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PROPERTY OF THE 






mm. 




• « • 7 




ARTES SCIENTIA VERITAS 




75m 

H33 




SIR RALPH SADLER OF EVERLEY. WILTS. 
ffraud Faleoatr to ^tett Elitabetk. 
a fiai'mtmff om pamel, im ih* pctieMtion of Sir Jofcii D. Ail^;^ Bart. 



Sfbliotbeca acdpitrarla 



CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 



ANCIENT AND MODERN 



REI^TING TO 



FALCONRY 



WITH NOTES, GLOSSARY, AND VOCABULARY 



JAMES EDMUND HARTING 




LONDON 
BERNARD QUARITCH, is PICCADILLY 

i85. 



: . 



/ 



CONTENTS. 



»♦» 



PAGES 

I. Introduction Ix-xxviU 

II. Catalogue of Books : 

English 1-44 

Dutch 44-45 

German 45-59 

Danish and Norwegian 59-6i 

Swedish ' . 61 

French 61-108 

Provencal 109 

Catalan 110 

Spanish m-i35 

Portuguese 136 

Italian 137-160 

Latin - . . 161-1S1 

Greek 181-1S4 

Russian 184-193 

Turkish 193-196 

Persian 197-202 

Arabic 202-206 

Chinese 206-209 

Japanese 209-216 






vi CONTENTS. 

III, Glossaby of Tbchkical Tbbms 317-332 

IV. Polyglot Vocabolabv a33-z39 

V. Noras TO TH8 Illustrations 241-273 

VI. Index to Authors, Priktebs, Engravers, &c. . . 275-289 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

{For Notes to these Plates see end of Volunu.) 



i»t 



1. Sir Ralph Sadler, Grand Falconer to Queen Elizabeth . . Front is, 

2. Robert Cheseman, Falconer to Henry VIII 8 

3. Elizabethan Falconer's Bag 12 

4. James I. as a Youth, with a Sparrow-hawk 16 

5. James I. after his Accession to the Throne of England ; from a Portrait 

by Vandyck iS 

6. The Hon. Lewis Latham, Falconer to Charles 1 22 

7. English Falconers of the Seventeenth Century, by Francis Barlow, 

etched by Hollar 26 

8. Colonel Thornton, of Thomvillc Royal, Yorkshire . . . -36 

9. Silver-gilt Urn presented to Col. Thornton by Members of the 

Falconers' Club, 1781 256 

I a Edward Clough Newcome, of Ilockwold, Norfolk . . . •38 

11. Fleming of Barochan, with his Falconers, John Anderson and George 

Harvey 40 

12. Peter Ballantine, the Last of the Old Scotch Falconers . . .42 

13. A Dutch Falconer, by Franz de Vriendt, commonly called Franz 

Floris 44 



viii LIST OF ILL USTRA TIONS. 

To/acepagt 

14. Prince William V. of Holland, Heron-hawking at the Loo in 1767 . 48 

15. A German Falconer of the Sixteenth Century 56 

i6. A French Falconer, Time of Louis XV 88 

17. Lorenzo de' Medici, sumamed the Magnificent, Author of Im Caccia 

col Falcone . . 140 

18. Italian Falconers of the Seventeenth Century, by Tempesta . .150 

19. Italian Miniatures of the Thirteenth Century, from a MS. of the Emperor 

Frederick the Second's Treatise, De Arte Venandi cum Avibus . 168 

20. Other Miniatures from the Same Source 170 

21. A Falconer of Cyprus, by Titian 182 

22. Falconers of Eastern Turkestan, with the Berkut, or Trained Eagle . 192 

23. Indian Falconers with Sakers and Peregrine 198 

24. Arab Falconers with Lanners 202 

25. A Japanese Falconer 212 

26. A Trained Falcon 216 




INTRODUCTION, 

"Subseciva quaxlam tempora incurrunt qu« ego perire non patior," — Cicero, 



i»« 



Falconry, like other field sports, has its literature. It would 
be strange if it were not so ; for on turning over the pages of 
the world's history, it is apparent that for centuries it has 
played a conspicuous part amongst the diversions of people of 
all nations. 

But the literature of the subject has been much neglected. 
The older treatises in all languages have become scarce and 
costly, and of the rest the booksellers are unable to supply, or 
even to name, a tithe of them. This, p)erhaps, is partly due 
to the circumstance that no Bibliography of Falconry, having 
any claim to completeness, exists. It cannot be said that no 
such work has been attempted; for in 1853 the late Professor 
Schlegel, of Leyden, appended to his splendid Traits de Fau- 
connerie a Catalogue Raisonn^ of such books on the subject as 
were known to him ; while since that date has appeared the 
Bibliographie de la Chasse of M. Souhart, in which Falconry, 
although by no means adequately treated, has received some 
share of attention. 

Long prior to the publication of these two works the 
Catalogues of Kreysig (1750), Lall^mant Fr^res (1763), and 
Lastri (1787) included the titles of books on Hawking, as 
well as of those relating to other branches of the Chase ; while 
since their appearance, lists, varying in length and importance, 
have been printed by Baudrillart, Hammer- Purgstall, Riesen- 
thal, and Sefiores Uhagon and Leguina. Of these the most 



INTRO D UCTION. 



comprehensive is certainly that of Schlegel; but although 
extensive as compared with other lists of the kind, it is con- 
spicuously deficient in regard to the titles of English, French, 
and German works on Falconry ; not because many of these 
were printed after Schlegel's Traits had appeared (which 
would have furnished a sufficient reason for their omission), 
but because they were evidently unknown to him. 

In the present Bibliotheca Accipitraria^ profiting by the 
labours of my predecessors, and having made researches in all 
directions, I have been able to set down 378 titles in nineteen 
languages. These have been transcribed verbatim et literatim^ 
and the various editions and translations indicated. In the 
course of twenty years' collecting, the majority of the books 
have been either procured, or seen, and carefully examined ; 
and it is believed that no printed work of any importance has 
esqaped notice. Incidentally a great number of MSS. have 
been referred to, and the libraries in which they are preserved 
indicated ; but they have not been catalogued for two reasons. 
In the first place, I have already given an account of the Eng- 
lish MSS. relating to Falconry in my Introduction to an Eliza- 
bethan treatise on the Sparrow-hawk and Goshawk (No. 81 
of the present Bibliotheca) ; and, in the next place, no proper 
catalogue of existing MSS. on the subject in other languages 
could be prepared without making a tour of the principal 
Continental libraries, and devoting a considerable time to an 
examination of the originals. It has been thought desirable, 
however, to state where MSS. of importance are deposited, so 
that those who have the leisure and inclination to examine them 
may be guided in their research. This information will be found 
in the critical notes which follow the titles, where also the 
reader will often discover some account of tlie authors of im- 
portant works, with hints as to the sources of their inspiration. 
In a few cases the extreme rarity of a treatise, or the 
trouble which would be entailed upon those who would 
attempt the perusal of the original, has suggested a translation 
of so much as was deemed necessary to convey an accurate 
notion of the contents. For example, a precis is given (pp. 
67-71) of the rare Livre du Faulcon (c. i486) — of which no 
English translation exists — ^with quotations which sufficiently 



INTRODUCTION. xi 



exemplify the phraseology of its unknown author. The history 
and disputed authorship of the almost equally rare Livre du 
Rot Modus is examined (pp. 61-66). The celebrated Spanish 
treatise on Falconry by the Prince Don Juan Manuel is 
epitomised (pp. 1 1 3-1 1 5), as is also that of the famous work of 
Martinez de Espinar. An epitome is furnished (pp. 169-172) 
of the Latin work of the Emperor Frederick II., De Arte 
Venandi cum Avibxis (1245), and of the Greek work of 
Demetrius of Constantinople, written in 1270 (pp. 1 81-183) ; 
while in the case of the Russian books catalogued, half-a- 
dozen in number, a transliteration of the titles follows the 
original, and is succeeded by an abstract of the contents. 

I can claim no acquaintance, I regret to say, with Oriental 
languages, but by means of French and German translations, 
and with the assistance of friends well versed in the matter, 
I have been able to give- an account of most, if not all, of the 
treatises on Falconry which are worth quoting in Turkish, 
Persian, Arabic, Chinese, and Japanese. It may be observed 
that many of these are in MS,, and there is perhaps little 
likelihood of their being published. Strictly speaking, as 
manuscripts, they ought not to have been included in the 
present Catalogue ; but to have omitted all mention of them 
would have been to pass over some important sources of in- 
formation, while by directing attention to their existence, oppor- 
tunity is afforded to the reader of judging the extent of Oriental 
literature on this particular branch of sport. 

To Mr. Sydney A. J. Churchill, of the Persian Legation, I 
am indebted for much kind assistance in regard to the Persian 
and Arabic titles, and the fact that the proof-sheets of this 
portion of the Biblioiheca Accipitraria have been revised by the 
eminent Orientalist, Dr. Rieu, of the British Museum, gives it 
ZM imprimatur without which it could not be expected to find 
favour in the eyes of critics. As regards the Chinese and 
Japanese titles, I am under great obligation to Mr. F. V. 
Dickins, Assistant Registrar of the University of London, 
whose knowledge of these languages has enabled him to give 
most valuable assistance. 

Altogether, there are catalogued 378 titles in nineteen lan- 
guages. The way in which they are apportioned will be seen on 



xu 



INTRO D UCTION. 



reference to the following table, which also shows the impor- 
tant additions which have been made to the catalogue published 
by Schlegel : — 



List of Works. 


Schlegel. 


Harting. 


English . 


15 


82 


Dutch . 




3 


4 


German 




16 


46 


Danish . 




I 


4 


Swedish 




I 


I 


French . 




30 


84 


Provencal 




I 


I 


Catalan . 




I 


I 


Spanish 




7 


38 


Portuguese 




I 


I 


Italian . 




5 


35 


Latin . 




17 


29 


Greek . 




4 


4 


Russian 




I 


6 


Turkish 




2 


3 


Persian . 




3 


8 


Arabic . 




12 


13 


Chinese 




4 


4 


Japanese 




II 


14 


Total . 




135 


378 



On examining the titles of all these works, two things arc 
particularly striking — first, the great antiquity of Falconry ; 
and secondly, its widespread practice. 

The origin of the art it is now impossible to discover. 
From the earliest times of which history takes cognizance 
people of all nations, but more particularly those of Eastern 
origin, have practised the sport, and we may form some idea 
of its antiquity from Sir Henry Layard's discovery of a bas- 
relief amongst the ruins of Khorsabad, in which a falconer is 
represented carrying a hawk upon his fist. From this he 
has inferred that hawking was practised there some 1700 
years before the Christian era. 

In China it was known even at an earlier date than this, 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 



for in a Japanese work (No. 376), of which a French trans- 
lation appeared at the beginning of the present century, it is 
stated that falcons were amongst the presents made to princes 
in the time of the Hia dynasty, which is supposed to have 
commenced in the year 2205 b.c. 

It would carry me far beyond the limits of this Intro- 
duction were I to attempt to trace here the history and 
progress of Falconry, although the necessary materials are at 
hand in the works which I have catalogued. On this part of 
the subject a second volume might be written. Suffice it to 
remark, that the sport was introduced into Europe from the 
East, and that there is reason to believe that Hawking was 
practised by Europeans at least three centuries before the 
Christian era,* 

It is remarkable how on almost every point the falconers of 
the East and West are agreed. Although the communication 
between them has been interrupted for centuries, their general 
system of treatment, and the many ingenious contrivances, 
either discovered or handed down from posterity, are very 
similar. Both make use of jesses, leashes, bells, and hoods, 
varying only in pattern and material. They imp broken flight- 
feathers in the same way, and both bathe and weather their 
hawks, feed and give castings, in the same manner. 

This alone would prove the ancient origin of Falconry, 
which appears to have had but one source, and probably to 
have been introduced by the Indo-Germanic race from the 
plains of Hindostan, so favourable to Hawking. 

On looking into the history of Falconry in Europe, one 
figure of a great falconer in the Middle Ages stands out 
prominently — namely, the Emperor Frederick II. of Grermany, 
who died in 1250. He had seen something of Hawking in the 
East, and in 1239, on his return from a Crusade which he 
had undertaken the year before, when he was crowned King 
of Jerusalem and Sicily, he brought with him from Syria and 
Arabia several expert falconers with their hawks, and spent 
much of his leisure time in learning from them the secrets of 
their art, which he considered the noblest and most worthy of 
all the arts. The excellent treatise whicli he composed in 

* See No. 79 of this Catalogue, p. 69. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 



Latin, De Arte Vcnandi cum Avibus, was the first which 
appeared in the West, and is still one of the best which 
exists. It has been translated into Grerman by Pacius (No. loi), 
and its marked influence on the literature of the subject is 
perceptible on examining the subsequently published treatises 
of the French author Tardif and our English Turbervile. 

In the Middle Ages the Germans were great falconers ; so 
also were the French, and the natives of Brabant, of whom a 
celebrated Spanish falconer in 1325 wrote that they were the 
best falconers in the world. To a less extent the art was 
practised in Spain and Italy during many centuries, and books 
were written in all these countries by those who had become 
proficient in the art, and were fired by the enthusiam of their 
success. The Kings of Norway and Denmark preferred hunting 
to hawking, but rendered good service to the sister sport by 
procuring, from various parts of Scandinavia, the celebrated 
jerfalcons of Northern Europe, which were held in the highest 
esteem by those to whom they were sent as presents. 

Although the precise date of the introduction of Hawking 
into England cannot now be ascertained, wc know from 
several sources that it was practised by our ancestors in early 
Saxon times. In a letter addressed by King Ethelbert (a.d. 
748-760) to Boniface, Archbishop of Mayence, who died in 
755, the monarch asked him to send over two falcons that 
would do to fly at the crane, for, said he, " there arc very 
few birds of use for that flight in this country" — i,c., in 
Kent Asser, in his Life of Alfred the Great, particularly 
refers to the king's love of hawking ; and William of Malmcs- 
bury records much the same of Athelstan, who procured his 
' hawks from Wales. The same historian says of Edward the 
Confessor that his chief delight was to follow a pack of swift 
hounds and cheer them with his voice, or to attend the flight 
of hawks taught to pursue and catch their kindred birds. 

So general, indeed, was the pastime of Hawking in Saxon 
times, that the monks of Abingdon found it necessary in 821 
to procure a charter from King Kenulph to restrain the practice 
in harvest-time, in order to prevent their crops from being 
trampled upon. (Dugdale, Monasiicon, i. p. 100.) 



INTRODUCTION. xv 



One of the most interesting pieces of documentary evidence 
on this part of the subject is deposited in the MS. Depart- 
ment of the British Museum. I refer to the Colloquy of 
Archbishop iElfric, a composition of the tenth century. The 
object of this and similar colloquies and vocabularies compiled 
about the same period was to interpret Latin to the Anglo- 
Saxon student, and furnish him with the Latin, words for 
the common objects of life. In this MS. we find a dialogue 
between a scholar and a falconer, in which the latter imparts 
some interesting details on the subject of his art as then 
practised.* 

Hawking was pursued by many of our early kings with the 
greatest enthusiasm, and some reference to their doings will 
be found in No. 79 of this Catalogue, which contains (pp. 
71-85) many details of interest serving to illustrate the his- 
tory of Falconry in England. 

Henry VIlL's love of Hawking may be inferred from the 
anecdote related of him in Hall's *' Chronicle," to the effect that, 
being one day out hawking at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, he 
was leaping a dyke with a hawking-pole, when it suddenly 
broke, and the king was immersed in mud and water, and 
might have lost his life had not Edmund Moody, one of the at- 
tendants, come to his assistance. (Chronicle 1 548, fol. 1 30 verso.) 
A portrait of his chief falconer, Robert Cheseman, from the 
painting by Holbein in the Royal Gallery at The Hague, will 
be found amongst the illustrations to the present work.t 

A representation is also given (see the frontispiece) of 
Sir Ralph Sadler, the Grand Falconer to Queen Elizabeth, in 
whose reign Hawking was much in vogue. It is reproduced 
from an old panel-portrait by Gerhardt which hangs in the 
Manor House at Everley, Wilts, the former residence of 

* This dialogue will be found printed in the Introduction to No. 81. 

t It was in the reign of Henry VIII. that the royal hawks were removed from 
the Mews at Charing Cross (where they had been kept during many reigns), and 
the place was converted into stables. The name, however, confirmed by long 
usage, remained to the building, although after the hawks were withdrawn it 
became inapplicable. But what is more curious still, in later times, when the 
people of London began to build stabling at the back of their houses, they 
christened those places " mews " after the old stabling at Charing Cross. 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 



Henry Sadler, the third son of Sir Ralph (see the note to 
No. 19, pp. 16, 17, and "Notes to the Illustrations/' p. 242). 
James I., as is well known, was an enthusiastic sportsman, 
and especially delighted in Hawking, on which amusement he 
spent considerable sums annually, as may be seen by the 
entries of payments made during this reign, printed in Devon's 
" Issues of the Exchequer." * 

His portrait as a youth, with a sparrow-hawk on his fist, is 
here reproduced from a scarce engraving by Raddon, and his 
appearance in after-life is shown in the portrait by Vandyck. 

It was in his reign that Sir Thomas Monson, who succeeded 
Sir Ralph Sadler as Royal Falconer, was said to have given 
;£'I000 for a cast of falcons — a story which has been re- 
peatedly told in print, but which is altogether based upon a 
misapprehension. The facts are correctly stated by Sir 
Antony Weldon in his *' Court and Character of King James," 
1650 ; the truth being that Sir Thomas Monson spent ;^iooo 
before he succeeded in getting a cast of jerfalcons that were 
perfect for flying at the kite, and this he might very well have 
done, seeing that he would have to defray the cost of 
expeditions to Norway or Iceland for them.t 

By great good fortune, while these pages were passing 
through the press, I learnt that a lineal descendant of the 
Hon. Lewis Latham, Falconer to Charles I., was living at 
Hyattsville, Maryland, U.S.A., in the person of Mr. F. A. 
Holden, and that he had in his possession a contemporary 
portrait of his ancestor. I lost no time in communicating 
with him, and in due course received a photograph of the por- 
trait, here reproduced, with permission to publish it 

All the Stuarts were fond of Hawking, but after the 
Restoration the sport ceased to be popular. The causes 
which led to its decline were many and various. The disas- 
trous state of the country during the period of the civil wars 

* See also Professor Newton's account of Hawking in Norfolk, appended to 
the second edition of Lubbock's *' Fauna of Norfolk," 1879, pp. 226-227, and the 
supplementary remarks thereon, contributed by the present writer to the Trans ' 
actions of the Norfolk Naturalists' Society, 1880, vol. iii. pp. 82-89. 

t See note to No. 27. 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 



naturally put an end, for the time being, to the general in- 
dulgence in field sports. The inclosure of waste lands, the 
drainage and cultivation of marshes, the great improvement in 
fire-arms, and particularly the introduction of shot, all con- 
tributed to lessen the interest once so universally taken in 
this sport. Fashion also, no doubt, had a good deal to do 
with the decline of Hawking, for so soon as the reigning 
sovereign ceased to take an interest in the sport, the courtiers 
and their friends followed suit. Nevertheless, it never really 
died out, and from that time to the present it has never ceased 
to be practised by a few admirers of the old sport in various 
parts of the country, while during the last few years signs have 
not been wanting of its increasing popularity. 

In addition to those already mentioned, the portraits of one 
or two of its staunchest supporters durin«Ub^^'''"--r"centupy 
will be found amongst the illustrations here given ; notably 
the Scottish falconers, Fleming of Barochan, John Anderson, 
and Peter Ballantine (who died in 1884) ; ^^^ the English 
masters of the craft. Colonel Thornton, of Thornville Royal, 
Yorkshire, and Edward Clough Newcome, of Hockwold, in 
the county of Norfolk, concerning whom some details will be 
found in the " Notes to the Illustrations." 

Of the other plates to this volume, it may be said that the 
writer's aim has been to give authoritative representations of 
falconers of various nations, in their national costumes, and 
with the hawks and falcons used by them ; occasionally 
also to figure such curiosities connected with the sport as 
may be of interest not only to falconers, but also to lovers 
of art. 

As an aid to those who are but imperfectly acquainted 
with the technical terms employed in the exercise of this 
ancient sport, it is hoped that the English Glossary and 
polyglot Vocabulary at the end of this volume will prove 
of service ; the more so, since many of the words therein 
contained are not to be found in the ordinary dictionaries. 

It may be expected, and indeed it has been already hinted 
to the writer, that in the course of this Introduction to 
the Literature of Falconry, some introduction to the Sport 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 



itself should be included, to enable a proper understanding of 
the critical notes which follow. It is difficult to attempt this 
without incurring the risk of writing too much, and going too 
minutely into a branch of the subject which the present volume 
is not primarily intended to deal with. A bibliography is one 
thing, a treatise on Falconry is quite another, and would, if fully 
considered, extend far beyond the limits of an Introduction. 
Nevertheless, as the two are so connected that an explanation 
of the one will lead to a better appreciation of the other, a 
brief outline may here be given of what may be termed the 
principia artis accipitraria* 

The birds employed by falconers belong to two classes — 
the long-winged, dark-eyed falcons, and the short-winged, 
yellow-eyed hawks. To the former class belong the Jerfalcon, 
Peregrine, Lanner, Saker, Barbary Falcon, the Indian Shahin, 
the Hobby, and the Merlin ; to the latter the Goshawk and 
Sparrow-hawk. The former take their prey by rising above 
it in the air, and stooping at it from a considerable height, and 
striking it to the ground ; the latter pursue in a straight line, 
and, overtaking the quarry by superior speed, clutch it, and 
come down with it. The larger falcons are flown at winged 
game of all kinds — crows, magpies, rooks, herons, and wild- 
fowl ; the smaller falcons, such as the merlin and hobby, are 
used for taking larks ; while of the short-winged hawks, the 
sparrow-hawk is flown at blackbirds and thrushes, partridges 
early in the season, and quails ; the goshawk taking pheasants, 
partridges, and wild-fowl, rabbits and hares. With all birds 
of prey the females are invariably larger and more powerful than 
the males, and the sexes are consequently selected according to 
the quarry they have to pursue. Jcrfalcons are now rarely 
employed, partly owing to the difficulty of procuring them, 
partly because the peregrine falcon is preferred, and experience 
has shown tliat, except in a woody or inclosed country, where 
the goshawk and sparrow-hawk are preferable, the peregrine 
is the most useful of all the birds of prey. 

* The details which follow are taken from the article ** Falconry " (No. 82) 
contributed by the present writer to the last edition of Chambers's Encycl opadta^ 
1889. 



INTRODUCTION. xix 



Hawks are either taken young from the nest before they 
can fly, when they are termed eyesses^ or are caught later, 
during the period of their migration, by means of a decoy 
pigeon and a bow-net, when they arc called passage-hawks, ''^ 
The mode of treatment is a little different, inasmuch as the 
latter have already learned to catch and kill prey for them- 
selves, and only require to be tamed ; the former have every- 
thing to learn. A passage-hawk on being caught is hooded, 
and has jesses, or soft leather straps, fastened on her legs. 
She is then set down on a block of turf to prevent damage to 
feathers, and fed once a day, at first through the opening of 
the hood, afterwards with the hood removed. The bird is 
always fed upon the gloved hand, and gradually learns to step 
on to it from the perch, increasing the distance daily until 
she is obliged to fly to reach the fist. The training then 
commences. The hawk is called offy as it is termed, to the 
lure, which means that after tying a long line to the ends of 
the jesses she is held hooded on the hand of an assistant, 
until the falconer, at the distance of five-and-twenty yards, 
swings the lure to which the bird has been accustomed to 
come to be fed. The hood being then removed, the hawk 
flies to the lure, and is exercised in this way for some time 
daily, until she is sufliciently tractable to be trusted without a 
line, care being taken not to feed her until she has flown, 
and always to reward her for coming to the lure with a morsel 
of the meat with which it is garnished. She is then entered 
at the quarry at which she is intended to be flown (partridge, 
rook, or whatever it may be) by first giving her a live bird at 
the end of a long line, and allowing her to go off* the fist and 
kill it ; eventually the line is dispensed with, and she is flown 
at wild quarry. 

Such, briefly, is the mode of training a passage-hawk. An 
cyess is somewhat differently treated. A straw-covered plat- 
form is put up in some shed or outhouse, and on this the nest- 
lings (which should not be taken too young, or they will turn 
out screamers) are placed, the platform being about as high up 

* The mode of capturing passage-hawks as practised by the Dutch falconers 
will be found described in No. 79, p. 109. 



XX INTRODUCTION, 



as one can reach to feed the birds. They are fed three 
times a day on fresh lean beef, while growing, to keep up 
their strength, or hunger-traces will appear, like cuts across 
the webs of the feathers, and the latter, breaking, will render 
the birds useless. When they are strong enough and able to 
fly, jesses are put on the legs, and a spherical brass bell (of 
Dutch or Indian make), on one leg, is fastened just above the 
jess with a little narrow strip of leather termed a bewiU At 
feeding-time, now once a day, they are called to the lure, and 
being allowed their liberty for some weeks (in which state 
they are said to be flying at hack\ they daily gain strength 
and wing-power, until the time comes for taking them up and 
commencing their training, which after this stage does not 
differ much from the method above described for passage- 
hawks. When flying at hack, a hawk sometimes becomes 
wild, wanders away to a distance, and kills game for herself. 
When this is perceived, a bow-net, or other device for snaring, 
is set for her, to which she is decoyed and recaptured. The 
first operation in training is hooding^ which, if successfully 
performed, overcomes much difficulty. It requires some 
patience and dexterity, and should be practised at first in a 
darkened room, in which the hawk will be much quieter than 
in broad daylight. The hood is simply a cap of leather, made 
to fit the head in such a manner as to obscure the light, a 
single aperture only being left, through which the beak pro- 
trudes, and a slit behind, which is opened and closed, when 
the hood is put on and off, by means of braces, one pair of 
which opens, the other pair closes the slit ; the eye-pieces, 
which to prevent injury to the eyes are carefully blocked 
out, are covered for ornament with red or green cloth. By 
temporarily blindfolding the hawk, the hood causes her 
to sit perfectly quiet, and prevents her from bating, or 
fluttering, at the risk of breaking feathers, as she would 
do if frightened by passers-by until gradually accustomed to 
them. 

Allusion has already been made to the jesses, or soft straps 
of leather (dogskin is best), which are fastened to the legs of 
the hawk, by which to hold her on the glove and tie her to 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 



the perch or block. These jesses are about six inches long, 
and are never removed when the hawk is flown, though they 
require to be renewed from time to time. In former days 
varvels, or flat rings of silver, with the owner's name engraved 
thereon, were permanently attached to the ends of the jesses, 
and through these one end of the leash was passed, the other 
end being prevented from going through by a leather button. 
At the present day, however, most falconers prefer using a 
figure 8 swivel, which is always detached before the hawk is 
flown. 

The lure, already referred to, is a device for luring the 
hawk back to her owner after an unsuccessful flight, and on 
this account the hawk is early made acquainted with it by being 
fed upon it daily while being trained. There are various 
patterns ; one of the simplest and most easily made consists 
of a couple of pigeons' wings tied together on a flat circular 
leaden weight covered with leather, upon which a piece of 
raw meat is tied on both sides. The tabur-stick and drawer, 
which were formerly used as lures, have long been dis- 
carded. 

The beaks and claws of wild-caught hawks are generally 
so long and sharp as to require paring, or coping as it is 
termed ; but this operation requires to be very carefully per- 
formed (the hawk being hooded and held by an assistant), 
and not more than the tenth of an inch removed, or the 
efficiency of the beak and claws will be impaired. Indeed, 
some falconers will never cope a hawk except when the beak 
is overgrown ; and with goshawks especially, which have to 
hold such powerful prey as hares and rabbits, strong and 
sharp pounces are indispensable. 

Eastern falconers carry their hawks upon the right hand ; 
European falconers always carry them on the left, leaving 
the right hand free for detaching leash and swivel, and re- 
moving and replacing the hood. 

For further information than can be afforded within the 
narrow limits of an Introduction, the reader must be referred 
to some of the works catalogued in the following pages. 

And here it may be well to direct attention to some of 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 



the more useful books in different languages, for it is not to 
be supposed that they are all of equal merit. On the con- 
trary, many of them are of no practical value at the present 
day, and are mere literary curiosities, interesting only from 
their rarity, or as early specimens of printing and engraving. 
Amongst these may be mentioned " The Book of St. Albans " 
(No. i);* "The Institution of a Gentleman," 1555 (No. 10); 
Maplet's "Greene Forest," 1567 (No. 11); Swan's Speculum 
Mundif 163s (No. 26); Stevenson's "Twelve Moneths," 1661 
(No. 32) ; Hicfelt's Aucupatorium Herodiorum^ 1450 (No. 
88); Eberhard Tapp's Waidwerck und Federspiel^ 1542 (No. 
93); Pomey's Buchlein, 167 1 (No. 98); Le Livre du Rot 
Modus^ i486 (No. 138); Le Rot Dancus, 1284 (No. 139); 
Le Livre du Faulcon, i486 (No. 140) ; and others. Yet 
these are all book rarities, and command high prices when 
they occur for sale. 

Again, many books are included in this Bibliotheca Accipi- 
iraria which do not relate exclusively to Falconry ; such, 
for instance, as the works of Gervase Markham (Nos. 3—8) 
and William Gryndall (No. 13); "The Jewel for Gentrie" 
(No. 17) ; and " The Gentleman's Recreation," by Nicholas 
Cox (Nos. 37-39) and Richard Blome (No. 41) ; as also cer- 
tain Encyclopaedias. But as these contain important sections, 
or articles, on the practice of Falconry, it would have been 
manifestly unwise to omit mention of them. 

Of compilations, not always acknowledged, and translations, 
there are naturally a good many, but the critical notes ap- 
pended to the titles of these will put the reader on his guard 
against attaching undue importance to them, however in- 
dispensable they may seem to the collector of books on 
Hawking. 

Those who may be disposed to take up the subject 
seriously, if they know nothing about it already, will be 
naturally perplexed if offered a choice of nearly four hundred 
volumes. It may be well, therefore, to indicate those which 
will be found of most use at the present day, including, on 

* The history and practical vahie of the treatise on Hawking, which forms 
part of the " Book of St. Albans/' is minutely examined in No. 79, pp. 96-ioS. 



INTRODUCTION. " xxiii 

account of their excellence, a few of the older treatises which 
deserve to be consulted. 

English, — Turbervile (14, 15), Latham (18, 19, 20), and 
Bert (22) may be regarded as the old English masters of 
Falconry. They wrote chiefly from experience, although 
Turbervile borrowed much from French and Italian authors of 
repute. Before his day the books in use were either garbled 
versions of the " Book of St. Albans," and of little practical 
value, or compositions by writers who had but slight acquaint- 
ance with the subject. Markham's " Gentleman's Academie," 
1595 (3), and "Hunger's Prevention," 1621 (8), are perhaps 
the most desirable of this author's works from the falconer's 
point of view. 

Sir Antony Weldon's curious little volume (27) is worth 
securing, if opportunity occurs, since it contains the true story 
of Sir Thomas Monson's hawks, so strangely perverted by 
subsequent writers (see pp. xvi, 23). The alleged extrava- 
gance of this " Master Falconer" by the charge of ;^iooo in 
gos-falcons for one flight (that of the kite) is first noticed by 
Oldys in the Biographia Britannica, afterwards by Warton in his 
Observations on Spenser (1762, ii. 173), and then by Pennant 
(1768, i. 133), who in his "British Zoology" inserted all 
Warton's notices of hawking without acknowledgment — 
whence they were copied by Yarrell and others. In the first 
edition Sir A. W. calls the birds " gos-faulcons "; in the second 
edition they are styled more correctly " ger-faulcons." 

Ray's "Summary of Falconry" (35), though not original, 
being abridged from Turbervile and Latham, is to be com- 
mended ; but, being in folio, its size is cumbersome. 

Nicholas Cox's " Gentleman's Recreation " passed through 
so many editions that there is no difficulty in procuring a 
copy. It is of little merit, however, being chiefly compiled 
from the works of previous writers (see the note on p. 28). 

A folio work with the same title, by Richard Blome(4i), is 
better worth having, and has numerous fine engravings. 

Campbell's "Treatise of Modem Faulconry," 1773 (49), is 
a practical one, but is disfigured by a long and ridiculous 
preface, for which he was not responsible (see note on p. 34). 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 



Colonel Thornton's ''Sporting Tour" (57), though relating 
to various field sports, is full of allusions to Falconry, of which 
he was a famous exponent, and illustrates in a delightful 
manner the practical part of the subject. 

Sir John Sebright's " Observations upon Hawking " 
(61), originally published in pamphlet form (64 pp. only) for 
eighteenpence, would now be cheap at a guinea. The author 
wrote from his own experience, and was assisted by an 
excellent falconer, Mr. John Dawson Downes, of Gunton, 
Suffolk, who revised the MS. Some account of the original 
MS. lately examined by me will be found in The Zoologistf 
1890 (pp. 417-421). 

The second edition of Lubbock's " Fauna of Norfolk " (65) 
is to be commended for the sake of the chapter on the re- 
mains of Falconry in Norfolk (pp. 33-44) and the excellent 
notes on this subject communicated in an Appendix (pp. 224- 
239) by Professor Newton. 

Coming now to the recent works by English writers, those 
by Salvin and Brodrick {67), Freeman (68, 71), and Delmd 
Radcliffe (72, 73) are indispensable to all who would learn 
something of the history and practice of a noble and ancient 
sport ; while, if an author may be permitted to refer to his 
own labours, it may be hinted that in Nos. 79 and 80 of the 
present Catalogue the reader will find some information not 
unworthy of his attention. 

German, — The list of German books contains the titles of a 
good many that are more curious than useful. The first on 
the list {^y) is regarded as the earliest printed book on 
Falconry in any language. 

The reader perhaps would do well to begin with Dr. 
Landau's BeUrdge zur Geschichte der Jagd und dcr Falk- 
nerei in Deutschlmid (121) and the section on Hawking in 
Die Raubvdgel Deutschlands by Riesenthal (127), and then 
to look back into some of the older authors, such as Eberhard 
Tapp, Knoblauch, and Hans von Fleming, by which time he will 
be better prepared to understand their technicalities. One of 
the best of these is the translation of the work of the French 
falconer, Charles d'Arcussia (97), published at Frankfort in 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 



1617, and full of interesting details of hawking, written 
at the most flourishing period of its history — namely, at 
the time when the falconers of James I. of England and of 
Louis XIII. of France vied with each other in a display of 
their art. 

French. — The French literature is rich in hawking books. 
Amongst the older writers, Guillaume Tardif (142), Jean 
de Franchi^res (145), de Gommer (152), Charles d'Arcussia 
(153), Saincte-Aulaire (155), Pierre Harmont, dit " Mei- 
cure," (156), Claude de Morais (164), and Seigneur de 
Boissoudan (202) were all masters of their art, and their 
wca*ks are accordingly of value. Amongst writers of the 
modem school, precedence must be given to Schlegers 
splendid Traite de Fauconncrte with its erudite text and 
beautifully coloured plates. No less valuable, from its com- 
prehensive and complete nature, is Baron de Noirmont's 
Histoire, de la Chasse en France (206), the third volume of 
which contains much important information on the history and 
progress of Falconry. Reference should also be made to the 
very useful and instructive work of Viollet-le-Duc,* in which 
will be found figures and descriptions of some early forms of 
lure (fig. 21) and hood (figs. 22, 23). As we come nearer to 
our own time, French works on Falconry, instead of showing 
signs of decline, seem to issue from the press more frequently, 
thereby indicating a revived interest in the ancient and time- 
honoured sport, which is happily sustained by the united efforts 
and enthusiasm of living French and English falconers. 

Thus may be mentioned with respect and admiration the 
names of MM. Charavay (210), D'Aubusson (211), Pichot 
(207, 208, 221), Sourbets (216), Saint Marc (217), Foye 
(218), Belvalette (219), and Ceifon (220) — all of whom have 
contributed in an important degree to rescue la chasse au vol 
from neglect, and place it again upon the footing it once held 
amongst national field sports. 

To Monsieur P. A. Pichot the present writer is particularly 
indebted for much kind assistance in relation to French litera- 

* DicHonnaire Kaisonn^ du Mobilier Fran^ais de Vipoquc Carlovtn^nnc H la 
RcTuUssance^ vol. ii., 1877, ait. Chasse, pp. 407-449. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION, 



ture during the preparation of this Bibliotheca Accipitraria, as 
well as for the figure of a French falconer in the time of 
Louis XV.y which will be found amongst the illustrations. 

Spanish. — ^As a curiosity, Los Paramientos de la Caza 
(224), attributed to Sancho VI. (el Sabio), is worth reading, 
although Don Jose Gutierrez de la Vega (226) doubts whether 
the MS. is of the age assigned to it (p. xcvii). But the two 
most celebrated books in Spanish upon this subject are those 
by the Prince Don Juan Manuel (226) and the Chancellor Pero 
Lopez de Ayala (228). Nor should we omit to notice the now 
scarce work of Martinez de Espinar (245). Those who are not 
familiar with the Spanish literature of the chase will probably 
be surprised at the number of works (38) now catalogued, 
especially as only seven are enumerated by Schlegel. But of 
these thirty-eight, it must be confessed that several are of but 
slight importance, while a few are merely translations from the 
Latin and French. 

Italian, — The best known, and perhaps on the whole the 
most useful, treatises in Italian are those of Carcano (267) 
and Federico Georgi (268) ; but the following may also be 
recommended for reasons which appear in the notes following 
the titles — namely, Codroipo (274), Raimondi (277), Olina 
(278), and Tuano, translated from the Latin by Bergantini 
(284). It was to the works of Carcano and Georgi that our 
English Turbervile was so much indebted in the preparation of 
his " Booke of Faulconrie," 1575-1611 (14, 15). 

Those who desire a deeper acquaintance with the Italian 
literature of the subject will do well to look into the works 
edited by Professors Spezi (294), Ceruti (295), Zambrini 
(296), and Ferraro (297). 

Latin, — With the exception of the Hieracosophion of 
Thuanus, or, to give him his real name, De Thou (306), 
already mentioned in connection with the Italian translation 
of his poem, it will suffice to mention a single work in Latin 
as worth perusal at the present day, and this is a most im- 
portant one — namely, the work of the Emperor Frederick II., 
De Arte Venandi cum Avibus (308). To master this is to 
acquire a liberal education in the art of Hawking. It is ex- 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 



tremely easy to read, and, with the aid of the polyglot Vocabu- 
lary at the end of this Bibliotheca Accipitraria, would furnish a 
Latin classic for schools which to the majority of schoolboys 
would prove of far greater interest than the works of many 
Latin authors which are placed in their hands at the present 
day. A good English translation of this, and of De Thou's 
celebrated poem, would form acceptable additions to the well- 
known series of Latin classics for English readers. 

Greek. — The only treatise deserving of special mention is 
that of Demetrius of Constantinople (327), one of the oldest 
writers on Falconry. The text was first printed by Nicolas 
Rigault, librarian to Louis XIII., in his Ret Accipitrarice 
Scriptores (314), from two MSS. in the Biblioth^que Royale, 
Paris ; but a Latin translation by Pierre Gilles (di Petro Gillio 
Latine redditus) had been previously published at Leyden in 
1562, with the Historia Animalium of iElian. This is re- 
printed by Rigault {op, cit) with separate pagination (pp. i- 
1 1 8). An English analysis will be found in the present 
volume (pp. 182-183). The learned Sir Thomas Browne (36) 
has remarked that " the Greeks understood hunting early, but 
little or nothing of our Falconry. If Alexander had known it, 
we might have found something of it and more of hawks in 

Aristotle Though he hath mentioned divers hawks, 

yet Julius Scaliger, an expert falconer, despaired to reconcile 
them unto ours. And 'tis well if among them you can clearly 
make out a Lanner, a Sparrowhawk, and a Kestril, but must 
not hope to find your Gerfalcon there, which is the noble 
hawk ; and I wish you one no worse than that of Henry, King 
of Navarre, which Scaliger saith he saw strike down a buzzard, 
two wild geese, divers kites, a crane and a swan" (op, ciL^ 
p. 118; Wilkins' ed., vol. iv. p. 189). The statement of 
Scaliger, it is presumed, is to be found in his Annotations to 
Aristotle's Historia Animalium^ although a search for the parti- 
cular passage has not led to its discovery. (See pp. 9, 179.) 

Russian. — The work of Constantine Haller (336), late Pre- 
sident of the Russian Falconry Club at St. Petersburg, 1885, 
is the only one of the half-dozen here catalogued that is 
worthy of special mention. It will be seen from the English 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 



analysis here given (pp. 189-191) that it is a modern sketch 
of the history and practice of Falconry in Russia, by one who, 
being himself an enthusiastic falconer, may be regarded as a 
reliable authority on the subject. 

Arabic, — As the present writer can claim no acquaintance 
with Oriental languages, he will not be expected to do more 
than recommend such works as he has been enabled to master 
by means of translations, and of these the only one of much 
interest is that of Sid Mohamed el Mangali (360), of which a 
French translation, with the Arabic text, was published in 
Paris in 1880. A review of it is given in No. 79 (pp. 362— 
370). It should not be forgotten, however, that the works 
of Arabic writers have exercised, in the course of centuries, a 
distinct influence on the literature of Falconry in Europe ; not 
only by means of the MSS. which were translated for the 
Emperor Frederick II., and were utilised by him in his cele- 
brated Latin treatise, but also by means of the methods, 
appliances, and technical terms which were introduced by the 
Moors into Spain, and which eventually found their way into 
the works of Spanish authors, who in their turn influenced 
the writers of other countries. 

It only remains to state that the great number of technical 
terms employed by falconers in the practice of their art, and 
made use of by all writers on the subject, has suggested the 
preparation of an English Glossary and a polyglot Vocabulary, 
which will be found at the end of the volume, and which it is 
hoped will prove useful to the reader in his perusal of 
treatises in languages other than his own. 

A description of the accompanying plates will be found in 
the " Notes to the Illustrations." 

" Iloec studia adolescentiam alunt senectutem oblectant.*'— CiV^r*?. 



CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 



RELATING TO 



FALCONRY. 



Note. — To show the progress of the literature^ the. titles are arranged in 
chronological order under countries ; but the work of any author 
may be found at once by reference to the Index at the end of the 
volume. 



I. BABNES (Juliana). The Boke of St Albans 

containing the Treatises of Hawking, Hunting and 

Coat- Armour. Printed at St Albans, i486, sm. folio. 

[Reproduced in facsimile with an Introduction 

by William Blades. London, 1881. 4to.] 

Black letter, 88 leaves, without title-page, pagination, or catch- 
words. The earliest English printed book, although not the 
earliest English treatise, which relates to Falconry. Attributed 
to Dame Juliana Barnes, Bemes, or Bemers, whose name occurs 
in the first edition (foL 23) as *' Barnes,** and in the second 
edition as '^ Bemes." It is not, however, an original composi- 
tion, but a compilation from earlier MSS. (See No. 81 of this 
Catalogue, pp. vii.-viii., and No. 79, pp. 96-108.) 

The colophon runs : — '' Here in thys boke afore are conteynt 
the bokys of Haukyng and Huntyng wyth other plesuris dy verse 
as in the boke apperis and also of Coot-armuris a nobull werke. 
And here now endyth the boke of blasying of armys translatyt 

A 



BOOKS ON FALCONRY, 



and corapylyt togedyr at Seynt Albans the yere from thincama- 
cion of owre Lorde Jhu Crist, mcccclxxxvi." 

2. BABNES (Juliana). The Book containing 
THE Treatises of Hawking ; Hunting ; Coat-Armour ; 
Fishing ; and Biasing of Arms. As printed at West- 
minster by Wynkyn de Worde; the year of the 
Incarnation of our Lord, 1496. sm. folio. 

[Reprinted with an Introduction by Joseph 
Haslewood. London, 18 10. sm. folio.] 

The original, in black letter, 74 leaves, is without title-page, 
pagination, or catch-words. On the recto of the first leaf is a 
woodcut of Birds, and on the verso a group of men with a hawk, 
beneath which follows the title in four lines and a half, begin- 
ning : — ** This present boke shewyth the manere of hawkynge and 
huntynge, and also of divysynge of Cote armours," etc. Colophon. 
" Here in this boke afore ben shewed the treatyses perteynynge 
to hawkynge & huntynge with other dyvers playsaunt materes 
belongynge unto noblesse : and also a ryght noble treatise of 

Cotarmours, as in this present boke it may appere 

Emprynted at Westmestre by Wynkyn the Worde the yere of 
th}'ncamacon of our Lorde mcccclxxxxvi." 

The book of Hunting ends thus : " Explicit dame Julyans 
Bemes doctryne in her boke of huntynge." 

The " treatyse of F)rsshynge wyth an Angle " formed no part 
of the Boke of St. Albans as originally printed in i486, but was 
added by Wynkyn de Worde ten years later. A few copies 
of Haslewood*s ** Introduction," dated 30th Oct. 181 1, were 
separately issued, one of which is in the writer's possession. 

Between 1496 and 1596 several different versions, 
more or less altered from the original, appeared ; several 
undated, most of them without an editor s name, and 
all of them now excessively rare. They are known by 
the names and addresses of the printers by whom they 
were issued. Thus: — 



ENGLISH. 



'•The Boke of Hawkynge and Huntynge 
AND Fysshynge. Impryntcd in Flete Strete at 
ye sygne of ye Sonne by Wynkyn de Worde." 

[Black letter, 46 leaves, A — H in eights and fours 
alternately, except G, which has 6 leaves : about 
1503. sm. 4to.] 

A unique copy (formerly Haworth's) in the Huth Library was 
purchased at Daniel's sale, in July 1864, for ;;^iio. 

Another : — 

Imprynted at London in Saynt Martyn's par- 
yshe in ye Vinetre [Vintry] upon the Thre Crane 
Wharfe, by Wyllyam Coplande, 

[Black letter, 48 leaves, A — M in fours : undated, 
about i^^^yfide Milner. sm. 4to.] 

Each treatise has a separate but similar colophon. Milner's 
copy, in 1829, sold for JP^i ; Haslewood's for ;;^8. 

A third :— 

Imprynted at London in Flete strete at the 
signe of the Rose Garland by Wyllyam Coplande 
for Robert Toye. 

[Black letter, 48 leaves, A — M in fours : undated, 
sm. 4to.] 

A copy of this edition is in the collection of Earl Spencer. 

A fourth : — 

Imprynted at London in Flete streate at the 
sygne of the Rose Garlande by Wyllyam Coplande 
for Rychard Tottell. 
[Black letter, 48 leaves : undated, c. 1 56 1. sm. 4to.] 

A copy is in the British Museum, G. 10494. 



BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



A fifth :— 

Imprynted at London in Paules Churche-yarde 
at the sygne of the Lambe by Abraham Vele. 

[Black letter, 48 leaves, A— M in fours : undated, 
c. 156a sm. 4to.] 

A copy at Milner's sale, 1829, fetched J[fi 19^. An imperfect 
copy is in the British Museum, C. 31. c 2. 

A sixth : — 

Imprynted at London in Pauls chyrchyarde by 
me Hefy Tab. 

[Black letter, 46 leaves, A — M in fours, except 
I, which has 2 leaves : undated, sm. 4to.] 

The only copy known to exist is amongst Crynes's books in the 
Bodleian libraxy. See Haslewood's Introduction, p. 86, where 
a facsimile of the title is given, with some account of Nathaniel 
Crynes, who died in 1745, and bequeathed his library to the 
Bodleian. 

A seventh : — 

Imprynted at London in Foster Lane by John 
Waley. 

[Black letter, 46 leaves, A — M in fours, except 
I, which has only 2 leaves : undated, sm. 4to.] 

The "Measures of blowing" are omitted in this edition. 
Pickering had a copy. Haworth's copy (958) sold for £fi. 

An eighth : — 

Imprynted at London in Flete Strete at the 
sygne of the George next to Saynt Dunstane's 
Church by Wyllyam Powell. 
[Black letter, 48 leaves : undated, sm. 4to.] 

And a ninth : — 

Hawking, Hunting, and Fishing, with the 



ENGLISH. 



True Measures of Blowing. Newly corrected and 
amended. At London, printed by Edward Aide 
and are to be solde at the Long Shop adjoining 
unto Saint Mildred's Church in the Pultrie. 
[Black letter, 44 leaves : 1586- sm. 4to.] 

A copy IS preserved in the Phillipps Library, now in the pos- 
session of the collector's daughter, Mrs. Fenwick, of Thirlstaine 
House, Cheltenham. 

Of this version another edition with a similar title was printed 
in 1596 (cf, Haslewood, p. 97). Meanwhile in 1595 appeared 
the folloMring : — 

3. MARKTTAM (Gervase). The Gentleman's 
Academie: or the Booke of S. Albans: containing 
three most exact and excellent Bookes : the first of 
Hawking, the second of all the proper termes of 
Hunting, and the last of Armorie : all compiled by 
luliana Barnes in the yere from the incarnation of 
Christ i486. And now reduced into a better method, 
by G. M. London. Printed for Humfrey Lownes, 
and are to be sold at his shop in Paules church-yard, 
1595. sm. 4to. 

2 prelim, leaves, with Dedication *' To the gentlemen of Eng- 
land, and all the good fellowship of Huntsmen and Falconers." 
Then follows a treatise of Hawking, fols. 1-24 verso and 4 
blank leaves; a treatise of Hunting, with separate title-page 
printed by ValeVitine Sims for Humfrey Lownes, 1595) fols. 29- 
38 and 2 blank leaves ; the Booke of Armorie, with separate 
title-page printed by Valentine Sims for Humfrey Lownes, 1595, 
fols. 41-95 and i blank leaf. Headline throughout the volume, 
"The Gentleman's Academie." 

Two copies are in the British Museum (C. 32. e 30, and G. 
10493) ^^^ o^^ ^^ possession of the writer. 

The author, Gervase Markham, of Gotham, in the Co. 
Nottingham, published several works on Field Sports, Veterinary 



BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



Science, and Agriculture, of which the following contain sections 
on Hawking : — 

4. MABEHAM (Qervase). Country Content- 
ments : or the Husbandmans Recreations. Contayning 
the wholsome Experiences in which any man ought to 
Recreate himselfe, after the toyle of more serious 
businesse. As, namely, Hunting, Hawking, Coursing 
with Greyhounds, and the lawes of the Lease, Shooting 
in Long-bow or Cross-bow, etc. By G. M. London, 
161 1, sm. 4to. 

No less than fourteen editions of this work were published, to 
all of which (except two) the dates may be here supplied : 
ist, 1611; 2nd, 1615; 3rd, 1623; 4th, 1631 ; 5th, 1633; 6th, 
1649; 7^^) 1^54 > ^^^> '6569 9^^9 1660; loth, 1668; nth, 
1675; i2th, (?); 13th, (?); and 14th, 1683. The fifth chapter 
of this work treats *' of the Hawking with all sorts of Hawkes, 
and the whole Art thereof." 

5. MARKTTAM (Oervase). Che ape and Good 
HvsBANDRY for the well-ordering of all Beasts and 
Fowles, and for the generall Cure of their Diseases. 
Containing the Natures, Breeding, Choice .... of 
all manner of Cattell .... Shewing further the whole 
Art of Riding great Horses, with the breaking and 
ordering of them .... And diverse good and well- 
approved Medicines for the Cure of all the diseases in 
Hawkes, of what kind soever .... Gathered together 
for the generall good and profit of this whole Realme 
by exact and assured experience from English practises 
.... By G. M. Printed by T. S. for R. Jackson. 
London, 16 14. sm. 4to. 

Other editions of this book, which contains a treatise " On 



ENGLISH, 



the Cure and Ordering of Hawkes " (pp. 164-176, sixth edition), 
were printed in 1615, 1616, 1623 (all by T. S. for R. Jackson), 
1631 (by Anne Griffin for lohn Harison), 1648, 1658, 1664, 
and 1676. 

6. MABKHAM (Gtorvase). A way to get 
Wealth ; containing sixe principall vocations or 
callings in which every good Husband or House- 
wife may lawfully imploy themselves, as I. the 
natures . . . use, and feeding of all sorts of cattell 
and fowle . . . II. the knowledge . . . and . . . prac- 
tice of all the recreations meete for a gentleman. 
III. etc. The first five bookes gathered by G. 
M(arkham). The last [on Bees] by Master W(ilHam) 
L(awson). The sixt time corrected and augmented 
by the authour. Printed by E. G. for John Harison. 
London, 1638 — 31-38. sm. 4to. 

This compilation consists of a re-issue of several of Markham's 
works, each with a separate title-page, pagination, and register, 
and arranged in the following order : — 

1. Cheape and Good Husbandry. The sixth edition, 1631. 

2. Country Contentments. . . . The fifth edition, 1633. 

3. The English Housewife, 1637. 

4. The Inrichment of the Weald of Kent, 1636. 

5. Markham's Farewell to Husbandry, 1638. 

6. A new Orchard and Garden, 1638. 

Nos. I and ^, as above shown, contain chapters on Hawks 
and Hawking. 

7. 'MTA-RiriTAM (Qervase). The young Sports- 
man's Delight and Instructor in Angling, Fowling, 
Hawking, Hunting, etc. By G. M. Sold at the Gold 
Ring in Little Britain by G. Conyers, 1652. 32mo. 

With a frontispiece of an angler; described by Mr. Hazlitt 
aa ** a thumb volume, A-I, in eights." No copy of this is in the 



8 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

British Museum, but one was sold by Messrs. Sotheby & Wilkin- 
son (Ix>t 394) on the nth April 1885. It was reprinted on 
vellum by Gosden in 1820, with the following title : — 

The Young Sportsman's Instructor : or Angling, 
Fowling, Hawking, Hunting, Ordering Singing Birds, 
Hawks, Poultry, Coneys, Hares, and Dogs, and how 
to cure them. By G. M. Sold at the Gold Ring in 

Little Britain. n.d. [1652]. 32010. 

On the half-title "The. Young Sportsman's Instructor. 
London. Reprinted for T. Gosden by J. Johnson, Apollo Press, 
Brook Street, Holbom, 1820." 

This curious and diminutive volume, of which a copy is in the 
British Museum (C. 29. a 24), measures only 2\ by i| inches, 
and contains pp. vi., 136, and one leaf, as follows : — ^The Young 
Angler's Instructor, pp. 1-76. The Art of Fowling, pp. 77-112. 
Instructions for the Huntsman, pp. x 13-122. Directions for 
Hawking and Managing Hawks to fly at all game with success, 
pp. 123-130. Concluding >vith the words '' And thus much for 
the princely recreation of Hawking." On the last page (p. 136) 
a recipe headed *' Hawks, to cure of all inward sickness, ail sorts 
of wormes," etc. Westwood and Satchell (BibL Piscat, p. 147) 
notice two later editions, 1707 and 17 12, with slightly different 
titles and some additions. The letters G. M. on the title, 
usually attributed to " Gervase Markham," must be taken only 
to imply that the subject-matter was borrowed from his writings 
he himself having died before the first edition of this little book 
had appeared. 

8. MABKHAM (Gervase). Hunger's Preven- 
tion ; or the whole Arte of Fowling by Water and 
Land. Containing all the Secrets belonging to that 
Arte, eta By Gervase Markham, London. Printed 
by A. Math, for Anne Helme and Thomas Langley, 
and are to be sold at their shops in Saint Dunstons 
Church-yard, and over against the Sarazens head with- 
out Newgate. 1621. i2mo. 




TORTRAIT OF ROBERT CHESEMAN, 

rateonrr lo Henry VIII. 

from a pm%tiuy tjr Sans Bolbnim 

7a ti4 Bofal Oalltry at TJk« Sagut. 



ENGLISH. 



Frontispiece, 6 prelim, leaves, with Dedication to Sir Edwin 
Sands, Kt, and others, pp. 1-285: Hawks, pp. 134-183, with 
cuts of the Haggard Faulcon and Goshawk (pp. 182-183). 

Another edition, varying only in the title-page, " Printed for 
Francis Grove and are to be sold by Martha Harrison at the 
signe of the Lambe at the east end of St. Paules Church, 1655." 
i2mo. 



9. ELYOT (Sir Thomas, Knt.). The Boke named 
THE Governor, devised by Sir Thomas Elyot, Knyght 
London, 1531. sm. 8vo. 

Chapter xviii. is entitled "The auncient huntyng of Greekes 
and Romans," and contains some remarks on the origin of 
Falconry which the author confesses his inability to discover. 
He quotes Pliny (lib. x. cap. 10), who seems to have copied 
Aristotle in his description of hawking in Thrace, and conjec- 
tures that " from Thracia came this disporte of banking," adding, 
" but in what wise or wheresoever the beginninge of banking was, 
surely it is a right delectable solace "; and, a little further on, 
'* banking measurably used and for a passetyme gy veth to a man 
good appetite to his souper." He alludes to the old sport of 
'' daring larks with a Hobby," which he himself had witnessed. 
This sport is described by Nicholas Cox (No. 38, pp. 58, 59), 
and noticed by Somervile (No. 45, ed. 18 13, p. 103). Sir Thomas 
Elyot's " Boke " has been several times reprinted, as in 1534, 

1537. 1544, 1546, 1547, i553> 1557. 1565* 1580. In 1834 a 
new edition in 8vo, by A. T. Eliot, was published at Newcastle, 
and the latest, edited by H. S. Croft, with Notes, in 2 vols. 4to, 
appeared in 1880. (London, Kegan Paul & Co.) 

10. ANON. The Institution of a Gentleman. 
Anno Domini m.dlxviil Imprinted at London in 
Flete-strete, nere unto Saint Dunstone's Church by 
Thomas Marshe. [Second edition. The first, 1555. 
1 2 mo.] 

The oldest English treatise on the subject, long preceding the 
publications of Peacham and Brathwait, and a very scarce little 
book. The unknown author *' bryngeth in good occasion to 



I o BOOKS ON FALCONR V. 



speake here of Haulkinge and Huntynge for because in these 
dayes [1555] manye Gentlemen wil do almoste nothinge els, or 
at the leaste can do that better than any other thing." Con- 
sidering " what pastimes gentlemen ought to use," he remarks : — 
*' Ther is a saying emong hunters that he cannot be a gentleman 
whyche loveth not hawkyng and hunting, which I have hard 
old Woodmen wel allow as an approved sentence among them. 
The like sayinge is that hee cannot bee a gentleman whych 
loveth not a dogge." 

After insinuating that sportsmen, as a rule, are not learned 
men, because they give nearly all their time to field sports to the 
n^lect of books, he adds : — '' Yet may it cum to passe that 
these daylye haukers and hunters in tayking of a hauke cannot 
easely be amended, neyther to reclayme her, to knowe howe 
many cotes shee is of, to gyve her a measurable goi^e, to deseme 
perfit induing, to know when a hauke is ful summed, to know 
likewise her diseases, as the craye, the frounce and others, to 
selde a hauke, to impe her, to cope her, wyth many termes 
moe, whych thyngs and others knowenne, a manne maye bee a 
perfeite good Falconer." 

Copies of both the first and second editions of this scarce 
little book are in the British Museum (232 a. 43. and 722 a. 14) 
and one of the second edition in the Bodleian Library. From 
a copy of the second edition in the possession of the late Mr. 
George Singer, an admirable reprint was made in 1839 at the 
Chiswick Press, of which only 25 copies were issued, "for 
presentation." One of these is in the writer's possession. 

II. MAPLET (John). A greene Forest, or, 
naturall Historic: Wherein may bee seene first the 
most sufferaigne Vertues in all the whole kinde of 
Stones and Mettals : next of Plants .... Lastly of 

Brute Beastes, Foules, etc Compiled by John 

Maplet, M. of Arte and Student in Cambridge .... 
Anno 1567. Imprinted at London by Henry Denham. 
1 2 mo. 

Title within border, pp. i.-xiv, and 112 leaves black letter. 
On the verso of last leaf, "Imprinted at London by Henry 



ENGLISH, 1 1 



Denham dwelliog in Paternoster Rowe at the Starre. Anno 
Domini 1567 June 3. Cum Privilegio." 

A quaint little work, divided into three '* Bookes," the second 
and third having each a separate title-page and Preface. The 
species of animals and plants described are arranged alphabeti- 
cally. Curious descriptions are given of the Falcon (p. 86) and 
Goshawke (p. 87), in which not a few errors may be detected. 

12. MASCALL (Leonard). A Booke of Fishing 
WITH HooKE AND LiNE, and of all other instruments 
thereunto belonging. Another of Sundrie Engines 
and Trappes to take Polcats, Buzards, Rattes, Mice 
and all other kindes of vermine and beasts whatsoever, 
most profitable for all Warriners, and such as delight 
in this kinde of sport and pastime. Made by L. M. 
[Woodcut of fisher and fowler.] London. Printed by 
John Wolfe and are to be solde by Edwarde White 
dwelling at the little North doore of Paules at the 
signe of the Gunne. 1590. sm. 4to. 

Black letter, pp. 93, with folding plate of the Crow-net set or 
bent, and various traps for Hawks. The treatise on fishing is a 
mutilated version of that in the Book of St. Albans. Interesting 
to the Falconer as describing methods of catching Hawks. It is 
in this volume that the introduction of the Carp into England is 
attributed to '* Maister Mascall, of Plumsted in Sussex, who also 
brought first the planting of the Pippin in England." 

Three other editions of this book appeared in 1596, 1600, 
and 1606. 

13, QBTNDALL (William). Hawking, Hunting, 
Fowling and Fishing; with the true measures of 
blowing. A worke right pleasant and profitable for 
all estates who so loveth it to practise, and exceeding 
delightfuU to refresh the irksomenesse of tedious time. 
Whereunto is annexed the maner and order in keeping 



1 2 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

of Hawkes, their diseases and cures; and all such 
speciall poynts as anywise appertaine to so gentleman- 
like qualities N ow newly collected by W. G. ; Faulkener. 
Publicum comntodum private preferendum. I mprinted 
at London by Adam I slip and are to be sold by Richard 
Olive, 1596. sm. 4to. 

The title inroman ; remainder in black letter; A — I in fours. 
This is practically a later version of the Book of St. Albans 
with variations, and is of extreme rarity. No copy is to be 
fomid in the British Museum; but copies were disposed of 
in Ha worth's Sale, 1826, £^i^ 45.; Milner's, 1829, £fi\ and 
Donovan's, ;^4 51. The portion on Fowling, entitled " A brief 
Treatis of Fowling, wherein is contained divers proper devises 
both of bayts and others with the makmg of Byrdlime," etc., is 
.for the most part copied verbatim without acknowledgment from 
Batman uppon Bartholome his booke, De proprUtatihus rerum^ 
profitable for all estates, as well for the mind as for the body. 
Printed by Thomas East, 1582 ; folio. (Intro. Book xii. de avibus,) 

14. TX7BBEBVILE (George). The Booke of 
Faulconrie or Hawking ; for the onely delight and 
pleasure of all Noblemen and Gentlemen. Collected 
out of the best aucthors as well Italians as Frenchmen, 
and some English practises withall concemyng Faul- 
conrie : the contents whereof are to be seene in the 
next page foUowyng. By George Turbervile, gentle- 
man. Nocet empta dolore voluptas. 

[Half-page cut of Falconers with hawk and spaniels.] 
Imprinted at London for Christopher Barker at the 
signe of the Grasshopper in Paules Churchyarde. 
Anno 1575. sm. 4to. 

Dedication to the Rt. Hon. Ambrose, Earl of Warwick. 

George Turbervile, a gentleman of Dorsetshire family, was a 
poet as well as a writer on Field Sports. He was appointed 
Secretary to Thomas Randolph during his Embassy to Russia 



ENGLISH. 13 



{temp, Eliz.), and many of his minor poems are either addressed 
from Muscovia or refer to iiis visit to that country. He was an 
intimate friend of the poet Spenser^ to whom he dedicated one 
of his epistles. See Ritson, " Bibliogr. Poetica," p. 368. For 
some account of the Italian and French writers on Falconry 
from whom he borrowed, see Introduction to No. 81, pp. xxii- 
xxiii. 

15. TTTBBEBVILE (George). The Booke of 
Falconrie or Hawking : For the onely delight and 
pleasure of all Noblemen and Gentlemen : Collected 
out of the best Authors as well Italians as Frenchmen, 
and some English practises withall concerning FaU 
conrie. Heretofore published by George Turbervile, 
Gentleman. And now newly revived, corrected, and 
augmented with many new Additions proper to these 
present times. Nocet empta dolore voluptas. [Half- 
page cut as in first edition.] At London. Printed by 
Thomas Purfoot, An. Dom. 161 1. sm. 4to. 

Second edition. 3 prelim, leaves, pp. 1-370; Epilogue, 2 leaves. 
Like the first, usually bound up with "The Booke of Hunting" 
by the same author. In the cuts on pp. 81 and 1 1 2 the bust of the 
Queen Elizabeth on horseback has been cut out, and the portrait 
of James I. substituted. By this alteration, amongst others, the 
edition may be known of copies which have the title wanting. 
This edition also wants the " Dedication" to the Earl of Warwick. 

In the British Museum, amongst the Additional MSS., will be 
found No. 5750, containing (pp. 206-211) Warrants relating to 
the Falconers' department in the Royal household, temp. Eiiz., 
Jac I. and Car. I. 

16. SXTRFLBT (Bichard). Maison Rustique;or 
THE CouNTREY Farme : Compiled in the French tongue 
by Charles Stevens and John Liebault, Doctors of 
Physicke: and translated into English by Richard 
Surflet, Practitioner in Physicke. Also a short collec- 
tion of the hunting of the Hart, Wilde Bore, Hare, 



M BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Fox, Gray, Cony: Of Birds and Faulconrie: The 
Contents whereof are to be seene in the page follow- 
ing. [Woodcut] London. Printed by Arnold Hat- 
field for John Norton and John Bill. 1606. 4to. 

Liebault, in his address to the reader, refers to " the editions 
already so oft by me augmented within these eighteen yeares, 
during which they have been printed in all countries." This 
would place the date of the first edition about 1588. There is 
a folio of 1600, a 4to of 1606, and another folio edited by 
Gervase Markham in 16 16. The original work was so popular 
that more than a hundred editions appeared in French, to say 
nothing of translations in English, Italian, and German. 

The seventh Book contains three chapters (xlii., xliii. and xliv.) 
on Hawking, of little value, and with numerous errors of both 
translator and printer. 

17. S. (T.). A Iewell FOR Gentrie. Being an exact 
Dictionary or true Method to make any man understand 
all the Art, Secrets and worthy Knowledges belonging 
to Hawking, Hunting, Fowling and Fishing. Together 
with all the true Measures for Winding of the Home. 
Now newly published, and beautified with all the rarest 
experiments that are known or practised at this Day. 
[Woodcut as in Turbervile, No. 15.] Printed at 
London for John Helme, and are to be sold at his 
shop in St. Dunstanes Church-yard in Fleet Street, 
1 6 14. sm. 4to. 

A thin 4to of 98 pp. in black letter, except title ; Dedication, 
and address '' To the Reader." It is divided into four books, 
styled, according to the head-lines, the Booke of Hawking (p. 37), 
the Booke of Hunting, the Booke of Fouling, and the Booke of 
Fishing. The two last have separate titles within borders. 

The following is a transcript of the entry of this book in the 
Register of the Stationers' Company: — ^^* 18 Nov. 1613. John 
Helme entred for his coppie by the consent of Elizabeth Olive, 
wydowe, a book heretofore printed by Richard Olive called a 



ENGLISH. 15 



Jewell for Gentry showeing howe a man may understand all the 
art of Hauking, hunting, fishing and fowling . . . — vjd." 

The Dedication, "To the Right WorshipfuU Mr. John 
Tooke, one of the Auditors of his Maiesties Courts of Wards 
and Liveries/' is signed T. S. 

The author, whose name nowhere appears, explains in an 
address " To the Reader," which follows the Dedication, that 
his work is an attempt to improve on the Boke of St. Albans, 
in which, he says, " the defects were so grosse that Tristram 
himselfe would hardly have knowne so neare a kinsman." 

For remarks on the authorship of this book, see Introduction 
to No. 81, pp. xxv.-xxvi. 

18. LATHAM (Symon). Falconry ; or the Faul- 
con's Lure and Cure : in two Books. The first con- 
cerning the ordering and training up of all Hawkes in 
generall, especially the Haggard Faulcon Gentle. 
The second teaching approved medicines for the cure 
of all Diseases in them. Gathered by long practice 
and experience, and published for the delight of noble 
mindes, and instruction of young Faulconers in things 
pertaining to this Princely Art. By Symon Latham, 
Gent [Woodcut of the Haggard Faulcon.] London. 
Printed by J. B. for Roger Jackson, and are to be sold 
at his shop neere Fleet Street Conduit, \(i\\ sm. 4to. 

Latham dedicated this, his first book of Falconry (pp. 147), 
to Sir Thomas Monson (or Munson, as he phonetically spells 
the name), Baronet, Master of his Maiesties Armory, and Master 
of the Hawkes to his Highnesse. For a notice of Sir Thomas 
Monson's hawks, see No. 27, pp. 104, 105. 

The following is a transcript of the entry of the first edition of 
this book in the Register of the Stationers* Company : — " 5 Sept. 
1614. Roger Jackson entred for his coppie under the hand of 
Master Adams a book called the ffauicon's lure by Symon 
Latham . . . — vjd." 

19. LATHAM (Symon). New and Second Booke 
OF Faulconry : concerning the ordering and training 



i6 BOOKS ON FALCONRY, 

up of all such Hawkes as was omitted or left unmen- 
tioned in his printed Booke of the Haggard Faulcon 
and Gerfaulcon, namely the Goshawke and Tassell 
with the Sparhawke, the Lanner and Lanneret, as 
they are divided in their generation : the Hobby and 
Marlyn in their kindes : Teaching approved medicines 
for all such infirmities and diseases as are incident to 
them. Published for the delight of noble mindes, and 
instruction of young Faulconers in all things pertaining 
to this Art [Woodcut.] At London, printed by J. B. 
for Roger Jackson, and are to bee sold at his shop neere 
Fleet Conduit 1618. sm. 4to. 

This second Book (148 pp., usually bound up with the first) 
is dedicated to Sir Patrick Hume, Knight, '' Master Falconer 
to the King's Most ExceUent Majestie," who in 161 8 hadjsuc- 
ceeded Sir Thomas Monson, and was in turn succeeded in his 
office by Sir Allen Apsley, afterwards Earl of fiurford. 

Under the two last named Masters, as one of the Assistant 
Falconers, and subsequently as Sergeant of the Hawks (1627), 
served Lewis Lathaniy of Elstow, in the Co. Bedford, gent. He 
lived to the extreme old age of 100 (b. 1555, d. 1655), and was 
doubtless a relative of Symon Latham ; perhaps an uncle, for he 
was 60 years of age when Symon, in 1615, published the first 
edition of his book. He was not his father, for the only sons of 
Lewis were Henry and John. But \}ci\% par parentK^se. 

Following the " Epistle to the Reader," in this second book 
of Symon's, is an acknowledgment to his '' first and loving 
master Henry Sadler of Everley, from whom he had his art,'* 
and " who taught him the way to live." This was the third 
son of Sir Ralph Sadler or Sadleir, of Standon in the Co. of 
Herts, Chief Secretary of State to Henry VIII. and Grand 
Falconer to Queen Elizabeth, who granted him the manor, 
park, and warren of Everley, Wilts, on the attainder of the 
previous owner, the Duke of Somerset. He had charge of 
Mary Queen of Scots when imprisoned in the castle of Tutbury 
(1584-85), and got into trouble for taking her out hawking and 



ENGLISH. 17 



allowing her to roam too far from the castle. (Memoirs, vol. i. 
p. II.) He died at the age of eighty in 1587, and was buried 
at Standon, where a noble monument is erected to his memory. 
In the manor house at Everley there is a portrait of him on 
panel, painted probably by Marc Gerhardt, from which our 
frontispiece has been accurately copied by the skill of Mr. W. 
Griggs. A copy, less successful, is given in Clutterbuck's 
"History of Hertfordshire," 1827, vol. iii. p. 226. 

20. LATHAM (Symon). Falconry; or the 
Faulcon's Lure and Cure, etc. [Title as in first 
edition.] With New and Second Booke. London. 
Printed by Thomas Harper for John Harrison, 1633. 
sm. 4to. 

Second edition : quite as good as the first, of which it is a 
reprint without alteration. 

A few years ago I found a copy of this edition, now in the 
collection of M. Pierre A. Pichot, of Paris, containing the 
suggestive inscription, ** Wm. Crosley, Falconer to Col. Thornton. 
Dec. 29, 1 781." (See No. 57.) 

Smaller and less desirable editions were published in 1653 
and 1658. 

21. LATHAM (Symon). The Gentleman's Exer- 
cise, OR Supplement to the Bookes of Faulconry. 
London, 1662. sm. 4to. 

A much scarcer book than the last named. No copy is to be 
found in the British Museum. 

22. BEBT (Edmund). An approved Treatise of 
Hawkes and Hawking. Divided into three Bookes. 
The first teacheth, How to make a short-winged 
Hawke good, with good conditions. The second. 
How to reclaime a Hawke from any ill condition. 
The third teacheth, Cures for all knowne griefes and 
diseases. By Edmund Bert, Gentleman. [Cut of 
Hawk, leash, glove, hood, lure, etc.] London. Printed 



1 8 BOOKS ON FAL CONR V. 

by T. S. for Richard Moore, and are to be sold at his 
shop in S. Dunstan*s Church-yard. 1619. sm. 4to. 

This book, a small quarto (pp. i.-xiv., 1-109), is dedicated 
" to the Rt. Hon. Henry Earl of Oxenford, Viscount Bulbeck, 
Lord Sanford and Scales, and Lord Great Chamberlaine of 
England." The author, who lived at Collier Row, near Rgmford, 
Essex, details his method of training the Goshawk, in which 
he was very successful. He used to ride out of Essex into 
Sussex to hawk over the downs, where, he says, *' I have killed 
for the most part of a moneth together with an intermewed 
' goshawke eight, nine, or tenne Partridges in a day. The day of 
my going thither and the day of my retume to London was just 
five weeks, and it was a fortnight or more in Michaelmas terme 
when I came backe. I killed in that time with that one hawke 
foure score and odd Partridges, five Pheasants, seven Rayles, and 
four Hares against my will." 

He had '' for a Goshawke and Tarsell a hundred marks both 
solde to one man within sixteen months " (Preface). For another 
Goshawk he was offered ''fortie pounds "(p. 105), and ulti- 
mately sold her for thirty. In 1795, * silver " varvel," engraved 
with the name '' Oxenforde," was found near Headingham 
Castle, the ancient seat of this family in Essex. It is figured 
and described in the Archaologia^ voL xii pL 51, p. 410, and 
may well have belonged to the nobleman to whom this book is 

dedicated. 

Note. — A reprint of this scarce treatise, with an Introduction 
by the present writer, has lately been published by Mr. Quaritch. 
100 copies only. 

23. DBA YTON (Michael). Polyolbion : A Choro- 
graphicall Description of all the Tracts, Rivers, 
Mountains, Forests, and other parts of this renowned 
Isle of Great Britain .... Digested into a Poem. 
By Michael Drayton, Esq. With a Table, etc. 
London. Printed for John Marriott, John Grinnaud 
and Thomas Dewe. 1622. sm. folio. 

This author particularly mentions the junction of the Little 




KING JAMES THE FIRST, 
1603-1625. 
( Eaglinh MoHirrcAf /ie chirf painn of FnU: 
From a j'^rlraU hi, !',•>, hark-. 



BNGLISa. 19 



^kMi 



Ouse, or Brandon river, with the Thet, and refers to Thetford 
as a place much esteemed by falconers in his day. His descrip- 
tion towards the end of Song xx., of '' a flight at brook," near 
Thetford, is very animated : — 

** The trembling fowl that hear the jigging hawk-bells ring, 
And find it is too late to trust then to their wing, 

Lie flat upon the flood 

The hawks get up again into their former place, 
And ranging here and there in that their airy race, 
Still as the fearful fowl attempt to 'scape away. 
With many a stooping brave them in again they lay. 
But when the falconers take their hawking-poles in hand, 
And, crossing of the brook, do put it over land. 
The hawk gives it a ' souse,' that makes it to rebound 
Well near the height of man sometime above the ground, 
A^th many a Wo-ha-ha^ and jocond cheer again. 
When he the quarry makes upon the grassy plain." 

The text has ''jocond lure^^ an absurdity uncorrected in the 
latest edition of the Polyolbion^ by the Rev. Richard Hooper, 
1876 (voL iii. p. 23). Prof. Skeat, in stating in his "Etymo- 
logical Dictionary," 1882, that the form "jocond" is **not 
recorded, but obviously must have existed," has overlooked its 
use by Drayton in the line above quoted. 

For an illustration of '' brook-hawking " as described by 
Drayton, see Blome (No. 41), plate v. p. 44. 

24. BEATHWAIT (Richard). The English 
Gentleman : containing sundry excellent Rules or 
Exquisite Observations, tending to Direction of every 
Gentleman . . . • how to demene or accomodate 
himselfe in the manage of publike or private affaires. 
Sold by R. Bostock. London, 1 630. 4to. 

Contains several passages and one or two good anecdotes 
relating to Hawking (pp. 93, 96, 97, no, 113). A second 
edition, 4to, appeared in 1633, and a third, folio, in 1641. lu 
1652 it reappeared with a new title, '* Time's Treasury; or 
Academie for Gentry." 

Note. — In Peacham's " Complete Gentleman, fashioning him 



•&■ 



^ 20 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



absolut .... to which is added the Gentleman's Exercise," 
Ix)ndon, 4to, 1627, 1634, and 1661, Falconry is unaccountably 
neglected, the author's tastes inclining him especially to 
Heraldry. 

25. NASH (Thomas). Quaternio, or the foure- 
fold Way to a happie Life, set forth in a Dialogue 
between a Countryman and a Citizen, a Divine, and a 
Lawyer. Per Tho. Nash, Philopolitem. [Quotations 
from Martial, Horace, and Pliny.] London, Printed 
by John Dawson, 1633. sm. 4to. 

A quaint discourse (pp. 280) wherein each interlocutor com- 
mends his own pursuit. The Countryman remarks (p. 34), ** As 
for Hawking, I commend it in some, condemne it in others ; 
but in men of meane ranke and religious men I condemne it 
with Pet Blesensis as an idle and foolish vanitie ; for I have 
ever thought it a kinde of madnesse for such men to bestow ten 
pounds in feathers which at one blast might be blowne away. 
.... Yet I must acknowledge I have in my youthfull dayes with 
Machabcsus (dicitur Machahctus domesticasse acciptres in avium 
capturam) beene guiltie of this vanitie, and have been as glad as 
ever I was to come from schoole to see a little Marlin in the 
dead time of the yeare .... make her way through the midst 
of ... . crows and kites which pursued her .... and maugre 
all their oppositions pull downe her prey bigger than herselfe, 
being mounted aloft steeple high, downe to the ground. And to 
heare an Accipitrary relate againe how he went forth in a cleare 
calme and sun-shine evening, about an houre before the sunne 
did usually maske himselfe, unto the river, where finding of a 
Mallard he whistled off his Faulcon, and how shee flew from him 
as if shee would never have turned head againe, yet presently 
upon a shoote came in, how then by degrees, by little and little, 
by flying about and about, shee mounted so high, untill shee had 
lessened herselfe to the view of the beholder, to the shape of a 
Pigeon or Partridge, and had made the height of the moone the 
place of her flight, how presently upon the landing of the fowle, 
shee came down like a stone and enewed it, and suddenly got 
up againe, and suddenly upon a second landing came downe 



ENGLISH, 21 



againe, and missing of it, in the downecome recovered it, beyond 
expectation, to the admiration of the beholder at a long flight. 

'' And to heare him tell a third time, how he went forth early on 
a winter's morning, to the wooddy fields and pastures to flie the 
Cocke, where having by the little white feather in his tayle dis- 
covered him in a brake, he cast off a tassel gentle, and how he 
never ceased in his circular motion until he had recovered his 
place, how suddenly upon the flushing of the Cocke he came 
downe, and missing of it in the downecome what working there 
was on both sides, how the Cocke mounted as if he would have 
pierced the skies ; how the Hawke flew a contrarie way, untill 
he had made the winde his friend, how then by degrees he got 
up, yet never offered to come in untill he had got the advantage 
of the higher ground, and then he made in, what speed the Cocke 
made to save himselfe, and what hasty pursuit the Hawke made, 
and how after two long miles flight killed it, yet in killing of it 
killed himselfe. 

*' These discourses I love to heare, and can well be content to 
be an eyewitnesse of the sport when my occasions will permit 
But to see one of those faeminine birds who like some wives of 
our time keep under the masculine [the females being larger and 
more powerful than the males] I meane a swift winged Goshawke 
or high-flying Jerkin [Jerfalcon] whose proper game is the Phea- 
sant, Crane, or Bittome, in the month of August to pull downe a 
little Partridge .... there to surprise and kill her suddenly, 
I must confesse it hath often gone against my stomacke .... 
yet I must likewise confesse I have beene sometimes for societie's 
sake, a spectator of such a tragedie " (pp. 35-37). 

