details des ustensiles, des prix, de la ma- 
nutention de cet art interessant, et a quiconque veut lever une im- 
primerie. Paris : 1791. 8vo. pp. 100. 
This was the first thoroughly practical complete, for practising several depart- 
book on printing which appeared in ments of it. The work of Boulard has 
France. Several treatises on what may been the foundation of most of the suc- 
be called the aesthetics of the art had been ceeding French manuals, 
published, and directions, more or less 

BouLMiER (Joseph), fitudes sur le Seizieme Siecle. Estienne Dolet, 
sa vie, ses oeuvres, son martyre. Paris : 1857. 8vo. Portrait, 
pp. XV. 301, leaf at end with device of Dolet. 
Five hundred copies printed. Dolet was burnt at Paris in 1546, in consequence 

of his refusal to retract heretical opinions expressed in a book printed by him. 

BOUTIGNY (Ed.). Du Travail des Femmes dans les Imprimeries. 
Reponse a M. Ed. About et aux journaux P Opinion Nationale, 
r Avenir National, et le Temps. Paris: 1865. i2mo. 

BoUTMY (Eugene). Les Typographes Parisiens, suivis d'un petit Die- 
tionnaire de la Langue Verte Typographique. Paris : 1874. 8vo. 
pp. 52. 

A very interesting and well-written pamphlet. The " Langue verte" is the slang 
of the Paris printers. 

L 



74 Bil'liography of Printing, 

BouTON (V.M.). Traite Elementaire et Pratique pour apprendre a 
graver sans maltre. Paris : no date. Crown 8vo, pp. 53, nu- 
merous woodcuts. 




WILI.IA.M BOWYEK THE ELDER. 

BowYER (William). The Origin of Printing, in Two Essays : L The 
substance of Dr. Middleton's Dissertation on the Origin of Printing 
in England ; II. Mr. Meerman's Account of the Eirst Invention 
of the Art. An Appendix is annexed : I. On the first printed 
Greek books ; II. On the first printed Hebrew books, with obser- 
vations on some modern editions, and a collation from Walton's 
Polyglott of a remarkable passage as printed in Kings and Chroni- 
cles ; III. On the early Polyglotts. Eondon : 1774. 8vo. 
pp. xvi. 144. 

The treatises of Middleton against the Corsellis theory, and of Meerman, are 
here abridged, with annotations by W. liowyer and John Nichols, and a preface. A 
second edition was issued in 1776, with the following title :— 

The Origin of Printing, in Two Essays. I. The substance of 

l^r. Middleton's Dissertation on the Origin of Printing in England ; 
II. Mr. Meerman's Account of the Invention of this Art at Haar- 
lem, and its Progress to Mentz ; with occasional remarks and an 
Appendix. Second edition, with improvements. Eondon: 1776. 
8vo. pp. xvi. 176. 

— An Appendix to the First Edition of the Origin of Printing, 

containing the additional remarks which have been inserted in the 
second edition. London : 1776. 8vo. 

This appears to have been issued in might have the benefit of the annotators* 
order that possessors of the first edition researches during the two years that 
(1774) of "'i'he Origin of Printing" elapsed before tlie publication of the 



Bibliography of Fri/ifing. 



75 



second edition. It contains two prelimi- 
nary pages of an "advertisement," con- 
tents, and pp. 145 to 183, the pagination 
being rendered continuous with that of 
the 1774 edition. Bowyer and Nichols 
state that they reprinted Meerman's 
pamphlet because they regarded it as 
giving "a clearer account [of the origin 
of printing] than any book hitherto pub- 
lished in this kingdom." ..." Mr. 
Meerman very clearly fixes the first rudi- 
ments of the art to Laurentius, at Har- 
leim ; the improvement of it to Geins- 
fleisch the senior and his brother Guten- 
berg, auglice Goodhill, assisted by the 
liberality of John Fust, at Mentz ; and 
the completion of the whole to Peter 
Schoeffer, in the same city. The claim 
of Strasburg is considered and evidently 



overthrown." The same writers held the 
view that the Oxford Press was prior to 
Caxton's, but that Caxton was the first 
in this country to use fusile types. The 
book, although it has been robbed of its 
authority by modern researches, at the 
time of its publication brought in great 
praise to its compilers, the " learned 
printers" of the age. A notice of this 
edition was printed in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, i-jji, vol. xlvii. p. 33, giving 
some interesting particulars of the Rev. 
Cesar de Missy, who, it is said, gave 
assistance in the work. 

The unsold copies of the second edition 
were issued with a new title-page and 
" .Supplement to the Origin of Printing," 
paged 176-300, in 1781. 



Bowyer (William). Anecdotes, Biographical and Literary, of the 
late Mr. William Bowyer, printer, compiled for private use. Loii- 
don : 1778. 8vo. pp. 52. 



Only twenty copies printed. In the 
preface to the Appendix to the Origin of 
Printing (see supra), reference is made 
to the literary partnership and co-opera- 
tion of Bowyer and Nichols in annotating 
the first edition of the work, and to the 
fact of the death, in the mean time (that 
is, between 1774 and 1776), of one of the 

• William Bowyer, the eminent printer, 
was born in London in 1663. In 1679 
he was bound apprentice to Miles Flesher, 
and in 1686 was admitted- to the freedom 
of the Company of Stationers. His first 
printing-office was at the White Horse, 
in Little Britain, but before the end of 
1699 he removed to Dogwell Court, 
Blackfriars. On May 6, 1700, he was 
admitted a liveryman of the Stationers' 
Company. He was one of the twenty 
printers allowed by the Court of Star 
Chamber. In 1712 his printing-office 
was burnt to the ground, all his types 
and presses destroyed, and his stock and 
manuscripts consumed in the flames. The 
loss was estimated at ^5,146, and to in- 
demnify him, a royal brief was granted, 
of which the clear amount was ;^i.5i4, 
from which Bowyer received £>'i,yn, 
being a dividend of 5s. 4d. in the pound. 
His private friends then came to his as- 
sistance, and a paper was circulated, 
which commenced: "Whereas, by the 
providence of Almighty God, Mr. William 
Bowyer hath lately, had his dwelling- 
house, his goods, his founts of letters, 
presses, and other utensils all suddenly 
destroyed by a sad and lamentable fire, 
inasmuch that he was not able to save 
either his own or his family's wearing- 



two friends, Bowyer. This pamphlet 
was written by the survivor, Nichols, and 
formed the nucleus of his valuable and 
interesting " Literary Anecdotes of the 
Eighteenth Century." It originally ap- 
peared as a series of articles in the 
GentleiJtan's Magazine, 1778, vol. xlvlii. 
pp. 409, 449, 51S. 

clothes, and very little else of anything, 
to the ruin of himself and family, we 
whose names are hereunto subscribed, not 
knowing how soon it may be our own 
case, do, out of compassion to him, give 
and contribute the sums following," 
&c. From his own personal friends and 
others Bowyer received ^1,162, making 
the total sum recouped to him ;^2,539. 
Bowyer then started in business again, 
and, in remembrance of these benefactors, 
had several 1 U-pieces and devices en- 
graved representing a phoenix rising from 
the flames. In 1722 he took into partner- 
ship his son, William Bowyer, whom 
Nichols, li's biographer, describes as 
"confessedly the most learnea printer ot 
the age ho lived in." The elder Bowyer 
died December 27, 1737. He h.-d for 
many years been regarded as one of the 
foremost printers of his time, and his re- 
putation was amply sustained by his son. 
He was buried in the church of Low 
Ley ton, in Essex, where a monument was 
erected to his memory by his son, with 
an appropriate inscription written by the 
latter. In the stock-room at Stationers' 
Hall there was erected by his son a brass 
plate with an inscription commemorative 
of his loss by the fire and of the dona- 
tions of the Stationers' Company and his 



76 



Bibliography of Printing. 



friends to repair his loss : beside it hangs Hansard, and printed in his "Typo- 
a half-length portrait of Bowyer. The graphia." {See Stationers' Hall.) 
portrait we present was engraved for Mr. 




WILLIAM BOWYER THE YOUNGER. 



William Bowyer, son of the above, was 
the most learned Engli.sh printer of whom 
we have any account. He was bom in 
Whitefriars, December 19, 1699, and edu- 
cated, primarily at a private school at 
Cambridge, and afterwards at St. John's 
College, Cambridge. In June, 1722, he 
entered into his father's business of a 
printer, paying especial attention to the 
typographical accuracy of the productions 
issuing from his press. In 1726 he com- 
menced a literary career, which has ren- 
dered his name distinguished among the 
authors of his native country. In 1729 
he was appointed printer of the Votes of 
the House of Commons, an office which 
he held under successive Speakers for 
nearly fifty years. In 1736 he became a 
member of the Society of Antiquaries, to 
whom he had been appointed printer in 
the previous May. The Royal Society 
appointed him their printer in 1761, and 
he held the office, under five successive 
presidents, up to the date of his death. 
In 1766 he entered into partnership with 
John Nichols, and withdrew in some 
degree from the close application to busi- 
ness which he had previously continued. 
His new associate had been trained by 
him to the profession, and had assisted 
him for several years in the management 
of the business. In 1767 the firm was ap- 
pointed printers of the Journals of the 
House of Lords and of the Rolls of Par- 



liament. The office was now removed 
from Whitefriars to Red Lion Passage, 
and not without reluctance on the part of 
Bowyer, for he had lived there from his 
infancy. The new office had for its sign 
the "Cicero's Head," under which was 
inscribed, " M. T. Cicero, a quo Pri- 
MORDiA preli." Bowyer gave to the 
world several score of works of permanent 
value, on classical, theological, antiqua- 
rian, and controversial su^'ect.s. He re- 
mained a great reader and worker until 
a very short time before his death, which 
took place on November 18, 1777, aged 
78. His two chief objects in the decline 
of his life were to repay the benefactions 
his father had received and to be himself 
a benefactor to the meritorious of his own 
profession. He made various bequests 
of large amounts for the benefit of de- 
cayed printers, which are now adminis- 
tered by the Stationers' Company. Both 
father and son were buried at Low 
Leyton, in Essex, in the church of which 
parish a neat monument is erected to his 
memory. Nichols relates, at p. 151 of 
his "Anecdotes," that Bowyer in 1740 
purchased a monument, which he intended 
should serve both for his father and him- 
self. The stone was completed except 
the inscription, and in that state was 
placed on the outside of the mason's house 
at Hampstead, where it remained till 
after having been exposed to the weather 



Bibliography of Prifiting. 77 

for thirty-seven years, it was unfit for bust, in order that an impression should 

use. A bust of William Bowyer the be given to each annuitant under Mr. 

younger is placed in Stationers' Hall. Bowyer's will. The portrait which we 

In 1798 Mr. Nichols presented to the give here was engraved for Hansard's 

Stationers' Company the quarto copper- " Typographia." 
plate, engraved by James Basire, of this 

JBoxHORN (Marcus Zuerius). De Typographice Artis Inventione et In- 

ventoribus, Dissertatio. Lugduni Batavorum : 1640. 4to. pp. 51. 

A dissertation on the invention and first inventors of Printing, favouring the 

claims of Haarlem to be its birthplace. Reprinted in Wolf, " Monumenta Typo- 

graphica," vol. i. pp. 813-865. 

BoYER (M. H.). Histoire des Imprimeurs et Libraires de Bourges, 
suivie d'une notice sur ses bibliotheques. Bourges : 1854. 8vo. 

BozE (C. G. de). Observations sur quelques endroits des Annales 
Typographiques de Maittaire. In Menioires de VAcademie des 
Inscriptions, vol. xiv. (Histoire), p. 227. 

Notice du premier Livre imprime, portant une date certaine : 

Psalmorum Codex. Moguntise : 1457. In Memoir es de P A cadetnie 
des Inscriptions, vol. xiv. (Histoire), p. 254. 

Bozzo (G.). Delia Stamperia della Regia Universita di Palermo. 
Palermo : 1850. 8vo. 
An account of the printing establishment of the Royal University of Palermo, 

Braam (W. van). Oratio de Arte Typographica. Dordrecht: 1723.- 
4to. 

Bradbury (Henry). Autotypography ; or, Art of Nature-Printing. 
Printed for special circulation. London : i860. i6mo. 



Lecture on Natural Printing at the Royal Institution, May ii, 

1855. London : 1 856. 8vo. 
A translation of this pamphlet into German was made by Mr, Maurice, a reader 
at Messrs. Bradbury's, and issued by them. The German is described by one of our 
correspondents as very faulty. 

On the Security and Manufacture of Bank-notes. A lecture as 



delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Albemarle 
Street, Friday evening. May 9, 1856, His Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland, President, in the chair. London : 1856. 4to. 
pp. 30. 2 plates. 

The author contends that bank-note making notes which in reality is most 

forgeries were (1856) on the increase ; exposed to the operations of the forger, 

that difference of opinion existed as to He denies that a note can be made which 

the soundest method to be employed for is absolutely inimitable, but recommends 

obviating it ; that facilities were growing a note which would make forgery not re- 

up to assist forgery ; and that there was munerative.— vS"^^ Bleekrode. 
a tendency to employ that method of 

Printing : its DaM'n, Day, and Destiny. London : 1858. 4to. 



pp. 40. 

This was an address delivered at the trate, from a new point of view, the power 

Royal Institution of Great Britain, Albe- and the spread of printing as an intellec- 

marle Street, May 14, 1858, and in the tual agent in the destinies of man." The 

wordsoftheauthor, is "an attempt to illus- author divides printing into six parts: 



7 8 Bibliography of Printing. 

letterpress, intaglio or concave printing (steel printing upon steel to produce new 

(copperplate), chemical printing (litho- plates), and electrotype, and describes 

graphy, zincography, and the anastatic their origin and progress, 
method), photography, siderography 

Bradbury (Henry). Specimens of Bank-note Engraving, e^c. Printed 

for private circulation, London : i860. 4to. At the end, with 

separate title, are "Specimens of Bank-note Paper by T. H. 

Savmders." 

' Mr. Henry Bradbury, who died by Bradbury & Wilkinson. He claimed to 

his own hand on October 8, i860, was have been the inventor of the process of 

son of a member of the firm of Bradbury Nature-Printing, but Mr. Alois Auer, the 

& Evans, printers, in Whitefriars, the imperial printer of Vienna, who also laid 

style of whose house has since been claim to the invention, asserted that Mr. 

changed to Bradbury & Agnew. He Bradbury got his ideas of it from having 

went into business on his his own account seen it in progress during a visit paid to 

in Fetter-lane, his firm being known as his printing-house. — See Auer. 

Bradshaw (Henry). A Classified Index of the Fifteenth Century 

Books in the Collection of the late M. J. de Meyer, which were 

sold at Ghent in November, 1869. London : 1 870. 8vo. pp. 28. 

Mr. Bradshaw, librarian of the Univer- pended to it are notes on the printer of 

sity of Cambridge, having been for some the " Flores B. Augustini" ; of the " S. 

time occupied in the early typography of Bonaventurae Soliloquium " ; of the 

Holland and Belgium, was sent to the "Teghen die strael der Minnen"; on 

Meyer sale to purchase such specimens as printmg at ZwoUe ; on the printer of the 

he thought desirable for the Cambridge "Herbarius" — did Veldener return from 

University Library. The result was that Kuilenburg to Louvain ? ; on Gerard 

the museum of early printing at Cam- Leeu's edition of the " Historie van Sint 

bridge came into possession of many im- Annen"; and on the two issues of the 

portant books, of which this pamphlet " Quodlibetica Decisio " of Michael de 

gives a bibliographical description. Ap- Insuiis, printed by Thierry Martens. 

List of the Founts of Type and Woodcut Devices used by 

printers in Holland in the fifteenth century. London : 1871. 8vo. 

• The Printer of the Historia S. Albani. With a photographed 

fac-simile. Cambridge : 1868. 8vo. pp. 16. 
This treatise, by the learned librarian of the University of Cambridge, was 
intended to form the first of a serial publication called " Memoranda," but the plan 
was not carried out. The treatise, however, is complete in itself. 

Branca (Carlo). Abbozzo Bibliografici di un vecchio Librajo. 
Milano : 1866. 4to. 

Catalogo della sua Libreria, preceduto da brevi cenni biblio- 
grafici. Milano : 1844. 8vo. 
Branca was a long-established bookseller in Milan, and these two works contain 
numerous important notes on the early history of printing in Italy. 

Brandenburgh (H.). Letterproef der Boekdrukkerij. Workum : 
1828. Small folio. 

Brandolese (Pietro). La Tipografia Perugina del secolo XV, illus- 
trata del Signor Vermiglioh e presa in esame. Padova : 1807. 
8vo. 

Braun (George). Civitates orbis terrarum. 4 vols. Colonics : 1570- 
1558. Folio. 
In the second volume, in the description of Haarlem, the author alludes to the 
legend attributing the invention of printing to that city. 



Bibliography of Printing 



79 



Braun (Placidus). Notitia liistorico-litteraria de Libris ab Artis 
Typographic^ inventione usque ad annum 1500 impressis, in 
Bibliotheca monasterii ad SS. Uldaricum et Afram Augustae 
exstantibus. 2 vols. Augustee Vindelicorum ; 1788-89. 4to. 
Part I., pp. 208 ; part II., pp. 333. 

Notice of seventy-five editions of the fifteenth century in the library of the monas- 
tery of Saints Uldaric and Afra, at Vienna, with eleven plates delineating the alpha- 
bets used by the several printers. 




Breda (Jacobus de). 

Jacobus de Breda established himself novissimorum," which appea-ed in that 

in Ueventer about 1485, his first book year. He published a second edition 

beine; an edition of " Cordiale qiiatuor of it in i486, a copy of which is in 



8o 



Bibliography of Frijitwg. 



the collection of M. le Senateur Vergau- 
wen, at Ghent. There is indicated in 
the subscription of one of his books the 
place where he carried on his business, 
which was " in domo angulari platee 
poUis, quedicitur teutonice die Polstrate, 
juxta scholas " (at the end of the street 
called Polestrate, near the schools). His 
first books were printed with types like 
those used by Paffroed between i^-jy and 
1485. In 1489 he printed an edition of 
Boccaccio, for which he used four kinds of 
types. The device which we give above 
adorned many of his editions, and served 
as the model of those used by G. Back, 
of Antwerp. It was copied, also, by 
T. Petri van Os, of Zwolle, but the en- 
graver who did it was less expert than he 
who was engaged by De Breda. Other- 
wise this printer has rarely illustrated his 
editions. In the " Epistolen ende Evan- 
gelien " of 1493 there is a plate repre- 
senting the entry of Christ into Jerusalem, 
which was one of a series of sixty-six 

Brede (C. L.). Einige Schriftproben nebst Verzierungen. Offen- 
bach : [1828]. 8yo. 

Br6geaut (L. R.). Manuel complet, theorique et pratique, du Des- 
sinateur et de rimprimeur Lithographe. Troyes : 1834. i8mo. 

■ Nouveau Manuel complet de I'Imprimeur Lithographe. Nou- 

velle edition, tres augmentee par M. Knecht et M. Jules Desportes, 
directeur du journal Le Lithographe. Ouvrage ome d'un atlas. 
Paris : 1850. i8mo. pp. 461. 

Brehm (C). Griindliche Bericht von Erfindung der edlen und hoch- 
niitzlichen Buchdruckereykunst auf das nunmehr 200jahrig ein- 
getretene Jubel-Fest. Dresden : 1640. 4to. 
An essay on the origin of printing, written for the festival to commemorate its two 
• hundredth birthday. Translated into Latin as follows : — 



plates, illustrating the gospels, published 
about 1480 by G. Leeu. Deventer 
does not appear to have possessed any 
school of engravers of its own. Renou- 
vier, in his History of the Origin of 
Engraving in the Low Countries, passes 
the place over in silence. Dibdin, in the 
" Bibliographical Decameron," pp. 285- 
296, :*nd Sotheby in " Principia Typo- 
graphica," vol. i. pp. 178, 179, both think 
that in an edition of the Orations of 
Philippe Beroalde, printed without date, 
there is a device containing a roll, on 
which is inscribed the name of Jacob de 
Breda, printed in movable characters. 
Holtrop thinks that the portrait accom- 
panying it is that of the printer himself. 
The device of De Breda which we repro- 
duce represents the emblems of the Tour 
Evangelists, and between them the sacred 
monogram, I H S. Before 1500 another 
printer commenced in this city, named 
Theodore de Borne. 



Expositio Inventionis Artis Typographicae latine reddita a J. G. 

Sucksdorfio. In Wolf, *' Monumenta Typographica," vol. i. pp. 
930-969. 

Breitkopf (Bernard Christopher). Schrift-Probe .... welche in 
Herrn Bernard Christoph I3reitkopfs Schriftgiesserey allhier befind- 
lich sind. Leipzig : 1 739. 8vo. 

This is a specimen book of the Breit- 
kopf foundry. "In the preface we read 
that ' men should note that in this 



Foundry of B. C. Breitkopf all the types 
have been cut in steel,' meaning that they 
engraved all their own punches, and did 
not buy ' strikes ' from other founders. 
There are twenty-two founts of Gothic 



Artopaus, And. Koler, of Nurenberg. 
Christian Zingk, of Wittenberg, and Joh. 
Caspar Muller, of Leipzig." — Blades. 

Bernard Christopher Breitkopf founded 
this business in 1719. He was a clever 
journeyman printer who had come poor 
into Leipzig. In 1765 Goethe went there 
as a student and formed the acquaintance 



letter, eight titling caps, ten Roman, with of Breitkopf, who was as good a musician 

an italic to each, two Hebrew, and three as a printer. Goethe's earliest poems were 

Greek. The names of the various punch- set to music by Breitkopfs son, the author 

cutters are mentioned; viz., Joh. Peter of the works to be next mentioned. 



OFTHE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



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TYPE-PLAN OF THE ENVIRONS OF 



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, EXECUTED IN 1 776 HY HREITKOPF. 



OFTHE 

UNIVERSITY 



Bibliofyraphy of P'riiitiiig. 8i 

Breitkopf (Johann Gottliel) Imnianuel). Beschreibuiig des Reiclis 
der Liebe, mit beygefiigter Landchaite, Ein zweyter Versuch im 
Satz und Druck geographischer Charten durch die Buchdrucker- 
kunst. Leipzig : 1777. 4to. 

Der Quelle der Wiinsche. Zum Neuenjahr, Nebst einer 

Landcharte. Leipzig: 1779. 4to. 

Of the two above-descriVjed humorous pamphlets, the first was written, drawn, 
composed, and printed within three days, on the occasion of a wedding. 



Exemplum Typographia; Sinicis, figuris characterum e typis 

mobilibiis compositum. Lipsiae : 1789. 410. 
Specimens of Chinese type in movable characters. 

Nachricht von der Stempelschneiderey und Schriftgiesserey. 



Leipzig : 1777. 4to. 



Ueber den Druck der geographischen Charten, nebst beigefiig- 

ter Probe einer durch die Buchdruckerkunst gesetzten und gedruck- 
ten Landcharte. Leipzig : 1 777. 4to. 
A description of an invention for print- only his dissatisfaction with the residt 
ing maps with movable type. Breitkopf obtained that induced him to keep his 
claimed to have been the inventor of achievements to himself. We reproduce 
map-printing by the use of types, or what a type-map by Breitkopf, which certainly 
is known as "typometry." William deserves to rank among the curiosities 
Haas, a type-founder of Basle, appears of printing. It is a most ingenious per- 
to have previously published a method formance, and the original letterpress 
somewhat similar, but Breitkopf had was composed exactly a century ago — 
been experimenting on the matter for in 1776. A second part was subsequently 
some twelve years previously, and it was published, with the following title : — 

Zweiter Versuch des Satzes geographischer Karten durch die 

Buchdruckerkunst. Leipzig : 1778. 4to. 

Ueber die Geschichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 

Bei Gelegenheit einiger neueren dartiber geausserten besonderen 
Meynungen. Nebst der vorlaufigen Anzeige des Inhaltes seiner Ge- 
schichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. Leipzig : 1 779. 4to. 
The History of the Invention of Printing announced in this work was never 

published. 



Ueber die wSchriftgiesserey und Stempelschneiderey. In Netie 

Bibliothek der schbueit Wissenschaflen, vol. xxi. Berlin: 1778. 8vo. 

Versuch, den Ursprung der Spielkarten, die Einfiihrung deS 

Leinenpapieres, und den Anfang der Holzschneidekunst in Europa- 
Leipzig: 1784. 4to. Title and dedication, 2 leaves; pp. 136; 

14 plates placed in accordance with list on pp. 126-128. 

Theil ii. Beytrage zu emer Geschichte der Schreibekunst, so wie 
der Schonschreibekunst .... nebst einer Geschichte der Malerei in 
den Handschriften. Aus des Verfassers Nachlasse herausgegeben 
und mit einer Vorrede begleitet von J. C. F. Koch. Leipzig : 
1801. 4to. pp. xxii. 218. 

A learned and practical treatise on the of wood-engraving, with many citations 
origin of playing-cards, the introduction of authority for the statements made, 
of paper made from linen into the various The plates are very curious, 
countries of Europe, and the invention 

M 



82 



Bibliography of Printing. 



J. G. I. Breitkoi'F was an eminent 
printer, type-founder, and bookseller, of 
Leipzig, where he was born in 1719 and 
died in 1794. The art of map-printing 
with movable types mentioned above 
was invented simultaneously, in two 
different towns, by Breitkopf and by Wil- 
helm Haas, the type-founder of Basle 
{^see Pkinting Times and Litho- 
GRAPHEK, June 15, 1875). In the essay 
on the History of Playing Cards he treats 
only on their origin, and that of linen 
paper ; the latter part of the work, on 
the invention of engraving on wood, was 
hnished before his 'death, but had a post- 
humous publication. He introduced 
great improvements in letterpress music- 
types about the year 1754 ; indeed, he is 
said to have been "the first to cast, about 
1748, the music in type now so common." 
The specimen-book of the firm of En- 
schede & Co., Haarlem (<?. 7'.), seems, 
however, to disprove this statement, and 
gives to J. M. Fleischman, of Nurem- 
berg, the credit of having first engraved, 
in 1760, movable music type. The Elec- 
toral Princess of Dresden was so much 
pleased with his plan that she gave 
him the music of a drama of her own 
composition to print. In this music 
type the notes were each composed of 
separate pieces. (Printing Times and 
Lithographer, October, 1875, article 
on Music Printing.) In Notes and 
Queries, .ser. i. vol. vi. p. 291, Mr. W. 
Sparrow Simpson. B.A., asks what is the 
date of the invention of printing music 
by movable types. Hone's "Everyday 
Book" (i. 185) refers to Breitkopf as the 
inventor. Mr. Simpson, however, says 
he has in his possession a book printed 



by John Daye in 1582, in which he says 
he has "caused a new print of note to 
be made, with letters to be joined to 
every note, whereby thou mayest know- 
how to call every note by its right name." 
The notes are of the lozenge-shape. The 
correspondent asks, When did this form 
supersede the black, solid note of rec- 
tangular outline ? When did it in turn 
give way to the modern musical nota- 
tion ? What are the first printed examples 
of the three methods of notation ? To 
this query no answer has been given. 
He also improved the shape of the 
German characters. At the time of his 
death his office was one of the largest 
in Germany. His son, Christoph Gott- 
lob, grandson of the founder of the 
firm, entered into partnership with Gott- 
fried Christoph Hiirtel, and carried on 
the business until his death in 1800. 
M. Hartel then acquired it, and it 
is still in existence, under the title of 
Breitkopf & Hartel. In January, 1869, 
there was celebrated the 150th anniver- 
sary of its foundation. It has, in the 
meantime, so extended its field of opera- 
tions as to include letterpress-printing, 
lithography, stereotyping, and electro- 
typing, bookselling, publishing, type- 
founding, music-printing and publishing, 
and the manufacture on a large scale of 
pianofortes. The present actual owners 
of the business are the youngest son of 
Gottfried Hartel, Councillor Raymond 
Hartel, and two grandsons of the former 
from their mother's side, viz., Wilhelm 
Volkmann and Dr. Georg Oscar Immanuel 
Hase. The offices were removed in 1867 
to the Niirnberger Strasse, 



Breitkopf und Hartel, BucMrucker, Buch- und Musikalienhiindler 

in Leipzig. Aus den Papieren des Breitkopf und Harterschen 

Geschaftsarchivs. (Sonderabdruck aus der *' AllgemeinenDeutschen 

Biographie.") Leipzig: 1875. 4to. 

Amonographof the family of Breitkopf & Hartel, from the pen of Dr. Oscar Hase. 

Proben neuer Schriften aus der Schriftgiesserei. Leipzig : 

(1840?). Svo. 
Specimens of new letters from the foundry of Breitkopf S: Hartel. 



Brenton (James J.). Voices from the Press ; a Collection of Sketches, 
Essays, and Poems by Practical Printers. New York : 1850. 
Svo. pp. iv. 312. 



This contains many creditable literary 
compositions, especially when it is known 
that all the contributors were, either at 
the time or formerly, working men. The 
only articles of a technical character are : 
"The Press," by J. R. Trumbull; the 



" Four Printers' Monument, " by B. P. 
Shillaber; "The Press," by W. O. 
Bourne ; " Franklin," by Bayard Taylor; 
"The Genius of the Press," by Edward 
A. McLaughlin ; " Address before Boston 
Typographical Society," by B. P. Poore 



Bibliography of Printing. 83 

" Eminent Printers," and " Conservative Shillaber ; and an " Epitaph on a Printer," 

Power of the Press," by C. C. Ha7ewell ; by E. A. M'L. There are biographical 

"The Old Ramage Press," by W. O. notices ot the contributors, many of 

Bourne; "The Old Printer," by B. P. which are very interesting. 

BREVlfeRE (A,). De la Xilographie on Gravure sur Bois. Rouen: 
1833. 8vo. 

Brief Discourse concerning Printing and Printers. All is serviemus, 
nosmetipsos conterimus. London : 1663. 8vo. pp. 24. 

"Complains that printers are oppressed by the stationers, who pay them starving 
prices for their work, and this is the reason why no good printing is seen in 
England. The remedy is to honour printers as they do in foreign countries." — 
Blades. 

Brightly (Charles). Account of the Method of Casting Stereotype, 
as practised by Charles Brightly. Bungay : 1809. 8vo. pp. 60. 
3 plates. 
The author was a member of a firm of day were violently opposed to what they 
printers at Bungay, who were largely regarded as exceedingly inimical to their 
engaged in the production of popular interests. The system followed by 
literature at a low cost. They were Charles Brightly was that of Lord Stan- 
among the first to adopt stereotyping, hope, with some slight variations. 
and at some risk, for the printers of the 

Brill (E. J.). Het gehed des Heeren, in veertien talen. Strekkende 
tot proeve van Letters, van het gewoon Europeesch karakter 
afwijkende. Leiden : 1855. 4to. 
The Lord's Prayer in fourteen Oriental languages, issued as a specimen of Brill's 
Oriental types. 

- — - — Proeve van Letteren der Boekdrukkerij van E. J. Brill te 
Leiden. 1859. 8vo. 
Specimens of the types used by Brill, printer at Leyden, and successor to the old 
firm of S. & J. Luchtmans in the same city. 

Brimmer (George). The Composing Room ; a Serio-Comico-Satirico- 
Poetico Production — oh ! In three cantos. By George lirimmer, 
M.L.U.C., Imposer, Corrector, Locker-up, Layer-up, and Dis- 
tributor of Types at some of the Principal Offices in the Metropolis 
of Great Britain. London: 1835. Demy 8vo. 92 pp. 

This poem abounds in the slang of the printing-office, and gives a very vivid 
]j!cture of the manners and customs of the compositors of the period. It is very 
smartly written. 

Brockett (J. T. ). Hints on the Propriety of Establishing a Typo- 
graphic Society in Nev^^castle-upon-Tyne. By J. T. Brockett. 
1818. 

Two hundred copies printed. The of Willet's " Origin of Printing," Willet's 

society was founded in the same year, "Observations" {see Mukrav, John), 

and Vjetween 1818 and 1857 it appears, Santander's "Historical Essay" {see 

from Bohn's edition of Lowndes (1864), Hodgson, Thomas), Ged's "Memoirs" 

to have issued about ninety separate and " Hodgson on Stereotype Printing," 

volumes. Among them are Brockett's —all of which will be found in their 

" Memoir of Bewick," and his edition alphabetical order in this list. 

Memoir of Thomas Bewick. With a descriptive Catalogue of 



his Works. Newcastle-on-Tyne : 1830. 8vo. 
Contains a portrait and woodcuts. Twenty-five copies only were printed, at the 
instance of the Newcastle-on-Tyne Typographical Society. 



84 Bibliography of Printing. 

Brockhaus (F. a.) in Leipzig, Buchhandlung, Buchdruckerei, Schrift- 
giesserei, Stereolypengiesserei, Stahl- und Kupferdruckerei, Ma- 
schinenwerkstatt. [i860]. 4to. pp. 12. 
In FVench and German. A history of the house of Brockhaus, and account of 
several industries. 

Pioben der Holzschnitt-Illustralionen in Leipzig in Bleiab- 



glissen und Kupfemiederschlagen zu beziehen. 1873. 8vo. 
Specimens of engraved illustrations in stereo and electrotype. 

Proben der Schriftgiesserei und Buchdruckerei. Leipzig 



1847. 8vo. 

Brockhaus (Heinrich Eduard). Friedrich Arnold Brockliaus, — sein 

Leben und Wirken, nach Briefen und anderen Aufzeichnungen 

geschiklert von seinem Enkel Heinrich Eduard Brockhaus. Mit 

einem Biklniss, vols. i. and ii. Leipzig : 1872-75. 8vo. 

Account of the life and works of F. A. Brockhaus, the type-founder and printer 

of Leipzig, by his grandson, who, with his brother, now conducts the business. A 

tliird volume is in course of publication. 

Brokckx (C). Lettre a M. le Docteur P. J. van Meerbeeck de 
Malines sur une publication de R. Dodoens, inconnue des Biblio- 
philes. Anvers : 1862. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Notice sur un Livre de Medecine pretenduement imprime en 



1 401. Anvers : 1847. 8vo. pp. 21. 

Bronner (H. L.). Proben der neuen Antiqua, Cursiv und Fraktur 
Schriften. Frankfurt : 1826. 8vo. 

Brofferio (Angelo). Cenni Storici intorno all' Arte Tipografica e 
suoi progress! in Piemonte, dali' invenzione della Stampa sino al 
1835. Milano : 1876. 8vo. 

Brogiotti (Andreas F.). Indice de' Caratteri con I'lnventori e Nonii 
di essi esistenti nella Stampa Vaticana e Camerale. Roma : 1628. 
8vo. pp. 74, printed on one side only. 

Sixty-seven specimens of types in European and Oriental languages of all descrip- 
tions, also musical types, in the printing-office of the Vatican. 

Brookfield (Rev. W. IL). Paris Exhibition : Reports on Classes. 
Printing and Books, Class VI. (Reprinted in Illustrated Ne^as, 
August 17, 1867.) 

This contains a full account of the 1867, as manifested by the exhibits of 

system of management prevailing in the that year. A description is given of the 

French printing-offices, and a careful celebrated office of Mame, at Tours 

estimate of the condition of printing in {g. v.). 

Brotherly Meeting of the Masters and Workmen-Printers, began 

November 5, 1621 ; the first Sermon being on November 5, 1628; 

and hath been continued by the Stewards whose names follow in 

this Catalogue, to this present 2nd of May, 1682. 

' Frafjments of a V)roadside in the British pany," vol. i.) gives further particular^ 

Museum. Mr. Arber (" Transcript of concerning this feast. He discovered a 

the Registers of the Stationers' Com- complete copy of this document among 



Bibliography of Printing. 



the Bagford collection (Harleian MSS.). 
Moxon's " Mechanick Exercises," vol. ii., 
number xxiii., p. 363, gives an account 
of the " Brotherly Meeting," which, 
it appears, consisted of a feast, par- 
taken of both by the London masters 
and journeyrhen, at Stationers' Hall, 
every year. There were four stewards 
appointed, two of them masters and two 
of them journeymen ; and the guests paid 
2s. 6d. each to defray the expenses. The 
feast was generally kept about May-day, 
and the proceedings commenced in the 
morning with divine worship at some 
church, a sermon being afterwards 
preached suitable to the occasion. On 
returning to Stationers' Hall various 
amusements were provided. The dinner 



followed, the masters, wardens, and 
"grandees" of the company occupying 
places at an upper table. At the end, a 
plate was sent round " to collect the bene- 
volence of charitable minds towards the 
relief of printers' poor widows." At the 
same time the stewards distributed " a 
catalogue of such printers as have held 
Stewards ever since the feast was first 
kept, viz., from the year of Christ 1621." 
The broadside described above is one of 
these catalogues, which was delivered to 
the guests at the meeting of May, 1682. 
After dinner, stewards were elected for the 
ensuing year, and various convivial cere- 
monies took place. The proceedings 
ended with " musick, songs, dancing, 
farcing, &c." 



Brothers of Common Life," or "Common Lot. 



This Brotherhood, according to Hol- 
trop (" Monumens Typographiques "), 
introduced printing into Brussels about 
1476. The first book with a date that is 
known to have proceeded from their 
press is the " Gnotosolitos," a large 
volume in folio, containing about 1,000 • 
pages. It is dated 25th May, 1476. The 
last book with a date printed by the 
Brotherhood is " Pars hiemalis Ordinarii 
ecclesia; Leodiensis " ; it is dated 1487. 
The Brotherhood possessed only three 
kinds of types. In the imprint of the 
" Gnotosolitos" it is stated that the work 
"ex originaliipsiusauctoris manu exarato 
effigiatum est." Lambinet has inter- 
preted the passage as implying that the 
type with which the book was executed 
was engraved after the original writing 
of the author. But Holtrop believes that 
the words meant simply that the book 
was printed from the manuscript written 
by the author himself. The types used 
by the Brotherhood resemble very much 
those of Arnold Therhoernen at Cologne, 
and it is probable that they were made 
by him, especially as the Order had an 
establishment in that city. 

The book entitled " Legendse Sanc- 
torum Henrici ImperatorisetKunegundis 
Imperatricis," of 1484, is the only book to 
which the Brothers put their name thus : 
" Impresse in famosa civitate Bruxellensi, 
per fratres communis vitse in Nazareth." 
It is also the only book of theirs that was 
ornamented with engravings. Plates 62 
and 63 of Holtrop give facsimiles of their 
types. 

This Brotherhood, known as "Fratres 
Vitae Communis," which is better trans- 
lated the " Fraternal Community," was 
an order instituted under the rule of St. 
Augustine. The founder was Gerard 
Groot (the latter word being a Dutch 



adjective signifying "Great"), born 1340, 
died 13B4. The generally-received state- 
ment is that he received a superior 
education at Paris, but fell into dissolute 
habits, from which an earnest word of 
warning from a fellow student aroused 
him as by a miracle. He thenceforth de- 
voted himself to reclaiming men of evil 
lives, and was so successful in his labours 
that he founded at Deventer the Fratres 
Vitae Communis, devoted to like duties, 
who lived with one heart, one soul, and 
one common property, under the obliga- 
tion to support themselves by transcribing 
the Scriptures and other holy works. 
Gerard Groot's biographer, Thomas a 
Kempis, however, gives a somewhat dif- 
ferent account of his early career. He 
says : " Non Christi gloriam quferebat, sed 
magni nominis umbram sequens, famam 
potissimum curabat humanam." The 
patents of successive Popes confirmed and 
extended the privileges of the Order, and 
in 1402 it possessed seven monasteries. 
Their productions illustrate the stage 
of transition between the ancient scribe 
and printer, by showing how naturally 
one succeeded to the other. The priest- 
hood were at that time the chief custo- 
dians of learning ; being intrusted by the 
Popes with the copying of the Scriptures 
and of ecclesiastical works, as well as the 
bulls and edicts of the Church authorities. 
The monasteries also contained registers 
in which were entered accounts of public 
events, the royal succession, the accounts 
of the clergy, their succession in office, the 
deliberations of their councils, &c., — in 
brief, the current history of the times. 
In his " Lettres d'un Bibliographe," 
Mons. J. P. A. Madden— formerly Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics of the University 
of Paris, who is the possessor of a fine 
library of valuable books— gives some 



86 



Bibliography of Printing. 
wmKom 







f ^M Ui— 




BROTHERS OF COMMON I. IFF.," r,KUSSF,LS, 1476-I484, 



Bibliography of Printing. 87 

learned bibliographical information con- and displayed, supporting a shield with 

cerning the Brothers, both as caligraphers the arms of Brabant quarterly, with a 

and typographers. The device preceding river in bend, and star. The inscription 

is found on the last page of the " Le- at the bottom is interesting as a speci- 

gendae Sanctorum Henrici Imperatoris men of the style of caligraphy of the 

et Kunegundis Imperatricis," Brussels, period. 
1484. It consists of the Eagle, crowned 

Brotier (Gabr.). Vie de H. L. Guerin. Paris: 1788. 8vo. 

Brou (Charles de). Marques d'Imprimeurs. [Bruxelles : 1850.] 
8vo. pp. 8. 
Only 25 copies reprinted from the Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige. 

Quelques Mots sur la Gravure sur Bois au Millesime de 1418. 

Bruxelles : 1846. 4to. pp. 18. 7 plates. 
On the authenticity of the date of 1418 on a woodcut discovered at the bottom of 
an old coffin. Prior to its discovery, the earliest known wood-engraving was the 
famous St. Christopher of 1423. 

Recherches bibliographiques sur quelques incunables precieux 

de la bibliotheque du Due de Arenberg. Bruxelles : 1849. 8vo. 
Facsimiles of printers' marks, &c. 

Brown (Orren L. ). Types ; a Description of Brown's Patent Type- 
setting and Distributing Machine. Boston : 1870. 8vo. 

Browne (Alexander). Ars Pictoria ; or, an Academy teaching Draw- 
ing, Painting, Limning, Etching; to which are added 31 copper- 
plates. London : 1675. Folio. 

Bruce (David). Typefounding in the United States. An article, re- 
produced from the Typographic Messenger, in the Prmter' s Journal , 
vol. i., New Series, p. 219. 

Bruce (David and George). Specimens of Printing Types. New 
York : 181 5. 8vo. 
The Bruce type-foundry is one of the above was the first specimen-book issu-id 
most important establishments of the by the firm. Some years afterwards they 
kind in New York. It was established relinquished the printing business, and 
by David Bruce, born 1770, in Scotland, devoted themselves to type-founding in 
and died 1857, ^'^ New York. He served connection with stereotyping. David 
his apprenticeship to the printing business Bruce, junior, his son, invented in 1838 
in Edinburgh, emigrated to the United the type-casting machine which is now 
States in 1793, and found employment in generally used throughout America and 
New York as a pressman. In 1806 he Europe. George Bruce, brother of 
started, in conjunction with his brother David, carried out the laborious and ex- 
George, a printing-office, and while con- pensive task of harmonizing and gradu- 
ducting it became interested in what was ating the size of the different bodies of 
then the new art of stereotyping. He type as they ranged in the eleven series 
went to England in 1812 to learn the pro- from pearl to canon, and introduced the 
cess, but could not obtain much informa- body called "agate," which is largely used 
tion concerning it. He returned to New by the American newspapers. In 1863 
York, and began experiments which re- he was elected president of the New 
suited in his being able to establish the York Type- Founders' Association, and 
system in his adopted country. The filled the office up to his death in 1866. 

Bruckner (G.). Geschichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, 
zur 400-jahrigen it^^iuttonbergsfeier odor zum Culturfest der 



88 Bibliography of Printing. 

Menschheit im Jahre 1840, fiir Volk unci Jugend. Schleusingen : 
1840. 8vo. 

History of the discovery of printing, written for the festival to commemorate 
the 400th anniversary of Gutenberg's invention. 

BRUfeRE (T.). Le Polypotype, ou Histoire de I'lmprimerie sous la 
figure d'un monstre. Paris : 1827. 8vo. pp. 56. 

Brugsch (Hem-y). Memoire sur la Reproduction imprimee des Carac- 
teres de I'ancienne ecriture demotique des Egyptiens. Berlin : 
1868. 8vo. 

Ueber Bildung und Entwickelung der Schrift. Berlin : 1868, 

8vo. pp. 32. One plate. 

Bruillot (Frangois). Dictionnaire des Monogrammes, Marques 
figurees, Lettres initiales, Noms abreges, etc., avec lesquels les 
peintres, dessinateurs, graveurs, et sculpteurs ont designe leurs 
noms. Nouvelle edition, revue, corrigee, et augmentee d'un 
grand nombre d'articles. Munich : 1832, '33, '35. Vol. i. 
pp. 454 ; vol. ii. pp. 440; vol. iii. pp. 195. 

Brun (J. Ant.). A Plan for the Detection and Prevention of Forgery, 
by which the Bank may be enabled to exhibit to the Public the 
proofs of the forgery of its notes without offering any advani age to 
forgers. Followed by a demonstration proving the existence of a 
radical but curable evil attached to the present mode of relief in 
recovering bank-notes. Translated from the French. London : 
1818. 8vo. pp. 34. 

Describes a new method of printing bank-notes in partially invisible and sympa- 
thetic inks, and an improved method of making paper, to prevent forgery. 

Brun (Marcelin). Manuel pratique et abrege de la Typographic 

Fran9aise. Paris: 1825. i2mo. Second edition. Bruxelles : 

1826. i2mo. pp. 233. 

This little work, published and printed graphic point of view. Firmin Didot 

by the firm of Didot pere et fils, is a superintended the printing, and the book 

practical typographical manual, treating possesses the singular feature of not con- 

of every branch of composition and press- taining one divided word throughout, 
work. It is quite a gem from a typo- 



Kurzes practisches Handbuch der Buchdruckerkunst in Frank- 

reich ; aus dem Franzosischen, mit Zusatzen, Anmerkungen und 
Zeichnungen von W. Hasper. Carlsruhe und Baden : 1828. 8vo. 
pp. iv. 252, and five leaves representing cases as made up in dif- 
ferent countries. 

A German translation of the preceding, with additions by Hasper. 



— Articles : Calcographie, Lithographic, Imprimerie, Imprimerie 
en taille-douce, Imprimerie mecanique. In " Dictionnaire des 
Arts et Manufactures." 2 vols. Paris. Imp. 8vo. Several 
editions. 



Bib/iography of Printing. 89 

Brunet (Gustave). Firmin-Didot et sa Famille. Paris : 1870. 4to. 
PP- 15- 
A memoir of the celebrated French Didots in the Printing Times and 
family of printers. A beautiful steel Lithographer, March, April, and May, 
engraved portrait of Firmin-Didot forms 1876 ; also Didot, in this Bibliography, 
the frontispiece. See account of the 

Imprimeurs imaginaires et Libraires supposes. Etude biblio- 



graphique, suivie de recherches sur quelques ouvrages imprimes 
avec des indications fictives de lieux, ou avec des dates singulieres. 
Paris : 1866. 8vo. pp. xii. 290. 

The nature of this curious volume is in- the people were strictly proscribed, and 

dicated by the title. At the end the their publishers were compelled to adopt 

author says: "We know of few books a disguise. Some copies of the New 

printed in England with fictitious im- Testament, produced by Tyndall in 

prints or falsified localities. The liberty March, 1530, had the names of printers 

which the press enjoys there renders who were not in existence ; they were 

unnecessary the adoption of a subterfuge printed clandestinely in Germany, and 

of the kind. The first editions of the are now excessively rare." 
Scriptures in the common language of 

Recherches sur diverses Editions Elzeviriennes, faisant suite 



aux Etudes de MM. Berard et Pieters, extraites des papiers de 
M. Millot. Paris : 1866. 8vo. pp. 188. 

Contains a full account of the celebrated printing-house of the Elzevirs, as well 
as of their first productions. 257 copies printed. 

Brunet (Jacques-Charles). Manuel du L/ibraire et de I'Amateur de 
Livres. Cinquieme edition originale, enticrement refondue et 
augmentee d'.un tiers par I'auteur. 6 vols. Paris : 1860-65. Royal 
8vo. 

Brunei's Manual ha.s long been re- turies. Interspersed throughout the work 

cognized as a standard necessary to all are numerous marks of printers and 

in any way connected with bibliogra- publishers. The sixth volume is a Table 

phy, and is of itself a model of bibho- of 31,872 titles of books, the majority of 

graphy. The first five volumes consist which are not described in the preceding 

of a general alphabet of books in all five volumes. Being arranged in order 

languages, with interesting notes, quota- of classification, this Table is exceedingly 

tions of value or of prices realized at useful, the additional titles being those of 

sales. At the end of the fifth volume books described as useful books but of 

is a notice of the Books of Hours ordinary price, and not worthy of being 

printed at Paris at the end of the placed in the class of rare books. 
fifteenth and part of the sixteenth cen- 

Bruyn (Hendrik) en Comp. Verbeterde Letterproefwaarin verscheide 
nieuwe Schriften. Amsterdam : [1810]. 8vo, 
Specimens of new type from the foundry of H. Bruyn & Co. 

Bruyn (G. W. van Oosten de). De Stad Haarlem en hare geschiede- 
nissen. Haarlem : 1765. Folio. Portrait of Coster, engraved by 
Houbraken. 
History of Haarlem, introducing an account of the alleged invention of printing 

by Koster. 

Bryan (Michael). A Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters 
and Engravers, from the revival of the art under Cimabue and 
the alleged discovery of engraving by Finiguerra to the present 

N 



90 



Bibliography of Priniiug. 



time, with the cyphers, monograms, and marks used by each 

engraver. 2 vols. London : 1816. 4to. New edition, revised 

and enlarged, and continued to the present time, comprising above 
one thousand additional memoirs and large accessions to the list 
of pictures and engravings. By George Stanley. London : 1849. 
Imp. Svo. pp. 938. Plates of monograms. 




BASLE : 1536-1565. 

Brylinger (Nicolas). This device is taken from the title-page of 
" Pantaleonis Henrici, Prosopographioe Heroum atque illustrium 
Virorum totius Germaniae," 3 vols, folio, 1 565. This curious 
book is full of portraits, most of them fancifully drawn, and the 
same portrait is often used for several men. The profile portrait 
of Frobenius, for instance, is bearded, and not at all like the medal 
struck in honour of this eminent printer. The portrait of Guten- 
berg in vol. ii. is given as the portrait of " Gisbertus Longolius, 
professor Coloniensis," in vol. iii., and very likely in several other 
places. Brylinger must have printed a considerable number of 
books. His device consists of an hour-glass held by a lion, sur- 
rounded by two other lions in various attitudes. 

BuCHDRUCKEREiEN, Die, der Schweitz. Mit erlauternden und er- 
ganzenden Anmerkungen. Eine Gelegenheitsschrift zur Feier des 



Bibliography of Printing. 91 

4tcn Jubelfestes der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, heraus- 
gegeben von P. W. St. Gallen : 1836. 8vo. 
Account of printing in Switzerland, written for the fourth jubilee of the invention 
of the art. 

BuCHDRUCKERFEST, Das, in Stuttgart. Gefeiert den 24. Juni, 1840. 
In schwabischem Dialekte vom Verfasser der Schrift : " Der Bauer 
beim Schillersfest." Stuttgart : 1840. 8vo. 

Buchdruckerkunst und Schriftgiesserey, mit ihren Schriften, 
Formaten und alien dazu gehorigen Instrumenten abgebildet auch 
klarlich beschrieben. Mit einer Vorrede von G. F. Kappens. 
2 vols. Leipzig : 1 740. 

BucHDRUCKZEiCHNUNG, Die, oder Glyphographie. Enthaltend eine 
Beschreibung dieser neuen Erfindung nebst Anleitung fiir Kiinstler. 
Mit zahlreichen Buchdruckzeichnungen. Leipzig : 1846. 4to. 
Description of the then newly-invented glyphography. 

Buchhaendler-Album. Portrait-Galerie verdienter und namhafter 

Buchhandler, Buchdrucker, Kunst- und Musikalienhandler aus 

alterer wie neuerer Zeit. Mit begleitenden biographischen Skiz- 

zen. Leipzig : 1868. 4to. 

A series of portraits of booksellers, printers, engraving and music dealers of past 

and present times, with biographical sketches. Published in numbers. 

BUCHHOLZ (Carl). Humoristische Reise-Skizzen eines wandernden 
Typographen. Siegen : 1862. 8vo. 
The tales of a travelling printer, the narrative frequently verging on the coarse. 

BUCH- UND Geschaftsfuhrung, Die, fiir Buchdnickereien. An- 
leitung zur doppelten Buchhaltung. Leipzig : 1868. 4to. 

Guide to double entry book-keeping for the printing house. Reprinted from the 
A rchiv fiir Buchdruckjrkunst. 

Buckingham (James Silk), Autobiography of, including his Voyages, 
Travels, Adventures, Speculations, Successes, and Failures, faith- 
fully and frankly narrated, interspersed with characteristic sketches 
of public men with whom he has had intercourse, during a period 
of more than fifty years. With a portrait. 2 vols. London : 
1855. 8vo. pp. XV. 400 ; xii. 424. 

James Silk Buckingham was a remark- London printing-offices and at the Claren- 

able man, and these volumes give an don Press, Oxford. He sought to set up 

interesting account of his career. Their a press in India, but was compelled to 

chief value, in a typographical aspect, is quit the country by the East-India Com- 

the reminiscences contained of Bucking- pany, who at that time virtually wielded 

ham's experiences as a printer in several supreme power. 

[Bullet (J. B.).] Recherches historiques sur les Cartes-a-jouer, avec 
des notes critiques. Lyon: 1757. 8vo. 

Bulmer (William). This celebrated printer was born in Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, and early formed a friendship with Thomas Bewick, hte 
wood-engraver, which lastc'd throughout their lives. (A good 



92 Bibliography of Printing. 

memoir of Thomas Bewick, the elder of the brothers Bewick, with 
a portrait, is given in the Gentleman^ s Magazine, vol. xcix. pp. 17 
and 132). Buhner was apprenticed to Thompson the printer, at 
Newcastle, but on the completion of his service went to London. 
He became acquainted with George Nicol, bookseller to King 
George III., who was then projecting the magnificent national 
edition of Shakespeare which he had suggested to the Boydells. 




W. BULMER. 



Premises were engaged in Cleveland Row, St. James's, and the 
* Shakespeare Press " was established under the style of W. 
Bulmer & Co. "This estalilishment," says Dibdin, " was un- 
questionably an honour both to the founders in particular and the 
public at large. Our greatest poet, our greatest painter, and two 
of our most respectable publishers and printers, were all embarked 
in one common white-hot crucible, from Avhich issued so pure and 



Bibliography of Friiiting, 93 

brilliant a flame on fusion that it gladdened all eyes and hearts, and 
threw a neM^ and revivifying lustre on the threefold arts of Paint- 
ing, Engraving, and Printing. The nation appeared to be not less 
struck than astonished, and our venerable monarch, George III., 
felt anxious, not only to give such a magnificent establishment 
every degree of royal support, but, infected with the matrix and 
puncheon mania, he had even contemplated the creation of a Royal 
Printing-office within the walls of his own palace." The first 
number of the " Boyd ell Shakespeare " appeared in January, 1794, 
and at once established Bulmer's fame as the first practical printer 
of the day. In Dibdin's "Bibliographical Decameron," vol. ii. 
pp. 384-395, there is a list of the books printed at the Shakespeare 
Press, with bibliographical and critical remarks. Next to th^ 
" Shakespeare," the edition of Milton, 3 vols. fo. (i 793-1 797) ^s 
considered the finest production of Bulmer's office. These two 
books are represented in the portrait annexed, which was engraved 
for Hansard's " Typographia." In 1795 he printed a 4to. edition of 
Goldsmith's and Parnell's poems, dedicated to the founders of the 
Shakespeare printing-office, Boydells and Nicol. The advertise- 
ment says that the volume, with others, are "particularly meant to 
combine the various beauties of printing, type-founding, engraving, 
and paper-making, as well as with a view to ascertain the near 
approach to perfection which those arts have attained to in this 
country,, as to invite a fair competition with the best typographical 
productions of other nations." Bulmer goes on to say that "the 
ornaments are all engraved on blocks of wood by my earliest ac- 
quaintances, Messrs. Bewicks, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London. 
They form the most extraordinary effort of the art of engraving 
upon wood that ever was produced in any age or in any country. 
Of the paper, it is only necessary to say that it comes from the 
manufactory of Mr. Whatman." This work was highly appreciated 
by the public, and produced a clear profit to the printer of ;^i,500. 
Stimulated by this great success, in 1796 Bulmer issued an illus- 
trated 4to. edition of Somerville's "Chase." In 1804, the 
Goldsmith, Parnell, and Somerville were reprinted in an 8vo. 
volume, for Cadell & Davies, who had purchased the blocks. 
Bulmer afterwards printed the second, third, and fourth volumes 
of Dibdin's edition of Herbert & Ames's "Typographical Antiqui- 
ties " in two colours, the first volume being printed by William 
Savage, the author of "Decorative Printing" {q.v.). Bulmer 
also printed the " Bibliotheca Spenceriana," in 4 vols., as well as 
the "Bibliographical Decameron," which was the finest of all of 
Dibdin's works from a typographical point of view. We cannot 
give here anything like a list of the books that proceeded from 
this famous press. We may mention, however, that Bulmer 
had the honour of printing Wilkins's Sanskrit Grammar, a quarto 
volume of 662, xx. pages, with three pages of copperplates added, 
containing the compound consonants, beautifully executed and 
most exquisitely printed. This, we believe, was the first Sanskrit 
Grammar printed in Europe. The punches were designed and cut 
by the author himself, and the beauty of the characters is highly 



94 Bibliography of Printing. 

creditable to his ingenuity. The date of the book is 1808. After 
continuing in business for about thirty years, Bulmer retired in 1819 
with a well-earned fortune. His successor was William Nicol, the 
only son of his old friend. Bulmer died at Clapham Rise, on the 
9th September, 1830, aged 74, and was buried in St. Clement 
Danes' churchyard in the Strand. A careful and appreciative 
review of the works of Bulmer, with an account of his life, was 
given in the Gentlema7i's Magazine, October, 1830, p. 305, et seq. 
It occupies upwards of ten columns, and is accompanied by a fine 
lithographed portrait, painted and drawn on stone by James 
Ramsay, with a facsimile of his autograph. The editor (who was 
familiar with Bulmer) says that the latter is superior to the wood- 
engraving in Hansard, which we reprint ; while as to the portrait 
in the " Decameron," it is "not recognizable, having been taken 
when Bulmer was a young man. " 

BUNEMANN (Joseph Lewis). Catalogus Manuscriptorum membrana- 
ceorum et chartaceorum. Mindce : 1752. 8vo. 

Included in this Catalogue of Manuscripts is "Catalogus Librorum ab Inventa 
Typographia usque ad annum 1500, et inde usque ad annum 1560, et ulterius im- 
pressorum rarissimorum." 

Notitia Scriptorum editorum atque ineditorum Artem Typo- 

graphicam illustrantium, intermixtis passim observationibus litera- 
riis, ordine alphabetico, in memoriam Sseculi Tertii ab inventa 
Typographia decursi, occasione Actus oratorii a sedecim juvenibus 
lectissiinis anno 1740 die Mail decima habendi. Exhibit, ac 
summos atque optimos quosque Patronos et Fautores ed eos bene- 
vole audiendos devotissime invitat. Hanoverae : 1740. 4to. 

BuNiVA (Mich. Franc). Igiene de' Tipografi. Torino : 1825. 8vo. 

BuRBURE (Leon de). Sur I'Anciennete de I'Art Typographique en 
Belgique. 8vo. pp. 8. 

Reprint from the Bidletitt de V Academic Royale de Belgique. 

BURCKHARDT und Hagenbach. Festreden bei der vierten Sacular- 
feier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst in Basel gahalten im 
Miinster daselbst von den Herren Antistes Burckhardt und Pro- 
fessor Hagenbach den 24sten Juni, 1840. Nebst einer Beschrie- 
bung des Festes. Basel [1840]. 4to. pp. 50. 

BURDICK (W.). An Oration on the Nature and Effects of the Art of 
Printing, delivered in Franklin Hall, July 5, 1802, before the 
Boston Franklin Association. Boston, Mass. : 1802. 8vo. pp.31. 

Bure (William Francis de). Museum Typographicum, seu Collectio 
in qua omnes fere libri in quavis facultate ac lingua rarissimi nota- 
tuque dignissimi accurate recensentur. Paris : 1755. i2mo. 

William Francis de Bure was an eminent bookseller at Paris ; he died in 1782. 
Only twelve copies of the work named above were printed, for distribution among 
the friends of the author. 



Bibliography of Priiiting. 



95 



BURGES (Francis). Some Observations on the Use and Original of the 
Noble Art and Mystery of Printing. Norwich : 1701. 8vo. 
pp. 17. 



The first book that was ever printed in 
Norwich, according to the Harleian 
Miscellany. It is republished in the 
latter collection, vol. iii. pp. 154-157, 
prefaced to it being the following state- 
ment : " The author of this little piece 
was Mr. Francis Burges, a printer, who 
first carried that art and mystery to Nor- 
wich ; but meeting with small encourage- 
ment and great opposition (as if he had 
brought an additional expense to the city), 
he published this by way of apology. In 
the first place showing that he broke not 



not certainly know, this being one of the 
iiwenta adespota of the ' masterless in- 
ventions,' of which the only reason that 
can be assigned is : ' Laus veterum est 
meruisse omnis prseconia famse, et spre- 
visse simul " 

' Brave men mora studious were, in for- 
mer days, 
Of doing good than of obtaining praise.' " 

The author "will not pretend to deter- 
mine " whether to Germany or Holland 



in upon any other person's property, that is due the honour of the invention. 



his trade was of great use in a trading 
place, a great means to promote piety, 
and a certain method to do good to several 
other trades, because under the printer, 
the bookseller, bookbinder, joiner, smith, 
&:c. , may hope to reap advantage. " Bur- 
ges says : "To whom the world is in- 
debted for this excellent invention we do 



Although the Harleian Miscellany 
gives this book the credit of being the 
first printed at Norwich, the art was prac- 
tised there more than a century earlier by 
the Dutch, who, in 1568-1572, fled their 
country in consequence of the tyranny of 
Alba. The works printed by them are of 
excessive rarity. 




LONDON : 1533-1544. 



Byddell (John). This printer, whose name is otherwise spelled Bedel, 
also bore the name of Salisbury, which is given as an alias in the 
colophon of one of his books. He was publishing in I535> ^'^'^^ 
his first residence was at the sign of " Our Lady of Pity," next 
Fleet Bridge, but he afterwards removed to the "Sun," near the 
Conduit, perhaps the old dwelling-place of Wynkyn de Worde, 
for whom he was an executor. He used several devices, a copy 
of one of which is annexed. It consists of a parallelogram con- 
tained within one line. It is cut upon a black ground ; his initials 
are enclosed by flourishings, and his name at full length placed at 
the bottom of the whole. The device sometimes contains only 
the heart-shaped figure in the centre, with the cross and J. B. ; 
and such is the one given by Ames, but that which we reproduce 
is complete, and includes the small device as well. 



96 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Bylaert (J. J.). Nieuwe manier om Plaet-Tekeningen in t'Koper te 
brengen. Leyden ; 1772. 8vo. 

Nouvelle Maniere de graver en Cuivre des Estampes coloriees ; 

de fa^on que, quoique imprimees dans une presse ordinaire, elles 
conserveront Pair et le caractere du dessein. Traduit du HoUan- 
daise par L. G. F. Kerroux. Leyde : 1772. 8vo. 




Bynneman (Henry). This printer was an assistant or employe of 
Reynold Wolfe, whose device of the brazen serpent he used in some 
of his books. He rose to much eminence in his art. He lived 
in Thames Street, near Baynard's Castle, and at the sign of the 
** Mermaid," in Knight Rider Street. His motto was ''Omnia 
tempus habet." He met with great encouragement from Arch- 
bishop Parker, who allowed him to have a shop or shed at the 
north-west door of St. Paul's, at the sign of the " Three Wells. " 
He died in 1583, and left Denham and Newbury his assignees. 
His usual device is a mermaid in an oval cartouch ; but we find 
the one annexed on the title-page of a very rare translation of 
" The First Foure Bookes of Virgil's y^neis," by Richard Stany- 
hurst, printed, in 8vo., 1583, by " H. Bynneman, dwelling in 
Thames-streate, neare unto Baynardes Castell. " The same device 
was used by several other London printers, and among them by 
Ralph Newbery and Thomas Este. Bynneman had another office 
in Knight Rider Street, at the sign of the " Mermaid," which ex 
plains his using the other device, with the motto around it, 
"Omnia tempus habet." The device is the doe, passant, on a 
half wreath ; in a border the motto, *' Cerva charissima et gratis- 
simus hinnulus prod.'" 




{\i. M.), Almnnacli (le rinipiimerie et (le 
la Lihrairie pour 1819. I'aris : 1819. 
8vo. 

Caballero (Raymundo Diosdado). De 
prima Typographiae Hispanicae -^tate 
Specimen. Romae : 1793. 4to. 



De Prima Typographioe Hispanicaj 

^tate Specimen. Breve examen acerca 
de los primeros tiempos del Arte Tipo- 
grafico en Espaiia, version Castellana 
por D. Vicente Fontan. Madrid : 
1866. 8vo. pp. 170. 

Raymundo Diosdado Caballero was a his many works the above is an important 

Spanish theologian of the order of the one, in which he demonstrated the fact 

Jesuits, born 1740, died 1820. Expelled that there was a printing-office in Valencia 

from Madrid on the suppression of his in 1474, and estimates the number of 

order, he found a refuge in Rome, where books printed in Spain in the fifteenth 

he devoted himself to literature. Among century to be 310. 

Cabrera Nunez de Guzman (Melchor de). Discurso legal, his- 
torico y politico en prueba del Origen, Progressos, Utilidad del 
Arte de la Imprenta. Madrid : 1675. Folio. 



C^SAR (Kaiser), Nicolas. 

Two celebrated printers were established 
at Cologne in 1518, Quentel and Caesar. 
The latter printed " Hermanni Buschii 
Pasiphili Vallum Humanitatis," 4to. , 
which concludes with this singular colo- 



phon : " Impressum per Nicolaum Cse- 
saren Francum Orientalum Coloniae, in 
vico qui venter felis, vulgo Katzenbach 
(Catsbelly) dicitur." The device of Caesar 
annexed is copied from " Joannis Pici 



98 



Bib/iograp/iy of Printing. 



Mirandute Epistolse " (Cologne: 1518), feathers, crest, and elaborate mantles, 
4to., with the same colophon as the pre- surmounts a shield with the three crowns 




ceding. A similar device was used by in chief, the rest of the escutcheon blank 
J. Koelhoff. It consists of the arms of rabbits on the foreground. 
Cologne, — a king's helmet, with peacock 



Caille (Jean de la), Histoive de I'lmprimerie et de la Librairie. 
Paris : 1689. 4to. 



The author was a printer and book- 
seller in Paris, where he died in 1720. 
A new edition of this work, for which 
large collections had been made, was pro- 
jected, but never issued. Some additions 
were, however, distributed, in 1694, 



among those who possessed the work, and 
these additions, which are the best portion 
of the work, were largely improved by the 
researches of Chevillier, whose history 
was published in that year. 



Caillaut, or Cayllaud (Antoine). 



A Paris printer of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. He had another printer's mark, 
which he used more frequently than the 



present one. It is to be found in Brunet, 
" Manuel du Libraire," iii. 1301, and 
represents Saint Antony with his un- 



Bibliography of Printing. 



99 



avoidable swine. It is headed Antonius, The book described in Brunei as bearing 
and on both sides laterally is repeated the mark is " Le Livre de Bonnes Me urs" 



m :m'em :<^-ms<^M. 




.^■^'TJHi 



PARIS : 1483-1503. 



"Antoine Cayllaud," with the initials (Paris: 1487. 4to.). Caillaut printed in 
A. C. on a stone at the foot of the Saint. Paris from 1483 to 1503. 



lOO 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Cambiagi (Francesco), Cenni storici della Stamperia granclucale. 
Firenze : 1846. 410. 

Cambridge University Printers. 

The art of printing was at a very early 
period of its history introduced into Cam- 
bridge, as will appear from the fact that 
in 1521 John Siberch settled there, and 
styled himself the first Greek printer in 
England. There is not much Greek 
matter in his books, however, and none 
of them were entirely composed in that 
language. The city is chiefly distinguished 
in the annals of printing, however, for its 
University Press, which owes its origin 
to a patent, granted by Henry VIII. in 
July, 1534, which authorized the Uni- 
versity for ever to have three stationers 
or printers of books. In accordance with 
this patent three printers were appointed, 
n-imed Sperring, Godfrey, and Nichol- 
son. Subsequent nionarchs have con- 
lirnjed, and in some cases modified, the 
terms of the authority, but the line of 



Francis Buck 


... i6jo 


Roger Daniel 


... 1632 


John Legate 


... 1650 


John Field 


• ■• 1655 


John Hayes ... 


... 1669 


Matthew vVhinn, M. A. 


. . . 1669 


John Peck, M. A 


... 1680 


Hugh Martin, M.A. 


... 1682 


Dr. James Jackson 


... 1683 


Jonat. Pindar 


... i683 


H. Jenkes 


... 1693 


Corn. Crownfield 


... 1706 


Jos. Bentham 


... 1740 


_ ohn Baskerville 


... 1758 


. ohn Archdeacon 


... 1766 


John Bvirgess 


••• 1793 


John Dcighton 


... 1802 


Ri. Watts 


... 1802 


ohn Smith ... 


... 1809 


/.W.Parker 


... 1836 




c.xmukidge: 1 606- 1 6 1 4 {circa). 



privileged typographers has been con- 
tinued ever since, and we present a list 
from authentic records, of the names of 
the ."University Printers." It is be- 
lieved, however, that Thomas Thomas 
(1583) was the first printer who actually 
carried on the processes within the Uni- 
versity. 

Cambridge University Printers. 

Nic. Sperring, Garratt Godfrey, 

Segar Nicholson 1534 

Nic. Pilgrim, Ri. Noke 1539 

Pet. Shers 1546 

John Kingston (of London) ... 1577 

Tho. Thomas, M.A. 1583 

John Legat 1588 

John Porter 1593 

Cancrcl Legge 1606 

Thomas Brooke, M.A. ... before 161 4 



Leonard Green 

John Buck, M.A., and Tho. Buck 
Partnership of the University with 

Mr. G. Seeley and Mr. C. J. 

Clay, M.A. ... ... ... 

Partnership of the University with 

Mr. C. J. Clay on resignation of 

Mr. Seeley 



1622 
162=; 



1854 



1856 



Several of these were men of eminence 
and learning. Among them may be 
named John Legate, "citizen and sta- 
tioner of London." In 1606 he used the 
device of the "Alma mater Cantabrigise," 
and round it the words " Hinc lucem et 
pocula sacra." We annex a copy of this 
device, which has also been used by 
subsequent printers. John Legate died 
in 1626. Several of the University 
printers- also have been benefactors to 



Bibliography of Printing 



lOI 



the various learned corporations of the 
city. Among them was Thomas Buck, 
who left a will bequeathing a sum of 
money to St. Catharine's Hall (of which 
he had been a scholar) to purchase books. 
He died in 1688. This formed the 
nucleus of the Library of St. Catharine's 
College, which is still maintained. It 
contains many examples from the presses 
of the early printers. The librarian- 
ship was appropriately held in 1874-5 
by the Rev. W. T. Southward, M.A., 
Fellow of St. Catharine's College, the 
son of a Liverpool printer, and younger 
brother of Mr. John Southward, a 
printer and writer on printing. He has 
since resigned the office. A catalogue of 
the fifteenth-century printed books in the 
Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
by Robert Sinker, M.A., Librarian, 
was published in 1876. The University 
Printing-office is now called the " Pitt 



Press." The new buildings composing it 
were opened April 30, 1834, with great 
ceremony by the Marquis Camden, who 
printed, from a press erected in the hall, 
a small sheet in Latin, a description of 
the building and a eulogy on the states- 
man William Pitt. They form a large 
erection on the west side of Trumpington- 
street, extending round the three sides of 
a square ; the principal front, in the 
Gothic style of architecture, bemg sur- 
mounted with a lofty tower. The Uni- 
versity Press is now managed, under a 
deed of partnership, by Mr. Charles John 
Clay, M.A., of Trinity College, son of 
Mr, Richard Clay, the eminent printer 
of Bread-street-hill, London; and the 
superintendence of the Press, on the 
part of the University, is committed by 
the Senate -to Syndics, appointed from 
time to time for this purpose. 



Cambruzzi (P. M,). History of Feltre (Italy). 

A manuscript written in the seventeenth century by P. M. Cambruzzi, and still 
preserved in the library of the Seminary of that city, which advocates the claims 
of Castaldi as the inventor of typography. 

Campbell (M, F. A. G.). Annales de la Typographic Neerlandaise 
au XVe. Siecle. La Haye : 1874. 8vo. pp. 630. 

works issued from their presses. The 
author is the sub-librarian, and colleague 



Supplementary to the works of Mait- 
taire. Panzer, and Hain. The first part 
of this work contains the titles of incuna- 
bula in alphabetical order ; the .second 
part consists of an alphabetical table of 
Dutch typographers, with a list of the 



of Mr. Holtrop, the librarian of the Royal 
Library at the Hague, and the latter 
passes a high eulogium on his labours in 
his " Monumens." 



Campbell (R.). The London Tradesman; being a Compendious 
View of all the Trades, Professions, Arts, both Liberal and 
Mechanic, now practised in the cities of London and Westminster. 
London : 1747. Crown 8vo. pp. xii., 340. 
A highly interesting book, giving an wages paid, and other data are given. 



insight into over 350 different trades and 
professions as carried on in this metro- 
polis. Amongst others the typefounder, 
printer, engraver, papermaker, book- 
seller, stationer, &c., are included. In 
each case the hours of work, the rate of 



The author says, " a compositor may 
earn a guinea a week if he is expert in 
his business, and a pressman may get as 
much, but that both of them idle away 
much of their time." 



Camus (Armand Gaston), 
la Stereotypic. Paris 
specimens. 



Histoire et Procedes du Polytypage ct de 
an X. [1801]. 8vo. pp. 135 ; 3 leaves of 



— Memoire sur 1' Histoire et les Procedes du Polytypage et de la 
Stereotypic. — Memoire sur Timprimcric des cartes geographiques 
et de quelques autres objets en caracteres mobiles. Avec planches. 
Paris: 1798, 8vo.j 1802, 8vo. 

— Memoire sur les Progres, I'Etat actuel, et le Perfectionnement 
de rimprimerie. Paris : 1798. 4to. 



I02 Bibliography of Printing. 

Camus (Armand Gaston). Memoire sm- uu Livre allemand, intitule 
" Tlieuerdank." Ou Ton examine si ce livre a ete imprime avec 
des caracteres mobiles ou avec des planches gravees en bois ? 
3 plates and facsimile. 

Notice d'un Livre imprime a Bamberg en 1462 par Albert 

Pfister. Lue a rinstitut National. Paris : an VII. [1799]. 4to. 
Large paper. 5 plates of facsimiles. 

The curious work mentioned in the quently he was elected a member of the 

above title, the subject of which is "The Institute, where, faithful to his republi- 

Four Histories of Joseph, Daniel, Judith, can ideas, he recorded his vote against 

and Esther," was discovered hy a German the establishment of Napoleon I. as 

clergyman of the name of Steiner, and Consul for life. He was a bibliographer 

was first described by him in the Ma^asz'n of high reputation. His work on Stereo- 

Historique-Litterau-e Bibliographiq tie typing and Polytyping was first published 

(Chemnitz : 1792), but Camus's memoir in the " Memoires de ITnstitut." 
is replete with curious matter, and is A memoir of Camus, who is described 

illustrated with facsimile cuts. by Dibdin (" Bibliomania ") as a good 

Armand Gaston Camus was a performer scholar and an elegant bibliographer, will 

of some importance in the great drama be found in " Les Siecles Litteraires de 

of the French Revolution, being a deputy France." 
in the National Convention. Subse- 

Canensius (Michael). Index Editionum quoe Romae primum pro- 
dierunt post divinum Typographic inventum, a Germanis opifici- 
bus in earn urbem advectum. (In his Vita Patdi JI.) pp. 105- 
288. Romge : 1740. 4to. 

Capelle (P.). Manuel de la Typographic Fran^aise, ou Traite com- 
plet de rimprimerie. Ouvrage utile aux jeunes typographes, aux 
libraires et aux gens de lettres. Paris : 1826. 4to. pp. 92, and 
large sheet of specimens of type of Didot and Mole. 

An uncompleted work. The author was a government inspector of printing and 
publishing. 

Capialki (Vito). Memorie delle Tipografie Calabresi ; con appendice 
sopra alcune biblioteche di Calabria, ed un discorso sulla tipografia 
Monteleonese. Napoli : 1835. ^^o. 

Notizie circa la Vita, le Opei-e, e le Edizioni di Messer Giovan 

Filippo da Legname, Cavaliere Messinese e tipografo del secolo XV. 
Napoli : 1853. 8vo. 

Capitaine (Ulysse). Bibliographic Liegeoise. 16^ Siecle. Bruxelles: 

1852. 8vo. pp. 39. 

Nouvelles Recherches sur les Impressions Liegeoises du XVle 

Siecle. [Bruxelles : 1862.] 8vo. pp. 7. 

The preceding pamphlets are reprints from the Bzilietin du Bibliophile Beige. Of 
the first 200 copies were issued, and of the second 25 copies. 

Nouvelles Recherches sur les Imprimeursde Namur. Bruxelles : 

1853. 8vo. 

Carey (Annie). The History of c. Book. London : 1873. 8vo., 
pp. 176. 
A popular account of the processes of printing, engraving, paper-making, and 
bookbinding, with some details of the history of those subjects. It is chiefly intended 
for the instruction of juveniles. 



Bi/>/ioi(rap/iy of Pi-'mting, 



03 



Carini {Y.), Istruzioni sopra I'Arte tipografica per iisn dclla gio- 
ventii Siciliana. Palermo : 1840. 410. 

CAROVfi (F. W.). Die Buchdruckerkunst in ilirer weltgeschichtlichen 
Bedeutung. Siegen und Wiesbaden : 1843. ^vo. pp. 88. 

An eloquently written pamphlet on the origin of printing, Gutenberg, and the 
consequences of his invention, &c. 

CarPOVIUS (Jac. ). Vergleichung der Kunst in Erfindung des Schreibens 
und der Buchdruckerey. Weimar < 1740. 4to. 

Carpovius, a Lutheran theologian, was born in 1699, and died at Weimar in 1768. 
He was a member of the Academy of Berlin, and wrote several controversial works 
on theology. The above is a treatise on the advantage to art in the discovery of 
letters and of printing. 

See Beytrag, Weimarischen. 

Carton (C). Colard Mansion et les Imprimeurs Brugeois du XVe 
Siecle. Bruges : 1848. 8vo. 

The printing-oflfice of Colard Mansion at Bruges is that in which William Caxton 
is said to have learnt the elements of his art. 

Carutti (Domenico). Lorenzo Coster. Notizia intorno alia sua vita 
ed alia invenzione della tipografia in Olanda. Torino : 1868. 4to. 

Casali (Scip. ). Annali della Tipografia Veneziana di Francesco Mar- 
colini da Forli. Forli : 1861. 8vo. pp. xvii., 344. 

The title-page bears a vignette portrait of Francesco Marcolini, and a different 
portrait forms a tailpiece on the last page. 

Case, The, and Proposals of the Free Journeymen Printers in and 
about London. A broadside, dated Oct. 23, 1666. 
In the British Museum. From this it only to 140 ; but there were various " in- 
appears that the entire number of working terlopers," as they are designated, and 
printers who had served a regular appren- this paper is a remonstrance against the 
ticeship in and near London amounted propriety of employing them. 

Case (The) of the Free- Workmen-Printers relating to the Bill for 
restraining the great Licentiousness of the Press. Broadside. 

The workmen think that the great number of apprentices causes men to want 
•employment, and therefore to be driven to illegal work, there being over 140 
workmen-printers now in London. 

Caslon (William). 

William Caslon, the first great type- 
founder that this country produced, and 
who was called by Rowe Mores the 
" Corypheus of Letter Founders," was 
born in 1692, at Hales Owen, in Shrop- 
shire. He died January 23, 1766. He 
was apprenticed to an engraver of gun- 
locks and barrels, and after his term of 
apprenticeship followed his trade in Vine- 
street, near the Minories. He evinced 
much genius in engraving ornamental de- 
vices on the barrels of fire-arms, and occa- 
sionally made blocking tools for book- 



binders and for chasers of silver plate. 
While he was thus engaged, some of his 
book-binding punches were noticed for 
their neatness and accuracy by John 
Watts, an eminent printer of the day, 
who thought that Caslon might be able 
to improve upon the existing type- 
punches, which were then of a very 
unsatisfactory character. With this view, 
Watts took Caslon under his patronage, 
and, after introducing him to the leading 
printers, supplied him with the means 
of beginning a type-foundry. The elder 



I04 



BibliograpJiy of Printiin^ 



l^owyer accidentally came across some 
remarkably neat lettering on a book by 
Caslon, and formed his acquaintance. 
He took him to James's foundry in 
Bartholomew Close, for Caslon had up 
to that time never seen any portion of 
the process of letter-founding. He 
was then asked if he thought he could 
undertake to cut types, and Caslon took 
a day to consider the matter. The result 
was that he entered upon the business, 
Bowyer lending him ^200, Bettenham 
;^2oo, and Watts /loo. With this assist- 
ance Caslon applied himself assiduously 
to his new pursuit. In 1720 the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, de- 
siring to print a New Testament and 



his name at the bottom of his specimen, 
and this was so well executed that Palmer 
encouraged him to complete the fount. 
Palmer got into difficulties, and Caslon 
had to find out a new patron, and it was 
then that Watts and the others befriended 
him. In 1722 Caslon cut for Bowyer the 
beautiful fount of English used in printing 
Selden's works, and the Coptic tj^pes for 
Wilkins's edition of the Pentateuch. In 
spite of rll the difficulties which Caslon 
encountered, he brought the art of type- 
founding to a perfection previously unat- 
tained, and rendered English printers 
entirely independent of the Dutch, from 
whom they had previouslj- obtained all 
their best founts. From 1720 to 1780 few 




WILLIAM CASLON I. 



Psalter in Arabic, engaged Caslon to cut 
the fount. This was completed, and gave 
great satisfaction. It is worthy of notice 
that while the circumstances of the first 
Caslon's introduction to the type-founding 
business are given as already stated in the 
" Memoir of William Bowyer," by 
Nichols, the latter, in his " Literary 
Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century" 
(vol. ii. p. 355), gives a different version 
of the affair. He says that it was Palmer, 
the reputed author of the "History of 
Printing," that first induced Caslon to 
turn to punch-cutting in general ; for, al- 
though he had been engaged in making 
this fount of foreign characters, he did not 
intend to pursue the trade. He cut, 
however, a line of pica Roman letter for 



works of importance were printed with the 
types of any other foundry, and his pro- 
ductions are in demand to this day. He 
was not less esteemed for his eminence in 
his art than for the worthiness of his 
private character. His first foundry was 
in a small house in Helmet-row, Old 
street ; he afterwards removed into Iron- 
monger-row ; and, about 1735, into 
Chiswell-street, where the foundry was 
carried on at first by himself and after- 
wards in conjunction with William, his 
eldest son, whose name first appeared in 
the specimen of 1742. In 1750 Caslon 
was appointed a magistrate for Mid'Uesex, 
and he then retired from business. He 
lived at what was then a country house 
at Bethnal Green, where he died, aged 



Bibliih^raphy of Printing, 



105 



74. He was buried in St. Luke's church- 
yard, Old-street Road, in the parish where 
all his type-foundries were situated. A 
monument to his memory is thus in- 
scribed : — 

W. Caslon, Esq., ob. 23 Jan., 1766, 
aet. 74 ; also 

W. Caslon, Esq., son of the above, 
ob. 17 Aug., 1778, aet. 58. 

In No. I of Caslon s Circular, issued 
by the Chiswell-street foundry in January, 
1875, is reprinted what iscalied "the very 
able and correct account of the Founder of 
our House, which appeared (Oct. 1874), in 
The Printing Times and Litho- 
grapher." Somevery interesting reminis- 
cences of Caslon will be found in Dibdin's 
"Decameron," pp. 379 — 380. Caslon left 
two sons. William, the elder, succeeded 
him in Chiswell-street ; and Thomas, the 
younger, became an eminent bookseller 
in Stationers'-court. In the Universal 
Magazine of 1750 there is a view of 
Caslon's type-foundry, with portraits of 
six of his workmen. No. 3 is Jackson 
and No. 4 Cotterell. 

The next owner of the Caslon foundry, 
William Caslom II., was taught the 
business by his father, and maintained, 
but did not increase, the good name 
the foundry had acquired in the hands of 
his father. He had two sons, William and 
Henry. He died intestate in 1778, when 
his property was equally divided between 
his widow and his two sons. William 
Caslon III. undertook the manage- 
ment of the business until 17^3, when 
he disposed of his share to his mother 
and his brother Henry's widow. Henry 
Caslon died in 1788. He left one son, 
to whom, and to his widow, he left 
his share of the foundry. In October, 
1795, Mrs. William Caslon, senior, died, 
and owing to some uncertainties in her will 
the foundry was, by order of the Lord 
Chancellor, put up to auction in March, 
1799, and bought by the widow of Mr. 
Henry Caslon for £,'^■20. This lady carried 
on the business with spirit and intelli- 

fence, and had many new founts cut ; 
ut after a time her failing health com- 
pelled her to take a partner, Nathaniel 
Catherwood, who improved the character 
of the foundry, which, during the few 
years previously, had been somewhat de- 
clining. Mrs. Caslon died in March, 
1809, and Catherwood in June of the 
same year. Mrs. Caslon's son, Henry, 
now undertook the management of the 
foundry, going into partnership with John 
James Catherwood, brother of Nathaniel 



Catherwood. This partnership was dis- 
solved in 1821, and Henry Caslon carried 
on the business alone until 1822, when he 
admitted into partnership Martin William 
Livermore, who for many years had been 
the foreman and manager of the mechani- 
cal department. 

The Caslon Letter Foundry in Chiswell- 
street, having been carried on by father 
and son and sons' sons to the fifth 
generation, this celebrated type-founding 
dynasty terminated with Henry W. Cas- 
lon. Ill-health for some time previously 
had prevented him from taking an active 
part in the business of the foundry, 
and he died on the 14th July, 1874, 
at Medmenham. Within a stone's throw 
of the pretty cottage In which the last of 
the Caslons spent the closing months of 
his life. Is the picturesque church, in 
which has been erected to his memory by 
his workmen — some of whom had been 
employed in the Caslon foundry upwards 
of fifty years — a Memorial Window in 
commemoration of their affection and 
esteem for a kind and generous employer. 
The subject of the window Is " Christ 
Feeding the Multitude," and a bra.ss 
briefly records the circumstances attend- 
ing its erection. Mrs. Cookesley, sister 
of the late Mr. H. W. Caslon, the only 
living member of the Caslon family, is 
without issue. In July, 1873, upon the 
illnessof Mr. H. W. Caslon compelling him 
to retire, the management of the business 
devolved upon Mr. T. W. Smith, under 
whose auspices it still flourishes. The latest 
development of this famous foundry is a 
branch establishment in Paris, under the 
management of Mr. Henry Tucker, the 
editor of a printers' journal published in 
Paris, entitled La Typologie -Tucker. 
We conclude this somewhat lengthy 
notice with the expression of the hope 
that the career of the present proprietors 
of the foundry in Chiswell-street may be 
as successful and as honourable as that of 
their distinguished predecessors. 

The portraits of Caslon I. and Caslon 
III. are Dallastype reproductions of 
those given in Hansard's " Typographia," 
and are taken by the kind permission of 
the author's son, T. C. Hansard, Esq. 
whose courtesy the compilers of this work 
have had previous occasion to acknow- 
ledge. 

As being curious and interesting we give 
below a line of Old Black, which Is printed 
from types the punches for which were 
amongst the earliest cut by William; 
Caslon I. 



221illiam Caslon, Cppe^jFounfle?. 



io6 



Bibliography of Prifitijig. 



William Caslon III., already men- 
tioned as having sold his share of the 
paternal foundry to his mother and sister- 
in-law, purchased Jackson's foundry on 
the death of the latter, and transferred 



father. Hansard in speaking of him 
says that he introduced the pierced 
matrices for large types, which he called 
the " Sanspareil," and which were re- 
garded as the greatest improvement in 




CASLON III. 



the plant from Dorset-street to Finsbury- 
square. The foundry was afterwards 
removed to Dorset-street. This Caslon 
is the first, of modern times at least, 
who was honoured with the title of 
Typefounder to the King. In 1807 he 
relinquished business in favour of his 
son, William Caslon IV., who had 
previously been in partnership with his 



the art of type-founding of the time. In 
1819 William Caslon IV. disposed of his 
foundry to Blake, Garnett, & Co., of 
Sheffield, who subsequently styled them- 
selves, in their specimen-books, "succes- 
sors of William Caslon," whither the 
whole stock was removed, and it formed 
the nucleus of the present well- known 
foundry of Stephenson, Blake, & Co.(y . v. ). 



Caslon. Specimens of the ancient Caslon Printing Types, engraved in 
the early part of the last century. By William Caslon {1716) ; 
comprising a complete series of Roman and Italic, Blacks, Greeks, 
Hebrews, Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, Gothic, Coptic, Ethiopic, Ar- 
menian, Arabic, Syriac, Etruscan, Persian, Russian, &c. No 
date. 8vo. 



This specimen-book contains the follow- 
ing founts : — Eight titling letters, from 
double pica 2-line to nonpareil 2-line; roman 
display letters, with italics, &c., complete, 
9 founts, from 5-line pica to great primer ; 
body type, viz. English, pica, small pica, 
long primer, bourgeois, brevier, nonpareil, 
and pearl-nonpareil ; 8 kinds of black, 
between 2-line great primer and brevier ; 
9 kinds of Greek, from English to dia- 
mond ; 3 of Hebrew, from bourgeois to 
diamond ; and one each of the sorts 
mentioned on the title-page. 



These types, and imitations of them, 
were nearly exclusively adopted in this 
country until the year 1725, when their 
style was subjected to certain alterations, 
and finally developed into our modern 
Roman style. During the last few years, 
however, the " old style " of character 
has again come into fashion. In the year 
1843, Mr. Whittingham, of the Chiswick 
Press, waited upon the late Mr. H. W. 
Caslon to ask his aid in carrying out the 
then new idea of printing in appropriate 
type "The Diary of Lady Willoughby," 



Bibliography of Priiiting. 107 

a work of fiction, the period and diction the result of his experiment, that he deter- 

of which were supposed to be of the reign mined on printing other volumes in the 

of Charles II. The original matrices of samestyle, and eventually he was supplied 

the first Caslon having been fortunately with the complete series of all the old 

preserved, Mr. Caslon undertook to founts. Then followed a demand for the 

supply a small fount of great primer. So old faces, which has continued up to the 

well was Mr. Whittingham satisfied with present time. 

Caslon. A Specimen by William Caslon, Letter-Founder in Chiswell 
Street, London. A Broadside. Large Post. 1734. 

This is the first specimen issued from the famous Caslon foundry. In the full- 
length portrait of Caslon, the original painting of which is in the possession of the 
present firm, its founder is depicted holding a copy of this broadside. 

A Specimen of Printing Types, by W. Caslon & Son, Letter- 



Fomiders in London. Printed by Dryden Leach. London : 1763. 
8vo. 36 leaves, printed on one side. 

This is the earliest known date of an Thomas, the celebrated printer, and was 

English specimen-book. The library of in all probability an " advance " copy, 

the American Antiquarian Society, Wor- those for England not having been issued 

cester, Mass., possesses the only copy until the next year. It appears to be 

that is known with this date; it was given identical with the 1764 book, of which 

by the founder of the Society, Isaiah there are several copies in England. 

A Specimen of Printing Types, by W. Caslon & Son, Letter 



Founders in London. Printed by Dryden Leach. London : 1764. 
Small 4to. 36 leaves, printed on one side. 

" This new Foundery was begun in the in London. Soli Deo Gloria." This was 

year 1720, and will (with God's Leave) the first type-founder's specimen-^(?£;>fe 

be carried on, improved and inlarged by issued in England. 
William Caslon & Son, Letter-Founders 

A Specimen of Printing Types, by William Caslon, Letter- 



Founder. Printed by John Towers. London: 1766. Small 4to. 
38 leaves, printed on one side. 

This was issued by Caslon II., and the same pages were used in 1770 as a portion 
of Luckombe's History of Printing, pp. 134-173. 

A Specimen of Printing Types, by William Caslon, Letter 



Founder to His Majesty. Printed by Galabin & Baker. London : 
1785. Royal 8vo. 

Thirty-five pages, printed on one side, was begun in the year 1720, and will be 

of type specimens, much the same as in carried on, improved and enlarged, by 

the previous edition ; with 25 pages of William Caslon, Letter Founder, Chis- 

ornaments and flowers. This book was well^street, London." A specimen in 

issued by the son of the first Caslon. large post folio, 8 pages, was also printed 

There is a whole page of introductory this year for insertion in Chambers's 

remarks, and on page 44, " This Foundery Cyclopaedia. 

A Specimen of Large Letters by William Caslon, London : 



1785. Folio. 2 pp. 

These sheets exhibit types in metal of the following sizes: — 19 line, 16 a-^d 
13-line pica caps; 11, 9, and 7-line pica, with lower-ca-.e and figures. A copy is 
preserved in the British Museum. 



o8 



Bibliography of Printing 



Caslon. a Specimen of Printing Types. By William Caslon, 
Letter-fomider to His Majesty. 6 pp. fcap, folio. 1785. 

The founts represented are: 5 and brevier. This enumeration indicates the 
4-line pica, 2-Hne double pica, 2-line great growth of the foundry. 

-i-_ t:> 1- 1 1- • ,• There is another copy of the same date 



primer, 2-line English, 2-line pica, z-line 
small pica, 2-line long primer, 2-line 
brevier, French cannon ; 2-line double 
pica, 2-line great primer, 2-line English, 
2-line pic I, double pica, roman(2 founts) ; 
double pica italic ; paragon roman, italic; 
great primer roman, italic ; great primer 
body, English roman ; large-bodied En- 
glish roman ; English roman, i and 2 ; 
English italic ; pica body, English roman. 
1 n Greeks : double pica, great primer, 
English, pica, small pica, long primer, 
brevier, and nonpareil. Hebrew : 2-line 
great primer, 2-line English, double pica, 
great primer, great primer with points, 
English, English with points, pica, pica 
with points, small pica, long primer. 



in the British Museum, to which are ap- 
pended specimens of the following foreign 
characters : Syriac, English and long 
primer ; Arabic, English ; Armenian, 
pica ; Samaritan, pica ; Gothic, pica ; 
Coptic, pica ; Ethiopic, pica ; Etruscan ; 
Sa.xon, English, pica, long primer, bre- 
vier ; I31ack Letter, 2-line great primer, 
double pica, great primer, two kinds of 
English, small pica, long primer, and 
brevier. There are also flowers (borders), 
large and small music, double pica script, 
and some little blocks of ships— very ex- 
traordinary examples of naval architec- 
ture. 



— A Specimen of Cast Ornaments on a New Plan. By William 
Caslon, Letter-founder to His Majesty. London : printed by 
J. W. Galabin. 1786. 8vo. pp. 18. 
On the third page is an address, dated purposes, and greatly to exceed every 



from Chiswell-street, July 20, 1786 
" Mr. Caslon having at length completed, 
with infinite attention and at an incon- 
ceivable expence, a plan he has for some 
years had in contemplation to improve 
the beauty of printing by the assistance 
wfsuch typographical embellishments 



thing of the kind heretofore seen in this 
or any other country. The acknowledged 
judgment of those to whom this specimen 
is most particularly submitted happily 
precludes Mr. Caslon from the disagree- 
able necessity of minutely expatiating on 
the utility of what he offers to their atten- 



.should nearly equal copperplates, and at tion, and he doubts not that the Chiswell- 
the same time be considerably more street foundry will, as well in this as in 
reasonable than the most contemptible all other respects, enjoy the distinguished 



.'oodcuts, he submits to the candour of 
the world in general, and to his more 
immediate patrons, literary and profes- 
sional gentlemen in particular, a specimen 
of Cast Ornaments, which he is persuaded 
will be found to answer a variety of useful 



and unrivalled favour with which it has 
for so many years been invariably 
honoured." Then follow impressions of 
65 cuts, all vignettes, the prices varying 
from 6d. to 7s. each. 



■ A Specimen of Printing Types, by William Caslon, Letter- 
founder to the King, Salisbui-y-square, London. January, 179S. 
8vo. 

This was issued by William Caslon III., who retired from Chiswell-street, and 
purchased Mr. Jackson's foundry in 1792. 

A Specimen of Cast Ornaments, by William Caslon, Letter- 

lounder to the King. London : printed by C. Whittingham. 
1798. 8vo. 

Specimen of Printing Types by Caslon & Livermore, Letter- 
founders, Chiswell-street, London. Bensley, printer, 1834. 8vo. 

A Specimen of Printing Types of the Caslon and Glasgow 

Letter-foundry, Chiswell-street, London (H. W. Caslon & Co.). 
London : 1857. 8vo. 
The introductory address says, — " In press printers, merchants, and others, 
soliciting the renewed favours of letter- H. W, Caslon & Co. would observe that 



Bibliography of Printing. 



109 



everj' effort continues to be made by them street, London, was taken with a view of 

for the introduction of typographical im- combining in one foundry whatever dis- 

provements in manufacture and design." tinguished the two houses in their indi- 

There is also an address inside, dated vidual capacities, and also to give to the 



January, 1854, calling attention to "the 
new specimen-book, which has been 
entirely reprinted, and contains the most 
recent and improved founts of the Caslon 
and Glasgow letter - foundries, lately 
united under the combined superinten- 
dence of Henry William Caslon and 
Alexander Wilson. The important step 
of purchasing a great portion of the long- 
established Glasgow letter-foundry of 
Alexander Wilson & Sons. Great New- 



printing trade the advantages necessarily 
resulting from the united practical expe- 
rience of their principals." There is a 
list added of printing materials, it being 
stated that " this branch of the business is 
under the superintendence of J. S. Cook, 
son of the late Thomas Cook, of Brook- 
street, Holborn " ; and it refers to his 
well-known experience and ability in 
manufacturing these materials. — Vide 
Cook, j>ostea. 



Castaldi (Panfilo). — See Bernardi, Cambruzzi (P. M.), Corno 
(Antonio del), Philobiblon Society, Sc.\rabelli. 

The printers, and many of the biblio- employment of which involved much 

graphers, of Italy allege that Panfilo time and labour. It now happened that 

Castaldi was the inventor of printing, by Fust, who had heard of Castaldi's reputa- 

suggesting to Gutenberg and Fust the tion as a teacher, came to him for instruc- 

idea of employing movable type. tion in Italian, and learning from him, at 

This Italian legend (which has in the same time, the secret of his movable 

reality no better foundation than that types, appropriated ' '' ' 

of the Haarlem legend) states that Cas- or acknowledgment. 



taldi was born of a distinguished family 
of Feltre, in the early part of the fifteenth 
century, and achieved a literary reputa- 
tion by 1456. He became one of the 
most eminent scholars of his time, being 



without thanks 
Another statement, 
made at a commemoration in 1868, is that 
Gutenberg so became introduced to Cas- 
taldi, and learned the secret of printing. 
The name of this illustrious Italian (ac- 
cording to the legend) has thus been 



especially well versed in the Italian and passed over without notice to our own 
Latin languages. He was also a poet of times; and "the merit of one of the 
some merit ; but the chief grounds on most magnificent of modern discoveries 



which his claim on the regard of posterity 
is based are of a different kind. 

About the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury he began to teach grammar, and 
acquired in a short time so great a reputa- 
tion that students not only from all parts 
of Italy, but from other countries, at- 
tended his lectures. It occurred to him, 
while expounding the national and an- 
cient classics, that although Italy pos- 



has been attributed in its entirety to one 
to whom it belonged but in part, the 
more easily since in Italy there have 
never been wanting those to whom the 
national glory is of no concern." 

