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Full text of "Bibliotheca chemica; a catalogue of the alchemical, chemical and pharmaceutical books in the collection of the late James Young of Kelly and Durris"

,i2555s8)4185-S-87 



BIBLIOTHECA CHE MIC A 



THIS CATALOGUE OF CHEMICAL BOOKS HAS BEEN PRINTED FOR 

PRIVATE DISTRIBUTION BY HIS FAMILY, IN ACCORDANCE 

WITH THE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE LATE 

JAMES YOUNG, ESQ. 




t^AZ^Ms&S 




Bibliotbeca Cbemica: 

A CATALOGUE OF THE ALCHEMICAL, CHEMICAL AND 

PHARMACEUTICAL BOOKS IN THE COLLECTION OF 

THE LATE JAMES YOUNG OF KELLY AND 

DURRIS, ESQ., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



BY 

JOHN FERGUSON 

M.A., LL.D., HONORARY MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL MILITARY ACADEMY OF MEDICINE, ST. PETERSBURG 
MEMBER OF THE GERMAN SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND THE NATURAL SCIENCES 

FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE SOCIETfi FRANCHISE D'ARCHEOLOGIE 
REGIUS PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW 



VOLUME II 




JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS 

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY 

/ 

1906 



yv 



UNIVERSITY 
or 



CATALOGUE 



L. v. L. (C). 

Chymischer Catechismus. 

See DREY curieuse . . . Chymische Schrifften, 1723, p. 21. 
See DREY curieuse . . . Chymische Schrifften, 1733, P- 2I - 

L. (C. C.) i.e. Conrad Cunrath, Lipsensis. 

See KHUNRATH (CONRAD). 

L. (F. C). 

Sammlung achthundert und sieben und funfzig chymischer Experimente einer 
Gesellschaft in dem Ertzgebiirge, darinnen alle die Erscheinungen, welche 
man bey chymischer Bearbeitung verschiedener Korper wahrgenommen, 
treu und aufrichtig angezeiget werden, nebst einer Vorrede begleitet von 
Herrn D. E. G. Kurella. Berlin, zu finden bey Gottl. Aug. Lange. 1759. 

8. Pp. [8] 1-160 [2] 161-404. 2 pp. advertisements. The interpolated two pages 
form the title of Part III. 

This is a collection of six tracts, paged continuously, but issued with separate title-pages, signatures 
and dates from 1753 to 1759. See the note under KURKI.LA. 

L. H. J. V. H. J. D. 

See ORVIUS (LUDWIG CONRAD). 

L. (J.). 

See LANGE (JOHANN). 

L. (J. C). 

See TOLL (JACOB), 1753. 

L. M. S. 

See SCHMUCK (MARTIN), De Occulta Magico-Magnetica Morborum . . . 
Curatione, 1652. 

L. (T. P. G.). 

See ERBINAUS von Brandau (Matthaus). 

II. A 






LAAZLACINIUS 



LAAZ (JOHANN VON). 

See LASNIORO (JOANNES DE). 

LA BOB SYLVIUS (FRANCISCUS DE). 

See SYLVIUS (FRANCISCUS DE LA BOK). 

LA BROSSE. 

Tractatulus accuratissimus de Compositione Sulphuris et Menstrui vegetabilis, 
seu Auro Potabili secundum intentionem Raymundi Lullii. Magnati cuidam 
Anno 1545. per celeberrimum Medicum et Philosophum Gallum Dela Brosse 
dedicatus. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 288. 

This cannot be Guy de la Brosse, born at Rouen Mangel speaks of Guido de la Brosse ' Medicus 

about 1550 (or later), physician of Louis XIII., Rotomagensis,' author of a tract on the plague, in 

who founded the Jardin des Plantes, was devoted French and in Latin, ' Paris ches Jeremie et 

to botany, and died in 1641. Yet there is no Christoph Periers,' but without date (1623), who, 

other ' celeberrimus medicus ' of that name men- of course, is the same person. Ladrague calls the 

tioned. Nor does it facilitate identification to present writer Joannes, but by what authority he 

assume that the given date, 1545, is a misprint for does not state. 
1645, because by that year La Brosse was dead. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Haller, Bibliotheca Medicince practices, 1777, 

1731, i. p. 479. p. 515. 

Georgius Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medi- Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, i. p. 145. 

corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 450. Biographic Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 440; 25), ii. p. 540. 

1772, ii. p. 680. Biograplnt Uni-verselle, 1843, v. p. 614. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la M<<decine, Lebreton, Biographic Normande, 1858, ii. p. 316. 

1778, i. p. 456. Nouvelle Biographic Gtnerale, 1863, vii. col. 505. 

LABYRINTH. 

See LEITUNGSFADEN (Der) zu dem Chymischen . . . Labyrinth, 1691. 

LACINI (GIOVANNI). 

See LACINIUS (JANUS). 

LACINIUS (JANUS). 

Pretiosa Margarita Novella De Thesauro, Ac Pretiosissimo Philosophorum 
Lapide. Artis huius diuinse Typus, & Methodus : Collectanea ex Arnaldo, 
Rhaymundo, Rhasi, Alberto, & Michaele Scoto; per lanum Lacinium 
Calabrum nunc primum, cum lucupletissimo (sic) indice, in lucem edita. 
Cum priuilegio Pauli III. Pont. Max. & Senatus Veneti ad annos decem 
M.D.XLVI. 

8. Ff. [20] 202. Tabula, Errata, Registrum, and Colophon, and Aldus' device 
[14], 22 woodcuts. The anchor is on the title-page, and on the verso of the last leaf. 
The colophon, on the verso of the last leaf but one, runs : Venetiis, Apud Aldi Filios, 
M.D.XXXXVI. 

Colloquium nuncupatorium, interloquutores Bo- Epistola sive Epitome Raymundi Lulli, f. 160. 

nus et Lacinius, * iiij. verso. Collectanea Lacinii sive breuia excerpta ex libro 

Pretiosa Margarita Novella ex concordantijs luminis luminum Rhasis, f. 167. 

sapientum collecta, . . . Petro Bono Ferrariensi Collectanea Lacinii ex Alberto Magno atque diuo 

autore, f. i. Thoma alijsc}; autoribus, f. 180. 

Epistola Boni Ferrariensis, f. 132. Quaestio Curiosa de Natura Solis et Lunae ex 

Collectanea Lacinii ex Arnaldo de Villa Nouaqure Michaele Scoto, f. 195. 
practica? compositionem lapidis philosophorum 
continent & exquisite decent, f. 136. 

Pretiosa Margarita, oder Neu-erfundene kostliche Perle, von dem unvergleich- 
lichen Schatz und hochst-kostbahren Stein der Weisen, in sich haltend den 



LACINIUSLAGARA YE 



LACINIUS (JANUS). Continued. 

eigendlichen Grund-Rifs und Lehr-Arth dieser Gottlichen Kunst : ingleichen 
andere aus dem Arnoldo, Rhaimundo, Rhasi, Alberto und Michaele Scoto 
zusammen gelesene Schrifften, durch Janum Lacinium aus Calabria zum 
erstenmahl in Lateinischer Sprache, mit Freyheit Pabsts Pauli Tertii und des 
Raths zu Venedig, Anno 1546. heraus gegeben, Anietzo aber um seiner 
Fiirtrefflichkeit Willen in das Teutsche iibersetzet und ans Licht gestellet, von 
\Volffgang Georg Stollen, Liebhabern der edlen Chymie. Nebst einem voll- 
standigen Register. Leipzig, verlegts Johann Friedrich Braun, 1714. 

4. Pp. [24] 468. Innhalt [36]. Title red and black. Frontispiece included in 
the pagination, 23 illustrations in the text. Vignette with the motto : Dies diem docet. 



Zueignungs-Gespriiche zwischen den Bonum und 
Lacinium, p. 5. 

Neu-erfundene kostbare Perl . . . ans Licht 
gestellet durch Petrum Bonum, p. 41. 

Brief des Boni Ferrariensis, p. 323. 

Collectanea Lacinii aus Arnaldo de Villa Nova, 
\velche die Composition des Steins der Weisen in 
sich begreiffen und richtig lehren, p. 331. 



Brief oder kurtzer Begriff des Raynmndi Lulli, 
P- 379- 

Collectanea Lacinii oder kurtze Excerpta aus 
dem Buche Rhasis, Lumen Luminum genannt, 
P- 394- 

Collectanea Lacinii aus Alberto Magno, dem 
heiligen Thoma, und andern Autoribus, p. 420. 

Eine curiose Frage von der Natur Solis und 
Luna:, aus Michaele Scoto, p. 452. 



Colloquium nuncupatorium interloquutores Bonus et Lacinius. 

See GLAUBER (JOHANN RUDOLPH), De Tribus Lapidibus Ignium Secretorum, 
1703, pp. 80-96. 

This is a reprint of the introductory dialogue in the Pretiosa Margarita Novella. 



Toppi says that Lacinius was a Calabrian whose 
work was printed by Aldus in 1546 and again by 
Gabriel Hayn at Nuremberg, 1554, 4. This last 
book has the following title : Praeciosa ac nobilis- 
sima artis Chymiae Collectanea de occultissimo ac 
praeciosissimo Philosophorum lapide. Per lanum 
Lacinium Calabrum Minoritam Theologorum mini- 
mum. Nunc primum in lucem aedita cum totius 
libelli capitum indice [Vignette]. Norimbergae apud 
Gabrielem Hayn, loann. Petrei generum, M. D. LII 1 1. 
4, ff. [8, including a full-page woodcut] 124. It 
contains collections in five books, the last of which 
is a reproduction with modifications of ff. 160-194 
in the Pretiosa Margarita Novella of 1546. The 

Nazari, Delia tramulatione metallica sogni ire, 
I599- P- MO- 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Mensa-, 1617, p. 389. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 237. 

Borel, Bibliotlieca Chimica, 1654, p. 131. 

Toppi, Biblioteca Napoletana, 1678, p. 112. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renavatus, 1686, p. 504. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 21, No. x.xvii. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 2. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hennttique, 1742, i. pp. 220, 470 ; iii. pp. 52, 199, 
200. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2200 (from Toppi) ; Rptermund's Fortsettung, 
1810, iii. col. 1024 (the editions ofVen., 1546, 8, 
and Norimb. , 1554, 4). 

Fictuld, Probier- Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 128. 



work by Petrus Bonus, so called, was afterwards 
issued under the following title : Introductio in 
divinam Chemiae Artem integra Magistri Boni Lom- 
bardi Ferrariensis Physici. Nunc primum integra 
in lucem edita. . . . Basileae, apud Petrum Per- 
nam, M.D.LXXII. 4, pp. [7, i blank] 278. 
[Index?] It claims therefore to be more complete 
than the Aldine edition. The preface to Albertus, 
Duke of Bavaria, was written by Toxites. This 
book was reprinted : Montisbeligardi, apud laco- 
bum Foillet, M.DC.II. 8, pp. [20] 398 [12, 2 
blank] ; and again : Argentorati, Impensis Lazari 
Zetzneri Bibliop. M. DC. VIII. 8, pp. [20] 398 
[12, 2 blank]. See the notes to BONUS (PETRI/S). 

Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
loqicus, 1761, p. 243. 

Mazzuchelli, Gli Scrittori if Italia, 1762, II. 
parte iii. p. 1637. (Mazzuchelli and Tiraboschi refer 
to Lacinius in connection with PETRUS BONUS 
(g.v.l) 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern CAemte, 1785, 

P- 576. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1787, ii. p. 30. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 55- 
56, 158, 300. 

Tiraboschi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana, 
1807, V. i. p. 221. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 
260. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 442 ; 
1843, ii. p. 131 ; 1866, i. p. 467 ; 1869, ii. p. 126. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarqf, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 865, 866. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 374. 