26. SWAN (John). Speculum Mundi, or a glasse 
representing the face of the world : whereunto is added 
a Discourse of the Creation together with a consider- 
ation of such things as are pertinent to each days 
worke. Written by John Swan, M' of Arts, late 
student of Trinitie CoUedge Camb. Prin. in Cam- 
bridge. By T. Buck and R. Daniel. 1635. sm. 4to. 

Second edition, 4to, Cambridge, 1643; third edition, 4tO| 
London, 1665. 



22 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Engraved title-page with title on shield in lower half of page. 

The 8th chapter, sec. 2, which treats " Of Birds, or Fowl flying 
in the open firmament of heaven," contains (p. 399) a curious 
description of the mode of defence adopted by the Heron, or 
Hemsew, when pursued by *' the gossehawk and other kinde of 
hawks" (2nd ed., p. 392 ; 3rd ed., p. 355). *'0f hawks,** says 
this author (p. 400), '' there be many and severall kindes; as the 
Falcon^ Merlin^ Lanner^ Tassell^ and sundrie others. Howbeit 
the Tassells are supposed to be the males of such birds as live by 
prey : as the Tassell of the Saker is called a Bobbie [no] or 
Mongrell hawk ; that of the Sparrawhawk a Musket; diat of 
the Lanner a Lanneret; and so of the rest Now some again 
distinguish these birds three severall wayes. First by the form 
and fashion of their bodie; some being great, as the Gossehawk^ 
Faukon^ Getfaukon^ &Cj some smaU^ as the Merlin^ Musket^ 
Sparrotvhawk^ Uobbie and such others. Secondly by their game, 
as some for the phesant, some for the partridge, some for the 
hemshaw, some for the duck and mallard, some for one thbg, 
some for another. Thirdly they are said to differ in the manner 
of their following the game ; as such know better than myself, 
who use to keep and manage hawks." 

27. WELDON (Sir Anthony). The Court and 
Character of K. James. Written and taken by Sir 
A. W., being an eye and ear witness. Qui nescit du- 
stmulare nescit regnare. Published by Authority. 
London. Printed by R. I., and are to be sold by John 
Wright at the Kings Head in the Old Baily. 1650. 
1 2mo. [First edition.] 

The Court and Character of King James. 
Whereunto is now added The Court of King Charles : 
continued unto the beginning of these unhappy times. 
Witli some observations upon him instead of a 
character. Collected and perfected by Sir A. W. Qui 
nescit dissimulare, nescit regnare. Published by 




THE HON. LEWIS LATHAM, FALCONER TO CHARLES t. 

Born 1555, Did ]C55. 

From an original Painting in poitfxiHin of Au dt-tceHdant , 

Mr. F. A. Haldea of ilnatltr.lU, Maryland, U.S.A. 



ENGLISH, n 



Authority. Printed at London by R. I., and are to 
be sold by J. Collins in Little Brittaine. 1651. i2mo. 
[Second edition.] 

It is in this book that the statement is first made (pp. 104, 
105 ; 2nd ed., pp. 96, 97) concerning the price paid for a cast 
of falcons by Sir Thomas Monson, Master Falconer to James I. 
— a statement almost invariably misquoted and misunderstood 
by subsequent writers. (See No. 79, p. 80.) In the first edition 
the hawks are there called '* Gos-Faulcons," in the second edi- 
tion, " Ger-Faulcons." For the sequel to the story told by Sir 
A. Weldon, of the lost hawk belonging to the king, see Harting, 
" Notes on Hawking as formerly practised in Norfolk," Tram. 
Notf. Nat, Soc,^ vol. iii. p. 87. 

28. WALTON (Izaak). The Complete Angler; or 
the Contemplative Man's Recreation. Being a dis- 
course, etc. London. Printed by T. Maxey for Rich. 
Marriot in S. Duns tan's Churchyard, Fleet Street, 
1653. i2mo. 

The second edition, enlarged, 1655; the third, 1661 ; the 
fourth, 1668; the fifth, 1676. 

The second and subsequent editions contain remarks on 
Hawks and Hawking by a Falconer, " Auceps," with "a list of 
the Long-winged and short-winged hawks that be chiefly in use 
amongst us in this nation." 

The fifth edition was the last revised by Walton himself, and 
to this was added for the first time Charles Cotton's treatise. 

29. ATJBBEY (John, P.B.S.). The Natural His- 
tory OF Wiltshire. Written between 1656 and 1691. 
Edited and elucidated by notes by John Britton, F.S.A. 
Published by the Wiltshire Topographical Society. 
London. 1847, 4to. 

In Part XL, chapter xiv. is entided '^ Of Hawks and Hawking." 
Sir Thomas Browne's Miscellanies^ 1684, are quoted, and the 
following curious anecdote related : — '* From Sir James Long of 



24 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

DraycoL Memorandum. Between the years 1630 and 1634 
Henry Poole of Cirencester Esquire (since Sir Henry Poole, 
Baronet) lost a falcon flying at brook in the spring of the year 
about three o'clock in the afternoon : and he had a ^coner in 
Norway at that time to take hawks for him, who discovered this 
falcon upon the stand from whence he was took at first, the next 
day in the evening. This flight must be 600 miles at least " 
(p. 116). 

Describing the grandeur of the Herberts, Earls of Pembroke, 
at Wilton House, Wiltshire, under the heading " of his lordship's 
Hounds, Greyhounds and Hawkes " (p. 87), he writes : — ** When 
they returned from hawking the ladies would come out to see 
the hawkes at the highest flying, and then they made use of 
their setting-dogges to be sure of a flight His lordship had 
two hawkes (one a falcon called ' Shrewsbury/ which he had of 
the Earle of Shrewsbury, and another called ' the little tercel ') 
which would fly quite out of sight that they knew not how to 
shew the fowles till they found the head stood right They had 
not little telescopes in those dayes ; these would have been of 
great use for the discovery which way the hawke's head stood." 

30. AUBREY (John, F.E.S.). Miscellanies col- 
lected BY J. Aubrey Esq. London. Printed for 
Edward Castle, next Scotland Yard Gate by 
Whitehall. 1 696. 8 vo. 

Other editions, 1714, 1721, 1723, 1731. A new edition, to 
which is prefixed Some Account of his Life, 8vo, 1784, is 
accounted the best. At p. 56 (ist ed. p. 37) will be found a 
curious anecdote of Charles L partridge-hawking in Scotland 
related by the king in the hearing of the author; and another 
(p. 59) of a sparrow-hawk of Charles II., which got away with its 
leash on, and becoming entangled in an iron crown on the 
White Tower, died there. 

31. PHILLIPS (Edward). A New World of 
Words, with explication of all the terms used in 
Fishing, Hawking, Hunting, Fowling, etc. By Edw. 
Phillips, gent London, 1658. folio. 



ENGLISH. t^ 



Other editions, 1662, 1669, 1671, 1678, 1696, 1706 and 1720. 
The last| edited by Skerrey, is stated by Lowndes to be the best. 

The author was a nephew of the poet Milton, traces of whose 
master-hand are apparent in some of his works, especially in the 
pre£3u:e to the '' Theatrum Poetarum, or Complete Collection 
of the Poets," 1675; ^^^ ^ ^^^ criticism on Shakespeare and 
Marlowe. Phillips published a *' Life of Milton." 1694. 

32. STEVBUrSOUr (M.). The Twelve Monetiis : 
or, A pleasant and profitable discourse of every action 
whether of Labour or Recreation proper to each par- 
ticular Moneth, branched into Directions relating to 
Husbandry .... as also of Recreations, as Hunting, 
Hawking, Fishing, Fowling, Coursing, Cockfighting, 
etc. ^y M. Stevenson. Humida solstitia atq. htemes 
orate serenas, Virg. London. Printed by M. S. for 
Thomas Jenner, and are to be sold at his Shop at the 
South Entrance of the Royal Exchange. 1 66 1 . sm. 4to. 

A very scarce and quaint little volume of 59 pp. with 12 full- 
page engravings illustrative of the occupations of each month, in 
one of which, September, Partridge Hawking is introduced. 
Across each plate in large characters the Latin name of the 
month is printed in black letter, followed by the number of days 
in the month. 

In his address " to the Reader," the author says : " For mat- 
ters of ... . fishing, fowling and the like exercises, I confesse 
them somewhat out of my Road, but I assure you to pleasure 
you and satisfie myself, I have consulted the most approved 
Authors and given you here the creame and marrow of their 
severall experiences in their own expresse characters." 

As a specimen of the author's st}le, take the following under 
January (p. 4) : — '' Now the Woodcock and the Pheasant pay 
their lives for their feed, and the Hare after a course makes his 
hearse in a pye .... the poor Coney is so ferreted that she 
cannot keep in her burrough ; the curryer and the lime rod are 
the death of the fowle, and a long peece and a good Waterspaniel 
are no bad company. The Faulcon^s bells ring the Mallard's 



26 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

knell, and the Hare and the hound put the Huntsnian to the 
home." 

A copy of this book is in the British Museum. 966. c 26 (3). 

33. BABLOW (Francis). Severall waves of 
Hunting, Hawking, and Fishing, according to the 
English manner. Invented by Francis Barlow, 
etched by W. Hollar, and are to be sould by John 
Overton at the White Horse without Newgate, 
London, 1 67 1, obi. 4to. 

Engraved title with quatrain at foot, and 13 plates, 
namely: — Hare-hunting, Stagg-hunting, Cony-catching, Otter- 
hunting, Coursing Fallow-deer, Fox-hunting, Feasant-hawking, 
Partridge-hawking, Hem-hawking, Angling, River-fishing, and 
Salmon-fishing. Under each plate is a quatrain similar in style 
to that on title. Perfect copies are scarce. Dr. K Hamilton 
has one ; another is in the possession of Mr. Crawhall of New* 
castle-upon-Tyne ; and an imperfect copy, wanting the quatrains, 
is amongst the prints in the British Museum. 

34. LAMBEBT (James). The Countryman's 
Treasure : shewing the nature, causes, and cure of all 
diseases incident to cows, horses, etc ; with plain rules 
for improving arable and pasture lands .... To 
which is added the Art of Hawking, Hunting, An- 
gling and Ringing. London. Printed for T. Norris, 
and sold at the Looking Glass on London Bridge, n.d. 

An unimportant i2mo of 167 pages. Other editions, omit- 
ting the Field Sports, sm. 8vo, 1676 and 1683. 

35. BAY (Jolin, P.E.S.). A Summary of Falconry ; 
collected out of several authors. London, 1678. folio. 

This treatise, abridged from Turbervile (No. 14) with addi- 



ENGLISH. 27 



tions from Latham (No. i8), and Aldrovandus, is printed as an 
appendix (pp. 397-437), to Ray's translation of Willughby's 
"Ornithology/* 1678, which was published in Latin two years 
previously. 

36. BEOWNB (Sir Thomas). Certain Miscel- 
lany Tracts. Written by Thomas Brown, Kt and 
Doctour of Physick ; late of Norwich. London . 
Printed for Charles Meame, and are to be sold 
by Henry Bonwick at the Red Lyon in St Paul's 
Churchyard. 1684. sm. 8vo. 

Published after the author's death by Dr. Tenison^ afterwards 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Tra<4V. treats " of Hawks and Falconry Ancient and Modem" 
(pp. 111-119), and is devoted chiefly to a consideration of the 
remedies applied by falconers for the diseases of their birds. 
The author mentions incidentally that ** upon good account, an 
hawk in this county of Norfolk made a flight at a Woodcock 
near thirty miles in one hour" (p. 116). 

This tract is reprinted in Wilkin's edition (which is the best) 
of Sir Thomas Browne's "Works," 1836 (vol iv. pp. 186-190), 
where the author's surname is spelled with a final e. This is not 
so in the original tract, nor in the title-page of the folio of 1686, 
printed for Thomas Basset and others. But the final e is to be 
found in the MS. in the Bodleian Library, as well as on the 
author's tomb at Norwich. 

37. COX (Nicholas). The Gentleman's Recrea- 
tion : in four parts, viz.. Hunting, Hawking, Fowling, 
Fishing. Collected from ancient and modern authors 
forrein and domestick, and rectified by the experience 
of the most skilful! artists of these times. Illustrated 
with Sculptures. London. Printed by E. Flesher for 
Maurice Atkins at the Half-moon in St. Pauls Church- 
yard and Nicholas Cox over against Fumivals-Inn- 
Gate in Holbome, 1674. 8vo* 



2S BOOKS ON FALCONRY, 



In thisy the first edition, the book is not claimed by Nicholas 
C0X9 whose name in subsequent editions is appended to the 
'* Epistle Dedicatory." It is a mere compilation, without ac- 
knowledgment, from various authors, which caused it to be 
severely criticised by John Ray in his Preface to Willughby's 
" Omidiology " (1678). He says : — " I cannot but reflect upon 
the author of a late English book entituled ' The Gentleman's 
Recreation/ .... For I find that all he hath considerable con- 
cerning Fowling is taken out of the aforesaid book of Markham's 
[* Hunger's Prevention, or the Art of Fowling '], and yet hath he 
not to my remembrance made any mention of his author. What 
he hath of Hawking is likewise an epitome of Turbervile*s 
collections, with some additions out of Latham's ^ Falconry,' 
without acknowledgement that all were borrowed. I do not 
blame him for epitomizing, but for suppressing his author's 
names and publishing their works as his own, insomuch that 
not only the vulgar, but even learned men, have been deceived 
by hun." 

Ray, however, overlooked the statement on the title-page that 
the various treatises were '' collected from ancient and modem 
authors forrein and domestick," though it is true that the names 
of these authors are not mentioned. 

The first edition of this book has become very scarce, and the 
second, third, and fourth editions (1677, 1686, and 1697) are 
seldom found quite perfect The later editions of 1706 and 
1 72 1 are more often to be met with. In some the title varies, 
as, for example : — 

38. COX (Nicholas). The Gentleman's Recrea- 
tion : in four Parts, viz., Hunting, Hawking, Fowl- 
ing, Fishing. Wherein these generous exercised are 
largely treated of: and the Terms of Art for Hunting 
and Hawking more amply enlarged than heretofore, 
etc. The Fourth Edition. London, Printed by J. 
Dawks for N. Rolls in Petty-Canons- Hall, in St Pauls 
Church-yard. 1697. 8vo. 

The preceding half-title has engraved scenes of Coursing, 



ENGLISH, 29 



Hunting, Hawking, and Fishing, with the words** The Gentle- 
man's Recreation " on a shield in the centre. 

39. COX (Nicholas). The Gentleman's Recrea- 
tion : being a Treatise of Hawking and Faulconry. 
Fitted for the delight and pleasure of all Noblemen and 
Gentlemen. Collected from ancient and modern Authors, 
and rectified by the experience of the most skilful 
Artists of these times. With an Abstract of such 
Statute- Laws as concern this Recreation. London, 
1686. 8vo. 

This forms the second Part of the third edition (1686) of the 
last-named work, in which the several portions have each a 
separately printed title. 

The four parts of the work were subsequently printed sepa- 
rately, without date, by J. Smeaton, printer, 148 St. Martin's 
Lane, and issued in thin octavo pamphlet form with the titles, 
"The Huntsman" (pp. iv.-i24), *'The Fowler" (pp. iv.-76), 
"The Fisherman" (pp. iv.-i48), and "The Falconer" (pp. iv.- 
95). All except " The Fisherman " are stated to be " by Nicholas 
Coxe Esq." The title of the part on Hawking runs thus : — 

40. COX (Nicholas). The Falconer ; or the Art 
OF Hawking and Falconry. Containing the Terms of 
Art used by Falconers. The descriptions and names 

of Hawks used in Falconry The methods of 

making, manning, reclaiming, luring, sealing and 
mewing all kinds of Hawks for sport. Their flights 
with the proper game-bird for each The imple- 
ments and furniture requisite in hawking. The various 
castings and scourings for Hawks. Valuable receipts 
for removing their diseases : and the means of pre- 
serving them in good health. To which is added The 
Cocker : being a full illustration of the royal sport of 



30 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

-- — — - — 

Cock-fighting, with reflections on Betting, etc. By 
Nicholas Coxe, Esq. London : Printed and sold by 
J. Smeeton, 148, St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross, 
n. d [18 1 5 ?]. 8vo. 

41. BLOlklE (Richard). The Gentleman's Recrea- 
tion. In two Parts. The first being an Encyclopedy 
of the Arts and Sciences, to wit, an abridgement 
thereof .... The second Part treats of Horse- 
manship, Hawking, Hunting, Fowling, Fishing, and 
Agriculture. With a short treatise of Cock-fighting 
for the breeding, dyetting, ordering, matching, and 
fighting them. All which are collected from the 
most authentick authors, and the many gross errors 
therein corrected, with great enlargements made by 
those well experienced in the said Recreations. And 
for the better Explanation thereof, great variety of 
useful Sculptures, as Nets, Traps, Engines, etc., are 
added for the taking of Beasts, Fowl, and Fish, not 
hitherto published by any. The whole illustrated with 
about an hundred ornamental and useful Sculptures 
engraven in copper relating to the several subjects. 
London. Printed by S. Roycroft for Richard Blome, 
dwelling at the upper end of Dutchy-Lane, near 
Sometset-House in the Strand. 1686. folio. 

The title of this work, " The Gentleman's Recreation ** (printed 
in black and red), was first used by Nicholas Cox in 1674, and 
was perhaps suggested by Markham's *' Husbandman's Recrea- 
tion," 161 1. 

The second part, founded on a translation of Les Ruses Inno- 
centeSf 1660, and on the works of Markham and Turbervile, has 
a separate title (in black only), worded as in the lower half of 



f 



■ ■ • 



ENGLISH. 31 



the first title, but spaced out, and each division of this part has 
an engraved copper-plate facing the first chapter. The division 
on " Hawking and Faulconry " has this sub-heading : — " Wherein 
is treated of the several kinds of Hawks now in use, with their 
natures and qualities. The manner of reclaiming, mewing, and 
flying them for the respective game proper for each Hawk, with 
cUrection for feeding and ordering them. Their diseases and 
cures. With a short discourse of the Spaniel, showing his use 
in Faulconry : With directions for the breeding, ordering and 
managing him for the game : Together with directions for the 
choosing, ordering, and making a setting dog." 

This portion of the work is illustrated with five fiiU-page 
copper-plate engra^ngs, dedicated to noblemen and gentlemen 
who at that date were notable exponents of Hawking, and expert 
in those branches of the sport with which their names are asso- 
ciated. Thus : — 

I. Partridge-hawking with Tiercels (p. 33), John Bassett, Esq., 
of Heanton Punchardon, Devonshire. 

a. Pheasant Hawking (p. 34), Sir John Thorold, Bart., of 
Marston, in the Co. Lincoln. 

3. Partridge-liawking with the Goshawk (Manning Hawks, 

p. 37), Sir Richard Wenman, Bart., of Caswell, Oxford- 
shire. 

4. Heron-hawking (p. 43), Rt. Hon. Wm. Pierrepoint, Earl 

of Kingston-upon-HuU, Viscount Newark-upon-Trent. 

5. Brook-hawking (p. 44), Gilbert Gerard Cossine, Esq., son 

and heir of Sir Gilbert Gerard, Knt, of Brasserton Hall, 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

Furthermore, in regard to this portion of the work, the author 
was especially indebted for information to Sir Ralph Dutton, 
of Sherbom in Gloucestershire, and George Russel, of Abbots 
Aston in Buckinghamshire, Serjeant of His Majesty's Hawks, 
both long-experienced falconers. 

A second edition, corrected, appeared in 17 10, also in folio, 
and copies of several of the plates, reduced in size to 8vo, were 
re-pubUshed in the '' Sportsman's Dictionary ; or the Country 
Gentleman's Companion in all rural recreations," of which a 
second edition in i voL thick 8vo was printed for J. Osborne, 
at the Golden Ball in Paternoster Row, in 1744. 



32 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

42. BBADLET (Sichard, F.B.S.). Husbandry 
and Trade improved : a Collection of Essays. Second 
edition, edited by John Houghton, F.R.S. London. 
1728. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Vol 3 contains several chapters on Hawks and Falconry, 
chiefly compiled from Willughby and Ray (No. 35). 

43. H. (R.) The School of Recreation : or a 
Guide to the most ingenious exercises of Hunting, 
Riding, Racing .... Hawking, etc. By R. H. Lon- 
don, Printed for A. Bettesworth at the Red-Lyon in 
Paternoster-row. 1732. 1 2mo. 

A small and unimportant treatise, but seldom to be met with. 

44. ANON. The Sportsman's Dictionary ; or the 
Country Gentleman's Companion in all rural recrea- 
tions. With full and particular instructions for Hunt- 
ing, Shooting, Fishing, Hawking, &c. London. 1735. 
2nd ed. 1744. 8vo. 

With plates reduced from Blome (No. 41). 

45. SOMEBVILE (W.). Field Sports: a Poem 
Humbly Addressed to His Royal Highness the Prince. 
By William Somervile, Esq. London. Printed for 
J. Stagg in Westminster Hall. 1742. folio. 

The first edition in folio, pp. 14, the original price of which 
was one shilling, contains a description of flying at the Stag 
with Eagles ; Heron-hawking ; Flying at the River ; Partridge 
Hawking ; and Daring Larks with a Hobby. 

Of this work there have been several editions, of which the 
handsomest in 4to was printed by Bulmer in 18 13, with cuts by 
Bewick. Of the smaller editions, the best is that by Edward 
Topham, printed with The Chace at the Chiswick Press in 181 7, 
with engravings by Scott from paintings by Sartorius. 



ENGLISH. 33 



46. ANON. The Country Gentleman's Com- 
panion through the Rural Pursuits of Pleasure and 
Profit (Containing treatises on Hunting, Hawking, etc.) 
By a Country Gentleman, from his own experience. 
London, Printed for the author 1756. 2 vols. sm. 8vo. 

Each volume has a second title-page embodying contents. 

Vol. I. includes a chapter "Of Hawks" (pp. 210-228); and 
VoL IL contains a section on Hawking (pp. 39-50), which is a 
reprint without acknowledgment of the chapter on Hawking in 
Gervase Markham's " Country Contentments," and with the last 
paragraph omitted (p. 50). 

47. PENNANT (Thomas). British Zoology. 
Published under the inspection of the Cymmrodorion 
Society. London. 1766. folio. 

Second edition, 1768. 2 vols. 8vo. Other editions, 1768-70, 
4 vols. 8vo; 1776-7, 4 vols. 4to. New edition (the first with 
author's name on title), 18 12, 4 vols. 8vo. In this will be found 
(vol. i. pp. 210-213, 220, 226, 247, 253; and voL ii. pp. 309-311) 
several passages relating to Falconry. His '^ Falcon Gentil " 
(p. 222) is the Goshawk, and his "Lanner" (p. 223) is the 
Peregrine. 

48. PENNANT (Thomas). Arctic Zoology. 
London. 1784-87. 2 vols, and suppl. 4to. 

On Eagles trained by the Tartars (ii. 195) ; on the method of 
capturing Jerfalcons in Iceland (ii. 217-218); and on the anti- 
quity of Falconry (ii. 218-220). 

49. CAMPBELL (James). A Treatise of Modern 
Faulconry : to which is prefixed, from authors not 
generally known, an Introduction, shewing the Practice 
of Faulconry in certain remote times and countries. 
By James Campbell, Esq, — Nititur pennts — Hon 
Edinburgh, Printed by Balfour and Smellie for the 
Author. 1773. 8vo. 

c 



34 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

The author of this book was falconer to the Earl of Eglinton, 
and submitting it to the inspection of the Rev. A. Gillies, was 
told that an early account of hawking should be prefixed. He 
could only speak from practice, the other artfully, knowing 
little of the practice but something of the history, offered to 
supply the deficiency. Hence the preface in ridicule of " The 
Origin and Progress of Language " then newly published, and a 
fabulous account of hawking by the Emperor Arambombam- 
boberus with Trebizonian Eagles on the alleged authority of a 
MS. in the Grand Sultan's library. This bantering of the wit 
produced the worst effect for the author, [who instead of 
securing a rapid sale, found himself possessed of a mass of 
waste paper. (Haslewood, Introduction to the Book of St. 
Albans, 1810, p. 29). But what he himself wrote is reliable. 

50. ANON. Hawking Moralised. Reading. 
1776. i2mo. 

A small chap book of poems on Hawking: good, bad, 
and indifferent. Specimens quoted Gent's Mag,^ Oct. 1812, 
p. 310. Not in Brit. Mus. Some Hawking Songs in Armiger, 
"Sportsman's Vocal Cabinet,*' 1830 (pp. 24, 46, 393, 407). 
Also a Song, with a woodcut, entitled " Hawking,*' published as 
a broadside at Edinburgh. 1832. Brit. Mus. 840. m. 34 (7). 

The woodcut purporting to represent " Sir H. Glendinning " 
is a rude copy of an engraving by C. Turner, from a painting 
by Howe, of Mr. Fleming of Barochan, Renfrewshire, and his 
falconer John Anderson. 

51. OSBALDISTON (W. A.). The British 
Sportsman : or Nobleman, Gentleman, and Farmer s 
Dictionary of Recreation and Amusement .... with 
particular Instructions for ... . Hunting Hawking, 
&c. London, printed for the proprietor. 1 792. 4to. 

With frontispiece and 42 plates ; one (p. 390) of heron-hawking. 

52. ANON. Essays by a Society of Gentlemen at 
Exeter. [Quotation from Horace.] Exeter. Printed 



ENGLISH. 35 



by and for Trewman and Son. London. Sold by 
Cadell and Davies, Fleet Street, etc. 1796. 8vo. 

Contains an Essay (pp. 131-164) of no great merit entitled 
" Historical Outlines of Falconry.'' 

53. BECKMANN (Jolin). A History of Inven- 
tions AND Discoveries. Translated from the German 
by William Johnston. London. 1797. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Article " Falconry" (historical outlines), vol. i. pp. 319-333. 

54. SHAW (Gteorge, M.D.). General Zoology or 
Systematic Natural History, with plates. London. 
1 800-1 826. 14 vols. 8vo. 

In vol. vii. (pp. 135-140) will be found directions for training 
Hawks from the French of the Abb^ la Pluche. 

55. LATHAM (John). General History of 
Birds. Winchester. 1821-24. 10 vols. 4to. 

For observations on Hawks and Hawking, see vol. i. pp. 56, 
6Sf 73i 107-110, 114, 176. 

56. STEUTT (Joseph). The Sports and Pastimes 
OF the English People: including the Rural and 
Domestic Recreations, .... from the earliest period 
to the present time. London. 1801. 4to. 

Pp. 1-302^ with 39 engravings. The same, fine paper, with 
coloured plates. Reprinted 18 10, 4to, with coloured plates, a 
few copies illuminated. New edition by W. Hone, 1830, 8vo, 
with 140 engravings. The same, large paper, roy. 8vo. The 
same reprinted for Thomas Tegg & Son, 1834 and 1838, 8vo. 
The second chapter is devoted to ^'Hawking," with four wood- 
cuts from ancient MSS. The author has fallen into some curious 
errors which the editor should have corrected ; for example, in 
sect ix., ^Caparison of a Hawk," he says: — "The bewitSy 
we are informed, were useful to keep the hawk from winding 



{ 



36 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



when she bated." He means the tyrrits (Fr. tourettes\ which 
took the place of the modern swiveL Bewits are thin strips of 
leather by which the bells are fastened to the hawk's legs. 
Sect. X., '' Early treatises on Hawking/' is very meagre. Com- 
pare the account of MSS. on Falconry in the British Museum 
given in No. Si, pp. ii.-xviL 

57. THORNTON (Colonel T.). A Sporting Tour 
through the Northern Parts of England and great 
part of the Highlands of Scotland ; including remarks 
on English and Scottish landscape, etc By Colonel T. 
Thornton, of Thornville Royal, in Yorkshire. De 
gustibus non est disputandum. London. Printed for 
Vernon and Hood, 31 Poultry; Constable and Hunter, 
Edinburgh ; and Brush and Reid, Glasgow ; by James 
Swan, Angel Street. 1804. 4to. 

Contains much practical infonnation on falconry, and details 
of the sport, especially grouse-hawking (in which the author was 
very successful) snipe-hawking and kite-hawking. He was the 
only falconer of modem times who procured a young goshawk 
from a nest in Great Britain. This bird was taken in the forest 
of Rothiemurcus (p. 76), where there were a few eyries in the 
great fir trees, some of which he saw (p. 107). He formed a 
Falconers' Club, of which the following amongst others were 
members : the Earl of Orford, the £arl of Eglinton, Mr. Las- 
celles, Mr. Parson, Mr. Edward Parson, the Duke of Rutland and 
Mr. P. Stanley. They found Alconbury Hill a very desirable 
place to meet at for part of the season, on account of the number 
of Kites which were then to be found there, and which afforded 
excellent sport They used then to go on to Barton Mills, as 
appears by a memorandum in the handwriting of Col. Thornton, 
which in 1823 (the year of his death) was in possession of Mr. 
T. Gosden. After showing good sport with his hawks for nine 
years he was presented by Lord Orford, on behalf of himself and 
other subscribers, in 1781, with a handsome silver-gilt urn, on 
the cover of which is the appropriate design of a Goshawk holding 
a Hare. This urn, which passed into the possession of Col, 




COLONEL T. THORNTON 

OF THORNVILLE ROVAL, IN rOKKSHIRE. 

BORN 17B7. DIED IB33. 

n^m»fortratitiiilhep<a$ettio<to/lht Earlo/Eoiehfrii. 



ENGLISH. 37 



Thornton Wodehouse, R.A. (a relative by marriage), was sold at 
'* Christie's "on the nth June 1884, and was purchased by the 
present Lord Orford, by whom it is now exhibited in the Gros- 
venor Gallery. 

58. THOBNTON (Colonel T.). A Sporting Tour 
through various parts of France, in the year 1802. 
. ... In a series of Letters to the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Darlington. To which is prefixed an Account 
of French Wolf-hunting. By Colonel Thornton, of 
Thornville Royal, Yorkshire. Illustrated, etc Albion 
Press. Printed by James Cunder, Ivy Lane, for 
Longman & Co., Paternoster Row, and C. Chappie, 
Pall Mall, 1806. 2 vols. 4to. 

A portrait of the author canying a favourite falcon forms a 
frontispiece to the first volume. The original oil painting from 
which this portrait was engraved is in the possession of the 
Earl of Rosebery at the Durdans, Epsom. 

The appendix contains some practical remarks on pheasant- 
hawking (pp. 230-234) with a description and plate of the 
Hawk-house at Thornville Royal. 

59. HO WITT (Samuel). The British Sportsman : 
Seventy plates, without text. London. 1 8 1 2. 410. 

Includes four excellent engravings illustrative of Hawking — 
namely, "Partridge-hawking," "Pheasant-hawking," "Duck- 
hawking," and " Heron-hawking," thus lettered ; with the addi- 
tional words "Republished by Edwd. Orme, Bond St. 1812.*' 
The first edition appeared in 1800. 

60. CHAFIN (WilUam). Anecdotes and History 
OF Cranbourn Chase. By William Chafin, clerk. 
London. 1 8 1 6. 8 vo. 

First edition, pp. 56. Second edition, with additions, 18 18, 
pp. 103. Reviewed in the Gentleman's Magazine^ 18 18. 



38 BOOKS ON FALCONR K 



The author describes (p. 45) '' the large tract of land in and 
near the Chase, called the Hawking Downsy formerly covered 
with gorse and fern, and the resort of winged game, pheasants, 
and partridges : and the bordering woods that produced wood- 
cocks which came to a flight for the hawks in the open glades 
when disturbed from the woods, and shewed great sport." He 
refers also (p. 47) to '* the English hawks annually trained in the 
neighbourhood of firidport in Dorsetshire for the taking of Land- 
rails in the hemp and flax-fields near that town," and prints several 
letters (pp. 48-51) from Mr. W.Tregonwell Frampton, who about 
the year 1670 was '* the most active pursuer of this diversion in 
the West of England." These letters give some curious details 
of the importation of hawks in those days, brought over in the 
Russian ships, and the value set upon them. 

For a portrait of Frampton, see The Fields 22nd April 1854 
(vol. iiL p. 381). 

61. SEBBIGHT (Sir John Saunders, Bart., M.P.). 
Observations upon Hawking: Describing the mode 
of Breaking and Managing the several kinds of Hawks 
used in Falconry. London, Printed for J. Harding, 
32 St James's Street 1826. 8vo. 

A practical and now scarce treatise. In preparing it, the 
author was assisted by Mr. Downes of Gunton, who, with Lord 
Orford, Col. Thornton, CoL Wilson (afterwards Lord Bemers), 
Mr. Hall of Weston, near Newmarket, and Mr. £. C. Newcome 

of Feltwell, upheld this sport in England during the first quarter 
of the present century. 

62. HABEWOOD (H.). Dictionary of Sports : 
or companion to the field, the forest, and the river 
side. Containing explanations of every term appli- 
cable to racing, shooting, hunting, fishing, hawking, 
etc. With essays upon all national amusements. By 
Harry Harewood, of Springfield, in the County of 
York, Esq. London. 1835. sm. 8vo. 

An improved version of the ''Sportsman's Dictionary." 
(No. 44.) With woodcuts, including the Goshawk and Hobby. 




EDWARD CLOUGH NEWCOME 

1.)/ /{ocl»-M •« II.,- o.unty ;/ K,.r/,.n: 

Horu IMi', IJ. I IS71. 



ENGLISH. 39 



63. BLAINE (D* P.). An ENCYCLOPi^DiA of Rural 
Sports. Part VI. (pp. 602-718). Falconry or Hawk- 
ing, with numerous illustrations. London. 1840. 8vo. 

Second edition (the best) revised by " Hany Hieover," 
" Ephemera," and others, and illustrated with 600 engravings 
on wood from drawings by Aiken, T. Landseer, and others. 
London (Longmans), 1852. Other editions 1858 (illustrated 
by Leech) and 1870. 

64. BEL A NY (J. C*). A Treatise upon Falconry. 
In two Parts. By James Cockburn Belany, Berwick 
upon Tweed. Printed for the Author. 1841. 8vo. 

Part L contains observations upon the Nature, Antiquity and 
History of Falconry. 

Part II. contains notices of the different Hawks used in British 
Hawking, the proper method of keeping, training, and flying the 
birds, the apparatus belonging to the art, etc. 

Appended is a Glossary of the ** Terms used in Falconry," very 
incomplete, and not always accurate, the body of the work also 
containing many serious errors. A work much overrated by 
the booksellers. 

65. LUBBOCK (Bichard). Observations on the 
Fauna of Norfolk, and more particularly on the 
District of the Broads. By the Rev. Richard Lubbock, 
M.A., Rector of Beccles. Norwich. 1845. ^^o. 

Contains a chapter '' On the Remains of Falconry in Norfolk," 
pp. 20-31 ; second edition (1879), PP- 33~44» with Appendix on 
the same subject by Prof. Newton, pp. 224-239. Some further 
notes, by J. £. Harting, '^ On Hawking as formerly practised in 
Norfolk,'* will be found in the Trans, Norfolk and Norwich Nat. 
Society^ voL iii. (1880), pp. 79-94. See also Stevenson, '' Birds 
of Norfolk," voL i. pp. 12-17, 

66. BX7BT0N (Bichard F.). Falconry in the 
Valley of the Indus. By Richard F. Burton, Lieut. 



40 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Bombay Army. London, John Van Voorst. 1852. 
post 8vo. 

For a writer having no practical knowledge of the subject, but 
merely describing what he saw and heard, this little book is 
well written^ and has a ^harming frontispiece by J. Wolf repre- 
senting a Goshawk seizing a gazelle, with other illustrations. 

The errors in the text are evidently due to the fact of the 
author not always understanding what he saw, or heard described. 

67. SALVIN (F. H.) and BBODRICE (W.), Fal- 
conry IN THE British Isles. With coloured plates 
of all the Hawks used by Falconers. London, John 
Van Voorst 1855, roy. 8vo. 

Second edition, 1873. '^^^ hest modem book in English on 
the art and practice of Falconry. The second edition is to be 
preferred for the emendations and additions to the text, but the 
illustrations to the first edition are much superior. An interest- 
ing review of the second edition written by the late A. £. Knox, of 
Trotton, Sussex, appeared in the Quarterly Kanewlox July 1875. 

68. FBEEMAN (G. E.) and SALVIN (F. H.). 
Falconry : its Claims, History and Practice. To 
which are added remarks on Training the Otter and 
Cormorant, by Captain Salvin. London, Longmans. 
1859. 8vo, 

Though out of print, a work to be commended ; by two prac- 
tical falconers, both of whom are still living. The chapter on 
heron-hawking as pursued 40 years ago was communicated by 
the late Edward Clough Newcome, of Feltwell Hall, Brandon, 
Norfolk, one of the best practical falconers of modem times, 
and the last who kept Heron-hawks in England. In 1843 
he had two remarkable Heron-hawks, "De Ruyter" and 
"Sultan," which were brought from Holland by the Dutch 
falconer Jan Pells, and in that year took 54 herons, and in the 







S ^ i 

si*' 

n 1 i 



ENGLISH. 41 



following season 57 herons. " De Ruyter" was lost on Laken- 
heath Warren, but ''Sultan/' who in the season of 1845 killed 
25 rooks and 3 herons, lived for some time afterwards, and, on 
dying, was preserved, with jesses, hood, and bells, in a glass 
case, which may still be seen at Hockwold Hall. 

69. HAMILTON (J. P.). Reminiscences of an old 
Sportsman. By Colonel J. P. Hamilton, K.H. In 
two volumes. London, Longmans, i860. 8vo. 

The last four chapters of vol. ii. (pp. 171-308) are devoted 
to Falconry, historical and descriptive, but contain numerous 
technical errors, owing to the author's want of practical acquaint- 
ance with the sport. 

70. BRODRICK (W.). Falconer's Favorites. By 
W. Brodrick, one of the authors of " Falconry in the 
British Islands.*' London, Van Voorst. 1865. folio. 

A series of six coloured plates of hawks, life size, with a page 
of descriptive letterpress to each. The species figured are : — 
" Comet,*' a year old Peregrine Tiercel ; an adult male Sparrow- 
hawk ; '^ Shark," an adult male Goshawk ; an adult male Hobby; 
•' Hurricane/' a young female Peregrine [more like a Norwegian 
Jerfalcon], and a young male Merlin. The plates drawn and 
lithographed by the author. 

For a memoir of the late William Brodrick, see The Field, 
1 2th Jan. 1889. 

71. FREEMAN (Q. E.). Practical Falconry; to 
which is added, How I became a Falconer. By Gage 
Earle Freeman, M.A., " Peregrine " of The Field. 
London, Horace Cox. 1869. 8vo. 

This little book, written from personal experience of the author, 
has done much to keep alive the traditions of falconry and 
encourage its modern revival. It has been unfortimately for 
some time out of print. 



42 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 



72. DELME-RADCLIFFE (Col. E.). Notes on the 
Falconida used in India in Falconr>\ [Cut of hooded 
falcon on glove.] Southsea, n.d. [187 1]. sm. 8vo. 

This small pamphlet of 38 pp. contains much practical infor- 
mation derived by the author from personal experience in 
India. It is a reprint of three articles, with the same title, 
which appeared in The Field of July 22, Aug. 5, and Aug. 26, 
1871. 

Schlegel cites a treatise on Falconry in India written in English, 
but known to him only through a German translation in Wiers- 
bitzki's Taschenbuch fur fdger und Naturfreunde (see German 
authors, No. 116). It contains some curious details about 
Hawking as practised in India in modem times. To this 
it may be added that in Hume's "Scrap-Book, or Rough 
Notes on Indian Oology and Ornithology" (two parts, Svo, Cal- 
cutta, 1869-70), will be found some excellent notes commu- 
nicated by Mr. R. Thompson of Gurhwal, on hawking in India 
with the Peregrine, Saker, Goshawk, Sparrow-hawk and Hobby, 
the last-named being flown at the Hoopoe, and affording very 
pretty sport 

73. DELME-BADCLIFPE (Col. E.). The article 
** Falconry" in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," ninth 
edition. London and Edinburgh. 1879. 4to. 

74. FISHEB (C. Hawkins), FBEEMAN (Q. E.), 
and others. Prize Essays on Falconry ; submitted to 
the Barnet Committee of the Alexandra Park with the 
object of suggesting the best means for reviving the 
practice of Falconry. Adjudicated upon by Lord 
Lilford, Lieut.-Col. Delm6.Radcliffe, and E. C. New- 
come. London. 1871. sm. Svo. 

75. BOWLEY (Qeorge Dawson). Ornithological 
Miscellany. London. 1875-78. 3 vols. 4to. 

Contains a few, but unimportant, notes on Falconry (part i 




PETER BALLANTINE, 

THB LAST OP THE OLD SCOTCH FALCONERS, 

BORN 1709, DIED 1SG4. 

Hn » piiDtiDg by A. D. Cooper, 1879, in the po8MMi«n of : 

Ur. B. Onnld ot Auohenoruive, Ajnhire. 



* 4 



ENGLISH. 43 



pp. 55-6o» and part iv. pp. 213-222), collected from various 
sources, with iacsimUe woodcuts from Turbervile (No. 15). 

^6. LAOBOIX (Paul). Manners, Customs, and 
Dress during the Middle Ages. London. 1877. 
4to. 

A translation from the French (which see) with full-page illu- 
minated plates, and engravings from early MSS., a chapter being 
devoted to Falconry (pp. 195-212). 

^T. HABTING (J. E.). The Ornithology of 
Shakespeare, critically examined, explained and illus- 
trated. London, John Van Voorst. 1871. 8vo. 

Contains a chapter on "Hawks and Hawking" (pp. 49-82), 
explaining the Hawking terms used by Shakespeare, with illus- 
trations from other authors, and some curious statistics con- 
cerning the prices paid for hawks, and the practice of the art in 
the 1 6th century. The frontispiece represents Shakespeare with 
a falcon on his glove, drawn by J. Wolf, the only portrait of 
Shakespeare with a hawk. 

78. HABTDia (J. E.). The article " Falconry," 
revised, in Stonehenge s '* Rural Sports." Fifteenth 
edition. London. 1880. 8vo. 

79. HABTINQ (J. E.). Essays on Sport and 
Natural History. London, Horace Cox. 1883. 8vo. 

Contains chapters on Hunting and Hawking, the Boke of 
St Albans, Hawking as taught by the Boke, Taking Passage 
Hawks in Holland, How to Train a Passage Hawk, and a 
review of an Arabic Treatise on Hawking. 

80. HASTINQ (J. E.). Hints on the Manage- 
ment OF Hawks. London, Horace Cox. 1884. 8vo. 

The various steps to be taken in taming, training, feeding, 
and flying hawks are detailed from personal knowledge, and from 



44 BOOKS ON FALCONR Y. 

the teaching of two experienced professional falconers, the late 
John Barr, and Adrian MoUen, of Valkenswaard. 

8 1. HARTING (J. E.). A Perfecte Booke for 
Kepinge of Sparhawkes or Goshawkes. Written 
about 1575. Now first printed from the original MS. 
on vellum. With Introduction and Glossary by J. E. 
Harting. London, Quaritch. 1886. sm. 4to. 

The original MS. is in the possession of Mr. W. A. Tyssen- 
Amherst, of Didlington Hall, Norfolk. The Introduction (pp. 
i.-xxxii.) embodies a review of the Early English literature of 
falconry (including manuscripts), and appended to the treatise 
(PP- 39~S i) is a " glossary " of all the technical terms employed 
by Falconers. Only 100 copies of this treatise have been 
published. 

82. HABTING (J. E.). The article " Falconry" in 
Chambers* " Encyclopaedia/' new edition. Edinburgh 
and London. 1889. 4to. 



Butcb* 

83. MAEBLANT (Jacob van). Der Natura 
Bloemen : Historia Naturalis Metrica. Leyden, n.d. 

This work, preserved in MS. at Leyden, is cited by Schlegel 
as being mentioned in a "Cafa/ogus librorum manuscriptorum 
bibliothecct Lugduno Baiavce descripsit J. Geel, 1852 " (p. 195, 
No. 659)^ and contains some remarks on Falconry, relating 
chiefly to the diseases of hawks and the remedies for them. 

84. MEBULA (Paul G. F.). Placaten ende 
Ordonancien op t'stuck van de Wildernissen in orde 
gestelddoor Paul G. F. Merulam, Dordracenum. Ins 
Gravenhage bij B. C Nieulant. 1605. folio. 




DUTCH FALCONER OF THE XVI CENTURY 

From a porlrait bi, f'ram de Vrient 
In the BrvHiinrk GaUtry. 



* 






>^ 



GERMAN. 45 



Pjlacatem em Ordenancien op 't stuck van 
de Wildernisse, Hout-Vesterye, Vogelerye, ende 
Visscherye .... van Merula uytgegeven. *S 
Gravenhage. 1672. 4to. 

According to Schlegel the third book, entitled Ixeutica of 
Vlught-Bedrijfy contains a brief account of Falconry in Holland. 

85. ACKERSDIJCK (W. C). De Valkenjagt te 
Valkenswaard en Waalre. 1838. 8vo. 

Nieuwe Algemeene Konst-en Letterbode. 1838. ii. p. 179. 

Unknown to Schlegel. See also an anonymous pamphlet, 
published at the Hague in 1840, entitled '*Quelques details 
sur les Faucons et I'art de les dresser h, la chasse/' Both these 
publications refer to the doings of the Loo Hawking Club in 
Holland. 

86. WULVERHORST (A. H. Verster van). 
Geschiedkundige Aanteekeningen over het Jagtwezen. 
Amsterdam. 1 840. 

Not seen ; cited by Schlegel and said to contain some obser- 
vations on Falconry (pp. 25-40). Wulverhorst was part author 
with Schlegel of the Traith de Fauconnerie. 



(3erman« 

87. ANON. Das erste Buck vahet also an und 
leret paissen [beyssen, beizen, oder beitzen] und auch 
den Habich erkenne Augsburg [c. 1472]. sm. 4to. 

Black letter, 46 leaves unpaged, and without signatures; 
22 lines to a page. Without author's name or date. The 
earliest printed book on Falconry in any language. Extremely 
rare. The only copy mentioned by bibliographers is one for- 
merly in the library of the Abbd de BearzL 



46 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



88. HIOPELT (Eberhard). Aucupatorium Hero 
DiORUM. Eine Deutsche Abhandlung Uber die Beizjagd 
aus der ersten halfte des 1 5 Jahrhundertes. Nach der 
einzigen erhaltenen Handschrift dem Cod. MS. Nr. 2457 
der K. K. Hotbibliothek zu Wien zum erstenmale im 
Urtexte herausgegeben, eingeleitet, und commentiert 
von Ernst Ritter von Dombrowski. Miteinem photo- 
zinkographischen und handcolorierten Facsimile der 
Handschrift, etc. Wien. 1886. 4to. [1430- 1450.] 

This extremely interesting treatise, written between 1430 and 
1450, is printed in Black letter for the first time from a MS. 
in the Royal Library at Vienna. It contains a facsimile in 
colours (the MS. being iUmninated) of the first page, which 
commences : — " Incipit aucupatorium herodiorum ex antiquorum 
philosophorutn dictis per magisirum Eherhardutn Hicfelt coUectuvi 
et translatumr 

It is apparently founded on the earlier treatises of S3rmmachus 
and Theodosius, A. de Eglis, Ladislaus of Hungary, and 
Crescentius (see Latin authors), and deals first with the nature 
and habits of Falcons {JHerodiorum sive Falkonutn) \ secondly, 
with taming and training them {de domaiione et dodrind) ; and 
thirdly, with the cure of their diseases {de egritudinibus earundem 
curis). The editor, Baron von Dombrowski, in an excellent 
Introduction notices some of the older works from which the 
author derived information, and prints in parallel columns a 
passage fi-om Hicfelt and from Crescentius. 

Only 220 numbered copies of this have been printed, of which 
that in the writer's possession is No. 61. 

89. KAISEB MAXIMILIABT. Handschrift Ober 
DIE Falknerey (1493-1519) aiif der K.K. Hofbiblio- 
thek zu Wien. 

Printed, from a MS. of the fifteenth century in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, by Hammer Purgstall in his " Falknerklee " 
(No. 1 1 3), 8vo, pp. 94-96. Wien. 1840. It is an Ordinance of 
the Emperor, addressed to a Grand Duke of Austria, relative 
to the state of falconry in that country. From this it appears 



GERMAN. 47 



that he used to receive annually twelve Sakers from Cyprus (sent 
by the republic of Venice)i and twelve Peregrines from the grand 
falconer at the court of Prussiai besides purchasing hawks in 
Holland and Alsace, and at Augsburg. 

Another MS. of this £mperor, namely: — ^his "Geheimes 
Jagdbuch,*' relating to Deer, was edited and published at 
Vienna, in 1858, by Th. G. von Karajan. 

90. KNOBLAXTCH (J.). EiN schone Buchlin von 
DEM Beyssen mit dem Habich unnd dem Hund, alle 
besten unnd geschicklicheyt des Federspils trewlich 
underrichtend unnd lernend. Gedruckt zu Strassburg 
durch Johannem Knoblauch im jar 15 10. 4to. 

A scarce work on hawking with the Goshawk. Not in Brit. Mus. 
According to Dombrowski, (No. 88, p. be.), the first edi- 
tion appeared at Augsburg, about 1478. 

91. STEYNEB (Heinrich). Waidwerck; Vogel 
zu FAHEN MIT Raubvogeln, ctc Augsburg. n.d. 
[c. 1530]. 4to. 

Not seen : cited by Schlegel. Not in British Museum. 

92. EQENOLFH (Christoph). Waidwerck; Vo- 
gel zu FAHEN MIT Raubvogeln, nctzen, stricken, leim, 
geschoss, etc. Strassburg. 1530. 4to. 

Not seen : cited by Schlegel, possibly an edition of the last- 
named, Egenolph being printer or publisher. Not in Brit. Mus. 

93. TAPP (Eberhard). Waidwerck und Feder- 
SPIEL. Von der Habichen unnd Falcken natur art unnd 
eygenthumb : wie mann sie berichten gewehnen atzen 
unnd von alien jrenk ranckheyten soil erledigen. Allen 
Habich unnd Falcken tregern vast notig unnd zu wissen 
niltzlich. Durch Eberhardum Tappium, Lunensem 
Burger zu Coin. [Holzschnittvignette] Strassburgh 
bey M. Jacob Cammer Lander. Anno, 1542. sm. 4to. 



48 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Reprint of 1886, of which only 250 numbered copies were 
issued, this being No. 31. Copies of the original edition of 
1542 are extremely scarce. In twenty years I have only once 
seen it in a bookseller's catalogue. Not in Brit Mus. 

The title may be thus translated : — ** The Chase and the 
Lure. On Goshawks and Falcons, their nature, species, and 
peculiarities : how to train, tame, and feed them ; and treating 
of all their diseases. Almost indispensable, and most useful to all 
fanciers of goshawks and falcons. By Eberhard Tapp, Lunensis, 
a citizen of Cologne. 1542." The preface is dated Cologne, 
24 May, 1541. 

94. FEYEItABENDT (Sigmundt). Neuw Jag 
UND Weydwerck Buck, das ist ein grundtliche 
Beschreibung vom Anfang der Jagten .... Item 
vom adelichen Weydwerck der Falcknerey. Getriickt 
zu Franckfurt am Maynhen bey Johan Feyerabendt, 
in Verlegung Sigmundt Feyerabendts. 1582. folio. 

Compiled from previous writers, the portion on hunting 
being translated, for the first time, from the French of Jacques 
du Fouilloux. The first part treats of Hunting, the second of 
Hawking ; with engravings by Jost Amman. Not in the British 
Museum. 

95. SEBIZIXTS (Melchior). Funfzehn Bucher von 
DEM Feldbaw Das 13. Buch umfasst Weyd- 
werck Hetzen und Jagen ; das 14. Buch vom Feder- 
spiEL oder von Falcknerey ; das 15. Buch von der 

WolQagd, etc Mit Holzschnitten von Jost 

Amman. Strassburg. 1588. folio. 

Other editions, 1592, 1598 (Brit. Mus.) and 1607. Iq ^^c 
edition of 1598 the treatise on Falconry extends from p. 692 
to p. 732 with half-page engraving of Heron-hawking. 

96. CRESCENTIXTS (Petrus). Neuw Feldt und 

Ackerbaw von Otter und Biberjagd, von Was- 

ser und Fisch weydwerck, vom adelichen Weydwerck 




?>^^ •.vi:j,}.y. M 



PRINCE WILLIAM V or liOLLAND 
il.,:,a-hin.lii,i,, .,1 Ih.- f. ■■ ■.. I7'7. 






* 



GERMAN. 49 



Falcknerey, Falckner und Habichten, Reyger, Feder- 
spiel, etc Vom Jager, seinem Horn und Stimme, 
von Hunden, von der Hirsch, Hasen, Steinbock, und 
Gemsenjagd. Von der Wolff Eygenschaft und dere 
Jagd, etc. .... [Mi t zahlreichen schonen kraftigen 
Holzschnitten von Jost Amman.] Strassburg. 1602. 
folio. 

From the Latin original, Ruralium commodorum libri xiu^ 
first printed at Augsburg in 1471. There are, however, earlier 
German editions than this. Several were printed at Strassburg 
about the end of the fifteenth century, and later. 

97. ABCTJSSIA (C. von). Falconaria ; das ist ei- 
gentlicher Bericht und Anleytung wie mann mit Falcken 
und andern Weydtvogeln beitzen soil .... in fiinf 
Theil abgetheilet von Carolo d'Arcussia .... fran- 

zosisch beschrieben Gedruckt zu Franckfurt am 

Mayn durch Nicolaum Hoffmann. 161 7. 4to. 

A German translation from the French of D'Arcussia, and 
evidendy based on the fourth Paris edition of 1607, for it con- 
tains but five parts (see note to No. 153). It is illustrated by 
the same full-page engravings, but within borders, and a folding 
plate of hawking implements between pp. 266-267 : the title 
within a finely engraved and very appropriate border. Two 
copies are in the British Museum (7906, g. 24, and 7906, g. 25). 

Graesse cites an earlier edition printed at Augsburg in 161 1, 
but this is perhaps a misprint for 161 7. 

98. POMEY (P. A.). EiN SEHR ARTIG BUCHLEIN 

von dem Weydwerck und der Falcknerey. Wort- 
getreuer Abdruck der Originalausgabe [Lyon, 1671]. 
Deutsch und Franzosisch. Mit Holzschnittvignetten 
von Jost Amman. [Reprint. Stuttgart 1886. 8vo.] 

D 



50 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

The first reprint of this curious treatise originally appended to 
the second edition of a Latin-German- French Dictionary, dated 
1671, of which the first edition appeared at Lyons in 1664 and 
another in 1684, subsequently at Frankfort in 1681 and 1690. 
It contains treatises on Hunting and Hawking, with glossaries 
of the technical terms used in both these branches of sport 
The portion on Falconry, in the edition of 167 1, in which it 
first appeared, extends from p. 42 to p. 48, and is in double 
column. The author's name in the original is Pomey, not 
Pomay, as in the reprint. 

99. FLEMING (Hans F. von). Der Volkommene 
Teutsche Jaeger darinnen die Erde Geblirge Kraeuter 
und Baeume, Waelder, Eigenschaft der Wilden Thire 
und Vogel .... colligiret und beschrieben von H. 
F. von Fleming, Leipzig. 1719. folio. 

Illustrated with copper plates. 

Other editions, 1723 (cited bySchlegel as the first) and 1749. 
The author, whose remarks on Falconry are compiled chiefly 
from D'Arcussia, states (pp. 336-337, ed. 1749) that in his day 
falcons for heron-hawking were annually brought into Germany 
from Holland, by Dutch falconers who knew how to train them. 
And Dobel (No. 100), who repeats this statement (ii. pp. 194- 
195), adds that most of them came from Valkenswaard. 

100. DOBEL (Heinrich Wilhelm). Jager Praktik 
oder die wohlgelibte und erfahrne Jager. Leipzig. 
1746. 4 vols, folio. 

Other editions, Leipzig, 1754, folio; Vienna, 1785-86, 4 vols. 
8vo. In the last published edition (Leipzig, 3 vols. 8vo, 1828), 
the portion relating to falconry, of no great importance, b 
omitted. 

101. PACrCTS (J. E.). Friedrich II. romischen 
Kaiser's ubrige Stiicke des Buches von der Kunst 
zu BAiTZEN ; [Verfasst um 1 245] nebst den ZusSLtzen 
des Konigs Manfredus und Albert! Magni Unterricht 



GERMAN. 51 



von den Falken und Habichten aus dessen 23 Buche 
von den Thieren, Aus dem Latein ubersetzt von J. Erh. 
Pacius. Ansbach. 1756. sm. 8vo, 

A translation from the Latin edition of 1596; consequently 
incomplete, since it contains but two books out of six. 

102, ANON. NeueLustigeundVollstandigeJagd- 
kunst: so wohl von denen Vogeln als auch andern 
Thieren, Bestehend in fiinf Theilen . . . . iv. Von 
den Falken, wie solche zum Vogel und Haasenfangen 
abzurichten und deren vielfaltige Krankheiten zu curiren 
und zu preserviren .... Nebst sehr vielen Figuren 
und einer Nachricht von Canarienvogeln. Zweyte ver- 
besserte Auflage, Leipzig. 1762. sm. 8vo. 

Part IV. (chapters i.-xxii.) is devoted to Falconry, the details 
of which occupy 78 pp. First edition not seen. 

103. BIDINGEB (J. E.). Jager und Falconiers 
MIT IHREN Verrichtungen. Vienna, c. 1760. folio. 

A fine series of engravings of Hunting and Hawking. 
The plates are lettered alphabetically from A to Z, and in- 
clude the following illustrations of hawking : — 

(D.) Falconier. 

(£.) Falconier den Falcken abhaubend. 

(F.) Falcken Jiinge mit der Chatsche. [Cadge.] 

(G.) Falconier Knecht de Uhu auf der hand fahrend. 

(H.) Falconier Knecht de Uhu vom bode aufnehmend. 

(Q.) Den Hasen mit dem Habicht zu beitzen. 

(R.) Falconier mit dem Luier den Falcken einholend. 

(W.) Der Falconier nimt den Falcken wider auf. 

(X.) Der Reyher wird von den Falcken oben herab geschlagen. 

(Y.) Wilde Ganse mit dem Habicht zu baitzen. 

(Z.) Wild-Enten baitze nachdem sie aufgestobert worden. 

All Ridinger's engravings are valuable; the present series 
especially so, from its rarity. Besides the copy now before me, 
I have seen but two others, one of which is in the British 



52 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Museum (458, f. 6). There is no accompanjdng letterpress as 
with some of Ridinger's works, but each plate has a description 
at foot in German and French. (See Thienemann, ^' Leben und 
Wirken des J. E. Ridinger," 8vo, Leipzig, 1856, pp. 34-38.) In 
another series there is a fine engraving of two hooded Jerfalcons 
and a water-dog, and in a third series, of much larger plates, 
depicting field-sports of the four seasons (Brit Mus. 458, h. 15), 
the third plate gives a splendid representation of heron-hawking. 

104. BEOEMANN (Johann). Beytrage zur 
GESCHiCHTE DER Erfindungen. Gottingen, 1785. 
8vo. 

The article on Falconry in this work (ii. pp. 157-176) has 
been already noticed under the English translation by Johnston 
(No. 53). 

105. HEPPE (Johann C). Die Jagdlust oder 
die hohe und niedere Jagd, nach alien ihren Ver- 
schiedenheiten in drey Theilen grlindlich beschrieben 
und mit nothigen Kupfem erlautert von Johann 
Christoph Heppe. NUrnberg. 1783-84. 3 vols. sm. 
8vo. 

The third voL contains a treatise on the birds of prey (pp. 
1-121) and on Falconry (pp. 121-197), with a plate (tab. 2) 
of hoods for the Gerfalcon, Saker, Alphanet, and Lanner. 

106. BECHSTEIN (J. M.). Naturgeschichte der 
VoGEL Deutschlands. Leipzig. 1801. 8vo. 

The remarks on Falconry (vol. ii. p. 720 etseq.) are for the 
most part taken from Pennant (No. 47), who in turn borrowed 
from Warton and others. 

107. GEIST (J, P.). Der zur Jagd und ziim Ver- 
nligen Nabgerichtete Hund. Nebst einer kurzen prakt. 
Anweisung zur dressur der Kunstpferde und VSgel. 
N Urnberg. 1 8 1 4. 8 vo. 

A third edition appeared at Niimbeig in 1840. 



GERMAN. 53 



io8. NATTMANN (J. A.). Naturgeschichte der 
VQgel Deutschlands .... herausgegeben von 
dessen Sohne J. F. Naumann. Fortsetzung der 
Nachtrslge, Zusatze und Verbesserungen von J. H. 
Blasius, Ed. Baldamus und Sturm. Leipzig. 1820-60. 
13 vols. 8vo. 

There have been few better observers of bird-life than the 
elder Naumann, and falconers will find in the first volume of 
his work much interesting information concerning the habits in 
a wild state of the birds of prey which are trained for hawking. 

109. HETTTK (J. A.). Die Kleine Jagd : oder 
Anleitung, etc .... Nebst einer Beschreibung die 
der Jagd nachtheiligen Raubvogel. Ein Handbuch fUr 
Jager und Jagdliebhaber. Leipzig. 1832. 4to. 

With 27 plates of Eagles, Falcons, and Hawks ; some copies 
coloured, others plain. 

First edition, with variation in title, Dresden, 1827, 4to« 
This book is chiefly occupied with directions for the profitable 
management of a sporting estate, to which the remarks on 
hawks are, as it were, supplementary. 

no. SPANGENBEBG (H. G. von). Ueber die 
LusTjAGD DER VoRZEiT. Nach Esparron und eini- 
gen Anderen. Erfurt. 1831. roy. 8vo. 

Compiled chiefly from the French of Charles D'Arcussia de 
Capre, seigneur d'Esparron (see Nos. 153 and 154). 

III. FBOMBEBG (H. von). Die Niedere Jagd. 
Ein Handbuch fUr Jager und Jagdliebhaber. Glogau. 
1 836. 1 2mo. 

Not seen, and not in the British Museum. If, as the title sug 
gests, it is comparable to Die Kleine Jagd of Heink (No. 109)^ 
it will probably be found to include some notice of Falconry. 



54 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

112. HAMMEBr— PUBGSTALL (Job. von). 
Falknerklee: bestehejici iadrey ungedruckten Werken 
Uber die Falknerey. nahmlich : (i) das Falkenbuch. 
aus dem TUrkischen ; {2) lerakosophion, 6zb ist ^^ di^ 
Habichtslehre " aus . dem Griechischen verdeutscht ; 
und (3) Kaiser Maximilian's Handschrift Uber 
Falknerey. Wien. 1840. 8vo. 

The Turkish and Greek texts of the above-mentioned works 
are given with the German translation, and an Introduction of 
32 pp. with a short list of such works relating to Falconry as 
were known to the editor. 

The name ^^Falknerklee" or "Falconer's Trefoil,*' was evi- 
dently bestowed in allusion to the three wprks in one volume, 
like three leaves on one stem. Only 300 copies were printed 
of this book, which has now become scarce. 

113. SUSEMIHL (Johann Conrad). Die Vogel 
EuROPAS. Darmstadt 1842. roy. 8vo. 

Contains an essay on Falconry by H. Schlegel, which he 
himself has cited as "un aper^u succinct de la fauconnerie," 
with coloured plates of falcons by Joseph Wolf. 

114. SEYFFABTH (P. C). Die Falkenbaize. 
Leipzig. 1845. sup. royal i6mo. 

Printed in Wiersbitzki's ** Taschenbuch fiir Jager imd Natur- 
freunde" (No. 12, pp. 105-264), but full of errors, although the 
author, it appears, was instructed by Professor Bein, of the School 
of Forestry at Dreissigacker in Thuringia, as well as by M. le 
Perin, Grand Falconer to the Duke of Vicenza. Schlegel, who 
cites this author, has pointed out several of his blunders. 

115. COEVUT WIEBSBITZKI (Otto von). Tas- 
chenbuch FUR Jager und Naturfreunde. Mit 
Kupfern. Leipzig. 1845. sup. royal i6mo. 

This is the journal referred to in the note to last title. 
The Gonlents of the article on Falconry (pp. 205-264) are as 



GERMAN. 55 



follows: — "Die Falkenbaize, von F. C. Seyffarth. Falkonier- 
Sprache. Ueber die Eigenschaflen eines Falkoniers. Ueber 
die verschiedenen Arten der Falken und ihre charackeristichen 
Kennzeichen und Eigenschaften. Vom Fange der Falken. 
Von der Zahmung und Abtragung eines frischgefangenen 
Falken oder Habichts. Ueber die Abtragung der Falken fur 
den hohen Flug. Von der Abrichtung der Falken aufweniger 
hochfliegende Vogel. Abrichtung eines Falken z\i Hasenbaize. 
Vom Werfen des Falken. Von Erziehung der Nestfalken. Vom 
Ankaufe der Falken. Von den Regeln welche ein Falkonier 
besonders zu beriicksichtigen hat. Von der Fiitterung der 
abgetragenen Falken im Allgemeinen und insbesondere. Von 
der Reinlichkeit des Aufenthaltsortes der Falken. Von den 
aiissem Kuren der Falken. Von den innerlichen Krankheiten 
der Falken und ihrer Heilung. Von der Equipage fur die 
Falkenbaize. Von den Eigenschaften der Falkonier-Pferde. 
Von den bei der Falkenjagd nothigen Hunden. Von der 
zweckmassigen Einrichtung eines Falkenhauses. Von dem 
Reihergehege." 

1 1 6. THIENEMANN (F. A. L.). Kritische 
Revision der europaischen J agdfalken. i 846. 8vo. 

This important memoir, which contains some interesting 
details concerning the I^anner and Saker in Central Europe, is 
printed in Rhea, "Zeitschrift fiir die gesammte Omithologie." 
8vo. Leipzig. 1846. (Heft i. pp. 44-98). 

In the same journal (pp. 39-43) is a paper by J. W. £. von 
Woborzil, entitled "Beitrag zur Naturgeschichte der 'Raroh/ 
J*alco lanarius^ Pallas, in which the writer states that near the 
Bohemian village of Wetruschitz, in the valley of the Moldau, 
where the mountain rocks overhang the river, he found the 
Lanner nesting, and secured five eggs and one of the birds. He 
adds that this falcon was well known to the villagers by the 
name of Raroh^ and came there every year. 

Coloured figures are given of the male and female. 

The Dutch falconer, Adrian Mollen, who was head falconer 
to the Loo Hawking Club, informed the writer that he had 
caught young Lanners in Hungary, and trained them for Prince 
Trautmansdorf, of Oberwescldorf, near Vienna. 



S6 BOOKS ON FALCONE K 

117. SCHEIBLE (J.), Das Schaltjahr, welches 
ist der teutsch Kalender mit den Figuren und hat 
366 Tag. Durch J. Scheible. Stuttgart 1846-47. 
5 vols. 8vo. 

Amongst the many subjects dealt with in this work, which 
may be compared with the English *^ Book of Days " published 
by Chambers, we find the following on hawking : — " Wie soil man 
die Falken berichten : Wie man Hasen mit Falken fangt ; Vogel- 
Weidwerck auf dem Wasser.; Von allerlei Voglerei, und Feder- 
spiel ; etc." Mit holzschnitten nach Jost Amman. 
. . 

1 1 8. SCHXJTZ (Carl Heinrich). Der Praktische 
Jager, oder Kunst mittelst neu erfundener Fallen 
FUchse, Dachse, Wilde Katzen, und allerhand Raub- 
vogel zu fangen. Heilbron. 1 847. 8vo. 

Interesting to falconers for the instructions which are given 
for capturing hawks. 

119. GBIMM (J.). Geschichte der Deutschen 
Sprache. Leipzig. 1848. 8vo. 

Contains a brief history of Falconry, but is evidently not 
written from any practical acquaintance with the subject ; the 
most interesting portion being the illustrations, copied from 
old illuminated MSS. 

1 20. FBIDEBICH {0. Q.). Naturgeschichte aller 
DEUTSCHEN ZiMMER, Haus UND Jagdvogel; nebst einem 
Anhange Uber die auslandischen Vogel welche in 
Deutschland vorkommen. Stuttgart, Hoffmann. 1849. 
roy. 8vo. 

This work is illustrated with twenty coloured plates, containing 
200 figures of birds. 

121. LAHDAU (Q.). Beitrage zur Geschichte 
DER Jagd und der Falknerei IN Deutschland. Die 



J ■ ■ ■ I ■ 



GERMAN. 57 



Geschichte der Jagd und der Falknerei in beiden 
Hessen. Von Dr. G. Landau. Kassel, Druck und 
Verlag von Theodor Fischer. 1 849. 8vo. 

In this octavo volume of 340 pp., the '^ Zweites Buch '' (pp. 
326-340) is devoted to a history of Falconry in Hesse-Cassel 
and Hesse-Darmstadt, and some curious details are quoted from 
olcl German archives. 

122. DEB MINNE FALKNEB. Allegorisches 
Gedicht aus dem Ende des 14. Jahrhundertes. He- 
rausgegebenvonj. A.Schmeller. Stuttgart 1850. 8vo. 

This is printed in vol. xx. of the '' Bibliothek des Literarischen 
Vereins in Stuttgart'' A poem of 185 verses extending to 38 
pages (pp. 171-208). 

123. EHBENELBEUTZ (H. von). Meine Geheim- 
SAMMLUNG der besten Wildkoder, Beizen, Fischkoder, 
etc Ulm. 1859. i2mo. 

Not seen : probably, from its size, of no great importance. 

124. EHBENKBEUTZ (H. von). Neuer hundert 
jahriger Jagd- und Forst-kalender fiir jeden Jager, 
Fischer, Vogelfanger. Nebst Angabe vieler bis jetzt 
geheim gehaltener bewahrter Koder, Beizen, Fang und 
Jagdmethoden. Ulm. 1859. sm. 8vo. 

Not seen, and not in British Museum. 

125. PEBGEB (A. B. von). ZuR Geschichte 
DER Falkenjagd. Wien. 1859. 8vo. 

Not seen, and not in British Museum. 

1 26. irZH'SINOEB (Heinrioh). Von den Falken 
Pferden und Hunden. Verfasst um 1450. Herausge- 
geben von Dr. K. D. Hassler. Stuttgart 1863. 8vo. 



58 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

This curious treatise of 98 pp., of which the portion on Fal- 
conry extends to 58 pp., is printed in the ^'Bibliothek des 
Literarischen Vereins in Stuttgart," voL Ixxi., with a note by 
Dr. Hassler, to the effect that it is from a MS. copied in 1473, 
by " Clara Hatzlerin zu Augspiirg." It is entitled " Hie hebt 
sich an das Puoch von den Valcken, Habichen, Sperben, 
Pfariden und Hunden." 

127. BIESENTHAL (O. v.). Die Raubvogel 
Deutschlands und des angrenzenden Mittel- 
EUROPAS. Darstellung und Beschreibungder inDeutsch- 
land und den benachbarten Landern von Mitteleuropa 
vorkommenden Raubvogel. Allen Naturfreunden 
besonders aber der Deutschen Jagerei gewidmet von 
O. V. Reisenthal, Oberforster. Cassel. 1876. 8vo. 

This volume contains a long chapter on Hawking (pp. 153- 
199), with plates of Hawk-catching; Hawk-net; Trap for Gos- 
hawk ; Hawks on perch, and block ; and Heron-hawking ; the 
last-named being a reduced copy of the folio plate in Schlegel's 
^' Traits de Fauconnerie." (See French authors. No. 194.) 

128. FOICHTINOEB (J.). Die Geschichte der 
Falkenjagd. Leipzig. 1878-79. 8vo. 

One of a series of treatises on sport, by different authors, 
which appeared in parts in the ^'Bibliothek fiir Jager tmd 
Jagdfreunde," 1878-79. 

129. BAIST (Q.). " LiBRO de la Caza del Principe 
D. Juan Manuel," zum Erstenmale herausgegeben 
von G. Baist. Halle (Niedermeyer). 1880. 8vo. 

A German version of the celebrated Spanish work (which see) 
from the MS. (S. 34) in the National Library at Madrid. As 
to this version, see a notice by M. A. Savine in the ^* Poly- 
biblion'' (part lit), Nov. 1882, pp. 456-457. 

130. KHYN (Otto, H. am.). Kulturgeschichte 
des Deutschen Volkes. Berlin. 1886. 2 vols. 4to. 



DANISH AND NORWEGIAN 59 

In the first volume of this beautifully-illustrated work, abound- 
ing in wood engravings, chromo-lithographs, facsimile MSS., and 
early printed pages, will be found a dissertation on Falconry, with 
a representation of Heron Hawking from a MS. of the fourteenth 
century (p. 202), and some curious "playing-cards" of the 
fifteenth century (p. 258), on one of which is the figure of a hunts- 
man {Jeger) with boar-spear and two hounds ; on another, a 
falconer ( Valkner) on horseback, with a cast of falcons on his 
left arm. 

131. DOMBBOWSEJ: (Ernest, Bitter von). Au- 

CUPATORIUM Herodiorum. \c. 1450.] Reprint, 1886. 

(See Hicfelt, No. 88.) 

132. POMEY (Fr.). Ein sehr artig Buchlein von 
dem Weydwerck und der Falcknerey. [1671.] 
Reprint, Stuttgart, 1886. Svo. 

(See No. 98.) The recent publication of these reprints 
indicates a revived taste and demand for the old treatises on 
Hunting and Hawking, many of which, though quaint in ex- 
pression, are sound enough in doctrine. 



2)ani0b an& Dorwegiam 

133. DEICHMANN (C. ). Om Falke OG Falkejagt. 
Kjobenhavn. 1 788. 4to. 

To be found in the '' Nye Samling af det Kong. Norske 
Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter,'' but contains little more than 
brief outlines of the subject 

134. JACOBSEN (P. B.). Bidrag til en Skildring 
af Falkevgesenet og Falkejagten forben navnlig 1 
Danmark af P. B. Jacobsen. Kjobenhavn. 1848. 8vo. 

Reprinted from the ^' Nye Historisk Tidsskrift." 

In Horrebow's '' Natural History of Iceland,'* translated from 



6o BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

the Danish (folio, London, 1758), will be found a description of 
the mode in which the Icelanders used to capture falcons; and 
in Anderson's *' Account of a Description of Iseland and Groen- 
land/' printed at Hamburg in 1746 (8vo, p. 328), it is stated 
that from Iceland were brought the finest falcons in the world. 
The King of Denmark used to send an officer every year to 
fetch them, and allowed him a good salary ; the price of a white 
falcon being ten crowns. See also, under Latin authors, 
Briinnich, Ornithoiogia Borealis^ 17649 pp* 2-3. 

B. Meyer, in his Naturgtschichte der Vogd DeutschlandSy 
published at Niimberg in folio in 1805, states (under the head 
of der Isldndische Falk) that a ship which arrived at Copenhagen 
from Iceland on the ist Sept., 1754, brought a consignment of 
148 falcons, of which 12 were white ones. The prices then 
given were — for a Peregrine, 7 crowns ; for one of another 
colour, 10 crowns; and for a white one, 15 crowns. A letter 
from Copenhagen, dated Dec. 17, 1791, and published in 
the St, Jameis Chronicle of Jan. 10, 17929 states that ''the 
vessel, on board of which were the Falcons from Iceland 
annually sent to the Court of Vienna, was shipwrecked ofif 
Castrop " \sc. Kastrup, Denmark]. 

135. BEINHAKDT (J.). Falkejagten. Ire popu- 
laere Foredrag, holdte i den naturhistoriske Forening 
i Vinter en 1858 af J. Reinhardt Kjobenhavn. 1858. 
8vo. 

Printed in the '' Dansk Maandeskrifl," 1858, pp. 279-314 
and 383-412, with two woodcuts — head of a falcon and head of 
an eagle. 

136. COLLETT (B.). Falkejagten. Udgivet in 
" Folkevennen," et Tidsskrift udgivet af " Selskabet 
for Folkeoplysningens Fremme." Kristiania. 1874. 
sm. 8vo. 

So far as the writer is aware, this article by Prof. R. CoUett, 
of Christiania, published in the Norwegian journal "Folke- 
vennen" ("People's Friend") for 1874 (vol. 23, pt ii. pp. 
195-224), is the only contribution on Falconry from the pen of a 



SWEDISH. 



6i 



Norwegian author. It is partly historical, partly descriptive, 
the subject being divided into sections entitled : — 

'^Falkejagtens Opkomst og Baesen ; Falkejagtens Udbredelse ; 
Jagtfuglene; Falkenes Indfangning; Falkenes Afrettelse; and 
Jagten." Some particulars are given respecting the numbers of 
Jerfalcons formerly taken in Norway and Iceland for exporta- 
tion, the mode of capturing them, and the prices paid for them. 



137. ANOir. Om Jagt-Falken. Stockholm. 1833. 

Printed in the ^'Tidsskrift for Jagare och Naturforskare 
utgifven af Jagare-forbundet " (pp. 352-363). 

All attempts, says Schlegel {op, cit p. 80), to fix the date of 
the introduction of hawking in Scandinavia and Denmark have 
been fruitless. We are entirely ignorant whether the art was 
carried thither by the colonists who (tradition says) came there 
from Asia, or whether it was introduced by the Normans, who, 
in the early part of the Middle Ages, invaded the shores of 
Great Britain, France, Holland, and many other countries. 
Hawks are mentioned in the Scandinavian and Icelandic 
''Sagas/' but not in such a way as to lead to the inference that 
they were trained for the purposes of falconry. 

It is of interest to note that Linnaeus in the Journal of his 
Tour in Dalecarlia, 1734 (the original MS. of which, in Swedish, 
is in the Library of the Linnean Society of London), describes 
his meeting with some Dutch falconers who were catching hawks 
with the aid of a Grey Shrike. He gives sketches of the hoods 
and other appliances used by them, and expresses surprise that 
no Swede had learnt to catch and train hawks, and so, like 
the Dutchmen, made money thereby. 



138. LB EOI MODUS. Le Livre du Roy Modus 
ET DE LA RoYNE Ratio. Cjt Commence le livre du Roy 
Modus et de la Royne Ratio lequel fait mencion 



62 



BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



comment on doit deviser de toutes manieres de chasses, 
etc. Imprim6 a Chambery par Anthoine N^eyret Tan 
de grice mil quatre cens ottante et six le xxv* jour de 
octobre [i486]. 4 to. 

The earliest printed book in French which treats of Hunting 
and Hawking except the translation of the Latin work of Peter 
Crescentids, which was printed in the same year. The older 
French MS. of Lt Livre du Roi Dancus, translated from the 



(jj--: 



Cj. £c& 
\^/ lettred b<? cC e\vovcori> 
4 81 rootle Rotn etU rurnont 
d QiuKertUd raroit a droit mttre^ 
It ft curieux de Terit* metre 
CT^c ceUii^ gut ce Iiure fxst 

• 

d ftdaClerc 9^ Cort farige eecriptf 

(X Q' la |)ropi}ecte £i monOTre 

C} G cftecle deffud e/tnomme 

<5' leliurca'fmtctfrouve^>\ 
Ocft tout. ^"^ 



Latin in 1284, was not printed until 1883 (No. 139). The 
name of the author of Le Livre du Roi Modus is unknown, 
although he offers a clue to it in a milange of the letters of his 
name and that of the transcriber grouped in a rosace. These 
letters are F. D. R. H. I. E. N. R. E. I. E. S. E. R. E. (in outer 
circle), and H. D. O. S. E. D. M. I. S. N. E. R. (in inner circle), 
from which the authorship has been attributed (by M. Joseph 



/ 

FRENCH, 6i 



lAvall^e) to " Henri de Vergy, Seigneur de Fer^," and (by M. 
Alphonse Chassant) to " Henri de Ferri^res " and " Denis 
d'Horroes." See the articles by MM. Sorel and Lavall^e in 
the "Journal des Chasseurs," August 1868 and September 1869, 
and Chassant, " Bulletin du Bouquiniste,'' June 1869. (Tir^ k 
part, 50 exeniplaires, 1870.) 

In a neatly lithographed essay of 16 pp. 4to (Paris, 1888, 
Barthe, Rue Le Peletier 51), M. Victor Bouton, H^raut d'Armes, 
discusses this question, and, disagreeing with MM. Lavall^e and 
Chassant, believes that in the Tresor de Venerit of Hardouin, 
1394, wherein allusion is made to contemporary authorities on 
the chase, he has discovered the author of Le Livre du Roy 
Modus in Jean de Melun, Sieur de Tancarville, Chambellan du 
Regent Philippe V. (dit " le Long "). If so, as the regency in 
question lasted only a year, the date of the MS. would be 
1 318; but there is no reason why it should not have been 
written by him after he had ceased to hold this appointment, 
the title of which might still be continued out of compliment. 
Moreover, in some of the MSS. there is evidence to show that 
the actual date of the composition is 1328. 