A splendid statue of Panfilo Castaldi, 
by the sculptor Corti, was erected at 
Feltre in 1868, referring to which an 
Italian journal says: — "If now the 
skilful hands of Corti have raised an 



sessed many men whose works were likely enduring memorial of Castaldi in his 

to be of the highest advantage in influ- native city, this is owing to the unwearied 

encing the advance of humanity, but few solicitude of that eminent lover of letters 

copies of them could be obtained, and the Cavaliere Jacopo Bernardi, and to 

only at a very dear rate. Castaldi the journeymen printers of Milan, who 

accordingly devoted all his energies to gathered sufficient funds for the erection 

the discovery of some art which would of this monument to the founder of their 

popularize literature, and enable all to art. Castaldi's title to the honour due 



possess the various products of the 
world's literature. He succeeded at 
last in making movable letters, first 
of all in wood, by means of which 
words could be composed and then 
printed on paper, and thus several copies 
could be obtained of the same original 
at slight expense or trouble. A little 
anterior to this epoch, Gutenberg, Fust, 
and Schoeffer, in Germany, were making 
their costly attempts at printing ; not, 
however, with movable letters, but with 
engraved wooden blocks, a procedure the 



for his invention is still contested, more 
particularly by the Germans. It cannot 
be wondered at that they should be so 
unwilling to let go any part or parcel of 
an honour so distinguished ; but we do 
wonder that Italians can be found who 
would deny an Italian honour to Italy. 
Whose arguments can be fairly opposed 
to those made use of by Bernardi, Val- 
secchi, and Zanghellini ? Or how can 
the matters contained in Cambruzzi's un- 
published history of Feltre be explained 
away ? What reason could this historian 



I ro 



Bibliography of Printing 



have had for attributing to Castaldi the (1456) Marco da Lezze succeeded to the 

invention of movable types, if this were Government of Fehre, and at the same 

not a fact? No one wishes to deprive time flourished there, among the most 

the three Germans of the honour fairly eminent citizens, Panfilo Castaldi, jurist 

due to them — the honour, that is to say, and poet, who, as we gather from the 

of having made the primary experiments, ancient memorials of our native city, 

and of having continued their researches invented printing, the noblest and most 

with most exemplary perseverance, and excellent art of all that were ever in- 

at a great personal sacrifice, and of having vented. From him Fausto Comesburgo 

been the first to bring Castaldl's work to [a translation of Burggrafl\, who was 

perfection. But it is going too far to living with him at Feltre to learn Italian, 

attribute to them the honour of an inven- acquired the art, and after his return to 

tion which is not theirs, and without Germany practised the same in the city 

which Gutenberg and his associates could of Mentz, whereby he gained with some 



not, at least for some time, have carried 
out their intentions." Castaldi is said to 
have died in the year 1470. An Italian 
picture of " Panfilo Castaldi explaining 
the Art of Printing to Young Gutenberg, 
about the year 1430," was exhibited at 
the Caxton Celebration, 1877. In 1868 
a medal was struck in honour of Castaldi 
at Milan, the engraver being Calvi, who 
also designed the commemoration medal 



people the credit of being the first m- 
ventor. What he did, however, indeed 
invent was the damping of the paper to 
facilitate the impression of the types.' 
The ' antiche jueiuorie' of Feltre, to 
which Cambruzzi refers as his authority, 
if they were written, have all apparently 
disappeared. Certainly none such have 
been adduced in evidence. In this pas- 
sage, moreover, it will be seen, we find 



of the Congresso TIpografico at Feltre nothing about ' movable types'; nothing 

in the same year. In 1869 a commemora- about broadsides alleged to have been 

tive medal was struck for the second printed in 1426 ; nothing about anything 

typographical congress and exhibition of that happened in 1426 ; and as to the 

fine printing at Bologna. The design printed sheets alleged to be preserved at 

consisted of a printing - machine, upon Feltre, we now hear nothing, and it may 

which the sun was shining ; upon the be safely asserted that none such exist, 

rays are the names Gutenberg — Castaldi. Mention of Castaldi and his invention by 

It happened that, in 1877, a lady, who his contemporaries none of his advocates 

claims to be a descendant of Castaldi, have produced. The legend is but a 

repeated this story in the Times, apropos duplicate of that of Laurence Koster at 

of the Caxton Celebration. This evoked Haarlem, who also has his statue there. 



a letter in reply from Colonel Yule, C.B., 
who had, some years previously, investi- 
gated the Castaldi theory. We extract 
some of Colonel Yule's statement, which 
conclusively and finally disproves the 
Italian claims : — 

" This story of Castaldi was first made 
known to a limited circle of English 
readers by the late Lord De la Zouche, 
better known as the Hon. Robert Curzon, 



the ubiquitous John 
of 



true discoverer 



his 



in certain essays on early printing in the hold It 



In both legends 
Faust robs the 
invention." 

All this in substance was printed in s. 
note to Colonel Yule's " Marco Polo " 
(ist edit., 1871). The note was translated 
and published at Venice In 1872 by Signor 
G. Berchet ; but this challenge to the 
propagators of the patriotic romance has 
never brought one into the lists to up- 



publicatlons of the Philoblblon Society. 
His authority was a paper by a gentle- 
man of Feltre, contained in a Venetian 
newspaper called II Goitdoliere. This 
paper was founded on two passages, 
which were evidently drawn from the 
same source. One Is found in an unpub- 
lished History of Feltre written late in 
the seventeenth century by a Franciscan, 
P. Antonio Cambruzzi ; the other in a 



The statue at Feltre already referred 
to bears, among other inscriptions of 
like tenour, these words: — "A Panfilo 
Castaldi, scopritore generoso de' carat- 
teri mobili per la stampa, Tributo d'onore 
tardisslmo Italia porge " — i.e., " To Pan- 
filo Castaldi, the Illustrious Inventor of 
movable printing-types, Italy renders this 
tribute of honour too long deferred." 
This statue was the result of a diligent 



printed book by the Count Antonio del and systematic propagation of the story 

Corno, called ' Memorie Storiche della In Northern Italy, and the chief contn- 

Citta di Feltre,' Venice, 1710. The first butors to it were the working printers of 

is the more full of the two : — 'This year Milan. 

Casteleyn (Abraham). A reprint of the first number of Weeckelycke 
Conrant van Europa, printed by A. Casteleyn, 8 Jan., 1 656. 
Haarlem : 1856. 4to. 



Bibliog7'aphy of FrifiHiig. in 

Casteleyn was a printer at Haarlem, Enschede, of Haarlem, the present pro 

and was the founder of this Courant, prietors, printed in 1856, the second 

which has since been continued in un- centenary of the paper, this facsimile, 

broken sequence, and is the most widely from the original matrices still in their 

circulatedof the Dutch journals. Messrs. possession. 

Catalog [J s van voorwerpen ingezonden ter algemeene typographische 
tentoonstelling gehouden te Haarlem, bij gelegenheid der plegtige 
onthulling van het metalen standbeeld van Lourens Janszoon 
Coster. Haarlem : 1856. 8vo. 

Catherinot (Nicolas). Annales Typographiques de Bourges. 
Bourges : 1683. 410. pp. 8. 

L'Art d'Imprimer. Bourges : 1685. 410. 

Catherinot considers Gutenberg and fragmentary manner of publication did 

Schoeffer to have been the inventors of not meet with success, and his contempo- 

printing at Mayence, about the year 1455. raries did not esteem his works as much 

Nicolas Catherinot, a jurist and philolo- as the succeeding generations. They are 

gian, was born 1628, died 1688. He now eagerly sought for. Clement, in his 

published a number of pamphlets on, " Bibliotheque Curieuse," gives a list of 

among other subjects, the history and them to the number of 182. " L'Art 

antiquities of Berry, his native province, d'Imprimer" was reprinted in Wolf, 

with the ultimate intention of writing a Monumenta Typographica. 
complete work on the subject, but his 

Cavattoni (Cesare). Due Memorie mtorno I'antica Stampa Veronese. 
Verona : 18 S3. 8vo. 

Caxton (William). Ars Moriendi. 4to. 
Printed in 1869 with the Caxton types of V. Figgins. 

Curial. Folio. 

Traced and printed by Mr. G. I. F. Tupper, in 1877. 

Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers. A fac-simile repro- 



duction of the first book printed in England by William Caxton, 
in 1477. London : 1877. Small folio. 
A photo-lithographic fac-simile, published at the time of the Caxton Celebration, 
by Mr. Elliot Stock. An Introduction by Mr. William Blades is prefixed. 

Fac-similes of Examples from the Press of William Caxton at 

Westminster. By F. C. Price. London : 1877. 

A series of fac-similes copied by hand, is prefixed a printed copy of the Colophon 

and then transferred to stone. The edi- to Earl Spencer's copy of the first edition, 

tion consisted of only 125 copies. The The facsimiles include a picture of the 

first is a reproduction of the Indulgence woodcut of the Crucifixion, which is 

granted in favour of Symon Mountfort found as a frontispiece to the "Fifteen 

and Emma his wife, taken from the O's and Other Prayers," from the unique 

unique original preserved in the British copy in the British Museum. There is. 

Museum, and believed to bear the earliest too, a facsimile of the drawing contained 

instance of printed initial letters in Eng- in the Lambeth copy of the "Dictes," 

land. The second plate is the well-known as engraved by Strutt in his " Regal and 

Handbill Advertisement, issued before Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England." 

1480. Then follow six plates, forming the To these facsimiles Mr. Price has pre- 

epilogue to the first edition of the " Dictes fixed a brief treatise upon the life and 

or Sayengis of the Philosophres," from times of Caxton. 
the copvin the British Museum, to which 

Fifteen Oes. London : 4to. 

A reproduction in photo-lithography by Mr. S. Ayling, issued in 1877, from the 
unique copy in the British Museum. 



112 



Bibliography of Priiiting. 



Caxton (William). Game of Chesse. London 



This reprint of the second edition of 
Caxton's famous work was issued by Mr. 
Vincent Figgins, son of Vincent Figgins, 
the originator of the well-known type- 
founding firm of V. & J. Figgins (see 
posi). It included the twenty-three ori- 
ginal illustrations, some of which, how- 
ever, are merely repetitions. In cutting 
a special fount of type after the original, 
"which is a mixture of black letter and 
the character called secretary" Mr. 
Figgins says, "As I found the black 
letter and its approximations predomi- 
nate, I have endeavoured, while keeping 
between the two signs, to adhere more 
closely to the black letter." Mr. Figgins 
discovered a variety of form in several of 
the letters, which led him to conclude 
that the type of the original was not cast 
from a matrix, but cut by hand, an 
opinion which had been entertained be- 
fore, but was not generally accepted. 
The reasons in support of this view are 
very clearly stated by Mr. Figgins. and 



1855. Small folio, 
are based on his actual experience as a 
practical typefounder. The edition repro- 
duced is that printed at Westminster (not 
the first edition printed abroad), the copy 
in the King's Library at the British 
Museum being taken as a guide. The 
paper for the reproduction was made ex- 
pressly for it, with the reed and water- 
marks imitated from the original. At the 
end are eight pages of remarks on the 
book by Mr. Vincent Figgins. Then 
follows a list of the works ascribed to 
Caxton ; a list of the places where, and 
the persons by whom, the art of printing 
was practised at the time Caxton com- 
menced it in England ; a synopsis of the 
characters and combinations used in the 
"Game of Chesse," which we have re- 
produced on page 117 ; and an ad- 
vertisement of this fac-simile repro- 
duction, from which it appears that the 
proceeds of the sale were generously 
devoted to the Printers' Almshouses at 
Wood Green, Tottenham. 



Gouvernayle of Helthe and the Medicina Stomachi. 4to. 

Printed in 1858 with the types cut by the late V. Figgins for his reprint of the 

Chess Book. 

Gouvernayle of Helthe. 4to. 

A fac-simile of page i, taken from the copy in the possession of Earl Dysart by 
I. F. 'lupper. 

Horse ad usum Sarum. First edition. 8vo. Facsimile by 

G. I. F. Tupper. 
In this fac-simile the binding, as well as the print of the original, is imitated. 
Horoe ad usum Sarum. Svo. Third Edition. Facsimile by 



G. I 



G. I. F. Tupper. 
Taken from the unique fragment in the British Museum. 

Moral Proverbs of Chrystine of Pise. Folio. 

Printed in 1869 with the types of V. Figgins. 

Ovid ; Six books of Ovid's Metamorphoses. 

William Caxton. 4to. Roxburghe Club : 1819. 
Printed from a MS. in the Pepysian Library, Cambridge. 

Servitium de Transfiguratione Jhesu Christi. 



Translated by 



4to. Facsimile 



by G. I. F. Tupper. 
Taken from the unique copy in the British Museum. 

Servitium de Visitatione Beatae Marine Virginis. 4to. Facsimile 

by G. I. F. Tupper. 
Taken from the unique copy in the British Museum. 

Statutes of Henry VH., in exact fac-simile from the very 

rare original printed by Caxton in 1489. Edited by John Rae. 
London : 1869. 4to. 

Traced by hand on transparent lithographic transfer-paper, and printed from 
stone, i86q. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



113 



Several of the preceding reproductions gerated, and a crease in the paper appears 
are executed by Mr. Tapper, who has as a black line. Another way is with 



achieved quite an unique reputation as a 
Caxton copyist. The fidelity of the fac- 
simile is most remarkable. Some were 
done by the photo-lithographic process, 
each page being separately photographed, 
and the image taken on a prepared 



facsimile type cut on purpose ; but, 
generally speaking, it is very unsatisfac- 
tory. The best way is by careful and 
slow tracing through transparent paper, 
and then transferring to stone. When 
done conscientiously this is the most 



gelatinous sheet. This is transferred to faithful of ail, but its cost, as compared 

stone and printed. The objection to this with the other processes, is a great hin • 

process is that nothing is omitted and drance to its use. Some of the facsimiles 

the modern scribbling on a page must be printed in the late Mr. Vincent Figgins's 

reproduced as well as the text ; also, iron Caxton type were done at the expense of 

moulds and worm-holes are greatly exag- Mr. W. H. Rylands, of Warringto.i. 

Caxton (William). Life of William Caxton, with an Account of 
the Invention of Printing, and of the Modes and Materials used 
for transmitting knowledge before that took place. London : 
(1832.) 8vo. pp. 32. 

La Vie et les Ouvrages de W. Caxton, premier imprimeur 

anglais. [Paris] : 1844. 8vo. [Extract from the Revue Britan- 
niqtie, Mars, 1 844.] By A. J. V. le Roux de Lincy. 

Who was Caxton ? William Caxton, Merchant, Ambassador, 

Historian, Author, Translator, and Printer. A Monograph. 
[By R. H. Blades.] London : 1877. 8vo. pp. 47. 
This brochure, the preface of which is examination and comparison of the two 
signed R. H. B., was published rt/r£j/d?j types to show that they could not have 
of the Caxton Celebritlon of 1877, and been cut by the same hand." It is there- 
was intended to give, in a cheap and con- fore concluded that Ulric Zell was Cax- 
cise form, a sufficiently accurate and ton's preceptor, for, "in comparing 
complete account of the life and the Caxton s first type with Ulric Zell's, it 
works of the first English printer. It is will be found that several of the combina- 
mainly founded on Mr. William Blades' tion letters and others are almost identi- 
large work on the same subject, but on cal." Colard Mansion's services, however, 
the important point as to who taught were afterwards, it is admitted, enlistee! 
Caxton the art, the author is at direct for the p-oduction of some of the type 
variance with him. Speaking of Man- brought over to England. The book is 
sion's type, the author says, " With all obviously intended principally for the 
respect and deference to the judgment of general reader, and hence it avoids 
so distinguished an authority, we venture technical or bibliographical details. Its 
to submit that it requires only a slight author is the brother of Mr. W. Blades. 

See Blades (William), Holbein Society, Jones (J. W.), 

Knight Charles), (Lewis (John), Middleton(C.), Stephenson. 

Robert Large was a notable man among 
the mercers, having been Lord Mayor and 
Sheriff. Caxton was necessarily brought 
in contact with men of mark and station, 
and was thus induced to learn French, 
then the official language of the English 
Court, and the common medium of inter- 
course with foreign traders. He also had 
access to his master's library, and there 
acquired that fondness fcr letters which 



William Caxton, our English proto- 
typographer was born, as he himself tells 
us, "in Kente in the Weeld," but the 
date of his birth cannot be ascertained. 
Although in after-life he maintained inti- 
mate and honourable relations with the 
magnates of England and Burgundy, he 
was not of patrician birth. His parents, 
however, seem to have given their son a 
good education for the limes, and he siys, 

" I am bounden to pray for my fader and never forsook him. It is possible, also, 
moder's souls, that in my youthe sent me that the fact of his employer trafficking in 



to schoole, by whiche. by the suffraunce 
of God, I gete my living, I hope truly." 
Soon after he was fifteen, he was appren- 
ticed to Robert Large, mercer, of Lon- 
don, whose confidence and friendship he 
enjoyed till the day of his master's death. 



books may have given a bent to his lite- 
rary inclinations. His master dying in 
1441, bequeathed to him 20 marks (about 
^150), then considered a large sum, and 
a sufficient proof of the esteem in which 
Caxton was held by him. 



114 



Bibliography of Printing. 



In 1441 Caxton left England, and " con- 
tynued for the space of xxx yere, for the 
most part in the contres of Brabant, 
flandres, holand, and zeland." He has 
not assigned any reason for leaving Eng- 
land, and it is thought by some that he 
went to what was then the only country at 
peace in Europe, on account of the civil 
war raging between the rival houses of 
York and Lancaster. The Low Countries 
were then also the wealthiest part of 
Europe, and enjoyed the greatest degree 
of civil liberty. Bruges, the city in which 
he resided for the larger portion of these 
thirty years, was the great commercial 
city of the age, the home of artists, and 
the seat of the manufacture of costly 
books. By others it is thought that as it 
was the custom in those days for young 
men in his position to be sent to some 
foreign town to obtain expenence in 
trade, Caxton may have been sent with 
this motive. He had issued out of his 
apprenticeship about 1446, and became a 
ireeman of his guild. It appears that 
he entered into business on his own 
account soon after. How Caxton was 
employed for about twenty years is not 
known, but that it was certainly with 
honour, and perhaps profit, is evident from 
the fact that in 1462 he was governor 
of the English Trading Company, acting 
under a treaty then in force between the 
two countries. He was about this time 
styled master and governor of the Eng- 
lish merchants, and officiated also as a 
■judge in a suit. In 1464 he was joined in 
a commission with Richard Whitehill, 
■"to continue and conclude a treaty of 
trade and commerce" between Edward 
•IV. of England and Philip, Duke of 
Burgundy, in which document they are 
called " ambassiatores, procuratores, 
nuncios, et deputatos speciales." The 
court to which he was accredited was 
not inferior in dignity to that of any 
contemporary potentate, and Philip was 
the ablest sovereign of his day. Attached 
to his court was a priest named Raoul le 
Fevre. The duke, wishing to institute 
, the famous Order of the Golden Fleece, 
charged Raoul to compose a romance on 
the destruction of Troy, which event was 

• then supposed to be intimately connected 
with the founding of the kingdom of 

■ France. Raoul's book was much admired, 
and all the courtiers wanted copies. The 
new art of printing was then called into 
requisition, and, while the book was in 
the first flush of popularity, Caxton under- 

' took to translate it into English. This 
he began in March, 1468, but after 
writing five or six quires, he wearied of 

• the task and abandoned it. Philip died 
a few months after Raoul's book ap- 



peared, and he was succeeded by his 
son, Charles the Rash, who, the year 
after, married Margaret, sister of the 
King of England. This lady, hearing of 
Caxton's project of translating the History 
of Troy into her own language, interested 
herself in the matter, and commanded 
him to continue and finish the task. The 
book is a stout quarto of about 320 pages, 
and Caxton's task is a very remarkable 
one ; but it was surpassed by what he 
afterwards accomplished. In March, 
1 47 1, he was in the service of the 
Duchess, receiving a yearly salary and 
other benefits. The nature of his occupa- 
tion, however, is very uncertain. About 
this time he became associated with 
Colard Mansion, the printer of Bruges, 
and seems to have supplied him with 
funds to carry on his printing-office. 
I'his is, however, open to discussion, and 
the authorities on the point, such as 
Madden, Bernard, and Blades, maintain 
different views. The foreign writers 
allege that Caxton learned the art and 
obtained his types from Ulric Zell, who 
who was the first printer at Cologne. 
Mr. Blades's views on the interesting 
point of the initial steps in Caxton's 
typographical career are worthy of being 
quoted in full: — "Caxton, having fin- 
ished, and been rewarded for his trouble 
in translating * Le Recueil ' for the 
Duchess of Burgundy, found his book 
in great request. The English nobles at 
Bruges wished to have copies of this the 
most favourite romance of the age, and 
Caxton found himself unable to supply 
the demand with sufficient rapidity. This 
brings us to the year 1472 or 1473. Colard 
Mansion, a skilful caligrapher, must have 
been known to Caxton, and may even 
have been employed by him to execute 
commissions. Mansion, who had obtained 
some knowledge of the art of printing, 
although certainly not from Cologne, had 
just begun his typographical labours at 
Bruges, and was ready to produce copies 
by means of the press, if supported by 
the necessary patronage and funds. Cax- 
ton found the money, and Mansion the 
requisite knowledge, by the aid of which 
appeared ' the Recuyell,' the first book 
printed in the new type, and, moreover, 
the first book printed in the English 
language. This probably was not ac- 
complished until 1474." Caxton deter- 
mined to print his translation, and super- 
intended personally its execution. There 
is a copy of this book in the Library of 
George III. in the British Museum. At 
the conclusion of the second book Caxton 
says that it was " begonne in Brugis, 
and contynued in gaunt, and finished in 
Coleyn, in time of the troublous world, 



Bibliography of Printing. 



115 



and of the great deuysions being and 
reygnyng as well in the royaumes of 
Englond and fraunce, as in all other 
places universally through the world — 
that is to wete the yere of onr lord a 
thousand four hundred Ixxj." The work 
ends thus : — " And for as moche as in the 
wryting of the same my penne is worn, 
myn hand wery, and not stedfast, myn 
eyen dimed with ouermoche lokyng on 
the whyt paper, and my corage not so 
prone and ready to laboure as it hath 
been, and that age crepeth on me dayly, 
and feebleth all the bodye — Therefore I 
have practysed and lerned at my grete 
charge and dispense to ordeyne this said 
book in prynte, after the manner and 
forme as ye may here see, and is not 
wreton with penne and ynke as other 

books been whiche booke I 

presented to my sayd redoubted lady as 
a fore is sayd. And she hath well 
accepted hit and largely rewarded me." 

No sooner was Caxton's first book com- 
pleted than he began another. The work 
he selected was a French translation of a 
little treatise in Latin, which he entitled 
"The Game and Playe of the Chesse," 
and dedicated to the Duke of Clarence, 
Earl of Warwick, and brother of the 
King of England. It is not a book on 
chess-playing, but a dry moral treatise 
on the philosophy and symbolism of 
chess ; it was the second book printed 
in English ; a copy of it, bequeathed by 
the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, is 
also in the British Museum. Intending 
to return to his native country, Caxton 
employed Mansion to cut and cast for 
him a fount of types similar in style to 
those already used in his books. After 
an absence of about 35 years in the Low 
Countries, Caxton, in 1475, or early in 
1476, returned to England, " laden with 
a more precious freight than the most 
opulent merchant-adventurer ever dreamt 
of, to endow his country with a blessing 
greater than any other which had ever 
been besto\yed, save only the introduc- 
tion of Christianity." He immediately 
set up his press at Westminster, in the 
precincts (not in the chapel) of the 
abbey. In 1477 he issued a collection of 
witty sayings and proverbs, entitled " The 
Dictes and Sayinges of the Philosophers," 
which was the first book printed in 
England. After this there followed, and 
in remarkably quick succession, a large 
number of important works, a list of 
which is given below. Among them was 
a second edition, with woodcuts (which 
the first, or foreign, edition had not), 
of the "Game of the Chesse." -This book 
was reproduced in facsimile by Mr. 
Vincent Figgins, as already stated, in 



May, 185s, and we are indebted to his 
nephew, Mr. James Figgins, jun., for 
the annexed block of one of the facsimile 
illustrations. 

Caxton's introduction of the new art 
into London is not referred to in any 
known contemporary document, but he 
evidently appreciated the advantages of 
royal favour. We read that he pre- 
sented one of his books at a special 
interview to Edward IV. ; that Count 
Rivers, brother to the Queen, assisted 
him in making translations, and "that 
he dedicated books to the Duke of 
Clarence and the Prince of Wales. He 
nowhere makes it appear that he thought 
he was practising a great art, and he 
cannot have conceived the future that 
was in store for printing. He did not 
suspend his labours till death overtook 
him, and he lived to see competitors, and 
the art thoroughly established in his native 
country. In 1491 he translated the 
" Vitas Patrum," which was printed 
afterwards by Wynken de Worde, his 
apprentice and coadjutor, who in the 
colophon tells us that it was finished "at 
the laste daye of hys [Caxton's] lyff." 
The exact date of his death is unknown, 
but it is surmised to have occurred about 
the close of 1491. He was buried in 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, which ad- 
joins the walls of the abbey. In 1820 the 
Roxburghe Club erected in that church 
a tablet to his memory, with the following 
inscription : — 

To the Memory 

of WILLIAM CAXTON, 

Who first introduced into Great Britain 

the Art of Printing, 

And who, a.d. 1477, or earlier, 

Exercised that art 

In the Abbey of Westminster ; 

This Tablet 

In remembrance of one 

To whom 

The literature of his country 

Is so largely indebted. 

Was raised 

Anno Domini mdcccxx. 

By the Roxburghe Club. 

Earl Spencer, K.G., President. 

The monument was executed by West- 
macoti the younger ; a vignette of it will 
be found in Martin's " Catalogue of 
Privately Printed Books." 

Caxton's Type. — We present our 
readers with some fac-similes of one of 
the founts of type used by Caxton ; that, 
namely, in which the " Game of Chesse" 
was printed, and which is called by 
Mr. Blades "No. 2." The letters were 
copied and cut by Mr. Vincent Figgins 



ii6 



Bibliography of Frititing. 







^ 



W B- 



Bibliography of Printing. 



117 



epj^uction already referred to. 
kf^fe, however, various ligatures 



for his repj 

There wi 

employed which are not here shown. 

In a little work issued by Mr. Blades, 
it is shown that certain measurements will 
enable any one, whether acquainted with 
the Old English or Gothic characters or not, 
to tell a "Caxton." The test is founded 
on the fact that in the early days of the 
art of printing, each printer made his own 
types, or had them specially cut and cast 



The following will show at once that 
any book is not a Caxton : — 

a. If it possess a title-page. 

b. If there be any roman or italic type 

in it. 

c. If there are any commas of the 

ordinary shape (,). 

d. If there are catchwords. 

Mr. Blades expresses his firm opinion 
that many Caxtons are in existence which 
remain to be identified. 



ABC D EFG HIJL 

(m Qt (D ^ O (F 1^ t (P Tl? ^ 



M N 



) PQRSTUVWY 

aBcbefg^tjEftnnopcjtr 

abcdefghijklm nopqr 
s tuv wxyz&fiffss 



EXAMPLES OF CAXTOn's TYPES. 



for him, and it was almost a physical im- 
possibility that the types of any two 
printers should be identical in size. If 
we measure the depth of a number of 
lines together, the question of printing 
can be at once decided. 

Caxton used six kinds of type, of two 
of which there were minor modifications, 
so that altogether he may be said to have 
had eight founts. They may be num- 
bered, according to their use chronolo- 
gically, in the following order : — 

No. Lines. Ins. 

1 22 measure si 

II 20 „ 5f 

"I-{^"h:adlinIs/°:}- » 5* 
V 20 „ 4i 

VI 22 „ si 

The figures given above are taken from 
a copy of Mr. Blades's work in the 
British Museum, which has been cor- 
rected in MS. by the author. 



The Caxton Press. — The following is 
a complete list, arranged alphabetically 
(derived from Mr. Blades's "Biography 
and Typography of William Caxton "), of 
the works hitherto discovered, attributed 
to the press of William Caxton, with 
the date of their issue : — 

Advertisement as to Sale of 
" Pyes of Salisbury use" 

(About 1477-78) 

iEsop, Fables of 1484 

Ars Moriendi 1491' 

Art and Craft to Know well to 

Die 1491 ? 

Arthur, Noble Histories of 1485 

Aymon, Four Sons of 1489 

Blanchardin and Eglantine . . 1489 ? 
Boethius de Consolacione Phi- 
losophise ante 1479 

Bonaventure, Speculum Vitae 
Christi, 1487 ? ; 2nd edition. . 1488 f 

Book of Courtesy 1491 \ 

Carmelianus (P.), Lex Perele- 

gantissimae Epistolae 1483 

Catherine, Life of St 1493 \ 

Catho, ante 1479 ; 2nd edition, 
ante 1479 ; 3rd edition 1481 f 



ii8 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Caton 1484 ? 

Cessolis(J. de), Game and Play 

of the Chesse, 1475-6 ? ; 

2nd edition 148 1 ? 

Charlemagne's Life of Charles 

the Great 1485 

Chartier (A.), The Curial .... 1484 ? 
Chastising of God's Children . . 1491 ? 
Chaucer's Queen Anelida and 

False Arcyte ante 1479 

Book of Fame 1484 ? 

Canterbury Tales, 1478 ? ; 

and edit 1484 ? 

Temple of Brass . . . .ante 1479 

Troylus and Creside .... 1484 ? 

Chivalry, Order of 1483-85 

Christyne de Pisan's Moral 

Proverbs 1478 

Fayts of Arms 1489 

Cicero, Tully of Old Age .... 1481 
Commemoratio Lamentationis, 

sive Compassionis Beatse 
Mariae in morte filii 1491 ? 

Cordyale, or the Four Last 
Things J479 

D'Ailly (Pierre), Meditacions 
sur les Sept Pseaulmes Peni- 
tenciaulx 1478 ? 

Deguilleville (G. de). Pilgrim- 
age of the Soul 1483 

Dictes and Sayings of the Philo- , 
sophers [i8th Nov.], 1477; 
2nd edition, 1480?; 3rd edition 1490 

Directorium, seu Pica Sarum 
(about 1477-78) ; 2nd edition, 
1487 ? ; 3rd edition 1489 ? 

Doctrinal of Sapience 1489 

England, Chronicles of, 1480 ; 
2nd edition 1482 

Description of Britain . . 1480 

Ghostly Matters 1490? 

Godfrey of Boloyne 1481 

Governal of Health 1489 ? 

Gower's Confessio Amantis . . 1483 
Higden (R.), Polychronicon . . 1482 
Horse (a fragment), 1488 ? ; an- 
other fragment 1490 

Horae ad usum Sarum, 1478 ? ; 
2nd edition, 1480-83 ; 3rd 
edition 1490 ? 

Indulgences issued by John 
Kendal in 1480 by authority 
of Pope Sixtus IV., 1480; 
another version, 1481; another 
version 1481 ? 

Infancia Salvatoris 147- 

Latour (Landry), Knight of the 
Tower 1484 

Lefevre (R.), Les Fais et Prou- 
esses du Noble et Vaillant 
Chevalier Jason 147- 

History of Jason 1477 ? 

Recueil des HLstoires de 

Troyes 1476 ? 

Recuyell of the Histories 

of Troy 1474 



Legrand (J.), Book of Good 
Manners 1487 

Les Quatre Derrenieres Choses 
Advenir 1476 ? 

Lydgate (J.), The Chorle and 
the Bird, afite 1479 ; 2nd 
edition ante 1479 

Cura Sapentiae, or Court 

of Sapience 1481 ? 

The Horse, the Sheep, and 

the Goose, ante 14719 ; 2nd 
edition ante 1479 

Life of Our Lady 1484 ? 

Stans Puer ad Mensam, 

ante 1479 

Temple of Brass ante 1479 

Mirkus (J), Festial, 1483 ; 

2nd edition 1491 ? 

Mirrour of the World, 1481 ; 

2nd edition 1490 ? 

Paris and the Fair Vienne .... 1485 
Prayers (Deathbed) 1484 ? 

The Fifteen Oes 1491 ? 

Psalterium 1480-83 

Reynard the Fox, 1481 ; 2nd 

edition 1489 ? 

Royal Book or Book for a King 1488 ? 

Russell (J.), Propositio 147- 

Saona (G. de), Fratris Lau- 
rentii Gulielmi de Saona 
Margarita eloquentiae casti- 
gatse ad eloquendum divina 
accommodata 1479-80 ? 

Sermons, Four, 1483 ; 2nd edi- 
tion 1491 ? 

Servitium de Transfiguratione 1491? 

de Visitatione B.V.M. . . 1481-83 

Statutes of Henry vii 1489 ? 

Virgil, Eneydos 1490 

Vocabulary, in French and 

English 1483 ? 

Voragme (J. de). Golden Le- 
gend, 1484 ? ; 2nd edition, 
1487 ? ; 3rd edition 1493 

Winifred, Life of 1485 ? 

Caxton's Device. — We annex a wood- 
cut reproduction of Caxton's device 
executed by Mr. J. Ph. Berjeau, and 
lent to us by Mr. Blades. It is found 
only in certam of Caxton's books, namely, 
those issued after 1487. It was not, there- 
fore, until nearly the close of Caxton's 
typographical career that he adopted this 
device. 

In regard to the signification of the 
device much uncertainty has prevailed. 
Mr. Blades's views on the matter, as 
given in his " Biography and Typography 
of William Caxton," are as follows : — 

" The common reading, ?15H. <tt. 74, 
meaning William Caxton, 1474, is, I 
think, correct, and we may dismiss, as 
unworthy of serious notice, the sugges- 
tions that the figures should be reversed 
to read 1447, or that the 74 or 47 refer to 



^, 



ibliography of Printing. 



119 




WESTMINSTER : I487-9I 



I20 



Bibliography of Print ifi^i 



Caxton's age, and not to a particular 
year. The problem to be solved is, does 
the design mean 74, and, if so, why did 
Caxton use the year 14^4 on his device? 
Bibliographers have hitherto assumed 
that it must be in reference to the 
introduction of printing into England, 
and quote the colophon to the first 
edition of the ' Chess-Book ' in support of 
the argument. But, as already shown, 
the date of the ' Chess- Book' refers to the 
translation of the work, the printing 
having been certainly accomplished at 
Bruges, and probably in 1476 ; Caxton's 
settlement at Westminster not having 



— all which circumstances might lead him 
to look back upon 1474 as an epoch to be 
commemorated. 

" The theory has been started that the 
so-called figures are not meant as such, 
but are only a fanciful interlacement of 
lines, such as may often be seen in 
fifteenth-century merchants' marks ; that 
Caxton did not make his figures like these, 
nor would he have used Arabic figures, 
but full Roman numerals, for any date he 
wished to note. In fact, that this design 
is simply Caxton's trade-mark, which he 
used as a merchant, revived with orna- 
mentations. The reader must judge for 




DEVICE COMMONLY ATTRIBUTED TO CAXTON. 



occurred until late in that year or in 
1477. On the whole it seems most 
natural that a date used in that manner 
would refer to some turning-point in 
Caxton's typographical career ; and I 
therefore believe that the old reading of 
1474 is correct, and that the reference 
is to the date of printing 'The Recuyell,' 
which, although translated in 1471, was 
circulated for a considerable time in 
manuscript only. Caxton certainly learnt 
the art while assisting to print this 
book ; it appears also from his descrip- 
tion that it was the first-fruit of his 
authorship, and, at the same time the 
first book printed in his native language 



himself; certainly, in the form adopted 
by Wynken de Worde, who used them 
all his life, the 74 are much less like 
Arabic figures than in Caxton's device." 
Mr. Blades continues: — "The opinion 
that the interlacement is a trade-mark 
only is much strengthened by the dis- 
covery of its original use. In 1487, Cax- 
ton, wishing to print a Sarum Missal, and 
not having the types proper for the pur- 
pose, sent to Pans, where it was printed 
for him by W. Maynyal, who, in the 
colophon, states plainly that he printed it 
at the expense of William Caxton, of 
London. When the printed sheets 
reached Westminster, Caxton, wishing 



'if;' 



Biblijgraphy of Printing 



121 



to make it quite plain that he was the 
publisher, engraved his design and 
printed it on the last page, which hap- 
pened to be blank. This is the first 
occasion on which it is known to have 
been used." 

Professor J. P. A. Madden, in his 
" I.ettres d'un Bibliographe," expresses 
the opinion that the two small letters out- 
side the W. 74 C. are an abbreviation of 
the words " Sancta Colonia," an indica- 
tion that a notable event in the life of 
Caxton was represented by the year 1474 



one, although somewhat similar in com- 
position. Jn the " Biography and Typo- 
graphy of William Caxton " it is stated 
that it was first seen in a book called 
"The Chastising of God's Children," and 
that it is certainly not earlier than 1491. 
We give opposite a copy of this device. 
Wynken de Worde, successor of Caxton, 
used a modification of his master's device. 
Caxton' s Portrait. — There is a singular 
history attached to the reputed portraits 
of the first English printer. Ames, in his 
" Typographical Antiquities" (1749), 




CAXTON S PORTRAIT, FROM AMES .S TYPOGRAPHICAL ANTIQUITIES. 



and the city of Cologne. This, he be- 
lieves, would also seem to authorize the 
conjecture that in that place he produced 
his first book. The professor differs 
from Mr. Blades in believing that Caxton 
and Mansion were "fellow-apprentices 
at Cologne," in the sense of both learning 
the art from Ulric Zell, and fellow- 
labourers at Bruges. 

Several writers, among them Ames 
and Herbert, have copied as Caxton's 
a device which Mr. Blades says he never 
used. It is much smaller than the genuine 



gives as a portrait of Caxton the block 
which we reproduce. 

Herbert, in his re-issue(i785), of Ames's 
work, says : — ' ' The old woodcut of Caxton, 
with some others to follow, Mr. Ames 
bought at the decease of the late Earl of 
Oxford ; collected, as he imagined, by 
Mr. Bagford, and these drawings were 
seen at Sir Hans Sloane's, Bart., done by 
William Faithorne." — Typ. Antiq. vol. 1. 
P- 79- . . 

Dibdin, in revising Herbert's edition of 
Ames (1810), says; — "Bagford had ima- 



122 



Bibliography of Frintiiig. 



gined that the English edition of Jason, of 
14^2, exhibited a legitimate likeness of him ; 
but there is no portrait whatever in the 
copy here referred to ; nor, indeed, is 
there any authentic representation of his 
head extant. This may not be considered 
viry surprising, when the earliest known 
specimen of portrait-painting in Oreat 
Britain, is of the date of Richard III.'s 
reign. But fancy is seldom backward to 
supply what truth has denied: accordingly, 
a portrait of liurchiello, the Italian poet, 
from a small 8vo. edition of his work on 
Tuscan poetry, of the date of 1554, was 
inaccurately cop'ed by Faithorn for Sir 
Hans Sloane, as the portrait of Caxton.* 
Lewis, however, was resolved to improve 
upon the ingenuity of his predecessor by 
adding a thick beard to Burchiello's chin, 
and otherwise altering his character ; and 
in this form the Italian poet made his 
appearance upon copper as Caxton, pre- 
fixed to the Life of our Printer. t This 
portrait afterwards served for the work of 
Ames and Herbert, not, however, before 
a miniature copy of it had graced the 
frontispiece of Marchand's ' Histoire de 
I'lmprimerie 

We append a copy of the portrait given 
by the Rev. J. Lewis, of Margate, in his 
memoir of Caxton. In the Print Room 
of the British Museum there is an im- 
pression of a woodcut which belonged 
to Bagford, and is exactly similar to 
that given by Ames, and which he 
evidently copied. We have also found 
there the copperplate portrait referred 
to by Dibdin. It is inscribed : " Wil- 
liam Caxton, who first practiced the Art 



of Printing in England in 1471 " ; and 
at the foot is the imprint :--" Engraved 
and published, according to the Act, by 
J. Lockington, Shug-lane, price 6d." 

We may here state, in giving this portrait, 
that we intend in' our " Bibliography" to 
reproduce the whole of the interesting 
series contained in the "Typographical 
Antiquities." Dibdin says of them 
(Typ. Antiq. vol. i. p. 36):— " Ames seems 
to have been very solicitous about ob- 
taining the printers' portraits ; although 
he was not very nice or skilful in passing 
a judgment upon their authenticity. In 
a letter from him to Maurice Johnson, a 
copy of which is preserved in the Sloanian 
MSS., numbered 5,151, he says that Sir 
Anthony Westcomb promised to look out 
a head of Pynson in his possession. He 
likewise states that he had got together 
heads of Caxton, Wynken de Worde, 
Grafton, Day, Wolfe, and Wight ; that 
he had some copies of rebuses, &c. , which 
were Bagford's, and communicated to him 
by Thomas Baker of Cambridge, who 
had copied and sent to him what Bagford 
had collected on English printing." A 
small volume, containing the original 
drawings here referred to, with some other 
pictorial illustrations of typography, is 
in the British Museum. 

" Ames gives some other heads with 
the name of Faithorne ; but as he has 
always omitted to specify whether en- 
gravings or mezzotintos, I should suppose 
them the latter, and the works of our 
artist's son." — Walpole's edition of " Ver- 
tue's Catalogue of Engravers/' 8vo., 
1794, p. 98. 



• A particular account of all the early editions of Burchiello will be found in the 
last (Svo.) edition of Haym's " Notizia De' Libri Rari Italiani," vol. ii. 128, Nos. i, 
2, and 3, and of the first two editions (1475-7), in Santander's " Diet. Bibliogr. 
Choisi," vol. ii. 253. There is the same cut of what is above said to be a portrait of 
Burchiello in the "Zucca"of Doni, printed at Venice, 1551, 8vo., where it is 
introduced as illustrative of the dress of a Florentine, with the capuchin and becca — 
the turban or cap, and garter or streamer— so that probably even the portrait of the 
Italian poet may be an ideal one. — Typ. Antiq. vol. i. p. cxxviii. 

t Among the Sloanian MSS., marked 5,151, there is a copy of a letter by Ames to 
Lewis (as it would appear from the sequel), in which the former mentions that Lord 
Oxford, the patron of Bagford, had been offended by some one having written under 
this portrait of Caxton, " iJagford, invenit." Lewis thus vindicated himself in reply, 
" I meant no reflection on Bagford by having it engraved under Caxton's head, 

'Bagford inv.' I had seen the same done by others The reason of which 

I was told was to show that it was not done from any original picture. But I am 
truly sorry that anything I have published has given offence to his lordship or any 
one else.— J. Lewis." (From the original letter in the possession of Mr. NichoLs.) 
Ames, who seems to have taken the head more faithfully from Faithorne, published it 
as a_ woodcut in his "Typographical Antiquities," with the portrait adopted by 
Lewis, expunging the subscription of Bagford's name, and gave permission to have 
the former inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine, where a criticism is subjoinf^d in 
■praise of his work. I have an incorrect copy of the former portrait engraved by one 
Lockington, prefixed to the late Mr. Reed's copy of " Rowe Mores's Dissertation on 
Founders and Founderies," — Typ. Antiq. vol. i. p. cxx. ix. 




CAXTON's FOKTKAIT, p-ROM I.EWIS'S " LIFE OF MAYSTER WVLLYAM CAXTON. 



124 



Bibliography of Printing 



Caxton and the Art of Printing. London: 1850, i2mo. pp. 192. 

A volume forming pari of a series of monthly volunjes issued by the Religious 
1'ract Society. 

Caxton Celebration, — Catalogue of the Loan Collection of Anti- 
quities, Curiosities, and Appliances connected with the Art of 
Printing, South Kensington. Edited by George Bullen, Esq., 
r.S.A., Keeper of the Printed Books, British Museum. London: 
1877. 8vo. pp. xix. 472. 

A Guide to the Objects of Chief Interest in the Loan Collec- 
tion of the Caxton Celebration, Queen's Gate, South Kensington, 
London : 1877. 8vo. pp. 32. 
In the year 1847 the late Dean Milman, Archbishops of the two provinces, the 
then Canon of Westminster, projected a Duke of Devonshire, Earl Spencer, Earl 
movement to the memory of Caxton, but Stanhope, and several City Companies, 
it was only partially successful, and re- including the Stationers'. The hall of the 
.suited in a small addition to the funds of Stationers' Company had been placed at 
one of the trade charities. This was the disposal of the Exhibition, but it was 
felt, by many literary men and others, to found too small to accommodate the 
be a very unsatisfactory state of things, large number of exhibits that were 
and from time to time suggestions were offered. The Royal Commissioners of the 
made in the newspapers and periodicals 1851 Exhibition then accorded the use of 
(especially in Notes and Queries) for a the Westeni Galleries at South Kensing- 
national recognition of the services of ton, where the Exhibition took place, 
our first English printer. In 1874, par- The main feature of the Celebration 
ticularly, there were published several was to collect together and exhibit to the 
letters to the same end, written under the public as many copies of the works of 
mistaken notion, which had been com- Caxton as could be procured by loan 
pletely refuted thirteen years previously, from the various public libraries and the 
(viz. m 1861, when Mr. Blades' "Life" libraries of noblemen and gentlemen 
was published), that 1874 was the quar- known to be in the possession of such 
centenary of the introduction of the art treasures. Other objects of kindred inter- 
into England. Among those who were est, such as block-books and the books 
under this impression was Mr. Hodson, printed by Caxton's predecessors or con- 
the Secretary of the Printers' Pension temporaries, were also brought within the 
Corporation, and his letter appeared in scope of the Exhibition. Altogether, as 
the /^riniing- Times of that date, which many as 190 " Caxtons " were contri- 
pointed out the error involved. Subse- buted — a number such as never before 
quently Mr. Blades addressed himself to were gathered together, nor are likely to 
the subject, and effectually quashed the be again. Subsidiary to these in the 
project, suggesting, however, that in plan, yet not second in interest to the 
1877, the true quarcentenary of Printing, general public, were a number of typo- 
an adequate and worthy celebration of graphical antiquities and specimens of 
the event should take place. machinerj' and material. The whole was 

As the year 1877 was also the jubilee classified as follows :— 
anniversarj' of the principal trade charity 
(the Printers' Pension, Almshouses, and 
Orphan Asylum Corporation), it was de 



lermined to associate the Caxton Celebra- 
tion with that event, and to apply any 
funds that might accrue from it to that 
purpose. Mr. Hodson, therefore, acted 
as secretary, and his zeal and energy, 
contributed materially to the realisation 
of the project. 

A provisional committee was formed, 
which elected a general committee, and 
enlisted the aid of certain distinguished 
persons as patrons of the undertaking. 
Among these were Her Majesty the 
(^)ueen, H.K.H. Prince Leopold, the 



A. William Caxton and the Develop- 
ment of the Art of Printing in 
England and Scotland, 

B. Development of the Art of Printing 

in Foreig^n Countries. 

C. Comparative Development of the 

Art of Printing in England and 
Foreign Countries, illustrated by 
specimens of the Holy Scriptures 
and Liturgies. 

D. Specimens noticeable for Rarity or 
for Beauty and Excellence of 
Typography. 

E. Specimens of Printing, including 

Newspajiers. 

F. Printed Music. 



\ 



Bibliography of Printing. 



125 



G. Book Illustrations and other Speci- 
mens ^of Engraving, Printing in 
Colours, and other Processes. 

H, Portraits and Autographs of Dis- 
tinguished Authors,Type-founders, 
Printers, and Booksellers. 

I. Books relating to Printing. 

K. Curiosities and Miscellanies. 

L. Type and other Printing Materials. 

M. Stereotyping and Electrotyping. 

N. Copperplate-printing, Lithography, 
and Photography. 

O. Paper and Paper-making. 

On the 19th of June a " Festival Ser- 
vice" was held in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
when the Rev. Canon Barry, Chaplain to 
Her Majesty, preached a sermon on the 
passage (i Cor. i. 27) " God hath chosen 
the weak things of the world to confound 
the things which are mighty." On the 
30th of the same month the "Opening 
Festival " took place. It consisted of the 
formal opening by the Right Hon. W. E. 
(Gladstone, and a dejeuner afterwards. 
The Archbishop of York offered up a 
special dedicatory prayer, after which 
Sir Charles Reed read a short account of 
the origin of the movement. At the 
breakfast, Mr. Gladstone proposed the 
toast of "The Memory of William Cax- 
ton, the first F.nglish Printer," and de- 
livered a fine speech on the benefits to 
humanity which had resulted from the 
introduction of printing. Sir Charles 
Reed proposed the toast of " The 
Fruiters of Great Britain and the Conti- 
nent," to which M. Chaix, of Paris 
(delegated by the Paris Printers' So- 
ciety), Herr Th. Goebel, editor of the 
Hanoverian Journal fur Buclidriicker- 
kunst, and Mr. George Spottiswoode 
responded for the printers of their re- 
spective nationalities. These speeches 
were reported verbatim in the Printing 
Times and Lithographer, vol. ii. pp. 
139 — 142. The Exhibition remained open 
for nine weeks, and was finally closed on 
Saturday, the ist jof September,i877. 

The Catalogue cited above is not merely 
an interesting memento of the Celebra- 
tion, but a compilation containing a large 
amount of valuable bibliographical infor- 
mation. Mr. George Bullen, of the British 
Museum, acted as general editor. In 
Class A, Mr. W. Blades, besides cata- 
loguing all the Caxtons and contemporary 
English-printed books, wrote a notice of 
Caxton himself, of his relations with 
Colard Mansion, and his introduction of 
the art of printing: into England. In 
Class B, Lord Cb' rles Bruce (brother to 
Earl Spencer) catalogued the block-books 
and early printed books of foreign 
countries, commencing with the first 



printed book, the Gutenberg or Mayence 
Bible of 1455, and prefixed to the list an 
account of the development of the art of 
printing in foreign countries. Valuable 
information relating to the efforts of the 
printers at Utrecht and Alost was sup- 
plied by Mr. Bradshaw, of the University 
Library, Cambridge. In Class C, Mr. 
Henry Stevens, a great authority in 
biblical bibliography, catalogued the 
unique series of Bibles exhibited, and 
wrote a most important introduction to 
the same, in which he treats at large of 
the often-discussed question, " Where 
and by whom was the Coverdale Bible 
printed ? " and detailing his recent dis- 
covery of the relations between Jacob 
van Meteren, the Antwerp printer, and 
Coverdale. In Class D, Mr. Kershaw, 
Librarian of the Lambeth Library, cata- 
logued the specimens noticeable for rarity 
or for beauty and excellence of typo- 
graphy. In Class E, Mr. Tuer cata- 
logued the various specimens of printing 
by steam, &c. The large and interesting 
collection of newspapers was catalogued 
by the owner, Mr. Wm. Rayner. In 
Class F, Messrs. Littleton, Cummings, 
and Barrett catalogued the remarkable 
specimens of music-printing from the 
earliest times, and an introduction by Mr. 
Barrett was prefixed. In Class G, Mr. 
Reid, Keeper of the Print-room of the 
British Museum, catalogued the wood- 
cuts, copperplates, and other engravings, 
and Mr. Daniel Grant supplied a very 
slight introduction. In Class H, the 
various portraits, &c., were catalogued by 
Mr. Blades. In Class I, Mr. Overall, 
Librarian of the Guildhall Library, 
catalogued the various books relating to 
printing. In Class K, the curiosities and 
miscellanies were catalogued by Mr. 
Brabrook. In Class L, Mr. Talbot Reed 
gave an account of the Rise and Progress 
of Type-founding in England. Mr. A. 
C. J. Powell treated of the instruments 
and appliances of the letterpress printer, 
and described the processes and speci- 
mens of stereotyping, electrotyping, cop- 
perpl.-ite printing, lithography, and photo- 
graphy. In Class O, the specimens of 
paper and water-marks were catalogued 
and described by Mr. Brabrook. In 
several classes, also, Mr. R. E. Graves, 
B.A., of the British Museum, gave 
valuable assistance and advice. It was 
not until the eve of the close of the 
Caxton Exhibition that the complete cata- 
logue was ready. On the day of the 
opening of the Exhibition Mr. Gladstone 
was handed a " Rough Proof" issue, of 
which less than too were printed ; subse- 
quently, a "Preliminary Edition" was 
produced, and this was virtually the 



126 



Bibliography of Printing. 



only Catalogue procurable during the 
Exhibition ; but it was of no use as a 
catalogue. It was sold for is. Of the 
third issue, being the first complete Cata- 
logue, we have given the collation above. 
This edition was sold for 2s. 6d., and only 
a comparatively small number of copies 



subscribers at 12s. 6d., the few remaining 
copies being sold at a guinea. There was, 
moreover, an "extra-large " paper edition 
produced, of which ten copies were printed, 
the price being five guineas each. 

The second work cited above was 

written by Mr. W. Blades, as a compre- 

was printed. A large paper edition of hensive guide to the entire collection, for 



the catalogue was also issued after the 
close of the Exhibition, and was issued to 
Caxton Memorial Bible. Oxford 

This Bible, held up by Mr. Gladstone 
at the Caxton dejeuner as "the climax 
and consummation " of the art of Print- 
ing, was printed at Oxford, bound in 
London, and delivered at the South 
Kensington Exhibition Buildings literally 
within twelve consecutive hours. The 
book was printed from movable types set 
up a long time ago, and not used for 
years ; to guard against any fraud here- 
after, it was thought best to take the 
forms of an edition that was entirely out 
of print. I'he printers commenced to 
make their preparations soon after mid- 
night, and the printing actually com- 
menced at two a.m. ; the sheets were 
artificially dried, forwarded to London, 



the use of persons not specially acquainted 
with the subject. 

: June 30th, 1877. 32mo. 

in Turkey morocco, bevelled boards, 
flexible back, gilt-lettered on back and 
outside cover, with the arms of the Oxford 
University in gold on its obverse side ; 
and is free from the " set-off""' or blemish 
which its hasty production might well 
have excused. It contains an explanatory 
inscription and title : " In memoriam 
Gul. Caxton," with the occasion and date 
of the edition printed at the bottom of 
each of its thirty-three sheets. The edi- 
tion consisted of 100 numbered copies. 
The idea of producing the Bible under 
the circumstances originated with Mr. 
Henry Stevens, F. S.A., a most eminent 
Bibliographic authority on the subject o'" 
Bibles, who catalogued, arranged, and 



folded, rolled, collated, sewn, subjected described the splendid collection in the 

to hydraulic pressure, gilded, bound, Caxton Exhibition. The work was 

and taken to South Kensington before printed for presentation only, and copies 

two p.m. on the day of the Caxton Cele- of the "Caxton Bible" are unattain- 

bration. The book consists of 1,052 able, the edition having been immedaitely 

pages i6mo., minion type, and is bound allotted. 

Caxton's Printing Office. Notes and Queries, I., ii. 99, 122, 142, 
187, 23^, 340. 
This discussion throws some light on anticipated by himself. He asks as to the 
the disputed question as to the locality of derivation of the word "chapel," Is it 
Caxton's printing-office at Westminster, peculiar to printers and this country, or 
The late Dr. E. F. Rimbault brings for- is it used in other trades and on the Con- 
ward evidence to show that Caxton's office tinent? In a second communication he 
was not in Westminster Abbey, but some- attempts to elucidate the monogram of 
where near it. Mr. John Gough Nichols Caxton, and in a third he refers to the 
refers to an article of his own ov\ the subject charges made against him in the course of 
in the Geutletnmts Magazine of April, the discussion by a correspondent "Arun." 
1846, and a reference to it in the same Mr. John Cropp participates in the dis- 
magazine of June, 1850, p. 630. He shows cussion. 
that Dr. Rimbault's conclusion had been 

Caxton submitting his first Proof-Sheet. Notes and Queries, I., ii. 
398, V. 349. 

This is a reference to the historical accuracy of Walker's engraving, taken from 
Doyle's picture of Caxton submitting his first proof-sheet to John Esteney, Abbot of 
Westminster, in 1477. H. H. says that the likeness of the abbot is taken from his 
brass in Westminster Abbey. 

Celebration of the Invention of Printing, Articles on. Notes and 
Queries, I., iv. 148, 276. 

These articles refer to a suggestion that 1460, the quarcentenary celebration 

as the invention of the art of printing should take place between 1850 and i860, 

could not be ass'gned to any particular and that it should assume the form of a 

year, but rather the decennium 1450 to subscription to defray the expense of 



1 



Bibliography of Printing. 127 



publishing on a large scale a book of fac- history of the art. A complaint is made 

similes of early typography, to be sold that during the thirty years previous to 

at a cheap rate, with such prefatory 1850 the study of the history of early 

matter as should form an accurate popular printing had been deplorably neglected. 

Celliez (Henry). Code annotede la Presse en 1835. Recueil complet 
des Lois, Decrets, Ordonnances, Reglemens, Avis du Conseil 
d'Etat sur la Presse periodique, la Libraire et I'lmprimerie, la 
Propriete litteraire, les Gravures et Dessins, la Liberie theatrale, 
la Procedure sur toutes les matieres, de 1789 a Septembre 1835 
inclusivement, indiquant toutes les Dispositions abrogees ou en 
vigueur, les Arrets de la Cour de Cassation, et la Concordance des 
Textes. Paris: 1835. 8vo. 

Memoire pour la Chambre des Imprimeurs de Paris sur la 

question d'indemnite en cas de suppression des Brevets d'impri- 
meurs. Paris : 1867. 4to. 

Cellini (Mariano). Nota dei Lavori della Tipografia Galileana e, 
per incidenza, Cenni sull' Origine della Stampa e storia di detta 
Tipografia. Firenze : 1862. 4to. 

Cenni sulla Invenzione della Stampa e Inangurazione delle Statue di 
Guttemberg in Magonza e Strasburgo, con note aggiunte. Forli : 
1 84 1. 8vo. 

[Cennini (Bernardo)]. Quarto Centenario Cenniniano. Firenze : 
1 87 1. .8vo. 

Cennini was the first to introduce the essays:— "Le Feste del IV. Centenario 

art of printing into Florence ; and this Cenneniano." by P. Barbera ; " Bernardo 

volume, printed in celebration of the Cennini e il suo tempo," by A. Berto- 

fourth centenary of the first book which letto ; " Un Pensiero alia Stampa," by 

he printed (Virgil, with commentary of C. Fontanelli. 
Servius, 1471) contains the following 

Cenno di alcuni Giureconsulti e chiari uomini di Chavasso ; della 
primeria Stamperia ivi aperta nel i486, e di parecchie opera 
legali stampate in essa citt^. Chavasso : 1827. 8vo. 

Cercle de la Librairie, de I'lmprimerie, de la Papeterie et de toutes 
les Professions qui concourent a la publication des oeuvres de la 
litterature, des sciences, et des arts. Annee i860. Paris. 8vo. . 

Catalogue du Cercle de la Librairie, de I'lmprimerie, et de la 

Papeterie. Vienna : 1873. 

This is the catalogue of the French ex- on opening the book two tablets, right 

hibits in paper, printing, and publishing and left, seem to start up from it. These 

in the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. It is a latter are printed on a ground of very 

very beautiful volume. Each exhibitor pale buff, round which is an Oxford 

has a page to himself, each page being framing in carmine. M. Claye, of Paris, 

surrounded with a shaded rule, so that was the printer. 

■ Comptes rendus des Assemblees generales du Cercle de la 

Librairie, de I'lmprimerie, et de la Papeterie des annees 1865-67. 
Paris. 8vo. 

Certain and necessary Method of regulating the Press (A), i page 
folio with endorse. No date. 



128 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Certain necessary Method of regulating the Press (A). Circa 1700. 
I page folio broadside. 
The two preceding broadsides (which pealed in 1534 by 25 Hen. VIII. c. 15, at 



are preserved in the British Museum) 
contain proposals that every printer 
should take out an annual license to 
authorize him to print. 

Printing was taken under the patronage 
and control of the State in 1483, when a 
statute (i Rich. III. c. 9) was passed im- 
posing certain restrictions on merchant 
strangers, but it was expressly stated not 
to be in impediment to any one for 
bringing into the realms any books writ- 
ten or printed, or any printer of such 
books for the exercise of his occupation 
here. 

The first instance of an exclusive privi- 
lege to print a book was in the year 
1518, when Richard Pynson, who suc- 
ceeded Faques as King's printer, printed 
a book, in the colophon of which this 
fact is recorded. 

The statute referred to above was re- 



the instance of the bookbinders, who 
complained that so many books were 
printed abroad in the English language, 
and sent to England bound, that their 
business was taken out of their hands. 
In this Act it is stated that there had 
come into this realm a great number of 
printed br-oks, although there were within 
the realm "a great number of cunning 
and expert in the said science or craft of 
printing." 

Several attempts were made afterwards 
to revive this prerogative, or to substitute 
for it a license. The above propositions 
were issued with this view. 

Until 1640, notwithstanding, the Crown 
exercised an unlimited authority over the 
press, which was enforced by summary 
powers of search, confiscation, and im- 
prisonment. {Vide Willes, J. Millar v. 
Taylor, 4 Burrows's Reports, 2312). 



Ceruti (Antonio). Lettere inedite di dotti Italiani des SecoloXVI, tratti 
degli autograft della biblioteca Ambrosiana. Milano : 1867. 8vo. 
Contains four letters from Paulus Manutius, printer, to G. V, Pinelli, written in 
1560. 




cologne: 1517-1536; MARPURG : 1536- 

Cervicornus (Eucharius). 

This printer was first established at he printed in 1536, and very likely after- 
Cologne, where he printed from 1517 to wards, although we have no information 
1536. Then he went to Marpurg, where about it— Panzer's "Annals" only coming 



1 



Bibliography of Printing. 129 



down to the year 1536. The book from art of printing. The earliest books known 

which the above device was copied is " Pif to have issued from its press are those of 

Papae II. Epistola ad Turcos." Colonia: Ulric Zell, who was followed by Arnold 

1532. 8vo. It is found on the title-page Therhoernen, De Olpe, and J. Koelhoff. 

and reverse of the last leaf, and consists Marpurg, whither Cervicornus after- 

of the caduceus on an ornamented shield, wards removed, called also Marpurgum, 

The city of Cologne.designated "Colonia" Marburgum, or Martisburgum, is a 

in the imprint of the above work, was al-o German town, the capital of Upper Hesse, 

described as Colonia Agrippina, Colonia The art of printing is supposed to have 

Clavdia, Colonia Vbiorum or Vbii. It was been introduced there about 1527. 
amongst the very first towns to adopt the 

Ceruti (Paolo). Biografia Soncinate. Milano : 1834. 4to. 

A notice of the Hebrew printing-press at Soncini, and a list of the books printed 
there. 

Ch (E.). Considerations surl'Etat actuel de rimprimerie et sur 

I'Emploi immodere des Mecaniques dans les arts industriels. Paris : 
1830. 8vo. 

Chabert Histoire resumee de I'lmprimerie dans la Ville de Metz 
jusqu'au 19® siecle. Metz: 1851. 4to. 

Chabert (L.). Stereotypie et Polytypie. Paris : 1829. 4to. 

Chaix (A.). Statistique de I'lmprimerie en France. Paris: 1875. 
Sm. 8vo. pp. 6. 

Consists of statistics of printing in centres from 1864 to 1874. The matter 

France, under three divisions— Books, was originally published in the chronicle 

Newspapers, and Official Documents, of the " Bibliographie de la France," its 

The places where these were issued are compiler, M. Chaix, of the celebrated 

classified and arranged according to their Paris printing firm of Chaix & Co., being 

importance, and there is a synopsis at the the selected reporter of a commission 

end of the publications of the principal nominated to study the subject. 

Chaix & Co. (A.). Statuts de la Caisse de Secours et Reglement de 
la Participation dans les Benefices et de la Caisse de Prevoyance 
et de Retraite de I'lmprimerie et de la Librairie centrales des 
Chemins de Fer. Paris : 1875. 8vo. pp. 56. 

These are the rules and regulations of societies are formed of the employes, and 

certain benefit societies and charitable have for their object to afford assistance 

funds in connection with the great Paris in sickness and in cases of accident. The 

railway - printing establishment of A. pamphlet contains several " allocutions " 

Chaix & Co., known as the " Librairie by M. Chaix himself on the objects and 

Centrale des Chemins de Fer." These progress, of the several societies. 

Challen (Howard). The Philadelphia Directory of Publishers, 
Printers, Manufacturing Stationers, and Dealers in Fancy Goods. 
Philadelphia, U.S.A. 1873. 8vo. 

Challoner (Edward). A Plea for a New Factory Act. London : 
1871. 4 pp. tract. 

An argument by a printer's reader for an extension of the Factory Acts, which 
would bring within their application adults as well as youths, and illustrated by the 
alleged "wrongs" of printers' readers. 

Chalmers (Gdjrge). The Life of Thomas Ruddiman, M.A., the 
Keeper, for almost fifty years, of the Library belonging to the 



130 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh, to which are subjoined new 
Anecdotes of Buchanan. London : 1794. 8vo. 

Ruddiman began life as a printer, and this work gives a list of the books which he 
printed. He was both author and printer of the well-known " Rudiments of the 
Latin Tongue " bearing his name. 

Chambers (William). Memoir of Robert Chambers, with Auto- 
biographic Reminiscences of William Chambers. 3rd edition. 
Edinburgh: 1872. Svo. 

This is the memoir of two brothers who have become famous in connection with 
popular literature. It also gives an account of the origin of the great printing-house 
of Chambers in Edinburgh. 

Chanteau (Maur. de). De la Corporation des Imprimeurs, Libraires, 
et Relieurs de la Ville de Metz. Memoire. Metz: 1867. 8vo. 

"Chapel" : The Printers' Hierarchy. Gent. Mag., x. 239. 

An extract from The Craftsman, No. 
725, May 24, 1740, in the form of a letter 
"to Caleb D'Anvers, Esq.," unsigned. 
The writer says that he wonders that 
none of the authors who had published 
such learned discourses in defence of the 
liberty of the press, and upon the useful- 
ness of the art of printing, have given us 
an account of the "hierarchy " 
calls it — of a printing-house. 



booksellers, and others to make them 
drink, especially that great annual 
solemnity called the Way-Goose Feast. 
Whilst he continues in this state, he can 
have no redress for any mischief that is 
done him ; so that in a short time he is 
glad to pay the penalty which he had in- 
^ curred, and a discretionary fine besides, 

■for so he to reconcile himself to the chapel. 
_ He goes " When a boy is bound apprentice, 

on to say that the first press in England before he is admitted a chapellonian, 
was set up in a chapel in Westminster, it is necesssary foi him to be made a 
or some other religious house, from which cuz or deacon, in the performance of 
the part of a house which is assigned for which there are many ceremonies. The 
printing has been ever since called a chapellonians walk three times round the 
chapel, and constituted in an ecclesiasti- room, their right arms being put through 
cal manner, with divers religious riles and the lappets of their coats ; the boy who is 
ceremonies. to be made a cuz carrying a wooden 

"When a printer first sets up, if it is sword before them. Then the boy kneels, 
in a house that was never used for print- and the father of the chapel, after exhort- 
ing before, the part of it designed for the ing him to be observant of his business, 
purpose is consecrated, which is performed and not to betray the secrets of the 
by the senior freeman in the master's workmen, squeezes a sponge of strong 
employ, who is the father or deacon of beer over his head, and gives him a title, 
the chapel ; and the chief ceremony is which is generally that ot a Duke of some 
drinking success to the master, sprinkling place of the least importance near which 
the walls with strong beer, and singing he lives ; such as those of Rag-fair, 
the cuz's anthem, at the conclusion of Thieving-lane, Puddle-dock, P-ssing- 
which there is a supper given by the alley, and the like. This being done, the 
master. father of the chapel gives the boy an ac- 

"All the workmen are called chapel- count of the safety he will enjoy by being 
lonians, who are obliged to submit to made a cuz, which is, that whatever 
certain laws, all of which are calculated accident may happen to him, no ill con- 
fer the good of the whole body, and for sequence will 
the well carrying on of the master's busi- 
ness. To the breach of these laws is " Whilst the boy is upon his knees, all 
annexed a penalty, which an obstinate the chapellonians, with their right arms 
member sometimes refuses to pay, upon put through the lappets of their coats as 
which it is left to the majority of the before, walk round him, singing the cuz's 
chapel whether he shall be continued any anthem, which is done by adding all the 
longer a chapellonian ; and if his sentence vowels to the consonants, in the following 
is to be discontinued, he is then declared manner: ' Ba — ba ; Be— be ; Bi — bi ; 
2i brimstone , xkvaX is, an excommunicated Ba — be — bi ; Bo — bo; Ba— be— bi - bo ; 
person, and deprived of all share of the Bu--bu ; Ba — be— bi — bo — bu ; and so 
money given by gentlemen, authors, through the rest of the consonants." 



sequence will attend it ; such as the falling 
from an house or into the Thames, &c. 



1 



Bibliography of Printing 



13 r 



' The editor of the Gentlemati's Maga- 
zine adds the following footnote to this 
passage : — 

" The anthem, as printed above in the 
Craftsman, conveys a wrong notion of 
the manner of singing it, which is by dis- 
tinctly sounding first the consonant, then 
the vowel, and afterwards both together ; 
this is followed by repeating the syllables 
joined, and therefore should be expressed 
thus : B a, ba ; B e, be ; B i, bi ; Babebi ; 
Bo, bo ; Babebibo ; B u, bu ; Babebi- 
bo-bu ; in like manner, C a, ca ; &c. To 
put a favourable construction on his 
printers omitting to correct it, we may 
suppose that they were not well pleased 
with his making public their ceremonies, 
so little to their advantage. 

" There are several other solemnities 

Chapel Rules. Messrs. Wyman 5 
Lincoln's-inn Fields, W.C. i 
These are the rules made and agreed to 
by the compositors of, we believe, the oldest 
printing-office in the metropolis. They 
embody the results of the practical expe- 
rience of several generations of workmen, 
and exemplify the regulations deemed 
necessary in a large office for the main- 
tenance of discipline and the protection 
of the interests of the men, as between 
themselves. There were, undoubtedly, 
formerly many customs in the printing- 
office that were " more honoured in the 
breach than in the observance," yet it 
may be said, as Clare has it — 

" Old Customs ! Oh, I love the sound ; 
However simple they may be ; 
Whate'er with time hath sanction found, 
Is welcome, and is dear to me." 

The best account of the old customs of 
the printing-office is that given by Moxon 



of the same kind belonging to a printing 
chapel, but these are sufficient to show 
the sacred institution of it, and the 
reverence that is due to it." 

A good account of the present customs 
of the Chapel will be found in Hansard's 
" Typographia " ; and Timperley gives 
an extract from Brimmer's comic poem of 
"The Composing-room." Moxon has 
treated the subject at great length, and 
has been since copied by quaint Randle 
Holme and all subsequent writers. 

An article in Notes and Queries, I. iii. 
p. 7, properly observes that the term 
"chapel" is applied, not to the place of 
the printing-office, but to any formal 
gathering of the persons working in it. 



k Sons, 74-75, Great Queen-street, 

875. i6mo. pp. 8. 
in his "Mechanick Exercises" (1683). 
Randle Holme, "gentleman sewer in 
extraordinary to his late Majesty King 
Charles II.," enters almost as fully into 
the subject in his "Academy of Armory " 
(1688) ; and the titles of both works will 
be found in this Bibliography under the 
headings of their respective authors. 
Readers who are not able to consult 
these very rare books will find Moxon's 
account of the trade customs reprinted in 
Hansard's " Typographia," together with 
other matter ; and (very incorrectly) in 
Ringwalt's "American Encyclopaedia of 
Printing." Randle Holme's account is 
partly reprinted in Hone's " Everyday 
Book," vol. i. p. 1 133, vol. ii. p. 627. 
A comparison of these with "chapel 
rules " such as those of Messrs. Wyman's 
workmen, is not less curious than instruc- 
tive and suggestive. 



Chatto (William Andrew). A Treatise on Wood-Engraving, His- 
torical and Practical. With upwards of 300 illustrations, engraved 
on wood by John Jacl<son. London : 1839. 8vo. pp. xvi. 751. 
Second edition, with a new chapter on the Artists of the present 
day, by Henry G. Bohn, with 145 additional wood-engravings. 
London: 1 861. 8vo. pp. xvi. 664. 

Preface, dated London, 5th December, in the time of Albert Diirer ; further pro- 
838, is signed by W. A. Chatto ; and gress and dechne of wood-engraving 



there is an introductory address, dated 
[5th December, 1838, signed by John 



revival of wood-engraving ; artists and 
engravers on wood of the present day. 



Jackson. This and Ottley's book [see There is appended a full description of 

the practice of wood-engraving. Inci- 
dentally there are given some useful 
remarks on priming woodcuts ; for, as 
Mr. Bohn justly says, "A good engra- 
ving without good printing is like a 
diamond without its polish." The chap- 
ter on the invention of typography, 



Ottley) may be taken as the standard 
works in English on wood-engraving. 
The following is p synopsis of the con- 
tents : — Antiquit'_ of engraving ; pro- 
gress of wood-engraving ; the invention 
of typography ; wood-engraving in con- 
nection with the press ; wood-engraving 



132 Bibliography of Printing. 

which, together with all the historical Chatto in the origination or compilation 

portion of this work, was written by Mr. of this work were the subject of much dis- 

Chatto, is extremely well done. agreement, and caused the issue of the 

The respective shares of Jackson and following pamphlet : — 

Chatto (William Andrew). A Third Preface to "A Treatise on Wood- 
Engraving, Historical and Practical," exposing the fallacies con- 
tained in the first, restoring the passages suppressed in the second, 
and containing an account of Mr. John Jackson's actual share in 
the composition and illustration of that work. In a Letter to 
Stephen Oliver. By Wm. A. Chatto, author of the first seven 
chapters of the work, and the writer of the whole, as originally 
printed, London : printed for the Author. 1839. 8vo. pp. 36. 

The History and Art of Wood- Engraving, with Specimens of 

the Art, Ancient and Modern. London : 1848. Folio. 55 wood- 
engravings ; text, 28 pp. Republished the following year, with 
extra illustrations and the following title : — 

-- Gems of Wood-Engraving from the Illustrated London News, 



with a History of the Art, Ancient and Modern. London : 1849. 
Folio. 93 plates ; text, 28 pp. 

The chief value of this work consists teresting. It originally appeared in the 

in its plates, reprinted from the Illus- Illustrated London News between the 

trated London News, which show the 20th of April and the 6th of July, 1844. 

perfection that the art of wood-engraving, The illustrations of this portion are 

as applied to pictorial journalism, had at- mostly given, in smaller size, in Chatto 

tained in 1849. The sketch of the history and Jackson's "Treatise." 
and processes of the art is slight, but in- 

Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History of Playing 



Cards. London : 1848, 8vo. pp. viii. 343. 

William Andrew Chatto was born at requirements of the time, and was con- 
Newcastle-on-Tyne in the year 1799, and ducted for some months only at a loss, 
his first work, entitled " Rambles on the although in the present era of penny 
Border of Northumbe and," was pub- daily papers such an undertaking would 
lished, under the pseud jp.ym of "Stephen probably meet with better support. It 
Oliver," in 1833. It was followed in 1834 may be considered to have been the pre- 
by " Scenes and Recollections of Fly cursor of Punch, which was started in 
Fishing," of which little volume Professor 1841, when Tom Taylor, Horace May- 
Wilson remarked in Blackwood, " it is hew. Sterling Coyne, and many others 
inspired with the right spirit, and must who had been contributors to P^^ck, joined 
have a place in every library — shelf Wal- the staff of Punch. 

ton." In the same year he published W. A. Chatto passed the latter years 

" A Paper : of Tobacco, by Joseph of his life in the Charterhouse, which he 

Fume, illustrated by Phiz," and in 1835, entered on the nomination of the late 

"Ihe Angler's Souvenir, by P. Fisher," Marquess of Lansdowne. He died there 

a very elegant volume, with steel en- in 1865. 

gravings after Cooper and Topham. In His eldest surviving son is Mr. Andrew 

1839 ^^ was editor and part-proprietor of Chatto, senior partner in the firm of 

Puck, a comic illustrated paper, which Chatto & Windus, publishers, of 75, Picca- 

was published daily at three-halfpence, dllly, who assumed the business on the 

This venture was then in advance of the death of the late John Camden Hotten. 

Chaubry de Troncenord (M. le Baron). Notice sur les Artistes 
Graveurs de la Champagne, lue dans la seance du ler Juillet, 1857. 
Chalons : 1858. 8vo. 

See SUTAINE (Maximilien). 



\ 



Bibliography of Printing. 



133 



Chelsum (James), D.D. A History of the Art of Engraving in 
Mezzotinto, from its origin to the present time, including an 
account of the works of the Earliest Artists. Winchester : 1786. 
8vo. 2 leaves, pp. 100; index, &c., 6 leaves. 

Dr. James Chelsum, a learned Eng- tinct notice, for in this country it has 
lish divine, was born at Westminster been chiefly cultivated, has received its 
about 1740, and died 1801. He says highest improvements, and therefore 
that the art of engraving in mezzotint deserves the name of " the English 
had within a few years previously at- manner." The work treats of the nature 
tained to so high a degree of perfection of the art of mezzotint, its supposed ori- 
that its history may justly claim to be gin and invention, and of the several sue- 
separately recorded. In England espe- sessive artists who have practised it. 
cially it ought not to pass without dis- 

Chevalier (Michel). Reports on Printing and Publishing at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1867. Edited by P. Boileau. Paris : 1868. 

Chevallier (A.). Sur les Maladies des Imprimeurs. In Bulletin de 
la Societe (V Encouragement pour V Industrie Nationale, p. 187 et seq. 
Paris : 1 835. 8vo. 

Che\allier (J. B. A.) et Langlum^ ( — ), Traite- complet de la 
Lithographic, ou Manuel du Lithographe, avec des notes de 
MM. Mantoux et Joumar. Paris : 1838. 8vo. pp. xvi. 272. 



This work is the combined production 
of M. Chevallier, a chemist and professor 
in the Ecole de Pharmacie in Paris, and 
of M. Langlume, a lithographic printer. 
It contains, also, notes by two litho- 
graphic printers, MM. Mantoux and 
Joumar. The book obtained in 1830 the 
prize of the "Societe d'Encouragement." 
It gives, first of all, an abstract of the 
French laws relating to copyrights, de- 



signs, &c. , and then presents a history of 
the discovery and progress of the litho- 
graphic art. The remainder of the book 
IS devoted to a practical account of the 
different processes. There are several 
plates of presses, machines, ^c, and a 
variety of recipes for making inks. It was 
in its day probably the most complete 
practical handbook of lithography that 
had been published. — See Richmond. 



Chevillier (Andr^). L'Origine de I'Imprimerie de Paris, disserta- 
tion, historique et critique, divisee en quatre parties. Dans la I. 
on voit son Etablissement qui fut fait par des gens de I'Universite, 
c'est-a-dire, par les soins de la Societe de Sorbonne ; avec 
I'Histoire d'Ulric Gering, le premier Imprimeur de Paris. La 11. 
contient des Reflexions sur les Livres imprimez par Gering, et 
quelques Remarques curieuses touchant les Imprimeurs, et sur la 
matiere d'Imprimerie. La III. decouvre I'origine de I'lmpression 
Grecque et Hebraique, qui fut etablie k Paris par le soin des 
Professeurs de I'Universite. Dans la IV. on fait voir les Droits 
que I'Universite a eus sur la Librairie de Paris, devant et apres la 
decouverte de I'Imprimerie. Paris, 1694. 4to. 4 preliminary 



leaves, and pp. 448. 



Andrew Chevillier was an eminent 
French writer, born at Pontoise 1636, 
died 1700. To him ii/lue the conserva- 
tion of the copy of the " Speculum Hu- 
manae Salvationis" now in the National 
Library at Paris : he bought it for a small 
sum among a quantity of old books. 
Dibdin (" Bibliomania") says that "this 



is a work of great merit, and is generally 
found upon every bibliographer's shelf. 
Baillet had supplied the author with a 
pretty strong outline in his short outline 
of Parisian printers. All the copies of 
Chevillier's book which I have seen 
are printed upon what is called foxey 
paper." 



134 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Chevreul (Michel Eugene). Considerations sur la Reproduction, par 
les procedes de M. Niepce de Saint- Victor, des images gravees, 
dessinees ou imprimees. Paris : 1847. 8vo. 

^/?^ Niepce de Saint Victor (C. M. F.). 



— Des Couleurs et de leurs applications aux arts industriels, a 
I'aide des cercles chromatiques. Paris : 1864. 4to. pp. 28, 



27 plates. 

The second article treats of " Con- 
struction en Chromochalcographie," and 
gives an interesting account of the mode 
adopted by M. Digeon in engraving and 
printing the chromatic circles in the 
work. M. Digeon was not the inventor 



of the system of reproducing water-colour 
diagrams by the combination of four steel 
engraved plates, which were printed on 
the copperplate-press, but the author says 
that he brought the art to a perfection 
unknown before. 



Choffard (Pierre Philippe). Notice historique sur I'art de la Gravure 
en France. Paris : 1804. 8vo. 

Choffard, a French engraver, was born fancy we owe many of the charming 

at Paris, in 1730, and died there 1809. vignettes to be found in the French books 

Engaged from the age of ten in the service of that period. This Notice was reprinted 

of a map-engraver., he devoted his atten- in Basan's " Dictionnaire des Graveurs." 

tion to more artistic work, and to his {See Basan.) 




. . . . GENEVA : 1635. 

Chouet (Pelrus and Jacobus). 

The device here reproduced was found tum, proxima post Capitulorum Indicem 

on a fragment of the title-page, printed in pagina docebit." Under the device, 

black and red, of a Latin book in 4to. " Genevse, apud Petrum et lacobum 

Above the device are the two lines, "Quid Chouet," 1635. This emblem of Arion 

in hac omnium postrema editione praesti- was used before by Hieronymus Gemu- 



\ 



Bibliography of Printing. 135 



saeus, at Basle, 1596 ; Georgius Rhau, Durant of Chatillon-sur-Seine. The city 

Wittemberg, 1533, and Johannes Oporinus, of Geneva is also written Gehenna, 

Basle. 1543 to 1585. Chouet was one of Avrelia Allohrogvm, and Colonia AUo- 

the French refugees who were driven brogvm. The first book printed there, 

out of their own country, and settled at according to Panzer, was " Le Livre des 

Geneva, in Switzerland. So also were Sains Anges," 1478, printed by Adam 

the Estiennes, the De Tournes, from Steinschawer. Brunet, however, prints 

Noyon, Jean Crespin of Arras, and Jean the name Steinschaber. 

Chronological (A) Series of Engravers from the Invention of the 
Art to the beginning of the present century. Cambridge: 1770. 
i2mo. 

Chrysander (Dr. Friedrich). A sketch of the History of Music- 
Printing from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. [Articles 
in the Musical Times, No. 414 et seq. London : 1877. 8vo.] 

Chry.sander (Wilhelm Christian Justus). Hypomnema historico- 
philologicum de primo scripto Arabico quod in Germania typis 
excusum est. Halae : 1749. 4to. pp. iv. 36. 

The author was the " pastor-collaborator" at a religious house at Amsterdam, and 
this pamphlet gives an account of the first Arabic types that were cast in Ger- 
many. It was printed at the Amsterdam Jewish Oriental Typographical Institute. 

Cicero. Officia Ciceronis, Leerende wat yeghelijck in alien staten 
behoort te doen, bescreuen int Latijn door den alder welspreken- 
sten Orator Marcum Tullium Ciceronem, ende nv eerst vertaelt 
in nederlantscher spraken door Dierick Coornhert. Haerlem. 
1561. Small Svo. 

This Dutch translation of the " Offices" tioned by him, it is the first indication on 

of Cicero is important to the historian of the subject, and therefore renders the 

typography, for the reason that in his work of value and interest. Van Hul- 

dedication to the burgomaster, sherifis, them, in his " Bibliotheca Hulthemiana " ; 

and councillors of Haarlem, Coornhert Wetter, in his " Kritische Geschichte " ; 

makes the first attribution of the invention Ruelens, Bibliophile Beige, vol. iii. ; and 

of printing to Haarlem. He says that J. H. Hessels, in his translation of Van 

the discovery was made there, although der Linde's work, " De Haariemsche 

in a crude manner, anterior to the perfec- Costerlegende " ; and De Vinne, " In- 

tion to which it was subsequently brought vention of Printing "—all refer to this 

at Mayence. Although Coornhert 's work, and make critical remarks on it. — 

notice was written 120 years after the See also Koster (Laurens), 
death of Koster, whose name is not men- 

CicOGNARA (el Commendatore Leopoldo). Lettera intorno ad alcune 
nuove Scoperte e Pratiche applicate all' Arte dell' Intaglio e dell' 
Impressione. n.d. Svo. 

Memorie spettanti alia Storia della Calcografia. Prato: 1831. 

8vo. pp. 262 and folio atlas of plates. 

The first part treats of Nielli, with eight plates ; the second of playing cards ; the 
third of lithography and siderography. Many interesting documents on the subject 
are included in the Appendix. 

CiRlER (N.). L'CBT typographique, offert aux hommes de lettres. 
Paris : 1839. 8vo. 
A satire on the correction of proofs, with a plate. 



136 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Four Years in the States. By a Journeyman 



[Clark (Henry).] 
Printer. 

A series of articles in the Cottager and 
Artisan for 1871, vol. xi., describing the 
adventures of an English compositor in 
the United States between 1857 and 1861. 
It gives an agreeably written account of 
many cities and places of interest, and is 
well illustrated with views of scenery, &c. 
Technical details of the printing art in 
America are, however, very scant, as 

Clarke (Adam). A Bibliographical Dictionary, containing a Chrono- 
logical account, alphabetically arranged, of the most curious, 
scarce, useful, and important books in all departments of literature, 

which have been published from the infancy of printing 

to the beginning of the nineteenth century. 6 vols. Liverpool : 
1802-4. Small 8vo. large paper. The Bibliographical Miscel- 
lany, or Supplement to the Bibliographical Dictionary. 2 vols. 
London : 1806. Small 8vo., large paper. 



they would be out of place in a journal 
intended for general circulation. The 
author seems to have been satisfied with 
the way in which he was treated, and 
closes his papers by asserting that there 
is remunerative work there for any steady 
and competent English-trained printer. 
Mr. Clark is on the staff of the Religious 
Tract Society. 



The second volume contains a history 
of printing, list of authors on bibliography 
and typography, towns where printing 
was first carried on, &c. Dr. Clarke is 
in favour of Gutenberg, and states that 
he commenced his experiments at Stras- 



burg between 1430 and 1448, with the 
assistance of John Mentel and others. 
An account of the Life and Bibliographi- 
cal Labours of Dr. Adam Clarke is con- 
tained in the " Life of Adam Clarke, 
LL.D." (London: 1833. Svo., 3 vols.). 



Clarke (W.). Repertorium Bibliographicum ; or, Account of cele- 
brated British Libraries, with the Dialogue in the Shades, and 
Rare Doings at Roxburghe Hall ; a Poem. London : 1819. 8vo., 
large paper. 

In the " Dialogue in the Shades," Caxton is one of the speakers, and there 
is a vignette illustrating the Dialogue ; of this vignette twelve copies were struck 
off, with a variation from those printed in the book. 

Claromontius (Gothofredus). In statuam laureatam quam collegium 
medicum sub auspiciis amplissimorum consulum civitatis Harle- 
mensis Laurentio Costero viro consulari, typographiae inventori primo, 
in horto medico Harlemensi erexit mdccxxiii. Amstelsedami, 
1723. 4to. 



This is the title of a poem in Latin con- 
sisting of 18 lines and beginning : — 

Quam statuam medio Medicorum 

cernis in horto 
Costeri effigies est rediviva senis. 



The title makes one page, and the poem 
(in Great Primer) the third page of a 
foolscap sheet ; the whole being printed 
in gold. The copy before us is in fine 
preservation, and none of the letters are 
even tarnished. 

Claye (Jules). De la question d'Augmentation du Salaire des Compo- 
siteurs typographes. Lettre a M. le redacteur en chef du journal 
Le Courrier du Dimancke. Paris : 186 1. 8vo. 

In 1850 the Paris printers published a and conducted at times with much acri- 

kind of memorial, entitled " Commission mony. The letter of M. Claye refers to 

des Ouvriers Compositeurs de Paris " this subject, and it evoked several replies, 

(Paris : 1850. 8vo.), and their demands some of which were published in pam- 

for an increase of wages gave rise to a phlet form in the "Brochures Ouvrieres" 

discussion, continued for several years, of M. Poulet-Melassis. — See Coutant. 



^Bibliography of Frinting. 137 

Claye (Jules). Manuel de I'Apprenti Compositeur. Paris: 1872. 8vo 

Second edition. Paris : 1874. 8vo. 

M. Claye is a well-known Parisian work is a thoroughlj' practical one, and 

printer, who founded a school forinstruc- contains the result of the author's great 

tion in typography as a profession. It is experience as a printer. This ancient 

attended by youths of good education house changed hands in 1877, and now 

and position, and all pains are taken to bears the designation of A. Quantin et 

instruct them thoroughly. The above Cie. — See Quantin. 

Cleef (P. M. van), Handboek ter beoefening der boekdrukkunst 
in Nederland, voorafgegaan van eene beknopte geschiedenit 
dezer kunst. 'sGravenhage : 1844. 8vo. pp. 259. Woodcut 
portrait of Koster. 

Handbook of the Practice of Printing in the Netherlands, with a brief history of 
the art. 

Clement- Jan IN. Recherches sur les Imprimeurs Dijonnais, et sur 
les Imprimeurs de la Cote d'Or. 1873. 8vo. 

Clerget (Charles Ernest). De I'Omementation typographique- 
Vienne : 1859. 8vo. [In French and German.] 

Motifs d'Omements du XVP Siecle, ou Materiaux rares et inedits 



pour toutes les professions qui ont I'ornement pour base ou pour 
auxiliaire. Paris : 1840. 4to. 

The title of a periodical publication, only two numbers of which appeared. The 
examples are addressed to engravers of typographic designs, lithographic artists, 
bookbinders, and other artisans. 

C LESSEN (Wilhelm Jeremias Jacob). Drittes Jubel-Fest der Buch- 
drucker-Kunst, oder Christliches Denck- und Danckmahl dem 
allerhochsten Gott zu Ehren, wegen der vor dreyhundert Jahren 
erfundenen und bisher erhaltenen edlen Buchdrucker-Kunst. 
Worinnen von Erfindung, Ausbreitung und Verbesserung, vom 
Nutzen, Lob und Furtrefflichkeit, vom rechten Gebrauch und 
Missbrauch derselben gehandelt wird. Gotha : 1740. 8vo. pp. 
52, 197, and eleven pages of Index. 

Three books on : — I. the commencement, propagation, and amendment; II. the 
universal and indescribable usefulness; and III. on the abuse and proper use ^of 
printing, preceded by a preface by G. C. Rieger, Pastor of St. Leonard, Stuttgart! 

Cleyn, alias Schwab (Johann). 

The first book issued at Lyons \>y this the imprint being " Lugduni, Bartholo- 

printeris dated 1478, and he printed there maeus Buyerius, 1473." 4to. A copy of 

for eight successive years. On next leaf is this book is in the Grenvilie Library at 

his device, found on the last leaf of a book the British Museum, and another formed 

dated 1514. It consists of *he emblem part of the Spencerian Library at Althorp. 

of the globe and cross, with the monogram Panzer does not, however, mention this 

I.e. His last book was dated 1529. publication, although he gives the names 

Lyons was anciently written Lugdunum. of above two hundred and fifty works 

The first book printed there was "Car- which were printed at Lyons during the 

dinalis Lotharii Tractatus quinque " ; isih century. 



138 



Bibliography of Printing. 




CLEYN. \.\oiiS, Et nl. : 1478-1529. 

Clowes & Sons. A Description of their Printing-office, with a 
Memoir of the late William Clowes, the founder of the establish- 
ment. London : [1840.] 8vo. pp. 87. 
A reprint of articles in the Quarterly Review and " Days at the Factories," for 

private circulation only. 

Clymer (George). The Patent Columbian Printing Press. [1818.] 
4to. pp. 16 ; one copperplate. 

This is the address issued by the tion co-operate in producing the impres" 

inventor of the Columbian press to the sion, preclude all former presses from 

printers of London. It is dated July 4, standing in competition with it." He says 

1818, and begins : " Much as my prede- that his press is superior on the ground 

cessors have done towards improving and alike of superabundant power and me- 

perfecting that most important machine chanical precision of impression, and 

the printmg press, it is evident from the greater facility in working the largest 

corroborating testimonies annexed, that if forms. At the end is an address from 

I have not yet brought it to the greatest American printers to their English bre- 

possible perfection, I have approached thren, on the occasion of Mr. George 

much nearer than any who have preceded Clymer's visit to Europe, 1817, and a list 

me." A list is given of the offices where of prices, from which we learn that a 

the press is in operation, beginning with super royal originally cost ;^ioo, and a 

Andrew Strahan & Co.'s, His Majesty's double royal £11^. The following are, 

printers, iNew Street Square. The in- in substance, respectively French and 

ventor claims that "the mechanical German versions of the preceding : — 
principles, which by its peculiar construc- 

Lettres testimoniales, et autres pieces probantes, a I'appui de la 



\ 



Bibliography of Printing. 139 



superiorite, I'utilite, et la duree de la Presse k imprimer appelee 
Columbian Presse, ou Presse Americaine. London : 1822. 8vo. 

Clymer (George). Ueber die von G. Clymer in Philadelphia 
erfundene Patent-Columbia-Presse. Braunschweig : 1828. 4to. 

George Clymer, the inventor and manu- predecessors in the construction of a pump, 
facturer of the Columbian press, was For this invention he obtained a patent at 
descended from a Swiss family, who left Washington, and subsequently one in 
Geneva, and settled in Pennsylvania England. The crude and defective con- 
before the revolution of 1776. The name dition of the printing-press next occupied 
appears among the signatures to the his attention, and he ultimately produced 
Declaration ot Independence. During the Columbian, which he introduced here, 
his youth George Clymer showed remark- as has already been seen, in 1817, For 
able mechanical skill in the construction this invention he received a gold medal of 
of a plough, on a new and improved the value of 100 florins from the King of 
principle, and which attracted the atten- the Netherlands, and a valuable present 
tion of scientific men. He was then put from the Czar of Russia. George Clymer 
to carpentry and cabinet-making, but died in London on the 27th August, 1834, 
afterwards turned his attention to the at the advanced age of 80 years, 
study of hydraulics, and soon excelled his 

CoBBETT (G. T.). The Master Printer's Handbook of Prices 
adapted for the use of Printers, Lithographers, Bookbinders, and 
Stationers. Birkenhead : i860. Crown 8vo. 

CoCHET (I'Abbe Jean BenolL Desire). Histoire de ITmprimerie en 
Dieppe. Dieppe : 1848. 8vo. pp. 44. Fifty copies printed. 

Code de la Librairie et Imprimerie de Paris, ou conference du regle- 
- ment arrete au conseil d'etat du Roy, le 28 Fevrier 1723, et rendu 
commun pour tout le Royaume, par arret du conseil d'etat du 24 
Mars 1744. Avec les anciens ordonnances, edits, declarations, 
arrets, reglemens et jugemens rendus au sujet de la librairie et de 
Timprimerie, depuis I'an 1332 jusqu'a present. Paris: 1744. i2mo. 

CoGAN (Thomas), M.D. The Rhine : or a Journey from Utrecht to 
Frankfort, 179 1-2. 2 vols. London : 1794. 8vo. 

Written in the form of epistolary communications, letters 38 to 41 forming a 
disquisition on the history of the discovery of printing. Translated into Dutch as 
follows : — 

De Rhyn of Reis van Utrecht na Frankfort, hoofdzaaklyk 

langs de oevers van den Rhyn. Uit het Engelsch. Haarlem : 
1800. 8vo. pp. 636. 

COGGESHALL (W. T.). The Newspaper Record, containing a com- 
plete List of Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States, 
Canada, and Great Britain ; together with a Sketch of the Origin 
and Progress of Printing, with some facts about Newspapers in 
Europe and America. Philadelphia : 1856. 8vo. pp. xiv. 194. 

Collection des Lois relatives a I'lmprimerie et a la Librairie. Am- 
ster(fam : 181 1. 8^.0. 
The laws promulgated by the government of Napoleon L In French and Dutch. 

Collins (H. G.). On Electro-block Printing, especially as applied to 
enlarging or reproducing any printing surface or original drawing. 



140 



Bibliography of Prijiiin^ 



[A paper read before the Society of Arts, and published in their 
Journal, Dec. 7, i860.] 



surface made from a larger engraving 
without the intervention of a draughts- 
man or engraver, was the frontispiece 
illustrating a tale entitled "A Christmas 
Hamper" (Routledge), by the late Mark 
Lemon, the editor of Puttch, who took a 
great interest in the invention. The pro- 
cess is no longer practised. 



Mr. George Cruikshank, the veteran 
etcher, presided, and with Messrs. Le 
Keux, George Smith, Michael Hanhart, 
and other authorities on engraving and 
printing, took an active part in the dis- 
cussion pn the merits of the invention 
which ensued. The first published 
example of an electro block or printing 

Cologne Chronicle. Die Cronica van der hilliger Stat Coellen. 
Coellen : 1499. Folio. In black letter. Title, 11 pages of 
register, and 350 numbered leaves. 

On folios 311 and 312 is a long account It may be roughly translated as fol- 
of the origin of printing, a portion of lows : — ■ 
which we present in its original :— 

" In den iairen uns heren do men 
schreyff mccccl. do was eyn gulden iair, 
do began men tzo drucken ind was dal 
eyrste boich dat men druckde di= Bybel 
zo latijn, ind wart g'idruckt mit eynre 
grouer schrifft as is die schrifift dae men 
nu Mysseboicher mit druckt. Item wie- 
woil die kunst is vonden tzo Mentz, als 
vursz up die wijse, als dan nu gemeynlich 
gebruicht wirt, so is doch die eyrste vur- 
byldung vonden in Hollant vyss den 
Donaten, die daeselfTst vur der tzijt 
gedruckt syn . . . Mer der eyrste vynder 



"In the 5^ear of our Lord known as 
MCCCCL, which was a golden year, the 
people began to print, and the first book 
printed was the Bible in Latin, and it 
was printed with a larger type than that 
they pnnt missals with. Although this 
art has been invented in Mentz, viz., the 
style now commonly used, the prototype 
of it, however, was found out in Holland, 
for the Donates, which were printed there 
long before . . . Moreover, the first in- 
ventor of printing has been a citizen 
of Mentz, and he was born at Straiss- 

der druckerye is gewest eyn Burger tzo burch, and was named Sir Johan Guden- 

Mentz ind was geboren va Straissburch, burch." 

ind hiesch joncker Johan Gudenburch." 

CoLOMB DE Batines (Vicomte P.). Lettres a M. Jules Ollivier, 
contenant quelques documents sur I'Origine de I'lmprimerie en 
Dauphine. Gap : 1835. Royal 8vo. 

Materiaux pour servir a I'Histoire de I'lmprimerie en Dauphine. 

Gap : 1837. Royal 8vo. 

Colophon, derivation of the v/ord. Notes and Queries, xi. 49. 

touch to an affair. In the early days of 
printing, the last thing printed at the end 
of the book was called the Colophon. 
The same phrase was used by the 
Romans, as well as Erasmus, whose 
words are "Colophonem addidi," "I 
have put a finishing touch to it." 



Colophon is derived from a city of 
that name in Ionia, one of the places that 
contended for the honour of being the 
birthplace of Homer. The Colophonians 
were excellent horsemen, and generally 
turned the scale on the side on which 
they fought ; hence a proverb " to add a 
Colophonian " ; that is, to put a finishing 

CoLOSi (Gius.). Lettera a Sig. F 
Stampa in Sicilia, con quel 
1857. 8vo. 
A letter on the improvement of printing in Sicily 

CoLUMBius (Johannes). 

The device of this printer represented 
the Phoenix with an open book, on which 
are inscribed Alpha aiid Omega, the first 



ranc. Lao sul miglioramento della 
mezzi che presenta. Palermo : 



and last letters of the Greek alphabet, 
and under it a scroll with the inscription 
' ' Renovabitur. " The annexed reproduc- 



\ 



Bibliography of Printing. 



141 



tion of the device is taken from the title- Quadragesima, liber ' 
page of " Johannis Dallsei de Jejuniis et 8vo.). 



(Deventer, 1654, 




DEVENTER 



[654. 



Combe (Charles), M. D. A Catalogue of his collection of prints, formed 
with a view to elucidate and improve the History of Engraving from 
the earliest period of the art till the year 1 700. London : 1 803. 8vo. 

COMI (Siro). Memorie bibliografiche per la storia della tipografia 

Pavese del secolo XV. Pavia : 1807. 8vo, pp. xxxii. 142. 

The author was a native of Pavia, city 1821. The above work is a biblio- 

where he was born 1741, and having filled graphical memoir on the typographical 

the office of keeper of the archives of the history of Pavia in the fifteenth century. 

city and university, he died in the same 

CoMMELiN (Jerome). 



Jerome Commelin was born at Douay, in 
France, but was not established there as a 
printer. Having embraced the Protes- 
tant creed, he was obliged to leave his 
native country, and settled at Geneva, 
where he began to print in 1560. Thence 
he took up his residence in Heidelberg, 



Chrysostom, 1596, contains a much more 
elaborate device than that annexed, 
the garland being supported by two 
female figures, representing on one 
side Justice, and on the other. Religion. 
This device was partly borrowed by 
Hollar for the use of Roger Daniel, 



where he had been called by the Elector printer to the University of Cambridge, 
Palatine to superintend his library. He with the motto, " Hinc lucem et pocula 
printed a great number of books which do sacra." The portrait of Commelin is 



not bear his name, but are easily traced 
to him by the device on their title-pages. 
Several of the books issued from his 
press are thus inscribed : — " Ex officina 
Sant-Andreana " ; others merely bear 
the words, " Apud Commelinum." Not 
only was Commelin a distinguished printer 
— a rival of the Aldi and the Estiennes, 
— but he was a very learned scholar. 
He published all the works of St. Atha- 
nasius and St. John Chrysostom, often 
himself supplying what vk/'s wanting in 
their works. He died in tho full vigour 
of his manhood, towards the end of 
the year 1597, leaving to his successor 
Bonutius to finish his well-known edi- 
tion of " Apollodorus." An edition of 



given as a frontispiece to the " Biblio- 
graphieDouaisienne," by H.R.Duthilleul, 
Paris, 1835. The book from which the 
annexed device is taken is the " Rerum 
Britannicarum," Heidelberg, 1587. The 
same device, but of a smaller size, was 
used later at Leyden, by Isaac Commelin, 
probably a relation of Jerome. It consists 
of an emblem of Truth in her Glory, 
holding the sun in her right hand, and in 
the other an open book and a palm, the 
whole in a fruit and flower garland, secured 
with a scroll bearing the inscription : — 

AAHOEIA nANAAMATQP. 