LAGARAYE (CLAUDE TOUSSAINT MAROT) Comte de. 

See MAROT (CLAUDE TOUSSAINT), Comte de La Garaye. 



DAGNEA U LAMARCK 



L'AGNEAU (DAVID). 

Harmonic Mystique, ou Accord des Philosophes Chymiques, auec les Scholies, 
sur les plus difficiles passages des Autheurs y allegues, desquels les noms 
sont e"s pages suyuantes. Le tout par Le S r L'Agneau d'Aix en Prouence, 
Conseiller & Medecin ordinaire du Roy. Traduit par le S r Veillutil. Celuy 
qui cognoist le consentement & accord des Philosophes, traictant de cette 
partie, ioui'st d'un admirable contentement, & plusieurs sunt plustost menez 
par opinion aueugle, que par 1'estude de la verite. 

Turpe enim difficiles habere nugas, 

Et vanus labor est ineptiarum. 

A Paris, Chez Melchior Mondiere, en la Cour du Palais pres la Chapelle 
Sainct Michel ioignant le bastiment neuf du Thresor. M. DC. XXXVI. Avec 
Priuilege du Roy. 

8. [Pp. 20] 482. Table and privilege [14]. Engraved folding plate containing 
two symbolical drawings. This copy wants six pages, containing list of authors 
quoted, errata, and an epigram by Banier to Sr. Veillutil. 

Azoth, ou le moyen de faire 1'Or cach6 des Philosophes . . . Reueu, . . . par 
M r . L'agneau Medecin. 

See BASILIUS VALENTINUS, Azoth, 1659. 

Harmonia seu Consensus Philosophorum Chemicorum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 705. 

The book of which the present is a translation L'Agneau or L'Aigneau, Lagneau or Laigneau, 

was written in Latin with the following title : Lagneus, as he is styled, was a native of Aix in 

Harmonia seu consensus Philosophorum Chimi- Provence, but the year of his birth is not given. 

corum, magno cum studio et labore in ordinem He graduated at Montpellier, settled at Gre- 

digestus, Paris, 1601 (?), 8 ; Ib. 1611, 12. I have noble, and was entrusted with the examination 

not seen the earlier edition. L'Agneau wrote a of the surgeons and apothecaries of Dauphin* 5 , 

treatise on the preservation of health, Paris, 1624, He discharged this duty with so much ability that 

1637, 4 ; and in the Biographic Abdicate is said his office was extended to all the provinces in the 

to have translated into French the work of Basilius south of France. In 1610 he was invited to Paris 

Valentinus called Les douze Clefs de la Philosophie, by Jt-an Heroard, chief physician of Louis XIII., 

Paris, 1659. That, however, does not appear in where he practised with success. In 1626 he was 

the book itself, though it may be correct; but appointed by the King to inspect the leper hospitals 

Basilius' treatise Azoth, which accompanies it, is throughout the kingdom. In the latter part of his 

said to be ' reueu, corrigg & augmente par Mr. life he is said to have been fascinated by alchemy, 

L'agneau Medecin ' but not translated. Eloy and to have left part of his fortune for alchemical 

seems to doubt the identity of the alchemist and research. The year of his death is not recorded, 
the following person. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, 

1637, p. 131. 1778, iii. p. 4. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 132, 245. Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 241. p. 548. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 503. 

1731, II. i. p. 8. Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 1806-08, p. 107. 

Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 55, 200. Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 441. 25), i. p. 62. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 326. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, 359. 

'' P- 534- Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

Secretes, 1870, Nos. 845, 1240, 1241. 

LAMARCK QEAN BAPTISTE). 

Memoires prdsentant les Bases d'une Nouvelle The'orie, Physique et Chimique, 
fondee sur la consideration des molecules essentielles des composes, et sur 
celle des trois e"tats principaux du feu dans la nature; servant en outre de 
deVeloppement a 1'ouvrage intitule: Refutation de la Theorie Pneumatique. 



LAMARCK LA METHERIE 



5 



LAMARCK (JEAN BAPTISTE). Continued. 

Lus a la premiere classe de 1'Institut National, dans ses stances ordinaires. 
Par J.-B. Lamarck, membre de 1'Institut. A Paris, Chez 1'Auteur, au 

Museum d'histoire naturelle. An V. de la Republique (1797, vieux style.) 



8 Pp. 410 [2], 

The work of which the above is a continuation is 
entitled : Refutation de la thtorie pneumatique ou 
la nourclle doctrine des chimistes modernes, Paris, 
1796, 8. 

Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monnet, che- 
valier de Lamarck, was born at Bazentin, D6p. dela 
Sonime, i April, 1744. He rose to be keeper of 
the Herbaria, and from 1792 Professor of Zoology 

Biographie Universelle, no date, xxiii. p. 9. 
Bi 'graphic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), v. pp. 483-489. 
QueYard, La France littiraire, 1830, iv. p. 472. 



10 Tables. 

at the Museum of Natural History. He was a 
member of the Old Academy and subsequently of 
the I nstitute. For the last 17 years of his life he 
was blind as the result of the smallpox. He died 
at Paris, 18 Dec., 1829. 

Though the work by which he is best known was 
connected with botany and zoology, he wrote also 
on physics and meteorology. 

Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale, 1862, xxix. col. 

55- 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1353. 



LAMBSPRINGK. 

De Lapide Philosophico Libellus. 

See BARNAUD (NICOLAUS), Triga Chemica, 1599, p. u. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 765. 

See MUSEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, P- 337- 

Nothing seems definitely known about this 
alchemical poet. As he is styled in the title 
' nobilis ' and ' der edle,' Maier is of opinion that 
he was of noble birth, but Schmieder conjectures 
that he may have belonged to the Benedictine 
Abbey of Lammspring, near Hildesheim, so called 
because the Lamm, a streamlet, has its source 
within the abbey garden. I have not been able to 
confirm this view. Still less evidence does he give 
for his surmise that because his allegorical figures 

Maier, Symbola A urece Afensce, 1617, p. 272. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 325. 

Borel, Btbliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 132. 

Mercklin, Lindcnius renovatus, 1686, p. 730. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 29, No. xxxxii. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsch.es Fegfeuer 
der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 66. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicormn, 
1731, II. i. p. 8. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 39, 47, 53. 



resemble those of Flamel, the author pursued his 
studies in Paris. 

Maier recapitulates briefly the subjects of the 
pictures, and rather commends the author, but 
Borrichius thinks he has buried the secret, and 
Fictuld says that it is almost impossible for the 
ignorant to get even a little light from it. 

His tract was printed in Latin in the earlier 
editions of the Alusatum fJermeliciim, 1625, 1678, 
p. 337, and in German in Dyas Chymica Tripartita, 
1625, p. 83. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 103. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 66. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1786, p. 39. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 94. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 
229. 

L,a.d.r&g\iz,Bibliotheque Ouv aroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 981-2. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. pp. 311, 318. 



LA METHERIE (JEAN CLAUDE DE). 
See OBSERVATIONS sur la Physique, 

La Me^herie was born at Clayette, in the Depart- 
ment Maconnais, 4 Sept., 1743. He took the 
degree of M.D., but did not practise, and 
devoted himself to the study of science. In 1811 
he was appointed Professor of Natural History at 
the College de France, at Paris. He wrote largely 
on physics, geology, mineralogy, &c., and edited 

Biographie Universelle, no date, xxviii. p. 122. 
Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 263. 
Querard, La France litteraire, 1830, iv. p. 495. 



&C. 

the journal above mentioned, first with Rozier, 
1785-1794, then by himself till his death, when it 
was taken up by Blainville and carried on to 
T. xcvi. 1823. In it he printed many of his papers, 
and gave yearly reports on the progress of science. 
He died at Paris, i July, 1817. 



Nouvelle Biographie Gentrale, 1862, xxix. col. 
209. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1360. 



LAM TTELA NDENBERGER 



LAMOTTE. 

See BESTUSCHEFSCHE (Die) . . . Stahltinktur. 

This preparation also went by the name of ' Lamotte's drops.' 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 347 ; Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, iv. p. 149. 
1799, iii. p. 790. 

LAMPE des Lebens und Todes. 

See ANZEIGENDE und warhafftig bezeugende Ampel oder Lampe des Lebens und 
Todes, 1682. 

LANCILOTTI (CARLO). 

Opuscoli Diversi del Lancillotti, cioe', 

L' Interprete Chimico. 
II Trionfo del Mercuric. 
II Chimico Disuellato con aggiunta. 
II Giardino di vaghi Fiori Medicinali. 
In Modona, Per il Sogliani Stampatore Ducale. Con licenza de' Superiori. 

12. Pp. [2] 108, 67 [5] ; 81 [3 blank] ; 142 [2 blank]. 

Each tract has a title-page, of an elaborate clinico composto di regulo d 'Antimonio, Bologna, 

explanatory character, with a dedication and the 1683, 12. 

date M.DC.LXXVII. Rotermund quotes them as follows: Pharma- 

Haller quotes an edition of the Trionfo del ceutica rationale overo Trionfo del? Antimonio, et 

mercurio, Modena, 1683, 12, and also Trionfo Pharmaceutica Mercuriale, overo Trionfo del 

dell' Antimonio, Ibid. 1683, 12, and Modo di Mercurio. In Modena, 1683. 
adoprar la tazza purgativa perpetua o sia calice 

Der brennende Salamander, oder Zerlegung, der zu der Chimie gehorigen 
Materien, so da ist ein Wegweiser oder Unterricht, sich in alien Arbeiten 
der Scheid-Kunst zu iiben : Benebenst dem auffgeweckten Chimisten, sarnt 
beygefiigter Anleitung von Erwehlung des Vitriols : In Druck gegeben durch 
Carl Lancilot, Medicum und Chimicum, erst aus den Italianischen ins 
Hollandische : Nun aber aus der Hollandischen in die Hochteutsche Sprache 
iibersetzet durch J. L. M. C. Zum andernmal wieder auffgelegt. Liibeck, 
In Verlegung Johann Wiedemeyers, 1697. 

8. Pp. 353 [n], 4 plates of apparatus. Title red and black. 

Gmelin quotes : Guida alia Chimica, Modena, I have not seen, but only that of 1681 and the 

1672 and 1679, 12 ; Nuova Guida alia Chimica, present one, 1697. According to Gmelin's trans- 

Venezia, 1677, 8 - Translated into Dutch : De cription (ii. p. 21) the name of the translator, 

brandende Salamander, Amsterdam, 1680, 8, pp. Johann Lange, appears in full in the first edition, 

[16] [16, plates of apparatus and descriptions] 1-90 but without the letters M. C. , but elsewhere (p. 

[10] 97-286; [4] 38 [12], and then into German, Der 227) he gives the translator's initials, though 

brennende Salamander, Frankfurt a. M., 1681, 8. inaccurately, as ' I. L. M. O,' instead of I. L. 

There is mention of editions of Frankfurt, 1682, M. C. 
1684 and 1687, 8, and Liibben, 1694, 8, which 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheccz metallicce, mund's Fortsetzung tend Ergdnzungen, 1810, iii. 

1732, p. 87. col. 1141. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 

Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 200, 201. 465. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice, 1779, iii. Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 284, 

p. 601. 330 ; 1869, ii. pp. 275, 322. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 21, Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

227, 268. Secretes, 1870, No. 1092. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten lexicon ; Roter- Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 380. 

LANDENBERGER (RUDOLPH). 

See GESNER (CONRAD), Kostlicher Artzneyschatz, 1608. 



LANGE 7 

LANGE (JOHANN). 