M. Grasset d'Orcet, criticising this view in a letter, which I 
have been privileged to see, addressed to M. Pierre A. Pichot, 
Directeur de la "Revue Britannique," reads the inscription in the 
outer circle "Fit DuRHelEN REIESERE," that is, "fit du 
regent r^gisseur,'' a term which he admits is applicable to Jean 
de Melun, Vicomte de Tancarville, and adds that, in his opinion, 
the letters of the inner circle, HDOSEDMISNER, indicate 
Th^odose de Misner, ou Seigneur du Mai. 

The date of the first MS. is fixed approximately by the author's 
statement that he had seen Charles IV., who died in 1328, hunt- 
ing in the For^t de Br^teuil, and lived to become the historian of 
Charles V., who died in 1380. For several reasons, then, it 
seems justifiable to attribute this " Livre " to the Vicomte de 
Tancarville — (i) his identity is sufficiently indicated by the 
letters in the rosace; (2) he was living at the dates referred to 
by the author, and died in 1382; (3) he is specially mentioned 
as an authority on Falconry by his contemporary, Pero Lopez 
de Ayala (the Spanish Ambassador to the Court of Charles V.), 
in his "Libro de la Caza de las Aves," written in 1386 ; and 
(4) he is mentioned several times by name in the Jugement des 
Chiens ei des Oyseaulx with which the " Livre du Roy Modus " 



64 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

concludes. (See ff. cxiv., recto et verso^ and cxviL-cxviii. ed, 
Blaze). The Jugemmt ends thus : — " Explicit le jugement que 
fist le Comte de Tancarville." The third point seems to have 
been overlooked by all my predecessors in this inquiry, and the 
fourth by all except M. Bouton. 

There are several copies of the MS. in the Biblioth^que 
Royale, Paris, most of them illuminated. One of these (No. 
632-12) was written in 1379. Another (No. 7096-2) was 
copied by Alexandre Danes de Maigny for Mgr. Jehan de 
Hangest, Chevalier, Seigneur de Genly et du dit Maigny in 1406. 
These MSS. begin : — " Cy commenche le livre du Roy Modus etdela 
Royne Ratio qui parte des deduitz des Chiens et des Oiseaux!^ It 
was first printed in 4to, black letter, with woodcuts, at Cham- 
bery in i486, the same year in which the English ''Book of 
St. Albans " appeared. A second edition, also in 4to, but up- 
dated, was printed in Paris by Jehan Janot A third, Paris, 1526, 
in 4to, black letter, with cuts ; a fourth, full of blunders, was 
published in 8vo, by Corozet, and by Guillaume Lenoir, Paris, 
in 1560, and the last by Elz^ar Blaze in 1839. 

In regard to the peculiar tide of the work, it may be re- 
marked that, at the period when it was written, authors were 
fond of concealing their identity under some allegorical pseudo- 
n3rm. In this case the writer explains the reason for his selecting 
the names Modus and Ratio to be that there can be no good 
method without reason^ and no reason without good method '* Le 
Roi Modus" discusses the various methods of hunting and 
hawking ; " La Reine Ratio " the natural instincts of the beasts 
and birds of the chase. The cuts have been reproduced by 
Elz^ar Blaze (see p. 65), and by MM. Lacroix and Sei^ 
(No, 194). 

Autre Edition. S'ensuyt le Hvre du Roy Modus 
et de la Royne Racio qui parle du deduyt de la chasse 
k toutes bestes sauvaiges c6me cerfz : biches : daims : 
chevreulx : li^vres : sangliers : leus : reynardz et 
loutres. Avec le stille de Faulconnerie : et aussi les 
subtiUitez d* Archerie : contenat plusieurs mani^res pour 
pr6dre toutes sortes d'oyseaulx : tat k la raitz k la 



FRENCH. 65 



tonnelle que \ la pip^e : et aultres nouvelles choses 
trouv^es pour les predre .... [k la fin]. Imprimd 
nouvellement \ Paris par Jehan Trepperel imprimeur 
et libraire demourant en la Rue neufve Nostre Dame 
2i Tenseigne de T^scu de France. [Sans date.] 410, 
gothique, ff. i-iv. et 94. 

Autre Edition. Imprim^ a Paris par Jehan Janot 
2t lenseigne Sainct Jehan Baptiste en la Rue neufve 
Nostre Dame. 152 1. 4to, goth. ff. i-iv. et 94. 

Autre Edition. Nouvellement imprim6 a Paris 
en la Rue Sainct Jacqs a Tenseigne de la Roze blanche 
couronn^e et fut acheve le premier jour du moys de 
mars mil cinq centz vingt six. [Lignes alternativement 
rouges et noires.] 1526. 4to, goth. ff. i-iv. et 94. :;^ 

Autre Edition. Le Roy Modus des Deduitz de 
LA Chace, Venerie et Fauconnerie. a Paris, au 
Palais en la boutique de Gilles Corrozet joignant la 
Chambre des Consultations. 1560. 8vo. 

Other copies of the same date bear the names of Vincent 
Sertenas and Guillaume le Noir. This edition, however, is 
characterized by Elz^ar Blaze as full of inaccuracies. 

Autre Edition. Le Livre du Roy Modus et de 
LA Royne Racio. Nouvelle Edition, conforme aux 
manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Royale, orn^e de gravures 
faites d'apr^s les vignettes de ces manuscrits fidelement 

reproduites, avec une Preface par Elzear Blaze 

Paris, Elzdar Blaze, Faubourg Saint Martin 55. 1839. 
roy. 8vo. 

This edition, carefully collated with the MSS. in the Biblio- 

E 



66 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

th^que Royale, is, in the opinion of Baron Pichon, the learned 
President des Bibliophiles Fran9ais, much better than any of 
the preceding editions, now so rare and costly ; and is, moreover, 
the only one that can now be procured at a moderate price 
(;^5 or;^6). The editor found on examining the MSS. that 
in former editions of the work whole paragraphs, and even 
entire chapters, had been omitted, and these he has restored. 
It should be observed, however, that he has given no notes, 
an omission much to be regretted. 

1 39. liE BOI DANCTJS. Le Livre du Roi Dancus. 
Texte Fran^ais in6dit du xiii* siecle [1284]: Suivi 
d'un Traits de Fauconnerie, egalement in^dit d'apres 
Albert le Grand, avec une notice et des notes par 
H. Martin Dairvault Paris, Librairie des Biblio- 
philes, 338 Rue Saint Honor^. 1883. sm. 8vo. 

Three hundred copies only of this edition were printed on 
Dutch paper, from the oldest known French MS. on Falconry, 
namely, from a translation dated ''19 Aodt 1284," of the Latin 
work of Albertus Magnus, who died in 1280. To this is added 
another translation from the same Latin work, dating from the 
end of the 15 th century. 

The original Latin text has been lost, but there remain these 
French translations and some in Italian. (See Italian 
authors.) 

Tardif, in his " Art de Faulconnerie " (No. 142), in the 
dedication to Charles VIII. admits that his book was *' translate 
en fran9ais des livres en latin du roy Danchus, qui premier 
trouva et escrivit Tart de faulconnerie, et des livres en latin de 
Moamus, de GuiUinus et de Guicennas, et collig^ des autres 
bien 89avans et expers en ladicte art." 

According to Jean de Franchi^res (No. 145), Dancus was a king 
of Armenia, who had a great reputation as a falconer. He was 
visited by Galatien, king of Egypt, who begged to be instructed 
in the art, and who subsequently sent his son Atanacio to spend 
some time at the Court of King Dancus, in order to be taught 
by him and his falconer Martino, who had previously been 
fklconer to King Roger of Hungary. The inference to be 



FRENCH. 67 



drawn is that this book is the outcome of the king's teaching. 
M. Martin Dairvault, however, in his preliminary ** Notice " to 
this the earliest French version in print, deprives us of the 
romance by stating that no king of the name of Dancus ever 
existed in Armenia, nor did any King Galatien ever reign in 
Egypt, Roger of Hungary being equally ^^ introuvable dans 
rhistaireP Is this work, then, the composition of Albertus 
^ Magnus, who, to give it an air of greater reality, introduced 
the names of imaginary personages? The MS. printed by 
M. Dairvault was discovered by him in the Bibliothbque 
Nationale, Paris (No. 12581, du Fonds Fran9ais), and is fully 
described in his ^' Notice " above mentioned. 

The author's name is sometimes written Danchus, and 
Daulcus or Dalcus, as by LescuUier in his MS. ^^ Livre dts 
Oyseauix de proye tant en Part diesperverie aultrusserie que 
faulconnerUr This MS., in folio on vellum (No. 275, Bibl. 
de TArsenal), which is referable to the reign of Francois I. or 
Henri II., ends thus : " Cy fine le livre de Tart de esperverie 
«... faict et traduict du contenu en plusieurs vieulx livres 
.... par Charles Lescullier, natif de Moulins en Bourbonnais 
dcm[eiu:ant] k Paris." 

140. LE UVBE DU FAXJLCON [sans lieu ni 
date. Paris, Anthoine Verard. 1486-92 ?] 

A work in prose and verse of extreme rarity, and known to 
the present writer only through the black-letter facsimile reprint 
of 181 7, dedicated and presented by Robert Lang to the mem- 
bers of the Roxburghe Club. The author is unknown. From 
what is stated by Brunet, it would seem that there were at least 
four editions, all printed in Paris^ which are thus characterized : — 

1. Sans lieu ni date, petit in 4'' gothique de 19 ff sign^s A- 
£ ill. Ouvrage en vers et en prose. La pr^sente Edition, qui 
parait avoir kx.€ imprim^ pour Anthoine Verard [1486-92], est 
fort rare, et le seul exemplaire qu'on en connaisse a ^t^ vendu 
^5 i2s. 6d. (Lang) et ^^14 (Heber). M. Lang en a fait faire 
une rtimpression pet. in 4"* tirde k petit nombre pour les 
luembres du Roxburghe Club. Cette r^impression a ^t^ vendu 
j^2 IS. (Sykes), J[,2 los. (Lang). 

2. *'i> Livre du Faulcon'^ Imprim^ k Paris par le petit 
Laurens en la rue Saint Jacquez pr^s Saint Yvez. Petit in 4"*, 



68 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

gothique, de 26 ff non chiffrds. Sign^s A-D, 26 ou 28 lignes par 
page. Le frontispiece porte le titre ci-dessus avec une vignette 
en bois, donnant la marque, la devise et le nom du Petit 
Laurens. (i75f. Mar^chalde Nancy, 1850.) 

3. Autre Edition rare, ^^ Le Livre du Faukon des DasnesP 
Finis sans lieu ni date. Petit in 8'' gothique, de 24 ff sign. a. b. c 
Le feuille du titre porte au recto une figure en bois, et au verso 
un rondeau donnant en acrostiche les roots " Isabeau Faucon." 
II existe deux Editions diffi^rentes de cette pibce de format in 8* 
gothique et de 24 ff chacune. La vignette en bois du froutispi^e 

pent servir k les distinguer Les deux 6ditions sont ^ale- 

ment rares. La seconde nous parait etre de Guillaume Nyverd, 
parceque la vignette du titre a i\.€ souvent employee dans 
d'autres livres donnas par cet imprimeur. 

4. Autre Edition rare, "/> Faulcon SAmours^^ Paris, vers 
1500. Petit in 4** gothique de 25 ff. Cest le m^me que**Z^ 
Livre du Faulcon des Dames^ Le frontispiece porte une planche 
en bois oh figurent un homme et deux faulcons. L'ouvrage 
finit au verso du 25 feuille par le mot ** Explicit." Vendu avec 
rOpital d'AtnourSy imprimd k Lyon vers 1490, ;^io los. (Heber), 
et r^vendu ensuite jQ6 i6s. 6d. parcequ'il manquait dans 
Texemplaire 2 ff du cah. B. de mdme exemplaire du Faulcon 
(seul) avec les deux feuilles parfaitement r^faits k la plume, i5if. 
(Brunet). 

As no translation of this work has appeared, and the reprint 
of 181 7 has become almost as scarce as the original, I shall here 
attempt zpricis for the satisfaction of the reader. 

The author commences with a '* Prologue d^claratif de la 
mati^re de ce present livre appell^ le faulcO." 

We have not to read far before discovering that this is not a 
serious treatise on Falconry, but an allegory, partly in prose, 
partly in verse, in which the lover is likened to a falconer, and 
his mistress to a falcon, who will not be reclaimed at first with 
the lure of love {le leurre d amours). The falconer then tries a 
jewelled lure : 

^^ il prist peine et diligence Saccumuler precieuses pierres de t&utes 
esphes et couleurs ensemble^ riche et sdpteuse orfaverye des lequeiles ii 
cdposa subtillenuni ung leurre trh curieux et singulier qui pendoit 
h ung del las de soye brode mignonement de fil d'or de cyfre et semk 
dun costk et cC autre de lectres greques et romaines^^ 



FRENCH. 69 



With this lure he brings down his falcon. Meantime, jealousy, 
envy, and evil report^ symbolized respectively by three hawks 
(a Saker, a Lanner, and a Tunisian falcon), are at work to the 
discomfiture of the falcon. The owner of the falcon is repre- 
sented as missing her from the perch whereon the other three 
hawks are tied, and, on inquiry, learns that she has gone off 
with the falconer. The other hawks, each speaking in turn, 
malign the absent one, the Saker jealously, the Lanner enviously, 
and the Tunisian hawk, like an ill-boding raven, is described as 
'' ung oyseau doultre lesfleuves marins nomk Tunicien qui de sa 
propre nature resemble au corbeau^ car il est vouletiers raporteur 
defaulces nouveliesy 

Beneath the perch four hounds, '^ iesqix Mens quant d condition 
de chasse se monstroient totalemit de semblables^^ (as hounds usually 
are, all coloured alike), yelp in chorus, iappoyent contre lonneur 
du faulcony and represent the hue and cry following the evil 
reports. 

" Faux raport toujours raporte 
plus tost le mai que le bien /" 

The falcon breaks forth into lamentation, and, apostrophizing 
the ^coner at some length, determines to fly away : 

" Giray prendre perche et apuy 
es montaignes devers Upuy 
ou en Auvergne qtulque part 
aprh man douleureulx dkpart 
cerchez amours en aultre lieu 



Ne pSsez plus au plaisir de mes yeulx 
mais regretez nostrefolle acointdUe 
et ayez bii toujds en convenance 
les/aulx rapors des maudiz envieux.** 

The falconer, overcome with grief, throws himself upon a seat, 
and, bewailing his fate, moralizes at some length. Eventually, 
while wandering about the grounds of the chdteau^ he is roused 
from his meditations by the lady of the castle, who, after 
upbraiding him for losing the falcon, concludes by dismissing 
him from her service. Thus the lovers are parted— "/'«« lira 
vers r orient^ t autre vers t accident, et ne securent Hen fun de t autre 
car leur ptemit fut tdt soudain quilz neurit loisir de cdserer en- 
semble de leurs besdgnes" 



70 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

The falconer arrives at a deserted country house, deserted 
parforce de morbre pesHlenHd^ dismounts from his horse, enters, 
flings himself down, and, after a reverie of some hours, &Us 
asleep from sheer fatigue. While thus sleeping, Cupid, god of 
Love, appears to him, holding in his hand the dart with which 
he pierces men's hearts, upbraids him for his folly, and remon- 
strates with him for his want of courage, reminds him of Paris 
and the fair Helen, Jason, ^neas, and other heroes, and advises 
him to return : 

" Rtiourne autant quit soit plus tard 
tu as trop longuement erri 
va coniempler le doux regard 
dufaulcon que tu as leurrL" 

The falconer, awaking, and seeing no one there, begins to 
cogitate on the vision, and, reflecting on what he has heard, 
takes comfort and courage. Quitting the house, he finds his 
horse grazing in a meadow, and, quickly mounting him, swears 
that, in spite of the jealousy of the Saker, the envy of the 
Lanner, the false reports of the Tunisian falcon, and Us abais des 
maulvais chiens^ toute sa vie il rioublira le fauUon mats Taynura 
jusqu€S d la mart. 

Meanwhile the falcon has taken flight from the castle to the edge 
of a wood, and, while meditating in uncertainty which way to go, 
the sun sets, darkness supervenes, and the moon rises. It is 
now the falcon's turn to have a vision. This time it is a beautiful 
female figure, lightly draped, who announces herself as the 
goddess of Reason. 

"yip suis Raison principe de verius 
de tout honneur la naurrice et la mire^ 

And she adds : — 

"yj? viens d toy Ofaulcon ignorant 



carjaypitik gudtje te vols mourant 
parfolle erreur etpar impatiences^ 

After a lengthy reproof and exhortation, the goddess gives 
this good advice : — 

^^Femme se doit honnestement tenir 
de beau maintien de simple contendce 



FRENCH, 71 



peu se monstrer peu aller pen venir 
quelle ne puist h honte parvenir^* : 

and concludes : 

** Notez ces motz Ofaulcon esgare 
nolez ces motz et sagement te garde 
de retoumer soies tout prepatt 
pour ton honneur estre mieulx repark 
affinque nul en mal ne te regarde 
ne doubtez rien, prens moy pour sauve garde^ 

The falcon listens to Reason, and returns : thus all ends well. 

This charming romance is worthy of being once more re- 
printed verbatim et literatimj with appropriate illustrations 
designed by an artist who can draw hawks and hounds well. 

141. CBESCENS (Pierre de). Le Livre des 

PROUFFITS CHAMPESTRES ET RURAULX. Parls, AnthoinC 

Verard. i486, folio. 

This translation in black letter from the Latin of Crescentius, 
Ruralium commodorum libri xii, (which see), was undertaken in 
1373 at the request of Charles V., and is a sort of Maison 
Rustique^ containing several chapters on Hawking and Hunting. 
Other editions in French are : Paris, Jehan Bonhomme, i486 ; 
Paris, Jacques Huzeton^ s.d. (1497 ?); Paris, Jehan Petit 
and Michel Le Noir, 15 16; Paris, pour la veuve de feu M. Le 
Noir, 152 1 ; Paris, potur Philippe Le Noir, 1529 ; Lyon, Claude 
Nourry diet le Prince, 1530; Lyon, Pierre de Ste. Lucie diet le 
Prince, 1539. 

Under a fresh title, " Z^ Bon Mesnaiger^'* it reappeared at 
Paris, Nicholas Cousteau, 1533 ; and Charles I^angellier et 
Denys Janot, 1540, and has since been translated into German 
and Italian. 

142. TABDIF (Guillaume). Le Livre de l'Art 

DE FaULCONNERIE ET DES CHIENS DE ChASSE. Im- 

prim6 a Paris ce cinquiesme jour de Janvier mil quatre 
cens quatre vingz et douze pour Anthoine Verard, 
libraire demourant sur le pont Nostre Dame. 1 492. 4to. 

First edition, 41 feuillets, gothique, fig. sur bois. Other 



72 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

editions, Paris, Anthoine Verard, 1506 ; Paris, Jehan Trepperel, 
1 506 ; Lyon, Pierre de Saincte Lucie diet Le Prince, sans date 
[ 1 530-1 555]; Paris, Philippe le Noir, sans date, printed with 
**La Fauconnerie" de Jean de Franchib'es, &c., 1567, 1585, 
1602, 1607, 1613, 1614, 1618, 1621, 1624, 1627, 1628. 

Translated into Latin and printed at Geneva and Venice, 1560, 
and at Basle, 1578, with the treatise of the Emperor 
Frederick XL See Latin authors. 

The latest edition in French is that by M. Jullien, published 
in the " Cabinet de V^nerie," with the following title : — 

Le Livre de l'Art de Faulconnerie et des 
CHiENS de Chasse. Par Guillaume Tardif. R6imprim6 
sur r^dition de 1492 avec une Notice et des Notes 
par Ernest Jullien [Juge au Tribunal Civil de Reims ; 
auteur de **La Chasse, son histoire et sa legis- 
lation," 1868]. Paris, Jouaust 1882. 2 vols. sm. 
8vo. 

Guillaume Tardif du Puy en Vellay was a Professor at the 
College de Navarre, and reader to Charles VIII. of France, 
who was a great falconer (1483- 1498). His work, to which 
our English Turbervile (No. 14) was indebted, is chiefly a 
translation from the Latin text (since lost) of '^ Le Roi Dancus " 
(No. 139), with additions from the MSS. of Artelouche de 
Alagona and De Franchi^res, from the unpublished MSS. of 
Moamus, Guillinus, and Guicennas, and from the Latin work 
of the Emperor Frederick II., written about 1245. Le Livre 
de Tardif is divided into two parts ; the first relating to Hawks, 
the second to Hounds. The first is again divided into two 
parts, which treat (i) of the different kinds of hawks used by 
falconers and the mode of training them ; (2) of the recipes 
for the cure of their diseases. 

As to the writers Moamus, Guillinus, and Guicennas, from 
whom Tardif states that he derived information, nothing with 
certainty is known of them, their MSS. being presumably lost. 
Arcussia, who likewise quotes them (No. 153), regards the two 
last-named writers as Egyptians, though MM. Lall^mant Fr^es 
(No. 175) make Guicennas an Arab. 



FRENCH. 73 



143. GAOB DB IiA BIGNE (ou Vigne). Le 
Roman des Oiseaux (ou Roman de D^duits): Paris, 
imprim6 par Antoine Verard, 4to, goth., sans date 
[1507]. Autre Edition, Paris, imprim^ par Jehan 
Trepperel, 4to, goth., sans date. Autre Edition. Paris, 
imprim^ par Philippe le Noir, 15 16, 4to. 

This poem is singularly interesting as having been composed 
by order of the French king Jean, during his captivity in England. 
It was commenced at Hertford by his chaplain, Gace de la Bigne, 
"^ I359» 2Lnd finished in Paris. MM. Lalldmant Frbres (Bibl. 
Hist, et Crit. pp. 95-97), following the MS. in the Bibliothfeque 
du Roi (No. 7627, sm. folio), give the full title as follows: — 
'' Gace de la Bigne, jadis premier chapelain de tr^ excellent 
Prince le Roy Jehan de France qui Dieu absoulle, commen^a 
ce Roman k Hertfort en Angleterre, Tan mccclix, du mande- 
ment dudit Seigneur affinque Messire Philippe [de Valois] son 
quart filz, et due de Bourgoigne, qui addonc estoit jeune, apprist 
les desduiz pour eschever le p^sch^ oiseulx, et qu'il en fust 
mieulx enseign^ en rooeurs et en vertus ; et depuys le dit Gace 
le parfist k Paris. Ici commence le Roman de Ddduits." 

This curious poem is not printed separately, but is mislead- 
ingly appended to the work of Gaston Ph^bus, Comte de Foix, 
** Le Myroir de Phebus des dkduictz de la Chasse aux testes 
saulvaiges ** (which contains nothing on Falconry), as if com- 
posed by that author. An analysis of it will be found in 
the '^M^moires sur Tancienne Ch^valerie" by La Cume de 
Sainte-Palaye, 1781, vol. iii. pp. 389-419. See also "Notes et 
documents rektifs k Jean Roi de France " (PhilobibL Soc vol. ii., 
London, 1855-56), "Bulletin du Bibliophile" (Mars 1857), et 
" Journal de Chasseurs" (vol. v. p. 188). 

An extract from this poem, giving the story of a sparrow- 
hawk which, being turned out to moult, caught a tame starling 
and brought it to his owner, is given by La Cume de Sainte-Palaye 
(No. 181, vol. iii. pp. 253-256) ; and another extract, entitled 
"La devise du bel Faucon," is printed by Baron Dunoyer de 
Noirmont in the third volume of his " Histoire de la Chasse en 
France," p. 376. 

Amongst other incidents^ Gace de la Bigne describes a flight 



74 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

at the crane with two £ilcons brought from Barbary and given 
to Charles V. by Bertrand du Guesclin, Conn^table de France. 
After binding to the crane, they brought it to the ground, 
where it was dispatched in sight of the king with the aid of 
greyhounds (lh)ricrs\ trained for the purpose afler the fSushion 
of Eastern falconers. At this time, according to Gace de la 
Bigne, the falconers of Charles V. had charge of thirty hawks. 

144. CBETIN (Giiillaume). Le D^bat de deux 
Dames sur le passe-temps de la Chasse des 
CHiENS et oyseaulx I faict et composd par feu 
Guillaume Cr6tin, Tr^sorier de la Chapelle du Bois de 
Vincennes. Paris, Anthoine Couteau. 1526. 8vo. 

This work, which is comparable to the Jugement des Chiens et 
des Oyseaulx in the '^ Livre du Roy Modus," is in black letter, 
and has on the verso of the last leaf '* Cy fine le D^bat dentre 
deux Dames sur le passe-temps des chiens et oyseaulx, nouvelle- 
ment imprim^ k Paris le premier jour d'avril mil dnq cens xxvi 
par Anthoine Couteau, pour Jean Longis, libraire." 

Another edition, '*imprim^ k Paris par maistre Guichard 
Soquand," 1528, and a subsequent one without date, or printer's 
name. The author, who, in addition to the office above men- 
tioned, was also *' Royal Historiographer," lived under Charles 
VIIL, Louis XIL, and Francis I., and in this somewhat dull 
poem revives a discussion which at that period was so fisishion- 
able between the respective votaries of Hunting and Hawking. 

See Goujot (Bibl. Frang. x. 23) and Lallemant (pp. 153-156). 
Schlegel, who refers to this composition, does not give the title 
of it, nor the date of its publication. It was reprinted in Paris in 
1882, with notes by M. Ernest JuUien. 

145. FBANOHIERES (Jean de). Le Livre de 
l'Art de Faulconnerie : lequel Frfere Jehan de 
Franciferes, chevalier de Fordre de Saint Jean de 
Hierusalem, Commandeur de Choisy en France, a 
extrait et assembly c'est assavoir des Livres des trois 
tnaistres Faulconniers cy-apres nomm^s, lesquels en 



FRENCH. 75 



leur temps furent moult experts et scavans au dit art 
de Faulconnerie, et selon la Nature des Faulcons. 
Ensemble le d^duit des Chiens de chasse comme 
cy-apr^ ce monstrera et sera traict^ en ce present 
Livre. Paris, imprim6 par Pierre Sergent, 4to, goth., 
sans date [? 1531, not 151 1 as cited by Schlegel, 
for Sergent did not print before 1531]. 

The author lived in the reign of Louis XI., and, being fond of 
science, was considered a savant by his contemporaries. 

The three " maistres faulconniers " from whom he acknowledges 
to have derived information are ^' Maistre Malopin," head falconer 
to the Prince of Antioch, " Maistre Michelin,'' falconer to the 
King of Cyprus, and '' Maistre Aymd Cassian,'' a Greek from the 
island of Rhodes, an excellent falconer who lived a long time, 
and of whom the author says, '* moi-m^me je Tai vu en mon 
temps." For information concerning the MS. treatises of these 
writers, see Harting, No. 81, Introduction, p. xxiii. 

Autre Edition. La Fauconnerie de F. Jan 
des Franchieres, Grand Prieur d*Aquitaine, recueiUie 
des livres de M. Martino Malopin, Michelin, et Ayme 
Cassian ; avec une autre Fauconnerie de Guillaume 
Tardif du Puy en Vellay. Plus la VoUerie de Mes- 
sire Artelouche d'Alagona, Seigneur de Maraveques. 
Davantage un Recueil de tous les Oyseaux de proye 
servans k la Fauconnerie et Vollerie [par Guillaume 
Bouchet, q^v^ Avec privilege du Roy. Poictiers, par 
Enguilbert de Marnef et les Bouchets freres. 1567. 
4to. 

This edition is printed throughout in italic. A copy at 
M. Bartel's sale in Paris, April 1889, fetched 3oof. 

Autre Edition. La Fauconnerie de Jean de 
Franchieres, Grand Prieur d'Aquitaine, avec tous les 



76 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

autres autheurs qui se sont peu trouver, traictans de 
ce subject. De nouveau reveue corrig^e et augment^e 
outre les pr^cedentes impressions. Paris, chez Abel 
L'Angelier, au premier pillier de la Grande Salle du 
Palais. 1 607. 4to. 

The three editions here quoted will suffice to show the 
variations which are to be found in the title of this work, which 
is illustrated throughout with woodcuts, and is often bound 
up with '' La Vhnerie " de Jacques du Fouilloux, an equally 
celebrated treatbe on Hunting. It was printed in Paris in 4to 
by Abel L'Angelier in 1585, 1602, 1607, 1613, 1614, 1618, and 
1627 ; and by Cramoisy in 162 1, 1624, and 1628. Though thus 
frequently reprinted, it is still amongst the rarest of French 
works on the subject. 

146. BELOX (Pierre, du Mans). Histoire de la 
Nature des Oyseaux : avec leur descriptions et naifs 
portraicts, retirez du naturel, escrite en sept livres par 
Pierre Belon du Mans. Paris, chez Guillaume Cavellat. 
1555. folio. 

The first part of the second book contains descriptions, 
PP* ^3~i3i> of the diurnal birds of prey, with some general 
and historical details relating to Falconry. It was fix>m this 
soiurcethat Bouchet (No. 150), a few years later (1567), derived 
most of his information : in fact, Belon as an original observer 
has had many copyists. 

147. BSTIENNB (Charles). L' Agriculture et 
Maison Rustique de M. Charles Estienne, docteur en 
m^decine. En laquelle est contenu tout ce qui pent 

estre requis, etc Plus un bref Recueil de la 

Chasse et de la Fauconnerie. Paris, Jacques du Puys. 
1 564. 4to. 

Another edition, Paris, Lyons, and An vers, 1565. 



-■r- 



FRENCH, 77 



148. ESTIENNE (Charles) & UEBAULT (Jean). 
L'Agriculture et Maison Rustique du Charles 
Estienne, augment^e par Jean Liebault son gendre. 
Paris, Jacques du Puys. 1566. 4to. 

Other editions: Genfeve 1569, Paris 1570, Lyons 1583, 1590, 
1595, 1650, 1659, 1668, 1689, 1698, 1702, etc.; Rouen 1600, 
1620, 1625, 1629, 1641, 1674, 1676, etc. The extraordinary 
popularity which this work once enjoyed is shown by the great 
number of editions which have appeared, upwards of a hundred 
being cited by Souhart (Bibl. pp. 167-170), exclusive of 
translations in Italian, English, and German. It is curious that 
it should be known to Schlegel only through the fact of the 
Rouen editions of 1625 and 1629 being cited by Kreysig 
(^.z^.). The English translation by Surflet will be found noticed 
in this catalogue under that author's name. 

149. AliAGOXA (Arthelouche de). La Faucon- 
NERiE de Messire Arthelouche de Alagona, Seigneur 
de Maraveques, Conseiller et Chambellan du Roy de 
Sicile. Poictiers, par Enguilbert de Marnef et les 
Bouchets fr^res. 1567. 4to. 

A treatise of 32 pages, including Title. Avant Propos, and 
Table ; always printed with ** La Fauconnerie de Jean de 
Franchiferes." Other editions: 1585, 1602, 1607, 1613, 1614, 
1618, i62iy 1624, 1627, and 1628. 

As there were no Kings of Sicily until 1504, the author of this 
treatise must have lived between that year and the date of this 
edition of de Franchi^res, in which it was first printed. More- 
over, he refers at p. 95 to Aymd Cassian, a Greek from the 
Isle of Rhodes, who was a contemporary of Jean de Franchi^res 
and personally known to him. The work cannot be regarded, 
however, as of much practical value ; it is written in a super- 
ficial and confused style, and deals too much with the maladies 
of hawks and their supposed remedies. 

150. BOUOHET (Guillaume). Recueil de tous 
LES Oyseaux de Prove, qui servent a la Vollerie et 



78 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

Fauconnerie par G. B . . . . Poictiers, par Enguilbert 
de Marnef et les Bouchets freres. 1567. 4to. 

Printed at the end of "La Fauconnerie de Jean de 
Franchiferes," and compiled chiefly from the work of Pierre 
Belon, published in 1555 (No. 146). Strange to say, Schlegel 
remarks {of. at), " On ignore quel est Tauteur de ce trait^" I 

151. GAUCHET (Claude). Le Plaisir des Champs : 
divis6 en quatre parties selon les quatre saisons de 
Tann^e, par Claude Gauchet, Dampmartinois, Au- 
mosnier du Roy, ou est traict6 de la Chasse et de tout 
autre exercise r^cr^atif, honneste, et vertueux. A 
Monseigneur de Joyeuse, Admiral de France et Gou- 
vemeur de la Normandie. A Paris, chez Nicolas 
Chesneau, rue Saint Jacques au Chesne verd. 1583. 
Avec privilege du Roy. 4to. 

The first edition (pp. i.-vi., 1-3 18), "Achev^ d'imprimer 
pour la premiere fois le 15 Mai 1583." Twenty years later a 
second edition, revised, and to a certain extent expurgated, by 
the author, appeared with the title altered as follows : — 

Le Plaisir des Champs : divis6 en quatre livres 
selon les quatre saisons de Tann^e, par Claude Gauchet, 
Dampmartinois, Aumosnier Ordinaire du Roy [Charles 
I X.]. Reveu, corrig6 et augment^ d'un Devis d entre le 
Chasseur et le Citadin : par lequel on cognoist tout ce 
qui appartient tant au mesnage du Gentilhomme 
Champestre que du Paisant ; avec Tinstruction de la 
V^nerie, Volerie, et Pescherie, et tout honneste 
exercise que se peut prendre aux champs. Dedi^ 
k Monseigneur le due de Montbazon, Grand Veneur de 
France. A Paris, chez Abel L'Angelier, au premier 



FRENCH. 79 



pillier de la Grande Salle du Palais. 1604. Avec 
privilege du Roy. 4to. 

Falconry receives attention as one of the pleasures of the 
country. 

Schlegel, who, under a much abridged title, cites the second 
edition of 1604, characterizes this laborious composition of 
more than 300 pages (pp. i.-iv., 1-3 19) as a poem of no literary 
merit and of no scientific interest, though this opinion is not 
shared by modern French sportsmen {cf, Dunoyer de Noirmont). 

Both these editions are now very rare. Two modem editions 
have been published — one, Paris, 1869, i2mo ; the other, much 
superior, and with an Introduction by M. Ernest JuUien, Paris, 
Firmin Didot, 1879, 2 vols. 4to. 

1 52. GOMMEB (Pierre et Frangois de). L' Autour- 
SERIE de Pierre de Gommer, Seigneur de Lusancy, 
assist^ de Fran90is de Gommer, Seigneur de Brueil, 
son frfere. Au Seigneur de Forges. A Chdlons-sur- 
Marne, chez Claude Guyot, imprimeur du Roy. 1 594. 
8vo. 

First edition with woodcuts, now very rare. At the sale of 
Baron Pichon's library, in 1869, a copy sold for 3oof. A 
second edition, with a slight addition to the title, as follows : — 

De l'Autourserie et de ce qui appartient au Vol 
de Oyseaux par P. de Gommer, Seigneur de Lusancy, 
et F. de Gommer, Seigneur de Brueil, son frere. A 
Paris, chez Jean Houz6, au Palais en la Gallerie des 
Prisonniers allant k la Chancellerie. 1605. 8vo. 

Almost as scarce as the first edition. Published in the same 
year as the third edition of d'Arcussia (No. 153), it is sometimes 
to be found bound up with it. A reprint of this appeared in 
1608, but none subsequently until the following: — 

De l'Autourserie, etc. Nouvelle Edition revue et 
annotee par Henri Chevreuil dapr^s T^dition de 1608. 



So BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Paris, Aubry, 1877, sm. 8vo. Tir6 k icx) exemplaires 
sur verg6. Une autre, d'apr^s T^dition de 1594, Paris, 
Aubry, 1878, sm. 8vo. 

" Pierre de Gommer, seigneur de Lusancy, et son frfere» 
Fran9ois, habitaient le manoir de Lusancy, se livrant k la chasse 
au faucon et au tiercelet d'autour, dans un pays des mieux 
situ^s pour cet exercise sur les bords de la Mame, dans ces 
plaines si fertiles et si giboyeuses des environs de Meaux." 
— Introduction, ed. 1877. 

153. ABCTJSSIA (CharleB d'). La Fauconnerie 
de Charles d'Arcussia de Capre, Seigneur d'Esparron 
de Palli^res, et du Revest en Provence. Divis6e en 
trois livres : avec une briefve Instruction pour traicter 
les Autours, sur la fin de Toeuvre par le mesme autheur. 
Aix, chez Tholozan. 1598. 8vo. 

The first edition, with an engraved portrait of Henri IV. The 
second, Paris, Jean Houz6, 1599, 8vo. The third, "divis^e en 
quatre parties, revue, corrig^e et augmentde," Paris, Jean Houz^, 
1605, the augmentation consisting of the work of De Gommer^ 
rAutaurseriCy 1605 (No. 152). A copy of this edition was sold in 
Paris, April 1889, for i65f., another copy, 16x5, fetching the same 
price. The fourth, " divis^e en cinq parties," Paris, Jean Houz^ 
1607; subsequent editions (1608, 1615, 1617, 1619, 1621, etc.) 
being augmented by the addition of fresh parts, until in the 
edition of 1627 the work seems to have reached completion. It 
was then entitled : — 

La Fauconnerie de Charles d'Arcussia de Capre, 
Seigneur d'Esparron, de Pallieres et du Revest en 
Provence. Divis6e en dix parties contenues k la page 
suyvante. Avec les portraicts au nature! de tous les 
Oyseaux. Au Roy. A Paris, chez Jean Houz6, au 
Palais, en la Gallerie des Prisonniers allant a la 
Chancellerie. 1627. 4to. 



FRENCH, 8 1 



The title is in red and black, on the verso of which is the 
table of contents. The ten parts into which the book is divide^ 
are the following : — 

1. De la cognoissance des Oyseaux avec leurs portraicts, de leur 

nature, de leur traictement, et fa^on de les dresser. 

2. De leurs maladies communes et accidentales, avec les 

rembdes. 

3. Des moyens de se servir des Oyseaux. 

4. De I'anatomie d'iceux par discours et par figure. 

5. De TAutourserie et des Esperviers. 

6. La Fauconnerie du Roy comme elle estoit en 1615. 

7. La Conference des Fauconniers. 

8. Les discours de la Chasse. 

9. Les demibres resolutions des Fauconniers avec un r^cit de 

rhistoire de la Reyne Jeanne, etc. 
10. Les Lettres de Philoierax k Philofalco, oil est traict6 des 

maladies des Oyseaux, avec les rembdes pour les guerir. 
"Puis le portrait de Tauteur, et vis-d-vis les armes des d'Arcussia 
2* feuillet D^icace au Roy ; au verso^ avis au lecteur dat6 de 
Paris, 15 Mars 1621. 3' feuillet Sonnet sur la Fauconnerie par 
Gallaup, et vers latins sur le meme sujet par Jan Raynaud d'Aix : 
au verso privilege dat^ de Saint Germain, 5 Oct. 1626. Puis 
commence la i'* partie avec la i" feuillet numerot^ 7 au recto 
et 8 ZM verso; mais au 2""' feuillet la pagination recommence 
ly 2, 3, etc. signatures a — m m m, pour les six premieres 
parties. La pagination est d^fectueuse, souvent inexacte. 
Aprbs la page 296, c'est k dire k la fin de la 4' partie, doivent 
se trouver 5 planches d'instruments de Fauconnerie, la s'' plus 
large que les autres, doit ^tre pli^e. Apr^ la page 334 doivent 
se trouver 8 pages d'indice non numerot^es." (Souhart.) 

At M. Barters sale in Paris, April 1889, a copy of this edition 
fetched 649f. 



La Fauconnerie de Charles d'Arcussia de Capre, 
Seigneur d'Esparron, de Pallieres, et du Revest en 
Provence. Divis6e en dix parties contenues k la page 
sixi^me. Avec les portraicts au naturel de tous les 
Oyseaux. Au Roy. A Rouen, chez Francois Vaultier 



82 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

SOUS la porte du Palais, pr^s la Bastille, et Jacques 
Besongne dans la Cour du Palais. 1 644. 410. 

The contents of this edition are the same as in that of 1627 
and include all that d'Arcussia has written ; but the text is much 
more correct. On this account it is to be preferred to any of 
the editions which preceded it The work is much esteemed 
on account of its originality and the amount of information 
which it conveys, and particularly for the description which 
the author gives of flights which he witnessed when hawking 
with the King. Notwithstanding the many editions which have 
appeared, copies are always difficult to procure, and command a 
high price. At M. Bartel's sale in Paris, in April and May 
1889, four different editions were sold as under: the third 
edition, 1605, for i65f. ; 1615, i65f. ; 1627, 649^; and 1644, 
56of. In 161 7 a German translation of the 4th edition was 
published at Frankfort, by Hoffiinann (No. 97). 

154. ABCTJSSIA (OharleB d'). La Conference 
DES Fauconniers. R^imprim^e sur T^dition de 
1644, avec une notice et des notes par Ernest JuUien. 
Paris. 1883. sm. 8vo. 

A very nice reprint of the seventh part of the Fauconneri e 
with some excellent notes by the Editor. 

155. SAINCTE-AULAIBE (Frangois de). La 
Fauconnerie de Fran9ois de Saincte-Aulaire, sieur 
de la Renodie en Pferigort, gentilhomme Lymosin. 
Divis6e en huict parties : avec un bref discours sur la 
louange de la Chasse et exhortation aux chasseurs. 
D6di6e k M. le due de Luynes. Paris, Robert FoueL 
1 6 19. sm. 4to. 

This work, with woodcuts, and title in red and black, is of 
great rarity, and was only known to Lallemant by the title. 
The Comte de B^hague*s copy sold in 1880 for jooof. It has 
never been reprinted ; but an analysis of it will be found in the 
Introduction to the Bref Discours sur la louange de la Chasse^ 
reprinted at Louviers, 1888. 



FRENCH. 83 



156. HABMONT (Pierre, dit '' Mercure''). Le 
MiROiR DE Fauconnerie ou sc vcrra Tinstruction pour 
choisir, nourrir, et traicter, dresser et faire voler toutes 
sortes d'Oyseaux, et les muer et essimer, cognoistre les 
maladies et accidents qui leur arrivent, et les remedes 
pour les guerir. D^di6 Jt Monseigneur le due de 
Luynes, par Pierre Harmont, dit Mercure, Fauconnier 
de la Chambre. Paris, Claude Percheron. 1620. 
sm. 8vo. 

The first edition (pp. l-vi. ; 1-96). A second, at Paris, C. 
Besongne, 1635, and subsequent editions (appended to ''La 
V^nerie de Jacques de Fouilloux") Paris, P. Billaine, 1634- 
1^359 4to; Paris, P. David, 1640, 410; and Rouen, Clement 
Malassis, 1650, 4to. The author, who was " Fauconnier de la 
Chambre du Roy Louis XIILf^and served also under Henri IIL 
and Henri IV., has in this book set down the results of 45 years' 
experience. Copies of this work are very difficult to procure, 
especially the first two editions in octavo. At the sale of Baron 
de Selli^re's Library, in London, in March 1887, a 4to copy 
fetched ^6 6s. At M. Bartel's sale in Paris, in April 1889) 
the 8vo of 1620 fetched 9if. 

157. BENE FRANCOIS {pseudonyni). EsSAi des 
MERVEiLLES DE NATURE et des plus nobles artifices .... 
par Ren6 Fran9ois, pr6dicateur du Roy [Louis xiii.]. 
Rouen. 1621. 4to. 

This ^ essay " of an encyclopaedic nature, contains amongst 
other things chapters on Hunting and Hawking (chap. iii. pp. 
34-52). It passed through several editions at Rouen, 1622, 
1624, 1625, 1626, 1631, 1632, 1667, and 1726; at Paris, 1639, 
1646; and Lyons, 1642. The author*s real name was Etienne 
Binet 

158. &AN90NirBT (Aimar de). THRiiiSOR de 
LA Langue FRAN90YSE, tant ancienne que moderne 



84 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

auquel entre autres choses sont les mots propres de 
. . . ViNERiE et Faulconnerie ci-devant ramassez 
par Aimar de Ran^onnet . . . revue et augment^ par 
Jean Nicot, etc. Paris, imprim6 par David Douceur. 
1626. folio. 

A useful work of reference for the technical terms employed 
by French falconers. 

159. LEON (Jacques de). La Fauconnerie de 
Messire Jacques de L6on, dedi6e au Roy, par Gas- 
pard de L6on, gentilhomme, de Marseille. A Aix, par 
Estienne David, Imprimeur du Roy, du Clerg6 et de 
ladite Ville. 1643. 

(Second titre.) Veritable discours de Fauconnerie 
curieusement compost par Messire Jacques de L6on, 
Conseiller, Escuyer et Echanson de feu Monseigneur le 
due d'Orleans et de Milan, et Jt present Capitaine des 
Galores du Roy Louis XIL et Concierge de sa Maison 
de Marseille estant en Texercise de Veneur : ou il 
est traict6 de la Fauconnerie de toutes mani^res 
d'Oyseaux de proye, s9avoir de leurs natures, condi- 
tions, cog^oissance, et comment ils se doivent essimer 
et gouverner chacun en son endroit : et g6n6ralement 
de toute Fauconnerie, des infirmit6s et maladies qui 
leur peuvent survenir, et des rem^des k Tencontre 
selon la quality d'iceux. A Aix, par Estienne David, 
Imprimeur du Roy, du Clerge, et de ladite Ville. 
1643. sm. 8vo. 

This little volume of 102 pp. with 6 pis. (one on copper, and 
five on wood, taken from d'Arcussia) is of extreme rarity, and is 
not cited by Schlegel. Only two copies are with certainty known 



FRENCH. 8s 



to exist, namely, one in the Biblothbque M^janes, and another 
at Aix, which in 1858 was in the possession of the Marquis de 
Foresta, and which is now, with the original MS., in the 
library of the. Comte de Clapiers at Marseilles; cf. Souhart, 
^* Bibl. G^n. des Ouvr. de la Chasse/' p. 295 ; and Rouard, 
" Bulletin de Bouquiniste," 1858, p. 215. 

160. SALMONDIEBE (Mo3niet de la). Methodf 
BE L'AuTouRSERiE. Rouen. 1647. 

A scarce treatise on short-winged hawks, and the method of 
training them. Not in the British Museum. 

161. FOBTIN DE GRANDMONT (F. Francois). 
Les Ruses Innocentes dans lesquelles se voit comment 
on prend les Oyseaux passagers et les non passagers, 
at de plusieurs sortes de Bestes k quatre pieds ; 
avec les plus beaux secrets de la Pesche, etc. Par 
F. F. F. D. G. ditle Solitaire Inventif. Paris. 1660. 4to. 

This curious work, which is illustrated with woodcuts, was for 
a long time very popular with French sportsmen, and is still 
much sought after by collectors of sporting books. 

Other editions : Paris, 1668 and 1700, 4to ; Amsterdam, 1695, 
8vo, 1700, i2mo, and 17 14, 2 vols. i2mo. Some of the illus- 
trations are very quaint. 

162. POMBY (FraiiQois). Le Grand Diction- 
NAiRE Royal. I. Fran^ais-latin-allemand. II. Latin- 
allemand-frangais. III. Allemand-fran9ais-latin. .... 
Enrichi d'un petit Trait6 de la V^nerie et de la 
Fauconnerie. Lyon. 1671. 4to. 

Each part has a separate title page, pagination, and register. 
Other editions, Lyons and Frankfort, 1676, 1687, 1690, 1700, 
1701, 1715; Cologne, 1740, and the following reprint: — 

TraitA fort curieux de la Venerie et de la 
Fauconnerie. R^impression textuelle de T^dition 



86 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

origitiale (Lyon, 1671). Texte Fran^ais et Allemand. 
Avec vignettes sur bois par Jost Amman. Stuttgart 
1886. sm. 8vo. 

The first separate reprint (in French and German) of this 
curious work^ containing treatises on Hunting and Hawking, 
with Glossaries of the technical terms. The author's name 
is here spelled Potnay. See also German authors, No. 98. 

163. BONNEFOtrS (Nicolas). Tkait^ des Chasses, 
DE LA V^NERiE ET Fauconnerie Oil est exactcment 

enseign^e la methode de connoistre, etc avec les 

termes, etc. Paris, Charles de Sercy. 1681. 12 mo. 

A scarce treatise, not mentioned by Schlegel or by Souhart, 
and not in the British Museum. 

164. MOBAIS (Claude de). Le Veritable 
Fauconnier, par M. C. de Morais, chevalier, seigneur 
de Fortille, cy-devant chef du H6ron de la Grande 
Fauconnerie. D6die au Roy. Paris, chez Gabriel 
Quinet au Palais k Tentr^e de la Galerie des Prison- 
niers, k TAnge Gabriel. 1683. i6mo. 

The first edition (pp. i.-x. , 1-144), now ver}' scarce. Re- 
printed at the end of the '* Nauveau ThhAtre d^ Agriculture^* par 
Louis Liger, 1709, and a later reprint (stti. 4to, pp. 1-96)^ Paris, 
Bureau de Gazette des Chasseurs^ 1S83. 

165. SELINCOUBT (Jacques Eq>6e de). Le 

Parfait Chasseur, pour Tinstruction des personnes de 
quality ou autres qui aiment la Chasse pour se rendre 
capables de cet exercise, apprendre aux Veneurs, 
Picqueurs, Fauconniers, et Valets de Chiens k servir 
dans les grands equipages, etc A Paris, chez Gabriel 
Ouinet au Palais a Tentr^e de la Galerie des Prison- 
niers, k TAnge Gabriel. 1683. i2mo. 



FRENCH. 87 



This little volume (pp. L-xiv., i~39o) is now of some rarity. 
The author gives sound advice as to the hawks to be used 
according to the nature of the country in which they are to be 
flown. 

166. LEGENDBE (Cure d'Henouville). Traite 
DES Chasses, de la Venerie et de la Fauconnerie : 
pr6c6d6 de la mani^re de cultiver les arbres fruitiers. 
Paris, Legras. 1684. 12 mo. 

The portion relating to fruit-trees was previously printed in 
1653. Kreysig cites a work with a similar title to this, with the 
date 1 68 1, perhaps an earlier edition of it, though quite likely 
to be a misprint for 1684, Kreysig being often very inaccurate. 
"L^endre" is a pseudonym, the author's real name being 
Robert Amaud d'Andilly. 



167. ANON. Les PlAISIRS INNOCENTS ET AMOUREUX 

de la Campagne: contenant le Traite les Mouches-a- 
miel : un Avis pour ceux qui veulent tirer de Tutilite 
des Vers-k-soye : avec la M6thode d'^lever toutes sortes 
d'Oyseaux de ramage, et un Trait6 des Chasses, de la 
VfiNERiE et Fauconnerie, oii est 6nseign6e la m6thode 
de connaitre les bons chiens : la chasse du cerf, du 
sanglier, du li^vre, etc. Grenoble. 1692. i2mo. 

A work similar in character to Les Ruses Innountes (No. 161 )• 
Another edition, Amsterdam, 1699, 12 mo. Both rare. 

168. UGBB (Le Sieur LoiiiB). Les Amusemens 
DE LA Campagne : ou " Nouvelles Ruses Innocentes" 
qui enseignent la maniere de prendre aux pi^ges 
toutes sortes d'oiseaux, etc. . . . Comment affaiter les 
Faucons, etc. . . . Paris, Prudhomme. 1709. 2 vols, 
sm. 8vo. 

The portion relating to falconry appears to have been com- 
piled chiefly from the works of d'Arcussia (No. 153) and Morals 



88 BOOKS ON FALCONE K 



(No. 164), and was reprinted without author's name, and with 
numerous alterations, at Amsterdam, in 17 14. 

Other editions were published at Paris in 1734, 1740, 1753, 
and 1756. 

169. ANON. L'Art de toute sorte de Chasses 
ET DE P^CHES, avcc cclui dc gu6rir les Chevaux, les 
Chiens et les Oiseaux ; /un Dictionnaire de la Chasse 
et de la P6che ; avec line explication des termes de 
la Fauconnerie, par demandes et r^ponses. Lyon, 
Gaudet 17 19. 2 vols. i2mo. 

A compilation from various sources, of little value* Other 
editions, 1730, 1750, both published at Lyons. 

1 70. GAFFET ( Antoine, Sieur de la BrifBBurdiere). 

NOUVEAU TrAIt6 de VjfiNERIE . . . . ET DE LA 

Fauconnerie .... par un gentilhomme de la V^nerie 
du Roy. Public kpres la mort de Tauteur par Pierre 
Clement de Chappeville, ancien capitaine du regiment 
Vexin. Paris. 1741. 8vo. 

Other editions, 1742, 1750. Though a popular work at one 
time, copies are now seldom to be found. A copy of the edition 
of 1742, from the library of M. Bartel, which was sold in Paris, 
in April and May 1889, fetched 52f. 

De Chappeville, after stating in his Preface (p. 14) that since 
the publication in 1655 of Robert Salnove's work on Hunting, 
nothing had appeared on that subject, adds (p. 15) : *' Uauteur 
est un gentilhomme de la V^nerie, qui apr^ avoir servi dans ce 
corps sous le feu Roy pr&s de 40 ans, est mort depuis quelqoes 
anndes. II se nommait Antoine Gaffet, Ecuyer, Sieur de la 
Briffardi^re. Son nouveau traits est beaucoup plus ample \ bien 
des egards que celui de Salnove." 

In 1885 a reprint of the treatise on Falconry, which in the 
original extends from pp. 383-401, was issued by M. Pairault, 
Paris, with the following title : — 



^-i^.|kJ 




YCJK^ Jul pa.tuls. -i-nu.'rs6 fua:. fnillc pa^antur- 



A 



GERMAN FALCONER OF THE XVI CENTURY. 



FRENCH. 89 



171. OHAPPEVILLE (Pierre Clement de). Petit 
Traite de Fauconnerie : ou se trouvent les termes 
de cette espece de Chasse avec la mani^re de bien 
tenir, soigner et trailer les Oiseaux, etc. Par P. C. de 
Chappeville, gentilhomme de la V^nerie du Roy. 

The editor of this reprint (sm. 8vo, pp. 1-28, including half- 
title and title) has confounded de Chappeville with the Sieur 
de la Briffardi^re. It was the latter, not the former, who was 
" Gentilhomme de la V^nerie du Roy," as we learn from de 
Chappeville himself in his original Preface (p. 15). The title 
adopted for the reprint is that which in the original is given 
in half-page at the commencement of the TraiU de Fauconnerie^ 

172. ANON. Amusements de la Chasse et de la 
P£cHE : ou Ton enseigne la maniere de prendre toute 
sorte d'oiseaux et d animaux a quatre pieds, avec des 
instructions sur la Volerie, etc. Amsterdam et Leipzig. 
1743. 2 vols. i2mo. 

First published in 1730, at Lyons, chez les Fr^res Bruyset, 
with the title Lart de toute sorte de Chasse et dePhhe, Another 
edition appeared at Lyons in 1750, and one at Amsterdam in 
1732, 2 vols. 1 2 mo, with the title DUices de la Campagne ou les- 
Ruses de la Chasse et de la Piche. 

173. LA OHESNAYE DES BOIS. Dictionnaire 
Universel d' Agriculture, de Jardinage, de Faucon- 
nerie, Chasse, P6che, en deux parties : . . . . 

la seconde donnant les regies pour la Volerie, la 
Chasse, et la P6che, et des remedes pour les Oiseaux 
de Fauconnerie, les chevaux, et les chiens de chasse 
dans leurs maladies. Paris, David. 1751. 2 vols. 4to. 

Le premier volume, 3 pp. prelim. 750 pp. et i p. de privilege; 
le deuxi&me, un titre, 238 pp. qui finissent le dictionnaire 



90 BOOKS ON FALCONR K 



d*agriculture et la premiere partie de Touvrage ; plus un faux 
titre et 467 pp. d'une pagination sp^ciale pour le Dictionnaire de 
Fauconnerie et de Chasse ; enfin 12 planches d^pliantes toutes se 
rapportant \ la seconde partie terminant Touvrage. (Souhart.) 

174. LEBOY. Les Articles "Fauconnerie" et 
*' Fauconnier " dans " rEncyclop^die ou Dictionnaire 
Raisonn6 des Sciences et des Metiers/' par Diderot 
et D'Alembert (torn, iv.), et les articles "Vol'* et 
*• Volerie" (torn. xvii.). Paris. 1756. folio. 

In these articles, the author, who was a '' lieutenant des 
chasses du pare de Versailles," has given some interesting 
details on the subject of Falconry, of which Buffon, and after 
him many others, took advantage. 

175. LALLBMANT (NicolaB et Bichard, freres). 

Bibliotheque historique et critique des Th6reutico- 
graphes [auteurs qui ont trait6 de la Chasse]. Rouen. 
1 763. 8 vo. 

This useful bibliography, which includes the titles of a great 
many works in French and Latin on Falconry, occupies the first 
part (pp. i.-ccxxxvi.) of ^^L'Ecoie de la Chasse aux Chiens courans^^ 
par Le Verrier de la Conterie, Ecuyer, Seigneur d'Amigny. 
The authors' names do not appear on the title, except as 
printers, but are to be found at the end of the work, in the 
" Approbation " inserted by order of the Chancellor of France. 
From this work of Lallemant Fr^res, the '' Dictionnaire des 
Chasses, pr^c^d^ d'une Biblioth&que historique et critique des 
ouvrages th^reutiques anciens et modernes," par M. Baudrillart 
(Paris, 1834, 4to), was in a great measure compiled. (No. 188.) 

176. SALBBNE (Frangois). L'Histoire Natu- 
RELLE dclaircie dans une de ses parties principales, 
l'Ornithologie, qui traite des Oiseaux de terre, de 
mer, et de riviere, tant de nos climats que des pays 
Strangers. Paris, Debure. 1767. 4to. 



FRENCH. 91 



This work, which is to some extent a translation of Ray's 
Synopsis Methoiica Avtum^ 17131 contains some unimportant 
remarks on the birds of prey employed by Falconers, and is 
chiefly noticeable for the engraved frontispiece by Martinet, in 
which the sports of hawking, and Ashing with trained cormorants, 
are fairly represented. 

177. OHAMPGBAND (Goury de). I. Trait^ de 
Venerie et des Chasses, s9avoir ; du Cerf, du Daim, du 
Chevreuil,du Lievre,etc. 1 1. TRAixi; de Chasse s^avoir 
Au fusil ; Pieges et Filets, etc. Essais de Fauconnerie, 
Rem^des pour le maladies des Oiseaux. De TAutour- 
serie. Dictionnaire des Termes de Venerie, de Fau- 
connerie, et de toute esp^ce de Chasse. Paris, chez 
Claude Jean Baptiste M^rissant 1769. 2 parties en 
I vol. 4to. 

Premiere edition dans laquelle le nom de Tauteur ne figure 
qu'au bas de la dedicace au Prince de Conti. 

Cette ouvrage est ainsi compost : Premiere partie — faux titre, 
titre, ^pttre d^dicatoire, preface, table xii pages pr^liminairs ; 
texte 98 pp. et 22 gravures numerot^es de i k 22. Deuxibme 
partie — faux titre et titre non paging, texte 99-208 pp., et 17 
gravures de 23 k 39. (Souhart) 

178. OlilNA (Q. P.). Les Amusemens Innocens : 
contenant le traits des Oiseaux de Voliere, ou le parfait 
Oiseleur. Ouvrage dans lequel on trouve la description 
de quarante Oiseaux, la maniere de les elever, etc. 
Paris, Didot 1774. 8vo. 

This is a translation from the well-known Italian " Uccel- 
liera" of Gio. Pietro Olina, 1622, in which may be found 
descriptions and illustrations of the mode of catching the 
Sparrowhawk, taking Partridges with the Goshawk, and employ- 
ing the Eagle Owl for Kite-hawking. (See Italian Authors. ) 



92 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

179. BULTiTARD (M.). Aviceptologie Fran^aise 
ou Traitfe G^n^ral de toutes les ruses dont on peut se 
servir pour prendre les Oiseaux. Avec figures. Paris. 
1778. sm. 8vo. 

Second edition, Paris, 1783; others, 1795, 17961 1808. 

Contains some useful suggestions for capturing hawks. 

In 1 81 3 appeared a sixth edition revue, corrigd, et augment^ 
d'un traits succinct du Rossignol .... suivi d'un petit trait^ 
g^n^ral sur diverses chasses, par J. C[ussac]. Paris, 18 13, 
i2mo. 8th ed. 1820. 9th ed. 1821. A German edition, 1840. 

1 8a CHANQRAN (M. de). Manuel du Chasseur 
ou Trait6 Portatif de V^nerie et de Fauconnerie, etc. 
Pr6c6d6 d'un Calendrier perpdtuel et suivi d'un Dic- 
tionnaire des termes de chasse, etc. Paris, Sangrain 
et Lamy. 1780. i2mo. 

This little manual, now of some rarity, has a history. It was 

originally published in Paris, in 1773, in i2mo, with the title 
Almanack du Chasseur^ but without the author's name. The 
bookseller Royet, having secured some copies, erased the date 
and substituted his own name and address, which caused it to be 
subsequently quoted in catalogues as an '^ Edition sans date.'* 
He suppressed also the two leaves of "approbation" and 
*' privilege " containing the date and author's name, but omitted 
to suppress (or reprint) page 207, on which the date occurs ! 
Anotiier Paris bookseller (Lamy), having acquired the re- 
mainder, made a new book of it, with the tide Manuel du 
Chasseur^ printing a new title-page, with the author's name and 
that of his own firm, bu suppressing the '^ avertissement " and 
" privilege." To falconers at the present day it is more curious 
than useful. 

181. LA OXTBNE DE SAINTE-PALAYE (J. B.). 
M^moires sur l'Ancienne Chevalerie. Paris, Du- 
chesne. 1 78 1. 3 vols. sm. 8vo. 

This work, first published in 4to, Paris, 1753, appeared in 



FRENCH. 93 



2 vols. 8vo in 1759, a 3rd vol., containing the ^^ Mhmaires 
historiques sur la chasse^* being subsequently issued in 1781. 
It is in this third volume that we find some interesting his- 
torical notices of Falconry, and an extract from the poem on 
Hawking by Gace de la Bigne (No. 143). 

A two volume octavo edition, edited by Charles Nodier, was 
published in Paris (De Longchamps), in 1829. 

182. HTJBEB (M.). Observations sur le Voldes 
OiSEAUX DE Proie, par M. Huber de Geneve. Accom- 
pagn6es de figures dessinees par Tauteur. A Geneve, 
chez Paul Barde. 1784. 4to. 

This treatise, illustrated with six folding plates, is restricted 
to an elucidation of the different modes of flight in the long- 
winged falcons and the short-winged hawks (Jes oiseaux rameurs 
et les oiseaux voiliers). Being communicated by the author 
to Mauduyt, it served the latter as a basis for his article 
^^ Fauconnerie^^ in his " Encyclopddie M^thodique," published in 
Paris the same year. From an observation by Huber (p. 44), 
it would seem that he had prepared a more extensive work on 
Falconry, which was never published. 



183. BTJCHOZ (Pierre Joseph). Les Agr^imens 
DES Campagnards dans la Chasse des Oiseaux, et le 
Plaisir des Grands Seigneurs dans les Oiseaux de 
Fauconnerie. Paris. 1784, sm. 8vo. 

Almost all that this author has to say on the subject of 
Falconry is taken from the Dictionnaire Thkorique et Pratique de 
Chasse^ the editor of which in turn compiled his remarks from 
Tardif, d' Arcussia, and other writers who had preceded him. In 
the chapter on Heron-hawking, Buchoz states (p. 172) that in 
1723 the Emperor Charles VI. took a heron which was found 
to have on one leg a ring which had been attached by Ferdinand 
III. in 1 65 1. This was removed and a new one substituted, 
and the bird once more restored to liberty. ^' It must have been 
at least 72 years old when it was captured for the second time," 
unless on the first occasion some one, for a joke, attached an 
old ring instead of a new one. 



94 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y, 

184. DOISY(M.). Tons ET MANIERES DE SONNER A LA 

Chasse avec des fanfares . . . suivis d'un Dictionnaire 
k i'usage des chasseurs et contenant tous les termes, 
explications, et expressions relatives k la V6nerie, la 
Fauconnerie, etc. Paris. 1804. obi. 4to. 

185. DESGBAVIEBS (Augxiste). Le Parfait 
Chasseur : ou Tart du valet de limier, augment^ d'un 
traits de V6nerie pour toutes les Chasses, meme celle 
du Vol. Paris. 18 10. 8vo. 

Contains (pp. 298-313) some details on Falconry, and a 
glossary of technical terms employed by falconers. 

Baron de Noirmont cites an edition of 1804 (Preface to 
Boissoudan, Melanges Soc. Bibl. Frant^aisy 1866), but the author 
protests (Avant'propos^ 1810) that this was printed without his 
consent. 

186. ANON. Articles ** Chasse" et **Fauconne- 
rie " dans P Encyclop^die Mithodiqtte. Paris. 1 8 1 1 . 4to. 

The illustrations show the old form of the hood, perch, 
block, and other accessories used by French falconers at the 
end of the last and commencement of the present century. 

A folio edition, not mentioned by Brunet, is in the possession 
of the writer. 

187. DUPBE (A.). L'Ornithocunomachie, ou 
Combats des Oiseaux et des Chiens. Poeme en cinq 
chants avec des notes et une table explicative par 
Alphonse Dupr6. Paris, de rimprimerie Baucher. 1 8 1 9. 
8vo. 

Not seen. Probably one of those quaint compositions, like 
the Dibat des deux Dames of Crdtin (No. 144), or that in the 
Uvre du Roy Modus (No. 138), so fashionable in former days, 
wherein the champions of Hawking and Hunting vied with 
each other in singing the praises of their respective sports. 



FRENCH. 95 



1 88. BAUDKILLAIIT (J. J.). Traite General 
DBS Eaux et For^ts, Grasses et P£ches. Paris, 
Bertrand. 1821-24. 3 vols. 4to. 

3* partie : " Dictionnaire des Chasses/' contenant Thistoire de 
la Chasse chez difii^rent nations ; le precis des ouvrages anciens 
et moderaes qui en ont traits ; la description des animaux qui 
font Tobjet de la grande et de la petite chasse, etc Paris, 
Bertrand, 1834, 4to. La partie bibliographique revue par de 
Quingeryait ^t^ prise en grande partie dans Lallemant (No. 17). 

189. OTTISIN (M. V. P.). UEcoLE du Ghasseur 
suivie d*un Trait6 de Oisellerie, la P^che, et les 
nouveaux Fusils, etc. .... Manuel aussi instructif 
qu'amusant, .... offrantkla fois un Abridge de Fau- 
roNNERiE, un Gode de V6nerie, et . . . . ruses du 
Ghasseur, etc. Paris. 1822. i2mo. 

A small volume of some rarity, though a compilation of little 
merit. 

190. GRAND JEAN (J. J.). Secrets de la Ghasse 
Aux OiSEAUX par M. G. [Grandjean], Paris. 1826. 
i2mo. 

Scarce : not seen. Cited by Souhart. Another edition with 
altered title, thus : 

Secrets anciens et modernes de la Ghasse aux 
OiSEAUX par J. J. G. amateur. Paris. 1838. i6mo. 

A third edition, Paris, 1850, i6mo. 

191. HUZARD (Jean Baptiste). Notes Biblio- 
graphiques, concernant les oeuvres du Due de Nardo 
(Bdisaire Aquaviva) sur la V^nerie et la Fauconnerie. 
Paris. 1835. 8vo. 

Brochure de 16 pp. seulement, mais fort interessant 



96 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

192. ANON. La Chasse au Faucon, manuscrit 
du xvi* si^cle, publi6 dans le Feuilleton du "Journal 
de Paris" de 26 Juillet 1838. 

Cited by Schlegel (No. 194). 

I have long inquired in vain for this. M. P. A. Pichot, who, 
after much trouble, has lately discovered in Paris a copy in the 
Library of the Senate at the Luxembourg, has been good enough 
to send me the following note : — 

"Cet article du 'Journal de Paris* est sans aucune espbce 
d'importance, et il est ^tonnant qu'il soit cit^ par Schlegel. Le 
soi-disant Manuscrit me parait apocryphe; on ne cite ni sa 
provenance, ni son auteur; Tarticle lui mdme n'est pas sign^. 
.... S'il y a vraiment en un Manuscrit du xvi' Si^cle il a €l€ 
defigur^; car plusieurs phrases ne sont pas dans le style de 
r^poque." 

193. ANON. La Fauconnerie: Chasse au Vol. 
Quelques details sur les Faucons et Tart de les dresser 
k la chasse. La Haye, W. P. van Stockum. 1840. 
sm. 8vo. 

This brochure of 21 pp. had its origin at The Hague on the 
foundation, in 1839, of the ^^ Hawking Club, described by the 
anonymous author as *' Une soci^t^ d'hommes distinguds, com- 
pos^e de N^erlandais, d' Anglais et de Fran9ais, constitute en 
HoUande, afin de faire revivre la fauconnerie dans notre patrie, 
avec I'agr^ment de sa Majesty, sur les bruybres avoisinant au 
palais du Loo en Gueldre." 

A list of the original members of this Club, twenty- seven in 
number, is given on the last page. Of these, the following names 
appear in the ** Section Anglaise ** : — Mr. C. Stuart Wortley, the 
Duke of Leeds, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, Mr. E. C. Newcome, 
Mr. W. Newcome, Sir Joseph Copley, Col. Dawson Darner, 
Mr. Eveljm Denison, and Lord Cranston. The sole represent- 
ative of the ^ Section Fran9aise " on the formation of the Club 
was Baron A. d'Off^mont, the Section N^erlandaise comprising 
seventeen members. In 1850, under the patronage of their 
Majesties the King and Queen of Holland, the members num- 
bered fifty-five. For details of their sport, see Schlegel. 



FRENCH. 97 



194. SCHLEGEL (H.) and WULVERHOBST (A. 
H. Verster de). TraitA de Fauconnerie. Leiden et 
DUsseldorf, chez Arnz et Comp. 1844-53. Atlas 
folio. 

The finest work on Falconry which has ever been produced ; 
not only on account of the beauty of the plates, wherein the 
hawks are depicted life-size and of the natural colours, but also 
for the general accuracy of the letterpress, which was written by 
the late ProL H. Schlegel, of Leiden. Exclusive of the " Title " 
(which is surrounded with a series of vignettes illustrative of 
scenes in the life of a hawk), '* Dedication '' to the King of 
Holland (William III.), and " Avant-Propos," it contains 90 pp. 
of text, followed by vi. pp. devoted to a ** Catalogue Raisonn^ 
des Ouvrages de Fauconnerie," one page for *' Explication des 
Planches," and one page for " Index." 

The "Catalogue Raisonn6" (pp. i-vi.), although extensive 
as compared with previous lists of the kind, is conspicuously 
deficient in regard to the titles of English and French works on 
Falconry; not because many of these were published after 
Schlegel's " Traitd " had appeared (which would of course have 
been a sufficient reason for omitting them), but because they were 
evidently unknown to him. Of those which he does cite, the 
titles are often defective, having been apparently copied " with 
all faults " from Hammer Purgstall and the inaccurate Kreysig. 

Exclusive of the ornamented title-page above referred to, 
there are 16 folio plates, 2 of which are illustrative of Heron 
Hawking at the Loo, in 1844, ^ith portraits of contemporary 
falconers ; 2 others contain figures of hoods, jesses, lure, and 
other accessories ; and the remaining 12 give life-sized coloured 
figures of the hawks employed by falconers, admirably drawn by 
Joseph Wolf and J. B. Sonderland. On the sale of Prof. 
Schlegel's books at Leiden after his death the present writer 
secured the author's own copy of this fine work, and the original 
water-colour drawings for the plates were purchased, partly by 
the Zoological Society of Amsterdam, partly by M. Pierre A. 
Pichot of Paris, in whose libraries they are now preserved. The 
work was originally published in 3 parts, between 1844 and 
1853, costing 55 th. (2iof., or J[fi 8s.), a value which it has 
ever since justly maintained. See note to No. 221. 

G 



98 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

1 95. ANON. Le M^nagier de Paris. Traitd de 
morale et d'^conomie domestique, compos6 vers 1393 
par un Bourgeois Parisien, contenant des prdceptes 
moraux, etc., un Trait^ sur la Chasse k TEpervier, etc. 
Publid par la Socidtd des Bibliophiles Fran9ais, par les 
soinsdu Baron J. Pichon. Paris. 1846. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Of interest to falconers on account of the treatise (vol. ii. 
pp. 279-326) on training the Sparrow-hawk, with a facsimile 
illustration, La chasse d tipervier en 1379. 

196. LA OBOIX (Paul) et SEBE (Ferdinand). 
Le Moyen Age et la Renaissance. Paris. 1848-51. 
5 vols. 4to. 

In vol. i., a section {Chasse^ fol. xiii.-xxii.) is devoted 
to Fauconnerie^ in which are some interesting historical details, 
with illustrations from old MSS. and engravings, eight of which 
are from the " Livre du Roy Modus " (No. 138). 

197. VAN PEB DinrSE (P.). Droits DU MaItre 
Fauconnier de Flandre. Ordonnance au sujet des 
Veneurs. Gand. 1853. 8vo. 

Extrait de 5 pp. des "Annales de la Socidt^ Royale des 
Beaux Arts et de la Litt^rature de Gand." 

198. GAIiESLOOT (A. L.). Recherciies His- 
TORiQUEs sur LA Maison de Chasse des Dues de 
Brabant et le Tancienne Cour de Bruxelles. Par A. 
L. Galesloot. Bruxelles et Leipzig. 1854. sm. 8vo. 

De la Fauconnerie, pp. 188-204. " La renommde des faucons 
des Pays-Bas dtait si grande en ce temps (1595) ^"^ fallait 
continuellement en envoyer \ la cour de Madrid" [voir la 
lettre de Philippe II. k I'archiduc Ernest, gouverneur des Pays- 
Bas, p. 196]. " L'usage d'envoyer des faucons en Espagne fut 
observe jusqu'k la fin du dix-septibme si^le. Chaque annde, 
quatre fauconniers partaient pour Madrid avec 32 faucons. 



FRENCH. 99 



qu'ils presentaient au grand fauconnier d'Espagne qui les ofirait 
au roL Comme ces faucons ^taient naturellement de grand 
prix, et qu'ils ^taient dressds avec soin, on prenait une singu- 
libre precaution pour emp^cher que, durant le trajet, on ne leur 
en substituit d'autres. Le grand fauconnier des Pays-Bas 
coupait \ chacun des oiseaux, une plume de Taile ; ces plumes 
^taient envoy^es par lui au grand fauconnier d'Espagne, afin 
qu'il p{it les confronter avec les faucons, k leur arrivde k la 
cour de Madrid. Lk, les fauconniers recevaieut un certiticat 
constatant qu'ils s'^taient bien acquittds de leur mission. 
Jamais il n'y avait de plaintes au sujet des faucons pr^ent^s 
au roi d'Espagne ; Tdducation de ceux-ci faisait le plus grand 
honneur aux fauconniers braban9ons, surtout k la famille 
Robbrechts. Mais aussi la cour de Bruxelles n'^pargnait rien 
pour de procurer de bons oiseaux. Chaque ann^e, pour ainsi 
dire, elle en faisait chercher par ses fauconniers dans les pays 
du Nord, dans le Milanais, dans le royaume de Naples, en 
Sicile, en Grbce, et jusque dans Tile de Candie. II n'est done 
pas ^tonnant que la fauconnerie Beige ait joui d'une si grand 
cel^brit^ dans les pays voisins* On pr^tent m^me que du 
temps de Louis XIII., les seigneurs Fran9ais, envoyaient leur 
fauconniers au Pays-Bas pour y apprendre leur art; c'^tait 
dans la Campine surtout qu'on trouvait d'habiles fauconniers " 
(p. 198). 

199. DAUMAS (General E.). Les Chevaux du 
Sahara et les moeurs du ddsert Avec des commen- 
taires par TEmir Abd-el-Kader. Paris. 1862. 8vo. 

Includes " La Chasse de TAutruche, de la Gazelle, et La 
Chasse au Faucon." 

In 1863 an English translation appeared with the following 
title : The Horses of the Sahara and the Manners of the Desert, 
by £. Daumas, General of Division commanding at Bordeaux. 
With Commentaries by the Emir Abd-el-Kader. Trans- 
lated from the French by James Hutton ; the only authorised 
translation. London, W. H. Allen. 1863. 8vo. pp. 355. 
Hawking, pp. 270-280. 

General Daumas published in 1855 an article in the '' Bulletin 
de la Soci^td d'Acclimatation '' sur les Chevaux du Sahara, 



100 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

in which will be found sundry observations on Falconry, as 
practised by the Arabs. 

200. OHENTJ (J. 0.) et DES MUBS (O.). La 
Fauconnerie ancienne et moderne. Paris, Hachette. 
1862. i2mo. 

A pocket volume of 176 pages, illustrated with woodcuts. 
Some copies are coloured. In the " Observations sur le vol des 
Oiseaux^^ (pp. 1 21-149), ^^ authors have reproduced the 
greater part of Huber's work (No. 182) with reduced copies 
of his illustrations. The woodcut on p. 40, which is lettered 
" Faucon sur une Gazelle ^aprh une ancienne gravure,'* is copied 
from the plate of a Goshawk and Gazelle, by Joseph Wolf, which 
forms the frontispiece to Burton's work, published in 1852 
(No. 66). 

201. PICHON (Baron Jerome). Du traitA de 
Fauconnerie, compos6 par Temp^reur Fr6d6ric II., de 
ses manuscrits, de ses Editions, et traductions. Paris. 
1 864. 8 vo. 

An admirable commentary, published originally in Techener's 
" Bulletin du Bibliophile." A few copies were separately printed, 
of which one is in the collection of the writer. 

202. BOISSOUDAN (Jacques Elie Manceau, 
Seigrneur de). Methode pour dresser et faire 

VOLER LES OySEAUX POUR LE VOL DE LA PeRDRIX. Ou 

il enseigne k bien tenir les Oyseaux, etc. Par Mon- 
sieur de Boissoudan. Dedi6 k ceux qui aiment la 
Fauconnerie. [c. 1745.] ^ Niort, chez Robin et L. 
Favre, Imprimeurs, Rue Saint Jean. 1864. 4to. 

This treatise, composed by a gentleman of Poitou, about the 
year 1745, was only published for the first time at the end of an 
edition of" La V^nerie," de Jacques du Fouilloux, in 1864. Two 
years later it was edited by Baron Pichon, and printed, lyith ' 
other rare treatises {eg,^ Mouret's Chasse du Roy^ 1725), in the 
Mklfingts de Littcrature et d'Histoire^ rdcueillis et publics par la 



FRENCH. loi 



Sod^t^ des Bibliophiles Fran9ais." It is there entitled *'^ Lc 
FauconnUr parfait : ou mUhode pour dresser et faire voler les 
Oiseaux'^ The author, having read most of the works of his 
predecessors relating to Hawking, and having been instructed 
by some of the best falconers of his day, spent seventeen years 
in the practice of this art before writing anything on the subject — 
a great recommendation. His treatise conveys a good idea of 
the state of Falconry in the i8th century in Poitou, where the 
native Goshawk was much used. 

203. D'ESTEBNO (M.). Du Vol des Oiseaux. 
Indication des sept lois du vol rami et des huit lois du 
vol cL voiles. Paris, Librairie Nouvelle. 1865. 8vo. 

The terms vol rami and vol it voiles^ of which the distinctive 
characters are given pp. 73-77, are adopted from Huber, 
** Observations sur le vol des Oiseaux de Proie," published at 
Geneva, in 4to, 1784. 

The author says : — " II y a plus de trente ans que j'ai com- 
mence mes observations sur le vol des Oiseaux ; c'est par une 
imitation et non par une description que je comptais en pr^enter 
les rdsultats." 

A second edition appeared in 1874. 

204. BEBTHET (Elie). Le Fauconnier. Paris. 
Degorce-Cadot, sans date (1865 ou 66 ?). i6mo. 

Not seen ; probably from its size of no importance. 

205. QLOXrVET (Le Chevalier de). Histoires 
DES ViEux Temps. Extraits du Manuscrit de T^cuyer 
Loys de Cussiere, gentilhomme Angevin: Revus et 
public par son petit-neveu le chevalier de Glouvet. 
Saumur, Paul Godet. 1866. sm. 8vo. 

Amongst the chapters in this volume is one of special interest to 
Falconers, entitled Chdtelainie de la Tessoualle et la belle Faucon- 
nerie d'icelle (pp. 83-116), in which is given a minute description 
of a hawking establishment in the 15 th century. 

The author, who lived about 1470, thus expresses himself in 



I02 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



his " Prime-proupos*" {Avant propos, p. 46), the only portion of 
the work in which the style and orthography of the period has 
been reproduced by the editor : — " Plus oultre ay privdment 
commerce arecques des plus grans comme avecques du plus 
menu ; ay veu courre plus d'ung cerf, et faict voler plus d'ung 
hobereauy et somme, ay cueilly bien des fruictz k bien des 
arbres de tout fueillaige." 