This is the original model of the Cam- 
bridge University device. {See Cam- 



142 



Bibliography of Frmting. 



BRIDGE University Printers.) Hei- Duchy of Baden ; the name was anciently 
delberg is a university city in the Grand written Heidelberga. 




GENEVA : 1560 ; HEIDELBERG ; 1587-1597. 

Complete (The) Aquatinter ; being the whole process of Etching and 
Engraving in Aquatinta ; the use of aquafortis, with all the tools 
necessary. London. 4to. 

Compositor's Guide to the London Printing-offices. Containing a 
List for the use of those in search of employment, and other 
useful information. London : 1870. 32mo. 

This contains a list of the London periodical publications composed there, 

printing-offices ; gives the approximate Issued by the London Society of Com- 

number of men employed in each of the positors as an aid to journeymen seeking 

principal offices ; and also a list of the employment at case in the metropolis. 

Compositors' Library (Catalogues of the), and other Publications. — 
See Societies. 

CoMTE (Florente le). Cabinet des Singularitez d'Architecture, Pein- 
ture. Sculpture, et Graveure. Paris : 1699-1700. 3 vols. 8vo. 

CONFERENZA tra i Signori Prof. A. Migliorino e il Bibliografo G. Mira 
sopra la stampa, se prima in Messina o contemporaneamente in 
Palermo sia stata introdotta. Messina : 1874. 8vo. 
Account of a controversy between Signors Migliorino and Mira as to whether 

printing was not introduced into Messina at the same time that it was into Palermo. 

CONFESSIONALE, ou Beichtspiegel nach den Zehn Geboten, reproduit en 
facsimile d'apres I'unique exemplaire conserve au Museum Meer- 
jnanno-Westreenianum, par E. Spanier. Avec une Introduction 
par J. W. Holtrop. La Haye : 1 86 1. 8vo. pp. 16, and eight 
leaves of facsimile in lithography. 
Reproduction of a German block-book in the Meerman collection. 



\ 



^Bibliography of Printing 



143 



CONGRfes des Imprimeurs de France. Extrait du rapport de la com- 
mission chargee d' examiner le projet de loi sur la presse. Paris : 
1867. 4to. 

Conner (James) & Sons. Specimens of Plain and Ornamental 
Printing Types, Borders, Ornaments, Rules, &c., made at the type 
and electrotype foundry of. New York : 1859. 

Conner (James). Specimen Book from the foundry of James Conner's 
Sons, New York. 



tion of matrices by electrotyping. His 
first experiment was the reproduction of 
an engraved copper-plate, and he was so 
successful that his process was described 
in many of the European scientific jour- 
nals as a very remarkable accomplishment. 
He afterwards managed to obtain by 
precipitation a complete alphabet of 
matrices from a fount which he had cut 
in steel. It was the first application of 
electricity to the type-founder's art, and 
has been the forerunner of a similar 
system now adopted all over the world. 
Great improvements were successively 
made, and the firm now possesses many 
sets of matrices that claim to be hardly 
distinguishable from those made from 
steel punches or strikes. 



James Conner, the founder of the firm, 
was born in 1798, in the State of New 
York, and died May 30, 1861. Since his 
death the firm has been conducted by his 
sons. James Conner served his appren- 
ticeship on a New York newspaper, as a 
compositor. He afterwards worked for 
several years in book-printing houses, 
among them in that of Mr. Watts, who 
was one of the first, in conjunction with 
Mr. Foy, to introduce stereotyping into 
the United States. Subsequently he 
started a stereotype foundry on his own 
account, afterwards adding a type- 
foundry. He was very successful as a 
letter-founder, and introduced many im- 
provements into the business, as well as 
many new styles and faces. His greatest 
achievement, however, was the produc- 

Connexional Punctuation oratorically extended, its adoption advo- 
cated, and its utility shown. By a Type-Corrector. Lanca.ster : 
1864. i2mo. pp. 24. 



The first sentence, which is printed quence ,) is a subject of a character may- 

thus, explains the aim of the book :— 1-say-? "so delicate ," if not to-many ac- 

Connexional Punctuation (equally , tually of aversion , that some interest- 

I presume , to-every-language appli- exciting remarks , prefatory to a plea for 

cable , and alike in-each when-perfect its amendment , may be as indispensable 

counterparting the combinations of elo- as advantageous . 

CONSTANTIN. Specimen des Caracteres de la Fonderie de T. Con- 
stantin alne et Constantin jeune, a Nanci. Metz : 1830. 4to. 

Constantinople. Printing at Constantinople. Gent. Mag., Iv. 310. 

An account of the opening, early in 1785, of a printing-office in Constantinople. 

Contract of Association between Montano, Filippo Lavanio, and 
Crestoforo Waldarfer. Milan : 1869. 

This is a copy of a document, dis- Up to i86g it was quite unknown, but 

covered among the archives of Milan, was brought forward through the 

between the persons named, who founded exertions of Professor Berlan, of Venice, 

the first printing-office in that city, and the painter Yior. 

Cook (J. S. & Son). .Specimen Book of Plain and Ornamental Brass 
Rules, Circles, Ovais, &c. Demy 8vo. 
Mr. Cook was the first to introduce his " Printer's Every-Day Book," that 
brass instead of type-metal space-lines, the printers' brokers should supply bra-ss 
and we believe also the first to carry out rule ready cut to standard ems. {See 
a suggestion made by T. S. Houghton, in Caslon, " Specimens." 1857.) 



144 Bibliography of Printing. 

CoRBELLi (A, Grafen S.)- Ueber den Einfluss der Typographic 
auf die Wissenschaften. Den 25sten Marz, 1779. Munchen. 
[In Memoirs of the Bavarian Academy, vol. iii.] 

CoRBELijN (A.). Proef, Vlissingen : 1784. 8vo. 

A notice of the printing-house of Corbelijn, with specimens of his types. 

CoRNEY (Bolton). Printing in 1449 and Shakespeare. Articles in 
Notes and Queries, iv. 344 ; v. 1 1 7. 
These articles raise the question whether ment against Caxton's claim to be the 
Shakespeare was guilty of an anachronism proto-typographer in England. The re- 
in making Cacje accuse Lord Treasurer ference to the paper-mill in the same 
Say of having set up a printing-house, speech of Cade is, however, an undoubted 
It IS shown that the reference to printing lapsus calami on the part of the drama- 
was not contained in the original copies tist. 
of Henry VI., and is therefore no argu- 

The Caxton Coffer. Articles in Notes and Queries, I. iv. 250, 

270, 292, 312, 340 ; V. 3. 

A suggestion for a suitable Caxton of copies Caxton was accustomed to 

Memorial, recommending also an assem- print ; the meaning of Caxton's device ; 

blage of notes on the life and works of and his biographers, it being shown that 

Caxton, designed to correct current before the time of "Ames's Typographi- 

errors, and to indicate probable sources cal Antiquities," Leland, Bale, Stow, 

of information of his having caused print- Pits, Fuller, Nicolson, Middleton, Birch, 

ing to be used in 1449. In the articles Oldys, Lewis, and Tanner wrote on the 

to which this gave rise, some curious in- subject. Bolton Corney spent his latter 

formation was elicited as to the number years in the Charterhouse. 

CORNO (Antonio del). Memorie della Citta di Feltre. Venezia : 17 10. 
4to. 
One of the Italian authorities on the alleged invention of printing by Castaldi. 

CoRRARD DE Breban. Les Graveurs Troyens. Recherches sur 
leur vie et leurs oeuvres, avec facsimile. Paris et Troyes : 1868. 
8vo. pp. 94. 

Only 170 copies printed of this work, whom is assigned an origin in the same 
which gives a list, with biographical place. At the end is a plate containing 
notices, of all the engravers of Troyes, in representations of the marks or mono- 
chronological order, as well as those to grams of the engravers referred to. 

Recherches sur I'fitablissement et I'Exercice de I'lmprimerie a 



Troyes. Contenant la Nomenclature des Imprimeurs de cette 
ville depuis la fin du 156 siecle jusqu'a 1789, et des notices sur 
leurs productions les plus remarquables, avec facsimile. Troyes : 

1839. pp. xii. 65. 2e edition, corrigee et augmentee. Paris: 

1 85 1. 8vo. pp. xii. 84. 36 edition, revue et considerablement 

augmentee d'apres les notes manuscrites de I'auteur, par Olgar 
Thierry- Poux, de la Bibliotheque Nationale. Paris : 1873. 8vo. 
pp. 200. 

Illustrated by a number of facsimiles devices of all the printers coming within 

from the books printed at Troyes. the subject of the work, and are accom- 

These are executed on wood, and printed panied by full biographical notices, 
in the text. They include the marks or 

Corrector, der bey Buchdruckerey wohl unterwiesene, oder : 
Kurtzer Unterricht fiir diejenigen, die Werke, so gedruckt werden, 




/^UNIVERS 

OF 

BibIiog7'aphy of Printing. 145 

corrigiren wollen. Herausgegeben von D. H. H. Franckfurth 
und Leipzig: 1739. 8vo. pp. 64. With an Appendix : Ehren- 
Gedichte auf die Edle freye Kunst-Buchdruckerey, &c. pp. 44. 

CoRSELLis. Collection de Lettres, copies authentiques, declarations, 
et notices en 1756 et 1757 sur I'imposture fameuse du falsaiie 
G, Smith, a Amsterdam et la Haye, qui fabriqua une edition de 
Plinii Epistolae, avec souscription (Oxonise : Corcellis, 1469. 
Hedvvigii liber 16, ibidem 1470, etc.), et trompa Mr. P. van 
Damme et autres en Angleterre. Recueillie et conservee pour 
prouver son innocence a la falsification, et annotee par Mr. v. 
Damme. 12 pieces. Manuscript. 

A very curious collection, containing, of P. Burman, secretary ; copy of a de- 

amongst others, seven letters from Smith claration by Meerman, etc. It formed 

to Van Damme ; a forged or fabricated Lot No. i8i at the sale of Dr. A. de 

letter of the Earl of Pembroke ; a letter Vries, at Haarlem, in 1864. 

Coster (Laurens Janszoon). See Koster. 

Cotton (Rev. Henry), D.C.L, A Typographical Gazetteer at- 
tempted. Oxford : 1825. 8vo. pp. xvi. 219. Second edi- 
tion. Oxford : 183 1, pp. xviii. 393. Third edition. Oxford : 

1852. 8vo. 

Second series. Oxford : 1866. pp. xvi. 377. 

This is a standard work of reference, leian Library, arranged in the order of 

and has always enjoyed great authority, their dates ; d. A chronological arrange- 

The names of the towns are arranged in ment of the places at which the art of 

alphabetical order, and the circumstances printing is known to have been exercised, 

attending the introduction into them of The Second Series, which the author 

the art of printing ; the earliest products terms his farewell contribution to biblio- 

of their presses, and biographical re- graphical literature, was writien when he 

ferences to early printers, are given in a was in his seventy-seventh year. It does 

succinct manner. As appendices are not presume to call itself a " History of 

given: a. An Index of Pseudonyms, Printing," as the author says " that large 

disguised, falsified, or fictitious places, and important branch of the history of 

with the earliest dates of the books from literature remains yet to be written." By 

each ; ^. The names of certain academies the time the present Bibliography is 

which sometimes are found on the titles finished, its compilers hope that they 

of books, without further .specification of will have materially assisted the labours 

the place to which they belong ; c. An of whoever shall undertake this formid- 

enumeration of the books printed on able but interesting task in the future, 
vellum which are contained in the Bod- 

CoTTRELL (Thomas). A Specimen of Printing Types. By Tho. 
Cottrell, Letter Founder in Nevil's-court, Fetter-lane, London. 
Svo. [1770 ?] 26 leaves, and a folding plate of flowers. 

" This Foundery was begun in the year 1757, and vvill (with God's Leave) be 
carried on, improved and enlarged by Thomas Cottrell. N.B. Served my appren- 
ticeship to William Caslon, Esq." 

Courtney (R. J.). Brande's Dictionary of Scieace, Literature, and 
Art. 3 vols. U ndon : 1875. Svo. 

The following articles were written by Stereotyping, Nature-printing, Printing- 

the late Mr. R. J. Courtney, formerly machine. Bibliography, Paper, Type, 

superintendent of Messrs. Spottiswoode Printing-ink, Type-metal, and Printing- 

& Co.'s printing-office, New-street- balls or rollers, 
square : Correcting, Printing, Press, 

U 



146 Bibliography of Printi?ig. 

CoUTANT. Du Salaire des ouvriers Compositeurs. Tarif des prix de 
main d'oeuvre. Reponse a la brochure de M. J. Claye, maitre 
imprimeur. 2e edition. Paris : 1861. 8vo. pp. 35. 
One of the Brochures Ouvrieres, written by a working compositor, and dated 

October 27, 1861. It is addressed to the master printers of Paris, and claims an 

advance of wages for the journeymen. — See Claye (J.), ante. 

CoWELL (S. H.). A Brief Description of the Art of Anastatic 
Printing, and of the uses to which it may be applied, as practised 
by S. H. Cowell, Ipswich, Suffolk, with full instructions for 
using the Anastatic Ink, and making Drawings for Transfer. 
Ipswich : 1868, 8vo.; 1872, folio. 
Anastatic Prititing (from Anastasis, The invention was improved and ex- 
resuscitation, raising again) is a process tended by Strickland and Delamotte 
for producing facsimile copies of manu- in 1848. The process is analogous 
script, or printed documents or engra- to lithography, but a zinc plate is 
vings, and was invented by Rudolf Appel, employed instead of a stone. Mr. Cowell, 
a Silesian, about the year 1840. It who died in 1875, was perhaps the only 
was soon after made public, and Faraday person in this country who practised the 
explained the process at the Royal Insti- method as a matter of business ; though 
tution on the 25th April, 1845. It has it has been extensively used by amateurs, 
since transpired that a similar process had and is still carried on by Mr. Cowells 
been employed in England some time successors, 
before the invention was made known. 

CowiE (George). Job Master- Printer's Price-Book. London : 1838. 
8vo. 

Cowie's Printer's Pocket-Book and Manual, containing the 

Compositors' and Pressmen's Scale of Prices, agreed upon in 
1810, and modified in 1816; the newsmen's scale; numerous 
valuable tables ; all the schemes of impositions, from folio to 
hundred-and-twenty-eights inclusive ; the Hebrew, Greek, and 
Saxon Alphabets, with plans of the respective cases ; an expla- 
nation of mathematical, algebraical, physical, and astronomical 
signs ; to which is added a table for giving out paper, and a use- 
ful abstract of the various Acts of Parliament connected with the 
trade ; also a list of master printers, arranged on a new plan, and 

corrected to the present time. London : 8vo. n. d. Second 

edition, with alterations and additions : 1866, i6mo. [Issued 
with a different title-page. The list of master printers is omitted, 
and there are some alterations on p. 94.] 
The author was a printer in Newcastle-street, Strand. The title of his book 

gives a sufficient epitome of its contents. 

CowPER (Edward), On the Recent Improvements in Printing. 
[Excerpt from the Quarterly Journal of Science, 1828,] pp. 9. — 
See also Applegath. 

Craig (William Marshall). A Course of Lectures on Drawing, 
Painting, and Engraving, considered as branches of Elegant 
Education. Delivered in the Saloon of the Royal Institution. 
London : 1821. 8vo. Plates. 

Craik (G. L.). The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties. 2 vols. 
London : 1857. i2mo. 



^Bibliography of Printing. 



147 



Typography is an art the acquirement of which has been a source of much difficulty 
to many of its professors. Mr. Craik gives many instances of the difficulties en- 
countered by several eminent printers on their road to fame. 

Cranier. fipreiives des Caracteres graves et fondus par Cranier. 
Paris : 1828. 4to. 

Crapelet (G. a.). Des Brevets d'Imprimeur, des Certificats de 
Capacite, et de la necessite actuelle de donner a rimprimerie les 
reglements promis par les lois ; suivi du Tableau general des Im- 
primeries de toute la France en 1704, 1739, 1810, 1830, et 1840. 
Paris : 1 840. 8vo. pp. iv. 92. 
This is an exposition of the French Press Laws, with some statistics intended to 

show their practical effect. Ihe author complains bitterly of the restrictions placed 

on printing by the French authorities. 

De la Profession de I'lmprimeur, des Maitres Imprimeurs, et de 

la necessite actuelle de donner a I'lmprimerie les reglements 
promis par les lois. Paris : 1 840. 8vo. pp. 130. 
The following is an epitome of the con- a royal printer for the city of Amiens ; 
tents of this standard work : Part I. the Code, as it related to printing and 
treats of the enthusiasm of the first publishing ; J. B. Coignard, the founder 
printers towards the typographic art ; the of the prize for Latin eloquence in the 
prerogatives that they enjoyed in virtue of University; cultivation of printing by 
their profession ; the early printers of the the princes and ladies of the Court. 
Universities; a list of some families of Part IL treats of the antiquity of certain 
printers who were ennobled, or had titles families of printers ; the poem of Claude 
and dignities conferred upon them; a Louis Thiboust, entitled " Typographiag 
sketch of President Henault and of Mar- E.xcellentia " ; of the book of Dominique 



shal Fabert ; the business of printing in 
modern times ; some ancient institutions 
which regulated the Press ; origin of the 
French Chambre Syndicate; ancient 
usages and customs of printers ; the 



Fertel, called " La Science pratique de 
rimprimerie " ; the verdict of the Jury of 
the Exhibition of 1801 in regard to print- 
ing ; the works of Pierre and Firmin 
Didot ; the actual state of printing, and 



confraternity of St. John Porte-Latine ; means of reforming certain evils existing 

the protection and encouragement given at the time of publication. At the end is 

to printers in France from the time of a list of printers and publishers of Paris 

Louis Xn. to that of Louis XVL; the of whom there are engraved portraits, 

settlement of the number of printers in with short biographical and critical notes ; 

Paris in 1686 ; the Delphin editions, and a general list of Parisian printers, from 

how they were executed by the different 1469 to 1789 ; and a list of 36 printers 

printers of Paris invited to assist ; Ma- carrying on business in Paris in the latter 

dame Dacier and her contributions ; the year, 
letters patent of Louis XIV., instituting 

Des Progres de I'lmprimerie en France et en Italic au XVI^ 

Siecle, et de son influence sur la litterature ; avec les Lettres 
Patentes de Fran9ois ler en date du 17 Janvier, 1538, qui insti- 
tuent le premier Imprimeur Royal pour le Grec. Paris : 1836. 
8vo. pp. ii. 52. 



The author says that it was during the 
16th century, and from the time of 
Francis I., that typography began to 
exercise so vast an mfluence on civiliza- 
tion, and in that century, "t received its 
highest development both iii France and 
Italy. The greatest potentates, the most 



light shed on the world by the publica- 
tion of the Greek and Latin classics. 
Multitudes of men of eminence devoted 
to its practice their lives, their talents, 
and their fortunes. Of these he gives 
short sketches, and an enthusiastic de- 
scription of their works. The notes con- 



eminent men, emulated each other in tain much historical and bibliographical 

tlieir eulogy of the art, but agreed in re- information. In 1821 the Rev. T. F. 

garding it as a gift from God. The dark- Dibdin wrote a reply (in Bvo.) to the pre- 

ness of ignorance was dissipated by the face of this work. — 6V^ Dibdin. 



148 



Bibliography of Printing 



Crapelet (G. a. ). l^tudes pratiques et litteraires sur la Typographic. A 
I'usagedes gens de lettres, des editeurs, des libraires, desimprimeurs, 
des protes, des correcteurs, et de tous ceux qui se destinent a I'im- 
primerie. Tome premier. Paris : 1837. 8vo. pp. iv. viii. 408. 

Only one volume of this work was 
published. It is devoted entirely to the 
history and literary aspects of printing, 
especially printing in Paris, of which the 
first chapter treats at great length. The 
portion devoted to correction of the press 



is the most noteworthy feature of the 
book. It shows the system pursued by 
the first printers, reviews the correctness, 
or otherwise, of their books, and gives a 
variety of practical instructions to be fol- 
lowed in the reading-closet. 



Robert Estienne, Imprimeur Royal, et le Roi Fran9ois I". 

Nouvelles recherch<is sur I'etat des lettres et de I'imprimerie au 
XVP siecle, avec sept planches d'ornemens typographiques des 
Estienne et autres imprimeurs contemporains. Paris : 1839. 
8vo. pp.68. 
A letter addressed to M. Villemain, of vignettes and initials are beautifully 
Minister of Public Instruction and Grand executed, and the critical remarks accom- 
Master of the University. It deals with panying each may be commended to 
an incident referred to, but at much less typographical designers and letter- 
length, in Crapelet's " Progres de ITm- cutters, 
primerie." The woodcut reproductions 

Cras (Henry Constantine). Eulogium Johannis Meermanni. Am- 
stelsedami et Hagge : 181 7. 8vo. pp. x. 125. 

There is a fine copperplate portrait of the author on the title-page, engraved by 
W. van Senus. 




LONDON : 1583-1607. 
Creede (Thomas). 

This printer lived at the sign of the to his books the annexed device, which is 
Catherine Wheel, near the Old Swan, in an emblem of Truth, crowned and flying 
Thames-street, in 1594, and frequently put naked under a hand issuing from the 



^^Bibliography of Frintiftg. 1 49 

clouds, striking on her back with a rod, varyetie to move delighte." The British 

and with the motto round it, " Veritas Museum has the edition of 1599, " printed 

virescit vulnere," with a fault in the by Thomas Creede," with the preceding 

spelling, and between the legs of the device, which is not mentioned in 

figure the initials, T.C. Creede also used Lowndes. In the Records of the Sta- 

the device of a griffin sitting on a stone, tioners' Company it is stated that in 

to which is chained a round ball, winged. 1595 Creede was fined 2s. 6d. for having 

He was made a freeman of the Stationers' kept an apprentice, without enfranchising 

Company in 1578, on the nomination of him, after the proper term of servitude, 

Thomas East. Warton, in his "History and that this printer was also bound over 

of English Poetry," quotes from the Re- in the penalty of ;^4o not to teach a 

gister of the Stationers' Company, March person named the art of printing. A 

loth, 1594, " to T. Creede " — " Mother tolerably full list of Creede's works will 

Reddcape, her last will and testa- be found in Herbert's "Ames," vol. ii. p. 

ment, conteyning sundrye conceipted 1279 ; and also in Arber's " Transcripts," 

and pleasant tales, furnished with much vol. i. 

Creswell (Rev. S. F.). Collections towards the History of Printing 
in Nottinghamshire, with an index of Persons and Subjects. 
London : 1863. 8vo. pp. 44. 

"This tract," says the author, "con- .similar list for the other towns in the 

tains an experimental catalogue of books, county, as well as an account of the 

pamphlets, and single sheets printed and newspapers." The titles are given in 

published in Nottingham only. I hope full, and bibliographical and biographical 

to be able to give, at some future time, a notes are appended. 

Crevenna (Pierre Antoine). Catalogue raisonne de la Collection 

des Livres de M. Crevenna, negociant h. Amsterdam. 6 vols. 
Amsterdam : 1 776. 4to. 

This collection passed into the hands of should have been dissipated bej'ond the 

the son, Bolongari, in whose lifetime it hope of restoration." — Dibdin (" Biblio- 

was sold by public auction. " It seems mania ") — See Peignot's " Diet, de Bibli- 

to have been the ruling passion of ologie," iii. p. 100, and his " Curiosites 

B. Crevenna's life to collect all the mate- Bibliographiques," p. 139. A catalogue 

rials, from all quarters, which had any of a second portion of his library, also 

connection, more or less, with the origin sold by auction, was issued in 1789, 5 

and progress of printing, and it is for vols. Bvo. ; and a third catalogue In 1795, 

ever to be regretted that such extensive his death having taken place at Rome in 

materials as those which he had amassed, October, 1792. 
and which were sold at the sale of 1793, 

Crisp (William Finch). An Easy Catechism of Punctuation for the 
Use of Newspaper Correspondents, Printers, Juvenile Students, 
&c. 1875. 32mo. 

The General Printers' Book of Practical Recipes, &c. Great 

Yarmouth : n. d. 8vo. pp. 17. London : 1875. 8vo. pp. 17. 

The Printers' Business Guide and General Price List. London : 



1866. Crown 8vo. 

The Printers', Lithographers', Engravers', and Bookbinders' 

Business Guide and Ready- Reckoned General Price Lists ; to 
which are added \ egal and Commercial Information, Miscellaneous 
Recipes, and Practical Advice for every member of the Combined 
Trades. 4th edition. London : 1873. 

The two title-pages above recorded are editions of one book. Several edition.s 
respectively those of the first and fourth have appeared under the latter title. 



150 Bibliography of Printing. 

"Mr. Crisp is a printer at Great Yarmouth, posters, &c. Along with these are a few 

and his book purports to give a Hst of the trade recipes, and some items of informa- 

prices which the printer should charge for tion derived from the handbooks, and 

different jobs, such as cards, bill-heads, other more or less trustworthy sources. 

Crisp (William Finch). The Printers' Price List. 1867. 

A demy sheet, containing prices of jobbing work, sizes of paper, type, &c. 

The Printers' Sheet of Imposition Schemes and Directions for 

Making-up Furniture for Proper Margins. Great Yarmouth : 
1869. Broadside. 

The Printers' Universal Book of Reference and Every Hour 

Office Companion. An Addendum to the Printers' Business 
Guide. London : 1874. 8vo. 

Crompton (J. W.). Report on Printers' Strikes and Trade Unions 
since January, 1845. London: i860. 8vo. pp. 16. 

This report was prepared by the author, Mr. Crompton's report is painstaking and 

a barrister, for the National Association accurate, so far as it goes, and comprises 

for the Promotion of Social Science, at a good deal of statistical information re- 

the request of their committee on Trades' lating to the printing business in the 

Societies. It forms one of several similar United Kingdom, 
reports contained in a volume of pp. 652. 

Cumberland (George). Hints to Various Modes of Printing from 
Autographs. [A7f^<7/w«'.f yt?«r«a/, vol. xxviii. p. 56.] 181 1. 8vo. 

Cummins (R.). The Pressmen's Guide. Containing valuable instruc- 
tions and recipes for pressmen and apprentices in city and country 
printing-offices. Brooklyn : 1873. Square i2mo. pp. 51. 

CUMPLIDO (Ignacio). Tipo que contiene parte de los Caracteres y 
demas Utiles de la Imprenta de Cumplido. Mexico : 1836. 8vo. 
Specimen book of the printing-house of Cumplido, in Mexico. 

CussET. L'Imprimerie a I'Exposition Universelle de 1867. Compte 
rendu. (Publication de la Societe fraternelle des Protes de 
Paris.) Paris: 1868. 8vo. 

CYCLOPvf^DIA. 

To give a list of the works under this the several headings— Printing, Typo- 
general title which contain articles on our graphy. Stereotype, Lithography, En- 
subject would be to reproduce the titles graving, Etching, &c. &c., upon which 
of all the Cyclopaedias that have been we are working, and all of them are more 
issued, from that in 2 vols, folio (1728) to or less compilations from the better- 
the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" last known text-books, 
published. All of them have articles under 



AEHNERT (Johann Carl). Fiirschrift 
zum Akademischen Buckdrucker-Pos- 
tulat. 1746 : 4to. 

Dahl (Johann Conrad). Die Buch- 
druckerkunst, erfunden von Johann 
Gutenberg, verbessert und zur Voll- 
kommenheit gebracht durch Peter 
Schoffer von Gernsheim : Historisch- 
kritische Abhandlung. Mit dem Bild- 
niss Peter Schofifers. Mainz : 1832. 
8vo. pp. 55. 

Peter Schoffer von Gemsheini, 

Miterfinder der Buchdruckerkunst. Eine historische Skizze ; mit 
einer kurzen Geschichte der Erfindung jener schonen Kunst 
iiberhaupt. Wiesbaden : 18 14. 8vo, pp. 23, with folding genea- 
logical table. 




The same, in French. Wiesbaden : 1814. 8vo. 



Article on the History of Printing ("Buchdruckerkunst"). 

9^ pages in the "Allgemeine Encyclopaedic der Wissenschaften 
und Kiinste," von J. S. Ersch und J. G. Gruber, vol. xiv. Leip- 
zig : 1825. 4to. 

Danna (Casimiro). Dell' Arte tipografica festeggiata in Saluzzo e 
Mondovi nell' Ottobre del 1872. Memorie e discorso. Mondovi : 
1872. 8vo. 



152 



Bibliography of Prifiting 



Darstellung der Feier des Gutenbergfestes zu Erfurt, am 26. und 27. 
Julius, 1840. Auf den Wunsch der Theilnehmer vom Comite 
zusammengestellt. Erfurt : 1840. 8vo. 

Da Silva (Joaquim Cameiro). Breve Tratado theoretico das letras 
typograficas, offerecido a sua Alteza real o Principe Regente nosso 
Senhor. Lisboa : 1803, 4to. 

Daunou (Pierre Claude Fran9ois). 
sur rOrigine de I'Imprimerie. 



138. Paris : 1810. 8vo. 
— Another edition. 



Analyse des Opinions diverses 
Paris : an XI [1803]. 8vo. pp. 



This work, which formed a paper read 
before the Institut National des Sciences 
et Arts, was first printed in the fourth 
volume of its Memoires (1802). It was 
translated into German by M. Schret- 
tinger, and in that form appeared in the 
" BeitrSge zur Geschichte und Littera- 
tur," vol. V. Miinchen : 1805. 410. 
An interesting memoir of the author 
appears in " Lettres sur les Contes des 
Fdes ; notices biographiques," by C. A. 
Walckenaer (Paris : F. Didot, 1862, 8vo.), 
pp. 2Q9-344. This memoir, which deals 
both with the life and works of Daunou, 
was read at the meeting of the French In- 
stitute, July 31, 1841. 

Daunou was born August rS, 1761, 
at Boulogne-sur-Mer. He was admitted 
a brother of the Oratorians in 1777. 



From his youth up he was distinguished 
for his exemplary piety, his studious 
habits, and his receptive mind. He 
passed through the stormy days of the 
first French revolution, and was arrested 
and thrown into prison, but was soon ac- 
quitted. Subsequently he rose to great 
eminence, and was made a peer of France 
in 1839. Some years before, he had been 
appointed " Garde generale des Archives 
du royaume," and had special opportuni- 
ties of pursuing his studies in biography 
and literary history, to which he devoted 
many years. He contributed no less than 
seventy memoirs to the " Biographic 
Universelle," among them being the lives 
of several eminent printers He died 
June 20, 1840, and was buried in the 
cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise, Paris. 



Davenport (S. T.). Engraving and other reproductive Art Pro- 
cesses. [In the Journal of the Society of ArtSy January 13, 1865.] 
London : 8vo. 

Engraving. [In " British Manufacturing Industries," edited 

by G. Phillips Bevan, pp. 75-124.] London : 1876. Crown 
8vo. 

Second edition, pp. 95-144. London : 1877. 

The Lite Mr. Samuel Davenport was graphy, and all allied or correlated arts, 
an amateur of much experience. The Some of the outlines, especially that of 
history begins with the Deluge, and em- the origin of Nature Printing, are in- 
braces typography, lithography, chalco- accurate. 

Davidson (Ellis A.). A Chat about Printing. 
Number of Little Folks. 



The Exhibition 



This is a special number of a serial 
published by Messrs. Cassell, Petter, & 
Galpm, and circulated during the London 
International Exhibition of 1872. It 
treats of the following : " Who invented 
Printing?" stencilling, block books, the 
first type-printer (said to be Laurence 
Coster, of Haarlem), invention of metal 
type, the first printed Bible, Peter Schoef- 

Davidson (Thomas). 

The exact period when Davidson began 
to exercise his art in Edinburgh is un- 



fer. the art of printing spread abroad, 
William Caxton, and the processes of 
printing at the present day. It is illus- 
trated with facsimiles of block books, 
portraits, &c., and a view of the old 
" Belle Sauvage Yard," and of Messrs. 
Cassell's printing-house now erected on 
its site. 



known. Nor is it known how many 
works he printed, for only three perfect 



Bibliography of Printing. 



153 



specimens of different works have been 

?-eserved, and the fragment of a fourth, 
o him was granted, in 1541, bj' James 
v.. King of Scotland, a special license 
for printing the new "Actis and Consti- 
tutionis of Parliament maid be the Rycht 
Excellent Prince, James, the fift King of 
Scottis, 1540." The Acts, however, were 



made in 1821 by Mr. S. R. Maitland, The 
device, which we repnbduce, displays a 
shield containing tha printer's mitials, 
T. D. , linked with thrfe pheons (the armo- 
rial charges of the Daridsons). The shield 
is suspended from i tree bearing large 
cones. Three owls «e sitting among the 
branches, and anottfer at the foot of the 




EDINBURGH : 1541 



not printed till towards the end of 1541 ; 
and though the frontispiece has 1540 on 
it, it is evident that it ha \ been cut be- 
fore and used for other booKs. The best- 
known of his works is the "History and 
Cronikles of Scotland," a magnificent spe- 
cimen of earljr British typography, but un- 
fortunately without date. A reprint was 



stem. The supporters are hairy men, 
whose hands hold both the shield and the 
belt which sustains it. The ground of 
the device is black speckled, but the field 
of the shield is white. In a compartment 
below is the Christian name of the printer 
in full , but only the first two letters of his 
surname, viz., thomas da 



154 



Bibliography of Pj'iniiiig. 



Davies (Robert). A Memoir of the York Press, with notices of 
Authors, Printers, and Stationers in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, 
and Eighteenth Centuries. Westminster ; 1868. 8vo. pp. vi. 
and 397. 

The records of the city of York show of effects of early printers — Wanseford 



that Frederick Freese, a Dutch printer, 
was living there in 1497, but no remains 
of his work are known. The appendix 
gives in exte7tso the wills and inventories 

Davy (Rev. William). A System 
26 vols. Lustleigh, Devon. 
1 796-1807. 8vo. 

This extraordinary work derives its 
claim to a place in our Biblio|:raphy, and 
a record in the history of pnnting, from 
the fact that the author was his own com- 
positor, printer, and binder. Of the four- 
teen copies which were printed, three 
were imperfect, and one having been de- 
posited m Exeter Cathedral Library, the 
remaining ten, after reserving one for him- 
self, Mr. Davy says "will be disposed of, 



(1510), John Foster (1616), &c. ; with 
many very curious and interesting de- 
tails. 

of Divinity, in a Course of Sermons. 
Printed by himself ; 14 copies only. 

after public Review, pro Bono Publico, as 
the Bishops shall appoint, whom the 
present Bishop of Salisbury, late Bishop 
of Exeter, hath engaged to consult for the 
Purpose. In the main while, one Copy 
will be left at each University for public 
Inspection." The numerous errata in the 
twenty-six volumes are corrected by means 
of printed slips pasted over the original 
text. 




Dawson (Thomas). 

This printer lived at the "Three 
Cranes " in the Vintry, in 1577. One of-^ 
his devices was the Three Cranes in a 
vineyard, and another the monogram 
T.D. surrounded by various allegorical 
figures. We reproduce the latter. Daw- 
son was made free of the Stationers' 
Company, February 18, 1568, and carried 
on business for about 22 yeans, and pro- 



duced about 33 separate works. He 
was Master of the Stationers' Company 
in 1615, and gave, on July 12, 1616, 
" twenty shillings towards making up the 
stairs in the garden up to the city wall. " 
He was succeeded by his son, Thomas 
Dawson, jun., and Henry Disley, who 
were made free of the Stationers' Com- 
pany July 6, 1589. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



155 




LONDON : 1546-1584. 

Day (John). 

John Day, Daye, or Daie, was bom in office adjoining the city wall, and printed 

Dunwich, in Suffolk. He is supposed to extensively. He had, at the same time. 




JO H.N DAY. 

have been descended from a good family, shops in different parts of the metropolis. 

His first printing-office was near the where his books were on sale. It is pro- 

Holborn Conduit, and about 1549 he re- bable that during the reign of Queen 

moved into Aldersgate, where he had an Mary he discontinued printing, and 



'S6 



Bibliography of Printing. 



turned his attention to effecting improve- 
ments in the art ; for his productions 
afterwards were greatly in advance of 
his previous efforts. The first Saxon 
types were cut by him about 1567, 
and he brought the Greek types, as 
well as italic, to great perfection. 
His founts were of great excellence, 
and he had a large assortment of them. 
Day was one of the original members of 
the Stationers' Company, but it is not 



against the north wall of the chancel, is a 
stone tablet erected to his memory, with 
a brass and some doggrel lines about 
"the Daye that darkness could not blind, 
when Popish fogs had overcast the sun," 
&c. In Herbert's " Ames," vol. i. pp. 
616 to 680, there is an account of Day's 
productions ranging between 1546 and 
1584. He was succeeded by his son, 
Richard Day, a liveryman of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. The books printed by 



known from whom he learned the art of him or his assigns bear dates from 1584 



printmg. On beginning business he 
printed chiefly in conjunction with Seres, 
but this partnership did not exist after 
1550. Day was the first person admitted 
into the livery after the renewal of the 
Company's charter by Philip and Mary. 
He was warden in 1564, '66, '71, and 



list of them is given by 
p. 683. His device. 



to 1597 : 

Herbert, 

given above, is veiy quaint, and evidently 

a pun upon his name, in accordance 

with the custom which prevailed among 

the early typographers. It also referred 

to the " Protestant Reformation," but the 



'75, and master in 1580. He died July allusion is somewhat far-fetched. 

23, 1584, after having followed the busi- We give above a portrait of Day, repro- 

ness of a printer about 40 years. Some duced from Ames's "Typographical 

interesting particulars of his career will Antiquities," in reference to which 

be found in the Introduction to vol. i. of Dibdin says that "it is probable that 

Arber's " Transcripts of the Registers of Day's portrait is the first legitimate re- 

the Stationers' Company." He was semblance of the physiognomy of one of 

buried in the parish church of 13radley our old printers." 
Parva, in the county of Suffolk, where, 

Day with the Printers (A). An article in the People's Magazine, April, 
1868, reprinted in the Printers' Journal, new series, vol. i. p. 229. 

Day (W. J.). A vSeries of Tables invented and arranged for the use 
of the Practical Printer ; to which is appended the Scale of Prices 
for Compositors' work. London : 1 84 1. 8vo. pp. 32. 



This work includes tables of the price of 
any num"ber of letters ; of proportion, 
width, and depth of type ; of comparative 
depth of type ; for casting-up works ; 
comparative value of type ; comparative 
quantity of type ; scale of prices ; table 
of advances and deductions ; and table of 



signatures. The author, an able man, 
was for upwards of forty years one of the 
two superintendents of the establishment 
of Messrs. C^lowes & Sons {see Clowes). 
He resigned that position on a well- 
earned pension allowed by this eminent 
firm. 



Dean (William). On Xylography, or printing from the natural surface 
of woods. A paper read before the Society of Arts, January 27, 
1869. Printed in the Journal of the Society, January 29, 1869. 

Dearborn (N.). American Text-book of Letters. Boston: 1846. 4to. 

Debray (N. A. G.). Tableau des Libraires et Imprimeurs des 
principales Villes de I'Europe. Paris : 1804. i2mo. 

De Carro (Jean).— ^^^ Winaricky (Charles). 

DECLARATION du Conseil d'fitat du Roy, rendue en faveur de la com- 
munaute des maitres graveurs de la ville de Paris. Du 28 Juin, 
1705. Paris. 4to. 
Ordering six master engravers to be added to the Community, and that the fund 

they bring in go toward the balance due to the exchequer ; also that the operative 

engravers were only to work under the master engravers. 

DECLARATION du Roy donnee a Fontainebleau le 2 d'Octobre, 1701. 
Portant Reglement pour les Libraires et Imprimeurs. Grenoble : 
1 701. 4to. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



157 



maunds, and other things wherein books 
may be contained." 

This decree is stated by Hansard 
("Typogr.," p. 170) to have been printed 
by John Audeley. We believe there is 
no copy in the British Museum. 



This decree compels every printer to 
place his name on everything he prints ; 
restricts the number of master printers to 
twenty ; no printer, except the master 
and wardens of the Stationers, to keep 
more than two apprentices and two 
presses, and they only three ; there are 



Decree (A) of Starre Chamber, for the Reformation of divers Disorders 
in printing and uttering of books. June 29, 1566. 

Whoever prints anything against any 
injunction or ordinance set forth by the 
Queen's authority shall be imprisoned 
and thenceforth never use the " feat" of 
Pnnting. The Wardens of the Stationers' 
Company to search printing houses, and 
" to open and view all packs, dryfats. 

Decree (A) in the Starre Chamber, for the redressing of the abuses in 
Printing. 27 Junii, 26 Elizabethae [1584]. 

Reprinted by Mr. J. P. Collier, in his " Illustrations of Early English Popular 
Literature," as "from a contemporary copy." 

Decree (A) of Starre Chamber, concerning Printing, made the eleventh 
day of July past, 1637. London; 1637. 4to. pp. 62. 

to be four letter-founders and no more ; 
that one copy of every publication shall 
be sent to Stationers' Hall for the use of 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Reprinted 
by Edward Arber, and also in " Memoirs 
of Thomas HoUis" (p. 641), and many 
other works. 

Deecke. Einige Nachrichten von den im XV'^" Jahrhundert zu 
Liibeck gedruckten niedersachsischen Biichern. LUbeck : 1834. 4to. 
An account of the books printed at Liibeck in the fifteenth century. 

De Fontenelle (Julia) et Poisson (P.). Manuel complet du 
Marchand Papetier et du Regleur, contenant la connaissance des 
papiers divers, la fabrication des crayons naturels et factices gris, 
noirs, et colores ; celle des encres a ecrire, ordinaires et indelebiles ; 
des encres d'imprimerie, de lithographic, d'autographie, et de la 
Chine ; des encres de couleur et de sympathie ; la preparation des 
plumes, des pains et de la cire a cacheter, de la colle a bouche, 
des sables, etc. Ouvrage indispensable aux administrations, 
manufactures, etc. Paris : 1828. i8mo. pp. x. 399 ; i folding 

table and 2 plates. Nouvelle edition, entierement refondue et 

ornee de figures. Paris : 1854. i8mo. 

This work forms one of the series of practical technical handbooks known as the 
" Manuels-Roret." 

Degeorge (Leon). La Maison Plantin k Anvers. Brussels : 1877 

8vo. pp. iv. 67 and 45, and table des matieres, pp. ii. 

Deuxieme edition, augmentee d'une Liste Chronologique des 
ouvrages imprimes par Plantin a Anvers de 1555 a 1589. 
Bruxelles : 1878. pp. iv. 67 and 127. 
On the 2nd August, 1875, negotiations perhaps the most remal-kable collection 



were concluded whereby M. Edouard 
Moretus, then owner of th ■* ancient print- 
ing-office and dwelling-hou.>e of Plantin, 
at Antwerp, ceded it, in consideration of 
a sum of 1,200,000 francs, to the authori- 
ties of the city, to be maintained by them 
in perpetuity as a public museum. 

The property thus transferred contains 



of typographical antiquities extant. It 
ranges over a period of more than three 
centuries, many of the objects dating 
from 1555. They include the types, 
presses, and miscellaneous appliances of 
the great " architypographer," as well as 
those of his successors, the family of 
Moretus, whose genealogy extends from 



158 Bibliography of Printing. 

1543 down to the present day. In ad- The additions in the second edition 

dition, there are preserved all the cor- comprise (i) a chronological list of 

respondence, account-books, and archives printers who distinguished themselves in 

of the house ; copies of all the products the town of Antwerp during the 15th, 

of their presses, and a variety of curious i6th, 17th, and i8th centuries; (2) me- 

historical documents, autographs, orna- moranda disproving the idea of Plantin 

mental manuscripts, &c., as well as a having been originally of noble birth ; 

valuable library amounting to many (3) the testimony of Arias Montanus as 

thousand volumes, and comprising several to the personal character and worth of 

unique specimens of fifteenth - century Christopher Plantin; (4) an account of 

typography. The above work, of the first the nomination of Plantin, by a council 

edition of which only 150 copies were of theologians summoned by the Duke of 

printed, gives a complete inventory, as Alva, to the office of" archi-typographe," 

well as a descriptive account of every part the duties of which post were found 

of the Plantin Museum, together with a alike so invidious and impracticable that 

valuable series of historical documents, Plantin asked to be relieved of his func- 

some of them hitherto inedited, relating tions in 1576 ; (5) notes as to the various 

to Printing. It contains a portrait of places of abode of Plantin in Antwerp ; 

Christopher Plantin, a genealogical table (6) some interesting details relating to 

of his family and descendants, a plan of the Plantin press after his death ; and 

the Plantin hdiel, an engraving of one a Chronological List, which occupies 73 

portion of it, and an authentic copy of closely-printed pages, of works printed 

the device used by the celebrated printer, by Plantin at Antwerp from 1555 to 1589. 

The book is dedicated to M. Emmanuel See Plantin ; also " Plantijn en de 

Rosseels, director-administrator, and M. Plantijnische Drukkerij" (Brussels : 1877), 

Maximilien Rooses, curator and librarian written by M. Maximilien Rooses ; and 

(or " bibliothecaire archiviste ") of the Ruelens-De Baekek. 
Plantin Museum. 

Delaborde (Henri). La Gravure depuis son origine. Articles in 
the Revtie des Deux Mondes, December i and 15, 1850, and 
January i, 1851. Paris. 8vo. 

Delaistre (L.). Notice necrologique sur feu Jean-Louis-Toussaint 
Caron, graveur. [Paris : 1847.] 8vo. 
Extract from the "Memoires de la Society libre des Beaux-Arts." 

Delalain (A. H. Jules). Historique de la Propriete des Brevets d'lm- 

primeur. Paris : Octobre, 1869. 8vo. 2« edition, revue et 

augmentee. Paris : Decembre, 1869. 8vo. pp. 63. 

The author signs himself "Imprimeur," consists of an elaborate review of the 

and dedicates his work " A mes confreres influence upon the press of France of 

les imprimeurs de France, hommage de successive decrees for the regulation of 

sympathie et de devouement." The book printing. 

Legislation de I'lmprimerie d'apres la nouvelle Loi de la Presse, 

suivie d'un tableau des cas de responsabilite et de penalite aux- 
quelles sont soumis les imprimeurs. Paris : 1868. i2mo. pp. 40. 

Rapport presente au nom de la Commission nommee par I'asso- 

ciation des Imprimeurs de Paris pour examiner les produits typo- 
graphiques admis a I'Exposition universelle, et lu dans la seance 
du Lundi, ii Fevrier, 1856. 

Rapport sur les produits typographiques a I'Exposition Univer- 
selle de 1855. Paris. 8vo. 

Recueil de Documents ofificiels relatifs au Regime de I'lmpri- 
merie. Paris : 1867. 8vo. 



^Bibliography of Printing. 159 

Delalain (A. H. Jules). Tableau des Imprimeries en lettres ex- 
istantes en France au i*' Janvier, 1867. 8vo. 

Tableau des Responsabilites et Penalites auxquelles les maitres- 

imprimeurs sont soumis d'apres la legislation actuelle. Nos. i 
and 2. Svo. 

La Typographic fran9aise et fitrangere ^ I'Exposition Uni- 

verselle. Paris : 1855. 8vo. 

M. Delalain was the printer to officer of Public Instruction, and a Che- 

the University of Paris, president of the valier of the Imperial Order of the Legion 

Congress of Printers of France, formerly of Honour. His office was in the Rue 

president of the Chamber of Printers of des Ecoles, opposite the Sorbonne. 
Paris and of the Publishers' Club, an 

De la Motte (P. H.). On the various Applications of Anastatic 
Printing and Papyrography. With illustrative examples. London : 
1849. 8vo. 

Delandine (Antoine Frangois). Histoire abregee de I'lmprimerie, 
ou Precis sur son origine, son etablissement en France, les divers 
caracteres qu'elle a employes, les premiers livres qu'elle a produits, 
les inventions successives qui la perfectionnerent, ses ornemens, les 
noms de ceux qui I'introduisirent dans les principales villes de 
r Europe, et les ouvrages remarquables dont elle fut I'objet. 
Paris : [1814]. 8vo. pp. v. 176. 

One hundred copies only printed. The work forms the introduction to the cata- 
logue of printed books in the Public Library of Lyons, of which the author was 
librarian, and was separately printed as above for his friends, 

Memoires bibliographiques et litteraires. Les anciennes biblio- 

theques de Lyon, I'Arbre de la Reconnaissance, le Tombeau de 
Brignais, I'histoire des manuscrits, les bains Romains de Bar-sur- 
Aube, le passage d'Annibal, des Gaules en Italic, Tecriture et le 
papier chinois, I'Y'king, I'augurat et le pontificat d'Auguste, la 
sepulture de Canon, les tombelles de Champagne, une olle de 
Ceylan, le repos des morts et le monument de Villette, le papillon, 
symbole egyptien, la mosaique de Lyon, le culte de Mars dans 
les Gaules, le sejour de Cesar et de Labienus dans la meme con- 
tree, un temple de Druides, les sacrifices sanglans, manuscriptiana, 
les medailles satyriques, les antiquites de feurs, la justification de 
Medee, les figures panthees, et I'histoire abregee de I'imprimerie. 
Paris : 181 7. Svo. 

The author was a corresponding member of the London Society of Antiquaries, a 
member of the French Institute, and of the Academy of Lyons. 

De la Rue (Thomas). Report of the Juries of the Great Exhibition, 
1851 (Printing and Stationery). London: 1851. 8vo. 

Thomas De la Rue died June 7, 1866, ments in the manufacture of playing- 

at his residence in Westt, 'irne-terrace, cards. About 1820 he published the New 

in his seventy-fourth year. He was the Testament printed in gold, now a very 

founder of the house which bears his scarce work, and on the occasion of Her 

name. He began his career as a printer. Majesty's coronation the Sun newspaper 

and subsequently he made use of his spe- was by his aid printed in gold. He was 

cial knowledge of printing in improve- deputy-chairman and joint reporter of 



i6o Bibliography of Printing. 

Class XVII. in the Exhibition of 1851, Paris in 1855 he was also a juror, and then 
and the report of that class is mainly from received the decoration of a Knight of the 
his pen. In the Universal Exhibition of Legion of Honour. 

Delemer. Recueil des Caracteres de la fonderie des Freres Delemer. 
Bruxelles : 1820. Folio. 

Deleschamps (Pierre). Des Mordants, des Vemis, et des Planches 
dans I'Art du Graveur ; ou, Traite complet de la Gravure. Paris : 
1836. 8vo. pp. XV. 271. 

A practical work on every branch of the variety of other curious processes. At 

art of engraving for the copperplate, the end are four folding plates of the 

lithographic, and letterpress printing pro- appliances, apparatus, &c., described in 

cesses. It includes stereotyping and auto- the book. The French Society for the 

matic or chemical engraving in relief, as Encouragement of National Industry 

well as machines for the purpose of making awarded the author its medal of honour 

engravings, pantography, diagraphy. gly- in 1835 for a new etching process which 

phography, electrotypography, and a he invented. 

Delessert (Benjamin). Notice sur la Vie de M. A. Raimondi, gra- 
veur Polonais, accompagnee de reproductions photographiques de 
quelques-unes de ses estampes. Paris : 1853. Folio. 

Delitzsch (F.). Der Fliigel des Engels. Fine Stimme aus der 
Wiiste im 4. Jubelfestjahre der Buchdruckerkunst. Dresden ; 
1840. 8vo. pp. vii. 91. 

Delpit (Jules). Origines de I'Imprimerie en Guyenne. Bordeaux : 
1869. 8vo. 

Delprat (G. H. M.). Dissertation sur I'Art typographique. Con- 
tenant un aper9U historique de ses progres durant le XVe et 
le XVIe siecles, et des recherches sur I'influence de cet art sur les 
lumieres de I'espece humaine. Memoire qui a remporte le prix 
propo.se en 1816 par la Societe Provinciale des Arts et des Sciences 
a Utrecht. Utrecht : 1820. 8vo. pp. 139. 

Over den Voortgang en de Verbreiding der Boekdrukkunst in 

de !<; en 16 eeuw. Een prijsverhandeling. Utrecht: 1820. 8vo. 

Verhandeling over de Broederschap van Geert Groote en over 

den invloed der Fraterhuizen op den wetenschappelijken en gods- 
dienstigen toestand, voomamelijk van de Niederlanden na de 
veertiende eeuw. Utrecht : 1830. 8vo. 

A German translation by C. F. G. Mohriske was published at Leipzig : 
1840. 8vo. 

De Marnef (Geoffroy). 

This printer stands fifth on the roll of with him in business. The typographic 

Parisian typographers, having established mark here given is the most complete 

a press in the capital in 1481. The of any that appeared in their books. It 

device given opposite is a reproduction, represents on one side the pelican, as 

by paniconography, of the first page of described in fable, nourishing its young 

the Virgil printed by Nicolas des Pres with its blood ; on the other is a parrot, 

for De Marnef in 1514. It forms one perched on a branch ; between the two 

of the illustrations in the fifth series is a triangular covey of birds on the 

of M. Madden's " Lettres d'un Biblio- wing. Underneath are the three letters 

graphe." De Marnef died in the rue St. E. J. G., being the initials of the bap- 

iacques. He had two brothers, Enguil- tismal names of the brothers Enguilbcrt, 

ert and Jehan ; they were associated Jehan, and Geoffroy. 



Bibliography of Priniin^ 



6i 




De Maknef. PARIS : 1481. 

Dembour (A.). Description d'un nouveau Precede de Gravure en 
relief sur cuivre, dite Ectypographie metallique. Metz : 1835. 
4to. pp. 31, with 8 pages of specimens. 

The book describes a new style of etching, in which the lines are raised or in 
relief, instead of being depressed or sunk in. The system would now be called, 
not " Ectypography," but " typographic etching." 

Die Metall-Ektypographie. Aus dem Franzosischen von Hein. 

Meyer. Braunschweig: 1835. 4to. pp. 21, with 8 leaves of 
specimens. 

Democriet [Pseud.]. Twaalf Volks-liedekens op bekende wijzen, 
ter vervrolijking van Lourens Janszoon Kosters vierde Eeuwfeest. 
Haarlem : 1823, 8vo. 



Twelve songs in celebration of the 
alleged fourth centenary of Koster. On 
the title-page there is a rude woodcut 
" portrait " of Koster, surrounded with a 
laurel-leaf, and on the cover a view of the 
old wooden press, with the date 1423. 



The latter would be invested with great 
interest as an earlier pictorial represent- 
ation of the printing-press than that given 
by Badius Ascensius, were it not ap- 
parently supposititious, like the portrait 
of Koster. 



l62 



Bibliography of Frifitiftg. 



Denham (Henry). Ordinances decreed for the Reformation of divers 
Disorders in Printing and Vttering of Books. Asheet. London: 1566. 



This printer lived at the sign of the 
" Star," in Paternoster-row, and also in 
Whitecross-street. In 1580 he was as- 
signee to William Seres. In 1586 he lived 
in Aldersgate-street, at the same sign. 
Entered as apprentice to Tottel, Oct. 14, 
1560, he became free of the Stationers' 
Company, August 30, 1560, and was 



several times fined, either for printing Chamber. 



primers without license or for some other 
similar misbehaviour. On his various 
dwellings he put the sign of the " Star," 
which is also his device.; It consists of 
the emblem of the flaming star with seven 
rays ; around it the inscription, " Os 
hojnini sublime dedit." T^ie sheet named 
above is one of the decrees of the Star 




LONDON ; 1559-1591. 

Denis (Michael). Annalium Typographicorum v. cl. Michaelis Mait- 

taire supplementa. 2 vols. Vienn^e : 1 789, 4to. jPart I. pp. 

xviii. I to 479 : Part II. pp. 480 to 883. 

This is one of the most important works mation, however, is now superseded by 

enumerated in our " Bibliography." The the result of recent researches ; while the 

labour involved in its compilation must remainder has been since reproduced in a 

have been immense. Much of the infor- more readable form. — See Maittaire. 

Bibliotheca Typographica Vindobonens'.s, ab anno 1482- 

1560. In gratiam r&v (3i(3Xio(j)i\iov linguam germanicam non cal- 
lentium, ex niagno quod de Vindobonensi typographia condidit 
opere (Wiens Buchdruckergeschichte) excerpsit auctor, Vindobo- 
nensise : 1782. 4to. pp. 47, with folding plate of printers' marks 
executed on copper. 

vSuffragium pro Johanne de Spira, primo Venetiarum typo- 



grapho. Viennce : 17Q4. 8vo. pp. 46. 
An argument addressed "to the candid reader," in favour of the claims of John 
of Spira as the prototypographer of Venice. 

Wiens Buchdruckergeschicht von 1482 bis 1560. Wien : 1782. 

4to. Title and 4 unnumbered leaves, pp. xxiv. 694, 24 un- 
numbered leaves of index, &c. 

Nachtrag zur Wiens Buchdruckergeschicht. Wien : 1 793. 4to. 

pp. no, 7 unnumbered leaves of index, &c. 

Michael Denis was a bibliographer of in the year 1800, at the age of seventy 

iustly-established eminence, and principal one. — .S'^^' Peignot's " Diet, de Biblio- 

librarian of the Imperial Library of log.," vol. i. p. 122 ; ii. 232. 
Vienna. Born in Bavaria in 1729, he died 



Bibliography of Printing. 



163 



DENMA.RK. Aarsberetninger og Meddelelser fra det store Kongelige 
Bibliothek. Copenhagen : 1868. 8vo. 



printed books in the library, from the pro- 
ductions of the Dutchman or Fleming 
Snell, the first printer both in Denmark 
and Sweden, to the many early Danish 
volumes issued at Paris about 1514 
under the superintendence of Christian 
Pedersen. 



This is one of the yearly reports and 
communications from the Royal Library 
of Copenhagen, which have been issued 
annually since 1865, at the expense of the 
library, by the chief librarian. Christian 
Walther Bruun, well known as an editor 
of early Danish texts. This number 
gives an account of the early Danish 

Dennhardt (Professor). Anhang zur Beschreibung des Guten- 
bergesfestes in Erfurt. Festrede, am 27. Juli, 1840. Erfurt : 
1840. 8vo. pp. 12. 

Dennistoun (James) of Dennistoun. Memoirs of Sir Robert Strange, 
engraver, member of several foreign Academies ; and of his 
brother-in-law, Andrew Lumisden, private secretary to the Stuart 
princes. 2 vols. London : 1855. 8vo. 

De Pfortzheim (Jacob). — See Pfortzheim. 

[De Regt.] Laurens Jansz Koster : Jaarboekje voor Typo- 
graphische Vereenigingen. Ley den : 1856. i2mo. 

De Reume (A.). — See Reume. 

Derriey (Jacques Charles). Gravure et Fonderie de, Specimen- 
Album. Paris : 1862. 4to. 



This is one of the most beautiful works 
ever issued from the French, or, indeed, 
any other press. Although called a 
" Specimen Album, "and intended chiefly 
as an example of the work done at the 



of management under which it is now 
carried on. An indignant protest is made 
against the system of pirating type- 
founders' designs, and reproducing ma- 
trices by the electrotype process. The 



celebrated establishment from which it Album was prepared for distribution at 



emanates, it contams a considerable 
amount of literary matter of a very at- 
tractive and valuable character. The 
author, M. Derriey, enters into a history 
of his establishment, describes his early 
struggles, the humble origin of his pre- 
sent business, the successive steps by 
which it has progressed, and the system 



the International Exhibition of London 
in 1862, at which it was afterwards 
honoured with a prize medal. It was 
not issued for sale ; but copies which 
have since changed hands have com- 
manded large prices. Several editions 
were subsequently printed ; the last was 
issued in 1877. 



— Notice sur les Produits Typographiques de Charles Derriey, 
graveur, fondeur, et mecanicien. Exposition Universelle de 1855. 
Decembre, 1855. Typographic E. Meyer, a Paris. 8vo. pp. 60. 



M. Derriey formed an association called 
the " International Association of En- 
gravers and Typefounders," intended to 
protect their interests against the in- 
fringements which were carried on by 
means of the then recently introduced 
galvano-plastic process. Many houses, 
both in France and abroad, had begun to 
appropriate the productiont of M. Der- 
riey and others. This was especially 
obnoxious to him, as his designs were not 
only all original and peculiar to himself, 
but they were actually engraved in his 
own offices by his own pupils. In an 
interesting Preface to the above— a plea 



pro domo sua — he made an indignant 
protest against this system, speaking in 
the indignant terms of a truly honest 
man, of the disgraceful system of piracy 
which threatened to work so much evil to 
the best interests of the art of printing. 
This little book contains, in addition, a 
large number of interesting facts con- 
cerning the history of the house of 
Derriey. It is written in a clear, yet 
elegant style. The printing, by Ernest 
Meyer, of Paris, is exquisite, and every 
page testifies to the practical skill of the 
printer, as well as to the ability and taste 
of the author. 



164 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Derriey (Jacques Charles). De rOrnementation Typographiqiie, 
a propos du Specimen de M. Charles Derriey, graveur et fondeur, 
k Paris. 

In the " Proces Verbaux et Rapports 
litteraires des Membres de la Societe 
Fraternelle des Frotes des Imprimeries 
typogr^phiques de Paris." Paris : Jan., 
1850. This was written by M. Auguste 
Bouchet, overseer in the printing esta- 



blishment of M. Claye, reporter to the 
commission appointed by the Paris Over- 
seers' Society, composed of MM. Bail- 
leui, Bourdier, Bramet, Cruche, Mitou- 
flet, Monpied, Portier, and Richard. 




JACQUES CHARLES DERRIEV, 1808-1877. 



Jacques Charles Derriey, born i8o8, 
died at his residence, No. 12, Rue Notre- 
Dame-des-Champs, Paris, on the nth 
February, 1877, was one of the most 
celebrated French typefounders. He was 
born at Moissey (Jura), and apprenticed 
as a compositor in the office of Gauthier, 
at Besangon. His family being com- 



pelled, owing to adverse circumstances, 
to settle in Paris, Derriey accompanied 
them, and found employment in the type- 
foundry of Pierre Didot the elder. Here 
he acquired a thorough knowledge of the 
art, his previous training as a printer 
being found highly advantageous to him. 
He began business on his own account in 



Bibliography of Printing. 



'6s 



partnership with M. Bedaux, the stereo- 
typer, in a small office in the Rue Mon- 
sieur-le-Prince, Paris, but afterwards re- 
moved to_ No. 12, Rue-Notre-Dame-des- 
Champs, "where his establishment is still 
situated. M. Derriey was one of those 
men, almost peculiar to France, who 
have qualified themselves for one par- 
ticular calling by a thorough study and 
practice of all the correlative branches of 
industry. He was a practical engraver, 
stereotyper, and compositor, as well as a 
typefounder. But he possessed, more- 
over, a thorough love for art, a correct 
taste, and great fertility of invention. 
'I'he result is seen in the exquisite work 
above cited. All of the characters in it, 
both types and ornaments^ were designed 
by Derriey himself, and executed by his 
pupils. Their merit has been deservedly 
marked by the award of many prize 
medals at the different International Ex- 



hibitions, including those of London and 
Paris, while the author himself was 
honoured by being named a Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour, 

The late M. Derriey was also a skilled 
mechanic, and invented several machines 
which have proved of the greatest service 
in the foundry and the printing-office. 
Among them was an apparatus intended 
as a sort of complement to the type-cast- 
ing machine, which broke off the jet, 
rubbed, finished, and set up the types, 
and an adjustable mould adapted for 
casting different bodies to various heights. 
He also devised a numbering-machine 
for bank-notes, and the "circular quad- 
rats " were also devised by him. His 
music type, of an entirely original style, 
was perhaps the most perfect ever pro- 
duced. The business is continued by his 
brother Jules, and his brother's son, 
Charles. 

Desbarreaux-Bernard (Dr.). La Chasse aux Incunables. Tou- 
louse : 1864. 8vo. 3 plates. 

One hundred copies only printed. An amusing account of the adventures of a 
"hunter" after incunabula and early products of the printing-press. 

Etablissement de I'lmprimerie dans la Province de Languedoc. 

Toulouse : 1875. ^^o. pp. 430 ; eleven plates. 

One hundred and four copies printed. 

LTmprimerie a Toulouse aux XV«, XVI% et XVII'" Siecles. 

2^ edition. Toulouse : 1865. 



Only one hundred and forty copies 
printed. At the end is a folding 
table containing the following parti- 
culars of all the books known to have 
been printed at Toulouse during the fif- 
teenth century, from 1476 to 1500 : The 
names of the authors, the titles of the 



8vo. pp. 31. 

books, where and by whom printed, date, 
size, type, language, device, and where 
preserved. The list is headed with the 
name of Jean Andrea's " Super Secundum 
Decretalium." The book is a valuable 
addition to the literature of the incuna- 
bula. 

Quelques Recherches sur les Debuts de ITmprimerie a Toulouse. 

No date. 8vo. 

Description bibliographique de la Bibliotheque de Joseph Ermens, 
imprimeur libraire a Bruxelles : 1805. 2 vols. 8vo. 
The sale of this library, which included many rare incunabula, took place the 
1 2th November, 1805. 

Desmaretz. £loge historique de J. Callot. Nancy: 1828. 8vo. 
Desportes (M.J.) Manuel pratique du Lithographe. Paris : 1834. 8vo. 
Despr£aux. Note detaillee sur I'invention de la gravure en relief. 

Paris : 1836. 4to. 
Desroches (J.). Nieuw Onderzoek naar den Oorsprong der Boekdruk- 

kunst. Amsterd"'m : 1778. 8vo. 
Nouvelles Recherches sur ITmprimerie, dans lesquelles on fait 

voir que la premiere idee en est due a des Braban9ons. In 

vol, i. of "Collections de r Academic de Bruxelles." Bruxelles: 

1777. 4to. 



i66 



Bibliography of Printing 



One of the numerous attempts, no doubt patriotically inspired, to confer on differ- 
ent countries the honour of having given birth to the inventor of typography. The 
first printer, according to this theory, was a native of Brabant. 

Destanberg (Napoleon). Laurens Coster. Drama in dry bedrijven. 
Antwerpen; 1855. 8vo. pp. 56. 
The author was a dramatist, and the above forms one of a series of plays, entitled 
" Bibliotheek van Oorspronkelijke Tooneelstukken." 




Destresius (Jodocus). 

The device of this printer consists of " Sine sanguinis effusione, non fit remis- 

the emblem of the pelican feeding his sio " (without the shedding of blood there 

young, on the foreground of the land- is no remission of sins), 
scape. In an oval border is the motto, 

** Devil (A designing)." The New Art of Printing. An article in 
Blackwood's Magazine (Edinburgh), vol. Iv. p. 45. 

De ViLLiERS (P.), M.D. The ^Signature of Gutenberg. London: 
1878. 8vo. pp. 29 ; with folding sheet, facsimile olf the Letters 
of Indulgence, 1455. [3CX) copies only printed.] 
This pamphlet, dedicated to the city of earliest known examples of printing with 



Mayence, the cradle of the art of print- 
ing, contains an account of an alleged 
discovery made by the author. Pope 
Nicholas V. granted certain Letters of 
Indulgence. They were printed in imita- 
tion of earlier Letters of Indulgence, at 
the press of Gutenberg, and the first issue 
bears the date of 1454. The few copies 
now extant are highly prized, as the 



movable types. They contain a curious 
cipher on the back, which stands pro- 
bably for the word Regesta, denoting the 
official registration of the instrument. 
Dr. De Villiers analyzes the different 
strokes, and comes to the mistaken con- 
clusion that they consist of a fanciful 
arrangement of the letters forming the 
word Gutenberg, and that they were 



Bibliography of Printing. 167 

written by the proto - printer himself, duction of which the author proposes to 
There follows some account of the Guten- reissue), the Catholicon, and the Letter 
berg or " Mazarine " Bible (a repro- of Indulgence. 

Devincenzini (Joseph). Electrographie, ou nouvel art de graver en 
relief sur metal, decouvert par Joseph Devincenzini. Memoire 
de I'auteur, presente a I'Academie des Sciences de I'lnstitut. 
Paris : 1 856. 4to. 

De Vinne (Theodore L.). Book Margins. A series of articles in 
i\xQ Printers' Circular. Philadelphia, U.S.A. : 1871. 

The Invention of Printing. A collection of Facts and Opinions 

descriptive of early Prints and Playing-cards, the Block Books of 
the Fifteenth Century, the Legend of Laurens Janszoon Coster of 
Haarlem, and the work of John Gutenberg and his associates. 
Illustrated with many facsimiles of Ea^ly Types and Woodcuts. 
New York : 1876. 8vo. pp. 556. 

Second edition. London and New York : 1877. 8vo. pp. 



557. 

A most useful work, and gives evi- I might find gleanings of value in the old 
dence of the utmost care and painstaking field, and that it would be practicable to 
on the part of the author. Mr. De Vinne present them, with the newly-discovered 
says in his preface : — " European critics facts, in a form which would be accept- 
do not hesitate to say that the confusing able to the printer and the general 
and contradictory descriptions of the reader. In this belief, and for this pur- 
origin of printing are largely due to the pose, this book was written." The man- 
improper deference heretofore paid to the ner in which Mr. De Vinne has executed 
statements of men who tried to describe his self-imposed task thoroughly vindi- 
processes which they did not understand, cates him in having made the attempt. 
They say, also, that too little attention The illustrations are chiefly automatic re- 
has been paid to the types and mechanics productions in reduced size, direct from 
of early printing. Criticisms of this cha- the originals, and are very well executed, 
racter led me to indulge the hope that 

John Gutenberg. AxioxiiclQin Scribner''s Monthly, May, 1876. 

Medijeval Printing, The substance of a paper read before the 

New York Typographical Society. In the Printers^ Journal 
(New York), June 18 and July 2, 1866. 
The author combats the impression methods of type-founding — have enabled 
that the mediaeval printing was superior, printers to achieve, was altogether impos- 
in regard to technical execution, to the sible in the early days of the art. At the 
modern, and shows that, on the contrary, same time he does not withhold his tri- 
the perfection which recent mechanical bute to the marvellous excellence of 
inventions — such as improved presses and several early specimens of typography. 

The Printer's Price List : a Manual for the Use of Clerks and 

Bookkeepers in Job Printing Offices. New York : 1869. fcp. 8vo. 

pp.168. Another edition. New York : 1871. Medium i2mo. 

PP- 459- 
As a printer's price-list, this Is the most what its title-page promises. The book 

elaborate work of the kind that has ever possesses great authority throughout the 

been issued, but it pra ents a large United States. 

amount of valuable information beyond 

Profits of Book Composition. New York: 1864. 8vo. pp. 33. 

A reprint, in pamphlet form, of some observations published in the Printer (New 
York). It was re-issued at the request of the master printers of New York, and well 
deserved the compliment, for it is a most sensible and practical treatise. 



i68 



Bibliography of Ffintin^ 



De Vinne (Theodore L. ). Record of Proceedings and Ceremonies per- 
taining to the Erection of the Franklin Statue in Printing-house 
Square, New York, presented by Albert De Groot to the Press and 
Printersof the City of New York. New York : 1872. 8vo. pp. 104. 
Printing-house Square, in the centre of of the most hearty and interesting cha- 
New York, is the heart of the newspaper racter. Among those who took a promi- 
industry of that city. It is surrounded nent part in the affair was Mr. De Vinne, 
by the palatial offices of some of the who was naturally selected as the most 
morning, and several of the weekly, jour- suitable person, from his abilities and 
nals. It was thought appropriate that in position as a litterateur and a printer, to 
the centre of the square there should be — -"- - --' -'■ -i^ - tl- 



write a memorial of the occasion. The 
result is the work named above, which 
has a permanent value as an expression 
of opinion, on the part of some of the 
leading American journalists, of the value 
of the Press, and a record of some of the 
most eloquent speeches in honour of 
Printing which have ever been delivered. 



erected a statue of Benjamin Franklin 
America's famous patriot-printer, and a 
wealthy citizen, Mr. Albert De Groot, 
came forward and defrayed the expense 
of the erection. The monument was in- 
augurated amid great rejoicings, and in 
the presence of some of the most eminent 
citizens, the proceedings throughout being 

Speed in Composition. A review of all the attempts made in 

this field from I^ogotypes to Type-setting Machines. Twelve 
articles in the Printing Gazette. Cleveland, Ohio : 1871. 

rica, and while occasionally bringing to 
light extraordinary dexterity in "picking 
up stamps," they sometimes encourage a 
variety of ingenious dodges and tricks, 
many of which are referred to. 

Observations on Eight Hours and 

higher Prices, suggested by recent Conferences between the New 

York Typographical Union and the Employing Book and Job 

Printers of that city. New York : 1872. 8vo. pp. 44. 

Mr. De Vinne is one of the few acknow- articles in various periodicals on printing 

ledged authorities in America on all mat- and its history ; and for several years has 

ters relating to the literature and practice taken an active and influential part in 

of the art of printing. Besides being a trade politics at New York, where he 

constant contributor to most of the trade carries on an extensive printing business. 

journals, he has written a number of See Hart (Francis). 



These articles were largely quoted in 
the American technical journals, and they 
contain a deal of matter of an amusing 
as well as practical character. Fast type- 
setting contests are indigenous to Ame- 

The State of the Trade : 




LONDON : 1590-1599. 

Dexter (Robert). 

This printer lived at the "Brazen 1590. He was a benefactor to the Sta- 
Serpent," in St. Paul's Churchyard, in tioners' Company. Herbert's Ames says 



Bibliography of Printing. 



169 



that he printed after 1660 ; if this be 
correct, he must have carried on the busi- 
ness for an unusually extended period. 
From Arber's "Transcripts of the Regis- 
ters of the Stationers' Company " it ap- 
pears that Dexter became free of the 
Company June 25, 1589. The date of his 
first registered publication is January 20, 
15Q0. The device annexed is taken from 



Bishop Hall's " Virgidemarium " (1598). 
It consists of the emblem of a flaming 
star with eight rays, pointed out by a 
right hand \dexter, Lat., right hand— a 
pun on the name of the printer) issuing 
from the ground. In the oval cartouche 
round it is the motto, " Deus imperat 
astris " (God rules the stars), and on 
either side one of the initials R. D. 



DiBDiN (The Rev. Thomas Frognall), D.D. .^Edes Althorpianze ; or, 
an Account of the Mansion, Books, and Pictures at Althorp, the 
residence of George John Earl Spencer, K.G. To which is added 
a Supplement to the Bibliotheca Spenceriana. London : 1822-23. 
Imperial 8vo. Vol. i. pp. Ixxii. and 246 ; vol. ii. pp. 322 ; vol. iii. 
pp. X. and 295. 



A magnificently-printed work, descrip- 
tive of the typographical and other anti- 
quities at Althorp (about six miles from 
Northampton), a domain possessed by the 
Spencer family for upwards of three cen- 
turies. The second and third volumes 
were printed by W. Nicol, successor to 
W. Bulmer & Co. The third volume is 
devoted to the Cassano collection, con- 
sisting of rare works and specimens of the 



early Neapolitan press, with an index of 
authors and editions. The whole con- 
tains a fund of valuable matter for the 
typographical student. The engravings 
of this work were stated by the author to 
have cost nearly ;^ 2,000, and the copper- 
plate printing and French paper about 
j^35o more. The cost of each block 
ranged from ;^i57 to £']t,. 



The Bibliographical Decameron ; or, Ten Days' pleasant Dis- 
course upon Illuminated Manuscripts and subjects connected 
with early Engraving, Typography, and Bibliography. 3 vols, 
imperial 8vo. London : 181 7. 



This work forms one of the monuments 
of typographical bibliography. As in the 
style of its production it is the most 
sumptuous, so in the nature of its con- 
tents it may be said to be one of the most 
interesting books relative to ancient and 
modern printing. 

The " Decameron " consists of conver- 
sations between certain imaginary person- 
ages with classical cognomens, each pos- 
sessing some special knowledge of one of 
the subjects touched upon, and the others 
maintaining various views, and expressing 
different opinions thereupon. We give the 
following complete synopsis of the con- 
tents of the volumes, partly on account 
of the literary importance of the work to 
which we are now referring, and partly 
because such an epitome will be useful to 
those who may have occasion to refer to 
the books for one of the mfiny items of 
typographical interest which they con- 
tain : — 

Sy7topsis of Volume /.* which contains 
title, dedication, preface vOP- i- to xvi.). 
First Day (folios in Roman numerals), 
xix. to ccxxv., and pp. i to 410. First 
Day. — Account of some of the more an- 
cient manuscripts written in capital 
letters. Brief view of the progress of the 



arts of design and composition, in illumi- 
nated MS., from the fifth to the sixteenth 
century inclusively. Second Day. — 
Ancient missals and breviaries. The 
Roman, Ambrosian, Mozarabic, and Val- 
lambrosa rituals. Ornaments of printed 
books of devotion. The Death-Dance. 
Allegorical, pastoral, grotesque, and do- 
mestic subjects of decoration. Of the 
most distinguished printers of missals, 
&c. Advice to young collectors. Third 
Day. — Engraved ornaments of printed 
books, &c. Block-books. Ars Memo- 
randa Speculum Humanae Salvationis. 
Ars Monendi. Hartlieb's Chiromancy. 
Books of Chiromancy and Physiognomy. 
Bibles. Ancient classics. German pub- 
lications and translations of the classics. 
Romances. Works of a grotesque cha- 
racter. Basil books. Works upon hawk- 
ing. Emblems. Italian classics and 
novels. Improvement to be derived from 
elegantly-published works of genius. 
Fourth Day. — Origin and early pro- 
gress of printing. 

The Second Volume has 535 pages, de- 
voted as follows : Fifth Day. — Progress 
of printing in Germany and Italy {co7i- 
tinued). Rise and progress of printing 
in France, at Paris, at Rouen, at Lyons, 



170 



Bibliography of Pi'iniing. 



at Antwerp, and at other places in the printers of eminence. Eighth Day.— 
Low Countries. Progress of printing at Of bookbinding, ancient and modern ; 
Venice, — the Aldine press, the presses of with divers singular anecdotes, and sundry 



the Giunti, the Sessae, and Gioliti, &c. 
The presses of Froben, Oporinus, &c., 
at Rasle. Portraits of printers. Intro- 
duction of title-pages, simple and decora- 
tive. Sixth Day. — The former subject 
continued, including some account of 
early printing at Louvain. Seve.nth 
Day.— Decorative printing. Imaginary 
and authentic portraits of printers. Title- 
pages, simple and ornamental. Capital 
initials. Woodcut portraits of eminent 
characters. Comparison between the 
ancient and modern art of printing. Of 
paper and vellum. Modern English 



curious graphic embellishments connected 
therewith. 

The Third Vohivie has 544 pages, thus 
divided: Ninth Day. — Characters of 
deceased and living book-auction-loving 
bibliomaniacs. Of book sales by auction 
since the year 1811. Tenth Day. — 
Brief view of bibliographical literature in 
Italy, France, and Germany. Further 
account as a Supplement to the " Biblio- 
mania." Of libraries and book collectors 
in England. Of booksellers. Of private 
presses. Conclusion. 

DiBDiN (Rev. T. F.), D.D. The Bibliomania, or Bookmadness : 
containing some Account of the History, Symptoms, and Cure of 
this fatal Disease. In an Epistle addressed to Richard Heber, 
Esquire. London : 1809. 8vo. pp. 88. 
This was the original edition of 



was 
Dibdin's celebrated work. It was 
" printed by William Savage, Bedford- 
bury, Covent Garden, price 4s." At the 
end is an advertisement relative to the 
approaching publication of Dibdin's edi- 
tion of Ames. 

The " Bibliomania " went through 
several editions. The pamphlet of 1809 
was expanded, two years later, in 181 1, 
into a volume of 782 pages, printed by 
McCreery, author of "The Press." This 
book, in six chapters, was liberally illus- 
trated. In 1842 Bohn published an edi- 
tion in 8vo., which reproduced the illus- 



trations of 1811 with some additions, and 
gave an extra chapter with a key to the 
assumed characters, &c. Messrs. Chatto 
& Windus published a reprint of this last 
edition in 1876. 

A curious contrast to the fervid biblio- 
mania of this book is to be found in 
" Bibliophobia : Remarks on the present 
languid and depressed state of literature 
and the Book Trade. In a letter ad- 
dressed to the author of ' The Biblio- 
mania.'" By Mercurius Rusticus, with 
notes by Cato Parvus. London : 1832. 
Bvo. Between 1809 and 1832 the mania 
attained its climax. 



— -Bibliotheca Spenceriana ; or, a Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Books printed in the 15th Century, and of many valuable first 
Editions in the Library of George John, Earl Spencer, K.G. 
London : 1814-15. 8vo. Vol. i. preface (i.-ix. ), works executed in 
the early infancy of printing (i. -Hi.), and pp. 383. Vol. ii. pp. 503; 
vol. iii. 509; vol. iv. preface (i.-vii.), pp. 587, and indexes 
(i,-lxxvii.). 



portrait of Lord Spencer, not found in 
the small copies. One of them is in the 
British Museum. 



The last volume contains the account 
of the early English printers, with fac- 
similes of some of their works. The 
large paper copies have an additional 

■ A descriptive Catalogue of the Books printed in the fifteenth 

century, lately forming part of the library of the Duke de Cassano 
Cerra, and now the property of George John, Earl Spencer, K.G. ; 
with a general index of authors and editions contained in the 
present volume and in the Bibliotheca Spenceriana and .^des 
AlthorpiancC. London : 1823. Imp. 8vo. 

This, with the "Bibliotheca Spenceriana" and the " iEdes Althorpianse," com- 
pletes the description of the Althorp collection, in eight of the finest volumes ever 
devoted to such a purpose. 



Bibliography of Frifiting. 171 

DiBDiN (Rev. T. F.), D.D. "Here begyneth a littel Tome and 
hathe to name The Lincolne Nosegay : beynge a brefe table of 
certaine bokes in the possession of Maister Thomas Frognall 
Dibdin, clerk, which bookes be to be sold to him who shal gyue 
the moste for ye same. [London : 1808.] 8vo. pp. 16. 
A catalogue of Dibdin's library, purposely written in a very quaint fashion, and 

printed with a view to dispose of the various books. There are many typographical 

allusions of considerable interest. 

Holbein's Dance of Death, exhibited in elegant engravings on 

wood, with a Dissertation on the several representations of that 
subject, by Francis Douce, Esq., F.A.S. ; also Holbein's Bible 
Cuts, consisting of 90 illustrations on wood, with introduction by 
Thos. Froc^nall Dibdin. London : 1858. 8vo. 
One of the vols, of " Bohn's Illustrated Library" (Introduction, pp. 218). It gives 

an account of Holbein's celebrated woodcuts and their engravers, with engravers' 

marks, memoirs, &c. 

An Introduction to the Knowledge of Rare and Valuable 

Editions of the Greek and Roman Classics, being in part a tabulated 
arrangement from Dr. Harwood's " View," &c. ; with notes from 
Maittaire, De Bure, Dictionnaire Bibliographique, and references to 
ancient and modern catalogues. Gloucester : 1802. i2mo. pp.64. 
In the preface of this work it is stated graphy. The hand of Heaven worked in 
that the English nation, so perfect in a cause so friendly, so beneficial to man. 
most things, is without a typographical The art of Printing sprang at once from 
and bibliographical dictionary, a book infancy to maturity, and its growth, 
that would be as useful in our language though rapid, was firm and complete." 
as the " Dictionnaire Bibliographique " The book ends with the prophecy that 
is in the French. Referring to the typo- "the time has come when hundreds and 
graphical aspect of his work, the reverend thousands of pounds are readily given for 
author (who was at the time, however, a Raphael, a Cbrreggio, or a Caracci ; 
only a B. A.) says ;—" Whatever gratifica- the time may come when ;^5o or ;^ioo 
tions the collector or antiquarian may will be cheerfully devoted to a Faust, or a 
enjoy from other pursuits, it is certain Jenson, or a Spira." Dibdin little anti- 
that in his discoveries of early typography cipated a book like the Gutenberg Bible 
he will generally meet with truth and (on which Fust was engaged) being priced 
beauty united. Some bold antiquaries in Mr. Quaritch's catalogue at 3,000 
there are who, in the time spent on virtu guineas, or a Caxton like the " Knight of 
may mistake a few broken beads for the the Tower " being sold at public auction 
bracelet of Cleopatra, a half-worn scyme- for upwards of ^600 ! 
tar for the faulchion of Marc Anthony ; A second edition, in 8vo., enlarged, of 
but in a .specimen of early typography the "Introduction" was published in 
little error or imperfection can be found. London in 1804 A third edition, also in 
I speak as to the antiquity and the form Svo., with additional authors and bio- 
of the letter. It will be seen with wonder graphical notices, &c., was issued in two 
and delight that, excepting the first rude vols., London, 1808. A fourth edition, in 
essays of Costerius, Guttemberg, Fust, 8vo., greatly enlarged and corrected (2 
and Schoeffer, nothing can exceed the vols.), appeared in London m 1827. 
regularity and splendour of early typo- 

The Library Companion ; or, the Young Man's Guide and the 

Old Man's Comfort in the Choice of a Library. London : 1824. 
2 vols. 8vo. V<^'. i. pp. lii. and 400 ; vol. ii. pp. 512. 
Accompanying the lists of editions are notices of the early printers, and typogra- 
phical descriptions of editiones principes. 

■ • The Pastime of People ; or, the Chronicle of Divers Realmes, 

and most especially of the Realm of England, briefly compiled 
and imprinted in Cheapside by John Rastell [A. D. 1529.] 
London: 181 1. 4to. pp. viii. and 299. 



172 



Bibliography of Printing. 



In republishing the work of the famous city printer Rastell, Dibdin g^ives an 
account of the life and labours of its author. The facsimile woodcuts are exceedingly 



Dibdin (Rev. T. F.), D.D. Proposals for publishing by Subscription, 
at ^^3. 3s. each Volume, a new Edition of Ames's Typographical 
Antiquities, by Herbert ; greatly enlarged and corrected, in 
5 volumes quarto. By the Rev. Thomas Frognall Ditxiin, 
F.S.A., author of " An Introduction to the Knowledge of Rare 
and Valuable Editions of the Greek and Latin Classics, &c," 
N.B. The subscription will be considered as binding only for the 
first volume ; and the money need not be paid until the book is 
delivered. London : 1808. 8vo. pp. 8. 
This is the prospectus of the celebrated edition of Ames's "Typographical Anti- 
quities" (q. v.\ 

Reminiscences of a Literary Life. London : 1836. 2 vols. 

8vo. Vol. i. pp. xxiv. and 556 ; vol. ii. 557-982 and index (44 
pp.). 

This work has not only a personal in- 
terest, as the autobiography of the cele- 
brated bibliographer who in his time was 
said to" bestride the whole literary world 
like a Colossus," but incidentally presents 
a variety of facts concerning the origin, 
the progress, and the success of his typo- 

Voyage bibliographique, archeologique, et pittoresque en 

France, par le Rev. Th. Frognall Dibdm. Traduit de 1' Anglais, 
avec des Notes, par Theod. Licquet, conservateur de la Biblio- 
theque publique de Rouen. Paris : 1825. 8vo. Vol. i. pp. xxiv. and 
344 ; vol. ii. pp. 374 ; vol. iii. pp. viii. and 384 ; vol. iv. pp. 447. 

The third and fourth volumes were translated by G. A. Crapelet, who added cer- 
tain notes and a preface to vol. iii. : — 

Lettre trentieme concernant I'Imprimerie et la Librairie 

de Paris, traduite avec des notes par G, A. Crapelet. Paris : 

1821. 4to. 
Dibdin afterwards in rep'y wrote : — 

Brief Remarks upon the Preface and Notes of G. A. Crapelet, 

attached to his translation of the 30th letter of the Bibliographical, 
Antiquarian, and Picturesque Tour. By the Author of that Tour. 
London : 1 82 1. 8vo. pp. v. and 31. 



graphical publications, as well as descrip- 
tions of the methods by which they were 
produced, Any printer who appreciates 
the literature of his art will experience 
great pleasure in the perusal of these en- 
tertaining volumes. 



Only 36 copies were printed, and one of 
them was presented by the author to the 
British Museum. It contains Dibdin's 
autograph. The remarks are pungent 
and sarcastic. Crapelet's work is said to 
be " his first," and "hoped to be his last " 
contribution to literature. " Let him 
adhere closely to his tympans and friskets, 

The Rev. Thomas Frognall Dibdin was 
born in India in 1775, and died in 1847. 
His father, Capt. Thomas Dibdin, was the 
brother of the distinguished song-writer, 
Charles Dibdin. Being left an orphan at 
an early age, Dibdin was sent home to 



for which Renouard and Brunet fils will 
supply much better employment than any- 
thing he can produce." But, as our 
Bibliography shows, Crapelet afterwards 
became quite a prolific writer. — See also 
Haslewood (Joseph) — " Roxburghe 
Revels." 



England, where he received a good edu- 
cation, and was prepared for the law, but 
ultimately took holy orders. He became 
an author at an early age, writing essays, 
stories, and poems for the magazines, and 
sonie disquisitions upon legal topics. 



Bibliography of Printing. 173 

His best-known works, however, are so ably ministered, and to bitterly bewail 
those upon bibliographical and typo- its extinction. There is preserved in the 
graphical subjects. We have given British Museum an exceedingly interest- 
above a list of all that were connected ing volume of his latest autograph letters, 
with printing. Dibdin lived to survive addressed by Dibdin to some of his lite- 
the book-collecting passion to which he rary friends. He died very poor. 

Dickenson (Samuel N.). A Help to Printers and Publishers : 
being a Series of Calculations, showing the quantity of paper re- 
quired for a given number of signatures in book-work, and the 
number of tokens contained therein, carried out to an extent that 
will seldom, if ever, fail to embrace the largest jobs. Also an 
extensive Table for Job-work, showing the quantity of paper 
required for a given number of bills, labels, duplicates of book- 
work, &c. Boston (Mass.) : 1835. 8vo. pp. viii. and 24, 216, 
and 20. 



Specimen of Book Printing. Boston : 1842. Royal 8vo. 



Dictionary (A) of Lithography and its Auxiliary Arts. Published in 
instalments in the Lithographer from January, 1872 to June, 1874. 

Dictionnaire des Arts et Manufactures. " Imprimerie typo- 
graphique," p. 192; *' Gravure en relief," p. 189. Paris: 
1867. Large . 8vo. 

Didot (Ambroise Firmin). Aide Manuce et I'Hellenisme k Venise. 
Orne de quatre portraits et d'un facsimile. Hellenisme dans 
I'Occident; Isabelle D'Este, marquise de Mantoue; Correspondance 
inedite des Refugies Grecs en Italic ; Zacharias Calliergi et les 
Calligraphes Cretois ; Premieres Impressions Grecques, etc. 
Paris : 1875. 8vo. pp. Ixviii. and 647. 

A monograph of Aldus Manutius, the from an Italian line engraving of great 
great Italian printer of the sixteenth rarity which belonged to M. Didot's col- 
century, to whom the world of literature lection. This was reproduced, to illustrate 
owes some of the best editions of the an appreciative and lengthy review of the 
Greek classics, and the world of art some book, in the Printing Times and 
of the noblest examples of tjrpography. Lithographer (August, 1875), p. 167. 
It gives, further, a bibliographical and At the side is the mark of Aldus — a dol- 
technical account of the products of the phin entwined round an anchor, a device 
Aldine press from 1494 to 1515. In seve- found on the obverse of a medal of 
ral respects it corrects the received Vespasian, and on another of Domitian. 
opinions concerning the Aldi, and all its The great printer adopted the emblem as 
statements have been derived, after years a token of swiftness (the dolphin) in ex- 
of study and research on the part of the ecution, combined with steadiness (the 
late M. A. F. Didot, from the best autho- anchor) in conception. There is also 
rities. The ordinary text-books of the given a portrait of Isabella d'Este, the 
history of printing abound with errors on patron of Aldus, and of Marc Musurus ; 
the subject, and these have been too a view of the tomb of Prince Alberto Pio ; 
often copied and perpetuated without the and a facsimile of the caligraphy of Marc 
slightest attempt at verification, Prefixed Musurus. — See Manutius. 
to the work is a portrait of Aldus, taken 



Les Aide Manuce. Paris : i860. 8vo. pp. 15. 



Excerpt from the " NouVelle Biographie Generale," vol. i.p. 33. 

Catalogue raisonne des Livres de la Bibliotheque de M. A. F. 



Didot. Paris : 1867. 8vo. pp. iv. and 384. 

In the preface to the first part of the de chevalerie ") there is given a descrip- 

Catalogue of M. Didot's library ("livres tion of a series of books bearing on the 

a figures sur bois, solennites, romans history of printing, by reason of their em- 



174 Bibliography of Frinti?ig. 

belHshment with .engravings on wood, are raised in the essay prefixed to 
which serve also to settle some questions Vecellio's book on "Ancient Costumes." 
in the history of wood-engraving, which 

DiDOT (Ambroise Firmin). Catalogue des Dessins et Estampes, com- 
posant la Collection de M. Ambroise Firmin Didot, de 1' Academic 
des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres ; precede d'introductions par M. 
Charles Blanc, de 1' Academic Fran9aise, et M. Georges Duplessis, 
conservatcur adjoint au Cabinet des Estampes. Paris : 1877. 
Royal 8vo. pp. vii. xxx. and 541 . 
The sale of the Didot engravings realized 626,474 f""., or ;^25,o63 sterling. 

Compte Rendu de I'ouvrage d'Aug. Bernard, " De I'Origine 

de rimprimerie en Europe. Paris : 1853. 8vo. pp. 20. 

Excerpt from the AthencEtitn Frangais of 9th July, 1853. 

Essai sur la Typographic. Paris: 1852. 8vo. Plates. 



This work, an excerpt from the " En- knowledge of the subject. The early 

cyclopedie Moderne," contains the result history of printing is treated with great 

of the author's lengthened experience, clearness and a thorough acquaintance 

and of his vast theoretical and practical with the best authorities. 

Essai Typographiquc et Bibliographiquc sur I'Histoire de la 

Gravurc sur Bois. Paris : 1863. 8vo. pp. 315. 
This treatise on wood-engraving was prefixed to a sumptuou§ edition, publibhed by 
Didot Freres, of Vecellio's " Costumes anciens." 

Les Estienne. Henri I.; Fran9ois I. et II.; Robert I., II., et 

III. ; Henri II. ; Paul et Antoine. Extrait de la "Nouvelle Bio- 
graphic Generalc." Paris. [1856.] 8vo. pp. 41. 

Les Graveurs de Portraits en PVancc. Paris : 1875-1877. 

2 vols. 8vo. Vol. i. pp. iv. xvi. and 356 ; vol. ii. pp. iv. and 565. 
750 copies printed. 
A catalogue r«z5t7M«/ of the collection comprising the notabilities in literature, 
of portraits of the French school belong- science, and arts ; statesmen, magis- 
ing to the late M. Didot. The work, trates, ecclesiastics, and generals. At 
which is posthumous, is preceded by an M, Didot's death it had become the most 
introduction dated December, 1875. The important and interesting private portrait 
collection, which began with the portraits gallery in existence, 
of printers and publishers, ended by 

Gutenberg. Paris : 1858. Svo. pp. 13. 

This is a reprint of the article in the the memorials of Gutenberg's career at 

" Nouvelle Biographic Generale." M. Strasburg and at Mayence, and, after 

Didot starts with the assertion that Guten- referring to the modern views which have 

berg was the inventor of printing ; that been held of Gutenberg's invention, gives 

he was born about 1400, at Mayence, a bibliographical list of his works. At 

where he died in February, 1468 ; and the end there is a long list of biographi- 

recites the principal events in the history cal treatises which re^r to the subject of 

of the famous controversy. He then traces the memoir. 

L'Imprimerie, la Librairie, et la Papeterie a I'Exposition Univer- 



selle de 185 1. Rapport du 17 Jury. Paris : 1853. 8vo. 
2mc edition, avec quelques additions. Paris : 1854. 8vo. 
— L'Imprimerie a Paris en 1867. Paris : 1867. 



An article in the first volume of the " Paris-Guide." 
La Renaissance dc THellenisme et Aide Manuce. . Paris : 



1875. 8vo. pp. 38. 
An extract from the Revue de France. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



175 



DiDOT (Ambroise Firmin). Reponses aux Questions soumises par 
MM. les membres de la Chambre du Commerce de Paris, sur la 
situation de la Librairie, de I'lmprimerie, de la Fonderie de 
Caracteres, et de la Papeterie, Paris : 183 1. 8vo. pp. 30. 

La Societe des Correcteurs. Paris: 1866. 8vo. pp. 27. 

Ambroise Firmin-Didot, as honorary count of the excellent advice it gives to 

president, delivered this speech before the the members of the profession, as well 



Paris Societe des Correcteurs — the French 
Readers' Society, at their general as- 
sembly, on the I St November, 1866. 
It deserves to be carefully read on ac- 



as the high estimate in which the calling 
of the Correctors of the Press was held by 
one who was so well qualified to form an 
opinion of its merits. 



Societe des Correcteurs. Discours prononce le 19 Avril, 1868. 

Paris : 1868. 8vo. pp. 23. 

DiDOT (Firmin). Caracteres de la Fonderie de F. Didot. Paris : 
1817. [A broadside.] 

Fonderie de F. Didot, i^' cahier, contenant les caracteres 

romains et italiques. Paris : 1828. 8vo. 

Didot (Jules). Nouvelles Vignettes de la Fonderie de J. Didot I'aine. 

Paris : 1 836. 4to. 
— — - Vignettes et Caracteres de la Fonderie de J. Didot I'aine. 

Paris : 1837. Folio. 

Didot (Pierre). £pitre sur les Progres de I'lmprimerie. Paris : 1784. 
8vo, pp. 24. 

The imprint runs : " Imprimd chez 
Didot I'aine, avec les italiques de Firmin, 
son second fils." It is dedicated " X. mon 
Pere." The poem recites all the typo- 
graphical successes of the author's father, 
to whom it is addressed, the expressions 
being of the most enthusiastic nature. 
At the end are certain notes on passages 



contained in the poem, and they have re^ 
ference chiefly to the biographical, lite- 
rary, and historical topics uitroduced. 
Incidentally, they give a good and au- 
thentic account of the first manufacture 
of the papier velin. The poem is alto- 
gether very curious and interesting. 



fipitre sur les Progres de I'lmprimerie. [Reprinted at the end 

of the " Essai de Fables nouvelles. "] Paris: 1786. 8vo. 

This contains, among other interesting matter, notes on the " typometer," Anis- 
son's press, and the manufacture of satin paper. 

Lettre sur les Decouvertes de M. Didot (alne) dans les Arts 

de I'lmprimerie, de la Gravure des Caracteres, et de la Papeterie. 
Paris : 12th June, 1783. 8vo. pp. 15. 

Specimen des nouveaux Caracteres de la Fonderie et de I'lm- 
primerie de P. Didot I'aine, chevalier de I'ordre royal de St. Michel, 
imprimeur du roi et de la Chambre des Pairs. Dedie a Jules Didot 
fils, chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, Pai'is : 1819. 8vo. pp. 80. 

gustin, &c., offer no idea of the particu- 
lar proportions of the letters, nor of their 
relation to others ; in fact, they vary in 
size in diHerent offices. The numerical 
order, the only one really convenient, was 
introduced by my father, and the name 
of each of his characters is given at the 
heads of the respective specimens. For 
about ten consecutive years,— during 
which I have employed, as nearly as pos- 



In the preface to this very interesting 
type-specimen book the compiler says : — 
" I have adopted the numerical order for 
the identification of my types, in place of 
the meaningless and often absurd names 
preserved up to the present day in nearly 
all the printing-offices. These names, 
such as Perle, Parisieniie, Nontpareille, 
Migno/me, Petit texte, Gaillarde, Petit 
roinain, Philosophie, Cicero, Saint An- 



176 



Bibliography of Printing. 



sible, three hours daily in working with 
M. Vibert, who is undoubtedly one of the 
best engravers of letters or punches,— I 
have been bringing them to perfection. 
My directions, also, have been carried 
out with the utmost fidelity, as well as 
all my ideas for improvements, sometimes 
resulting in the same fount being cut 
three or four times over again. It is true 



that in the industrial arts there is a point 
where it is necessary to stop. I do not, 
however, think I have reached it. I pro- 
pose still to continue to rectify the types 
and their forms whenever they seem to 
me susceptible of improvement. I shall 
leave the same course to my son, — to-day 
my associate ; in a few years, probably, 
my successor." 

DiDOT (Pierre and Jules). Essai d'un nouveau caractere, offrant un 

Essai lyrique, de P. Didot Taine, chevalier de I'ordre royal de 

Saint Michel, impri-meur du roi et de la Chambre des Pairs. 