Chymisches Zwey-Blat, das 1st zwey vortreffliche Chymische Tractatlein : Das 
erste, Eroffneter Eingang zu defs Konigs verschlossenem Tallaste Anonymi 
Philalethae. Das ander, von dem Stein der Weisen, wie man den recht 
bereiten soil, Fratris Ferrarii Monachi. Beyde zum ersten mahl ins Teutsch 
iibersetzet von Johann Langen. Franckfurt und Hamburg, In Verlegung 
Christian Guths, Buchh. Druckts Johann Gorlin. M DC LXXIV. 

8. Pp. 94 [2] 72. Title red and black. 
Rotermund quotes an edition of Hamburg, 1672. 

[Another Copy.] 

8. Pp. 94. Title red and black. The book is cropped and the date cut off, and 
it wants Ferrarius' tract. 

Des Hochgelehrten Philalethae und anderer auserlesene Chymische Tractatlein 
genannt 

1. Erofneter Eingang zu des Konigs verschlossenen Pallast. 

2. Von dem Stein der Weisen, und wie man den recht bereiten solle 
Fratris Ferrarii Monachi, geschrieben an Ihro Pabstliche HeiligkeiL 

3. Von Verwandlung der Metallen. 

4. Von dem Stein der Weisen und seinen Geheimniissen. 

5. Brunnen der Chymischen Wissenschaft'ten. 

6. Wigands vom rothen Schild, Tractat die Herrlichkeit der Welt. 
Denen Liebhabern der wahren Hermetischen Weisheit zu sonderbahren 
Gefallen ins Teutsche iibersetzet von Johann Langen. Nun auf oftmahliges 
Verlangen zum Druck befordert. Verlegts, Joh. Paul Kraufs, Kayser- und 
Konigl. privilegirter Niederlags-Verwandter Buchhandler in Wienn. 1748. 

8. Pp. [1-8] 9-358. Title red and black. 

[Another issue, dated 1749.] 

8. Pp. [1-8] 9-358 [2 pp. advert.]. Title red and black. 

See PHILALETHA, Introitus Apertus ad occlusum Regis Palatium, 1667. 

See WUNDERLICHEN (Die) Begebenheiten defs unbekandten Philosophi in Such- 

und Findung defs Steins der Weisen, 1673. 
See BARBA (ALBARO ALONSO), -Berg-Buchlein, 1676. 
See KELLEY (EDWARD), Tractatus duo, 1676. 

See MEURDRAC (MARIE), Die mitleidende und leichte Chymie, 1676. 
See DIGBY (KENELM), Aufserlesene, seltzame philosophische Geheimniisse, 1684. 
See PHILALETHA, Commentarius in Epistolam Georgii Riplaei, 1685. 
See PHILALETHA (iREN^EUS PHlLOPONUs), Kern der Alchymie, 1685. 
See PHILALETHA (cvRENJEUS), Erklarung iiber die Sechs Chymischen Pforten 

. . . Georgii Riplasi, 1689. 
See KINDER-BETT des Steins der Weisen 1692. 
See COLSON (LANCELOT), Philosophia Maturata, 1696. 
See LANCILOTTI (CARLO), Der brennende Salamander, 
See NICOLS (THOMAS), Beschreibung der Steine, 1734. 
See FLAMEL (NICOLAS), Chymische Werke, 1751. 



LANCE LANGELO TT 



LANGE (JOHANN). Continued. 

According to one account Lange was from 
Silesia and was ' Pfalzischer Leibarzt,' but Jocher 
says he was ' Candidatus Medicincc ' and practi- 
tioner at Hamburg, and that nothing is known of 
his life except that he was alive in 1695, and that 
he maintained himself by translating into German 
a large number of works, sometimes with, at 
other times without his name, or with the initials 
J. L., or J. L. M[edicinoe] C[andidatus], or the 
pseudonym Hippodamus or Hoppodamus, where- 
with he has been credited. The list of them given 
by him has been made more precise by Rotermund, 
who has added the place, date, and size of each, 
and says that Lange was still alive in 1696. Many 
of his translations are from English, with which he 
seems to have been familiar, but others imply that 
he was acquainted with Latin, French, Dutch, and 
possibly Spanish and Italian. The translations 
include works by Bunyan (Pilgrim's Progress, 1685), 
Bekker's World bewitched, sermons, religious 
and moral treatises, works on medicine, c. , &c. , 
besides a considerable proportion on chemistry and 
alchemy. The following is a list of these as given 
by Rotermund. One to which a query is attached 
seems doubtful as to whether it is about alchemy or 
not. Some of the titles are expanded from Jocher 
and from actual copies. 

Philalethae introitus apertus ad occlusum regis 
palatium, Amstelod. 1667, in 8 (edited by J. L.). 

Chymisches Zweyblatt, Hamburg, 1672, 8. 

Wunderliche Begebenheiten eines Philosophi in 
Suchung und Findung des Steins der Weisen, 
Hamburg, 1673 and 1690, 8. 

Zwey chymische Tractatlein Philalethae und 
Ferrarii, Hamb. 1673, 8. 

Von Verwandlung der Metalle, Hamburg, 1675, 8. 

Edv. Bolnesti aurora chymica, Hamburg, 1675, 
8 (edited by J. L.). 

Guil. Klarkii historia naturalis nitri, Ib. 1675, 8 
(edited by J. L.). 

Thorn. Nicols Edelsteinbiichlein, Ebend. 1675, 8. 

J. Maria Meurdrac mitleidende und leichte 
Chymie, Frankfurt, 1676, 8. 

Alvaro AlonsoBarbaBergbiichlein, Hamb. 1676,8. 

Edv. Kellaeus de lapide philosophorum, Ibid. 
1676, 8 (edited by J. L.). 

F. Bas. Valentin! chymischeSchriften, Eb. 1677, 8. 

Nicl. Flamelli chymische Werke, Ebendas, 1681,8. 

Rob. Boylen liiftige Noctiluca, Ebendas, 1682, 8. 

Corn. Lancilotti brennender Salamander, Frank- 
furt, 1682, 8. 

Roth-Scholtz, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1727, p. 42. 

Moller, Cimbria literata, 1744, ii. p. 441. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2252 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdn- 
zungen, 1810, iii. col. 1216. 



Arnoldi de Villanova chymische Schriften, 
Ebend. und Hamb. 1683, 8. 

Mich. Sendigovii (sic) Leben, Hamb. 1683, 12. 

Kenelmy (sic) Digby Geheimnisse, Ebend. 1684, 
in 8. 

Beschreibung der Coffy, The'e, Chocolate und 
Tobacks, Ebend. 1684, 12. 

Entwurf von Alcahest, Ebend. 1684, 12. 

Kern der Chymie, Leipzig, 1685, 8. 

Erklarung iiber die seclis chymischen Pforten 
Georg Riplsei, Hamb. 1689, 8. 

Fr. Merc. v. Helmont Paradoxal Discurse (sic), 
Mid. 1691, 8. 

Paradeistafel, Hamb. 1692, 8. (?) 

Drey chymische Biicher, Hamb. 1692, 8. 

Kinderbett des Steins der Weisen, Ebend. 1692, 
8. 

Rod. Goclenii phvsiognomische und chiroman- 
tische Anmerkungen, Eb. 1692, 8. 

Mr. del'Emeri cursus Chymicus, Hamb. 1694,8. 

Lancellotti C'olsons Tr.' von Erlangung des 
Steins der Weisen, Hamb. 1696, 8. 

After consideration of the foregoing list and of 
the clear statement of Jocher, Rotermund, and 
others as to the significance of the initials J. L. 
and J. L. M. C., namely, that they stand for 
Johann Lange, it is not requisite to dwell on the 
misinterpretation of them in the article on Edward 
Kelley in the Dictionary of National Biography, 
where they are supposed to denote John Lilly and 
Meric Casaubon. Meric Casaubon died in 1671, 
but the initials J. L. M. C. appeared as late as 
1697. Nor is it necessary to point out that the 
reading is not ' J. L. ct M. C.,' but that it indicates 
one person only; that the reading in the case of 
Kelley's book is 'curanie' not 'curantibus,' and 
that of the preceding list the German books bearing 
the initials were certainly not translated by Lilly 
and Casaubon. As for John Lilly I do not know 
who he was, for there is no one of that name, so far 
as I am aware, likely to have edited Kelley's book. 
Is it possible that the influence of the initials them- 
selves has caused John Lilly to be inadvertently put 
for William Lilly, the astrologer, who may have 
been the person in the writer's mind? The fact 
that among the authorities in the article on Edward 
Kelley there is quoted ' Dr. John Lilly's Autobio- 
biography, ' seems to indicate that it is the astrologer 
who is intended, for it is in his autobiography that 
Kelley is introduced. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 344 ; 
1798, ii. pp. 7, ii, 12. 

Ladrague, Bibliothcque Ou-varqff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 1155. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 335, 338, 347, 
381. 



LANGELOTT (JOEL). 

Send-Schreiben von der Chymie. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1730, ii. p. 381. 



Joel Langelott (or Langellot, or Langellott, and 
also Lancellotus, by Witte) was born 12 Oct., 1617, 
at Ordorf in Thuringia, where his father Conrad 
was a dyer and burgomaster. He studied medi- 
cine at Jena, Rostock, and Copenhagen, as well as 
at Leyden, graduated in 1642, and received a call 
to Gottorp as chemist. He travelled in England, 
and became court physician in 1647 of Frederick IV., 
Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. In 1648 he was made 
private physician of the Duke and of his son. He 
died 8 Dec. , 1680. 



The above epistle was addressed to the Academia 
Naturae Curiosorum : Epistola ad Nature Citnusos 
de quibvsdam in chymia prcetermissis, Hamburg, 
1672, small 8vo, pp. 32. 

The epistle was published in German at Niirn- 
berg, 1672. 

A number of papers on medical topics appeared 
in the Miscellanea of the Academia Naturae Curio- 
sorum Ann. iii. vi. and vii. His Chymia Physica 
is contained in Eman. Koenig's Thesaurus remedi- 
orum e triplici regno. 



LANGELOTT LAPIS 



LANGELOTT QOEL). Continued. 

In manuscript he left Ac/a laboratorii Chymici In the present tract he describes a 'Philosophical 

Gottorpiensis ; Dissertatio de vera prceparalione et Mill,' or apparatus for grinding, of which he was 

usu multiplici laudani opiati ; tractatus de oleo the inventor, and Wallerius gives a drawing of it. 
auri et merciirio metallorum ; and some contro- It was to Langelott that Morhof addressed his 

versial tracts. epistle De Metallorum Transmutatione, 1673. 

Kirchmajer, Noctiluca constans, 1676, p. 21 col. 2258 ; Rotermund's Forlsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 

(c. iii. 2). 1243. 

Kirchmajer, De Pfiosphoris . . . Commtntatio, Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 87. 

1680, p. n. Georgius Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medi- 

Hoffmann, Exercitatio de Cinnabari, 1685, p. corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 587. 

22 (' vir supra fidem verax '). Joh. Gottschalk Wallerius, Die physische Ckemie 

Mercklin, l.indenius raimatns, 1686, p. 708. (ed. Christ. Andr. Mangold), Gotha, 1761, i. p. 59, 

\Vitte, Diariuat Ho^raphicutn, 1688 ; sig. Rrrr and Tafel iii. 73ste Figur (Langelott's ' Philo- 

2 rtctii, Anno 1680. (He calls him Lancellotus.} sopliical Mill'). 

Mangct, Bibliotheca Scriplorum Medicvrum, Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 622. 

1731, II. i. p. 29. ^y Diclionnaire historique de la Attdecine, 

Kestner, Medicinisches Ge/ehrtcn-Lexicon, 1740, 1778, iii. p. 18. 

p. 458. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 30, 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 136. 