206. DUNOYER DE NOIEMONT (Baron). His- 
TOiRE DE LA Chasse EN France, dcpuis Ics temps 
les plus r6cul6s jusqu'k la Revolution. Paris, V""* 
Bouchard- Huzard. 1867-68. 3 vols. 8vo. 

An admirable work, full of historical research on Hunting, 
Hawking, Fowling, and Shooting as pursued in France from the 
earliest times to the Revolution. 

The third volume contains (pp. 69-200) a section on Falconry, 
abounding with interesting historical details. 

207. PICHOT (Pierre Amedee). La Fauconnerie 
en Angleterre et en France k notre ^poque. Paris. 
1865. 8vo. 

Reprinted from the "Revue Britannique," Oct. 1865. 

This excellent article, which contains many interesting details 
relating to the practice of Falconry in Europe in the 19th cen- 
tury, has been quoted at length by M. Magaud D'Aubusson 
(No. 211), and forms the basis of the following publication : — 

208. PICHOT (Pierre Amedee). Les Oiseaux de 
Sport: La Chasse au Faucon, et la Peche au Cormoran. 
Paris, Librairie du Jardin d'Acclimatation. 1875. ^ ^mo. 

A little volume of 48 pp. illustrated with 15 woodcuts, in which 
will be found many interesting details concerning the Loo Hawk- 
ing Club (1840-53), the Champagne Hawking Club (1865-68), 
and the hawking stud of the Maharajah Duleep Singh maintained 
at Elveden Hall, Thetford, between the years 1856 and 1864. 

209. LA CBOIX (Paul). Moeurs Usages et 



FRENCH. 103 



Costumes au Moyen Age et k I'^poque de la Renais- 
sance. Paris, Firmin Didot et Cie. 1871. 4to. 

In this work already referred to under the head of the English 

translation (No. 76), we find a section ^^Chasse: Venerie et 

Fauconnerie^' pp. 191-232, the portion on Falconry occupying 

' pp. 212-232 with a dozen illustrations, eight of which are from 

the Livre du Rot Modus, 

210. CHARAVAY (Etienne). Etude sur la 
Chasse 1 l'oiseau au Moyen Age. Une Fauconnerie 
Princiere et Tdducation des Faucons, d'apres des docu- 
ments inddits du XIV* si^cle et du XV*. Paris. 
1873. roy. 8vo. 

A beautifully printed volume with title in red and black, of 
which only 100 numbered copies were published, that in the 
writer's possession being No. 72. It contains many interesting 
historical details relative to falconry in the Middle Ages, with 
folding plates of facsimile drawings from MSS. of the 14th and 
15 th centuries. 

211. D'AUBTJSSON (L. Magaud). La Faucon- 
nerie AU Moyen Age et dans les temps modernes. 
Recherches Historiques, Didactiques et Naturelles : 
accompagn^es de pieces justificatives. Paris. 1879. 
8vo. 

A work which no student of the history of Falconry should 
neglect. Amongst the Pikes Justificatives at the end of the 
volume will be found a chronological list of the Grand Falconers 
of France ; extracts showing the expenses attending the main- 
tenance of hawking in France, from the Household Accounts 
of Francois I., Henri I., Charles IX., Henri IV., Louis XIII., 
Louis XIV., Louis XV. and Louis XVI. ; the state of Falconry 
at the Court of France in 1785, etc. etc. 

212. PHABAON (Florian). Sid Mohamed el 
Mangall Traite de ViNERiE traduit de TArabe par 



I04 BOOKS ON FALCONRY, 

Florian Pharaon, avec une Introduction par M. le 
Marquis G. de Cherville. Tir6 k 300 exemplaires 
numerot^s. Paris, 1880. 8vo. 

A most interestiDg treatise, of which the Arabic as well as the 
French text is given. A review of it will be found in Harting, 
No. 79, pp. 362-370. It contains a description of the Syrian 
method of taming and training hawks. The Saker is particularly 
mentioned as a bird of double passage, and several varieties are 
noticed. There is a chapter on the first man who ever tamed 
the Saker, and another on the mode of taking the Ostrich with 
Sakers. Other Eastern falcons are described, with remarks ou 
their qualifications and peculiarities. Some useful advice, 
evidently derived from experience, is given in regard to the feed- 
ing of Hawks, and the management of them on a journey. 

213. PICABD (Etienne). La Venerie et la 
Fauconnerie des Dues DE BouRGOGNE, d apres des 
documents inddits. Par Etienne Picard, Sous-In- 
specteur des For^ts. Paris. 1881. roy. 8vo. 

An admirably printed memoir of 128 pp. with title in red and 
black, of which only 100 separate copies were issued. It was 
originally published in the '' Mdmoires de la Soci^t^ Eduenne " 
(n.s. tom. ix.), and conveys a good idea of the vast territorial 
possessions of the former Dukes of Burgundy, and of the splen- 
dour of the hunting and hawking establishments maintained in 
France during the 14th and 15 th centuries. A folding map 
shows the forests of this ducal domain, and indicates, in addition, 
the keepers' lodges and the " meets.** 

214. BOLLAND (Eugene). Faui^e Populaire de 
LA France. Tome vl Les Oiseaux domestiques, et 
la Fauconnerie. Noms vulgaires, Dictons, Proverbes, 
Ldgendes, Contes et Superstitions. Paris, Maison- 
neuve. 1883. 8vo. 

The pages relating to Falconry (pp. 195-224) include expla- 
nations of the technical terms relating to the art, synonyms in 



FRENCH. los 



German, Spanish, and Italian, and occasionally derivations, ^^.> 
^' on Tappelle crtance parcequ'on rameine Foiseau k croire et k 
ob^ir au leurre" (D'Arcy, Diet Fran^ois-Flaman, 1699). 



215. SOUHABT (B.). BiBLIOGRAPHIE GENERALS 

DEs ouvRAGEs SUR LA Chasse, la V^ncrie et la Faucon- 
nerie. Paris. 1886. roy. 8vo. 

A most useful work of reference, but very incomplete as regards 
Falconry, and especially the English, Spanish, and Italian litera- 
ture of the subject. 

216. SOUBBETS (Georges). La Chasse au Vol 
avec les petites especes. Notions pratiques de Fau- 
connerie dedides aux debutants. Niort. 1885. 4to. 

In this brochure the author claims to have set down all neces- 
sary and sufficient instruction for taming and training the 
Merlin, Hobby, Kestrel (if wanted), and Sparrow-hawk. In 
carrying out these instructions, he says, the reader '' may attain, 
unaided and with very little expense, the most practical and 
conclusive results, and thereby encourage the taste for a sport 
formerly held in high esteem by our ancestors, and one of which 
to the present day in Europe the English alone have preserved 
the rules and practice." With this pretty compliment, which it 
is to be hoped may not be lost upon those for whom it is intended, 
he proceeds to summarise the results of his own experience in 
what may be termed an '^ elementary course," which has since 
been followed by a more comprehensive treatise, written by 
the same author in conjunction with M. de Saint Marc. 

217. SOUBBETS (a.) et SAINT MABC (0. de). 

Precis de Fauconnerie : contenant les indications 
n6cessaires pour affaiter et gouverner les principaux 
Oiseaux de Vol: suivi de T^ducation du Cormoran. 
Ouvrage orn6 de planches hors texte. Niort, 1887. 
8vo. 

In this joint work, which is illustrated with woodcuts, we find, 
embodied, in ten chapters and less tlrnn a hundred and fifty pages. 



io6 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

a neat summary of nearly all that is necessary to be known in 
order to tame, train, and fly a hawk successfully, whether ''long 
winged " or " short winged," a " bird of the lure" or a " bird of 
the fist." The distinguishing characters are pointed out of the 
Peregrine, Merlin, Hobby, Kestrel, Goshawk, and Sparrow-hawk, 
and the authors indicate the different kinds of '' quarry " at which 
each may be flown with success. The Lanner and Saker (so 
well known in the East) are passed over as being seldom procur- 
able in France, and requiring treatment not very dissimilar to 
that of other long-winged hawks. The eagle, notwithstanding 
its present employment in Russia and Tartary for taking hares and 
foxes, is condemned as being too heavy to carry with comfort, 
and difficult to manage on account of its great power of fasting. 
The instructions given for bringing up young hawks from the 
nest are clear and to the point ; but the advice given as regards the 
management of " passage hawks '' is at variance with the practice 
adopted by English fidconers, and by the Dutch hawk-catchers 
by whom they are procured. The chapter on " Hygiene and 
General Management" contains some useful hints founded 
evidently upon experience, and the advice given in regard to the 
treatment of hawks while moulting is good and to the point. In 
most of the old works on falconry page after page is occupied 
with recipes for the cure of diseases, real or imaginary, most of 
them very quaint, and many of them, probably, highly dan- 
gerous. These fanciful directions are never followed by modem 
falconers, who do not recognise a tithe of the maladies enumer- 
ated by ancient authors, and who know, n^oreover, how to cure 
the few ailments to which hawks are imdoubtedly liable in a 
much more simple and efficacious manner. It is to these only 
that allusion is made in the present volume. One more feature 
in the book ought not to pass unnoticed — namely, the extracts 
which are given from letters addressed to the authors by several 
English and French falconers,; and which contain some useful 
advice and information. 

2 1 8. FOYE (Q.). Manuel Pratique du Faucon- 
NIER DU XIX* SiECLE. Contcnant tout ce qu'il faut 
savoir pour dresser les Faucons et Autours k la chasse 
au vol des Perdreaux, Faisans, Canards, Li<^vres, 



FRENCH. 107 



Lapins, etc. Par G. Foye. Illustrations par Albert 
Bettanier. Paris. 1886. sm. 4to. 

In the manual of M. Foye we have another modem aid to the 
practice of falconry. It is dedicated to the Comte de Paris, and 
the introduction contains all the names known to the author of 
living French falconers. Some of the extracts which are given 
from the old masters might well have been omitted, especially 
those having reference to hawks which are no longer used in 
any part of France or England, and which it would be almost im- 
possible to procure. Modem descriptions, too, of the species 
now in vogue would be preferable to old ones, as being more 
intelligible. But, apart from these objections, it is evident 
that M. Foye can claim to write authoritatively on the manage- 
ment of hawks, since the advice which he gives is based not only 
on what he has read, but on what he has learned by experience. 
This has been gained chiefly with the Goshawk and Sparrow-hawk, 
and his instmctions for training these birds will, therefore, be 
useful to those desirous of taking up this branch of the sport. 
With a female Goshawk which he trained, he killed during the 
first season (1884) 322 rabbits, three hares, and two magpies; 
and the following season 280 rabbits, two leverets, eleven par- 
tridges, four magpies, and two squirrels. 

219. BEL VAIiLETTE (Alfred). Trait^: d'Autour- 
SERiE. Illustr^ de vingt gravures et vignettes par 
Ernest Orange. Paris. 1887. sm. 4to. 

In this country we use the term falconry in a somewhat wider 
sense than is the case in France, including thereby every kind of 
flight with a hawk, whatever may be its species. French fal- 
coners apply the XQxmfauconnerie only to flights with the long- 
winged hawks (Peregrine, Merlin, Hobby, and Jerfalcon), flights 
with the short-winged Goshawk (autour) and Sparrow-hawk 
(epervier) coming under the expressive and very convenien; 
term autourserie. To this branch of sport M. Belvallette has 
devoted an entire volume, albeit a small one, nicely printed, and 
illustrated with a dozen full-page plates and some pretty text 
cuts, which, if not always original (we recognise the work of both 
English and Japanese artists), are appropriate and fairly accurate. 
M. Belvalleite is well known in France as a skilful falconer, and 



io8 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

he writes with a thorough knowledge of his subject On this 
account his little book commends itself at once as being thor- 
oughly practical. 

' 2 20. OEBFON (0). De la Basse Volerie et du 
dressage pratique de TAutour et de TEpervier. Avec 
36 gravures dont 1 8 hors texte. Vincennes. 1887. 8vo. 

Dealing solely with the management of the Goshawk and 
Sparrow-hawk, this treatise possesses the novelty of being illus- 
trated with Japanese figures reproduced from the Ehon iaka 
kagami (which see, under Japanese authors). 

The appearance of so many French books on Hawking 
within the last decade augurs well for the maintenance of this 
time-honoured sport. 

22 !• PICHOT (Pierre Amedee). Exposition Uni- 
verselle Internationale de 1889 k Paris. Fauconnerie. 
Catalogue lUustrd. Avec "La Fauconnerie d'autrefois 
et la Fauconnerie, d*aujourd*hui " conference faite k la 
Soci6t6 Nationale d'Acclimatation le 21 Mars, 1890, 
par M. Pierre Am6d6e Pichot. Paris, Librairie 
Leopold Cerf. 1890. 4to. 

In this the latest French publication on the subject, we have 
an illustrated Catalogue of the contents of the Falconry Court 
at the Paris Exhibition, 1889, including several portraits of 
Falconers from photographs or old pictures, representations of 
the sport from Blaine's "Rural Sports "(No. 63), and figures of two 
eagles trained for hawking, namely (i) a Golden Eagle, belong- 
ing to M. Paul Gervais of Rosoy, par Acy-en-Multien, brought 
from Turkestan by M. Benoit Maichin, and trained to kill hares 
and foxes, and (2) a Bonelli's Eagle, belonging to M. Edmond 
Barrachin of Ermont par Harblay, procured with another in 
Spain, and trained to kill rabbits. 

Two of the most useful plates are the outline illustrations on 
pp. 21, 22, forming a key to the portraits contained in the large 
folio plates of Heron-hawking in Schlegel's fine work (No. 194). 

The lecture on Ancient and Modem Falconry (pp. 49-92) 
contains much information that will repay perusal. 



PROVENCAL. 109 



222. DEUDES DE FRADES. Dels Auzels 
Cassadors [Les Oiseaux Chasseurs. Po^me en Pro- 
vencal de la fin du XII* ou commencement du XI IP 
siMe]. 

The author of this poem was a troubadour, a native of Prades 
near Rodez (Aveyron), who, according to Raynouard {Choix 
des Pohies ortginales des Troubadours^ 181 6-1 821, torn. v. 1820, 
p. 126), was a man of talent and natural good sense, and knew 
a great deal about Hawks. E si soup moult la natura dels 
Auzels prendedors. 

From his poem we may learn how to know a good Goshawk — 
Cossi den horn conoisser austor sa ; and a good Sparrow-hawk — 
Cossi den horn conoisser esparvier de bonas faissos. Other verses 

treat of De cantas maneiras soW falco Esmerillos e de lurs 

<onotssensas Cols horn deu tener auzeL .... Cant au- 

zel afebre (quand Foiseau a fifevre), etc. 

Under the heading U esperimens d auzels we find reference to 
some which the author says were set forth in a book written by 
Henry I. King of England, who loved hawks and hounds better 
than any one : 

** En un libre del rei Enric 
ly Angleterra^ lo pros ^l ric 
Que amet plus auzels e cos 
Que nonfes auc nuill crestids 
Trobei dazautz esperimens " 

Of the book here referred to no MS. is known to exist, 
although Deudes de Prades must have seen a copy not long 
after the death of the royal author. 

Baron de Noirmont observes {Hist, de la Chasseen France^ iii. p. 
90) : '^ On trouve dans ce pobme des traces manifestes de Toeuvre 
du faux Symmachus, probablement ant^rieur \ Vincent de Beau- 
vais (contemporain d'Albert) et Brunette Latini (le cdlfebre gram- 
marien Florentin du 13® si^cle) et notre plus ancien tiaitd de 
fauf onnerie en langue vulgaire." 



no BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

See also Galvani, Osservazioni sulla Foesia de Travafe, Svo, 
Modena, 1829, and an article by M. G Azais in vol. viii. of 
the /ouma/ des Chasseurs, 



Catalan. 

223. SYMMACHTJS (Aquila) et THEODOTIO 

Epistola Aquilae Symmachi et Theodotionis ad 
Ptolemaeum regem iEgypti De Re Accipitraria, 
Catalanica lingua. Lutetiae. 1 6 1 2. 410. 

This apocryphal letter, said to have been addressed to a certain 
Ptolemy King of Egypt by Aquila Symmachus and Theodotio, 
is cited by Albertus Magnus in his treatise de FalcomduSj 1478. 
The original Latin MS. has been lost, and the treatise is now 
only known through the version in lingud Catalanica printed 
by Rigault in his Fei Accipitraria Scriptores pp. 183-200, 
and the Excerpta ex libro incerti auctoris de naturd rerum^ 
printed in the same collection (pp. 201-211). It has been 
characterised by Baron de Noirmont (op, cit,) as ^* le plus 
ancien traite de fauconnerie en langue vulgaire^^ and treats of 
the different kinds of hawks used by falconers, the diseases 
to which they are subject, and the remedies recommended for 
them. 

It commences : — '' Assi comensa lo libre dell nudriment he 
de la cura dels ocels los quals sepertSye ha cassa. .... Gran 
Emperador & Senyor tu as manat \ nos servidors teus fer 
obra brev & profitable dels ozels del libre dels antics trans- 
latant ab diligencia. Et nos obediens \ la tua volentat ajustatz 
ensems atorgan brevmet la tua demanda. E volen la tua 
altea saber que diverses son les maneres dels ' ocels d'cassa, & 
diverses son lurs malauties he moltes, per asso lurs son neces- 
saries les medecines." 

Under the heading Del nudriment dell Sperver — 1.^., the 
Sparrow-hawk — is the following curious observation (p. 186), 
which I have not found noticed by any other writer on 



SPANISH. in 



Falconry : — " Esperver pres del niu, si al matin es piis lexal 
endurar tro almigdia, mas si es pres la nuyt, endrire tro ala 
tercia dell seguen jom." 

These extracts will serve to convey an idea of the language 
in which this treatise is written — 2l curious mixture of French 
and Spanish. The longest chapter, '' De les malaties he de 
les medecines des ocels specialment de Falcon" (pp. 190-196), 
contains several of the quaint recipes which characterise so 
many of the old works on Falconry in different languages. 



224. SANCHO VI. (El Sabio). Los Paramientos 
DE LA Caza. [1180.] Reglements sur la Chasse en 
g6n6ral par Don Sancho le Sage, Roi de Navarre, 
publics en I'ann^e 11 80. Avec Introduction et Notes 
du traducteur, H. Castillon d'Aspet Paris. 1874. 
1 2 mo. 

This code of regulations relating to the chace was promulgated 
in 1 1 80 by Sancho VI., the wise King of Navarre. Written 
upon parchment, it has ever since been preserved amongst the 
archives of the ancient city of Pamplona, where, after the lapse 
of 700 years, it has, through the labours of M. Castillon, been 
carefully transcribed and printed. 

With the exception of the English Forest Laws of King 
Canute (1017-1036), it is believed to be the oldest as well as 
the most complete code of the kind in existence. 

According to M. Castillon, the earliest document of this 
character in France is dated 132 1, or nearly a century and a 
half later than that of King Sancho. Le Livre des dkduicts de 
chasse de Gaston Phoebus, Comte de Foix, et Vicomte de 
fi^am, was composed some years before the Ordonnance of 
1396 which formed the foundation of all French legislation on 
the subject, and it is curious to note the close resemblance 
which the work of the French noble bears to that of his Spanish 



ii« BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

predecessor, not only in several parallel passages, but in the use 
of many words evidently of Spanish origin. This is probably 
to be explained by the fact that, having espoused the sister of 
Carlos II., King of Navarre, whose territory adjoined his own, he 
was doubtless often at the castle of Pamplona, where the MS. of 
the Faramientos of King Sancho was deposited, and where he 
would, therefore, have opportunity of consulting it. 

Furnishing, as it does, an important chapter in the history of 
the chace in Spain, this code is of considerable interest. After 
dealing with certain preliminaries, and the religious ceremony 
which always preceded a royal huntmg, the Faramientos, or 
Regulations, relate to the weapons to be used in the chace, the 
costumes to be worn, the distinction between large and small 
game, the formation of packs of hounds, the order of procedure 
on a hunting day, and the ceremonies and f^tes which brought it 
to a close. Besides this, there are several sections which relate 
to hawking. From these it appears that the hawks used in 
Navarre at this period (1180) were the Falcon, the Goshawk 
{Aztor), and the Sparrow-hawk {Gaviian). They were taken 
yoimg from the nest, and reared in the hawk-house {halconera\ 
fed upon meal-paste {harina de trigo) mixed with the flesh of birds 
(oz;), such as pigeons, partridges, or water-hens (gallinas agua\ cut 
up small ; less paste being given as the hawk grew older, until 
at length it was strong enough to be fed twice a day on beef o 
mutton. When a month old, the training commenced, and for 
this directions are given. It is to be remarked that (contrary to 
modem practice) the old Spanish falconers, by slowly drawing 
the lure towards them when seized by their hawks, and calling 
them with a whistle (chiflo\ gradually taught them to retrieve 
the quarry before breaking in to it. The Goshawk {Aztor) is 
stated to be more easily trained than a Falcon, from which 
observation M. Castillon erroneously draws the conclusion that 
the hawk called Aztor must have been a Merlin, the Spanish 
name for which is Esmerejon, (See p. 127.) 

The detention, or theft, of a trained hawk was punishable by 
fine, which was greater for a Goshawk than for a Falcon, and 
heavier still if the hawk had moulted. Of this fine half went to 
the king, the other half to the owner or the informer. 

Until the end of the 17th century Falcons were annually im- 
ported into Spain from the Netherlands. See note to Galesloot 
(No. 198). 



SPANISH. 115 



225. EL BET D ANGUS. Libre dels FalcSes. 
MS. del siglo xiv. 

Although the present bibliography is designed to include 
only such works relating to Falconry as have been printed, it is of 
interest to note in connection with the celebrated Livre du Rot 
Dancus (No. 139) that there exists in the collection of Sr. D. 
Josd Lopez de Ayala a MS. translation in Spanish referable to 
the fourteenth century. It is described by Senores De Uhagon 
and De Leguina in their " Estudios Bibliograficos : La Caza/' 
p. 22 (1888). 

See also the Italian edition by Zambrini (No. 296). 

226. JXJAN MANUEL (El Principe Don), Libro 
DE LA Caza del Principe Don Juan Manuel Fijo del Muy 
Noble Infante Don Manuel Adelantado Mayor de la 
Frontera et del Reino de Murcia, que fabia de las na- 
turas de las Falcones : de commo se deben conoscer 
per talle, et por faciones, et por plumage, et por empen- 
nolamiento : de commo se deben amansar et criar, et 
facer sennaleros, garceros, etc., de las purgas et las 
melecinas: de qu6 cazas hd et qu6 logares, etc, 
[1325.] Madrid. 1879. sm. 8vo. 

Edited by Don Jos^ Gutierrez de la Vega, "con un discurso 
y notas," in vol. iii. of the " Biblioteca Venatoria — coleccion 
de Obras cldsicas Espanolas de Monteria, de Cetreria, y de 
Caza menor^ raras, ineditas, o desconocidas." 

According to Don Jos^ Gutierrez this is the earliest treatise 
on the subject written in pure Castillian, and was composed 
before the Libro de la Mdnteria^ by the same author, the date 
of which is conjectured to be between 1342 and 1350. In 
the opinion of Amador de los Rios, whom he cites (torn. iv. 
P- 237), the present work was written during the reign of Ferdi- 
nand IV., or the minority of Alfonso XI. Further on (torn. cit. 
p. 248) the same writer adds that without doubt it was composed 
before 1325, in which year the last King of Castille ascended 
the throne. Herr Baist, in his German edition of this v/ork, 

H 



H4 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

(No. 129), puts the date of its composition at 1325 (op. cit. 

p. 154). 

Apart from its antiquity the Libro de la Caza is to be 
commended for its intrinsic merit, and for the literary beauty 
of the author's style. Don Jos^ Gutierrez thus writes in glowing 
terms of it : — '' Pues bien el Libro de la Caza, conservando la 
forma did&ctica en que tanto sobresali6 el docto magnate, 
brilla por su estilo oriental tan del gusto de los escritores de la 
Edad Media. Sus cuentos y sus descripciones son verdader- 
amente admirabiles : su lenguaje es culto y pintoresco . . . • 
Por eso en el Libro de la Caza se ve al escritor castizo, se lee el 
narrador florido, y se refleja el venador entusiastica, que parece 
inspirarse en la sublime majestad del monte, en el delicado per- 
fume de las flores, y en el dulcisimo canto de las aves " {Discurso 
sobre los Libros de Cetreria, pp. xxix.-xxx.). 

Divided into twelve chapters, the work is composed upon a 
plan which many subsequent writers on Falconry have adopted. 
The nature of falcons is first discussed, with a notice of the 
various species trained for hawking. We are then instructed how 
to know a good hawk by its size, shape, plumage, etc. (cap. iiL)« 
how to tame those which are caught wild, and how to bring up 
those which are taken from the nest (cap. iv.), how to tame a 
heron-hawk (cap. vi.), how to moult hawks (cap. ix.), to give 
them their first meal of the day (cap. x.), and to remedy the 
maladies to which they are subject (cap xi.), while the last 
chapter describes the different sorts of flights, and the best 
localities for the sport. This is a most interesting chapter. 
The district of Chincella, within the Bishopric of Cartagena, is 
said to abound in lakes and wild-fowl, and Villena the best 
place in the whole of Murcia for every sort of flight ; herons, 
ducks, and cranes, with falcons, and (with goshawks) partridges, 
and quails, and other birds called flamingoes (flamenques), which 
are beautiful birds and very good for hawking, though very hard 
to get out of the water {fermosas aves et muy ligeras para cazar, 
sinon porque son muy graves de sacar del aqiia). From this 
chapter one is enabled to form a good idea of the sport enjoyed 
by Spanish falconers during the early part of the fourteenth 
century. 

For some account of the life and works of Don Juan Manuel, 
see the French translation of " El Conte Lucanor," by Adolphe 



SPANISH. IIS 



de Puibusque, traduit pour la premiere fois de TEspagnol, et 
prec^d^ d'une notice sur la vie et les oeuvres de Fauteur, Don 
Juan Manuel. Paris. 1854. 8vo. 

227. JUAN MANXJEIi (El Principe Don). El 
LiBRO DE LA Caza. Zum Efstenmale herausgegeben 
von G. Baist. HaJle, Niemeyer. 1880. 8vo. 

Three preliminary leaves of Dedication, Preface, and Con- 
tents, and 208 pp. Highly praised by Don Enrique de Leguina, 
who writes: — "Preciosa publicacion esmerada y concienzu- 
damente hecha por el Senor Baist, con glosas, coroentos, etc, 
que denotan el profundo estudio que dicho senor hizo de tan 
precioso codice" {Estudios Bibliograficos — La Caza^ p. 41). 

A copy of this work having been secured after the sheets 
containing the German titles had gone to press (see No. 129) 
an analysis of it may be given here : — Vorwort, pp. v.-vi. ; 
Inhaltsverzeichnis, p. vii. ; El Libro de la Caza, pp. 1-89; 
Ammerkungen zum Libro de la Caza, p. 90 ; Wortregister, p. 
107; Personennamen, p. 117; Ortsnamen, pp. 119-127 ; 
Beilage I., zur Chronologie der Schriften D. Juan Manuels, 
p. 128 ; Beilage II., zur Textkritik, p. 156 ; Errata und Addenda, 
pp. 207-208. 

In transcribing from the MS., the editor has in several places 
misread a word; ^.^., at p. 118 he mentions names bestowed 
upon hawks by their owners, such as Perlado^ Rtal^ etc., and 
amongst them he includes Lan^rote. This is probably a mis- 
print for Tagarote which is not the name but the kind of hawk 
used (p. 42, 1. 10). So altanero is not a species of hawk, but 
what English falconers would call a " high flier," or " waiter on." 
The text throughout would have been clearer had the editor em- 
ployed capitals for all proper names {e,g,^ p. 42, 11. 14-17). 

The publisher's name is Niemeyer, not Niedermeyer as in- 
advertently printed in No. 129. 

228. AT ALA (Pero Lopez de). El Libro de las 
AvES DE Ca^a del Canciller Pero Lopez de A)rala 
[1386] con las glosas del Duque de Alburquerque. 
Publicalo la Sociedad de Bibli6filos. Madrid. 1869. 8vo. 



1 1 6 BOOKS ON FAL CONRY. 



" Introduccion " by Seiior Don Pascual de Gayangos, pp. L- 
xxviii.; followed by the text, pp. 1-167 ; "Glosas del Duque 
dc Alburquerque," pp. 171-195 ; Tabla de las Glosas, p. 197 ; 
Indice Alfabetico y Glosario, pp. 199-214; Erratas, p. 215; 
and a list of the " Sociedad de Bibli6filos Espanoles." With 
three full-page modem illustrations, in colours, of hawks, namely, 
a Peregrine and two Goshawks. 

. This treatise, by the famous Cavalier who wrote the Chronica 
de Don Ptdro I, was extremely popular in its time; and a good 
many MS. copies of it have been found to exist Don Enrique 
de Leguina cites no less than a dozen, dating from the fifteenth, 
sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, and preserved 
in various libraries in Spain. 

It is a much longer composition than that of the Prince Juan 
Manuel, which preceded it by sixty years, comprising forty-seven 
chapters instead of twelve ; a separate chapter being devoted to 
each kind of hawk, and to each ailment (and the remedy for 
it) to which it was supposed to be subject One of the most 
curious is chapter xlvi. : De cbmo se deben enjerir las penolas 
quebradaSy — How to repair broken flight feathers — showing that 
the operation known to English falconers as '^ imping " (French 
enter) is by no means a modem invention. 

It is strange that so important a work as this should not have 
been earlier printed. It was composed in Portugal during the 
captivity of the author in the Castle of Oviedes after the battle of 
AljubaiTOta, at which he was taken prisoner. This explains the 
ending : — " Aqul se acaba [here ends] el Libro de la Caza de 
las Aves, que fizo Pero Lopez de Ayala en el castillo de Oviedes 
en Portogal^ en el mes de Junio, afio del Seiior de Mill et 
trecientos, et ochenta y seis anos [13B6] era de C^sar de 
Mccccxxiv afios." 

229. AYATjA, (Pero Lopez de). Libro df la Caza 
DE LAS AvES et de sus plumajes, et dolencias, et mele- 
cinamientos, del CanciUer Pero Lopez de Ayala, 
Siglo XV. [1386.] Madrid. 1879. sm. 8vo. 

Edited by Don Josd Gutierrez de la Vega, ** con un discorso 
y notas," in vol. iiL of the ** Biblioteca Venatoria — coleccion 



SPANISH. 1X7 



de Obras cldsicas Espaiiolas de Monteria, de Cetrerfa, y de Caza 
menor, raras, ineditas, 6 desconocidas." 

Cetreria^ the Spanish word for hawking, it will be observedi 
is cognate with the Latin accipitraria, Don Pascual de 
Gayangos supplies the following note on this point in his '' In- 
troduccion aJ * Libro de las Aves ' " (No. 228), p. viu : — '* La 
Cetrerfa, 6 caza con azores, de accipiter que en Latin signi5ca 
' ave de rapifia/ y accipitraria que es el arte de cazar con dichas 
aveSy se formaria la palabra aceptreria b cetreria i que otros 
asignan diferente orfgen." 

230. SANT-FAHAGXJN (Juan de). Libro de 
LAS Aves que CA9AN. Con las glossas de D. Beltran 
de la Cueva, Duque de Alburquerque. 

Cited .as a MS. by Hammer Puigstall (No. 112), but since 
published in the Illtistracihn Venatoria, 1885. 

The original MS. of this treatise has apparently been lost, but 
a neat and perfect copy of it, executed in the fifteenth century, 
is preserved at Madrid in the Bibliot^ca National, and is 
regarded as one of the most important works in the Spanish 
literature of the chase. Don Jos6 Gutierrez de la Vega com- 
menced its publication in the second number of the Illustracibn 
Venatoria, 1885 (Januar}' 30), and in a recently published 
criticism of the " Libros de Cetreria del Capciiler Pero Lopez 
de Ayala, de Juan de Sant-Fahagun, y de Don Fadrique de 
Zuniga y Sotomayor" (29 pp. 8vo, Madrid, 1889), Don Fran- 
cisco R. de Uhagon has shown, by a comparison of a portion 
of the two texts in parallel columns, that the work of Sant- 
Fahagun is in a great measure founded upon, if not actually 
borrowed from, that of Pero Lopez de Ayala. He thus com- 
pares the two (op. cit. p. 9) : — 

'* Divide Sant-Fahagun su obra en tres libros : en el primero 
trata de los piumajes de las aves, y da reglas para araaestrarlas ; 
en el segundo y tercero departe de las enterroedades ; y en el 
tercero tambien, de las medicinas para ser curadas. Ayala trata 
en su obra : de la caza de las Aves y de sus piumajes ; despu^s, 
de sus dolencias, y por fin, de los medicamentos. La analogia 
no puede ser mayor." 

So much similarity is there between these two works that it b 



1 1 8 BOOKS ON F4LC0NR V. 



a disputed question to which of them the Glosas del Duque de 
Alburquerque have reference {cf, Bibl. Venatoria, iii. pp. xlviL 
et seq.). 

Besides the MS. above referred to, other copies (Nos. 90, 91) 
are cited by D. Gutierrez de la Vega in his Biblioteca Venatoria 
wherein the author's name appears as ^ Sahagun," and '* Sant- 
Fagun/' Seizor Gayangos adopts the spelling ^* Johan de Sant- 
Fagund " (op. cit vol. iii. p. xlviii.). 

231. EVANGELIST A. Libro de Cetreria de 
EvANGELiSTA [15th ccnt] y una profecia del mismo 
con pr6logo, variantes, notas, y glosario, por D. Antonio 
Paz y Melia. Halle. 1877. 8vo. 

Printed in the Zeitschrift fur Romanische Fhiloiogie^ heraus- 
gegeben von Dr. Gustav Grober, Band i. pp. 222-246 (1877), 
from a MS. in the Imperial Library at Vienna. A few copies 
separately printed. 

The editor of this MS. compares passages in parallel columns 
with extracts from Sant Fahagund, and concludes as follows : — 
'* Examinando atentamente los tratados de Cetreria conocidos 
en la ^poca en que se escribio el nuestro, nos hemos convencido 
de que el que Evangelista parodi6 fue el que Johan de Sant 
Fahagund, cazador de Don Juan II. present6 k Enrique IV. en 
cuyo reinado como luego veremos, se escribio tambien la parodia. 
En prueba de nuestra afirmacion citaremos algunas notables con- 
cordancias que esperamos convencerdn al lector" (p. 224). 

Some account of this same MS., with extracts, is given by 
Sr. Adolfo Mustafia in a paper '^ Ueber eine Spanische hand- 
schrift der Wiener Hofbibliothek." Wien. 1867. There is also 
a MS. (of the fifteenth century) in the National Library at 
Madrid commencing thus : — " Libro de Ceirerfa que hizo 
Evangelista corriendo fortuna por al golfo de Leon. A Dios 
misericordioso por no estar ocioso: y trata de los Aves de 
rapiiia, de los talles, y plumajes, y proprietades de cada una : 
y de los gobiemos y curas para sus dolencias, como adelante 
oirds." 

A third MS. of the sixteenth century is preserved also at 
Madrid in the Royal Library (Biblioteca particular de S. M. el 
Key). This begins: — Este libro de Cetreria fizo Evangelista 



SPANISH. 119 



camino de Rodas sobre la mar por no estar ocioso y no pensar 
en los peligros de la mar, trata de los Aves de rapifia, de los 
talles, y plumajes, y proprietades : y de los guobiemos y curas 
de sus dolencias de cada una, como adelante vereis : y acabado 
lo envi6 al Prior de San Juan D. Alvaro de Zuniga, su Senor 
decia ansi. 

232. VELASQUEZ DE TOVAB (Alonso). Libro 
DE Caza de halcones hecho por Alonso Velasquez 
de Tovar. Madrid, c. 1450- 1500. 

This treatise is referred to by Seiior Don Pascual de Gayangos, 
in his " Introduccion " to the ** Libro de las Aves de Ca9a " of 
Lopez de Ayala (No. 228), as being in the '' Biblioteca de la Real 
Academia de la Hist6ria," and also in the Biblioteca National 
Madrid ; but it is not quite clear from his remarks whether its 
is printed or in MS. only. 

233. BTJBGOS (F. Vicente de). El Libro " de 
proprietatibus rerum " traducido del Latin. Impreso 
por Enrique Meyer de Alemana. Tolosa. 1494. sm 
folio. 

'' Un volumen, letra gotica a dos columnas, muchos grabados. 
Trata de la Perdiz, Paloma, Azor, Halcon, Gavilan, y otros 
aiiimales cazadores." — De Uhagon y de Leguina, p. 9. 

Another edition was printed at Toledo, 1529. (See note to 
No. I Sf anted, p. 12.) 



234. PETRAROA (Francisco). De los remedios 

CONTRA PROSPERA Y ADVERSA FORTUNA. ValladoHd. 
I5IO. 

Other editions, Seville, 15 13 and 15 16; Saragossa, 1518 and 
1523 ; Seville, 1524; and Salamanca, 1533. 

This book may be included in the present catalogue on 
account of Dialogo xxxii., de la Caza de las Aves y Ferros, 



c« c« 



235. ITXTNEZ DE AVENDANO (Pero). Aviso 
DE CA9ADORES Y DE CA9A. Ordenado por el magnifico 



I20 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

e muy insigne doctor fero Nuiiez de Avendafio : 
letrado del lUustrissimo seftor Don Ynigo Lopez de 
Mendo9a tercero deste nombre : Duque del Ynfantado. 
Dirigido a su lUustrissima Seiioria. [al fin] Impreso 
en la muy noble villa y floretissima Universidad de 
Alcala de Henares en casa de Juan de Brocar aiio 
1543. 4to. 

In black-letter, title below coat of arms, " Prolog©," 3 prelim, 
leaves, and 40 pp. with side-notes in Latin. 

Another edition, '' con nuevas adiciones, y con privilegio, en 
Madrid en casa de Pedro Madrigal, 1593," folio. Both editions 
are very rare. 

This is a general treatise on the laws of Spam relating to 
hunting and hawking in the sixteenth century. From it we learn 
(amongst other things) that the clergy, secular and regular, were 
forbidden to hunt or hawk, or to keep dogs or falcons, as causing 
too much distraction from their religious duties : — '' Los religiosos 
no pueden yr a ca9a, ni pueden tener perros: ni aves para 
ca9ar,'' etc., fol. xxvii. " Los clerigos sacerdotes no pueden usar 
de caga clamorosa d^do se mucho a tal exercicio," etc., fol. 
xxvii. verso. It would seem, however, that they were not pro- 
hibited from writing on field sports ; see the treatise by Alfonso 
Tostado de Madrigal, Bishop of Avila, published in 161 1 
(No. 243). 

Concluding with an Epistola Commendatoria (fol. xxxviii.- 
xxxix.), the present work ends on the last folio (unpaged) : 
'^Impso en la muy noble villa y floretissima Universidad de 
Alcala de Henares en casa de Juan de Brocar, a xviii. dias 
del mes de DeziSbre del aiio 1543." 

236. VALLES (Mossen Johan). Libro de Ace- 
TRERfA. Madrid. 1556. folio. 

Cited by Seiior Don Pascual de Gayangos (i,c.) as being 
preserved in the original MS. in the Biblioteca National, Madrid. 
He describes it as being divided into five books, or treatises, 
of which the first four relate entirely to hawking with the Gos- 
hawk and Sparrow-hawk {azory gavilan), and the last to hunting. 



SPANISH. 121 



It is dedicated to Prince Carlos, son of Philip II., at that time 
only eleven years of age, whose sudden mysterious death caused 
so much consternation and comment. 

237. OABLOS I. Las PregmAticas y capitulos 
que su Magestad del Emperador y Rey hizo en las 
Cortes que se tuuieron con el serenisimo Principe 
D. Philipe en nuestro nombre. Afio de mil y quinientos 
quarenta y ocho en Salamanca, en casa de Juan de 
Canova. 1564. folio. 

^' Contiene una peticion sobre les gallinas que han de tomar 
los cazadores para las aves de caza." — Uhagon y Leguina, 
op. cit p. 12. 

238. ZTTNIGAySOTOMATOIl (Fadrique), Libro 
DE Cetreria de CA9A DE A90R . . . . y arte que se 
ha de tener en el conoscimiento y ca9a destas Aves y 
sus curas y remedios, en el qual assi mesmo habla 
algunas cosas de Halcones y de todas Aves de rapifia, 
etc. En Salamanca, en casa de Juan de Canova. 
1565. 4to. 

This treatise of Zuniga (or 9uniga) 6 prelim, leaves and 1 26 
pp. is perhaps the rarest of all Spanish books which relate exclu- 
sively to Falconry, although in regard to date of composition, 
as above shown, it is not the oldest The MS. is preserved 
in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. It is referred to by 
Schneider, in his edition of the work of the Emperor Frederick II., 
De arte venandi cum avibus (vol. ii. p. 107), as being quoted in 
the Introduction to the Oryctographia et Zoologia Aragonia^ 
1784, p. 70, and is of interest as giving the Spanish names 
derived from the Arabs for diflferent kinds of hawks — ^^., 
Alfaneque^ Bomi^ Bahari^ Sacre^ Azor (Latin Astur^ the Gos- 
hawk), etc. The Kestrel he calls Cernicalo ; the Sparrow-hawk, 
Esparvely the ordinary name for any kind of hawk being Gavilan^ 
or Alcon. On this subject some useful and interesting infor- 
mation will be found in the work of MM. Dozy & Engelmann, 



I aa BOOKS ON FALCONE K 

''Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Fortugais ddriv^ de 
I'Arabe," seconde Edition, 8vo, Leydc, E. J. Brill, 1869. 

239. ANON. LiBRO DE Cetreria y Caza de Aves. 

A treatise by an unnamed author dted by Hammer Pui^gstall 
(No. 112) and Schlegel (No. 194), neither of whom gives the 
date or place of publication. Probably the work referred to 
is that of Zuiiiga y Sotomayor (No. 238). 

240. MntABEL (Federigo Marques de). Libro 
de Cetreria de Caza de Azor, de halcones y de todas 
aves de rapina. [1565 ?] 

This treatise, though not mentioned in the latest Spanish 
bibliography by Don Enrique de Leguina, 1888, is cited by 
Ersch und Gniber, in their Allgemeitu Eruyklopatdie der Wis- 
unschafttn und Kiinste (4to, Leipzig, 1 841), in the account given 
of Peiiaranda de Duero, part of the Spanish province of Segovia 
(sect iiL theil 15, p. 395). Reference is here made to "Franz 
von Zuniga, Herr auf Mirabel, oftwarts von Goria und Brante- 
villa, erheirathete Alconchel mit Maria Manuel de Sotomayor, 
und wirde der Vater Friedrichs, des Marques von Mirabel durch 
creation Kaiser Karl's V., Freidrich schrieb * Libro de Cetreria^ 
de Caza de Azor^ de halcones yde todas aves de rapina ** (p. 395). 

Doubtless the '' Libro " liere referred to was that of Zufiiga y 
Sotomayor, who was ** Senor de las villas de Alconchel, Cahinos, 
Mirabel, y Aras " : ef, Don Pascual de Gayangos' '^ Introduccion 
al ' Libro de la Caza de Aves ' " (No. 228), p. xxiv. 

241. PALMYBENO (liorengo). Vocabulario del 
HuMANiSTA, compuesto por Lorengo Palmreno [sic] 
donde se trata de Aves, Feces, Quadrupedos, con sus 
vbcablos de ca9ar y pescar, etc Valentiae, ex typogra- 
phia Petri a Huete, in Platea Herbaria. 1569. i2mo. 

This rare little book is in two parts, the first unpaged ; the 
second (pp. 1-128) contains a Primer Abecedario de las Aves^ 
in which the Latin and Spanish names of hawks are given. 



SPANISH. 123 



Below the title is a rade woodcut of the Goshawk (el Agor) 
beneath which is the date Ano mdlxviiij. 

242. ABGOTE DE MOLINA (Gk>xizalo). Libro de 
LA MoNTERiA que mand6 escrevir el muy alto y muy 
poderoso Rey Don Alonso de Castilla y de Leon 
[Alonso XL] ultimo deste nombre. Acrecentado por 
Gonzalo Argote de Molina. Dirigido a la S.C.R.M. 
del Rey Don Philipe Segundo Nuestro Sefior. [Wood- 
cut of royal arms.] Imprfeso en Sevilla por Andrea 
Pescion i. 1582. Folio. 

The first edition of a work founded, it is said, on that of Don 
Juan Manuel, illustrated with woodcuts, and of extreme rarity. 
In 1876 a copy in Paris fetched 45o£ It was reprinted in 8vo, 
Madrid, 1877, in the " Bibliotheca Venatoria " edited by Don 
Gutierrez de la Vega, and again in 1882. Although included 
by Hammer Purgstall (No. 11 2) and Schlegel (No. 194) amongst 
the books on Falconry, it relates exclusively to hunting, and is 
only mentioned here as one of the rarest of Spanish books on 
the Chase, and lest, after the notices above referred to, it might 
be supposed to have been overlooked. 

For some interesting and critical remarks on the authorship 
of this work, see Adolphe de Puibusque, " Le Conte Lucanor 2 
traduit pour la premib-e fois de TEspagnol, et pr6:^dd d'une 
notice sur la vie et les oeuvres de Tauteur, Don Juan Manuel.*' 
Paris. 1854. 8vo. 

243. TOSTADO DE MADBIQAL (Alonzo). Libko 
QUA TRATA DEL MODO que se ha de tener en curar 
Halcones, Azores, y Gabilanes. Salamanca. 161 1. 

This treatise on Falcons, Goshawks, and Sparrow-hawks, com- 
posed by a Bishop of Avila in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, shows the attention which was formerly given to field 
sports by ecclesiastics, although by the Spanish law they were 
prohibited from taking an active part in them. See Nuftez 
de Avendafto (No. 235). The MS. preserved in the National 



124 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



Library, Madrid, has not been printed in full, but some account 
of it will be found in '* Ijsl vida y hechos del M. P. Alonzo 
Tostado de Madrigal/' by Gil Gonzales Davila, '* Historia del 
Colegio Viejode SanBartolom^ de Salamanca," 1611 (p. 123). 
It is to be hoped that some Spanish editor may be found to 
undertake its entire transcription and publication. 

244. OAIiDESON (Don Pedro, de la Barca). El 
Mayor Encanto Amor. Madrid. 1641. 410. 

No account of the Spanish literature relating to Falconry would 
be complete without allusion to the beautiful description of 
Heron Hawking which occurs in ^ Love the Greatest Enchant- 
ment," one of the finest compositions of Calderon. 

This fiesta was represented before the King on the night of 
St. John, in the year 1635, ^^ ^^^ >^y^^ palace of the Buen Retiroi 
and was published in the second volume of the collected Dramas 
of the poet by his brother Don Jos^ Calderon in 1641. It has 
been admirably translated into English by D. F. MacCarthy, side 
by side with the Spanish text (London, Longmans, 186 1, sm. to) 
in which volume the passage referred to will be found (p. 90) in 
the second Act : 

'^ Atomo ya la garza apenas era, 
Cuando, desenhetrada la cimera 
Que el capirote enlaza, 
Mi mano un gerifalte desembraza, 
A quien, porque en prision no se presuma, 
La pluma le halagaba con la pluma, 

Y ^1, como hambriento estaba, 
Duro el laton del cascabel picaba. 
Apenas k la luz restituidos 

Se vieron otro y ^1, cuando atrevidos, 
Cuanta estacion vacfa 
Palestra es de los dtomos del dia, 
Corren los dos por pdramos del viento, 

Y en una y otra punta, 

Este se aleja, cuando aquel se junta ; 

Y el bajel ceniciento 

(Que bajel ceniciento entonces era 
La garza, que velera 



\ 

I 

SPANISH. I as \ 



\ 



t 

\ 



\ 



Los pi^lagos sulcb de otro elemento) \ ' 

Librarse determina diligente, \ 

Aunque Davega sola, ^ 

Hechos remos los pies, proa la frente, \ 

La vela el ala, y el timon la cola. 

i Mfsera garza, dije, combatida | 

De dos contrarios ! bien, bien de mi vida 

Inidgen eres, pues sitiar la veo ^ 

De uno y otro deseo. 

• • • • • 

A uno pues, y otro embate, 
Coge las alas, 6 las velas bate, 

Y poniendo debajo de la una 
I^ cabeza, se deja d su fortuna 
Venir d pique, cuando 
Nos parecid caer revoloteando 
Una encamada estrella, 

Y los dos gerifaltes siempre en ella." 

TRANSLA TION. 

*' Scarce had the heron dwindled to a speck 
On the far sky, when from about the neck 
Of a gerfalcon I unloosed the band 
Which held his hood ; a moment on my hand 
I soothed the impatient captive, his dark brown 
Proud feathers smoothing with caressings down ; 
While he, as if his hunger did surpass 
All bounds, pick'd sharply on his bells of brass. 
Scarce were they back restored to light, 
He and another, when in daring flight 
They scaled heaven's vault, the vast void space where play 
In whirling dance the mote-beams of the day, 
Then down the deserts of the wind they float, 
And up and down the sky 
One flies away as the other swoopeth nigh ; 
And then the ashen- colour'd boat 
(An ashen-colour'd boat it surely were, 
That heron, that through shining waves of air 
Furrow*d its way to fields remote) 
Resolving to be free and not to fail, 



126 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Although alone it faileth now, 

Of feet made oars, of carved beak a prow^ 

Sails of its wings, and rudder of its tail ; — 

Poor wretched heron, said I then, thy strife 

'Gainst two opposing ills, are of my life 

Too true an image ; since it is to-day 

Of two distinct desires the hapless prey. 

• • • • • 

'Gainst this, 'gainst that, as either doth assail, 

It furl'd its wing, and droop'd its languid sail, 

And placing its dazed head beneath the one, 

Trusting to fortune, like a plummet-stone 

Straight down it fell, we looking, from afar 

Saw it descending, an incarnate star 

Through the dark sky. 

With the pursuing falcons ever nigh.** 

245. MARTINEZ DE ESPINAB (Alonso). Arte 
DE Ballesteria y Monteria, escritacon methodo para 
escusar la fatiga que ocasiona la ignorancia. Dividida 
en tres Libros .... en el tercero se declaran las ca- 
lidades de las A ves, y el modo de cazarlas, con dos capi- 
tulos curiosos al fin ; el uno de la caza del Perro de 
muestra ; y el otro del cabestrillar con el Buey.* Escrito 
por Alonso Martinez de Espinar . . . . de orden de S. M. 
En Madrid en la Emprenta Real afio 1644. 4to. 

Another edition, "en Napoles, por Francisco Ricciardo, 1739." 
Another, *' en Madrid, por Antonio Marin, alio de 1761/' 4to. 
This work of 420 pp., with portraits of Don Carlos and the 
author, and several full-page illustrations, contains (lib. iii. cap. i.) 
remarks "del Aguila y sus propriedades y de otras Aves de 
rapifta," with chapters on the following kinds of hawks — Alcon 
Girifalte [the gerfalcon] crianse en las montaiias de Noruega, y 
en las de Irlanda [qu. Icelanda], y Suecia : los mejores son de 
Noruega, aunque son mayores de cuerpo los de Irlanda [sic] y 
tienen el plumage mas bianco. 

• Perro de muestra^ pointer; Buey del eabastriUo, stalking-ox. 



SPANISH. 127 



Aicon Sucre [the Saker] poco menor que el Girifaltc : crianse 

en Armenia: yendo de passo, toman muchos en las islas de 

Candia, Grecia, Malta, y Sicilia. Alcon Nebli [the Peregrine] 

crianse en las montaiias de Persia, y Moscovia, y en muchas de 

las regiones de Scitia, que caen debaxo del Norte, y en las 

alturas de los Alpes, aunque en toda la Francia, Flandes, y 

Italia los tienen por passageros, y no saben de donde vienen, 

y los suelen Uamar Peregrinos. £n Espaiia los llamamos 

Neblies por la noble condicion que tienen en amansarse. Alcon 

Bahari [the Peregrine] crianse muchos en nuestra Espana en 

peiias muy altas. Alcon Montana [some phase of Peregrine] 

llamados assi porque se crian en las montahas. Alcon Borni 

[some phase of Peregrine] se crian en las montaftas de Leon, 

y en otras Provincias. Alcon Alfaneque [the Lanner] se crian en 

Berberia, y se venden muchos en Orin .... estos son menores 

que los Baharies y assi no matan sino avecillas pequeiias quando 

estan en su libertad; y con la industria de los Cazadores 

matan la Perdiz, y Picaza [Magpie] y vuelan la Liebre! But 

note the distinction between matan and vuelan. This 

Hawk will kill the partridge and magpie, and [to show its 

spirit] will fly at 2i hare [which it has not strength to kill]. 

Alcon Tagarote [a Peregrine of some kind, probably Falco bar- 

barus] se crian en Africa .... del color de los Neblies • • . • 

mas pequenos de cuerpo, pero de grandissimo animo . . • • 

diferencianse de ellos en batir mas apriessa las alas. Alcon 

Azor [the Goshawk] es mas alto de piemas . . . • su color 

obscuro, sus ojos dorados y muy lustrosos : cazan estas aves 

Palomas, Perdices, y Liebres : es mas astutoque losdemas Al- 

cones ; vuela muy junto k la tierra, por no ser visto de la ca/a, etc. 

Alcon Aleto [probably FcUco babylonicus] una especie de Alcon 

que se cria en las Indias, pequeiio de cuerpo, pero de generoso 

animo .... son de muy buenos costrumbres, y se amansan 

facilmente, y assi se estiman mucho : vuelan con ellos las Per 

dices. Alcon Gavilan [the Sparrow-hawk] especie de Azor, pero 

mucho menor de cuerpo que d. Alcon Esmerejon [the Merlin] 

muy pequeno menor que el Gavilan .... mata en su libertad 

aves pequenas, Alondras y Calandrias y otras • • • vuela con 

grandissima ligereza : base de amansar para reducirle dentro de 

ocho dias. Alcon Alcotan [the Hobby] Menor [qu mayor] que 

el Esmerejon, amansase con facilidadi etc« Alcon umicalo [the 

Kestrel]. 



128 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

These extracts will serve to show the hawks known to falconers 
in Spain, and the Spanish names for them. Many of these 
names introduced by the Moors into Spain, and thence carried 
into France, are derived from the Arabic. See Dozy and 
Engelmann, '* Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portugais d^riv^ 
de TArabe," seconde ^ition, 8vo, Leyde, E. J. Brill, 1869. 

At p. 341 Martinez mentions some of the works on Falconry 
known to him. He says : — " el que quisiere saber el mode de 
criarlos, y ensenarlos para la caza, y el regalo con que se han de 
tratar, y la curacion de sus enfermedades lea k Belisario, Alberto, 
k Pedro Crescientense, y k Demetrio ; y en lengua Francesa 
k Guillerrao Tardebo; y en Aleman k Everardo Tappio que 
todos escriben largamente de los Alcones, y algunos otros 
cuyas obras son mas comunes." The work of Demetrius of 
Constantinople is very rarely quoted, and that of Eberhard 
Tapp I have not found mentioned by any other writer on 
Falconry, except Schlegel, who gives the title only. 

246. TAMABTZ DE LA ESOALESA (Fernando). 
Tratado de la Caza del Buelo. En Madrid, por 
Diego Diaz. 1654. i2mo. 

A rare tract of 5 preliminary leaves and 3 1 pages. Although it 
is cited by Hammer Purgstall (No. 112) and Schlegel (No. 194) 
amongst books relating to Falconry, it appears to be a treatise 
on the art of shooting flying, if for buelo we may read vuelo^ 
and is only mentioned here for the purpose of removing 
misapprehension concerning it. The first chapter treats '* De 
las Reglas que debe observar el perfecto tirador de buelo," and 
the author observes : " £1 perfecto tirador de buelo se ha de 
fundar en tres importantissimas reglas, como son Conocimiento, 
Reportacion, y Prontitud." In the eighth chapter, "De los 
ocho buelos de la Perdiz,'' we learn "que las Perdices buelan 
de una de ocho maneras.'' 

D. Gutierrez de la Vega cites a MS. which seems to be a 
transcript of a second edition, since it ends : "En Madrid por 
Francisco Sanz, impresdr del Reyno, ano de 1681." Another, 
"en Roma, por Pablo Antonio Vasquez, ano de 1700;" and 
Leguina mentions a reprint of the first edition "por Antonio de 
Santa Maria aiio de 1798," 8vo (3 prelim, leaves and 45 pp.). 



SPANISH. 129 



Finally it has been republished by D. Gutierrez de la Vega in 
the lUustracion Venatoria. 

The author, it appears, was a Captain of Cuirassiers — ^* Capi- 
tan de Cavallos Corazas." 

247. FESBES DE VAIjDEOEBSO (Andres). 
GoviERNO GENERAL, moral, y politico hallado en las 
Aves mas generosas y nobles. Sacado de sus naturales 
virtudes y propiedades etc. Le escrive el Padre Fray 
Andres Ferrer de Valdecebro, Calificador de la Su- 
pr^ma Inquisicion del Orden de Predicad6res .... 
Madrid. 1658. sm. 4to. 

18 prelim, leaves, pp. 1-432, "con quatro Tablas Differ- 
entes." 

Other editions, Madrid, 1670, 1676, and 1683; Barcelona, 
1696. 

The Barcelona edition, " en Casa de Cormellas por Thomas 
Loriente, Impres6r Aiio 1696,'' is a reprint, page for page, of 
that published '^ en Madrid, en la Imprenta de Bernardo de 
Villa Diego, aiio de 1683." This curious work may be described 
as an illustrated volume of sermons on morality and politics, with 
lessons deduced from a study of ornithology, by a Friar of the 
Order of Preachers. Illustrations borrowed from hawking are 
appositely introduced, the Peregrine FalccHi being figuratively 
likened to the Soul striving towards heaven, the Sparrow-hawk 
to Fortune, the Heron to Fasting, etc. 

A noble kind of hawk, he says, is the Falcon, well known in 
Spain by reason of its being flown at herons (p. 223). The 
habit which the heron has, on being pursued by a hawk, of 
throwing up its fish, or other food, to lighten itself and increase 
its chance of escape, is noted and commented on (p. 145), the 
moral being that fasting raises the soul towards heaven with a 
light and rapid flight : — " £1 ayuno levanta el espiritu hasta los 
cielos, con buelo ligero y veloz porque verdaderamente que la 
haze pesado, y aun torpe la comida : subtilitas animi ciborum 
copia impeditur^ dizo Seneca" (p. 148). 

Referring to the prices formerly paid for hawks, he says 
(p. 237) : " La estimacion que Reyes, Prindpes, y Sefiores han 



I30 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

hedio y hazen deste paxaro (el halcon) es tanta (para bolar 
Gar9a8, y otras aves) que huvo ocarion en que se dieron por 
un paxaro qumientos ucudos de orof 

*' De 8U caga, criay en8eDan9ay y singularidades, que a mi 
intento no conducea, escrivib Demetrio Constandnopolitano 
un tratado dilatado^ que tiaduxo Pedro GiKo en Latin. TVala 
tambien de sus enfemedades, y cunu" [See note to No. 345.] 
So that in the sermons of this worthy Friar we get some curious 
information on the subject of Falconry where we should least 
expect to find it 

248. XIBAJA (Joseph de) y MORALES (Diego 
de). Aposentadores de la Real Ca9a de Volateria. 
.... Sobre que d los dichos aposentad6res se les cum- 
plan y guarden todas las preheminencias y exempciones 
de que deben gozar los ca^addres, catarib6ras, y officiales 
de dicha Real Ca^a de la Volateria. Madrid. 1664. 
folia 

Twenty-two pages only, but interesting as illustrating the state 
of Falconry in Spain towards the dose of the seventeentfi cen- 
tury. By apostntadbres we are to understand aposentadires de 
camino — 1./., officers of the Courts who precede the members of 
the royal family when travelling, to arrange for their reception, 
and by caiaribtras^ the mounted assistant falconers, whose busi- 
ness it was to follow a hawk and take it up after a flight. 

249. CERVANTES (Pedro y Miguel Antoxiio de). 
Recopilacion de las Reales Ordenanzas y C^dulas 
de los Bosques reales del Pardo, Aranjuez, Escorial, 
Balsain y otros • . . . Del fuero privilegiado de los 
Ministros y officiales de las Alcazares y Bosques 
Reales, exempciones de los de la Real Monteria y 
Volateria etc, Madrid. 1687. folio. 

Not seen. Doubtful whether volaUria with this author in- 
dudesy as it sometimes does, hawking, or relates only to 
fowling. 



SPANISff. xji 



;250. 20BKOADBB (Matias). 3^^^^ trasunto 

SACADO DE LOS ORIGINALES LIBROS que los SeiiOI^ 

Reies de Aragon tenian para el conocimiento de las 
Aves de ca^ y de toda naturale9a de Alcones, con una 
breve prdctica de Cetrerfa para curar las enfermedade^ 
y dolenzias que acaecen. Madrid. 1 689. 

This treatise, of twenty-eight leaves only, consists of brief 
extiicts from the works of Frederick II.» Dc arte vcnandi cum 
aMus^ 1245, ^^d of Pedro Lopez de Ayala, i3S6« 

Sefior Don Gutierrez de la Vega cites two Italian MS. copies 
of this work of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (Nos. 77 
and 79) existing, one in the Biblioteca National) the other in 
the Biblioteca del Escorial. 

251. CALVO PINTO Y VBLABDB (Agustin). 
SiLVA Venatorla.. Modo de Cazar todo g^nero de 
Aves y Animales ; su naturaleza, virtudes, y noticias de 

los temporales En Madrid : En la Imprentade 

los Herederos de Don Agustin de Gordejuela. Calle 
del Carmen, afto de 1 754. sm. 8vo. 

A well-printed little volume of 15 prelim, leaves, 303 pp., and 
*' Indice " : treats generally of hunting and fowling, with brief 
descriptions. Birds of prey are only incidentally mentioned. 
The Hobby, for example, is thus described (p. 108) : — " Es el 
Alcotan ave de rapifia ; su color pardo, y encendido, del tamafio 
de un Cuclfllo, sustentase de comer pajaros : tiene muy veloz el 
buelo, la vista perspicaz,'' etc. 

252. OABLOS m. Real Ordenanza per la que 
se declara vedada y acotada para la Real recreaci6n, y 
entretenimiento la Caza mayor y menor Aves de vo- 
LATERiA, y Pesca, del Real Bosque de Balsain etc. En 
Madrid, en la imprenta de Pedro Marin. 1774. folio. 

.Nqtseen. 



132 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



253. IHELLADO (J. de P.). Encyclopedia Mo 
DERNA, tomo viiL Art "Cetrerla." Madrid. 185 1. 4to. 

254. DATJMAS (El (General). Los Caballos del 
Sahara. Traducido del Frances por N. de Cabanillas. 
Madrid. 1853. 4to. 

** Pp. 1-3 10 ; grabados. En la parte 3* trata de la Caza del 
Avestruz, y de la Ga9ela d caballo con el Halcon y galgos." 

This work, in which a description is given of hawking as 
practised by the Arabs of the Sahara, has been already noticed 
under the head of the French original of 185 1 and the English 
translation (No. i99). The chapter on hawking contains nume- 
sous errors due to the author not properly understanding the 
details of the sport which he attempted to describe." 

255. M. DE A. (Marquis de Albentos). Arte 
GENERAL DE Cacerias y Monterias, escrito con 
m^todo para escusar la fatiga que occasiona la falta 
de prdtica. . .Dividida en partes y dedicada d sus 
amigos. Sevilla. 1862. 8vo. 

Not seen. The title of this work recalls that of Martinez de 
Espinar (No. 245), which possibly may have served the author 
as his model 

256. BENABD (L.). Manual del CA9ADOR o Arte 
Completo de toda classe de Caza. Traduccion de R. 
Villalta. Aficionado con treinta ailos de ejercicio en 
caza mayor y menor. Barcelona. 1872. 8vo. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. 

257. BENARD (L.) y VILLALTA (R.). Manual 
del CA9ADOR . . . • Nueva edicion adornada con 
abundantes grabados, y precidida de una introduccion 



SPANISH. 133 



cinegetica debida a la illustrada pluma de Don Andres 
Guerra. Barcelona. 1880. 8vo. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. 

258. PXTNONSOSTSO (Juan Arias de Avila, 
Conde de). Discurso del Falcon que vulgarmente 
se dice Esmerejon, y en que modo se hara gallinero y 
perdiguero y garcero, compuesto por Don Juan Anas 
de Avila Puerta Carrero, Conde de Pufionrostro, diri- 
gido a Don luan Fernandez de Velasco, Duque de 
Frias y Condestable de Castilla. Madrid. 1885. 4to. 

Published for the first time in the " Ilustracion Venatoria ^ 
from a MS. in the National Library, Madrid. 

259. ITUSBALDE Y SUIT (Juan). La Caza en 
Navarra en los tiempos pasados. San Sebastian. 
1887. 

Senor Don Enrique de Leguina, to whom we are indebted 
for an indication of this important publication, writes : '* Este 
notable trabajo, que contiene preciosisimos datos sobre la caza, 
y aUoneria^ y exhibe documentos muy importantes del Archivo 
de Pamplona, se publico en el numero 264 (10 de Noviembre 
1887) 7 siguientes de la Euskal-Esvia^ Revista Vascongada 
que se da a luz en San Sebastian. 

We have not yet been fortunate enough to see a copy of this ; 
but the reference to the *' important documents in the archives of 
Pamplona '' suggests that the work is probably founded on the 
ParamUntos de la Caza of King Sancho VI. of Navarre. See 
note to No. 224. 

260. nHA(K>N (Francisco de) 7 LEGUINA (En- 
rique de). EsTUDios BiBLiOGRAFicos. La Caza datos 
reunidos por . . . Madrid. 1888. roy. 8vo. 

In this very useful catalogue, of which only 100 numbered 
copies were printed, the authors have given a Ust of more than 



134 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

400 works m Spanish, including MSS. relating to the chase in 
all its branches — ^hi|nting» shooting, fishing, fowling, and hawk- 
ing. In addition there is a list of 226 anonymous works oa 
these subjects; including several MSS. on Falconry, 17 sporting 
novels, and 26 *' Comedias con titulo venatorio," the whole 
pre&ced by an Introduction of a dozen pages. 

261. nHAGK)N (Francisco S. de). Los Libros 
DE Cetreria del Canciller Pero Lopez de Ayala, de 
Juan de Sant-Fahagun, y de Don Fadrique de Zuiiiga 
y Sotomayon Noticias reunidas por D. Francisco R. 
deUhagon. Madrid. 1889. 8vo. 

In this essay of 30 pp., of which only 100 copies were 
printed, the author makes a critical examination of the three 
celebrated Spanish works on Falconry by the writers above 
mentioned. He shows, by means of extracts printed in parallel 
colunms, that the supposed original work of Juan de Sant- 
Fahagun is almost entirely founded upon that of Pero Lopez de 
Ayala, and in a great measure copied from it, several passages 
being literally transcribed, and others only slightly paraphrased. 

See note to No. 230, Sant-Fahagun, antei^ p. iry. 

A remarkable instance of plagiarism is quoted on p. 16. 
Ayala remarks that certain falcons ('^baharis sardos, et mallor- 
quinos," &c.) commence to moult sooner and get through the 
moult quicker than any others. Sant-Fahagun repeats this 
observation in slightly different words, Ayala then adds : '* Yo 
vi un £adcon del Rey Don Pedro que dizian ' Doncella ' \ix^ 
** the waiting-maid "] et era bahari de Romania et garcero [a 
heron-hawk] et altanero [and a high-flier] et vilo la primera 
semana del mes de Agosto ser ya fuera de la muda et desay- 
nado [and enseamed] et aquella semana matar una gar^." 

Sant-Fahagun, not to be outdone, actually asserts : ^' Yo vi 
en fin de Julio un falcon bahari sardo de Don Alfonso Anri- 
quez, almirante de CastiUa, ser mudado y desairudo y matar 
garza!'' 

We may well exclaim with Senor de Ubagon, ^^ rara casuali- 
dad ! chocante coinddencia 1 " 

In Spanish as in other languages the earliest printed books 
on Falconry do not always contain the oldest treatises. Those^ 
for instance, of the Prince Juan Manuel (No. 226) and the 



SFANISff. 135 



Chancellor Pero Lopez de Ayala (No. 238), which date back 
to 1325 and 1386 respectively, have only been printed and pub- 
lished within the last; ten years* A great number of Spanish 
works on hawking stQl remain in MS. I have notes of more 
than forty such MSB. in various libraries, public and private. 

Amongst these may be specially noticed a Spanish translation 
of the fifteenth century of the work of Brunetto Latini (No. 263) ; 
not from the first printed Italian version of Bono Giamboni but 
from the original French (see p. 137). Two copies of this are 
known to exist. The authors of La Caza (No. 260) give the title 
as follows : ^* Fartdes {Alfonso de) — aqui comienga el libro del 
Thesoro que £Eibla de todas las noblezas de las cosas/' and after 
mentioning some of the most interesting chapters (see p. 137) 
conclude with the foUowmg remark : " Este libro lo traslade 
Maestre Brunete de Latyn en rrom3se Frances, y Don Sancho 
nieto de Fernando el Santo, lo mand6 trasladar de France 
en lenguaje Castellano, al maestro Alfonso de Paredes, fissico 
del infante don Fernando su fijo, y a Pascual Gomez, escrivano 
del Rey." 

It is possible that the Spanish Literature of Falconry may yet 
receive additions, in the shape of treatises by the late Don 
Antonio Boria y Pascual, who died in 1876, leaving voluminous 
MSS. for a work on the history and bibliography of Hunting and 
Hawking, and by Seiior Don Enrique de Leguina, whose quarto 
MS. of 270 pages, ^^adomado con muchas acuardasi* was 
aniiously expected by Don Gutierrez de la Vega when he pub- 
lished, in 1879, his editions of the works by the Prince and the 
Chancellor above mentioned. 

The last-named writer has thus described his own MS.: — 
" La Cetreria — Apuntes coordinados por Enrique de Leguina 
1882. MS. 4to. Adomado con cinco acnarelas, letras de 
adomo etc." He adds in a note : — " El objeto de este trabajo 
es ddr d conocer algunos datos sobre la historia de la Cetreria, 
aves que se destinaban d este ejercido, m^todo de adiestrarlas 
etc. : pero es solo una reunion de noticias, aun no freparadas 
para la imprenta. Se halla dividida en nueve capitulos, d saber 
(i) de la Caza en general; (2) La Cetreria ; (3) Division de la 
Halconeria ; (4) el Halcon ; (5) su ensefianza ; (6) sus enferme- 
dades ; (7) obras consultadas ; (8) Cazadores y Halcones Es- 
paftoles c^lebres ; (9) Glosario." . 

This cannot fail to prove a most interesting work to falconers, 
and it is to be hoped that it may be speedily published. 



136 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



I^ortttdttese. 



262. FEBNANDEZ PEBBEr&A (Bieso). Arte 
DA CA^A DA ALTANERiA composta poF Di^jo Fernandcz 
Ferreira, mo^o da Camara del Rey, & do seu servi90. 
Dirigida a Dom Francisco de Mello, Marquez de 
Ferreyra, Conde de Tentugal, eta Repartida em seis 
partes. Na primeira trata da cria^So dos GaviSes & 
sua ca9a. Na segunda dos Assores & sua ca9a. Na 
terceira dos Falcdes & sua ca9a. Na quarta de suas 
doen9as & mezinhas. Na quinta das ArmadUhas. 
Na sexta da passagem & peregrinacao das A ves. Com 
Iicen9a da S. Inquisi9So, Ordinario & Pa^o. Em 
Lisboa, na officina de lorge Rodriguez. Anno de 
16 1 6. sm. 4to. 



The only Portuguese work on the subject which has come to 
light after long search, and inquiries made through friends 
resident in Portugal It is mentioned by Hammer Porgstall 
(No. 112), and, on his authority, by Schlegel (Na 194)9 but 
these authors merely give the first five words of the title, with- 
out any indication of the contents, as above. It contains 
5 preliminary leaves, 118 leaves, and contents 5 pp. 

A Spanish translation of this, made by Juan Batista de Morales 
in 1625, with the title "Arte de Cazar de Diego Fernandez 
Herrera,** is preserved in the National Library at Madrid. 

Existing MSS. prove that treatises on Falconry were com- 
posed in Portugal as in Spain, but they were much fewer in 
number, or have been less carefully preserved. Argote de 
Molina, in his ** NobUza del AndaluziaP mentions a Portuguese 
MS. on Falconry of the fifteenth century, in the Biblioteca de 
Palacdo, Madrid, by Pero Menifio, '* que iai Halconero mayor 
del Rey D. Fernando de Portugal.** But it does not appear 
that this was ever printed. 



ITALIAN. 137 



5taliatt 

263. LATINl (Bninetto). Il Tesoro, nel qual se 
tratta de tutte le cose che a mortali se appartengono vol- 
garizzato da Bono Giamboni. Trevisa. 1474. folio. 

This remarkable encyclopsedia, which contains several chapters 
on Falconry (book i. part v.), was composed in Paris at the end 
of the thirteenth century by the celebrated Florentine gram- 
marian, Brunetto Latini,and was originally written in French — ^'^Li 
Livrts dou Trhsor redige en langue Fran^aise ou Ramans seUmc le 
parkr de France pour ce que la parUure est plus delitable etplus 
commune d tous langages** M. H. Martin Dairvault, in the 
Introduction to his edition of the Livre du Rot Dancus (No. 139) 
has noticed a MS. fragment of the Tresor in the Bibl. Nat 
Paris, No. 12581, du Fonds fran^ois, which is dated 1284. It 
was translated into Italian by Bono Giamboni, and first published 
in 1474. Other editions — Vinezia, 1528 and 1533. 

The chapters on Falconry were reprinted for private circu- 
lation, in 185 1, by Count Mortara, in his Scritture Antiche 
Toscana di Falcontria (No. 293), but it was not until 1863 that 
the whole of the original French text was for the first time 
printed, by M. Chabaille, with the following title : — 

Li LivRES DOU Tresor par Brunetto Latini. 
Public pour la premiere fois d'apres les MSS. de la 
Biblioth^que Imp6riale, Biblioth^que de T Arsenal, etc, 
par P. Chabaille. Collection de Documents in^dits 
sur rhistoire de France; publics par les soins du 
Ministre de Tlnstruction publique (2* s6rie, Lettres et 
Sciences). Paris, Imprimerie Imp^riale. 1863. 4to. 

In this edition, now the most easily referred to, although 
apparently overlooked by Baron de Noirmont (No. 206, iiL 
p. 90, note), the pages relating to Falconry are as follow : — Book i. 
part v., ^' De la nature des Animaus ; " p. 197, ch. 148, de toutes 
mani^es de Ostours ; p. 201, ch. 149, de tous Espreviers ; p. 202% 
ch. 150, de tous Faucons ; p. 204, ch. 151, de tous Emerillons. 



ijS BOOKS ON FALCONR Y. 

The falcons mentioned by Brunetto Ladni are — (i) les lanien ; 
(2) les &ucons que on apde peUrins parce que nos ne traeve 
son nif ains est pris aussi coosine en pelerinage ; (3) les fiiucons 
montains ; (4) les fiuicons gentils ou gruUrs qui vant mieux que 
li autre ; (5) les girfidcs ; (6) les sourpoins [sur poing] blanche, 
et semblables an girfaut ; (7) les brectons, que li plusor apelent 
rodio^ cest k dire li rois et li sires de touz autres oisiaus. 

This curious work has likewise been edited by M. ChabaiUe 
for the CoUexione di opere inedite rare dal seciflo xm. al xviL 
Bologna, 1878, with illustrations by L. Gaiter. 

For some account of the author see Sundby, '* Delia vita e 
dell' opere di Brunetto Latini/' 1884, and Ortolan (J. L. E.) 
** Etude sur Brunetto Latini appr€ci^ comme le maitre de Dante/' 
Paris, 1873. 

264. OBESOENTIO (Pietro de, Cittadino di Bo- 
logrns). Il Libro della Agricoltura. Firenze. 
1478. folio. 

The first Italian translation of a work originally composed in 
Latin, in 1307, at the desire of Charles II., King of Sicily, and 
translated into French in 1373 at the request of Charles V. 
of France. It resembles in its plan the Maisan Jiustique of 
Estienne and Liebault (No. 148), and deals with agriculture 
and field sports, the ninth book containing a chapter on Falconry. 

For the Latin editions see under Latin authors. The Italian 
editions, besides that above cited (which is the earliest and rarest), 
zit as follow : — Vicenza, 1490, folio ; Venezia, 1511, i534t 153^9 
1538, 1542, all in folio; Venezia, tradotta nuovamente con le 
figure deir erbe e degli animale, e un Vocabolario delle cose 
difficili per Francesco Sansovino, 1561, 4to ; Venezia, per F. 
Rampazetti, 1564, 8vo ; Firenze, appresso Cosimo Giunti, 1605, 
4to; Napoli, per Felice Mosca, 1724, 8vo; Bologna, 1784; 
Milano, 1805, 8vo ; and probably odiers. 

According to Lastri, the author of the first transktion was not» 
like the composer, a native of Bologna, as is generally asserted, 
but a Tuscan. '' Quanto al suo primo traduttore ^ zSbXio incerto ; 
pare solamente che si posse affermare ch' ei fosse Toscano, non 
Bolognese come alcuni anno preteso " (*' Bibliotheca Georgica," 
p. 40)- 



ITALIAN. 139 



For the Gennan and French editions of this work see Nos. 96 
and 141. 

265. MEDICI (Lorenzo de'). La Caccia col Fal« 
CONE. Poema della xv, sieclo. [c. 1478.] 

An original poem of forty-five stanzas descriptive of hawkmg 
in Italy, from the original MS. in the Laurentian Library at 
Florence, printed for the first time by William Roscoe in the 
second edition of his " Life of Lorenzo de* Medici," London, 
1796, 2 vols. 4to (vol: ii. Appendix pp. 17-28). 

^' Amongst the materials collected for my use," says Roscoe, 
*^ by a friend in Florence, I had the pleasure to find several 
beautifiil poems of Lorenzo de' Medici, the originals of which 
are deposited in the Laiurentian Library, although the former 
editors of his works appear not to have had the slightest in- 
formation respecting them. These poems, which have been 
copied with great accuracy, and, where it was possible, collated 
with difierent manuscripts, are for the first time given to the 
public at the close of the present work " (Preface, p. xvii.). 

He adds, however, in a foot-note to vol. i. p. 280 : '* About a 
dozen copies of these poems were printed in the year 1791, chiefly 
for the purpose of regulating the text, which have since been dis- 
tributed by the editor amongst his friends. This he thinks it 
necessary to mention to prevent any misapprehension on the 
part of diose into whose hands such volume may chance to frdl." 

The poem entitled La Caccia col Falcone^ he observes (vol. i. 
p. s8i), is apparently founded on a real incident The poet 
gives a circumstantial and lively account of the then popular 
diversion of hawking, from the departure of the company in the 
morning to their return in the heat of the day. As a specimen 
of the author's style, the following stanzas may be quoted : — 

'* £ si vedea ima gentil Valletta . 
Un fossatel con certe macchie m mezzo. 
Da ogni parte rimimita, e netta, 
Sol nel fossato star possono al rezzo ; 
Era da ogni lato una piagetta, 
Che d' uccellar &cea venir riprezzo 
A chi non avessi occhi, tanto h bella ; 
£1 mondo non ha una pari a quella." 



140 BOOKS ON FALCONE K 

A flight at the partridge with a trained Sparrow-hawk is thus 
described : — 

^' Ecco Gugliehno a te una ne viene. 

Cava il cappello, et alzerai la mano; 

Non istar pih Gugliehno, ecco a te bene; 

Guglielmo getta, e grida, ahi villano 1 

Segue la stama, e drieto ben le tiene 

Quello sparviere, e in tempo momentano 

Dette in aria forse cento braccia ; 

Poi cadde in terra, e gik la pela, e straccia. 
• • • • 

Preseli il geto, e per quel T ha tenuto ; 
Dalli il capo, e' 1 cervello, e non li pesa; 
Sgermillo, e V unghia e' 1 becco gli havea netto ; 
Poi rimisse il cappello, e toma a getto." 

The scene depicted was most probably at Poggio-Cajano 
(described op. cit. vol. ii. pp. 134-135), about ten miles from 
Florence, where Lorenzo frequently enjoyed the diversions ci 
hunting and hawking, the latter of which he is said to have pre- 
ferred. This statement is made on the authority of his con- 
temporary and friend Niccolo Valori, a Florentine, who wrote his 
Life in Latin, which was not printed until 17491 though an Italian 
translation of it appeared in 1560. Lorenzo died in 1492. 

In the description of the village of Cajano by another con- 
temporary, Michaelo Verini, it is remarked that tlie neighbour- 
hood abounded with quails and other birds, particulariy water- 
fowl j and that Lorenzo stocked his woods with pheasants and 
with peacocks, which he procured from Sicily. 

266. AGK)GO MAGK). Opera nobilissima com- 
posta per lo excelente maistro Agogo Mago Re de 
tute le passion vien a Falconi, Astori, e Sparaveri. 
Milano. 15 17. sm. 4to. 