Paris : 1821. 4to. pp. 20, 

On the title-page it is stated that this seriph of the g, are, however, not to our 

work is issued " chez I'auteur et Jules taste, and they appear not to have held 

Didot fils, Chevalier de la Legion d'Hon- their position in their native country, for 

neur, rue du Pont de Lodi, no. 6." The they are now seldom copied. At the end 

type is very beautiful in appearance, the is a notice to publishers calling their at- 

hning, colouring, &c. , being exquisite, tention to the peculiar merits of the founts 

The new shapes introduced, such as the used. 

Didot Family (The). Three articles in the Printing Times and 
Lithographer ^ March, April, May, 1876. 
The Didot family has been honourably standards, which he called points. He 
connected with French typography for a also invented a handpress, which was 
period little short of two centuries, and widely used. He visited all the mills in 
the following sketches of some of the France, with the view of arriving at a bet- 
principal members may be interesting ; — ter system of papermaking than prevailed. 
The first of the family who distinguished Afterwards he went to Holland for the 



himself as a literary man was FRAN901S 
Didot, born in 1689. He was the son of 
a Paris merchant, named Denis Didot, 
and served his apprenticeship to Andr^ 
Pralard, the printer and publisher. He 
became the mtimate friend of the Abb^ 
Provost, whose works he published. All 
of these are known to bibliographers for 
the beauty of their typography. The sign 
of his establishment was "the Golden 
Bible." His printing-office was situated 
successively in the Rue Pavde St. Andr^ 
des Arts, and the Quai des Grands Augus- 
tins. He died on the and November, 
1757. 



same purpose, and there found a work- 
man named Ecrevisse, who assisted him 
greatly in the improvement of this art. 
At the suggestion of Didot, and with his 
practical assistance, the factory of Johan-- 
not, at Annonay, produced, in 1780, the 
first specimen of satin paper (^papier 
vititi), in imitation of that on which 
Baskerville had printed his beautiful 
quarto edition of Virgil, which was pre- 
viously only known in England. In 
1783, as a mark of royal favour, he was 
commissioned, under a decree of the 



king, Louis XVI., to prepare editions of 

all the books requisite for the education 

FRANfois Ambroise Didot, son of °^ ^^« Dauphin-a collection of thirty- 



Frangois, was born in Paris, 7th January 
1730, and died 10th July, 1804 He entered 
upon the publishing business in 1753, and 
added a printing department to it in 1757. 
His office was situated in the Rue de 
Savoie. He may be said to have laid the 
foundation of the subsequent typographic 
celebrity of the house. He made great 
improvements in type-founding, and his 
founts of type were superior to all that 
had been produced previously in France. 
He did not content himself with beauti- 
fying the faces of the characters, but put 
an end in France to the confusion result- 
ing from the non-justification of one 
founder's type with that of another, by 
inventing a system of proportioning the 
sizes of bodies of types to certain normal 



two volumes in 4to., seventeen in 8vo., 
and eighteen in i8mo. He printed also 
for the Count of Artois, afterwards 
Charles X., a collection of books consist- 
ing of sixty-four volumes in i8mo. This 
series, known as the "Artois edition," is, 
like the Dauphin edition, very highly 
prized by bibliophiles. He left the com- 
pletion of his labours to his two sons, 
Pierre and Firmin ; and after transferring 
to the first his printing-office, and to the 
second his foundry, he died in 1804, at 
the ripe age of 75. 

Pierre FRANfois, second son of Fran- 
cois, was a printer, a publisher, and a 
paper-maker. He was born at Paris, 9th 
July, 1732, and died ;?th December, 1793. 
He entered into business on his own ac- 



Bibliography of F?'inting. 



177 



count as publisher in 1753, and asprinter in 
1755. From 1759 to 1789 his establishment 
was in the Rue des Grands- Augustins, 
where he published several remarkable 
editions, among them the " Imitation of 
Christ," in folio, 1788; " Telemachus," 
in 4to. ; the " Picture of the Ottoman 
Empire," &c. Pierre F. Didot was 
printer to Louis XVIII. before he as- 
cended the throne. He devoted himself 
also to type-founding, in which he effected 
several useful Improvements. His paper- 
mill, at Essonne, was in its day one of the 
oldest and most impr>rtant in France. 

Henri, eldest son of Pierre PVangois, 
was born 15th July, 1765, and died in 1852. 
He became famous as a punch-cutter, and 
for his mechanical skill. At the age of 
66 he engraved a fount to which he gave 
the name of " microscopic," and used it 
for the editions which he called "the 
microscopic editions " of the Maxims of 
Rochefoucault, and of Horace. This 
fount was a high achievement of the type- 
founder's art. The minuteness was such 
that the types could not be cast in the 
ordinary way ; hence he invented a 
special apparatus, to which he gave the 
name of the " polya7natype" and by 
means of which they were cast, a hundred 
letters at a tim'e. These beautiful editions 
were printed by his brother, Didot jun. 

St. Leger, second son of Pierre 
Fran5ois, was the director of his father's 
paper-mills at Essonne. It is to this 
member of the family that we owe the 
very useful machine for making paper 
in the web, or in endless rolls. The first 
attempts in this direction were made at 
Essonne, in the mill of Pierre Frangois 
Didot, his father, where Robert, one of 
his foremen, conceived the first idea of 
such an apparatus. Many fruitless ex- 
periments were made at Essonne by this 
son and M. Robert, and at Mesnil, near 
Dreux, under the superintendence of 
MM. Guillot and Robert. They would 
have been entirely unproductive but for 
the perseverance of their employer, who, 
it may be added, had resided in England 
at the time of the Peace of Amiens. 
Fourdrinier had, after an immense ex- 
penditure, and after about ten years of 
labour, got a machine, the first of its 
kind, in working order at his establish- 
ment at Two-Waters. Assisted by Mr. 
Donkin, St. Leger Didot determined 
upon developing to its utmost the new 
invention— one of the most useful and 
novel of our epoch. In 1816 he returned 
to P'rance, and at once began to erect 
machines of this description, originally at 
Sorel, in the establishment of Messrs. 
Berthe & Grevenich, afterwards at that 



of St. -Jean-d' Hears, belonging to Mar- 
shal Oudinot. 

Pierre, grandson of Francois, and son 
of Fran9ois Ambroise, was born 25th Jan- 
uary, 1761, and died 31st December, 1853. 
When his father relinquished printing in 
1789, Pierre succeeded him, and devoted 
himself so successfully to his art, that his 
press was honoured by being installed in 
the Louvre, and he himself was created a 
chevaHer of theOrder ofSt. Michael. He 
wrote, besides the several technical works 
named above, several translations of the 
poets, essays, &c Pierre entertained 
the noble desire to render France as pre- 
eminent in the arts of peace as she was 
then invincible in the arts of war, and 
especially to elevate her Press to the first 
rank in Europe. In his own efforts he 
sought to surpass the memorable triumphs 
of Bodoni. He was already the most 
eminent printer of France ; he aspired to 
become the most eminent in Europe. 
Pierrre determined to complete I he fine 
quarto collection of Latin and French 
classic authors begun for the use of the 
Dauphin. The most distinguished con- 
temporaneous artists were called in to 
assist in beautifying the books that were 
printed : men such as Gerard, Girodet, 
Prudhon, and Percier. Seconded by his 
brother in the designing and founding of 
new characters, Pierre ventured upon his 
truly national work, the editions known 
as the " Louvre." Some of these volumes 
were declared by the jury of the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1801 the most 
perfect typographic production of any 
age. He also published a collection of 
French classics, dedicated "To the 
friends of the Typographic Art," which 
were well worthy of their dedication. 
To his reputation as a printer Pierre 
added that of a type-founder ; and during 
ten successive years he had cut or im- 
proved under his own eyes, by M. Vibert, 
no less than eighteen different founts. A 
medal was struck at Paris in honour of 
Pierre Didot in 1823. On the obverse is 
a bust to the right, around which is 
" Pierre Didot I'aine typographe Fran- 
cais," and in small characters beneath 

Veyrat F." On the reverse is an iron 
printing-press, against the T of which is 
"Presse Jules Didot." On the left side 
of the Presse is the ball-rack, with a pair 
of pressman's inking-balls. The sur- 
rounding legend is "Horace, Virgile, 
Racine Lafontalne ed^""' in-fol° " ; and 
in small letters, "Veyrat F. 1823," re- 
ferring to his che/s-d'ccuvre. 

Jules, son of Pierre, was born 5th 
August, 1794, and died i8th May, 1871. 
He may be said to have walked in the steps 



2 A 



78 



Bibliography of Fi-inting. 



of his father, and carried on with great suc- 
cess the business of type-founding. After 
1838, however, apainful malady compelled 
him to renounce his art. He then took 
to Brussels the materials for establishing, 
on a large scale, a printing-office and 
type-foundry, but his enterprise was not 
successful. He consequently returned to 
Paris, where he bought a large mansion 
in the Barriere de Slont-Parnasse, and 
converted it into a printing-office. He 
was decorated with the badge of the 
Legion of Honour. Jules gave to the 
world many fine editions of French 
standard books. 

FiRMiN, second son of Francois Am- 
broi.se, and brother of Pierre, was born in 
Paris, 14th April, 1764, and died 24th April, 
1836. He was distinguished by his literary 
taste and his excellence as a printer. The 
types for several of his father's editions 
were engraved by him, and his script 
founts were greatly superior to any that 
had previously been executed. His 
Roman characters especially were of 
great excellence. In 1795 he conceived 
the plan of consolidating the types which 
he employed in printing his logarithmic 
tables, and in pursuing this object he 
arrived gradually at the stereotyping 
process. The word stereotypie was, in 
fact, invented by him. A patent was 
granted for the invention in 1797. 
Another patent was granted to him m 
1806 for an improved mode of forming 
script types, and in 1823 ^ further 
patent was granted for a new system of 
executing, in typography, various kinds 
of maps and charts. After having travel- 
led in Italy, Greece, and Spain, Firmin 
retired in 1827 from the active super- 
intendence of his great establishment. 
In 1830 the Government offered him the 
position of director of the Royal Printing- 
office, which, however, he declined. He 
was decorated with the medal of the 
Legion of Honour, and appointed Printer 
to the King and to the French Institute. 
The Government had his bust in marble 
placed in one of the halls of the Im- 
perial Printing-office, and a medal in his 
honour was «truck after his death. His 
portrait, painted by his friend Girodet, 
IS liiuig ni the gallery of the Louvre. A 
medal was struck at Paris in honour of 
Firmin Didot in 1839. On the obverse 
is a bust, nearly full face ; to the right, in 
modern co.^tume, with the name on either 
side in bold letters : " Firmin Didot." 
On the reverse is a heavy wreath of 
laurel-leaves, tied at foot with a ribbon, 
within which is the inscription — " Ste- 
phanorum Aemulus musarum cultor." 
In 1806 he published a translation, of 



which he was the author, of the Bucolics 
of Virgil. The book is interesting from 
a typographical point of view, not only 
because of its being translated by the 
printer, but because the latter also en- 
graved and cast the tyi>es. It is also 
remarkable for the use of the character 
called "Anglaise," which appeared for 
the first time in the dedication of the 
book to Pierre Didot, the author's elder 
brother. The volume concludes with a 
long bibliographical and typographical 
note. He also printed M. Brun's 
" Manuel de Typographic Fran^aise " 
(Paris : 1825), a masterpiece of printing, 
and possessing the peculiarity of not 
containing a single divided word. 

Ambroise Firmin, the son of Firmin, 
and a great-grandson of the founder of 
the house, was born at Paris on Decem- 
ber 2oth, 1790. He died February 22nd, 
1876, in his eighty-sixth year. In 1814, 
on the establishment of peace, Ambroise 
Firmin-Didot determined to visit Eng- 
land, with a view to ascertain the pro- 
gress made in this country in regard to 
the arts of printing and paper-making. 
The knowledge he acquired by this 
journey led to his being the first to 
introduce into France the iron press 
invented bv Lord Stanhope and named 
after him. In 1823 he resided in Greece, 
and to his initiative was due the esta- 
blishment of the " Comite Grec." In 
1827 Ambroise Firmin Didot entered 
upon the management of his father's 
establishment, in conjunction with his 
brother, Hyacinthe Didot, under the 
partnership name of FIrmin-Didot freres. 
M. Ambroise Firmin Didot, like several 
of his predeces-sors, distinguished him- 
self as a punch-cutter and type-founder. 
He Introduced two new founts, one being 
what he called "English cursive" and 
the other an improved Greek. Much to 
his regret, he had to sell to the Soclete de 
la Fonderie Generale that branch of his 
business which was connected with type- 
founding. His works, however, remained 
the most complc te in France, and were, 
perhaps, the only office where all the 
branches of printing and Its many ramifi- 
cations were conducted under one head ; 
for it embraced not only publishing and 
printing, but paper-making, on the largest 
scale. The mills are situated at Mesnil, 
near Dreux, and at Sorel (Eure-et-Loire), 
where the processes are conducted in the 
most approved manner In conjunction 
with his brother Hyacinthe, he published a 
number of magnificent works ; among them 
the "Univers Pittoresque," the "Ency- 
clopedic Moderne,"and the " Dictionnaire 
de Conversation et de Lecture." One of 



BibliograpJiy of Priniing, 



179 




AMBROISE FIRMIN DIDOT, I79O-1876. 



8o 



Bibliography of Printing 



the best-known works of the firm was the 
" Nouvelle Biographic Generale," eJited 
by Dr. Hoefer, which was begun in 1853 
and finished in 1866, forming in itself 
a small library of 46 volumes. At the 
French Exhibitions of 1844 and 18^9, as 



embodiment of the honour and glory of 
the printing profession in Francs. He 
was also, in every respect, a "learned 
printer," and in correspondence with the 
principal saziants of his time. He tra- 
velled extensively, and was known as an 



member of the jury, he was charged eminent philo- Hellenist. Our space does 



with the compilation of a report on all 
the industries connected with typography. 
In 1851, by the unanimous wish of the 
international jury, he was selected to 
draw up a similar report concerning 
the_ first Great Exhibition at London. 
This report, printed at the Imperial 
Printing-office, forms a comprehensive 
and sagacious review of the condition 
of the art of printing all over the 
world at the time of its compilation. It 
is even more than this, for it gives a 
resume of the past history of typography, 
lithography, &c., and some suggestions 
of great value as to their future progress. 
He also wrote the "Essay on Typo- 
graphy," the address to the French 
Readers' Society, and the "Treatise on 
Wood-engraving," besides the important 
work on Aldus Manutius. In fact, he 
was at once a designer and engraver of 
types, a publisher, and a typographer ; a 
member since 1827 of the Chamber of 
Commerce, and since 1832 of the Council 
of Manufactures. Since 1848 he had been 
a member of the Municipal Council of 
Paris. At all the Exhibitions his establish- 
ment obtained gold medals. He was the 
honorary president of the Paris Publishers, 
Printers, and Paper-makers' Club. De- 
corated with the order of the Legion of 
Honour in 1825, he was named as an 
officer 13th November, i860. He suc- 
ceeded his father as printer to the Insti 



not permit of our further naming his 
achievements in literature, arts, and 
science. In addition to his exceptionally 
fine collection of engravings, the cata- 
logues relating to which are cited above, 
M. Didot left a magnificent library. 

Alfred Firmin is the son of Am- 
broise. He was born in 1828, and is a 
well-known litterateur, as well as a 
printer. He translated from the Greek, 
in_ 1852, " Les Fragments inedits de 
Nicolas de Damas," recently discovered, 
and comprised in the Didots' " Biblio- 
theque Grecque." 

HvACiNTHE is the younger brother of 
Ambroise Firmin-Didot, and was born in 
1794, and educated at the college of St. 
Barbe. Since 1857 he has been the director 
of the Didot printing-office. He is a Che- 
valier of the Legion of Honour, member 
of the Municipal Council of the Eure, and 
discharges various municipal offices. 

Paul Firmin is the son of Hyacinthe. 
He was born in 1826, and has de- 
voted much attention to chemical investi- 
gations, with the view of improving the 
manufacture of paper. He published in 
1855, jointly with M. Barruel, " Un 
nouveau Mode de Blanchiment des 
Chiffions et des Plantes textiles, par 
I'adjonction du gaz acide carbonique," 
in 8vo. This is a work which led to 
several improvements in the processes of 



lite of France in 1855. It may therefore paper-making, especially in the bleaching 
be said, with the strictest justice, that he of rags and of paper-stuff made from 
was worthily regarded as the personal fibrous plants. 

In order that the reader may the more readily understand the relationship of the 
various members of the Didots, we here insert a family Pedigree. 

Denis Didot. 

I 



I 
Francois Didot, b. 1689, d. 1757. 



1 
Francois Ambroise, 17 30- 1804. 



Pierre Frangois, 1 732-1 793. 



I I III 

Pierre, 1761-1853, Firmin, 1764-1836. Henri 1765-1852. St. Leger. Didot jiin. 

Jules, 1794-1871. Henri, d. 1876. Edouard. 



I I .1. 

Ambroise Firmin, 1790-1876. Hyacinthe Firmin, 1794. Friedrich, 1799-1S36. 



Alfred Firmin, 1828. 



Paul F'irmin, 1826. 



Bibliography of Printing. j8i 

DiEGERiCK (Alphonse). Essai de Bil)liographie Yproise. Etude sur 
les Imprimeurs Yprois, XVI% XVII*^ Siecles. 2 parts. Ypres : 
1873-6. 8vo. pp. 126, two plates of printers' marks. 

Dietrich (Ewald Christian Victorin). Album deutscher Typogra- 
phen. Festgabe zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buch- 
druckerkunst am 24., 25., 26. Juni, 1840. Mit Abbildung der 

Festhalle. Leipzig : 1840. 8vo. 2nd Edition. Herausge- 

geben von Dr. E. V. D. Leipzig : 1846, 8vo. 

DiETZELlUS (E. E.). Edle Druckerkunst vereinbaret sich mit dem 
Adel, als H. J. W. Ritschl von Hartenbach bey der Buchdrucker- 
Societat in Erfurt das Postulats-Fest den 18. und 19. May 1723 
celebrirte. Erfurt [1723]. Folio. 

DiNAUX (Arthur Martin). Bibliographie Cambresienne. Cambrai : 
1823. 8vo. 
Part of the " Memoires de la Societe d'EmuIation de Cambrai," 1822. 

— Iconographie Lilloise. Graveurs et Amatem-s d'Estampes de 

Lille. Valenciennes : 1841. 8vo. 
Extract from the "Archives du Nord de la France et du Midi de la Belgique." 

DiNGELSTEDT (Franz). Jean Gutenberg, premier maitre imprimeur, 
ses faits et discours les plus dignes d' admiration, et sa mort. Ce 
recit fidele, ecrit par Fr. Dingelstedt, est traduit de I'Allemand 
en Fran9ais par Gustave Revilliod. Geneve : 1858. Small folio, 
with six etchings by Gandon. Large paper. 

A novel, in which the writer desired to mantic character, and the book accord- 
introduce the ascertained facts connected ingly is very unreadable. Of course it 
with the invention of printing. Unfor- does not possess (or, indeed, profess to 
tunately the incidents available did not have) any historical value whatever, 
partake of the slightest dramatic or ro- 

John Gutenberg, first Master Printer, his Acts and most remark- 
able Discourses, and his Death. From the German. By C[aroline] 
W[intour]. London: i860, 8vo. pp. 141. ICXD copies printed. 
A free translation of the preceding work. 

Sechs Jahrhundert aus Gutenberg's Leben. Kleine Gabe zum 

grossen Feste. Texte von Franz Dingelstedt. Holzschnitte von 
Andrew, Best und Leloir in Paris, Gubitz in Berlin. Cnssel : 
1840. Folio. Woodcut borders, with explanations, by Frederic 
M tiller. 
A poem in six cantos. The historical events of the century are sung under the 

dates of the centenaries of the invention of printing. 

Director (Ein) der k. k. Staatsdruckerei. Biographic. (In Local- 
anzeiger der Fresse, No. 197.) Vienna: 1869. Folio. 

Disadvantages of Printing (The). In the Analectic Magazine, 
vol. viii. p. 222. Philadelphia : 1816. 8vo. 

Dissertation, Petite, sur un Monument typographique qui ferait 
remonter I'Origine de la decouverte de I'lmprimerie a 1414, avec 
des observations qui prouveraient qu'elle est meme anterieure a 
cette epoque. Paris : 181 7. Folio. 



1 82 Bibliogi-aphy of Printmg. 

DiTTRiCH (R.). Anleitung zum Musiknotensatz. Leipzig: 1872. 

4to. pp. 28. 
A guide to the composition of music in movable types, 
Dlabacz (G. J.). Abhandluiig von den Schicksalen der Kiinste in 

Bohmen [pp. 10']— 160 o{ Neuere A bha^tdhmgen der k. Bohtiiischen 

Gesellschaft, vol. iii.]. Piag : 1797. 4to. 

Kurzgefasste Nachricht von der noch unbekannten Buch- 

druckerey zu Altenburg in- Bohmen. Prag : 1797. 4to. pp. 23. 

Includes a reprint of the first book printed at Altenburg [Paleorinus] : Stolshagius, 
Daphne, Ecloga Parentalis, 1589. 

DoBROWSKY (J.). Ueber die Einfuhrung und Verbreitung der Buch- 
druckerkunst in Bohmen. In Abhandlnng einer Privat-Gesell- 
schaft ill Bohtnen, vol. iii. p. 228. 

Documents Iconographiques et Typographiques de la Bibliotheque 
Royale de la Belgique. Four parts, with 36 photo-lithographic 
plates. Bruxelles : 1864 — 1869. FoHo. 
This work is in progress, and will be completed in another part. 

DoDD (George). The Curiosities of Industry. Paper : its applica- 
tions and its novelties. Printing : its modern varieties. London : 
1852. 8vo. 

A series of pamphlets descriptive of the Great Exhibition of 1851. Paper, pp. 24 ; 
printing, pp. 24. They are intended merely for general readers, and do not possess 
any technical value. The author is a very prolific miscellaneous writer. 

Days at the Factories, or the Manufacturing Industry of Great 

Britain described and illustrated by numerous engravings of 
machines and processes. London : 1843. 8vo. pp. 548. 

At pp. 326 — 362 is given an interest- Clowes), and pp. 363 — 386 contain a 

ing account, with many illustrations, of description of the bookbinding establish- 

Messrs. Clowes & Sons' printing office ment of Messrs. Westley & Co. 
in Stamford - street, Blackfriars (see 

Dictionary of Manufactures, Mining, Machinery, and the In- 
dustrial Arts. London, n. d. 8vo. pp. iv. 446. 

Contains several well-written articles on Typography, Type-founding, Stereo- 
typing, &c. 

DoDD (William). Specimens of early Wood-engraving : being impres- 
sions of woodcuts in the possession of the publisher. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne : 1862. 4to. 

This very interesting collection of wood- of which is given in Jackson and Chatto's 

cuts which, somewhat singularly, have "History of Wood -engraving." His 

been preserved at Newcastle-on-Tyne, father, it appears, was sole printer to 

is stated to have been first gathered King William III. for the five northern 

together by John White, a citizen of counties of England, and he may have 

York, who established himself as a obtained some of these blocks from him. 

printer in Newcastle in 1708. He com- White was succeeded by Thomas Saint, 

menced the Courant newspaper in 1711, who engaged in a similar kind of busi- 

but his principal business was that of ness, but had a rival in Thomas Angus, 

supplying chapmen and others with small who was succeeded by his son George. At 

books, ballads, and songs. Many of his the sale of the effects of the latter, the 

blocks were of a much earlier date than entire lot was purchased by Emerson 

this, for amongst them is the original cut Charnley, whose son printed a few copies 

which appeared on the title-page of the of the old blocks, which were so much 

first known edition of " Robin Hood's sought after that their subsequent owner, 

Garland," published in 1670, a fac -simile Mr. Wm. Dodd, issued this volume. 



Bibliography of Frintiug. 



183 



Newcastle produced many exceedingly success has conferred upon him his cele- 
interesting specimens of chap literature, brity. Viewed in this aspect, Mr. Dodd's 
generally illustrated with rude woodcuts, book is really a very considerable contri- 
and it is probable that their imperfections bution to the history of early wood- 
stimulated Thomas Bewick (a native of engraving in this country, especially 
the town) to make those efforts for the before its revival in the eighteenth cen- 
improvement of this branch of art, whose tury. 

DoDT VAN Flensburg (Jens Jenssen). Over de Elzeviers. Utrecht : 
1841. 8vo. 
An account of the celebrated Elzevir family. The author was a well-known biblio- 
grapher and litterateur of Utrecht. 

DoEDES (Jacob Isaac). Lourens Janszoon Coster, Johann Guttenberg 

en Petrus Schoffer, of Verslag der schrifteii over de uitvinding 

der boekdrukkunst van A. de Vries en J. J. F. Noordziek. 

[Amsterdam : 1849.] 8vo. pp. 35. 

A reprint of a controversial article in the Gids of Amsterdam, reviewing the 

different theories set up by De Vries, Noordziek, and other pro-Costerian writers, as 

to the origin of printing. 

DOENGES (G.). Die doppelte Buch- und Geschaftsfiihrung fiir Buch- 
druckereien und verwandte Geschafte. Part II. Leipzig : 1870. 
4to. pp. 47. 



the typo ; hence the publication of this 
second part. The appendix gives instruc- 
tion as to book-keeping by single entry. - 
(See also Fkese, H.) 

Carmen. Parisiis 



The first part of this Guide to Book- 
keeping by single and double entry, 
specially intended for the use of printers 
and publishers, was considered to be 
hardly adequate to the requirements of 

DoissiN (Ludovico). Sculptura : Uarmen. Jr'ansiis : 1752. i2mo. 

The second edition of this poem on engraving, published in 1753, had a French 
translation. 

DoLET. — See Boulmier, NfiE de la Rochelle, and PiCQUfi, 
DONLEvy (John). The Rise and Progress of the Graphic Arts, in- 
ckiding notices of illumination, chalcography, wood-engraving, 
typography, lithography, chromography, and intagliography, 
elucidating the new art of Chromoglyphotype, invented by John 
Donlevy. New York : 1854. 4to. pp. 24. 



This work gives a rapid but interesting 
sketch of the origin of the several graphic 
arts, but appears to have been written to 
introduce some new processes of printing 
which the author had invented, and 
which he called Chemitype Transfer, 
Typographic Modelling, and Chromo- 
glyphotype Copying. He says that "he 
discovered the principle of nntagonistic 
union — that is, a chemical medium in 
which acids, alkalies, greasy and resinous 
substances, which previously repelled each 
other, are compelled to unite and change 
their character, and their union, or por- 
tions of them, in a peculiar manner, con- 
stitutes a solvent by which he is enabled 
to transfer and print manuscript, written 
on ordinary paper, with greater ease than 
it could be transferred if written on 
lithographic paper ; as well as woodcuts, 
engravings, new and old books, and 
printed matter of every description." He 



also invented a new litho press and a 
cylindrical machine for chemical print- 
ing. In regard to " Chromoglyphotype," 
it is stated that " the principal character- 
istic of this mode is the exclusive use 
of intagliotypes instead of the ordinary 
relief types generally used by printers, in 
combination with peculiar plastic pro- 
cesses, by which polychromatic plates, 
adapted to every variety of chromo- 
graphic effect, can be produced and 
printed by the economical operation of 
the typographic press in a style of art 
immeasurably superior to anything which 
it is possible to produce by engraving or 
lithography. Intagliotypes have hitherto 
been much neglected by printers. . . . 
Their extraordinary capacity for poly- 
chromatic production has been entirely 
overlooked for four centuries- from the 
invention of printing by John Gutten- 
berg to the invention of chromo-glypho- 



184 Bibliography of Printing. 

type by John Donlevy." The patents patent for "a method of producing in- 
fer these new methods of printing were tagHographic printing and other plates, 
held by Horace Greeley, New York, by from forms of types, by surrounding the 
whom a printing-office and stereotype types, whilst in contact with a glass 
foundry, based on this invention, were plate, or its equivalent, with plaster of 
established. We do not know the exact Paris, or some equivalent therefor ; so 
nature of Mr. Donlevy 's invention, or that when set the surface of the plaster 
whether it was ever carried out. We will be on the same plane with the sur- 
find, however, in searching the specifica- face of the types, and then stereotyping 
tion of American patents, that on Jan. 3, the form of types thus surrounded." 
1854, Mr. John Donlevy was awarded a 

Donlevy (John). A Plea for Chemitype Printing. 

Referred to in Donlevy's " Rise and Progress of the Graphic Arts," and stated to 
have been "printed by the Chemitype Press." We have not been able to inspect a.copy. 
DOPPELMAYR (Johann Gabriel). Dissertatio Typographic!. Nurn- 
berg. 1730. 4to. 

One of a series of tracts, written in Latin, on different scientific and philosophical 
subjects. 

DoRLAN (A.). Quelques Mots sur I'Origine de ITmprimerie, ou 

■ resume des opinions qui en attribuent I'invention a Jean Mentel, 

natif de Schlestadt. Schlestadt : 1840. 8vo. pp. 38. Portrait and 

six plates of fac-simile. Additions et Notes Supplementaires, pp. 24. 

An examination of the theory which believes that he was either the first, or 

ascribes the invention of printing to John nearly so, to make the idea practicable. 

Mentol. The author, while not commit- His views, however, have been com- 

ting himself to the claims of some parti- pletely refuted by the later and more 

sans of Mentel as to his being the first exhaustive researches of Dr. Van der 

and original inventor of movable tj'pes, Linde. 

DouiLLiER (A.). Epreuves de Caracteres de la Fonderie de A. 
Douillier. Dijon : 1833. 8vo. 

Doyen (Camillo). Trattati di Litografia, storico, teorico, pratico 
ed economico. Torino : 1877. 4to. pp. xv. 296, 33 plates, 5 
portraits, and chromolithograph! c frontispiece. 
An elaborate treatise, historical, theo- lithographic press from the earliest used 
retical, and practical, on the art of lltho- by Senefelder to the adaptation of steam 
graphy. The history of lithography machinery, and includes instructions in 
traces the art from the time of Senefelder the several processes from drawing and 
to the present, with a special chapter on writing on stone to the impression of the 
its practice in Italy, and with portraits of design, with a chapter of receipts. The 
Senefelder, Engelmann, Festa, M. Doyen, fourth part treats of the application of 
and M. Fanoli. The theoretical portion lithography, chromolithography, photo- 
which follows treats of the chemistry of lithography, mechanics of lithography, 
lithography and the materials employed ; &c. The illustrations comprise repre- 
there is a chapter on the varieties of paper sentations of presses and the various ap- 
U'cd in it, together with the geology and paratus employed in the art, the volume 
special characteristics of the dift'erent being enclosed in a paper cover bearing 
kinds of stone employed. The practical a very striking chromolithographic de- 
portion describes the various forms of sign. 

Draudius (George). Typographicus Discursus experimentalis, varius, 
utilis et jucundus, cum praecipuorum typographorum, illorum im- 
primis, quoriim impensis libri in lucem prodeunt, insignibus, qua; 
frontispiciis librorum imprimere consueverunt. Francoiurti : 1625. 
8vo. 
One of the earliest published books on elaborate eulogy on the advantages of the 
the controversy which arose as to the arts. George Draudius. a German author, 
origin of printing, in the early part of the was born in 1573 ; he died in 1630. His 
seventeenth century. It also contains an works are written in Latin. 



Bibliography of Pi'intijig 



185 



Dresden. Der loblichen Buchdrucker-Gesellschaft zu Dresden-Jubel- 
geschichte, Anno 1740 den 24. und 25. Junii. Mit einer Vorrede 
Herrn Christian Schottgens. Dresden [1740]. 4to. pp. 64. 

Dresler (F.), of Rost-Fingerlin. Proben aus der Schriftschneiderei, 

Schrift- und Metall - Buchstaben - Giesserei. Frankfort-on-the- 

Main. 1832. 8vo. 
Specimens from the celebrated Frankfort foundry of Dresler & Co. 
Schrift-Proben aus der Dresler' schen Schriftschneiderei, Schrift, 

Stereotypen- und Metall-Buchstaben -Giesserei nebst mechanischen 

Werkstatte in Frankfurt a. M. 1852. 8vo. 
Specimens of Dresler & Co.'s stereotyped and polytyped ornaments, &c. The 
firm is one of the oldest on the continent, and its founder, F. Dresler, was a cele- 
brated Frankfort printer. 

Drew (Benjamin). Pens and Types ; or, Hints and Helps for those 

who Write, Print, or Read. Boston, Mass. : 1872 and 1874. 

i6mo. pp. 131. 

A little work treating of writing for the Press, proof-reading, style, punctuation, 

orthography, reading Greek. &c., intended entirely for non-technical readers. It 

has no practical value for printers. The author is a writer on the Boston press. 

Druckerey (Der), zu Kemnitz erste Blatter. Von der loblichen und 
unschatzbaren Buchdruckereykunst Erfindung, Nutz und Befor- 
denmg. Kemnitz : 1661. 4to. 
A treatise on the first work printed at Chemnitz, and the advantages resulting 
from the discovery of printing. 

Drukkunst (Der). — Eene verhandeling, uitgesprooken in eene 
aanzienlijke maatschappij. Amsterdam: 1794. 8vo. With Por- 
trait of Coster. 

DUBOY (Hipp.). La Presse, I'lmprimerie, }a Librairie, le Colportage. 
Guide legal de I'ecrivain, du journaliste, de I'imprimeur et du 
libraire. Avec preface par Jul. Favre. Paris: 1869. i2mo. 

et Jacob (Ch.). Code-manuel de la Presse, Imprimerie, 

Librairie, Affichage et Colportage. Paris: 1851. 8vo. pp.211. 

M. Duboy is an advocate of the Cour for the use of literary men, printers, and 

de Cassation and of the Conseil d'Etat. others connected with the French press. 

His confrere, M.Jacob, is an advocate It is, however, superseded by recent legis- 

of the Cour d'Appel. The little work lative changes, 
named above was intended as a law manual 

Ducarel's Letters to Mr. Meerman. — Mr. Meerman's Answers to Dr. 
Ducarel,aSupplement to the Origin of Printing. London: 1781. 8vo. 



Dr. Andre Coltee Ducarel (born 1714, 
died 1785) was the librarian of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury's Library at 
Lambeth Palace. Among the manu- 
scripts preserved there, are several in the 
handwriting of the learned doctor rela- 
ting to questions concerning early typo- 
graphy. In particular there may be seen 
the original of the above, which is thus 
described in the catalogue : — " Dr. Du- 
carel's letter to Gerard Meereman {sic) 
Esq., pensionary of Rotterdam, concern- 
ing the origin of printing in England, in 



which it is shown that no printer of the 
name of Frederick Corsellis ever existed, 
and that the account of a record con- 
cerning him in the Lambeth Library is a 
fiction." — Dated London, November 21, 
1760. The reference to the manuscript 
is 954, 49. This letter has been reprinted 
several times, and formed the " Supple- 
ment" to Bowyer & Nichol's "Origin of 
Printing." Its style is very diffuse, but 
it completely explodes the Corsellis myth. 
— See Atkvns. 



2 B 



iS6 Bibliography of Printing. 

Duchesne (A.).— ^^^ Lacroix. 

Duchesne aine (Jean). Essai sur les Nielles, Gravures des Orfevres 
Florentins du XVe Siecle. Paris : 1826. 8vo. pp. xii. 381. Six 
copies printed on large paper in quarto. 

Although this work chiefly concerns dark colour, was called nigelhun. Being 
itself with 7iiello, it embraces a large melted into the intaglio devices and re- 
amount of information upon the different duced to a uniform surface, it caused the 
kinds of engraving on wood, stone, and ornaments or figures to appear in dark 
metal. The historical part begins with a relief on a silver ground, and gave to the 
chapter on engraving among the nations work the appearance of a picture in 
of antiquity, on the printing of playing- chiaroscuro at once rich and harmo- 
cards, on xylography, and on the first nious in effect. Maso Finiguerra, or 
books printed in movable characters. Finguera, a goldsmith of Florence and a 
The book is well illustrated with plates proficient in the art of niello, has ob- 
of the objects described. The relation of tained the honourable distinction of 
niello to copperplate engraving is little being considered the inventor of the 
understood. The latter art is of com- art of copperplate engraving. The 
paratively recent origin, and it was fore- above work contains a portrait of him 
shadowed in the former, an ancient and many specimens of his works in 
method much in use, and extremely niello. Some of these are taken from 
popular in the Italian states, and especi- the original plates, for the engraving in 
ally in Florence, in the fifteenth century, this style was not deep, and it has been 
The workers in niello used to cut the found that excellent prints may be ob- 
device or ornament in intaglio, with the tained in this manner, 
chisel, in a silver plate. These intaglie M. Duchesne is also the author of the 
or sunken portions of the plate were then article " Gravure " in the " Moyen Age 
filled up with an alloy or composition of et la Renaissance." 
silver and lead. This mixture, from its 

Jeux de Cartes Tarots et de Cartes numerales du XIV au 

XVIII. Siecle, representes en cent planches d'apres les originaux, 
avec un precis historique et explicatif. Publics par la Societe des 
Bibliophiles rran9ais. Plates. Paris : 1844. 4to. 

Observations sur les Cartes k jouer. Paris: 1836. i2mo. 

An extract from " L'Annuaire Historique" for the year 1837. 

Quelques Idees sur I'litablissement des Freres Piranesi. 8 pp. 

(Paris) : 1802. 8vo. 

Further information with respect to these artists will be found in the " Varietes 
I-itteraires," tome iv. pp. 264-284, the Letter of M. Mariette on the works of 
M. Piranesi. 

Duerer (Albert). Albert Duerer. Chemnitz : 1802. 8vo. pp.62 

1823. 8vo. 

An account of the life and works of Duerer. 

Von dem Leben und den vorziiglichsten Werken des berlihm- 



ten Meisters Albrecht Dlirer von NUrnberg. Basle : 1855. 4to. 
pp. 8 and 2 lithographic plates. 

Zu Durer's Ehre. Am 7. April, 1828. Sacularfeier. NUrn- 
berg : 1828. 4to. 

Duerer (Albert). ^^^ Arend, Campe, Eye, Galichon, Haussmann, 
Held, Heller, Hesse, Hussgen, Jackson & Chatto, Marg- 
GRAFF, Nagler, Roth, Schober, Scott, Thausing, Weise, 
&c. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



187 



This celebrated artist is rendered in- 
teresting to the printer on account of the 
great improvements which he introduced 
into the art of wood-engraving. He was 
born in Nuremberg, 1471, and died in the 
same city, 1528. His father was a skilful 
goldsmith, and imparted sound instruc- 
tion in drawing to his son, who then 



Duerer famous throughout Europe, and a 
Venetian artist counterfeited on copper a 
series of his woodcuts, attaching to them 
his monogram. Duerer immediately has- 
tened to Venice, and appealed to the 
Senate, and that body compelled the 
offending artist to efface the mark, and 
secured its future use exclusively to its 




ALBERT DUEKEK. 



spent four years with an eminent painter 
at Nuremberg, and subsequently devoted 
several years to the study of art in Ger- 
many and the Low Countries. In 1498 
appeared his first great series of wood- 
cuts, illustrating the Revelation of St. 
John. The brilliant originality and 
power of his conceptions soon made 



rightful owner. The earlier works of 
Duerer were impressed with the prevalent 
taste for the fantastic, and his exuberant 
fancy crowded his groups with monstrous 
and grptesque figures ; but later in life the 
artist earnestly espoused the cause of the 
Reformation, and divested his work of 
much of its former extravagance. He 



Bibliography of Printing. 



was the first German artist who taught 
the rules of perspective, and insisted on 
the study of anatomy. In painting he 
elevated his art by his originality and 
grandeur of conception and the richness 
of his colouring. He found engraving in 
its infancy, and carried it to great perfec- 
tion. The pictures of Duerer and Holbein 
furnished the finest portion of the 
numerous admirable illustrated books of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

We append a reduced copy of Duerer's 
own portrait, perhaps the last drawing 



that he made on wood. *' It is probably 
a good likeness of the artist : at any rate 
it bears a great resemblance to the por- 
trait said to be intended for Duerer's own 
in his carving of the Naming of St. John. 
The size of the original is i if inches high 
by ID inches wide. According to Bartsch, 
the earliest impressions have not the 
arms and mark, and are inscribed above 
the border at the top, ' Albrecht Duerer's 
Conterfeyt' (Albert Duerer's portrait)." — 
Jackson & Chatto's " Wood Engraving," 
p. 272. 




DUERER S ARMS. 



The above is a reduced copy of the cut library of George III., and entitled, 

of Duerer's arms. The pair of <^/fl^r-j on "Epitome in Diva: Parthenices Maria; 

the shield — in German, Doren or Thiiren historiam ab Alberto Durero, per figuras 

— is a rebus of the artist's name. digestam ; cum versibus Chelidonii." It 

A splendid specimen of the work of was executed by Duerer at Nuremberg 

Albert Duerer is exhibited to the public in 1511. 
at the British Museum. It is from the 



Bibliography of F?'infitig. 1 89 

DiJMESNlL (A. P. F. Robt,). Le Peintre-graveur fran9ais, ou Cata- 
logue raisonne des estampes gravees par fes peintres et les des- 
sinateurs de I'ecole fran9aise. Paris: 1835 — 1871. ii vols. Svo. 

This fine work gives not only a list of the productions of the modern French 
masters of engraving, but memoirs, and therefore becomes of great vakie as a work 
of reference. It is intended as a sequel to the similar production of M. Bartsch. 

DUNST (J. M.). Praktisches Lehrbuch der Lithographic und Stein- 
druckerkunst. Bonn : 1836. 8vo. 

DUPLESSIS (Georges). Essai de Bibliographic, contenant I'indication 
des ouvrages relatifs a I'Histoire de la Gravure et des Gravcurs. 
Paris : 1862. Svo. pp. 48. 

_ This very accurate list of books rela- author. When these became increased, 
ting to the history of engraving and another list was required, and it assumed 
memoirs of engravers, extends to nearly such dimensions as to suggest its publica- 
700 items. We are largely indebted to it tion as a bibliography of the subject, 
for titles in this Bibliography of Printing, The very complete " Kunst-Catalog" of 
and are glad to acknowledge the remark- R. Weigel, and the Bibliography which 
able accuracy of its annotations, in so M. P. Cheron contributed to the Gazette 
far, at least, as we have tested them, des Beaux Arts, have, however, been 
The Essay of M. Duplessis found its utilized. A very small number of copies 
origin in a mere catalogue of the private of this essay were printed, and it is con- 
collection of books belonging to the sequently of rare occurrence. 

Essai d'une Bibliographic generale des Beaux Arts. Paris : 

1866. 8vo. 

LesGraveurs sur Bois contcmporains. Paris: 1857. 8vo. 

De la Gravure de Portrait en France. Paris: 1875. 8vo. 

pp. iv. 162. 

Des Gravures sur bois dans les livres de Simon Vostre, libraire 



d'Heurcs. Par Jules Renouvier, avcc un avant-propos par G. D. 
Paris : 1862. 8vo. pp. vii. 22. 3 plates. 

In the preface M. Duplessis shows how upon its progress. The books, too, of 

necessary it becomes for the investigator his own country he considers especially 

into the history of wood-engraving to suitable for the prosecution of such an 

acquaint himself with the devotional inquiry. This little work is exceedingly 

works known as Books of Hours, and interesting, and cannot be overlooked by 

how considerable is the light they throw any future historian. 

Histoire de la Gravure en France, ouvrage couronne par 

rinstitut de France, Academic des Beaux Arts. Paris : 1861. 
Svo. pp. viii. 405. 

This is the standard work on the history of French engraving. The memoirs, as 
well as the descriptions, are laboriously accurate, and leave nothing to be desired, 
except, perhaps, some illustrations, for the book is very dry reading indeed. 

Memoires et Journal de J. G. Wille, graveur du roi. Publics 



d'apres les manuscrits autographes de la Bibliotheque imperiale. 
Avec une preface par Edmond et Jules de Goncourt. Paris : 
1857. Svo. vol. i. pp. xvii. 584; vol. ii. pp. 437. 

M. Duplessis disinterred the diary of this celebrated royal engraver, which 
abounds in valuable historical matter, and is otherwise exceedingly interesting. 

Les Merveilles de la Gravure. Ouvrage illustre par P. Sellier. 

Paris: 1869. Svo. pp.419. 2nd edit., Paris : 1871. Svo. 



190 



Bibliography of Printing. 



DuPLESSis (Georges). The Wonders of Engraving. Illustrated with 
ten reproductions in autotype and 34 wood-engravings by P. 
Sellier. London : 1871. 8vo. pp. x. 338. 



This work does not attain to the dignity 
of being an historical account of the 
origin of wood-engraving, but is rather 
intended for popular use and for those 
who require this kind of information 
dished up in the very lightest style. It 
treats of engraving in Italy, Spain, the 
Low Countries, Germany, England, and 
France, and concludes with a chapter 
descriptive of the processes of the art. 
The autotype reproductions in the Eng- 
lish translation are very inferior, and 
quite unworthy of the book. The chapter 
on English Engraving is remarkably 



meagre, and altogether inadequate to the 
importance of the subject. The transla- 
tor confesses this, but hopes that it will 
be rectified by the publication of a sepa- 
rate volume. The translator's preface is 
signed N. R. E. M. M. Duplessis is the 
Assistant Keeper in the Department of 
Prints in the Paris " Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale." He has also written the text 
for the reissues by M. Amand-Durand of 
the works of Antoine Van Dyck, Paul 
Potter, Claude de Lorraine, Theodore 
Rousseau, and Albert Duerer. 



Notice sur la Vie et les Travaux de Gerard Audran, graveur 

ordinaire du roi. Paris. 8vo. Only 100 copies printed. 

DUPONT (Paul). Essais pratiques de rimprimerie, precedes d'une 
notice sur la Litho-typographie. Paris : 1849. 4to. 

This practical work gives specimens of the principal types, with models of titles, 
&c. Only 100 copies were printed. 

185 1. Exposition Universelle de Londres. Notice concemant 

I'Ktablissement typographique de M. Paul Dupont de Paris. 
Paris: 1851. 8vo. In French and English. 



Notice sur I'lita- 
blissement typographique de M. Paul Dupont de Paris. Paris : 



[862. Exposition Universelle de Londres. 



1862. 8vo. 



Histoire de I'lmprimerie. 2 vols. Paris : 1854. 8vo. Vol. i. 

pp. xvii. 523 ; vol. ii. pp. 61 2. Large paper, in imp. 8vo. 

The first volume treats of the means of treats of the printer's profession, and of the 
recording and of communicating ideas progress of books and newspapers, pub- 



before and since the invention of printing ; 
the discovery of typography, with a 
sketch of Gutenberg ; printing in France 
during the old monarchical rule, during 
the Revolution, under the Republic, the 
Consulate, and the Empire ; under the 
Constitutional Monarchy, and under the 
Republic of 1848. It proceeds to de- 
scribe the progress of printing in different 
parts of the world. The second volume 



lishing, &c. It then refers to lithography 
and the Imperial Printing-office. There 
is an appendix, including an analysis of 
the principal legislative acts for the re- 
gulation of the trade, a bibliography of 
works on printing, and a chronological 
table of the principal facts connected 
with the history of the art from its origin 
to the date of publication of the work. 



Une Imprimerie en 1867. Paris : 1867. Imp. 8vo. pp. 319. 



— Imprimerie Paul Dupont. 
Generale des Ouvriers. Paris. 



Compte Rendu de I'Assemblee 
8vo. 



Account published yearly of the annual meeting of principals and employes of 
this printing-house, which is conducted on the co-operative principle. 



— Memoire sur la Litho-typographie, &c 
Eight pages of specimens. 



Paris : 1 839. 4to. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



191 



DUPONT (Paul). 
4to. 



Notice Historique sur I'lmprimerie. Paris : 1849. 



— Rapport fait a M. Paul Dupont sur la creation de la Villa 
Typographique au moyen d'une Societe Co-operative immobiliere. 
[Paris: 1868.] i2mo. 

typing rooms, the lithographic designing 
and printing rooms, and several other 
apartments appropriated to the amuse- 
ment or the instruction of the employes. 
An account is also given of the various 
clubs and benefit societies in connection 
with the firm, the whole presenting a 
picture very different to English notions 
of the conditions under which printing 
has to be conducted. 



M. Paul Dupont is a celebrated 
printer of Paris and Clichy. This 
work gives a full account of the pro- 
cesses of printing, and is a beautiful 
specimen of the art itself. It is illus- 
trated with views of the different de- 
partments of the establishment — the 
type-foundry, the composing-room, the 
readers' closets, the machine-rooms, the 
warehouse, the bookbinding and stereo- 



DuPRAT (F. A.). Aper9U sur les Progres de la Typographie depuis 
le XVIe Siecle, et sur I'fitat actuel de I'lmprimerie de Paris. 
Paris : 1863. 8vo. pp. 22. 

Extract from the Bulletin du Bou- that of the famous establishment with 

quiniste. Only one hundred copies re- which the author was associated. The 

printed. This work enters into the personal reminiscences of several of the 

History of printing in general, as well as Didot family are interesting. 

Histoire de I'lmprimerie Imperiale de France, suivie des speci- 
mens des types etrangers et fran§ais de cet etablissement. Paris : 
1861. 8vo. pp. iv. 578. 



The author gives an account of the 
different state printers of France from 
the time of Francis I., who instituted the 
distinction of "Printer to the King." 
Robert Estienne was one of the first 
royal printers before he went to Geneva. 
The history of the printing establishment 
originally known as " LTmprimerie 
Royale " is then detailed, and an account 
of its successive directors follows. To 
this succeeds an elaborate description of 
the present establishment, its system of 



business, its productions, machinery, ma- 
terials, &c., even to the associations for 
charitable or educational purposes which 
have been formed by the workpeople. In 
an appendix there is a statement of the 
French laws relating to printing and sta- 
tistics as to the position of the art. The 
work includes a very interesting com- 
parative table of the Roman and Italic 
characters employed by the Imperial 
Printing Office from 1640 up to the pre- 
sent day. 

Precis Historique sur I'lmprimerie Nationale et ses Types. 

Paris : 1 848. 8vo. pp. viii. 158. 

This work was subsequently enlarged into the " Histoire " as above. The author 
was the " Chef-du-Service " of the foundry department, and controller of the letter- 
press-work of the National Printing Office at Paris. 

DURAZZO (Conte Jacopo). Descrizione della Raccolta di Stampe, 
esposta in una dissertazione sull' arte dell' intaglio in stampa. 
Parma : 1784. 4to. pp. 54, and 10 pages of preliminary matter. 
Portrait. 

DiJRER (Albert). See Duerer. 

DUROUCHAIL (P.). ifepreuves de divers Ornemens 'typographiques 

graves sur bois, et polytypes. Paris : 1819. Folio. 1827. 

Folio. 



192 JBihliography of Frmtmg. 

DusSEAU (P. J. v.). De Boekdrukkunst en derzelver uitvinder 
Laurens Jansz. Koster. Amsterdam : 1839. i2mo. pp. vii. 162. 
With a portrait of Koster, illuminated title, and three plates. 
A work written for the use of young folks. 

DUTHILLCEUL (H. R.). Bibliographic Douaisienne. Paris : 1835. 
8vo. 2me edition. Douai : 1842. 8vo. 

Pp. xiii.-xxix. (ed. 1835) treat of the published and still exist there ; pp. 273- 

origin and propagation of the typographic 295 contain biographical notices of the 

art and the establishment of printing at printers who have exercised their art in 

Douai ; pp. 1-272 consist of a catalogue Douai since the discovery of printing, 

of the books and pamphlets printed at and a chronological table of Douai 

Douai and of the journals that have been printers. 

Bibliographic Douaisienne, ou Catalogue historique ct raisonne 

des livres imprimes a Douai, depuis I'annee 1563 jusqu'en 1 853, 
avec des notes bibliographiques et litteraires. Tome II. Douai : 
1854. 8vo. 

DU VERGER.— ^d?^ HiSTOIRE DE L'INVENTION DE L'IMPRIMERIE. 




BERT (F. A.). Allgemeincs Bibliogra 
phisches Lexikon. 2 vols. Leipzig : 
1 82 1. 4to. 

Neue Priifung der Hollandischen 



Anspriiche auf die Erfindung der Buch- 
druckerkunst. In *' Hermes : oder 
kritisches Jahrbuch der Literatur." 
No. 4. pp. 63-85. Leipzig: 1823. 8vo. 

Nieuw Onderzoek naar de aan- 



spraak van Holland op de Uitvinding 
der Boekdrukkunst, en brief wegens 
het geschrift van F. Lehne ; uit het 

Hoogduitsch, met een Voorrede en eenige Aanmerkingen van J. 

Koning. Haarlem : 1825. 8vo. pp. v. 46. 

Ueberlieferungen zur Geschichte, Literatur und Kunst der 

Vor- mid Mitwelt. 3 parts. Dresden : 1826. 8vo. 

Among the contents of this work are— Early Days of Printing; the Disputed 
Discovery of Printing ; Xylographic Monuments in the Public Library of Wolfen- 
biittel ; Printing in Portugal in the Fifteenth Century, by L. Hain, &c. 

Ebnp:r (L.). Verzeichniss der von Johann Adam Klein, Maler und 
Kupferstecher, gezeichneten und radirten Blatter (vom Jahre 1805 
bis 1846). Stuttgart : 1853. 8vo. 

Eckstein (F, A.). Die Sahlfeld'schen Buchdruckereien in Halle. 
Halle : 1842. 4to. pp. 8. 

Dr. Gustav Schwetschke having published a history of printing in the town of Halle, 
the author here supplies further details as to its origin and progress, and also gives 
a genealogical chart of the Sahlfeld family. 

£coLE Typographique pour les Femmes. [Paris : no date.] pp. 4. 

Published during the French Revolution (about 1792). The only indication as 
to author or place of publication is on the last page,—" S'adresser a I'lmprimerie, 
Rue des deux portes Bon Conseil, No. 8." 

2 C 



194 Bibliography of Printing. 

Ed (C. M.), Kurzgefasste Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst. Ham- 
burg: 1840. i2nio. 



Kurzgefasste Geschichte des Buchdrucks. Hamburg : 1839. 

8vo. pp. iv. 136. 

Edel (Friedrich Wilhelm). Denkschrift fiir die im Jahr 1840 zu be- 
gehende vierte Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 
Strasburg : 1840. 8vo. 

Edner (Philipp). Satz — Druck— Papier. Ein Gang durch Schrift- 
giesserei, Buchdruckerei und Papierfabrik. Zur Belehrung fiir 
Autoren und Buchhandler. Leipzig : no date [1870]. i6mo. pp. 92. 

Intended to initiate authors and booksellers into the mystery of Printing, but is 
rather superficially written, and contains hardly anything that would not be known 
to people in continual connection with printing. 

Edwards (Edward). The Disease and the Remedy : an Essay on 
the Distressed State of the Printing Trade, proving it to be mainly 
attributable to excessive Boy Labour. London : 1850. pp. 32. 

This is a prize essay on the Apprentice seventeenth century to the present time, 
system, and is dedicated to the master The author was, in his da)% a very pro- 
printers and newspaper proprietors, and minent advocate for amelioration of the 
their overseers, readers, and journeymen, condition of the working printer ; and 
of the United Kingdom. The subject was secretary to the London Society of 
has been constantly agitated from the Compositors at the time of his death. 

Edwards & Kidd, printers, London. International Exhibition, 
1871. The Heliotype Process. London : 1871. 8vo. 

Eekhoff (W. ), Nieuvve Bijdrage tot de Geschiedenis van de Boek- 
drukkunst in Nederland ; bevattende een betoog, dat de eerste 
druk van de Oude Friesche Wetten, bezorgd door Heer H. Cam- 
mingha omstreeks 1484 is gedrukt te Leeuwarden. Workum : 
1856. 8vo. pp. 19. 

An essay on the history of printing in was at Leeuwarden in 1484, by H. Cam- 

the Netherlands, with an attempt to mingha. The first book printed with a 

prove that the first printing done in Fries- date in the Low Countries was in 1473. 
land, a province of the Low Countries, 

Ehren-Gedichte auf die edle freye Kunst-Buchdruckerey, und 
deren Ursprung, Fortgang und Nutzbarkeit, \\^essen sich deren 
Anverwandten, fiir andren Kiinsten, Grund der Wahrheit zu 
riihmen haben ; mit poetischer Feder entworffen. Frankfurt : 
1739. 8vo. 

Eichsfeld (E. G.). Relation vom Wittembergischen Buchdrucker- 
Jubilreo, 1 740. Nebst einer historischen Nachricht von alten Wit- 
tembergischen Buchdruckern. Wittenberg: 1740. 4to. 

In addition to the several festive songs and speeches recorded in this volume, 
there is a poem by T. J. Neunhofer on " The Divine in the Typographic Art." 

EiSENMANN (Andreas). Die Schnellpresse, ihre Construction, Zusam- 
menstellung und Behandlung. Leipzig : 1 865. 4to. pp. 80. 
Leipzig : 1872. 4to. pp. 80. 

A practical treatise on printing-machine construction, &c., for the use of printers 
and machint-njakers. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



195 



EkAMA (Dr. C). Romeyn de Hooghe en de Hortus Medicus met het 
Standbeeld van L. J. Coster. Haarlem : 1869. 8vo. 

Ektypographie : oder, die Kunst Zeichnungen auf Kupferplatten 
hoch zu atzen. Quedlinburg : 1840. 8vo. 

Ellis (Charles). An extract of a letter to Dr. Edward Pyson : That 
Costerus first invented printing, anno 1430. In Philosophical 
Transactiotts, vol. xxiii. London : 1 704. 4to. 

Some Observations concerning the Invention and Progress of 

Printing to the year 1465, Occasioned by the Rev. Mr. Ellis's 
letter, exhibited in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 286. In 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. xxiii. London : 1704. 4to. 

Ellis (Sir Henry). Copies of Original Papers illustrative of the 
Management of Literature by Printers and Stationers in the middle 
of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Article in the Archccologia, 
vol. XXV. pp. 100-112. London: 1834. 4to. 

Ellis (J. B.) and Denton (W.). The Printer's Calculator and Prac- 
tical Companion. Leeds : 1876. 32nio. pp. 58. 

ber of Leads contained in a Pound ; 
Leads required to Justify with any given 
Body of Type ; Lengths and Widths of 



The Contents are :— Table of Wages, 
showing the Amount earned in any num- 
ber of Hours from One to Ninety ; Table 
for Calculating Piece-work ; Table of Pages for ordinary Book-work, with the 



Sizes of Paper ; Sizes of Writing and 
Drawing-paper and Cards ; Table for 
Giving out Paper ; Equivalent Weights 
of Paper ; Relative Sizes of Type, from 
Pica to Pearl ; Table showing the Num- 



number of Ens contained in each Page ; 
Table of Signatures and Folios ; Imposi- 
tion Schemes ; Abstract of Leeds Com- 
positors' Scale of Prices for News and 
Book-work. 



Elsevier (W. J. C. Rammelman-).— 6>^ Rammelman-Elsevier. 

Elvert (Christian d'). Geschichte des Biicher- und Steindruckes, des 
Buchhandels, der Biicher-Censur, und der Periodischen Literatur, 
so wie Nachtrage zur Geschichte der historischen Literatur in 
Mahren und Oesterreichisch-Schlesien. Briinn : 1854. 8vo. 

Elzevir. 

The Elzevir family, who flourished in 
Holland during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, were famous for the 
elegance of their type, the excellence of 
their presswork, the accuracy of their 
text, and their successful efforts to intro- 
duce the duodecimo as an improvement 
upon the larger and more expensive 
forms of books. Their type was highly 
esteemed in this country, and furnished 
the model for that of the first Caslon. 
Of twelve printers belonging to this 
family, at least seven were celebrated for 
special excellence. 

Louis Elzevir, the first printer of the 
family, was born at Louvain, and esta- 
blished himself at Leyden. His first 
book was an edition of Eutropius in 1592, 
and it is excessively rare. He continued 
to print in that city until his death, in 



1 61 7. He adopted for his device the arms 
of the Batavian Republic and the motto 
"Concordia res parvae crescunt," which 
motto, adopted by Jo. Steels with another 
device, Brunet and other bibliographers 
were led to believe that Elzevir's and 
Steels's devices were the same. 

The five sons of Louis were all printers 
— the youngest, Bonaventure Elzevir, 
achieving great celebrity as the publisher 
of the famous duodecimo classics. Louis, 
a grandson of the first Louis, was the 
founder of the Elzevir press of Amster- 
dam. His classic Latin authors, in folio, 
quarto, octavo, and i2mo., are amongst 
the most notable publications of the 
family; they appeared from 1629 to 1665. 
Daniel, the son of Bonaventure, achieved 
great fame in Leyden, and afterwards 
at Amsterdam, continuing to print until 



196 



Bibliography of Printing. 



his death, in 1689. His Dutch New 
Testament, published in 1658, is very 
beautiful and exact. His widow carried 
on the business after his death ; and the 
last book issued by the family was in 
1 712, by Abraham Elzevir, alderman at 
Leyden, the sole survivor of the family. 

The Elzevirs did not aim at luxury, 
like the Aldi and the Stephens, for they 
printed only one work upon vellum, but 
devoted their endeavours to furnishing 
accurate works for common use. 

The very scarce mark annexed was 
copied from Baudius (Dominicus) " De 
Induciis Belli Belgici " (Leyden: 1613. 
4to.). The emblem of the olive-tree and 
vine, under it an old man gathering fruit, 
on the other side, on a scroll, the motto 



" Non solus " (not alone), was a later 
and better-known mark of these famous 
printers. The adoption for their mark of 
the prolific vine— crowned by Grecian 
fable as the greatest blessing to mankind, 
and the gift of the wise Minerva— was 
very appropriate for a family so many in 
number and so multitudinous in works. 

A fuller account of this celebrated 
family will be found in A. de Reume, 
" Recherches sur les Elsevir " (Bruxelles : 
1847, Svo.); J. F. Adry, " Notice sur les 
Elsevirs" (Paris : 1806, 8vo.) ; Van Even, 
" De Elzevirs" (Brussels: 1851, 8vo.) ; 
and Pieters, " Annales des Elseviers " 
(Gand: 1858, Svo. ). An entirely new work 
on the Elzevirs will shortly be issued by 
M. Alph. Willems, of Brussels. 




LEYDEN : 1592-1617. 



Elzevir. Catalogus Authorum Latinorum ex officina Elzeviriana, s. 
B. et A. Elzeviriorum typis editorum. See Maittaire, "Ann. 
Typogr.," torn. iii. p. 815, and following. 

Catalogus Librorum qui in Bibliopolio Elzeviriano venales 

extant. Lugd. Bat. : 1634. 4to. Another edition, 1684. 4to. 

Catalogus Librorum qui in Bibliopolio Officinae Danielis 

Elzevirii venales extant. Amsterdam : 1674. i2mo. Another 

edition, 1 68 1, in i2mo. Re-impression by Didot ; edited by 
Charles Motteley. Paris : 1823. i2mo. 100 copies printed. 

Over het aantal Drukkers, uit de familie der Elzevier voortge- 

sproten. In Algcnieene Konst- en Letter-Bode, No. 8. 1807. 8vo, 



Bibliography of Printing. 



197 



Elzevir. Proeve der Drukkerye van Mr. Abraham Elzevier, In sijn 
Leven Drukker van de Universiteyt tot Leyden. Leyden : 17 13. 
4to. 

The sale Catalogue of the printing-office and type-foundry of the last of t 
Elzevirs. 

Essai Bibliographique sur les i^ditions des Elzevirs. See 

Berard. 

The total number of works of all kinds bearing the name of Elzevir as printer 
is 1,213, of which 960 are in Latin, 44 in Greek, 126 in French, 32 in Flemish, 22 
in Oriental languages, 11 in German, and 10 in Italian. 

Emeric-David (Toussaint Bernard). Discours Historique sur la 
Gravure en Taille-douce et sur la Gravure en Bois. Paris : 1808. 
Svo. pp. 83. 
Extract from the Moniteur Universel, October, 1808. 

Ilistoire de la Peinture au Moyen Age, suivi de I'Histoire de 

la Gravure. Paris : 1863. i2mo. 




BASLE : 1526-1529; FRIBURG IN BRISGAU, 1529-1536. 



Emmeus (Joannes Faber). 

This device is taken from Pictorius's 
"Theologia Mythologica"(Friburg: 1532. 
Bvo.), and was supposed by M. Berjeau 
to have remained without identification 
until he, in 1867, discovered the name of 
the printer to whom it belonged. The 
initials I F E will be noticed on the shield. 
M. Berjeau believed that he was the first 



to identify this mark as one of those used 
by the eminent Basle printer, but in 
Stockmeyer and Rebur's " Beitrage zur 
Easier Buchdruckergeschichte, "published 
in 1840, will be found, at p. 155, the iden- 
tical device, distinctly ascribed to Jo- 
hannes Faber Emmeus, 27 years before 
the date of M. Berjeau's book. 



198 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Endter (Wilhelm Moritz). 

The art of printing, it is generally 
stated, was introduced into Nuremberg 
by Antony Koburger, in 1473, who was 
styled the " prince of printers," and that 
city long held its supremacy in the 
typographic world. There is reason, 
however, to believe that Henry KefFer, 
who appeared as a witness for Guten- 
berg, in the suit of Fust, 1455, established 
himself there about 1469. His name 
appears for the first time in the imprint 
of a book dated 1473, from which it 
would appear that he was engaged by 



John Sensenchmidt, a wealthy citizen, 
who published some books. It was he 
who, in 1481, issued the celebrated 
Bamberg Missal. Among the most cele- 
brated printers were the Endters, whose 
books are, at the present time, both rare 
and valuable. We reproduce the device 
of Wilhelm Moritz Endter's daughter. 
It consists of the emblem of the Sun and 
Eagle, on a rocky landscape with a town 
in the background, lighted by the sun. 
A scroll above the eagle bears the motto 
" Omnia lustrat." 




NUREMBERG 



Engel (S.). Lettre sur I'Origine de I'lmprimerie et sur diverses !^di- 
tions anciennes. Beme : 1742. 8vo. 

Originally appeared in the Jourjial Helvitique, Sept., 1741, pages 852 and fol- 
lowing. 

Engelhard-Reyhersche Hofbuchdruckerei. Schrift-Proben aus 
der Buchdruckerei in Gotha. Gotha [1826]. Svo. 

Engelmann (Godefroy). Das Gesammtgebiet der Lithographic, oder 
theoretische und praktische Anleitung zur Ausiibung der Litho- 
graphie in ihrem ganzen U mfange, durch Darlegurig u. Veranschau- 
lichung der ersten Elemente, bis zur Angabe des Verfahrens bei 
Herstellung des Hochsten u. Vollendetsten, was diese Kunst bis 
jetzt liefert. Eingeleitet durch eine authentische Geschichte ihrer 
Erfindung u. Entwickelung, und durch 49 Tafeln mit zahlreichen 
Abbildungen erlautert. Uebertragung des " Traite theorique ct 
pratique de Lithographic," mit besonderer Riicksicht auf den 
Zustand u. die Ergebnisse der deutschen Lithographic bearbeitet 



Bibliof!:raphy of Frintifig. 



199 



u. mit den nothigen Zusat/en versehen von W. Pabst und A. 
Kretzschmar. Chemnitz : 1840.- 4to. Second edition. Leip- 
zig : 1843. 4to. pp. xvi. and 288, 49 plates. 
A German translation of the "Traite theoretique" cited iu/ra. 
Engelmann (Godefroy). Handbuch fiir Steinzeichner, od. Beschrei- 
bung der besten Mittel um in alien bekannten Manieren auf Stein 
zu zeichnen. Berlin : 1834. 8vo. 13 engravings on stone. 

Manuel du Dessinateur Lithographe, ou Description des meil- 

leurs Moyens a employer pour faire les Dessins sur Pierre dans 

tous les Genres connus. Paris: 1823. 8vo. The Second 

Edition, to which is added "Instruction sur le nouveau Precede 
du Lavis Lithographique." pp. 90, 13 plates. Paris : 1824. 8vo. 
3rd Edition. Paris and Mulhouse : [1830]. 8vo. 

■ Rapport sur la Lithographic, et particulierement sur un Recueil 

de Dessins lithographiques par M. Engelmann. Paris: [1816]. 4to. 
pp. 25. 
A Report, made on the 3rd of August, phic drawings, &c., by M. Engelmann, 

1816, by a committee appointed by the and to report on the origin, progress, and 

Academic des Beaux Arts (Institut results of this art. 

Royal de France) to examine lithogra- 

Recueil d'Essais Lithographiques. Paris : 181 7. 4to. 

• Traite theoretique et pratique de Lithographic. Mulhouse et 

Paris : [1840]. 4to. pp. ix. and 467, 50 plates. 



In our account of the origin of litho- 
graphy, sitb voce Senefeldek, it will be 
seen that this inventor was the first to 
observe the property inherent in cal- 
careous stones of receiving greasy lines 
and transmitting them to paper ; and this 
observation led to the discovery of the 
new method of printing, for he found that 
by wetting the stone it was possible to 
charge it again with ink, and obtain a 
series of impressions. The city where the 
art was discovered, as was natural, was 
the place where it was originally practised 
with the greatest success, and in 1800 
Senefelder obtained exclusive privileges 
as a lithographer. Soon after Messrs. 
Manlich and Aretin set up some litho- 
graphic presses, and published the 
greatest part of the admirable collection 
of the drawings of ancient masters be- 
longing to the King of Bavaria. In 1801, 
lithography was spread over Germany, 
but it was only in 1802 that Senefelder 
himself set up an establishment in Vienna. 
In 1807, M. Andre, of Offenbach, who 
had become a partner of Senefelder, 
tried, but unsuccessfullj% to establish 
presses in London and Paris, while M. 
Delarme, of Munich, settled in Milan 
and Rome. 

Hitherto lithography had been kept a 
profound secret, and in 1810 Mr. Manlich, 
who, as already stated, wasone of the 
first to set up a press in Munich, applied 



to the French Government for permission 
to introduce the business in Paris. This, 
however, was refused, on the ground, it 
is stated, that Napoleon I. thought the 
new art furnished too many facilities for ■ 
forgery. 

In 1814, M. Martel de la Serres was 
commissioned by the French Government 
to examine the industrial establishments 
of Germany, and in the course of his in- 
vestigation visited a lithographic office. 
He drew up a very intelligent report, 
which attracted the attention of men of 
science. So far as concerns theory, his 
treatise was complete ; but when it was 
applied to practice it was found to be far 
from perfect. The real secrets of litho- 
graphy existed in the process of printing, 
and the Germans were not inclined to 
initiate a foreigner in them. There 
were, besides, in this as in every other 
art, certain practical minutiae which ex- 
perience only could give. 

Among those who were most enthu- 
siastic in endeavouring to introduce the 
new art into France was Count Lasteyrie, 
who performed several journeys into 
Germany for the sole purpose of obtaining 
information. He became a lithographer 
himself, procured printers from Germany, 
and announced his intention of publish- 
ing a complete practical treatise on the 
new art. 
The pioneer of lithography in Paris, how- 



200 



Bibliography of Printing. 



ever, was Godefroy Engelmann, the 
author of the above works. He was born 
at Mulhouse on the 17th of August, 1788, 
and died on the 25th of April, 1839. At 
the age of seventeen he was sent to La 
Rochelle to the busuiess house of a friend 
of his father there, to be initiated into 
commercial pursuits. Engelmann showed 
but little aptitude for this career, and 
preferred to cultivate the arts. He re- 
turned to his native town in 1808, and en- 
tered into business with his father-in-law 
as a designer ; but the disasters of 1813 
ruined his family and left him without 
resources. It was then, through the 
mediation of his friend Edouard Koech- 
lin, that he first became acquainted with 
the art of lithography. In 1814 he went 
to Munich and studied in the workshops 
of Stuntz the process as then known. 
On Engelmann's return in 18 15, he started 
a press at Mulhouse, and in 1816 esta- 
blished himself at Paris. Some of his 
specimens were so excellent that they 
obtained for him an honourable mention 
for the class of fine arts at the French 
Institute. Count Lasteyrie was also suc- 
cessful. There were, therefore, two litho- 
graphic establishments now working in 
Paris in competition with each other. 
Neither of them divulged its methods, 
both carrying on their operations as a 
purely commercial enterprise. About 
this time the Committee of the School of 
the Royal Roads and Bridges obtained 
from the Director-General the permission 
to establish a lithographic press, and 
M. Raucourt being one of the oldest of 
the pupils, was entrusted with the 
management of the establishment. He 
subsequently wrote a complete and prac- 
tical work on the entire Art of Litho- 
graphy, and the English translation of it 
IS referred to s.v. Hullmandel. 

Owing to the reputation Engelmann 
attained, both at Mulhouse and at 
Paris, numerous applications were re- 
ceived by him from persons in foreign 
countries for instructions in the art. In 
1820, M. Bruci, of Barcelona, and M. 
Madroza, of Madrid, went to Paris for 
that purpose; just as, in 1821, Charles 
Hullmandel went from London with a 
similar object. 

In 1826, a M. Coindet, the son of a 
celebrated doctor of Geneva, came to 
Mulhouse to learn lithoeraphy, intending 
to afterwards practise it in England. In 
this year a partnership was accordingly 
entered into with M. Coindet, and a 
London firm was started under the style 
of Engelmann, Graf, & Coindet, — Graf 
having for some time previously been 
partner in the concern at Mulhouse. He 



was the uncle of Auguste Graf, the part- 
ner of Jean Engelmann, referred to below. 
This led to the late Mr. Michael Hanhart, 
father of the present Mr. Michael Han- 
hart, going to London and starting the 
establishment which, as Engelmann says 
in his "Traite Theoretique et Pratique," 
soon rivalled that of Hullmandel. Un- 
fortunately, it was not as well managed 
financially as it was technically and artis- 
tically. Through unfortunate specula- 
tions on the part of his partners, nothing 
arose from the enterprise but disappoint- 
ment and loss. 

Engelmann was instrumental in directly 
introducing the art into several countries 
where there had not previously been a 
lithographic press. In this year (1826) 
Engelmann was interested in establish- 
ments in Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburg, 
and Barcelona. Godefroy Engelmann 
never himself visited London, although 
Mr. Hanhart, senior, and others urged 
him to do so. 

Returning now to the Paris establish- 
ment, into which Engelmann's brother- 
in-law Pierre Thierry had been admitted 
a partner, it may be stated that here also 
the result of the concern was financially 
disastrous, and in 1830 the partners were 
compelled to liquidate. Godefroy went to 
Mulhouse, while his relative remained in 
Paris. It is to Godefroy that we owe 
the practical realization of the idea, 
originally mooted by Senefelder, of 
Chromolithography. Many attempts had 
been previously made to print in colours 
by means of lithography, but without 
success. The Socicte d' Encouragement, 
in 1828, offered a prize of 2,000 fr. for an 
impression in colours, and kept the prize 
open for several years. In December, 

1836, G. Engelmann solved the problem, 
and in January, 1837, he took out a 
patent for 10 years. The Socicte, in 
1838, awarded him the prize. He ob- 
tained other honours, but did not live 
long to enjoy them, for, as already men- 
tioned, he died in 1S39. Jean Engel- 
mann, who had since 1833 been associated 
with his father at Mulhouse, and greatly 
aided in developing the chromolitho- 
graphic process, was sent to Paris in 

1837, to found an establishment to be 
specially devoted to chromolithography, 
which he carried out to great perfection. 
At the death of his father, having no 
further interest in the business at Mul- 
house, he devoted all his energy to the 
Paris house. In 1842 he took into part- 
nership M. Aug. Graf. His was the first, 
and for a considerable time the only <;hro- 
molithographic establishment in Paris. 
Like his predecessor, he introduced many 



Bibliography of Printing. 



201 



improvements into the art. He died 29th 
July, 1875, agfed 60, leaving two sons, 
who have since carried on the business. 
His partner, M. A. Graf, died early in 
1878, and in consequence the firm was 



dissolved. The present M. Engelmann, 
of Paris, thus became the sole proprietor 
of the establishment founded by his grand-- 
father. — See Doyen, Hullmandel, 

SCHLOTKE, SeNEFELDER. 



England, Origin of Printing in. — See Ames, Blades, Bowyer, 
DiBDiN, Hansard, Johnson, Lemoine, Lewis, Luckombe, 
Madden, Nichols, Ottley, Savage, &c. 

Engravers. A Chronological Series of Engravers from the Invention 
of the Art to the Beginning of the present Century. Cambridge : 
1770. i2mo. 

Ennen (Dr. Leonhard). Katalog der Inkunabeln in der Stadt-Biblio- 
thek zu Koln. Koln : 1861, 8vo. pp. xxvi. 150. 

There are but few catalogues of Incunabula as interesting as the present one, 
the author of which is the keeper of the archives of the Library at Cologne. 

Enquiry (An) into the Origin of Printing in Europe. By a Lover of 
the Art. London : 1752. 8vo. 

This work describes certain improvements in printing-types made by Jackson, the 
typefounder. 

ENSCHEDfi. fipreuve de Caracteres qui se fondent dans la nouvelle 
Fonderie de Caracteres de Isaac et Jean Enschede a Haarlem. 
Svo. [1 743-] 



This specimen-book is in the collection 
of Mr. W. Blades, who has kindly per- 
mitted us to inspect it. The title-page is 
supplied in pen and ink, and Mr. Blades 
has himself assigned the date 1743. In 
regard to this date there is some doubt. 
Messrs. Enschede inform us that their 
collection "begins with a one-page folio 
of the year 1743, and then follows an 
Svo. specimen of the year 1744." The 
latter is the next item on our list ; but 
Mr. Blades bases the priority of the above 
" on the state of the woodcut of Koster, 
and many other minutice, which show it 
[the 1744 book] to be a later impres- 
sion." 

Presuming that Mr. Blades's opinion as 
to the date is authentic, then this must 
rank as the first specimen-book issued by 



this celebrated firm. It contains a wood- 
cut of Koster with verses, and an "Aver- 
tissement " in French, which states that 
the foundry was bought early in 1743, 
upon the death of Wetstein, who died 
towards the end of 1742, just as he 
had completed its organization. Isaac 
and John Enschede, the new pro- 
prietors, specially allude to the transac- 
tion, and to the excellence of the casting 
and the consequent durability of the type 
of the Wetstein Foundry, and state that 
since its acquisition they have spared 
neither pains nor expense to render it 
complete and perfect. There are nine 
sizes of titling-letter, nineteen of Roman, 
fifteen italic, four Greek capitals, seven 
Greek founts, besides Arabic, Hebrew, 
blacks, and borders. 



— Proef van Letteren, welke gegoten worden in de Nieuwe 
Letter-gieterij van Izaak en Joh. Enschede, te Haarlem. Ver- 
meerderde en verbeterd, tot 't Jaar 1744. Svo. 

Notwithstanding that we have taken 
some trouble to be correct, and that these 
proof sheets have had the advantage of 
the kind revision of Messrs. Enschede & 
Sons, we yet feel called upon to express 
our fear that our list of the specimens of 
this famous foundry may, nevertheless, 
lack accuracy and completeness. 

D 



On Mr. Blades's hypothesis, this is the 
second specimen-book of the Enschede 
foundry. It is contained in the collection 
of the firm, and is the same as the last- 
named in every respect, but has a 
Dutch instead of a French title and 
preface, and the latter is somewhat en- 
larged. 



202 Bibliography of Printing. 

Ensched6. Tweede vermeerderde uitgave. Vermeerderd en verbeterd, 
tot hetjaar 1748. Haarlem: 1748. 8vo. 

Proef van Letteren welke gegoten worden in de Nieuwe 

Lettergieterij van Izaak en Joh. Enschede te Haarlem. Derde 
Uytgave. Vermeerderd en verbeterd, tot het Jaar 1757- 8vo. 

Contains the allegorical engraving described infra, under the edition of 1867, and 
a view of an ancient statue of Koster still existing in Haarlem. 

Proef van Letteren, welke gegoten worden in de Nieuwe 



Haerlemsche Lettergieterij van J. Enschede. Haarlem: 1768. 8vo. 

This is a very interesting and fine C. van Noorde. It also gives the 

specimen-book of all the characters then view of the two statues of Koster and 

in the Enschede foundry. It contains Junius which Enschede placed in his 

finely-engraved copperplate portraits of own garden, and which still remain there, 

the printer, J. Enschede; Junius, the At the end is a large view of the principal 

propagator of the Koster legend ; another room in the foundry. The titles of the 

of the celebrated type-cutter, Fleisch- founts are given in Dutch, French, 

man ; and one of Koster, — all being by English, and German. 

Verneedering van Meest nieuw gesnedem Letteren, in de 



Haarlemsche Letter-gieterij van Johannes Enschede. Zedert 
1768 tot 1773. 
In the Enschede collection. The preface makes 32 pages. 

Proeven van Letteren, welke gegoten worden in de Haar- 
lemsche Lettergieterij van Joh. Enschede en Zoonen. Haarlem : 
1806. 8vo. 

Proeven van Drukletteren der Lettergieterij van Joh. Enschede 

en Zonen (tweede gedeelte). Haarlem : 181 6. 8vo. 

Proeve van Letteren welke gegoten in de Haarlemsche Letter- 



gieterij van J. Enschede en Zonen. Haarlem: 1825. Folio. 

Eerste vervolg op de proeve van Letteren. Lettergieterij van 

Joh. Enschede en Zonen. Haarlem : 1830. Folio. 

Proeve van Drukletteren. Lettergieterij van Joh. Enschede 

en Zonen. Haarlem: 1841. 8vo. 

Vervolg. Haarlem : 1 850. 8vo. 

Tweede vervolg. Haarlem : 1855. 8vo. 

• Derde vervolg. Haarlem : i860. Folio. 

£preuves d'une premiere Imprimerie Javanaise, dont les Carac- 

teres ont ete confectionnes, d'apres le Projet et sous la Direction 
de P. van Vlissingen a la Fonderie de Jean Enschede et fils a 
Harlem. Harlem : 1824. 4to. pp. 22. In French and Dutch. 

Berigt en Proeve van de nieuwe Javaansche Drukletters, 

naar het voorschrift en onder toezigt van T. Roorda, vervaardigd 
ter Lettergieterij van Joh. Enschede en Zoonen te Haarlem. 4to. 
pp. 8. 

Specimen de Caracteres Javanais. 1867. 4to. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



203 



Ensched6. Specimen de Caracteres Typographiques Anciens qui se 
trouvent dans la Collection Typographique de Joh. Enschede et 
Fils, imprimeurs a Harlem. Harlem : 1867. 4to. Frontispiece, 
10 pp. introduction, 62 pp. specimens. One hundred copies 
printed . 



was the custom of the old printers in the 
early days of the art, and for this reason 
the method of obtaining the matrix was 
formerly called by learned men — among 
them Bergellanus — Chalcography. Jean 
Enschede states that in his time (1768) 
these matrices were about 250 years old, 
and that they were in the style of Albert 
Duerer. Next we have several modern- 
looking titling-founts. A number of speci- 
mens of italic and shaded titling-letters 
then follow, and after them come the 
book founts, many of them of singular 
excellence. There is a specimen of typo- 
graphic music, the first cast in movable 
characters. The punches were cut in 
1760 by J. M. Fleischman, of Nurem- 
berg. Scripts, and two kinds of Gothic, 
close the volume. Some of the latter 
were cut in 1480, others were used by 
P. van Os, the printer of Breda, in 1499. 
The book has an inestimable interest 
for all who are able to appreciate the 
cut, and contains a medallion portrait of early excellence of the Dutch in typo- 
Koster at the head, surrounded with the graphy and type-founding. 



This is a specimen-book of all the 
old types anterior to 1800 at this date 
in the Enschede foundry at Haarlem, 
now the best type-foundry in Holland. 
The engraved title-pages which orna- 
mented the early specimen-books of the 
same firm more than a century ago are 
reproduced from the original plates. The 
first (on copper) is an allegorical repre- 
sentation, with Fame placing a laurel 
wreath on Koster's brow. In the back- 
ground a glimpse is obtained of a primi- 
tive printing-office. Underneath are the 
verses by Scriverius :— 

Currat penna licet, tantum vix scribitur 

anno. 
Quantum uno reddunt praela Batava 

die. 
Addidit inventis aliquid Germania 

tantis. 
.Hollandus ccepit, Teuto peregit opus. 

The second title-page is from a wood- 



words "Laurens Jansz, Koster, typ. inv. 
1428 pervulg. 1440." In the prefatory 
remarks, dated Harlem, 6th March, 1867, 
and written by A. J. Enschede, the rise 
of the Enschede foundry is traced from 
its commencement, and an account given 
of the circumstances under which the 
numerous foundries for which Holland 
was at different epochs famous, became 
amalgamated into this. Had not thou- 
sands of old matrices been thrown away to was made by the Enschede: 
at the beginning of the present century, when the journal had attained 



The firm of ENSCHEu^was founded by 
Isaac Enschede iborn at Haarlem 1681, 
died 1761) in 1703. Johannes Enschede 
(who was born in 1708 and died in 1780) 
united to the establishment, in 1737, the 
celebrated Haarleinsche Courant, which 
was founded by Abraham Casteleyn in 
1656. This periodical is identical with 
that referred to in this bibliography s.v. 
Casteleyn. The reprint there referred 

1856, 

s bi- 



this foundry would have been able to 
reprint in fac-simile any old Dutch book 
from the fifteenth century to the present 
time. 'l"he establishment has absorbed, 
from time to time, the foundries of the 
Wetsteins, Dirk Voskens (which included 
the foundry of J. J^.laeu, the co-worker 
of Tycho Brahe), Hendricjc de Bruyn, 
Van de Putte, Van der Velde, Uytwerf, 
Nozeman, and Ploos van Amstel (which 
included the foundries of Athias, Elzevir, 
and Jan Roman). 

The specimens begin with large tltling- 
letter, ranging from a nine-line pica 
capital down to about double pica. The 
next page is headed, '' Chalcographia, 
sive typi aenei, et matrices plumbeae." 
M. Enschede explains that the punches 
were cut in copper and struck in lead, 
instead of being cut in steel and struck 
in copper, as is now done. The former 



centenary. 'I'he first number is preserved 
up to the present day. This firm was 
continued from 1726 to 1761 under the 
name of Isaac and Johannes Enschede ; 
from 1761 to 1777 under that of Johannes 
Enschede; and from 1777 up to the pre- 
sent time it has been under the name of 
"Johannes Enschede & Zonen." The 
establishment comprises, in addition to 
the typefoundry, a printing-office, espe- 
cially of bank-notes, stamps, &c. The 
types of this firm are in use all over the 
Continent, and are highly esteemed for 
their beauty and excellence. _ 

Johannes Enschede was in many re- 
spects a very remarkable man. He was 
not only a typefounder of consummate 
ability, but a learned printer, and an 
antiquary of considerable attai iments. 
His patriotism, conjoined with his love 
of the printing art, induced him to 



204 



Bibliography of Printing. 



come to the front as an out-and-out 
supporter of the Kosterian theory. He 
spent large sums in the collection of 
evidence on the subject, encouraged men 
of learning to apply themselves, and sub- 
sidized several publications intended to 
influence the public mind in favour of the 
pretensions of his native Haarlem. His 
grandson, Johannes, born in 1785, died 
at the age of 81, in 1866, leaving be- 
hind him an immense and valuable 
library, which had been begun by his 
predecessor in the previous century. It 
was sold by auction on the 9th — 14th of 
December, 1867, in the Maison-Enschede 
at Haarlem, by Messrs. Frederik Muller, 
of Amsterdam, and Martinus NijhofT, of 
the Hague. The Catalogue, which is 
before us, is a valuable work in itself. 
It extends to viii. and 266 pages, and 
most of the items are carefully and 
learnedly annotated. In the prefatory 
remarks it is stated that legal provisions 
necessitated the realization of the collec- 
tion by auction. It goes on to remark 
that between 1703 and 1799 three dis- 
tinguished men were to be found in the 
city of Haarlem, who, without abandon- 
ing their vocations as typographers, pur- 
sued with much success the collection of 
the valuable books and manuscripts now 
placed before the public. Without claim- 
ing the position of savants or archao- 
logists, and while continuing their busi- 
ness as printers, they were enabled to 
bring together a mass of useful and in- 
structive material of an archaeological 
character, which was not surpassed in 
Holland in the i8th century. 

Isaac Enschede, founder of the firm, 
came ofa family established at Groningen 
about 1680, by one M. Escheda, the name 
being afterwards altered to Enschede. 
His typographic establishment was 
opened, as mentioned above, about 1703. 
The sale catalogue erroneously states that 
in conjunction with his son Johannes, 
he issued a folio edition of a Bible in 
stereotype by the method then entirely 
new, invented by the Lutheran minister, 
Johannes Muller, of Eeyden. 'I'his is, 
however, a mistake ; the Bible was printed 
by Luchtmans, in Leyden. An im- 
pression of one of the only two existing 
stereotype plates of this Bible (which, 
with the plate, formed Lot 254 at the sale), 
is given at the end of the catalogue. The 
lot fetched 150 fr. The other plate is pre- 
served in the Royal Library at the Hague. 
Dr. Johannes, grandson of Isaac 
Enschede, had a great taste for classical 
literature, and studied at the University 
of Leyden. He enriched the paternal 
library with a fine series of Greek and 
Latin authors, and the writings of the 



Fathers. Besides paying attention to 
modern history, he formed a curious col- 
lection of old Dutch itineraries. The di- 
verse tastes of Isaac and his grandson 
were united in the person of Johannes, 
the son of Isaac. From the age of nine 
years, under the direction of his father, he 
began to engrave on wood letters of all 
sizes, and continued the practice and ob- 
tained an experience which placed him 
ultimately at the head of all contemporary 
xylographers. The great aim of his life 
was to write a detailed work on the In- 
vention of Typography, destined to com- 
plete his " Essay on the History of Type- 
founding in the Low Countries." The 
plan of the work, and a few of the 
chapters, were found after his death 
among his papers. He was the first 
person to discover in the bindings and 
covers of some old books, the fragments of 
a Donatus, and the first who was fortunate 
enough to find an Abecedariutn printed in 
movable characters. He was in active 
correspondence with the savant Von 
Murr, of Nuremberg, with Gerard Meer- 
man, and with Jacob Visser, of the 
Hague, author of the first list of the 
Dutch incitnabnla. His own collection 
of incu7iabula played an important part 
in various historical investigations. He 
was, as is well known, the possessor of 
the famous so-called Kosterian book, the 
" Speculum Humanae Salvationis." The 
library itself consisted of manuscripts and 
books on vellum and paper, and bound 
books in the diff"erent departments of bib- 
liography, theology, jurisprudence, natu- 
ral sciences, history, belies lettres, and the 
fine arts, and many items of Kosteriana. 
The number of lots in the Sale Catalogue 
extends to 3,009, there being, however, 
many books of small value. At the end 
of the Catalogue, — besides the impression 
of the old stereo-plate already referred to 
— some facsimiles of alleged Kosterian 
prints are given. A portrait of Johannes 
Enschede forms the frontispiece. 

There was published, shortly after the 
sale, a "Notice des Prix de la Biblio- 
theque" (royal 8vo., 31 pp., double 
columns), in.which the names of the pur- 
chasers, as well as the price of each lot, 
are recorded ; so as to show the destina- 
tion of the several contents of this famous 
library. The proceeds of the sale 
amounted to ;^4,25o. The foundry now 
contains a collection, inestimably valu- 
able, of old specimen-books of celebrated 
Continental houses, all of which have 
been thoroughly examined by Mr. William 
Blades, and we have, in different parts of 
this Bibliography, availed ourselves of 
his courteous permission to make use of 
some of his notes concerning them. 



Bibliography of Printijig. 205 

Ente (Abraham). — See Adamsz en Ente. 

Entwurf zum Statut far die zur Unterstiitzung hiilfsbediirftiger Buch- 
drucker u. Schriftgiesser Berlins gegriindete Gutenberg-Stiftung, 
wie derselbe von den dazu beauftragten Mitgliedern des fiir die 
vierte Sacular-Feier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst erwahl- 
ten Comite's abgefasst worden ist. Berlin : 1842. 8vo. 

Erasmus. Erasmi Roterodami Silva Carminum, antehac nunquam 
impressorum. Gouda : 1513. Reproduction Photo-lithographique, 
avec Notice par M. Ch. Ruelens. Bruxelles : 1864. 4to. 100 
copies printed. 

Erichson (Johann). Die Heilsamen Absichten, welche Gott bey 
Erfindung und zeitiger Einfiihrung der Edlen Buchdruckerkunst 
in hiesige Reiche, besonders zu dieser ihrem Besten, gehabt. 
In einer kurzen Rede, welche den 10. Nov. dieses I740sten 
Jahres dieser herrlichen Kunst, in der Teutschen Schule hieselbst 
offentlich gehalten worden. Stockholm [1740]. 4to. Four un- 
numbered leaves and 36 pp. 

Contains much interesting matter relative to early printing in Sweden, with ex- 
tensive quotations of authorities. 

Erinnerung an das vierte Sacularfest der Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunst, wie solches in der Weidle'schen Buchdruckerei am 24. Juni 
1840 gefeiert wurde. Berlin : 1840. 8vo. 

Erklarung der Buchhandler u. Buchdruckereibesitzer Berlins liber 
die Verantwortlichkeit der Verleger, Drucker u. Verbreiter fiir den 
Inhalt einer Druckschrift. Berlin : 1850. Folio. 

Ernesti (J. A.). Prolusio, in qua qu^eritur, quibus litterarium disci- 
plinis, et quatenus, Chalcographia prosit. Lipsise : 1740. 410. 

[Ernesti (J. H. G.).] Die Wol-eingerichtete Buchdruckerey, mit 
hundert und ein und zwanzig Teutsch, Eateinisch, Griechisch und 
Hebraischen Schrifften, vieler fremden Sprachen Alphabeten, 
musicalischen Noten, Calender-Zeichen und medicinischen Charac 
teren, Ingleichen alten iiblichen Formaten bestellet und mit 
accurater Abbildung der Erfinder der loblichen Kunst, nebst einer 
summarischen Nachricht von den Buchdruckern in Niirnberg 
ausgezieret. Am ende find etliche kurzgefasste Anmerkungen vcm 
der Hebraischen Sprach angefugit. Niirnberg: 1733. Oblong 4to, 

Engraved frontispiece representing the remberg : — J. Petrejus, J. Carbonarius, 

interior of a printing-office containing J. Lauer, C. Agricola, and S. Halbmaier. 

two presses, one being dated 1440, the Then follows the text on pp. i to 160, 

other 1 73 1. The prefatory matter of being a complete practical treatise on the 

thirty-one unnumbered leaves includes art of printing, specimens of type, plans 

engraved portraits, printed in the text, of of cases, imposition, essay on the He- 

Koster, Gutenberg, Fust, Aldus, Fro- brew language, &c., partly printed in red 

benius, Oporinus, Stephanus, Plantin, and black, and including some poetical 

and the following early printers of Nu- pieces. 

Erorterung, Rechtliche, iiber offentliche Verbrennung von Druck- 
schrift en. Ein besonderer Abdruck der im 19. Heft der Jahr- 
biicher der Preussischen Gesetzgebung enthaltenen Abhandlung, 
mit einer Vorrede. Berlin : 1817. 8vo. 



2o6 Bibliography of Printing. 

Ersch (J. S.) und Gruber (J. G.). Allgemeine Encyclopadie der 
Wissenschaften und Kiinste, vol. xiv. Leipzig: 1825. 4to. 
Contains a long article on Printing by Poppe, Ebert, and Dahl. 

Erste in Stuttgart gemachte-Versuche in der Steindruckerey. 1807. 

An interesting and very rare series of the difficulty experienced by the artist 

the first attempts at lithography in Stutt- in drawing with the crayon, and are very 

gart in 1807, immediately after the inven- inferior in technical merit to those done 

tion of the art by Senefelder, at Munich, in pen and ink. The title is in MS. In 

The subjects executed in chalk exhibit the collection of Mr. Charles Wyman. 

EscHER (H.). Kommentar zu dem im Kanton Ziirich geltenden 
Gesetz, betreffend die Druckerpresse. Ziirich : 1829. 8vo. 

EscLASSAN (P.). fipreuves de quelques Matrices qui sont dans la 
Fonderie de P. Esclassan. Paris, n.d. Folio. 

ESCODE9A DE BoissE (D'). Exposition Universelle de 1855. Quelques 
Details sur les Produits de rimprimerie Imperiale de France. 
Paris : 1 855. 8vo. pp. 38. 

This is an interesting account, with cially well considered, and may be useful 

much minuteness of detail, of the speci- to future cataloguers. It also shows the 

mens from the Imperial Printing-office exact degree of progress in typography 

shown at the French Exhibition of 1855. made in France at the time this work was 

The arrangement of the details is espe- written. — See Duprat. 

Essay (An) on the Original, Use, and Excellency of the Noble Art and 
Mystery of Printing. London : 1752. 8vo. 

Essay on Writing (An) and the Art and Mystery of Printing. A trans- 
lation out of the Anthology. London : 1696. Broadside. 
Reprinted in the tenth volumeof " Harleian Miscellany," pp. 238-g. In rhyme. 

EsSENWEiN (A.). Aelteste Druck-Erzeugnisse im Germanischen Mu- 
seum. Illustrated articles in Anzeiger fur Kunde der Deuischen 
Vorzeit. Nos. 8 and 9. Niirnberg : 1872. 4to. 

ESTE (C.). A Journey through Flanders. 

The author made a journey in 1793, and gives some account of Haarlem and its 
monuments. He describes Koster's house in the Market-place, and refers to the 
alleged specimens of his printing preserved in the city. 

EsTiENNE. — See Stephens. 

Estrada (Gregorio). Manual de Cajistas e Impresores. Por Gre- 
gorio Estrada, cajista y Propietario de imprenta. [Madrid :] 
1866. 

Senor Gregorio Estrada was the editor of the first typographical journal in the 
Spanish language. He was the founder of an important printing-office in Madrid. 

Evelyn (John) . Sculptura, or the History and Art of Chalcography and 
Engraving on Copper, with an ample Enumeration of the most 
renowned Masters and their Works. To which is annexed a new 
manner of Engraving, or Mezzotinto, communicated by his High- 
ness Prince Rupert to the author of this treatise. London: 1662. 

i2mo. 2nd Edition, corrected and enlarged, with Memoir and 

Portrait of the Author. London : 1755. pp. xxxvi. and I40. 
8vo. London : 1769. 8vo. 



Bibliography of Printing. 207 

The engraved plate by Prince Rupert Rupert for having brought the art into 

has in many copies been cut out, to en- England ; but there is no doubt that the 

rich the collections of the curious. It is, inventor was a German officer named 

however, the principal singularity of the L. von Siegen, who served in the army of 

book, which speaks for the first time, and the Landgrave of Hesse, and who im- 

with mystery, of engraving In mezzotinto parted his secret to Prince Rupert. A 

as a secret which had not before been list of engravings by Prince Rupert will 

made public. All praise is due to Prince be found at page 131. 

Even (Edward van). De Elzeviers te Leuven in de i6« eeuw. 1850. 8vo. 

Notice sur Pierre Werrecoren, Imprimeur a St. Maertensdyk, 

en Zelande (1478). Bruxelles : 1851. 8vo. pp. 16. Reprinted 
from the ' ' Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige, " vol. viii. 

Renseignements inedits sur les Imprimeurs 'de Louvain, au 

15® Siecle. [Bruxelles: 1865.] 8vo, pp.26. Reprinted from the 
"Bibliophile Beige," vol. i. 

Rudolf LoefFs, drukker teBommel, 149 1. Utrecht: 1853, 8vo. 



Every Man his Own Printer ; or. Lithography made Easy. Being an 
Essay upon Lithography in all its branches, showing more particu- 
larly the advantages of the Patent Autographic Press. London : 
1854. Royal 8vo. pp. 50. Portrait of Senefelder and nine plates. 

The introduction and explanatory letter- Mons. Poirier, of Paris, from whom the 

press were written by Mr. Albert Crakell patent was purchased by Messrs. Water- 

Waterlow, who died in 1856. The low & Sons, who issued the above work, 

" Autographic Press " (merely a roller, or in recommendation of this press, when 

cylinder press, adapted to lithography) they introduced it into this country. The 

was, we believe, the original invention of book has gone through three editions. 

Exhibition of 1851. Catalogue, vol. ii. sect. iii. class 17. Paper 
and Stationery, Printing and Bookbinding. Royal 8vo. Also, 
Reports of the Juries. Royal 8vo. 

The Report on Printing is signed by A. Firmin-Didot, C. Whittingham, and 
T. De la Rue. 



See Stevens (Henry). 

Exhibition of Industry, 1851. Specification issued to Printers for 
Tenders in regard to Catalogues. London : Oct. i, 1850. 

This is a statement of particulars re- Clowes & Sons, printers, and Messrs. 
quired in the Tenders for Printing the Spicer Bros., stationers) from the pay- 
Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of ment of the stipulated royalty of 2d. 
1851. In a letter to \\\& Daily News, a upon every shilling copy of the Cata- 
" Printer " entered minutely into the pro- logue (of which there were many 
visions of the Commissioners, and showed thousands sold) amply justified the stric- 
their injustice towards printers. The tures of the writer, who was, we believe, 
subsequent action of the Commissioners the late Mr. Wyman (of the firm of Cox 
in absolving the contractors (Messrs. & Wyman). 