Hcnncfii/Hi-, 1742, iii. p. 201. Reuss, Reperlorium, Commentation um, 1803, iii. 

Moller, Ciinl'ria literati/, 1744, ii. p. 444. (Chemia et Hes Metallica}, pp. 2, 115. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- lexicon, 1750, ii. Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

25), v. p. 512. 

LAPIS Animalis Microcosmicus. 

See DOLHOPFF (GEORG ANDREAS). 

LAPIS PHILOSOPHORUM. 

Authoris ignoti, philosophic! lapidis secreta metaphorice describentis, Opusculum. 
See ARTIS AURlFERjE . . . volumina, 1610, i. p. 249. 
See GIN.IECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, P- 5^6. 
See GEUER, Summa Perfectionis, 1682, p. 261. 
See GEHEIMNUSS des Philosophischen Steins. 
See GEHEIMNISS vom Stein der Weisen. 

Lapis Philosophorum. 

See FALSCHER und wahrer Lapis Philosophorum, 1752. 

See ERLAUTERTE und aus der Erfahrung enviesene Wahrheit des Goldmachens 
oder des so betittelten Lapidis Philosophorum. 1767. 

Lapis philosophorum ad quendam Papam. 

See KIESER (FRANZ), Cabala Chymica, 1606, p. 240. 

An lapis Philosophorum valeat contra pestem quaestio. 

See GRATAROLO (c.), Veras alchimiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 259. 

De Lapide per Acquam mercurialem. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die gulden Arch, Schatz und Kunst-Kammer, 1614, Part ii. 

P- 239- 
See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 540. 

De Lapide Philosophorum. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemias, Ander Buch, 1614, sig. ):(iiij 
verso. 

De lapide Philosophorum duodecim Capitula incerti authoris. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii. i 598, p. 157. 

Sec TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchymia*, 1610; Appendix Tomi Primi, 

p. 261. 

See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 281. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 261. 



io LAPIS LASNIORO 



LAPIS PHILOSOPHORUM. Continued. 

De Lapide Philosophorum Tractatus duodecim, 1611. 
See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

De Lapide Philosophico Tractatus eximius, titulo conscriptus : Vera Philosophise 
Doctrina de generatione metallorum. 
See MUSEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, p. 305. 

Lapidis philosophici nomenclatura, a G. Gratarolo collecta. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verse alchemias . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 265. 

De Lapidis Philosophorum formatione epilogus. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Veras alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 248. 

De Magni Lapidis sive Benedicti Compositione et Operatione Aliquot Capita. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 53. 

Liber de Magni Lapidis Compositione et Operatione, Auctore adhuc incerto. 
See GRATAROLO (G.), Verse alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. i. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 5. 

Perfecta Salis Communis praeparatio ad lapidem Philosophorum. 
See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 250. 

Tractatus Aureus de Lapide Philosophico. 
See MUSAEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, p. i. 

Tractatus de Lapide Philosophico, incogniti auctoris. 
See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 653 and 698. 

Tractatlein von Lapide Philosophorum. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Pandora, 1608, p. 234. 

LA POTERIE (PIERRE DE). 
See POTERIUS (PETRUS). 

LASNIORO (JOANNES DE). 

Tractatus Aureus de Lapide Philosophorum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 579. 

Johann von Laaz, or Joannes de Lasnioro, or further account of Laaz. After having learned all 
Lasnionoro, was a Bohemian, who flourished before he could from Antonius of Florence he travelled 
the middle of the fifteenth century. He announces as so many others did to visit other alchemists, 
himself as a pupil of Antonius de Florentia, who, and in the course of his journeyings he came into 
as is stated at the end of the tract (p. 584), was contact with Barbara, second wife of the German 
murdered ' here in Bohemia on account of his emperor Sigismund, who died in 1437. She lived 
chemistry': 'Hie Joannes superius subscriptus de a very scandalous life people compared her with 
Lazionoro (sic) fuit discipulus ipsius Antonii Itali Messalina and her favoured occupation was ai- 
de Florentia oriundi, qui hie in Bohemia propter chemy, in which she passed off juggling tricks as 
earn artem Chymicam ab hominibus impiis est genuine cases of transmutation. DeLasnioro neither 
trucidatus, prout in Bohemico de lapide Philoso- deceived himself nor tried to cheat others into a 
phorum scripto testatur itaaccidisse.' There seems belief in transmutations which were only shams, 
no ground, therefore, for Schmieder's assertion that and he does not seem to have hesitated to say what 
Laaz studied in Italy, and still less for his state- he thought about Barbara's prestidigitations. He 
ment that his name was changed by his Italian says she made false gold which would not stand 
companions into L.as-nion-oro, or Laaz-np-gold ! the tests, and cheated many merchants, and when 
because of his unsuccessful alchemical experiments, he witnessed the deceptions he spoke out : ' correxi 
unless it is meant as a sort of sombre Schmied- earn verbis.' Then naturally: 'Ilia autem voluit 
erian joke. Petraeus it is who is responsible for me incarcerare, sed discessi ab ea cum pace, quia 



LASNIOROLA VINIUS \ i 



LASNIORO (JOANNES DE). Continued. 

Deus juvit me.' Doubtless he thought himself well we must infer either that there are two distinct 

out of it. works of the same name, or, more likely, that the 

According to Petraeus these revelations are con- printed version as we now have it is not complete, 

tained in a MS. on vellum of date 1440, entitled The Tractatus Aureus appeared in 1611 in 

Via Universalis. Tractatus de Secretissimo Antiquorum Philoso- 

It is to be observed, however, that the title Via phorum Arcano. Tractatus ii. De Lapide Philo- 

Universalis is given to the present tract, for it sophorum Joannis Lasniori Bohaemi Summi 

concludes with the following paragraph : Philosophi, nunc primum in gratiam studiosas 

'Explicit via universalis Joannis de Lasnioro juventutis in lucem editas (sic) ab Autore Anonymo. 

Lazon. sub Anno millesimo quadringentesimo Anno TV es saCerDos In aeternVM., small 8, 

quadragesimo octavo. Feria Sexta in Vigilia Viti. sig. A. This tract was published again in 1612, 

Ego verb Joannes Lucianus exemplavi diligentia 8, and with others at Hanau, 1618, 8. 

magna. anno quadringentesimo.' It was reprinted in the Theatrum Chemicum, 

As the passages relative to the Queen, quoted by 1613, iv. p. 657, and in the later edition of 1659, as 

Petraeus from the vellum MS., dated 1440, of the above. If all this be accurate, the present tract 

Via Universalis, do not occur in the present tract, must have been composed about 1437. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 

1637, p. 286. der Rosenkreuzer , 1787, ii. p. 29. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 626. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 296. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

1731, II. i. p. 44. 1806-08, p. 106. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie Jocher, Allgemeines Gehhrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 

HermMque, 1742, iii. pp. 54, 201. mund's Portsetzung und Ergdnzungen, 1810, iii. 

Petraeus, Fr. Basilii \\ilentini . . . Chymische col. 1320. 

Schri/ten, 1769, Neue Vorrede, sig. Az recto. Schmiecler, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 223. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hbhern Chemie, 1785, Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, i. p. 160 ; ii. p. 383. 
P- 583. 

LAUGIER (ROBERT DE). 

Institutiones Pharmaceuticse sive Philosophia Pharmaceutica Auctore Roberto 
de Laugier Doct. Med. S. C. Maj. Consiliar. Universitat. Vindobon. & 
Mutin. Chemiae & Botanices Professore Emerito, Reg. Nancei'anae, & Georgo- 
phil. Florentin. Academiar. Socio, atque Mutinensi Medicorum Collegio 
adscripto. Mutiny M DCC LXXXVIII. Apud Societatem Typographicam. 
Annuentibus Superioribus. 

8. Pp. 326 [2]. 6 plates of Laugier's still. This is the first volume only. There 
should be three in all, 1788-1791, 8. 

Though his name is quite distinctly Robert, chair in 1768 he lived at Strassburg, and on 

Poggendorff calls him Fran9ois. He is reported as 17 Dec., 1793, died at Reggio. The above is 

a native of Nancy or of Metz. He was a doctor apparently his only work, but he is remembered by 

of medicine, imperial councillor, professor of the distilling apparatus which he invented. He is 

chemistry and botany at Vienna and at Modena, not to be confused with Andre' Laugier, who 

a member of the Royal Society of Nancy, of the succeeded Fourcroy at the Museum of Natural 

Agricultural Society of Florence, and of the College History as professor of chemistry, and devoted 

of Physicians at Modena. After he resigned his himself to the analysis of minerals. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1383. 

LAVINIUS (WENCESLAUS) Moravus. 
Tractatus de Coelo Terrestri. 

See HAPELIUS (NICOLAUS NIGER), Cheiragogia Heliana, 1612, p. 97. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 288. 

Traitd du ciel terrestre. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. 
p. 566. 

These three tracts are quoted by Lenglet Du- secret of making. Oswald Crollius in a note to 

fresnoy, who repeats that the author was a Moravian Mining Superintendent Franz Kretschmer says he 

gentleman, and that his ' Trait6' though short was had seen the red powder, and, though he knew 

esteemed. He is said to have studied at foreign Lavinius familiarly in France and was aware of his 

universities, lived in Paris, and returned to his own working at chemistry, he was doubtful about his 

country in possession of the stone, which, from the being able to transmute the metals, 
quantity he possessed, he seemed to have had the 



12 



LA VINIUS-LA VOIS1ER 



LAVINIUS (WENCESLAUS) Moravus. Continued. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 1037. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 44. 

Lenglet Dufresuoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermtiique, 1742, i. p. 472 ; iii. pp. 44, 54, 201. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. .296. 



Murr, Litterarische Nachrichten zu der Geschichte 
des sogenanntcn Goldmachens, 1805, p. 43. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 108. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 270. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 361. 



LAVOISIER (ANTOINE LAURENT). 

Traite Elementaire de Chimie, presente dans un Ordre Nouveau et d'apres 
les Decouvertes Modernes, par M. Lavoisier. Nouvelle edition, a laquelle 
on a joint la Nomenclature Ancienne & Moderne, pour servir a 1'intelligence 
des Auteurs ; differens Memoires de MM. Fourcroy & Morveau, & le 
Rapport de MM. Baume, Cadet, Darcet & Sage, sur la necessite de 
reformer & de perfectionner la Nomenclature Chimique. Avec Figures & 
Tableaux. Tome Premier. A Paris, Chez Cuchet, Libraire, rue & hotel 
Serpente. M.DCC.LXXXIX. 

8. Tome Premier : pp. xliv. , 322. 2 folding tables. Tome Second : pp. viij., 326. 
Tome Troisieme : Nomenclature Chimique, pp. iv., 359 [i blank], 2 tables ; 13 
engraved plates. 

Trattato Elementare di Chimica presentato in un ordine nuovo dietro le 
scoperte moderne, 1792. 

See DANDOLO (VINCENZO). 



The life and fates of Lavoisier are so well known, 
his achievements so outstanding, and the accounts 
of him so accessible and familiar, that it is un- 
necessary to describe the former or enumerate the 
latter. 

He was born at Paris, 26 Augt. , 1743, ar) d 
received an excellent education. Having a taste 
for natural science, he studied mathematics, astro- 
nomy, botany, and geology, but finally devoted 
himself to chemistry. In 1764, when he was just 
21, he gained a prize from the academy for the 
best method of lighting a large town. He wrote 
papers on mineralogy and meteorology, and was 
elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1764. He 
now pursued investigation with great ardour, and 
in order to obtain means to carry on his experi- 
ments he obtained the post of a ' farmer-general ' 
in 1769. Then began his researches into the con- 
stitution of the atmosphere and the cause of the 
increase of weight during combustion, which ended 
after a dozen years' minute and accurate inquiry 
and prolonged controversy in the overthrow of the 
phlogistic hypothesis, the introduction and estab- 
lishment of the oxygen explanation of combustion 
and the publication of the new system of nomen- 
clature based on it. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 10, 
ii ; 1799, >>' PP- 63, 276, &c., &c. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentation-urn, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 6, 8, n, 14, &c., &c. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 380, &c., &c. 

Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, pp. 
479-481 ; App. iv. p. l.xi. April 3, 1788. 

Salvigni, Due Ragionamentisulle Teorie chimiche 
di Lavoisier di Giovanni Mayow e di Lodovico 
Barbieri, Bologna, 1818, 8, pp. 66 [i, i blank]. 

Biographic Universelle, 1819, xxiii. p. 461 ; no 
date, xxiii. p. 414 (by Cuvier). 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), v. pp. 547-554- 



Lavoisier's researches were epoch-making, numer- 
ous, and varied, but in connection with parts of his 
work there has been some difference of opinion as 
to the share to be allotted to him. The most con- 
spicuous case is that connected with the discovery 
of the composition of water. Upon this xjuestion 
opposing views were taken by the Rev. Vernon 
Harcourt, Arago, Brougham, and others, the 
claims of Cavendish, Watt, and Lavoisier respec- 
tively being supported by different writers. This 
topic has been reviewed at full length by Kopp. 

Lavoisier studied practical and economic matters 
as well as pure science, and was especially in- 
terested in agriculture, the manufacture of saltpetre 
and gunpowder, and he was an active member of 
the commission on weights and measures. His 
later researches were upon respiration, and it was 
in the midst of this work that he fell a victim to the 
Revolution, 8 May, 1794. Hoefer has brought a 
severe indictment against the most distinguished of 
his scientific contemporaries for having apparently 
made no effort to save him. 

His researches were published in the Memoirs of 
the Academy. They were collected in 6 vols. , 4, 
and published 1862-1893. 

QueYard, La France Litt&raire, 1830, iv. p. 642. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830-31, 
ii. pp. 75-141. 

Cuvier, Histoire des Progrts des Sciences Natur- 
clles, 1834, i. p. 65, &c. 

Dumas, Lemons sur la Philosophie Chimique, 
l8 37> PP- J 34-i86, &c. ; 1878, pp. 135-202, &c. 
Rammelsberg's German translation, 1839, pp. no- 
165, &c. 

Arago, Historical Eloge of James Watt, trans- 
lated from the French . . . by James Patrick 
Muirhcad, 1839, 8, p. 102 (the water con- 
troversy). 

W. Vernon Harcourt, ' Presidential Address.' 



UNIVERSITY 1 






X 



LA VOISIERLEADE 



LAVOISIER (ANTOINE LAURENT). Continued. 



Report of the ninth meeting of the British Associa- 
tion . . . held at Birmingham, in August, 1839. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 360, 
363, 365 I 1869, ii. pp. 351, 355, 357, 489-53- 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 299- 
315, &c., &c. 

Kire'evsky, Histoire des Legislateitrs Chimistes, 
1845, pp. 22-88. 

Brougham, Lives of Men of Letters and Science 
who flourished in the time of George III., 1846, ii. 
pp. 227-276 ; Works, 1855, i. pp. 290-333. 

Muirhead, Correspondence of the late James Watt 
on his discovery of the Composition of Water, 1846. 

Trattato elementare di Chimica, Torino, 1847, 
pp. 138-155, 190-197. 

George Wilson, Life of the Hcnble. Henry 
Cavendish, London, Cavendish Society, 1851 (the 
water controversy ; Bibliography, p. 269). 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mtdicale, 1855, ii. 
p. 671. 

Samuel Brown, ' Phlogiston and Lavoisier,' 
North British Review, No. xxxv. Reprinted in 
his Lectures on the Atomic Theory and Essays 
Scientific and Literary, 1858, i. pp. 186-245. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtntrale, 1862, xxx. col. i. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wijrterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1392. 

Hoefer, La Chimie enseignte par la Biographie 
de ses Fondateurs, 1865, pp. 70-120. 

Gerding, Geschichte der Chemie, 1867, p. 135, &c. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Midi- 
cales, 1869, 2eme Serie, ii. p. 106. 

Ladenburg, Vortrdge iiber die Entwicklungs- 
geschichte der Chemie in den letzten hundert Jahren, 
1869, pp. 21 & sqq. 

Adolphe Wurtz, A History of Chemical Theory 
from the Age of Lavoisier to the present time, 
translated and edited by Henry Watts, 1869, 8. 



Wurtz, Histoire des doctrines chimiques depuis 
Lavoisier jusqu'd nos jn-urs. Paris, 1869, 12 
(appeared originally as the ' Discours Preliminaire' 
to the Dictionnaire de Chimie pure et appliqutt). 

C. E. Jullien, La Chimie nouvelle, ou la Crassier 
de la nomenclature chimique de Lavoisier deblayt, 
1870, 8. 

Santesson, Kemiens Grundsanningarframstdllda 
i Leftiadsteckningar af dess Heroer, Stockholm 
(1870), p. 51, &c., &c. (This is a free translation 
of Hoefer' s book preceding.) 

Kopp, Entwickelung der Chemie in der neuertn 
Zeit, 1873, pp. 85-216, &c., &c. 

Kopp, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Chemie, 1875, 
iii. pp. 235-310 (the water controversy). 

M. M. P. Muir, Heroes of Science. Chemists, 
1883, pp. 79-100, &c. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 30 ; ii. p. 164, 

Edouard Grimaux, Lavoisier, 1743-1794, dapres 
sa Correspondance, ses Manuscrits, ses Papiers de 
Famille et dautres Documents inedits, Paris, 1888, 
8, 10 plates. 

Ersch & Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopddie, 1888, 
xlii. p. 297. 

H. Picton, The Story of Chemistry (1889), pp. 
231-254, 

Berthelot, La Revolution Chimique. Lavoisier, 
1800, 8, pp. xii. 334. Frontispiece. 

La Grande Encyclopldie , xxi. pp. 1064-68 (by 
Berthelot). 

Ernst von Meyer, A History of Chemistry trans- 
lated by George 'McGowan, 1891, pp. 151-162, &c., 
&c. 

Thorpe, Essays in Historical Chemistry, 1894, 
pp. 88-141. 

Ramsay, The Gases of the Atmosphere, 1896, pp. 
100-118. 



LEADE (JANE). 

Sonenblume der Weisen, das ist : Eine helle und klare Vorstellung der Prae- 
parirung defs Philosophischen Steins, neben Bestraffung derjenigen welche 
sich ohne Grund hierinen bemiihen. Wie auch eine Wohlmeinende Warming 
in was vor Materien man sich hierinnen zu hiiten, indem die Authorin ihre 
selbsteigene Thorheiten, so sie in ungegriindeten Arbeiten begangen, aller 
Welt vor Augen stellet. Zum offentlichen Druck verfertiget und an das 
Tagesliecht gebracht von Leona Constantia in Afflictionibus triumphante. 
Im Jahr 1704. 

12. Pp. 120. 

Aus Leona Constantia Sonnenblume der Weisen. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1778, i. p. 172. 
See MYSTERIUM Magnum. 



Jane Ward, daughter of Schildknap Ward of a 
Norfolk family, was born in 1623. She married 
her cousin, William Lead, or Leadc, and, on his 
death not long after, she lived in seclusion in 
London, and devoted herself to a religious life, to 
which she considered herself called by a mysterious 
voice when a girl. 

She studied Bohme and wrote mystical books, 
one of which, translated into Dutch and German, 
made her known on the Continent. Francis Lee, 
on his return from Venice in 1694, fell in with her 
book and sought her out in London, and was 



adopted by her as her son, and became her disciple. 
When her eyesight failed her, he attended to her, 
looked after her correspondence, wrote to her dicta- 
tion, and edited her books. Lee was the founder 
of the Philadelphian Society which included not 
only Mrs. Leade, but a number of the mystics of 
the time, her followers, and she wrote certain mes- 
sages to them. Pordage, one of the members, 
wrote a letter which seems to be addressed to her 
(see PORDAGE ( JOHN) ). They drew up a constitu- 
tion and printed their Transactions, which appeared 
in five numbers, from March to November, 1697, 



LEADELEBENWALDT 



LEADE (JANE). Continued. 

and with other papers form a small volume in 4. 
This book has become rare. 

Towards the end of her life she was in poor cir- 
cumstances. She died 19 Aug., 1704, and Lee 

J. H. Feustking, Gynaeceumhaeretico-fanaticum, 
Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1704, i. p. 412. 

Placcius, Theatrum Anonymorum et Pseudony- 
moritm, 1708, Liber de Anonymis Scriptoribus 
detectis, p. 415, No. 1691 (Fischer's German trans- 
lation of her works). 

Roth-Scholtz, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1727, p. 43. 

Brucker, Kurtze Fragen aus der Philosophise hen 
Historie, 1735, vi. p. 1180. 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1737, xvi. col. 1253. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, 
ii. p. 1157 (Th. II. xvii. 19, 59). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 



wrote an account of her last hours. Her works are 
numerous, and a list is given by Miss Fell Smith ; 
they are all mystical and do not refer to chemistry 
or alchemy. 

col. 2326 ; Rotermund's Fertsetzung und Ergan- 
zungen, 1810, iii. col. 1451. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 106. 

Beylrag zur Geschichte der ho/tern Chetnie, 1785, 
p. 646. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1789, ii. p. 319. 

Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, 1856, ii. p. 
117. 

Notes and Queries, 4th Series, 1870, vi. p. 529. 

British Quarterly Review, July, 1873, Ivii. pp. 
181-187 (article by Canon Jenkins). 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 378. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1892, xxxii. 
p. 312 (article by Miss C. Fell Smith). 



LEBENWALDT (ADAMUS A). 

Adami a Lebenwaldt, Philosophi & Medici, Com. Pal. Caes. Not. Apost. 
Publ. Erstes Tractate!, von defs Teuffels List vnd Betrug in der Hebreer 
Cabala mit einem Vorbericht wie der Teuffel bey dem Menschlichen Ge- 
schlecht auff vnderschidliche VVeifs eingeschlichen. Saltzburg, Druckts 
vnd verlegts Job. Baptist Mayr, Hoff- vnd Academ. Buchdrucker, 1680. 

12. Pp. [12] 80. 

Andertes Tractatel, von der List und Betrug defs Teuffels in der Astrologia 
Judiciaria, oder zu vil Urtheilenden Stern- Kunst. 

Pp. [4] 95 [i blank]. 

% 

Drittes Tractatel, von defs Teuffels List vnd Betrug in den Vier Elementen vnd vil 
andern aberglaubischen Dingen. 

Pp. [2] 140 [i, i blank]. 

Vierdtes Tractatel, von defs Teuffels List und Betrug in der falschen Alchy- 
misterey und Goldmacher-Kunst. 

Pp. [2] 129 [5 blank, 2]. Wants the title, pp. 83-86, and a blank leaf. 



Tracts 5-8 are wanting. They are as follows : 

Funfftes Tractatl, von defs Teuffels List und 
Betrug in der Berg-Ruethen und Berg-Spiegl, 
1 68 1, pp. [2] 137 [3 blank]. 

Sechstes Tractatl, von defs Teuffels List vnd 
Betrug in der Waffen-Salben, vnd so genandten 
Sympathetischen Pulver, 1681, pp. [2] 198. 

Sibentes Tractatl, von defs Teuffels List vnd 
Betrug in der Transplantation oder Vberpflantzung 
der Kranckheit, 1681, pp. [2] 166. 

Achtes Tractatl, von defs Teuffels List vnd 
Betrug in Verfiihrung der Menschen zur Zauberey, 
1681, pp. [4] 362. 