Title in black-letter, with woodcut of hawks on a perch, two 
frdconers, one standing, the other seated, and a hound Ijring 
beneath the perch. This very scarce tract is printed at the end 
of a treatise (fols. 28 verso-s^) on the Horse, entitled ^' libro 
de la natura di CavalU & el modo di rilevarli : medicarli : & 




A FRENCH FALCONER OF THE XVIll CENTURY 

Z» a« Mmijbrm oftU tcnrt cfZuait TV, 

1716-177*. 



ITALIAN. 141 



domarli & cognoscerli: & quali son boni: & del modo de 
farli perfect! : &c. Item in simel modo tratta de la natura di 
rilevar: medicar: govemar: & mStenir Spalivieri Aston Falconi 
& simili, &c." This first title (which is not in black-letter) is 
printed in six and a half lines at the top of the page (foL i), 
below which is a three-quarter page cut of a blacksmith's forge 
wherein a horse is being shod. On the last page (32 verso) are 
four woodcuts of bits for horses. The first treatise occupies 
fols. 2-28; the second, 28 verso-^2. It is undated, and the 
author's name does not appear. It is presumably the work 
referred to by Capt. Huth in his " Bibliography of the Horse," 
1887 (p. 5), as having been printed at Milan in 1517. 

Can this be the " traits special en Italien " mentioned by 
M. Charavay on p. 3 of his ** Etude sur la Chasse h TOiseau 
au Moyen-dge" (No. 210), " fait au xv si^le et intitMU Ma^dni 
de Cavalli e Falconiy lequel traits faisait partie de la bibliothbque 
de Diane de Poitiers " (Bibl. Nat. it. 939) ? He does not state 
whether the treatise to which he refers was ever printed, but 
the treatise in my possession, of which I have seen no other 
copy, answers his description. It is entirely occupied with an 
enumeration of remedies for diseases in horses and hawks. 
Who the author was remains to be discovered; perhaps an early 
King of Sicily (he is described in the title as '' Re/' and the 
composition is evidently of some antiquity) ; perhaps he had 
no more certain existence than '' le Roi Modus " or '* le Roi 
Dancus." 

267. CAKCANO (Francesco Sforzino da). Tre 
LiBRi DEGLi UccELLi DA Rapina di M. Francesco 
Sforzino da Carcano, nobile Vicentino, ne quali si 
contiene la vera cognitione dell' Arte de Struccieri, & il 
modo di conoscere, ammaestrare, reggere, & medicare 
tutti gli Augelli Rapaci. Con un trattato de Cani del 
medesimo. Con privilegio. [Woodcut.] In Vinegia 
appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari. 1 547. sm. 8vo. 

Another edition with similar title ; nine prelim, leaves, pp. i- 
250, and separately printed woodcut on last leaf. In Vinegia, 
appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari. 1568. sm. 8vo. 



142 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



Another, Venetia, per i GioUttL zsSx. sm- 8yo. 
I Two editions of 1585 and 1586 not seen. 

' Another! with viuriation in the title, thus :— 

\ Tre Libri degli Uccelli da Prepa del S^or 

\ Fiancesco Carcano detto Sforzino con un trattatto 

I de' Cani. Venetia, 1587. sm, 8vo. 

A copy is in the library of M. Pi^re A. Pichot, of Par^ 
A third variation in the title occurs in the following :««- 

Dell' Arte del Strucx:iero con il inodo di 
conoscere e medicare Falconi, Astori, e Sparavieri, e 
tutti gli Uccelli di Rapina, del Signor Francesco 
Carcano, nobile di Vicenza. Brescia. 1607. la^mo. 

Tre Libri de gli Uccelli da Rapina di M. 
Francesco Sforzino da Carcano nobile Vicentino. 

Ne quali si contiene etc con un trattato de Cani 

da Caccia del medesimo. [Woodcut] In Vicenza, per 
il Megietti. 1622. sm. 8vo. 

A smaller illustrated edition with title as follows : — 

Dell' Arte del Strucciero, con il modo di 
conoscere e medicare Falconi, Astori, e Sparavieri, e 
tutti gli Uccelli di Rapina. Adomato con le sue 
Figure. Del Sig. Francesco Carcano, nobile di 
Vicenza, [Woodcut] In Milano, per Filippo Ghisotfi, 
ad instanza di Gio. Battista Bidelli. Con licenza de' 
Superiori. 1645. i6mo. 

Carcano states in his Preface that this treatise is the result of 
forty years* experience as a falconer, and the perusal of all the 
Italian and French books he could find relating to Falconry — 
''che b lo spatio di piu di quaranta anni posso con verita 
affirmare di harere praticato con i migliori strucderi de V etk 



/ 




LORENZO DE' MEDICI, 

1448-1492. 

Author of " La Carrna col Falcone 



ITALIAN. 14S 



noBtray et tratenutone mold in casa mia di paeti diversi et letto 
quello che gli altri ne hanno scritto cosi in Italia come in 
Franda," &c. (p. iiiL). 

The author's reputation as a fidconer caused his bodk to 
become very popular, and it not only passed through several 
editions, as above shown, but was extensively copied by sub* 
sequent writers, as, for example, Raimondi (No. 277) and 
Turbervile (No. 14). 

268. GIOBGI (Pedepico). Libro di M. Federico 
Giorgi del modo di conoscere i buoni Falconi, Astori 
€ Sparavieri, di farli, di govemarli, et di medicarli, 
come nella Tavola si pub vedere. Con Privilegio. 
[Woodcut] In Vinegia, appresso Gabriel Giolito de 
Ferrari. 1 547. 1 2 mo. 

The first edition of this esteemed work, to which our English 
Turbervile (No. 14) admitted his indebtedness. Fifty-three 
leaves, printed in italic, with *' tavola deir opera." At die end 
''In Vinegia, appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari, mdxlvii/' 
A slight variation is to be found in the titles of succeeding 
editions; thus: — 

LiBRO di M. Federico Giorgi del modo di conoscere 
i buoni Falconi, Astori, e Sparavieri, di farli, di 
governarli, & di medicarlij con una aggiunta nel fine 
della medesima materia. Con Privilegio. [Wood- 
cut.] In Vinegia, appresso Gabriel Giolito di Ferrari. 
1558. i2mo. 

The second edition, also printed in italic — 53 leaves, with 
'* tavola dell' opera." Another edition, printed at Vinegia, 
1567, is cited by Schl^el (No. 194). The title of a fourth edition 
runs as follows : — 

Libro di M. Federico Giorgi del modo di conoscere 
i buoni Falconi, Astori, e Sparavieri, di essercitarli 
& farli perfettii di governarli & di medicarlL Con una 



144 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Tavola delle cose piu notabili, e con una giunta in fine 
della medesima materia. [Woodcut] In Vinegia, 
presso Altx>bello Salicatx). 1573. 

The only edition known to Schneider (No. 324). 

Two editions of Bresda, 1595 and 1607, not seen. The 
former is cited by Kreysig (No. 32 2), the latter by Schlegel 
(No. 194). 

Lastly, the smallest edition thus entitled : — 

LiBRO di M. Federico Giorgio, del modo di conos- 
cere i buoni Falconi, Astori, e Sparavieri, di 
farli, di govemarli, & medecarli. Con una aggionta 
nel fine della medesima materia. Con Privilegio. 
[Woodcut] In Milano, per Filippo Ghisolfi, ad 
instanza di Gio. Battista Bidelli. Con licenza de' 
Superiori. 1645. i6mo. 

pp. 136, 2 leaves, " a' lettori," and two "tavola dell' opera." 
This edition has nine small woodcuts in the text between 

pp. 5-29. At the end, pp. 128-136, "Trattato della cura de 

Cani," with woodcut of Spaniel. 

Kreysig cites (p. 153) a " Libellus de cognoscendis bonis fal- 

conibus," 1547, but this apparently is only the Latinised title of 

the present work. 



269. BOOOAMAZZA (Doxnenico). Trattato 
DELLA Caccia. Libri VIII. Roma, per M. Gyrohima 
de Cartolari Perosina. 1 548. sm. 4to. 

Very scarce ; a copy in the British Museum (62. a. 13) wants 
the title, and die pagination from p. 49 is imperfect. It purports 
to consist of 13s leaves, but there are 138. 

The work is divided into eight books, of which the last 
three relate to Falconry ; the fifth ends thus : — " Qui fim'scie 
el quinto libro dove se e trattato de molte & varie cose come 
se vedeno scritte.** The sixth (1.^., the first on Falconry) 
begms: "Questo e il libro dove si parla di Uccelli, il quale 



ITALIAN. 145 



e diviso in tre Trattati, il primo e diviso in none capitoli. 
II primo capitolo tratta de quattro generationi de Uccelli 
de preda, & della loro proprieta, & di apere cognoscieri il 
migliore. H secondo capitolo insegnia a cognosciere li Astor, 
quali de loro sono utili alia preda, & quali noi. // terzo 
capitolo insegnia del modo di pasciere li Uccelli & de regerli. 
H quatro del modo de adottrinare li Uccelli a volare. // quinto 
parla de la muta & della casa della muta & del pasto cbe allhoro 
conviene. U sesto insegnia a smagrare lo Uccello quando escie 
di muta. 7? settimo parla delli segni quando lo Uccello e sano. 
Z' ottaw parla delli segni de le loro malatie. Unono parla come 
li Uccelli se debbano portare & tenere." 

The second book of Falconry (the seventh of the work) treats 
of the maladies of hawks and how to cure them (105 ver50-\2^ 
verso ^ rectius 98 verso-\2(i verso)^ and the last, which begins 
" Qui commincia il terzo trattato de la malati che vengono di 
fuora alii Uccelli," deals also with recipes for various diseases, 
real or imaginary, and gives such hints as "A fare volare 
presto uno uccello," " Per fare mutare presto uno uccello." The 
colophon reads : — " Qui finisiono gli otto Libri de M. Domenico 
Bocca Mazza quali narreno de varii & diverse cose apertincnti 
alii Cacciatori. In Roma, per M. Gyronima de Cartolari Pero- 
sina, M.D.XLViii." 

270. SCANDIANESE (Tito Giovanni). I Quattro 
Libri della Caccia di Tito Giovann. Scandianese. 
Con la dimostratione de luochi di Greci et Latini 
Scrittorietc. Alio Illus. et Eccellentiss. Duca Hercole 
Estense Secondo, di Ferrara Duca Quarto. Con la 
Tavola copiosissima in fine. Con Privilegio. [Armorial.] 
In Vinegia, appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari et 
Fratelli. 1556. 4to, 

A poem in ottava rima on the chase (pp. 1-164, exclusive 
of the " Dimostratione " and " Tavola "), divided into four books. 
The first in commendation of field sports in general, and the 
occupations of a sportsman \ the second treats of horses and 
dogs, and the best kinds to be employed ; the third deals with 



146 BOOKS ON FALCONE V. 

the chase of different wild animals ; and the fourth relates to 
birds in general, and falcons and hawks in particular. 

'* Molti gli augelli son detti Falconi, 
Ch' obediran del suo Signor la mano : 
£ come piaceralli alle stagioni 
Ne geti ne capel torralli in vano " (p. i6i). 

Alluding to the Goshawk (Astore), used in Italy for flying 
at partridges and pheasants, the author particularly notes its 
splendid yellow eyes, and its finely curved beak and talons : — 

** Gli occhi han di color d' oro e risplendenti 
£ con grandezza quei volgono attomo 
II becco e Y unghie havran curve e pungenti 
£ 1 dosso lor di terse penne adomo 
Stanno del Falconier al grido attenti 
£ fan di lieve al suo pugno ritomo 
Mentre con poUo o stame quella alletta 
£ parlo obediente si diletta " (p. 162). 

Jn similar strain the poet sings the delights of heron-hawking 
and of flying the Sparrow-hawk a minori ucuUi (p. 163). 

According to Marco Lastri, the author's real name was Gan- 
zarini. He says : — '' il vero cognome dell' autore b Ganzarini, 
detto Scandianese dalla patria nello stato di Modena " {^BibL 
Georgica^ p. 115). 

271. ANGELI (Pietro, da Barga; detto comune- 
mente ^^ il Bargee "). De Aucupio Liber Primus: 
ad Franciscum Medicem Florentinorum Senensium 
Principem. Florentiae, apud luntas. 1566. 4to. 

According to Lastri {Bibi. Georgica)^ this poem was to have 
been completed in four books, but the author did not print the 
other three. The first has been happily rendered in Italian 
verse and annotated by Prof. Gio. Pietro Bergantini, of the 
Academy of Pisa, the translator of // Falconiere of Tuano 
(No. 284), with which work it was printed "in Venezia, 1735, 
presso Giambatista Albrizzi, in 4to, col titolo di Uccellatura a 
VischioP 

The art of taking all kinds of birds with bird-lime, including 
hawks and falcons. 



ITALIAN. 147 



272. lilANZINI (Oesare). Ammaestramenti per 
allevare pascere e curare gli Uccelli eta Opera no- 
vamente composta per Cesare Manzini, Romano. In 
Milano, per Pacifico Pontio. 1575. i6mo. 

Brescia, 1607, i6mo. Milano, per Filippo Ghisolfi, ad instanza 
di Gio. Battista Bidelli, 1645, i6mo. Bologna, per Costantino 
Pisarri, 1726, i6mo. 

This little book relates solely to cage-birds, and is only men- 
tioned here because it is usually bound up with the books on 
Falconry by Francesco Carcano and Federico Giorgi, and might 
be supposed to relate to that subject. 

273. VALVASONE (Erasmo di). La Caccia: 
Poema del Signor Erasmo di Valvasone, con gli 
argomenti a ciascun Canto del Sig. Gio. Domenico 
degli Alessandri. In Bergamo, Ventura. 1591. sm. 
8vo. 

La Caccia del 111. Sig. Erasmo di Valvasone. 
Ricoretta e di molte stanze ampliata con le Annotationi 
di M. Olimpio Marcucci. In Bergamo, Ventura. 
1593. sm. 8vo. 

Other editions: Bergamo 1594, Venetia 1602, Bergamo 1603, 
Venezia 1611, 1613, and Milano 1 808. 

This poem on the chase, extending to 125 leaves, exclusive of 
the ** Dedication '* and " Annotations " by Marcucci, was very 
popular in its day, and is still held in some esteem by collectors 
of opera cynegetica. It is divided into five cantos dealing with 
dififerent branches of field sports, each preceded by a full-page 
illustration on copper. The fifth canto relates to Falconry, in 
which allusion is made to the different hawks used by falconers, 
the methods of catching and training them, and the remedies 
for their ailments. The annotations of Marcucci are chiefly 
directed to an explanation of the classical allusions made by the 
poet. 



148 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

274. CODBOIFO (Francesco). Dialogo de la 
Caccia de' Falconi, Astori, e Sparvieri di Francesco 
Codroipo, gentilhuomo Udinese. Al serenissimo Don 
Ferdinand© Arciduca d' Austria etc. Con licenza de 
Superiori. [Vignette.] In Udine, appresso Giovan- 
battista NatoIinL 1600. sm. 4to. 

Printed throughout in italic. Title, Dedication, and Commen- 
datory Verses, i.-xiv. ; pp. 1-90 ; Tavola, i.-v. 

Edizione seconda, Udine, per Pietro Lorio, 16 14, 8vo. 

In this small quarto of less than a hundred pages, the author, 
by way of dialogue, relates a series of conversations which he 
says took place between his father, il Cavaliere Codroipo, and an 
accomplished falconer with whom he used to stay on a visit. 
Signer Giacomo Savorgnano, the owner of the castles of Ariis 
and Isemico, in the district of Friuli. He states that, being 
present at their discourses when out hawking, and being much 
struck with all he heard, he committed it to memory, and on his 
return to the house made a note of it, putting into the mouths 
of the speakers (who are distinguished as '* Sig. Giacomo " and 
*' Cavaliere") the very words which, so far as he could remember, 
each of them uttered. It is pleasant reading, reminding one of 
D'Arcussia's Conference des Fauconniers (No. 154), though less 
spirited and less exact, because related second-hand. 

" Posso dire con veritk " (says Sig. Giacomo) " che il volo de* 
falconi a riviera b cosa mavigliosa e stupenda : poiche si vede 
un animale il pitl altiero d' animo, ed inimico de T huomo ch' altro 
qual si voglia, con la sola patienza ed industria non solo fatto 
amico, ma quasi intendente di tutte le voglie di chi lo regge " 
(p. 16). 

He describes (pp. 18-19) a flight at a heron with a Peregrine. 
The greater portion of the work is occupied with a discussion 
on the different kinds of falcons and their peculiarities, on Gos- 
hawks and Sparrow-hawks, their ailments, and the remedies 
recommended for them. 

275. TMPERTATjT (Giovanni Vincenzio, Oeno- 
vese). Lo Stato Rustico. Poema in verso sciolto 



ITALIAN, 149 



in XVI. parti. Geneva, appresso Giuseppe Pavoni. 
161 1, sm. 4to. 

Like Le Plaisir des Champs of Claude Gauchet (No. i5i)» 
this poem describes the pleasures and recreations of a country 
life, in which Falconry, like other field sports, plays a part. 

A second edition was printed in Venezia, appresso Evan- 
gelista Deuchino. 1613. i2mo. 

276. GATTI (Alessandro). La Caccia: poema 
heroico, nel quale si tratta pienamente della natura e 
di gli affetti d'ogni sorte di fiere, col modo di cacciarle 
e prenderle. In Londra, appresso Gio. Billio. 16 19. 
sm. 8vo. 

Of all the works on Falconry and the chase written in Italian, 
this is the only one as yet found to have been printed in 
London. A curious little volume, dedicated to that great English 
patron of hunting and hawking. King James I. 

277. SAIMONDI (EugeniOy Bresoiano). Le Cac- 
ciE Delle Fiere armate e disarmate e degl' animali 
quadrupedi^ volatili et aquatici; opera nuova nella 
quale pienamente si discorre del governo, cura, e 
medicamenti degli Uccelli rapaci et innocenti et 
de' Cani ; con perfettissimi ammaestramenti di tutte 
le maniere dell' uccellare etc. Brescia, per Bartolome 
Fontana. 1621. 8vo. 

Delle Caccie di Eugenio Raimondi, Bresciano» 
Libri quattro, aggiuntovi 'n questa nuova impressione 
il quinto librb della Villa. In Napoli, per Lazaro 
Scorrigio. 1626. 4to. 

Engraved title, 26 leaves, pp. 1-635, and Tavola. Twenty- 
one engravbgs on copper, of which eight are duplicates. 



I so BOOKS ON FAL CONR Y. 

Delle Caccie di Eugenio Raimondi, Bresciano, 
Libri quattro. Aggiuntovi *n questa nuova impressione 
altre Caccie che. sperse in altri libri andavano. Venetia. 
1 630. 4to. 

Engraved title, 5 leaves, pp. 1-512, and Tavola. Nineteen 
engravings on copper, of which two are duplicates, all included 
in the pagination. 

In cap. viii. lib. i, Delia divisione digit Uccdli da rapina 
(pp. 81-117), ^c different kinds of falcons and hawks are de- 
scribed, as well as the method of training and flying the Goshawk 
and Sparrow-hawk, the former of which was much used in Italy 
in the seventeenth century for taking partridges and pheasants. 
In cap. ix. lib. i, Ddlo strucciero (pp. 1 19-173) (though the head- 
line throughout this chapter runs " Cap. viii. Lib. i "), the qualities 
of a good falconer are noted, the mode of training falcons, 
making them to the hood, &c., and general advice as to feeding 
and moulting. 

In the previous edition of 1626 this information is given in 
caps. vi.-vii. lib. i (pp. 41-137). Schneider, who cites the 
edition of 1626 in his ^' Catalogus auctorum rei accipitrarise " ap- 
pended to his edition of the work of the Emperor Frederick II. 
(No. 308), expresses a poor opinion of it, regarding it as entirely 
a compilation — " natura avium rapacium, earumque educatio, 
et disciplina omnis venatoria et medica explicatur; sed haec 
omnia cum toto libro ex pluribus aliis transcripta nullam proprii 
usus commendationem habent " (op. cit. ii. p. 14). The author 
no doubt borrowed largely from Carcano (No. 267). 

. Le Caccie delle fiere armate et disarmate e degF 
animali quadrupedi, volatili ed aquatici : opera nuova e 
curiosa di Eugenio Raimondi, Bresciano. In Venezia, 
F. Locatelll 1785. sm. 8vo. 

278. OlillTA (Glo. Pietpo). Uccelliera overo 
Discorso della natura e proprieta di diversi UccelU e 
in particolare di que che cantano. Con U mode 4le 
prendergli, conoscergli, allevargli e mantenergli. E 




ITALIAN FALCONERS OF THE XVII CENTURY. 
Partridgt-hawking w\th Ike Ooikamk 
From an engrating bg Ta»puta, 1622. 



ITALIAN. 151 



on le Figure cavate dal vero e diligentemente inta- 
jHate In rame dal Tempesta e dal Villamena. Opera 
li Gio. Pietro Olina, Novarese, Dottor di Legge- 
Dedicata al Sig. Cavalier dal Pozzo. [Armorial.] 
!!^on privil^o del Sommo Pontefice. In Roma, ap- 
>resso Andrea Fei. 1622. 410. 

Dedication 2 pp»y then 67 leaves with full-page engraving on 
verso of each ; pp. 68~8i to Indice^ which occupies 6 leaves. 

Another edition on larger and better paper, with title slightly 
altered and within engraved border. In Roma, presso M. 
Angelo di Rossi, 1684, 4to. In this edition the following plates 
have been re-engraved : — Tordo^ p. 5; Bubbola^ p. 36 ; Cacda col 
bracco a rete^ P- 51 ; -^^/^ ucceUarcon la ragna^ p. 61 ; and all the 
plates differ from those in the earlier edition in having a border 
at top and bottom. 

Considering the date at which these engravings were exe- 
cuted, they are much superior to the figures of birds by English 
and French artists of the same period, excepting perhaps those 
by Francis Barlow engraved by Hollar. Chiefly song-birds are 
represented of the natural size (pp. 1-50), but in addition (pp. 
51-^1) there are plates of partridge and quail netting; par- 
tridge-hawking with the Goshawk; trap to catch a Sparrow- 
hawk; and illustrations of the mode in which bird-catchers 
employ the Little Owl {Civetta) and falconers the £agle Owl 
{Gufo) depicted on a much finer scale by Ridinger (Na 103). 

A French translation of Olina's work appeared in Paris in 
1774 (No. 178). 

279. FRANCUCCI (Scipione, Aretino). La Cac- 
lA Etrusca: Poema. Firenze, appresso i Giunti. 
624. 4to. 

Not seen. Thus described by Lastri {BibL Georgica^ p. 56) : 
'' Canti xvi. in ottava rima. S' imagina e si rappresenta una 
nobilissima caccia in Toscana, dove intervengono con Ferdi- 
nando II. de Medici, i principali signori di Roma e di Toscana. 
Pill descrittivo che istruttivo." 

As Falconry was then popular in Tuscany, it will probably 
be found mentioned by this author. See Mortara (No. 293). 



IS2 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

280. COBSHH (Accursio). Apologetico alla 
Caccia, ove dopo narrati i vitii da molte Scrittori rim- 
proverati alla Caccia e Cacciatori, scopronsi le virtu 
di lei, e il modo d* usarla per conseguir ottimo tempera- 
mento di complessione, quadratura di corpoi continua 
sanitk, fortezza ed agilita militare acutezza di sensi 
sagacitk, d' animo, e longa vita . . • * raccolta per \ ex- 
cellentissimo Dottor di Leggi Accursio Corsini, gen- 
tilhuomo di Bergamo. [Vignette] In Bergamo, per 
Valerio Ventura. 1626. 4to, 

Title within border : prelim, pp. xxx. (including dedication to 
Don Alfonso d' Este, Prince of Modena ; Indice di gli autori 
citati nell opera, e Somarii de Capitoli), pp. 1-654. 

None but the most enthusiastic reader of books relating to 
the chase would attempt to peruse the otto libri delP ApoUh 
getica delta Caccia of Corsini. His closely printed volume of 
over 600 pages teaches nothing on any branch of the chase, and 
merely embodies arguments to prove the health-restoring, life- 
giving, mind-instructing advantages of field sports which most 
readers at the outset would probably be willing to concede. 
Moreover, the work relates solely to the Caccia de Quadrupedi^ 
for, although, as we gather from his concluding remarks in 
book viii., the author contemplated the preparation of certain 
discorsi delta nobilissima Caccia aerea di gli Augelli (e delta 
aquatica Caccia de Pesci)^ it does not appear that they were ever 
printed. 

281. BIB AQO (Ppancesco). Trattato Cinegetico 
ovERO della Caccia. Milano. 1626. 8vo. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. Probably, as in 
other works of the kind of this period, Falconry, amongst other 
field sports, receives some share of attention. 

282. GALLEGABIS (Bernardino). Lo Struc- 
ciERO di Bernardino Gallegaris, nobile Opitergino [of 



ITALIAN. IS3 



Odergo, in Venetian Lombardy] dove si discorre del 
modo di conoscere, allevare e ridurse gli Uccelli 
RAPACT all' uso della caccia, e come si curino li loro 
mali. Dedicato air altezza serenissima di Modena 
Francesco Primo. Libro Tre. Venetia, alia Minerva, 
con licenza de superiori e privilegio. 1646. i2mo. 

A copy of this scarce little book, purchased for 4of. at the 
sale of M. Bartel's library in April 1889, is in the collection of 
M. Pierre A. Pichot, of Paris, where we lately examined it. 

Lastri, in his Biblioteca Georgica (p. 58), cites this author as 
** Gallevari (Bernardino), Strucchiero . . . per allevare gli Uccelli 
rapacL Venezia, 1646." 

283. SOLATIO (CaBsare, Bomano). L' Eccellenza 
della Caccia con V uso prattico della medesima. Roma, 
per Gregorio e Gio. Andreoli, 1669. i2mo. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. Doubtful whether 
any reference to Falconry, though this subject is dealt with in 
books having a similar title, e,g,^ Saincte Aulaire, Louange de la 
Chasse (No. 155, note). 

284. TUANO (J. A.). Il Falconiere di Jacopo 
Augusto Tuano, Primo Presidente del Parlamento di 
Parigi, e Consigliere Intimo di Arrigo Quarto, dall* 
esametro Latino all' endecasillabo Italiano trasferito 
ed interpretato. Col T Uccellatura a Vischio di 
Pietro Angelio Bargeo, Pubblico Professore in Pisa. 
Poemetto pur Latino similmente tradotto e commen- 
tato. Ozii, e ameni studii di G. P. Bergantini, C.R. 
[Vignette.] In Venezia, presso Giambatista Albrizzi. 
1735- 4to. 

Translated from the Latin by Gio. Pietro Bergantini. Em- 
bellished with portraits and vignettes, the Italian translation 
and Latin original being printed in parallel columns. 



1 54 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

_ IIB, - * — ' ■ 

i8 prelim, leaves; Del Falconare, pp. 1-223 > ^ Uccellatura, 
separately paged, pp. 1-50 ; Catalogo degli autori, and Indice, 
9 leaves. 

Appended to the poem of Tuano are some notes by the author 
showing the division of all hawks used by fisdconers into two 
classes : the long-winged birds of the lure — Loraria seu Pinnaria 
(Gallis, oyseaux de leurre) — and the short-winged birds of the fist 
— PugUarts (Gallisy 03rseaux de poing) — ^their names at different 
ages (as eyess, brancher, sore-hawk) being added, with the sup- 
posed Latin equivalents. For some account of this author see 
Latin writers, under Thuanus (p. 166). 

285. MAZZ UOHEIilil (Qiammaria). Gli Scrit- 
TORi D* Italia cio^ Notizie Storiche e Critiche intorno 
alle vite e a gli Scritti dei Letterati Italiani. In Brescia, 
presso a Giambatista Bossini. 1753-63. 6 vols, folio. 

This bibliography may be mentioned here as a useful work of 
reference for books on the chase by Italian writers printed before 
the middle of the eighteenth century. 

286. PONTINI (Qiovanni). La Cacciagione de 
VoLATiLi osia r arte di pigliare U ocelli in ogni ma- 
niera .... opera del Rocolista Giovanni Pontini. 
Vicenza. 1758. 8vo. 

With portrait and twelve copper plates. Mentioned by 
Lastri (p. loi), but without date. Of interest to fisdconers only 
on account of the methods described for taking hawks. 

287. GUABINONI (Girolamo). L* Uccellatura : 
poema dell* Abbate Girolamo Guarinoni, dedicato 
a D. Lodovico Rezzonico, nipote del Pontefice 
Clemente xiil Bergamo, appresso Pietro Lancellotti. 
1 760. 8vo. 

Lastri {Bibl. Geargica\ obviously through a misprint, cites this 
author as "Guarinqui (Ab. Girolamo)." 



ITALIAN. 1 55 



288. FONTANA (P. GUoerio, Milanese). Dizio- 
NARio EcoNOMico RusTico continente tutto ci6 che 
appartiene air Agricoltura Economica, Botanica, Caccia, 
Pesca etc. Milano. 1773. 14 vols. 8vo. 

For article ** Falconeria." 

289. TIEABOSCO (Antonio). L' Uccellagione 
Libri Tre de Antonio Tirabosco, Cittadino Veronese. 
[Vignette.] In Verona [per cura di Catterina Spinetta 
vedova Tirabosco]. A Spese Moroni : con licenza 
de* Superiori. 1775. 4^^. 

I prelim, leaf; pp. i-i 16. The first edition of this esteemed 

poem, published by his widow two years after the author's death. 

It relates to fowling rather than to Falconry, but a variety of 

birds are mentioned, including falcons and hawks, '' U rapitor 

falcon ** t **lo sparavier!* 

'' Gik presso all alte nubi attomo gira 
Lo Sparavier con I'affamato rostro, 
£ col Tunghie mortifere sanguigne, 
£ Taer sotto e la campagna guata 
Preda cercando, e colk suso un punto 
Sembra all' occhio pih acuto che s'affisa." 

There have been several editions: — Parma (Gozzi), 1803, 
8vo; Verona (Bisesti), 1807, 8vo; Verona (Moroni), 1807, 
4to; Parma (Carmignani), 18 15, 8vo; Venetia (Orlandelli), 

1818, 8vo; Verona (Bisesti), 181 8, i2mo; Venezia (Nardini), 

1819, 8vo; Venezia (Molinari), 1824, 8vo; Roma (Solviucci), 
1824, 8vo; Verona (La Minerva), 1857, 8vo; Venezia (An- 
tonelli a cura del Cav. F. Scolari), 1859, 8vo ; Verona (Civelli), 
1879, i2mo. 

Although deserving of better paper and type, the latest edition, 
by A. Squarzoni, Verona, 1888, on account of the editor's notes, 
will probably be the most acceptable to those who desire to 
read this poem and thoroughly understand all the allusions in 
the text. It is thus entitled : — 

L* Uccellagione di Antonio Tirabosco con le cor- 



iS6 BOOKS ON FALCONE V. 

rezioni di Girolamo Pompei e le variant! di Giuseppe 
Torelli. lUustra con note Storiche-Ornitologiche da 
Augusto Squarzoni. Verona, Civelli. 1888. 8vo. 

Pp. 1-4. Some account of the author is given in the 
Preface (pp. 1-8), and, hpropos of the allusions to hawks, 
the editor has furnished a brief historical sketch of Falconry 
(pp. 90-95). The original MS. of this poem, it appears, is pre- 
served in the Seminario dair Abate Santi Fontano, at Verona, 
and, by the courtesy of the Rector of that institution, was 
produced for the editor's inspection and use in preparing this 
edition. 

It is curious that a work so much esteemed in Italy as to 
have passed through a dozen editions should not yet have found 
a translator in some other country. 

290. LASTBI (Marco). Biblioteca Georgica 
ossia Catalogo Ragionato degli Scrittori di Agricol- 
tura, Veterinaria .... Caccia, Pesca etc., spettanti 
air Italia. Firenze. 1787. 4to. 

A useful work of reference (pp. i.-xi. ; 1-152) for Italian books 
on the chase printed before 1787, though not free from errors 
and omissions. 

291. BOSSI (Luigi). Trattato delle malattie 
DEGLI UccELLi e dci diversi metodi di curarle: si 
aggiungono alcune altre richerche utili e curiosi di 
ornitologia. Milano. 1822. 8vo. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. 

292. BEVILIASCO E CELLE (Q. F. S. Conte di). 
Della Caccia presso gli antichi e del modo di 
praticaria : opusculo di G. F. S. Conte di Reviliasco e 
Celle. Torino, dalla Stamperia Reale. 1824. 8vo. 

Including half-title and title, Prenozione, and Indice, pp.i-io4. 



ITALIAN. 157 



No head-lines. Divided into ten chapters, the longest being cap. 
viii.| ^' Delle caccia degli uccelli praticata col mezzo dei Falconi/' 
pp. 33-89. This chapter is divided into the following sections : — 
(i) Delia diverse specie di Falconi. (2) Altri uccelli di rapina 
adoperati per la caccia (Smeriglio, Astore, b Sparviere). (3) 
Metodo praticato per allevare i Falconi. (4) Modo d' amma- 
estrare i Falconi. (5) Malattie dei Falconi e degli Sparvieri. 
(6) Nomenclatura degl' attrezzi adoperati per custodire i Fal- 
coni. 

The 9th chapter treats of the Eagle (^Deir AquUa\ which the 
author refers to as being occasionally used for the chase, and 
being trained to take hares, foxes, and young roedeer ; but he 
adds (p. 90) : ''ma colui che porta Taquila ad uccellare debb' 
essere molto forte per poterla sostenere." 

293. MOBTABA (Conte Alessandro). Scritture 
Antiche Toscane di Falconeria ed alcuni capitoli 
neir originale Francese del Tesoro di Brunetto Latini 
sopra la stessa materia con annotazioni del Colonello 
Conte Alessandro Mortara, Prato, Tipografia F. Alber- 
ghetti e Ci, 185 1. 8vo. 

In this privately printed and now scarce octavo pamphlet of 
50 pp., dedicated to lovers of the Tuscan tongue, agli amatori 
ddla Toscana fcti'eUay Count Mortara has published, for the first 
time, two Tuscan tracts on Falconry from the original MSS., 
preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and entitled (i) 
" Trattato de* Falconi ed altri Uccelli di Ratto buoni alia Caccia, 
e dell modo di ammaestrarli ; " (2) '* Frammento di un Trattato 
dell cura delle malattie degli Uccelli di Ratto, che T uomo tiene 
perdiletto d' uccellare." To these he has added (3) the chapters 
on Falconry from the work of Brunetto Latini (No. 263), "Alcuni 
Capitoli del Libro primo del Tesoro di Ser Brunetto Latini ne' 
quali si tratta degli Astori, degli Sparvieri, de* Falconi, e degli 
Smerli, col volgarizzamento accanto di Bono Giamboni ; " the 
original French text and the Italian translation of Giamboni 
being printed on opposite pages. It should be observed that 
the numeration and headings of these chapters as given by Count 
Mortara, from a MS. assigned to the end of the thirteenth 



iS8 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

century, and preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Douce 
collection, No. 3i9)> do not quite accord with those furnished by 
M. Chabaille, as above quoted (see No. 263). For the purpose of 
comparison, Count Mortara^s version is here given : — Chap. 142, 
De toutes manibres d'ostors (Degli Astori) ; Chap. 143, En- 
core de toutes manibres d'ostors (Anche degli Astori); Chap. 
144, Ci dit de tons Espreviers (Degli Sparvieri); Chap. 145, 
Ci dit des Faucons (De Falconi); Chap. 146, 9^' dit de £s- 
merillons (Degli Smerli). 

The editor has added throughout numerous explanatory foot- 
notes. 

294. SPEZI (Qiuseppe). Due Trattati del 

GOVERNO E DELLE INFERMITA DEGLI UcCELLI, testi 

di lingua inediti cavati di un codice Vaticano, e pubbli- 
cati e con note illustrati dal Prof. Giuseppe Spezi. 
Roma, Tipografia delle Scienze Matematiche e Fisiche, 
1 864. 8 vo. 

Pp. L-xv. and 1-84. Cited by 2^ambrini in his Introduction 
(p. xil) to the Libro delle Nature degli Uccellifatto per lo Re 
Danchi (No. 296). The first tract is divided into forty-one 
chapters (pp. 1-56); the second into twenty-one (pp. 57-70), 
the remaining pages being occupied with explanatory notes. In 
the opinion of the editor, the late Prof. Spezi, this operetta, 
^* sia una traduzione Toscana di antico libro Persiano, volto da 
prima nell' Arabica favella, owero nella Latina, o nella pro- 
venzale o francese, e quinci trasportato sul principio del mille e 
trecento nella lingua nostra." 

295. CEBUTI (Antonio). Trattato di Falcone- 
RiA, testo di lingua inedito del secolo xiv. Tratto 
da un manoscritto della Biblioteca Ambrosiana a cura 
deir Ab. Antonio Ceruti. Bologna, Tipi Fava e 
Garagnani. 1 870. 8vo. 

Originally published in the periodical // Fropugnatore, edited 
by Prof. 21ambrini, and a few copies separately printed, one of 



ITALIAN. 159 



which is in the writer's possession. Fifty-five pages divided into 
fifty-eight chapters with the special title (p. 13) : 

'' Trattatto del govcmoy deile malattie e guarigioni di Fakoni^ 
Astari e SparvieriJ* 

Prof. Zambrini, in his Introduction to the Libra delle nature 
degli Ucalli (No. 296), says (pp. xiii.-xiv.) : " La lingua non 
si pare affatto Toscana, ed h versione, come apertamente vi si 
dichiara dal provenzale in Latino : aci paraule che non fuorono 
intese per lo copiatore, ed imperb sono in provinciali istesso. 
In origine anche questa operetta sembra una compilazione 
fatta sopra gli ammaestramenti del Re Danco e di maestro 
Guilielmo figliuolo che fue di Margher Appolitano e falconieri 
inutrito in corte dello Re Rugieri." (Malgherioy£& Ceruti, p. 20.) 

296. ZAMBRTNI (Francesco). Libro delle na- 
ture DEGLI UccELu, fatto pcf lo Re Danciii, testo 
antico Toscano messo in luce da Francesco Zambrini. 
Bologna, presso Gaetano Romagnoli. 1874. sm. 8vo. 

*' Edizione di soli 202 esemplari per ordine numerati," form- 
ing No. 140 in the Scelta di Curiosita Letterarie inedite rare 
dal secolo xiii. al xvit.^ pp. i.-xxxiv. ; 1-70, and Indice. 

One of the most remarkable printed books on Falconry, on 
account of the chromo-lithographic and facsimile miniatures 
introduced in the text Introduccion, pp. i.-xxxiv. Italian 
text from the Latin beginning *' Indpit Liber de curis Avium " 
(pp. 1-56), and ending ^^ Explicit Liber^ Deo Gratiasr Notes, 
pp. 57-70, and Index, p. 71. 

The editor compares his text with the fragment printed by 
Count Mortara (No. 293), and shows the variations. His notes 
at the end (numbering 91) are most useful and interesting. 

See note to Le Roi Dancus (No. 139). 

297» FEBBABO (GiuBeppe). Libro del Gan- 
DOLFO Persiano delle medesine de Falconi : pubblicato 
per la prima volta dal Prof. Giuseppe Ferraro. 
Bologna, presso Gaetano Romagnoli. 1877. sm. 8vo. 

This treatise (pp. 1-153)1 printed from an Italian MS., forms 



i6o BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

No. 154 of the Sceiia di Curiosita LetterarU inedite rare dal 
secolo xiii. al xvii. It is divided into 210 short chapters (two 
others being wanting), several of them consisting of three or four 
lines only, and begins : — '* Qui se comenza le nature de li falconi, 
astori, e sparavieri, le sue cure de tute infirmitade como se pono 
sanare." It would seem to have been derived from the Persian 
through an unpublished Latin translation; perhaps copied 
originally from one made for the Emperor Frederick IL, at 
whose request, on his return from the Crusades, several transla* 
tions from Persian and Arabic MSS. were undertaken by his 
physician and secretary. Regarding its origin and date of com- 
position, Prof. Ferraro says : — " Le crociate ponendo T Occidente 
in contatto coir Oriente, avevano quest* arte rinfocolata. I 
Persian!, i Turchi, gli Indiani conosciuti in essa maestri, furono 
invitati a venire in Europa, e si tradussero le opere che intomo 
alia falconeria avevano scritte, nelle lingue romanze che allora 
sorgevauo. Una di essa sembrami appunto la presente, nella 
qiude non solo si cita un Re Danchi o Danco, Indiano, ricordato 
da altri libri trattanti di simile materia; ma si parla altresi di 
alcuni principi che al nome sembrano Tartari, regnanti ai tempi 
di Marco Polo in Persia, ed il traduttore o V autore del libro 
chiamasi zxkc\it Fersiano^^ (Prefazione, p. 7). 

Mention is made of a physician Gatepio (p. 27) ; of Chaicham 
or Chaican, a King of Persia (pp. 28, 47, 55) ; and of one Cluay 
(p. 35), who, it is suggested, may have been one of the Tartar 
princes who reigned in Persia in the time of Marco Polo. 

Scattered throughout the treatise are Persian names for hawks 
and for the maladies to which they are liable — a subject which 
occupies the greater portion of the work. 

At p. 12 of his Frefazione Prof. Ferraro alludes to the works 
of Raimondi (No. 277) and " Chippa." This should be Crippa; 
Bonaventura Crippa, Trattato delta Caccia (2da ed. Milano, 1834, 
i2mo, pp. 311). It treats generally of the chase in 4 sections, 
viz., (i) origin of hunting; chase of the bear, wolf, fox, &c. ; (2) 
chase of land birds ; (3) of water birds ; (4) dogs used for the 
chase. In the 2nd section, cap. 2 is entitled DelP arte deUa 
Falconeria^ and cap. 3 Amniaestramento del Falcone praticate degli 
Antichi. Reprinted at Milan, 1871. 



LATIN. i6i 



Xatfn. 

298. CBESCENTIIS (Petrus de). Ruralium 
COMMODORUM LiBRi XII. [Begin.] Petri de Cres- 
centiis civis Bononiensis epistola in librum commo- 
donim ruralium. [1. 29.] Incipit liber ruralium 
commodorum a Petro de Crescentiis compilatus etc. 
[End.] Petri de Crescentiis civis Bonofi. ruralium 
commodorum libri duodecim finiunt feliciter. Per 
Johannem Schuszler civem Augustensem. Augsburg. 
1 47 1 . folio. 

209 leaves, without title page, pagination, register, or catch- 
words ; with 35 lines to a full page. This is the first edition 
that has a date. Composed in 1307, at the desire of Charles II., 
King of Sicily, and translated into French in 1373, at the 
request of Charles V. of France, this work, in its plan, re- 
sembles the subsequently printed Maison RusHque of Estienne 
and Liebault (No. 148), which was translated into English by 
Surflet (No. 16). It deals with agriculture and field sports, 
the nbth book containing a chapter on Falconry. 

It passed through several editions in the original Latin — e,g.^ 
at Louvain, per Johannem de Westphalia, 1473, 1474, and 1475 ; 
Argentine, i486 ; Antwerp, 1500 ; Basle, 1538 and 1548 ; all in 
folio — ^and has been translated into German (No. 96), French 
(No. 141), and Italian (No. 264). 

299. BEAUVAIS (Vincent de). Vincentii Bel- 
LovACENsis Speculum Naturale. Strasburg. 1473. 
folio. 

Other editions, Augsbvu-g, 1474 ; Strasbuig, 1476 ; and 
Nvu'emberg, i486 {^fide Schlegel). 

This author, who was a friar of the Order of Preachers and a 
contemporary of Albertus Magnus, Bishop of Ratisbon, has, in 
his Speculum Naturale^ reproduced almost, textually, the apocry- 

L 



1 62 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

phal letter on Falconiy said to have been addressed by Sym- 
machus and Theodotio to a certain Ptolemy, King of Egypt 
The original text, which is considered by Baron de Noirmont 
(No. 206) to have been really composed by some Greek or 
Italian author anterior to the thirteenth century (op. cit. iii. 
p. 89), has been lost, and we have only the translation in 
Catalan (No. 223), already noticed. For the rest, his remarks 
are based on the writings of Aristotle, Pliny, and Albertus 
Magnus 

300. ALBERTUS MAQNTTS. De Falconibus 
AsTURiBUs ET AcciPiTRiBUS. In opcrc " De Ani- 
malibus." Roma, Simon Nicholas de Lucas. 1478. 
folio. 

The first edition of this celebrated treatise, which was composed 
at Cologne between 1262 and 1280, by Albert de Bollstadt 
(siimamed by his contemporaries, the Great), Bishop of Ratisbon. 
A second edition was printed at Mantua, in 1479, ^^^ ^ ^^ter 
edition at Lyons in 165 1, all in folio. It will be found in lib. 
xxiii. at the end of tom. vi. of his general work, De Animalibus. 
and is also printed with the work of the Emperor Frederick II., 
De Arte Venandi cum avibus (No. 308), which see. 

A German translation, by Walther K3rfir, was published in 
15459 A^ Frankfort-am-Main, and an earlier French translation of 
a portion is printed by M. Hepri Dairvault in his edition of the 
lAvre du Roi Dancus (No. 139). 

It is a crude compilation from Symmachus (No. 223), the 
£mperor Frederick's work (No. 308), and other sources, and 
shows the author to have been but imperfectly acquainted with 
the subject. 

301. AaUAVIVA (Belisaire, Due de Xardo). 

Belisarii Aquavivi Aragonii Neritinorum Ducis 
Aliquot aurei libelli de Principum liberis educan- 
dis, de Venatione, de Aucupio, de Re Militari, de 
singulari certamine. Basileae, apud Petrum Pernam. 
1 5 1 8. sm. 8 vo. 



LATIN. 163 

Editio altera. De Venatione et Aucupio per 
AcciPiTRES. Impressum Neapoli in bibliotheca Joann. 
Pasquet de Salo. 15 19. sm. folio. 

Not seen; cited by I^stri, Bibliotheca Georgica 

Editio altera. Belisarii Aquavivi Aragonii 
Neritinorum Ducis aliquot aureoli vere libelli, 
de Principum liberis educandis, de Venatione, de 
Aucupio, de re Militari, de singulari certamine. His 
additum est elegans poematium Michaelis MaruIIi de 
Principum institutione, nunquam hactenus editum. 
[Vignette.] Basilese, ex officina Petri Pernae. 1578. 
8vo. 

7 prelim, leaves, pp. 1-224, and Index, pp. 89-114. " Belisarii 
Neritinonim Ducis Libellus de Aucupio " contains the following 
sections : — De accipitribus qui vulgo Hitrifalcorus nominantur ; 
De accipitribus qui Sacri appellantur deq milvonim naturae ; 
De accipitribus Peregrinis; De medianis; De accipitribus 
generosis qui vulgo Gentiles nuncupantur ; De ignobilibus quos 
vulgo Villanos vocant accipitribus; De quibusdam accipitrum 
morbis sanandis ; Epilogus. 

According to Huzard (No. 191), "Notes bibliographiques 
concemant les ceuvres du Due de Nardo," the addition here 
made forms part, and is to be found at the end, of the work of 
Leunclavius, printed at Basle in 1578. 

302. QYR ALDUS(L. Q.). LiLii Gregorii Gyraldi 
DiALOGisMus DE Venatione Accipitrum Ceteiar- 
umque Avium rapacium v in ejusdem Dialogismis. 
Venetiis. 1553. i2mo. 

Another edition, fide Kreysig, in folio, Lugduni Batavorum, 
1696. Not in the British Museum, and not seen. 



i64 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

303. QESXER (Conrad). Historia Animalium. 
Lib. III. De AVIUM NATURA. Tiguri. 1554. 5 vols, folio. 

Other editions, Frankfort 1585, 1586, 1603, 1617, 1620. 

A German translation by Rud. Heusslein was printed at 
Ziirich ia 1581, and at Frankfort in 1600 and 1609, all in 
folio. An English translation by Topsell, with the title "A 
Historie of Foure-footed Beastes," &c., was published in 1658, 
folio, of which another edition appeared in 1607. 

Gesner has been sumamed the German Pliny, and it was to 
him that Dr. Caius addressed his celebrated Libellus de Canibus 
Britannids. For much of the information in his treatise de 
Avibus regarding the training of hawks, Gesner was apparently 
indebted to the now very rare work of Eberhard Tapp (No. 93), 
and to a MS. of Demetrius of Constantinople (No. 327). 

304. TAKDIVUS (Quillelmus). De arte Acci- 
PITRUM una cum Frederici II. Imperatoris de arte 
Venandi cum avibus, et Manfredi regis additionibus. 
Geneva. 1560. 8vo. 

Other editions, Basle, 1578, 8vo, and Augsburg, 1596, 8vo 
{fide Lallemant). See note to the " Livre de Tart de Faulcon- 
nerie par Guillaume Tardif," anteh^ p« 72. 

305. HERESBACH (Conrad). Rei Rustic^e Libri 
Quatuor universam rusticam disciplinam complec- 
tens etc. Item De Venatione, Aucupio, atque Pisca- 
tione Compendium, in usum etc. Auctore D. D. 
Conrado Heresbachio .... [Vignette.] Coloniae apud 
Joannem Birckmannum. Anno 1570. sm. 8vo. 

Editio altera, Spirae Nemetum, 1594, 8vo. The four books of 
Husbandry occupy 330 leaves. Then follows, to 346 versoy a 
treatise on the laws relating to Agriculture. To this succeeds 
" Thereutices ; hoc est de Venatione, Aucupio, atque Piscatione 
Compendium ; " wherein (at p. 375), in the section De Aucupio^ 
we find observations on Hawking, with the side-notes, Accipi" 



LATIN. 1 6s 

trarium aucupiuffty Aucupii tnodi^ Accipitrum genera^ Prtiium 
accipitrum^ and Domandi ratio. The author also describes the 
" seeling " of hawks to tame them, and their periodical moult- 
ing, adding remarks on taking partridges and quails. 

The " Four Books of Husbandry " were translated, under this 
name, by " Bamaby Googe, Esquire," at London, and printed by 
Richard Watkins, 1577, 4to. But he omitted the treatbe dc 
LegibuSy and the Compendium dc Venaiione^ Aucupio^ &c. 

306. THUANUS(J. A.). HiERACOSOPHiON : sivede 
Venatione per Accipitres. Libri duo. Burdegalae. 
1582. 8vo. 

The first, though not the best, edition of this esteemed poem 
by Jacques Auguste de Thou ; the quarto of 1735, in which the 
Italian translation is given in parallel columns with the Latin 
original, being generally preferred. 

In the second edition another ** book " was added with the 
following title : — 

HiERACOSOPHiON SIVE DE RE ACCIPITRARIA. Libri 

tres. [Vignette.] Lutetise apud Mamertum Patis- 
sonium Typographum Regium : in officina Rob. 
Stephani. 1584. sm. 4to. 

Title I, preliminary leaf (pp. 1-95), ending " Hieracosophion 
Liber tertius et ultimus explicit." On p. 95 versoy an important 
note on the various kinds of hawks used for Falconry, with 
the Latin and French names for them. See note to No. 2S4. 

Following this note, six leaves (Nos. i.-vi.) with Epistola^ in 
verse, ad Philippium Huraltum Francise Cancellarium. 

HiERACOSOPHiON : SIVE DE RE ACCIPITRARIA. 

Libri III. [Vignette.] Lutetise apud Mamertum 
Patissonium Typographum Regium ; in officina Ro- 
bert! Stephani. 1587. sm. 8vo. 

A third edition (pp. 1-109), including title. On p. 107 the 
note on Hawks, with their Latin and French names, above 
referred to. 



1 66 BOOKS ON FAL CONR V. 

This poem has also been printed in the Delicia Poetarum 
Gallarum^ 1609 (pars iiL pp. 922-1001) and by Nicholas 
Rigault in his Ret Accipitraria Scriptores, 161 2 (pp. 1-99), 
the latest edition being that with which the Italian translation 
is given, published in Venice in 1735 (see No. 284). 

The author, Jacques Auguste de Thou, was bom in 1553, in 
Paris, where he was educated, and rose to such distinction as to 
become President of the Parliament, and Privy Councillor to 
two Kings of France, Henri III. and Henri IV. He is best 
known to fame as the author of a Latin History of his own 
time (1546-1608) in four folio volumes. Voltaire, who ranks 
him with Hume, styles him an historian distinguished for 
eloquence and veracity. Cardinal du Perron placed him next to 
Sallust and Tacitus. Dr. Johnson had so high an opinion of his 
''History" that he entertained serious thoughts of translating 
it {cf. Boswell's Life of Johnson, ed. 1804, vol. iii. p. 691). 

This poem on the art of Hawking written in Latin hexameters 
was composed about the year 1581-82 (when he was twenty- 
nine) while travelling with his friend Pierre Pithou through 
Languedoc and Provence, where no doubt at that period hawking 
was commonly practised. He may also have seen something of 
the sport in Italy when travelling in the suite of the Comte de 
Foix on an embassy to Rome (1573-74)) and perhaps too in 
Germany (1579) when visiting Languet, tiie Prime Minister of 
the Elector of Saxony at Strasburg. 

Collinson in his "Life of Thuanus " (8vo, 1807, pp. 34, 80) 
gives the date of this composition as 1575 (which would make 
the author only twenty-two when it was written), but, although 
professing to give some account of his writings, he affords no 
information as to the circumstances under which this poem was 
composed. 

It is related of Thuanus that, when travelling through France 
with M. Schomberg on an embassy from Henri IIL to the King 
of Navarre, they were entertained for some days at Mande, the 
seat of the Bishop and Count of Gcvandan. At the first repast 
it was observed with surprise that all the game or wild fowl 
brought to table wanted either a head, a wing, a leg, or some 
other part, which occasioned their host pleasantly to apologise 
for the voracity of his caterer, who always took the liberty of 
first tasting what he had procured. It turned out that the game 



LATIN. 167 

in question had been taken by the peasants from the nests of 
eagles in the neighbourhood, whither it had been carried to feed 
their young. 

For fuller details of the life of Thuanus the reader may be 
referred to Buckley's edition of his " History " (vol. vii.). He 
died in Paris in 16 17, and it is of interest to note that one of his 
executors was Nicholas Rigault, who in 161 2 (as above noticed) 
had printed his poem in the Rd Accipitraruz Scriptores (No. 
314), the other executor being P. du Puy. "Thuanus," says 
Thomas Heame, " though he writ Latin admirably well, yet he 
was not ready nor clear in speaking it. So in a letter from a 
great man to Su: Robt. Cotton ; MS." — " Rdiquia Hcamiana^ 
vol. i. p. 217. 

307. MEDICES (Sebastianus). Tractatus de 
Venatione, Piscatione, et Aucupio. Cologne. 1588. 
8vo. 

Other editions, Helmstadt 1592, Cologne 1598, Marburg 
1698, all in octavo. This treatise is also printed in vol. xvii. of 
the collection entitled Tractatus Tractatuum, Venetiae, 1584. 
There is likewise a quarto edition thus entitled : — 

Tractatus Sebastiani Medicis, Florentini, de 
Venatione, Piscatione, et Aucupio. Spirae Neme- 
tum, sumptibus Heliae Kembach, Bibliopolae Spirensis. 
Anno 1605. 4^0- 

Printed also with Bruckmann (No. 312) and Mor (No. 310) 
in Tractus III Clarissimorum Virorum (pp. 47-109), and by 
Fritsch in his Corpus Juris Vgnatorio-ForestaliSf LipsiXj 1702, 
folio. See Bruckmann (No. 312). 

308. FUEDEHICUS II. (Imperator). Reliqua 
librorum Frederici II. Imperatoris De Arte Ve- 
nandi cum Avibus cum Manfredi Regis additionibus. 
Ex membranis vetustis nunc primum edita. Albertus 
Magnus de Falconibus Asturibus et Accipitribus. 



/ 



1 68 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



Augustae Vindelicorum ad insigne Pinus apud Johan- 
nem Praetorium. 1596. sm. 8vo. 

7 preliminary leaves, including a folding plate of the Emperor 
seated on a throne with two attendants on their knees with hawks 
(from an Italian miniature of the thirteenth century here repro- 
duced — see plate). Liber primus, pp. 1-138; Liber secundus, 
pp. 139-358. Albertus Magnus de Falconibus, pp. 359-414. 
The Emperor's treatise ends on p. 358, the remainder of the 
volume (pp. 359-414) being occupied with the work of Albertus. 
It was composed about the year 1247, towards the end of his 
reign. Evidence of the royid authorship is to be found in the 
mention of his name in the Prologue, reference to his voyage 
to the East, transmission of the MS. to his son Prince Manfred 
when seventeen or eighteen years of age, 1.^., in 1248-49, and the 
testimony of Albertus Magnus. The Emperor, who died in 1 250, 
had the work in preparation for thirty years, but the affairs of 
State long prevented him from completing it. 

Prince Manfred arranged some of the chapters in better 
order, made certain additions which are distinguished by his 
name, and, with the aid of notes found amongst his royal 
father's papers, filled up a gap which existed in the original MS. 
But he was not the only possessor of the treatise. There were 
copies in which there were no traces of his additions : in fact, the 
only two copies of the MS. now known to exist are without 
these additions, although they were to be found in the copy 
which, in the sixteenth century, came to the hands of Joachim 
Camerarius, the learned doctor of Nuremberg, and from which 
this edition was printed. See Pichon (No. 201). 

The Emperor's treatise was printed with the Latin version of 
the Fauconnerie de Guillaunu Tardt/ {No. 304) at Geneva, 1560, 
and at Basle, 1578, both very scarce editions, and in 1756 a Ger- 
man translation by Pacius (No. loi) was printed at Ansbach. 
In 1788 Prof. P. G. Schneider, of Leipzig, edited the work 
in 2 vols, quarto, with the following tide : — 

Reliqua Librorum Frederici II. Imperatoris de 
ARTE Venandi CUM AviBUS : Cum Manfredi Regis 
additionibus : ex membranaceo codice Camerarii pri- 



LATIN. 169 

mum edita Augustae Vindelicorum 1596, nunc fideliter 
repetita, et annotationibus iconibusque additis emen- 
data aeque illustrata. Accedunt Alberti Magni 
Capita de Falconibus Asturibus et Accipitribus 
quibus Annotationes addidit suas Jo. Gottl. Schneider, 
Saxo, Eloquent et Philolog. Professor. Lipsiae. 
1788. 2 vols, in I. 4to. 

It is asserted by many writers that the art ot Falconry was 
unknown in Italy before the twelfth century, when it was intro- 
duced by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. His grandson 
Frederick II. (bom 1 1 94, died 1 2 50) spent much of his life in Italy 
and Sicily, and practised this sport there with great enthusiasm. 
(See von Raumer, Geschichte der Hohenstaufen^ second ed., Leip- 
zig, 1841, vol iii. pp. 423-434.) He had seen something of 
it in the East, and in 1239, on his return from a crusade which 
he had undertaken the year before, when he was crowned King 
of Jerusalem and Sicily, he brought with him from Syria and 
Arabia several expert falconers with their hawks, and spent much 
of his leisure time in learning from them the secrets of their art, 
which he considered the noblest and most worthy of all the 
arts. The excellent treatise which he composed in Latin with 
the title above given was the first which appeared in the West, 
and is still one of the best which exists. 

There would seem, however, to be some blanks in it, and, in par- 
ticular, a chapter on the Goshawk is wanting, to which reference 
is made Lib. ii. cap. 2. 

The hawks used at that time were the Jerfalcon, Saker, 
Peregrine Falcon, Lanner, Goshawk, and Sparrow-hawk. (The 
eagle, he says, is too heavy to be carried on the fist.) These 
were either taken out of the nest or caught on passage. It was 
also the practice to take the eggs out of the nest and get them 
hatched under hens, but the Emperor himself maintained that 
birds thus procured were useless for the purposes of Falconry. 
He advises (Lib. ii. cap. 31 » p. 91) that the eyesses should be 
left as long as possible in the nest, as they are brought up far 
better there than in captivity. It is necessary, he says, to feed 
them well, in order to avoid injury to their feathers, by which 
expression, no doubt, he refers to what English falconers term 



170 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

" hunger-traces." Eyesses, he says (cap. 35, p. 95), should be 
fed twice a day, morning and evening; no one should be 
allowed to approach, but the person who has charge of them ; 
and they should be allowed complete liberty until full grown. 
This period having arrived, they are taken up in the evening 
by candle-light, the extreme points of the talons are "coped," 
jesses and bells put on, and their eyes " seeled " {de ciliatione 
seu bluitiane ipsorum^ Lib. ii. cap. 37, p. 67, and cap. 45, p. io6)« 

The Emperor discourses at length on jesses, swivel, leash, and 
bell (de jactis, de tometto^ de longa et de campanelld)y and it is 
evident from his descriptions that these did not differ much in 
his day from those used at the present time. He also mentions 
the drawer (now obsolete), the creance, the lure and how to 
garnish it, the train, or dead lure (made of the skin of a hare, 
crane, or heron), and the drum, used to make wild ducks and 
other water-fowl rise. 

It appears that at this period the use of the short leash (French 
courfrier) for a Goshawk was unknown ; at least the Emperor 
nowhere mentions it in his work. As to the bell, it is said that 
it was sometimes attached to one or two of the middle feathers 
of the tail, and on this account it was necessary to perforate 
these feathers ; but the Emperor was opposed to this practice 
(Lib. ii. cap. 41, p. 10 1). He then describes the proper way 
to hold the leash between the fingers, so as to carry the hawk 
properly on the fist, precisely as it is carried at the present day. 
He disagrees with those who carry the bird always on the same 
hand, whether right or left, and maintains that it is as well to 
carry it sometimes on one, sometimes on the other, according 
to the direction of the wind (Lib. ii. cap. 42, p. 102). The 
falconer's glove {chirotheca) should be roomy (amplutn^ ut cito 
posset indui et exui), and made of thick leather (de corio grosso). 
The falconei^s bag {bursa seu cameria) is attached to his belt 
(ad dngulum suum\ and serves to carry the lure {tiratoria) and 
the hawk's meat. 

Alluding to the mode of capturing hawks, the Emperor merely 
states that they are taken in nets without giving any description. 
On being caught, the hawk is at once put in a " sock " or linen 
bandage {maleolum)^ and is then treated like an eyess. 

Dealing with the training, he observes that there are falconers 
who neither seel their hawks, nor hood them, thus following the 




i " 

i i 

si 
.r 



n 



LATIN. 171 

ancient practice ; for the art of seeling hawks, he says, is a 
recent invention, and as for the hood, he asserts that it was he 
who, imitating the practice of Eastern falconers, first introduced 
it into Europe (Lib. ii. cap. 77, p. 162). 

After having the jesses put on, the bird was carried for 
twenty-four hours continuously on the fist without food. This 
fetiguing operation over, it was given the leg of a fowl. The 
first lesson was to make the bird jump to the fist Then being 
no longer frightened at the approach of its owner, and becoming 
accustomed to the noise of men and domestic animals, it was 
gradually unseeled (Lib. ii. cap. 54, p. 125, and cap. 55, p. 127). 

To make a hawk sit quiet on the fist, the Emperor recom- 
mends that it should be sprinkled with cold water from time 
to time (Lib. ii. cap. 68, p. 147), a practice still in vogue with 
the Dutch falconers. 

At length being tamed, it is carried to the field, first on foot, 
then on horseback, choosing on such occasions a calm day, and 
avoiding too great heat (p. 151). 

As to the form of perch, the author describes three kinds, 
namely, the high perch {pertica a/fa), which was set up in the 
room a little distance from the wall ; the low perch {pfriica ima), 
just high enough from the ground to prevent the bird from rub- 
bing its tail feathers on the floor ; and the block {sedile), pyramidal 
in form and made either of wood or of stone. The low perch was 
intended for hawks that were seeled, and the high perch for those 
that were not seeled. 

The Emperor does not appear to have been acquainted with 
the use of the curtain or screen of canvas which in the modem 
hawk-house depends from the under-side of the perch to prevent 
a hawk firom swinging after bating off. At least, he makes no 
mention of it, and discourses at some length on the means to 
be taken in order to prevent hawks firom twisting their leashes 
round the perch. 

As to the illustrations here given firom Italian miniatures of 
the thirteenth century a few words are necessary. 

They have been carefully reproduced from the facsimiles in 
D'Agincourt's famous work, *^ Histoire de I'Art par les monu- 
mens depuis sa decadence au IV' sibcle jusqu'k son renouvelle- 
ment au XVI* " (4 vols, folio, Paris, 1823), where they are thus 
described (tom. iii. p. 78, pi. 73) : <' Miniatures d'un traits de 



172 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Fauconnerie par TEmp^reur Fr^d^ric II. MS. Latin du XIII' 
sibcle. Lueur de renaissance de cette espece de peinture en 
Italie. Les peintures oli les premiers rayons de cette aurore 
semblent se montrer ont pour Tobjet d'enricher et d'expliquer 
une production d'une plume auguste (p. 79). L'Empdreur Fr^- 
d^ric II. dtait n^ en Italie, il y avait regu une Education digne 
de son rang, et, ce qui est beaucoup plus rare, il en avait 
profit^. La chasse \ Toiseau ^tait dans ce pays comme ailleurs 
au XIIP sibcle Inoccupation de la noblesse et des souverains. 
Fr^^ric, jaloux de perfectionner cet art par des pr^eptes, en 
dicta ou en fit ^crire les dldmens sous ses yeux avec assez de 
soin pour qu'on lui attribudt ce travail, et U fit joindrc au 
manuscrit des peintures relatives k tout ce qui concernait Tentre- 
tien, r^ducation et Temploi des faucons." 

" II fut si bien send par le peintre que rien ne manque \ la 
demonstration de la science qu'il veut enseigner. L*ouvrage 
forme une suite de peintures didactiques sur les oiseaux employes 
^ la chasse du vol." 

'* Les titres maintenus sur la planche au dessous de chaque 
tableau et choisis dans les dififerens chapitres du traits comme 
propres \ presenter une s^rie de legons, prouveront Tintelligence 
des deux auteurs. Le naturel qu'on remarque dans les attitudes, 
soit des hommes, soit des oiseaux, est un effet d'un commence- 
ment de v^ritd dans le dessin." 

The plate containing the larger figure of the Emperor seated, 
with a falconer m a kneeling attitude presenting him with a 
hawk, forms the frontispiece to the first edition of the work 
(No. 308), the introduction of a second figure of a falconer 
being admissible from the greater width of a folding plate. 

309. ALDROVANDUS (Ulysses). Ornitiiologi/E 
LiBRi XII. Bononiae, 1 599-1 603. 3 vols, folio. 

The first sixteen chapters of lib. i. treat of Birds of Prey b 
general. Training the Eagle, lib. i. pp. 32-33 ; Training Hawks 
in general, lib. iv. pp. 298-323 ; Training Eyess Falcons, lib. vi. 

pp. 436-458- 

Compiled chiefly from the works of Demetrius (No. 327), the 
Emperor Frederick II. (No. 308), Belisarius Aquaviva (No. 301), 
Albertus Magnus (No. 300), and Carcano (No. 267). 



LATIN. 173 

ORNITHOLOGIiE HOC EST DE AviBUS HlSTORIiE LiBRI 

XI I. Francofurti, Typis Wolfgangi Richteri, sump- 
tibus heredum Nicolai Basssei. 16 10. folio. 

This edition^ printed in double column, is without illustra- 
tions, and has no particular merit. Another edition was printed 
at Frankfort, 1620-1635, where also a German translation, by 
Peter Offenbach, appeared in folio, 161 0-1640. 

OrNITIIOLOGI^ hoc est DE AviBUS HlSTORIiE LiBRI 

XII cum indice septendecim Hnguarum copio- 

sissima sumptibus Marci Antonii Bemiae. Bononiae, 
apud Nicolaum Tebaldinum. 163 7- 1646. 3 vols, folio. 

Engraved title and numerous woodcuts. The books relating 
to Falconry are the following: — "Liber quartus qui est de 
Accipitribus in genere ; " " Liber quintus qui est de Accipitribus 
in specie ; " " Liber sextus qui est de Falconibus in genere ; " 
" Liber septimus qui est de Falconibus in specie." 

At the end, " Index nominorum septendecim linguarum — sc. 
Graeca, Hebraica, Arabica, Persica, iEgyptiaca, Indica [Amer. 
Merid.], Italica, Gallica, Hispanica, Germanica, Flandrica, 
Anglica, Polonica, Muscovitica, lUyrica, Turcica." 

The number of languages is sixteen^ not seventeen. If the 
Eastern vocabularies are not more accurate than the European 
ones, the Index is not of much value. There are numerous 
typographical errors ; but on the whole this may be regarded 
as the most preferable edition of the work, the type being 
bold, clear, and not in double column, the illustrations 
affording a further recommendation. Tomus alter, Libri 
XIII.-XVIIL, 1645 ; Tomus tertius ac postremus, Libri XIX.- 
XX., 1637. 

310. MOB (Qeorgius, de JKrigrro-monte Brigantini). 

Tractatus Novus elegans omnium pulcherrimus de 

jure Venandi, Aucupandi et Piscandi .... Spirae 

Nemetum, typis Joann. Philippi Spiessii. 1602. 4to. 

Another edition, printed with Bruckmann (No. 312), but 



174 BOOKS ON FALCONE Y. 

with fresh pagination, pp. 1-127. Printed also by Fritsch in 
his Corpus Juris Vmatorio-Forestalis^ folio, Lipsiae, 1702, vol. i. 
tract 2. 

311. HAY (Joannes Qeorgius). Juridica elegans 

DiSPUTATIO DE JURE VeNANDI AuCUPANDI ET PiSCANDI. 

. ... In nobili Spira, typis ac sumptibus Joannis 
Philippi Spiessii. Anno 1602. 4to. 

Printed with Mor (No. 310), pp. 128-144. At pp. 141, 142, 
this author treats de Aucupio in specie^ and shows that the terra 
Aucupium applies especially to the taking of fowl with &lcons 
and hawks, but includes also their capture by means of nets, 
snares, &c. *' Fit verb Aucupium variis modis et pracipui 
Falconibus atque Acdpitribus^ retibus, laqueis, pedicis, visco, 
hamo, sclopo et qusecunq, sit capta fuerent, etiam contra pro- 
hibitionem cedunt occupantL" 

312. BRUOKMAlfN (Pridericus). Tractatus III. 
Clarissimorum Virorum D. Friderici Bruckmanni, 
Sebastian! Medices Florentini et D. Georgii Mor de 
Nigro-monte Brigantini, utiles quotidian! et summe 
necessarii De Venatione, Piscatione et Aucupio. 
In quibus tota materia de jure Venandi, Aucupandi, et 
Piscandi, non solum exactissime sed et doctissime ac 
solidissime quoad forum tractatur etc. Editio secunda. 
Spirae Nemetum, sumptibus Heliae Kembach, Biblio- 
polae Spirensis. Anno 1605. 4to. 

Three tracts on the Laws of Hunting, Fishing, and Hawking 
— ^namely, Bruckraann (pp. 1-46); Medices (pp. 47-109), with 
Index ; and Mor (pp.i>i27), fresh pagination, to which is added 
(pp. 128-144) the tract by Hay (No. 311). Several points of 
interest to falconers are discussed — as, for example, whether a 
person taking up a hawk bearing jesses and a bell is bound to 
restore it to its owner — a point decided by Medices (pp. 104- 
105) in the affirmative. See No. 307. 



LATIN. 1 75 

These tracts are also printed by Fritsch in his Corpus Juris 
VenatoriO'ForestaliSy folio, Lipsiae, 1702. 

313. BISCIOLA (Laelio). AucuPii per Falcatas 
AvES usus quam antiquus quaesitum de Accipitrum 
genere quaedam notata. In Lib. xvi *' Horarum 
Subsecivarum." Ingoldstadii ex typographeo Adami 
Sartorii. Anno 161 1. folio. 

This is the title of cap. i. lib. xvi. of the Horcs Subsecwcs 
of Bisciola, a work of an encyclopaedic nature^ published in two 
vols, folio, as above (vide p. 1149). 

FcUcatus av€Sf '^ quod sit unguibus introrsum versis more fakis " 
(p. 1154). The dissertation is confined to an examination of 
the views of older authors on the origin of Falconry, and to a 
division of the birds employed by falconers into the different 
kinds of hawks, Accipitres ; and falcons, Falcones. 

314. BIQALTIUS (Nicolas). Ierakqsophioa : 
Rei AcciPiTRARiiE ScRiPTORES nunc primum editi. 
Accessit Kynosophion: Liber de cura canum ex 
Biblioth. Regia Medicea. Lutetiae, sumptibus Hiero- 
nymi Drouart 161 2. 4to. 

A work now of some rarity and value. Kreysig (p. 151) 
mentions an 8vo edition, published at Basle in 1578 (of which 
we have not been able to find a copy), and a second quarto of 
16 1 9. In addition to the Greek works comprised in this 
volume, it contains the Latin translations of Symmachus and 
Theodotio (No. 223), of Gillius firom the Greek of Demetrius 
(No. 316), and of Thuanus (No. 306), the titles of whose works 
will be found under their names. 

The editor, Nicolas Rigault, was librarian to Louis XIII., 
and one of the executors of de Thou (Thuanus). See note to 

No. 30 p 167. 

315. SYMMACHUS (Aqtdla) et THEODOTIO. 

EpiSTOLiE Aquilse Symmachi et Theodotionis ad Ptole- 



J 76 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

maeum Regem iEgypti, De re Accipitraria, Catala- 
nica lingua ; De diversis generibus Falconum sive Acci- 
pitrum; item de infirmitatibus et medecinis eorum 
secundum Aquilam Symmachum et Theodotionem in 
Epistola ad Ptolemaeum Regem iEgypti. Ex libro 
incerti auctoris de natura rerum. Lutetiae. 1612. 4to. 

Printed by Nicolas Rigaltius in his Rei Accipitraria Scrip- 
tarts (No. 314). See also No. 223. 

316. QniliTD'S (Petrus). De re Accipitraria 
Liber. Lutetiae. 161 2. 4to. 

From the Greek of Demetrius Constantinopolitanus(No.327). 
First printed with the Historia Animalium of iElian, Lugduni 
Batavorum, 1562, 8vo, and subsequently by Rigaltius in his 
Ret Accipitraria Scriptores (No. 315), together with the fol- 
lowing : — 

Alius Liber de re Accipitraria minus elegans 
quam superior et multo durior itaque a nobis versus 
V^a paulo durius et magis constantia causa quod primum 
^^ verteramus. Lutetiae. 16 12. 4to. 

317. BOSSOW (P.). Qusestiones juris de Vena- 
tione, Aucupio, et Piscatione. Basileae. 161 8. 4to. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. Cited by Kreysig 
(No. 323). 

318. ISAOHIITS (Alphonsus). De Venatione 
Tractatus in quo de Piscatione, Aucupio, sylvestri- 
umque insectatione agitur etc. Regii apud Flaminium 
Bartolum. 1625. 4to. 

Printed throughout in italic, and unpaged. Headlines : — 
" Qusestio prima," " Quaestio secunda," &c., to ** Qusestiodecima 
septima." In the tenth of these sections the author discusses 



LATIN. it1 

the question which is the most excellent of field sports — Fishing, 
Hawking, or Hunting. 
Kreysig (No. 323) cites an 8vo edition of 1570. 

319. FIBIQIUS (Qotfiriedus). Exercitium de 
JURE Venandi, Aucupandi et Piscandi, resp. Go. 
Scheffer. Jense. 1638. 4to. 

Not in the British Museum, and not seen. Cited by Kreysig 
(No. 323), and said to contain 4 plates. 

320. LIPSTORP (Danielufi). Dissertatio de 
jure Venationis et Aucupii : resp. J. G. Salenio de 
Ehrenhielm. Upsaliae. 1663. 4to. 

Not seen. Cited by Kreysig (No. 323). 

321. STEINACH (Hub. Jos. de). Dissertatio 
JuRiDiCA DE Ardearum Venatione, vulgo Rcihcr- 
beisse. Altorfii. 1738. 410. 

This dissertation upon Heron-hawking is cited by Kreysig 
(No. 323), and is said to contain 5 plates. No copy is to be 
found in the British Museum, nor have we been able to meet 
with one elsewhere. 

322. SCHMIDTHAUER (Andrea). De Institu- 
TiONE AC Venatio Falconum Libri DUO, PeriUustrium 
Reverendorum Prsenobilium Nobilium ac Eruditorum 
Dominorum Neo-Baccalaureorum honoribus dicati cum 
in alma et celeberrima Universitate Tymaviensi 
Promotore R. P. Andrea Schmidthauer e Societate 
Jesu AA. LL. et Philosophise Doctore ejusdemque 
Profe.ssore Ordinario Philosophise Laurea ornarentur. 
Anno MDCCXLIX. Tyrnaviae [Tournay]. Typis 
Academicis Societatis Jesu. 1749. i2mo. 



i;8 BOOKS ON FALCONRY, 

A Latin poem on Hawking (pp. 1-54) in two Books, Not ii 
the British Museum, and piobably of some rarity. The abovi 
title was transcribed from a copy io the library of M. Fieire A 
Pichot, of Paris. 

323. ESETSIG^ (Q. C.) BiBLiOTHECA ScRI^^ORU^ 
Venaticorum continens Auctores qui de Venatione 
Sylvis, Aucupio, Piscatura et aUis eo spectantibus com' 
mentati sunt. Congessit George Cristoph Kreysig 
Altenburgi, apud Paulum Emanuelum Richterum. 
1750. sm. 8vo. 

The earliest printed bibliography of works relating to th< 
Chase and Falconry, but, even for the date at which it wai 
published, very incomplete and inaccurate. The absence o 
notes, moreover, renders it of little value, save as a guide tc 
authors' names, the complete titles of whose works must be 
sought for elsewhere. 

324. BBUNNIOH (M. Th.). Ornithologia Bore- 
ALis : sistens Collectionem Avium ex omnibus imperio 
Danico subjectis provinciis insulisque boi^alibus 
Hafniae factam : cum descriptionibus novarum, nomi- 
nibus incolarum, locis natalium et icone. Imprimatur, 
J. C. Kail. Hafnise. 1764. 8vo. 

Referring to the value formerly set upon Iceland falcons and 
the prices paid for them, this author remarks (p. a) : — ■' Utrura 
falco islandicus specie! sit singularis, vcl ad alias notas re- 
ferendus nondum constat. Varietates sunt sine dubio 7-g 
[these numbers refer to his descriptions] quas suli Danix Regi 
vendere tenentur Islandi. Pretiura qucque triplex pro triplici 
hsec varieiate Islandis solvendum a rege est constitutum ; nempe 
pretium Falc. 7 (albus) in Islandia est 17 impp. dan. Falc. 8 
(albus) ro impp. Falc. 9 (fuscus) 7 impp." 

On being brought from Iceland to Copenhagen these hawks 
were at least partially trained by ihe royal falconers before being 
forwarded as presents to tlie Courts of Europe. 



LATIN. 179 

*' Hafuiam singulo anno ex Islandise portu Holmenshavn 
transportantur falcones hi qui postea, venatione edocti, ad 
varias aulas principum munera inter septentrionis rariora mit- 
tuntur." 

Writing of the Hobby FcUco subbuteo (p. 3), Briinnich states 
that this bird, as well as the Goshawk and Iceland Falcon, 
were trained for hawking at the royal villa near Copenhagen. 
" F, gcntilis {Blaaefugl dicitur hie a falconariis Danicis) isiandus 
et subbuteo in villa regia prope Hafniam ad venationes instruuntur." 

He also refers to the falconers' method of imping or repairing 
broken feathers : — " Retrices Isesse v. detritse reparantur a fal- 
conariis addendis aliis, acubus nempe belgicis ad basin veteris 
pennse novam afhgunt ; quod observatione dignum ne descrip- 
tores tali artificio decepti, novas effingant species vel varietates " 

(P- 3)- 

325. SCHNEIDEB (Jo. Gottl.). Catalogus Auct- 
ORUM qui de re Accipitraria scripserunt cum locis 
inde excerpt is. Lipsise. 1788. 4to. 

This catalogue is appended to the author's edition of the 
work of the Emperor Frederick II. (No. 308), vol. ii. pp. 106- 
1 25, but is hardly worth mention, since it does not include notices 
of more than a dozen works on Falconry. The author, however, 
was evidently sensible of its deficiency when writing as fol- 
lows: — " Poterunt facile catalogo huic attexere multos alios, 
imprimis gallice scriptos de arte falconaria libros, quibus usus 
publicarum copiisque abundantium literariis bibliothecanim cata- 
logorumque conceditur, quo mihi carendum est" (p. 125). 