Exhibition (International) of London in 1862. Reports of the Juries 
on Printing Materials. London : 1863. 8vo. 

-^ Amtlicher Bericht liber die Industrie- u. Kunst-Ausstellung 

in London im Jahre 1862, erstattet nach Beschluss der Kommis- 
sarien der Deutschen Zollvereins - Regierungen. XL Heft. 28. 
Klasse. Papier, Papier- u. Papparbeiten, Schreibmaterialien, 
Buchdruck- u. Buchbinderarbeiten. Berlin: 1864. 8vo. 



2o8 Bibliography of Pnnting. 

Exposition Universelle de 1867 a Paris. Rapports des Delegations 
Ouvrieres-imprimeurs en Taille-douce. Paris, 4to. 

Rapports des Delegations Ouvrieres-lithographes. Paris. 4to. 

Avec figures et une planche imprimee en couleurs. 

Rapports des Delegations Ouvrieres-typographes. Paris. 4to. 

Avec figures. 

ExTRAiT des Placarts concemant les Imprimeurs et Libraires, 
8vo. pp. 156. 

Eye (A. von). Leben und Wirken Albrecht Diirer's. Nordlingen : 
i860. 8vo. pp. 525. 2nd Edition, with appendix. Nord- 
lingen : 1869. 8vo. pp. 533. 

Eyre & Spottiswoode, Her Majesty's Printing-office. A General 
Specimen of Printing-types, &c. London. 8vo. 

This eminent firm of printers has for Jno. Reeves and Andrew Strahan, ob- 

many years held the royal letters patent tained a patent in 1798, by 39 Geo. III., 

for printing the authorized version of the for another 30 years. Reeves's interest 

Bible, the Book of Common Prayer, and having been purchased by Strahan, on 

Acts of Parliament, in England. The the renewal of the patent in 1829 

origin of this privilege is as follows : — By (10 Geo. IV.), the King's Printers were — 

the i2th Anne (1713) a grant was made to Andrew Strahan, George Eyre, and 

B. Tooke and John Barber for 30 years. Andrew Spottiswoode. This patent ex- 

The interest for a number of years was pired in i860, when another was granted 

bought up by John Baskett, and he, in for Bibles and Prayer-books, durmg the 

i7i5> by 2 Geo. I., obtained a grant for Royal pleasure, and the firm-name is 

himself for 30 years. Some of these retained as Eyre & Spottiswoode. — See 

years, however, were conveyed to Spottiswoode. 
Charles Eyre, who, in conjunction with 




ABER (T. C.)- De Scriptura, eius origine, 
natura et variis modis, praecipue per 
literas ex aere fusas, prodromum ad 
memoriam seculareni inventae divina 
providentia anno 1 440 Artis Typo- 
graphicae. Jenae [1739]. 4to. pp. 24. 

Fabre (A. ). De I'Origine de I'lmprimerie 
en Provence. Paris : 1837. 8vo. 

Fabricius (J. F.). Notizen iiber die 
Einfiihrung und erste Ausbreitung der 
Buchdruckerkunst in Amerika. Ham- 
burg : 1841. Small 8vo. pp. 36. 
Privately printed. 
Johann Friedrich Fabricius was born at Hamburg on the 29th of January, 1800, 
where he died on the 26th of November, 1875. He had been a master-printer in 
that town since the year 1834. 

Typologie (von tvttoq und \oyog) die Lehre und Kunde von 

Abdrucken oder von Buchstaben iiberhaupt. [Hamburg: 1844.] 
8vo. pp. 8. 

Faccio (Domenico). Notizie storico-tipografiche di Guttemberg, 
Fust e Schoffer, primi Inventori della Stampa. Padova : 1846. 
8vo. pp. viii. 96. 

This notice was also issued as part i. vol. i. of " Notizie tipografico-bibliografiche 
dal XV al XIX secolo" (Padova, n.d., 8vo.), and formed all that was published of 
that work. 

Faccioli (Tomasso). Catalogo ragionato dei Libri stampati in Vicenza 
e suo territorio nel Secolo XV. Con un' Appendice de' Libri de' 
Vicentini o spettanti a Vicenza, che in quel secolo si stamparono 
altrove. Vicenza : 1796. 8vo. pp. x. 246. 

Fahlgren (Carl J.). Handbok i Boktryckerikonsten for unga 



Fain (A,), fipreuves des Caracteres de la Fonderie et de I'lmpri- 
merie de A. Fain. Paris : 1832. 8vo. 

"Fair Play." Trades Unions and the Printing Trade. To Master 
Printers. July, 1867. 8vo. pp. 4. 
This is a reply to an article which appeared in the Printers Jotirnal, June 17, 
1867, by a writer who is opposed to trade-unionism and the restrictions which it 
places upon what is called " turnoverism." 

2 E 



2IO 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Faithfull (Emily). Women as Printers. An article in the Vidoiia 
Magazine, January, 1 8 70. 

Miss Faithfull was brought prominently before the English public as the organizer 
of a system of female labour in the printing-office, and still is interested in an office 
in which women are employed in the trade. ^>SV^ Head (W. W.). 

Faithorne (William). The Art of Graveing and Etching, wherein 
is exprest the true way of graveing in Copper. Allso the manner 
and method of Callot and Mr. Bosse in their severall ways of 
etching. London : 1662. Engraved title-page, and ten numbered 
plates. 8vo. 1702. i2mo. 10 plates. 

William Faithorne, a celebrated en- 
graver, was born in London in the 
year 1616, and died in the same city in 
1691. He was a pupil of Peak, the 
painter. In the civil war Faithorne 
espoused the cause of the Royalists, and 
was taken prisoner, but he was released, 



with permission to retire to the Continent. 
In France he met with protection and en- 
couragement from the Abbe de Marolles, 
and associated himself with the celebrated 
Nanteuil. On his return to England, about 



the year 1650, he commenced business as 
printseller and engraver near Temple Bar, 
where he remained till the year 1680, 
when he left his shop and retired to 
Printing-house Yard, where he still con- 
tinued to work for the booksellers. His 
son William did not follow his father's 
mode of engraving. He engraved in 
mezzotint, and might have acquired some 
celebrity, but, neglecting his business, he 
fell into great distress, and died at the 
early age of thirty. 



Faithorne (William) the Younger. Seven heads of the First Printers 
of England, in Indian ink, drawn by William Faithorne the 
Younger, and bought of Mr. Bagford. Title-pages and other 
parts of books which give intimation of our old printers. London : 
[1500- 1 680?]. 8vo. 

This is the manuscript title of a volume 
of miscellaneous fragments contained in 
the British Museum. It is of great in- 
terest, as it contains the original Indian 
ink drawings upon which are founded the 
received portraits of Caxton and the early 
English printers. On one of the leaves 
is a paper, which is stated at the bottom 
to have been "writ by Mr. Bagford," 
containing the names of the portraits, as 
follows : — 

I. William Caxton, ye first printer at 
Westminster. 



Dibdin, who has annotated this book, 
writes below, " Qy. If Faithorne ever 
made a drawing of Pynson, as engraved 
in Ames 1 If not, qy. the original of that 
cut?" In reply to this we may safely 
affirm that the drawings in question are 
undoubtedly the originals of Ames's en- 
gravings. 

William Faithorne the Voungerwill 

be remembered in typographic historj' as 

the fabricator of the portraits of early 

printers. Sir Hans Sloane appears to have 

engaged him to engrave likenesses of some 

Winkon de Worde, ye 2nd printer at of the patrons and disseminators of learn- 

Westminster. ing, desiring to have those of Caxton, 

Raynd. Wolfe, a printer in Paul's Wynken de Worde, and others. Faithorne 

Churchyard, King Henry ye 8th was not very scrupulous in obtaining 

printer. _ material for executing this commission. 

Richard Grafton, ye first printer of He resorted to Bagford, who had collected 

ye Common Prayer ; likewise head some engraved portraits, and copied what 

printer of ye proclamation for ye were supplied to him ; but where, as in 

proclaiming of (Queene) ye Lady the case of the English proto-printer, a 

Jane Gray, Queen of England, for portrait was unattainable, he seems to 

have drawn upon his imagination. We 
have alluded to this circumstance in our 
sketch of Caxton, ante ; and reference to 
other fabrications, for which Faithorne is 
responsible, will be ionnd passim. 

Before the portrait is a slip written by 
Dibdin : — " There is much ignorance, I 
hope no knavery, on the part of Faithorne, 



which he lay under ye displeasure of 
Queen Mary. 

5. John Day, a famous printer ; he lived 

under Aldersgate, 

6. Jo. Wight, a printer of law books. 

7. Richard Jones, a printer. All drawn 

by ye hand of Mr. Will, ffathorne ye 
younger. 



Bibliography of Printing. 211 

jun., or the person who employed him to Facing the portrait of Jones, which 

make the drawing, in calling it the por- Dibdin writes is "Copied from a woodcut 

trait of Caxton. It is a copy from a fine in the ' Secrets of Alexis,' printed by 

woodcut of Burchielio, in Dom's Lucca." Wight," is a cutting from one of his 

Under the portrait of John Daye, books, with the imprint " London, printed 

Dibdin has written :— " Faithfully and by William lones, and are to be sold by 

elegantly copied from a fine woodcut that William Sheffard at his shop in Pope's- 

occurs in one of Day's books." Opposite head Ally. 1622." 

is an original title-page, with the imprint, The remainder of the book contains 

"At London, printed by lohn Daye, title-pages, colophons, &c., ruthlessly cut 

dwelling ouer Aldersgate. An. 1580." out of works of the early printers. 

Falk (Dr. F.). Johann Beckenhub, genannt Mentzer, Drucker des 
XV. Jahrhunderts in Strassburg, Wlirzburg, Regensburg. In 
Petzholdt's N. Ang. f. Bibliogr., 1878, p. 379. Dresden : 1878. 
8vo. 

Falkenstein (Dr. Karl). Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst in ihrer 
Fntstehung und Ausbildung. Ein Denkmal zur vierten Sacularfeier 
der Erfindung der Typographic. Mit einer reichen Sammlung in 
Holz und Metall geschnittener Facsimiles der seltensten Holztafel- 
drucke, Nachbildungen von Typen alter beriihmter Officinen und 
Proben von Kunstdrucken. Nach den neuesten Erfindungen unserer 
Zeit. Leipzig: 1840. 4to. pp. 16, xiv. 406. Numerous fac-simile 

plates, and at end 10 leaves of specimens of Oriental type. ^ 

Leipzig : 1856. 4to. Berlin : 1862. 4to. 

Falkenstein's "History of the Art of Printing" is the most important of the works 

published in Germany, on the occasion of the 4th centenary of its invention. Its 

many facsimiles, well cut and printed in the tints of the originals, give it a high 

value. Still it is not always correct in its historical data. 

Fant (Eric_ Mich.). Annales Typographici Seculi XVI in Svecia ; 
cum supplemento. Upsaliae : 1793- 1800. 4to. 
Six parts of "Annales Typographici," 52 pp., and four parts of " Supplementum 
Annalium Typographicorum," each part containing eight pages ; being ten Academi- 
cal dissertations by various authors, under the presidency of E. M. Fant. 

■ Dissertatio de Statu rei Litterarise in Svecia, sub moderamine 

Stenonis Sture, senioris. Quam Suffrag. ampl. ord. pliil. Ups. 
praeside Erico M(ichaelo) Fant, pro gradu philosophico publico 
ventilandum sistit Jonas Fr. Mellin. In audit. Gust. maj. die 
25. Jun. 1793. Upsaliae. 4to. pp. 15 and 2, pp. 7 and 8, com- 
prise " Artis typographicae in Svecia initia." 

Minne ofver Profess. Job. Schefferus. Stockholm: 1782. 8vo. 

Among the supplementary notices will be found several biographical and genea- 
logical accounts of the family of the Schoeffers. 

Fantozzi (Federigo). Notizie biografiche originali di Bernardo Cen- 
nini, orafo fiorentino, primo promotore della tipografia in Firenze, 
con indicazione della casa e delle botteghe ove abiio ed esercito 
I'arte. Firenze : 1839. 8vo. pp. 43 and a genealogical chart of 
the family of Flora, afterwards called Cenni, and lastly Cennini. 

A biographical notice of Bernard Cen- the steel punches for his first book, an 
nini, the first printer of Florence. He edition of Virgil, issued in November, 
was a goldsmith, and his son Dominic cut 1471 ; his other son, Peter, correcting it. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



A peculiarity of this edition of Virgil is a statement in the colophon, many per- 
that the Greek quotations are not printed, sons choose to write these quotations 
but spaces left for them, as, according to with their own hands. 




LONDON: 1499-15H. 

Faques (William). 

William Faques was a Norman printer the art at Rouen, probably with John de 

who resided in England, in the parish of Bourgeois. He was an excellent printer, 

St. Helen's, in the city of London, for and his types, which were well cut, are 

only about five or six years. He learned thought to have been used by Wynkyn 



Bibliography of Priiiting. 213 

de Worde after Faques's death, which than the mighty ; and he that ruleth his 

took place in September, 151 1. The an- spirit than he that taketh a city). Parts 

nexed device consists of a triangle on of the passage are illegible or left out. 

black ground and one on white ground. The black-letter capital (ffi, in the middle 

the two interwoven, being the symbol of of the above device, containing a small 

the Holy Trinity. The words upon the 1 in the centre, with an arrow pointing 

latter are taken from the Latin Vulgate to the left, passing through it, occurs 

version of Psalm xxxvii. 16: " Melius est upon every page of the octavo Psalte- 

modicum iusto super diuitias peccatorum rium printed by Faques in 1504. He 

multas" (a small thing that the righteous was a member of the Stationers' Com- 

hath is better than great riches of the pany, and was King's printer, being 

ungodly). The passage inscribed on the probably joined in the same patent with 

black triangle is from Proverbs xvi. 32 : Pynson. Home says, that " after Faques, 

" Melior est patiens viro forti : et qui English typography, like that of the 

dominatur [animo suo expugnatore ur- Continent, became greatly degenerated." 
bium] " (He that is slow to anger is better 

[Farjeon (B. L.)]. Curiosities of American Newspaper Literature. 
An article in Tinslefs Magazine, May, 1870. 

Contains an interesting and amusing account of the inside life of several American 
printing-ofifices. 

Fasol (Karl). Album fiir Buchdruckerkunst, Vienna : 1870-75. 
4 parts. 

This is the production of the ingenious (Vienna, 1870), " Liniensatze ; material 

inventor of Stigmatypie, a system of pro- auf 1-6 Punkt- Kegel," with six illustra- 

ducing illustrations by the use of types tions; Part III. (Vienna, 1874), "Mosaik; 

consisting of points of varied degrees of material auf 3-6 Punkt-Kegel," with five 

thickness, and somewhat alike in appear- illustrations ; Part IV. (Vienna, 1875), 

ance to mezzotints by the copperplate " Praktisches ; material auf 3-6 Punkt- 

method. The contents of the several Kegel," with six plates. In the first part 

parts are as follow: — Part I. (Vienna, 1870), was published the well-known portrait of 

"Stigmatypie; material auf 2 Punkt- Gutenberg, and in the second " the house 

Kegel," contains six illustrations ; Part II. of Gutenberg at Mayence." 

Fasting (C. L.). Forseg til en Fortegnelse over de udi Danmark og 
Norge fra Bogtrykkeriets Indfersel til 1 789 Aars Udgang udkomne 
Danske Skrifter. Bergen : 1793. 8vo. pp. ii. and 615. 
An account of the Press in Denmark and Norway previous to the year 1789. 

Fattoni (Sante). Appendice alia serie dell' edizioni Aldine ri- 
stampata in Padova, 1' anno 1790. Padova : 1803. i2mo. 
pp. viii. 121. 

This Appendix completes the series of Aldine editions edited by E. Ch. Lomenie 
de Brienne and Fr. Xavier Laire (Florence, 1803). — Vide Petzholdt, " Bibliotheca 
Bibliographica," p. 167. 

Faulmann (Carl). Das Buch der Schrift. Enthaltend die Schriften 
und Alphabete aller Zeiten und aller Volker der gesammten 
Erdkreises. Wien : 1878. 4to. pp. xii. 272. 

This work owes its publication to the the title "Alphabete des gesammten 

present director of the Imperial Printing- Erdkreises." Each alphabet is preceded 

house at Vienna. It contains a much by an historical notice and philological 

larger number of alphabets than the notes, 
similar volume is.sued by M. Auer under 

Neue Untersuchungen iiber die Entstehung der Buchstaben- 



schrift und die Person des Erfinders. Wien: 1876. 8vo. 



2 1 4 Bibliography of Printijig. 

Faust. — See Fust. 

Faust (F.). Abhandlung liber die in Deutschland zum Theil bekann- 
ten und vorhandenen Buchdruckerwalzen, und wie sie auf vielerlei 
Arten jeder zu fertigen im Stande ist, mit Lithographien. 
Neuwied ; 1822. 8vo. 

Faust (J. F. ), Relatio de Origine Typographiae, a quo, quo tempore, 
quo loco, ilia primum inventa sit, — e germanica in latinam lin- 
guam translata a Lud. Klefekero. In Wolf, "Monumenta Typo- 
graphica," part i., pp. 452-485. Hamburg! : 1740. 8vo. 

Favre (Guil.). Notice sur les Livres imprimes a Geneve dans le 
XVe siecle. 2e edition, revue par F. Ardent. Geneve : 1855. 
Royal 8vo. pp. 60. 

Faziola (G,). Tipografia e Libreria Editrici del Regno d'ltalia. 
Torino : [1863]. 8vo. pp. 13. 

Fechter (D. a.). Beitrage zur altesten Geschichte der Buchdrucker- 
kunst in Basel. In Basler Taschenbuch auf das Jahr 1863. 
Hersg. von D. A. Fechter. XI. Jahrgang. Basel : 1863. i6mo. 

Thomas Platter und Felix Platter. Zwei Autobiographieen. 

Ein Beitrag zur Sittengeschichte de XVI. Jahrhunderts. Basel : 
1840. 8vo. pp. viii. and 208. 
Platter was a printer at Basle. Thomas was the father of Felix. 

[Federici (Domenico Maria)]. Memorie Trevigiane sulla Tipografia 
del Secolo XV, per servire alia Storia Letteraria e delle Belle 
Arti d' Italia. Venezia : 1805. 4to. pp. xx. and 206. 
Gerardo de Lisa was the first printer of Treviso, 1471-1476. 

Federici (Fortunato). Annali della Tipografia Volpi-Cominiana, 
colle notizie intorno alia vita e agli studl dei fratelli Volpi. 
Padova : 1809. 8vo. Portrait of Volpi. pp. xii. 276. Re- 
printed, with an Appendix, in 181 7. 

Feeny (R.). Master-Printer's Price-Manual, to which is added 
Specimens of Type in general use ; with the proper manner of 
marking corrections in a proof-sheet ; also a list of wholesale 
Stationers. London : 1845. i2mo. pp. 36. 

Fekno (P. P.). Programma de duplici Germanise invento, typo- 
graphic et pulvere pyrio. Torgse : 17 13. Folio. 
Reprinted in Wolf, " Monumenta Typographica. " 

Felder (R. M.). Des Buchdruckers Erdenleben mit seinen Licht- 
und Schattenseiten. Ein schoner Traum und das Erwachen. 
Stuttgart : 1 839. i6mo. pp. 256. 

Feradiny (J. F.). Memoire pour Jean-Fran9ois Feradiny, graveur 
en estampes, detenu es prisons de la Conciergerie du Palais, 
intime, contre M. le Procureur-General, appellant. [Paris : no 
date]. 4to. 



Bibliography of Printing. 215 

Ferber (Louis). Der Rund- unci Bogen-Satz. . Praktische Anleitung 
zur Ausf iihrung einer neuen Methode. Offenbach am Main : 1876. 
8vo. pp. 44, with six folding sheets of designs. 

A handy manual treating of curvilinear Eastern and Western Hemispheres re- 
composition in all its branches. It is spectively, which are commendable speci- 
illustrated with a large number of ex- mens of what can be done by an intelli- 
amples, from among which we may gent compositor with the use of brass 
specially mention two diagrams of the rule. 

Ferchl (Franz Maria). Uebersicht der einzig bestehenden, voll- 
standigen Incunabel-Sammhing der Lithographic und der ubrigen 
Senefelder'schen Erfindungen; als Metallographie, Papyrographie, 
Papierstereotypen, und Oelgemaldedruck (ohne Presse). Mit einem 
Vorworte begleitet zur 6ojahrigen Gedachtnissfeier der Mlinchner 
Erfindung der Lithographic. Vom Sammler und lebenslanglichen 
Hausfreund des Erfinders. Miinchen: 1856. Royal 8vo. pp. 91. 
4 plate -.. 

Geschichte der Errichtung der ersten lithographischen Kunst- 

anstalt bei der P'eiertags-Schule fiir Kiinstler und Techniker in 
Miinchen. Auf Auftrag des hohen Magistrals von Miinchen bei 
Gelegenheit des 90. Geburtstages des Erfinders der Lithographic 
Johan Aloys Senefelder verfasst und mit einer kurzen Geschichte 
dieser ruhmvollen Miinchener Erfindung, nebst einer Uebersicht 
der einzig bestehenden, vollstandigen Incunabel-Sammlung der 
Lithographic begleitet. Mit Abbildungen der seltensten Lithogr. 
Incunabeln. Miinchen : 1862. 8vo. Mit einem Portr. von 
Hcinr. Jos. Mittercr. 

Ferguson Brothers. Specimen of the Aldine series of new Founts. 
Edinburgh. Oblong folio, 9 leaves. 

Specimens of new Book and Newspaper Founts, Edinburgh : 



Oblong folio. 32 leaves. 

Specimens of Wood Letter. Edinburgh, Oblong 4to. 

56 leaves. 

Fernandez (Valentin). 

The device on the next page of the printer Valentin Fernandez is taken from a 
work issued in 1501— " Manrique (Jorge) Coplas." It consists of a lion rampant 
holding a shield, on which is inscribed the monogram V ; the whole inclosed in an 
ornamental border. 

Ferrario (Giulio). Le classiche Stampe dal Cominciamento della 
Calcografia fino al presente. Milano : 1836. 8vo. pp. cxiij. 401. 

Fertel (Martin Dominique). La Science pratique de I'Imprimerie. 
Contenant des Instructions tres faciles pour se perfectionner dans 
cet art. On y trouvera une description de toutes les pieces dont 
une presse est construite, avec une methode pour imposer toutes 



2l6 



Bibliography of Printing. 




FERNANOEZ. LISBON 



sortes d'impositions. St. Omer : 1723. 4to. Numerous illustra- 
tions ; 10 leaves of preliminary matter; 292 pp., and Index con- 
sisting of 9 pp. at end. 
This very curious and esteemed work has been reprinted, with additions, by Annoy 
van de Wyder. Bruxelles : 1822. 4to. 

Festivals. A large number of pamphlets, &c., issued in connection 
with the Continental celebrations of the anniversary of the origin of 
printing will be found under the names of their authors, of those 
they were designed to commemorate {see, e.g., Gutenberg), or of 
the places in which they were held. 

Festschrift bei Gelegenheit der zehnfachen Jubelfeier in der 
Staatsdruckerei in Wien am 12. Juni 1875. 8vo. 

Festtage (Die) des Buchdruckers. Eine Sammlung von Prologen, 
Festgrlissen, Tafelliedern, Gedichten zu Jubilaen, Toasten, &c. 
Leipzig : 1868. 8vo. pp. 146. 
A collection of prologues, glees, &c., adapted for printers' festivals. 



Bibliography of Print ins:;. 217 

FEUGfeRE (Leon [Jacques]). Essai sur Hem-i Estienne. (In "Con- 
formite du Langage Fran9ois avec le Grec, par Henri Estienne. 
Nouvelle edition, accompagnee de Notes, et precedee d'un Essai 
sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de cet Auter.") Paris : 1853. 8vo. 
The essay forms pages v.-ccxxxvi. 
The author was Professor of Rhetoric at the Lycee Louis-Ie-Grand. References 

to this work will be found s.v. Stephens. 




FRANCFORT 



Feyrabendt (Johann). (The name of this printer is also spelled 
Feyerabend). 

Very little is known concerning this printer of Jost Amnion's book, " Kiinst- 

printer ; but it is supposed that he was liche wohlgerissene neu Figuren von aller- 

the son, or perhaps nephew, of the cele- ley Jagtkunst " (Frankfort - on - Maine : 

brated Sigmund Feyrabendt, a wood- 1592. 410.) 

engraver,and one of the leading booksellers Feyrabendt's device, which is annexed, 

of his time. His name derives much of consists of the emblem of Fame, winged, 

its interest from the fact that he was the blowing a German horn, in a cartouch. 

FiCKENSCHER (Geo.Wolfg. Aug.). Geschichte des Buchdruckerwesens 
im Burggrafthum Niirnberg oberhalb des Gebirges. Bayreuth : 
1802. 8vo. pp. viij. 84. 

Fielding (David). The Typographical Ready- reck oner and Memo- 
randum-book, for the use of Compositors, Pressmen, Machine- 
men, and Warehousemen ; showing the Number of Pica Ems in 
width and Lines containing a thousand ens, from pica, small pica, 
long primer, bourgeois, brevier, and minion to nonpareil ; Lines 
per Hour, and the number of Hours produced in composition 
from I to 1,000 ; the Price of Composition per Hour, from 5d. to 
iid., and from i to 1,000 hours; and the Quantity of Paper 
required in sheets for any job from 25 to 5,000 Copies, and from 

2 to 118 on the sheet. London: 1853. 2nd edition: 1858. 

8vo. 

This small contribution to the literature of printing originally appeared in the 
pages of the London Typographical Circular in August, 1853. It has passed 
through several editions, and has been enlarged from time to time. 

2 F 



2 1 8 Bibliography of Printing. 

Fielding (Theodore H,). The Art of Engraving, with the vario-js 
modes of operation. Illustrated with specimens of the different 
styles of engraving, London: 1841. Royal 8vo. pp. vii. 109. 

FiEVfiE (J.). Observations et Projet de Decret sur ITmprimerie et la 
Librairie. Paris : 1809. 4to. 

FlGGiNS (Vincent). Specimen of Printing Types by Vincent Figgins, 
Letter Founder, Swan Yard, Holborn Bridge. London : 1793. 
Printed by T. Bensley. 8vo. pp. 16. 

This is the first specimen-book issued informs them that he has commenced an 

by Mr. Vincent Figgins, the founder of entire New Letter Foundry, every 

the now celebrated firm of V. & J. branch of which, with their support and 

Figgins. The preface says : — " Vincent encouragement, he hopes he shall be 

Figgins, having had the advantage of ten enabled to execute in the most accurate 

years' instruction and servitude under the and satisfactory manner ; assuring them 

late ingenious Mr. Joseph Jackson (great that his best endeavours shall be exerted 

part of which time he had the manage- to complete so arduous an undertaking, 

ment of his foundry), flatters himself he Although as yet he has but few founts 

shall not be thought arrogant in soliciting finished, he is anxious to submit a speci- 

the patronage of the Master Prfnteks men for approbation." It contained 31 

and other literary gentlemen, when he Oriental and 7 Roman founts. 

Specimen of Printing Types, by Vincent Figgins, letter-founder. 

London: 1827. i6mo., in paper cover. 

• Specimen of Printing Types, by Vincent Figgins, letter-founder, 

West Street, West Smithfield. London: 1832. 8vo. Another 
issue is dated 1835. 

Figgins (V. & J.). Specimens of Book and Newspaper Types 
from the foundry of Vincent and James Figgins. London : 1838. 
4to. 

Specimen of Printing Types, by V. & J. Figgins (successors 

to Vincent Figgins), letter-founders. West Street, West Smithfield. 
London: 1842. 8vo. 



— Specimens of Plain and Ornamental Types from the foundry of 
V. & J. Figgins. London : n.d. 4to. Title and 215 leaves 
without pagination. 

— Epitome of Specimens, by V. & J. Figgins. London: 1847. 
Folio. 

— Specimens of Type and Illustrated Catalogue of Printing 
Materials. London : 1872. Royal 8vo. Second Edition. 1874. 

— Specimens of Wood Letter. London: 1877. Royal 8vo. 



The Quarto Specimen Book was sup- bulk was a serious hindrance to its useful- 

plemented in 1847 by the " Epitome of ness : it was also too large and heavy for 

Specimens," which contains a selection the post. Several special editions of 

of antiques, blacks, and jobbing types, specimens were also published by Messrs. 

with flowers, borders, and ornaments, the Figgins from time to time, including the 

book and news founts being shown in Select Book, Choice News Founts, .^c. ; 

small paragraphs. This book was con- but the want was felt by this foundry of 

tinually added to until 1871, when its a general specimen book containing in a 



Bibliography of Printing. 



219^ 



condensed form all their principal founts 
in common use, and of a sufficiently large 
edition of the book to enable copies to be 
circulated amongst all the printers at 
home and abroad. This led to the pre- 
sent royal 8vo. book, which was com- 
pleted in 1872, and reprinted with several 
additions two years later. This specimen 
book, which was printed on the premises 
at the type-foundry, may be fairly be- 
lieved to have had a wider circulation 
than any other like production, 5,000 
copies having been printed. The last 
edition appears without any title-page. 
It contains book, news, and jobbing 
founts in wonderful variety, together with 
flowers, borders, ornaments, and speci- 
mens of music-type, foreign, and peculiar 



sorts, indeed everything in the way of 
typographic furnishing that can be re- 
quired by the letterpress-printer, except- 
ing wood letter, the specimens of which 
are confined to a separate book, which 
is last on the above list. It is the 
intention of Mr. Figgins to adhere to the 
royal 8vo. size for all his future specimen 
books, and when we consider the handi- 
ness as well as completeness of the 
editions issued in 1872 and 1874. the 
decision seems a wise one. It is now 
unusual for type-founders to print their 
own specimen books, but in recurring to 
an old practice, this foundry has no need 
to fear criticism as to the quality of the 
press-work, which indeed leaves nothing 
to be desired. 



Figgins (V. & J.). See Caxton, Game of the Chesse. 

Vincent Figgins I. was an apprentice 
of Jackson, the eminent punch-cutter. 
He was bound to him in 1782, and served 
him as apprentice and journeyman till 
his death, in 1792, having for three years 
had the entire management of the esta- 
blishment. He was thus spoken of by 
John Nichols, in his "Literary Anec- 
dotes," vol. ii. p. 367 : — "With an ample 
portion of his kind instructor's reputation, 
he inherits a considerable share of his 
talents and industry ; and has distin- 
guished himself by the many beautiful 
specimens he has produced ; and particu- 
larly Oriental types." Speaking of Mr. 
Figgins, Hansard, in his " Typographia," 
p. 359, states that " On the death of Mr. 
Jackson he failed in succeeding to his 
foundry and materials, by not bidding 
more than he conscientiously thought 
they were worth, or than he should be 
enabled to pay. But his character had 
long been observed by Mr. John Nichols, 
who, for many years, was the intimate 
friend of Mr. Jackson. Under his 
auspices Mr. Figgins was encouraged to 
rear a foundry for his own name. A 
large order (two founts, great primer and 
pica, of each 2,000 lb., even before he 
had produced a single specimen) gave the 
young adventurer the best heart to pro- 
ceed : neither did his liberal patron suffer 
him to want the sinews of trade, as long 
as such assistance was required. The 
patronage also of the delegates of the 
Oxford University Press, and the type in 
which Mr. Bensley printed those two 
splendid works — Bowyer's History of 
England, and Macklin's Bible, esta- 
blished Mr. Figgins in all the reputation 
he could desire ; and he has never since 
ceased in his efforts to make his foundry 
one of the most complete in England. 
No foundry existing is better stocked 



with matrices for those extraneous sorts 
which are cut more with a view to accom- 
modation than profit ; such as astronomi- 
cal, geometrical, algebraical, physical, 
genealogical, and arithmetical sorts : and 
I feel it particularly incumbent on me to 
add that, as his specimen bears equal 
rank with any for the number and beauty 
of its founts ; so he has strayed less into 
the folly of fat-faced, preposterous dis- 
proportions, than either Thome, Fry, or 
Caslon. I consider his five-line pica 
German text, a typographic curiosity. 
It is a singular coincidence that the' three 
eminent printers, successive proprietors 
of the same concern, should be the 
patrons of three foundries which have so 
eminently flourished : viz., the first Mr. 
Bowyer was the patron of the first Mr. 
Caslon ; the second Mr. Bowyer, of 
Mr. Jackson, who served his apprentice- 
ship to Mr. Caslon ; and Mr. John 
Nichols, of Mr. Figgins, who, as just 
before stated, served his time to Mr. 
Jackson." Vincent Figgins I. died at 
Peckham Rye, Feb. 29, 1844, and was 
succeeded by his two sons, Vincent and 
James. 

Vincent Figgins II. was a man of 
considerable talent, and, apart from his 
eminence in his own calling, he was a 
painter of some ability. He retired from 
the business in the year 1859, and died at 
Nice, after a long illness, on the 21st 
December, i860, his remains being 
brought to this country for interment in 
the family vault at Nunhead. His widow 
still survives, but he left no children. 

Mr. James Figgins I. carried on the 
foundry alone, but under the old designa- 
tion, after the retirement of his brotherVin- 
cent. In 1868 he was elected to represent 
Shrewsbury in Parliament, whereupon 
he also retired from business in favour of 



2 20 Bibliography of Printing: 

his son. He, however, lost his seat at the street, Smithfield ; and was ultimately 
general election in 1874. Mr. James transferred to the present premises in 
Figgins is a wealthy man. He is an Ray-street, Farringdon-road, which were 
alderman of the City of London, and erected in 1865, and considerably en- 
has served the office of sherifT and other larged in the year 1875. Upwards of 
public functions with great credit to him- 350 men and boys are employed in the 
self. He has one son and two daughters, various departments of the business. 
The present firm retains the name of which, in addition to that of type-found- 
V. & J. Figgins. The proprietor of the ing, embraces the manufacture of all 
world-famed foundry is Mr. James Fig- kinds of pnnting materials. The pre- 
gins, Jun., only son of the preceding mises are divided into two blocks, the 
James Figgins, and nephew of Vincent larger of which is devoted to the type- 
Figgins II., constituting, therefore, the foundry, and the other to the manufac- 
third generation. The foundry was ture of printing materials and machinery : 
originally in Holborn ; then in West- here also a large stock is stored. 

FiGUiER (Louis). Jean Gutenberg, Fust, Schoeffer. Paris : 1867. 
1 2 mo. 
Extract from a work entitled, "Vies de Savants Illustres." 

FiGUiER (Madame Louis). Gutenberg; Drame historique en Cinq 
Actes et en Prose. Paris: 1869. i2mo. pp. 106. 
Republished in Italian at Milan, under the title of "Guttemberg: Drama-storico." 

FiLS (G.). Art de I'lmprimerie-Libi-airie, compose en 1795, quant 
au mecanisme typographique. Paris : 1836. 4to. 

FiNESCHi (P. Vincenzio). Notizie storiche sopra la Stamperia di 
Ripoli, le quali possono servire all' illustrazione della storia tipo- 
grafica Fiorentina raccolte et publicate. Firenze : 1781. 8vo. 
pp. viii. 59. 
Printing was introduced into the con- meo Fonzio was corrector. Books are 
vent of St. Jacopo of Ripoli by the Do- known to have been printed by them 
minican brothers Domenico da Pistoja and from 1476 to 1484, Brother Domenico 
Pietro da Pisa, who also introduced the dying in the latter year. The author was 
casting of type. The monks were their own a Dominican, and archiviste of the Con- 
compositors and pressmen, and Bartolo- vent of Santa Maria Novella, at Florence. 

FiORiLLO (Johann Dominik). Geschichte der zeichnenden Kiinste in 
Deutschland und den Vereinigten Niederlanden. 4 vols. Han- 
over : 1815-20. 8vo. 

FiscHBACH (G. ), Successeur de G. Silbermann. Imprimerie Chromo- 
typographique. Strasbourg : Calendrier, 1878. 
A broadside printed in colours and gold, having in the centre a representation of 
David d' Anger's statue of Gutenberg at Strasbourg, and in the four corners bas- 
reliefs of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America in brown tint. 

Fischer (C. F.). — i".?*? Wittig und Fischer, "Die Schnellpresse." 

Fischer (Gotthelf). Beschreibung typographischer Seltenheiten und 

nierkwlirdiger Handschriften, nebst Eeitragen zur Erfindungs- 

geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst. Mainz und Niirnberg : 1800- 

1804. 6 parts. 8vo. With numerous plates. 

Contains much information concerning the history of printing and printers' types. 

Einige Worte an die Mainzer, bei den Feierlichkeiten des dem 

Erfinder der Buchdruckerkunst Johann Gutenberg in Mainz zu 
errichtenden Denkmals. Moskwa : 1836. 4to. 



Bibliography of Ffi?itifig. 221 

Fischer (Gotthelf). Essai sur les Monumens typographiques de Jean 
Gutenberg, Mayen9ais, Inventeur de I'lmprimerie. Mayence I'an 
10. [1.S02]. 4to. Portrait of Gutenberg, engraved title, engraved 
dedication-plate, two unnumbered leaves, pp. 102, four fac-simile 
plates, and two copperplate fac-similes in the text. 

Notice du Premier Monument Typographique en Caracteres 



mobiles, avec date, connu jusqu'a ce jour, decouvert dans les 

archives de Mayence, et depose a la Bibliotheque Nationale de 

Paris. Mayence : 1804. 4to. pp. 8. i plate. 

Gotthelf Fischer, born at Waldheim, contains everything ascertained up to 

October 15, 1771, was a professor of his time concerning early typography. 

natural history at Mayence and Director Peignot says that Fischer's works exhibit 

of the Moscow Museum. His " Typo- deep and curious research, and contain 

graphical Rarities" is a work of great documents which greatly illustrate the 

erudition, and his Essay on Gutenberg origin of printing. 

Fischer (Heinrich). Anleitung zum Accidenzsatz. Leipzig : 1877. 
Demy 4to. pp. 120. 

A thoroughly practical work on jobbing at Leipzig, an establishment which has, 

composition, elucidated by 150 examples, by reason of its superior display work, 

which illustrate almost every description gained a high reputation throughout 

of jobbing. The author was the manager Germany. He, however, subsequently 

of Herr C. G. Naumann's printing-office started in business for himself. 

Fisher (A. M.). Printing Presses and their Theory. An article in 
the American Journal of Science, vol. iii. pp. 311. [New 
Haven] : 1820, 8vo. 

Fisher (P. H.). Printers' Marks, Emblems, and Mottoes. Notes 
and Queries, Second Series, vol. ix. p. 92. 
The object of this paper is to explain the pictorial and emblematical marks and 
the mottoes of the printers of the olden times and their relation to the printers 
themselves. 

FiTZ-CoOK (Henry). On the Graphotype, a process for producing 
from drawings, blocks for Surface-printing. Article in the Journal 
of the Society of Arts, Dec. 8, 1865. — See Graphotyping Com- 
pany. 

Five Black Arts : Printing, Pottery, Gas-light, Glass, Iron. 
Columbus [Ohio] : 1861. i2mo. 

Flach, alias Sim us (Martin). 

This printer issued his first book, Presserit has chartas quisvc characteri- 

" Liber Speculum Vitse Humanae, editus bus .... 

a Rodorico Zamorensi," at Strasburg, Ille quidem Simus Martinus [FlachJ 

in 1475. The colophon says: — "Ex littore Rheni 

Basilea civi progenito." He after- Vrbs dedit insignem cui Argentina 

wards printed, almost every year down domum 

to the end of the fifteenth century, a Ille inquam impensis qui nunquam 

great number of books, the leaves of (crede) pepercit 

some of which are numbered at the bot- Lector amice, dabat his liber iste 

torn of the page in Roman figures. In fidem. . . . 
one the colophon has the following 

verses : — Martin Flach was succeeded by his 

N.oscere forte voles quis sculpscrit hoc son, or a near relation of his, for in the 

opus ere very first book printed at Strasburg in 



222 



Bibliography of Printing. 




STRASBURG : I475-1500. 

the sixteenth century — "Quasstiones The device of Flach consists of the 

Marsihi," 1501, fo. — is added to the name emblem of a knight and lady standing 

of Martin Flach the epithet of Junior, under a tree, and supporting a shield 

The latter printed there from 1501 to with the monogram M. F., the F sur- 

1513. mounted by a cross. 

Flathe (Ludwig). Die vierte Sacular-Feier der Erfindung Guten- 
bergs in Dresden und Leipzig, Ein Gedenkbuch fiir Gegenwart 
und Zukunft. Leipzig : 1840. 8vo. Frontispiece representing 
Gutenberg's monument at Mayence. pp. 130 and 3 plates of 
facsimiles. 

Fleischmann (C. L.). Erwerbszweige, Fabrikwesen und Handel 
der Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika. Stuttgart : 1870. 
8vo. 

The portion relating to printing consists of the chapters headed " Papierfabrica- 
tion, Musikalienhandlung, Kupferstecher- und Holzschneidekunst; Literatur; Buch- 
handel ; Buchdruckerei ; Zeitungen ; Buchbinder." 

Fleming & Co. (A. B.). Specimens of Printing-inks. Sixth edition. 
Edinburgh : 1876. 4to. and i6mo. 

The frontispiece to this trade-list is a litho-portrait of Gutenberg, and its pages 
present samples of numerous varieties of ink. 

This firm was established twenty-six was needed for several years ; but success 
years ago by Mr. A. B. Fleming (the attended them. When they commenced 
present head), of Hillwood, Corstorphine, business at Salamander-street, the ordi- 
and Dr. Parnell (who retired a few nary price of newspaper-inks was four 
years ago). They commenced in a very times greater than at present. Mr. 
small way, a small engine doing all that Fleming having discovered an oil cheaper 



Bibliography of Printing. 223 

and equally well adapted to the manufac- three acres of ground at Caroline-park, 

ture of printing-ink, took the bold step Granton. The house has upwards of 

of reducing the price, with the result ninety foreign correspondents, and 

that this firm has, from year to year, branches with offices and staff of their 

been adding to their connection, until own in Paris, London, and Manchester, 

now they are said to have the largest ink- In the production of this specimen-book 

factory m the world. Some idea of the we are told that upwards of ;^5oo were 

progress made may be gathered from the spent. The present members of the firm 

fact that even twenty years ago a small are Mr. A. B. Fleming ; Mr. Robert 

six horse-power engine was sufficient for Craig Maclagan, M.D., J. P. for the 

their demands — now they have steam- county of Edinburgh ; and Mr. David 

engines equal to 80 horse-power regu- Harris, 
larly at work. Their new works cover 

Flensburg (J. J. Dodt van). Over de Elzevier's. Utrecht : 1841. 
8vo. 

Flick (J. F.). Beschreibung der elastischen Auftragewalzen in den 
Buchdruckereien, deren Anfertigung, &c. Leipzig : 1823. 8vo. 

Handbuch der Buchdruckerkunst, fiir angehende und prak- 

tische Buchdrucker. Als Anhang, Anweisung Papiere auf alle Art 
zu farben. Mit einem vollstandigen Formatbuche, der Vorstellung 
einer Correctur und vier Kastenabbildungen in Steindruck. 
Berlin : 1820. 8vo. pp. viij. 280. 

Kleines Hand- und Hiilfsbuch fiir Buchhandler, Schriftsteller 

und Correctoren, mit der Vorstellung einer Correctur, Vom 
Verfasser des *' Handbuchs fiir Buchdrucker." Rathenow : 1821. 
8vo. pp. 56. 

Flinsch (Ferdinand). Specimen-Book of the Foundry Ferdinand 
Flinsch, Frankfort. 
This specimen-book was published at intervals of about a year, in parts consisting 
of twenty to twenty-five leaves each. They represent the successive novelties 
produced by the firm. The eighth part appeared in April, 1871 ; the ninth in 1872 ; 
the tenth in 1873 ; the eleventh in 1876. 

The old Dresler foundry at Frankfort, enriched German typography with a fine 

which, since 1859, has been called the series of titling, jobbing, and fancy 

Foundry Ferdinand Flinsch, is one of the founts. — See Dresler. 
most celebrated on the Continent, and has 

Proben der Schriftgiesserei Flinsch in Frankfurt a/Main und 

St. Petersburg. XIL & XIII. Hefte, mit Inhalt-Verzeichniss. 
1878. 4to. 38 leaves. 

This specimen-book was issued to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the exist- 
ence of the Flinsch foundry. 

Flintberg (Jac. Albr.). Borgerlige Formoner och skyldigheter i 
stod af Forfattningar. Forsta Delen ora Minuthandeln och Handt- 
verkerierna. Forsta Afdelningen, som innefattar Titlarna : Acade- 
mier-Boktryckerie. Stockholm : 1786. 4to. 

Pages 103 to 172 contain the regulations for printers which are still in force, with 
annotations ; those for binders and booksellers are also included. 

Floding (P.). Handlingar vorande en ny upfinning i Gravuren. 
Stockholm: 1766. 4to. 



2 24 Bibliography of Printifig. 

FoCKE (Chr. H.). Die Feier des funfzigjahrigen Bestehens der 
Druckerei von G. Hunckel in Bremen, am 8. Mai, 1876. Bremen : 
1876, 4to. 8 pp. of dedication and poetry, printed in chromo- 
lithography and typography, and 16 pp. giving the histoiy of 
Hunckel's printing-office at Bremen, and the proceedings of the 
50th anniversary festival of its existence. 

FoERORDNiNG (Kongl. Maj.), Snddige, och Reglemente for Boktryck- 
erierne i Riket, gifvit Stockholm : 1752. 4to. 

Refers to the foundation of a new Society of Printers, and to the establishment of 
new printing-houses. 

FoERSOEK till Historia om Sveriges Boktryckerier. Stockholm: 1871. 
8vo. 

FoERSTER (Ernst). 'Zur Geschichte des Holzschnittes u. des Kupfer- 
stiches. Abgedruckt in Kunstblatt, Beilage zum Morgenhlatt, 
1842, No. 57, pp. 234, 235. 

FoKKE (Arend). De Graveur, behelzende eene beknopte handleiding 
tot de Daktylioglyphia, of Graveerkunst in edele gesteenten. 
[Vol. XIII. of "VoUedige Beschrijving van alle Konsten, &c." 
Dordrecht : 1796. 8vo.] Plates. 

Folds (George). Specimens of Irish Typography : illustrative of the 
National Press of Ireland. Dublin : 1833. 8vo. 

FoNCEMAGNE (£tienne Laureault de). Examen de M. Maittaire 
touchant I'epoque de I'etablissement de I'lmprimerie en France. 
In vol. vii. of "Memoires de lAcademie des Inscriptions et 
Belles Lettres." Paris : 1743. 4to. 

FONTAN (V.).— ^^^CaBALLERO. 

FoNTENAl (De). Dictionnaire des Artistes, ou Notice historique et 
raisonnee des Architectes, Peintres, Graveurs, Sculpteurs, Musi- 
ciens, Acteurs, Imprimeurs, etc. Paris : 1776. 2 vols. 8vo. 

FoNTENELLE (T.) and Paisson (P.). Vollstandiger Unterricht iiber 
alle Schreib-, Zeichnungs- und Druck-Materialien. Ulm: 1831. 
8vo. 

Ford (Thomas). The Compositor's Handbook : Designed as a 
Guide in the Composing-room. "With the Practice as to Book, 
Job, Newspaper, Law, and Parliamentary Work ; the London 
Scale of Prices ; Appendix of Terms, &c. London : 1854. 
Fcap. 8vo. pp. 262. 

Printing-office Pamphlets. Addressed to Master Printers, 

Overseers, Compositors, and the Trade generally, on subjects 
relating to Management, Economy of Material, &c., with Sugges- 
tions to Type-founders, Brass-rule Cutters, Printers' Joiners, &c., 
as to Improvements in Articles of their Manufacture. No. I. — 



Bibliography of Piinting. 



225 



Brass Rule. London : [n. d.] pp. 32. 
London : [n. d.] pp. 64. Fcap. 8vo. 



-No. II. — Furniture. 



Thomas Ford was a Printers' Reader, 
and a man of considerable literary tastes 
and aptitude. He published a little book 
called "Reminders in Grammar and 
Orthography ; or. Rules and Examples 
by which many of the Doubts constantly 
arising as to Disputed Spelling may be 
set at rest. Selected, Revised, and made 
Familiar to Present Usage." He also 
designed a work uniform with Timperley's 
" Songs of the Press," which was to have 
been entitled "Laconics of the Press: 
being Opinions in Prose selected from 
the Works of the most eminent Authors 
and Periodical Publications. With Notes 
Biographical and Literary." But we 
believe that it never appeared. His 
" Printing-oflfice Pamphlets," which pro- 
mised to be a useful series, were not 
carried further than two or three parts ; 
but the author announced the following 
among some of the subjects in prepara- 
tion for ensuing numbers : — Cases, their 
Uniformity and Arrangement ; Appren- 
tices ; Late Hours ; Favouritism ; Pie ; 
An Address to Master Printers, &c. &c. 
Referring to the fact that Hansard speaks 
of only two copies of Moxon's " Me- 



chanick Exerc'ses" being in existence. 
Ford says to a correspondent: "If we 
could meet with the First Part, it would 
almost tempt us to reprint that and the 
Second, of which we have a copy, though 
we should not expect any profit there- 
from, printers bein^ very lukewarm at 
supporting anything relating' to the 
trade." Unfortunately Ford's fortune 
was not equal to his aspirations or his 
industry, and he was unable to carry out 
this and several other meritorious schemes 
which he had designed. Ford was fiercely 
attacked by Houghton in the preface 
to the edition of his " Printers' Prac- 
tical Every-Day Book," which was pub- 
lished in 1857, fifteen years subsequently 
to the issue of the first edition, where he 
is accused of counterfeiting Houghton's 
work, and parallel passages are given 
which certainly make out the case against 
Ford. Nevertheless, the " Compositor's 
Handbook " is not without merits of its 
own as a practical manual : it has been 
out of p'int for some years. Ford, who 
was lame, died in poor circumstances on 
the 3rd December, i860, aged 58 years. 



Articles in Note's and 



Foreign Printers and their Typography. 
Queries, First Series, i. 277, 340, 402. 

A corre.spondent having inquired for plement to " Lempri^re's Dictionary " by 

some list of names of towns abroad, with E. H. Barker, and Cotton's "Typographi- 

their Latin equivalents, in order to cal Gazetteer." It is stated, however, 

identify the places of publication of early that both of these are inadequate and 

printed books, he is referred to the sup- inaccurate. 

FORESTlfi-NEVETJ (E.). Un Chapltre de I'Histoixe de I'lmprimerie a 
Montauban. Louis Rabier, imprimeur du Roi de Navarre a 
Montauban. Montauban : 1872. Svo. pp. 28. (Privately 
printed. ) 

Les Debuts de I'lmprimerie a Montauban, 1518-1526. Mont- 
auban : 1876. Svo. pp. 20. (Privately printed.) 

FoRMATBUCH, neu verbessertes, auf der lobl. Kunst-Buchdruckerey 
niitzlich zu gebrauchendes, deme beygefiiget etliche oriental. 
Alphabeten, Abdruck einiger Schriftproben, nebst dem gebrauch- 
lichen Deposition - Biichlein in Nieder- und Obersachsischer 
Sprache. Liibeck u. Leipzig : 1724. 

FoRMAT-BuECHLEiN, neu auffgesetztes, oder Vorgestellte Nachrich- 
tungs-Figuren wie man auff der loblichen Kunst Buchdruckerey 
in alien. . . . Formaten die Columnen recht ordentlich ausschies- 
sen und stellen soil, &c. 1673. 
2 G 



226 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Forms. Het overslaan van Drukvormen gemakkelijk gemaakt. 
Deventer : 1843. l2mo. 

FoRTECKNiNG pa de af K. Academiensi Upsala Boktryckerie utkomna 
Arbeten ar 1751. Upsala. 4to. 

This is the first catalogue known of works sent to public libraries by the printers 
who produced them. — See Petzholdt (Julius) " Bibliotheca Bibliographica," p. 398. 

FORTIER (G.). La Photolithographic, son Origine, ses Procedes, ses 
AppHcations. Paris : 1876. 8vo. pp. 74 ; 3 plates. 

Foster & Winstone. Specimens of Printing Inks, Machine, 
Letterpress, and Lithographic. London: 185 1. 8vo. 

FOUCHER, Freres (Sue. de V. Foucher et Fils) a Paris. Catalogue des 
Ustensiles et Machines de I'lmprimerie. Orne de 100 Gravures. 
1878. 4to. 
Published for the Universal Exposition of Paris, 

Foucher (Veuve et Fils). Catalogue General du Materiel Typo- 
graphique. Paris : 1872. 4to. pp. 93 and 3, with engravings. 

FouDRiAT et Pennequin. fipreuve des Caracteres. Bruxelles : 1828. 

FOUGT (H.). Specimens of a new Type for Music. In six sonatas, 
by Uttini. 3 vols. London : 1768. Folio. 

Four Centuries of Printing in England. London : 1877. pp.12. 4to. 

An article popularly describing the origin and development of Printing, which 
appeared in ** Everybody's Year-Book, 1877," and was afterwards privately reprinted 
as above. 

Fouret (Rene). Exposition Internationale de Philadelphie en 1876: 
Section Fran9aise. Rapport sur I'lmprimerie et la Librairie. 
Paris : Imprimerie Nationale, 1877. 4to. pp. 48. 

The author was a member of the Inter- lishers contributed. There was a cata- 

national Jury at the great Centennial logue printed of these Dutch publications, 

Philadelphia Exhibition. His work gives of which M. Fouret speaks with approval ; 

an account of printing and publishing as and he commends highly the examples of 

carried on in diflferent countries, and etching and chromo-lithography shown in 

illustrated by the specimens in the Exhi- the illustrated works ; also an edition of 

bition. Great Britain did not shine in the works of Vondel, whom he calls the 

this section of the Exhibition, most of our Dutch Shakspeare, in twelve octavo 

publishing houses having refrained from volumes, illustrated with engravings, 

sending specimens. Of Canadian print- Belgium, it seems, did not send much, 

ing there were various specimens, among The other countries that contributed to 

which the writer especially commends the this section of the Exhibition were France, 

great " Atlas of Canada," published by Switzerland, Italy, Sweden and Norway, 



Messrs. Walker & Miles, of Toronto 
Of printing in the United States, the 
writer speaks well upon the whole. There 
were eighty-four exhibitors. Germany 
and Austria likewise distinguished them 
selves by their exhibit 
complete collection was 



Holland, to which as many as 126 pub- Vienna. 



Russia, Brazil, and the Argentine Re- 
public. France, however, of all these 
countries, distinguished itself the most, 
owing to the exertions of the " Cercle de 
la Librairie" to make the contributions 
but the most worthy of the country it represents, as it 
that sent by had previously done m the Exhibition at 



Bibliography of Printing. 227 

FoURGEAUD-LAGRfeZE (N. ). Le P^rfgord Litteraire. L'Imprimerie 
en Perigord, ses Origines, ses Progres et ses principales Produc- 
tions (1498-1874). Riberac: 1876. 8vo. pp.28. 

[FOURMAGE (Jul.)]. Memoire presente (par rAssociation et la 
Chambre Syndicale des Imprimeurs en Taille-douce de Paris) 4 
MM. les Membres de la Commission d'Enquete sur la Liberte de 
rimprimerie et de la Librairie. Paris: 1869. 8vo. 

FoURNiER (Ed.). Gutenberg, drame en 5 actes en vers. Paris : 1869. 
Large 8vo. pp. xx. 139. 

Represented for the first time in Paris at the Imperial Theatre of the Odeon, 
April 8, 1869. 

See Lacroix (Paul). 

FOURNIER (Henri). Essai sur I'Imprimerie, par un jeune ouvrier 
Imprimeur. Bordeaux : 1802. 8vo. 

Traite de la Typographie. Paris : 1825. 8vo. pp. xlii. 323. 

Reprinted at Brussels : 1826. Small 8vo. pp. xl. 306. 

Deuxieme edition, corrigee et augmentee. Tours et Paris : 1854. 
8vo. pp. xii. 408. Troisieme edition. Tours : 1870. 8vo. 

The second edition of this work was engaged the assistance of three gentle- 

the subject of an exceedingly encouraging men who have made different branches of 

eulogium from' the Association of Paris the subject their special study — MM. 

Printers. For the improvement of the Motteroz, F. Garde, & M. Tolmer. 
third edition of his book the author 

The Introduction to Fournier's Treatise on Typography. 



Translated by Charles E. Keymer. Gloucester : 1866. 4to. 

The translation of Fournier's work would have been of great use to English 
readers, and it is to be regretted that the author found such little encouragement 
that he abandoned his project after the introduction was issued. 

FouRNiER (Pierre Simon), or Fournier le Jeune. Les Caracteres 
de I'Imprimerie. Paris: 1764. Small 8vo, pp. 167. 

Dissertation sur I'Origine et les Progres de I'Art de graver en 



bois, pour eclaircir quelques traits de I'histoire de I'Imprimerie, et 
prouver que Guttemberg n'en est pas I'inventeur. Paris : [i75^]* 
8vo. pp. 92. 

This work, a reply to which was issued in 1758 by M. Gando (j^^ Gando, F.), 
"Lettre,"&c., consists of three tracts, connected by a general title-page, pagination, 
and register. 

fipreuves de deux petits Caracteres nouvellement graves et 

executes dans toutes les parties typographiques. Paris : I7S7* 
i8mo. 

Lettre a M, Freron au sujet de I'^tdition d'une Bible annoiicee 

pour etre la premiere Production de I'Imprimerie. Paris : 1 763. 



2 28 Bibliography of Printing, 

FouRNiER (Pierre Simon). Manuel Typographique, utile aux Gens de 
Lettres et a ceux qui exercent les differentes parties de I'Art de 
rimprimerie. (Reponse a un memoire public en 1 766, par 
MM. Gando, au sujet des caracteres de fonte pour la musique.) 
2 vols. Paris : 1764-66. 8vo. Vol. I. Frontisp., pp. xxxii. 323. 
Vol. II. Frontisp., pp. xliv. 306. 16 plates. 
The first volume contains a description and the fourth would have been a bio- 
of the engraving or cutting of the cha- graphy of celebrated printers. Some 
racters and the casting of types; the copies of th^ " Manuel Typographique " 
second consists of 186 pages of Specimens want a few of the cuts ; copies on large 
of Type and loi Alphabets, ancient and paper are of the greatest rarity. " Four- 
modern, with explanation of them. This nier's Typographical Manual should be 
celebrated work of Fournier was intended in every printing-office." — Dibdin {^Bib- 
to consist of four volumes, but death liomanid). " His types are the models 
prevented the author from carrying of those of the best-printed books at Paris 
out his ideas. The third volume would at this day." — Diet. Port, de Bibliogr., 
have treated on the history of printing, p. 218. 

Observations sur un Ouvrage intitule : Vindicise Typographicse, 

pour servir de suite au traite de I'origine et des productions de 

I'Imprimerie primitive en taille de bois. [Strasbourg], Paris : 1760. 

8vo. pp. 62. 

Professor Baer has replied to Fournier (Strasbourg [Paris]: 1761. Svo.). It is 

in an anonymous work entitled " Lettre also published in the "Memoires de 

rOrigine de I'Imprimerie, servant de I'Acade'mie des Inscriptions et Belles 



-sur 



reponse aux observations publiees par Lettres," tom. xvii. Fournier wrote the 
Fournier Jeune, sur I'ouvrage de Schoep- " Remarques" as a reply to this attack, 
flin, intitule 'Vindiciae Typographicae. " 

De rOrigine et des Productions de I'Imprimerie primitive en 

taille de bois ; avec une refutation des prejuges plus ou moins 
accredites sur cet art ; pour servir de suite a la dissertation sur 
I'origine de I'art de graver en bois. [Strasbourg], Paris : 1759. 
Svo. pp. 263. 

Remarques sur un Ouvrage [by E. Baer] intitule, "Lettres sur 

rOrigine de I'Imprimerie," pour servir de suite au traite, ** De 
rOrigine et des Productions de I'Imprimerie primitive en taille de 
bois." [Strasbourg], Paris : 1761. Svo. pp. S4. 

Table des Proportions des Caracteres d'Imprimerie. Paris : 



1737. 4to. 
This Table has very materially contributed to the progress of printing. 

Traite Historique et Critique sur I'Origine et les Progres des 

Caracteres de Fonte, pour I'lmpression de Musique, avec des 
epreuves de nouveaux caracteres de Musique. Paris : 1765. 4to. 
pp. 47 [the last 12 being an Ariette by M. I'Abbe Dugue set up as 
a specimen of music type]. 

A reply to this treatise was published by N, Gando, of Berne, in 1765. — See 
Gando. 

Traites Historiques et Critiques sur I'Origine et les Progres 

de I'Imprimerie. Paris: i75S-6i-[63]. Svo. 

The first three tracts in this collection are duplicates of those in the Dissertation 
on Wood Engraving cited above, which were published without a collective title, 
and the fifth is also a duplicate of one of them, the "Remarques," &c. E.^ch 
tract has a separate pagination and register, and with the exception of the last, a 
separate title-page. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



229 



, Petrr Simon Fournier, a French en- 
graver and letter-founder, was born at 
Paris, 1712, and died 1768. He studied 
under Colson, painter of the Academy of 
Saint Luc, and devoted himself first to 
the art of wood-engraving ; he after- 
wards, as an engraver on steel, rendered 
himself famous in all countries. In some 
of his works he seeks to prove that 
Gutenberg is not the inventor of printing, 
and maintains that long before Guten- 
berg engraving on wood had been em- 



ployed for printing images and inscrip- 
'tions ; that during his residence in 
Strasburg, Gutenberg attempted the 
application of this art to the printing of 
books, and that on his return to Mayence 
he first printed the Donatus and the 
Catholicon of Johannes de Janua with 
engraved and solid blocks. Fournier's 
ingenious theories were ably refuted by 
Baron Heinecken in his "Idee Generale 
d'une Collection complette d'Estampes " 
(Leipsic : 1771. 8vo.). 



Fournier (Simon-Pierre). Modeles de Caracteres de I'Imprimerie et 
de choses necessaires au dit Art. Paris : 1745. 4to. 




559-1579- 



Fowler (John). 



This printer, whose name is sometimes 
written " Fouler," was born at Bristol, 
educated at Winchester, and was a fellow 
of New College, Oxford, in 1555, when, 
refusing to comply with the terms of 
Protestant uniformity in Queen Eliza- 
beth's time, he (1559) resigned his fellow- 
ship, and settled as printer at Antwerp 
and Louvain, where he printed the books 
of Papists against the Protestants. He 
died at Namur, 13th February, 1579. 
Another printer of the same name ap- 
pears to have printed likewise at Antwerp 
in the years 1617, 1619, 1635 ; at Lou- 
vain, 1620, 1622 ; then at Douay in 1636. 

Fragen, Kurtze, von der Buchdruckerkunst, zum Nutzen der Jugend 
in der Stadtschule zu Grimma, aufgesetzt von P. S. K. Leipzig: 
1 740. 8vo. 



John Fowler was a scholar as well as a 
pnnter, and wrote or translated many 
works, chiefly of a theological character ; 
amongst them a book (issued in 1566) 
illustrated by extremely curious engra- 
vings on each page, showing the cruel- 
ties that Protestants practised on the 
Roman Catholics. 

Fowler's punning device consists of the 
emblems of crows in a nest at the top of 
a tree, fed by a hand issuing from the 
clouds. On either side of the tree are 
the letters I F, and around the motto 
are the words " Respicite volatilia cceli et 
pullos corvorum." 



230 Bibliography of Printing. 

France. Statistique de I'lmprimerie en France. Cercle de la 
Librairie, Paris, 1875. 8vo. pp. 6. 

See IMPRIMERIE. 

Franciosi (Ch. de). Hommage a M. Louis Danel. Lille : 1877. 
Large 4to. pp. 139, with portrait. 

Only no numbered copies were printed. M. Danel, the renowned printer of 
Lille, died in 1877. 

Francis (Jabez). Printing at Home, with full instructions for 
Amateurs ; containing illustrations of the necessary materials, 
with explanatory key, specimens of type, &c. Rochford, Essex : 
[1870]. Small 8vo. pp. 42, with eight leaves of specimens. 

FRAN901S (Jean Charles). Lettre de M. Fran9ois, graveur des dessins 
du cabinet du roi. . . . a M. Saverien sur I'Utilite du Dessin et 
sur la Gravure dans le gout du crayon. Paris : 1 760. 8vo. 

Au Sujet du nouveau Mode de Gravure invente par J. C. F. 

An article in the "Registres de 1' Academic Royale de Peinture et 
de Sculpture," 26th March, 1757, and again 26th Nov., 1757. 

Franke (Carl August). Handbuch der Buchdruckerkunst. Nach 
ihrem neuesten Standpunkte in Deutschland. Weimar : 1855. 

8vo. pp. XXX. 350. Second edition. Weimar : 1857. 8vo. 

pp. xii. 379. Third edition. Weimar : 1862. 8vo. pp. xii. 

408. Fourth edition. Weimar: 1867. 8vo. pp. xii. 389. 

Though this book has seen four editions, it owed them only to the want of some 
better manual : in many parts it was very superficially done, and contains gross 
errors. Its place is now taken by Bachmann's Handbook.— >S"^i^ ante. 

■ Katechismus der Buchdruckerkunst und der verwandten 

Geschaftszweige. Mit 44 in den Text gedruckten Abbildungen 

und Tafeln. Leipzig: 1856. i2mo. pp. viii. 187. Second 

edition. Leipzig : 1862. 8vo. pp. x. 166. Third edition. 

Leipzig : 1872. 8vo. pp. viii. 192. 

Gives a brief history, and also explains the practice of the Art of Printing in a 
catechetical, but by no means perfect form. 

Frankfort on the Maine. Fines Erbaren Raths Ordnung und 
Artickel, wie es forthin auff alien Truckereien in dieser Stadt 
Franckfurt, soil gehalten werden. Franckfurt am Main : 1573. 
4to. 8 leaves. 

A very curious set of rules and regula- is given, by which it appears that the 

tions for printing-offices as ordered by Frankfort printers of that period were 

the State as to rates of pay ; relations of legally entitled to twenty-nine holidays 

masters and men, &c. A list of holidays in the year. 

Franklin (Alfred). La Sorbonne, ses Origines, sa Bibliotheque, les 

Debuts de I'lmprimerie a Paris, et la succession de Richelieu, 

d'apres des documents inedits. 2« edition. Paris : 1875. 8vo. 

pp. xiv. 272. 

Of this work there were issued 400 numbered copies ; of which i to 25 were on 

China paper, 26 to 125 on Dutch handmade paper, and Nos. 126 to 400 on vellum 

paper. 



Bibliography of Pnnfing. 



231 



Franklin (Benjamin). Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benja- 
min Franklin. . . . Written by himself to a late period, and 
continued to the time of his Death by his grandson, William 
Temple Franklin. London : 1818. 4to. 3 vols. 

Autobiography : with a Narrative of his Public Life and Ser- 
vices, by H. Hastings Weld. New York : 1848. 8vo. 



The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, published verbatim 
from the Original Manuscript. By his grandson, William Temple 
by Jared Sparks. London : 1850. 8vo. 



Franklin. Edited 
pp. vi. 154. 

Numerous editions of this autobio- 
graphy have been printed, the above 
being the best editions of the work as 
originally given to the world in a muti- 
lated form by his descendants. The 



Hon. John Bigelow, when American 
minister to France, a post previously held 
by Franklin himself, discovered the ori- 
ginal manuscript in Paris, and published 
it in the following form : — 



— Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Edited from his Manu- 
script, with Notes and an Introduction, by John Bigelow. Phila- 
delphia : 1868. 8vo. pp. 409. Portrait after Duplessis, by 
Hall. 

— Life of Benjamin Franklin, written by himself, now first edited 
from original MSS. and from his printed Correspondence and 
other Writings, by John Bigelow. 3 vols. Philadelphia : 1875. 
8vo. 

Sein Leben, von ihm selbst beschrieben. Mit einem Vorwort 



von Berthold Auerbach und einer historisch-politischen Einleitung, 
von Friederich Kapp. Nebst dem Bildnisse Franklin's. Stutt- 
gart : 1876. i6mo. pp. iv. 496, and portrait. 

Several German translations of the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin had 
been previously published, but they were all incomplete, in so far as they had been 
translated from the mutilated English and American editions. The last-named 
book, however, is a new and complete German translation from the text of the 
original manuscript. It has a short preface written by Berthold Auerbach, in the 
course of which he says that the life of Franklin is not an ideal and example in 
the sense that his life and thoughts should be exactly copied, but rather that the 
force of will and motive animating him in all his actions should be studied and 
adapted to their own circumstances by others. The preface is followed by a highly 
interesting historico-political Introduction from the pen of Herr F. Kapp, who in 
some ninety pages gives a graphic and complete description of the life and working 
of this world-famed printer. 



Benjamin Franklin was bom in Bos- 
ton, January 17, 1706, and died in Phila- 
delphia, April 17, 1790. He holds the 
most prominent place in the long list of 
distinguished American printers. His 
career is, however, too well known to 
require recapitulation here. In all his 
enterprises he never lost sight of the fact 
that he was a printer, and, in his will, 
he simply described himself as such. His 
works have been frequently published at 
length and in abridgments, the best 
edition being that by Jared Sparks, in 



to vols. 8vo., Boston, 1840; and they 
have been translated into nearly every 
civilized language. The mere list of trans- 
lations in the British Museum occupies 
nearly twenty large folio pages of the 
catalogue. In 1872, a statue to Franklin 
was erected in Printing House Square, 
New York {see De Vinne, Record of 
Proceedings and Ceremonies, &c.). 

Some points in Franklin's career deserve 
mention in this Bibliography, and are 
especially interesting to English printers. 
He came to London on the 25th of Decem- 



232 



Bibliography of Printing. 



ber, 1724, being then eighteen years of 
age. He had about £,\-2 with him, and 
some letters of recommendation which he 
found to be useless. By accident he 
strolled to the printing-office in Bar- 
tholomew Close of Samuel Palmer (the 
reputed anthor of the History of Printing, 
noticed posf) and obtained employment 
there as a compositor, being engaged upon 
a second edition of Dr. Wollaston's " Reli- 
gion of Nature delineated," — a work 
which contains an interesting vignette of 
an antique press and composing-room. 
Franklin's literary ardour was aroused 
by some of the Doctor's statements, and 
he wrote and got printed for circulation 
among his friends, a reply, which intro- 
duced him to some of the leading people 
of the time. He continued at Palmer's 
about a year, when he felt inclined to 
make a change, partly for reasons affecting 
his health, partly for at least equally 
obvious reasons affecting his pocket. He 
says : — 

" The printing-house of Watts, near 
Lincoln's-inn-fields, being a still more 
considerable one than that in which 1 
worked, it was probable I might find it 
more advantageous to be employed there. 
I offered myself and was accepted ; and 
in this house I continued during the 
remainder of my stay in London. 
On my entrance I worked at first as a 
pressman, conceiving that I had need of 
bodily exercise, to which I had been 
accustomed in America, where the print- 
ers work alternately as compositors and 
at the press." 

It was here that his habit of drinking 
no stimulants whatever, and of assuaging 
his thirst with water, gained for him the 
nickname of the "aquatic American." 
This incident was depicted by Mr. Eyre 
Crowe, R.A., in a fine painting exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1858. An en- 
graving of this painting was given in the 
Leisure Hour volume for 1859, and was 
reproduced in the Printing Times and 
Lithographer for June 15, 1876. 

Franklin only remained at press-work 
for a few weeks ; after that he returned 
to case, and continued at this branch till 
he left the office to return to America as 
a commercial clerk. He arrived there in 
July, 1726. 

Watts's printing-office is not now in 
existence, but, having a personal interest in 
the subject, we have been at some trouble 
to ascertain its former whereabouts, and in 
the inquiry were materially assisted by the 
rate-books of the parishes of St. Giles 
and St. George's, Bloomsbury. The 
premises occupied by Watts for his busi- 
ness are on the south side of Wild-court, 
near the eastern end, and three doors 



from King's-Head-yard, They are not 
now used as a printing-office. 

Although the printing-office in which 
Franklin worked is no more, the press 
has been preserved. Thirty years after 
he had been engaged as a journeyijian 
printer, Franklin visited this country as 
a kind of diplomatic agent, and he re- 
mained here from 1757 to 1762. In 1764 
he was sent on another similar message, 
which involved his sojourn in the metro- 
polis for about eleven years. In 1768 he 
paid a visit to Watts's printing-office, and 
going up to one of the presses, thus 
addressed the men who were working at 
it, " Come, my friends, we will drink 
together ! It is now forty years since I 
worked like you at this press, as a jour- 
neyman printer." He then sent out for 
a gallon of porter, and drank with them 
" Success to Printing." 

About 1 77 1, this press was bought by 
Mr. Edward Cox, with other materials, 
and was set up in the office belonging 
successively to Messrs. Cox & Sons, 
Cox & Wyman, and now Wyman & Sons, 
Nos. 74 and 75, Great Queen Street. 
We have this fact authenticated by a 
letter of the late Mr. J. L. Cox, dated Sep- 
tember 10, 1841, in which he says that 
his father, Mr. Edward Cox, bought the 
press about seventy years before from the 
office in which Dr. Franklin once worked, 
and refers to an old pressman in his 
father's employ, named Norgrove, who 
was working at Watts's when Franklin 
visited the office in 1768. The press was 
worked for some time by Messrs. Cox, 
but, becoming obsolete, afterwards lay 
idle for years. Ultimately, its room 
being required, it was taken down, and 
passed into the hands of Messrs. Harrild 
& Sons, the well-known printers' brokers, 
in whose lumber-room it remained until 
June, 1841, when an American gentleman, 
Mr. J. B. Murray, happening to learn 
the fact of its existence, set himself to 
acquire the relic for shipment to his own 
country, under the circumstances referred 
to in the next article. The Franklin Press 
was sent to America, and for many years 
was installed in the Patent Office at 
Washington. Changes taking place there, 
it was claimed by Mr. J. B. Murray, who 
then deposited it in the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute at Washington. Subsequently it was 
removed to the model-room of the Patent 
Office, where it has since remained, with 
the exception of a short interval during 
which it was shown at the Philadelphia 
International Exhibition, 1876. At p. 234 
is an authentic view of the press ; another 
representation will be found in Ripley & 
Dana's American Encyclopaedia, new 
edition, p. 851. 



Bibliography of Priiifmg. 



^ZZ 



We append an authentic portrait of 
Franklin, taken while he was residing in 
France as an ambassador from his native 
country. The original was drawn by 
J. S. Duplessis (the grandfather of M. 
Georges Duplessis, the bibliographer ot 
the art of engraving) in 1783, and pre- 
sented by Franklin to his friend and 



neighbour at Passy, near Paris, M. Louis 
le Veillard. We are enabled to reproduce 
it by the courtesy of Messrs. Whittingham, 
of the Chisw ick Press. 

We may add, all American one-cent 
stamps bear a portrait of this great printer, 
printed in imperial ultramarine blue, and 
drawn from the profile bust by Rubricht. 




BENJAMIN KKANKLIN. 



There stood for many years in the 
office of Messrs. Wyman, a press which 
was the exact counterpart of the Franklin 

2 



press. Along with its surroundings, it 
was sketched by Mr. Eyre Crowe for the 
picture already referred to. 
H 



234 



Bihiiography of Printing 




VIEW OF THE FRANKLIN PRESS. — See p. 232. 



was then in daily use as a proof-press. 
The press was photographed iti sitii, and 
removed to the Museum, it having been 
presented to the trustees by Messrs. 
Wyman. 



In 1863 the authorities at the Museum 
of Patents, South Kensington, were en- 
gaged in collecting early memorials rela- 
ting to the art of Printing, and made appli- 
cation for the loan of the press which Mr. 
Eyre Crowe had sketched, and which 

Franklin (Benjamin). A Lecture on the Life of Dr. Franklin, by the 
Rev. Hugh M'Neile, A.M., as delivered by him at the Liverpool 
Royal Amphitheatre, on Wednesday evening, 17th November, 1841, 
containing also a prefatory note to the reader, by John B. Murray, 
Esq., of New York; with a fac-simile of Dr. Franklin's Letter 
to the Rev. George Whitefield, from the original manuscript in 
the possession of the Rev. Dr. Raffles. Also illustrated with an 
engraving of the Press at which Franklin worked when a journey- 
man in London, printed on a detached page, at that identical 
press. Liverpool : 1841. 8vo., pp. 48. 
The circumstances connected with the prove my desire to make a proper return 



acquisition of the Franklin press by 
Messrs. Hanild & Sons, have been re- 
ferred to supra. Mr. John B, Murray 
proposed to that firm that it should be 
sent over to America, which they agreed 
to, provided they were to be assured in 
return, of a donation being made to the 
London Printers' Pension Society. In a 
letter written by Mr. Murray, he says : — 
" Messrs. Harrild, meanwhile, allowed 
me the immediate possession of the press, 
forwarding it to me at Liverpool ; and to 



to the Printers' Pension Fund, I deter- 
mined to permit the press to be exhibited 
until a reply should be received from 
America. It was deposited in the Council 
Chamber of the Liverpool Medical Insti- 
tution, and for about three weeks, during 
which the press remained open to the 
public, it was visited by numerous parties, 
bothEnglish and American. Impressions of 
apoembyDr. Franklin, entitled "Paper," 
and also the Twelve Rules which he laid 
down for his own government in early life, 



Bibliography of Printing. 



'35 



were printed, and about 5,800 copies were 
freely given among the visitors. In 
return for these impressions (which were 
occasionally printed off at the press by 
the visitors themselves), small voluntary 
contributions to the Printers' Pension 
Fund were received in a box placed near 
the press. Great interest appeared to be 
excited about the exhibition of the press ; 
and it was suggested to me that a lecture 
on the life of Dr. Franklin would aid the 
society for whose benefit it was being 
exhibited. I made this suggestion known 
to the Rev. Hugh M'Neile, who even- 
tually accepted the task, though at the 
sacrifice of many personal and professional 
duties." 

The result is the Lecture above cited. 
It contains no typographical allusions, 
and is generally a fervid eulogium of 
Franklin's character and career. Subse- 
quentlj'^, says Mr. Murray, — " I received, 
through Mr. [Petty] Vaughan, a com- 
munication from the Philosophical So- 
ciety of Philadelphia, regretting that 
they could not consistently with their 
constitution, accept the press on the con- 
ditions named. I immediately made this 
known to Messrs. Harrild, as I could not 
now expect to realize for them the anti- 
cipated donations from that society, 
neither could I in honour claim any 

Franklin Society of Chicago. Constitution and Bye-laws of the 
Franklin Society of the City of Chicago. Chicago : 1870, 8vo. 
The following are stated to be the ob- a library which shall be at once the pro- 
jects for which the Society was organized : fessional companion and the instructor of 
" Believing that 'every man is a debtor to each one of us ; to collect and preserve 



further title to the press. To this I 
received a reply, presenting the press 
to 77te, individt^ally , unreservedly, and 
in a still more handsome manner than 
when they first consented to part with it, 
I had the pleasure to remit to the 
Printers' Pension Society of London, 
through Messrs. Harrild, the sum of 
;^i5o. 9s. 4d., the proceeds of this lec- 
ture, and of the exhibition of the Press." 

Tiie Printers' Pension Society has, how- 
ever, never received one farthing direct 
from America. The sum derived from the 
Liverpool exhibition was funded by 
Messrs. Harrild, and in 1854 it had 
accumulated to an amount sufficient to 
enable the Committee of the Printers' 
Pension Society to initiate the " Franklin 
Pension " of ;^io. los. per year. 

An imperfect acquaintance with the 
preceding facts has led to the erroneous 
belief that it was actually at Messrs. 
Wyman's office that Franklin worked 
when in London. This error has been 
perpetuated by a drawing being given in 
Cassell's Illustrated History of England 
(vol. v. p. 37) of the exterior of the 
establishment in Great Queen Street 
(as it appeared before recent alterations) 
as that of the office in which he was em- 
ployed. 



his profession, from the which as men do 
of course seek to receive countenance 
and profit, so ought they of duty to en- 
deavour themselves, by way of amends, 
to be a help thereto'; and wishing to 
fulfil this obligation to our craft ; for the 
cultivation of personal intercourse and 
greater harmony among the members of 
our guild ; to aid each other in perfecting 



the records of typography and kindred 
arts, so that those who come after us may 
know what our predecessors and we have 
done and are doing ; and to advance this 
our common welfare as craftsmen and 
citizens, we organize and establish the 
Franklin Society." The two correspond- 
ing members elected for England were 
the late Mr. Alexander Andrews (author 



themselves in the practical portion of our of "The History of Journalism, &c.")and 
work by reading and discussion ; to found Mr. John Southward.— 6"^^ Boss. 

Franz (J oh. Friedr.). Thomas Platter, Versuch einer Darstellung 
seines Lebens. Als Beitrag zur Gelehrten-Geschichte aus den 
ZeitenderSchweizer- Reformation. St. Gallen: 1812. Svo. pp.xl. 
354, and portrait. 
Platter was a professor of languages and printer at Basle, 

Fraser (Alexander). On Type- setting Machines, with description of 

Fraser's Composing and Distributing Machines. Edinburgh : 

1876. 8vo. pp. 24. 

A paper read before the Royal machine invented by the author, senior 

Scottish Academy of Arts. It describes partner in the firm of Neill & Co., 

a type-setting and a type - distributing printers, Edinburgh. After having been 



r 



236 Bibliography of Prititing. 

reported on by a committee of practical the speed of the composing-machine in 

men, Mr. Eraser's invention was awarded particular is only limited by the skill of 

the Society's highest prize — viz., the the operator in touching the keys — practi- 

Keith Medal. The aciion is by means cally found to be at the rate of from 

of keys, the keyboards of both com- 10,000 to 12,000 types per hour. The 

posing and distributing machines being machines are so constructed that the 

nearly identical. They set and distribute matter can be either set at once in lines 

the various sizes of type in common use, of the width of the page or column, or in 

one pair of machines, for example, setting long lines, to be afterwards divided into 

and distributing small pica to minion lines of the desired length by another 

inclusive. No nicking or other special operator. These machines have not yet 

adaptation of the type is required, and got into general use. 

P'rauenlob (Rudolph). Beitrage zur Fortbildung der Typographic 
und zur Verstandigung mit den Autoren. Wien : i860. 8vo. 

■ Die Typographic und ihre Beziehungen zu den Verkchrskrciscn 

des sozialen Lebens. Wicn : 1861. 8vo. 

■ Die graphischcn Kiinste auf der Pariser Ausstellung. Separat- 

abdruck aus dem k. k. officiellcn Ausstellungsbcrichte. Wien : 

1868. 8vo. pp. iv. 68. 
A special edition of the Report on the Graphic Arts at the Paris Exhibition, 1867. 
Fraula (De). Note sur I'Invention des Caracteres en Bois. In 

" Memoircs del' Academic dcBruxellcs," vol. iii. p. 40, Bruxclles: 

1825. 4to. 

Frege (L.). Dcutschlands und Prcussens Jubcl-Freude. Erinnerun- 
gen an die Jahre 1440, 1540, 1640 und 1740. Berlin: 1840. 8vo. 

Freher (Paul). Theatrum Virorum eruditione singulari clarorum. 
Nuremberg: 1688. 2 vols. Folio. Separate title-page ; pagina- 
tion continuous; pp. 1562; index 15 pages. 1551 portraits. 
Among the memoirs are several, of much historical value, of eminent early printers. 

Freiligrath (Ferdinand). Zur Feier von Gutenberg's 40DJahrigcm 

Todestagc, 24. Februar, 1868. Dem Fortbildungsverein fur 

Buchdrucker und Schriftgicsscr in Leipzig mit herzlichcn Griissen 

gewidmet. Leipzig : 1868. 8vo. pp. 2. 

A poem by Freiligrath, on the occasion of the memorial festival celebrated by 

the Leipzig Printers' Union on the supposed day of the death of Gutenberg. 

Freissauf von Neudegg (F.). Beschreibung der Ektypographie fiir 
Blinde, nebst ihrer Anwendung fiir Sehende, oder die Kunst, 
erhabene Abdriickc von gewohnlicher wcise gestochenen Mctall- 
oder Steinplattcn und Buchdruckcrlettem, etc., zu machen und 
sic beliebig zu vervielfaltigen. Wicn : 1837. 410. 

Fremiet. Formation d'une Imprimcrie pour les Bcsoins de 1' adminis- 
tration des Hopitaux et Hospices civiles de la Ville de Paris. 
Paris: 1837. 4to. 

Fr^re (Edouard). Considerations sur les Origines Typographiqucs. 

Rouen : 1850. Royal 8vo. pp. 28. 100 copies only printed on 

Dutch paper. 
An extract from the " Precis des theory of the invention by Gutenberg. 
Travaux de I'Academie de Rouen." An In the notes are references to the chief 
eloquent address on the controversies on French works on the subject, 
the origin of Printing, upholding the 



Bibliography of Printing. 237 

FkfeRF, (Edouard). De rimprimerie et de la Librairie a Rouen dans les 

XVe et XVJe Siecles ; et de Martin Morin, celebre imprimeur 

rouennais. Rouen: 1843. Small 4to. pp. 68. 150 copies printed. 

Contains a history of printing and pub- device adorns the title-page; a list of 

lishing at Rouen in the fifteenth and Norman printers and publishers from 

sixteenth centuries, with a memoir of the 1480 to 1550 ; and a catalogue of the 

celebrated printer Martin Morin, whose productions of Martin Morin. 

Des Livres de Liturgie des j£glises d'Angleterre (Salisbury, 

York, Hereford) imprimes a Rouen dans les XVe et XVIe Siecles. 
£tude suivie du Catalogue de ces impressions de mccccxcii k 
MDLVii, avec des notes bibliographiques. Rouen : 1867. 8vo. 
pp. 65, and plate of mark of N. le Roux, 1530. Only 125 copies 
printed. 

Manuel du Bibliographe Normand, ou Dictionnaire historique 

et bibliographique ; contenant, 10 L' Indication des ouvrages 
relatifs a la Normandie depuis I'origine de Timprimerie jusqu'a 
nos jours ; 20 Des notes biographiques, critiques et litteraires, 
sur les hommes qui appartiennent a la Normandie par leur nais- 
sance, leurs actes, et leurs ecrits ; 30 Des Recherches sur I'Histoire 
de rimprimerie en Normandie. 2 vols. Rouen : 1857-60. 8vo. 
Tom. I. pp. xiii. 49 [. Tom. II. pp. 632. 

Recherches sur les premiers Temps de ITmprimerie en Nor- 



mandie. Rouen : 1829. 8vo. pp. 17. 

The author- shows that printing was quarian pursuits. He compiled a cata- 
introduced into Normandy as early as logue of Roman manuscripts in the public 
1480, by Jacques Durand and Gilles library at Rouen, and wrote several 
Quijoue, who printed at Caen the books on the history of printing, of 
" Epistles of Horace." He then gives a which that on Printing at Rouen in the 
list of distinguished Norman printers fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is re- 
down to the end of the fifteenth century, garded as the most important. He left 

Edouard Frere died April, 1874, aged in manuscript a still more elaborate work 

82. Originally a bookseller and pub- on printing in Normandy at the date of 

lisher at Rouen, he eventually devoted his death, 
himself entirely to literature and anti- 

Frese (J. H,). Die doppelte Buch- und Geschaftsfiihrung fiir Buch- 
druckereien und verwandte Geschafte. Part I. Leipzig : 1869. 
4to. pp. 59. 
A guide to bookkeeping by double the beginner, and a supplementary part 

entry, specially adapted for the use of was therefore issued in the following year, 

printers, publishers, &c. This book was which enters more fully into details.— 

not considered sufficiently elementary for See Donges (G.). 

Fresenius (J. F. Th.). Zur Geschichte der Erfindung des Buch- 
drucks. Einladungsschrift zu den auf den 28sten, 29sten und 
3osten April und den isten Mai 1840 festgesetzten offentlichen 
Priifungen in der Mittelschule. Frankfurt am Main : 1840. 8vo. 
pp. 46. 

Frey (A.). Manuel Nouveau de Typographie-imprimerie ; contenant 
les principes theoriques et pratiques de I'imprimeur-typographe. 
Ouvrage original. 2 pts. Paris : 1835. i8mo. Pagination con- 
tinuous, pp. X. 518. 4 plates. Forming part of the Encyclopedic 
Roret. 



238 Bibliography of Printing. 

Frey (A.). Nouveau Manuel complet de Typographic; contenant les 
principes theoriques et pratiques de cet Art. 2 pts. Paris : 1857. 
i2mo. pp. xii. 536. 7 plates. Forming part of the Encyclopedia 
Roret. 

Freyberg (Christian August). Reliquien von der Dressdnischen und 
vibrigenOber-Sachsischen Buchdrucker-Historie. Dressden: 1741. 
4to. 

Von den allerersten und altesten Puchdruckern zu Dressden 

handelt in diesen Blattern und kiindiget zugleich einen Schul- 
Actum, etc. Dressden : 1740. 4to. pp. 16. 

Frieuerich (Dr. theol. G.). Rede am vierten Sacular-Feste der 
Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, den 24. Juni, 1840. [No place 
or date] (Frankfort-on-the- Maine : 1840.) 8vo. pp.8. 
A Gutenberg festival celebration speech in verse, giving a succinct history of 

Printing, with special relation to Frankfort. 

Friedlander (Gottlieb). Beitrage zur Buchdruckergeschichte Ber- 
lins : eine bibliographische Notiz als Gelegenheitsschrift. Berlin : 
1834. 8vo. Dedication 2 pages, pp. 63. 

Beitrage zur Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst in der Mark 

Brandenburg. Das Psalterium Marise ; Druckwerk des Klosters 
Zinna. In ** Allgemeines Archiv fiir die Geschichtskunde des 
Preussischen Staats." Berlin : 1832. 8vo. Vol. 9. pp. 193-226. 

Friendly Advice to the Correctour of the English Press at Oxford, 
concerning the English Orthographic. London : 1662. Folio. 
" This work, unknown to Dr. Johnson, Lowndes's " Bibliographer s Manual.'^ 
exhibits the very forms which he, in It was reprinted at the Chiswick Press 
opposition to most modern writers, adopts for Mr. Sharswood, of Philadelphia, in the 
and vindicates." — Bo/in's Edition of year 1S72. 

Fritsch (Ahasuerus). Abhandlungen von denen Buchdruckem, 
Buchhandlern, Papiermachern und Buchbindern, insonderheit von 
deren Statuten, Freyheiten, Streitigkeiten, der BUcher-Censur, 
Inspection derer Buchdruckereyen und Buchladen, Ordnungen, 
&c. Regensburg : 1750. 4to. 

Dissertationes duse historico-politicse, altera de Abusibus Typo- 

graphige tollendis, altera de Zygenorum Origine, Vita, ac Moribus. 
Second edition. Jense : 1664. 4to. pp. 48 [without pagination]. 

Tractatus de Typographis, Bibliopolis, Chartariis, et Biblio- 

pegis, in quo de eorum statutis et immunitatibus abusibus item 
et controversiis, censura librorum, inspectione typographiarum et 
bibliopoliorum, ordinatione taxse, &c., succincte agitur, pro usu 

reip. literarise seriptus. Jenae : 1665. 8vo. Jenae : 1675. 

4to. pp. 104 [without pagination]. Hamburgi : 1678. 4to. 

Reprinted in Wolf, " Monumenta Typographica. " 

Fritsch (Friedrich). Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst. Ein kleines 
Denkmal den Koryphaen derselben geweiht. Nordhausen: 184O. 
8vo. Portrait of Gutenberg and i plate of facsimiles. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



239 



Fritz (G.). Taschenbuch fiir Buchdrucker. 4th edition. Magdeburg: 
1854. i6mo. pp. vii, and 64. 




BASLE : 1491-1527. 

Froben (John). 

Froben was not the first printer of land (Bavaria), and began to print at 

Basle, but he was certainly the most Basle in 1491. When he died, in 1527, 

celebrated at the end of the fifteenth and his friend Erasmus said of him, "^tas 

beginning of the sixteenth century. He erat provectior sed valetudo prospera." 

was a native of Hammelburg, in Franken- In the year 1500 Froben married Ger- 



240 Bibliography of Print ing. 

trud, daughter of the learned Wolfgang his books — Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. 

Lachner, who was the corrector of several The first book printed by Froben with 

of the books issued from his press, as also the Aldine cursive, or italic, letter was 

were Marcus Heiland, Wolfgang Mus- " Erasmi Adagiorum chiliades tres " 

cuius. Job. Oecolampadius, and, later, (1513. Folio). 

Erasmus. It is not, therefore, remarkable Froben 's device, which is annexed, 

that the editions of Froben, revised by such consists of the caduceus. held by two 

"readers," were generally faultless, and hands, issuing from clouds; the two ser- 

eagerly sought after by the best scholars pents crowned, and the wand surmounted 

in Europe. Very few, if any, German by a dove. This led Erasmus to remark 

books were printed by him, and that, that his learned friend did indeed unite 

perhaps, explains why his publications the wisdom of the serpent to the simpli- 

did not enrich him, according to the city of the dove. The caduceus was a 

statement in his edition of St. Augustine rod of laurel or olive with a representa- 

" De Civitate Dei," 1522, " majore pro- tion of two snakes coiled round it. It 

fecto fructu publicorum studiorum, quam was the symbol of peace, and formed the 

privato meo compendio." The letter of chief badge of heralds, whose persons 

Erasmus to Jo. Herwagen (9 Aug. 1531) were held sacred. In mythology the 

is a confirmation of this fact : " Suisque caduceus was the symbol of Mercury, 

hseredibus plus honestse famse reliquerit thence called Caducifer, to whom it was 

quam pecuniae." The first edition of the said to have been presented by Apollo 

New Testament in Greek was printed by in return for his invention of the lyre. 

Froben at Basle in 1516, he engaging An engraved portrait of Froben, after 

Erasmus as the editor. Erasmus was to a painting by Hans Holbein in Earl 

the end Froben's faithful friend, and wrote Spencer's collection, will be found in the 

for him the epitaph which is still to be " Bibliog. Decameron," vol. ii. p. 170, 

read under the porch of St. Peter's Church which work devotes several pages to this 

at Basle, on the grave of the illustrious printer, and eulogizes in the most enthusi- 

printer. This epitaph is in the three astic terms his varied productions, 
languages in which Froben published 

Froebel (G.). Album zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der 
Buchdruckerkunst und zur Jubelfeier fiinfzigjahriger Wirksamkeit 
der Herren Buchdrucker : Johann Ludwig Knote, Johann Christof 
Wilhelm Esefelder, Friedrich Rudolf Gehring, Johann Ernst 
Henneberg. Rudolstadt : 1840. 8vo. 
Gives a short account of the Official Printing Institution of Rudolstadt. 

Froehlich (K.). Liederbuch fiir die im Gutenbergbunde vereinigten 
Buchdrucker. Berlin : 1850. 8vo. 
A very interesting collection of songs relating to Printers and Printing, many of 

them from the clever and poetical collector himself. 

Fromberg (E.). Die grai)hischen und zeichnenden KUnste der 
Galvanoplastik, als : die Galvanographie, die enkauslische Gal- 
vanographie, die Photogalvanographie, die Glyphographie, die 
Stylographie, die Zinkographie, die Chemistypie, und die Eitho- 
typie, besonders fiir Maler, Zeichner, Photographen, Litho- 
graphen, Architekten und Calligraphen. Quedlinburg : 1857. 
8vo. pp. 80. 

A cursory description of the different processes mentioned in the title, of little 
scientific or technical value. 

Fromman (Ed.). Aufsatze zur Geschichte der Buchhandels im 16. 
Jahrhundert. Heft I. Frankreich. Jena : 1876. Crown 8vo. 
pp. iv. 112. 

The first of a series of treatises eluci- the bulk of the volume being taken up 
datory of the history of the book trade with the history ol the Stephani. The 
in the sixteenth century. It gives a fair author of the work is a printer and pub- 
insight into the press laws and privileges lisher at Jena, 
which obtained in France at that period. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



241 



Frommann (F. J,). Amerikanische Stimmen liber die Frage : Fraktur 
oder Antiqua? Gesammelt von Dr. Constantin Hering in Phila- 
delphia, mit einem Nachworte von F. J. Frommann. Jena: 1871. 
8vo. pp. 16. 
Treats on the question of the general introduction of Roman type in German 

printing, but is altogether in favour of the German character now in use. 



Fronhofer (L.). 
1 78 1. 8vo. 



Ueber das Studium der Kupferstecherei. [n. p.] 




ZURICH : 1523 (?) -1536. 



Froschauer, or Froschover (Christopher). 



Christopher Froschauer, or Froschover, 
began to print in Zurich in the year 1523, 
if we are to accept the date on the book 
first known as proceeding from his press. 
It is probable, however, that he may 
have established himself there two years 
before. He was the only printer in 



Zurich till 1527, when Jacobus Mazochius 
set up an establishment. 

Froschauer is one of the printers to 
whom has been attributed the production 
of the fir.st English Bible (1535), and his 
claim has been considered good by many 
bibliographers, but in his preface to the 
I 



242 Bibliography of Printing. 

Catalogue of Bibles shown at the Caxton Froschover's device, which is annexed. 
Celebration, 1877, Mr. Henry Stevens consists of an emblem of a gigantic frog, 
produces some very strong family and ridden by a child, under a tree on which 
contemporary evidence in favour of the a frog is climbing ; several other of these 
work having been done by or for Van batrachians of natural size surround the 
Meteren, at Antwerp. Like all biblio- large one. The whole is a pictorial ana- 
graphical puzzles, however, it seems to gram on the name of the printer, Frosch 
be still a matter of doubt to some where being the German equivalent for frog. 
and by whom the first English Bible was The name of the printer appears on a 
printed. scroll in front of the tree. 

The following works have been issued specially referring to the life and works of 
the proto-printer of Zurich : — 

Froschauer. Christoph Froschauer, erster beriihmter Buchdrucker in 
Ziirich, nach seinem Leben unci Wirken, nebst Aufsatzen imd 
Briefen von ihm und an ihn. Zurich : 1840. 4to. pp. ii. 24. 

This publication bears on its title "Zur IV. Sakularfeier der Erfindung der Buch- 
druckerkunst den 24. Juni 1870." The author was Salomon Vogelin. 

Biographic Christ. Froschauer des Aelteren und dessen Bild- 

niss, in 34, Neujahrstuck von der Gesellschaft auf den Chorherren. 
An die lembegierige ziiriche Jugend auf das Neujahr 1813. 
Zurich. 4to. pp. 14. 

■ Index Librorum quos Chrislophorus Froschouerus suis typis 

excudit. 1543. 8vo. pp. 36. 

The text is divided into two parts ; the first being chronological (several of the 
dates, however, are wanting), and the rest a list of classified titles. The first book 
named bears the date 1522. 

Index Librorum, quos Christophorus Froschoverus Tiguri 



hactenus suis typis excudit. 1548, 1562, 1581. 8vo. 

Fry. a Specimen of Printing Types made by Joseph Fry & Sons, 
Letter-founders and Marking-instrument Makers. By the King's 
Royal Letters Patent. London : 1785. 8vo. 

Preface 2 pages, 35 pages of specimens type-foundry was begun in Type-street, 

of type, and 9 pages of borders. A Chiswell-street, in 1764, by Joseph Fry 

broadside sheet of large post, dated from & Pine, their founts being on the 

Worship-street, Moorfields, with a head- model of Baskerville's. In 1785, the 

ing nearly the same as above, and a firm-name was as above, and, in 1794, 

selection of types was published by Fry the following specimen was issued by a 

& Sons the same year. An enlarged new firm : — 
specimen-book was issued in 1790. A 

Fry (Edm.) & Steele (Isaac). A Specimen of Printing-types of 
Edmund Fry and Isaac Steele. London: 1794. Royal 8vo. 
Printed by T. Rickerby. Title, 2 pages of advertisement, 100 pp. 
specimens. 

Specimen of Metal Cast Ornaments, curiously adjusted to 

paper, by Edmund Fry and Isaac Steele, Letter-founders to the 
Prince of Wales. London: printed by T. Rickerby, 1 794. 8vo. 
Title, I page of advertisement, and 20 pages of specimens. Another 
volume was issued, with a similar title, in the following year. 



Bibliography of Printing. 243 

Fry (Edm.) & Steele (Isaac). A Specimen of Printing Types by 
Fry, Steele, & Co., Letter-founders to the Prince of Wales, Type- 
street. London : i8cx). pp. 118. 8vo. There are also pre- 
served specimen-books by Fry & Steele, printed in the years 
1800 and 1805. 

Specimen- sheet of Head and Fable Cuts for Dilworth's Spel- 



ling Book, cast on hard metal, and curiously adjusted to paper 
on the best Turkey box. Price £df. 4s. By Fry & Steele, 
Letter-founders, Type Street, London. 

In 1816 the name of the firm of Fry & Steele had been changed to Edmund Fry, 
r'ho issued the following specimens : — 

Specimen of Printing Types, by Edmund Fry, Letter-founder 



to the King and Prince Regent. London : 181 6. 8vo. pp. 91 
1824, 8vo. J 1827, 8vo. 