Lebenwaldt, or Lebwald von Lebenwald, who 
flourished in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
was born at Sailenspach, in Upper Austria, in the 
government of the Count of Spruitzstein, 25 Nov., 
1624, studied medicine, was M.D. of Padua, and 
had practised the art for seven and twenty years, 
as he tells us in the dedication of the above book. 
He was created Count Palatine, was a councillor 
in Styria, Imperial poet laureate, Apostolic Notari- 
us and provincial physician to the Duke of Styria. 
He was received into the Leopoldine Academy 

Mercklin, Lindenivs renovatus, 1686, p. 8. 

Cornelius & Beughem, Syllabus recens explora- 
tonim in re medica physica fir" chymica, Amstel. , 
1696, p. 70. 



under the name of Aesculapius II., 7 Feb., 1683. 
He died 10 (20) June, 1696. 

He wrote : Damographia, oder Gemsenbeschrei- 
bung in 2 Thcilen, Salzburg, 1680, 4 ; Das Land- 
Stadt- und Haus- Arzney-Buch, Niirnberg, 1695, 
folio, and numerous communications to the Leo- 
poldine Academy, for which see the list given by 
Cornelius a Beughem. 

In the British Museum catalogue he is called 
Adam Lebwald von Lebenwald. 

Kopp calls him Adam A. Lebenswaldt, and says 
there are eight tracts altogether, of which the 
fourth deals with the deceits of alchemy. Leben- 
waldt scolds vigorously and reveals the tricks of 
apparent transmutations. He has some remarks 
also on the Rosicrucians. 

The opinions expressed in these tracts were 
attacked by Johann Tillemann or Tileman, in three 
' Defensiones contra Adamum & Lebenwald,' 
printed without place or date, probably at Inns- 
pruck about 1680, in small 12, i. sig. A in twelves 
[last leaf blank] ; ii. sigs. A, B in twelves, C in 
four [2 blank] ; iii. sig. A in twelve. Tileman 
anagrammatises his name into ' Du Nebel laut. ' 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 48. (Memoir from the Miscellanea 
Nat. Cur. Decur. , iij. Ann. v. & vi.) 



LEBENWALDTLE CROM 



LEBENWALDT (ADAMUS A). Continued. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecte melallicce, 
1732, p. 89. 

Gundling, Historic der Gelahrhett, 1735, iii. p. 
3208 (refers to Ephemerides Academias Naturae 
Curiosorum ad Ann. 1699 et 1700). 

Jbcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2327 ; Roternmnd's Fortsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 



Fictuld, Probier- Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 89. 



Biichner, Academics . . . Natures Curiosorum 
Historia, 1755, p. 472, No. 113. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 695. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 34. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 192. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mtdicale, 1855, i. 
p. 468. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 392. 



LE BRETON (CHARLES). 

Les Clefs de la Philosophic Spagyrique, qui donnent la connoissance des 
Principes & des veritables Operations de cet Art dans les Mixtes des trois 
genres, par feu M. Le Breton, Medecin de la Faculte de Paris. A Paris, 
rue S. Jacques, chez Claude Jombert, au coin de la rue des Mathurins, 
a I'lmage Notre-Dame. M.DCCXXII. Avec Approbation & Privilege du 
Roy. 

16. Pp. [8] 398 [a]. 



[Another Copy.] 



This book is merely mentioned by Lenglet 
Dufresnoy, in the Beytrag, by Gmelin, and by 
Kopp, but they say nothing about the author. He 
is omitted by Schmieder. Haller refers to a per- 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Gelahrheit, 
1736, PP. 568, 571. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermitique, 1742, iii. p. 129, 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 36. 



son called Le Breton, author of a work on select 
surgical remedies, 1716, but I do not know for 
certain if he be the same as the chemist. 



Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 660. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 318. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarqf, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 1315. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 364. 



LE COMTE (Louis). 

See COMITIBUS (LUDOVICUS DE). 

LE CROM (ALEXANDRE ?). 

Vade Mecum Philosophique, en Forme de Dialogue, en Faveur des Enfans de 
la Science, nouvellement mis au jour, ou Ton fait voir ce que c'est que la 
vraye Quintessence. Avec un Petit Traite des Dissolutions et Coagulations 
naturelles & artificielles. Par le Sieur Le Crom. A Paris, chez Daniel 
Jollet, Imprimeur-Libraire, au bout du Pont Saint Michel, du coste" du 
Marche" Neuf, au Livre Royal. Et la veuve Papillon, pre*s des Augustins, a 
la descente du Pont-Neuf, aux Armes d'Angleterre. M.DCC.XIX. Avec 
Approbation et Privilege. 

12. Pp. [7, i blank] 107 [i blank]. 

Petit Trait6 des Dissolutions et Coagulations naturelles & artificielles. Pp. 40. 
Dissertation philosophique sur le Sel Arabe et la Poudre Solaire. Pp. [24] [4]. 



According to Ladrague, Le Crom is a pseudonym 
for Frai^ois Marie Pompee Colonne, who not only 
wrote the above, but under the name of Crosset de 
la Haumerie composed the book Les Seciets les 
plus cache's de la Philosophie des Anciens, . . . 
Paris, 1722, 8, 1762, 12 (commended in the 
Journal des Savans, 1723, pp. 112-15), and another 
which appeared anonymously : Les Principes de la 



Nature, suivant les opinions desanciens Philosophes, 
. . . Paris, 1725, 2 vols. , 12. 

This identification is not made by Gmelin, who 
ascribes (ii. p. 318) to Fran/. Mar. Pomp. Colonna 
a work: Histoire naturelle de i ' i/nivers, Paris, 
1734, 2 vols., 12; to Crosset de la Haumerie 
(hid. ) : Les secrets les plus cache's . . . but with 
the date 1723 ; and (Ibid. p. 356) to Lc Crom : 



i6 



LE CROMLEEUWENHOEK 



LE CROM (ALEXANDRE ?). Continued. 

Plusieurs experiences utiles et curieuses concer- 
nant la Medecine et la Metallique, Paris, 1718, 12. 

As for Lenglet Dufresnoy, he does not include 
Colonne at all ; Crosset de la Haumerie is credited 
with the tract above mentioned ; and to Le Crom 
is assigned the work Plusieurs experiences . . . 
1718, only. But he adds that he visited Le Crom 
sometimes, and did not think that Le Crom en- 
gaged in the Hermetic Science, but only in so far 
as it could serve medicine. 

Le Crom is not mentioned either by Schmieder 
or Kopp. More recent notices do not make very 
clear the connection between Colonne and Le Crom. 
The article in the Nouvelle Biographie Gtntrale 
simply mentions Alexandre Le Crom as the name 
under which he wrote certain books, including the 
above, but Che'surolles seems to imply that Le Crom 
was not a mere pseudonym, for he describes him 
as being ' une espece d'apothicaire demeurant rue 
St. Denis, a Paris.' 

Colonna, or Colonne, was born in Italy about 
1649, came to France in 1669, went back to Italy 
the following year, and then returned and settled 
in Paris. He perished in the fire which consumed 
his house at Paris in 1726. He is said to have been 
a learned man, skilled in mathematics, but he was 
specially devoted to the occult sciences, and the 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 143, 183. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 318, 
356. 

LEEUW. 

See VREESWYK (GOOSSEN VAN). 



books which he wrote refer chiefly to them. They 
are as follows : 

Introduction a la philosophie des anciens, Paris, 
1698, 12. This is said to be merely a revision of 
the Escalier des Sages, Groningen, 1689, fol. , by 
Rarent Comders van Helpen. 

Les secrets les plus caches de la philosophie des 
anciens, Parts, 1722, 1762, 12, under the name 
Crosset de la Haumerie. 

Abrg de la doctrine de Paracelse et ses Archi- 
doxes, Paris, 1724, 12, under the anagram Sum 
incola franc us. 

Les principes de la Nature selon les opinions des 
anciens philosophes, Paris, 1725, 2 vols., 12, 
anonymous. 

Nouveau Miroir de la fortune, Paris, 1726, 12. 

Principes de la Nature on la generation des choses, 
Paris, 1731, 12, posthumous, edited by Gosmond. 

Histoire naturelle de 1'univers, Paris, 1734, 4 
vols., 12. 

Plusieurs experiences utiles sur la m6decine, la 
metallique, &c., Paris, 1719, 12, under the name 
of Alexandre Lecrom. 

Vade-Mecum Philosophique, Paris, 1719, 12, as 
above. 

Suite des experiences utiles, Paris, 1725, 12. 

Biographie Universelle, 1844, viii. p. 661 (article 
by Ch&urolles). 

Nouvelle Biographie Ghierale, 1856, xi. col. 296. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 591, 1312-14. 



LEEUWENHOEK (ANTONY VAN). 

Observations faites avec la Microscope sur le sang et sur le lait. 
See RECUEIL d'experiences, 1679, p. 221. 



Leeuwenhoek was born at Delft, 24 Oct., 1632, 
at the age of 16 began to learn business with a 
merchant in Amsterdam, and spent some years 
there. After his marriage at Delft he gave up 
business and devoted himself to the study of 
science, and became one of the most distinguished 
of microscopic observers. He was made a fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1679. His death occurred 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 1088. 
Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. pp. 54-63. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 535. 
Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicce, 

1732, p. 89. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Gelahrheit, 
173,6, p. 584. 

Goelicke, Introductio in Historiam litteranam 
Anatomes, 1738, pp. 522, 523. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrlen-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 466. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 341. 

Jbcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2336 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergan- 
zungen, 1810, iii. col. 1436. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la AtdJecine, 
1755, ii. p. 120 ; 1778, iii. p. 67. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774. i. pp. 606, 
704. 



in his gist year, 26 Augt., 1723, and he continued 
an unwearied worker to the very end. His letters 
refer to crystallization, the configuration of the 
diamond, the solution of silver, compression of the 
air, experiments with cinnabar, gunpowder, &c., 
&c. His works were collected and published at 
Leyden, 1722, 4 vols., 4; English translation by 
Samuel Hoole, 1798-1800, 3 parts, 4. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 202. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica}, pp. 33, 121. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 200. 

Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 
App. iv. p. xxvii. Ann. 1680. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xx. p. 218. 

Biographie Universelle, 1819, xxiv. p. 362 ; no 
date, xxiv. p. 387. 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), v. p. 561. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 
pp. 117-119, 209, 224, 250, 264, 265, 266. 

Delvenne, Biographie du Royaume des Pays-Bas, 
1829, ii. p. 64. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 

Weld, A History of the Royal Society, 1848, i. 
PP- 244-245. 



LEEUWENHOEKLE FEVRE 17 

LEEUWENHOEK (ANTONY VAN). Continued. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Mtdicale, 1855, i. P. J. Haaxman, Antony van Leeuvtenhoek de 

p. 498. Ontdekker der Infusorien, 1675-1875, Leiden, 1875 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnirale, 1860, xxxi. col. (with portrait, facsimile and illustrations. Pp. 

13. 138-140, list of references to Leeuwenhoek). 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- W. J. A. Huberts, Biographisch Woordenboek 

ivorterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1404. der Noord- en Zuid-Nederlandsche Letterkunde, 

Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Deventer, 1878, p. 303 (quite a short notice). 

Nederlanden, 1865, xi. p. 280. Ersch & Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopddie, 2 e 

Section, 1887, xlii. p. 358. 

LE FEVRE (NICOLAS). 