Although allusions to the art of Falconry may be found 111 
the works of several Latin authors not mentioned above, as, for 
example — 

Aristotle, Hist. An., lib. ix. cap. 36 ; 
Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. vii. cap. 10; 
iElian, De Nat. An., lib. ii. cap. 42 ; 
Martial, Epigr., lib. xiv. no. 216; 
Oppian, Cynegeticon, lib. 1. 62-66 ; 

the passages referred to are not of sufficient length or im- 
portance to justify the insertion of the full titles of the works 
in the present bibliography. 



i8o BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

326. PALLAS (Petnis). Zoographia Rosso 
AsiATiCA, sistens omnium Animalium in extenso Im- 
perio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum 
recensionem, Domicilia, Mores, et Descriptiones, 
Anatomen atque I cones plurimorum. Auctore Petro 
Pallas. Petropoli. 1 8 1 1 -3 1 . 3 vols. 4to. 

In the first volume of this work by the Russian naturalist 
Pallas, will be found many details of interest to falconers under 
the head of Jerfalcon (p. 325),Falcon (p. 327), Lanner (p. 331), 
Hobby (p. 332), Merlin (p. 337), Eagle {Berkut, p. 339), 
Goshawk (p. 367), and Sparrow-hawk (p. 371). The Russian, 
Tartar, and Calmuck names for these birds are also given, 
which will be found useful when referring to the Russian works 
on Falconry hereafter to be mentioned. 

This author particularly mentions the delight which the 
Empress Catharine II. of Russia took in lark-hawking with 
Merlins, adding that she used to liberate them at the end of 
the season, fresh ones being caught for her every year 

(P- 337)- 
Of the eagle trained by the Tartars, and called by them 

Berkut^ he observes : 

^'Instruitur praesertim ad Anteloparum, et Luporum Vul- 
piumque venationem, et inter duos falconarios in pertica, vel 
in ligneo sustentaculo stapedi equitis innixo, tecta oculos 
praefertur." 

A trained eagle, he says, was considered equal in value to 
two camels : *' Docta aquila apud Kirgisos duobus caroelis 
aequiparatur " (p. 339). 

He refers to a white variety of the Goshawk, Asiur palutn- 
barius which is remarkable : — 

'* Varietas alba, aestumatissima, rarius circa Uralenses 
montes, frequentius in Orientali Sibiria, et vulgaris in Cam- 
schatca, cum gyrfalcone albo observatur; haec prima aetate 
albescens, naevia, aetate tota Candida evadit, et ad venationem 
fortissima habetur. Hanc videtur voluisse Joh. Bell (///«. /. 
edit gall, p. 394), e regione Amur fl. in aulam Imp. Chinensium 
adferii visam " (p. 368). 



GREEK. i8i 



Note. — While on the subject of Latin works on Falconry, it 
may be of interest to refer to some notes by John Holmes on 
a Latin MS. of Italian execution, fifteenth century, British 
Museum Add. MSS. 20774 (f 79). 

The writer's name with date occurs at the end thus : " An- 
tonius de Lampugnano cognatus et discipulus Magistri Jacob! 
de Caponayo, Mediolanensis, scripsit hoc opus anno Domini 
mccccUiij." 

It comprises seven tracts, the titles of which are given by 
Holmes (/.r.). The second is entitled ^'Tractatus de Libro 
Moami de dispositionibus rapacium avium et medicamentis 
infirmitatum occultatum." The book of Moamus, or Mohamin, 
an Arab falconer, is one of those which, having been first 
rendered into Latin, was translated by Tardif from the Latin 
into French (see anteh^ pp. dd note and 72 note). It is also 
mentioned by Arcussia (No. 153), and by Artelouche de Alagona 
(No. 149), whose work is printed with that of Jean de Fran- 
chises (No. 145). An Itsdian translation of this treatise, made 
for Ferdinand I. of Aragon, King of Naples, was in the Earl of 
Ashbumham's library. As to the book of Moamus or Mohamin, 
see notes to Nos. 139 and 359, and the introductory notice by 
Jullien to his edition of Tardif (No. 142), p. xviL 

The fourth tract is entitled " Aliae rubricae de infirmitatibus et 
medicinis secundum Danchum regem/' commencing *' Danchus 
rex stabat in suo pallatio " (see No. 139, note). 

Holmes refers to an Arabic treatise in the Bodleian Library, 
Cod. MS. Marsh 148, by Alhegiagi ben Khaithama, which 
appears to agree nearly with this, and of which the title 
in Latin would be '^Utilitates avium morborumque earum 
remedia." 



(3reefi. 

327. Aij/iijrjOioT; Kcoi/orai/rti/OTroXtrot; Trept Tt\g 
rcoi/ t6()aicci)i/ avaTQo^r\g re icat OepairetaQ. 1270. 

Demetrius of Constantinople, physician to the Emperor 
Michael Palseologus in 1270, is one of the oldest writexB on 
Falconry. 



i82 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

The Greek text of his treatise was first printed in 1612 by 
Rigault, librarian to Louis XIII., in his Rei Accipitraria Scriptorcs 
(No. 314) from two MSS. in the Bibliothfeque Royale, Paris; 
but a Latin translation by Pierre Gilles {h Retro Gillio Latine 
tedditus) had been previously published at Leyden in 1562 
with the Hisioria Animalium of iElian. This is reprinted by 
Rigault (op. cit.), with separate pagination (pp. 1-118). 

Besides the two MSS. in Paris, there is a third in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, in which there are considerable variations 
((/*. Hammer Purgstall, No. 112, p. xxix.). It was probably this 
MS. which was lent by a physician of Vienna to Gesner, who 
in great part translated and mcorporated it in his work De Avibus 
(No. 303). 

As both this MS. and that used by Gillius (No. 316) have the 
name of Demetrius at the commencement, it has been assumed 
that this was the name of the author of the treatise. He 
styles himself *' Constantinopolitou," and addresses himself 
to the Emperor, who was devoted to training and managing 
hawks. 

The treatise commences by teaching how and when hawks are 
to be caught ; how to choose one \ how to distinguish the different 
kinds ; how to tell whether a hawk is sick or in good health ; 
how to tame and train them ; and concludes by an enumeration 
of the various diseases to which hawks are supposed to be 
liable, with the remedies prescribed. These recipes were 
apparently copied from older MSS., for the author in his first 
chapter states that not a few wise men had already written on 
this part of the subject. 

The details which he gives of the methods of catching and 
training h^wks in Greece in his day (the middle of the thirteenth 
century) are interesting as showing the antiquity of some of the 
practices well known to modem falconers. 

The capture of the birds was effected from a hut in which 
the falconer was concealed, and from which he let out 
decoy pigeons, on taking which the hawks themselves were 
seized. 

Another plan was for the falconer to extend himself at full 
length upon the ground, covering himself with grass, and flutter- 
ing a pigeon to attract the hawk, which he grasped by the 
legs as soon as the pigeon was taken. Hawks were also 




A FALCONER OF CYPRUS. 

Frim a» tngrauing after Titian. 
.n:,n,.,l /» ,...,o.hn i.f the Earl uf C«r 



GREEK. 183 



captured by pegging down a live pigeon in the midst of limed 
twigs, or in a net suspended from a tree in front of which was 
tethered a live fowl or pigeon. 

As soon as taken, the hawk was enveloped in a linen *' sock '' 
(as is the practice with the Dutch hawk-catchers of the present 
day), and kept thus for a day or two until the taming com- 
menced. It was then placed in a dark room on a perch, to 
which it was attached by jesses, and the perch had a linen 
curtain depending from it, as at the present day. 

It was carried indifferently on the right or left hand; was 
fed only once a day, and had a bath every fourth day. 

The principles of training were the same then as now, but it 
seems that the hawks were only flown from the hand, and were 
not put upon the wing before the game was sprung. They were 
flown at partridges, pheasants, and wild-ducks, the falconer 
running quickly towards the quarry, and putting it up with a 
shout, or, in the case of wild fowl, by beating a drum. In the 
latter case, says the author, the hawk did not carry bells. Each 
hawk was flown three or four times a day. It is remarkable that 
no mention is made of the hood, which was first introduced into 
Europe by Frederick II.| who had learnt its use from Arab 
falconers when in the East. On the other hand, the use of the 
curtain, though not mentioned by the Emperor Frederick 
(No. 308), was (as shown above) known to the Greek falconer. 

328. OpveocToipiop dyQoiKorepov. 

This anonymous work is the second of the Greek treatises . 
printed by Rigault (op. cit.), and occupies pp. 177-239 of his 
collection. The Latin translation by Gillius, given in the same c^j^ 3 / 1& 
volume, is entitled Alius liber de Accipitraria, It is believed 
to be of later date than the work of Demetrius, and deals 
entirely with the maladies of hawks and their supposed re- 
medies. 

329. OpvsocTo^iop KsXsvaei yeyovog rov aoidt- 

fiov ^atTiXitog Kvplov Mt;^aijX. 

This treatise, which is also anonymous, was composed for the 
Emperor Michael VIII., and is the third and last of the Greejc 
treatises printed by Rigault (op. cit.). 



i84 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

It has not been translated. It is divided into two parts, of 
which the first contains descriptions of the different kinds of 
hawks, while the second relates to the treatment of their 
diseases. 

330. ^\%QaKoao^iv els luTQttav oQviiav^ icai sIq 

KoiraQ kclI KpiOfia^ olov l^ayavtovy (f>a\KOplwVf 

TrerpiTwVf lepaKitoVf T}^ovpaict(ap Kai o^vTTTepvywp. 

Printed by Hammer-Purgstall, in his Falknerk/ee (So. 112), 
pp. 81-85, ^* ^ commentary by von Eichenfeld, pp. 86-88. 
The MS., in semi-modem Greek, is preserved in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna. It is virtually an extract from the last- 
named, and is perhaps the second Greek treatise on the subject 
referred to by Gresner in his work De Avibus. 



1?u00ian« 

331. qAPH AJEKCBfl MHXAtt^OBHqA KHHFA r^AFO- 
^EMCfl yPH4HHKT> : HOBOE y^OatEHIE HA YCTPOEHIE 
qHHA COKOJbHEqArO nVTH. 1668. 

Tsarya AleksySya Mti^ailovicha Knigha glago- 
lemsya uryddnik' : n&uoe ulozhinie na ustroenie china 
sokolnichova pHti. 1668.* 

Of the Tsar Alexis Michaelovitch The Book 
CALLED THE Law : New Rules and Regulations for the 
Practice of Falconry. 1668. 

Of all the Russian Sovereigns whose names in history have 

* The system of transliteration here adopted is phonetic; but such that the 
words may be easily found by any one able to use a Russian dictionary. The 
vowels are pronounced as in Italian ; the consonants as in English. The hard 
si^ is indicated in the body of a word by doubling the consonant ; the so(^ sign, 
when necessary, by <«. The guttural German (^ is so written ; the thick i ( b1) 
iji written t. 



RUSSIAN. 1 8s 



been associated with a love of field sports, none gave 
greater support and encouragement to the practice of Falconry 
than the Tsar Alexis Michaelovitch. At the village of Kolo- 
mensk, about seven versts from Moscow, he maintained a 
considerable hawking stud, and employed a very large number of 
falconers to look after the birds, which were captured by pro- 
fessional hawk-catchers in all parts of the Russian empire. So 
great was his enthusiasm for this sport that in 1668 he caused 
special laws to be drawn up for the purpose of regulating its 
practice, supplemented by notes under his own hand, the 
observance of which was enforced under severe penalties. 

The title of this code is given above. The original is pre- 
served at Moscow, and will be found printed in the " Old Russian 
Library " (part iii. p. 430), and in the edition of the letters of the 
Tsar Alexis Michaelovitch, with remarks by P. Bes9onoff, and 
explanatory notes by S. T. Ak9anoff, according to Haller 
(No. 336) not always accurate. 

It is referred to by Korsakoff (No. 335), and an extract is 
given by Adelung in his account of the travels of the Austrian 
ambassador, Baron Meyerberg, in 1662 — Augusiin Freiherrvon 
Meyerberg und seine Reise nach Russland, St. Petersburg, 1827, 
pp. 211-229 and notes, pp. 298-305. 

According to Hammer Purgstall (No. 1 1 2), p. xxii., this code 
was probably derived from Mongol sources, but a perusal of the 
outlines given by Adelung and Haller has not led us to that 
conclusion. 

After a somewhat lengthy justification of such an exceptional 
statute for an apparently trifling object, there follows a disquisi- 
tion in praise of fowling in general, and hawking in particular. 
The practice of Falconry is then treated in several chapters 
with extraordinary diffuseness and in considerable detail : the 
rank, duties, and costume of the different grades of falconers 
are carefully indicated, and even the rank and trappings of the 
favourite falcons minutely described ; to which are added the 
names of no less than ninety-two of these valuable birds. 
Their appellations are derived, sometimes from their colour, 
sometimes from individual peculiarities or other circumstances. 
Amongst them we find Gamanan^ the noisy one, from gam, a 
noise ; Maletz^ the knave \ Belai, the white one ; Smelaiy the 
bold one ; Orel^ the eagle ; &c. The seventh clause indicates 



1 86 



BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



I 



the duties of a newly appointed falconer, which were read out to 
him in presence of the Tsar, and includes the form of his 
appointment and investiture with the insignia of his office^ 
namely, an ermine cap, a pair of gloves, and a silver shoulder-belt, 
from which hung a red velvet falconer's bag containing the 
certificate of his appointment and a copy of the oath administered 
to him, in addition to which he received a lure, a silver horn, 
and a hawking-glove. 

During this reign. Falconry may be said to have reached its 
zenith in Russia, and although to some extent hawking was 
carried on by the successors of Alexis Michaelovitch, with his 
death national enthusiasm for the sport died out. 

The weak state of health of the Tsar Feodor Alexejevitch, 
the insufficient means of Ivan Alexejevitch to keep up so 
costly an appurtenance of state, and the early inclinations of 
Peter the Great for occupations of a very different kind, 
caused Falconry to lose much of the importance which once 
attached to it in Russia, and reduced it to comparative insignifi- 
cance. 

During the last few years an attempt has been made to revive 
the sport in that country by the formation at St. Petersburg, in 
1884, of a Russian Falconry Club (see Haller, No. 336), of 
which, in 1888, the present writer was elected an honorary 
member. 

332. SEBCqHHt (B.). COBEPfflEUUbltt EFEPl. 1779. 

Zevschin^ {B.). Soversh^nnli Eger [i.e., jdger\. 1779. 

Zevschin (V.). The Complete Sportsman. 1779. 

According to this writer, in his day considered an authority 
on field sports, and cited by Haller, No. 336, p. 73, the 
Russian falconers distinguished three different kinds of noithern 
Jerfalcons used by them for hawking, namely, the White Jerfalcon, 
Chetvertnoi krechet^ considered very rare; the Spotted Jer- 
falcon, Pouketavoi krechety with black spots on a white ground ; 
and the Grey Jerfalcon, Servi krcchet^ of a pale-grey colour, 
probably the immature plumage. 

Besides these there is the Saker, which the Russian falconers 
call Krasnii krechet, or Red Jerfalcon, from the reddish or 
sandy colour of the dorsal plumage. 



It 



RUSSIAN. 187 



According to Haller, the Kirghis and Bashkirs call the 
Jerfalcon Schounkar^ distinguishing the White Jerfalcon as Ak- 
schounkar^ though Meyerberg (1662) sa5's it is the male only 
which they call Schonkar, the female bird being designated 
Itelgoe, Cf. Adelung, Meyerberg und seine Reise nach Russiand^ 
p. 218. Meyerberg*s statement is confirmed by the Russian 
naturalist Pallas (No. 326), i. p. 325. 

On the subject of the white falcons of Siberia sent to China, 
which will be found noticed hereafter under the head of 
Chinese works on Falconry, the reader may be referred to 
John Bell's "Travels to Pekin," 2 vols. 4to, Glasgow, 1763 
(vol. i. ch. xL); "The Travels of Marco Polo," translated by 
William Marsden, 4to, London, 1818 (pp. 221, 342, and 749)} 
and Ranking's "Historical Researches on the Wars and 
Sports of the Mongols and Romans," 4to, London, 1826 (pp. 77 
note, 80, and 210). 

333. CEMEHTOBCKArO : CKA3AHIE jIOBAXTi KHflSEll 
EiEBCKHXl. 

Sementdvskova, Skazdnie Lovdij KnyazH Kiev- 

Sementovski : Narrative of the Hunting of the 
Princes of Kiev. 

Cited by Haller (No. 336). Referring to the captivity of 
Izor Prince Severski, it is said that he was allowed to amuse 
himself by hawking with the Goshawk — flCTpe6aM% jioBflmeTb. 

The falconers — coKo.AbHHK'b (whose office in Russia dates back 
to the fourteenth century) — besides other duties, had to procure 
hawks. These they got from Zavalochie on the Petchora, in the 
Ural regions, Perm and Siberia, especially from the shores of the 
White Sea, on the Mourman, Zimnie, Terski, and in Novaja 
Zemlia. 

By virtue of a treaty with the great city of Novgorod, the 
Tsars sent their falconers there every year, ordering them to be 
furnished with provisions and horses. 

In Heym's Geogr, Encyd. des Russ. Reichs^ p. 561, it is stated 
that at one time the population of Novgorod included 179 male 



i88 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

and 1 86 female falconers (Falkenjdger). See also Karamsin, 
Geschichte des Russ. Reichs^ 2nd ed. Th. v. p. 161. 

In the government of Kiev, according to Count Branicki 
(cited by Schlegel, No. 194), a peculiar method of partridge 
hawking was practised. A dog and sparrow-hawk were 
employed for the purpose. The dog having "set" the par- 
tridges, the falconer stood behind him with the hawk on his fist 
while his assistant walked round the birds and got some distance 
in front of them. He then showed the hawk the lure, and, as 
it flew off the falconer's hand and skimmed low over the 
ground, the partridges lay so close that they were easily covered 
with a net. This sport was practised in the month of October. 
On the same authority, Schlegel states that in the government 
of Moscow quails were taken with the sparrow-hawk, which 
was flown from the hand immediately the quail had been 
flushed by the dog. 

334. HQjIjIEFb (O. B.). I13BBCTIE 4B0PflHAX'B 
POCClttCKHXl. neiepCyprL. 1790. 

Mailer (/^ E.\ Izvydstie Dvorydnai^ Rossiiskii^. 
Peter burg. 1 790. 

Miiller (F. E.). The Russian Country Gentle- 
man. St. Petersburg. 1790. 

From this author we learn that the office of Grand Falconer 
in Russia was flrst instituted in 1550. He mentions the names 
of some of the earliest of those appointed, and states that in 
rank they were even higher than Chamberlains. The salary was 
120 roubles. 

336. KOPCAKOBt (A.). CEJO KOjIOMEHCKOE : HCTOPH- 
qECKitt OqEPKt. 1870. 

Korsakoff {A.). Sel6 Kolominskoe : istorickeskii 
ochei'k, 1870. 

Korsakoff (A.). The Village Kolomensk : an 
Historical Sketch. 1870. [New Edition.] 



/RUSSIAN. 189 



According to Haller (No. 336), this book, from which he 
gives extracts (p. 10), has akeady become scarce, and the first 
edition is perhaps hardly to be obtained. 

It contains a detailed account of the ceremony observed by 
the Tsar Alexis Michaelovitch on the appointment of a royal 
falconer, the ceremony taking place at Kolomensk, a village 
near Moscow, where the Tsar often went for hawking, and 
where the imperial hawks were kept. 

The hawk-house here contained, it is said, as many as 3000 
(qu, 300) different Falcons, Jerfalcons, Goshawks, and Sparrow- 
hawks. They were fed, according to Kaschikhine, an historian 
of the seventeenth century, upon beef and mutton brought daily 
from the imperial larder, and upon pigeons, which the falconers 
had the right to catch everywhere and bring to Moscow to a 
spacious pigeon-house, containing, it was said, 100,000 birds, 
which were fed upon bran, rye, and wheat. 

The Tsar was said to know every hawk by name, and usually 
bestowed the names himself. Their transport from the places 
where they were caught was effected under special regulations, 
inattention to which was severely punished {cf. Haller, p. 1 5). 

336. TA^IJEFL (K.). OXOTA CI COKOJAMH H flCTPE- 
MMH. nerepCypn,. 1885. 

Haller (C). Oi)dta s' Sokolami i Yastrebamt. 
Peter burg. 1885. 

Haller (C). The Chase with Falcons and 
Hawks. St. Petersburg. 1885. 

In February 1884, under the auspices of Prince Alexander 
Petrovitch of Oldenburg, a Falconry Club was organised at 
St. Petersburg, and the author of this book, the late Mr. Con- 
stantine Haller, was elected the first president thereof. His 
enthusiasm for the sport prompted him to publish this contri- 
bution to the literature of Falconry, in the hope that it might 
give encouragement to its attempted revival. 

With the exception of the code of rules and regulations issued 
by the Tsar Alexis Michaelovitch (No. 331), which can scarcely 
be termed a treatise on Falconry (although containing many 



SOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



details of interest to falconers), this is the only work in Russia) 
which has come to hand relating exclusively to the subject o 
hawking. It is divided into twelve chapters, preceded by ai 
Introduction in which the author states (p. 4) that the chie 
obstacle to the revival of the sport in Kussia is the want of pro 
fessional falconers, who should come, he says, from England 
Holland, or elsewhere, like John Barr, the well-known Scotcl 
falconer, who was engaged for some time by the Charopagn 
Hawking Club, in an attempt to revive the sport in France. 

The first chapter is entitled Istoricheskii otkerk oicfitX j 
lobchemt ptttzami, or historical oudmes of the chase will 
raptorial birds. In this we find a good many details which hav( 
been given by previous authors, though we do not remember t< 
have elsewhere met with the statement (p. 6) that, in Prussia 
Hochmeister Conrad von Jungingen founded a school o 
Falconry in 1396. 

In Russia hawking with Falcons, Goshawks, and berkuts (01 
eagles) — oi^ta s' sokoiami, yastrebamt, i berkutami — was vei] 
widely practised (p. 6), and was for centuries a favourite amuse 
ment (p. 8). Sementovski's " Narrative of the Hunting of the 
Princes of Kiev " (No. 333) is quoted (p. 8), and the doings of th« 
Tsar Alexis Michaelovitch, who is said by some to have inherited 
his taste for Falconry from his grandfather, Feodor Nikitichc 
Romanoff, and by others to have imbibed it from his tutor, 
Morozoff (p. 9). Adelung's account of Baron Meyerberg's traveb 
in Russia is quoted, and Korsakoff's description (No. 335) of the 
imperial hawking stud at the village of Kolomensk (p. 10) and ol 
the ceremony of appointing a royal falconer (pp. 11-15), already 
noticed. Af^er the death of the Tsar Alexis, Falconry became 
neglected in Russia. When Peter I. came to the throne the trans- 
port of falcons from Verkotourie was slopped. Tiie Empress 
Elizabeth Petrovna sometimes went out hawking in the neigh- 
bourhood of Moscow, as did also the Empress Catharine II., 
who especially loved a fl^htwith Merlins, omt« c» Aep^nHBaiiH. 
The last hawking seen at the Russian Court (until the establish- 
ment, in February 1884, of the new Falconry Club) was at the 
coronation of the Emperor Alexander II. in 1856, when berkula 
(eagles) were brought from Orenburg for the purpose of being 
flown in the demesne ofCount Tolstoi at ba^ed wolves and foxes. 

The second chapter indicates the chief divisions of birds of 
prey used for the chase, with gentrul remarks on the Falcon, 



RUSSIAN. 191 



Jerfalcon, and Goshawk — sokol, krecket, iyastreb — including the 
Red Jerfalcon or Saker, krasnii krechet Chapter iii. relates 
to "the Balabdn^ a species of Falcon," namely, the Lanner 
(although in Persia this name is applied to the Saker — see note 
to No. 343) ; chapter iv., the Peregrine YzXcon, sokol; chapter v., 
the Eleonora Falcon, chemyui; chapter vi., the Hobby, kopetsi^ 
a name also applied to the Merlin (kopets is a small lance, or 
dart); chapter vii., the Merlin, derbnik^ with a section entitled 
'* Hawking in the Nineteenth Century," and details of the quarry 
killed with different hawks ; chapter viii., short- winged hawks, 
yastreba ; chapter ix., the Goshawk, velikii yastreb ; chapter x., 
the Sparrow-hawk, malii yastrebi literally the little Goshawk ; 
chapter xi., procuring, rearing, and managing hunting birds, 
Ao6uBaHie BocnnTaiiie h coAepacanie jioBHHX'b nTHi^'b {Lobiivanie 
vospetanie e soderzhanie iobchi6^ ptits) — this chapter is illus- 
trated with figures of jesses, swivels, blocks, &c. ; chapter xii., 
"calling off" and training eyesses and flying them, instruc- 
tions, remarks, and advice, with figures of hoods. 

The following are the Russian names for Falcons and Hawks, 
extracted from the authorities above quoted : — 
Jerfalcon. — Female, Krechet ; male, Tschelig-krechatou 

With the Bashkir-Tartars, male, Schonkar ; female, Iteigoe. 
White Jerfalcon : Chetvertnoi Krechet. 

The orthography of the Tartar name for the Jerfalcon 
varies, and has probably been written phonetically by the authors 
who have attempted to quote it. Pallas has Schonkar. The 
Swedish traveller Strahlenberg,* who refers to the white falcons 
'* which are sent in great numbers to China from the province 
of Dauria," calls the bird Tzungar. Mr. A. O. Hume, the lead- 
ing authority on the birds of India, identifies with the Shanghar 
a bird which he describes and figures under the name Faico 
Hcndersoni (** Lahore to Yarkand," 1870, p. 171), but which Mr. 
J H. Gumey thinks may be only a stage of the Saker, and is 
identical with FcUco miivipesy Hodgson. 
Falcon (i.^., Peregrine). — Female, Sokol ; male, Tschelig SokoUi. 

* '* An Histori-geographical Description of the North and Eastern part of Europe 

and Asia, but more particularly of Russia, Siberia, and Great Tartary, both in 

their ancient and modern state. Written originally in High German by Mr. 

Philip John von Strahlenl)erg, a Swedish officer, thirteen years captive in those 

parts. Now faithfully translated ioto English. 4ta London. 1 736." 



192 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



Lanner. — Balabhn^ S. Russia ; in Siberia, Sherebetx ; with the 

Calmucks, Itelgoe. Common throughout the desert of Tartary. 
Sakkr, — Krasnii Krechet^ /.^., Red Jerfalcon ; Itelgoe^ Itdgui^ 

with the Bashkirs and Kirghis (Haller). 
Hobby. — Shchoglok, or Choglak; in some provinces, Kopets, 
Red-legged Hobby. — Kopets and Koptschik, 
Merlin. — Derbnik and Derbnichok (dimin.). 
Kestrel. — Pustolga. 
Eagle. — Orll (generic), Berkut (specific) ; with the Tartars 

generally, Bjurkut, See an article on this bird in The 

Field of December 27, 1890. With the Kirghis a trained 

eagle is worth two camels (Pallas, vol. i. p. 339). 
The Spotted Eagle, //^i//7a clangayViUXzSy ncevia^ Brisson, is 

called by the Tartars Karagushj t\e,, black eagle. 

The writer has been recently informed by Prince Boris Swiato- 
polk Cyetwertynski that in his opinion the species to which the 
name berkut is properly applied b not, as has been supposed by 
some authors, the golden eagle {Aquila chrysaeius^ Linnaeus, 
nobilis^ Pallas), which the Russians call ord^ but one of the 
smaller eagles, either A. naevia or A. boneUii. He adds, how- 
ever, that the young golden eagle in its first or dark plumage, 
which is called by the. Tartars Kara-tschagyl^ or '* black eagle,'* 
is often called berkut. He describes the true berkut as being 
" larger than a falcon, but smaller than an eagle." 

Strahlenberg has some interesting remarks on the Siberian 
eagles used by the Tartars. " There are three sorts of eagles," 
he says, " in Siberia. The first and largest sort the Tartars call 
Barkut. They are coal-black, and so is the very beak of them. 
The skin about the nostrils and the legs only are of a lemon 

colour The second sort is called in the Tartarian tongue, 

Kutschugan ; and the third and least sort, Karorkush, in Latin 
Aquila naa'ia [the Spotted Eagle]. The Tartars make use of 
this sort of eagles as they do of falcons for hawking '' (p. 360). 

See also Col. T. E. Gordon, " The Roof of the World : being a 
narrative of a journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the 
Russian frontier, and the Oxus sources on Pamir," 8vo, Edin- 
burgh, 1876 (pp. 78, 88). 
Goshawk. — Yasireb ; the young, Raibik. With the Calmucks 

and Mongols, Itelgoe, 
Sparrow-hawk. — Perepelyatnik^ />., the Quail-hawk. 




FALCONERS OF TURKESTAN 

WITH THE TRAINED EAGLE, OR BERKUT. 

Fma a Hrlch mndr l.t, Co/. T. E. Uit'U.h 

la EaitrrH Tarknlan. 



TURKISH. 193 



Note. — ^The latest contribution to the literature of Falconry 
in Russia will be found in three articles by the present writer, 
contributed to The Field in 1890, namely, " Trained Eagles," 
with an illustration of one, August 2 ; " The Eagles used by 
Russian Falconers," August 16; and "The Berkut of Tur- 
kestan," December 27. 



337. Baz Nam eh li Mahmud ibn Muhammed ul 
Birchfni. 

The Book of the Hawk of Mahmud B. Md. ul 
Bdrchfnf. Fourteenth century. 

This work, which appears to be an adaptation of the treatise 
described by Dr. Rieu (Cat. Persian MSS. in Brit. Mus., vol. ii. 
pp. 484, 485), is printed in Turkish, with a German translation, 
by Hammer Purgstall (No. 112), from a MS. at Milan. It was 
composed, he says, in the fourteenth century, and the Turkish 
author states that it was at first written in a civilised language, 
and was translated into Arabic, thence into Persian, and from 
Persian into Turkish. 

It consists of 155 bdbSy or sections, some of them very short 
ones, and after some confused traditions relative to the origin of 
Falconry, descriptions of the birds used, and notes on the 
method of feeding and training them, the greater portion of the 
treatise is devoted to an enumeration of the diseases to which 
hawks are supposed to be liable, and the remedies proposed for 
them. 

Schlegel, who cites this work on the authority of Hammer 
Purgstall, is of opinion that the latter has failed in his attempt 
to identify the species of hawks referred to by their Turkish or 
Arabic names, and in this he is right. For example, the Shahin, 
can hardly be the Lanner ; by this name Indian falconers 
designate the Peregrine. The Kartschal^ if used (as the Turkish 
author states) to take Roe-deer, is not likely to be any species 

N 



194 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

of Harrier {jCircus\ as suggested by Hammer PurgstaU. Accord- 
ing to the Russian naturalist, Pallas (No. 326), the proper 
mode of spelling this word is Kara-tschn^l-^A.^ ^ black eagle^" 
which is said to be the Golden Eagle in the dark immature 
plumage ; called also in Turkish Kara-Kusch or black bird, it is 
used by the Tartars, Calmucks, Mongols, and Tangutes for 
catching deer, wolves, and foxes, and is called by the Tartars 
Berkui or Barkut (Persian Barguf), 

The Taghrul from the description given seems to be some 
kind of eagle, but cannot be, as Hammer Purgstall supi>oseSy 
Pallas's Sea Eagle. It is probably the Tschagyl^ above mentioned. 

The Lesak^ or Kilitsch Kusch^ which he identifies with the 
Hobby, Schlegel thinks more likely to be the Kestrel, although 
he overlooks the fact that this bird is of no use to ^coners. 

In translating the Turkish word Tshakir (Arabic, Sakr) — t^,^ 
the Saker — by the German word Habicht (Goshawk), he has 
overlooked the statement of the Turkish author that his bird 
had dark eyes, not yellow ones, and was therefore a long-winged 
falcon, and not a short-winged hawk. 

Finally, the bird referred to by the name Otilga^ and con- 
sidered doubtful by Hammer Purgstall (p. xviL), is in all 
probability the Saker, which is known to the Kirghis as Ite^oe^ 
or Itelguij though according to Pallas (No. 326) this name is 
applied by the Bashkirs to the female Jerfalcon. 

Mr. Sidney J. A. ChurchiU, now on the British Legation at 
Tehrkn, writes that he has examined a Persian MS. in the 
possession of Mr. J. Fargues, the Superintendent of the Indo- 
European Government Telegraph Department at Tehr^, which 
appears to be a copy of the work referred to by Dr. Rieu, and 
that Hammer Purgstall's text is a Turki version of it The MS. 
at Tehrkn was copied a.h. 1236 — 1>., a.d. 1820. The author 
states that '* his friends suggested that he should gather together 
the experience of masters of the craft, and their books, and that 
which was in accordance with the laws of Nature, composed by " 
various writers named by him, and dated in the years a.h. 
569, 571, 590, and 592, equivalent respectively to a.d. 1173, 
1175, ii93,and 1195. It is therefore a compilation. He adds 
that he had heard that books had been found in Baghddd, and 
that by royal orders the library had been removed to Alex- 
andria ; and that after Alexander a lady ascended the throne. 



TURKISH, 195 



and removed the books to Antioch, where they remained until 
her son succeeded her as Sovereign of Constantinople. Orders 
were subsequently given for the library to be destroyed, but a 
man named Ibrdhfm Ben Hailin, of the Zanf faith, got hold of 
some of the books and took them to Baghddd, where they 
were translated into Syriac. '^ I procured these books," he says, 
"and sought for somebody who understood them. Amongst 
others came a man of the Uzlug Turkish tribe from the sea-shore. 
The puny one knew all languages, and translated the book 
from the Syriac into our language.*' Then follows the origin 
of Falconry according to the ancient text. 

338. KiTAB MuKHTAs Dari H Sharcf ud Din Alp- 
Arseldn GardbH. a.h. 915. 

The Book relating to Hawks of Sharef ud Din 
Alp Arseldn GardbH. a.h. 915 — i.e., a.d. 1509. 

This is No. 62 of Hammer Purgstall's Catalogue (p. xxxii.), 
wherein only the Turkish title is given. His No. 63 is the Baz 
Nameh, or Book of the Hawk, of Mahmud ibn Muhammed ul 
Bdrchinf , of which the entire Turkish text is printed with a German 
translation as above noticed. He omits the author's statement 
that he is better known as '' Kdtib Turkiyeh/' or the Turkish 
Scribe. 

In a volume of miscellanies preserved in the British Museum, 
Add. MSS. 23,594, there is a Turkish treatise on Falconry 
apparently of the eighteenth century. It consists of 84 folios, 
and is described as : — 

339. A Treatise on Animals used in the Chase, 
viz.. Hawks, Hounds, and Hunting Leopards; their 
training and the treatment of their diseases. Translated 
from the Arabic by Murtezd, known as Nazmf Zddeh 
with the heading Baz Ndmeh, the Book of the Hawk 

The Turkish translator states that he wrote this version, 
A.H. 1115 (a.d. 1703), by desire of 'Ali Pdshi, Governor of 
Baghddd. The Arabic text was contained in a recent copy of 



196 £OOKS ON FALCONRY. 

the second part of the work of Isd B. 'Ali B. Hasan al-Asedi ; 
and Nazmf Zideh, unable to procure the first part, supplied some 
additional matter from other sources. An imperfect copy of the 
original work is described in the Catalogue of Arabic MSS. in 
Brit Mus., p. 634 b. See also Leclerc, Hisioire de la Midecme 
Arabty i p. 503. 

The work is divided into a great number of small sections, 
termed bdbs^ but not numbered. The first contains traditions 
respecting those who first made use of buxls of prey for the 
chase, fol. 2 b. The second describes the various kinds of 
hunting birds, fol. 4 a. The rest of the contents may be briefly 
described as follows : — Training and Feeding of Hawks, fol. 7 b ; 
Diseases of Hawks and their Treatment, fol. 14 a; On the 
Nature and Good Qualities of Hounds, fol. 66 b ; Diseases of 
Hounds and their Treatment, fol. 71a; Diseases of the Cheetah, 
or Hunting Leopard, fol. 81 b. 



Note. — For an interesting account of Hawking as practised 
in the province of Cilicia, Turkey in Asia, where tlie Goshawk 
(Turkish, ^^Aa») is chiefly employed, the reader may be referred 
to a volume by William Burckhardt Barker (son of John Barker, 
who died at Suwaidyah, near Antioch, in 1850, and godson of 
the eminent traveller and oriental scholar Louis Burckhardt), 
entitled '' Lares and Penates : or, Cilicia and its Governors ; 
being a short historical account of that Province from the 
earliest times to the present day." 8vo. London, 1853. Theob- 
ser>'ations on Falconry will be found pp. 284-298. Besides the 
Goshawk, the Turkomans train the Peregrine (Turkish, Sheheen\ 
the I..anner (Turkish, Seifee\ and the Sparrowhawk (Turkish, 
Atonajia\ while the Jerfalcon, or, it may be, the Saker (Turkish, 
Songhar\ is said to be sometimes taken in the north of Asia 
Minor (p. 297). But the Goshawk is the favourite bird, as it is 
found to be the most useful, and best suited to the nature of the 
country. 

" The Goshawk," says this writer (p. 290), " when properly 
broken in, requires little or no attention ; his master need keep 
no servants or falconer to attend upon him, and carry him day 
and night on the hand, which is requisite with the Peregrine ; if 
in proper trim, he is ready to hunt, and you can count upon him 



PERSIAN. 197 



and fly him as often as you please in the course of a day. I 
do not ever recollect seeing my hawks done up from flight 
after flight, for six hours consecutively ; and I have known a 
Goshawk belonging to Rizu Kuli Mirza Nayebel Ayaly, a Persian 
prince residing at Bagdad, take twenty-one Francolins consecu- 
tively. The Prince assured me, and I flrmly believe him, that 
he made sure of the quarry every time he let him fly from his 
hand. I have myself taken four hares, and a dozen Francolins, 
with several minor birds, in one day ; and I invariably found my 
Goshawk improve by exercise-*-the more I hunted him, the 
more he was anxious to continue the sport." 



pereian* 

For the transcription of the Persian and Arabic titles the writer is 
indebted to Mr. Sydney A. J. Churchill, on the British Legation at 
Tehr^. In his absence from England the proof sheets have been sub- 
mitted to the eminent orientalist Dr. Rieu, who has most obligingly 
revised them. 

340. KitAb 'AH Kdmeh Khorasdni. 

The Book of 'Ali Kameh the Khorasdni — i.e.^ the 
native of Khorasan. 

This b the first (No. 47) of three Persian treatises on Falconry, 
of which the titles only are given by Hammer Purgstall (No. 112) 
in Persian characters (Nos. 47, 48, 49), here transliterated by the 
kindness of Mr. Sidney A. J. Churchill, of the Persian Embassy. 

341. KitAb Jemdlf Muhammed Ganjevi Samdni, 
A.H. 540. 

The Book of Jemdlf Muhammed of Ganjeh (E. 
Caucasus) the Samani. a,h. 540 — i.e.^ a,d. 1145. 

No. 48 of Hammer Purgstall. 



198 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



342. KitAb al-buzdt li Niishfrvdn, 
The Book of Hawks of Niishfrvdn. 

No. 49 of Hammer Purgstall ; no date assigned. More ac- 
cessible information on the subject of Falconry in Persia is 
to be found in the following :— 

343. A'lN I Akbari li Abul Fazl 'Alkmi, 

The Government of Akbar, by Abul Fazl 'Allami, 
A.D. 1590. Translated from the original Persian 
by Professor H. Blochmann. Printed for the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. Calcutta. 1873. 8vo. 

The Ain i Akbari, says Prof. Blochmann, contams that infor- 
mation regarding Akb^ur's reign which, though not strictly his- 
torical, is yet essential to a correct understanding of the times, 
and embodies therefore those facts for which, in modem times 
one would turn to Administration Reports, Statistical Compila- 
tions, or Gazetteers. It contains the ain {ue., mode of governing) 
of Akbar [who died in 16 15], and is in fact the Administration 
Report and Statistical Return of his Government, as it was about 
A.D. 1590. The contents, therefore, are naturally varied and 
detailed. Abul Fazl's high official position gave him access to 
any document he wished to consult, and his long career and 
training in various departments of State, eminently fitted him 
for undertaking such a work. ''His love of truth and his 
correctness of information," adds Prof. Blochmann,'* are apparent 
in every page of the book.*' 

In the portion which relates to Hunting (Book II. Ain 27 
and 28) there is a section on *' Hunting with Hawks " (TransL 
pp. 293-296), in which the writer describes the various species 
used, with their Persian names ; their allowance of food ; prices 
paid for them ; and the minimum number of each kept at Court 

The birds mentioned by their Persian names are not alwajrs 
to be identified, for the reason that Persian falconers give 
different names to the sexes of hawks, as well as to old and 
young, and to those which have and have not moulted ; but we 
recognise amongst them the Peregrine {Shdhin and Bahri^ 




INDIAN FALCONERS WITH SAKERS AND PEREGRINE. 

t'TOjB a photuyraph tain in lie Panjah, 1891. 

fly Capt.I). C.Philtufl. 



PERSIAN. 199 



Jerfalcon {Shungar\ Saker {Bdldbdn^ when captured in nets, and 
Charkh, when taken from the nest), Merlin {Turumfdi), Gos- 
hawk Tdigun and Tarldn, male and female, and Sparrow-hawk 
(Bdshd and Girgi)^ besides the Bargut^ or trained eagle. As 
to the hawks used by Persian falconers see the remarks of 
Major Oliver St. John in the account of the Persian Boundary 
Commission, 1870-72, edited by Sir Frederic Goldsmid, 2 vols. 
8vo, London, 1876, vol. ii. pp. 102-111. 

An earlier translation of the Ain i Akbari^ by F. Gladwin, 
was printed in 4to, Calcutta 1783, and London 1800, but that 
by Blochmann, here quoted, is considered preferable. 

344, Baz Namah, or Book of the Hawk. 

Amongst the Persian MSS. in the British Museum, Egerton, 
1012 ff. 124 ((/*. Rieu, Cat. ii. 485), is a Bdz Ndmah, or Book of 
the Hawk, seventeenth century, in metre. ''Bahddur"is the 
poetical surname assumed by the author, and occurs in a 
versified preamble, fol. 1-5, containing eulogies on 'Abd ul- 
Kadir Jildnf, and on the reigning Sovereign Aurangzib. The 
author states in a succeeding prose preface that he had under- 
taken the work at the urgent request of Ja'fer Beg^ whom he 
calls his master in the craft He mentions having written the 
work in the twenty-fifth year of the reign of 'Alemgir, correspond- 
ing to A.H. 1091, or A.D. 1680. 

The treatise is divided into forty-three chapters {pdbs\ a list 
of which is given at the end of the preface, fol. B. The first 
thirty-nine treat very fully of the training of hawks and other 
hunting birds, and of their employment in the chase. Then 
follow: Bdb xl.. Diseases of Hunting-birds, in sixty-eight 
sections (fast)^ fol. 84 b; Bdb xli., their treatment^ fol. 93 b; 
and Bdb xlii., miscellaneous instructions, in four sections. 

345. Baz Namah, or Book of the Hawk, 

In the same collection, Egerton 10 13, pp. 108 (cf, Rieu, Cat 
ii. p. 485), is a Bdz Ndmah, or Book of the Hawk, dated a.h. 
1 1 63, /.^., A.D. 1749, by Muhib 'Ali, surnamed Khdn Khds 
Mahalli B. Nizam ud Din 'Ali Marghildni. 

The author, a son of Nizam ud Din 'Ali Khalifeh, Prime 
Minister of Bdber, was raised to the dignity of Khan in the first 
year of Akbar's rei^n^ and died Governor of Delhi^ a.h. 989, 



200 BOOKS ON FAL CONRY. 

1.^., A.D. 1581. See Erskine, Hist, India under Bdber^ vol. L 
p. 385 ; and Blochmann, Ain t Akbari^ p. 420. 

The author states that he was nearly sixty years old at the 
tune of writing, and that, having from his youth upwards accom- 
panied illustrious Sovereigns in the chase, he had acquired con- 
siderable experience. He dedicates the work to Akbar, whose 
skill and prowess in the hunting field he praises at great length. 

The treatise is divided into sixty-one chapters or sections 
{bdbs\ a full table of which is given in the preface. 

Contents: Preface, fol. 2b; Precepts of the Law relating to 
the Chase, fol. 9 b; Qualifications of a Perfect Sportsman {Mir 
SAUdr)^ fol. 12 b; Capture and Rearing of Hawks, fol. 13 a; 
How to Select Hawks and other kinds of Hunting Birds, foL 
20 a; Signs of Health and Disease, fol. 24a; Directions 
Relating to Hunting in General, and to the Diet and Training of 
the dififerent kinds of Hunting Birds, fol. 26 b; Diseases of 
Hawks and their Treatment, fol. 68 b; Snares and Decoys, fol. 
87 b; Selection and Training of Cheetahs {yuz)f fol. loi. 

346. BAz nAmah, or Book of the Hawk, tran- 
scribed A.H. 1 160, t,e.,A.D. 1747. 

A treatise on the qualities and rearing of Hawks, and their 
use in the sport of Falconry. An 8vo MS. Persian, in an Indian 
handwriting ; in the possession of Mr. Quaritch. 

The transcriber was Muhammed Mustafa Kusdri, who wrote 
it at the request of Muhammed Khanhiv. The authorship is 
not disclosed ; but the work is spoken of as a compendium 
{mukhtasar) compiled a.h. 970 (about a.d. 1562). 

The work is divided into 72 sections or bdbs^ each section 
having several chapters. 

Thus it is not the same as the '' Bdz-ndmah " of Khan Khas 
Mahalli, who wrote for Akbar about the same time as the 
composition of the above compendium. His Baz-namah is very 
similar in contents, but is quite differently arranged in 61 
sections. 

347. Baz Namah I Nasiri, a.h. 1258. 

The Book of the Hawk of Nasir, a.d. 1842. 

For a knowledge of this work the present writer is indebted 



ARABIC. 201 



to the courtesy of an enthusiastic falconer in India, Lieutenant 
D. C. Phillott, intelligence officer to the British forces at Dera 
Isnuiil Khan, Punjab. 

Nasir is one of the names of the present Shah, and the work 
is styled his out of compliment. The author is Mirzd Taimiir, 
Governor of Fdrs, son of Husain Ali Mirzd, and grandson of 
Fateh Ali Shah Kijdr. Fateh Ali Shah was the great-grand- 
father of the present Shah. The place of publication is not 
mentioned, the book is lithographed, and is what is known in 
India as a '' bazar edition." 



For further details concerning the practice of Falconry in 
Persia than is afforded by the treatises above named the reader 
may be referred to Jaubert, who visited the summer quarters of 
the Persian Court near the ruins of Sultanieh on the great plain 
of Irdn, and saw falcons, from the southern shores of the Caspian 
and Aral, flown at bustards, hares, gazelle, and wild-duck 
("Voyage en Arm^nie et en Perse, p. 353); Morier, who 
witnessed hawking in the plain of Bushire (" Journey through 
Persia and Armenia," 4to, London, 1812), and Sir John Mal- 
colm, who gives an account of gazelle-hawking, and bustard- 
hawking on the sandy plains of Persia about 20 English miles 
from Abubekir, and hare-hawking in the environs of Shirdz 
(** History of Persia,*' 2 vols. 4to, London, 181 5 ; and " Sketches 
of Persia, 2 vols. Svo, London, 1828). See also Dr. John 
Harris, " Voyages and Travels," folio, I^ndon, 1764, vol. ii. 
p. 887 ; Rankmg, " Historical Researches on the Wars and 
Sports of the Mongols," 4to, London, 1826, pp. 92-99 ; De 
Filippi, "Note di un Viaggio in Persia nel 1862," 8vo, Milan, 
1865 ; and Colonel Yule's edition of ** Marco Polo's Travels," 
2 vols. 8vo, London, 1875. 

The latest information on the subject of Falconry in Persia is 
that aflforded by Major Oliver St John in the " Account of the 
Persian Boundary Commission," 1870-72, edited by Sir Frederic 
Goldsmid, C.B., K.C.S.I., 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1876, vol. ii. 
pp. 102-111. 

Note. — No treatises on Falconry in Hindustani have come 
to light, although copies of several Persian MSS. on the subject 



202 BOOKS ON FAL CONR Y. 

are well known to falconers in India. As to the origin of 
Falconry in India, where it is believed to have been introduced 
by the conquering Mahommedans in the tenth century^ see 
Schlegel, op. cit. (No. 194), pp. 59 and 64; and for details of 
the sport as practised in that country see '' An Account of the 
Hunting Excursions of Asoph ul Doulah, Visier of the M(^;ul 
Empire and Nabob of Oude, by William Blane, who attended 
in these Excursions in the years 1785 and 1786/' printed in 
Blane's CymgeHca^ or Essays on Sporting, 8v6y London 
(Stockdale), 1788, pp. 183-201 ; Johnson, "Sketches of Indian 
Field Sports," 8vo, London, 1822, pp. 46, 47 (the pages relating 
to Hawking have been extracted by Belany, No. 64, pp. 51-56) ; 
Corvin Wierbitski (No. 115), Burton (No. 66), and Delm^ Rad- 
diffe (No. 72). The last-named writer gives a comiplete list of 
the hawks now in use in India, with their native names. 

Reference should also be made to the valuable remarks of 
Mr. R. Thompson on hawking in India, printed in Hume's 
** Rough Notes on Indian Oology and Ornithology," 8vo, Cal- 
cutta, 1869, pp. 57, 69, 74-7Si 86, 93, 114-11S1 and 125. 



Brabfc 

As frequent allusion is made in the Persian and Arabic titles to 
"the year of the HegirJt," indicated by the letters A.H., it may be 
well to give here a brief explanation of a term which applies to a 
celebrated epoch used by the Arabs and Mahometans for the com- 
putation of time. 

The word is Arabic, written Bejerd, and signifying " flight," the 
Arabic letters of which it is composed being Z^,/, r, i, or dJk^ and 
the supplied vowels are pronounced short 

The event which gave rise to this epoch was Mahomet's flight 
from Mecca to Medina, when the rulers of Mecca, fearing he might 
raise a sedition, expelled him from that city in the year of our Lord 
622. 

The first year of the HegirJt, therefore, corresponds with a.d. 622. 
To save the trouble of computation, the reader may be referred to 
Marsden's very useful " Table," printed in the Philosophical Trans- 




I- ." 



ARABIC. 203 



actions^ vol. Ixxviii., which exhibits at a glance the correspondence of 
the years of the Hegir^ with those of the Christian era, and the 
month and day of their respective commencement. 

It should be observed that the Orientals do not agree with us as 
to the time of the HegirL Among the Mahometans, Amasi assigns 
it to A.D. 630, and according to the Greek computation among the 
Christians, Said Ibn Batrick refers it to a.d. 614. In the present 
bibliography the dates adopted are those given in Marsden*s '' Table " 
above mentioned. 

348. KitAb i Khdgdn Azam veh al-Malek Hind 
li Izzud-Din Muhammed Peldsgdnf. a.h. 577. 

The Book of the Great Khdgdn, and King of 
India, by Izzud-Din Muhammed Peldsgiinf. a.h. 577, 
z.e.y A.D. 1 181. 

This is the first (No. 50) of a dozen Arabic treatises (Nos. 
50-61) given by Hammer Purgstall (p. xxxii.) in native characters, 
and here transliterated, through the kindness of Mr. Sidney A. J. 
Churchill. 

349. KiTAB Nushlrvdn i 'Adil li Imdd ud Din 
Isfahan!. a.h. 590. 

The Book of Nushfrvdn the Wise, by Imdd ud Din 
Isfahdnf — t.e., of Isfahan. a.h. 590, />., a.d. i 193. 

No. 51 of Hammer Puigstall. 

350. KiTAB Badr ud Din Muhammed ul Balkhi. 

A.H. 577. 

The Book of Badr ud Din Muhammed the Balkhi. 
A.H. 577, i.e.j A.D. 1 181. 

No. 52 of Hammer Purgstall. 

351. Al Kanun ul-Vazeh. 
The Perfect Canon. 

No. 53 of Hammer Purgstall 



204 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

Schlegel {op. cit.)y No. 123, interprets this title The Clear 
Guide to Instruction, Les Ragles Claires pour agir. 

352. KiTAB al Jevdreh H Muhammed bin Abdullah 
bin 'Umer al Bdzyar. 

The Book of Hawks of Muhammed, the son of 
Abdullah, the son of * Umer the Falconer. 

No. 54 of Hammer Puigstall. 

353. KiTAB al Jevdreh veh al la'b beha, veh ala- 
jatiha li Abl Dulef al Gasim Ben Isa. 

The Book of Hawks, and their training and main- 
tenance in health, by Abu Dulef al Gasim Ben Isa. 

No. 55 of Hammer Purgstall. 

354. KiTAB Ajdib ul Makhliigdt li Kazvfnf. 

The Book of the Wonders of Creation, by Kazvfnf. 

No. 56 of Hammer Purgstall. See Rieu, Cat. Persian MSS. 
in Brit. Mus., iL pp. 462, 463. The author is Zakaria bin Md. 
bin Mahmiid ul-Kamuni ul-Kazvinf. A Persian translation of 
the Arabic original was published at Tehrkn, a.h. 1264, 1.^., a.d. 
1848, and a German translation by Dr. H. £th^, at Leipzig, 1868. 

355. Hay At ul Hayawan li Damiri. 
The Life of Animals, by Damiri. 

No. 57 of Hammer Purgstall. 

The author died a.h. 808, /.^., a.d. 1405. Copies of his 
work maybe found in the British Museum, together with Persian 
adaptations {cf. Rieu, Cat. Persian MSS. ii. p. 842 b). 

356. KiTAB Mandfa' ut-Tair veh alajatihim. 

The Book of the Usefulness of Birds, and their 
maintenance in health. 

To this title, No. 58 of Hammer Purgstall, is the note 



ARABIC los 



''Catalogus Codicum Orientalium Bibliothecse Bodleianas a 
Joanne Uri confectus. P. I. p. io6. C. 393." 

357. KiTAB al Buzdt ul-Turk. 
The Book of Hawks of the Turk. 

No. 59 of Hammer Purgstall. 

358. KiTAB Ghatrif H Abi al Gasim. 
The Book of Ghatrif, by Abu al Gasim. 

No. 60 of Hammer Purgstall. In the Turki text the author is 
styled Abii al Gisim. 

359. KiTAB AL Tair li Ibn Sina. 

The Book of Birds of Ibn Sina (^>., Avicenna). 

No. 61 of Hammer Purgstall. Tardif, in the Preface to his 
'' Livre de Tart de Faulconnerie " (No. 1 42), states that he translated 
from the Latin book of King Dancus, and from the Latin works 
of MoamuSy Guillinus, and Guicennas (pidt ante^, p. 72, note). 
The book of Moamus, as already shown (p. 181), was a Latin 
translation from the Arabic of some falconer, named Mohamed, 
or Mohamin. Rigault, No. 314, refers to him as Moamus Arabs, 
and in the Biblioteca National, Madrid, there is a MS. entitled 
Mohamin^ Traiado de Ceireria^ traslado del Arabe al Latin, por 
N. Theodoro, Bibl. National, Madrid, L. 141. Possibly the 
treatise by Guicennas, who, according to Lallemant (No. 175), 
was an Arab, was similarly translated from the Arabic of Ibn 
Sina. As to Guillinus, so called, he is perhaps identical with 
the Guillelmiis Regis Rogerii Falconarius^ quoted by Albertus 
Magnus (No. 300), cap. xviii. and xxi. 

360. Sid Mohamed el Mangall Traitd de V6nerie, 
traduit de T Arabe par Florian Pharaon, avec une 
Introduction par M. le Marquis de Cherville. Tir6 
k 300 exemplaires numerot^s, Paris. 1880. 8vo. 

The Arabic text is printed with a French translation. A 



Jo6 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

review of it is given by Harting, No. 79 (pp, ciL pp. 362-370). 
See note to No. 212, antei^ p. 104. 



For some details of the sport as practised by the Arabs, the 
reader may be referred to Dr. Thomas Shaw's "Travels in 
several parts of Barbary and the Levant," folio, Oxford, i73^» 
reprinted in vol. xv. of Pinkerton's " Collection of Voyages and 
Travels ; " Pierre de Castellan," Souvenirs de la Vie Militaire en 
Afirique," 8vo, Paris, 1849 ; C Van Breughel, Dutch Consul at 
Tripoli, quoted by Schlegel, op, ciU p. 70; Canon H. B. 
Tristram, "The Great Sahara," Svo, London, Murray, i860, 
pp. 63-66, 81, 274; and General Daumas, whose work, "Lcs 
Chevaux du Sahara et les moeurs du Desert," 8vo, Paris, 1862, 
has been translated into English (see No. 199) and Spanish 
(No. 254), and contains a section on hawking as practised by 
the Arabs. 

Through the influence of the Moors in Spain a variety of 
Arabic terms relating to Falconry, and names for different kinds 
of hawks, were introduced into that country. Such words, 
for example, as " Alcotan," " Alfeneque," " Azor " (Arabic, as- 
sor)f ** Bahari " (from BaAr^ the sea, indicating the migratory 
nature of the Peregrine Falcon, to which species this name is 
applied), " Bomi " {ai domt\ the Barbary Falcon, from the 
province of Bomou), " Nebli," " Sacre " (from ^^r or saJh^), 
•* Tagarote," &c., are frequently to be met with in old Spanish 
books on Falconry. For an explanation of them the reader 
should consult the useful and interesting work of MM. Dozy 
et Engelmann, ''Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portugab 
derives de TAiabe/' 2nd ed. 8vo, Leyden, 1869. 



The Chinese and Japanese titles here given have been taken, 
with a few exceptions, from the Trai/S de Fauconnerie (No. 194), of 
Schlegel, whose transliteration has been preserved to whom they 
were communicated by Hoffmann from the originals in the Japanese 
collection at Leyden. A few additions to the list have been made 
from Japanese books in the writer's own collection, and from others 



k 



CHINESE, 207 



in the library of M. Pierre A. Pichot, of Paris. To that gentleman 
and to Mr. F. V. Dickins, of the London University, the writer 
is indebted for much kind assistance in the preparation of this 
portion of the Bibliotheca Accipitraria. 

It should be observed that Schlegel's French titles were translated 
from the German of Hoffmann, and, as the Chinese and Japanese 
characters are not given by him, it has been impossible to test the 
accuracy of the transliteration, in which there is reason to believe 
several mistakes have been made. 

361. WEI YEN OHIN. Yng Fou. 

Wei Yen Chin. Classification of Falcons. 

This work. No. 119 of SchlegeFs Catalogue, is a practical pro- 
duction, and dates from the Soui dynasty, a.d. 581-617. An 
extract from it is given in No. 366, vol. xliv. p. 4. Li Chi Tchin, 
the author of the Chinese Natural History (No. 363), has also 
borrowed from it some of his descriptions. It may be here 
observed that in Chinese there are several words which denote 
a hawk or &lcon, but that generally used by experts is Yng. 
See note to No. 363. 

362. ANON. Yng Ho Fang. 
Anon. The Art of the Falcon. 

No. 118 of Schlegel's Catalogue, cited by the author of the 
Japanese work, San Kai Met san dsou e (Na 369), as having 
emanated from the Corea, whence Falcons were first sent to the 
Court of Japan a.d. 247. See note to No. 365. 

363. LI CHI TCHIN. Pen-ts'ao Kang Mou. 

Li Chi Tchin. A General Natural History. 
Sixteenth century. 

No. 116 of Schlegers Catalogue. Contains a few notices of 
Falcons and their capabilities for the chase. The author states 
that the technical Chinese name for a Falcon is Yng^ so called 
because it strikes with the breast {yng\ an observation which is 
entirely erroneous, although, strange to say, it is indorsed by 
Schlegel (op. dt. p. 65, note) as une observation trh-justef 
Every falconer knows, or should know, that hawks, on stooping at 



i2o8 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 

the quarry, always strike with the feet, and more particularly with 
the powerful hind talons. 

According to this Chinese author, the best hawks come from 
the province of Liaotoung, and only the natives of Southern 
China, he says, make use of eyesses. He adds that the birds 
employed (Falcons and Goshawks) are flown chiefly at pheasants 
and hares, although the Sparrow-hawk is used for taking quails. 

364. ANON. Ou TsA Tsou. 

Anon. The Five Miscellaneous Categories. 

The author of this work (No. 117 of Schlegel's Catalogue) 
states that the Falcons from Liaotoung are the most highly 
prized, and that those from China are inferior to those from the 
Corea. He gives an outline of the Chinese method of training 
hawks, which is commenced by first hooding the bird with a 
hood of soft flax, and then starving it for a time. In ten days 
the hood is removed and the wings are brailed. In six or seven 
weeks the hawk is flown at midday (when all other birds are 
supposed to be at rest), and, being unable on this account, as he 
says, to find food, it will come down to a pheasant thrown out 
as a lure. This method is not nearly so good as that adopted 
by European falconers, and occupies twice as many weeks as 
are necessary. It is from this work chiefly that the article on 
Falconry in the ** Chinese and Japanese Encyclopaedia," by 
Simayosi Anko, 17 14 (No. 366), seems to have been compiled. 



For further information concerning the practice of Falconry 
in China and Tartary, see the Travels of William de Rubruquis, 
who was sent as Ambassador to difierent parts of the East, in 
1253, by Louis IX., and who mentions, amongst other things 
noted by him, the use of the halsband for Sparrow-hawks ; the 
Travels of Marco Polo, who gives an account of Falconry as 
practised, during the latter half of the thirteenth century, by 
the Chmese Emperors of the Mongolian dynasty and successors 
of Genghis Khan (Marsden's translation, 4to, London, 181 8; 
and Colonel Yule's edition, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1875); John 
Bell (of Antermony), " Travels to Pekin," 2 vols. 4to, Glasgow, 
1763 ; Strahlenberg (op. cU.^ cf. anfetlt p. 191), who states that 



JAPANESE. 209 



'' in the province of Dauria, and near the river Amoor, there 
are a great many milk-white falcons, which are sent in great 
numbers to China." This writer describes three sorts 
(differentiated according to plimiage, dependent upon age), 
and details the method of taming them (p. 361). See also 
Schlegel {pp. cit. pp. 60-61, 65-66); and an article on "Birds 
used for Sport in China," translated by the present writer 
from the French of M. Pierre A. Pichot, in The Zoologist for 
December 1885. According to Col. Yule (pp. cit. i. 396)1 
hawking is still common in North China. 



Sapaneae. 

365. TONEBINO SINWO. Nipponki. 

ToNERiNO SiNwo [Prince]. The Chronicle of 
Japan. Written a.d. 720. 30 vols. 

This volummous work. No. no of Schlegel's Catalogue, 
contains a history of Japan from 661 b.c to a.d. 696. 

The author, after stating that the Japanese empire was 
founded in 660 b.c, asserts that in a.d. 239 Falconry, with 
other arts, was introduced into Japan from Southern China, 
and that in a.d. 247 Falcons were sent for the first time from 
Petsi, in the Corea, to the Court of Japan, where the practice of 
Falconry was first attempted a.d. 355 (Schlegel, op. cit. p. 66). 
See also vol. vii. p. 35, and vol. xliv. pp. 4-5, of the following : — 

366. SIMAYOSI ANKO. Wa Kan San Sai 

Dsou-E. 

SiMAYOsi Anko. Chinese and Japanese Ency- 
CLOPiEDiA 17 14. In 105 vols. 8vo. 

This is No 106 of Schlegel's Catalogue. Some interesting 
details relative to Falconry, derived chiefly from the Chinese 
work, Ou Tsa Tiou (No. 364), are given vol. vii. p. 35, and 
vol xliv. pp. 4-5. Mention is made (vol. vii. p. 35) of a clever 
&lconer named Sakourawi Goro, who, in 1206, was summoned 
to the Court of the Emperor Sanetomo, at Yedo, to give instruc- 

O 



J lo BOOKS ON FALCONR K 



tion in Falconry, and who trained the Grey Shrike, or Butcher- 
bird (Pie-grikhe of the French), to take sparrows and other small 
birds, an example afterwards followed by Louis XIII. of France, 
in the Jardin du Louvre {cf. Arcussia, No. 153, p. 170, ed. 
1 644). The difference in size between the sexes oi hawks is noted 
(vol. xliv. p. 5), the male being called Seo (the little) and the 
female Tai (the great). 

A young hawk is termed Waka taka; a partially moulted 
hawk, Kaia kaveri (in Chinese, Phikn Phihn) \ a hawk in its 
third year, Moro kaveri (in Chinese, Tsai Phihi)^ that is, a hawk 
that has moulted twice. One taken from the nest and reared in 
the house is Sou iakay that is, nestling hawk, or eyess ; one 
taken after it has left the nest and is able to shift for itself, 
Akakcy that is, taken with a net ; an adult hawk, or haggard, is 
Nozare^ that is, not easily tamed ; a Jerfalcon, Sird taka (in 
Chinese, Fe yng or Sue pe yng\ that is, white hawk, or snow- 
white hawk. 

Then follows an account of the mode in which, hawks are 
trained — ^by being carried on the fist for three weeks, fed often, 
but very little at a time, and then flown in a creance. The 
Japanese falconers, when holloaing to a hawk, cry, O-ou O-cuI 

When a hawk is put up to moult the jesses are removed, and 
it is cast loose into the mew and there fed a^ discretion. A 
broken tail feather is repaired by joining a new one to it with a 
kind of varnish made from a tree of which the scientific name is 
Rhus vemix. From this it would appear that a means of 
repairing broken feathers, known to English falconers as 
'' imping,'' is practised by the Japanese, although they make use 
of strong varnish instead of an imping needle. 

Schlegel states that in Japan the hawk is carried on the left 
hand, while in China it is carried on the right {op, cit p. 68). 

367. KONOSITA YOSITOMO. Dsou Kai-Bou 
Y6 Ben-Ryak. Yedo. 1747. 

KONOSITA YOSITOMO. CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF 

ALL THAT IS NECESSARY FOR A SoLDiER. With Illus- 
trations. Yedo. 1747. 8 vols. 8vo. 

This is No. 107 of SchlegeVs Catalogue. Vol. viii. contains 



JAPANESE. 211 



more thaa a hundred pages oa Falconry, including the technical 
terms used by Chinese and Japanese falconers — the Chinese 
title of this work is Tou Kiay Wou-Young PVcn Lio — a descrip- 
tion of the different kinds of hawks used, and of the various 
flights according to the season of the year ; preceded by some 
historical details concerning the introduction of Falconry into 
Japan. Schlegel, who quotes this treatise as Le Code du Guerrier, 
states that it is compiled from older and more voluminous works. 

368. MOTO PUS A. Si-Fau-den-no-mi-koto. 
MoTO FusA. [Title unintelligible.] 

This is No. 108 of SchlegeFs Catalogue. It is cited by 
Konosita Yositomo (No. 367), who states that it exhausts the 
subject of Falconry. There appears to be some mistake, how- 
ever, in the translation of the title. Schlegel renders it Trots mots 
comprenant Its traditions de tous les pays ; but the Japanese 
words as printed do not bear that signification, and in the 
absence of the Japanese characters any correction would be 
doubtful. 

369. KIMOURA KOEJO. San Kai Mei San 

Dsou-E. 

KiMOURA KoKjo. Illustrated Description of 

THE Principal Land and Sea Products of Japan. 

Ohosaka. 1799. 5 vols. 8vo. 

This is No. 109 of Schlegel's Catalogue. The second volume 
contains some curious information (p. 26, &c) relative to 
Falconry in Japan. The author, Kimoura Kokjo, states that 
the province of Fiouga in the island of Kiousiou, and that of 
lyo in the island of Tosa, as well as the mountainous districts 
of Kahi and Tango, produce hawks of small size, Ko taka» 
Larger and finer hawks. Oho taka^ are found in the southern 
parts of the empire, in the province of Moutsou, especially in 
the district of Kouro-gava (lat. 38** 27' N.). Those from the 
district of Sinobou, that is to say, firom the mountains to the 
east of Foukou-sima (lat. 37"* 38' N.), are known by the name 
of Sinobou taka. The White Falcons come from the Corea, and 
are flown at geese and cranes. 



2 1 2 BOOKS ON FALCONE K 

This author states that, in Japan, Falcons are usually taken 
young from the nest, but at Oyamada, in the province of lyo, 
they are also taken at daybreak in silk nets, diree or four feet 
wide and twelve long, with a mesh of two and a half inches 
square, the lure being a live starling. The starling is kept in a 
state of agitation by showing it an artificial snake made of 
jointed wood and painted to nature. A hawk, on being caught, 
has jesses of soft leather put on, varvels of stag's horn or hollow 
bamboo stem, and a long leash, the wings and tail being 
enveloped in a ''sock" made of soft flax, just as described 
in 1240 by the Emperor Frederick II. in his treatise de arte 
venandi cum avibus (No. 308), and as practised at the present 
day by the professional hawk-catchers in Holland. 

370. ANON. Ko KoN Taka No Koto. 

Anon. Notices of Hawks and Hawking de- 
rived FROM Books, Ancient and Modern. With 
Figures. 

An 8vo volume. No. 105 of Schlegel's Catalogue, of which no 
account is given beyond the title ; nor is any reference made to 
the date or place of publication. • 

371. ANON. Ehon Taka Kagami. 

Anon. The Mirror of Falconry— literally, 
picture-book-falcon-mirror. 

A comparatively modern work, in five parts 8vo, of which a 
copy is in the writer's possession and another in the collection of 
M. Pichot. It is profusely and graphically illustrated, and is pro- 
bably the best book oh the subject in Japanese now obtainable. 

The treatise of Konosita Yositomo (No. 367), cited by Schlegel 
as the Code du Guerrier, contains references to the five follow- 
ing works relating to Falconry, but, as the Japanese characters 
are not given by Schlegel, it is not possible to supply a reliable 
transliteration : — 

372. KATANO SEO SJO. Yo Sei Rok, of which 
the Chinese title is Yng Tsching Lo. 

No. Ill of Schlegel. The title only mentioned* 




A JAPANESE FALCONER. 
fVom (*« '• i'*t>B Tata Eagaiai," or Mirror of Falconry. 






i 



JAPANESE. a 13 



373. OUDSIDONO. NiTSi Rai Ki ; in Chinese, 
Ji Lai Ki. 

No. 112 of Schlegel, who gives no details beyond the title. 

374. DSI MEO IN. San Kau Ten. 

No. 113 of Schlegel. Title only. 

375. TEI KA (Prince). Taka. 
Prince Tei-ka. The Falcon (an Ode). 

No. 1 14 of Schlegel. Title only. 

376. AKIZATO RITO. Kawatsi Mei-Sjo Dsou-e. 

Akizato Rito. Topography of the Province 
Kawatsi. With Plates. 1 801-1808. 6 vols. 8vo. 

No. 115 of Schlegel. 

This author states that, in China, Falcons were amongst the 
presents made to princes from the time of the (mythical) Hia 
dynasty, which commenced about 2205 B.C. Whether the art of 
Falconry was understood so long ago as this it is now impossible 
to ascertain. At any rate, we know from Ctesias and i^lian that 
it was practised in Central Asia about 400 b.c. {Cf- Ctesia 
Cnidii Opetum Reiiquia^ edit J. C. Bahr, 8vo, Francoftirti, 
1824, P* 250 ; /EUan^ de Natura AnitnaUum^ lib. iv. cap. 26^ 
edit. Jacobs, Svo, Jenae, 1832.) We learn also from Ctesias, 
who was physician to the Shah of Persia, Artaxerxes Mnemon, 
that at this period Falconry was altogether unknown in Persia 
and India. (See note to No. 347, p. 201.) 

377. NIQIEI-KOBUSHI. Shiju Hachi Taka No 

ZUSAN. 

Nigiri-Kobushi. The Fist : or Figures with 
Descriptions of 48 Kinds of Hawks. 6th year of 
Hozei, i.e.^ a.d. 17 10. 

For a knowledge of the contents of this book, of which a 



214 BOOKS ON FALCONR V. 

copy has been forwarded for inspection by M. Pichot, of Paris, 
the writer is indebted to Mr. F. V. Dickins, who has furnished 
a transition of the most material portion of it. 

This author states that hawldng was practised in China 
during the Han and Tang dynasties (i>., from b.c 206 and 
from A.D. 618), and that it was introduced into Japan in the 
forty-seventh year of the Empress Tingu (a.d. 244) from Haku- 
saiy in Corea, and again in the forty-second year of the Emperor 
Nintoku (a.d. 355), who was the first really to hunt with hawks. 
(See note to No. 365.) 

Amongst the birds mentioned by this author are — O-waski- 
iaka^ the great Eagle Hawk ; Kasumi-iakay the Mist-hawk ; 
Hai'iaka^ the Sparrow-hawk ; Shiva-hu-taka^ white-barred hawk ; 
No sushi-iaka^ the Moor-hawk ; Koi-ktri-iaka^ the pike-catching 
hawk (Osprey); Mushi kui-taka^ the insect-eating hawk; 
Kamotne-nari taka^ the guU-like hawk (Harrier) ; and Masktro- 
iaka^ the pure white hawk (Ger&lcon). Besides these are 
named Mozu^ the Grey Shrike, or Butcher-bird, which is trained 
like a hawk for catching small birds (see note p. 210) ; Tobi^ 
the Kite ; Fukuro^ the Owl ; and Mimizuku^ the Eared Owl. 

378. MACHIDA HISANABI. Taka Gari 

ICHIRAN. 

Machida Hisanari. a Survey of Falconry 
Illustrated. Compiled by Machida Hisanari in the 
9th year of Meiji, i.e.^ of the present era, which com- 
menced in 1868. 

This modem composition, obligingly forwarded for inspection 
by M. Pichot, of Paris, may be described as a " broadsidey** 
being printed on a single sheet, which measures 20.5 by 14.5 
inches, and is iUustrated, in colours, with figures of the Gos- 
hawk, 6-taka ; the Peregrine, Haya-busa ; and the Sparrow- 
hawk, Hai-taka ; and with representations of the hawk-house, 
toya ; perch, chiboko ; glove, yugaJte ; sock, fuseginu ; falconer's 
bag, Aato fukuro (/.^., pigeon-bag) ; creance, oki nawa ; jesses, 
ashikawa {t\e., leg-leathers); bell, suzu; leash, o-o (i.e.f the 
great cord), made of ei^ht strands of silk, red for ordinary 



JAPANESE. 215 



hawks, and purple for those that have distinguished themselves 
by killing cranes {tsuru)^ et cetera. 

Though there are many kinds of hawks, sa]rs this author, those 
used for Falconry are mainly these three : — O-taka^ or great 
hawk, 1.^., the Goshawk ; Hayabusa^ literally " swift tuft-hawk/' 
the Peregrine; and Haitaka^ or creeping hawk, in reference! 
perhaps, to its crafty habits, the Sparrow-hawk. Three other 
kinds, much inferior, are scarcely ever used for hawking. To 
catch hawks nets are employed. A large net is spread, and in 
the middle a smaller net of the kind known as chochin (lantern- 
shaped, f .^., nearly barrel-shaped) is fixed, in which are placed 
five or six sparrows at liberty to fly about in the mterior. This 
contrivance acts as a decoy, and the hawks are thus trapped. 
The best time for catching them is between the great heats 
of summer and the full spring of the succeeding year. When 
caught, the birds receive each a generic name : thus, a bird of 
any year taken in the autumn would be called akage^ red-plumed 
[but the point lies in the resemblance in sound of aka to aki^ 
autumn]; taken fi-om the nest {su\sutaka; taken during the 
lesser summer heats, after having left the nest, su-tnawariy nest- 
hoverer or brancher ; and so forth. 

Taka and Hayabusa are flown at cranes, wild geese, wild 
duck, and white herons; Haiiaka^ at teal, water-hens, and 
larks. These three hawks receive each a diflerent training. 

A complete translation of this " broadside," by Mr. F. V. 
Dickins, will be found in The Zoologist for May 1891. 



It would seem that at the present day Falconry is but little 
practised in Japan. The latest traveller who has furnished 
any account of the sport in that country from personal obser- 
vation is Dr. A. von Roretz, who, in the German periodical 
Der Zoologische Garten for September 1879, published an 
article on hawking in Japan, of which a translation by the 
present writer appeared in The Field of October i8, 1879. 

Dr. Roretz states that formerly, wherever large uncultivated 
tracts of scrub, and marsh, and grass land were to be found, 
amongst other sports hawking flourished. In more populous 
districts, too, powerfiil princes and wealthy proprietors indulged 
in this pastime, at which their dependents dared not murmur. 



2i6 BOOKS ON FALCONRY. 



having to consider themselves privileged in being allowed to 
witness the sport, and to repair the damages to crops, &c^ which 
it sometimes occasioned. This was the state of things in Japan 
when the Daimios were masters of the life and property of their 
subjects. But all has been changed since the reformsof the present 
day have brought their civilising influence to bear in these remote 
lands, and given the peasants protection for their crops. Falconers 
have dropped off, abandoning their annual expeditions to the 
steep rocks, where they were wont to seek their half-fledged 
pupils. Hawking may now be regarded as a thing of the past in 
Japan, for only a few magnates, whose extensive estates permit 
such a luxury, occasionally indulge in this delightful pastime. 
"To a very limited extent " (he says) " I was enabled to learn 
something of the old sport. ... It varies according to the 
quarry flown at. I never saw very small hawks flown quite loose. 
A very thin silk line, tightly twisted, about the size of ordinary 
sewing silk, but much stronger, is fastened to the jesses. Thk 
line is about thirty ]rards in length. It is used more to restrain 
the hawk from following the quarry too far, than to prevent it from 
trying to escape. Goshawks and Falcons are always flown loose. 
The falconer gets as close to the quarry as he can, screening it 
from view of the hawk by means of the long sleeve of the Japanese 
dress. As soon as he is near enough he withdraws the sleeve and 
the hawk is cast ofl*. Hawking on horseback seeihs to have 
died out ; at least during my long stay there I never heard of 
any. According to description, it must have resembled the 
hawking which is still practised in Persia." 





PORTRAIT OF A TRAINED FALCON 
Belonging tn the Avlhor. 



GLOSSARY 



EXPLAINING THE TECHNICAL TERMS EMPLOYED 

BY ENGLISH FALCONERS. 



* 



I 



GLOSSARY 

EXPLAINING THE TECHNICAL TERMS EMPLOYED 

BY ENGLISH FALCONERS. 

Arms, the legs of a hawk from the thigh to the foot. 

Ayre, and Eyrie, s,, Fr. oiVr, the aiery, eyrie, or nesting-place. 

" Our aiery buildeth in the cedar's top." — Shakespeare. 
The form eyre occurs in Reed's "Governance of Hawkes," 1557 
(MS. BiW. Harl. 676). 

Bate, Bating, fluttering or flying off the fist, which an untrained hawk 
commonly does at the sight of the approaching hood. Literally, to 
beat the air with the wings, from the French bttttre, "It is calde 
batyng for she batith with hirselfe, most oftyn causeles."— " Boke of 
St Albans," i486. 

Beam-feathers, j., the primaries or phalangeal feathers of the wing. 
See Flags. 

Bechins, j., morsels, mouthfuls. Fr. becqude^ and bechie^ i6th cent. 
" Prend le faulcon et luy donne une beschie de char, et luy mets le 
chaperon." — " Livre du Roy Modus," i486. " She bekyth when she 
sewith ; that is to say she wypith herbeke."— " Boke of St. Albans," 
i486. The modem French equivalent of bechins is beccades. Thus 
Baron Dunoyer de Noirmont, explaining the meaning of the expres- 
sion "to give tiring" (^.v.), writes ^^donner d tirer^ permettre au 
faucon de prendre quelques beccades au tiroir, aileron de volaille pr^- 
parfe," &c.— " Hist de la Chasse en France," 1868, iii. p. 85, note. 

Bewits, j., short thin strips of leather by which the bells are fastened to 
the legs. 

Bind, ?/., to fasten on the quarry in the air. 

Block, j., a truncated cone or cylindrical piece of wood having a ring in 
it for the attachment of the leash, and placed out of doors, whereon 
the hawk is set to ** weather " (^.v.)* 



220 GLOSSARY. 



Bolt, to fly at, v., said of a short-winged hawk ; to fly straight from the 
fist at the quarry. 

BowiSER, J., a young hawk able to fly from bough to bough* 

Bowse, v., to drink; variously spelt "bouse," "boose," "bouze," and 
" booze." O. Dutch, duisen. 

Bowsing, drinking. 

Brail, j., a narrow slip of thin soft leather, with a long slit in it, used for 
tying one wing of a restless hawk that bates much. 

Brancher, j., a young hawk that has lately left the nest. Called also a 
"ramage-hawk." — Ray, " Summary of Falconry," 1678. 

Cadge, j., the wooden oblong square frame on which hawks are carried 
hooded to the field. 

Cadger, the person who carries the hawk ; hence the abbreviated form 
" cad," a person fit for no other occupation. 

Calling off, luring a hawk from an assistant at a distance for exercise. 
See Creance. 

Canceleer, v,t Fr. chevatuher^ to make two or three sharp turns in the 

descent when stooping. 

' ' The fierce and eager hawks down thrilling from the skies 
Make sundry catueUtrs ere they the fowl can reach." 

Drayton, " Polyolbion," 1622, song xx. L 229. 

Carry, t/., to fly away with the quarry. 