Fry (Edmund). Pantographia : containing accurate copies of all the 
known Alphabets in the world, with an English explanation of 
the peculiar force or power of each letter ; to which are added 
specimens of all well-authenticated Oral Languages ; forming a 
comprehensive digest of Phonology. London : 1799. Royal 
8vo. 2 leaves, pp. xxxvi. and 320. 

This work is dedicated to Sir Joseph consisting of eleven pages 8vo., was 
Banks. Two copies were printed on issued in August, 1798. Lowndes de- 
vellum. It is preceded by a lengthy pre- scribes it as " A highly interesting work, 
face on the origin of language, the author the result of sixteen years' research." 
seeking to establish "that alphabets, as The author, who was a doctor of medi- 
well as language, are of Divine origin." cine, was an eminent, and probably the 
The alphabets are arranged in alphabeti- most learned, type-founder of his day. 
cal order on the left-hand pages of the He was a member of the Stationers' 
book, and their renderings are given Company, and died in 1835. 
opposite. The prospectus of this work. 

Fry (Francis). Gutenberg's first Printing-press. Notes and Queries^ 
Second Series, xi. 23. 

The author visited, in i860, the house The J and G are the initials of the 

at Mayence in which Gutenberg first printer. The number 400 is expressed, 

exercised his newly-invented art of print- as it frequently is in fifteenth century 

ing ; and part of his press having been books, by CD. This paper is a valuable 

found in the house, the writer gives an addition to the literature of the origines 

account of the precious relic. On the typographic ce, and was so regarded by the 

top cross-beam of the press, in which ^d\x.oroi Notes and Queries, \\\vQA^'p2iXX.Qdi 

worked the verticaj screw (of which a from his rule of permitting no illustrations 

sketch is given) is deeply cut the follow- in the periodical. The subject has since 

ing inscription :— been referred to in M. Madden's " Lettres 

J. MCDXLi. G. d'un Bibliophile," 5th Series. 

FuCHS (J. C). Guttenberg. Opera. Wien : 1870. Folio. 

Fuehrer in der Weltausstellung, mit Riicksicht auf Buchdruck und 
verwandte Facher. Wien : 1873. 8vo. 2 plans. 

A guide to the Exhibition at Vienna in 1873, for the use of.foreign printers. It 
was revised by a commission of practical printers. 



244 Bibliography of Printing. 

Fuehrer durch Hamburg und Umgebung. General-Versammlung des 
deutschenBuchdrucker-Vereins von 16-20, September. Hambm-g: 
1876. Large 8vo. pp. 12, 6 plates and i plan. 

A little illustrated work gratuitously issued by the Society of Printers of Hamburg 
for the use of foreign printers. 

FUELLENBORN (G. G.). Lob der Buchdruckerkunst : zur vierten 
Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst neu aufgelegt 
von J. F. Weilshaeuser, Oppeln : 1840. Folio. 

FUERSTENAU (J. H.). De Initiis Typographige Physiologicis Disser- 
tatio. Rintelii : 1740. 4to. 

FUESSLi (Joh. Caspar). Raisonirendes Verzeichniss der vornehmsten 
Kupferstecher und ihrer Werke. ZUrich : 1 77 1. 8vo. pp. 360 
and 12 pp. of Register. 

FuGGER (Jean George). De I'Origine et des Productions de I'lmpri- 
merie primitive. Paris: 1759. 8vo. 

FuHRMANN (G. L.). Typorum et Characterum officinae Chalco- 
graphiae Georgii Leopoldi Fuhrmanni, Civis et Bibliopole Norici, 
tarn ad linguas Germanicam, Latinam, Gra;cam, &c. Nurem- 
bergse : 1616. 4to. 8 leaves and 44 leaves of specimens. 

The introduction to this specimen-book of the types in the printing-house of 
Fuhrmann gives an account of the origin of printing and the names of its greatest 
benefactors, with a Latin poem by Henry Stephanus. 

[FuLiN (Rin.)]. Del Cavaliere Giuseppe Antonelli, tipografo. 
Venezia : 1862. Portrait. 

FuLiN (R.). Primi Privilegi di Stampa in Venezia. In "Archivio 
Veneto," vol. i. part I. 1871. 

Fuller (E.). A Short History of the Art and Practice of Litho- 
graphy, with Hints to Students. London : 1863. Post 8vo. 
Portrait of Senefelder. Drawing of the original lithographic press 
invented by him. pp. iv. 5- 23, 

FuMAGALLi (Carlo), Dei primi Libri a Stampa in Italia, e special- 
mente di un Codice Sublacense impresso avanti il Lattanzio e 
finora creduto posteriore, discorso. Lugano : 1875. 8vo. pp. 43, 
and two plates of facrsimiles. 

FuNCK (Johann Michael). Kurze, doch niitzliche Anleitung vom 
Form- und Stahlschneiden, wie Buchstaben, Zierrathen und alia 
vorkommende Figuren in Holz zu schneiden. . . . Femer ganze 
Alphabete, Charactere und Zeichen, was bey Buchdruckerey und 
Giesserey vorkommt, in Stahl und Messing zu schneiden etc. 

With plates. Erfurt; 1 740, 8vo, Another edition, Erfurt: 

1754, 8vo, 



Bibliography of Printing. 



245 



FuRNiVALL (F. J.). Pynson's Contracts with Horman for printing 
his " Vulgaria," and with Palsgrave for his " Lesclaircissement," 
in 1519, with Pynson's "Letter of Denizenation." London: [1868]. 
8vo. A paper read before the [London] Philological Society. 




RASLE : 1490-1517. 



FuRTER (Michael). 

The first book printed at Basle by 
Michael Furter appears to be " Brandt, 
Sebastiani, Expositiones " (1490. 4to). 
The book from which the annexed device 
is taken is an elaborately - illustrated 
volume of the "Chronicle of Switzer- 
land" (1507, fo.). The same printer 



produced a great number of curious 
books. 

Furter's device consists of the emblem 
of two chimeras, leaning on two shields 
hanging from a stunted tree. On the 
left is the cypher M. F., surmounted by 
a cross ; on the right the arms of Basle. 



Fust, der Erfinder der Buchdruckerei. Mainz: 1792. 8vo. pp. 56. 
The author of this drama has not given his name. 

Fust. — Lettre d'un Bibliothecaire de Geneve sur Faust. Geneva : 
Fust. Vita Joh. Fausti typographi, ap. Melchior Adam, etc. 



Fust 
P- 



und Gutenberg. 
271-273.) 



(In Simrock's Rheinfagen, No. 128, 



A poem in eight strophes, each of eight verses, having for its subject t 
5f Printing. Fust, or Faust, plays the part of "the villain "in the 



author was Henri Grieben. 



the Invention 
piece. The 



246 



Bibliography of Printing. 




JOHN FUST. (From Maittaire. 



Fust and Schceffer. — (6V^ a/jt? Gutenberg.) 

John Fust was a citizen of Mayence, a needy inventor, agreed to these terms, 

who carried on the business of a money- He apparently wished to produce a grand 

lender, and was early connected with edition of the Bible, and believed that it 

Gutenberg in his invention of printing, would be such a success that he could 

The orthography of the name has been afford to overlook the conditions of the 

much disputed, being written variously money-lender. He had, it must also be 

Faust, Faustus, and Fust ; but the latter remembered, already spent about sixteen 



is preferable, as the name appears m 
several colophons — as, 'Made by Jo- 
hannes Fust, citizen of Mentz." 

The character and services of Fust to 
Gutenberg have been very variously 



years fruitlessly on his project. 

The result of the transaction, as indi- 
cated elsewhere, was that Fust gained 
legal possession of all Gutenberg's print- 
ing material. He then dissolved his 



estimated. By some he has even been partnership with Gutenberg, but carried 

described as the actual inventor of typo- on the art in conjunction with his son-in- 

graphy, and the instructor as well as the law, Peter Schoeffer, and in the original 

partner of Gutenberg. By others he has establishment of Gutenberg. Fust then, 

been described as the patron and bene- with the aid of Schoeffer, produced the 



factor. By many other writers he has 
been characterized as a greedy, crafty, 
and heartless speculator, who took a 
mean advantage of Gutenberg's necessity, 
and robbed him of his invention. 



Psalter of 1457. The books with the 
imprint of Fust & Schoeffer are especially 
valuable on account of being accurately 
dated. They are— "The Psalter," 1457 ; 
" Durandus," 1459 ; " Constitutions of 



1450 Gutenberg, the inventor of Clement V.," 1460; "Bible," 1462 ;" De- 
printing, then in a state of financial em- cretals of Boniface VIII.," 1465 ; "Offices 



barrassment, made the arrangement with 
Fust which is described stib voce Guien- 
BERG. Fust was to receive all the ad- 
vantages of a partnership with him, and 
at the same time was to be absolved from 
all the attendant liabilities. Gutenberg, 



of Cicero," 1465. After the sack of 
Mayence, Fust went to Paris to dispose 
of some copies remaining unsold of the 
great Bible. He visited the city several 
times, and at last died there. He was 
dead on the 30th Oct., 1466, when a mass 



with the recklessness and enthusiasm of was said for the repose of his soul. 



Bibliography of Frintiftg. 



247 



Peter Schceffer was born in Gerns- 
heim, a little village situated on the 
Rhine, near Mayence, about 1430, and 
was a student in Paris in 1449. It is 
•generally stated that he was distinguished 
for his excellent penmanship, and became 
an illuminator of manuscripts ; but Mr. 
De Vinne, who has carefully searched 
for an early trustworthy authority for 
the statement, says he has been unable 
to find one. It is most probable that 
Schceffer was engaged by Fust and 
Gutenberg as a proof-reader or corrector, 
a position for which a student from the 
University of Paris was well qualified. 
His careful attention to proof-reading 
is fairly stated in the " Institutes of 
Justinian." As a designer of letters and 
as a type-founder he was very inferior. 



mmtm 

niMa-mira 

REDUCED FAC-SIMILE OF A COLOPHON 
WRITTEN BY SCHCEFFER. 

We extract from M. Madden's work a 
reduced fac-simile of a colophon written 
by Schceffer. Many of the historians of 
printing have assumed that Schceffer was 



a caligrapher famous for his beautiful 
handwriting, but the thin letters and 
angular ornaments of the annexed colo- 
phon are not at all like the thick types 
and flowing lines of Gutenberg's bible. 

The date of his return to his native 
country is not known. It is said that 
he was married to Christina, daughter 
of John Fust, in 1455, but there is no 
good authority for the statement. Mad- 
den says he was married about 1465 ; 
Schaab and Wetter say nothing definite. 
Bernard gives 1464 (" De I'Origine," 
vol. i. p. 266), but Helbig (" Notes et 
Dissertations," p. 24) says it was about 
1457 ; and this latter date seems to be 
the one approved by many writers. It 
is not possible, in fact, to fix the date. 
Schoeffer's wife Christina married again 
after Schoeffer's death, and lived for 
many years subsequently (vSchaab, "Die 
Geschichte," vol. ii. p. 62). She must 
have been much younger than the above 
date would suggest. It is probable that 
his connection with John Fust had com- 
menced some years before the year 
1455. Schceffer carried on the business 
after the death of Fust ; for in the im- 
print of an edition of St. Thomas Aquinas, 
published in 1467, the name of .Schceffer 
appears alone. He printed a fourth 
edition of the Psalter m 1502, and died 
in the same year. 

The following productions from the 
press of Fust & Schceffer are contained 
in the British Museum : — 

Psalter, in Latin. — On vellum. Printed 
at Mentz, by Fust and Schceffer, in 1457. 
"The first printed Psalter ; the first book 
printed with a date ; and the first example 
of printing in colours, as shown in the 
initial letter." This description, which is 
taken from Mr. BulFen's " Guide to the 
Printed Books exhibited to the Public in 
the British Museum," is slightly inaccu- 
rate. The initial letter (which has often 
been highly praised, even by such a critic 
as Dibdin, as a magnificent specimen of 
early chromo-typography) was not so 
printed at all. Savage, we believe, was 
the first to call attention to the circum- 
stance that the letters of the Psalter were 
touched up by painting (" Decorative 
Printing, " p. 50). The fact may have been 
that the initial was covered over with 
something when the rest of the black 
form was worked, and the red colour 
afterwards painted in by hand. The 
dates of some of the succeeding books 
taken from the same little work are also 
somewhat different to those we have 
given above from the same source. 

Psalter. — On vellum. The second edi- 
tion of the Mentz Psalter, printed by 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



248 



Bibliography of Fnnting. 



Fust and SchoefFer, in 1459. The second 
book with a date. 

Bible, in Latin.— Printed at Mentz, by 
Fust and Schoeffer, in 1462. On vellum. 
The first Bible with a date. 

Cicero. " Officiorum libri tres." — On 
vellum. Printed at Mentz, by Fust and 
Schoeffer, 1465. The first edition of the 
first Latin classic printed, and one of the 
two books in which Greek tjT)e was first 
used. 

" Regulsegrammatices,vel Grammaticse 
rudimenta. ' ' 1 his work comprises rules of 
Grammar, explained in Latm verse, with 
Concordances extracted from Priscianus. 
Printed at Mentz, by Johann Fust, in 
1468. 

"Clement. V. Constitutiones."— On 
vellum. Printed at Mentz, by Peter 
Schoeffer, in 1471. 

In reference to the above extracts, it 
may be well to point out that there are 
block books with much earlier dates than 
1450; such as the "Chiromancy" and 
the " Spiritual Nur.sery." 

Interspersed throughout this Biblio- 
graphy OF Printing will be found 
many examples of printers' marks, and 
we may here appropriately, under the 
names of Fust & Schoeffer, introduce 
specimens of that equally interesting 
feature of the early-printed books — the 
Colophon, which, as most of our readers 
will be aware, was the postscript em- 
ployed by the first printers, before the 
introduction of title-pages, to announce 
the date and place of publication and the 
name of the printer ; to which was often 
added some text of Scripture or moral 
reflection. The mark or device was 
used in conjunction with the colophon, a 
Greek word (koXo^wj')> the top, summit, 
or conclusion, and equivalent to " finis." 

The colophon of the Psalter of 1457 
has been thus translated: — "Book of 
Psalms, decorated with elegant capitals, 
and sufficiently distinguished by its red 
letters, invented artificially, imprinted 
and charactered without the use of any 
pen, and for the service of God, care- 
fully perfected by John Fust, citizen of 
Mayence, and Peter Schoeffer, of Gerns- 
heim, anno Domini 1457, upon the vigil 
of the Assumption." Mr. De Vinne has 
paraphrased the words, thus: — "This 
book of Psalms, decorated with antique 
initials, and sufficiently emphasized with 
rubricated letters, has been thus made 



by the masterly invention of printing and 
also of type-making, without the writing 
of a pen, and is consummated to the 
service of God, through the industry of 
Johan Fust, citizen of Mayence, and 
Peter Schoeffer, of Gernsheim, in the 
year of our Lord 1457, on the eve of the 
Assumption [August 14]." 

Mr. De Vinne attaches great import- 
ance to the wording of this colophon, as 
it is an acknowledgment by Fust and 
Schoeffer that the art of typography was 
" thfe masterly invention of printing and 
also of type-making." " Ab htventione 
artificioi,a i»tprime7idi ac caractera- 
zandi" ; and also as an admission that 
the two branches were inseparable. He 
regards it as a complete warrant for the 
theory set forth in his " Invention of 
Printing," that the key of the invention 
was the type-mould. 

The Bible of 1462 (which is called the 
Mayence Bible, and should be carefully 
distinguished from that of 1455, which is 
known as the Mazarine or Gutenberg 
Bible, and has no colophon or date) has 
this colophon :— " This present work was 
finished and perfected, for the service of 
God, in the city of Mayence. by John 
Fust, citizen, and Peter Schoeffer, of 
Gernsheim, clerk of the same diocese, 
completed in the year of our Lord's In- 
carnation 1462, on the eve of the Assump- 
tion of the glorious Virgin Mary." 

Both of these colophons may be seen 
in the British Museum. 

The colophon to Schoeffer's " Institutes 
of Justinian," printed in 1468, is doubly 
interesting, not only as a colophon, but 
as bearing upon the history of Printing. 
It is in rude Latin verses, which may be 
freely translated thus : — " Moses by the 
plan of the Tabernacle, Solomon by that 
of the Temple, only produced works of 
ingenuity ; the Church shines with a 
brighter light. Greater than Solomon, 
she has renewed Bezaleel and Hiram.* 
He who is pleased to create high talents 
has given us two great masters of the art 
of engraving, both bearing the name of 
John, both natives of Moguncia [May- 
ence], and both illustrious as the first 
printers of books. Peter advanced with 
them towards the desired goal, and, start- 
ing the last, arrived the first, having been 
rendered the most skilful in the art of 
engraving by Him who alone bestows 
light and genius. Every nation can now 
procure its own kind of letters, for he 



• Bezaleel was the worker in metals and wood, who made the Ark for Moses 
(Exodus xxxvii. i), and Hiram the architect, who also supplied the materials to 
Solomon's temple (i Kings vii. 13, 14). 



Bibliography of Printing, 



249 



[Peter] excels in the engraving types of 
all kinds. It is difficult to believe the 
prices which he pays to learned men to 
correct his editions. [This is the first 
mention in the history of typography of 
that important functionary, the "reader."] 
He has in his service Master Francis, the 
grammarian, whose Methodic Science is 
celebrated all over the world. I also am 
attached to him, not so much for the 
sake of vile gain as for the love of the 
general good and the glory of my country. 
Oh, if they could purge the text of all its 
faults ! those who arrange the types as 
well as those who read the proofs, the 
friends of letters would then infallibly 
award to them a crown of glory, who 
thus come in aid, by their books, to 
thousands of seats of learning." A re- 
ference to this colophon, with another 
translation, will be found in Hessel's 
translation of Van der Linde's " Haarlem 
Legend," p. 30. Bernard gives a slightly 



first printers of books. In company with 
these masters Peter hastened towards the 
same end.* The last to leave, he was 
the first to arrive, for he excelled in the 
science of engraving, through the grace 
of Him only who can give genius and 
inspiration. Hereafter every nation may 
procure proper types of its own characters, 
for he excels in the engraving of all kinds 
of types. It would be almost incredible 
were I to specify the great sums which he 
pays to the wise men who correct his 
editions," &c. It would appear that the 
writer of the colophon wanted to enforce 
on the reader the importance of the fact 
that the merit of the invention of typo- 
graphy is due, not to the man who first 
thought of its feasibility, but to him who 
first did the work. He artfully compares 
Moses, who proposed the ark, and Solo- 
mon, who proposed the temple, with 
John Fust and John Gutenberg —rating 
them all as impracticable theorists. Be- 




MARK OF FUST AND SCHCEFFER. MAVENCE : 1457-1502. 



different translation of the colophon ; and 
Madden (" Lettresd'un Bibliophile, ''third 
.series, p. 98) gives another version. Mr. 
De Vinne, believing that paraphrase is 
necessary to make the language intelli- 
gible, renders the words thus: "Moses, 
in the plan of the tabernacle, and Solo- 
mon, in the plan of the temple, did 
nothing more than imagine a meritorious 
work. The merit of constructing the 
temple was greater than Solomon's 
thought. Hiram and Beselehel, greater 
than Solomon, improved on the plans of 
Solomon and Moses. He who is pleased 
to enHow mighty men with knowledge 
has given us two distinguished masters 
in the art of engraving, both living in the 
city of Mentz and bcth illustrious as the 



zaleel (or Beselehel) and Hiram and 
Peter Schoeffer were the masterly nie- 
chanics, " the mighty men endowed with 
knowledge," who did the real work of 
construction and invention. 

Schoeffer established agencies for the 
sale of his books in Lubeck and Frank- 
fort, and probably in other cities. He 
sold the works of other printers as well as 
his own. During his later years he was 
appointed a judge, and printing was ne- 
glected by him. He had competitors 
not only in Rome, Paris, and Venice, but 
in the larger cities of Germany, and even 
in Strasburg and Mayence. His business 
was carried on by his son John, who died 
in 1531. Peter SchcEffer, jun., printed 
books in Hebrew, Latin, German, and 



• This passage is an allusion to the running of the disciples to where Christ had 
been laid. "So they ran both together, and the other disciple did outrun Peter, 

and came first to the sepulchre yet went he not in ... . Then cometh 

Simon Peter, following him, and went into the sepulchre." — St. John xx. 4, 6. 



2 K 



250 



Bibliography of Prifiting. 



English. Finding no proper encourage- 
ment at Mayence, he had to establish 
his office successively at Worms, Stras- 
burg, and Venice. His last known work, 
with date 1542, was printed at Venice, 
where It is supposed he died. Ives 
bchoeffer, son of Peter junior, who suc- 
ceeded John Schceffer in the management 
ot the office at Mayence, was an indus- 
trious publisher from 1531 to 1552 the 
supposed year of his death. Victor, the 
son of Ives, gave up the business, and 
the name of Schoeffer disappeared from 
the roll of printers at Mayence. 

Fust's Portrait.— Hht. portrait of John 
I' ust, given at p. 246, was reproduced from 



Maittaires "Annales Typographici," to 
Vinne's " Invention of 



illustrate Mr. De Vinne's invention of 
Printing," to the author of which we are 



indebted for permission to republish it in 
this Bibliography. 

Fust and Schaeffer's Mark. — The 
device consists of two printers' rules, 
in saltire, on two shields, hanging from 
a stump ; on the right shield two rules 
forming an angle of 45°, and three 
stars, disposed 2 and i. This device is 
specially interesting as the j^rst of the 
long and interesting series of marks used 
by printers. It is worthy of notice, too, 
how early in the history of the art a 
device was used ; for the only book which 
is known to have been issued from the 
press prior to the Psalter of 1457 was the 
liible of Gutenberg, finished in 1455. The 
adoption of a compositor's setting-rule was 
very appropriate. Its archaic form will 
be noticed. 




ADSBY (A.) and Arnold. Our CaU- 
logue. London : 1869. 8vo. 

64 pages of specimens of plain and ornamental 

type. 

Gailer (Prof.). Rede am vierten Sacular- 
Gedachtniss- Feste der Erfindung der 
Buchdruckerkunst des 24. Juni 1840. 
Reutlingen : 1840. 8vo. pp. 12. 

Galeotti (Melchiore). Delia Tipografia 
Poliglotta di Propaganda : discorso. 
Torino : 1 866. i6mo. pp. xii. 103. 

The Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, many years stood pre-eminent for the 

or Congregation for the Propagation of publication of the Bible and books ot 

the Faith, a society established at Rome devotion in various languages, and 

by Pope Gregory XV., in 1622, has con- claimed to be the most extensive and 

nected with it a printing-house, furnished best-regulated printing-office in Europe, 

with types of all the important languages It was there that Bodoni, the celebrated 

of the world. This establishment for printer of Parma, received his training. 

Galichon (Emile). Albert Diirer, sa Vie et ses CEuvres. Paris : 
1861. 8vo. pp. 84. Woodcuts. 
Reprint from the Gazette des Beaux- A rts. 

Galimard (Aug.). Les grands Artistes contemporains : Aubry- 
Lecomte, dessinateur-lithographe, 1797-1858. Paris : 1859. 8vo. 
pp. 24. 

Galitzin (Prince Michel). Deux Xylographies de sa Bibliotheque. 
Moscau : 1864. 8vo. 4 plates. 12 copies only printed. 

Gallay. Collection des Polytypages de Gallay. Meulan : 1835. 4to. 

Specimen des Caracteres de la Fonderie de Gallay. Paris : 

1835. 8vo. 



252 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Gallizioli (Giovambatista). Dell' Origine della Stampa e degli 
Stampatori di Bergamo. Bergamo : 1786. 8vo. pp. 38. 



Galton (Francis), F.R.S. Colour Printing and Cartography. [In 
Report of the Forty-second Meeting of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, held at Brighton in August, 1872, 
pp. 198-203.] London : 1872. 8vo. 



The author was the President of the 
Geographical Section of this Congress, 
and in that capacity delivered the above 
address. He commences by referring to 
the Ordnance Maps published by the 
Government, and says that English geo- 
graphers are justly proud of them, as 
their accuracy and hill-shading are un- 
surpassed elsewhere. 

Referring to colour-printing and its 
application to bird's-eye views, the author 
points out how recently, yet how usefully, 
the system has been applied to carto- 
graphy. The facility of multiplying 
coloured drawings by the lithographic 
process will, he believes, probably lead 
to a closer union than heretofore has 
existed between geography and art. The 
advance made in colour-printing has 
already influenced cartography in foreign 
countries, and it is right that it should be 
so. A black and white map is but a 
symbol — it can never be a representation 
of the many-coloured aspects of nature. 
It is recommended that maps should 
always be issued coloured, at the very 
least in two colours, one for the hills and 
the other for the roads, 

Mr. Galton is the author of several 
standard works on meteorological and 
geographical subjects, as well as the 
celebrated book, "The Art of Travel." 



Several years ago he contributed to Mac- 
millan's Magazine a paper entitled 
" Meteorographica," a method of print- 
ing weather data. It consisted of the 
employment of special types and various 
colours. It is entitled to the distinction 
of being the very earliest effort in Europe 
to record the weather simultaneously at 
successive periods of time over a large 
area. The method by which the weather- 
charts were first printed in the Times was 
also originated by Mr. Galton. He 
placed the idea, and the simple ruled 
plates which he had produced on the 
principle suggested, in the hands of Mr. 
P. M. Shanks, of the Patent Type- 
Founding Company, who carried it into 
eflfect by inventing a drill pantograph 
acting on a composition, whence stereo- 
type plates are afterwards taken. — {See 
Patent Type- Founding Companv.) 
The beautiful plates of the Quarterly 
Weather Reports of the Meteorological 
Department are also largely the plan of 
Mr. Galton, who was, however, in this 
particular work, much helped by Mr. 
Warren de la Rue, also a member of the 
Meteorological Committee. The peculiar 
pantograph by which the voluminous 
records are compressed to a uniform scale, 
yet differing in length and breadth, is 
Mr. Galton's sole invention. 



Galvanoplastik (Die) und ihre Anwendung fur die Buchdrucker- 
kunst. Leipzig. 8vo. pp. 180. 

A Treatise on electro-metallurgy, and its application to typography, 

Gama (J. P.), Esquisse historique de Gutenberg. Paris : 1857. 
8vo. pp. xvi. 60. 

This short sketch of the life of the inventor of printing contains no new particulars, 
and even overlooks the researches of Didot and the new facts adduced in his 
memoir. At the end is a long account of the discovery of an old oil painting repre- 
senting Gutenberg. 



Gamba (Bartolommeo). Elogio funebre di Giuseppe Remondini, 
tipografo [di Bergamo]: pp. 123 to 152 of " Alcune Operotte." 
Milano : 1827. i6mo. 



Bibliography of Printing 



253 



Gamba (Bartolommeo). Biografia dell' illustre Tipografo Giambattista 
Bodoni. [Venezia ; 1835.] 8vo. Extract from the "Biografia 
degl' Italian! illustri del Secolo XVIII." 

A biography of the most illustrious of but a severe illness which overtook him 
Italian typographers. A list of several prevented him from continuing his jour- 
works relating to Bodoni has already ney. At this time the Marquis de Felino 
been given in this Bibliography \see offered him the superintendence of a 
Bodoni, &c.]. press which he was about to establish at 

John Baptist (or, in Italian, Glam- Parma, and in 1768 Bodoni accepted the 
battista) Bodoni was born at Saluzzo, situation. He soon won great reputation, 
in Piedmont, in 1740 ; he died in 1813. but rather from the high excellence than 
He was not only regarded by his country- from the number of his productions. In 
men as the most eminent of Italian 1788 he was invited to Rome to print a 
printers, but, by many bibliophiles— fine edition of the Greek, Latin, and 
Italian and foreign — as the most eminent Italian classics. The Dulie of Parma 
in the world at his epoch, superior even was determined to prevent Bodoni 
to Baskerville, Bulmer, Bensley, and leaving that city, and therefore esta- 
Didot. As we have already given notices blished a model printing-office in his own 
of those celebrities, we may fitly append palace. From this place were issued the 
some account of Bodoni. His father famous "Bodoni editions" of Horace, 
was a printer, and he was instructed at in folio (1791); Virgil, folio (1793); Catul- 
an early age in the rudiments of the art. lus, Tibullus, Propertius, and Tasso 
He displayed, however, a remarkable (1794), and Tacitus (1795). Bodoni's 
fondness for the art of wood-engraving, most magnificent work was the Homer, 
and, while quite young, executed some published in 1808, with a dedication in 
very meritorious vignettes. At eighteen Italian, French, and Latin to Napoleon, 
years of age, in company with a school- From the Emperor, indeed, he and his 
fellow, Dominic Costa, he left Saluzzo, press had received marked protection 
intending to journey to Rome, with the when the French armies entered Italy, 
hope of finding employment there. The In 1810 Bodoni personally presented the 
uncle of his companion Costa was the Emperor at St. Cloud with a copy of the 
secretary to a Roman prelate, and ex- Homer, printed on vellum, and received 
pectations were formed that he might a pension of 3,000 francs. Eugene 
render material assistance to the project. Beauharnais offered him the superintend- 
Before- they had reached the capital, they ence of the press at Milan, while Murat 
had run short of funds, but Bodoni invited him to Naples ; but he resolved 
managed to obtain a small further supply to remain at Parma. In 181 1 he received 
by selling some of his wood-engravings the Cross of the Two Sicilies from Murat, 
to printers. When at last they arrived and undertook to issue a series of French 
at Rome, Costa's uncle strongly advised classics for the young son of Murat, in 
the youths to return home. Bodoni was imitation of the Delphin editions, pre- 



much discouraged, and felt inclined to 
follow^ out the advice. Curiosity, how- 
ever, induced him to visit the printing- 
house of the Propaganda \_see Galeotti, 
ante]. His knowledge and spirit at- 
tracted the attention of the Abbate Rug- 
gieri, who was superintendent of the 
establishment, and led to an engagement. 
Soon after the head of the Society 
noticed the ability of young Bodoni, and 
became his patron, advising and assisting 
him in his studies of the Oriental 
languages. Ruggieri intrusted him. 



pared by order of Louis XIV., and 
styled ill- usuJit Delphini, or for the use 
of the Dauphin. Bodoni began with 
Telemachus, which was issued in 1812. 
Napoleon gave 18,000 francs to assist the 
enterprise, and nominated Bodoni as 
Chevalier de la Reunion. The great 
printer, however, soon afterwards died of 
gout. His widow continued the business 
for a few years. 

The bibliomania which prevailed in 
England towards the close of the 
eighteenth century endowed the produc- 



1762, to print the Missal in Coptic Arabic tions of Bodoni with extravagant value, 
and the Alphabetum Tibetanam. The English publishers engaged him to print 
work was so well executed that Bodoni's several of their most magnificent works. 

_ .: J :_ .L, -_i-_i — Among books printed in English by the 

Italian "prince of typographers" were 
"The Castle of Otranto" (1791), Gray's 
Poems, in quarto (1793), the edition only 
comprising 100 copies on large paper and 
200 on ordinary ; Gray's " Elegy " (1793), 



name was mentioned in the colophon 

Ruggieri shortly afterwards committed 
suicide, and the event affected Bodoni so 
keenly that he resolved to leave his native 
country and seek his fortune in England. 
On the way, he visited his aged parents ; 



2 54 Bibliography of Prijiting. 

with an Italian translation, the edition printed ; and " Lines to Victory " by 
being restricted to loo ; Thomson's Cornelia Knight, in quarto (1793), 100 
" Seasons " (1794), 175 copies only copies. 

Gand (Michel Joseph de). Recherches Historiques et Critiques sur 

la Vie et les Editions de Thierry Martens [Martinus, Mertens]. 

Publ. par F. J. de Smet. Alost : 1845. 8vo. pp. xi. 246. 

6 plates. 

Martens was the first Belgian printer. His device and references to some of his 

productions will be ioM^A post. — See Martens (T.) 

Gandellini (Giovanni Gori). Notizie Istoriche degl' Intagliatori. 
3 vols. Siena: 1771. Svo. Siena: 1808. 8vo. 

Notizie degl' Intagliatori, con Osservazione critiche raccolte da 



varj scrittori ed aggiunte a G. G. Gandellini dall' Abbate Luigi de 
Angelis. 12 vols. Siena : 1808-16. 8vo. 

Gando (Nicolas). Epreuve des Caract^res de la Fonderie de Nicolas 
Gando. Paris : 1745. 4to. 1760. 

Observations sur la Traite historique et critique ** Sur I'Origine 



et les Progres des Caracteres de Fonte pour 1' Impression de la 
Musique," par Fournier le Jeune. Berne : 1765. 4to. 
In repelling this attack, Fournier in his reply accuses the Gandos of plagiarism, 
and keenly criticises their style of fount. — See Fournier. 

Recueil d'Ornements qui comprennent differentes Combinai- 



sons de Vignettes. Paris : 1745. 4to. 

Nicolas Gando, type-founder, was the about 1767. We hear of him first in 

nephew of the celebrated type-founder, Berne, and afterwards in Paris, where he 

Jean Louis Gando, who removed his established a type-foundry, which be- 

foundry from Basle to Paris. He pur- came somewhat celebrated. He applied 

chased the foundry of the well-known himself especially to the printing of 

artists John and Peter Cot. Nicholas was music, and associated his son Pierre 

born in Geneva at the commencement of FVangois (born in Geneva in 1733, died in 

the eighteenth century, and died in Paris Paris in 1800) with the enterprise. 

Gando (Pierre Fran9ois). Lettre de Fran9ois Gando le jeune, graveur 
et fondeur de caracteres d'imprimerie. Paris: 1758. i2mo. 

Gando (T. S.). Epreuves des caracteres de la fonderie de T. S. 
Gando. Bruxelles : 1828. Folio. 

Gar (Tommaso). Letture di Bibliologia fatte nella Regia Universita 
degli studii in Napoli durante il primo semestre del 1865. Torino : 
1868. Svo. pp. ix. 338. 

The fourth of these lectures treats of the transition from manuscript to typography, 
and the fifth of the growth and perfection of printing. 

Garnier (J. M.). Histoire de I'lmagerie populaire et des Cartes a 
Jouer a Chartres. Suivie de Recherches sur le Commerce du 
Colportage des Complaintes, Canards, et Chansons des Rues. 
Chartres : 1869. Svo. pp. viii. 450. Woodcuts. 624 copies 
printed. 
The first chapter gives an account of the origin of wood-engraving, the fifth an 

account of the manufacture of playing-cards at Chartres. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



255 



Garnier Dubourgneuf (J. A. 
8vo. 



). Code de la Presse. Paris : 1822. 



Gaskill (Jackson). The Printing-machine Manager's Complete 
Practical Handbook ; or, the Art of Machine-managing fully 
explained. London : 1877. Fcap. 8vo. pp. viii. 145. 



The author describes himself as being 
a machine manager of thirty years' ex- 
perience. His book professes to give 
descriptions of the machines at present 
employed in the printing trade, instruc- 
tions in making readj% directions for the 



proper treatment of rollers, instructions 
in colour-printing, lithography; with legal 
information, &c. It is, however, a very 
crude and unsatisfactory production, and 
leaves as a desideratum a truly practical 
manual on this important subject. 



Gatteaux. Considerations sur la Gravure en Taille-douce et sur 
Gerard Audran. [Paris] : 1850. 4to. 

This notice was reprinted in the Artiste, for January, 1851. 

Gaubert (E. R. G.). Renovation de I'Imprimerie. Nouvelle Puis- 
sance de la Mecanique. Notice sur la Gerotype, ou Machine a 
distribuer et a composer en Typographic. Paris : 1843. 8vo. 
PP- 15- 

M. Etienne Robert Gaubert was the under bridges, which separated them ac- 
earliest patentee in this country of a cording to thickness. The apparatus 
Type-distributing Machine. His patent would appear _to have been excessively 
is dated the 13th of March, 1840. 
The only previous inventor, in fact, 
of type - manipulating machinery was 
William Church, whose specification for 
a composing apparatus was drawn 
up in 1822. Gaubert described his 
invention as "certain improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for distributing 
types or other typographical characters 
into proper receptacles, and placing the 
same in order for setting up after being 
used in printing." It was claimed that 
the machine "would, in three minutes. 



complicated. The types and spaces were 
laid on an oscillating plane ; thence they 
passed to a " directing plane "; and thence 
in a row by oblique bars to " directing 
passages." From these they passed to a 
"sifting or separating plate," furnished 
with apertures sufficiently long to admit 
of the spaces passing through them, but 
not long enough to allow of types pass- 
ing. The types were, by obstacles in 
their paths, turned round and shot down 
" diagonal ways " to another plate, where 
they were caused to turn round again, 
do what would occupy a workman two and fall against oblique guides. There 
or three hours." There were to be no was after this a " plate for separating the 
less than 108 separate types employed, classes," from whence the types of the 
and these types were to be divided into same sub-divisions passed to the "corn- 
two equal "classes," each containing mon conductor," at the end of which was 
three " divisions," with "sub-divisions" a "plane for separating by thickness," 
of six. The "classes" were determined furnished with a series of bridges of de- 
by having or not having a notch on the creasing height. The complexity, indeed, 
foot of the type; the "divisions" by the is rather amusing, and we are not sur- 
absence or position of a nick on one side prised to learn that when M. Gaubert set 
of the type, and the sub-divisions by its up one or two of his machines in Paris, 
absence or position on ^he other. The they soon demonstrated themselves to be 
separation was effected by passing the an utter failure. The other inventions re- 
types over holes furnished with pins cor- ferred to in the above brochure were not 
responding to their form, and finally patented in this country. 

Gaucher (Charles Etienne). Essai sur I'Ongine et les Avantages de 
la Gravure, lu a la seance publique de la Societe libre des Sciences, 
Arts, et Belles - Lettres de Paris, le 9 vendemaire de I'an VI. 
[Paris : 1805]. 4to. 



256 



Bibliography of Printing, 



Gaucher (Charles Etienne). Lettre a M. Quatremere de Quincy, sur 
la Gravure. [Paris : 1791.] i2mo. 
This writer contributed the article, con- Charles Etienne Gaucher was a French 
sidered a very valuable one, on " En- engraver and man of letters. He was 
gravers " in Fontenay's " Dictionary of born at Paris, 1740, where he died. 
Artists," 1770. 1804. 

Gaullier (Ernest). L'Imprimerie a Bordeaux en 1486.' Bordeaux : 
1869. 8vo. pp. 44. 

Gaullieur (E. H.). Etudes sur la Typographic Genevoise du XVe 
au XIXe Siecle, et sur I'Origine de I'lrnprimerie en Suisse. 
Geneve: 1855. 8vo. pp. 260, and 4 sheets of fac&imiles (1478- 
1600). 




Gauter (Aellaerdus). 

The printing-press was established in whom Gauter was not the least distin- 

Gouda — at the time one of the most guished. Unfortunatelj^ there are no 

opulent and highly educated cities in personal details concerning him extant, 

the Low Countries — by Gerard Leeu and only a few of his books, which are 

or Leew (^. 7'.) in 1477. After him came chiefly of a controversial and fugitive 

a succession of eminent printers, of character. 

Gauthier (V. Eugene). Annuaire de I'lrnprimerie pour 1853, 
1854, et 1855. Paris. 8vo. 
The work was then discontinued.— 6"^^ Periodicals. 



- — • Concordance du 
metrique, etc. Paris : 
6th edit. Nice : 



Point Typographique avec le Systeme 

i860, s. sh. Nice: 1871. 8vo. pp. 16. 

1875. 8vo. pp. 16. 



Elements pratiques d'Evaluation et de Tarification typo- 

graphiques, avec compteur lignometrique. Nice : 1876. Oblong 
8vo. pp. 48. • 

Seventy-five copies only printed. Very minute and elaborate tables for printers, 

publishers, editors, etc., to show the price of composition of every measure and type 

by the square centimeter. 

Peches Poetiques : — La Ronde des Typographes ; La Presse 

Mecanique ; Hymne a Guttenberg ; La Bateliere du Lac, bluette. 
Paris: 1856. 8vo. 
Four songs taken from the vaudeville Saint-Jean Porle-Latine. 



Bibliography of Prhitino. 257 

Gauthier (V. Eugene). Peches Poetiques (1841-1866). Nice : 1868. 
i2mo. pp. no. 
Fifty copies only printed. 

Projets d'un Conseil de Famille de la Typographic Parisienne 

et d'une Assurance mutuelle entre les Typographes Parisiens pour 
le cas de Manque involontaire de Travail. Paris : 1862. 8vo. 
pp. 16. 

Les Sorciers du Cloitre Saint-Benoit. fipisode dramatique en 



trois actes et six tableaux des Oi^igines de ITmprimerie en France. 
Nice : 1868. i6mo. 
Fifty copies only printed. 

Gauthier-Villars. Imprimerie de Gauthier- Villars, Rue de Seine, 
Saint-Germain, 10. Paris : 1867. 4to. 

This printing-house, established exclu- Courcier, who was succeeded by Bache- 

sively for the production of scientific Her in 1821, followed in 1853 by Mallet, 

and technical works published by the to whom Gauthier-Villars succeeded in 

same firm, was founded in 1791 by J. M. 1867. 

Gautier (Toussaint). Histoire de ITmprimerie en Bretagne, com- 
posee d'apres des documents inedits et contenant le catalogue des 
imprimeurs qui ont exerce dans cette province, depuis le XV^. 
Siecle jusqu'a nos jours. Rennes : 1857. 8vo. pp. 57. 
Only fifty copies reprinted from Le Progtes, a periodical of Rennes. 

Gautier. Lettre concernant le nouvel art de Graver et dTmprimer 
les Tableaux. Paris : 1749. i2mo. pp. xvi. 22, and coloured 
plates. 

Lettre a I'Auteur du Mercure, sur ^Invention et I'Utilite de 

I'Art d'imprimer les Tableaux. [Paris] : 1756. i2mo. 

Seconde Lettre a I'Auteur du Mercure sur ITnvention et 



rUtilite de I'Art d'imprimer les Tableaux, et Reponse k celle de 
M. Robert. [Paris : 1756]. i2mo. 

Gazzera (Costanzo). Notizie intorno all' Origine ed al Progresso 
deir Arte Tipografica in Saluzzo. Saluzzo : 1831. 8vo. 

Saluzzo, in Piedmont, was the birthplace of the great Bodoni, and the place where 
his father (a printer) worked. It is distinguished for having produced several 
eminent typographers, of whom the above work gives some account. 

Gebauer (Johannes Justinus). Die vornehmsten Lebensumstaende 
und der personliche Karakter des seligen HeiTn J. J. Gebauers, 
Buchdruckerherrns und Buchhiindlers, etc., zu Halle. Halle : 
1772. Folio. Portrait. 

Ged (William). C. Crispi Sallustii Belli Catilinarii et Jugurthani 

Historice. Edinburgi : Gulielmus Ged, Aurifaber Edinensis, non 

typis mobilibus ut vulgo fieri solet, sed tabellis seu laminis fusis, 

excudebat. 1744. 8vo. 

This edition of Sallust earns its place in our list from being the first essay towards 

Stereotype printing. 

2 L 



258 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Ged (William). An Account of some of the advantages of that Improve- 
ment in the.Ait of Printing invented by WilHam Ged, late Goldsmith 
in Edinburgh ; with proposals of a Subscription for enabling his 
Son, James Ged, Printer, and now the only possessor of this 
valuable secret, to carry it into further Execution, for the Good 
of the Publick, and the Benefit of his Family. London : 1751. 
4to. pp. 4. 



— Biographical Memoirs of William Ged, including a particular 
account of his progress in the art of Block Printing. London : 
1781. 8vo. 



The author of this work was John 
Bowyer Nichols. It was reprinted by 
Mr. Thomas Hodgson as one of the 
Newcastle Reprints. —See Hodgson, T. 

William Ged, who was born in 1690 
and died 1749, was the undoubted inven- 
tor of Stereotyping, or, as he called it, 
block-printing (for the word stereotypie 
was originated by Firmin Didot, 1795-7). 
He was a Scotchman, and carried on a 
successful business in Edinburgh as a 
goldsmith. In this profession he was 
widely known for many improvements 
and inventions. As a goldsmith, he be- 
came, to a certain degree, a banker, and 
was brought into connection with our 
trade by furnishing money for the pay- 
ment of the printers. In 1725, a printer 
represented to Ged that he was greatly 
embarrassed by being compelled to send 
to London for type, there being then no 
type-founders in Scotland, and much of 
the type then in use coming from Holland. 
The ingenious goldsmith was urged to 
undertake the business of type-founding ; 
but Ged was struck with the idea of 
making plates of the composed pages, 
believing that it could be successfully 
done. He borrowed a page of type, and 
made many experiments with a variety of 
materials, but did not complete his inven- 
tion until two years afterwards. Ged 
then offered a fourth interest in his in- 
vention to an Edinburgh printer, on con- 
dition of his advancing the sum necessary 
to establish a foundry. The partnership 
lasted two years, but the printer (alarmed 
at the expensiveness of the undertaking) 
failed to fulfil his promises. A London 
stationer named William Fenner, visiting 
Edinburgh, next offered to establish a 
foundry in London, in full workmg order, 
for one-half the profits. Ged, now ex- 
ceedingly anxious for the success of his 
invention, accepted these terms, disposed 
of his business in Edinburgh, and followed 
his new partner to London, where he 
found himself once more deceived. With 
many plausible pretences, the stationer 
induced the unfortunate inventor to bring 



a type-founder into the partnership, who 
furnished refuse type, which Ged rejected 
as being totally useless to his purpose. 
Still undiscouraged, Ged applied person- 
ally to the King's printers, with a pro- 
posal to stereotype some type which they 
had recently introduced. The printers 
consulted the type-founders who had 
made the type, and the latter, of course, 
denied the utility of the invention. An 
interview, however, was arranged, which 
led to the curious result of the type- 
founder laying a wager that he could 
make the stereotype himself. The fore- 
man of the King's Printing House was 
made the umpire. Each of the disputants 
was furnished with a page in type of a 
Bible, on the understanding that he 
should furnish the stereotype in eight 
days. Upon receiving the type, Ged 
went immediately to work, and the same 
day finished three plates of the page, took 
impressions from them, and carried them 
to the umpire, who acknowledged his 
success with much astonishment. The 
fame of this invention soon afterwards 
reached the Earl of Macclesfield, who 
offered Ged and his partners the vacant 
office of printer to the University of 
Cambridge, with the privilege of printing 
Bibles and prayer-books by the new pro- 
cess. Ged eagerly accepted the position, 
and went to Cambridge ; but the letter- 
founders, it is said, prevented his suc- 
cess by supplying imperfect type. When 
Ged sent to Holland for new type, 
he was again deceived. After struggling 
unsuccessfully for five years, without 
being able to complete a single set of 
plates, and encountering every possible 
form of opposition from the printers, as 
well as treachery from his own partners, 
he relinquished the undertaking and re- 
turned, a ruined man, to Edinburgh.' 
His friends in that city subscribed a suf- 
ficient sum for the stereotyping of a single 
volume, and the unfortunate inventor 
apprenticed his son to a printer, that he 
might no longer be subjected to the 
enmity of the trade. By the assistance 



Bibliogi-aphy of Printing. 



259 



of his son he produced, in 1744, after 
eleven years of endeavour, the edition of 
Sallust cited above. It is gratifying to 
be able to state that some of the original 
plates of the above have been preserved. 
They are contained in the collection of 
books, &c., belonging to the Faculty of 
Advocates, Edinburgh, and were lent 
to the Caxton Exhibition. It was not 
a fine specimen of the art, but suffi- 
cient to show that the invention had 
been completed. Ged's son devoted him- 
self to acquiring a knowledge of printing, 
but just at the moment that he was fully 
prepared to assist his father, the unfor- 
tunate inventor died in 1749. Although 
suffering so bitterly at home, Ged refused 
several offers, either to go to Holland, or 
to sell his invention to printers of that 
country, declaring that he only desired 

Block-printing. 



to serve his native land, and would not 
hurt it by giving the printers of another 
country such an advantage. For about 
sixty years nothing further was heard of 
stereotyping. It was re-invented by Dr. 
Tilloch, of Edinburgh, In conjunction 
with the printer, A. Wilson. In 1804 they 
produced "An Abstract of the Whole 
Doctrine of the Christian Religion." The 
Earl of Stanhope shortly after heard of the 
process, and took the trouble to become 
practically acquainted with it. Heeffei:ted 
several improvements, and advocated the 
system so warmly that he succeeded in 
getting it introduced in the printing 
trade. Some stereo plates, and the book 
printed therefrom, used by his lordship, 
were exhibited at the Caxton Celebra- 
tion of 1877, being lent by the present 
Earl Stanhope. 

In Gentleman'' s Magazine, li. 379. 

This is a review, published in August, sunk under its own burden, for reasons 

1 78 1, of the " Biographical Memoirs of here needless to recapitulate. The at- 

William Ged." After extracting the tempt, however, to rescue it from oblivion 

leading features of Ged's life, the Gentle- is laudable, and the end benevolent. As 

man's Magazine concludes thus : " Thus such may success attend it." It will be 

ended his life and project, which, in- remembered that Johnson, writing in his 



in- 
genious as It seems, is not likely to be 
revived if, as Mr. Mores suggests, it 
must, had it at first succeeded, have soon 



"Typographia," 1824, speaks of the 
invention as almost useless, and non- 
economical. We know better now. 



Gedenkbuch an die festlichen Tage der Inauguration des Gutenberg- 

■ Denkmals zu Mainz, am 13., 14., 15., und 16. August, 1837. Nebst 

den Acten, die Entstehung desselben betreffend und einer kurzen 

Lebensbeschreibung Gutenbergs. Mainz: 1837. 8vo. pp. viii. 

207. 4 lithographic plates. 

An account of the inauguration of the Gutenberg statue at Mayence in 1837. 

Gedenkbuch der vierten Jubelfeier der Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunst in Mainz. Mainz : 1840. Imperial 8vo. pp. xxii. 362. 
View of the Dom Kirche. 
Among the essays of which this volume Mayence, by Schaab ; a long account of 

is composed, is one on the edifices of the city of Mayence, by various writers ; 

Mayence and their connection with the and a description of the fete of 1840, by 

early history of printing, by J. Wetter; Von Malten. 

an historical sketch of printing in 

Gedenkbuch der vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunstzu Braunschweig am Johannisfest des Jahres 1840. Braun- 
schweig : 1840. 8vo. pp. 100. 

Many of these guides and accounts of the festivals of the anniversary of the 
Discovery of Printing in the various towns of Holland and Germany will be found 
scattered through our lists. 

Gedenkbuch zur vierten Jubelfeier der Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunst begangen zu Frankfurt am Main am 24., 25. Junius 1840. 
Eine Festgabe herausgegeben von den Buchdruckern, Schrift- 
giessern und Buchhandlern. Frkf. :i840. Royal 8vo. pp. xiv. 208. 



26o Bibliography of Priiitiiig. 

Gedenkbuch, Thiiringisch-Erfiirter, dervierten Sacular-Jubelfeier der 
Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst zu Erfurt am 26. u. 27. Juli 
1840. Erfurt : 1840. 8vo. pp. 200. With a portrait of Guten- 
berg and 20 artistic sketches, 

Gedichte zur Feier des Johannistages 1840. Basel : 1840. 8vo. 

Gee (John). The Foot out of the Snare, &c. Containing also a 
Catalogue of Popish Books lately printed, Popish Printers, Physi- 
cians, Priests, and Jesuits in London. London : 1624. 410. 
pp. X. 116, 26. 

Geheimniss (Das) des Steindrucks in seinem ganzen Umfang. Prac^ 
tisch und ohne Riickhalt nach eigenen Erfahrungen. [By Hein- 
rich Rapp]. Tiibingen : 18 10. 4to. 12 plates. 

Geheimniss enthiilltes der englischen Stereotypen-Verfertigung, wichtig 
fiir Schriftgiesser und Buchdrucker, etc. Leipzig : 1822. 8vo. 

Gehrken (Dr. F. J.). Heinrich Aldegrever, Goldschmied, Maler, 
Kupferstecher, und Pragschneider, biographisch und kunst- 
historisch dargestellt. Munster : 1841. 8vo. 

Geibel & Co. (Stephen). Schriftprobcn der Pierer'schen Hofbuch- 
druckerei. Altenburg : 1876. 4to. 

Geidel (H.). Anleitung zum mathematischen Satz. Leipzig : 
1872. i6mo. pp. 24. 

Geilnhauten. Collectarius perpetuarum Formarum. Haloc : 1737. 
4to. 

Geissler (P. C). Fest Tableau zu der vierten Sacular-Feier der 
Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. Lithogr. von B. Dondorf. 
Leipzig : 1840. A royal folio broadside. 

Gemeiner (C. Th.). Nachrichten von den in der Regensburgischen 
Stadtbibliothek befindlichen seltenen Druckwerke aus dem I5ten 
Jahrhundert. Regensburg : 1 785. 8vo. pp. xviii. 301. 

Gengenrach (Pamphilius). Herausg. von Karl Goedeke. Hannover : 
1855. 8vo. pp. xxviii. 699. 
Gengenbach was a printer at Basle in the sixteenth century. Pages 686-690 of 
this work contain a Hst of the works printed by him. 

Gent (Thomas), Printer, of York. Life, written by himself, edited by 

Rev. Jos. Hunter. Portrait. London: 1832. 8vo. pp. iv. 208. 

A very interesting biography of a distinguished country printer. It contains also 

a number of details relative to the history of typography during the second half of 

the eighteenth century. The portrait is by Augustus Fox. 

Genzsch und Heyse. Proben der Schriftschneiderei von, in Ham- 
burg. 1868. 8vD. 
Specimens of news, book, and fancy types from the foundry of Gentzsch & 
Heyse, Hamburg. 

CiERET. — See Unger. 



Bibliography of Pmiting. 



261 




-RICH r.FRTNG, 



262 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Gering (Ulrich). 

Paris was the first city in which print- 
ing was practised in France. It was 
introduced there in 1470, the tenth year 
of the reign of Louis XI., by Ulrich 
Gering, a German, and a native of 
Constance, and his two assistants, Martin 
Krantz and Michael Friburger. These 
Germans, at the instance of Guillaume 
Fichet and Jean de la Pierre, came to 
settle at Paris, and had an establishment 
assigned to them in the college of the 
Sorbonne, of which society the.se two 
patrons were distinguished members. 
Chevillier enumerates eleven distinct 
books printed by Gering, Krantz, and 
Friburger in the Sorbonne, between 1470 
and 1472 ; the list is increased by Panzer 
to eighteen. 'I'hese constitute what is 
called the first series of Gering's im- 
pressions. They are generally without 
date, and none of them are printed in 
black letter. Their type is a handsome 
Roman, formed in imitation of the charac- 
ters of the Augustan age, as exemplified 
in the models and other monuments of 
tho.se classic times. All of the same size 
are from types cast in the same matrices. 
Some letters, however, appear imperfect, 
and some words, only half printed, are 
afterwards finished with the pen. There 
are no capitals. The initial letter of 
each book or chapter is omitted, such 
omissions being intended to be supplied 
by the ingenuity of the illuminator. 
They abound in abbreviations. The 
paper is not very white, but is strong, and 
well sized ; the ink is of a glossy black- 
ne.ss. They are all without title, cyphers, 
or signatures. 

Louis XI. having witnessed the intro- 
duction into his own capital of printing, 
subsequently encouraged the .irt in 
various ways. He honoured with his 
special favour several printers who after- 
wards settled in Paris, and brought from 
Fontainebleau the valuable manuscripts 
which his predecessors, Charles V. and 
VI., had collected for reference and re- 
production. He established in the 
Louvre a spacious and noble library, the 
superintendence of which he gave to 
Robert Gaguin, and augmented it both 
with manuscripts and printed books. 

The early French printers, however, 
met with great opposition from the scribes 
or copyists, who instituted against them 
a vexatious legal process. The un- 
enlightened parliament of the time, before 
whom the case was brought, ordered the 
printers' books and impressions to be 
seized and confiscated. Louis XI. inter- 
posed his royal authority in favour of the 
printers, interdicted the parliament from 



taking farther cognizance of the aflfair, 
and in the end restored everything that 
had been taken. 

In 1473 Pierre Csesaris and Jean Stol, 
both also natives of Germany and in- 
structed by Gering, established in Paris 
the second press, and with him became 
the instructors of many other artists. In 
1473 Gering and his associates removed 
from the Sorbonne and established them- 
selves in the " Rue St. Jaques," at the 
sign of the "Golden Sun." Of the 
second series of their impressions, those 
of 1473 are considered the best. Amongst 
this series is the " Biblia Sacra," in folio, 
the earliest impression of the sacred 
Scriptures printed in France. Pa ,zer 
fixes its date at 1476. The characters 
used in the second series are wholly 
different from those employed in the first. 
Several of them exhibit specimens of the 
Roman character ranging both in size 
and degrees of elegance and beauty. 
Some of them are a mixture of black 
letter and Roman. 

In those works which appeared sub- 
sequently to 1477, Gering's name appears 
alone. It is supposed that Krantz and 
Friburger returned to Germany, as no 
mention is made of them afterwards. 
Gering passed the remainder of his days 
at Paris, formed new associations, and 
published new works. Some writers 
believe that he admitted into partnership 
his pupils Cae.saris and Stol. He is after- 
wards ascertained to have associated 
himself with Berthold Rembolt. 

In 1483 Gering removed his est-.iblish- 
ment once more to the vicinity of the 
Sorbonne, the professors of that insti- 
tution according to him the " Privilege of 
hospitality," that is, of possessing apart- 
ments in the college and a seat at the 
table. In return for these privileges he 
occasionally assisted the institution with 
money and made numerous charitable 
donations to poor students. He died in 
15 10, leaving a large bequest to the 
Sorbonne. 

Of the final series of his impressions the 
earliest date is 1489, and the latest 1508. 
In those which bear the date of 1494 and 
the subsequent ones, the name of Ber- 
thold Rembolt is united with his. In 1509 
Rembolt began to print in his own 
separate name ; and continued the es- 
tablishment till 15 19, in which year he 
died. In some of the books of this period 
the same bold and handsome Roman 
character was employed as in the finer 
specimens of the second series, but the 
greater part are in black letter. Probably 
it was with much reluctance that he 



Bibliography of Printing 



263 




01 SI 01 GLI INC 



264 Bibliography of Printing. 

followed the fashion which his competitors tic portrait reproduced from La Caille's 

had not long before introduced of issuing work, the " Histoire de I'lmprimerie." 

their editions of popular works "en It is copied from a painting in the chapel 

lettres gothiques." _ of the college Montaeu. The second is a 

On pages 261 and 263 we give two memo- bust, erected to the memory of Gering, 

rials ofGering,both taken from the "Atlas" in 1874, in the Bibliotheque de Sainte- 

to the 5th series of M. Madden's " Lettres Genevieve. — See Fkanklin (T.) and 

d'un Bibliographe." The first is an authen- Greswell (W. P.). 

Gerlach (P. T.). Ueber die Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 
1 740. 4to. 

Gerlings (H.). Haarlemsche Bijdragen bijeengebragt. Haarlem : 
1869. 8vo, 

The first tract in this collection is on the support given to the Kosterian theory by 
Mr. H. Noel Humphreys in his " History of Printing." 

Het Leven van Theodorus Schrevelius (Dirk Schrevel). 8vo. 

Sine a. et 1. 

G6RONVAL (Audoin de). Manuel de I'lmprimeur, ou Traite simplifie 
de la Typographie. Paris : 1826. i8mo. 2 leaves, pp. 240. 
Six folding plates. 

Ger-STNER (Dr. L. Joseph). Die Buchdruckerkunst in ihrer Bedeu- 
tung fur Wissenschaft, Staat und Wirthschaft. Festrede zum 
50-jahrigen Jubilaum des Erfinders der Schnellpresse und zur Feier 
der Vollendung der looo Druckmaschine in der schnellpressen 
Fabrik Konig und Bauer zu Oberzell am 23. Miirz, 1865. Wiirz- 
burg : 1865. 8vo. pp. 28. 

Gesammelte Aufsatze und Mittheilungen aus dem Borsenblatt fiir 
den Deutschen Buchhandel 1869-73. Leipzig : 1875. ^vo. 
2 leaves, pp. 315. 
An interesting series of articles on booksellers, printers, and printing ; among 

which may be mentioned essays on Coburger, the Estiennes, Elzeveriana, Brock- 

haus, Mame et fils, and Ambroise Firmin Didot. 

Geschichte der Buchdruckereien im Kanton St. Gallen, mit ein- 
leitender Nachricht iiber die Erfindung der Buchdmckerkunst. 
Eine Festgabe fiir die Theilnehmer an der Sakularfeier in St. 
Gallen am 24. Juni 1840. St. Gallen : 1840. 8vo. pp. vii. 108. 

Geschichte der Buchdruckereien in Konigsberg. Ausgegeben am 
Tage des in Konigsberg stattfindenden Buchdrucker-Jubilaums 
am 5. December, 1840. Konigsberg : 1840. 8vo. pp. 62. 

Geschichte der Buchdruckereien der Stadt Leipzig, und Bcschrei- 
bung der Feierlichkeiten des gegenwartigen Jubilaums. Leipzig : 
1840. 4to. 

Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst in Basel von den altesten bis auf 
die neuesten Zeiten. Basel : 1840. 4to. 

Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst und ihres Erfinders Johannes 
Gutenberg. Berlin : 1840. 8vo. 

Geschichte der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. Leipzig : 1840. 4I0. 

Geschichte, kritische, der Buchdruckerkunst. 1780. 4to. 



Bibliography of Printing. 265 

Geschichte der k. k. Hof- und Staats-Druckerei in Wien von einem 
Typographen dieser Anstalt. Wien : 1 85 1. 8vo. 2 parts. Parti, 
History; Part 2, Description, pp. iv. no, with 8 lithographic 
plates and i copperplate. — See also Auer. 

Geschichte der Stadtbuchdruckerei in Breslau. Breslau : 1804. 
4to. With copperplate. 

Geschichtliche Uebersicht der Kupferstechkunst. 3 parts. Leipzig: 
1 84 1. 8vo. 

Gesetz. Das Press-Gesetz vom 12. Mai 1851 ; nebst den Ministerial- 
Bestimmungen iiber die Bildung der Priifungs-Commissionen fiir 
Buchhandler und Buchdrucker u. die Priifung selbst, vom 10. 
Aug. 185 1. Landsberg : 1852. 8vo. pp. 35. 

Gesprach, Merkvi^Urdiges, im Reiche der Tod'ten zwischen den ersten 
Erfindern der Buchdruckerkunst, worin von dem Ursprung, 
Fortgang und iibrigen Schicksalen derselben gehandelt, und ins- 
besondere der Stadt Mayntz der Kuhm von der Erfindung solcher 
Kunst vindiciret wird : in dem dritten Buchdrucker-Jubilteo der 
curiosen Welt nebst einigen remarquablen Neuigkeiten aus dem 
Reiche der Lebendigen mitgetheilet. Erfurt : 1 740. 8vo. With 
portraits of Gutenberg, Faust, and others. 

Gessner (Chr. Fr.) Die so nothig als niitzliche Buchdruckerkunst 
und Schriftgiesserey, mit ihren Schriften, Formaten und alien 
dazu gehorigen Instrumentenabgebildet, auch klarlich beschrieben, 
und nebst einer kurzgefassten Erzahlung vom Ursprung und Fort- 
gang der Buchdruckerkunst, iiberhaupt, insonderheit von den 
vornehmsten Buchdruckern in Leipzig und andern Orten Teutsch- 
landes im 300 Jahre nach Erfindung derselben ans Licht gestellet. 
Mit einer Vorrede Herrn Johann Erhard Kappens. 4 vols. 
Leipzig : 1 740-45. 8vo. Vol. I., pp. xiv. 294 and numerous 
plates. Vol. IL, pp. xvi. 208 and numerous plates; 142 pp. of 
the *' Reichsabschiede" without pagination, and 60 pp. of Orationis 
Dominicse Versiones. Vol. III., pp. xxviii. 503. Vol. IV., 
pp. xvi. 240 and 144. 

The collation above is from the copy in C. Zinckens Giesserey befindlich sind." 

in the British Museum, but copies of the It is a specimen - book of types in the 

book vary both in the number of leaves Zinck foundry at Wittenberg. Christian 

and of plates. Appended to this work is Zinck cut some of the founts for the 

" Schrift-proben wie solche zu Wittenberg Breitkopf foundry. 

Der in der Buchdruckerei wohlunterrichtete Lehr-Junge, oder : 

bey der Loblichen Buchdruckerkunst nothige und niitzliche An- 
fangsgriinde, darinnen alles, was bey selbiger in Acht zu nehmen 
u. zu lernen vorfallt, von einem Kunstverwandten mitgetheilet 
wird. Leipzig : 1743. 8vo. pp. xxxix. 462, 112, the last 112 
pages being the " Depositio Cornuti Typographici." With speci- 
mens of type from the foundries of Erhardt and Zincken. 

■ Das Leipziger Formatbuch. Leipzig: 1740-45. 8vo. 4 vols. 

2 M 



266 BibliograpJiy of Printing. 

Gestrin. Dissertatlo de libris in Typographia Wisingburgensi im- 

pressis, quam consentienle ampl. ord. phil. Upsal. publice 

examini offerunt Samuel Gestrin atque Dan. Axner, d. ii Dec. 

1793- Upsaliae : 1793. 4to. pp. 28. 

Contains much information about 17th century printing and printers in Sweden. 

In 1667, a printing-house was estabhshed by Count Pehr Brahe on the island 

vVisingso (Smaiand), in Wisingburg. This dissertation gives a list of 28 works that 

were printed there between 1667 and 1678. 

Gesuch der Buckdruckerinnung zu Leipzig um Abiinderung verschie- 
dener Bestimmitngen in der hohen Verordnung, die Ausubung der 
Presspolicei betr. Vom 13. Oct. 1836. Folio. 

Ghesquiere (J.). Reflexions sur deux pieces relatives a I'histoire de 
I'Imprimerie publiees dans U Esprit des Journaux. Nivelles : 
1 780. 8vo. 
Attributes the invention of printing to an unknown printer in Bruges about 1445. 

Gianetti (Michel' Angelo). La Tipografia. Firenze : 1791. Folio, 
pp. xix. 
A poem in "ottave rime" in celebration of the marriage of Ferdinand III. and 
Louisa Maria, Princess of Naples. 

GiARDETTi (Leonardo). Saggio di Caratteri, e Fregi della Tipografia. 
Firenze : 1828. 8vo. 

The foundry of Leonardo Giardetti at Florence still retains its eminence. The 
above is a very neat specimen-book of its various founts. 

GiBBS (Joseph T. R.). Gossip about Printing and Printing Machines. 
A series of articles by a machine overseer, in the London Press News. 

GiBOULOT (Ant.). Code Complet de la Presse; contenant dans un 
ordre methodique toutes les dispositions en vigueur des lois sur 
la presse, rimprimerie et la librairie, etc., avec le texte separe et 

annote de la loi de 1868. Paris : 1868. i2mo. 1872. l8mo. 

pp. viii. 113. 

GiESE (G. €.). Historische Nachricht von der allerersten deutschen 
Bibclausgabe, welche 1462 zu Mayntz, von Fust und Schoiffhern, 
gedruckt worden, und in der Bibliothek eines lobl. Gymnasii in 
Gorlitz vervvahret wird, am zvveyten Jubilao dieser beriihmten 
Schule, welches auf den i8ten, als am Tage der Uebergabe, und 
22sten Juny, als am Tage der Einweihung dieses I765sten Jahres 
einfallt. Gorlitz: 1765. i2mo., pp. 48. 

Historical notice of the Gutenberg put to the first production of the printing- 
Bible, a copy of which was in the press, which later discovery has deter- 
Gymnasium of Gorlitz. It is curious to mined to have been at least twelve years 
observe that in 1765, the date of 1462 is earlier. 

GiESEBRECHT (Ludwig). Gutenberg. Oratorium in drei Abtheilungen, 
componirt von Carl Lowe. 

GiESECKE und Devrient, Das Establissement von, in Leipzig, 1852- 
1862. [Leipzig: 1862.] 4to. Views and specimens of type. 



Bibliography of Priiiiin^^. 267 

GlESECKE und Devrient. Album of Typography, Leipsic : 1873. 

This celebrated house was established at Tours, with a magnificent garden behind 
ini852. Hermann Gieseckewasthesonofa it, was erected in 1857. Many of the 
distinguished type-founder of Leipsic, and Government bank-notes are printed here : 
studied practical printing with the great there is a room for revenue officers, some 
publisher Bernhard Tauchnitz. The other of whom are constantly on the premises, 
partner, Alphonse Devrient, served his as well as military sentries in the press- 
apprenticeship with Friedrich Niess, a re- room, in the centre of which a space is 
nowned Leipsic printer, and subsequently securely railed off as a protection to the 
passed four years in the Imperial Printing produce of this department. In the year 
Office at Paris. The firm began with book- 1868 the Saxon Treasury work is said to 
printing, then took to lithography and have employed in printing bank-notes in 
copperplate printing, bank-note printing, this establishment 30 copperplate presses, 
&c. In 1854, electrotype, stereotype, and 16 numbering-machines, 3 printmg-ma- 
photo-engraving departments were added, chines, and 5 manual presses. 
An extensive building similar to Mame's 

Gifts. — See Societies. — Pressmen's Gifts. 

GiLiBERTi (Francesco). Studii storici sulla Tipografia, intorno 

Forigine dell' arte della Stampa. Palermo-: 1870. i6mo., 

pp. 146. 
On page 135 is a list of Italian towns, with the dates when printing was first intro- 
duced into them. 

GiLKS (Thomas). The Art of Wood-engraving. A Practical Hand- 
book. With numerous illustrations by the Author. 2nd edition. 
London : 1867. 8vo. pp. 84. 
This work, which forms one of a scribes the tools and materials used, the 

series of books on art, published by mode of using the graver, preparation of 

Winsor & Newton, Rathbone Place, the wood, the jointed and amalgamated 

completely explains the different pro- blocks, &c. &c. 

cesses involved in wood-engraving, de- 

A Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the Art of Wood 

Engraving. London : 1868. 8vo. 

A resume of the history of wood-engraving, from its origin down to our times, full 
of accurate information, and with excellent illustrations. 

Mr. Thomas Gilks was a practical wood-engraver of reputation. He died in 
June, 1877. 

ij\\AA {k.) atne. Epreuves des Caracteres. Paris: 1798. 4to. 
GiLLfi (Joseph). Epreuves des Caracteres de la Fonderie de Joseph 
Gille, graveur et fondeur des Caracteres de I'lmprimerie des 
Departemens de la Guerre, Marine et Affaires Etrangh'es. Paris: 
1773. 4to. 
Eighty-six leaves of specimens of Versailles, and others for the King of 
letters, music, and fifty-two leaves of Prussia, to be used in his printing es- 
fleurons and vignettes, with a separate tab.ishment at Berlin. M. Gille speaks 
title-page for the latter, and large folding not only of the beauty of the founts but 
sheet of vignettes. All printed on one of their depth of cutting, which will cause 
side. Some of the founts were cut for them to last longer, 
the Government departmental office at 

GiLLfe (J. G.). Manuel de I'lmprimerie, contenant [long list of con- 
tents follows]. Seconde edition, corrigee et augmentee. Paris : 
181 7. 8vo. pp. 24, 16, 90 illustrations on 24 plates. 

Recueil des divers Caracteres, Vignettes, Fleurons et Orne- 

mens de la Fonderie et Imprimerie de J. G. Gille. Paris : 1813. 
Folio. 



268 



Bibliography of Printing. 



[GiLLET (J. Ji. G.)]- L'Imprimerie. Poeme. Paris: 1765. 4to. 

PP- 35. 
GILLISSEN (M. J.)- Toespraak en Comische voordragt bij het 25Jarig 

jubile der Typographische Vereeniging. "Door endragt t'zaam 

verbonden." s' Gravenhage : 1 868. 8vo. 

GiLLOT (Firmin). Paniconographie de Gillot. Prospectus-specimen. 
Premiere edition, Juin 1852. Explications sur la nature et les 
applications di verses de la paniconographie, pour MM. les 
typographes et MM. les editeurs, libraires, et autres personnes. 
Paris : 1852. 8vo. pp. 4, with a specimen of the process printed 
at the back. 
The original prospectus of an invention which was the forerunner of all the modern 

reproductive or automatic engraving processes, 

GiLLOr, Veuve et Fils. Album de Gravure Paniconographique et 
Photogravure. Paris : 1875. Oblong 4to. 

GiNOUX (P. S.). Comptes faits Typographiques a I'Usage des Im- 
primeurs. Paris : 1858. 4to. pp. 32. 

• Vade-mecum de rimprimeur. Paris: i860. 8vo. 

The latter work is merely a second edition of the former with a new title. 

Giovanni (Azeglio). Relazione sul Congresso Tipografico di Feltre, 
letta in Assemblea generale della Societa dei Compositori- 
Tipografi di P'irenze. Firenze : 1869. 8vo. 



C2;k mxttsrb 




b 

M 



GENEVE: 1537-1554- 



GiRARD, or Gerard (Jehan). 

This was one of the most eminent of 
the Genevese printers who, during the 
troubles of the first half of the sixteenth 
century, rendered the little Swiss town 
so distinguished for its typographical 
productions. The above device is found 
on the title-page of the first edition 
of John Calvin's " Advertissement tres 



utile du ^rand profit (jui reuiendroit 
a la Chrestiente s'il se faisoit inventoir'e 
de tous les corps saincts et reliques, que 
sont tant en Italie qu'en France, &c." 
Geneva, 1545, 8vo. The device, which 
has no border, consists of a dagger held 
upright by a hand. The motto is, " Non 
veni pacem mittere sed gladium" \\ 



Bibliography of Printing. 269 

came not to send peace, but a sword], issuing out of the clouds, the rays point- 

a very characteristic motto for a book ing downwards. There is no motto 

written by the " immortal apostle of Pro- appended. A third device is similar in 

testantism," — Calvin. Silvestre, in his character, but rather larger in dimen- 

" Marques Typographiques," gives three sions. It represents two hands holding 

other devices. One of these is similar in the sword, with the motto, forming three 

design to that annexed, but contains a sides of a square, as above, " Non veni 

different motto : " La parolle de Dieu est pacem mittere, sed gladium.— Matth. x." 

vine et efficace et plus penetrante que "Veni ignem mittere. — Lvc. xii." [I came 

toute glaive a deux trenchans. — Eb- not to send peace, but a sword. — Matt. x. 

rieux 4 " [The word of God is quick and 34. I am come to send fire (on the earth), 

powerful, and sharper than any two- St. Luke xii. 49.] The device of Girard 

edged sword. — Heb. iv. 12]. Another very nearly resembles that of Johann 

device includes a sword upheld by one Petreius, of Nuremberg (i 530-1 550). 
hand, surrounded with flames, and smoke 

GiROUDOT, Notice sur les Presses mecaniques et celles a la Stanhope. 
Paris : [1835]. 8vo. pp. 19 and one plate. 

Giuliani (Niccolo). Notizie della Tipografia Ligure sino a tutto il 
Secolo XVI. Genova : 1869. 8vo. 22 plates. 

e Belgrano (Luigi Tommaso). Supplemento alle Notizie 



della Tipografia Ligure sino a tutto il Secolo XVI. Genova : 
1870. 8vo. 

GiULiARi (G. B. Carlo). Delia Tipografia Veronese ; saggio-storico 
letterario. Verona : 1871. 8vo. pp. xiii. 196. 

GlUSTiNiANi (Lorenzo). wSaggio storico-critico sulla Tipografia del 
regno di Napoli, Napoli : 1793. 4to. pp. viii. 226, and Index 
of names. 2nd edition, 181 7. 

Gleich (Ferd.). Gutenberg- Walzer fiir das Pianoforte, op. 14. 
Leipzig : 1840. 4to. 

Gloria ( Henri). Le premier imprimeur Maconnais Michael Wenssler, 
de Bale, Notice bibliographique suivie d'une etude sur I'etablisse- 
ment definitif de I'imprimerie k Macon. Macon : 1877. 8vo. 
pp. 41. Plate. 

Gnauth, &c. Initialen und Verzierungen fiir Buchdruck und Kalli- 
graphie. In verschiedenen Stylen gezeichnet von Prof. Adolf 
Gnauth, Prof. Carl Riess, Ed. Rau und Prof. Ad. Schroter. 
Herausgegeben von Adolf Closs, xylographisches Institut in 
Stuttgart. 1873. 

GOBIN (Henri). Etude sur la Gravure. [Nos. 26 and 27 of ** Etudes 
sur I'Exposition de 1867, publiees sous la direction d' E. Lacroix."] 
Paris: 1868. 8vo. 

GoBiN (Henri), Jeunesse (A.), Kaeppelin (D.) et Pieraggi. 
L'Art de Peindre la Parole. Etudes sur I'imprimerie, la Librairie, 
les Cartes et Globes, la Fonderie en Caracteres, la Stereotypic, la 
Polytypic, la Lithographic, la Gravure en Bois, etc. Paris : 
1874. 8vo. pp. 160. With cuts. 

GOCKINGA.— ^^^ MeERMAN. 



270 



Bibliography of Printing. 




ANTWEKT : I482-1404. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



271 



GoEBEL (Theodore). Ueber den Satz des Englischen, mit besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung der Theilung der Worte, Fiir Correctoren und 
Schriftsetzei-. Leipzig : 1865. 8vo. pp. 31. 

An elementary guide for the composition of English, for the use of foreign com 
positors and readers. 



Friedrich Konig, und die Erfindung der Schnellpresse. Bruns- 
wick : 1875. 8^o- PP- 74* 
This memoir of the inventor of the firm of Konig & Bauer is given, and a 
steam printing-machine is compiled from list of the first hundred machines pro- 
original sources, and contains many new duced by them. (6Vr Konig and Smiles.) 
facts, as well as the correction of several Mr. Goebel is engaged upon a veryelabo- 
errors which have hitherto received rate memoir of Konig. 
general currency. The history of the 



— Buclidruckerkunst, historisch und technisch. Article 25 pp. 
in the "Conversations Lexikon." 3rd edition, vol. iii. Leipzig: 
1874. pp. 884. 

dnickerktinst, a technical periodical 
enjoying a well deserved reputation on 
the Continent. Herr Goebel contributed 
to Meyer's " Conversations-Lexicon" the 



Herr Theodore Goebel is one of the 
most earnest and accomplished among 
German students of the history and 
antiquities of printing. In addition to 



this he is a sound practical printer, and articles on the History and Practice of 
the editor of the Journal /fir Buck- the Art of Printing. 

GoEREE (W. en D.). Proeve der Drukkerye van W. en D. Goeree, 
bestaande in seven schone Druk-Perssen, &c. Amsterdam: 1732. 
4to. 

Goes, Van der (Mathias). 

This printer was a native of the city of 
Goes, in the province of Zealand. His 
patronymic was • Mathias ; hence the 
name under which his publications were 
i.ssued. Little is known of his personal his- 
tory, but a very full account of his works is 
given by Mr. A. F.G.Campbell in his "An- 
nales de la Typographie Neerlandaise." 

The early printers, as is well known, 
were their own typefounders, and their 
types vary in design one from the other, 
as would handwriting. Hence it is easy 
to recognize their works by the charac- 
ters employed, even when, as is seldom 
the case, there is no colophon. Van der 
Goes, however, was an exception to this 
rule. He was neither an engraver nor a 
founder of types, and it is by the style 
of his pages and the peculiarity of their 
" make up " that his books can be recog- 
nized. The types of his celebrated work, 
the "Mircir de la Foi Chretienne," were 
those used by the first printers in Delft, 
while in others of his works he employed 
the founts of Veldener and of Paffroed. 
It has been said that Caxton used one 
face of type apparently identical with 
that of Van der Goes. 



Van der Goes used the two noble devices 
reproduced on pages 270 and 272, in ad- 
dition to his general mark — the letter M 
surmounted by a double cross. The signi- 
fication of the ship is not very obvious, but 
Holtrop (" Monumens Typographiques ") 
has several ingenious theories to account 
for it. It may have had reference to the 
commerce which at that time distin- 
guished the city of Antwerp ; or have 
been adopted as the emblem of Progress- 
either commercial enterprise or progress 
made in the art of printing. The second 
device is that of a savage brandishing a 
club, and bearing also the arms of Bra- 
bant. It is taken from " Sermones 
Quatuor Novissimorum," published in 
the year 1487. 

It is supposed that he had a son, 
named Hugo Goes, who erected a press 
at York as early as 1506. He carried on 
printing for several years, and then re- 
moved to Beverley, living in the " Hye 
Gate." His punning device consisted of 
the letter H and a Goose. He is believed 
to have printed but little in this town, 
and afterwards removed to London. 



272 



Bibliography of Print w(^ 




Bibliography of Printing. 



273 



GoETSE (C. F.). De tertio artis Typographicae Jubilseo schediasma. 
Soraviae : 1740. 4to. 

GOETZE (Ludwig). Aeltere Geschichte der Buclidruckerkunst in 
Magdeburg. I. Abtheilung : Diq Drucker des 15. Jahrhunderts. 
Magdeburg: 1872. 8vo, pp. 173, 8, with 5 illustrations. 
Only 120 copies were printed of this first part, — all that was published. 

GoEZE (J. M.). Versuch einer Historic der gedruckten nieder- 
sachsischen Bibeln, 1470-1621. Halle : 1775. 4to. 12 leaves 
and pp. 412. 

GoLOWATZKij (Jakow Feodorowitsch). wSweipolt Fiol und seine 
Kyrillische Buchdruckerei in Krakau von jahre 1491. Vienna : 
1876. 8vo. pp. 27. 

Gordon (George P.). List of Franklin Presses invented and sold by 
G. P. Gordon. New York : 1857. 4to. 



Mr. G. P. Gordon was a practical 
printer of New York, who, adopting the 
plan invented by John Kitchen, of New- 
castle, in 1833, of placing the type in a 
vertical bed constructed a new kind of 
small jobbing-machine, worked by a 
treadle. It was introduced into this 
country in 1867, by Messrs. H. S. Cropper 



& Co., under the name of the " Minerva," 
and was the first of a long series of 
similar machines which have since l>een 
produced. Mr. Gordon took out a large 
number of patents for different improve- 
ments in this description of apparatus, 
and is understood to have realized a 
large fortune by their sale. 



GossE (P. F.). Portefeuille d'un Ancien Typographe. La Haye : 
1827. 8vo. pp. 254. 

GOTTSCHED (J. C.). Untersuchung ob Deutschland oder Welschland 
zuerst griechische Schriften habe drukken lassen. In "Sammlung 
der Gesellschaft der Freyen Kiinste in Leipzig," vol. ii. p. 453. 

GoTTWALD (Eduard). Betrachtungen eines Buchdruckers am Guten- 
bergs-Denkmale, und des Meisters Traum. Gedichte. Dresden : 
1840. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Erinnerungs-Blatter an die vierte Sacularfeier der Erfindung 

der Buchdruckerkunst zu Dresden im Jahre 1840. Dresden : 
1840. 8vo. 3 lithographic plates. 

GouGET. — See MeerMan. 

GouGH (R.). List of the Printers of the Eighteenth Century. 
Gentlemaii s Magazine, Ixxiii., Part L, p. 161. 
In February, 1803, Gough drew up a list of departed worthies of the eighteenth 
century who had served their country in church and state, or distinguished themselves 
in literature or arms. It was printed in the Gentlemaii s Mngnzhie, and is so 
valuable that we give those portions relating to engraving, printing, &c. The 
dates are the years of death. 



Baron .... 
Buck .... 
Longmate 
Pine .... 



Engraveis. 



Pouncey. . . . 
Schnebbelie 



1762 
1779 
1793 

1799 
1792 



Sherwen 1750 

Vertue 1756 

Woollet 1785 

Worlidge .. .1776 
Foreigners. 

Dorigny 1774 

2 



Eiigravers (cont.). 

Drevet i737 

Gravelot 1773 

Lepicier 1755 

Natier 1763 

Papillon 1744 

, Jun. .1766 

N 



Picart 1721 

Piranesi 1780 

Simoneau . . ..1728 
Vandergucht . . 1752 
. B 1794 



Vivarez 1780 

Vivier 1761 



274 



Bibliography of Printing 





Printers. 




Baskerville . 


•1775 


Henry 


1702 


Bettenham . . 


•1774 


Hughs 


1771 


Bowyer, father 1737 


Jones, Griffith 


1786 


, son . . . 


.1777 


Nutt 


1780 


Cave 


'I754 


Palmer, Sam. 


1732 


Faulkner .. 


•1775 


Pete, Jos. . . . 


I7Q7 


Foulis, A. . . . 


•1774 


Richardson . 


1761 


, R. . . . 


.1778 


Roberts 


i7'^4 


Goadby 


.1776 


Ruddiman, T. 


T-l'^l 


Hamilton . . . 


•1793 


Say, Ed 


1769 



Pri?iters (cont.). 

Strahan 1785 

Watson, about 1720 


Watts 

Woodfall, H. . 
Wright, Thos 


.1763 
.1769 
1797 


Letter-Founders. 




Caslon, Sen. . . 1766 

, Jun. ..1778 

Cottrell, about 1780 
Fournier, P. S. 1768 


Ged 

Jackson 

James 

Jurisson 


.1749 
.1792 
.1772 
.1791 


Woodcutter. 




Bewick, John 


1796- 





Gould (Joseph). The Letterpress Printer, a complete practical guide 
to case, press, and machine work. Middlesbrough : 1876. Fcap. 
8vo. pp. viii. 176. 

This book, which is one of the best historical matter in the Introduction is, 
modern manuals of the art of printing, however, singularly inaccurate. The 
gives a clear insight into all branches of author was originally a working com- 



the business; the manual and mechanical 
operations as performed in every-day 
work ; and also the information required 
to make the partially instructed master- 
printer, journeyman, or apprentice a 
competent and practical hand. The 



positor and a member of the London 
Union. While so engaged he was sent 
out to the Crimea by the Government to 
superintend the field-printing of the 
army. He is now in business on his own 
account at Middlesbrough. 



GouPY (Victor). L'Imprimerie Nationale et sa Collection de Types 
Orientaux. Lettre a M. Vidal, Rapporteur de la Commission du 
Budget. Paris : 1874. 8vo. pp. 7. 

GouRDET (S.), imprimeur a Nevers. Simple question a Messieurs les 
Imprimeurs de France. Nevers : 1872. 8vo, pp. 8. 

Graberg (Chr. Friedr.). Schriftschneider und Schriftgiesser in 
Zurich. Sammlung von Vignetten in Abgiissen fiir die Buch- 
drucker-Presse. 4to. 

Graffer (F.). Der Buchhandel in Verbindung mit der Buchdrucker- 
kunst historisch betrachtet. Wien : 181 3. 8vo. pp. 48. 

Grafton (Richard). 

This printer was one of the most emi- 
nent men of his time, and as a typo- 
grapher his name is one of the most 
distinguished. It is fortunate that more 
authentic particulars of his career have 
been preserved than of almost any of the 
other early English printers, although 
these are not nearly as copious as could 
be wished. There is also a singular diver- 
sity of statement between Ames, in his 
"Typographical Antiquities," and Her- 
bert, his subsequent editor. We are able 
to present not only his device (p. 275), but 
his portrait (p. 276), of which Dibdui says, 
in the "Decameron," vol. ii. p. 289, "The 
portraits [in Ames's 'Typ. Antiquities'] of 
Richard Grafton and John Day may be 
considered as the earliest authenticated 
ones of our own printers." The device 
is taken from Grafton's edition of "An 



Abridgment of the Notable Work of 
Polydore Vergile," by Thomas Langley 
(London: 1546. 8vo.); but a larger de- 
vice was sometimes used. It was obviously 
a pun upon his name — consisting of a 
tun and a grafted tree. The tun is 
inscribed with a capital G, and is sur- 
mounted by the printer's monogram. On 
a scroll is the motto " Suscipite incitum 
verbum. — Jaco. i." [Receive. . . . the 
engrafted word. — James i. 21]. Dibdin 
(" Typ. Antiq.") states that it is an im- 
provement on a mark previously used by 
this printer, consisting of a shield, bear- 
ing a tun, with a fruit-tree passing out at 
the centre, with the motto " Fructibus 
eorum cognoscetis eos " [By their fruits 
ye shall know them], but with, ait any 
mark on the cask. 



Bibliography of Priiiti?}^ 



75 




LONDON : I537-I553. 



Richard Grafton was born in Lon- 
don at the latter end of the reign of 
Henry VII., and he pursued his calling 
as a printer during the troubled reigns of 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and 
Elizabeth. It is uncertain whether he 
was a stationer, but it is supposed that 
he was brought up as a printer, for he 
exercised the art at a very early age, and 
continued it, it may be added, up to the 
time of his death. He was a man who 
had enjoyed a liberal education ; he was 
acquainted with modern languages, as 
well a.s with the languages of the classics. 
From some passages in his letters to 
Archbishop Cranmer and Lord Cromwell 
(which have been preserved, and show 
not only his scholastic attainments, but 
his elevated position in the world of 
fashion and of letters), it is supposed that 
he had been originally a grocer. Indeed, 
there was a Richard Grafton, a grocer, 
and Member of Parliament for the City 
of London, 1553 and 1554, and again 
1556, 1557, who might be this printer. 
He began printing in London in 1537. 
Previous to this Grafton seems to have 



resided on the Continent and to have 
been engaged in sending books over to 
England, where they were circulated. 

In 1526 the importation of the New 
Testament translated by Tyndale, caused 
the Bishop of London to issue a prohibi- 
tion, which refers to the introduction of 
the Bible and other books by " mayn- 
tayners of Luthers sect, which without 
doubt will contaminate and infect the flock 
committed to us with most deadly poyson 
and heresie." He charges the archdeacon 
of London to search out and deliver up 
to the vicar-general all books containing 
the translation of the New Testament in 
the English tongue within thirty days, 
under pain of excommunication. This 
prohibition, however, seems to have been 
little regarded, for the importation still 
proceeded. In 1535 there was a meeting 
of Convocation, and one of the questions 
decided upon was that the Holy Scrip- 
tures should be translated into the vulgar 
tongue. In that year the first edition of the 
whole Bible in the English language, being 
the translation of Miles Coverdale, was 
circulated in England. This noble work 



276 



Bibliography of Printing. 



was printed abroad, a recent discovery of 
Mr. Henry Stevens fixing it at Antwerp, 
by Jacob van Meteren. 

The first book published by Grafton in 
i537j i'l London, was an edition of the Bible 
in English, "truely and purelye translated 
into English, by Thomas Matthewe," 
an alias of John Rogers. At the be- 
ginning of the Prophets are printed 
(on the top of the page) the initial letters 
R. G., and at the bottom E. W., his 
whilom partner. A memorial is on record 
in which Grafton applies to Lord Crom- 
well, that, as some persons had doubted 
whether the king had really licensed the 



was issued in 1537. The Incjuisition, 
however, interposed ; inhibited the 
printers from issuing the book, and 
forced the Englishmen who had gone 
over there to correct it to return 
home. An edition of about 2,500 copies 
which had been partly prepared was 
seized and confiscated. The interposition 
and encouragement of Lord Cromwell, 
nevertheless, was successful in obtaining 
permission for some of the persons em- 
ployed to return to Paris, and get pos- 
session of the type and the forms. 
These were brought over to London, 
when the work was resumed and finished 




RICHARD GRAFTON. 



book, he might receive a formal licence 
under the privy seal ; also a remonstrance 
against the practice of certain Dutch 
printers who had announced their inten- 
tion of pirating his edition by issuing it 
in a smaller form, so that they might 
undersell him, which would probably 
result in his own and his friends' ruin. 
This edition, which, like that of 1535, 
was most likely printed at Antwerp, 
was discovered to be very incorrect, so 
Grafton got the king's permission to 
have another printed in Paris. This 



the next year. In 1539 the right to 
print Bibles was assigned by the king to 
other printers besides Giafton and Whit- 
church. In the same year appeared 
" Cromwell's Bible," so-called, or the 
"Great Bible," printed "by Rychard 
Grafton and Edward Whitechurch cum 
privilegio ad imprimendum solum." The 
border of the title-page was designed, it 
is said, by Holbein. In 1540. Grafton 
printed the edition known as "Cranmer's 
Bible." About this time Grafton ap- 
pears to have been in high favour with 



Bibliography of Printing. 



277 



the king and his ministers. In Rymer's 
" Facdera " there is a patent, dated 
January 28, 1543, bywhich Henry VIII. 
granted to Richard Grafton and Edward 
Whitchurch sole liberty to print the 
books of divine service — viz., the " masse 
book, grain, antyphoner, himptnall, por- 
tans, and prymer," both in Latin and 
English, of Sarura use, for the province 
of Canterbury, for a period of seven 
years. In 1545 Grafton printed the 
Primer of King Henry VIII. in Latin 
and English. The v/orking was done in 
red and black. In the first year of the 
reign of Edward VI. (1548), Grafton 
obtained the sole privilege of printing the 



exceptions — among the latter being 
Grafton. 

The circumstances under which Grafton 
passed his latter days have never been 
properly ascertained. Strype believed, 
from the terms of a petition presented by 
Grafton to Queen Elizabeth, that after 1570 
he was reduced to poverty. About that 
time he also appears to have parted with 
the copy of a work called " Edward 
Halle's Chronicle," the greater part of 
which, as he states in another of his ; 
publications, he wrote himself in 1562. ; 
Ames, however, does not think that * 
Grafton died in indigence, since Richard 
Cooke, Esq., Clarencieux king-of-arms, 



statute-books. In 154^ he was appointed confirmed armorial bearings to Richard, 



to print the proclamation relative to the 
proposals of the king and parliament for 
the preparation of a "uniform, quiet, 
and godly order of common and open 
prayer." In the same year he printed 
the first edition of the " Book of Common 
Prayer," which was likewise printed by 
Whitchurch in the same year. In 
i553> on the death of Edward VI., 
Grafton, being the King's printer, was 
employed to print the proclamation by 
which Lady Jane Grey was declared 
the successor to the throne. On the 
accession of Mary, however, Grafton, 
though he had only done what apper- 
tained to his appointment, was in conse- 
quence mulcted in a sum of ;^3oo, being 
the amount of what was owing to him at 
the time, deprived of his patent, and 
John Cawood put in his place. In addi- 
tion to this, he was afterwards prosecuted 
and imprisoned for six weeks in the 
Fleet Prison. It is believed that after 
this, although he continued to publish, 
he employed others to print for him. In 
1554, on the coronation of Queen Mary, 
there was a general pardon granted, when 
all the prisoners in the Tower and the 
Fleet Prison were liberated, with certain 



his third son, in 1584, with the addition 
of a crest. I'his person was an eminent 
lawyer, and was about this time retained 
as counsel for the Stationers' Company. 
Of Grafton's death or burial there are no 
particulars extant ; nor, indeed, is there 
any notice of him after 1572, when a 
fall rendered him lame till his death. 

The residence of Richard Grafton is 
believed to have been part of the dis- 
solved house of the Grey Friars, after- 
wards granted by Edward VI. for an 
hospital for the maintenance of orphans, 
called Christ's Hospital, but now gene- 
rally known as the Bluecoat School, from 
the dress worn by the scholars. It is not 
supposed that during his continuance 
in business Grafton lived in any other 
house. 

The works issued by Grafton are dis- 
tinguished fot their beauty of execution 
and their highly important character. 
Until 1540 or 1541 Whitchurch's name 
appears in the different books printed by 
Grafton ; but after that time, although 
they still held certain privileges in com- 
mon, they printed each for himself, even 
though the books were those for which 
they were interested in the same patent. 



Graham (John). Compositor's Text-Book ; or, Instructions in the 
Elements of the Art of Printing ; comprising an Essay on Punctua- 
tion. Glasgow : 1848. i2mo. 

Graiae (loannae), litterae ad H. Bullingerum. Johanna Grey's 
Briefe an Heinrich Bullinger. Diplomatischer Abdruck des 
Originals, nebst deutscher und englischer Uebersetzung. Denk- 
schrift zum Jubilaum der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 
Zurich : 1840. 4to. Facsimiles of the two letters. 

Graphic (The) Portfolio, a selection from the admired engravings 

which have appeared in the Graphic, and a description of the 

art of wood-engraving, with numerous illustrations. London : 

1876. Folio. 

The description of the art of engraving is very meagre. Its facts are derived 

from Jackson & Chatto's treatise. 



278 Bibliography of Frintifig. 

Graphotype. The Handbook of Graphotype. A Practical Guide 
for Artists and Amateurs. London : the Grapliotyping Company, 
Limited, 7, Garrick-street, W.C. 1868. i2mo. 

" Graphotype " is a mechanical method he began to make experiments. Ulti- 
of converting an artist's drawing into an mately he invented a process of producing 
engraved block ready for the printer, relief plates direct from the drawings of 
which is comparatively inexpensive. The the artist, as a substitute for wood- 
process was discovered by Mr. de Witt C. engraving. Graphotype has been applied 
Hitchcock, an artist and wood-engraver in to book, newspaper, and magazine illus- 
New York, Requiring one day to correct tration ; to the reproduction of coloured 
a drawing upon boxwood with white, and drawings and paintings ; to printing for 
having none of that pigment ready at transferring to pottery and japanned sur- 
hand, he bethought him to make use of faces, &c. A company was formed in 
the enamel of a common card. On re- London for carrying out this invention, 
moving this enamel, which he did with and several publications were issued 
a wet brush, he found that the printed which were illustrated on the graphotype 
characters on the card remained in relief, principle, but they were not at all first- 
the ink used in impressing them resisting class productions, and the company was 
the action of the water, and so protecting wound up, the patent rights passing into 
the enamel lying underneath. The pos- the hands of Messrs. Dalziel Brothers, 
sible practical application of this at once the wood-engravers. (^See Fitzcook.) 
suggested itself to him, and accordingly 

Specimens of the Graphotyping Process, together with the 

Cost of executing the same Subjects on Wood, the Saving to the 
PubUsher, and the Profit to be derived by the Company. London : 
n.d. 4to. pp. 12. 

A series of specimens of surface-blocks the publisher for £,^, — showing, on an 

produced by the graphotype process. At outlay of ;6ioo, a profit of over jCi,2oo." 

the bottom of each is a statement of cost, The specimens were issued in order to 

of which the following is an example : — obtain shareholders for the Graphotype 

"To engrave this subject well on wood Limited Liability Company. Its subse- 

would cost the publisher at least £^. quent history has shown that in this 

By the Graphotyping process the cost of modern Eldorado "all is not gold that 

engraving it was 6s., including labour glitters." 
and material, and would be supplied to 

Graphotypie, ein Surrogat fiir den Holzschnitt. Genaueres iiber 
Graphotypie des Holzstiches. In Das Atissland, i866. Nos. 9 
and 12. Augsburg : 1866. 4to. 

Grass (F.). Nachtrag zu den typogr. Denkmalern. Brixen : 1791. 
4to. 

Verzeichniss typograph. Denkmaler aus dem I5ten Jahrhundert 

in der Bibliothek des reguliren Korherrnstiftes des heiligea 
Augustin zu Neustift in Tirol. Brixen : 1 789-1 791. 4to. 

Grassi (Gioachimo). Dell' Universita degli Studi in Mondovi, dis- 
sertazione — Delia Tipografia in Mondovi, dissertazione. 2 parts. 
Mondovi : 1804. 8vo. pp. 208, cvii. 

Grat. Tableau-triangles pour determiner instantanement toutes les 
Garnitures, sans calcul et sans compas. 
A broadside for pasting on walls of printing-offices. 

Gratiot (Amedee). Petition a MM. les Deputes pour qu'ils sauvent 
ITmprimerie. Paris : 1839. 8vo. pp. 24. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



279 



Grattan (Edward). The Printer's Companion : being Practical 
Directions for filling the various Situations in a Printing-office ; 
embodying a System of Punctuation and copious original direc 
lions for composing Greek and Hebrew. Philadelphia : 1846. 
i2mo. pp. 108. 




ANTWERP : 



Gravius (Joannes). 

Very little is known concerning this 
printer, whose device we here give. It 
is taken from the title-page and last leaf 
of " Fratris Edineri Angli de Vita D. 
Anselmi, Archiepiscopi Cantuariensis," 
"Antwerpiae: excudebat loannes Gra- 
vius." 1551, 8vo. The device is some- 
what curious, as it includes half an eagle 



and half a frog. It has been conjectured 
that, living at Antwerp, he was neither 
French nor German — or was both to- 
gether. The motto "Quaere nee ultra" 
suggests that the question be not carried 
further. The meaning of the fleur-de-lys 
parted with the shamrock is even more 
inexplicable. 



Gravures de 1468 (Les). Les Armoiries de Charles le Temeraire, 
gravees pour son manage avec Marguerite d' York. Liege: 1877. 
i6mo. 

Grefe (Conrad). Lithographic und Chromographie. Officieller 
Ausstellungsbericht von der Wiener Weltausstellung. Wien : 
1873. 8vo. pp. II. 

Gregorii IX. Nova Compilatio Decretalium. Mogunt. P. Schaeffer: 

1473- 
Remarkable in the history of typo- 
graphy on account of various Latin 
verses at the end, which lay claim to 
the invention of the art a few years 
after it had been in practice. The 
reference to Gutenberg, Faust, and 
Schocffer, in despite of the barbarous style. 



cannot be misunderstood in these lines : — 

Quos genuit ambos urbs Moguntina 

y online s, 

Librorum insignes Protocaragtuaficos ; 

Cum quibus optatum Petriis venit ad 

poliandrum, 
Cursu posterior, introeundo prior. 