Neuvermehrter Chymischer Handleiter, und Guldnes Kleinod : Das ist : 
Deutliche Unterweisung, wie man die von Chymischer Wissenschafft ins 
gemein handelende Schrifften recht verstehen ; und nach Ordnung der 
Spagyrischen und Apotheckerischen Bereit-Kunst die darzu erforderte wiirck- 
liche Operation gebiihrlich verrichten, die Vegetabilia, Animalia, und 
Mineralia, ohne Einbufs ihrer wesentlichen Krafte bereiten ; auch die Fehler 
welche ehdessen in den gemeinen Apothecken begangen worden, abschaffen, 
und nach der heutigen Verbesserung alle Bereitungen anstellen miisse : 
Vormals treufleissigst in Frantzosischer Sprache beschrieben, durch N. Le 
Febure, Seiner Kon. Maj. in Frankreich ordinar-Apotheckern, und Chymischen 
Distillatorn, &c. Anitzo aber auf Ersuchen guter Freunde aufs Neue durchaus 
in vielem noch mehr erlautert, und mit hauffigen Secreten und nutzlichen 
Artzneystiicken vermehrt, und zum andern mal durch den Druck publiciret 
von Joh. Hiskia Cardilucio. Mit Chur-Fiirstl. Sachsischen Privilegio. 
Niirnberg, In Verlegung Joh. Andreae Endters Sel. Sohne. M.DC.LXXXV. 

8. Pp. [34] 867 [55]. Title red and black. Engraved title wanting. 14 
engraved plates. 

Cours de Chymie, pour servir d'Introduction a cette Science. Par Nicolas Le 
Fevre, Professeur Royal de Chymie, & Membre de la Societe* Royale de 
Londres. Cinquieme Edition, Revue, corrige'e & augmente'e d'un grand 
nombre d'Operations, & enrichie de Figures. Par M. Du Monstier, Apoticaire 
de la Marine & des Vaisseaux du Roi ; Membre de la Societe" Royale de 
Londres & de celle de Berlin. Tome Premier. A Paris, Chez Rollin, 
Fils, Quay des Augustins, a Saint Athanase. M.DCC.LI. Avec Approbation 
& Privilege du Roi. 

12. Pp. [4] xxxvj. [4] 454 [2 blank]. Title red and black. Six plates. 

II. [4] x. 472. i plate. 

III. [4] xiv. 477 [3 bl.]. 2 plates. 

IV. [4] iij.-xiv. 436 (for 484). 

V. [4] iij.-xx. [2 bl.] 436. 2 plates. 

H is name also appears as Le Febure and Lefebvre. and he was much flattered by this promotion. 

What little is known of his life is obtained He occupied the post for fully a dozen years, and 

chiefly from his own work. He was born early in in 1660 published a summary of the instruction he 

the seventeenth century, where is not stated, and had been in the habit of giving in his treatise on 

he was educated in the Protestant College of chemistry, of which many editions are extant. 

Sedan, a town to which he alludes more than once. In 1664 he accepted the invitation of Charles II., 

He was initiated in chemistry and pharmacy by his and was appointed Royal professor of chemistry 

father, and he himself has described the course of and Apothecary in Ordinary to the Household at 

his studies. A little before his time had begun the St. James's, and was also elected a fellow of the 

movement which ended in the foundation of the newly-founded Royal Society. He died in London 

Jardin du Roi, and the appointment of Dr. William in 1674. 

Davisson as the first professor of botany and chem- He wrote two lx>oks : Chimie thtoriqut el 

istry. When Davisson left, Le F&vre succeeded pratique, Paris, 1660, 2 vols., 12. Several editions 

him by the influence of Vallot, the king's physician, are recorrl( d : Paris, 1669, 2 vols. ; Lcyden, 1669, 
II. B 



i8 



LE FEVRELEHMANN 



LE FEVRE (NICOLAS). Continued. 

2 vols., 12, pp. i. [64] 1-556, ii. [4] 557-1216 
[21, i blank], 8 plates; Paris, 1674, 2 vols., 12; 
Leyden, 1696. 

It was translated into German, Nurnberg, 1678, 
8 ; 1675 ; the above in 1685, and again in 1688. 

The English translation was made by ' a gentle- 
man of his Majesty's Privy Chamber, 1 whose 
initials are P. D. C. It appeared at London, 
1664, 4, in 2 parts, bound together. It was 
reissued in 1670, with two different title-pages, on 
one of which he calls himself Fellow of the Royal 
Society. It may be observed that, on the title- 
page, the author's name appears as Nicasius le 
Febvre and not Nicolas. 

Conring, In ttniversam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 387 (Add. xi. vi.**). 

Roth-Scholtz, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1727, p. 74 
(calls him Le Februe). 

Stolle, Anleitun% zur Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 791. 

Jacob Leopolds Prodromus Bibliothecce meta/lica, 
1732, p. 56 (calls him le Fiirbe). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 4. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdccine, 
1755, ii. p. in ; 1778, iii. p. 41. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, pp. 27, 116. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hbhern Chemie, 1785, 
P. 623. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 745 ; 
1798, ii. pp. 357, 517. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 146. 



Eloy mentions an edition of 1740. 

The treatise also appeared in Latin, Besan9on, 
!737i 2 vols., 4. 

The second work in French was published in 
1665. I have not seen this, but only the English 
version : A Discourse upon Sr. Walter RawIeigK 1 ! 
Great Cordial , . . rendered into English by Peter 
Belon, London, 1664, small 8, pp. [2 blank, 18] 
no. 

He is said to have translated into French the 
' Religio Medici ' of Sir Thomas Brown : La Re- 
ligion du Medecin . . . Imprime~e I' An 1668, 
without place or printer, 12, pp. [24] 360. 



Biographic Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), v. p. 564 (article by Orfila). 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, i. (authors), 

359 A 

Dumas, Lemons sur la Philosophic Chimique, 
1837, p. 51 ; 1878, p. 56 ; Rammelsberg's German 
translation, 1839, p. 15. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 286; 
1869, ii. p. 276. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 12, &c. 

La Grande Encyclopedic, no date, xxi. p. 1130 (is 
based on Dumas and Hoefer). 

Haag, La France Protestante, 1855, v. p. 497. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 502. 

Nouvelle Biographic Gtndrale, 1859, xxx. col. 
342. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1404. 



LEHMANN QOHANN CHRISTIAN). 

D. Johann Christian Lehmanns vollkommene Beschreibung eines Bergbohrers, 
wie solcher nebst seinen darzu gehorigen Stiicken gefertiget, und dam it operiret 
werden solle; Defsgleichen wie man sich dessen zu bedienen habe auf viel 
tausend Schuh, sowohl Ortwarts, als Sohl- und Fiirstwerts durch die Damerde, 
Gebiirge & Festgestein zu bohren ; welchem noch eine sehr grose Ver- 
besserung derer Puchwerke beygefiiget ist. Mit dazu gehorigen Kupfern. 
Leipzig, in der Grofsischen Handlung 1750. 

8. Pp. 70 (for 80). 2 folding plates. 
The first edition was published at Leipzig in 1714, 8, and an edition of 1716 is mentioned. 



Lehmann was born at Bautzen (Budissin) in Ober- 
Lausitz 16 June, 1675. His father Elias was 
Phil. & Med. D. and private physician to the 
Saxon Churfursts George II. and III. At first 
he had a tutor, then he was at school at Bischofs- 
werda, and in 1690 at the gymnasium at Zittau 
under Christian Weisen. In 1694 he went to 
Leipzig, in 1695 graduated as bachelor in arts and 
medicine, 1696 he was master, and in 1699 doctor 
of medicine. He was appointed extraordinary pro- 
fessor of the Institutes of Medicine in 1707, and in 
1710 ordinary professor. In 1712 the Leopoldine 
Academy elected him a member under the name of 
Antenor II. and on the 7 June, 1713, he received 
the same distinction from the Berlin Academy. 
In 1723 he was 'collegiat 1 in the great ' Fiirsten- 
Collegium,' and in 1732 he attained the dignity of 
Senior of the Philosophical Faculty and Decemvir 
of the Academy at Leipzig. His death occurred 
19 Jan. , 1739, at Leipzig". 



He was distinguished by his experimental and 
manipulative ability and by the ingenious instru- 
ments which he constructed. 

A large number of academic programmes, 
orations and dissertations on varied subjects came 
from his pen. Those relating more particularly to 
chemistry are the following : 

Dissertatio de transmutationibus corporum extra- 
ordinariis, Lips., 1696, 4. 

Disputatio de Balsamo Peruviano nigro, Lips., 
1707, 4. 

Von Zusammenordinirung derer Gradierhauser, 
Gradierdacher, Gradier-Maschinen, Gradir-Rohren 
und Passer, an, unter und iiber denen Siedepfannen 
und ihren Rauchfangen, Dresden, 1719, 4, and 
one or two others on salt working. His papers on 
experimental physics were published in the trans- 
actions of the Berlin Academy, 1746, & sqq. 

Utilitatis physicae verse Specimina VI., Leipz., 
1714-36, 4, with engravings. 



LEHMANN LEHR-SA TZE 



LEHMANN QOHANN CHRISTIAN). Continued. 



Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallicee, 
1732, p. 89. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 466. 

Acta Academice Natura Curiosorum, 1742, vi. 
App. pp. 180-190. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2343 ; Rotermund's Fortsetsung und Ergdn- 
zungen, 1810, iii. col. 1504. 

Biichner, Academics . . . Natures Curiosorum 
Historic., 1755, p. 489, No. 292. 

Ginelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 777 



(the mineral water at Reibelsgriin) ; 1799, iii. p. 27 
(saltworks). 

Gottlieb Friedr. Otto, Lexikon der seit dem 
funfzehenden Jahrhunderte verstorbenen und jezt- 
lebenden Oberlausisischen Schriftsteller und Kiinst- 
ler, Gorlitz, 1802, II. i. p. 422. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 300. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, iv. p. 360 
(Peruvian balsam). 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worierbuch, 1863, i. col. 1409. 



LEHMANN QOHANN GOTTLOB). 

Abhandlung von den Metall-Miittern und der Erzeugung der Metalle aus der 
Naturlehre und Bergwerckswissenschaft hergeleitet und mit Chymischen 
Versuchen erwiesen von D. Johann Gottlob Lehmann. Berlin verlegts 
Christoph Gottlieb Nicolai. 1753. 

8. Pp. [16] 268 [8]. 2 plates. Vignette of a medal. 



Nothing is on record of Lehmann's birth or 
origin. He was a doctor of medicine, a royal 
Prussian councillor for mines, and a member of the 
Prussian Academy of Sciences, and of others in- 
cluding the Society of Arts, London. In 1761 he 
went to St. Petersburg to be professor of chemistry 
and keeper of the Natural History Museum of the 
Academy there. He made various natural history 
journeys in Russia for the Empress Catherine II. 
In consequence of an accident due to the bursting 
of a vessel in which he was heating arsenic, he died 
at St. Petersburg 22 Jan. (20 Feb.), 1767, but ac- 
cording to the Biographie Universelle, his death 
was the result of a bilious fever. 

Denkwiirdigkeiten aus dem I^eben ausgezeichneter 
Teutichen des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts, pp. 163- 
165. 

Gmelin, Geschichle der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 338, 
&c., &c. 

Meusel, Lexicon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 
verstorbenen Teulschen Schriftsteller, 1808, viii. pp. 
108-111. (Meusel remarks on the meagre informa- 
tion about him.) 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 300, 311, 323, 324, 331, 332, 336. 341, 
343, 36o. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 



He published various works : 

Abhandlung von Phosphoris, deren verschiedener 
Bereitung, Nutzen und andere dabey vorkom- 
mende Anmerkungen, Dresden und Leipzig, 

J749. 4- 

Abhandlung von den Metall-Muttern und der 
Erzeugung der Metalle . . . mit chymischen Ver- 
suchen erwiesen, Berlin, 1752, 8. 