Cast, j., a " cast of hawks," />., two ; not necessarily a pair. 

Cast, «/., " caste her to hode " (1575). When a hawk will not stand to the 
hood, or requires coping {q.v.\ she has to be " cast " or held for the 
purpose. 

Cast gorge, Fr. Jeter la garge^ to throw up the meat that is in her 
crop. See Turbervile's " Booke of Falconrie," 1575, p. 287. 

Casting, ^., fur or feathers given to a hawk with her meat to cleanse the 
pannel {g.v,\ and afterwards cast up in the shape of oblong pellets 
enveloping the indigestible portions of the food which are thus re- 
jected. Cotgrave gives Oiseau acuri^ a hawk that hath had " casting " 
given her. An old proverb says : 

" Wash'd meat and stones maketh a hawk to flie, 
But great casting and long fiasting maketh her to die.** 

Latham* s " Falconry," 16x5, p. 93. 

Cawking-time, s^ pairing time«— Reed, " Governance of Hawkes^" I557. 
See Harting, Na 81, Introd p. xvi* 

Cere, ^., Fr. dre^ Lat. cera^ the bare wax-like skin above the beak. 

Check, v^ whence checking, to fly at ; to change Jhe bird in pursuit 



GLOSSARY. aai 



Clutching, seizing the quarry in the feet. 

Come to, t/., to begin obeying the falconer. 

Coping, cutting ofT the sharp points of beak and talons. ^ Let her be 
short-coped, so I would advise all short-winged hawkes to be used, for 
the safety of thine owne hands" — Bert, "Treatise of Hawkes," 1619, 
p. 67. 

Cowering, quivering or shaking the wings, observed in young hawks. 

Crabbing, />., grabbing ; said of hawks when two are flown together, 
and one seizes the other on the quarry by mistake. 

Cray, s.^ a disease in hawks, namely, a stoppage of the tewell (^.z/.)> so 
that the bird cannot mute {q,v,), " The Cray commyth of washed 
meete the wich is washed withe bote water in the defawte of bote 
meete.''— ** Boke of St. Albans," i486. 

Creance, ^., Fr. crdancty Lat. credenti.iy a long line attached to the 
swivel, and used when "calling-off " (^.v.); ^V^% a hawk as it were 
on credit. Bert, in his "Treatise of Hawkes," 1619, has "cranes" 
(pp. 20, 21, 24) and " calling-cranes" (p. 54). 

Crines, s,y the short hair-like feathers about the cere (^.t^.). Nicholas 
Cox, in "The Gentleman's Recreation," 1674, has crinets. 

Croaks, or Kecks, Fr. croc, a disease of the air-passages, analogous to 
a cough, and so called from the sound the bird makes during any 
exertion, such as bating, or flying. See Pin. 

Crop, j., the dilatation of the gullet which serves as the first receptacle for 
the food taken by a hawk. 

Crossing flight, when another bird flies between the hawk and her 
quarry. 

Deck-feathers, x., the two centre feathers of the tail 

Disclosed, said of hawks that are just hatched ; now obsolete. 

Draw the hood^ to draw the braces which open and close the hood 
behind. 

Drawing yr(t7/» the tnew^ t>., withdrawing a hawk after she has moulted. 

Endew, v., whence endewing and endewed, to digest the food. " And ye 
shall say this hauke is fully gorged and hath endewed, or put over." — 
" Boke of St. Albans," i486. The forms indue zxid induing^ also occur, 
Fr. enduirey and induire. See Put over. 

Enew, or iN^w, r., the same as Put in {q^v,), Drayton has ineawe, 

" For very fear they instantly i/uawe, 

'* Polyolbion," i6aa, song xx. L 934. 



9 
I 



233 GLOSSAXY. 



t 



Enseam, with old authors Ensayme, z/., whence ensayminge and en- 
saymed, sc, enseam, from the Fr. essinter^ to purg^e a hawk, and rid 
her of superfluous fat ^'Ensayme of an hawke is the grece."— 
^ Boke of St Albans," i486. With a different spelling, '* ensaim," the 
word occurs in a Close Roll of 3 Hen. III. (1218). For the context, 
see Hardy, " Introd. Close Rolls," p. 17a 

Enter, i^., to fly a hawk at quarry for the first time. 

Eyess, j., a nestling, or young hawk taken from the ''eyrie "or nest ; 
from the Fr. nicdsy the initial n being dropped, as in many other 
English words {e,g,^ adder, from A.S. nadre). The terms applied to 
hawks of different ages are explained by D'Arcussia in his '* Faucon- 
nerie," 1605. He assigns five different names to hawks as they 
chance to be taken at different seasons — viz., (i) Niais^ if taken in 
May ; (2) Gentily in June, July, or August ; (3) Pelerin^ or Passager^ 
in September, October, November, or December; (4) AnUnere^ 
Antannaire (O.Fr. Antan^ />., Pannde pass/e\ or Antevere^ in 
January, February, or March ; and (5) Agar (*• mot H^reu qui 
signifie, estranger"\ if she has once moulted; hence our wcnxi 
'' Haggard" {q*v.\ applied to a wild-caught old hawk. Tardif, how- 
ever, had long previously explained these terms in his ^ L'Art de 
Faulconnerie," 1492, thus : — " Nyais oyseau est celui qui est prins au 
nid. Branchier est celui qui suit sa m^re de branche en branche, 
qui est aussi nommd rummage, Sor est appelld k sa couleur sorette, 
celui qui a void et prins devant quMl ait mud." 

Eyrie, j., see Ayre. 

Falcon, the female Peregrine par excellence^ but applied generally to 
the females of all long- winged hawks. 

Fall at mark, to alight upon the groimd and there await the owner. 
See Bert, " Treatise of Hawkes," 1619 (pp. 6, 72). 

Feake, 7/., feaking ; said of a hawk when she wipes her beak on the perch 
after feeding. It was also said ''an hawke snytith or sewith hir 
beke, and not wipeth hir beke." — " Boke of St Albans," i486. 

FiLANDERS,^., intestinal worms, Jilarta, C/, The Zoologist^ 188 1, p. 309. 

Flags, s^ the secondary, or cubital feathers of the wing. See Beam- 
feathers. 

Fly on head, ?/., to miss the quarry and check. 

Foot, z/., to clutch. A good footer is said of a hawk that catches well 
and holds. 

Frounce, j., a canker or sore in the mouth and throat For modem 



GLOSSARY. 213 



treatment) see Salvin and Brodrick, '' Falconry in the British Isles," 
2nd edit p. 142. 

Full-summed, adj,^^ when a hawk has got all her new feathers after 
moulting. See Summed. 

Galbanum, X., a gum resin derived from an umbelliferous plant, Ferula 
galbcmiflua ; usually obtained by making an incision in the stalks, 
when a milk-white fluid exudes in tear-like drops, which, after a few 
hours' exposure to light and air, change to a yellow colour, and 
become dry and hard enough to gather. It is regarded as an internal 
remedy in chronic mucous catarrh and rheumatism, and is applied 
externally in the form of galbanum plaister as a mild stimulant to 
relieve tumours and chronic pulmonary affections. 

Get in, i^., to reach the hawk as soon as she has kilied. 

Gleam, the substance thrown up after casting gorge. 

Gorge, ^., the crop ; Gorged, cuij^ full fed. 

GURGITING, choking with too large a mouthful 

Hack, j., the place where the hawk's meat is laid. — Nicholas Cox, " The 
Gentleman's Recreation,'* 1674. 

Hack, flying at ; Fr. voter au taquet; the state of liberty in which eyess 
falcons are kept for a few weeks before being trained ; coming in daily 
to feed on the hack-board where their meat is cut up for thenu Sir 
John Sebright employs the term : " Observations upon Hawking," 
1826, p. 8. John Dawson Downes, a contemporary falconer of 
experience, to whom he submitted the MS. of this work for criticism 
prior to publication, invariably wrote ixt hecky and asserted that the 
term is not applicable " until after the birds have been taken up and 
trained." See TIu Zoologist^ 1890, p. 418. 

Hack-bells, large heavy bells put on hawks to hinder them from preying 
for themselves whilst " flying at hack.'* 

Haggard, x., a hawk that has been caught after assuming its adult 
plumage, that is, after having moulted in a wild state. Prof. Skeat 
states (** Etym. Diet") that the original sense is living in a hedge 
[hag\ hence wild ; though Peregrine Falcons do not live in hedges. 
D'Arcussia derives the word from the Hebrew agar^ which signifies 
stranger, and which, in this sense, is synonymous with Passage-hawk. 
See Eyess. The unknown author of the '* Menagier de Paris,** 1393 
has " Esprevier hagart est celluy qui est de mue de haye," ed. Pichon, 
1846, vol. iL p. 317* 1^ & foot-note to this remark Baron Pichon 
observes : " D'Arcussia (pp. 8 et 36) et Saincte Aulaire (p. 12) 
discnt aussi que le faucon hagart (ou mud de champs) est celui qui a 



324 GLOSSARY. 



d<jk mud une fois. D'Arcussia fait deriver ce nom da mot hdbrra 
agar^ signifiant Stranger. II semble qu'il doit plutot signifier /gari^ 
sauvage^ k moins qu'attendu Texplication qu'en donne ici notre 
auteur on ne le fasse venir de haya^ haie." Selincourt, in his ** Par^t 
Chasseur," 1683, gives some advice as to the best kinds of hawks to 
keep according to the sort of country they are to be flown in, and 
refers to the " fiEtuconniers flamands qui en apportent tous les ans 
tant de niais que de hagars^ 

Halsband, X., literally, neck-band ; a contrivance ot soft twisted silk 
placed like a collar round the hawk's neck and the end held in the 
hand; used by Indian £Uconers, when flying the Sparrow-hairtc 
to steady the bird when cast ofi. 

Havock, to cry, from A.S. hafoCy a hawk. See Hoo-HA-HA. 

Hey and Heyb, adj,^ in old authors, sc, high, i>., in good condition. 

Hood, j., tlie leathern cap (Fr. chaperon^ Dutch kmf^ and German 
luuibe) used for blindfolding hawks to tame them. '* I never in the 
house let her sit hooded at all, and when shee is a flying hawke, 
never unhooded in the field."— Bert, ^ Treatise,'* 1619, p. 23. Before 
the Crusades the hood was unknown to European falconers ; it was 
introduced by the German Emperor, Frederick II., who adopted the 
use of it from the Syrian Arabs. The hood proper has a plume of 
feathers on top ; the rufter-hood is without this. See RUFTSR-HOOD 
and Seeling. 

Hood off, t/., to pull oiT the hood and slip a hawk at the quarry. 

HoOD-SHV, said of a hawk that has been spoilt by clumsy hooding. 

Hoo-HA-HA. The modem version ot an old cry raised by falconers 
when the quarry is sighted and the hawk is encouraged to pursue. 
Drayton (No. 23) gives it in a description of hawking by the river, 
1622 (vide anteciy p. 19). Perhaps the expression, to cry havock^ meant 
originally to give the hawking cry before slipping at the quarry, hafoc 
being the A.S. word for hawk. Claude Gauchet, in his ''Plaisir des 
Champs," 1 583, writes : " puis au partir de Parbre hoya^ hoya^ se crie ; 
and Dangeau, in his ^'Etats de la France,** has : ^ Toutes fois qu*elle 
part (la Pie) on crie, houyoy houya /" Baron de Noirmont (No. 206), 
describing the French method of duck-hawking (vol iii. p. 184X 
says : *' on mettait les oiseaux, c'est k dire les faucons, d moni^ puis 
on faisait partir les canards ; au moment od ils prenaient leur vol, on 
criait ha^ ha / ou bien encore hou^ hou / k la mode flamande," The 
Arab falconers shout ^ha-hou!^'* which, according to General 
Daumas (No. 199), signifies with them *' There it is 1" The Japanese 
falconers, when hal'oaing to a hawk, cry, "C?-^i/, O-ou/** See the 



GLOSSARY. 225 



"Chinese and Japanese Encyclopaedia," by Simayosi Anko, 1714 
(No. 366). 

Indue, Induing, note to No. 10. See Endew. 

Imping, from the Lat. impono^ a method of repairing broken flight or 
tail feathers. For the modus operandi^ see Salvin and Brodrick, 
** Falconry in the British Isles," 1873, P* ^34« 

Inre, X., the neck of the quarry (^.v.), now obsolete. 

INTERMEWED is "from her first mewing till she come to be a white 
hawk."— Latham, 161 5. Literally, " between moults." " I have seen 
divers entermewersr — Bert, 161 9. This word is now seldom used. 

Jack, the male Merlin. 

Jerkin, the male Jerfalcon. 

Jesses, j., the short narrow straps of leather fastened round a hawk's legs 
to hold her by. See Leash. 

Jokin, sleeping ; used by old authors ; a term now obsolete. 

JOKITH, jouketh, i.e,^ sleepeth. Amongst the ** kyndeli termis that belong 
to hawkis," explained in the " Boke of St. Albans," i486, the fifth is 
that your \ax^^ jouketh and not slepith. 

Leash, x., a long narrow thong of leather attached to the jesses with a 
swivel or varvels {q.v,\ and by means of which a hawk is tied to 
perch or block. 

Lines, j., loynesy lunesy also lewnes, '' Lunes for hawks, leashes or long 
lines to call them.''— PhUlips, " New World of Words," 1696. " The 
jesses were made sufficiently long for the knots [ends] to appear 
between the middle and the litt ^ fingers of the hand that held them, 
so that the lunesy or small thongs of leather, might be fastened to 
them with tyrrits or rings, and the lunes were loosely wound round 
the little finger." — Strutt, " Sports and Pastimes," p. 32. Hence it 
would appear that the lunes took the place of the modem leash, which 
is attached to the jesses with a swivel or varvels. Bert terms them 
" lines," thus : — " until he hath with her lines fastened her calling- 
cranes unio her." — *• Treatise of Hawkes,** 1619, p. 54. See Creance. 

Lure, j., from the O.Fr. loerrey modem leurre; O. German Luodety 
a bait Technically, a bunch of feathers, or couple of wings tied 
together on a piece of leather, and weighted. Being garnished with 
raw meat, the hawk is always fed upon it. Hence, when swung aloft, 
it serves to lure the hawk back to the falconer. 

Mail, x., the breast feathers of a hawk. 



226 GLOSSARY. 



Mail, t/^ to mail a hawk, f>., to wrap her up in a sock, or ha nd kerchief (Fr. 
I'envelopper d*un linge nommd chemise)^ either to tame her, as 
described by Bert {pp. cit. pp. 46-47), or to keep her quiet during an 
operation, as " coping " or " imping " (^.v.). 

Make-hawk, j., an old experienced hawk flown with an eyess, when 
training, to teach it or encourage it 

Manning, manned, making a hawk tame by accustoming her to man's 
presence. See Reclaim. 

Mantle, t/., said of a hawk " when she stretcheth one of her wings after 
her leg, and so the other.*' — Nicholas Cox, 1674. 

Mar-hawk, x., one who spoils a hawk by clumsy handling. 

Mark, to fly at, v., generally said of a Goshawk when, having *^ put in " a 
covey of partridges, she takes stand, marking the spot where they 
disappeared from view until the falconer arrives to put them out to 
her. 

Marrow, with old authors mary, ^^., mary of beefe ; mary of goose ; 
given as a remedy, or to envelope medicine. 

Mew, X., the place where hawks are set down to moult. When the royal 
"mews" at Charing Cross were converted into stables in 1534, the 
name, confirmed by long usage, remained to the building, althoup:h 
inapplicable after the hawks were removed. In later times, when 
the people of London began to build ranges of stables at the back of 
their houses, they continued the name of the buildings, though 
appropriated to other uses. — Stow's " Survey of London,** 1 598. 

Mew, v., to moult, from the Fr. muery to change the feathers. In •* The 
Gentleman's Academie," by Gervase Markham, i59St will be found 
special directions for the mewing of hawks, from which we learn that 
the best time to commence is the beginning of Lent, and, if well kept, 
the bird will be mewed, that is, moulted, by the beginning of August. 
French falconers term their hawks " muis lorsqu'ils ont £ait cette 
premiere mue en captivitd ; muh des hois ou des chatnps^ quand elle 
a eu lieu en liberty." — Dunoyer de Noirmont ** Pour les tnuez ties 
champs^ ils sont du tout infid^les, et vont toujours aux moucherons." 
— D'Arcussia, " Conference des Fauconiuers " (ii* joum^). This 
explains the term ** muer de haye^^ used in reference to a Goshawk in 
one of the Paston Letters, 24 Nov. 1472, which seems to have 
puzzled commentators. 

Mites, j., the parasites that infest the head and nares of a hawk. 

Momey, j., with old authors, sc, mummy, Fr. momiej formerly, when 
reduced to powder, used as medicine for hawks : cf, Ray, " Summary 



GLOSSARY. 227 



of Falconry/' 1678, chap. ii. § 9. The old Spanish writers on 
Falconry refer to it as momia : cf, Pero Lopez de Ayala, ^ Libro de 
las Aves de Ca9a,*' chap, xxviii. The use of it was probably intro- 
duced into Spain by the Moors, as it appears to be derived from the 
Arabic moumiyoy from moum^ wax. — Cf, Dozy et Engelmann, " Glos- 
saire des Mots espagnols ddrivds de Parabe," 2nd edit Leyde, 1869. 

MUER DES CHAMPS, or MUER DE HAVE. See MEW. 

Musket, x., the male Sparrow-hawk ; French mouchet^ Dutch mosket. 

Mutes, ^., the droppings or excrement of hawks. ^And ye shall say 
that your hauke mutith."—" Boke of St Albans," 1486. Or, if a 
short-winged hawk, she " sliceth," op, ciL 

N ARES, X., the nostrils of a hawk. From the Latin. 

Nyas, j., sc. an eyas, or eyess, Fr. niais^ a nestling hawk taken from the 
eyrie or nest. — Dunoyer de Noirmont, " Hist, de la Chasse en 
France," iii. p. 120. O.Fr. nyis, " Tu aiiras faulcons et laniers 
nyiSy ramcUges^ sors^ muers" — Gace de la Bigne, 14th cent. Tur- 
bervile, in his ^ Booke of Falconrie," 1 575, has a chapter entitled 
" How to keepe Nyasse Sparowhawkes." See note to Eyess. 

OSTRINGER, s.y SC. austringer, and astringer (Shakespeare), generally re- 
stricted to one who keeps short-winged hawks, especially the Gos- 
hawk. Fr. ausiour and auiour, " We usually call a falconer, who 
keeps that kind of hawk, an ctustringer^ — Cowell, "Law Diet" 
Bert employs the term austringer, — "Treatise of Hawkes," 1619. 
The form ostreger also occurs, from ostercus or austercus, — Ducange, 
sub voce Astur. "A Goshawk is in our records termed by the 
several names of osturcum, hostricum^ estriciutn^ asturcum^ and 
austercum, all from the Fr. austour [mod. autour; Lat <istur\!^ 
—Blount, "Ancient Tenures," 4to, 1815, p. 266, "A techer or 
ynstructor of fawkners and ostrigers." — Reed, " Governance of 
Hawkes," 1557. Turbervile has "certaine observations for an Os- 
treger in keeping of a Goshawke." — "Booke of Falconrie," 1575. 
Ray also has " Ostreger." — " Summary of Falconry," 1678. 

Pannel, X., the stomach or lower bowel of a hawk. 

Pantas, 5., a disease in hawks akin to asthma. 

Passage-hawk, a wild hawk caught upon the passage or migration. 

Paster, 5., plaister; used medicinally ; now obsolete. 

Perch, j., is that whereon you set down your hawk when you put her off 
your fist — Ray, " Summary of Falconry," 1678. The perch is used 
in the house ; the blocks out of doors. See Block. 



228 GLOSSARY. 



Pelt, j., the dead body of the quarry. 

Pendant feathers, those behind the thighs of a hawk. 

Petty singles, the toes of a hawk. 

Pill, or Pelf, j., what is left of the quarry after the hawk has been fed 
upon it 

Pin and Web, j., a disease of the eye in hawks akin to dimness and 
film. Bert describes another disease (p. 86) called '' pinne in the 
throat," which from his description resembles what modern falconers 
term "croaks" (^. v.). 

Pitch, J., the height to which a falcon rises in the air by ringing up (^v.). 

Plumage, j., given for "casting" {g.v,). 

Plume, v., to pluck the feathers off the quarry. 

Point, to make her, when a hawk throws herself up in the air above the 
spot where the quarry has " put in " (^.v.)« 

Pounces, j., the claws of a hawk. 

Preen, t/., to dress the feathers with the beak. 

Principals, the two longest feathers in the wing of a hawk. 

Put in, v.y to drive the quarry into covert. 

Put over, t^., said of a hawk " when she removeth her meat from the 
gorge into the bowel^, by traversing with her body, but chiefly with 
her neck." — Nicholas Cox, "The Gentleman's Recreation," 1674. 
See Endew. 

Quarry, x., the game flown at. O.Fr. curie^ the reward given to homids 
when they killed ; from the Low Lat. corata^ the entrails of a slain 
animal. 

Quick, adj,^ alive. 

Rake away, ?'., to take off, instead of pursuing the quarry flown at, or to 
fly wide of it 

Ramage-hawk. See Brancher. 

Rangle, X., small stones given to hawks to aid digestion. If set down 
on a block where it can reach them, a hawk will pick them up 
voluntarily. 

Reclaim, t/., Fr. rkclamer^ to make a hawk tame, gentle, and 
familiar. "In the manning and reclaiming, you must by kindness 
make her gentle and familiar with you." — Nicholas Cox, "The 
Gentleman's Recreation," 1674. 

Red-hawk, j., the modem term for a " sore-hawk " (^.t/.). 



GLOSSARY. 229 



Ring-up, z/., to rise spirally to a height. 

Robin, x., the male Hobby. 

Rouse, v.^ is when a hawk lifteth herself up and shaketh herself. — 
Nicholas Cox, op. cit. " Rowse," " Boke of St. Albans,'' i486. 

Rousing ; with old authors Rowysin. See Rouse. 

Ruff, v., Fr. buffeter^ to hit the quarry and make the feathers fly, with- 
out trussing it See Truss. 

RUFTER-HOOD, ^., Dutch ruishuify German rUsthaube, French chaperon 
de rusty a plain, easy leather hood, through which the hawk can 
feed, and opening wide behind ; used when a hawk is being tamed, 
and superseded ' by the hood proper when she is trained. The 
absence of a plume prevents her from pulling it off. See Hood. 

Rye, j., a disease in hawks which shows itself by a swelling in the head. 
** For defawte of hote meate this sekenesc the Ry commyth." — " The 
Boke of St. Albans," i486. 

Sails, j., the wings of a hawk. 

Scouring, j., purging. See Turbervile's "Booke of Falconrie," 1575 
(pp. 285, 286). 

Screen-perch, j., the form of perch used for hawks when kept in a 
room. See Perch and Block. 

Seare, and Sere, s., with old authors, for cere, from Lat. cereiy the 
wax-like skin above the beak. See Cere. 

Sedge, at-, a corruption of ** at siege f said of a heron when at the water- 
side, in contradistinction to being " on passage.'' 

Seeling, an old method of obscuring the sight of the hawk by passing 
threads through the lower eyelids and tying them behind the head, 
a practice long superseded in this country by the more humane use 
of the hood, though still adopted by native falconers in India. 

Serving a kvnvk, helping to put out the quarry from covert. 

Set down to moults put into the mew. 

Sharp set, very hungry. 

Sloose, j., with old authors, for sloes (Prunus spinosa, Linn.), used 
medicinally; A.S. sla; 0.£. sle. For an interesting note on the 
meaning of this word, see Prior, " Popular Names of British Plants," 
3rd edit. (1879), p. 217, 

Sniting, with old authors ; an obsolete term for sneezing. 

Sock, German Falkensack, See Mail, v. 

Sore-hawk, j., a hawk of the first year. From the Fr. sor, or saure^ 
reddish brown ; whence sorrel. *' A sowyr hawk ys much tenderer 



230 GLOSSARY. 



than a muyd hawlc^-^Reed, ^Governance of Hawkes," 1557. A 
coloured figure of a sore Sparrow-hawk b given in Rowley's 
" Ornithological Miscellany,'' 410, 1875 (vol. L p. 58). 

Spring, z^., to flush the partridgOi pheasant, or other bird to be flown at. 

Stalke, j., with old authors, the leg (tarats). See Harting, Na 81, pp. 

5. 7, 16, 31. 
Stavesaker, s^ stavesacre, Delphinium staphisagria^ Linn«, a plant 

formerly in request for destroying lice in a hawk. 

Stoop, j., the swift descent of a fidcon on the quarry from a hdght ; 
synonymous with swoop. 

Strike the hood, z/., to half open it, so as to be in readiness to liood off 
the moment the hawk is to be flown. 

Summed, adj. A hawk is said to be ** summed " or '* full summed" when, 
after moulting, she has got all her new feathers, and is fit to be taken 
out of the mew. See note to No. 10, cmted^ p. 10. 

Swivel, j., used to prevent the jesses and leash from getting twisted when 
the hawk is tied upon the perch. See Leash, TvRRiT,and Varvsls. 

Take the air, t/., to mount. 

Tewell, j., the lower bo#el, affected by the disease termed cray (q.v.). 

Tiercel, Tercel, Tassel (Shakespeare), and Tarsell (Bert), the male 
of any species of hawk, the female being termed a falcon. The tiercel 
is said by some to be so called from being about one-third smaller in 
size than the falcon ; by others it is derived from the old belief that 
each nest contained three young birds, of which two were females, 
and the third and smallest a male. Note the funiKau: line in ^ Romeo 
and Juliet '' : " Oh I for a falconer's voice to lure this tassel-gentle 
back again." 

Tire, v., Fr. tirer^ to pull at a tough piece See " Tiring." 

Tiring, x., any tough piece (as the leg of a fowl with little on it) given to a 
hawk when in training to pull at, in order to prolong the meal, and 
exercise the muscles of the back and neck. '* 1 have knowne many 
Falconers that never make their hawkes to tyre, saying that it is but 
a custom, and needelesse ; but I say the contrary, for inasmuch as 
the hawkc is exercised by reasonable tyring, shee becommeth the 
healthier and the lighter both of body and of head by all moderate 
exercises, yea, and shee is the better in state also as you may per- 
ceyve." — Turbervile, "Booke of Falconrie," 1575. 

Tower, v. See Ring up. 



\ 



GLOSSARY. 231 



Train, x., the tail of a hawk. Also the live bird that is given on a line to 
the hawk when first entered. 

Truss, v., Fr. trousser^ to clutch the quarry in the mr instead of striking 
it to the ground. 

Tyrrit, j., a swivel, or turning-ring, from the Fr. tourety the use of 
which is thus explained by Littr^ : " anneau double qui empdche les 
jets d'un faucon ou toute autre courroie de s'embrouiller ; " and by 
Baron Dunoyer de Noirmont : '' pour emp^her les jets et la longe 
de s'enrouler, on interposait entre eux un tourety compost de deux 
anneaux de mdtal, toumant Pun sur Tautre." The word occurs in 
Chaucer, who describes greyhounds ** with mosel fast ybound, 
colered with gold, and iorretes filed round." See Warton's note on 
the passage, '* History of English Poetry,** vol. ii. p. 99 (1824). The 
mode of making a tyrrit or swivel is minutely described and its use 
explained in the work of the Emperor Frederick II., '^Z^^ arte 
venandi cum (vvibusy^ yRriXXtxi 2\mkX 1247, and first printed in IS96. 
See chapter xl. of the second book, entitled '* De tomettOy qtuditer 
factum n'tj et ad quid sit utile J* 

Unreclaimed, adj.y wild. 

Unstrike the hood, z/., to loosen the braces so that the hood may be 
easily pulled off. 

Unsummed, adj, A hawk is said to be unsummed while moulting, 
before her new feathers are grown up. 

Urines, x., nets to catch hawks. — Nicholas Cox, 1674. A corruption 
probably of the Fr. araigne^ "sorte de filet pour prendre les 
oiseaux divers et m^me les oiseaux de proie.** — Cerfon, ** De la Bas^e 
Volerie," p. 145. 

Varvels, j., small flat rings of silver on which the owner's name was 
engraved, fastened to the ends of the jesses, and used instead of 
a swivel, the leash being passed through them. One is figured 
on the title-page of Bert's Treatise, 1619. See also Camden, 
** Britannia," i. 329 ; Gentle fnan^s Magazine^ vol. 63, p. loi ; vol 65, 
p. 474 ; Archccologia^ vol. xii. p. 410, pi. 51 ; and Dillon, Proc. Soc, 
Antig.y 2nd series, vol. iv. (1869), p. 353. 

Wait on, Fr. tenir d mont, A hawk is said to '' wait on" when she soars in 
circles over the head of the falconer, waiting for the game to be flushed. 

Warbile, Warbel, and Warble, v, A hawk warbleth when after ** rous- 
ing " and " mantling " {q,v,) she crosses her wings together over her 
back. " She mantellith and not stretchith when she putteth her leges 
from her oon after another : and hir wynges follow after hir leggs : then 



232 GLOSSARY. 



she dooth mantill hir, and when she hath mantilled hir and bryngith 
booth hir wynges togeder ouer hir backe, ye shall say youre hawke 
' warbelfith hir wynges.' "— *< Boke of St Albans," i486. 

Watching. Part of the old method of taming hawks was to watch 
them for the first night or two after their capture, to prevent them 
from sleeping. *' I kept them upon the fist that day they came 
unto me, and that night they were truly watched." — Bert, ^ Treatise 
of Hawkes," 1619 (p. 46X Shakespeare employs the word in this 
sense, " Taming of the Shrew," act iv. so. i, wherein Petruchio gives 
a lesson in " reclaiming " a hawk. 

Weather, t/., whence weathering, to place the hawk upon her block in 
the open air. Simon Latham (who states in the Pre^Eice to his book 
that ** the practice and experience of many years is given in a few 
leaves not drawn from traditions in print, or otherwise taken upon 
trust, but out of certain and approved conclusions ") remarks on the 
subject of " weathering " that an eyess may be set abroad to weather 
at any time of day unhooded, and better when her gorge is full, for 
she will then sit quietly upon the block ; but a haggard should be set 
down in the morning, or else in the evening before she is fed, and 
should always be hooded to prevent her from ''bating*' (as she other- 
wise would do) and continually striving to be gone, whereby her 
training would be greatly hindered. See Latham's ** Falconry ; or 
the Faulcon's Lure, and Cure," 161 5 (p. 35). 




VOCABULARY, 



IN VARIOUS LANGUAGES, OF THE CHIEF TECHNICAL 
TERMS EMPLOYED BY FALCONERS. 



234 



VOCABULARY. 



ENGLISH. 


DUTCH. 


GERMAN. 


FRENCH. 


Falconry, or 


Valkenjagt 


Falkenjagd 


Fauconnerie 


Hawking • 


Valkenierderij 


Falknerei 


Autourserie 


f9 


fi 


Falkenbeize 


Voleric 


Falconer 


Valkenier 


Falkenjager 


Fauconnier 


Falcon 


Valk 


Falke 


Faucon 


Hawk 


Havik 


Habicht 


Autour 


Bag, hawking 


Valkenierzak 


Falknertasche 


Fauconni^re 


Bate, V, 


Fladderen 


Flattem 


Battre ; se de- 
hattre 


Bathe, v. 


Baden 


Baden 


Baigner 


BeU 


Bel; schel 


Schelle 


Soimette ; grclot 


Bewit 


Riem (lederen) 


Riemen 


Porte-grelot 


Bind, or clutch, I/. 


Binden 


Binden 


Lier ; empi^er 


Block 


Blok 


Block 


Bloc 


Brail 


Breil 


Schlcife ; Flechte 


Bride 


Brancher 


Takling 


Fitigling 
Cage ; Trage 


Branchier 


Cadge 


Cagie 


Cage; brancard 


Cadge-bearer 


Cagie«4rager 


Cage-trager 


Cagier ; porte- 


Call off, V. 


Lokken 


Anziehen 


cage 
Leurrer ; r^- 








clamer 


Carry, v. 


Trossen 


Tragen 


Charrier 


Cast off, V, 


Losgooijen 


Abwerfen ; los- 


Jeter ; lecher ; 






lassen 


mettre k mont 


Casting, ^r pellet 


Uitwerp 


Auswurf ; 
Schleimsel 


Cure; pelote 


Cere 


Wassen 


Wachshaut; Ring 


Cire ; couronne 


Cope, V, 


Afsnijden 


Abschneiden 


Couper ; apol- 
tronir 


Creance 


Vliegdraad 


Flugleine ; 
Lockschnur 


Creance ; fili^re 


Crop 


Krop 


Kropf 
Lockspeise ; 


Gor^ 


Drawer, or lure 


Loer 


Tiroir ; leurre 






Federspiel 




Eagle 


Arend 


Adier 


Aigle 


Eagle-owl 


Hoomuil 


Uhu 


Grand-due 


Endew, v. 


Verduwen 


Verdauen 


Enduire ; ou 
induire 


Enseam, v. 


Zuiveren 


Aushungem 


Essimer ; de- 
graisser 


Eyess,^r nestling 


Nestling 


Nestling 


Niais 



* Many of the terms in this Vocabulary are not to be found in the Dictionaries, and have 
been taken from the most approved and reliable works on Falconry. 




VOCABULARY. 



235 



SPANISH. 


ITALIAN. 


LATIN. 


Halconerfa ; alta- 


Falconeria 


Ars falconaria * 


neiifa 






Cetrerfa ; ca^a 


Uccellatura 


An accipitraria 


(caza) de aves 






Volateria 


Caccia col falcone 


Aucupium, ex aucupare 


Halconero ; cetrero 


Falconiere ; siroz- 
ziere; strucciere 


Falconarius ; accipitrarius 


Alcon, halcon, fal- 


Falcone 


Falco 


con 
A^or ; azor 


Astore 


Astur ; accipiter ; acceptor 


Bolsa ; O^S. linja- 


Borsa; sacca 


Bursa ; cameria 


vera 






Sacudir 


Scuotere ; debattere 


Deverberare, unde diver- 
beratio (bating) 


Bafiar 


Bagnare 


Balneare ; abluere 


Campanilla ; 


Sonaglio 


Campanella ; nola 


cascabel 






Corr^a 


Coreggia 


Corrigia ; corrigiola 


Agarrar ; empuiiar 


Attaccare 


Arripere ; prehendere 
Sedile ; seditorium 


Tajo ; zoqu^te 


Tronco; pietrt 


Braza 


Briglia 


Corrigiola ; filo ligare alas 


Halcon ramdro 


Ramace ; ramengo 


Ramalis ; ramarius; nunagius 


Caja 


Gdbbia 


Portatorium 


Portador 


PorUtoro 


Falconum portator 


Tirar ; atraer ; 


Attirare ; allettare ; 


Allectare ; revocare 


Llamar a la tira 


chiamare al lodro 




Llevar 


Portare la preda 


Subducere 


Arrojar, 0.S, de- 


Lasdare ; gettare 


Jactare 


salar ; lan^ar 






Curalle ; pelotilla ; 


Pallotolla ; 0.L bor- 


Pilula ; plumata ; egestio 


plumada 


gature 




Cera 

Acortar 


Cera 


Cera 


Tagliare 


Ungues aptare 


Hilo ; O.S. fila ; 


Fila ; credenzia 


Credentia ; fileria 


cord^l 






Gorja ; gola ; papo 


Gola 


Gula ; gorgia ; ingluvies 


Sefmelo 


Logoro 


Tiratona ; lorarium 


Ap:uila 


Aquila 


Aquila 


Buho 


Gufo 


Bubo 


Digerir 


Digerire 


Induere 


Desaynar 


Smagrare 


Expurgare 


Nidgo ; nididgo 


Niaso ; nidiace ; 


Nidasius; nidarius ; nidu- 




nidaso 


larius ; clamorosus, a 
screamer 



• The Latin tenns given in this Vocabulary are derived from the authoritative work of 
the Emperor Frederick II., De arte venandicum Avians, Na 308. 



236 



VOCABULARY. 



ENGLISH. 


DUTCH. 


GERMAN. 


FRENCH. 


Eyrie, or nest 


Horst 


Horst 


Aire ; nid 


Feather 


Veder 


Feder 


Plume ; penne 


Flight feathers 


Vleugels 


Schwingfedem 


Vanneaux 


Flight, a 


Vlugt 


Flug 


Vol 


Feed up, v. 


Azen 


Futtem ; Kr5pfen 


Faire paitre 


Fist 


Hand 


Hand ; Faust 


Main ; poing 


Glove 


Handschoen 


Handschuh 


Gant 


Gorge 
Goshawk 


Krop 


Kropf 


Gorge 


Havik ; duiven- 


Habicht; Hiihner- 


Autour ; 0*F. aus* 




valk 


habicht 


tour 


Haggard ; see 
" Glossary *' 


Haggard 


Hagard; Alter- 


Hagard; madr^ 




falke 




Hawk 


Havik 


Habicht 


Autour 


Hawk of the fist 


Hand-valk 


Hand-£Bdke 


Oiseau de poing 
Oi^eau de leurre 


Hawk of the lure 


Loer-valk 


Lockspeisen-falke 


Hawk-house 


Valken-kamer 


Falkenkammer 


Perchoir 


Hawk's meat 


Aas 


Frass ; Fleisch 


P&t ; nourriture 


Heron-hawk 


Reiger-valk 


Reiher-falke 


Heronnier 


Heronshaw 


Reiger 


Reiher 


Heronseau 


Hobby 


Boom-valk 


Baum-falke 


Hobereau 


Hood, s. 


Huif; kap 


Haube ; Kappe 


Chaperon 


Hood, rufter- 


Reushuif 


Riist ^/i^frRausch- 
haube 


Chaperon de rust 


Hood, plume of 


Pluimpje 


Federbusch 


Panache; cor- 
nette 


Hood,!/. 


Ophuiven 
Amuiven 


Aufhauben 


Chaperonner 
D^haperonner 


Unhcod, V. 


Abhauben 


Hunger traces 


Honger-malie 


Hungermal ; 
Hungermarke 


Pennes afiamdes 


Imp, V, 


Eene veder aan- 
steken 


Anstecken 


Enter une penne 


Imping needle 


Naald 


Nadel 


Aiguille ^ enter 


Jerifalcon 


Giervalk 


Gierfalke 


Gerfaut 


Jesses 


Schoenen 


Schiihe ; Wurf- 
fesseln 


Les jets 


Kestrel 


Torenvalk 


Thurmfelke 


Cresserelle 


Kite 


Wouw; milaan 


Rother-milan 


MUan 


Lanner 


Lannervalk 


Lannerfalke 


Tinier 


Leash 


Langveter 


Langfessel 


Longe 


Short-leash 


Kortvcter 


Kurzfessel 


Courtrier 


Lure, s. 


Loer 


Lujer ; Lockspeise ; 
Federspiel 


Leurre ; rappel 


Lure, V, 


Lokken 


Locken 


Leurrer ; r^ 
clamer 


Merhn 


Smelleken 


Schmerlein, 0:G, 
Smirlin ; Mer- 
lin-falke 


Emenllon 



^ 



VOCABULARY. 



237 



SPANISH. 


ITALIAN. 


LATIN. 


Nido ; 0,S, ayre 


Nido ; nidato 


Area ; nidus 


Pluma 


Penna 


Penna 


Cuchillos 


Coltelli 


Cultellus ; van! 


Vuelo ; volerfa 


Volo ; volato 


Volatus 


Nutrir ; alimentar 


Nutrire ; alimentare 


Nutrire 


Mano ; pufio 


Mano ; pugno 


Manus ; pugnus 


Guante 


Guanto 


Chirotheca; manica coriacea 


Gorja ; gola 


Gorgia ; gola 


Gula 


A^or ; azor 


Astore 


Astur ; austur 


Halcon mudado ; 


Falcone mudato 


Falco mutatus 


0,S, qahareno 






Azor ; gavilan 


Astore 


Astur ; accipiter ; acceptor 


Ave de mano 


Falcone di pugno 
Falcone di logoro 


Pugilaris 


Ave de senuelo 


Lorana, seu pinnaria 


Halconera 


Camera; muta 


Camera ; muta ; mutatorium 


Nutrimento 


Nutrimento ; ali- 
mento 


Alimenta ; caro 


Gargdro 


Aironero 


Falco ad ardeam 


Gar^a ; garza real 


Airone 


Ardea ; ardeola 


Alcotdn 


Lodolaio 


Alaudarius 


Capirdte 


Cappello ; cappel- 
leto 


Capellus ; cucullus 


II 


» II 


II II 


Penacho ; peiiola 


Pennuccia; pennella 


Plumula ; pennula 


Poner el capir6te 


Incappellare 


Capellum induerc 


Tirar el capir6te 


Discappellare 


Capellum deponere 


Navajadillas 


Penne affamate 


Pennse afiamatx 


Enjerir ; 0,S, en- 


Inschittire 


Imponere 


xerir 






Aguja 


A^o ; aghetto 


Acus 


Halcon girifalte 


Girifalco 


Girofalco; gyrfalco 


Pihudlas ; OS, 


Getto ; getti 


Jactus ; jacti sunt laquei 


piudlas ; pedi- 




de corio facti, imponendi 


cudlas 




pedibus faiconum 


Cemicalo 


Cristariello ; fal- 
chetto; ghcppio 
Milano ; forceluta 


Tinnunculus 


Milano 


Milvus regalis 


Lanero; Alfandque 


Laniere ; lanano 


Lanerius ; lanarius 


Lonja 


Lunga 


Longa 


Lonja corta 


Corta lunga 


Not used; cf. p. 170 


Seiiuelo ; 0,S. 


Logoro ; O.L lodro 


Loyrum ; logorum; lorarium; 


roedero 




tiratorium 


Seiiolear ; llamar 


Allettare ; richia- 


Allectare ; revocare ; logorum 




mare 


exhibere vel ostendere 


£smerej6n 


Smerlo ; smeriglio 


Smerilio ; mirle (Albertus 
Magnus) 



ajS 



VOCABULARY. 



ENGLISH. 


DUTCH. 


GERMAN. 


FRENCH. 


Moult, S. 


Muite 


Mauser 


Mue 


Moult, V, 


Muiten 


Mausen 


Muer 


Mount, soar, or 


Zweven 


Auffliegen ; Auf- 


Prendre Pair ; 


ring up, V. 




steigen 


monter k Pessor 


Mutes, s. 


Smettsel 


Schmelz 


Esmeuts; ements; 
fientes 


Mute, V. 


Smettseln 


Schmelzen ; 


Esmutir : emea- 






Spretsen 


tir ; fienter 


Nestling, see 


n 


19 


n 


Eyess 








Passaj^e-hawk, or 


Passagier ; pel- 


Dreckfalke; 


Passager ; pdlerin 


peregrine 


grim 


Wander&lke 




Perch, J. 


Vogelrek ; Valk- 


Das Reck, oder 


Pcrche 




enstang 


Sitzstange 




Quarry 


Prooi 


Raub ; Beute 


Curde ; proie 


Reclaim, v. 


Verbctercn 


2:ahmen 


R^clamer 


Red-hawk« or 


Roode-valk 


Rotherfolke 


Faucon rouge, ou 


sore-hawk 






sors 


Saker 


Saker-valk 


Saker-felke 


Sacre ; sacret 


Seel,!/. 


Breeuven 


Siegeln ; Auf- 
briiunen 


Ciller; siller 


Sock 


Valkenzak 


Falkensack 


Linge ; chemise 


Sparrow-hawk ; 


Sperwer ; het 


Sperber; Sper- 


Epervier ; 0,F. 


male, musket 


mannetje 


lings-habicht 


espervier, le 




mosket 




m^e mouchet 


Stoop, s. 


Aanval ; neer- 


Stos 


Choc ; attainte ; 




schieten 




coup ; assaut ; 
descente 


Stoop, V. 


Schieten 


Stosen ; Streichen 


Descendre ; 
fondre ; donner 
lecoup 


Swivel 


Draal 


Drahle ; Wirbel 


Vervellc ; tourct 


Talons 


Klaaus 


Zehen ; Krallen 


Doigts ; serres 


Tiercel 


Taleken 


Terzel 


Tiercclet 


Tame, v. 


Spinnen 


Abrichten ; 
Zahmen 


Apprivoiser 


Tire, v, to pull at 


Afknagen 


Nagen 


Tirer 


Train, v. 


Treinen ; opleiden 


Unterrichten 


Entrainer ; af- 




onderrigten 




faiter ; dresser 


Training 


Opleiding 


Unterrichtung 


AiTaitage ; dres- 
sage 
Queue ; balai 


Train, or tail 


Staart 


Schwanz 


Varvel 


Draal 


Wirbel 


Vervellc 


Wait on, v. 


Aanwachten 


Abwarten ; stehen 


Tenir k mont ; 
faire la cresse- 
relle 


Watch, V. 


Bewaken 


Bewachen 


Veiller Toiseau 


Weather, v. 


In de vrije lucht 


Liiften, oder in die 


Jardiner 




zetten 


Luft bringen 





VOCABULARY. 



239 



SPANISH. 



Muda 

Mudar 

Remontirse ; ele- 

vdrse 
Excremento ; 0,S, 

tulliduras 
TuUir ; toller 



» 



» 



Peregrino; pelegrin 

Percha ; palo ; varal 

Pr&a 

Reducir ; amansar 

H^con soro 

Alcon sacre 
Sellar 

Sdco ; mdla 
Esparvel 

Golpe ; acometida 

Golpar 



Eslab6n 
Garras 
Terzu^lo ; O.S. 

torqu^lo 
Amanbar 

Roer 

Hacer ; amaestrar ; 

ensenar 
Amaestramento 

Cola 
£slab6n 



Esperar 



Velar 
Orear 



ITALIAN. 



Muta 
Mutare 
Elevarsi ; alzarsi 

Smaltitura ; calcin- 

accio 
Smaltire 

n 

Pellegrino ; pere- 
grino 

Pertica ; ramo ; 
barra ; stanga 

Prdda 

Reclamare 

Soro ; lalcone soro 

II sacro 
Cigliare 

Sacchetto ; maglia 
Sparviere 



Colpo 



Calare 



Tometto; guinzaglio 

Unghioni 

Terzuolo 

Domare 

Rodere ; tirare 
Ammaestrare 

Ammaestramento 

Coda 
Guinzaglio ; tor- 

netto 
Aspettare; atten- 

dere 

Vegliare 
Mettere sul tronco 



LATIN. 



Mutatio 

Mutare ; plumas exuere 

Altivolare ; spiraliter aethera 

scandere 
Excrementa ; stercora 

Fimum reddere 



Peregrinus ; fugitivus 

Pertica; cf. p. 171 

Corata ; praxla 

Mansudiacere 

Falco saurus ; sores ; p. i $4 

Falco sacer 

Ciliare ; cUiatio (seeling) 

Sacculus ; malleolum 
Sparverius ; spervarius ; 

espervarius; rns^muschetuSy 

nisus autem femina 
Pulsus 

Pulsare ; capere pra^am 



Tornettum 

Ungues 

Tertiarius 

Mansuefacere 

Rodere 

Instituere ; educare 

Cura; curatio 

Cauda 
Tornettum 

Expectare 



Advolare 
Foras portare 



I 

I 



1 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I. {Frontispiece.) Portrait of Sir Ralph Sadler, 

OF EVERLEY, WiLTS, GrAND FaLCONER TO QuEEN 

Elizabeth. From a painting on panel, attributed to 
Marc Gerhardt, in the possession of Sir John D. 
Astley, Bart Reproduced in colour by W. Griggs 
from the original picture preserved in the Manor 
House at Everley. 

Sir R. C. Hoare, in his " History of Modern Wilts," folio, 
1826, under the head of " Everley," writes : — " In the first year 
of the reign of King Edward the Sixth a grant of the manor of 
Everley, and park and free warren, was made to Edward, Duke 
of Somerset, Lord Protector (1547), on whose attainder it re- 
verted to the Crown, and was afterwards granted by Queen 
Elizabeth to her royal falconer. Sir Ralph Sadler," of Standon, in 
the county of Herts, who had been Chief Secretary of State to 
Henry VHI. 

'* Sir Ralph was fond of hawking, and no place could have 
been better adapted to that sport than Everley, with its extensive 

and adjoining open country Heis said to have partly built 

the mansion-house there, and especially one room, where was his 
picture in small life, with his hawk on his arm, as well as his crest, 
and which painting is now (1826) removed from its original 
situation, but is still preserved by the present owner." 

The picture referred to is that here reproduced, and is attri- 
buted to Marc Gerhardt (1580-1635). A coloured print of it is 
given by Clutterbuck in his ** History and Antiquities of Hert- 
fordshire," 1827, vol. iii. p. 235. 

Q 



242 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Sir Ralph Sadler's love of hawking once nearly involved him 
in disgrace at Court. He had been appointed to guard the un- 
fortunate Mary, Queen of Scots, during her imprisonment in the 
Castle of Tutbury (1584-85), and complaint was made against 
him by some of her enemies that he was conniving at her escape 
by permitting her to accompany him to some distance from the 
castle during his hawking excursions. He admitted that he 
had sent home for his hawks and falconers, wherewith to 
divert the miserable life which he passed at Tutbury, and 
that he had been unable to resist the solicitations of his royal 
prisoner to permit her to see a sport in which she greatly 
delighted. But, he added, this was under the strictest precau- 
tions for the security of her person (Memoirs, vol. i. p. 33). 

Sir Ralph, who was bom at Hackney, Middlesex, in 1507, died, 
at the age of eighty, in 1587, at Standon in Hertfordshire, and 
was buried in the chancel of the church there, on the south side 
of which there is a fine monument erected to his memory. An 
engraving of this is given in Clutterbuck's "Hertfordshire," 
vol. iii. p. 235. Lloyd, in his "State Worthies," says of him: 
" Little was his body, but great his soul ; the more vigorous the 
more contracted " (ed. 1670, p. 96). 

He left three sons, Thomas, Edward, and Henry. The last- 
named, to whom Symon Latham was falconer (see No. 19, note), 
married Dorothy Gilbert, of Everley, and on him Sir Ralph 
bestowed the estate at Everley. The property passed from 
the Sadlers to the Evelyns of Godstone, Surrey, and West 
Dean, Wilts ; thence to the family of Barker, who subsequently 
disposed of it to Sir John D. Astley, Bart., whose tenant, Mr. 
C. W. Curtis, is now in possession. 

The house unfortunately was partially destroyed by fire in 
the winter of 1881-82, but has since been rebuilt, and the 
portrait is still preserved there. It was lent for exhibition by 
Sir John Astley in the spring of 1890, and hung for a few 
months during the ** Exhibition of Sports and Arts" in the 
"Falconry Room" at the Grosvenor Gallery. It is curious 
that neither the historian of Wiltshire nor the historian of 
Hertfordshire has been able to discover any other portrait 
than this of so important a personage. 

For fuller details concerning Sir Ralph Sadler than can here 
be given, the reader may be referred to the authorities above 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 243 

quoted, as well as to the Memoir prefixed to Sadler's " State 
Papers and Letters," edited by Clifford, 1809, and the "Memoir 
of the Life and Times of Sir Ralph Sadler," by Major F. 
Sadleir Stoney, R.A., 1877 (p. 223). See also Lloyd's ** State 
Worthies," 1670 (p. 95), and Nichols, "Progresses and Proces- 
sions of Queen Elizabeth," vol. 1. p. 100 ; ii. p. 104. 

A grandson and namesake of Sir Ralph Sadler — namely, the 
only son and heir of Sir Thomas Sadler — kept a pack of otter- 
hounds at Standon. He is mentioned in the first chapter of 
Walton's ** Compleat Angler," wherein Venator refers to a meet 
of his hounds at Amwell Hill. He died February 12, 1660. 

II. Portrait of Robert Cheseman, Falconer 
TO Henry VIII. From a painting by Hans Holbein 
in the Royal Gallery at the Hague. 

He was the son and heir of Edward Cheseman, Cofferer and 
Keeper of the Wardrobe of the Household to Henry VII., and 
was born in 1485. (Harl. MSS. 1546, fol. 67*, and 1551, fol. 28^) 
This portrait of him was painted in 1533, when he was in his 
forty -eighth year. 

He lived at Dormanswell, near Northcote, in Middlesex, 
and owned land and tenements at Norwood and Hanwell, 
besides several houses at Kentish Town, and a house, garden, 
and orchard in Fetter Lane. He was made a Justice of 
the Peace for the county in 1531 (Gairdner, Calendar State 
Papers, Henry VIII., vol. v. p. 77). He sat upon several 
Royal Commissions — as, for example, the commission of inquiry 
in 1535 as to first-fruits and tenths (Gairdner, vol. viii. pp. 40, 
49), and that in 1545 for the viewing of wheat and oats in 
Middlesex, with the object of ascertaining what was available for 
the King's use after allowance for the necessities of the owners. 
Sir Ralph Sadler was a membeir of the Privy Council which met 
on this business at Windsor, the 24th October 1545 (Acts of 
the Privy Council, 1542-1547, ed. Dasent, pp. 260-261). Robert 
Cheseman was also one of the commissioners of inquiry concern- 
ing the possessions of Cardinal Wolsey at the date of his attainder 
(Gairdner, vol. iv. No. 2931); and on the occasion of the 
Northern Rebellion his name appears on the list of " such noble- 



244 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

men and gentlemen as be appointed to attend upon the King's 
own person," when he was required to furnish thirty men at 
arms (Gairdner, vol. xi. p. 233). 

He had for a near neighbour at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Dr. 
Richard Layton, rector of Harrow, archdeacon of Bucks, and 
visitor of monasteries, who, like himself, was devoted to hawk- 
ing. This appears in a letter from Dr. Layton to Thomas 
Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal, dated " Harrow-on-the-Hill, 25 Sep- 
tember, 1537," wherein the following passage occurs : — 

'* Mr. Cheseman dined with me at Harrow last Thursday, and 
when he showed me that the Friars of Hownsley [Hownslow] 
would have sold him their house and lands, I advised him to go 
to your lordship, the King's High Vicar-General, to whom it 
pertained to redress their misgovernance. Nevertheless, the 
morrow after, he obtained this lease [a lease for 99 years] as the 
minister [of the Friars] confessed, whom I sent for to Harrow as 
soon as I heard of this bruit. The Prince, their founder, and 
your lordship will best know what to do. I send by this bringer 
perisse [pears] of Harrowe, graffed by my Lord of Duresme his 
own hands, and partridges my own hawk kilhr (R. O., No. 
748, Gairdner, xii. p. 268.) In a subsequent letter to Cromwell 
he writes : " If you had come to Harrow on Friday your bed 
was ready. You shall have twenty beds in the town, where 
there has been no sickness this year, and a dozen in the 
parsonage. I send by the bearer half-a-dozen partridges. If 
you come not soon there will be none to fly at. I send out my 

hawk to-day to kill some for your supper on Monday 

Harowe this Saturday." (R. O., No. 749, Gairdner, xii. p. 269.) 

As Cheseman accompanied the King in his hawking excur- 
sions, it is not unlikely that he was present on the occasion 
of the memorable accident mentioned in Hall's " Chronicle," 
already referred to {Introduction^ p. xv). He died 3 July 1547, 
as appears by the Inquisition /^j/ mortem (i Edward VI. part 2, 
Middlesex, No. i), wherein, as usual, the will is recited. It would 
seem that he did not hold the office of Royal Falconer until his 
death, for three years after his portrait was painted — namely, in 
1536 — Henry Norris, Esquire, was Master of the Hawks, with a 
salary of ;£'4o per month. (Cal. State Papers, Dom., vol. x. 
p. 364.) 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 245 

The following entries relating to the Royal Falconers are 
extracted from the Privy Purse Expenses of King Henry the 
Eighth, from November 1529 to December 1532 : — 

March 1530. — Itm the v days paid to the henne- 

taker for hawks mete xs. 

Itm to iiij of Maister Skevingtons sVnts in 
rewarde for bringing iij hobbyes to the Kings 

grace iij li. 

Itm the xj daye of Marche paied to Garrat and 
Richard the fawconers in rewarde for find- 
ing the herons xs. 

Dec. 1530. — Itm the iij daye paied in rewarde 
to S' Richard Sandes sVnt for the bringing 
of a Saker to the King at Hampton Courte . vs. 

Feb. 1532. — Itm the ij daye paied to Nicholas 
Clampe one of the fawconers for one hole 
yeres wages to ende at our lady daye in Lent 

next x IL 

Itm the iij daye paied to a stranger called 
Jasper, fawconer, for vj Sakers and v 
Sakeretts at viij corons a pece which amounts 
to juj viij corons .... xx li. xs viijd. 

July 1532. — Itm thexviij daye paied to a sVnt of 
Sr John Bowcher's in rewarde for bringing of 
a caste of hawks to the Kings grace • . xs. 

Sept, 1532. — Itm the xxvj daye paied to a sVnt of 
my lorde of Derby in rewarde for taking up 
of an hawke of the kings . . . . vjs viijd. 
Itm to the same John Evans for the mete of iiij 
hawks by the space of Ixxxxvij dayes for ev'y 
one penny by the daye . > . xxxijs. iiijd. 

Nov. 1532. — Itm the iij daye paied to a sVnt of the 
Frenche Kings in rewarde for bringing hawks 
to the Kings grace to Calys c corons xxiij li. vjs viijd. 

Dec. 1532. — Itm the same daye paied to Bentley 
for the expenses of the Frenche fawconers 
by the space of a monethe . . . Iviijs xd. 

In the '* Household Book" of the L'Estranges, of Hun- 
stanton, co. Norfolk, 1 5 19-1578, will be found many curious 
entries relating to the purchase and keep of hawks in that 



246 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



county during the reign of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth^ some of 
which have been quoted in Stevenson's "Birds of Norfolk* 
(vol. i. p. 1 6). In these accounts occur entries of "fesants 
kyllyd wt the goshawk," '* ptriches kyllyd with the sper-hawke," 
and " larks kyllyd with the hobbye." 

III. An Elizabethan Falconer's Bag. Mounted 
on an enamelled frame of silver gilt, and embroidered 
in silk with representations of the blackberry and 
mistletoe, emblematical of autumn, the hawking season. 

The original is in the possession of Lady North, of Wroxton 
Abbey, Banbury, Oxfordshire, who has also a falconer's glove 
and a lure of the same period, similarly embroidered. 

We may take it that such accoutrements were intended only 
for state occasions, or for the use, perhaps, of royal personages. 
The ordinary glove, lure, and bag for every-day wear would be 
of plain leather, with little or no ornament beyond perhaps a 
tassel, or fringe. 

The lure used by Elizabethan falconers was in the shape of 
a horse-shoe covered with cloth or leather, on which a piece of 
raw meat was tied, and weighted, to prevent its being carried by 
the hawk. An older form of lure, used at the end of the 
fifteenth century, is figured by Viollet-le-Duc in his DicHonnaire 
Baisonne du Mobilier Francois (vol. iL, art. ChassCy p. 440, 
fig. 21). Such a falconer's bag as that here figured may well 
have been used by Sir Walter Hungerford, of Heytesbury, 
Wilts, who was a noted falconer in Queen Elizabeth's reign, and 
whose position and means would have warranted the use of 
such costly articles. He was a contemporary of Sir Ralph 
Sadler, already noticed (p. 242), and was doubtless well 
acquainted with Mr. Henry Sadler, of Everley, with whom 
probably he often hawked over the Wiltshire downs. The son 
of Walter Lord Hungerford, who unfortunately lost his head 
for treason in 1540, he was commonly called "Sir Walter of 
Farley," since he inherited Farley, Farlegh, or Farleigh Castle 
(as it is variously spelled), and resided there. There are two 
portraits of him in the possession of Sir R. Hungerford Pollen, 
of Rodboume, near Malmesbury, both of which are engraved 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 247 

in Sir R. C. Hoare's ** History of Modern Wilts," vol. i. 
Heytesbury, p. 112. One, painted in 15 74 at the age of forty-two, 
is a half-length portrait, which represents him bare-headed, with 
a falcon on his glove ; the other, a very curious one, depicts 
him on horseback in a full suit of armour, with ostrich plumes 
in his helmet and on his horse's head, a black greyhound by his 
side, a hare running ahead of him over down-land, above him a 
heron flying, and in the foreground a pool on which swims a 
wild duck, on either side of which, seated on the bank, is a ger- 
falcon. Above and below the picture runs the following quaint 
inscription : — 

" S*^ Walter Hungerforde, Knight, had in quene Elyzabeths 
tyme the seconde of her raine, for fouer yere together a baye 
horse, a blacke grehounde, a leveratt ; his offer was for fouer 
yere together to all Eynglande not above his betters he that 
shoulde showe the best horse for a man of armes, a grehounde 
for a hare, a haucke for the ryver, to wine iij hundred poundes, 
that was a hunderythe pounds apese ; also he had a gerfalcon 
for the heme in her Majesty's tyme wiche he kept xviij yere and 
offered the lyke to flye for a hundred pounde, and were refused 
for all." 

He died in 1596, and was buried in a vault in the chapel of 
Farley Castle, where there is a monument to him with a 
curiously cut inscription, beginning with his motto, "Tyme 
tryeth Truth." It is reproduced in the late Canon Jackson's 
" Guide to Farleigh Hungerford, co. Somerset," 8vo, Taunton, 
i860 (p. 23). 

IV. James I. as a Youth, carrying a Sparrow- 
hawk. Engraved by Raddon from an original picture 
in the possession of the Earl of Dartmouth. 

This portrait was exhibited by the Hon. R. Baillie Hamilton 
at the exhibition of the Royal House of Stuart in the New 
Gallery, Regent Street, in 1889, and was numbered 57 in the cata- 
logue of that collection. It was there described as "James VI. 
(afterwards James I.) when a child; from the collection of 
Charles I. Small half-length figure of a boy, in front view, 
dressed in black, with a black cap ; face nearly in full view ; 
holding a hawk on his left hand ; right hand on hip." 



248 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

V. James I. after his Accession to the Throne of 
England, i 603-1 625. From a Portrait by Vandyck. 

Through his love of hawking and hunting, to which he was 
passionately addicted ; by his royal invitations to foreign princes 
and noblemen well skilled in these pursuits, to instruct his own 
people ; and by his frequent importation and purchase of hawks, 
horses, and hounds, James I. did more to encourage and pro- 
mote the exercise of these field-sports in England than any 
English monarch before or since his time. See (i) a letter from 
Sir George Chaworth to the Earl of Shrewsbury, dated from 
Newmarket, 29th November 1607, printed in Lodge's ** Illustra- 
tions," vol. iii. p. 336 ; (2) a letter from the King to the Duke 
of Buckingham, HarL MS. 6987, vol. loi, p. 184; and (3) the 
MS. diary of Hans Jacob Wurmser von Vendenheym, who 
accompanied Lewis Frederick, Duke of Wurtemburg, on his 
diplomatic mission to England in 1610, and found the King at 
Thetford in May of that year; Add. MSS. Brit. Mus. 20,001. 

See also No. 27 of this Catalogue (pp. 104—105, 2nd ed. pp. 
96, 97); No. 65, Appendix, pp. 226-227 ; No. 79, pp. 79-82; 
and Trans, Norfolk Nat, Soc, vol. iii. pp. 87, 88. 

The expenses of the royal falconers in the time of James I. 
were : — 

Wages, at ;^3o per month ..... ^360 

Hawks' meat, at los, per day 182 

Four falconers for crow-hawks, at £$0 per annum . 200 

For hawks of all kinds 600 

Total £^342 

In the autumn of 1623, while the King was at Newmarket, 
the Clerk of the Kitchen, William Lamplough, received in two 
payments an advance of ;^5oo " for providing divers French 
gentlemen, lately sent unto his Majesty with a present of hawks 
from the French King, with all necessaries in a journey along 
with his Majesty to Theobalds, Royston, and Newmarket, they 
being to reside there for a season to exercise the game of hawking 
for his Majest/s disport and recreation." (Devon, " Issues of 
the Exchequer," temp. James L, p. 279.) 

In January 1624^ the King went again to Newmarket, against 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 249 

the advice of his physicians, to see some hawks flown. A French 
falconer had arrived in London, with a present of hawks, horses, 
and setting-dogs from Louis XIII. Chamberlain, writing to Sir 
Dudley Carleton from London on January 17 of that year, says : 
*' He made a splendid entry with his train by torchlight, and will 
stay till he has instructed some of our people in Uiis kind of 
falconr}-, though he costs his Majesty £,2^ to ^30 a day." 

The King's health failed visibly in 1624, which much affected 
his enjoyment of field-sports. The following significant entry 
occurs in the Docquet Book : — 

"To Oliver Browne his Majesties Upholdster uppon the 
Councill's warr^ dated xiiij Dec 1624 for making sixe portable 
chaires covered with velvett, to be used in tyme of hunting for 
ease, and sixe seats of Spanish leather to lift his Majestie to and 
from his bed xxxixl xiis." 

Writing to Sir Dudley Carleton on the 8th January 1625, 
Chamberlain remarks : " The King kept his chamber all Christ- 
mas, only going out in his litter in fair weather to see some flights 
at the brook." 

On February 3, 1625, James was for the last time at New- 
market, accompanied by the Duke of Buckingham and a small 
suite. [Amongst other business transacted during this visit, 
directions were given to the Master of the Toils " to take three 
brace of bucks in Hyde Park, and convey them to Marylebone 
Park (now the Regent's Park), to supply the scarcity caused 
by the great rain there."] 

On February 23 the King removed to Chesterford Park en 
route for Royston, which was reached on the 27 th. Here 
Prince Charles joined his royal father, who had evidently not 
long to live. For the last time the King was moved to 
Theobalds on March i, and there, on the 27th of that month, 
he died of a quartan ague, in the fifty-ninth year of his age and 
the twenty-third of his reign. Intent upon sport to the last, the 
latest incidents of his life had reference to a present of four 
casts of hawks which he sent to Louis XIII. by the hand of 
Sir Anthony Pell, Knight, his Master Falconer. 

A warrant of Sir Anthony Pell concerning the King's choice 
of hawks, and dated January 26, 162 1, is printed by Pennant in 
the second volume of his *' British Zoology," ed. 181 2, Append, iii. 

pp. 309-3"- 



250 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

VI. The Hon. Lewis Latham, Falconer to 
Charles L, born 1555, died 1655. From an ori- 
ginal portrait in the possession of his descendant, Mr. 
F. A. Holden, of Hyattsville, Maryland, U.S.A. 

Lewis Latham, of Elstow, in the county of Bedford, gentleman, 
was descended from a younger branch of the Lathams, of Latham 
House, near Ormskirk, Lancashire. The old moated house, 
which in 1644 withstood a siege by the Parliamentary forces 
under General Fairfax, gave way in 1750 to a more modern one, 
which was built by the celebrated architect Leoni. 

The office of falconer in the time of Charles I. was one 
of importance. The Master Falconer was Sir Patrick Hume, 
who had succeeded Sir Thomas Monson (16 15-16 18), and who 
had thirty-three other gentlemen associated with him as falconers, 
one of whom was Lewis Latham, who also served under Andrew 
Pitcairn. After Sir Patrick Hume the Master Falconer was 
Sir Allen Apsley (1669), who was succeeded in 1682 by Charles, 
Earl of Burford, afterwards created Duke of St. Albans, who, 
by letters patent bearing date July 5, 1686, was appointed to 
the office of " Master Surveyor and Keeper of tlie Hawks," and 
created Hereditary Grand Falconer (Patent Roll, 3 James IL, 
part 7, membrane 19), an office only recently abolished. 

The following records relate to Lewis Latham : — 

1625, July 15. — Warrant to pay Andrew Pitcairn, Master of 
the Hawks, to the use of Lewis Latham, Eustace Norton, 
and the rest of the under-falconers, the stipend formerly 
allowed them when the King was Prince of Wales. 

1627, Aug. 18. — Warrant from Secretary Conway to Attorney- 
General Heath to prepare grants of the place of Serjeant 
of the Hawks to Lewis Latham with £^6^ per annum, 
and of the place he held of falconer to Richard Berwick. 

165s, May 15. — Lewis Latham, gent., deceased the 15th day 
of May, at Elstow, Bedford. 

1655, Sept. I. — His will, dated 6th May 1653, proved at 
London by his wife and executrix, Winifred Latham, and 
registered in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. His 
two sons, Henry and John, and five daughters, Ann, 
Frances, Katharine, Elizabeth, and Ellen, named as 
legatees : residue to Wife. 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 251 

1662, May 9. — Winifred Latham, described as the wife of 
Latham, the King's Serjeant Falconer, petitions for 
arrears of her late husband's salary. 

1662, May 13. — Warrant to pay her jQ^o out of the privy 
seal dormant of ;^i 0,000. 

The present possessor of the portrait, Mr. Frederick A. Holden, 
claims descent through Frances, second daughter of Lewis 
Latham. She married four times — (i) Lord Weston, (2) Wil- 
liam Dungan, (3) Jeremiah Clarke, (4) William Vaughan. Her 
son, Thomas Dungan, married and settled in Pennsylvania, and 
his daughter Frances married Randall Holden, from whom 
descends the above-mentioned Frederick A. Holden. Her 
daughter Barbara married James Barker, of Rhode Island, from 
whom arose a numerous line of descendants claiming relation- 
ship with Lewis Latham. 

In a quarto volume entitled " The Ancestry of Thirty-three 
Rhode Islanders born in the i8th Century," by John Osborn 
Austin, published at Albany, N.Y., by Joel Munsell's Sons, 1889, 
much stress is laid upon the number of those claiming descent 
from Lewis Latham — eleven grandchildren and eighty- two great- 
grandchildren — and a pedigree is printed tracing these descents 
through his daughter Frances. 

In all probability Symon Latham, who wrote " The Faulcon's 
Lure and Cure," 1615-1618 (No. 18), and who was falconer to 
Mr. Henry Sadler of Everley, Wilts (third son of Sir Ralph 
Sadler), was a relative of Lewis Latham — perhaps a brother or 
a nephew, but not a son, his two sons being, as above stated, 
Henry and John. 

Mr. J. O. Austin, in the work above quoted, refers to this 
portrait of I-,ewis Latham as having been " fortunately preserved 
through the care of many generations of descendants," and we 
are now indebted to Mr. Holden, its present owner, for his very 
courteous permission to reproduce it. 

A portrait of another of Charles the First's falconers. Sir 
Alexander Abercromby, with a hawk upon his glove, is in the 
possession of the present baronet, Sir Robert Abercromby, at 
Forglen House, Turriff, Aberdeenshire. 



252 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

VII. English Falconers of the Seventeenth 
Century. Pheasant-hawking with the Goshawk. 
By Francis Barlow, engraved by W. Hollar, 1671. 

The print of which this is a copy is one of a scarce series of 
twelve, published without text, in oblong quarto, 167 1, with the 
title, "Severall Wayes of Hunting, Hawking, and Fishing, 
according to the English Manner" (see 33, and note thereon). 
Beneath each plate is a descriptive quatrain, that on Pheasant- 
hawking being as follows: — 

" The feasant cock the woods doth most frequent, 
Where spanniells spring and pearch him by the scent. 
And when in flight the hawke with quicken'd speede 
With's beake and savage talons makes him bleede.*' 

Francis Barlow, the English painter, was bom in 1646, in the 
county of Lincoln, where, amongst the waterfowl of the fens,. he 
had probably good opportunities of studying such scenes as 
those described a few years earlier by Michael Drayton in his 
" Polyolbion " (No. 23). He especially painted birds, and was 
a good draughtsman, though no colourist. He studied under 
W. Sheppart, the portrait painter, and furnished a great number 
of the subjects engraved by Hollar. 

The plate here reproduced affords a good illustration of the 
mode in which pheasant-hawking was pursued with the aid of 
spaniels, as described by Edmund Bert in 1616, in his 
"Approved Treatise of Hawkes" (No. 22). 

« 

VIII. Colonel Thomas Thornton, of Thornville 
Royal, in Yorkshire, born 1757, died 1823. From 
a portrait in the possession of the Earl of Rosebery, at 
The Durdans, Epsom. 

Colonel Thornton, one of the most remarkable figures in the 
English annals of Falconry, came of a distinguished family. His 
grandfather, Sir William Thornton, was knighted by Queen Anne. 
His father, Colonel William Thornton, with a troop of yeomanry 
and tenantry, one hundred in number, raised and fed at his own 
cost, served with great distinction under the Duke of Cumber- 
land in the Scottish rebellion, and was present at the battles of 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 253 

Falkirk and CuUoden. On his return from the war he was 
elected M. P. for York. He died rather suddenly in lyyi^at 
the age of fifty, leaving his son Thomas a minor. 

The boy had been sent to Charterhouse, where he remained 
till he was fourteen, and then went to Glasgow College, where 
he had been about two years when his father died, and 
stayed there three years longer. It was then that he manifested 
a passion for field-sports, especially Hawking, on which he ex- 
pended much time and money, resolving to bring the sport as 
near perfection as possible. 

Leaving Glasgow College at the age of nineteen, he repaired 
to the family mansion at Thomville Royal, where, with well- 
trained hawks and dogs, he formed the basis of a sporting 
establishment which afterwards became famous. He joined the 
West York Regiment of Militia, of which he subsequently be- 
came Colonel, and formed a Falconers' Club, to which reference 
will be made when describing the trophy presented to him 
by its members (Plate IX.). 

His love of foxhunting led him to keep a pack of foxhounds, 
and there is a fine engraved portrait of him, by Sawrey Gilpin, 
on horseback, cap in hand, cheering his hounds. Another half- 
length portrait of him, wearing a hunting-cap, forms the engraved 
frontispiece to vol. iii. of the " Annals of Sporting," 1823. 

He was fond of racing, and used to ride matches himself. 
One such is on record, which created a great deal of interest at 
the time. This match, for four miles over Knavesmire, was 
ridden on the 24th March 1778, on a horse named " Sir Thomas 
Thumb," against Mr. Hare, who rode a horse called **Tu 
Quoque." After a close contest Colonel Thornton won. 

His bodily activity was remarkable. In a walking match he 
went four miles in thirty-two minutes. In leaping he cleared his 
own height (5ft. gin.) for a considerable bet. In another match 
he leapt over six five-barred gates in six minutes, and then 
performed the same feat on horseback. At Newmarket, on 
horseback, he ran down a hare, which he picked up, in the pre- 
sence of a large concourse of people assembled to witness the feat. 
He was an excellent shot with gun and rifie, and a good fisherman. 
But it is as a falconer that we have chiefiy to consider him. He 
was especially skilled in flights at the kite, and in grouse- 
and snipe-hawking, and his published " Sporting Tour " (No. 57) 



254 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



5f 



abounds with the most interesting details of his experience in 

these branches of the sport. He was the only falconer of 

modem times who procured a young goshawk from a nest in 

Great Britain. This bird was taken in the forest of Rothiemurcus 

(pp. city p. 176), where there were a few eyries in the great fir 

trees, some of which he saw (op, city p. 107). 

j While residing at Thomville Royal (now called Stourton), in 

i Yorkshire, his hawks were flown " at hack " from the observatory 

U in the park, and the present dairy was then the mews. He 

^\ hawked all over the neighbouring moors, as Blubberhouse 

«j' and Grassington Moors, and the then open country about 

^1 Kirk Deighton. At Beilby Grange (then called Wetherby 

» Grange) there was a heronry ; and Clifford and Bramham Moor 

being not then enclosed, he flew at the herons " on passage " 

as they crossed over the moors. Wliilst the crops were stand- 

3 ing he used to adjourn to the Yorkshire wolds, where he built a 

.y house, which he called Falconers' Hall, near Boythorpe, about 

/! twelve miles from Scarboro*. 

(» In 1805 Thomville Royal was sold to Lord Stourton, to 

Vf whom possession was given in January 1806. For the mansion, 

/ pleasure grounds, and park he gave ;;^i 63,800, and for twenty- 

/,. eight other lots, ;£6 2,650 ; or in all, ;^2 2 6,450. ("Annals of 

:■ Sporting," 1823, vol. iii. p. 294.) 

]. In 1808 Colonel Thomton left Yorkshire for Spye Park, in 

< Wiltshire, which he took upon lease, as the Yorkshire wolds at 

that time were beginning to be spoilt for hawking by being 
broken up for com crops. (Salvin and Brodrick, p. 8, note.) 
The Rev. A. C. Smith states (" Birds of Wiltshire," p. 345), 
on the authority of Mr. James Waylen, that "when Colonel 
Thornton, who once rented Spye Park, sported in Wiltshire, he 
occasionally flew his hawks at bustards, the apparent slowness 
2' of that bird, when seen at a distance, tempting him to the trial, 

'1 ; but the hawks had no chance.'' 

About 181 5 he gave up hawking and retired to France, 

where he had already, in 1802, made an enjoyable sporting tour 

?; (see No. 58). Here, in July 181 7, he purchased the chiteau of 

Pont-le-Roi (now Pont-sur-Seine), D^partement d'Aube, which, 
however, he resold in 182 1 to M. Casimir Perrier, the famous 
statesman and orator (whose son is still in possession), and took a 
lease from the Princesse de Wagram of her residence at Chambord. 

i 



u 

•I 

* i 












NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS, 255 

He died in Paris in the spring of 1823, in the seventy-fifth year 
of his age, leaving an only daughter, who in 1838 married 
Captain (afterwards Admiral) the Hon. E. T. Wodehouse. His 
will, dated October 2nd, t8i8, wherein he is described as of 
Falconers' Hall, Boythorpe, in the East Riding of York, and of 
Pont-le-Roi, France, was proved in I^ondon by his executor, 
Mr. B. Curling, to whom probate was granted 26th April 1823 

IX. Silver Gilt Urn, presented to Colonel 
Thornton, of Thornville Royal, by the Members of 
the Falconers' Club, at Barton Mills, 23rd June 1781. 
Now in the possession of the Earl of Orford. 

The members of this club, whose names are given below, used 
to meet at Alconbury Hill, which was a favourite rendezvous on 
account of the number of Kites which at that time were to be 
found there. (For a description of Kite- hawking see an article in 
The Field of loth January 1 891, "with an illustration by J. Wolf.) 
They used then to go on to Barton Mills, as appears by a 
memorandum in the handwriting of Colonel Thornton, which in 
1823, the year in which he died, was in the possession of Mr. T. 
Gosden. 

The handsome trophy, of which a representation is now for 
the first time given, is of unique design in silver gilt. It is 
appropriately surmounted by figures of a Goshawk holding a 
Hare, and bears the following inscription : — 

" Colonel Thornton, proposer and manager of the Confederate 
Hawks, is requested to receive this piece of plate from George^ 
Earl of Orford, together with the united thanks of the members 
of the Falconers' Club, as a testimony of their esteem and 
just sense of his assiduity, and of the unparalleled excellence to 
which, in the course of nine years' management, he has brought 
them, when, unable to attend them any longer, he made them 
a present to the Earl of Orford. Barton Mills, 23rd June 
1781." 

Then follow the names of the members on a scroll surrounding 
the armorial bearings of the Earl of Orford. With a magnifying 
glass these names may be easily read on the plate. 



f 
r ■ 

«.' 
■I . 



256 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



'V 



Members of the Club. 



• i 






't ■ 



Earl of Orford 

Mr. Sturt 

Mr. Snow 

Mr. Smith 

Mr. Stephens 

Earl Ferrers 

Hon. Thos. Shirley 

Sir Thos. Tancred 

Mr. A. Wilkinson 

Mr. B. Wrightson 

Mr. Drummond 

Sir Comwallis Maude 

Duke of Ancaster 

Mr. Williamson 

Mr. Baker 

Mr. William Baker 

Mr. Pierce 

Mr. Coke 

Duke of Rutland 

Mr. Belford 

Mr. Lascelles Lascelles 

Mr. Parker 

Mr. Tyssen 

Mr. Molloy 

Mr. Affleck 

Mr. St. George 

Earl of Eglinton 



Mr. Vaughan 

Mr. R. Wilson 

Mr. Musters 

Mr. Barrington Price 

Mr. Daniel 

Hon. Mr. Rowley 

Lord Mulgrave 

Captain Grimston 

Captain Yarburgh 

Earl of Leicester 

Mr. Stanhope 

Mr. Leighton 

Mr. Francis Barnard 

Mr. Nelthorpe 

Mr. Porter 

Colonel St Leger 

Mr. Serle 

Mr. Parkhurst 

Mr. Molyneux 

Earl of Surrey 

Sir William Milner 

Sir John Ramsden 

Mr. Royds 

Sir Richard Symonds 

Earl of Leinster 

Earl of Lincoln 

Marquis of Granby 



Mr. Parsons 
Chaplain — Mr. Edward Parsons. 

This urn, with other sporting trophies, after the Colonel's 
death, became the property of his grandson, Colonel Thornton 
Wodehouse, R.A.,the son of his daughter, who in 1838 married 
Captain (afterwards Admiral) the Hon. E. T. Wodehouse. 

On the nth of June 1884, the whole of these trophies were 
sold at auction by Messrs. Christie, Manson & Wood, when the 
urn now figured, weighing 136 oz., was purchased for ;^ii2 by 
the present Earl of Orford. Thus, after the lapse of a century. 