28o Bibliography of Printing. 

Gregory. Biographic des trois illustres Piementois, Lagrange, 
Denina, et Bodoiii, decedes en 1813, Vercelli : 1813. 4to. 

Greswell (Rev. William Parr). Annals of Parisian Typography, con- 
taining an account of the earliest typographical establishments of 
Paris, and notices and illustrations of the most remarkable pro- 
ductions of the Parisian Gothic Press ; compiled principally to 
show its general character, and its particular influence upon the 
early English press. London : 1818. 8vo. pp. xii. 356. Portrait 
of Gering, proto-typographer of Paris, and ii facsimiles of 
devices. 
The author, a clergyman of Denton, with much diligence from the best sources, 
near Manchester, states in the Preface In conformity with an opinion which he 
that for some years he was engaged in had conceived " that bibliography, 
the collection of information concerning whether to be useful or interesting as a 
the lives of the Estiennes, and while study, should not content itself with the 
occupied in digesting these materials, it barren enumeration of titles, or with mere 
occurred to him to note down particulars technical description only." The book 
of the classical products of the Paris was printed in Manchester, the facsimiles 
press, and ultimately to prepare the mass of the printers' marks being engnived by 
of bibliographical matter here presented. Mr. Abraham Mosses, of Liverpool, from 
Besides a list of the books issued in the drawings supplied by Miss Rebecca 
early days of French printing, he gives Miller of that town, 
biographical and literary notices selected 

A view ot the Early Parisian Greek Press, including the lives 

of the Stephani ; notices of other contemporary Greek printers of 
Paris ; and various particulars of the literary and ecclesiastical 
history of their times. 2 vols. Oxford : 1833. 8vo. Vol. L, 
pp. xix. 412 ; Vol. IL, pp. vii. 413. 
The author says that although one of account of the family of the Stephani ; 
his motives in compiling this work was to and more especially of the two most 
supply the deficiences of Maittaire con- celebrated individuals of that illustrious 
cerning the early Greek typography of family, Robert Estienne 1. and Henry 
Paris, his jjrincipal object was to give a Estienne II. 
clear and intelligible, though succinct, 

Grieben (Herm.). Gott-grliss die Kunst ! Buchdrucker Lieder. 
Coin: 1874. 

Grierson (C). The Art of Printing. A Poem. Dublin: 1764. 
Single sheet folio. 
This broadside is preserved in the It was among the poems chosen to be 
British Museum. It is a copy of the printed in a car during the procession on 
fine poem, by Mrs. Grierson, the wife of the Lord Mayor's Day, for distribution 
the King's printer for Ireland, beginning to the crowd. The authoress was noted 

" Hail, mystic art ! which men like ^""^ ^^' ^g"^^"' '^^"""'"^ ^"^ accomplish- 
aneels taueht ments. she became an able compositor. 

To speak to eyes and paint embodied "^'" ^°V' '"^"V°"^'^ ''^ ^a -1?^""°" ^" 
thought I " ^ '"^^ °' great learning and wit. 

Grimont (Ferd.). Manuel Annuaire de I'Imprimerie et de la Li- 
brairie, contenant i. la legislation fran9aise, ancienne et modeme, 
concernant I'imprimerie, la librairie, le colportage et la presse 
periodique ; 2. I'analyse detaillee des legislations etrangeres rela- 
tives a la propriete litteraire et artistique ; 3. les conventions 
Internationales ; 4. I'indication des formalites a remplir pour 
s'assurer en France et a I'etranger I'exercice du droit de propriete 



Bibliography of Printing. 281 

artistique, litteraire ou scientifique ; 5. la liste, d'apr^s les docu- 
ments oflficiels, des imprimeurs et libraires fran9ais ; 6. la liste 
des principaux libraires etrangers ; 7 . le catalogue complet des 
journaux et recueils periodiques actuellement publics en France. 
Paris: 1855. 8vo. 

Groebe (D.). Beschrijving van ein nieuwelings ontdckt exemplaarvan 
de Biblia Pauperum en de Ars Moriendi, met eenige aanmerkingen, 
insonderheid betreffende het verbaal van Atkyns, wegens den 
Gorsprong der Boekdrukkunst in Engeland uit Haarlem. Amst. : 

1839. 8vo. 

Gronau (Wilhelm). Specimen Book of Wilhelm Gronau's (late 
Hand's) type-foundry. Berlin : 1867. 
This is one of the largest type-foundries in Germany. 

Groot (A. en St. de). Catalogus der Letteren, Ornamenten, Vig- 
netten, etc., van A. en St. de Groot. 's Gravenhage : 1771. 4to. 

Groot (J. de). Proeve van Letteren welke gegoten werden in de 
Lettergieterye van J. de Groot in 's Gravenhaage. 1781. 8vo. 

Grosshauser (J. P.) Grabrede bei der Beerdigung Friedr, Carl 
Kremer's, Buchhandlers, Buchdruckerei-Besitzers, etc. Augsburg : 
1856. 8vo. 
A funeral sermon on F. C. Kremer, bookseller and printer of Augsburg. 

Grossman (C. G. L.). Predigt zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfin- 
dung der Buchdruckerkunst am Johannistage 1840. Leipzig : 

1840. 8vo. pp. 36. 

Grotefend (C. L.). Geschichte der Buchdruckereien in den Han- 
noverschen und Braunschweigischen Landen. Herausgegeben 
von F. G. H. Culemann. Hannover : 1840. 4to. 9 lithographic 
plates. 

Groualle (V.). Consultation pour les imprimeurs sur le caractere 
de leurs brevets et la nature des droits qui y sont attaches. Paris : 
1867. 8vo. 

Report of a conference, held at Paris charged ; hence a measure to abolish the 

in 1867, on the occasion of a proposal to system was held to imply one of confis- 

abolish the brevet system, under which cation. The abolition has since been 

printers obtained a kind of patent author- effected, and the question of compensa- 

izing them to carry on their business, tion to the old patent printers is now 

For these patents large sums were (1877) under discussion. 

Gruen (K.). Gutenberg- Lieder. Der Stadt Strasburg gewidmet. 
Strasburg : 1840. 8vo. 

Grundtvig (Nik. Fred. Sev.). Udkastet til en ny Trykkelow fra 
Literaturens Side betragtet og fraraadt. Kjobenhavn : 1845. 8vo. 

Grunert (J. F., J. C, and J. H.). Oeffentliche Jubelzeugnisse 
welche, bey dem von einigen Buchdruckern zu Halle den 25. Jul. 
1740, erneuerten Andenken der vor dreyhundert Jahren erfundcnen 
Buchdruckerkunst. Halle : 1741. 4to. 

Gruninger (Johann). See Reynard. 

2 O 



282 



Bibliography of Printing. 




[529-1556. 



Gryphe [Gryphius] (Sebastian). 

Sebastian Gryphius was born in Suabia, 
near Augsburg, in 1493, He had a very 
high reputation among scholars as a 
careful corrector and printer, and he is 
esteemed the ablest of the early printers 
in Lyons. He improved the italic letter, 
and used inclined capitals where Aldus 
employed upright Roman characters. He 
died in 1556. His son Anthony, who 
succeeded him, printed the Latin Bible 
with large types in 1554. 

The above device, one of those used 
by this eminent Lyonnais printer, is 
found in a book by William Watson, 
entitled "A Decacordon of Ten Quodli- 
betical Questions concerning Religion 
and State." 410. 1602. (?) It co^isist-s, 
as will be seen, of a griflRn* or dragon on 
an oblong pedestal, supported by a globe 
with two wings. His motto was " Vir- 
tute duce, comite fortuna," but in some 
of his books this feature was omitted. 

Gryphius is the name of _ a whole 
family, of German origin, highly dis- 
tinguished in the annals of typography. 
Dibdin says, " The elder Gryphius may 
be said to belong to Paris, but Sebas- 
tian and Anthony must be reserved 
for Lyons ; w hile a brother of the name 
of John kept up the celebrity of the 
family name in his publications at Venice. 
These printers are rather distinguished 
for the number of their smaller or duo- 
decimo productions, which are executed 
in the Italic type, of a form at once 



elegant and legible. Their larger type, 
whether Italic or Roman, is, however, 
extremely handsome and agreeable to the 
eye ; and in their P>ible of 1550 they 
exhibited the largest font of Roman 
letter which at that time had ever been 
used. Their device may be considered a 
sort of pun upon their name. Sometimes 
this formidable griffin or dragon was en- 
shrined in a border or framework of no 
incurious texture. But of this nature, 
none of the brothers or sons exhibited a 
more splendid and elaborate specimen 
thin did John, who resided at Venice. 

Bayle has a short, but, as usual, 
interesting article relating to Sebastian 
Gryphius and to his son Anthony. He 
adduces the laudatory testimonies of 
Conrad Gesner, the elder Scaliger, Du 
Verdier, and Chevillier to support his 
own favourable criticism of the eminence 
of these printers, and especially of Sebas- 
tian, ' Fameux imprimeur de Lion au 
xvj siecle. II exer9a sa profession avec 
tant d'honneur, qu'il merita que de fort 
habiles gens lui en donnassent des louanges 
publiques.' — Diet., ii. 612, 613. Mait- 
taire, ii. 562-578, gives a list of works 
executed in the office of Sebastian. 
Learning, ingenuity, celebrity, beautiful 
and accurate printing — all seem to have 
been the qualifications and attainments 
of the elder Gryphius. Sebastian died 
in 1556, in his sixty-third year. Anthony, 
his son, walked in the footsteps of his 



• The griffin, or gryphon, was a fabulous animal, having the body and feet of the 
lion, and the head, wings, and claws of the eagle. It was a favourite figure in 
heraldry, as combining the highest qualities of the beast and bird, or strength and 
swiftness, with courage, prudence, and vigilance. It forms part of the armorial 
bearing granted to printers, individually and collectively, by Frederick III., Emperor 
of Germany. 



Bibliography of Frinti)i^ 



283 



father, and was worthy of the celebrity 
of his pirent. 

" Francis Gryphius, the Parisian printer, 
and brother of Sebastian, used sometimes 
a most formidable griffin, upwards of 
three inches high. Sebastian, like John, 
a third brother, occasionally encircled 
his griffin in framework, but with less 
richness and tastefuluess of effect. This 
device was imitated, among other 
printers, by Giovanni d'Antonio degli 
Antonij at Milan, in 1560 ; by Thos. 
Bayzola at Brescia ; by [uan Gracian 
at Alcala, in 1573 ; and by Leon Cavellat 
at Paris, in 1578. A quatrain from G. 
Paraclinus Anchemanus may probably 
close this griffin discussion with 



"'In effigiem clarissimi viri et fselicis 
memoriae 
Sebastiani Gryphii, typographi 
Haic horls probitas, aninii ceu teste 
refulgens 
Indicat ingenua fronte quod intus erat ; 
Doctrinam omnigenam s-tudium de plebe 
merendi, 
Candoremque pia mente, trilingue 
caput.'" 

To the preceding, extracted from Dib- 
din's " Decameron," vol. ii. p. 123 et 
seq., we may add that Silvestre, in his 
" Marques Tj'pographiques," gives no 
less than eight devices used by the various 
members of this family, the griffin being 
found in all of them. 



good 
effect — 

GuBiTZ (F. W.). Bildnisse mit der Relief-Maschine zum Druck auf 
der Buchdrucker-Presse. Friedrich Wilhelm III., Friedrich 
Wilhelm IV., Elisabeth, Koniginvon Preussen, Goethe. Festgabe 
zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. 
fBerlin: 28. August 1840.] i6mo. 
A series of portraits of the persons named, executed at the printing-press in relief- 
printing, in commemoration of the fourth centenary of the invention of printing. 

Sammkuig von Verzierungen in AbgUssen fiir die Buchdrucker- 

presse. Heft I. — VIII. Berlin : 1824—59. 4to. 



A collection of ornamental designs, 
many of them being executed by the 
pupils in Gubitz's establishment. 

Gubitz was born in the year 1786, and 
educated at the Academy of Arts in 
Berlin, where, at the early age of fifteen, 
he brought himself into notice by the pro- 
duction of seven well-executed vignettes. 
In the earlier part of his life he devoted 
himself entirely to the Sciences, and con- 
tributed to the " Conversations Lexicon " 
and many other publications ; but on 
account of his father (a steel-engraver) 



becoming blind, he afterwards relin- 
quished the sciences and became celebra- 
ted as an engraver, many of his produc- 
tions attaining great perfection in finish, 
whilst his coloured engravings in imita- 
tion of well-known oil paintings were 
much sought after. In 1805 he became 
a member of the Academy of Berlin. 
Many specimens of his ornamental de- 
signs for the use of the printer will be 
found in the Gesellschafter, an esteemed 
journal founded by Gubitz himself. 



GUEINTZIUS (C). Encomium nobilis atque utilis Artis Typographicce. 
[In Wolf, " Monumenta Typographica."] 

GUERIN (Nicholas). La lithographic pour tous, instruction theori- 
pratique pour imprimer soi-meme sur pierre et sur metal. Paris : 
1875. i2mo. pp. 52. 

Glfetle (Johann Conrad). • Kunst, in Kupfer zu stechen, zu radiren 
und zu aetzen, in schwarzer Kunst und punktirter Manier zu 
arbeiten. Ehemals durch Abraham Bosse etwas davon herausge- 
geben, jetzo aberganz neu bearbeitet und mit den neuesten Erfin- 
dungen der heutigen Kunstler beschrieben, zur Belehrung fiir 
angehende Kunstler und Liebhaber. 3 vols. Niirnberg und 
Altdorf: 1795-6. 8vo. 
Vol. I., pp. xxii. 552 and 19 copper- of the After-Treatment of the Plate ; 
plates, treats of the Preparation of the Vol. III., pp. xxiv. 135, thirteen copper- 
copperplate and Art of Engraving on it ; plates, of the Printing, Description of 
Vol. II., 8 leaves, pp. 350, 2 copperplates. Presses, &c. 



284 Bibliography of Printing. 

GUICCIARDINI (Lodovico). Desciittione di tutti i Paesi Bassi, altri- 
menti detti Germania Inferior. Anversa : 1567. Folio — An versa : 
1588. Folio, with 78 plans of cities, most of them on two pages. 

Luigi Guicciardini was a Florentine received, and where, having appUed him- 
njbleman, who lived for many years at self to the business with unremitting 
Antwerp, and there wrote and published diligence, it became at length generally 
the above Description of the Low known, and was brought to entire perfec- 
Countries. He was the first author of tion ; in consequence of which the fame 
distinction who gave a world-wide pub- afterwards spread abroad and became 
licity to the legend of Koster, which was general, that the art and science of print- 
originally set on foot by Jan van Zuren ing originated in that city. What is really 
and Dierick Coornhert. He says, in his the truth I am not able, nor will I take 
book, "According to the common tradi- upon me, to decide, it sufficing me to 
tions of the inhabitants, and the assertion have said these few words, that I might 
of other natives of Holland, as well as not be guilty of injustice towards this 
the testimony of certain authors and town and this country." The story is 
records, it appears that the art of print- told, it will be seen, as it was heard, and 
ing and stamping letters and characters without comment. There is not given 
on paper, in the manner now used, was the name of the printer, the date of the 
first invented in this place [Haarlem], invention, or the titles of his books. 
Hut the author of the mvention happen- Guicciardini's book, which was of marked 
ing to die before the art was brought to merit, was translated and printed in 
perfection and had acquired repute, his many languages. The further progress 
servant, they say, went to reside at of the legend will be detailed sub voce 
Mayence, where, giving proofs of his Junius (Hadrianus), &c. 
knowledge in that science, he was joyfully 

GuiCHARD (J. M.). Notice sur le Speculum Humanae Salvationis. 
Paris : 1840. 8vo. pp. 131. 

Recherches sur les livres xylographiques. Paris : 1840-41. 

8vo. pp. 94. [Extract from the Bulletin du Bibliophile. ^ 

Guide des imprimeurs a I'Exposition de 1878. Supplement au 
younml de V Iniprimerie, No. 164. Paris: Juillet, 1 878. 8vo. 

Indicates the locality of all that would be interesting to a printer in the Great 
Exhibition. 

Guignes (Joseph de). Essai Historique sur la Typographic Orientale 
et Grecque de I'lmprimerie Royale. Paris : 1787. 4to. pp. 94. 
— 1790. 4to. 

Principes de Composition Typographique, pour dinger un 

Compositeur dans 1' Usage des Caracteres Orientaux de I'lmpri- 
merie Royale. Paris : 1790. 4to. 

Joseph de Guignes, an eminent oriental scholar in France, was born at Pontoise 
in 1721, died 1800. His " Essai Historique " is replete with curious researches and 
interesting anecdotes. 

GuiLLAUME (B.). Notice biographique et eloge de Jean Gutenberg, 
inventeur de I'imprimerie. Chauny : 1861. 8vo. 

GuiRAUDET. Caisse de Secours pour la Typographic Parisienne. 
Paris : 1853. 8vo. 

Coup d'CEil sur la Typographic et la Librairie a I'Exposition 

Universelle de 1855. Paris : 1857. 8vo. pp. 70. 

Extract from the Memoires of the "' Societe des Ingenieurs Civils." 

Projet d' Association entre tous les Imprimeurs de France. 



Paris : 1857. 8vo. pp. 4. 



Bibliography of Printing. 285 

GuiRAUUET (D.) et RouiLLE (Lod). Une association d'imprimeurs 
et de libraires de Paris, refugies a Tours au XVI* Siecle (Jean 
Mettaye, Mari Oury, Claude de Montreseil, Jean Richer, Matthieu 
Guillemot, Sebastien du Moulin, Georges Robert, Abel Langellier). 
Documents inedits, avec notes. Paris : 1878. Royal 8vo. pp. 
viii. 68. 
1 75 numbered copies printed on Dutch paper. 

GULDUERG (C. A.). Historisk Udsigt over Bogtrykkerkonsten fra 

dens Begyndelse til ngervaerende Tid, Et Indbydelsesskrift til 

Sekularf ester i Christiania d. 24. Juni, 1840. Christiania : 1 840. 

4to. pp. 24. 

Woodcut of Gutenberg's Portrait. Pages 21 — 24 give a short history of printing in 

Scandinavia, especially in Christiania, where, at the end of the year 1839, there 

were 15 printing-offices, with 35 presses, and employing 95 workmen. 

GuLDiN VAN TiEFFENAN (General Vicar in Luzern). Nachrichten 
iiber den Anfang und die Verbreitung der Buchdruckerkunst in der 
Schweiz. [In : Konrad Scheube von Altfellen oder Etwas iiber 
Politik und Cultur der Schweizer in XV. imd XVI. Jahrhundert. 
Theil II. pp. 183-268]. Luzern : 1813. 8vo. 

GussAGO (Germano Jacopo). Memorie storico-critiche sulla Tipo- 
grafia Bresciana, raccolte ed estese ; colle Memorie istorico-critiche 
delle Bresciane edizioni del Secolo XV e dei libri stampati nel 
Secolo XV e sul principio del XVI nel' agro Bresciano. Brescia : 
181 1. 4to. 4 preliminary leaves and 226 pages. 

GUTCH (John Matthew). Observations or Notes upon the writings of 
the Ancients, upon the materials which they used, and upon the 
Introduction of the Art of Printing, etc. Bristol : 1827. 8vo. 
pp. 170. 
Only 25 copies printed for private distribution. 

Gutenberg (John). 

John Gutenberg, the inventor of typo- was in Strasburg, as it is in this city the 

graphy, was, it is believed (for there is first notice is found of John Gutenberg, 

no record of the fact), born at RIayence, In 1432 he visited Mayence, probably on 

about the year 1397. His parents, who business connected with his mother's 

were of noble birth, were called Frielo money affairs. Otherwise, the first thirty 

Gensfleisch and Else Gutenberg, and he years of his life are a blank. The most 

took his mother's name, probably in ac- important events of his after-life might 

cordance with the prevailing custom of have been equally unknown, but for his 

the period, in order that her patro- various appearances as plaintiff or de- 

nymic might not become extinct. During fendant in his country's law-courts. It 

Gutenberg's minority, the peace of is from the records of those courts, in a 

Mayence was continually disturbed by large degree, that we glean the story of 

broils between the burghers and nobles, his life. 

In 1420 the burghers, in retaliation for a An amnesty was granted to many of 

slight supposed to have been cast upon the exiled citizens of Mayence in 1430, 

them by the nobles, destroyed the houses among them being John Gutenberg. He 

and goods of many of the latter, and, continued, however, to reside abroad, 

further, passed restrictions upon them When his father died he left a widow 

that were so galling, that Frielo Gens- dependent on a small pension, allowed 

fleisch and many others elected to go by the authorities of Mayence in con- 

into exile. It is not known where they sideration of the sequestration of the 

took retuge ; but it is supposed that it Gensfleisch family estate. They neg- 



286 



Bibliography of Printing. 



lected or refused, however, shortly after- 
wards, to recognize this obligation. 
Finding that the clerk or recorder of the 
city of Mayence was, in 1434, on a visit 
to Strasburg, Gutenberg deemed it a 
good opportunity for enforcing the pay- 
ment of the pension. He therefore 
caused the representative of Mayence to 
be committed to gaol as a delinquent 
debtor. Fearing, however, the conse- 
quences of a quarrel between the two 
cities, the magistrates induced him to 



is not on the record ; but it is supposed 
that the suit was withdrawn, and the case 
ended by the marriage of the parties, the 
name of " Ennel Gutenberg," which is 
on the tax-roll of the city of Strasburg, 
being believed to refer to this lady. 

In the year 1439 George Dritzehen 
instituted a suit for the restitution to him 
of certain money alleged to have been 
invested by his deceased brother An- 
drew in a speculation of Gutenberg's. 
As an alternativej he prayed to be 




JOHN GUTENIiEKG. 



suspend his claim. Van der Linde says : 
"The ease with which Gutenberg re- 
linquishes his monetary claim, and which 
at once shows him to be a better knight 
than financier, exhibits a trait of charac- 
ter which explains much in his later fate." 
Two years after, Gutenberg appeared 
before the city judge of Strasburg as 
defendant in a case of breach of promise 
of marriage. The plaintiff was Anne, 
called Zur Isernen Thur (Anne of the 
Iron Gale). The judgment of the court 



placed in the same position, as partner 
m the said enterprise. Gutenberg ad- 
mitted his pecuniary liability, but refused 
strenuously to admit George Dritzehen 
into the project, resolving on keeping 
both its operations and object a secret to 
himself. 

Eleven witnesses were called at this 
trial, and from their evidence an idea is 
to be obtained of the character .ind posi- 
tion of Gutenberg at this time. He 
appears to have occupied an honourable 



Bibliography of Priiiting. 



287 



position in the town, and to have enjoyed 
the reputation of being the master of 
many curious arts. In an age when 
nearly every handicraft was regarded as 
an "art and mystery," and surrounded 
with much secrecy, this accompHshment 
was a very considerable distinction. The 
testimony shows that Gutenberg prac- 
tised at least three distinct arts : one was 
stone or gem polishing; one was the 
making of mirrors ; and the third was 
the great secret into which George Drit- 
zehen wanted to be initiated. 

Gutenberg seems to have borrowed 
money from several persons for the pur- 
pose of carrying on these businesses, and 
to have had co- partners and pupils. 
Unexpectedly, he was visited by some of 
his partners in a retreat he had resorted 
to in a ruined convent near Strasburg. 
He was found working at a mysterious 
art, which he protested he had not 
covenanted to teach them. After some 
pressure, however, he consented to 
divulge the secret and to accept partners 
in the project, the first fruits or produce 
of which were to be ready for the great 
fair of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1439. 

Andrew Dritzehen not possessing the 
money qualification to constitute him a 
partner, contributed, in lieu of it, his 
labour. He is testified to have worked 
early and late on a task imposed upon 
him by Gutenberg, and died in the pro- 
secution of it. 

When Gutenberg heard that Andrew 
Dritzehen was dead, he was greatly 
alarmed, for he feared that Dritzehen's 
brothers would obtain possession of the 
tools, and thereby learn the secret. 
Gutenberg therefore sent his servant 
" who made the press, and knew all about 
the matter," with instructions to remove 
from it an unnamed tool, in four pieces, 
held together by two buttons. He was 
so to disconnect the parts that no one 
could tell the object of the whole. But 
another partner had anticipated this 
order, and removed this tool, as well as 
what were called "the forms." The 
latter were consigned to the melting- 
kettle by Gutenberg. 

The processes of the new art were thus 
kept secret, but their object was not. 
One of the witnesses stated that it was 
printing — not xylographic printing, for 
lead was employed. A goldsmith had 
been engaged to "do work connected 
with printing " ; a circumstance which 
in itself refutes the argument of some of 
the bibliographers that Gutenberg's first 
types were of wood, even were it not 
practically impossible that this material 
should have been used. He had, in 



short, devised a complete revolution in 
the art of bookmaking. 

Van der Linde and many other less 
precise writers hold that the key of the 
invention of printing was the movable 
type, the interchangeability of the letters, 
the endless combinations of which they 
were capable. De Vinne, with the acu- 
men of an educated practical printer, 
however, shows that this key consisted 
in the mechanism for making the types — 
the mechanism by which they could be 
made more cheaply than letters engraved 
on wood, and so accurate as to body that 
they could be combined and interchanged 
with facility. This was, in fact, the 
invention of the adjustable type-mould 
with its appliances of punch and matrix. 
It was on this invention that the fame of 
Gutenberg rests. 

Gutenberg, in the action in which the 
preceding facts were elicited, was suc- 
cessful in resisting the claims of George 
Dritzehen to be admitted a partner. He 
was not able, however, at the time, to 
complete his invention and to satisfy his 
colleagues. Before leaving Strasburg, 
Gutenberg had sold the last remnant of 
his inheritance. 

There is a record of what may have 
been one of his earliest transactions on 
his return to Mayence. In 1448 he per- 
suaded his relative, Arnold Gelthus, to 
borrow from two persons the sum of 150 
guilders, for the use of which he was to 
pay an interest of 8^ guilders yearly. 
Gutenberg having no securities to offer, 
Gelthus had to mortgage the rents of 
some of his houses for the purpose. At 
this time he was living in the house Zuvi 
Juiigen, belonging to his uncle, and this 
house he made both his residence and his 
printing-office. 

It is probable that prior to 1450 Guten- 
berg printed several small productions, 
for, had he been uniformly unsuccessful 
all these years, he could hardly have 
been able to borrow money from time to 
time. He possibly had to leave over, 
for a more auspicious time, his projects 
for printing a large book, and to content 
himself with "jobbing-work," as it 
would now be called. Among these 
minor products were certain Letters of 
Indulgence, eighteen copies of which are 
known, all bearing the printed date of 
1454 or 1455. 

Gutenberg had now, apparently, ar- 
rived at the utmost extremity of an 
unsuccessful inventor. He therefore 
went, as a last resource, to a profes- 
sional money-lender of Mayence, John 
Fust. 

The terms of the contract between the 



Bibliography of Printing. 



two parties, which was made in August, 
1450, were these : — The partnership 
between Gutenberg and Fust should be 
for five years, in which time the work 
projected by Gutenberg should be com- 
pleted. The purposes of the partnership 
were not specified, but Fust was to ad- 
vance to Gutenberg 800 guilders at 6 per 
cent, interest. The tools and materials 
made by Gutenberg for the uses of the 
partnership were to remain mortgaged to 
Fust, as security for his loan of 800 
guilders, until the whole sum should be 
paid. When these tools and materi ils 
were made and completed, Fust was, 
every year, to furnish Gutenberg with 
300 guilders to provide for the payment 
of the paper, vellum, ink, wages, and 
other materials that would be required 
for the execution of the work. In con- 
sideration of these advances. Fust was 
to have one-half of the profits arising 
from the sale of the products of the 
partnership. Fust was to be exempt 
from the performance of any work or 
service connected with the partnership, 
and was not to be held responsible for 
any of its debts. 

The object of this partnership was, 
undoubtedly, the issue of a great edition 
of the Bible, the price of a fair manu- 
script copy of which at the time was 500 
g- ilders. Fust, instead, however, of pay- 
i % the 800 guilders at once, allowed two 
;ars to pass before fully paying the 
noney. At the end of this period, when 
Gutenberg had got a new fount of type 
ready, and was prepared to print, he had 
need of much more for expenses and 
material than the 300 guilders allowed 
him by the agreement. Fust perceiving 
the need of Gutenberg, proposed a modi- 
fication in the contract, viz., the imme- 
diate payment of 800 guilders instead of 
three successive years' payment of 300 
guilders. He also proposed to remit his 
claim to interest on the 800 guilders 
already advanced. To this variation of 
the original agreement Gutenberg, per- 
haps necessarily, consented. 

Two editions of the Bible were the 
outcome of the Fust connection. They 
are called respectively the "Bible of 
42 lines " (because there are that number 
of lines in each column), or " Gutenberg 
Bible," and sometimes the " Mazarine 
Bible " (because a copy in the library of 
Cardinal Mazarin was the first to fix the 
date of production of the book) ; and the 
"Bible of 36 lines," or the "Bamberg 
Bible," or " Pfister's Bible." There is a 
doubt as to which was the earlier edition, 
but the weight of authority inclines to 
the first-named, especially as one copy 



contains the certificate of the illuminator 
that he finished his work in 1456. Mr. 
Henry Stevens assigns the date 1460 to 
" Pfister's Bible." 

It is not known how many copies of 
this book were printed, nor the price at 
which it was published. Unbound copies 
were sold not long after its publication 
for sums ranging from 12 guilders to 60 
crowns. At the sale of the Perkins 
Library, June 6, 1873, a copy of the 
Bible of 42 lines on vellum was sold for 
;^3,4oo, and a magnificent copy on paper 
for ;^2,9oo. The latter was bought by 
Mr. Bernard Quaritch, of Piccadilly, 
and catalogued by him in his " Monu- 
menta Typographica " at 3,000 guineas. 

It does not appear that the books were 
warmly received. Commercially, also, 
they seem to have been unsuccessful. In 
^455> on the 6th of November, Fust 
brought a suit for the recovery of the 
money he had advanced to Gutenberg. 
The latter was unable to meet the de- 
mand. The proceedings in the court are 
on record, and the general impression to 
be derived from them is that Fust had 
taken an unfair advantage of his associate. 
In the result, the materials and printing- 
ofiice of Gutenberg were taken possession 
of by Fust. [^^<? Fust.] 

Peter Schceffer, a young man about 
twenty-six years old, was already em- 
ployed in the printing-office, and Fust 
selected him to manage the place after 
its possession had been wrested from its 
original owner. Gutenberg was then 
nearly sixty years old, but his tremendous 
reverse did not altogether dishearten him. 
He determined, in fact, to start a new 
office. In the prosecution of this enter- 
prise Gutenberg was able, as he had so 
often been, to find the necessary mone- 
tary assistance. The chancellor of the 
town of Mayence, Conrad Humery, Doc- 
tor of Divinity and Syndic to the town, 
came to his aid. Some of his old work- 
men joined him. He had some materials 
which had formed part of the old 
office, for the money advanced by Fust 
only carried a lien on the types that 
were made by its expenditure. The 
types of the Bible of 36 lines were pro- 
bably not included in this lien, for it 
seems that Gutenberg retained in his 
own possession their punches and ma- 
trices. 

This new office was in operation about 
the year 1458. In 1460 Gutenberg printed 
the " Catholicon," a combination of a 
Latin grammar and dictionary, in large 
folio. 

Two years later Mayence was sacked 
by Adolph II. The hou.se of Fust was 



Bibliography of Printing. 



289 



burned, and his printing-office destroyed. 
It is not known how Gutenberg was 
affected by this catastrophe ; his office, 
indeed, may not then have been situated 
there. 

In 1466 the printing-office which con- 
tained his types was in operation at Elt- 
vill, a small town near Mayence. 

In 1465 Adolph had made Gutenberg 
one of the gentlemen of his court, and 
it is thought that the archbishop intended 
thereby to recognize the utility of Guten- 
berg's invention. His work ended about 
this period ; perhaps the rules of the 
court required him to retire from active 
business. The printing-office at Eltvill 
passed into the hands of his relatives 
by marriage — the brothers Henry and 
Nicholas Bechtermuntze. The art had 
already spread, and been adopted in five 
German cities. It was then being taken 
to Subiaco, near Rome, by Sweynheym 



was pulled down in 1742, in order to build 
another on its site. The tomb of Guten- 
berg was destroyed. 

Memorials of Gutenberg. — The fol- 
lowing monuments have, in the course of 
time, been erected in honour of the great 
proto-printer : — 

A tablet monument was set up by 
Adam Gelthus, a relative, near his tomb 
in the church of St. Francis at Mayence : 
" To Johann Gensfleisch, inventor of the 
art of printing, deserving well of all 
nations and languages, Adam Gelthus 
has erected this monument to the im- 
mortal memory of his name. His remains 
rest peaceably in the church of St. 
Franciscus, at Mayence." This tablet, 
as well as Gutenberg's tomb, was de- 
stroyed, as already stated, in 1742. 

An ecclesiastic of eminence, Ivo Wittig, 
who was Chancellor and Rector of the 
University of Mayence, set up a second 




and Pannartz, and was being welcomed 
into France by the king. 

Gutenberg did not enjoy for long the 
leisure and the distinction of a courtier. 
It is not known when he died, but there 
is evidence that he was dead in February, 
1468. Nor is anything known of the 
circumstances of his death, or whether 
he left any family. It is supposed that, 
uncheered and untended by wife or chil- 
dren, he died poor and in debt. The 
theory that Gutenberg was buried in the 
church of St. Francis at Mayence, which 
had till recently found general accepta- 
tion, has been called in question by Dr. 
Bockenheimer, in a pamphlet publi.shed 
in 1876, who seeks to prove that his actual 
burial-place was in the church of the 
Dominicans. The church of St. Francis 



tablet in the court of the house of the 
Gensfleisch family at Mayence, with this 
tribute : — " To John Gutenberg, of 
Mayence, who first of all invented print- 
ing-letters in brass [matrices and moulds], 
by which art he has deserved honour from 
the whole world." 

In 1837 there was inaugurated at 
Mayence a noble monument to Guten- 
berg, which was executed by Thor- 
waldsen, the Danish sculptor. It adorns 
one of the public squares, called Guten- 
berg Platz. The statue is handsome in 
its proportions and graceful in its poise — 
Gutenberg standing with one foot slightly 
advanced, holding his Bible clasped to 
his breast with one hand, while several 
punches are lightly grasped in the other. 
A series of bas-reliefs upon the pedestal 



2 P 



290 



Bibliography of Printing. 



exhibit the simple processes of the art 
in its earliest stages. The inscription 
states that the monument was erected 
by the citizens of Mayence with the 
assistance of the whole of Europe. 

In 1840 a statue of Gutenberg, by 
the celebrated French sculptor David 
d'Angers, was erected in the market-place 
of Strasburg, now called La Place Gut- 
tenberg. The figure stands erect, hold- 
ing forth a sheet with the noble legend 
from Genesis, " Et la lumiere fut." 
Upon the pedestal four bas-reliefs illus- 
trate the dissemination of knowledge by 
means of the printing-press, and on the 
front various great authors of Europe 
are grouped around a prmting-press. A 
copy of the David monument stands in 
the great court of the Imprimerie Na- 
tionale at Paris. 

A monument has also been erected in 
the city of Frankfort. Upon a lofty 
pedestal of fine red sandstone stand three 
colossal figures in electro-plated copper 
(the three figures were eiitirely made in 
the galvanic apparatus), the central 
figure being Gutenberg, with a type in 
his hand, while Schceffer stands on his 
right and Fu.st on his left. Four sitting 
figures on the corners of the pedestal 
represent Theology, Poetry, Natural 
Science, and Industry. Upon the upper 
part of the pedestal, medallions contain 
the heads of celebrated printers. 

Mons. J. P. A. Madden, however, well 
says : — " Why should we speak of monu- 
ments of bronze or stone to commemorate 
the services of Gutenberg? His monu- 
ment is in every quarter of the world : 
more frail than all, it is more enduring 
than all — it is the Book ! " 

Gutenberg's Types. — The printing - 
office at Eltvill passed, as already stated, 
into the hands of Henry and Nicholas 
Bechtermiintze. They did not actually 
come into possession, but appear to have 
managed it. In 1467 there proceeded 
from this office the book known now as the 
" Vocabularium ex quo." The types, on 
the death of Nicholas Bechtermiintze, 
were transferred to the custody or the 
possession of the Brothers of Common 
Life, who had a printing-office at Marien- 
thal, near Eltvill, as early as 1468. For 
some reason unknown, the Brotherhood 
made no use of the types. In the year 
1508 they were sold to Frederick Hau- 
man, of Nuremberg, who established a 
printing-office at Mayence, and who used 
these types in many of his books. The 
house that had been occupied by Hau- 
man as a printing-office was subsequently 
used for the same purpose by Albinus, a 
printer of the seventeenth century. The 



types of Gutenberg were in this house 
at the end of the sixteenth century, 
but after this their history cannot be 
traced. 

Mr. Theodore De Vinne, in his " In- 
vention of Printing," says : — " Considered 
from a mechanical point of view, the 
merit of Gutenberg's invention may be 
inferred from its permanency. His type- 
mould was not merely the first, it is the 
only practical mechanism for making 
types. For more than four hundred 
years this mould has been under critical 
examination, and many attempts have 
been made to supplant it. Contrivances 
have been introduced for casting fifty or 
more types at one operation : for swaging 
types, like nails, out of cold metal ; for 
stamping types from cylindrical steel dies 
upon the ends of copper rods ; but ex- 
perience has shown that these and other 
inventions in the field of type-making 
machinery are not better methods of 
making types. There is no better method 
than Gutenberg's. Modem type-casting 
machines have moulds attached to them 
which are more exact and more carefully 
finished, and which have many little 
attachments of which Gutenberg never 
dreamed ; but in principle, and in all the 
more important features, the modern 
moulds may be regarded as the moulds 
of Gutenberg." 

Gutenberg's Portrait. — The portrait 
given on p. 286 is reprinted from Hansard's 
' ' Typographia. " The face is apparently 
copied from the old print in the National 
Library at Paris, which was engraved in 
Lacroix' "Arts of the Middle Ages." 
It is the most ancient portrait of Guten- 
berg, and concerning it Mr. De Vinne 
says : — " It presents him to us as a man 
of decided character, not to be cajoled 
or managed by a partner in business. 
The thin curving lip and pointed nose, 
the strongly-marked lines on the fore- 
head, the bold eyes and arrogant bearing 
of the head, reveal to us a man of 
genius and of force, a man born to rule, 
impatient of restraint, and of inflexible 
resolution." 

The Gutenberg Jourfial reports that 
the French booksellers pos.sess a beautiful 
lithograph representing Gutenberg, which 
is a copy of an oil painting found about 
1858 in the Medallion Room of the 
National Library. The following is the 
history of their portrait : — "A French 
ex-army surgeon, Gamba, was intimately 
acquainted with a Paris painter named 
Choisnet, who learned from Gamba that 
he had found this painting in ihe Epi- 
scopal Palace of Mayence, during the 
French occupation in 1792. ' Struck with 



Bibliography of Printitig. 291 

the expression of this intelligent phy- relic, which is further referred to in this 
siognomy,' wrote Gamba in a book pub- Bibliography, sub voce Fry (Francis), 
lished by Choisnet on Gutenberg, in Gutefiberg's Auto^^raph. — On the back 
1858, 'I referred to the catalogue of the of the "Letters of Indulgence" printed 
Episcopal Gallery, and ascertained that by Gutenberg, there is a written device, 
this portrait was no other than that of the which has been generally regarded as a sort 
discoverer of Printing. ' " of flourish, or secret mark, to indicate their 
Gutenberg's Press.— \n an old house genuineness. Dr. P. de Villiers iff. v.) 
at Mayence fragments of a press have has, however, issued a pamphlet in which 
been discovered, which, from certain he endeavours to show that the writing is, 
letters and a date cut upon one of the in fact, Gutenberg's autograph, but corn- 
pieces, are believed to have formed part pressed into a cipher. This curious 
of the identical press at which Gutenberg interpretation has been sufficiently proved 
worked. M. Madden, in the 5th series of to be an entirely mistaken one. 
his "Lettres," gives an account of this 

Gutenberg. — See De Vinne, Dingelstedt, Fournier, Gama, 
Laborde, Langenschwarz, Linde, Meyer, Oberlin, Pall- 

HAUSEN, SCHAAB, SCHELTEMA, &C. &C. 

Gutenberg. Bemerkungen eines Elsassers liber die Gutenbergs- 
Feier, mit besonderer Riicksichtnahme auf die dadurch veran- 
lassten Aeusserungen des Zeitgeistes. Strassburg : no date. 8vo. 

Gutenberg a Strasbourg, ou I'Invention de I'lmprimerie. Diver- 
tissement, en un acte, mele de chant et des danses, pour I'inau- 
guration de la statue de Gutenberg. Strasbourg, 1840. 8vo. 

Gutenberg, Erfinder der Buchdruckerkunst. Eine historische Skizze 
mit mehreren Zeichnungen und Facsimile autographisch ausgefUhrt 
von den Zoglingen der Strassburger Industrie-Schule. Strassburg : 
1840. 4to. pp. 26 in lithography. 

Gutenberg. Facsi.-nile de la premiere Bible de Mayence, ouvrage de 
Gutenberg. Paris : 1840. Folio. 

Gutenberg-Fest. Das Gutenberg- Fest. Eine poetische-humoristische 
Beschreibung, zur Erinnerung an die Feierlichkeiten des 14. 15. 
und 16. Augusts, 1837. Mainz : 1837. 8vo. 

Gutenberg-Fest im Jahre \%\o {Strassburger Bilderbogeii^ No. 30]. 
1875. 

A view of the industrial cortege that was exhibited on that occasion. 

Gutenbergs-Fest, das, zu Leipzig am 24. 25. u. 26. Juni, 1840. 
[In Hitzig's Presszeitung, 1840, Nos. 50-52.] Festival number 
with Gutenberg's likeness and the printers' arms printed in gold. 

Gutenberg. Fete seculaire de I'invention de I'imprimerie par 
Gutenberg, qui sera celebre a Strasbourg en 1836. Large 4to. 
pp. 4. 

A proposition for the celebration of the Fete and the formation of a subscription to 
defray the necessary e.xpenses. It is dated Strasburg, 23 April, 1835, and is signed 
by the members of the committee. 



292 Bibliography of Printing. 

Gutenberg. Fete de Gutenberg college. Album de 22 planches. 

There is also an edition of this Album So that forthwith from thousand magic 

in quarto, containing the same number of pages 

plates reduced. The Album is accom- The South and North resound with 

panied by a sheet of text, which gives a one accord ; 

detailed description of the Fete and the A ray of bliss, succeeding gloom of ages, 

procession. It bears the title, " Relation It flashes through the nations' bright 

des Fetes de Gutenberg celebre a Stras- record, 

bourg les 24, 25, et 26 Juin, 1840." 8vo. To keenly point in ever clearer light 

pp.172. The path of truth, of virtue, and of right. 

laSoftSL'dtp'SbSLdSrmLrat: ^he J-e of pro.ean type wi.h apt 

R'sid'ar,hrfo;;nhT.„;"enaJ;%\Tr?f ^othr '"= "" "'""^ "'^'" °' 



the art of printing, celebrated all over 



It utters loud the people's free decision. 



Germany. j^^ open combat bringing fraud to 

Memorial Plate naught ; 

r^ ., T- .1 f^ , cv I -1 r Humanity, thrilled deeply by the vision 

horthe^ Fourth Centenary Jubilee 0/ ^^ x^^,l\r^t book, does homage free, 



the Art 0/ Printing, 1840. 



unsought ; 



Sublimest art ! by Type's oft varied " Hail to th' invention ! " shout the 
stages, peaceful legions 

To lend an echo to the lucid word. In latest times, to the remotest regions. 

O. S. 

Gutenberg in seiner Werkstatt, zur Erinnerung an die vierte Sacular- 
feier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst. Gemalt von Niemann. 
Lithogr. von Zollner u. Schlick. Leipzig : 1840. Imp. folio. 

Gutenberg Jubilee on the Invention of Printing. Article in the 
Foreign Quarterly Review. London : vol. xxv. page 446. 

Gutenberg, Konig, Keppler, Copernicus, Berthold Schwerz. Die 
fiinf Weltumgestalter. Mit Portraiten. [In " Neuen Einsiedler 
Kalendar," 1876.] 

Gutenberg und die unsterbliche Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, 
sowie deren Vervollkommnung seit dem Beginn derselben. bis auf 
unsere Zeit ; zugleich mit einer kurzen Schilderung derjenigen 
Manner, welche sich um dieselbe am meisten verdient gemacht 
haben ; mit besonderer Riicksicht auf Deutschland. Eine Fest- 
gabe zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, 
den 24., 25. und 26. Juni 1840, alien Jiingern und Verehrern der- 
selben gewidmet. Leipzig : 1840. 8vo. 

Gutenberg Album. Zur Erinnerung an das vierte Sacularfest der 
Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst, gefeiert zu Ulm am 24. Juni, 
1840. Ulm : 1840. 4to. 

Gutenberg's Dream. London : [1868]. 8vo. pp. 8. 

No. 1,462 of a series of tracts issued by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. 

Gutenberg's erster Druck. Facsimile der ersten Seite des ersten in 
der Welt gedruckten Buches. Bei Gelegenheit der vierten Sacu- 
larfeier des Typendrucks, mit einer kurzen geschichtl. Erlauterung, 
herausg. von O. F. Werhan. Dresden : 1S40. Folio. 



Bibliography of Printing. 293 

GuTENBERGSFEST (Das) in Gorlitz. Aus dem neuen lausitzischen 
Magazin besonders abgedruckt. Gorlitz : 1840. 8vo. pp. 25. 

Gutenberg Statue. Aufruf, um das herannahende Sacularfest der 
Buchdruckerkunst durch Errichtung eines Monuments zu Ehren 
ihres Erfinders, Joh. Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg, wiirdig zu feiern. 
Mainz : 1840. 4to. pp. 7. 

Gutenberg Statue. Erstes Gutenbergfest (1837), und zweiter 
Gutenbergfeste (1840). [In Dr. E. Reis's " Mainzer Silhouetten 
und Genrebilder," pp. 1-27.] Mainz : 1841. 8vo. 

Gutenberg Statue en bronze par David d'Angers inauguree a 
Strasbourg le 24 Juin, 1840. [In Magasin Pittoresque, tome viii., 
No. 28, Juillet 1840.] 

Gutner (Jo. G.). Typographiae Chemnitiensis primae plaguloe. [In 
Wolf, "Monumenta Typographica. "] 

GuTTEBERRi (Der) als Inschpeckter von Gartneri Mark {Strassburger 
Bilderbogen, No. 3). Strasburg : 1875. -^ broadside. 
A discussion in the Strasburg dialect between the venders of vegetables and the 
inventor of printing. The old Gartnerr Markt (vegetable market) has been called, 
since 1840, Place Gutenberg, and it is here that the famous statue stands. 

GUYOT FiLS. Art de I'lmprimerie-librairie, compose en 1795, quant 
au mecanisme typographique. Paris : 1836. 4to. 
Of this work only one copy was printed, which is in the National Library 
of Paris. 

Guzman. — See Cabrera. 



(le Major). See Humbert. 

Haarlem. Album van Feestliederen en 
Gezangen, te zingen door de Typo- 
graphische Vereenigingen, die deel 
zullen nemen aan de onthullings feesten, 
op den i6 Juli 1856. Haarlem. 8vo. 

Haas (Wilh.). Erklarung einer neuerfun- 
denen und gemeinniitzlichen Einrich- 
tung der Stlicklinien und Zwischen- 
spahne, nebst einer Anmerkung iiber 
die gegossenen Stege. [Basle]: 1772. 
4to. pp. 16. Another edition. 1805. 
4to. 

Beschreibung und Abrisse einer neuen Buchdruckerpresse, erfun- 

den in Basel im Jahr 1772 und zum Nutzen der Buchdruckerkunst 
herausgegeben. (Basel) : 1790. 8vo. pp. 12. 
A French translation of this pamphlet was issued with the following title :— 

Description et representation d'une nouvelle Presse d'im- 

primerie inventee a Bale en 1772 et publiee pour I'avantage de 
I'art typographique. [Basle] : 1791. 4to. pp. 12. 3 plates. 



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— Das Gebet des Herrn in 100 Sprachen und Mundarten. 
Seiten Vorwort. Basel : 1830. Large 8vo. 



Mit2 



Issued as a specimen of printing types of the Haas foundry. 

Histoire de I'origine et des progres de la typometrie. Bale : 

1778. 4to. 

Specimen Book. Fonderie Haas a Bale. April, 



Royal 4to. 

The foundry of Haas, at Basle, has 
been celebrated for the last hundred years. 
Wilhelm Haas, the originator, disputes 
with Breitkopf {q.v.) the merit of having 
introduced the art of map-printing in 
movable types about the year 1770. It 



1863. 



was suggested to him by A. G. Preus- 
chen, a court preacher of Carlsruhe. 
Haas was the first to publish specimens 
of it, and issued in letterpress a map of 
the Canton of Basle. He died 1800. 



Bibliography of Printing. 295 

Haase Sohne, Prag. Polytypen-Proben. 1850. Large 4to. 

Habermann (Carl Friedrich). Beschreibung der bei der vierten 
Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst am 23, und 24. 
Juni 1840, in Hildburghausen stattgehabten Feierlichkeiten. 8vo. 

Hack (A. d'). L'imprimeur. Chanson. Paroles de Delonnel et 
Villemer, avec accompagn. du piano. Paris : (1872.) 4to. pp. 4. 

H ADDON (J.). Specimens of Music Printing. London: 1859. 4to. 

Haeberlin (F. D.). Designatio librorum quorundam ab inventa 
typographia ad annum usque MD. excusomm, excerpta ex cata- 
logo bibliothecae Krafftianos, etc., ut supplementum loco ad 
Maittairii Ann. Typogr. haberi queat. Ulmoe: 1740. 8vo. 

Haeghen (Ferd, van der), Bibliotheca Belgica. Bibliographic 
generale des Pays-Bas. Gand : 1878. Small 8vo. In course of 
publication. 

Mr. van der Haeghen proposes to of the works of Dutch printers established 
include in this work a description of all in other countries. The title and de- 
the books printed in the Low Countries scription of each book is printed on a 
in the 15th and i6th centuries and of the separate leaf, so that when complete the 
principal works printed since 1600 ; also whole can be arranged at will, alpha- 
descriptions of all the works written by betically, chronologically, in typographi- 
natives of Belgium and Holland, as well cal order, or under printers. The re- 
as of works relating to the Low Countries production of printers' marks forms an 
published elsewhere ; and a bibliography important feature in the work. 

Haenel (Eduard). Neue Fraktur-Schriften. VIL Garnitur aus 
Eduard Haenel's Schriftgiesserei in Berlin, [i860.] 

Schriften aller Art, Klammern, Linien, Zeitungs-Vignetten 

u. s. w. aus Eduard Haenel's Schriftgiesserei und Gravir-Anstalt 
in Berlin, [i860.] 

Hagar (Wm.). Specimens of Type from the Foundry of Hagar & Co. , 
New York. 
William Hagar, the founder of this type-founding in New York, until a few 
celebrated American firm, was born at years before his death, withdrawing from 
Rutland, Vermont, in 1798. In early life it only during one or two years of a long 
he was apprenticed to a watchmaker, business career. At one time he was the 
and in 1816 he went to New York, and owner of the patent of the Bruce Casting 
after searching in vain for employment Machine, and during this period he not 
in the business in which he had been only supplied American foundries, but 
partly trained, he found employment introduced the machines into England, 
\x\ Ehhu White's type-foundry. He France, Germany, the East Indies, and 
speedily became skilled in his difficult China, where one was furnished for mis- 
new occupation, and after being pro- sionary purposes. He died in December, 
moted from one grade to another, ob- 1863, and his foundry is now owned and 
tained an interest in White's foundry, conducted by his sons under the name of 
Subsequently, after various business oc- Hagar & Co. 
cupations, he continued the practice of 

Hagen (Heinr. von der). Rede zur vierten Jahrhundertfeier der 
Buchdruckerkunst in Berlin. Berlin : 1840. 8vo. 

Hagenbusch. Dissertatio Academica de Typographiae origine 
habita Gie.ssae sub praesidio Imman. Weberi. 171 1. 4to. 



296 



Bibliography of Printing 



Hain (L. ). Repertorium Bibliographicum, in quo libri omnes ab arte 

. inventa usque ad annum MD typis expressi recensentur. 4 parts in 

2 vols. Stuttgartise : 1826-38. 8vo. 

This is one of the few indispensable books of reference for the literature of 

the fifteenth century, and all subsequent bibliographers are largely indebted for the 

material of their works to the labours of Hain and Panzer in this branch of belles 

lettres. 

Hall (Charles Carter). The Art of Printing, historical and practical, 
embracing an outline of the antecedents, use, and progress of the 
Art, with brief biographical sketches of its founders. To which 
is added a concise elementary guide, being a series of practical 
schemes for the economization of labour. Sheffield : i860. 
l6mo., pp. 




Hall (Rowland). London : 1559-1563. 



This printer went with several refugees, 
on the death of Edward VI., to Geneva, 
where he printed the Psalms and the 
Bible. It is not known where he learned 
the art. On his return, on the accession 
of Elizabeth, he resided in Golden Lane, 
near Cripplegate, at the sign of the 
"Three Arrows." He then removed to 
Gutter Lane, and adopted the Geneva 
Arms for his sign. His device is shown 
in the engraving given above. It con- 
sists of the arms of the City of Geneva 



(half-eagle and key on a shield), and was 
adopted probably in memory of the pro- 
tection he enjoyed in Geneva during the 
religious troubles in England. His motto 
alludes to the Reformation, "Post Tene- 
bras Lux" after darkness light ; and he 
used sometimes to give the English trans- 
lation in the margin. We copy the de- 
vice from the " Lawes and Statutes of 
Geneva," London, 1562, 8vo., but it also 
appears in several other works by this 
printer. 



Hallam (Henry), F.R.A.S. The Invention of Printing. In "Literary 
Essays," p. 76. London: 1852. 8vo, 



Reprinted from the " History of the 
Middle Ages." The author was the cele- 
brated historian ; and several others of his 
works should be studied by those who 
wish to acquaint themselves with the 
political, social, and educational results 
of the invention of printing. De Vinne 
makes excellent use of Hallam's .investi- 



gations in a chapter entitled "The Pre- 
parations for Printing " (pp. 1 71-192). 
We would especially recommend to the 
student Hallam's " Introduction to the 
Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, 
Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries," 
and his "View of the State of Europe 
during the Middle Ages." 



Bibliography of P7'inting. 297 

Hallbauer (G. C). De scriptura et arte Typographite. Jence: 1743. 
4to. 

Hallbauer, Herr Joh. Christ. Friedr. Gerlach, Buchhandler und 
Bftchdrucker zu Freyberg. (In Freyberger gemeinniitzige Nach- 
richten, Nos. 48-52.) 1820. 4to. 

Halle. ^'^-^ Jubelzeugnisse. 

Haller (L. a.). Neueste Entdeckung beim Firniss-Sieden der Buch- 
drucker, oder die Firnissblase mit einem Ableitungsrohre. Berne : 
1821. 8vo. One lithograph plate. 

Haltaus (Dr. Karl). Album deutscher Schriftsteller zur vierten 
Sacularfeier der Buchdruckerkunst. Leipzig : 1840, 8vo. pp. 
XXX., 312. Portrait of Gutenberg. 

A collection of short essays on the history and art of printing by German authors, 
each article having a facsimile signature of its author. 

Hamelin (Ernest). La Liberte de I'lmprimerie au point de vue des 
interets de I'industrie typographique. Montpelier: 1867. 8vo. 
pp. 48. 
Includes curious statistics of the numbers of printers in Paris and the books printed 

by them. The author is director of the printing house of Gras at Montpelier. 

Hamerton (Philip Gilbert). Etching and Etchers. London: 1868. 8vo. 
A new edition, illustrated. London : 1876. 8vo. pp. xxx.. 



459. 12 etchings by the author. 
The most comprehensive treatise, practical as well as historical, on the recently 
revived art of etching, by one of its acknowledged masters. 

Hamilton (Edward). A Catalogue raisonne of the engraved Works 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds. London: 1874. 8vo. pp. viii., 143. 
This is probably the fullest list of en- state of perfection under the fostering 
gravings after the great master that has care of Sir Joshua Reynolds. An excel- 
ever appeared, and a catalogue of a series lent feature of Dr. Hamilton's book is 
which have no equals among native pro- the biographical sketches, and lists of the 
ductions of the kind, for the art of en- various works of the engravers them- 
graving in mezzotint attained its highest selves. 

Hammann (J. M. Herman). Des arts graphiques destines a multiplier 
par I'impression, consideres sous le double point de vue historique 
et pratique. Geneve: 1857. i2mo., pp. xii., 489. 
The author, who is an engraver and professor of drawing at Geneva, was bom at 

Hanau in 1807. 

Hanckwitz (J.). An Essay on Engraving and Copper-plate Printing ; 
to which is added — Albumazar; or, the Professors of the Black 
Art, a Vision (a Poem). London: 1732. 4to. 

Handboek ter Beoefening der Boekdrukkunst in • Nederland, 
voorafgegaan door eene beknopte geschiedenis dezer kunst. 
s'Gravenhage : 1844. 8vo. pp.257. Portrait of Koster. 

Handbok i Boktryckerikonsten for unga sattare. Stockholm : 1853. 
8vo. 

2 (^ 



298 Bibliography of Pi-iutitig. 

Handbuch der Buchdruckerkunst, nebst Anweisung Papiere zu 
farben. Berlin: 1820. 8vo. 

Handhuch der Buchdruckerkunst. Frankfurt a. M., in ^er An- 

dreai'schen Buchhandlung, 1827. l2mo. pp. xviii. and 830. With 

woodcuts and numerous diagrams. 

The author of this book was Bauer, a ing ; so well indeed, that his book has 

celebrated German type - founder and been considered, until the publication of 

punch-cutter, at the same time partner of Ba>-hmann's Guide-book, the best, though 

the Andrea Bookselling Business at now nearly obsolete, of German works in 

Frankfort -on -the -Main. For a great this line. It has become very scarce. 

part of his book, the author has made use As the author does not give his name in 

of Hansard's Typographia, adapting it to the book, it is still only known as the 

German requirements and modes of work- "Andreiische Handbuch." 

Handbuch, praktisches, zur Kupferstichkunde oder Lexicon der- 
jenigen vorzUgHclien Kupferstecher, sowohl der aheren, als bis auf 
die neueste Zeit. Magdeburg : 1840. Large 8vo. 

Handleiding tot het corrigeren van dmkproeven en verklaring der 
typographischen teekens von Elix und Co. Amst. : 1837. 4to. 

HandleidinCx tot het vervaardigen van Drukinkt, of opgave der 
voorschriften ter bereiding van alle soorten van in- en uitlandschen 
zwarten in geklcurden drukinkt volgcns de nieuvvste proefnemingen. 
Utrecht : 1840. Square i2mo. pp. 54. 

Handleiding voor hen die Drukproeven willen corrigeren door een 
deskundige. Amsterdam : [1869]. 8vo. pp. 12. 

Handlingar i malet eraellan Boktryckeri-Bolaget, J. C. Frenckell 
& Son i Helsingfors, Klagande, och Boktryckaren i Uleaborg 
C. E. Barck, svarande, augaende vermstalki efter tryckniiig af 
nagra Finska Skrifter. Uleaborg : 1830. 8vo. 

Handlingar i Tryckfrihetsmalet augaende Kongl. Evangeliiboks- 
Kommitteens Forrlag till Boneliok, samt i den mot Brukspatronen 
N. M. Lindhanstalde skrifsatto-Aktionen. Orebro : 1828. 8vo. 

Handmaid to the Arts. Vol. I. London: 1764. 8vo. Vol. H. 
Teaching. . . H. The art of engraving, etching, and scraping 
mezzotintos ; with the preparations of the aquafortis, varnishes, or 
other grounds, &c., in the best manner now practised by the 
French ; as also the best manner of printing copper-plates ; an 
improved method of producing washed prints, and of printing in 
chiaroscuro, and with colours, in the way practised by M. Le 
Blon. London : 1 764. 8vo. 

Hand- und HUlfsbuch, kleines, fiir Buchhandler, Schriftsteller und 
Correktoren. M.it der Vorsteilung einer Correktur. Vom Ver- 
fasser des Handbuchs fiir Buchdrucker. 3rd edition. Berlin : 
1829. 8vo. 

Hans (L.). Herstellung von Druckplatten mittelst Zinkiitzung. 
Leipzig : 1871. Small 8vo. 



Bibliography of Printing 



299 



Hansard. Biographical Memoir of Luke Hansard, Esq., many years 
Printer to the House of Commons. [London]: 1829. Royal 4to. 
pp. 83, and portrait, engraved by F. C. Lewis, after a painting 
hy S. Lane. 



Luke Hansard was born in Nor- 
wich, July 5, 1752, where his father was 
a manufacturer. The Hansard family is 
descended from an old Norfolk stock, and 
claims connection with the Gurneys, and 
several other old-established families of 
the county of Norfolk- Luke was ap- 
prenticed to Mr. Stephen White, printer, 
Cockey Lane, Norwich. He soon dis- 
played the advantages of early training 
to habits of industry and moral feeling. 
Hansard's master, being of convivial 
habits, entrusted him with the manage- 
ment of the business, and during his 
apprenticeship he formed a character for 
integrity and judgment, which materially 
advanced his future prospects. Imme- 
diately after the close of his apprenticeship 
he came to London. He first obtained 
a situation as compositor at the print- 
ing-office of Mr. Hughs, of Great Turn- 
stile, Lincoln's Inn Fields, who was then 
Printer to the House of Commons, and 
it is little likely, when Luke Hansard 
entered upon this engagement, that he 
imagined how permanent and important 
a step in life he was taking. In his new 
position, his great ability and industry 
must have been very conspicuous, 
for we find that in 1774 he became 
the partner of his employer. Mr. Han- 
sard extended the concern, not only by 
the indefatigable attention he bestowed 
upon it, but by the invention and intro- 
duction of a system of regular opera- 
tions and of mechanical improvements, 
which evinced the highest professional skill 
and judgment. There was ordered to be 
printed on July lo, 1828, the Report of a 
Committee appointed to consider the sub- 
ject of printing done for the House of 
Commons. In the course of this examina- 
tion, Mr. John Rickman, Clerk Assistant 
to the House of Commons, gave a short 
but very interesting history of the estab- 
lishment of Luke Hansard, and made 
reference to the character of its proprie- 
tor. " Mr. Hansard has been employed," 
he said, "in the service of the House 
from the year 1772, and came into the 
management of the printing business as a 
partner of Mr. Hughs in 1774, so that 
his experience is now of 54 years' stand- 
ing, and it will be found that his talents 
have not been suffered to lie dormant 
for many years during that long period. 
.... Half a century ago the printing of 



the House of Commons was comparatively 
of small extent, and the types of the 
printer were oftener employed in the ser- 
vice of booksellers and of authors than at 
present." Mr. Hansard, early in his 
career, was employed by Mr. Orme in 
printing his " History of India," and from 
personally attending that gentleman, and 
assisting him in correction of the proofs 
and revises, he gained a competent know- 
ledge of Indian affairs, which afterwards 
became highly useful to himself and the 
public. He was also employed by Burke 
in printing his " Essay on the French 
Revolution." Dr. Johnson, when in con- 
nection with Mr. Dodsley, preferred Mr. 
Hansard as his printer. Person pro- 
nounced him to be the most accurate of 
Greek printers. Mr. Hansard first at- 
tracted Pitt's notice by his ability in read- 
ing complicated and almost illegible manu- 
script, and retained his patronage by the 
remarkable expedition with which he 
completed important publications. He 
also distinguished himself in the service 
of the Finance Committee of 1796-7 ; and 
in the following year, when an immense 
mass of returns relative to the SlaveTrade, 
employed three printers to turn them out, 
Mr. Hansard was selected to plan and 
organize the whole. Before 1805, Mr. 
Hansard had relinquished private printing 
to devote his entire attention to parliamen- 
tary work. "Among the combinations 
of workmen " (we here quote from Mr. 
Rickman's evidence), " in the year 1805 
the printing trade did not escape, and 
the Standing Order for the delivery of 
printed Bills before their first reading, 
was deemed by the workmen a good op- 
portunity to try an experiment of forcing 
a rise of wages in Mr. Hansard's printing- 
office. The pres.smen were put in front 
of the battle ; twenty-four of them simul- 
taneously left their work. Their master 
lost no time in seeking and finding un- 
employed men in the streets and stable- 
yards, and he was seen by more members 
of Parliament than one in a working 
jacket, and, with his sons, instructing 
these new men by precept and example." 
" Mr. Hansard," continues this witness, 
"from the beginning of his official life 
has established this rule for his conduct, 
to spare no cost or personal labour in 
attempting to perform the important duty 
entrusted to him better and cheaper and 



300 



Bibliography of Printing. 



more expeditiously than any other print- 
ing business is done in London, No 
person with less practice in printing ar- 
rangements could equal him in seeing at 
a glance, and markmg on paper (intel- 
ligibly to the workman) the exact scheme 
of every line and column and indentation, 
so as to be at once perspicuous and eco- 
nomical. This kind of editorial attention 
in the variety and novelty of arrangement 
of the House of Commons printed papers 
saves considerable expense to the public, 
who pay nothing for it." The Gentle- 
mans Magazine of December, 1824, then 
edited by Nichols, the printer, says : — 
" Mr. Luke Hansard has the reputation 
of being the first caster-ojf'va. the king- 
dom." 

In the catalogue of an Exhibition of 
Portraits referred to below, it is stated 
that Luke Hansard was printer of the 
House of Commons Journals from 1774 
to his death, in 1828, under Speakers 
Norton, Cornwall, Grenville, Addington, 
Mitford, Abbott, and Manners Sutton. 
This information is probably correct ; 
during the earlier Speakerships, however, 
the partnership with Mr. Hughs was in 
existence. 

Luke Hansard was a man of remark- 
ably abstemious habits, constant applica- 
tion, and unwearied industry, and of 
great force of character. His contribu- 
tions to public charities were liberal but 
unostentatious. Speaking in 1812 of the 
printing of the Parliamentary Journals, 
Nichols says: — "That business has de- 
volved into the hands of perhaps the only 
printer living who unites in one person 
the ability of superintending such exten- 
sive duties, and strength of mind and 
body sufficient to undergo the fatigue of 
constant personal attendance." After the 
ample enjoyment of an uncommon por- 
tion of good health, Mr. Hansard felt an 
alarming change about the beginning of 
the year 1828, and on the close of the 
parliamentary session in July, became 
fully convinced of his approaching decay. 
He took a solemn leave of the principal 
persons in his large establishment, and 
intimated as his own firm belief that he 
should see them no more. After this his 
health rapidly declined. He went to 
Worthing for a month, and then returned 
to his son James's house in Southampton 
Street, Holborn, expressing himself 
thankful that he should be permitted to 
die in the arms of his family. Having 
taken leave of every member individually, 
explaining to each the provision he had 
made for them, and bestowing upon them 
all his blessing, he died October 29, 1828, 
and was interred in the parish church of 



St. Giles-in-the-Fields on the 52nd anni- 
versary of his eldest son's birthday. 
Luke Hansard's widow died on May 18, 
1834. 

In the Appendix to the Memoir of 
Luke Hansard is given a selection of 
Letters addressed by him to his children 
and grandchildren. We may particularly 
mention six letters written between 1820 
— 1827, to his son Thomas Curson, and 
especially one dated July 20, 1825. All 
his letters prove the truly paternal 
interest he took in his family, and his soli- 
citude for their welfare. These letters also 
show the depth of his religious sentiments 
and the strength of his character. There 
is no doubt that by nature Luke Han- 
sard was a very stem man : his portrait 
shows it at a glance. Yet nothing could 
be more tender and affectionate than 
some of his letters to his grandchildren. 
Like all men of his mould, the measure 
he dealt out unsparingly to himself he 
applied to others, who were not at all 
times able to reach his own heroic stan- 
dard. One very marked trait in his 
character was his horror of debt. His 
maxim was that no money he possessed 
was his own, but was merely held in trust, 
until he had discharged every just debt 
he owed ; and this was his imdeviating 
practice, to the great comfort and advan- 
tage of all with whom he had dealings. 
Si sic otnnesl Bound up with Luke 
Hansard's Memoir in the British Museum 
copy is an excellent obituary memoir of 
him from the Gentleman s Magazine, 
evidently written by Nichols. This was, 
in fact, the foundation of the " Bio- 
graphical Memoir." 

I'he portrait of Luke Hansard was 
exhibited in the second " Special Exhi- 
bition of National Portraits," at the 
South Kensington Museum, in 1867, and 
also at the Caxton Celebration, 1877. 

Luke Hansard left three sons. The two 
younger of the three were James (at whose 
house in Southampton Street, Holborn, 
Luke Hansard died) and Luke Graves, 
who died at Chigwell Row in 1841, and 
is interred at Chigwell, both of whom 
were admitted into partnership with their 
father, and succeeded him m his busi- 
ness of Printer to the House of Commons. 
The eldest son was Thomas Curson 
Hansard, the famous author of " Typo- 
graphia," &c. (see infra). James and 
Luke Graves Hansard were in course of 
time succeeded by their respective sons, 
and since the year 1847, Mr. Henry Han- 
sard, son of Luke Graves Hansard, has 
held the important and honourable ap- 
pointment of Printer to the House of 
Commons. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



301 



Hansard (Luke James). The Moral Power of the Press. 2 plates. 
London : 1 845. 8vo. 
The author is the son of James and grandson of Luke Hansard, and has been a 
most generous patron of the Printers' Pension Society. 

Hansard (Thomas Curson). Typographia : an historical sketch of the 
origin and progress of the Art of Printing ; with practical directions 
for conducting every department in an office : with a description of 
Stereotype and Lithography. Illustrated by Engravings, Biogra- 
phical Notices, and Portraits. London: 1825. Royal 8vo. pp. xvi., 
4 leaves of contents, pp. 939 ; index, 13 leaves. 

Another edition [1869]. 8vo. London, pp. ii., 396. 

Press, or Copperplate Printing, and is 
followed by one on the Construction of an 
Office, in which the general principles of 
a good and eligible plan are admirably 
laid down. Mr. Hansard treats at great 
length, and with a conservative bias, the 



In a preface of 14 pp. the author ex- 
plains that his work is partly based upon 
Stower's " Printer's Grammar," published 
some seventeen years previously, but 
then become somewhat antiquated. He 
avows his endeavour has been to inform 

the young practitioner, and to make his subject of Stereotype ; the art of Litho- 
woric acceptable generally to men of graphy is next considered, followed by 
letters and esser.tially so to members of a chapter on Decorative Printing, full of 



the art. The notices of English type- 
founders are derived from the curious 
work of Mr. E. Rowe Mores, and 
Mr. Hansard states that he had at one 
time an idea of reprinting the book, with 
a continuation brought down to his own 
time, for which he had collected the 
materials. He also acknowledges him- 
self indebted to an unpublished MS. 
relative to printing by Earl Stanhope, 
and gives an interesting review of the 
works of previous writers on the art of 



sound common sense ; and in the Appendix 
is included a Glossary of Terms used in 
Printing, and an Abstract of the Acts 
(some of which are now happily obsolete) 
relative to Printers and Bookbinders, 
the whole being concluded by an ex- 
cellent Index, which is divided into two 
parts. From first to last this work is 
admirably produced, and is a model of 
what a technical treatise should be. 

We append ^the portrait of Thomas 
Curson Hansard, which was prefixed 



printing, concluding with allusions to the to his " Typographia." In reviewmg 

portraits and biographical sketches con- it at the time of its publication (182O, 

tained in his own work. The contents the Gentleman's Magazine ^a.idi: — "The 

are divided into two parts — Historical best likeness in Hansard's volume is 

and Practical. The Historical Intro- decidedly that of the author, drawn by 

duction, which extends to 404 pages, is A. Todd, R.A., and well engraved on 

most carefully and conscientiously com- wood by J. Lee, who has executed all 

piled, and includes the subjects of Paper the portraits in a style hitherto unat- 

.ind Typefounding, as well as an account tempted. They are drawn on the block 

of the Stationers' Company. Part II. is by Mr. W. Craig, engraved in a free 

devoted to the Practice of the Art, and, cross-hatched manner by Mr. Lee, and 

commencing with a general description if we think some of the likenesses not so 

of the apparatus for and process of happy as they would probably have 

movable type printing, treats under proved if engraved on copper, we think 

separate heads of Case, Press, Fine that the failure is inseparable from wood 

Printing, Inking Apparatus, Improved engraving, when that style is applied to 



Manual Presses, Printing Machines, and 
Printing Ink. Separate chapters are 
devoted to the consideration of the duties 
of the Overseer and the Reader, and the 
mode of keeping the Accounts of a 
Printing Office. The Warehouse De- 
partment comes next, followed by a 
chapter on Prices, which may be strongly 
recommended to the attentive considera- 
tion of the modern master printer. 
Chapter XIV. is devoted to the Roller 



unsuitable subjects." The annexed illus- 
tration is printed from the original wood- 
cut thus referred to. In the same review 
it is said: — "It embraces everything 
that could be expected in such a work up 
to the time of its publication. We do 
not mention Mr. Johnson's Typographia, 
as the present work, we believe, was in 
considerable forwardness before Mr. 
Johnson's was published ; and as we do 
not perceive that Mr. Hansard notices 



302 



Bibliography of Printing 



Mr. Johnson's in his preface, we presume 
he has not availed himself of its contents; 
for Mr. H. appears to act most honour- 
ably in acknowledging his literary obliga- 
tions." 

The 1869 reprint of some of the practical 
portions of " Typographia" was begun in 
1867 in the pages of the hondon Prz users' 
Jo7irnal. Mr. George Challoner, the 
editor of the reprint, was originally a 
compositor, and then became a reader. 
He is at present the editor of a metro- 
politan journal devoted to the iron in- 
dustries {see Challoner, G.). It was 
intended by the editor to have brought 
down the work to the present time, but 
the idea was very shortly abandoned, and 
the Journal itself has been long since 
defunct. In the preface to this edition 
an explanation is given why the enter- 
prise was not carried out in its entirety. 

Thomas Cukson Hansard, eldest son 
of Luke Hansard, Printer to the House of 
Commons, of whom a memoir is given 
above, and author of the " Typographia," 
was born on the 6th November, 1776. 
The printing-office of his energetic father 
was an excellent school of training in all 
the practical branches of the art, and the 
large and peculiar connection of the 
establishment was not less adapted to 
impart the experience necessary for the 
economy and management of a large 
general business. Nor did Mr. Thomas 
Hansard, during his youth, neglect the 
cultivation of his mind ; for he was, if 
not possessed of special accomplishments, 
a very well-read man. 

In the transaction of the Parliamentary 
business of his father, Mr. Thomas Han- 
.sard was brought into frequent inter- 
course with the Speakers of the House of 
Commons, with the officials of the Govern- 
ment, and the leading statesmen and 
orators on both sides. Thus he be- 
came associated with some of the most 
remarkable political charicters of his 
time. These belonged chiefly to what 
would now be termed the Liberal, but was 
then denounced as the Radical Party. 
The son's political aberration was very 
distasteful to the stern old gentleman, 
whose politics and religion were of 
the Johnsonian school ; and his son, 
perceiving an opportunity for successful 
enterprise in a field of letters which, 
though of a political cast, would not 
interfere with the interests of his father, 
in 1805 purchased of the executors of 
Mr. Kickerby the lease and plant of the 
printing business which had been carried 
on by him in the ancient palatial resi- 
dence of the Bishops of Peterborough. 
In this straggling and venerable old brick 



building, the hand-rail of the principal 
staircase of which was of oak, dubbed by 
the axe, Mr. Thomas Hansard, like the 
patriarchal, printers, established a busi- 
ness which combined letters and litera- 
ture under one roof. It was also a singular 
coincidence that his private residence in 
Salisbury Square had been the residence 
of Richardson, the author and printer of 
"Pamela," "Sir Charles Grandison," 
" Clarissa Harlowe," and other novels 
of immense popularity in their day. It 
was further singular that Richardson had 
been employed to print the Journals of 
the House of Commons. 

Mr. Thomas Hansard early became 
the admirer and follower, and afterwards 
the martyr, of William Cobbett, of whose 
Political Register he was the printer. 
The uncompromising and pithy writings 
of Cobbett brought down on him the 
vengeance of the Government of the day, 
and involved the printer — perhaps not 
altogether without a pleasant sense of 
persecution^ — in the punishment. In one 
of the numbers, Cobbett denounced t'ne 
flogging of some mutineers of a regiment 
of Cambridgeshire Militia, under the 
guard of German Dragoons, proceeding 
in these spicy terms : — " Five hundred 
la.shes each I Aye, that is right. Flog 
them ! Flog them ! Flog them ! They 
deserve it, and a great deal more. 
'I'hey deserve a flogging at every meal. 
Lash them daily, lash them duly ! 
Lash them ! Lash them ! Lash them ! 
They deserve it. Oh yes ! they deserve 
a double-tailed cat. Base dogs ! What? 
mutiny for the price of a knapsack ! Lash 
them ! Flog them ! Base rascals ! Mu- 
tiny for the price of a goat-skin ! " 

The author, the printer, the bookseller, 
and an unlucky newsvendor, were prose- 
cuted for a seditious libel ; and being 
found " Guilty," Mr. Hansard resided 
three months in the King's Bench. 

But Mr. Hansard had no purpose of 
being the hand of other men's heads. His 
object in setting up his independent 
officiita was to connect himself with the 
public literature of his country by creating 
a new department of the national records. 
From the earliest date of his establish- 
ment he had been employed by the Lon- 
don publishers to take part in their asso- 
ciate undertakings ; for upon so insignifi- 
cant a scale was the printing business 
conducted in those days of small founts 
and handpre.sses, that any large collection 
of works, such as "The British Poets," 
"The British Novelists," was put out in 
sections to difi'crent printers. The un- 
dertakings of which he was the projector 
and the chief proprietor, were of a truly 



Bibliography of Printing. 



303 




THOMAS CUKSON HANSARD, ^t. 48, a7i. 1824, Eldest SOU of Luke Hansard. 



304 



Bibliography of Printing. 



national conception. Besides the great 
Parliamentary Record which perpetuates 
his name, Mr. Hansard had the chief part 
in the projection and execution of such 
works as the "Collection of State Trials," 
edited by James Howell, afterwards Chief 
Justice of Gibraltar, and "The Parlia- 
mentary History of England," a vast and 
laborious compilation, to which Cobbett 
lent the popularity of his name, though 
he probably never saw more than the first 
title-page. It was, however, edited by 
Mr. John Wright, a man of varied reading 
and intense idleness ; so that the real 
labour fell upon Mr. Hansard, whose 
reading and business-like industry forced 
to completion a work which would other- 
wise have fallen still-born. It contains 
in 36 royal 8vo. double-column volumes a 
compilation of all that had been preserved 
relating to the business of the English 
Parliament, from the Conquest to 1803. 
This collection is now properly known 
a.«i " Hansard's Parliamentary His- 
tory." 

It was a natural consequence that so 
large-minded a man as Mr. Hansard, 
while he was thus preserving the records 
of past times, should perceive that the 
record of the current day was not only of 
more practical value and more easily to 
be obtained, but that it offered the 
honourable and continuous occupation of 
a life. The leading statesmen were con- 
sulted, and promised their support ; and 
thus in 1806 Mr. Hansard commenced 
that great work, " Hansard's Debates," 
which embodies the eloquence and wis- 
dom of the Imperial Parliament for 
more than three-quarters of a century. 
From the commencement, owing to the 
high personal character of the founder, 
and the Parliamentary repute of his 
family, the work took a high position. 
The experience of a long series of years 
confirmed this expectation. The integ- 
rity and value of these reports have 
never been questioned, and " Hansard," 
without any official authority, has, in the 
opinion of some of the most eminent states- 
men, superseded the necessity of official 
reports, although at various times indi- 
vidual members have unsuccessfully pro- 
posed an official record of the debates in 
the House. It is one of the anomalies 
of our institutions that Parliament should 
leave the record of its proceedings in 
private hands ; but thus some inconveni- 
ences are avoided which would attach to 
an official publication. The entire sub- 
ject of Parliamentary reporting is being, 
however, considered by a Special Com- 
mission while these sheets are passing 
through the press. " Hansard " has now 



attained to the prodigious bulk of 338 
massive volumes. 

In 1822 Mr. Hansard purchased the 
freehold of premises in Paternoster Row, 
which he pulled down, and erected on 
the site a printing - office, in which he 
realized in brick and mortar all that he 
had conceived of the ideal of such an 
establishment. It was undoubtedly the 
most compact office of small dimensions 
that had been to that time built. To this 
complete establishment he removed in 
1823 or 1824 — probably in the former 
year, as his name appears in the list of 
London printers in Johnson's " Typo- 
graphia." In the same list we find the 
names of L. Hansard carrying on business 
in Great Turnstile, Holborn, and L. Han- 
.sard, jun., in Parker's Lane, Drury Lane. 
Thomas conducted a considerable busi- 
ness with the publishing houses with 
which he was connected, as well as his 
own large work. The reputation of 
this establishment was so wide that 
Mr. Hansard was consulted by the 
Printing Syndicate of the L^niversity of 
Cambridge in remodelling their Press, 
and received from the University, in 
acknowledgment of his valuable advice, a 
noble silver inkstand, which is preserved 
as an heirloom in his family. In the annals 
of bibliography Mr. Hansard's reputation 
will rest on his work cited above, " Typo- 
graphia : an Historical Sketch of the 
Origin and Progress of the Art of Print- 

Mr. Hansard's mechanical abilities 
were considerable, and were assiduously 
applied to the improvement of his art. 
In his early days presswork was executed 
by the slow and laborious process of the 
hand-press, and that press of a very pri- 
mitive description ; at first sight, indeed, 
it is difficult to see what advance had 
been made in nearly four centuries upon 
the original press of Caxton. The first 
great improver of this machine was 
Charles, third Earl Stanhope, who de- 
vised the simple, powerful, and speedy 
press called after him, and which is still 
used by many printers. In perfecting 
this great improvement. Earl Stanhope 
availed himself of the practical and me- 
chanical ability of Mr. Hansard ; and his 
lordship's presence in Peterborough Court 
was for long of daily occurrence. Mr. 
Hansard took out a patent, by which 
the effective speed and accuracy of 
the hand-press would have been greatly 
increased, and devised other improve- 
ments, by which the ancient operations 
of the printing-office would have been 
much facilitated. But the introduction 
of the cylinder machine superseded all 



Bibliography of Frifiting. 305 

these ingenuities, and the hand-press was age, had already become manifest, and 
thrown back upon its original position — a he declined the honour, 
machine in which the eye and hand direct This excellent man died in Chatham 
the efforts of the instrument. The dis- Place, on the 14th May, 1833, at the age 
appointment arising from these failures of 57 years. He had been twice mar- 
in no way affected Mr. Hansard's appre- ried, and left several children, one of 
ciation of the new system. He was one whom is referred to infra. 
of the first to adopt the cylinder machine A memoir of T C. Hansard appeared 
into his establishment, and he studied and in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ciii. 
adopted all improvements in every branch I. p. 569, which was copied verbatim into 
of printing. xhe Annnal Register oi iZ^Z- We may 
On the death of Mr. Crowder, Alder- state, however, that wherever the facts 
man of CastleBaynardWard, Mr. Hansard there cited are opposed to the preceding 
was offered (privately) the vacant alder- sketch (compiled from original sources), 
manic gown ; but the organic disease, they must not be regarded as trust- 
which resulted in his death at an early worthy. 

[Hansard (Thomas Curson)]. Treatises on Printing and Typefounding, 
by T. C. H. From the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. Edinburgh : 1841. 8vo. pp. vii., 235. 2 plates of 
facsimiles, and i plate of a printing-machine. 

Although generally supposed to have " Hansard " of the present day, we are 

been written by the author of "Typo- indebted for the loan of the portrait of his 

graphia," the writer of this book is really father in the preceding biography, and for 

Mr. Thomas Curson Hansard, his eldest several of the very interesting engravings, 

son, barrister-at-law, of the Temple. To from his father's admirable work, which 

the courtesy of this gentleman, who is the will be found in these pages. 

The Art of Printing : its History and Practice from the days 

of John Gutenberg. Edinburgh: 1851. Svo, 

~ The Art of Printing and Caxton. London : 1855. i8mo. 

The History of the Art of Printing. Edinburgh : 1840. Svo. 

[Hanschen]. Exempla literarum Georgii Hanschenii, de typographis 

regiae et equestris academiae Soronas, honori perillustris et magnifici 

herois dn. Georgii Rosenkranstzii de Anno 1655. 4to. pp. 55. 

Jorgen Hanzsch printed at Soroe, Malmoe, Lund, and after 1666 at Stockholm, 

where he died in 1668. 

Harless (Christian Friedrich), Die Literatur der ersten hundert 
Jahre nach der Erfindung der Typographic, in den meisten 
Hauptfachern der Wissenschaften. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
dieser Wissenschaften im Mittelhalter und seinem Uebergange 
zur neuern Zeit . Leipzig: 1840. 8vo, pp.288. 

Harm ANN (Joh.). Ehren-gedichte auf die edle freye Kunst-Buch- 
druckerey, dehren Ursprung, Fortgang, und Nutzbarkeit. Frank- 
furt : 1739. 8vo. 

Harmsen. Letterproef van Harmsen en Cie. Amsterdam: 1804. 8vo. 

Harpel (Oscar H.). A Franklin Memento. Cincinnati: 1877. 

A four-page circular letter from the printer, also some illustrations, and a 
office of Harpel & Skillman, Cincinnati, facsimile copy of Franklin's celebrated 
which gives a number of interesting facts letter to Strahan, the printer and member 
and incidents in the life of the great of Parliament, in 1777. 

2 R 



3o6 Bibliography of Print iug. 

IIarpel (Oscar H.)- Poets and Poetry of Printerdom ; a collection 
of Original and Selected Fugitive Effusions, written by persons 
connected with Printing. Cincinnati : 1 875. 8vo. 
A collection of poems, lyrias, ballads, selected compositions, besides portraits, 
songs, &c., emanating from persons at autographs, biographical sketches, fac- 
present or formerly engaged in printing similes of MSS., engravings, and typo- 
or journalism, or in some manner con- graphical embellishments. The typo- 
nected directly therewith. A number of graphy is very ingenious, and the press- 
quaintly amusing effusions have been work is admirable ; but the printing is 
brought together, the production of a not in a style that will please a severe 
large number of authors, with about three classical taste. The author is a man of 
hundred of their now first-published or endless typographical resources. 

Typograph, or Book of Specimens, containing useful informa- 



tion, suggestions, and a collection of examples of letterpress job- 
printing, arranged for the assistance of master printers, amateurs, 
apprentices, and others. Cincinnati : 1870. Royal 8vo. pp. 252, 
addenda^ pp. 14. 
The practical part of the work is printed within coloured borders, each page pre- 
senting a different design and colour. The pages of specimens include every style, 
and there are 24 illustrations printed separately. 

Harper Typographical Establishment at New York, The. London : 

1855. 8vo. 
Harrild & Sons' Illustrated Catalogue of Superior Machinery and 

materials for letterpress, lithographic, and copperplate printers, 

bookbinders, and stationers. " Fleet " Works, Farringdon Street. 

4to. [n. d.] 

New and Revised Illustrated Catalogue for 1877. 8vo. 

The firm of Harrild & Sons was estab- The vast business of this firm is now 
lished in 1809 by the late Mr. Robert carried on by his surviving son and 
Harrild, who was the first to manufacture grandsons, with Mr. Samuel Bremner, 
composition balls and rollers for the trade the able inventor of several printing- 
in the year 1810 (see Franklin, ante), machines, as general manager. 

Harrison & Sons. A List of Egyptian Hieroglyphics. [London : 
1877.] 4to. pp. 12. 

This contains no less than 1,009 different cially by continental typefounders, for 
examples of Egyptian hieroglyphics, or the reproduction of the most rude and 
picture writings, consisting of figures of remote systems of writing, 
animals, plants, and other material The firm by whom the above list is 
objects as employed by the Egypti- issued is that of Messrs. Harrison & 
ans in representing words and phrases. Sons, of St. Martin's Lane, printers in 
As is well known, the scholarly hiero- ordinary to Her Majesty. It was 
glyphics of this ancient people were founded by Thomas Harrison, who, in 
used as a common language among 1733, was apprenticed to the confidential 
priests, the figure being selected to e.\- Government Printer, Mr. Owen, of 
press the first vocal sound in the name of Warwick Lane, afterwards printer of the 
the object represented. Besides these, London Gazette. At that time, how- 
there were the hieratic, a shorthand form ever, printing of a confidential nature was 
of the hieroglyphic, and the demotic, a done at the Home Office. Thomas 
simplification of the hieroglyphic, suited Harrison afterwards entered into partner- 
to the requirements of the people. The ship with Mr. Owen, the firm being styled 
specimens in the above work are all cast, Owen & Harrison. From 1783, on the 
and the figures are in outline. The book death of Owen, Thomas Harrison carried 
shows how the modern art of engraving on the business alone. In 1788, the print- 
and typefounding has been utilized, espe- ing of the London Gazette was transferred 



Bibliography of Piinting. 307 

to the King's Printer, and the nephew of ing on business as " Harrison & Co." The 

the founder, James Harrison, was ap- partnership was dissolved in 1847, and 

pointed Government confidential printer, Mr. T. R. Harrison then carried on the 

in which office he was succeeded by his business alone and in his own name, 

son and grandson. The " confidential " Subsequently his sons were joined with 

printing-office was transferred to the him, and the firm became successively 

Foreign Office. Mr. James Harrison left Harrison & Son and Harrison & Sons, 

the City, and, until the place was pulled under which latter title it is still carried 

down, carried on his private business at on by his two sons, Thomas and James, 

Lancaster Court, Charing Cross, first by Mr. J". R. Harrison having died in April, 

himself as "James Harrison," and then in 1869. For more than 30 years the firm 

partnership with his son Thomas Richard has again printed the London Gazette. 
Harrison, under the style of J. Harrison Mr. James Harrison's maternal uncle 

& Son. Thefirm then removed to Orchard was Mr. Say, the proprietor, editor, and 

Street, Westminster. Mr. James Harri- printer of the celebrated Cra/tstnan, or 

son retired in 1838, and Mr. T. R. Harri- Say's Weekly jfournal, a copy of which 

son entered into partnership with Mr. issued in 1789, was exhibited at the 

J. W. Parker, publisher, of the Strand, Caxton Celebration, 
and removed to St. Martin's Lane, carry- 

Hart (Francis) & Co. Specimens of Old Style Type in the Printing 

Office of Francis Hart & Co., 63 & 65, Murray Street, corner 

of College Place, New York. September, 1877. 8vo. pp. vi., 64. 

Impression? of a series of a compara- " Etudes pratiques ct litteraires sur la 

tively late cut of Old Style Types cast by Typographic " ; and miscellaneous matter 

the firm of Bruce & Co. The specimens from other little-known authors, selected 

are set solid, single, double, and treble by Mr. Theodore L. De Vinne, surviving 

leaded, and the matter comprises lengthy partner in the firm of Francis Hart & 

and very interesting extracts from Mox- Co., and author of several valuable 

on's " Mechanick Exercises" ; Crapelet's works on printing. — See De Vinne. 

Hartenbach. See Ritschl vonPIartenbach. 

Hartung (C. J.). Epreuve des Caracteres de la Fonderie de C. J. 
Hartung. Anvers : 1821. Folio. 

PIartzheimQ.). Vitse Pictorum, Chalcographorum, etTypographorum 
celebrium nostratium, [In " Bibliotheca Coloniensis." Col. Aug. 
Agripp. : 1747. Folio.] 

IIasler (M.). Die durch die Buchdruckerkunst bliihende Religion 
und Gelehrsamkeit. Htlmstadt : 1757. 4to. 

PIasper (Wilhelm). Galvanoplastik. Griindliche Anleitung fiir Buch- 
drucker, Schriftgieszer, Kupferstecher und Holzschneider, auf die 
einfachste und billigste Art Typen und Kupferplaten darzustellen. 
Carlsruhe : 1855. ^^o* PP- ^^^^- 5^* 

Handbuch der Buchdruckerkunst, Nach eigener Erfahrung 

und unter Zuziehung der Werke von Brun, Fournier, Hansard, 
Johnson, Savage, Bodoui und Taubel. Carlsruhe : 1835. ^v^- 
pp. viii., 362. 

Kurzes practisches Plandbuch der Buchdruckerkunst in Frank- 

reich. Carlsruhe : 1828. 8vo. 

Wilhelm Hasper, the author, was a Court Printer, and died at Carlsruhe in 1871, 
aged 75. His work has been for a long time, besides the so-called Andreasche 
Handbuch, the best German book on printing. 

See Brun. 



3o8 Bibliography of Printing. 

Hasse (F. C. a.). Oratio. Typographioe Lipsiensis, imprimis s^eculi 
decimi quarti, historise brevis adumbratio. Acced. tab. typorum 
Orient. Fr. Nies. [Lipsige : 1840.] 4to. pp. 56, with five 
plates, four of them being facsimiles of blockbooks. 

Kurze Geschichte der Leipziger Buchdruckerkunst im Ver- 

laufe ihres vierten Jahrhunderts. Einladungsschrift der Universi- 
tat Leipzig zu der bei der vierten Sacularfeier der Buchdrucker- 
kunst von ihr veranstalteten Feierlichkeit. Aus dem Lateinischen 
iibersetzt. Nebst einigen xylographischen Beilagen. Leipzig; 
1840. 8vo. 2 plates, pp. iv. 73. 
A translation into German of the preceding article. 

IIassler (Konrad Dietierich). Ulm's Buchdruckerkunst mit mehreren 
artistischen Beilagen. [Second title.] Die Buchdrucker-Geschichte 
Ulms. Zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunst. Mit neuen Beilragen zur Culturgeschichte, dem Facsimile 
eines der altesten Drucke und artistischen Beilagen, besonders zur 
Geschichte der Holzschneidekunst. Ulm : 1840. 4to. 3 pre- 
liminary leaves, pp. 155, 18, and 8 plates of facsimiles. 

Explicatio Monument! Typographici antiquissimi nuper reperti. 

Accedunt supplementa nonnulla ad auctoris historiam Typographiae 
Ulmanoe. Ulmce: 1840. 4to. pp. 9, with i facsimile plate. 

Ueber den geschichtlichen Gang der altesten Holzschneide- 



kunst insbesondere in Schvvaben und iiber Niellen. Vortrag. [In 
*' Verhandlungen des Vereins f. Kunst u. Alterthum, etc.," 
I. Bericht.] Ulm : 1843. 8vo. Plate. 

Haton (Martial). A Guttenberg et a la fraternite (vers). Lagny: 
1873. A quarto broadside in 2 columns. 

Hatton (Joseph). Printing and Bookbinding. [In British Manu- 
facturing Industries, edited by Phillips Bevan.] London : 1876. 
i6mo. Second edition. London : 1877. 

A paper contributed to one of a series apparently unimportant, yet most signi- 
of volumes intended, as the preface states, ficant and fruitful improvements that have 
" to bring into one focus the leading occurred from time to time in the Arts of 
features and present position of the most Printing and Bookbinding are either 
important industries of the kingdom, so ignored or misconceived. In several 
as to enable the general reader to com- cases where some kind of technical de- 
prehend the enormous development that scription was necessary, recourse has 
has taken place within the last twenty or been had to the ever-accommodating 
thirty years." The more ostentatious and encyclopedias, and descriptions of ma- 
obvious changes that have taken place chinery have been taken from them. The 
receive some attention ; but the gradual, new edition is improved in some respects. 

Hatton (Thomas). The Compositor's Guide to the use of Greek 
Accents without learning the language. London: 1849. 8vo. 
pp. 19. 

This is a very useful little pamphlet, which might be easily and rapidly mastered 
by any ordinary compositor, who would find an ample reward for his trouble in the 
cleanness of his proofs and the rapidity of his work. 



Bibliography of Printing. 309 

Hauffs (H.). Holzschnitt als typographisches Schmuck. [In his 
"Skizzen aus dem Leben der Natur," Vol. II. iv.] Stuttgart: 
1840. 

Hauschild (J. G.). Gutenbergs Festtanze : Gutenberg, schottischer 
Walzer, op. 61 ; Fust, Gallopp, op. 62. Leipzig: 1840. 

Hausius (Karl Gottlob). Biographie HeiTn Joh. Gottlob Immanuel 
Breitkopf's. Ein Geschenk fiir seine Freunde. Leipzig : 1794. 
8vo. 2 leaves and pp. 63. Portrait in title. 

Hausrath (A.). Rede am vierten Sakularfeste der Erfindung der 
Buchdruckerkunst am 24. Juni 1840, vor einem Festzuge in der 
grossen Stadtkirche zu Karlsruhe gehalten. Karlsruhe : (1840). 
8vo. 

Hawes (Stephen). Bibliography ; or, the History of the Origin and 
Progress of Printing and Bookmaking, embracing the various sub- 
stitutes for Printed Literature, the Invention of Type, Paper, 
and Printing. Newspaper and Book Publishing in all their varie- 
ties ; rare old Books and Manuscripts ; the Discovery and Progress 
of Engraving, Lithography, Photography, Photo-Engraving, Print- 
ing in Colours, and a general review of the Literature of the day. 
New York: 1874. 8vo. 

Hazeu (Johannes). Gedenk-zuil, ter eere van Laurens Janszoon 
Koster, uitvinder der onwaardeerbare Boekdrukkunst, bij de 
viering van het Vierde Eeuwfeest, te Haarlem. Amsterdam : 
1824. 8vo. pp. 16. In verse. 

Head (W. Wilfred). The Victoria Press : its History and Vindication. 
London : 1869. 8vo. 
This contains the history of a printing- tacks from various quarters. In spite of 
office established for the employment of this vindication, however, the author has 
girls and women, called the Victoria discontinued the employment of women 
Press, and defends its system from at- as printers. — See Faithfull, Emily. 

Hecquet, pere, ouvrier typographe (Charles). Les salaires et les 
greves. Conference faite au Cercles des Travailleurs de Nancy le 
30 Avril, 1877. Nancy. 8vo. pp. 16. 

HfiDOW (Jules). La Lithographic a Rouen. Rouen : 1877. 8vo. 
pp. 88, with etched portrait. 
100 copies printed on Dutch paper, and 20 on Whatman paper. 

Heidelberg. Zum Gedachtniss der vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung 
der Buchdruckerkunst zu Heidelberg am 24. Junius, 1840. 
Heidelberg : 1840. 8vo. 

Heinecken (Karl Heinrich, Baron von). Dictionnaire des Artistes 

dont nous avons des estampes, avec une notice detaillee de leurs 

ouvrages gravees. Vols. i. to iv. Leipzig: 1778-1780. 8vo. 

The publication of this dictionary was, by the death of the author, arrested at the 

fourth volume, which extended to Diz. The original manuscript is in the Library 

of Dresden. 














^^ Cvn rUJlV^ v\/^ ^<i cit? 



"^cchvASf 1ct,gn^ut9 



1 



an tut arts VwJ^ &0i ge(cl;o 



/t5 am frJu-^ 5€v fWjhaattv\)|<^ 



tio^^ fietgclH^tfSK^ ^^ia- W vUa^ (^ tnovt!^ ber luetic 
\^v(h et 6ilt cde <^t 0^ ^<2n . ^ 






REDUCED FACSIMILE FROM A GERMAN EDITION OF THE " BIBLIA I'AUl'ERUM."— FrOHl HeINECKEN. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



31 



Heinecken (Karl Heinrich, Baron von). Idee generale d'une 
Collection complette d'Estampes, avec une dissertation sur 
rOrigine de la Gravure, et sur les premiers livres d'images. 
Leipsic et Vienne : 1771. 8vo. 

letters. The engraver of the figures has 



We reproduce seven most interesting 
facsimiles from Baron Heinecken's work. 
The first (p. 310) is a page (reduced) 
from the most famous of all the block- 
books, the " Biblia Pauperum." It was 
so called to distinguish it from the Bible 

proper, which, being then made in two ("Invention of Printing") 
or more stout volumes of fine vellum, most block-books, the Bible 
could be the book only of the rich : this, 
a synopsis or epitome of the sacred 



produced the clear firm lines that can be 
cut only by an expert. The letters are 
wretchedly done, and show that the cutter 
was quite inexperienced in that kind of 
work. Mr. De Vinne well points out 
that, unlike 
e of the Poor 
was designed with architectural sym- 
metry. 



writings in the shape of forty or fifty "The Apocalypse of St. John," from 
pages of engravings, was justly considered which the illustration on p. 312 is taken. 



a Bible for the poor, 

The author of the composition is un- 
known ; indeed it is conjectured, for 
plausible reasons, that the writer of the 
text was not the designer of the pictures. 
Probably the latter were done first, the 



was, as a block- book, almost as famous as 
the "Biblia Pauperum." It ran through 
at least six xylographic editions, some 
having fifty and others only forty-eight 
leaves, printed upon one side only of the 
leaf The book itself is not, as might be 



Bible of the Poor consisting only of expected, an epitome of the Revelation 

pictures, and the text was afterwards of St. John ; it is simply a collection of 

added. At any rate, there are incon- pictures, many of them almost ludicrous 

gruities and discrepancies between the in their incongruities and anachronisms, 

text and the illustrations, leading to the There is, however, a good deal of cha- 

belief that two minds were engaged. At racter in the faces, and considerable skill 

least six xylographic editions of the " Bib- manifested in the groupings. Maittaire 

says that this is the oldest of the block- 



lia Pauperum " are known ; some having 
a Latin, others a German text. Three 
of them were printed in Germany after 
the invention of typography. 