SILVER GILT URN. 
,„l.:l <.. Cohort Th,»-«lon ..J no- >•'■■■■■■ li-."-' 
J!g lit- ir.''nh-r, nftUf Mr-jn.ri C':-!: 

B'-ri,.n 2i.ii>. sa jiiBf i:si. 

H- IN ti' p ■rftt-oit of the Earl of Or/or.! 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 257 



the trophy returned to the Orford family, by whose representa- 
tative in 1781 it had been, as above shown, presented. 

An account of the other trophies sold at the same time, some 
of them of great interest, will be found in Thi Zoologist for 
1884, p. 275. 

There is a scarce engraving, from a picture by Sawrey Gilpin, 
of Heron-hawking, in which Colonel Thornton is represented as 
just dismounted, and taking up a hawk from a heron in front of 
a thatched cottage, from the door of which an old woman is 
looking out in wonderment. This picture is inscribed : "To the 
Noblemen and Gentlemen of the Falconers* Club, this plate is 
humbly inscribed by their most obedient and devoted servant, T. 
Morris, 1780" — the year before the silver-gilt urn was presented. 

X. Edward Clougii Newcome, of Hockwold, in 
the county of Norfolk, bom 18 10, died 187 1. 

Norfolk has long been the seat of Falconry in England. 
Indeed, it may be said that the f^coners of Norfolk and 
Suffolk have done more than those of any other county, ex- 
cept perhaps Yorkshire under the regime of Colonel Thornton, 
to encourage and maintain the practice of this ancient sport. 
From the time of John Paston, of Norwich, who, in September 
1472, wrote to his brother in London to send him "a mewyd 
gosshawke," to the present day, when Mr. Francis D'A. New- 
come enthusiastically follows in his father's footsteps, Hawking 
has never ceased to be practised, and the names of such masters 
of the craft as Lord Orford, Colonel Wilson of Didlington (after- 
wards Lord Berners), Sir John Sebright, John Dawson Downes 
of Gunton, John Hall of Weston, and Fdward Clough New- 
come of Hockwold are " household words " in the mouths of 
their modern disciples. To be convinced of this we have 
only to turn to the account of the sport given by the Rev. 
Richard Lubbock in his " Fauna of Norfolk," and the valuable 
Appendix to his remarks contributed by Professor Newton to the 
second edition of that work, printed in 1S79. (See No. 65.) 
From this source of information, supplied by friends who knew 
him, as well as from Sir John Scbright's " Observations " (No. 61), 
the following brief notice of Edward Clough Newcome will serve 
to explain the reason for presenting ihe reader with his portrait. 

K 



258 AVTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



His hawking career commenced about 1827 or 1828, when as 
a boy of seventeen or eighteen, accompanied by his brotlier 
William, he used to go out with Colonel Wilson of Didlington, 
who succeeded Lord Orford as chief of the Norfolk falconers. 
The heron-hawks were then kept at High Ash in charge of old 
Frank van der Heuvel and the Brothers Bots, all of whom came 
from Valkenswaard, in Holland. The " meets " were, according 
to the wind, at High Ash, Mundford, Cranwich Bam^ North- 
wold Field, and Methwold Field ; Cranwich being far the best. 
The heronry at Didlington was surrounded by open country on 
every side. The herons used to go out in the morning to the ' 
great fen district, and to rivers and ponds at a very con- 
siderable distance in search of food, returning to the heronry 
towards evening. 

It was at this time, says Sir John Sebright {pp. city p. 39 ), 
that the falconers placed themselves down wind of the heronry, 
so that when the herons were interrupted on their return home, 
they were obliged to fly against the wind to gain their place of 
retreat, and a fine ringing flight was then usually obtained. If 
the heron flew down wind, he was seldom taken ; the hawks were 
in danger of being lost ; and as the flight was in a straight line, 
it aflbrded little sport. 

In 1 83 1 Mr. Newcome advertised for jerfalcons on his own 
account (Newton, op, cit.<, p. 235), and afterwards went himself to 
Norway for them. In 1838, after the death of-Colonel Wilson 
(who in 1832 had become Lord Bemers), Mr. Newcome, with 
the Duke of Leeds, Mr. Stuart Wortley, and Baron d'Offemont, 
helped to found the celebrated Hawking Club, whose head- 
quarters were at the Loo, near Apeldoom, the summer palace 
of the King of Holland, under whose patronage and with whose 
consent the members met every summer for about six weeks' 
heron-hawking. When this was over, Mr. Newcome returned to 
Norfolk and spent the rest of the year in hawking, shooting, 
and fishing at Hockwold, where he resided. 

About 1853 the Loo Hawking Club ceased to exist, and firom 
that time until a few years before his own death, when he took 
a leading part in forming a new association, which still exists, 
and is now known as the Old Hawking Club, he confined 
his hawking excursions to his own neighbourhood. " Here," 
says Professor Newton {op. cit.^ p. 237), "I had frequent 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 259 



opportunities of joining him and of watching his skill, for 
nothing pleased him better than the company in the field of 
any who took an interest in the art of which he was so great 
a master. But, from the causes already assigned, herons grew 
yearly fewer and fewer, until from their scarcity it became 
impossible to train a hawk to fly them. Rooks, as affording the 
next best kind of flight available, gave a certain amount of sport, 
and Mr. Newcome was at great pains to form a rookery near 
his house, succeeding at last, but only after many failures. 

" The open country around Hockwold, Wilton, and Feltwell 
was his most constant ground, and here from the beginning of 
March until the corn was well grown he might be nearly always 
met. He had a boy to carry the cadge, and occasionally to 
unhood a second hawk, but he was his own falconer both at home 

and afield Somewhat later in the season Lakenheath and 

Wangford Warrens, in Suffolk, were places of resort ; and here 
Stone Curlews often furnished a flight, while sometimes the 
hawks were taken into the fens for the chance of a Crow or a 
Pie. When the corn-fields were cleared he had some diversion 
with Merlins, but herein he was not so very successful, for the 
larks, as soon as they had got over their moult, and were strong 
upon the wing, generally beat their pursuers, which, it must be 
" remarked, were eyesses. 

" I remember his once having a Sparrow-hawk which was rather 
good at taking blackbirds, but I do not think he ever possessed a 
Goshawk while I knew him ! " 

In 1852 Mr. Newcome took up his abode at Feltwell Hall, 
and there he lived until his death, on the 22nd September 187 1, 
in his sixty-second year. 

In an interesting review of the second edition of " Falconry 
in the British Islands" (No. 67) which appeared in the 
Quarterly Review for July 1875, the writer, referring to 
the loss occasioned to the sport by the recent death of Mr. 
Newcome, remarked (p. 183): " On field or fen, on moor or 
mere, by the riverside or on the racecourse, no man had more 
friends or fewer enemies than the late Edward Clough Newcome. 
But from his own Norfolk * brecks ' to the bogs of Ireland, from 
Salisbury Plain to the heaths of Brabant and the fells of Norway, 
he, from his boyhood, followed the sport of Falconry more 
keenly than any other; sharing its comparative prosperity of 



26o NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

fifty years since; keeping alive its traditions when its practice 
had all but expired ; reviving it when his own enthusiasm, by 
infecting others, had given promise for its continuance; and 
performing feats hitherto unknown in the annals of the art. 
Untired in his devotion, even by the drudgery of the labour of 
love he undertook, as an efficient falconer he was unequalled, 
whether by professionals or amateurs." His assiduity and 
success are shown by the fact that he trained eyess falcons to 
take wild herons on passage. He was the last who kept heron- 
hawks in England, and an interesting account, communicated by 
himself, of two remarkable birds which he possessed, named 
** Sultan " and " De Ruyter," will be found in Freeman's and 
Salvm's " Falconry " (see note to No. 68). The late Mr. J. D. 
Hoy, of Stoke-by-Nayland, in Suffolk, an eye-witness of the 
sport which was enjoyed at Didlington, High Ash, and Cranwich, 
has left a pleasing account of what he saw in a fragmentary 
journal not long published (** Trans. Norfolk NaL Soc," voL ii, 
p. 390), which has also been quoted by Professor Newton in 
his Appendix to Lubbock's " Fauna," above mentioned. 

XI. Fleming of Barochan, Renfrewshire, with 
HIS Falconers, John Anderson and George Harvey. 
Engraved by C. Turner from a painting by J. Howe, 
of E dinburgh, 1 8 1 1 . 

A remarkable instance of a succession of falconers from father 
to son for many generations occurs in the ancient family of the 
Flemings of Barochan, near Paisley, in Renfrewshire. The 
member of that family whose portrait is here given kept the 
Renfrewshire Subscription Hawks, which were flown chiefly at 
partridge and woodcock, from the commencement of the present 
century until his death in 18 19. His grandfather was a 
celebrated falconer, and a more remote ancestor, Peter Fleming, 
at the end of the fifteenth century, on the occasion of his beating 
the King's falcon with a tiercel of his own, received from 
James IV. of Scotland (1488-1513) a jewelled hawk's hood, 
still preserved in the family. 

He is here represented on horseback, carr3ring a hooded 
falcon, and followed by a favourite black poodle. At his horse's 
head stands John Anderson, a celebrated Scotch falconer, with 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS, 261 

two hawks on his glove, one hooded, the other pulling at a 
partridge apparently just killed. At Anderson's side, between 
him and his master's horse, stands a famous pointer ; while before 
him, in characteristic attitudes, are four spaniels, which were 
always used for woodcock hawking. To the right an assistant 
falconer, George Harvey, seated on a felled tree, carries on his 
glove a cast of spare hawks. 

John Anderson was so renowned as a professional falconer 
that a few lines relative to his career may be acceptable. He was 
born about 1750 in the parish of Currie, near Edinburgh, and 
was at first apprenticed to a currier ; but his love of hawking 
becoming known, he was engaged by Mr. Fleming of Barochan 
as assistant to John Hainshaw, who was then head-falconer. 
He lived to succeed Hainshaw, and then had for his assistant 
Peter Ballantine (see Plate XH.), who became almost as 
renowned a falconer as himself. On Mr. Fleming's death in 
18 1 9 he was engaged by the Earl of Morton at Dalmahoy, and 
on the occasion of the coronation of George IV. in 1820 
he was selected on behalf of the Duke of Athole to present the 
King with a cast' of hawks, that being the feudal tenure by which 
the Dukes of Athole held the Isle of Man from the Crown. 

There is a scarce print of Anderson in the dress worn by him 
on that occasion — namely, a dress of the period of James I., with 
a cast of hawks on his glove. It has been lately reproduced by 
M. Pichot (No. 221). 

After spending some time in the service of Sir Alexander 
Donne of Ochiltree, Anderson in 1832 retired upon a pension, 
in the eighty-second year of his age. 

The engraving of which a reduced facsimile is here given was 
made from the original oil painting by Howe preserved at 
Barochan, and is dedicated to Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, 
Bart., who was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of the 
Renfrewshire Subscription Hawks, and who had in his own 
service as falconer, William Barr, the father of William, John, and 
Robert Barr, all of whom were skilled falconers. 

A memoir of John Barr by the present writer (a pupil of his), 
in The Field of the 17th July 1880, supplies some interesting 
links in the history of Falconry between the period above referred 
to and the present time. Another link is supplied by Mr. 
Freeman's memoir of John Pells, who was falconer to the Duke 



262 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

of Leeds and Mr. Newcome, and who died at Lakenheath in 
March 1883. (See " The Hawking Career of John Pells " in The 
Field, 23rd June i860, and an obituary memoir of him, 7^ Fields 
31st March 1883.) 

XII. Peter Ballantine, the last of the old Scotch 
Falconers, born 1798, died 1884. From a painting 
by A. D. Cooper, 1879, in the possession of Mr. R. 
Oswald of Auchincruive, Ayrshire. 

Peter Ballantine was bom in 1798 at Dumfries House, 
Ayrshire, where his father — ^who had formerly acted as falconer 
to the Earl of Eglinton — was employed as steward to the 
Marquis of Bute. The elder Ballantine was devoted to Falconry, 
and had sufficient leisure time on his hands to keep a hawk 
always in training, while his friend John Anderson, already 
noticed, was in the service of Sir Alexander Donne at Ochiltree, 
hard by, as falconer. Between these two the young Peter had 
nd difficulty in learning the first principles of Falconry ; but in 
addition to this he imbibed that love for hawks and that gentle- 
ness in their treatment which he preserved to the day of his death. 

At the age of about twenty Peter Ballantine took service 
under his old friend John Anderson, who was then falconer to 
the Renfrewshire Subscription Hawks, which were maintained 
at Barochan, the seat of Mr. Fleming. Peter remained with 
Anderson as his assistant until the retirement of the latter on a 
pension in 1832, when he entered the service of Lord 
Carmarthen, afterwards Duke of Leeds, as assistant falconer to 
John Pells, father of the last John Pells, who died at Lakenheath 
in March 1883. 

The hawks were then kept at Huntly Lodge, Aberdeenshire, 
and while old Pells kept a few passage falcons at work, Ballantine 
trained the Scotch eyesses, and excellent sport was obtained at 
herons with the former, and at every description of game with 
the latter. The finest sport of all was the flight at the woodcock, 
which was plentifully found in the young plantations which then 
clothed Deeside, a flight which combined the glorious " stoop " 
of the well-placed game falcon with the " high mountee " or 
ringing flight usually obtained with the heron. 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 263 

It was at this period of his life that Peter Ballantine adopted 
the Dutch principle of making hoods, and the system of using 
long jesses and a swivel, in place of the old varvels and leash 
of the Scotch falconers, to which he had been educated. On 
leaving Lord Carmarthen's service he entered that of Sir James 
Boswell of Auchinleck, where he had charge of a kennel of 
greyhounds, and also trained a cast or so of hawks annually. 
He was in Sir James's service for twenty-five years, until the 
death of that gentleman, and was then employed by Mr. Robert 
Ewen of Ewenfield, Ayrshire. It was perhaps during his service 
with this gentleman that Peter showed the best sport during his 
long career, and fairly established his claim to be considered 
nearly the most successful trainer of eyesses for game-hawking 
that has lived during the last two generations. In 1870 his 
score of game was 269 head. In 187 1 he killed 346 head, and 
in 1873 his score was 367 head. Two of the best hawks he 
had during this period were The Imp, which he kept for five 
years, and RantirC Robin, which hawk was moulted ten seasons, 
and to the last he was as good as ever, when in the humour. 
Many other hawks which were trained by Peter will live un the 
memories of those who saw their fine performances, notably a 
falcon called yb;i Van, and another named Band of Hope, 

For these particulars the writer is indebted to the Hon. 
Gerald Lascelles. 

On the death of Mr. Ewen, Ballantine found a kind master in 
Mr. R. A. Oswald of Auchincruive, who kept him on in his old 
home, and enabled him to continue his old pursuit almost to 
his dying day. 

With Mr. Oswald in 1878, 1879, ^^^ 1880, Peter showed fine 
sport, and trained a splendid falcon called Pearl, which was 
perhaps as good a game-hawk as could be flown. Up to the 
last-mentioned date Peter was almost as active as ever — at 
least he could walk after his hawks for the longest day, and 
cheer them when on the wing with a voice like a bell ; but for 
the last few years of his life nature asserted itself, and the old 
man failed a little. But even in the year he died (1884), at the 
age of eighty-six, he trained a hawk ; and it is a curious fact that 
this bird, having been amiss for some days previously, died on 
the same day as her famous old master. 



264 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

XIII. A Dutch Falconer of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury. From a Portrait by Franz de Vriendt, in the 
Brunswick Gallery. 

The original picture by Franz de Vriendt, commonly called 
Franz Floris, a painter of Antwerp (i 520-1 570), is one of the 
finest examples of that artist's work. Who the falconer was 
cannot now be ascertained ; but there can be little doubt that 
it is a portrait, and a good one, of some enthusiast of the day. 

The Dutch falconers have long been celebrated for their skill, 
from the time when the Spanish prince, Don Juan Manuel, 
sounded their praises in 1325 (see No. 226), down to the present 
day, when their descendants in North Brabant still occupy 
themselves every autumn in taking ''passage hawks'^ on the 
great heath of Valkenswaard (see Nos. 194, 198, and 79). An 
account of some of the more celebrated Dutch falconers of 
modern times, particularly those who were intimately associated 
with the practice of the sport in England, has been furnished by 
Professor Newton in his Appendix to Lubbock's "Fauna of 
Norfolk " (No. 65) ; and Monsieur P. A. Pichot, in his lately 
published Essay on the Falconry Court at the Paris Exhibition 
of 1889 (No. 221), has given a portrait of the celebrated Adrian 
Mollen, who was for many years falconer to the Loo Club, and 
who happily still lives to impart the secrets of his art to pupils 
of all nations (see No. 79, pp. in, 112). He was a pupil of 
Jan Bots, with whom he was assistant falconer from 1833 to 
1836. In 1837 he entered the service of Prince Trautmansdorf 
at Oberwaldersdorf, some leagues from Vienna. Here he 
remained until 1840, and during that time was engaged in train- 
ing the " passage hawks " brought from Holland, and nestling 
lanners from Hungary for flying at partridges, rooks, and stone 
curlews. In 1841 he became falconer to the Loo Hawking 
Club, his place at Prince Trautmansdorf's being taken by a 
nephew of Jan Pells from Valkenswaard. 

XIV. Prince William V. of Orange, Heron- 
hawking at the Loo in 1767. From a rare engraving 
by Mourik. 

Long before the formation of the Loo Hawking Club in 
1839, the Royal domain of the Loo, near Apeldoom, in 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 265 

Holland, was celebrated for the excellent heron-hawking which 
the wide open country there afforded to lovers of the sport; but its 
renown was emphasised when, in that year, under the presidency 
of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, a few English, French, 
and Dutch falconers, headed by Mr. Edward Clough Newcome, 
Mr. Stuart Wortley, the Duke of Leeds, the Baron d'Off(^mont 
and Baron Sloet (treasurer and secretary), formed an inter- 
national association, with the object of heron-hawking annually 
in the best country in the world for that purpose, during the 
months of May, June, and July. 

This club flourished for about twelve years, and included 
amongst its members the leading falconers of several nation- 
alities. The following names appear in a Liste des Membrcs 
drawn up in 1847 : — 

1839. — Mr. E. C. Newcome,* C. Stuart Wortley, Baron 
d'Ofi^mont, and Baron Sloet ♦ (Hon. Sec). 1840.— H.R.H. the 
Prince of Orange, Princes Alexander,* Frederick, and Henry ♦ 
of the Netherlands, Baron de Nyvenheim, Baron van Zuylen 
van Nievelt, Baron de Constant Rebecque,* Baron van Brienen 
van der Groote Lindt, Sir Edward Disbrowe, the Hon. W. S. 
Jemingham, the Duke of Leeds,* Baron Tindall, Mr. William 
Newcome. 1842. — Lord C. Hamilton,* Mr. Knight,* Mr. 
Edward Green, Mr. J. Balfour, Lord Suffield. 1843. — M. 
Dubois, Baron van Westreenen, Baron van Verschuer,* Mr. 
Milbank. 1844, — Mr. Stirling Crawford, Count Westerholt, 
Mr. John Melville. 1845. — Baron van den Bogaerde, Baron 
Mollerus, Lord Alvanley, Baron Hardenbroek, the Earl of 
Chesterfield, Count Alfred von Hatzfeld, Baron van Tuyll van 
Serooskerken,* M. van Lennep, M. Crommelin. 1846. — 
General Hare Clarges, Mr. Thornhill, M. leComte de BreteuiL 
1847. — M. Gudin, Major Mountjoy Martin, Lord Villiers, Mr. 
F. Milbank,* the Earl of Strathmore,* M. Charles Martyn, and 
the Hon. C. Maynard. 

The professional falconers were the veteran Franz van der 
Heuvel,* who had been falconer to Louis XVL from 1785 to 
1792, Jan Pells,* P. Bekkers,* Jan van den Boom,* J. Bots,* 
and Adrian Mollen* (falconer to the King of Holland) and his 
brother Paul Mollen, both of whom are still living. 

Portraits of those to whose name an asterisk (*) is affixed will 
be found in the folio plates of Schlegel,* whose own portrait and 



( 



4\ 

• t 

:! 
( ' 

* 

' f 



I 
I 

{ 266 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

f 

\ that of his colleague, Verster van Wulverhorst,* are also included. 

I A key to these portraits is given by M. Pichot in his latest work 

[ on Falconry in the Paris Exhibition of 1889 (No. 221), where also 

I will be found portraits of Adrian MoUen (p. 38) and John Ban 

i (p. 23), besides several English falconers of the present day. 

I By the rules of the club the annual subscription was fixed at 

not less than one hundred florins, and the hawking season com- 

I menced on the 15th May and continued until the loth July or 

{ thereabouts. 

I The number of hawks (peregrines and jerfalcons) maintained 

\ \ by the club, and the number of herons taken by them *' on 

passage," appear in the following table : — 



1840. — 22 


Falcons 


138 


Herons 


1 84 1. — 44 


»> 


287 


»> 


1842. 44 


» 


148 


>i 


1843.— 40 


» 


200 


i> 


1844.— 36 


i> 


100 


i> 


1849. — 14 


>» 


128 


»> 


1850. — 16 


»» 


138 


>» 


185I.— 18 


i» 


130 


»» 


1852.— 36 


19 


297 


)i 



Details of the sport may be found in the works of Schlegel 
(194) and Pichot (207), in the anonymous brochure (193), and 
in an article by M. de Rodenburg published in tYit Journal des 
Chasseurs in 1855. 

When taken uninjured the herons were often liberated, after 
having a brass ring fastened on one leg, inscribed with the name 
of the club and the date of capture. They were sometimes 
retaken at long intervals at a considerable distance from the 
Loo. Thus, Dr. Campanyo, in his Histoire NatureUe du Deparie- 
I tnent des Pyrenees Orientales^ 1863, states (p. 225) that in April 

i 1845^ an old male heron was killed on the farm of M. Lacombe, 

at Saint Michel, near Perpignan, which had a plate on the leg with 
an inscription to the effect that it had been taken two years 
previously by a falcon belonging to the Loo Hawking Club ; and 
that in 1856 another heron was killed on the seashore at Alenya, 
near Perpignan, having on one leg a similar plate, which it had 
carried for seven years. 






NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 267 

XV. A German Falconer of the Sixteenth 
Century. From a scarce engraving by an artist 
whose name has not been ascertained. 

No copy of this is to be found amongst the large collection of 
prints in the British Museum, although from the serial number 
in the left-hand comer, and the word " Aer " in the top right- 
hand corner, suggestive of its being one of a set of emblems, 
there ought to be no difficulty in identifying it. The drawing 
is particularly good, and the treatment very artistic. 

For other figures of German falconers the reader should turn 
to the fine engravings of Ridinger, already noticed (p. 51), and 
to those of Hans Burgkmair which illustrate the life of Maxi- 
milian I. in Der Weiss Konig^ 15 14, reprinted at Vienna in 1775. 
In one of these plates, No. 34 of the series, the Emperor is 
represented Heron-hawking. Attended by mounted falconers, 
he is seated on horseback, in the act of unhooding his falcon at 
a heron, at which other hawks have already been flown. 

XVI. A French Falconer of the Eighteenth 
Century, in the Uniform of the Court of Louis XV., 

1715-1774- 

Furnished by Monsieur P. A. Pichot " d'aprfes les figurines 
ddcoupdesde P. Lesueur, appartenant \ M. Bidault de L'Isle." 

For some account of Falconry in France during the reign of 
Louis XV. the reader may be referred to the works of Bois- 
soudan (No. 202), Baron Dunoyer de Noirmont (No. 206), 
vol. iii. pp. 107-109, and D'Aubusson (No. 211), p. 207. The 
Grand Falconer in this reign was the Due de la Vallibre, who 
had a salary of 4200 livres. The under falconers were paid 
on a proportionately liberal scale, and the annual expenditure 
for salaries, purchase of hawks, and cost of maintenance amounted 
to 24,190 livres frangais, or nearly ;£2o,ooo (D'Aubusson, /.^.) 

The palmy days of Falconry in France terminated with the 
Revolution in 1792. The sport was revived for a short period 
by Napoleon, who, in 1810, sent for the Dutch Falconers 
Daams and Daankers with four assistants, and maintained a 
hawking establishment at Versailles until 181 3, when the French 



268 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I Eagle claiming more attention than the trained falcons, the 

sport was once more suppressed. Nor was it again revived 
until 1866. 

In that year a little band of enthusiasts formed the '' Cham- 
pagne Hawking Club," with John Barr for their £edconer, and 
for three seasons enjoyed some excellent sport at rooks, crows, 
pies, partridges, stone curlews, and little bustards. M. Alfred 
Werl^ was president, and amongst the members were MM. le 
Vicorate de Champeaux-Vemeuil, le Baron d'Aubilly, le Comte 
le Couteulx de Canteleu, le Vicomte Georges de Grandmaison, 
I le Comte Femand de Montebello, Julio Alfonso de Aldama, and 

' Pierre Ara^dde Pichot. The unavoidable return of John Barr 

I ! to England, and the impossibility of finding a substitute, led 

> unfortunately to the dismemberment of the club. In 1879, 

however, through the efforts of M. Paul Gervais, another revival 

took place, and his example was followed by MM. Sourbets, 

Saint Marc, Foye, Belvalette, Cerfon, and Edmond Barrachin, 

' all of whom are keeping hawks at the present day, and with the 

aid of M. Pichot are helping to find goshawks for the English 
fJEdconers who are five or sue times as numerous. 

XVII. Italian Falconers of the Seventeenth 
Century, Partridge-hawking with the Goshawk. 
From an engraving by Tempesta, 1622 ; reproduced 
from the work of Olina (No. 278). 

Antonio Tempesta (b. 1555, d. 1630), a Florentine painter 
and engraver, was a pupil of Stradanus (or, to give him his real 
name, Jan Strada), a Fleming. Other plates of his will be 
found mentioned in the note to No. 278. 

XVI I I. Lorenzo de' Medici. Born, 1448; died, 
1492. Author of a celebrated poem, " La Caccia col 
Falcone." 

This portrait of " Lorenzo the Magnificent," whose life has 
been so ably written by William Roscoe (2 vols. 4to, 1796), is a 
facsiuiile of the frontispiece to that work, and a brief notice of 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 269 

him in connection with Falconry will be found in the notes 
which follow the title of his poem (No. 265). Vide an/ed, p. 139. 
A "receipt" from the falconer of Lorenzo de' Medici to the 
Treasurer of the Due d'Orl^ans for a gratuity of " xxxii sols, 
toumois" on his bringing a present of a falcon, 15th Jan. 
1483, is printed by Charavay (No. 210), p. 7. 

XIX. AND XX. Italian Miniatures of the Thir- 
teenth Century, illustrating the Latin MS. of the 
Emperor Frederick II., " De arte venandi cum 
avibus." 

As these miniatures, reproduced from the facsimiles in 
D'Agincourt's famous Histoire de PArty have already been 
described on pp. 1 71-172, it will be unnecessary to repeat the 
account there given of them ; but the reader may be reminded 
of Baron Pichon*s admirable commentary (No. 201) on the 
treatise which they serve to illustrate. 

Those who are interested in the subject of illuminated manu- 
scripts would do well to read the very instructive lectures 
which were delivered at the London Institution by Messrs. R. 
Thomson and W. Tite, M.P., in 1857, " On some of the most 
characteristic features of illuminated manuscripts from the eighth 
to the eighteenth century"; and " On the materials and practice 
of illuminators, with biographical and literary notices illustrative 
of the art of illumination." 

XXL A Falconer of Cyprus. Engraved by W. 
Skelton, from a picture by Titian, in possession of the 
Earl of Carlisle. 

From an inscription on the back of the picture it appears to 
be the portrait of a brother of a queen of Cyprus. The words 
are " Georgius Cornelius frater Caterinae Cipri et Hierusalem 
(sic) Reginae." The original, which is on canvas, and in good 
condition, has been a long time in the possession of the Earl of 
Carlisle's family, and is preserved in the collection at Castle 
Howard. About 1807 it was temporarily removed to London, 
and was engraved for Forster's " British Gallery of Engravings 



1 



I 



It 



270 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

from pictures of the Italian, Flemish, Dutch, and English Schools," 
published in that year. 

There is a mezzotint of a falconer by Reynolds from a picture 
by Northcote, R. A. (said to be a portrait of the painter himself), 
which was evidently suggested by Titian's portrait Even the 
dog by the falconer's side has been introduced. 

XXII. Falconers of Turkestan, with the trained 
Eagle, or Berkut From a sketch made by Colonel 
(now General) T. E. Gordon, in Eastern Turkestan. 

' J See pp. 180, 192, 193. For an account of the way in which 

7 the Golden Eagle, or Berkut {0X6. Persian, Bargut\ is trained and 

t flown in some parts of the East at deer, hares, foxes, and wolves, 

I the reader may be referred to Atkinson's " Travels in the Regions 

} of the Upper and Lower Amoor," i860, pp. 58, 492 (where 

i the native name of the bird is phonetically spelt bearcoot\ and 

to Colonel T. E. Gordon's " Roof of the World," a narrative 

of a journey over the high plateaus of Thibet to the Russian 

( frontier, and the Oxus sources on Pamir, 1876 (pp. 68, 72, 78, 

\ 85). In this entertaining volume, wherein the bird is styled 

burgoot and burgut^ Colonel Gordon gives a report of a journey 

eastward from Kashgar to Maralbashi towards Aksu (39*" 46' N.) 

[ made by Captain J. Biddulph, the first European traveller in that 

direction. From Maralbashi (the stag's haunt), known also as 
^ Burchuk and Lai Musjid, he went to Charwagh, a village fourteen 

miles on the Aksu road. " Here," he says, " I had good sport 
; shooting gazelles and pheasants, which abounded, and I also 

saw the burgoots, or trained eagles, kill gazelles and foxes. I was 

not fortunate enough to see them kill a wolf, though they were 

twice flown, but the animals on both occasions being in thick 

i bush jungle, and at a great distance, the birds did not sight 

' them. Their owners, however, spoke of it as an ordinary 

occurrence. When the jungle is not too high they sight their 
prey at a great distance, and sweep up to it without any apparent 
eflfort, however fast it may be going. Turning suddenly when 
over its head, they strike it with unerring aim. If a fox, they 
grasp its throat with one powerful talon, and seize it round the 
muzzle with the other, keeping the jaws closed with an iron 
grasp, so that the animal is powerless." [A vignette of an eagle 



4 



) 



I : 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 271 

seizing a fox is given on p. 88 of the work quoted.] The author 
continues : — " From the great ease with which an eagle disposes 
of a full-grown fox I could see that a wolf would have no better 
chance. Gazelles are seized in the same way, except those 
with horns, in which case the eagle first fastens on to the loins of 
the animal, and, watching his opportunity, transfers his grasp 
to the throat, avoiding the horns. 

" The burgooty however, is not very easy to manage, and re- 
quires the whole of one man's care. Its dash and courage are 
great, but if flown unsuccessfully once or twice, it will often sulk 
for the rest of the day. When it kills, it is always allowed to tear 
at its game for a little time. The men told me that if prevented 
doing so while its blood was up, it would very probably attack 
our horses." 

It is even flown at wild boar. " During the envoy's tour in 
the Artush district at the end of February," says Colonel Gordon 
(p. 85), " the villagers assembled to show this sport. They 
were mounted on the strong, active little horses of the country, 
and carried clubs bent at the end like hockey sticks, with which 
they strike the animal on the head till he is stunned, when the 

death-blow is generally given with some other weapon The 

trained eagle is flown at the hog on the first favourable oppor- 
tunity, and generally succeeds by its sharp and powerful attack 
in bringing it to bay, when the men close in with their clubs. 

" On the occasion alluded to, a splendid tusker was killed in 
this manner; but firom all I heard I should say that the wild 
boar of these parts is not equal in fighting spirit to his brother 
of Bengal." 

For further information respecting these trained eagles see the 
references given in the note at top of p. 193. 

It may be added, in conclusion, that the spelling, berkut^ here 
adopted is that in vogue with the Russian falconers, who procure 
these eagles vid Orenburg from the Kirghis. 

It is not a little curious that the Welsh name for the Kite, 
according to Pennant, is barcudy pronounced barkit. It is so- 
called in Carmarthenshire, while in Pembrokeshire the common 
Buzzard is thus designated (£. C. Phillips, Zoologist^ 1891, p. 
173). Lord Lilford has heard tlie same name in Merionethshire 
applied to the Marsh Harrier. The precise meaning of the 
word is not explained, but it suggests that our word Kite has 



272 NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

« probably some affinity, and it is remarkable that the Tartars, 

Russians, and Persians apply the name herkut or barkui to an 
eagle. 

XXIII. Arab Falconers with Lanners. From a 
photograph taken in Algeria in 1889. 

In addition to the sources of information indicated on p. 206, 

concerning the practice of Falconry by the Arabs, the reader may 
'i be referred to the following articles on the subject which have 

appeared at intervals during the last few years : — "Arab Falconry," 

, . The Fieidy 30th April 1881 ; "Souvenirs of Modem Egypt: 

^ How Prince Halim hunted the Gazelle,*' The Field, 30th January 

> 1875; "Gazelle Hawking in Egypt,'* Tfu Zoologist^ 1878, pp. 

335-337; "Hawking in Barbary," The Field, 9th September 
J 1882, and "Hawking in Morocco," The Field, 13th March 

1886. 



i 

i 

I 



1 






XXIV. Indian Falconers with Sakers and Pere- 
grine. From a photograph taken in the Punjab in 
1 89 1, and forwarded by Capt. D. C. Phillott, 3rd Punjab 
Cavalry. 

The Saker, Falco sacer (Hind. Cherkh or Cherrug), is trails ^ 1 
to kill cranes, bustards, and hares, and shows excellent sp6it 
when flown at the Indian kite, Milvus govinda, which might be 
thought more than a match for it. 

Native falconers assert that the Saker breeds in the Bhoor 

lands, or sandy and desert tracts of Wcstem India. Many are 

brought for sale at the beginning of October. Mr. Thompson 

saw three at the Nawab of Rampore's, in Rohilcund ; they 

' were purchased for 1 5 rupees, which shows that they are not 

difficult to procure. A trained female goshawk costs from 20 to 
50 rupees ; a male from 10 to 30 rupees. 

For descriptions of hawking as practised in India, see the 
authorities referred to in the note at top of p. 202. See also 
"Crane-hawking with Meer Ali Murad," Tlie Field, 2nd October 
1886; "Hawking in Central India," The Field, 27th Nov. 
1886; "Hawking in the Salt Range," 7'he Field, 27th Aug. 
1887 ; and " Hawking in Bengal," The Fieldy nth Aug. 1888. 



NOTES TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 273 

XXV. A Japanese Falconer. From the "Ehon 
Taka Kagami," or Mirror of Falconry. 

The merits of the work from which this plate has been re- 
produced in facsimile (No. 371) have been already noticed on 
p. 212. This figure has been selected in preference to many 
others in order to show the form of the Japanese hood (zukin), 
glove iyugaki)^ jesses {ashikatva^ i.e., leg leathers), creance (Oki- 
nawa)^ and frisfrass {buchi)^ which is a stick of wistariay with 
the end teased out like a Japanese tooth-brush, used to cleanse 
the beaks of goshawks and falcons. 

XXVI. Portrait of a Trained Falcon. 

The figure of a hooded Tiercel on the glove, which appears in 
the vignette on the title-page, and was drawn and engraved for 
this work by Mr. G. £. Lodge, being on rather too small a scale 
to show all the accessones^ it has been thought desirable to 
give a larger figure of a trained Falcon, unhooded, from an 
excellent photograph recently taken by Lieut.-CoL H. Watson. 
Here is the hood : — 




. f 



INDEX. 



• ♦* 



Note.— The number of books in different languages which relate wholly or in part 
to Falconry and are catalogued in this volume, chronologically under the head of 
Countries, amounts to 378. 

This Index to their authors, artists, printers, and publishers contains in addition the 
names of other writers whose works — historical, ^biographical, and critical — have been 
referred to in the Notes, as affording "side-lights" on the hterature of the subject not 
without interest and value. 

The figures following these names refer in every case to the page, and not to the 
serial number of the Catalogue. 



Abd-el-Kadir, the Emir, 99 

Abd-el-Kadir Jilani, 199 

Abercromby, Sir A., 251 

Abu al Gasim, 205 

Abu Dulef al Gasim, 204 

Abul Fazl, 198 

Ackersdijck, W. C, 45 

Adclung, 185, 187, 190 

iElfric, Abp., xv 

i4£lian, xxvii, 175, 179, 182, 213 

Agogo Mago, 140 

Aix, Jan Raynaud dc, 81 

Akbar, 198, 199, 2<x) 

Akqanoflf, S. T., 185 

Akizato Rito, 213 

Alagona, Arthelouche de, 72, 77 

Albentos, Marquis de, 132 

Albertus Magnus, 50, 66, 67, no, 

161, 162, 168, 169, 172, 205 
Albrizzi, Giambatista, 146, 153 
Alburquerque, Duque de, 115, 116, 

117, 118 
Aide, Edward, 5 



Aldrovandus, 27, 172, 173 

Alemgir, 199 

Alessandri, G. D. dcgli, 147 

Alexander the Great, xxvii 

Alexander II., 190 

Alexis Michaelovitch, Tsar, 184, 185, 

186, 189 
Alexejvitch,Ivan, 186 
Alfonso XL, 113, 123 
Alfred the Great, xiv 
Alhegiagi ben Khaithama, 181 
Ali Kameh Khorasani, 197 
Ali Pasha, 195 
Aiken, S., 39 
Allen, W. H., 99 
Amador dc los Rios, 113 
Amasi, 203 

Amigny, Seigneur de, 90 
Amman, Jost, 48, 49, 86 
Anderson, John, xvii, 34, 60, 260 
Andilly, Robert Amaud dc, 87 
Andreoli, Gregorio, 153 
Angeli, Pietro, da Barga, 146, 153 
Anon., 32, 33, 34, 45, 51, 61, 87, 88, 

89? 94. 96, 98, 122 



f 



276 



INDEX. 



I 

H 

\ 

r 

1. 

\ 

1 1 



Antonelli, 155 

Apsley, Sir Allen, 16, 250 

Aquaviva, Belisaire, Due de Nardo, 

95, 162, 163, 172 
Aquila, no, 175 
Arcussia, Charles d', xxiv, xxv, 49, 

50, 53, 72, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, ^7, 

93, 148, 181 
Argote de Molina, 123, 136 
Aristotle, xxvii, 9, 179 
Armiger, Charles, 34 
Amz et Cie., 97 
Artaxerxes Mnemon, 213 
Ashbumham, Earl of, 181 
Asoph ul Doulah, 202 
Asser, xiv 

Astley, Sir John, 241 
Athole, Duke of, 261 
Atkins, Maurice, 27 
Aubrey, John, 23, 24 
Aubry, 80 
Aurangzib, 199 
Austin, J. O., 251 
Austria, Grand Duke of, 46 
Avila, Juan Arias de, 133 
Ayala, Pero Lopez de, xxvi, 63, 

115, 116, 117, 131, 134 
Aym^ Cassian, 75, yj 
Azais, G., no 



B. 



B. GO, 15, 16 

Badr ud Din, M. ul Balkhi, 203 

Bahr, J. C, 213 

Baillie Hamilton, Hon. R., 247 

Baist, G., 58, 113,115 

Baldamus, £., 53 

Balfour, 33 

Ballantine, Peter, xvii, 262 

Barde, Paul, 93 

Bargeo, il, 146, 153 

Barker, Christopher, 12 

Barker, W. B., 196 



Barlow, Francis, 26, 151, 252 

Barnes, Juliana, T, 2 

Barr, the brothers, 261 

Barr, John, 262 

Barrachin, Edmond, 108, 26S 

Bartel, 81, 82, 83, 88, 153 

Bartholome, 12 

Bartolus, F^ 176 

Bassaeus, N., 173 

Basset, Thomas, 27 

Bassett, John, 31 

Batman, 12 

Baucher, 94 

Baudrillart, J. J., ix, 90, 95 

Beam, Vicomte de, 1 1 1 

Bearzi, Abb^ de, 45 

Beau vais, Vincent de, 109, 161 

Bechstein, J. M., 52 

Beckmann, John, 35, 52 

Behague, Comte de, 82 

Bein, Prof., 54 

Bekkers, P., 265 

Belany, J. C, 39, 202 

Belisaire Aquaviva, 95, 162, 172 

Bell, John, i8o, 187, 208 

Belon, Pierre, 76, 78 

Beltran de la Cueva, 117 

Belvallette, Alfred, xxv, 107, 268 

Benoit Maichin, 108 

Bergantini, Gio. Pietro, xxvi, 146, 

153 
Bern, M. A., 173 

Bemers, Juliana, i, 2 

Bemers, Lord, 38, 257, 258 

Bemes, Juliana, i, 2 

Bert, Edmund, xxiii, 17, 18, 252 

Berthet, Elie, 10 1 

Bertrand, 95 

Bes^onoff, P., 185 

Bcsongnc, Jacques, 82 

Besongne, C, 83 

Bettesworth, A., 32 

Bewick, Thomas, 32 

Bidault de Tlsle, 267 

Biddulph, Capt. J., 270 



Bidelli, G. B., 142, 144 




Brocar, Juan de, izo 


Bill, John, 14 




Brodrick, W., xxiv, 40, 41. ZS4 


Billaine, P., 83 




Browne, Sir Thomas, xxvii, 23, 27 


Billto, Giovanni, 149 




Bruckmann, F., 167, 173. '74 


Binet, Esticnnc, 83 




]!runel, 67 94 


Birago, Francesco, 153 




Bninetto Latioi, 109, 135, 137, 138, 


Blrckmann, J., 164 




'57 


Bisciola, L., 175 




Briinnich, M. T^ 60, 178, 179 


Bisesli, 155 




Brush, 36 


Blades, WUliam, i 




Bruysei, les Frtres, 89 


Blaine, D. P., 39, 108 




Buchoz. Pierre J., 93 


Blane, William, 202 




Buck. T., 21 


Blas.us, J. H., S3 




Buckingham, Duke of, 248 


BLize, Eli&r, 64, 65 




Buckley 167 


Bleseniu5, Peter, 20 




liuffon, Comiede, 90 


Blochmann, H., 198, 200 




Bulbeck, Viscount, 18 


Blome, Richard, xxii, xxii 


, 19.30. 


Bulliard, M., 93 


32 




Bulmer, J., 32 


Boccamazza, Domenico, i44i i45 


Burford, Earl of, 16 


Boissoudan, J. E., xxv, 94, 


100,267 


Burgos, F. Vicente de. 1 19 






Burgkmair, Hans, 267 


BonJface, Abp. of Mayenc 


,xiv 


Burton, Richard, 39, 100, 20; 


Bonnefous, Nicolas, K6 






Bono Giamboni, I3S. 137. 


S7 


C. 


Bonwick, Henry, 37 




Boom, Jan van den, 265 




Cabanillas, N. de, 132 


Bona y Pascual, Antonio, 


13s 


Cadell, 35 


Bossini, Giambatista, 154 




Caius, Dr. John, 164 


Bossow, P., 176 




Calderon, Pedro, de la Barca. 124 


Bostock, R., 19" 




Calvo Pinloy Velarde, A., 131 


Boswell, Sir James, 263 




Cammcr Lander Jacob, 47 


Bols, Jan, 158, 364, 265 




Campanyo, Dr., 266 


Bouchard- Hujard, 02 




Campbell, James, xxiii, 33 


Bouchet, Guillaumc, 75. 76, 77 


Canova, Juan de, 121 


Bourgogne, Due dc, 104 




Caponajo, Jacobus de, 181 


Boulon, Victor, 6j, 64 




Carcano, F. Sforiino da, xxvi, 141, 


Brabant, Due de, 98 




141, 147, 150, 172 


Bradley, Richard, 33 




Carleton, Sir Dudley, 249 


Branicki, Count, 88 




Carlisle, Earl of, 269 


Bralhwait, Richard, 9, 19 




Carlos I., 121 


Breuil Seigneur dc, 79 


(J« 


Carlos 11, 112 


Gommer) 




Carlos III.. 131 


Briffardiire, Sieur dc la, 38, 89 


Carlos, el Principe, 121 


Brill, E. J., 128 




Carmignant, 155 


Britton, John, 23 




Cassian, Aymi, 75. 77 



278 



INDEX. 



Castellan, Pierre de, 206 
Castillon d*Aspet, H., iii 
Castle, Edward, 24 
Catharine II., 180, 190 
Cavellat, Guillaume, 76 
Cerf, Leopold, 108 
Cerfon, C, xxv, 108, 268 
Ceruti, Antonio, xxvi, 158 
Cervantes, Pedro, 130 
Chabaille, P., 137, 138, 158 
Chafin, William, 37 
Chaicham, or Chaican, 160 
Chamberlain, 249 
Chambers, W. & R., xviii, 44, 56 
Champagne Club, Members of the, 

268 
Champg^nd, Gom-y de, 91 
Changran, M. de, 92 
Chappeville, Pierre Clement de, 88, 

89 
Chappie, C, 37 

Charavay,Etienne,xxv, 103,141, 269 
Charles I., xvi, 13, 22, 24, 247, 250, 

251 
Charles II., 24 
Charles II. of Sicily, 138, 161 
Charles IV., 63 
Charles V., 63, 7i>74, 138, 161 
Charles VI., 93 
Charles VIII., 66, 72, 74 
Charles IX., 78, 103 
Chassant, Alphonse, 63 
Chaworth, Sir George, 248 
Chenu, J. C, 100 
Cherville, Marquis de, 104, 205 
Cheseman, Edward, 243 
Cheseman, Robert, xv, 243, 244 
Chesneau, Nicholas, 78 
Chevreuil, Henri, 79 
Churchill, Sidney A. J., xi, 194, 

197, 203 
Civelli, 155 

Clapiers, Comte de, 85 
Clement XIII., 154 
Clifford, Arthur, 243 



Cluay, 160 

Clutterbuck, 17, 241 

Codroipo, Francesco, xxvi, 148 

CoUett, R., 60 

Collins, J., 23 

Collinson, J., 166 

Constable, 36 

Conti, Prince de, 91 

Conyers, G., 7 

Cooper, A. D., 262 

Copland, William, 3 

Copley, Sir Joseph, 96 

Corozet, GiUes, 64, 6$ 

Corsini, Accursio, 152 

Corvin Wiersbitski, 42, 54, 202 

Cossine, Gilbert, 31 

Cotton, Charles, 23 

Cotton, Sir Robert, 167 

Cousteau, Nicholas, 71 

Couteau, Anthoine, 74 

Cox, Nicholas, xxii, xxiii, 9, 27, 28, 

29,30,41,43 
Cramoisy, 76 
Cranston, Lord, 96 
Crawhall, Joseph, 26 
Crescens, Pierre, 71 
Crescentio, Pietro de, 138 
Crescentius, Petrus de, 46, 48, 62, 161 
Cretin, Guillaume, 74, 94 
Crippa, Bonaventura, 160 
Croft, H. S., 9 

Cromwell, Thomas Lord, 244 
Crosley, William, 17 
Crynes, Nathaniel, 4 
Ctesias, 213 
Cuisin, M. V. P., 95 
Cunder, James, yj 
Cussac, J., 92 
Cussi^re, Loys de, loi 



D. 



D*Agincourt, 269 

Dairvault, H. Martin, 66, 67, 137, 
162 



INDEX. 



279 



D'Alembert, 90 

Damiri, 204 

Dancus, le Roi, xxii, 62, 66, 72, 113, 
159, 160, 162, 181,205 

Daniel, George, 3 

Daniel, R., 21 

D'Arcy, 105 

D'Aubusson, Magaud, xxv, 102, 103, 
267 

Daumas, General E., 99, 132, 206 

David, 89 

David, Estienne, 84 

David, P., 83 

Davies, 35 

Davila, Gil Gonzales, 124 

Dawks, J., 28 

Dawson Damer, Col., 96 

Dawson, John, 20 

Debure, 90 

De Filippi, 201 

Degorce, Cadot, 10 1 

Deichmann, C, 59 

Delmd Radcliffe, Col. E., xxiv, 42, 

202 
De Longchamps, 93 
Demetrius of Constantinople, xi, 
xxvii, 128, 130, 164, 172, 175, 181, 
182, 183 
Denham, Henry, 10, n 
Denison, Evelyn, 96 
Desgrayiers, Auguste, 94 
Des Murs, O., 100 
D*Este, Alfonso, 152 
D'Estemo, M., loi 
Deudes de Prades, 109 
Devon, F., xvi, 248 
Dewe, Thomas, 18 
Dickins, F. V., xi, 207, 214, 215 
Diderot, 90 
Didot, 91 
Dobel, H. W., 50 
D'Offdmont, Baron A., 96, 258, 265 
Doisy, M., 94 
Dombrowski, Ernst, Ritter von, 46, 

47i59 



Donne, Sir Alexander, 261, 262 

Donovan, 12 

Douceur, David, 84 

Downes, John Dawson, xxiv, 38, 257 

Dozy & Engelmann, 121, 128, 206 

Drayton, Michael, 18, 19, 252 

Drouart, H., 175 

Dsi Meo In, 213 

Duchesne, 92 

Dulcep Singh, Maharajah, 102 

Dunoyer de Noirmont, le Baron, 

xxv, T^,, 79, 94» 102, 109, no, 

137, 267 
Duprd, Alphonse, 94 
Dutton, Sir Ralph, 31 

E. 

East, Thomas, 12 

Edward the Confessor, xiv 

Edward VI., 241, 244 

Egenolph, Christoph, 47 

Eglinton, Earl of, 34, 36, 256, 262 

Eglis, A. de, 46 

Ehrenhielm, J. G. S., 177 

Ehrenkreutz, H. von, 57 

Eichenfeld, 184 

Eiiot, A. T., 9 

Elizabeth, Queen, xv, 13, 16, 241, 

246, 247 
Elizabeth Petrovna, 190 
Elyot, Sir Thomas, 9 
Enrique IV., 118 
" Ephemera," 39 
Ernest, Archduke, 98 
Ersch& Gruber, 122 
Erskine, 200 
Esparron, Seigneur d', 53, 80, 81 

{see Arcussia) 
Espinar {see Martinez) 
Estienne, Charles, 76, ^^^ 138, 161 
Eth(5, H., 204 
Ethelbert, xiv 
Evangel ista, 118 
Ewen, Robert, of Ewenficld, 263 



\ 



28o 



INDEX. 



F. 

Falconers' Club, Members of the, 

256 
Fargues, J., 194 
Fateh Ali Shah, 201 
Faulcon, le Livre du, 67-71 
Fava, 158 
Favre, Robin, 100 
Fei, Andrea, 151 
Fenwick, 5 

Feodor Alexejvitch, 186 
Ferdinand I., 181 
Ferdinand II., 151 
Ferdinand III., 93 
Fernandez Ferreira, D., 136 
Fernando, Rey de Portugal, 

136 
Ferrara, Hercola Duca di, 145 
Ferrari, Gabriel G. de, 141, 143 

US 
Ferraro, Giuseppe, xxvi, 159, 160 

Ferrer de Valdecebro A., 129 

Ferreyra, Marquez de, 136 

Feyerabendt, Sigmundt, 48 

Feyerabendt, Johan, 48 

Fibigius, Got^edus, 177 

Firmin Didot, 79, 103 

Fischer, Theodor, 57 

Fisher, C. H., 42 

Fleming of Barochan, xvii, 34, 260 

Fleming, Hans F. von, xxiv, 50 

Flesher, E., 27 

Floris, Franz, 264 {see Vriendt, 

Franz de) 

Foichtinger, J., 58 

Foix, Comte de, 73, iii, 166 

Fontana, Bartolome, 149 

Fontana, P. Glicerio, 155 

Foresta, Marquis de, 85 

Forges, Seigneur de, 79 

Forsier, 269 

Fortille, Seigneur de, 86 

Fortin de Grandmont, F. F., 85 

Fouct, Robert, 82 



Fouilloux, Jacques de, 76, 83, 100 
Foye, G., xxv, 106, 107 
Frampton, W. Tregonwell, 38 
Franchi6res, Jean de, xxv, 66, 72, 

74, 75» 76, n, 7%y 181 

Francis I., 74, 103 

Francucci, Scipione, 151 

Frederick II, xi, xiii, xxvi, xxviii, 
50, 72, 100, 121, 131, 150, 160, 162, 
164, 167-172, 179, 183, 212, 269 

Freeman, G. £., xxiv, 40, 41, 42, 260 

Frias, Duque de, 133 

Friderich, C. G., 56 

Fritsch, 167, 174, 175 

Fromberg, H. von, 53 

G. 

Gace de la Eigne, on Vigne, 73, 74, 

93 
Gaffet, Antoine, ZZ 

Gairdner, 243, 244 

Gaiter, L., 138 

Galatien, 66 

Galesloot, A. L^ 98, 112 

Gallaup, 80 

Gallegaris, Bernardino, 1 52 

Gallevari, B., 153 

Galvani, no 

Ganzarini, 146 

Garagnani, 158 

Gaston Phoebus, 73, in, 166 

Gatepio, 160 

Gatti, Alessandro, 149 

Gauchet, Claude, 78, 149 

Gaudet, 88 

Gayangos, Pascual de, 1 16, 1 18, 1 19, 

120, 122 

Geel, J., 44 

Geist, J. P., 52 

Genghis Khan, 208 

George IV., 261 

Georgi, Federico, xxvi, 143, 144, 

147 
Gerhardt, Marc, 17, 241 



INDEX. 



281 



Gervais, Paul, 108, 268 
Gesner, Conrad, 164, 182, 184 
Ghisolfi, Filippo, 142, 144 
Gillies, A., 34 

Gillius, P., xxvii, 130, 175, 176, 182 
Giunti, Cosimo, 138 
Giumi, 146, 151 
Gladwin, F., 199 
Glendinning, Sir H., 34 
Glouvet, Le Chevalier de, loi 
Godet, Paul 

Goldsmid, Sir P., 199, 201 
Gommer, Pierre de, xxv, 79, 80 
Gommer, Francois de, xxv, 79, 80 
Googe, Bamaby, 165 
Gordejuela, A. de, 131 
Gordon, Col. T. E., 192, 270, 271 
Gosden, T., 8, 36 
Goujot, 74 
Gozzi, 155 
Grandjean, J. J., 95 
Grasset d'Orcet, 63 
Griffin, Anne, 7 
Griggs, W., 17, 241 
Grimm, J., 56 
Grinnaud, John, 18 
Grober, Gustav, 118 
Grove, Francis, 9 
Gryndall, William, xxii, 1 1 
Guarinoni, Girolamo, 154 
Guarinqui, Girolamo, 154 
Guerra, Andres, 133 
Gue^clin, Bertrand de, 74 
Guicennas, 66, 72, 205 
Guillinus, 66, 72, 205 
Gumey, J. H., 191 
Gutierrez de la Vega, Jos<5,xxvi, 1 13, 
114, 116, 117, 118, 123, 128, 129, 

131, 135 
Guyot, Claude, 79 

Gyraldus, L. G., 163 



H. 



H. (R.), 32 
Hachctie, 100 



Hainshaw, John, 261 

Halim, Prince, 171 

Hall, £., XV, 244 

Hall, John, of Weston, 38, 257 

Haller, C, xxvii, 185, 186, 187, 189 

Hamilton, Edward, 26 

Hamilton, J. P., 41 

Hammer Purgstall, J. von, ix, 46, 

54, 97, 117, 122, 123, 128, 136, 

182, 184, 185, 193, 194, I95> 197, 

203 
Hangest, Jehan de, 64 
Harewood, H., 38 
Harmont, Pierre, dit **Mercure," 

xxv, 83 
Harper, Thomas, 17 
Harris, Dr. John, 201 
Harrison, John, 7, 17 
Harrison, Martha, 9 
Harting, J. E., 23, 39, 43, 44, 75, 

104, 193,206,215 
Harvey, G., 260, 261 
Haslewood, Joseph, 2, 3, 4, 5, 34 
Hasslcr, K. D., 57 
Hatfield, Arnold, 14 
Haworth, 3, 4, 12 
Hay, J. G., 174 
Hazlitt, W. C, 7 
Heame, Thomas, 167 
Heber, 67, 68 
Heinle, J. A., 53 
Helme, Anne, 8 
Helme, John, 14 
Henri I., 103 
Henri III., 83, 166 
Henri IV., xxvii, 80, 83, 103, 166 
Henry I., 109 
Henry VII., 243 
Henry VIII., xv, 16, 241, 243, 244, 

246 
Heppe, J. C, 52 
Heresbach, Conrad, 164 
Heusslein, Rudolph, 164 
Heuvel, F. van der, 258, 265 
Heym, 187 



383 



Hicfelt, Eberhard. xxii, 46, 59 

" Hieover, Harry," 39 

Hoare, Sir R. C, 24". 247 

Hodgson, B. H^ 191 

Hoffmann, ;6, 206, 207 

HofTmann, Nicolas, 49, 82 

Holbein, xv, 343 

Holden, F. A., xvi, 250 

HoUar, W., 2^ 151, 252 

Holmes, John, 181 

Hone, William, 35 

Hood, 36 

Hooper, Richard, 19 

Horace, 20 

Horrebow, 59 

Houghton, John, 33 

Hoiu^, Jean, 79. 80 

Howe, J., 34,360 

Howitt, Samuel, 37 

Hoy, J. D., 260 

Huber, M^ 93, 100, loi 

Huete, Pedro, 122 

Hume, Allan O., 42, 191, 202 

Hume, Sir Patrick, 16, 250 

Hungerford, Sir Walter, 246, 247 

Hunter, 36 

Huralt, Philip, 165 

Huth, 3, 141 

Hutton, James, 99 

Huiard,J. B.,95, 163 

Huieton, Jacques, 71 



I. (R.), 22, 23 

]bn Sina, Z05 

Ibrahim Ben Hailan, 195 

Imad ud Din Isfahan!, 203 

iiilieriali, C, Vinccnzio, 148 
Isachius, A., 176 
Islip, Adam, 13 
Iturralde y Suit, Juan, 133 
Ivan Alexejvitch, 186 
Iziud Din M. Pelastfuni, 203 



Jackson, Canon J. E., 247 

Jackson, R^ 6, 7 

Jackson, Roger, 15, 16 

Jacobs, 213 

Jacobsen, P. B., 59 

Jafer Beg, 199 

James L.xvi, xxv, 13, 32, 23, 14ft 

247-249 
Jam«s II., 250 
James IV^ 260 
Janot, Denys, 71 
Janot, Jehan, 64, 65 
J;njl)crt, iol 
Jean, Roi de France, 73 
Jeanne, la Reyne, 8[ 
Jemali M. Ganjevi, 197 
Jenner, Thomas, 35 
Johnson, H., 303 
Johnson, J., 8 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 166 
Johnston, William, 5S1 5^ 
Joyeuse, Admiral de, 78 
Juan Manuel, «1 Principe, xi, xxvi, 

58, 113, us, 133,364 
Juan II., 118 

Jullicn, Ernest, 73, 74, 79, 82, 181 
Jungingen, Conrad von, 190 



Kail, J. C, 178 
Karajan, T, G. von, 47 
Karamsin, 188 
Katano Seo Sjo, 212 
Kazvini, 204 
Kcgan Paul, 9 
Kcmbach, H. 167, 174 
Kcnulph, King, xiv 
Klian Mahalli, 200 
Kimoura Kokjo, 211 
Kingston, William Earl of, 31 
Knoblauch, J., xxW, 47 
Konosita Yositomo^ 310^ 311 



Korsakoff, A., i88, 190 






Kreysig, G. C, be. 77, 87, 97. '44, 


Le Noir, Michel, 71 




163. I7S- "77, 178 


Le Noir, Philippe, 72, 73- 




Kyff, Walther, 162 


L^on, Gaspard de, 84 
L^on, Jacques de, 84 




L. 


Leroy, 90 
Lescullier, 67 




La Chesnaye des Bois, 89 


L' Est range, 245 




Lacroix, Paul, 43, 64, 98, 102 


Lesueur, P., 267 




La Cume de Sainte Palaye, J. B., 


Le Verrier de la Cooterie, 


90 


73,92 


Li Chi Tchin, 207 




Ladislaus of Hungary, 46 


Llcbault, Jean, 13, 14, 77, 


38, 161 


Lall^mant, ix, 72, 73, 74, .82, 90, 


Li);er, Louis, 86, 87 




164,205 


Lilford, Lord, 42, 271 




Lambert, Jaines, 26 


Linnxus, 61 




La Minerva, 155 


Lipstorp, Daniel, 177 




Lampugnano, Anlonius de, iSl 


Lloyd, D., 243 




Lancellotti, Pieiro, 154 


Locatelli, F 50 




Landau, G., xxiv, 56 


Lodge, E., 248 




Landseer, Thomas, 39 


Lodge, G. E., 273 




Lang, Robert, 67 


Long, Sir James, 23 




Langellier, Charles, 71 


Longls, Jean, 74 




L'Angelicr, Abel, 76, 78 


Longman, T., 37, 39, 40 




Langley, Thomas, 8 


Loo Club, Members of the 


265, 266 


Languet, 166 


Lopez de Mendo^a, Ynigo, 


izo 


Lascelles, 36 


Loriente, Thomas, 129 




Lascelles, Hon. G., 263 


Lorio, Pietro, 148 




Lastri, Marco, ix, 138, 146, 151, 153, 


Louis IX., 208 




154,156,163 


Louis XII., 74 




Latham, John, 35 


UuisXIII.,xxv,xxvii,83 


99, 103. 


Latham, Lewis, xvi, 16, 250 


181, 3 10, 249 




I^tham, Symon, xxiii, 15, 16, 17, 


Louis XIV., 103 




27.251 


Louis XV., Kxvi, 103, 267 




Laurens, 1e Petit, 67 


Louis XVI., 103. 265 




Lavall^ Joseph, 63 


Lownes, Humfrey, 5 




Lawson, William, 7 


Lubbock, Rev. Richard, x 


vi, xxiv, 


Layard,SirH. A.,xii 


39. 257. 260, 264 




Layton, Dr. R., 244 


Luynes, Due de, 82, 83 




Leclere, 196 


Lusancy, Seigneur de, 79, 80 (see 


Leech, John, 3 


Gominer) 




Leeds, Duke of, 96, 258, 262, 265 


Lucas, Simon Nicholas de. 


1C2 


Wgendre, 87 






Ugras,87 


M. 




Leguina, Enrique de, iic, 115, 116, 


MachabEus, 20 




lift 131, 122, 128, 133, >3S 


Machida Hisanari, 214 





284 



INDEX. 



Maerlandt, Jacob van, 44 

Mahmud ul Barchini, 193 

Maigny, Alexandre de, 64 

Maisonneuve, 104 

Malassis, Clement, 83 

Malcolm, Sir John, 201 

Malmesbury, William of, xiv 

Malopin, 75 

Manceau (see Boissoudan) 

Manfred, Prince, 50, 164, 167, 168 

Manzini, Cesare, 147 

Maplet, John, xxii, 10 

Marco Polo, 160, 187, 201, 208 

Marcucci, Olympio, 147 

Marin, Antonio, 126 

Marin, Pedro, 131 

Markham, Gervase, xxii, xxiii, 5, 

6, 7, 8, 14, 28, 30, 33 
Marlow, Christopher, 25 
Mamef, Enguilbert de, 75, ^^i 78 
Marriott, John, 18 
Marriot, Richard, 23 
Marsden, William, 187, 202, 208 
Marshe, Thomas, 9 
Martial, 20, 179 
Martinez de Espinar, Alonso, xi, 

xxvi, 126, 132 
Martino, 66 
Marulli, Michaelo, 163 
Mary, Queen of Scots, 16, 242 
Mascall, Leonard, 11 
Math, A., 8 
Mauduyt, 93 
Maxey, T., 23 
Maximilian I., 46, 54, 267 
Maxwell, Sir John, 261 
Mazzuchelli, Giammaria, 154 
Mearne, Charles, 27 
Medici, Lorenzo de, 139, 140, 151, 

268, 269 
Medices, Sebastian, 167 
Megietti, 142 
Mellado, J. de P., 132 
Mello, Francisco de, 136 
Melun, Jean de, 63 



Mdnagier de Paris, 98 

Menino, Pero, 136 

Mercader, Matias, T31 

Mdrissant, Claude, 91 

Merula, Paul, 44, 45 

Meyer, B., 60 

Meyer de Alemana, Enrique, 119 

Meyerberg, Baron, 185, 187, 190 

Michael VIIL, 183 

Michelin, 75 

MiLaer, 3, 4, 12 

Milton, John, 25 

Mirabel, F. Marques de, 122 

Mirza Taimur, 201 

Moamus, or Mohamin, 66, 72, 181, 

205 
Modena, Francesco L di, 153 
Modus, le Roi, xi, xxii, 61, 64, 65, 

94 
Molina, Argote de, 123, 136 

Molinari, 155 

MoUen, Adrian, 55, 264, 265, 266 

Monson, Sir Thomas, xvi, xxiii, 15 

16, 23, 250 
Montbazon, le Due de, 78 
Moody, Edmund, xv 
Moore, Richard, 18 
Mor, George, 167, 173, 174 
Morais, Claude de, xxv, 86, 87 
Morales, Diego de, 130 
Morales, Juan Batista de, 136 
Morier, 201 
Moroni, 155 
Morozoff, 190 
Mortara, Conte Alessandro, 137, 

'5i» 157, 158, 159 
Morton, Earl of, 261 

Mosca, Felice, 138 

Moto Fusa, 211 

Mourik, 264 

Muhammed Bin Abdullah, 204 

Muhammed Khaniv, 200 

Muhanmied Mustafa Kusuri, 200 

Muhib Ali, 199 

Muller, F. E., 188 



INDEX, 



285 



Murteza, Nazmi Zadeh, 195 
Mustafia, Adolfo, 118 
Mynsinger, Heinrich, 57 

N. 

Nancy, Mardchal de, 68 

Nardo, Due dc, 95, 162, 163, 172 

Nardini, 155 

Nash, Thomas, 20 

Nasir, 200 

Natolini, Giovanbattista, 148 

Naumann, J. A., 53 

Naumann, J. F., 53 

Newcome, E. C, xvii, 38, 40, 42, 

96, 257-260, 262 
Newcome, William, 96 
Newton, Prof, A., xvi, xxiv, 39, 

257, 258, 264 
Neyret, Anthoine, 62 
Nichols, John, 243 
Nicot, Jean, 84 
Niemeyer, 58, 115 
Nieulant, B. C, 44 
Nigiri Kobushi, 213 
Nintoku (Emperor), 214 - 
Nodier, Charles, 93 
Noirmont, Baron Dunoyer de, xxv, 

lln 79, 94, 102, 109, no, 137, 267 
Norris, Henry, 244 
Norris, T., 26 
North, Lady, 246 
Northcote, 270 
Norton, John, 14 
Nourry, Claude, 71 
Nunez de Avendaiio, Pero, 1 19, 120 
Nushirvan, 198 
Nyverd, Guillaume, 68 

O. 

Offenbach, P., 173 

Oldenburg, Prince Alexander of, 

189 
Oldys, W., xxiii 



Olina, G. P., xxvi, 91, 150, rjl, 268 

Olive, Elizabeth, 14 

Olive, Richard, 12, 14 

Oppian, 179 

Orange, Ernest, 107 

Orford, Earl of, 36, 37, 38, 255-258 

Orlandelli, 155 

Orme, Edward, 37 

Ortolan, J. L. E, 138 

Osbaldiston, W. A., 34 

Osborne, J., 31 

Oswald, R., of Auchincruive, 262, 263 

Oudsidono, 213 

Overton, John, 26 

Oxenford, Henry Earl of, 18 

P. 

Pacius, J. E., xiv, 50, 51, 168 
Pairault, 88 

Pala^ologus, Michael (Emperor), 1 8 1 
Pallas, P., 55, 180, 187, 191, 192, 

194 
Palmyreno, Lorenzo, 122 
Paredes, Alfonso de, 135 
Parsons, Edward, 36 
Past on, John, 257 
Patisson, M., 165 
Pavoni, Guiseppe, 149 
Paz y Melia, Antonio, 118 
Peacham, H.,9, 19 
Pell, Sir Antony, 249 
Pells, John, 40, 262, 265 
Pembroke, Herbert Earl of, 24 
Pennant, Thomas, xxiii, 33, 52, 249 
Percheron, Claude, 83 
Perger, A. R. von, 57 
Per in, M. le, 54 
Pema, P., 162, 163 
Perosina, G. de Cartolari, 144, 145 
Perron, Cardinal du, 166 
Petit, Jehan, 71 
Pescioni, Andrea, 123 
Peter the Great, 186 
Petrarca, Francisco, 119 



286 



INDEX, 



Phoebus, Gaston, Comte de Foix, 

73, III, i66 
Pharaon, Florian, 103, 205 
Philippe de Valois, 73 
Philip II. of Spain, 98, 121, 123 
Phillipps, Sir Thomas, 5 
Phillips, Edward, 24 
PhillipSjE. C, 271 
Phillott, D. C, 201, 272 
** Philofalco," 80 
" Philoierax," 80 
Picard, Etienne, 104 
Pichon, le Baron Jerome, 66, 79, 

98, 100, 168, 269 
Pichot, Pierre A., xxv, 17, 63, 

96, 97. 102, 108, 153, 178, 207, 

209, 212, 214, 261, 264, 266, 

268 
Pickering, W., 4 
Pinkerton, 206 
Pitcaim, Andrew, 250 
Pithou, Pierre, 166 
Pliny, 9, 20, 179 
Pluche, Abbd la, 35 
Poitiers, Diane de, 141 
Pomey, F. A., xxii, 49, 59, 85, 86 
Pompei, Girolamo, 156 
Pontini, Giovanni, 154 
Pontio, Pacifico, 147 
Poole, Sir Henry, 24 
Powell, William, 4 
Pozzo, Cavalier dal, 151 
Pnctorius, J., 168 - 
Prudhomme, 87 
Ptolemy, no, 162, 175, 176 
Puibusque, Adolphe de, 115, 123 
Punonrostro, Conde de, 133 
Purfoot, Thomas, 13 
Puys, Jacques du, 76, ^^ 
Puy, P. du, 167 



Q. 



Quaritch, Bernard, 18, 44 
Quinet, Gabriel, 86 



R. 

Raddon, xvi, 247 

Raimondi, Eugenio, xxri, 143, 149, 

150, 160 
Rampore, the Nawab of, 272 
Ran^onnet, Aimar de, 83, 84 
Randolph, Thomas, 12 
Ranking, 187, 201 
Raimier, 169 

Ray, John, xxiii, 26, 27, 28, 32, 91 
Raynouard, 109 
Reed, W., 219 
Reid, 36 

Reinhardt, J., 60 
Renard, L., 132 
Rend, Francois, 83 
Renodie, Sieur de la, 82 (^see Saincte- 

Aulaire) 
Revest, Seigneur du, 80, 81 
Reynolds, J. S., 270 
Rezzonico, Lodovico, 154 
Rhyn, Otto H. am, 58 
Ricciardo, Francisco, 126 
Richter, Emanuel, 178 
Richter, Wolfgang, 173 
Ridinger, J. E., 51, 52, 151, 267 
Riesenthal, O. von, ix, xxiv, 58 
Rieu, Dr., xi, 193, 194, 197, 199, 204 
Rigault, N., xxvii, no, 166, 167, 

175, 176, 182, 183, 205 
Ritson, 13 

Rizu Kuli Mirza N. Ayaly, 197 
Rodenburg, M. de, 266 
Rodriquez, Jorge, 136 
Rolland, Eugene, 104 
RoUs, N., 28 

Romagnoli, Gaetano, 159 
Romanoff, Feodor N., 190 
Rompazetti, F., 138 
Roretz, A. von, 215 
Roscoe, William, 139, 268 
Rosebery, Earl of, yj^ 252 
Rossi, Angelo di, 151 
Rouard, 85 



INDEX. 



287 



Rowley, G. D., 42 
Roycroft, S., 30 
Rubruquis, William de, 208 
Russel, George, 31 
Rutland, Duke of, 36 

S. 
S. (M.), 25 
S. (T.), 5, 7, 14, 18 
Sadler, Henry, xvi, 16, 242, 246, 251 
Sadler, Sir Ralph, XV, xvi, 16,241- 

243, 246 
Said Ibn Batrick, 203 
Saincte-Aulaire, Francois de, 82 
Saincte- Lucie, Pierre de, 71, 72 
Saint Marc, C. de, xxv, 105, 268 
Sakourawi Goro, 209 
Saleme, Francois, 90 
Salicato, Altobello, 144 
Salmondi^re, Moynet de la, 85 
Salnove, Robert, 88 
Salvin, F. H., xxiv, 40, 254, 260 
Sancho VI. (el Sabio), xxvi, iii, 

133 
Sands, Sir Edwin, 9 

Sanetomo, 209 

Sanfordand Scales, Lord, 18 

Sangrain et Lamy, 92 

Sale, Joann Pasquet de, 163 

Sansovino, Francesco, 138 

Sant-Fahagun, Juan de, 117, 118, 

134 
Santa Maria, Antonio de, 128 
Sartorius, J. N., 32 
Sartorius, Adam, 175 
Sanz, Francisco, 128 
Savine, A., 58 
Savorgnano, Giacomo, 148 
Scaliger, Julius, xxvii 
Scandianese, Tito Gio., 145 
Scheffer, G., 177 
Scheible, J., 56 
Schlegel, H., ix, x, xii, xxv, 42,44, 

45, 47, 50, 54, 58, 61, 74, 75, n. 
78, 79, 84, 86, 96, 97, 108, 122, 123, 



128, 136, 144, 161, 188, 193, 202, 

206, 209, 210, 211, 266 
Schmeller, J. A., 57 
Schmidthauer, Andrea, 177 
Schneider, J. G., 144, 150, 168, 169, 

179 
Schomberg, 166 
Schuszler, Johannes, 161 
Schiitz, Carl H., 56 
Scott, J., 32 
Scolari, F., 155 
Scorrigio, Lazaro, 149 
Sebizius, Melchior, 48 
Sebright, SirJohn,xxiv,38, 257, 258 
Selincourt, Jacques Espde de, 86 
Selli^re, Baron de, 83 
Semeniovski, 187 
Sercy, Charles de, 86 
Ser^, Ferdinand, 64, 98 
Sergent, Pierre, 75 
Sertcnas, Vincent, 65 
Severski, Prince, 187 
Seyffarth, F. C, 54, 55 
Shakespeare, William, 25 
Sharef ud Din Gardbli, 195 
Shaw, George, 35 
Shaw, Dr. Thomas, 206 
Sheppart, W., 252 
Shrewsbury, Earl of, 24, 248 
Sid Mohamed el Mangali, xxviii, 

103, 205 
Simayosi Anko, 208, 209 
Sims, Valentine, 5 
Singer, George, 10 
Skeat, Prof. Walter W., 19 
Skelton, W., 269 
Skerrey, 25 
Sloet, Baron, 265 
Smeaton, J., 29, 30 
Smellie, 33 

Smith, Rev. A. C, 254 
Solatio, Caesare, 153 
Solviucci, 155 
Somerset, Duke of, 16^ 241 
Somervile, William, 9, 32 



288 



INDEX, 



Sonderland, J. B., 97 

Sorel, M., 63 

Sotheby & Wilkinson, 8 

Souhart, R., ix, T]y 81, 85, 86, 90, 

91, 95, 105 
Sourbets, Georges, xxv, 105, 268 

Soquand, Guichard, 74 

Spangenberg, H. G. von, 53 

Spencer, Earl, 3 

Spenser, Edmund, xxiii, 13 

Spezi, Giuseppe, xxvi, 158 

Spiess, J. P., 173, 174 

Squarzoni, A., 155, 156 

St. Albans, Duke of, 250 

St. John, Major Oliver, 199, 201 

Stagg, J., 32 

Stanley, P., 36 

Steinach, H. J.| ^77 

Steiner, Heinrich, 47 

Stephen, R., 165 

Stevens, Charles, 13 

Stevenson, Henry, 39, 246 

Stevenson, M., xxii, 25 

Stockdale, 202 

Stockum, W. P. van, 96 

" Stonehenge," 43 

Stoney, F. S., 243 

Stourton, Lord, 254 

Stradanus, Jan, 268 

Strahlenberg, Philip John von, 191, 

192, 208 
Strutt, Joseph, 35 
Stuart Wortley, C, 96, 258, 265 
Sturm, 53 
Sundby, 138 

Surflet, Richard, 13, tj^ 161 
Susemihl, J. C, 54 
Swan, James, 36 
Swan, John, xxii, 21 
Symmachus, 46, no, 162, 175 



Tab, Henry, 4 

Tamariz de la Escalera, F., 128 

Tancarville, Vicomte de, 63 



Tapp, Eberhard, xxii, xxiv, 47, 48, 

128, 164 
Tardif, Guillaume, xiv, xxv, 66, 71, 

72,75,93,164, 168, 181, 20s 
Tebaldinus, Nicolas, 173 
Techener, 100 
Tegg, Thomas, 35 
Tei Ka (Prince), 213 
Tempesta, Antonio, 151, 268 
Tenison, Abp., 27 
Tentugal, Conde de, 136 
Theodoro, N., 205 
Theodotio, 46, no, 162, 175 
Thienemann, 52 
Thienemann, F. A., 55 
Thompson, R., 42, 202, 272 
Thornton, Col. Thomas, xvii, xxiv, 

17,36,37,38,252,255,257 
Thorold, Sir John, 31 
Thou, J. A. de, xxvi, xxvii, 165, 

166, 175 
Thuanus, J. A. de, xxvi, 165, i66, 

175 
Tingu (Empress), 214 

Tirabosco, Antonio, 155 

Tirabosco, Catterina, 155 

Tite, W., 269 

Titian, 269 

Tolstoi, Count, 190 

Tonerino Sinwo, 209 

Tooke, John, 15 

Topham, Edward, 32 

Topsell, E., 164 

Torelli, Giuseppe, 156 

Tostado de Madrigal, Alonzo, 120, 

123 
Tottell, Richard, 3 

Toye, Robert, 3 
Trautmansdorf, Prince, 55, 264 
Trepperel, Jehan, 65, 72, t^ 
Trewman, 35 
Tristram, Sir, 15 
Tristram, H. B., 206 
Tuano, J. A., xxvi, 146, 153 (see 
Thou) 



INDEX. 



2S9 



Turbcrvile, George, xiv, xxiii, xxvi, 

12, 13,26,30,43,72, 143 
Turner, C, 34 
Tyssen Amherst, W., 44 

U. 

Uhagon, Francisco R. de, ix, 117, 
119, 121,133, 134 

V. 

Valles, Mossen Johan, 120 

Valori, Niccolo, 140 

Valvasone, Erasmo di, 147 

Van Breughel, C, 206 

Van der Duyse, P., 98 

Vandyck, xvi, 248 

Van Voorst, John, 40, 41, 43 

Vasquez, Pablo Antonio, 128 

Vaultier, Francois, 81 

Velasco, Juan Fernandez dc, 133 

Velasquez de Tovar, Alonso, 119 

Vele, Abraham, 4 

Vendenheym, H. J. W. von, 248 

Ventura, Valerio, 152 

Verard, Anthoine, 67, 71, 72, 73 

Verini, Michaelo, 140 

Vernon, 36 

Vicenza, Duke of, 54 

Villalta, R^ 132 

Villamena, 151 

Viollet-le-Duc, xxv, 246 

Vriendt, Franz de, 264 {set Floris) 

W. 

W., Sir A., xvi, xxiii, 22, 23 
Walen, James, 254 
Waley, John, 4 
Walton, Izaak, 23, 243 
Warton, Thomas, xxiii, 52 
Warwick, Ambrose Earl of, 12, 13 
Watkins, Richard, 165 



Watson, Lieut.-Col. H., 273 

Wei Yen Chin, 207 

Weldon, Sir Anthony, x\'i, xxiii, 22, 

23 
Wenman, Sir Richard, 31 

Westphalia, Johannes de, 161 

Westwood & Satchell, 8 

White, Edward, 1 1 

Wiersbitzki, 42, 54, 202 

Wilkin, Simon, xxvii, 27 

William III. of Holland, 97 

William V., Prince of Orange, 265 

Wilson, Col., 38, 257, 258 

Willoughby d'Eresby, Lord, 96 

Willughby, Francis, 27, 32 

Woborzil, J. W. von, 55 

Wodehouse, Thornton, 37, 255, 256 

Wolf, Joseph, 40, 43, 54, 97, 100, 25 5 

Wolfe, John, 11 

Wolsey, Cardinal, 243 

Wright, John, 22 

Wulverhorst, A. H. V. van, 45, 97, 

266 

Wurmser V. Vendenheym, H. J., 248 

Wurtemburg, Lewis Duke of, 248 

Wynkyn de Worde, 2, 3 

X. 

Xibaja, Joseph de, 130 

Y. 

Yarrell, W., xxiii 

Yule, Col. H., 201, 208, 209 

Z. 

Zambrini, Francesco, xxvi, 158, 159 
Zevschin,V., 186 

Zuniga y Sotomayor, Fadrique de, 
117, 119, 121,122,134