There are marked features of similarity 
in ail the editions. The page is divided 
into a certain number of panels, three of 
which in the middle represent scenes 
taken from the Bible. Of these the 
centre is the "type," and generally con- 
sists of a subject from the New Testa- 
ment. The two at the sides are from the 
Old Testament, and are the " antitypes." 
The text explaining the pictures is con- 
tained in the corners. 



books. It is from the roughness of the 
woodcuts, the character of the costumes, 
and other peculiarities, that Maittaire 
and several authorities speak of this as 
the first work issued in the form of a 
volume. Each page has two illustrations 
with explanatory legends. Some of these 
represent the vision of St. John ; but the 
artist has altogether disregarded the 
times and places of the matters intro- 
duced. The architecture is that of Ger- 
many in the fourteenth or fifteenth cen- 
tury. The costumes are very incongruous ; 
the men wear breeches and coats, conical. 



is taken from flat-topped, and broad-brimmed hats ; the 
[470, at Nord- soldiers are in chain or in plate armour. 



The illustration given 
an edition published in 

lingen, by Waltherand Hurning. Walther with the helmets and battleaxes of the 

and Hurning were probably printers of Middle Ages. Many of the illustrations 

playing-cards, who tried to compete with represent events in the life of the Apostle 

the typographers that were then springing which are not to be found at all in the 

up in every important city of Europe. The Holy Scriptures. 

panel in the centre represents the Annun- The block as given here is a reduction 

ciation ; on the left is the Temptation of of the first page of one of the editions of 

Eve; on the right Gideon with the the book, and the subject appears to 

Fleece. The busts at the top are those be founded on a fabulous life of St. 

of Isaiah and David : underneath are John, supposed to have been written by 

those of Hezekiah and Jeremiah. Abdias, Bishop of Babylon. In the 

The edition generally accepted as the upper compartment St. John is repre- 

first shows that the designers and en- sented as preaching to a magnate, whose 

gravers had more skill (no doubt derived robe or mantle is held by two attendants, 

from larger practice) in the making of Drusiana stands behind them. The 

pictures or figures than in the making of legend is : — " Conversi ab idolis per pre- 



/^eiCuhv^lismvifiicAtmre bixlohamug D^ufimtft i ccft 




^typljauf^lBpliranF] | aJitote y^b^p^tozfttes (cltl. 




THE " Al'OCAI.YI'SlS S. JOII AN NIS."— REDUCKD FACSIMILE. — FrOIIl HeINECKEN. 




CANTICUM CANTICORUM."— REDUCED FACSIMILE. —From HeINKCKKN. 

2 S 



314 



Bibliography of Printing 



dicacionem beati Johannis Drusiana et 
ceteri" — Drusiana and others, turned 
from idols by the preaching of St. 
John. In the lower compartment, 
Drusiana, who was a married lady of 
Ephesus, and one of the many converts 
of St. John, is being baptized by him in 
the Christian temple of Ephesus. The 
figure of the lady is discreetly diminished 
to suit the size and shape of the baptismal 
font. The si.\ armed men at the door are 
trying to break in to witness the ceremony; 
one " peeping Tom " is trying to get 
a glimpse through an aperture at the top, 
and another through a hole at the bottom. 
The text at the top describes the picture. 
" Sts. Johannes baptisans Drusiana. 
Cultores ydolorum explorantes facta 
ejus" — (St. John baptizing Drusiana. 
The worshippers of idols watching his 
proceedings). 

Our illustration on p. 313 is a page from 
the " Canticum Canticorum, " a block-book 
of 16 pp. small folio. The original is 
printed in brown ink, on one side of the 
sheet. There are two illustrations on 
each page, and the two printed pages 
face each other. The explanations of the 
designs are in Latin, and engraved in 
scrolls surrounding the figures. Accord- 
ing to some bibliographers, there were 
three distinct editions of this book, which 
is variously described as the Historia 
Beatae Mariae Virginis, or the Prefigura- 
tion of the Virgin Mary, from the Song 
of Songs. The lettermg on the block 
annexed is : — 

" Osculetur me osculo oris sui ; quia 
meliora sunt ubera tua vino " 

(Let him kiss me with the kiss of his 
mouth ; for thy love is better than 
wine). 

" Veni in hortum meum, soror mea spon- 
sa ; me.ssui myrrham meam, cum 
aromatibus meis " 

(I am come into my garden, my sister, 
my spouse ; I have gathered my 
myrrh with my spice). 

" Caput tuumut Carmelus ; collum tuum 
sicut turris eburnea " 

(Thine head is like Carmel ; thy neck is 
like a tower of ivory). 

" Nigra sum, sed formosa, filiae Jerusa- 
lem, sicut tabernacula Cedar, sicut 
pelles Solomonis" 

(I am black but comely, O ye daughters 
of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, 
as the curtains of Solomon). 

In the upper compartments are persons 
in monastic habits cutting and threshing 
grain : one is pounding it in a mortar, 
and another grinding it in a hand-mill. 



In the little open house behind the monk 
with the pestle is a desk with two books. 
In this combination of agricultural work 
with the emblem of study, Harzen believes 
there is an illustration of the daily work 
of the Brothers of Common Life, to whom 
he attributes the engraving and printing 
of the book. The bride of the Song of 
Solomon wanders about the streets of a 
C'ty supposed to be Jerusalem, but the 
dwellings have high-peaked roofs, Dutch 
gables, and overhanging upper stories. 

The engraved letters of this book are 
much more legible than those of the 
Apocalypse, or the " Biblia Pauperum." 
The printing was done in the Nether- 
lands, in the second or third quarter of 
the fifteenth century. 

There were at least four distinct edi- 
tions of the " Story of the Blessed Vir- 
gin," from which page 315 of facsimiles 
IS taken. The designs have no artistic 
merit, and are evidently the work of 
a novice ; the letters are legible, but 
very uncouth. The edition from which 
the annexed block is taken was roughly 
printed on one side of the paper, but in a 
very black ink. Other and earlier edi- 
tions, differing both in the size of the 
blocks and the positions of the figures, 
are in the usual rusty brown ink. 

The object of the book is to show the 
reasonableness of the Incarnation, and 
to defend the Roman Catholic dogma of 
the Immaculate Conception : arguments 
in support of it being deduced from an- 
cient mythology, as well as from the 
Bible and the writings of the Fathers. 
The first tablet represents the Temple of 
Venus, with a man gazing at a lamp. 
The translation of the text underneath 
is:— "If the light at the Temple of 
Venus cannot be extinguished, why 
should not the Virgin generate without 
the seed of Venus ? " — Augustine, De 
Civitate Dei, xxi. 7. The next tablet 
represents a man gazing at the water, 
which reflects the moon. The legend is : 
— " If Seleuceus in Persia finds [re- 
flected] light from the moon, why should 
not the Virgin, pregnant by a beautiful 
star, generate?" — Augustine. De Civi- 
tate Dei, XX. 6. Another picture repre- 
sents two men and a statue. The word- 
ing is ; — " If a human being can be 
changed into stone, why, by Divine 
power, should not the Virgin generate ? " 
— Albertus de Minoralium, i. The last 
of the four pictures represents two men 
sawing a block of stone, on which are 
the images of two heads. The wording 
is :— " If man can be painted on stone by 
the power of heaven, why should not the 
Virgin generate by the assistance of the 




Silmttcn'pbanivenendnullua cr Sdeucuatttpentd^luocmlimefi ba 
(emincvirgo non gcncrarct.au^ug^ rKrarct4a^cuftiD^p:.0c,c^^itarc ^ei', 




Sib^mo vttiaturcmfamtertiva^ tbomoriinbpidevicetjpmflt iwfef- 

mrarctMcmepmo mirmaW yct.aibcrtua^.minoJrttjfumtractani 
«minfme» ij.capi'mlo piimo. 

" STORY OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN,"— REDUCED FACSIMILE. —From HeINECKEN. 



3i6 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Holy Spirit?" — Albertusde Minoralium, 
ii. chap. I. 

One edition of this work contains an 
imprint in sprawling and almost unread- 
able characters, which bibliographers in- 
terpret as the letters " F. W. 1470," pro- 
bably the initials of Frederick Walther, 
of Nordlingen. 

Another of our illustrations, that on p. 
317, is taken from a work which belongs to 
the class termed " Block-books of Images 
with text." In these xylographic pro- 
ductions the explanations of the pictures 
are given in the form of a full page of 
reading matter, generally printed on the 
prge opposite the picture. The title of 
the book itself is " Der Entkrist " ; or, the 
Antichrist. It seems to have been written 
to warn men against the snares of heresy. 
The text which explains the cuts is in 
the German language, and is very care- 
lessly written. 

The book describes how " Antichrist " 
was born in Babylon ; how he yielded 
himself to lust of woman at Bethsaida ; 
was circumcised ; announced himself as 
the Messiah, and was instructed in magic 
and all sorts of evil. Elias and Enoch 
came down from heaven to preach 
against him, but by superior eloquence 
he deceived the world, performed 
miracles, and converted all the kings of 
the world to his heresy, &c. Ultimately, 
the Almighty gave the order, " Michael, 
strike him dead : I will no longer bear 
with the unjust." He was then carried 
to hell, and received by the Devil and 
his allies. 

The upper picture shows how, in the 
words of the accompanying text, "Anti- 
christ is instructed by ade pts, who teach 
him to make gold, the art of magic, and 
all sorts of evil. And this takes place at 
the city named Corosaym. And this 
stands also written in the ' Compendium 
Theologise.' And Our Lord curses the 
said City in His Gospel, and says thus, 
'Woe to thee, Corosaym.'" 

Over the lower picture are the words : 
— " Here we see Antichrist goes from 
Capernaum to Jerusalem, and he there 
announces himself as Holy. And hereof 
is also written in the book ' Compendium 
Theologiae.' And Our Lord in the 
Gospel also curses this city, and speaks 
thus concerning it, 'Woe to thee, 
Capernaum.' " 

Two distinct editions of the "Anti- 
christ " are known. The copy from 
which our facsimile is taken has 38 
leaves, 26 of which are devoted to the 
Life of Antichrist, and 11 to a separate 
treatise known as the " Fifteen Signs," 
a kind of sequel. It is printed on one 



side of the paper, in brown ink, and the 
illustrations face each other. The im- 
print bears the name of " Junghsennis, 
prissmaler, Nuremberg, 1472." • 

Our illustration on p. 318 is from the 
"Ars Memorandi, notabilis per figuras 
evangelistarum." It is a thin folio of 
thirty pages, fifteen of which contain a 
text of very large clumsily-drawn letters 
within a rule - border ; the remaining 
fifteen pages have full-page illustrations. 
The edition from which our illustration 
is taken is printed in brown ink. 

The four evangelists are symbolized as 
usual, St. John by an Eagle, St. Matthew 
by an Angel, St. Luke by a Bull, St. Mark 
by a Lion. These are conventionally 
drawn, and surrounded by some of the 
objects frequently mentioned in the Gos- 
pels. The latter are numbered, with 
Arabic figures referring to explanations 
in the text. Thus in the facsimile the 
dove on the head of the symbolized St. 
John is the emblem of the Deity. The 
two heads beside the eagle are to be 
understood as those of Moses and of 
Christ. The musical instruments, a lute 
and three bells on the breast of the 
eagle, indicate the contents of the second 
chapter of St. John, the marriage at 
Cana. Ihe fish recalls the Pool of Beth- 
esda. The numeral 3 points to the con- 
versation with Nicodemus. The water- 
bucket and the crown refer to the wcman 
of Samaria at the well ; the five loaves 
and the two small fishes (in the upper 
right-hand corner) to the feeding of the 
multitude. The cross in the circle is the 
consecrated wafer of Holy Communion. 
The descriptive text is in Latin ; in 
another edition it is in Dutch, and gives 
a synopsis of the contents of the Gospel. 

The last of our series of facsimiles from 
Heinecken is taken from the celebrated 
" Speculum Salutis," or " Speculum 
Humana; Salvationis" (vidcj). 318), which 
was popular in manuscript form for at 
least two centuries before the invention of 
typography. Four of these written copies 
are preserved in the British Museum. 
The " Speculum" is very much like the 
" Biblia Pauperum" both in its object 
and contents, and some bibliographers 
have supposed that the two had a com- 
mon origin ; but there are substantial 
reasons for rejecting this view. 

This illustration is a full-sized facsimile 
of the upper part of the first page of 
pictures. In the compartment to the 
left may be seen the fall of Lucifer, as is 
stated in the words underneath. The 
rebellious angels having been transformed 
into devils, and by swords and spears 
thrust out of the battlements of heaven. 



mmKaBtamammmmgmmmmmmmm 

1 Oct ^nndtvvrt Ut^«J>>^^va.\ftcr;;^ieTOlanett ^\b nuxd^ti .Vxtb anbcr 

lyaubicpvnb pos Ufjti ^^n^^cxo Defcljuijtim hir^J^fatf, ^^mantt Cote faYWv 

Vnb bad ftct aucf) jefc^titen m Cotnpe\ii\o -Ctijeob^Te .^n^> Sywf^v Ivvr 

f tuv-t)^ ^ er|ctt>tn ytai] micl) in belli dratig-eUo j ^ er fV««^t) > yo ti b vv 




rtufjenenet fci l^ttiUfl^^Vn^ doudti |la^(»ucf>^e^mbenrr) ^ew) :fiut^ Com 




REDUCED FACSIMILE OF 



LE OF '"DEK ENTKRIST."— From HeINECKEN. 



3i8 



Bibliography of Printing. 




AKS MEMOKANDI." — REDUCED FACSIiMILE. — FrOlTl HeINECKEX. 



320 



Bibliography of Pniiting. 



are falling into the jaws of hell, which 
is here represented, in the conventional 
style of mediaeval designers, as the mouth 
of a hideous monster filled with forks of 
flame. In the next compartment is the 
Creation of Eve in the Garden of Eden. 
The designer has modified the biblical 
narrative. Eve is not formed from the 
rib of Adam, but is emerging from his 
side. At the bottom is the legend, in 
abbreviated Latin, God created man after 
His own image and likeness. The book 
was written for the instruction of the 
travelling Mendicant Friars, who had, 
since the thirteenth century, gradually 
monopolized preaching and the pastoral 
work of the settled clergy. The follow- 
ing is an extract from the preface : — " I 
presume that nothing is in this life more 
useful to a man than to acknowledge his 
Creator, his condition, his own being. 
Scholars may learn this from the Scrip- 
tures, and the laymen shall be taught by 
the books of the laymen —that is, by the 
pictures. " 

The "Speculum" was printed at 
various times and places during the 
fifteenth century, and on the peculiar 



appearance of some of the editions has 
been founded a portion of the theory of a 
Dutch invention of printing. The copies 
of greatest value are those which belong 
to four correlated editions, two in Latin 
and two in Dutch, all without date, name, 
or place of printer. In these four editions 
the illustrations are from the same blocks, 
but the letter-press in each edition ex- 
hibits some peculiarity in the shape or 
disposition of the letters ; thus, in spite of 
many appearances to the contrary, con- 
firming the fact of the use of movable 
types. The name of the printer is un- 
known ; but if it were, it would not in 
the least invalidate the claims of Guten- 
berg. The printer of the "Speculum" 
was evidently the predecessor of Veldener, 
and one of the earliest, if not the first typo- 
graphical printer in the Netherlands. Mr. 
De Vinne discusses very fully the works 
and workmanship of this unknown printer, 
and we would refer the reader to his 
work on the " Invention of Printing," 
from which, through the courtesy of the 
author, we derive the preceding curious 
illustrations. 



Heinecken (Karl Heinrich Baron von). Nachrichten von Kiinstlern 
unci Kunstsachen. Two parts. Leipzig : 1768-69. 8vo. Part I. 
pp. xxiv., 436, and index ; Part II. pp. xxxviii., 524, and index. 



In the second part, pp. 85-240 com- 
prise a dissertation on the earliest forms 
of wood-cutting as applied to the illus- 
tration of books ; pp. 222—237 describing 
the " Speculum Humanae Salvationis," 
with several facsimile woodcuts ; pp. 
241 — 314 account of the earliest Dutch 
writers on chalcography, by whom Koster 
is credited with the invention of print- 
ing. Heinecken conjectures that Guten- 
berg took the idea of printing from the 
playing-card makers, who are .said to 
have been the first engravers of historical 



subjects intermingled with texts. All his 
attempts to cut single letters at Stras- 
burg proved ineffectual, and brought 
ruin both upon himself and his partners, 
without producing a clean legible leaf. 
This failure induced him to quit Stras- 
burg, and return to his native city, where 
he joined Fust. Here their endeavours 
were crowned with complete success. 
Heinecken is of opinion that their first 
productions were taken from wooden 
blocks. 



— Schreiben an J. P. Krause iiber die Beurtheilungen der Nach- 
richten von Kiinstlern und Kunstsachen. Leipzig : 1771. Svo. 



The name of Baron Heinecken stands 
deservedly high among typographical an- 
tiquaries. He was born at Liibeck, in 1 706, 
and died at Alt-Doelern (Basse-Lusace), 

ianuary 23rd, 1791. He studied law at 
.eipzig, afterwards became secretary to 
Count Briihl, minister at the court of 
Saxony, and was entrusted with the ex- 
ecution of many important missions. He 
devoted the whole of his leisure time to 



the culture of the fine arts, and his col- 
lection of engravings was one of the 
finest to be found in Germany. He was 
the discoverer of the celebrated wood- 
blocks of St. Christopher and the Virgin 
now in the possession of Lord Spencer. A 
number of most interesting articles writ- 
ten by this author will be found in the 
" Leipziger Bibliothek der schoenen 
Wissenschaften." 



Bibliography of Printing. 



321 



Heinlein (Heinrich). Festgabe zur vierten Sacularfeier der Erfin- 
dung der Buchdruckerkunst. Eine Darstellung der Entstehung, 
Ausbreitung und Vervollkommnung der Typographic bis zur 
gegenwartigen Zeit. Leipzig : 1840. 8vo. Coloured plate. 




LEYDEN : 1483-1484. 



Heinricus (Heynrici). 

Henry, son of Henry, was the first 
printer of Leyden, where he was to be 
succeeded by so many eminent men — the 
Elzevirs, Moretus, Plantin, and Raphe- 
leng. His first book is supposed to 
have been printed in 1483. His device 
is Hke that of Hugo Janszoon van 
Woerden, who very likely was the im- 
mediate successor of Heinricus in Leyden ; 
the most striking difference being the in- 
version of the mscription " Holland in 
Leyden." The device of Heinricus consists 
of the lion rampant, holding in his claws 
two shields, one with the monogram I XX, 



the other the cross-keys of Leyden. 
Round his head on a scroll are the words 
" Holla jn leiden " i^sic). 

The only kind of types used by this 
printer are those which Veldener em- 
ployed during his stay in Louvain, from 
1476 to 1477. Heinricus did not exercise 
his art in 1483 and 1484. The number of 
his works was very limited, at least judg- 
ing from those that are now known. 
Among them was a re-issue of the 
"' Chronique de Holland," in Dutch, 
originally published by Leeu in 1478, and 
the " Epistles and Evangelists." 



Heinritz. Versuch einer Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst im 
vormaligen Fiirstenthume Bayreuth bis zur vierten Sacularfeier der 
Erfindung derselben. [In "Archiv fiir Geschichte und Alter- 
thumskunde von Oberfranken." Vol.1.] Bayreuth: 1841. 8vo. 

Heitz (J. C). Collection d'anciens Gravures sur bois provenant du 
fond de I'imprimerie Heitz. Blanche I. Strasbourg : (i860). 
9 large sheets. 
One hundred copies printed, but not for sale. 
2 T 



322 Bibliography of Printing. 

Helbig (H, ). Additions et Corrections aux Listes Chronologiques des 
anciennes Impressions de Mayence, avec date. Bruxelles : 1842. 
8vo. 

Une Decouverte pour I'Histoire de I'lmprimerie. Bruxelles : 

1855. 8vo. 

Contains : Les plus anciens caracteres de Gutenberg et ce qui est advenu. Albert 
Pfister, imprimeur a Bamberg. La Bible de 36 lignes. 

Notes et Dissertations relatives a I'Histoire de I'lmprimerie. 

Bruxelles: [1863]. Royal 8vo. pp.67. 

Notice bibliographique sur le premier livre imprime a Liege, 

par Morberius. Liege: 1847. Svo, 

Twenty-five copies only reprinted from the "Messager des Sciences Historiques 
et Archives des Arts de Belgique," 1847, pp. 243 — 248. 

• Notice sur les Descendants de Pierre SchoefTer qui exercerent 

I'lmprimerie a Bois-le-Duc, de pere en fils, depuis I'annee 1541 
jusqu'en 1796. Gand : 1846. 8vo. 
Twenty-five copies only reprinted from the " Messager des Sciences Historiques," 

1846, pp. 433 — 445, with vignettes and a genealogical table. 

Notice sur quelques Livres rares et curieux du XV^ Siecle. 



Gand: 1842. Svo. 



Notice sur quelques Livres rares et curieux des XVP et XVI I«" 

Siecles. Gand : 1841. 8vo. 

Of the above pamphlets but few copies were printed separately ; the matter 
originally appeared in the Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige and other periodicals. 

Heliotype. The Heliotype Process described and illustrated, with 
twelve specimens. London: 1872 (?). 4to. pp.16. 12 plates. 

Heliotypes are impressions printed with the roller and printers' ink, at an ordi- 
nary press, from photographs on portable films of bichromated gelatine, hardened 
with chrome alum. 

Heller (Joseph). Geschichte der Holzschneiderkunst von den altesten 

bis auf die neuesten Zeiten, nebst zwei Beilagen, enthaltend den 

Ursprung der Spielkarten und ein Verzeichniss der sammtlichen 

xylographischen Werke. Bamberg: 1823. 8vo. 

One of the best German works on xylography, with a history of the origin of 

playing-cards. It contains many wood-engravings, and is now very scarce. 

Leben Georg Erlinger's, Buchdruckers und Formschneiders zu 

Bamberg, nebst einer voUstandigen Aufzahlung und Beschreibung 
seiner sammtlichen gedruckten Schriften und Holzschnitte. Ein 
Beitrag zur Geschichte der Typographic, und als Erganzung der 
Werke von Panzer, Sprenger vmd Bartsch. Bamberg: 1837. 8vo. 
pp. 31- 

Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht DUrer's. Tome II. 



Bamberg; 1827. Svo. pp. viii. 945 and 2 plates. 
The first volume of this work was never published. A Supplement was issued in 
.331. 



Bibliography of Printing. 323 

Heller (Jos.). Monogrammen-Lexicon, enthaltend die bekannten, 
zweifelhaften und unbekannten Zeichen sowie die Abkiirzungen der 
Namen der Zeichner, Maler, Formenschneider, Kupferstecher, 
Lithographer!, mit kurzen Nachrichten Uber dieselben. Bamberg : 
1 83 1. 8vo. 
A dictionary of the monograms used by engravers and others, including those 

known, doubtful, and unknown. 

Praktisches Handbuch fiir Kupferstichsammler, oder Lexicon 

der vorziiglichsten und beliebtesten Kupferstecher, Formschneider, 
und Lythographen. 2 vols. Vol. I., Bamberg : 1823. i2mo. 

pp. viii. 231. Vol. II., Bamberg: 1825. i2mo. pp. iv. 202. 

Second edition, 3 vols. Leipzig: 1850. 8vo. pp.945. Portrait. 

A supplement to the first edition was issued with the following title : — 

Lexikon fiir Kupferstichsammler iiber die Monogrammisten, 

Xylographieen, Niello, Galleriewerke. Bamberg: 1838. i2mo. 
pp. vi. 226. 

Versuch liber das Leben und die Werke Lucas Cranach's. 



Bamberg: 1821. 8vo. pp. xvi. 532, with folding genealogy at 

page 36. Second edition augmented. Nlirnberg: 1854. 8vo. 

pp. vi. 315. Portrait, plates, and tables. 

Joseph Heli.er, a German writer, born cities and towns of Germany, Italy, and 

at Bamberg, on the 22nd of September, Switzerland. His productions are held 

1798, died in the same city, on the 4th of in great esteem by those engaged in the 

June, 1849. He visited the principal study of the fine arts. 

Heller (J. B.). Wohlgemeynte Gedancken iiber Fiihrung einer 
Buchdruckerey bey Feyerung des Dritten Jubel-Festes der Buch- 
drucker-Kunst. Erfurth: 1740. 8vo. pp. 14, 115. Emble* 
matical frontispiece. 

Helmschrott (Joseph Maria). Verzeichniss alter Druckdenkmale 
der Bibliothek des uralten Benedikiiner-Stifts zum H. Mang in 
Fiiessen ; mit litterarischen Anmerckungen. 2 parts. Ulm: 1790. 
4to. pp. xxviii. 236, 123. 

Henaux (Ferdinand). Recherches historiques sur 1' Introduction de 
rimprimerie dans le Pays de Liege. Liege: 1843. 8vo. 
First published in the " Messager des Sciences Historiques," 1843, pp. 9 — 39 ; a 
few copies were separately printed as above. 

Hennebert (Frederic). Sur les premieres Productions de la Presse 
a Tournai. Tournai : 1847. Svo. 
Reprinted from the "Bulletin de la Societe Historique et Litteraire de Tournai," 
1847, 8vo., pp. 45—50- 

Henning (Eduard). Erlebnisse des Buchdruckers P. Petersen wah- 

rend seines lojahrigen Aufenthalts in Afrika. Kiel: 185 1. 8vo. 

pp. 168. 
A well-written and amusing sketch. 
Henrici (Dr. G. ). Die Buchdruckerkunst nach ihrem Einflusse auf 

Wissenschaft, Religion, Gesittung und biirgerlichen Verkehr. 

Eine Rede. 3. sehr vermehrte und verbesserte Auflage, 

Braunschweig: 1849. Svo. pp. 47. 



324 



Bibliography of Frinfing. 



Henrici (Dr. G.). Ueber den Nutzen der Buchdruckerkunst. 
Hamburg : 1795. 8vo. 

Henrici (M.). Die Kupferstecherkunst und der Stahlstich. Leipzig : 
1834. Svo. 

Henricpetri. Librorum tabemae et officinae Henricpetrinae, per 
Henricum Petri et Sebastianum Henricpetri F. Editorum index. 
Basilae : 1579. Svo. pp. 46. 
A list of the Latin and German works from the press of Henricpetri, but not 

giving particulars of date, size, or price. 




BASLE : 1523-1578. 

Henricpetri (Heinrich Petri). 

Annexed is the device of this celebrated Swiss printer. It represents Thor's 
hammer, held by a hand issuing from the clouds, striking fire on the rock, while 
a head, symbolizing the wind, blows upon it. 

Henricy (Ant.). Notice sur I'Origine de I'Imprimerie en Provence. 
Aix: 1826. 8vo. pp. 43. 

Henry (J.). Dialogue entre une Presse mecanique et une Presse a 
bras, recueilli et raconte par une vieille Presse en Bois ; enrichi de 
notes. Paris : 1830. 8vo. 



Bibliography of Printing, 325 

Henze (Ad.). Handbuch der Schriftgiesserei und der verwandten 
Nebenzweige : Stereotypic, Abklatschen, Holzschneidekunst, 
erhaben geatzte Gravuren in Zink, Zinn, Schriftmetall, Kupfer- 
und Stahlstich, Hochlithographie, Relief- Copirmaschinen, Propor- 
tion der Buchstaben, etc. Weimar : 1844. 8vo. pp. 393. 
II plates. 
Though now somewhat out of date, it is still one of the best books on type- 
founding. 

Herberger (Theodor). Augsburg und seine friihere Industrie. 

Augsburg : 1852. 8vo. pp 72. 

Printing has from its earliest days been one of the principal industries of Augsburg, 

and the author includes an account of the trade, claiming that the first step towards 

the discovery of printing was made by Master Johannis, Pastor of St. Moritz, in 1407. 

Herbert (William). — See Ames. 

Herdingh. Proeve van Letteren welke gevonden worden ter Boek- 
drukkerye van Herdingh en du Mortier te Leyden. Leyden : 
1793. 8vo. Title, address, and 64 pages of types, with 14 of 
borders and cuts. 

Herman. Methode pour fonder les Caracteres de I'lmprimerie en 
formats solides. [In "Archives des decouvertes et des inven- 
tions," vol. xiv. ; and also in " Dictionnaire de decouvertes 
faites en France," vol. vii.] Paris : 1822. 

Hericourt (Comte Achmet d') et Caron. Recherches sur les 
Livres imprimes a Arras depuis I'origine de rimprimerie dans 
cette ville jusqu'a nos jours. 3 parts. Arras : 1851-53-55. 8vo. 

Hering (A.). Die Galvanoplastik und ihre Anwendung in der 
Buchdruckerkunst. Leipzig : 1870. 8vo. pp. 100. 

Anleitung zur Holzschneidekunst. Leipzig: 1873. 8vo. 

Heriott. Printing and Printers. Article in De Bow's Commercial, 

Review (New Orleans), vol. vi. p. 45. 
Herluison (Henri). Artistes Orleanais, peintres, graveurs, sculp- 

teurs, architectes. Liste, sous forme alphabetique, des person- 

nages nes pour la plupart dans la province de I'Orleanais ; suivie 

de documents inedits. Orleans: 1863. 8vo. 
115 copies printed. 

Recherches sur les Imprimeurs et Libraires d'Orleans. 

Recueil de documents pour servir a I'histoire de la Typographic 
et de la Librairic Orleanaise, depuis le 14*= Siecle jusqu'a nos 
jours. Orleans : 1868. 8vo. pp. ii. 158. 

Only 78 copies printed. 

The first printer at Orleans was M. Vivian, in 1490. The author is a bookseller 
of Orleans, where he was born in 1835. 

Hermann (Godof. ). Oratio in quartis festis secularibus Artis Typo- 
graphise. Lipsiae: 1840. 4to. pp. 10. 

Hermann (Gottfr.) Festrede zum Buchdruckcr-Jubilaum 1840. 
(Annexe N. 76, in: Kochlig, H., "Gottfr. Hermann zu seinem 
looj'ahrigen Geburtstage.") Heidelberg: 1874. 8vo. 



326 



Bibliography of Priiiting. 



Hervet (L. C). Ode a Laurens Koster, Inventeur de I'Art de 
rimprimerie a Haarlem en 1423. Amsterdam: 1823. pp.10. 

Hesse (L. A. C). Epreuves d'impression satinee. Amsterdam : 
1806. 4to. 

Hessels (Jan Hendrik). — See Linde (Dr. van der). 

Hessen (Willem). Parnas vreuchde over het derde eeuwjaar van de 
geboorte der drukkunst door Laurens Koster. Haarlem : 1731. 4to. 




arte." It is not, however, certain that 
John Hester had a press of his own. 
John Hester's device consists of a cross 
with the letters HESTER lOHN, 
in a single cipher, between two branches 
of laurel. On the ornamental border are 
the initials I H. 



Hester (John), londoi 

Dibdin and Ames mention Andrew 
Hester the bookseller, not printer, but no 
bibliographer refers to John Hester. The 
device annexed is found on a book en- 
titled " A briefe answere of losephus 
Quercetanus armenianus . . . . Ky John 
Hester, practicioner in the spagericall 

Heubner (Gustav). Das vereinigte Gutenbergs- und Turnfest der 
Stadt Plauen am 24. Juni 1840, beschrieben und nebst den 
dabei gehaltenen Reden und gesungenen Liedern lierausgegeben. 
Plauen : 1840. 8vo. pp. 28. 

Heymann. Predigt bei der Sacularfeier der Buchdruckerkunst am 
21. Juni 1840 in der Kreuzkirche zu Dresden gehalten. Zum 
Besten der Gutenberg-Stiftung. Dresden : 1840. 8vo. 

Heyse (Ludwig Wilhelm). Ihrem verehrten Principal bei Gelegenheit 
der vierten Sacularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst iiber- 
reicht von den sammtlichen Mitgliedern seiner Officin. Bremen : 
1840. Folio. 



Bibliography of Printing, 



327 



Hilar lA Typographica Erfordensia, das ist Historischer Bericht von 
der Jubel-Feyer, welche zum Andencken der vor dreyhundert 
Jahren erfundenen Buchdrucker-Kunst am 27. Junii MDCCXL. 
auf der uralten Universitat Erfurth begangen worden, nebst der bey 
solcher Gelegenheit abgehaltenen Academischen Rede und noch 
andern dahin gehorigen Schriften. Erfurth : 1740. 4to. 

HiLDEBRAND (J. C). Handbuch fiir Buchdrucker-Lehrlinge. Ent- 
haltend unentbehrliche Nachweisungen, Vorschriften, Berechnun- 
gen, niitzliche Winke, Geschichtliches der Kunst, auch Lebens- 
und Wanderregeln, nebst einem alphabetischen Verzeichnisse von 
719 Druckereien in 317 Stadten. Eisenach: 1835. 8vo. pp.220. 




ANTWERP : 1514-1536. 

HiLLENius (Michael). 

This printer is said by Panzer to have Antwerp an anti-Protestant work for Pep- 
been established in London in 1531, but well, who could find no printer in London 
this is an error. In 1531 he printed at with sufficient courage to undertake it. 



328 Bibliography of Printing. 

The device of Hlllenius consists of the in circle in the left. On either side the 
emblem of time standing on clouds, with word "Tem pus." 
a sickle in his right hand, a serpent coiled 

HiNDLEY (Charles). The Life and Times of James Catnach (late of 
Seven Dials). London : 1878. 8vo. pp. 4 (coloured illus- 
trations), xvi., and 432 ; with 230 woodcuts, 42 of them by 
Bewick. 750 copies printed. 

• In the characteristic language of the Lamentations,' or ' Copy of Affectionate 
prospectus, this book gives the " Full, Verses,' which, according to the esta- 
True, and Particular account of the Life, blished custom, the criminal composed 
Trial, Character, Confession, Condemna- in the condemned cell, the night before 
tion, and Behaviour, together with an his execution. Yes, my customers, in 
authentic copy of the last Will and this book you'll read how Jemmy Cat- 
Testament ; or, Dying Speech, of that nach made his fortune in Monmouth 
eccentric individual ' Old Jemmy Cat- Court, which is to this day in the Seven 
nach,' late of the Seven Dials, printer, Dials, which is in London. Not only 
publisher, toy-book manufacturer, dying- will you read how he did make his for- 
speech merchant, and ballad monger, tune, but also what he did and what he 
Here you may read how he was bred didn't do with it after he had made it. 
and born the son of a printer, in the an- You will also read how ' Old Jemmy ' 
cient borough of Alnwick, which is in set himself up as a fine gentleman, — 
Northumberlandshire. How he came to James Catnach, Esquire. And how he 
London to seek his fortune. How he didn't like it when he had done it. And 
obtained it by printing and publishing how he went back again to dear old 
children's books, the chronicling of Monmouth Court, which is in the Seven 
doubtful scandals, fabulous duels be- Dials aforesaid. And how he languished, 
tween ladies of fashion, 'cooked' assas- and languishing, did die — leaving all his 
sinations, and sudden deaths of eminent old mouldy coppers behind him— and 
individuals, apocryphal elopements, real how, being dead, he was buried in High- 
er catch-penny accounts of murders, gate Cemetery." Mr. Hindley, who 
impossible robberies, delusive suicides, was a bookseller, has edited and written 
dark deeds and public executions, to a number of works, including one entitled 
which was usually attached the all- "The Catnach Press," now become 
important and necessary ' Sorrowful scarce. 

HiNLOPEN (F. C). De uitvinding der Boekdrukkunst, eene orzaak 
van godverheerlyking. Een word, na het gevinde feest, uitge- 
sproken den 20 Julij 1856, des voorm, in de Janskerk te Haarlem. 
Haarlem : 1856. 8vo. 

HiRSCH (Carol. Christian). Librorum ab anno I. usque ad ann. L. 
Seculi XVI. typis expressorum ex litteraria quadam (Ebneriana), 
supellectile, Noiimbergae privatis sumptibus in communem usum 
collecta et observataMillenarii I. -IV. speciminis loco ad supplendos 
annalium typographicorum labores editi. Norimbergse : 1 746-49. 
4 parts. 4to. 
Dibdin speaks commendingly ("Bibliomania") of this supplement to the typo- 
graphical labours of his predecessors by Hirsch. 

HiRSCHFELD (J. B. ). Schriftproben der Buchdruckerei. Leipzig: 
1826. 4to. 

HiRZEL (Henri), i. et 2. Rapports sur I'lmprimerie en relief fondee 
a I'asile des aveugles de Lausanne. Du 30 Septembre, i860, au 
30 Septembre, 1861 ; du 30 Septembre, 1861, au 30 Septembre, 
1867. Lausanne : 1862 & 1868. Large 8vo. 

HiSTOiRE de I'lmprimerie. — See Caille. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



329 



HiSTOiRE de I'Invention de I'Imprimerie par les Monuments. Album 
typographique execute a Toccasion du Jubile Europeen de I'In- 
vention de I'Imprimerie. [By E. Duverger. ] Paris: 1840. Folio. 

Second edition, 4to. Title, 16 leaves, appendix, 15 pages of 

plates, table i page, and a page of the woodcuts to show that 
they had been broken and destroyed. Of the edition in quarto 
850 copies were printed. 150 copies were printed of the folio 
edition. 



This is a truly magnificent volume, and 
well deserving of the encomium passed 
upon it by the Bulletin du Bibliophile : — • 
"Among all the fine works which typo- 
graphy has produced in this century of 
progress, there is not one more remark- 
able than this. The work is itself an ad- 
mirable monument of the invention of 
Gutenberg, and the four hundredth anni- 
versary of that great discovery has been 
worthily signalized by this great achieve- 
ment. It is not only a history of that 
event, but a panorama of it, addressed to 
the eyes, a history which enables us to 
see and touch what it records." As the 
folio edition is little known in this country, 
owing to its great scarcity and high value 
(so few copies having been printed), the 
following synopsis of its contents may be 
useful for purposes of reference. 

The title is illustrated with a view of 
the Stanhope Press, as modified by one of 
the Didots. Then follows an exquisite 
dedication in French script type, hardly 
distinguishable from copperplate engrav- 
ing, with elaborate scrolls and flourishes 
in rule-work ; then comes a miniature of 
Gutenberg in colour-printing, a reproduc- 
tion of a cameo in the Bibliotheque 
Royale. The names of printers, ink- 
makers, and engravers are all properly 
specified. The preface is bordered with 
a design engraved by Porret for La Fon- 
taine's "Life of .^sop." As an introduc- 
tion, there are given a specimen of an 
engraving from a block-book, pictures of 



old coinage, that art having suggested 
the idea of matrices and cast-metal types; 
the moulds employed by the Romans for 
the coinage of money as an illustration of 
the origin of the mould of the type- 
founders ; and of the domestic press, 
which suggested the idea of the printing- 
press. The legend of the discovery is 
illustrated with appropriate vignettes of 
Gutenberg making his types, and thank- 
ing God for having succeeded, his de- 
parture from Strasburg, his introduction to 
Fust, his partnership, and his office, where- 
in is represented his death, indicated by 
the setting sun and the medicine-bottles, 
an angel laying on his head the wreath of 
immortality. Then we have a facsimile 
page of Gutenberg's Bible printed on vel- 
lum, and so reproduced as almost to coun- 
terfeit the original. In the margin of a 
sheet preceding are references showing 
the condition of the types and their pecu- 
liarities. Then there are two pages con- 
taining representations of early type- 
founding apparatus ; further engravings 
of Gutenberg's Bible ; design for a statue 
to Gutenberg ; and some chapters written 
in a popular manner, entitled " How Print- 
ing was Invented." Of special interest 
is the engraving of a type-mould in 
copper (made by Garamond), then owned 
by Duverger. On rough sheets at the end, 
impressions of the woodcuts are given, to 
show that they have been destroyed after 
printing off the edition. 



HiSTOiRE de I'Origine et des premiers Progres de I'Imprimerie. 
Marchand. 



See 



HiSTORiscH Spelder Boekdrulckunst, opgedragen aan de Nederlandsche 
Jeugd. Amsterdam: [1823]. i2mo. pp. 13. 
Short historical sketch of Printing for the use of schools, with questions thereon. 



History and Art of Ingraving. 1747. i2mo. 

History of the Art of Printing. Published by Noyes Holmes & Co. 
New York : 1872. 
A gift-book for juveniles. 

2 U 



330 Bibliography of Prijiting. 

History of the Ballantyne Press and its Connection with Sir Walter 
Scott, Bart. Edinburgh and London : 1871. 4to. pp. 27. 

Scott and Ballantyne were in 1783 boys lishers that whatever he wrote or edited 

of about the same age, at the Grammar should be printed at the Ballantyne Press. 

School of Kelso. In 1796, James Ballan- The "History of the Ballantyne Press" 

tyne established himself at Kelso, where gives an account of the various editions 

he edited and printed the iT/rtz7 newspaper, of all Sir Walter's works, the amount he 

to which Scott contributed. At Scott's received for them, and many other items 

instigation, after having created for him- of information. It was issued on the oc- 

self a reputation as a fine printer, Ballan- casion of the celebration of the Centenary 

tyne removed to Edinburgh, where he of Sir Walter Scott, and each page is 

added to the fame of his press. In 1805, adorned with portraits and pictures of 

finding his capital inadequate to his busi- scenery relating to his works. As a speci- 

ness, Ballantyne applied to Scott for men of elegant typography, it leaves 

assistance, and Scott assented, on con- nothing to be desired, and proves that 

dition of his becoming a partner. This whatever vicissitudes the Press may have 

arrangement was effected, although it was experienced, it still may claim to be 

of course kept strictly private, Scott on worthy of the fame first achieved for it 

his part always stipulating with his pub- by James Ballantyne. 

History (a concise) of the Origin and Progress of Printing. — See 
LUCKOMBE (P.). 

History of Printing (The). Published under the direction of the 
Committee of General Literature and Education appointed by the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. London : [1862]. 
Small Svo. pp. 256. 
Very inexact, and behind the times, in its statements. 

History of Printing for the Use of the Blind. — See Stevens (Henry), 

History of Western New York and Printers' Festival. Rochester, 
U.S. : 1847. Svo. 

HiTZiG (Ferd.). Die Erfindung des Alphabetes. Eine Denkschrift 
zur Jubelfeier des von Gutenberg im Jahre 1440 erfundenen Biicher- 
druckes. Ziirich : 1840. 4to. pp. 42. Plate. 

Hochmeister (Martin v.), Buchdnicker in Hermannstadt, geb. 
19. April, 1767. (In Trausch, '* Siebenbiirgisches Schriftsteller- 
Lexicon," vol. ii. pp. 1 71-183.) 

Hodgson (Thomas). An Essay on the Origin and Progress of Stereo- 
type Printing, including a Description of the Various Processes. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne : 1820. Svo. pp. xii. 178. Seven leaves of 
specimens. 

306 copies were printed, at the instance of the Newcastle-on-Tyne Typographical 
Society, 36 of them being in royal octavo. A very interesting essay, containing a 
minute account of the history of the art up to 1820. 

Historical Memoirs of William Ged, including a particular 

account of his progress in the Art of Block Printing. Newcastle- 
on-Tyne: 1 8 19. 

176 copies printed, at the instance of the Newcastle-on-Tyne Typf>2;raphical 
Society. — See Ged. 



Bibliography of Printing. 331 

HoDSON (James Shirley). An Account of the Ceremony of Opening 
the New Wings to the Printers' Ahnshouses, Wood Green, 
Augusts, 1871. London: 1871. 8vo. pp. 16. 

This pamphlet includes "A History of the Institution," containing several inter- 
esting references to current printers ; a Speech by the Right Hon. Earl Stanhope ; 
and remarks by the late Mr. R. Clay, of Bread Street Hill, and others. 

An Address on behalf of the Printers' Pension, Almshouse, 



and Orphan Asylum Corporation, supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, incorporated by Royal Charter, 1865. London: 187 1. 
Svo. pp. 12. 

By the Secretary of the Charity on He then claims that as the work of the 

whose behalf the address is written, who printer is so great and universal a boon 

points out the benefits conferred on civili- to mankind, an appeal may be addressed 

zation by the Art of Printing, and sup- to benevolence and sympathy on behalf 

ports his arguments by extracts from of those followers of the craft who have 

speeches by Lord Dufferin, Earl Carnar- spent their days for the general weal, and 

von, Charles Dickens, and Dean Stanley, are no longer capable of self-support. 

A few Facts for Young Men employed in Printing Offices. 

Two-page tract, [n. d.]. 

Intended to show — i. That some provision for old age and infirmity is necessary. 
2. The provision offered. 3. How to obtain it. 

List of Pensioners, Inmates of Almshouses, and Orphans, show- 



ing the amounts paid to each, compiled from the Records of the 
Corporation. London: 1874. Svo. pp. 12. 

These statistics are drawn up with a view to show the inducements which the 
Printers' Corporation offers to those engaged in the trade to become subscribers. 

A Printer's Reasons for Subscribing to the Printers' Pension, 



Almshouse, and Orphan Asylum Corporation. 

A two-page tract containing various "reasons," benevolent and provident, for sup- 
porting this well-known charity. 

To the President, Vice-Presidents, and Subscribers of the 



Printers' Pension, Almshouse, and Orphan Asylum Corporation. 
4to. 3 pp. 

A circular arguing the question of "voting" or "non-voting" in the working of 
elections at charitable institutions, the writer's conclusion being in favour of the 
former, as "it is impossible to prevent canvassing." 

See also Printers' Pension, Almshouse, and Orphan Asylum Cor- 



poration, under Societies. 

HoDSON (Thomas). The Cabinet of the Arts, or a complete System 
of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, &c. 1803-6. 4to. 

Hoe (R.) & Co. Catalogue. 1853. pp. 42. i86o. 1866. 

pp. 127. 1867. pp. 138. 1877. pp. 19. 

Hints to Stereotypers and Electrotypers. New York : 187 1. 



Svo. pp. 34. 



332 



Bibliography of Printing. 



Hoe (R.) & Co. Hints on Electrotyping and Stereotyping. New 
York : 1875. ^vo. pp. 50. 



— Price-List. New York 
[876. pp.56. 



1873. 8vo. pp. 43. Reissued in 



Reduced Price-List. New York : 1876. pp. 16. 



Robert Hok, the founder of the firm 
of R. Hoe & Co., was bom in 1784, in the 
hamlet of Hose, near Nottingham, Lei- 
cestershire. He was bound apprentice 
to a carpenter ; but, purchasing his in- 
dentures, he emigrated to the United 
States in 1813. Shortly after he had 
established himself in business in New 
York, he commenced the manufacture 
of printing-presses. In connection with 
Peter Smith, who became his partner, he 
manufactured the first iron lever printing 
platen machines ever made in the United 
States. Subsequently he took into part- 
nership his brother-in-law, Matthew 
Smith, and conjointly they succeeded 
in establishing an extensive business. 
Robert Hoe died in 1833, having sur- 
vived both his partners, and leaving his 
business to his sons. He will be remem- 
bered in the annals of printing for having 
introduced power - printing machinery 
into the United States. 

Richard M. Hoe, the present head of 
the concern, is the eldest son of Robert 
Hoe. In 1847 he brought out the cele- 
brated Type - revolving Printing Ma- 
chine, which for a time superseded all 
others, not only in America, but in this 
country, and was adopted by the prin- 



cipal newspapers on the Continent as 
well. 

The latest invention of this firm, as 
applied to newspaper printing, is the 
Web Perfecting Press, which prints 
from a roll of paper, cuts off the sheets, 
delivers them flat, or folds them up as 
many times as required, all at one opera- 
tion, at the speed of over 15,000 perfect 
papers per hour ; when the machines are 
made double size, the production is 
30,000 per hour. This machine, the last 
and most perfect of its kind, is being 
rapidly adopted by newspapers in 
America and elsewhere. 

In connection with the business of 
newspaper printing, Messrs. R. Hoe & 
Co., however, manufacture all kinds of 
machines for book and job printing. 
Their works in New York are very ex- 
tensive, covering an entire square of 
ground in the city, being bounded by 
Grand, Sheriff, Broome, and Columbia 
streets. They contain upwards of 200,000 
square feet of floor-room, fitted with the 
most accurate and expensive machinists' 
tools There are also large works in 
Tudor Street, Blackfriars, London, and 
a branch office in the city of Chicago. 



Hoe (Richard M.). The Literature of Printing. A Catalogue of 
the Library illustrative of the History and Art of Typography, 
Chalcography, and Lithography of Richard M. Hoe. London : 
1877. Privately printed at the Chiswick Press. 8vo. pp. 149. 



The design of Mr. Hoe to form a 
collection of all the works that have 
been printed in every language bearing 
upon Printing is well illustrated in this 
Catalogue — the first attempt to form a 
bibliography of the subject. Like all 
catalogues, however, it was incomplete 
immediately after its appearance, in- 
deed, before its issue, as the evidence of 



a Supplement shows ; but it is very care- 
fully prepared, and, as a tentative effort, 
is deservuig of high praise. Its useful- 
ness is largely increased by the addition 
of Indexes of names of printers and of 
places. It is handsomely printed on 
Whatman's drawing-paper. Only a very 
few copies were issued. 



HOECHEL (C. H.). Die Heroen der Kunst. Ein charakteristisches 
Gemalde der ausgezeichnetsten Typographen friiherer Zeit. Als 
Denkmal zur Feier des vierten Sacular-Festes geweiht den Manen 
Gutenberg's. Leipsig and Ulm : 1836. 8vo. pp. viii. and 96. 
Portrait of Gutenberg. 



Bibliography of Printing. 333 

HOEFLING (Bernhard) and Merkel Carl. Initialen des Mittelalters. 
Eine Sammlung von Mustern verschiedener Stylarten aus den 
Bibliotheken zu Fulda, Bonn, Paderborn, etc. Six parts. 
DUsseldorf : 1865-1866. 4to. 26 plates. 

HOFF (Henrik). Jubilaums-Buchlein, oder Geschichte wie die Buch- 
druckerkunst in Deutschland erfunden worden ist, nebst Anderm 
was dazu gehort. Mannheim : 1840. 4to. 

Hoffman (John Daniel). De typographiis eorumque initiis et incre- 

mentis in regno Poloniae et Magno Ducatu Lithuanise, cum variis 

observationibus rem litterariam et typographicam utriusque gentis 

aliqua ex parte illustrantibus. Dantisci: 1740. 4to. pp. viii., 71. 

"A rare little work, divided into four chapters, but printed on detestable paper." 

- Watts. 

Hoffmann (C.) und Weithas. C. Hoffmann's Buchdruckerpresse 
von Gusseisen. Leipzig : 1826. 8vo. 

Hoffmann (C. L.). Pele-Mele von Erfindung der Buchdrucker- 
kunst. Lippstadt : 1740. 8vo. 

Hoffmann (Dr. Fr. Lor.). Description d'une Edition de quelques 

Dialogues de Lucien, traduite en latin par firasme, imprimee a 

Louvain, en 15 12 par Thierry Martens. Bruxelles : 1868. 8vo. 

pp. 3. (Extract from vol. xvi. of the Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige.) 

Only 25 copies printed. 

Essai d'une Liste chronologique des Ouvrages et Disserta- 
tions concemant I'Histoire de I'lmprimerie en Belgique et en 
Hollande. Bruxelles : 1859. 8vo. pp. 137. 

Only 30 copies separately printed from the Bulletin du Bibliophile Beige. 

Essai d'une Liste des Ouvrasres concernant I'Histoire de I'lm- 



primerie en Italic. Bruxelles : 1852. 8vo. pp. 33. 
150 copies printed separately from the Bulleti7i du Bibliophile Beige. The 
titles of 162 works are given, of which 98 are in Italian. 

Versuch einer Bibliographic der Geschichte der Buchdrucker- 

kunst in Danemark und in Schvveden und Norwegen. Besonderer 
Abdruck aus Petzholdt's " Neuer Anzeiger fiir Bibliographic und 
Bibliothekwissenschaft." Dresden : 1861. 8vo. pp. 20. 
Only 100 copies printed from the " Neuer Anzeiger fiir Bibliographic." 

— Verzeichniss von Schriften, welche die Geschichte der Buch- 

druckerkunst in der Schweiz zum Gegenstand haben. Halle : 
[1854]. 8vo. pp. II. 
Reprinted from the " Anzeiger fiir Bibliographie." 

Verzeichniss und Beschreibung einiger von Niederlandern 



verfassten Werke und Aufsatze aus dem xix. Jahrhundert, die 
Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst betreffend. (In : Petzhold's 
N. Anz. f. Bibl. 1865, September, pp. 273-289.) Dresden. 8vo. 

Dr. Hoffmann has long been engaged it in the fragments noted above. He has 
incompilingabibliographyofprintingand placed his materials at the disposition of 
the relative arts, but has only published Mr. O. Gottfried Reichart, librarian of 



334 Bibliography of Printing. 

the Benedictine Convent at Gottweig, 1853 ; and Mr. Reichart is engaged in 
author of a work entitled "Die Druck- compiling from them a " Bibliotheca 
orte des XV. Jahrhunderts." Augsburg: Typographica." 

Hoffmann (F. R.). Typographisches Jahrbuch. Breslau : 1876. 

8vo. First part, pp. 132. Second part, pp. 128. 1877. 

8vo. pp. 122. 

This typographic year-book gives many useful hints, both on composition and 
press and machine printing. 

Der Druck auf der Schnellpresse, erlautert fiir die Geschafts- 



fuhrung. Breslau : 1876. 8vo. pp. 77. 

Hoffmann (Dr. J.). Catalogus van Chinesche matrijzen en druk- 
letters, krachtens magtiging van Z. M. den Koning en op last 
van Z. E. den minister van staat, minister van Kolonien J. J. 
Rochussen vervaardigd, onder tsezigt van den hoogleeraar, 
translateur van het Nederlandsch Indisch gouvernement voor de 
Japansche en Chinesche talen. Amsterdam en Leiden : i860. 
4to. 45 pages of Chinese characters ; 3 other pages. 

The "Catalogus," printed in i860, of metallic type) as well as of ascertaining 
was the first published inventory of the how many of the 40,919 characters con- 
Chinese types cast under the supervision tained in Kang-Hi's dictionary are in 
of the late Dr. Hoffmann. common use, especially in the class of 

The first edition (i860) "contained works used and published by those en- 

5,503 sorts of Chinese characters or types, gaged in the missionary work, an exam- 

This collection has been so considerably ination was made of 4,166 octavo pages, 

augmented that at present it embraces including the whole Bible, together with 

6,581 sorts," the increase occasioned twenty-seven other publications printed 

especially " by the appearance at Shang- at our press, and embracing in the 

hai of a catalogue of 6,000 Chinese charac- aggregate nearly one million three 

ters, of which, on a careful investigation, hundred thousand characters. In con- 

5,150 appeared to be in actual use ; we ducting this examination two Chinese 

mean two lists of selected characters, scholars were emploj'ed for two years 

containing all in the Bible and twenty- each, and it was carried on in such 

seven other books, with introductory a manner as to secure as much accuracy 

remarks by William Gamble, Shanghai, as possible. According to the Adver- 

Presbyterian Mission Press, 1861." From tisement in the third edition, 1876, the 

the preface of the book by Mr. Gamble, house of Brill now possesses 7,908 

a long extract is given in the advertise matrices and letters. The number of 

ment, in which the following interesting characters in our list is thus increased to 

fact is stated: — "With the view of 6,000." After examining the Gamble 

making some improvement upon the list, it appears that 725 founts must be 

former method of arrangement (evidently added to the Netherlands collection. 

Chinesche drukletters vervaardigd in Nederland. Nieuw 

overzigt, met opgave van de nieuw bijgekomen karakters, door 
Dr. J. Hoffmann, hoogleeraar. 1864. Lettergieterij van N. 
Tetterode te Amsterdam. 
This title in Dutch is followed by a title in English, as follows : — 

Chinese Printing Types founded in the Netherlands. A new 
synopsis, with the addition of all the recently acquired characters. 
By Dr. J. Hoffmann. 1864. Type-foundry of N. Tetterode, 
Amsterdam. Printed by A. W. Sythoff, Leiden, pp. ix. Adver- 
tisement (printed in two columns, one Dutch, other English.) 
P. ix. begins " Tekstproeven " or Proof-text, which is completed 



Bibliography of Printing. 



335 



on page x. pp. 1-24, Chinese characters, followed by one page 
(without folio), Deklassenhoofden, reverse of which is blank. 
This is Dr. Hoffmann's second publication of Chinese types. "The considerable 

number of the newly-appended founts has made a second edition of our Catalogue 

necessary, though to limit it to 50 copies appeared enough." 

Hoffmann (Dr. J.). Catalogus van Chinesche Matrijzen en drukletters 
vervaardigd in Nederland op last van den Minister van Kolonien 
en onder leiding van Dr. J. J. Hoffmann. Derde druk. Leiden : 
1876. 
This is followed by title in English : — 

Catalogue of Chinese Matrices and Printing-types founded in 
the Netherlands, by command of his Majesty's Minister for 
Colonial Affairs, under direction of Dr. J. J. Hoffmann. Third 
edition. Leiden : 1876. Pp. xiv., and 24 of Chinese characters. 

This third edition, published by E. J. firm. Hoffmann says: — "The Nether- 
Brill, of Leiden, was issued after the lands may boast of possessing a Chinese 
"stock of Chinese types made for and printing office capable of executing all 
belonging to the Dutch Government, and that may be reasonably required of it, 
from which the former editions were and of setting up the most extensive 
printed, had been purchased by that Chinese works in type." 

Mededeeling aangaande de Chinesche matrijzen en drukletters, 

krachtens magtiging van Z. M, den Koning en op last van den 
minister J. J. Rochussen vervaardigd. Amsterdam: i860. 8vo. 
pp. 16. 

Hoffmann (J. C). Anweisung zum vervielfaltigen einer Schrift oder 
Zeichnung, ausgefuhrt mit der Feder oder Reisfeder, durch Hiilfe 
der galvanischen Kupferausscheidung. Kopenhagen : 1842. 8vo. 

Hofmann (G. D.). Von den altesten Kaiserlichen und Landesherr- 
lichen Biicher- Druck- oder Verlag- Privilegien. Tubingen : 1777. 
8vo. pp. 68. 

A collection of reprints of the privileges granted by imperial and other personages 
to early printers, reproduced from the originals. 

Hoier (A.). Programmata II. de Originibus Typographise. Sleswig : 
1 740. 4to. 

Holbein (Hans). 

Hans Holbein was a celebrated Swiss 
painter who flourished in the sixteenth 
century. He is especially famous for his 
engravings on wood, which were not only 
remarkably numerous, but beautiful and 
chaste. Some uncertainty exists con- 
cerning his origin, but it is believed that 
he was born in Augsburg about 14^5, and 
that when a child he accompanied his 
father, who was also an artist, to Basle, 
in Switzerland. This city was at that 
time remarkable for its learned printers, 
who were specially engaged upon reli- 
gious and scholastic publications. Seve- 



ral of their devices, accompanied with 
short notices, will be found interspersed 
through this Bibliography. At Basle, 
young Holbein soon attracted attention 
by the excellence of his portraits and his 
pictures of Biblical subjects. He painted 
a remarkable portrait of Erasmus, which 
may probably have introduced him to 
Froben, the printer {see Frobenius), for 
whom he executed a number of ornamen- 
tal title-pages and designs, some of them 
illustratmg the works of Erasmus. As a 
wood-engraver, Holbein is best known 
for his wonderful series called the ' 'Dance 



336 



Bibliography of Printing. 



of Death," in which, in fifty-three suc- 
cessive pictures. Death, as a ghastly 
skeleton, overtakes the unsuspecting mor- 
tal in every grade of life, from the Pope 
to the pauper. One of the victims in 
these illustrations is a printer \ This was 
reproduced in facsimile in " feloge de la 
Folic d'Erasme," Paris (Librairie des 
Bibliophiles, Rue St. Honore), 1872. The 
superiority of the printers of Basle was so 
generally recognized that Henry VIII. of 
England engaged Bebelius, a printer of 



duction from Erasmus to Sir Thomas 
More, who immediately presented him at 
court. Henry VIII. made him Court 
Painter, and gave him a liberal pension. 
He also induced the artist to remain in 
England. Holbein died of the Great 
Plague of 1554. In the "Queen's Gal- 
lery" at Hampton Court, a few years 
ago, we noticed placed together the fol- 
lowing highly interesting portraits: — 
Holbein, painted by himself ; Frobenius, 
the. printer, by Holbein ; Erasmus, his 




HANS HOLBEIN. 



that city, to execute a magnificent edition 
of Polydore Vergil's " History of Eng- 
land," which, for the elegance of its 
illustrations and the beauty of its type, 
has been considered the most perfect 
volume published during the sixteenth 
century. Several of the decorations and 
designs of this work were furnished by 
Holbein, and may have led to an invita- 
tion to him to come over here. He 
visited this country with a letter of intro- 



patron, painted by Holbein (the back- 
ground IS by another artist) ; and King 
Henry VIII., also by Holbein. There 
were a large number of other pictures by 
the artist, of whom a portrait is given 
above. 

Several memoirs of Holbein have been 
written ; among them may be specially 
named " Holbein and his Time," by 
Alfred Woltmann ; translated into English 
by F. E. Bunnett. London : 1872. 8vo. 



Holbein Society.— 6"^^ Societies. 



HOLLOWAY. Memoir of the late Mr. Thomas Holloway, by one of 
his Executors ; and most respectfully dedicated to the Subscribers 
to the Engravings from the Cartoons of Raphael. London : 1827. 
80 pp. (with Appendix, pp. x. ) . 



The first great work on which this cele- 
brated engraver entered was the English 
publication of Lavater's " Physiognomy," 
a work containing seven hundred plates, 
and extending to five volumes imperial 
4to., the letterpress of which was executed 
at " the splendid press of Bensley." Hol- 



loway had the pleasure of seeing the only 
remaining plate of the seven cartoons of 
Raphael fairly commenced before his 
death, which took place in his eightieth 
year, at Cottishall, near Norwich, in 
February, 1827. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



337 



Holme (Randle). An Academy of Armory, or a Storehouse of 
Armory and Blazon, containing the several variety of Created 
Beings, and how born in Coats of Arms, both Foreign and 
Domestick : with the Instruments used in all Trades and Sciences, 
together with their Terms of Art. Also the Etymologies, Defini- 
tions, and Historical Observations on the same, Explicated and 
Explained according to our Modern Language. Very useful for 
all Gentlemen, Scholars, Divines, and all such as desire any 
Knowledge in Arts and Sciences. Chester : Printed for the 
Author, 1688. Folio, pp. xiv. 488, 502. 



This singular book, whose author de- 
scribes himself as " Gentleman Sewer in 
Extraordinary to his late Majesty King 
Charles II., and sometimes Deputy for the 
Kings of Arms," is, notwithstanding its 
heraldic title, a complete technological 
encyclopedia, and presents a quaint and 
vivid picture of the crafts and calling of 
all kinds of artisans in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The portion de- 
voted to jjrinting is considerable, and the 
author evidently aimed at giving a com- 
plete description of the art and its pro- 
cesses. There is no doubt he largely 
made use of Moxon's " Mechanick Exer- 
cises," which was published in 1683. In 
book iii., chap, iii., p. 113, there begins 
" He beareth Argent, a printer tDOrfeinfl 
at I) is pr tnt(n g press , all proper. Printing, 
as some Authors have it, was used in 
China, and Prester yokn, above 1,000 
years since ; though it was not known in 
this part of the World till about the year 
1430. In which infancie the Letters were 
cut in Wooden blocks, altogether by one 
Laurensz Jansz Koster of Harlem, who 
after left Wood off, and cut Letters in 
Steel, and cast them in Mettle : yet John 
Gutenbergoi Mentz in Germany promotes 
his claim to the first invention of this Art 
by single Letters before Koster, and is 
more generally admitted to be so. After 
this it was practised in Oxford in the year 
1461 and in Loftdon 1471, and about 1480 
it began to be received into Venice, Italy, 
Germany, and other places in these 
Western parts of the World, insomuch 
that it is now disputed whether Tipog raphy 
and Architecture may not be accounted 
Liberal Sciences, being so Famous Arts." 

The next division is headed " Persons 
instrumental about Printing," there being 
named, the Master Printer (" who is the 
soul of printing, all other workmen about 
it are as members to the body ") ; the letter 
cutter, the matrice or mould maker, the 
letter caster, the letter dresser, the com- 
positor, the corrector, the pressman, the 
mkmaker, "besides several other trades 
they take unto their assistance, without 

2 



whose help they could not work, as Smith, 
Joyner, Wett-glover, &c." 

The next division has reference to "the 
several parts of a press," upwards of sixty 
separate portions being described. Then 
follows " the terms of the letters according 
to their size or bigness," ten sizes being 
mentioned as follows, the figures being 
the number of lines contained in a foot : — 

1. Pearl 184 

2. Nonpareil 150 

3. Brevier 112 

4. Long Primer 92 

5- Pica.; 75 

6. English 66 

7. Great Primer 50 

8. Double Pica 38 

9. Two-line English 33 

10. Great Canon 17^ 

Next we have the " terms relating to 
the face of a letter," those explained being 
the top line or topping, the head line, the 
body, the footline or footing, the bottom 
line or bottom footing, the stem, the fat 
stroaks, the lean stroaks, the beak, the 
tails, the swash letters, &c., nearly all of 
which words are now obsolete. 

Considerable attention is paid to the 
"notes of correction made by the cor- 
rector," and the marks are given. They 
hardly differ from those now in use. 

The " points used in printing " are then 
explained, and "several other things be- 
longing to the Art of Printing." Among 
the latter are the "assidue or assidine, a 
thin brass plate, such as adorn hobby- 
horses ; founders use it to underlay the 
body or mouth-piece of their moulds if 
they be too thin ; coyns, distributing 
stick or riglet, galley, inke (of which 
' there are two sorts, weak inke and strong 
inke, one for to use in the summer, the 
other for winter),' visorum," &c. 

About eight of the folio pages are de- 
voted to the terms used in the "Art of 
.\inting, alphabetically explained," the 
definitions being very carefully and 
accurately given. The "Customs of the 
Chappel" follow. The list of offences 
X 



^^S Bibliography of Printing. 

for each of which a penahy called a bringing a wisp of hay directed to a press- 
" solace " was imposed, is a tolerably long man, "calling mettle lead," &c. If the 
one. It includes swearing, fighting, abu- delinquent would not pay the solace, the 
sive language, drunkenness, leaving a workmen were to "take him by force 
candle burning at night, dropping a com- and lay him on his belly over the correct- 
posing-stick and leaving another to pick ing-stone, and hold him there whilest 
It up, three letters and a space left as pie another with a paper board gives him ;^io 
under a case, letting fall the bails, leaving in a purse, viz., ii blows on his buttocks, 
blankets in the tympan, mentioning " joy- which he lays on according to his own 
ning his penny to send for a drink," mercy." The " custome for payments of 
mentioning spending Chappel money till money," which are afterwards set out, 
Saturday night, playing at quadrates, " a are not less curious, and show how man- 
stranger to come to the King's printing ners have improved in the printing-office 
house and ask for a ballad," a stranger during the last two hundred years. — See 
" to come to a compositor and inquire if Chapel and MoxON. 
he had news of a galley at sea," any one 

Holmes (John). A descriptive Catalogue of the Books in the Library 
of John Holmes, with Notices of Authors and Printers. 5 vols. 
Norwich (privately printed) : 1828-40. 8vo. 

HOLSTEIN (Ad. von). Gutenberg, Fust, und Schoffer. Die Erfin- 
dung des Druckes mit beweglichen Buchstaben. i. 2. Heft. 
Darmstadt : 1 876-1 877. 4to. pp. 1-32. 2 plates. 

It is proposed to complete this work in ten parts, but no more than the above 
have yet been issued. Each part should be accompanied by plates. The two first 
parts are elegantly printed on good paper. 

HOLSTENIUS (Andreas). Dissertatio Academica de renascentis littera- 
turae ministra Typographia. Holmiae: 1869. 8vo. pp. x., 43. 
[Reprinted in Wolf, Monumenta Typographica, pp. 550-594, 
vol. ii.] 

Holt (H. F.). Observations on Early Engraving and Printing. A 
series of papers in Notes and Queries, commencing Oct. 3, 1 868. 

HOLTROP (John William). Catalogns Librorum Saeculo XV 
Impressorum, quotquot in Bibliotheca Regia Hagana, asser- 
vantur. Hagse Comitum : 1856. 8vo. pp. xxx. 591. 

A catalogue of the 15th century books dex typographorum alphabeticus, pp. 

in the Royal Library at the Hague, 1-318. Pars II. Libri extra Belgium 

highly praised by Dr. Van der Linde for impressi, pp. 319-591. The Introduction 

its classification and general accuracy, treats of the early-printed fragments. 

Pars I. Libri in Belgio impressi. Index known as " Costeriana," and of the 

bibliographicus, secundum ordinem alpha- evidences of a very early use of typo- 

beti ; Index urbium alphabeticus ; In- graphy in Holland. 

■ Description des editions connues du "Donatus" d'origine 

HoUandaise. \\si Algenieene konst- en letterbode, 1840. Pp. 51.] 

Monumens typographiques des Pays-Bas au Quinzieme Siecle. 

Collection de fac-simile, d'apres les originaux conserves a la 
Bibliotheque royale de la Haye et ailleurs. Publiee avec I'autori- 
sation de son Excellence le Ministre de I'lnterieur. La Haye : 
1868. Folio, pp. xiv. 126, contents (12 pp.), 130 plates, and map. 

This great work of the chief librarian search, and industry of its author, a fine 

of the Royal Library at the Hague, is in portrait of whom, m lithography, forms 

itself a typographical monument, and an the frontispiece. The book is dedicated 

enduring memorial of the learning, re- " to librarians, bibliophiles, and all who 



Bibliography of Printing. 



339 



are interested in the history of the typo- 
graphy of the Low Countries during the 
15th century." In the preface M. Hol- 
trop refers to the great interest which 
has always been taken in the subject, not 
only by his compatriots, but by French, 



Westreenianum Musee, and other great 
libraries, including the following in our 
own country : — The British Museum, the 
Bodleian (Oxford), Lord Spencer's, the 
Earl of Pembroke's, that of the Due 
d'Aumale, and those of Messrs. Holford, 




REDUCED FAC-SIMILE FROM THE "EXERCISE ON THE LORD's PRAYER " (HoLTROP, MON. TYP.). 



German, English, and other biblio- Inglis, Johnson, Botfield, Libri, and 
graphers. In the compilation of his Boone. The plates consist of exact re- 
work he was enabled to avail himself of productions of^r) the different xylo- 
the rich treasures of the Royal Library graphic editions that were the precursors 
of the Hague, those of the Meermanno- of typography generally attributed to 



340 



Bibliography of Printing. 



the Low Countries ; (2) of books 
printed with movable characters, and 
particularly reproductions of the begin- 
ning and end of the first books issued 
by the different printers, with repre- 
sentations of their types ; and (3) of 
printers' marks. The execution of 
the facsimiles was intrusted to M. E. 
Spanier, lithographer to the king. The 
author remarks that one of his objects in 
compiling the work was to encourage the 



as by this means many books concerning 
whose history we are now ignorant might 
be traced to their proper source. M. 
Holtrop refers to the work of Sotheby, 
and while dissenting from some of its 
deductions, commends the industry of 
its author and the accuracy of its repro- 
ductions. He also acknowledges his in- 
debtedness to Mons. M. F. A. G. Camp- 
bell, the sub-librarian of the Royal 
Library of the Hague. There is a fine 




LETTER K FROM THE GROTESQUE ALPHABET (HOLTROP, MON. TYP.). 



study and promote the knowledge of the 
productions of the first printers, and 
those who laboured up to the end of the 
15th century ; he also wished to furnish 
materials for a complete history of print- 
ing during that epoch. Further, he 
hoped to enable others besides himself to 
compare the incunabula with any early 
books they might find in other libraries, 



copy of the book in the British Museum, 
in which is bound up everything issued 
in connection with it, such as the wrap- 
pers of each part, the prospectus, and the 
advertisements of each section as it was 
published. We have availed ourselves of 
M. Holtrop's researches in many of the 
notes accompanying our reproductions of 
printers' marks, and have thus enabled the 




IIVERS 

OF 

Bibliography of Printing. 



341 



English reader to be in possession of the 
remarkable facts in the history of printing 
which this work first brought to light. 

We extract from the "Monumens typo- 
graphiques" three facsimiles of block- 
books. The first is from the " Exercise 



dialogue. In the illustration — the fifth 
of the series — the petition referred to is 
" Thy will be done." The Almighty is re- 
presented in the clouds, and before him 
are an angel and a monk kneeling. The 
former, named Oratio, is supposed 




trtcttivuKutu^iatttmi oauubflf 



^*i ^^^^ ttoquonttu J 







KEDUCED BLOCK FROM THE " POMERIUM SPIRITUALE" (HoLTROP, MON, TYP.). 



on the Lord's Prayer," a thin book of ten throughout to be teaching the latter. On 

leaves, intended to explain the Lord's the right are a good Christian and an 

Prayer by illustration. The blocks are angel. In the centre are two bad men 

printed on one side of the paper only, in who are rejecting the Holy Eucharist, 

brown ink. The text is in the form of a In the foreground are Jews and Pagans, 



342 



Bibliography of Printing. 



who throw down the chalice and pour 
out its sacred contents. Holtrop says 
that there is one copy of the work 
in which the Latin text is translated 
and explained by engraved lines in 
Flemish at the bottom of each cut. 
It is, without doubt, a Flemish book. 

Our second illustration is the letter K 
of a grotesque Alphabet, a curious block- 
book of twenty-four pages, of the original 
of which not one perfect copy is known. 
A fragment is preserved in the British 
Museum which has many evidences of 
long use in English hands, there being 
writing, &c., showing the nationality of 
its possessor. The real object of the 
book is not apparent. The figures were 
not designed for the purpose of teaching 
the alphabet, for they are quaint, elabo- 
rate, and above the comprehension of 
children. When the book was made, 
the figures probably had a significance 
which is now unknown. The only two 
words which appear are in French. The 
views of iconographers on the origin of 
the book are very diverse. Douce and 
Sotheby attribute it to Holland ; Ottley 
to England ; Chat to to France ; Laborde 



to the engraver of the " Biblia Pau- 
perum " ; Passavant to the school of Van 
Eyck, and perhaps to Dirk Stuerbout, of 
Haarlem. Renouvier thinks it emanated 
from the Low Countries. 

The " Spiritual Nursery," of a page of 
which we give a reduced facsimile, was 
partly a manuscript and partly a block- 
book. The pictures were engraved, and 
the text was written. It contained twenty- 
six small folio leaves. At the beginning ' 
of each of the twelve written chapters a 
space is left to receive the impression of 
an engraving on wood, of which the text 
gives the meaning. The only known 
copy is in the Royal Library at Brussels, 
the director of which, M. Alvin, has 
published, in his " Documents icono- 
graphiques et typographiques," twelve of 
the engravings on wood and a part of the 
manuscript text. Holtrop says that the 
book was composed by Henry Bogaert, 
canon of a monastery near Brussels, who 
was born 1382, and died 1469. He was 
the author of many small religious books, 
among them being several expositions of 
the " Pater Noster," and the " Pomerium 
Spirituale." 



Holtrop (John William). Thierry Martens d'Alost. £tude biblio- 

graphique. La Haye : 1867. 8vo. pp. viii. iiS. 

Dedicated "A son ami, Henry Brad- or attributed to him ; then the inscription 
shaw." The book is an inquiry into the on his tomb, as showing the contemporary 
question whether Thierry Martens was estimate formed of his achievements. He 
really the first printer of Belgium. The goes on to describe the editions attributed 
author says that the subject has given to Martens ; and then sums up his con- 
rise to discussions among bibliographers elusions, which are to the effect that 
during more than a century, but it ap- Martens' claims to the honour of intro- 
peared decided when, in July, 1856, the ducing printing into Belgium are un- 
town of Alost erected a bronze statue of founded ; that Martens himself never 
Martens, as he who had the honour of arrogated that distinction ; and that none 
introducing printing into Belgium. A of his contemporaries claimed it for him. 
description is given of this statue, from It arose from his partisans being carried 
which it appears that on the base of the away by a false sentiment of patriotism ; 
pedestal is inscribed : " Theodorico Mar- for to John of Westphalia the honour, in 



tino Alostano, qui pnmus artem typo- 
graphicam in Belgium induxit." A com- 
patriot of Martens, however, M. Ch. 
Ruelens, in giving an account of the 
solemnity in the Bidietin du Bibliophile 



truth, belongs. The glory of Martens, 
however, does not suffer by his being 
shorn of these fictitious laurels ; he de- 
serves to he held in remembrance for the 
beauty and the number of his typo- 



Belge (tom. xii. p. 289, &c.), said that the graphic productions. 



question still remained undecided. M. 
Holtrop, in his " Monumens Typo- 
graphiques," had addressed himself to 
the subject, and he here publishes the 
entire results of his- researches. He 
first of all examines the epitaph on 
Martens, which was written by Erasmus, 



Alost (anciently written Alostium) is 
a city of Belgian Flanders. Thierry 
Martens was born in the neighbourhood, 
about 1450, and died some time after 
1534. A monograph of him was pub- 
lished by M. Van Iseghem (Malines : 
1852. 8vo.) — See Iseghem. 



HoLTZArFFEL & Co. Printing Apparatus for the Use of Amateurs. 
London : 1846. 8vo. 



Bibliography of Printing. 



343 



HoLZHAUSEN (Adolf). Album of Specimens of Printing in the 
Chinese and Japanese Languages, executed in the Printing Office 
of Adolf Holzhausen. Vienna : 1873. Folio. 



Mr. Holzhausen, after years of study 
and labour, has succeeded in overcoming 
the great difficulties which present them- 



His Chinese founts consist of about 8,000 
signs, and have been considered superior 
to any in Europe. He has also trained 



selves to Europeans composing books in astaff of compositors competent to do any 
the Chinese and Japanese characters, work in these languages. .S'^<? Hoffmann. 

HoOGVLiET (Arnold). Lof der Drukkunste ; door L. J. Coster, 
omtrent 1440 mit aanmeerkingen. Rotterdam: 1740. 4to. 

HoPKiNSON & Cope. Composing Department : Hopkinson & Cope's 
Revised Illustrated List of Composing Frames and Cases, Impos- 
ing Surfaces, Chases, &c. London : 1872. 29 pp. Royal 8vo. 
Lithographic Department : Hopkinson & Cope's Revised Illus- 
trated List of Lithographic Printing Presses and Machines, Litho- 
stone Grinding Machines, Materials, Ink, &c. 28 pp. (Both 
Departments in one volume.) 

The firm of Hopkinson & Cope was 
founded by Mr. R. W. Cope. While he 
was carrying on business as an engineer 
in Bowling Alley, Mr. Clymer, in 1817, 
came over to Europe with his invention 
now known as the Columbian Press (see 
Clymer), and an engagement was en- 
tered into that Mr, Cope should, for a 
period of ten years, manufacture the new 
press. In 1819 Mr. Cope, who seems to 
have been very prosperous in his busi- 
ness, removed to New North Street, 
Finsbury, where his successors still re- 
main. It was here that in 1820 he intro- 
duced the "Albion" press that has so 
long Keen identified with his name. The 
press was never patented, and possessed 
little novelty, for important parts of it 
were copied from the Stanhope and the 
Anisson-Duperron press (see Anisson- 
Duperron). It was, however, so light, 
so strong, and so true in its work, that 
it has not up to the present time been 
wholly superseded. On the death of Mr. 
Cope the business was carried on by his 
executor, Mr. J. J. Barrett, a brother 
of the printer of Mark Lane, the style 
of the firm being Cope & Barrett. Their 
foreman, Mr. John Hopkinson, an admir- 
able man of business, was soon introduced 

HoPYL (Wolfgang). 

This celebrated Paris printer occupied 
a house in the Rue St. Jacqiies, Paris, in 
1489, under the sign of the " Sainte 
Barbe "; in 1490 he had removed to the 
"Tresteau et de ITmaige Saint-Georges." 
The position of both offices is marked in 
the rnap of the Sorbonne district accom- 
panying Madden's " Lettres d'un Biblio- 



into the partnership, and carried on the 
trade with honourable fidelity and great 
success during the long minority of Mr. 
Cope's son. His strict attention to the 
exigencies of the business largely in- 
creased the transactions and repute of 
the house, which has been ever since 
designated Hopkinson & Cope. Mr. 
Hopkinson, who was greatly respected 
by all the printers, recognized the grow- 
ing necessity for more expeditious me- 
thods of printing, and was ever on the 
alert to introduce new improvements and 
methods in connection with printing ma- 
chinery, ultimately gaining as good a 
name for the excellence, good finish, and 
substantial character of his steam presses 
as Mr. Cope had won for his hand 
presses. Mr. Hopkinson died at his resi- 
dence, Upper Tulse Hill, London, i6th 
October, 1864, aged 67 years. Mr. 
Barrett is also dead, and the business is 
now entirely vested in Mr. James Cope^ 
the son of Mr. R. W. Cope. The firm 
are printers' engineers on a large scale, 
and very favourably known for the excel- 
lence of their machinery. They acquired 
an interest in 1879 in the well-known 
engineering works founded by Mr. David 
Payne at Otley. 



graphe," 5th series. The first work men- 
tioned by Panzer as the production of 
Hopyl bears the date 1489. In 1496 he 
printed, in conjunction with Henry 
Estienne, the founder of the illustrious 
family of printers (who was then a printer 
of the University of Paris), "Jacobi 
Fabri Stapulensis Artificialis introductio 



344 



Bibliography of Printing. 



moralis in X libros ethicos Aristotelis." 
In this year, according to Madden, he 
had a corrector, who was a Scotchman, 
named David Lanx. In 1502 Hopyl's 
name is again associated with that of 
Henry Estienne, in an impression of 
Aristotle's Ethics. 

In Silvestre's Marques Typographiques 
the device given (No. 260) is correct, 
and will be found at the end of " Ques- 
tiones Morales de Fortitudine, Martini 
Magistri." Paris, 1489. Folio. The central 
shield of this fine device consists of an oak- 
tree and a stork with the initials W. A. ; 
this shield is supported by two animals 



as M. Madden remarks, in rendering very 
obscure a perfectly clear and obvious 
sentiment. On referring to Silvestre's 
work, it will be seen at once that the 
second cut given by him (No. 1,066) 
as another device used by this printer, is 
nothing more nor less than a pierced wood- 
cut for title-pages, and as such it will be 
found in "Cyrilli Alexandrini opus quod 
Thesaurus nuncupatur," a work printed 
by Hopyl in the year 1514. 

The annexed device is given by Berjeau 
in the " Bookworm," vol. v. p. 16, where 
he says : " The small device we reproduce 
is, according to a MS. note on the original 




PARIS : 1489-1521. 



(panthers) and the trunk of a tree, the 
shield being surrounded with flowers. Sil- 
vestre, following La Caille, however, gives 
as the motto, " Sua aurita Venus munere 
vivit, amor caelat." This has been shown 
by Madden (" Lettres," 5th series) to be 
an error on the part of La Caille, as the 
actual motto is " Sua furta Venus munere 
vivit amor celat." M. Madden has also 
shown that the motto itself is an adapta- 
tion of Tibullus (book i., elegy 2, line 36), 
as follows, — "Celari vult sua furta 
Venus." This line, too, has its parallel 
in another ancient writer, — "Munere vivit 
amor." La Caille, indeed, has succeeded. 



cutting in our possession, on one of the 
books he printed in 14^5. Now the only 
book printed by Hopyl in this year, accord- 
ing to Panzer (ii. 308, 343) is ' Libellus de 
modo penitendi et confitendi, auctore 
Guil. de Vuert.' Paris, 1495. This book, 
a copy of which was in Mr. Inglis's library, 
has on the title-page the large device of 
Hopyl, not to be found in Brunet." It is 
evident M, Berjeau has fallen into the 
same mistake as Silvestre with regard to 
this so-called large device. The two last 
works printed by Hopyl were published 
in 1521. 



Horn (Alban). Gutenberg. Ein Volkskalender fur die Jiinger der 
schwarzen Kunst. I. Jahrg. 1876. II. Jahrg. 1877. Zittau. 
i2mo. 

An almanack intended for printers, but hardly more than a worthless collection of 
anecdotes, &c. 



— Gott griiss die Kunst. Erstes Reise-Taschenbuch fiir Buch- 
drucker. Zittau: 1870. 8vo. I. Th. pp. 60; II. Th. pp. 80. 

— Taschen-Liederbuch fiir Buchdrucker. Zittau. 8vo. 



Bibliography of Printing. 345 

HORNE (Thomas Hartwell). An Introduction to the Study of 
Bibliography, to which is prefixed a Memoir on the Public 
Libraries of the Ancients. 2 vols. London: 1 814. 8vo. Vol.1, 
pp. 402, 4 plates ; Vol. II. pp. 403-760, 7 plates ; appendix, 
pp. clvi. 
This is a very valuable work to the Part II. is "On Books."— the denomina- 
student of the History of Printing. The tions, forms, and sizes of books ; different 
contents of Part I. are as follows : — styles of bookbinding ; remarks on the 
Chapter I. On the different substances preservation of books ; on the knowledge 
for manuscripts and printed books— sub- of books, and an improved system for the 
stances used before the invention of classification of a library. Part III. A 
paper; paper. Chapter II. On manu- notice of the principal works extant on 
scripts in general, including the origin of Literary History in general, and on Biblio- 
writing. Chapter III. Origin of printing; graphy in particular. In this part is in- 
introduction of the art into the different eluded a list of works on the history and 
cities of Europe ; progress of printing in art of printing, including a brief analysis 
England, Scotland, and Ireland ; printing of the author's hypotheses relative to the 
in China and America ; improvements in origin and invention of typography, and 
the art of printing, — stereotype printing, memoirs of eminent printers. In the 
logographic printing, facsimile printing. Appendix is a list of the principal vig- 
printing in gold letters ; observations on nettes or marks, monograms, and devices 
early printers and printing ; mechanism of used by the ancient printers ; and Han- 
printing ; letterpress printing ; specimens sard borrowed these illustrations for his 
of types; engraving on wood; rolling- " Typographia. " 
press printing ; polyautographic printing. 

HORNSCHUCH (D. Hierome). Der bey Buchdruckerey wohl unter- 

wiesene Corrector, oder : Kurtzzer Unterricht fiir diejenigen, die 

Wercke, so gedruckt werden, corrigiren wollen, wie auch eine 

niitzliche und nothwendige Erinnerung fUr diejenigen welche ihre 

Schrifften, oder verfertigte Wercke, ausgehen lassen. Franckfurth 

und Leipzig: 1739. 8vo. pp.64. At end is: — Ehren-Gedichte 

auf die Edle freye Kunst-Buchdruckerey, und deren Ursprung, 

Fortgang, und Nutzbarkeit, wessen sich deren Anverwandten, 

fiir andern Kiinsten, mit Grund der Wahrheit zu riihmen haben ; 

mit poetischer Feder entworffen. Franckfurth und Leipzig : 

1739. 8vo' pp. 44. 

Crapelet (page i6i) says that Jerome manuscript. He gives the qualifications 

Hornschuch, a learned proof-reader of of a proper reader at length. " He must 

the i;;th century, in a pamphlet published refrain from anger, from love, from sad- 

at Leipsic, in 1680 (32 pages), proposed ness, from all intense emotion, and give 

to instruct authors in the art of preparing his mind entirely to his work." 

copy for press. He complains that The poetical effusion of Kilian em- 

they were then shamefully remiss. He bodies some of the same sentiments. — See 

found 2,000 faults (author's faults) in one Plantin. 

Hornschuch (J.). Op0orv7roypa^ta, h. e. Instructio operas typo- 
graphicas correcturis et a4nionitio scripta sua in lucem edituris 
utilis et necessaria. Adjecta sunt sub fin em varia typorum genera 
et appellationes. Lipsiae : 1680. 8vo. 

HouBLOUP. Theorie Lithographique ; ou, Maniere facile d'apprendre 
a imprimer soi-meme. Paris : 1825. 8vo. pp. 94. 

HOUDRY (Vincent). Ars typographica, carmen. 4to. [1680 ? ]. 

Vincent Houdry, who was a zealous Jesuit and writer on religious and literary 
subjects, was born at Tours, 1631 ; died in Paris, 1729. 

2 Y 



34^ Bibliography of Printing. 

Houghton (Thomaf? Shaw). The Printers' Practical Every-day Book, 
calculated to assist the Young Printer to work with ease and ex- 
pedition. Preston : 1841. Small 8vo. pp. viii. 139. Fourth 

edition. London : 1849. i2mo. 



The Printers' Practical Every-day Book ; Improved. Preston : 

1857. pp. 136. 

This is the title of a new and enlarged was supplied in certain standard lengths, 

edition of the preceding. to ems, and the use of the shears was 

Mr. Thomas Shaw Houghton was a muoh lessened. What the Americans 

compositor at Preston and at Southport, call " Labour-saving furniture " — that is, 

Lancashire. He was a man possessing furniture ready cut up into sizes — was 

no literary ability, but much mechanical also proposed by Mr. Houghton. His 

ingenuity, and his Handbook was for book contains examples of imposition, in 

many years popular among apprentices which the light pages, such as the title, 

to case as well as journeymen and em- are brought into the centre of the form, 

ployers. He initiated several minor im- and an improved mode of setting table- 

provements in the tiiateriel of the print- work, 
mg-office. At his suggestion brass rule 

Houghton (Thomas Shaw), and Marshall (George). The Printers' 
Practical Every-day Book, by T. S. Houghton; with Emenda- 
tions and Additions by G. Marshall. Preston : 1875. Fcap. 8vo. 
pp. 151. 

This is a stereotype reprint of the major shall, a printer and publisher at Preston, 

part of Houghton's Manual, with several who purchased the copyright after the 

serious omissions and a few unimportant decease of the author, 
and valueless interpolations by Mr. Mar- 

HOUTERUS (J oh.), Buchdrucker in Kronstadt (1498 -1540). [In 
Trausch, " Siebenb. Sachs. Schriftsteller Lexicon." II., pp. 
197-219.] 

Hove (van). Der Steindruck nach den sichersten und untriiglichsten 
Grundsatzen und alien des heute in der Lithographic gemachten 
Fortschritten und Verbesserungen. Hamburg : 1828. 8vo. 

How (John). Some Thoughts on the present State of Printing and 
Bookselling. London : printed the 28th of November, 1709. 4to. 
A pamphlet containing proposals for to te erected for that purpose, with 
securmg property in " books, copies, queries indicating various instances of 
sculptures, maps," &c., to booksellers piracy by booksellers and others of the 
and publishers by registration in an office period. 

HowiTT (F. H.). Country Printers' Job Price-Book. London : 
1849. Square 8vo. 

HowLETT (R.). Printing Photographs on Paper. London : 1856. 

8vo. 

» 

HOYOis (Emmanuel). Notice sur Josse Bade (Badius). Mons: 1843. 
8vo. 
First published in the "Memoires de la Societe des Sciences, des Arts, et des Lettres 
du Hainaut," vol. i. part 3. Mons : 1843, 8vo. ; and a few copies separately printed on 
coloured paper as above. 

Hub (Ludwig). Schriftsetzerlied, Parodie auf Becker's Rheinlied: 
*' Sie sollen ihn nicht haben." [In Buch der Travestien von 
Funk. IL, pp. 358-359 (Erlangen : 1841).] 



Bibliography of Printing. 347 

HUBAUD (L. J.). Examen critique d'un opuscule intitule : Quelques 
recherches sur les debuts de I'Impx-imerie a Toulouse, par M. 
Desbarreaux-Bernard. Marseille: 1858. 8vo. pp.40. 

Examen critique d'un nouvel opuscule de M. Desbarreaux- 
Bernard, intitule I'lmprimerie a Toulouse aux XV% XVI% et 
XVII« Siecles. Marseille : 1866. 8vo. pp. 28. 

HUBER. Presse typographique pour les Aveugles. [In "Archives 
des decouvertes et des inventions," vol. xv.] 

HuBER (Michel). Manuel des Curieux et des Amateurs de I'Art, con- 
tenant une Notice abregee des principaux Graveurs et un Catalogue 
raisonne de leurs ouvrages. 9 vols. Zurich : 1 797-1808. 8vo. 
In spite of its imperfections, a very useful work, but seldom met with in a complete 

form, owing to the ninth volume having been published some years after the previous 

eight. It was compiled, it is stated, with the assistance of C. C. Rost and C. G. Martini. 

Notices generales des Graveurs, divises par nations, et des 

Peintres ranges par ecoles. Precedees de I'Histoire de la Gravure 
et de la Peinture depuis I'origine de ces Arts jusqu'a nos jours, et 
suivies d'un Catalogue raisonne d'une Collection choisie 
d'Estampes. 2 parts. Dresde et Leipsic : 1 787. 8vo. pp. 
xlviii. 701. Allegorical frontispiece. 

This is the first edition of the more generally well-known and standard book of 
reference by Huber bearing the following title : — 

Handbuch fiir Kunstliebhaber und Sammler iiber die vor- 

nehmsten Kupferstecher und ihre Werke, vom Anfange dieser Kunst 
bis auf gegenwartige Zeit ; chronologisch und in Schulen geordnet, 
nach der franzosischen Handschrift des Michel Huber bearbeitet 
von C. C. H. Rost. Bde. 6-9 von C. G. Martini. 9 vols. Zurich : 
1 796- 1 808. 8vo. 

Michel Huber was born at Frontenhausen, Bavaria, in 1727, and died at 
Leipzig, April 15th, 1804. 

HucK & CiE. (J. M.). Schriftgiesserei, Fabrik und Lager von Buch- 

druckerei-Utensilien, etc. in Offenbach - a. - M. 1876. 4to. 12 

leaves of illustrations. 
HuELFSBUCHLEiN fur Buclidrucker und Schriftsetzer, sowie fiir Facto- 

ren, Correctoren und Verlagsbuchhandler. Leipzig: 1872. 8vo. 

pp. 58. Second edition. 
The information afforded in this book is of a very miscellaneous description, and 
embraces schemes of imposition, diagrams of foreign type-cases, paper sizes, &c. 

Hug (J. L.). Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, ihr Zustand und 
friihester Gebrauch im Alterthum. Ulm : 1801. 4to. pp. 150. 
I plate. 
An ingenious and learned essay on the invention of the written characters and 

their history in ancient times. 

Hugo. (Rev. Thomas). The Bewick Collector. A Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the works of Thomas and John Bewick, including cuts, 
in various states, for books and pamphlets, private gentlemen, 
public companies, exhibitions, races, newspapers, shop cards, 
invoice heads, bar bills, coal certificates, broadsides, and other 
miscellaneous purposes, and wood blocks. With an appendix 



348 



Bibliography of Printing. 



of portraits, autographs, works of pupils, &c. The whole de- 
scribed from the originals contained in the largest and most 
perfect collection ever formed, and illustrated with 112 cuts. ' 
London : 1866. 8vo. pp. xxiii. and 562. 

with such an inventory as may be of 
essential service to them in their agree- 
able but expensive pursuit ; and the 
third to describe the treasures of the 
finest and most complete collection which 
has ever been brought together of the 
works of these unrivalled masters." 
Four years previously Mr, Hugo had 
published a "Memoir of Thomas 
Bewick," and this formed a complement 
to it in supplying a catalogue of the 
engraver's works. 



The reverend author says in the 
Preface: "Three objects have been 
specially before me in the composi- 
tion of the following pages : the first, 
to provide the lovers of art in 
general with a complete catalogue of the 
exquisite works, in all their numerous 
departments, of two of the greatest 
artists of modem times, the famous 
Newcastle engravers, Thomas and John 
Bewick ; the second, to furnish the daily 
increasing class of collectors of the same. 



Hugo (Rev. Thomas). The Bewick Collector. A Supplement to' a 
descriptive catalogue of the works of T. & J. Bewick, consisting 
of additions to the various divisions of cuts, wood blocks, &c. 
London : 1868. 8vo. 
Bewick's Woodcuts. Impressions of upwards of 2, OCX) wood- 
blocks, engraved for the most part by Thomas and John Bewick, 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Including illustrations of various kinds 
for books, pamphlets, and broadsides ; cuts for private gentlemen, 
public companies, clubs, exhibitions, races, newspapers, shop- 
cards, invoice-heads, bar-bills, &c. With an Introduction, a 
Descriptive Catalogue of the Blocks, and a List of the Books and 
Pamphlets Illustrated. London : 1870. Folio, pp. vii. 28, and 
2,009 impressions of woodcuts. 
This splendid collection of the engraved Hugo, vicar of Exminster, Devon. En- 
works of Bewick is, as the author says tered at Worcester College, Oxford, in 



in the preface, "the combined result of 
time, patience, travel, good fortune, 
kindness of friends, and lavish and un- 
hesitating expenditure. In the acquisi- 
tion of the blocks the older printing- 
offices of London and the Northern 



he took his M.A. degree, 1850. 
He was first of all curate at Walton-le- 
dale, Lancashire ; then of Childwall, near 
Liverpool ; then of Bury. A ripe scholar, 
a refined English gentleman, and a 
tanch High Church priest, he soon at- 



Counties have been ransacked of their tained promotion to a more congenial 

contents, many hundreds of printers have sphere, and served as curate for .six 

been visited and corresponded with, and years at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate. He 

every clue to the discovery of blocks sup- was elected a Fellow of the Societies of 

posed to be existing has been carefully Antiquaries, Literature, the Linnaean, and 

noted and most patiently and deter- a host of others. From his pen sprang 

minedly followed." The illustrations of innumerable lectures, essays, catalogues, 

the "Quadrupeds," "British Birds," histories, and reviews. In 1858 he was 

and "ifesop" are yet in the possession appointed to the benefice of All Saints, 

of the artist's family ; the rest were Bishopsgate. Ten years afterwards he 

acquired by Mr. Hugo. After his demise, was instituted to the rectory of West 

Mr. Hugo's collection was sold by auction Hackney. As will be seen on refer- ^ 

by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson, & Hodge ence to his books, he was a most ardent 



(8th August, 1877, and following day), 
the sale catalogue being embellished with 
many of Bewick's cuts. A portrait and 
memoir of Bewick, &c., will be found 
s.v. Bewick, ante. 

The Rev. Thomas Hugo, M.A., was 
of Spanish extraction. He was born in 
.1820, being the son of the Rev. John 



collector of Bewickiana, — a pursuit in 
which he spent much time and money. 
He was an ecclesiologist of high attain- 
ments, and a zealous promoter of the 
catholic revival in the Church of Eng- 
land. He died 31st December, 1876, 
aged 56. 



Bibliography of Printing. 349 

HUHN (J. B.). Kurze Nachricht, wie das Jubilgeum wegen der vor 
dreyhundert Jahren erfundenen Buchdruckerkunst in der Stadt 
Gotha den II. Julii 1740 celebriret worden. Gotha: 1740. 8vo. 

HuLLMANDEL (Charles). The Art of Drawing on Stone, giving a full 
explanation of the various styles of the different methods to be 
employed to ensure success, and of the modes of Correcting, as 
well as the several causes of failure. London: 1824. 4to. pp. xvi. 

92. 19 plates. London : 1833. Royal 8vo. pp. viii. 92. 

London : 1835. 8vo. pp. xv. 79. 9 lithographed plates. 

Lithographic Circular, explaining his improvements. London : 

1829. Single sheet 4to. 

Manual of Lithography. — See Raucourt. 

Notice sur la Pierre lithographique perfectionnee et notice sur 

I'amelioration des precedes lithographiques. [In Bulletin des 
Sciences technologiques^ public par Ferurrac. Vol. i., pp. 168 and 
183, etseq.^ 

On some further Improvements in Lithographic Printing. 



[London : 1827.] Super-royal 8vo. pp. 8, with 9 plates. 

This is a collection of extremely well-executed specimens, in commending which to 
his patrons HuUmandel says : "I flatter myself they will meet with your approba- 
tion, for their clearness and sharpness have hitherto been unequalled in lithography." 

A Reply to some Statements in an article entitled "The 

History of Lithography," published in the Foreign Review^ 
No. VII., for July, 1829. London: 1829. 8vo. pp. ii. 

Charles Hullmandel was a German many artists of eminence to cultivate the 

lithographer, who, in order to improve process. Mr. Charles Hullmandel con- 

and, as far as possfble, perfect the art in tinued to use both his pen and his pencil, 

which he took so deep an interest, visited and published in 1827 an account of 

all the lithographic establishments of " Some further Improvements in Litho- 

Germany. He resided at Munich for a gra