Probier-Kunst, Berlin, 1775, 8. 

Cadmiologia. Konigsberg und Leipzig, a Th. 
1761-66, besides treatises on mineralogy, on alum 
boiling, kao-lin, on forests, charcoal-burning, and 
papers in the transactions of the Academies of 
Berlin, St. Petersburg, Haarlem, London, etc. 

mund's Fortsetzung und Erganzungen, 1810, iii. 
col. 1607. 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), v. p. 566. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 375 ; 
1869, ii. p. 367. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847. iv. pp. 78, 
81, 154. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtntrale, 1862, xxx. col. 

45 6 - 

Biographie Universelle, no date, xxiii. p. 651. 

Poggendorff, Riographisch-literarischts Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 1409. 



See RESPUR (P. M. VON), Besondere Versuche, 1772. 

LEHR-JUNGER der Natur. 

See HERMAPHRODITISCHES Sonn- und Monds-Kind, 1752. 

LEHR-SATZE von der Preparation des Steins der Weisen. 
See v. (j. R.), M.D., Giildene Rose, No. viii. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C. 1779, > P- 216. 

LEHR-SATZE vor die Schiiler der Weifsheit. 

See MONTE RAPHAIM (JOHANN DE), Vorbothe der am Philosophischen Himmel 
hervorbrechenden Morgen-Rothe, 1767. 

LEHR-SATZE ... von der Weisheit und Chymie . . . 
See SCHWART2FUSS (Anonymus von), 1706. 



20 LEITERLEMERY 



LEITER der Philosopher urn. 
See SCALA Philosophorum. 

LEITUNGS-FADEN (Der) zu dem Chymischen und Alchymischen Labyrinth, 
um sicher darinnen zugehen, durch das Licht der Erfahrung, alle Hand- 
Arbeiten und Griffe die in dieser Kunst erfordert werden, mit neuen schonen 
Erfindungen, und einigen sehr niitzlichen Geheimnlissen versehen, auch alle 
definitiones begreiffende. Allen hohen Potentaten, grossen Herren, Rittern 
und Edlen, Hochgelehrten Doctoren, wie auch andern wiirdigen Liebhabern 
der Hermetischen Kunst, zu sonderbahrem Nutzen, und um die Verschwendung 
der Zeit, und vieler Tausenden in Sudlereyen zuverhiiten zur Neuen Jahres- 
Gabe dem offentlichen Druck iibergeben, durch den aller hier beschriebenen 
Arbeiten, durch zwantzig Jahrige Erfahrung practicirten und gereiseten 
Pilgram. Braunschweig, Verlegts Caspar Grubers, 1691. 
8. No pagination. Sigs. A-D in eights, E3 [=pp. 70]. 

The book contains a short system of assaying is no mystery in this tract. It was reprinted in 
and testing of ores and such like bodies, and gives Schroder's Neue Sammlung der Bibliothek fiir . . . 
an account of the processes and substances. There Chemie, 1776, II. ii. pp. 1-74. 

LE MAITRE (ALEXANDRE CHRISTIAN). 

Der Astralische Geist oder der Balsam defs Lebens, bewiesen in der Mag- 
netischen Balsamischen Krafft defs Antimonialischen gereinigten Vitriols, 
durch die Beyspiele der gantzen wiirckenden Natur, von den wunderbahren 
Proben defs Sympatischen Pulvers, vnd dessen auffrichtigen Bereitung. An 
Tag geben durch Alexandrum Christianum le Maitre, G. G. Q. v. O. I. 
Getruckt in Verlegung defs Authoris im Jahr 1684. 

12. Pp. [12] 174 (but should be 168). Title fed and black. 

LEMERY (NICOLAS). 

Cours de Chymie, oder : Der vollkommene Chymist, welcher die in der 
Medicin gebrauchlichen Chymischen Processe auf die leichteste und heil- 
samste Art machen lernt, und mit den scharffsinnigsten Anmerckungen und 
Urtheilen liber jeden Procefs die Liebhaber dieser Wissenschafft weiter 
anfuhret : Wie er von Herrn Niclas Lemery, der Medicin hochberiihmten 
Doctorn, und Koniglichen Frantzosischen Hof-Apotheckern zu Paris, heraus- 
gegeben, und aus der neuesten Frantzosischen Edition ins Teutsche iibersetzet 
und bey jetziger vierten Auflage aufs neue und correcteste revidiret. 
Drefsden und Leipzig, verlegts Raphael Christian Sauerefsig, 1734. 

8. Pp. [56] 652 ; 390 [42, 2 blank]. Title red and black. 6 plates of apparatus. 
Wants a plate, i. pp. 84-5. 

Nicolai Lemeri, weyland Medicinae Doctoris und Konigl. Frantzosischen Hof- 
Apotheckers zu Paris, Cursus Chymicus, oder vollkommener Chymist, welcher 
die in der Medicin vorkommenden Chymischen Praeparata und Processus 
auf die verniinfTtigste, leichteste und sicherste Art zu verfertigen lehret. Aus 
dem Frantzosischen iibersezt und bey dieser fiinfften Auflage aufs neue durch- 
gesehen, corrigirt und mit Zusatzen vermehret, von D. Johann Christian 



LEMERY 21 

LEMERY (NICOLAS). Continued. 

Zimmermann. Mit Konigl. Pohl. u. Churfurstl. Sachfs. allergnadigsten 
Privilegio. Dresden, 1754. Im Verlag der Waltherischen Buchhandlung 

8. Pp. [10, including frontispiece] 978. Register [46] 46. Frontispiece (portrait 
of Lemery), 6 plates of apparatus, i folding plate of symbols. 

New Curiosities in Art and Nature : Or, a Collection of the most Valuable 
Secrets in all Arts and Sciences; as Appears by the Contents. Composed 
and Experimented by the Sieur Lemery, Apothecary to the French King. 
Translated into English from the Seventh Edition. Printed this last Year in 
French, in which is near one half more than any former Edition. Illustrated 
with Cuts. To which is added a Supplement by the Translator. London : 
Printed for John King, at the Bible and Crown in Little Britain ; and Sold 
by J. Morphew, near Stationers-Hall. 1711. 

8. Pp. [16] 354. Index [14]. Frontispiece and 8 plates. 

Nicolai Lemery Neue Curieuse Chymische Geheimniifse des Antimonii, durch 
mancherley Experimenta eroffnet, und aus denen neuesten Principiis Physicis 
kliirlich erwiesen, aus dem Frantzosischen ins Teutsche iibersetzt von Johann 
Andreas Mahlern, Med. Doct. Dresden, bey Joh. Jacob Wincklern, 1709. 
8. Pp. [32] 560 [14]. Title red and black. 

[Another Copy.] 

Pharmacopee Universelle, contenant toutes les Compositions de Pharmacie 
qui sont en usage dans la Medecine, tant en France que par toute 1'Europe ; 
leurs Vertus, leurs Doses, les manieres d'operer les plus simples & les 
meilleurs. Avec un Lexicon Pharmaceutique. Plusieurs Remarques 
Nouvelles, et des Raisonnemens sur chaque Operation. Par Nicolas Lemery, 
de I'Academie Royale des Sciences, Docteur en Medecine. Seconde Edition. 
Revue, corrigee & augmente'e. A Paris, Chez Laurent D'Houry, Imprimeur- 
Libraire, rue de la Harpe, vis-a-vis la rue S. Severin, au Saint-Esprit. 
M.DCCXV. Avec Approbations et Privilege du Roy. 

4. Pp. [20] 1092, with an extra leaf: * 956-7 ; table [42]. Title red and black. 

Dictionaire ou Traite Universel des Drogues Simples. Oil Ton trouve leurs 
differens noms, leur origine, leur choix, les principes qu'elles renferment, leurs 
qualitez, leur etymologic, & tout ce qu'il y a de particulier dans les Animaux, 
dans les Vegetaux, & dans les Mineraux. Ouvrage dependant de la Pharma- 
copee Universelle. Par Nicolas Lemery, de I'Academie Royale des Sciences, 
Docteur en Medecine. Quatrie'me Edition. Revile, corrige'e, & beaucoup 
augmente'e par 1'Auteur, Avec des Figures en Taille douce. A Rotterdam, 
Chez Jean Hofhout. M DCC XXVII. 

4. Pp. [20] 590 [58]. Title red and black, xxv. plates. 

Mantissa Chimica Spagirica. 

See PROSPECTUS Pharmaceuticus Galeno-Chymicus, 1698. 



22 



LEMER YLEMNIVS 



LEMERY (NICOLAS). Continued. 

Lemery was born at Rouen, 17 Nov., 1645 
(others 1644). He was trained by an apothecary, 
but wishing to extend his knowledge he went to 
Paris and attended the demonstrations of Glaser. 
As he did not learn with him he departed, and his 
dissatisfaction has been the origin of the unfavour- 
able estimate formed of Glaser by Fontenelle and 
often repeated since, without a question as to its 
accuracy (see GLASER). Lemery travelled for six 
years, and on his return to Paris began as an 
apothecary, but also gave lectures in the laboratory 
of a friend, Martin, apothecary of the Prince of 
Cond6. Afterwards he gave courses in a laboratory 
of his own, and they were thronged by persons 
attracted and interested by the clearness of his 
explanations and the cleverness of his experiments. 

In 1681 (1683?), on account of his religious 
opinions, he went to England, but, as affairs did not 
turn out as he expected, he returned to France and 
graduated in medicine at Caen, in 1683. The Re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes deprived him of 
the right to practise medicine, so he joined the 
Romish church in 1686, and resumed his courses. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 836. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 387 (Add. XI. vi. * * ). 

Cornelius a Beughem, Syllabus recens explora- 
torum in re medico, physica & chymica, 1696, p. 
188 (de remedio cpntra colicam nephriticam). 

Fontenelle, ' Eloge,' Histoire de I' Acaddmie 
royale des Sciences, annee 1715 ; Paris, 1718, pp. 
73-82. 

Niceron, Mdmoires, 1728, iv. pp. 212-220 ; 1731, 
x. pt. 2, p. 142. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scrip/or um Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. pp. 66-67. 

Stolle, Anleitung sur Historie der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, Jena, 1731, pp. 700, 701, 801 (life), 
802, 803. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallic^, 

1732, p. 90. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-L^xicon, Jena, 
1740, p. 468. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
HermMque, 1742, iii. pp. 6, 7, 202, 334, 335, 336, 

337- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrtett-I^exicon, Leipzig, 
1750, ii. col. 2357 ; and Rotermund's Fortsetzting 
und Erganzungen, 1810, iii. col. 1561. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mddecine, 
1755, ii. p. 114; 1778, iii. p. 47. 

Gottingische Gekhrte Anzeigen, 1755, Bd. i. 
p. 430 (review of the fifth edition of his chemistry). 

MoreYi, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique et 
critique, 1759, VI. ii. p. 228. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 809. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 129- 
131 ; 228, 242, 251, 431. 

Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, ii. p. 57. 

Reuss, Reperlorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 3, 91, 141, 143. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemise/ten Litteratur, 

1806-08, pp. 179, 211, 221, 222, 223. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xx. p. 160. 



In 1699 ne was made associate of the Academy in 
chemistry, and succeeded Bourdelin as pensioner. 
He died of apoplexy, 19 June, 1715, and was 
succeeded in the Academy by his son, Louis. 

The Cours de Chimie was first published at Paris 
in 1675, 7th edition, Paris, 1688, small 8; 8th 
edition, Paris, 1696, 8, with a portrait of the 
author ; loth edition, Paris, 1712, and the last 
Paris, 1756, 4, edited by Th. Baron d'Henou- 
ville. It was translated into Latin, German, 
English, and Spanish. 

His Nouvel Recueil de Secrets et Curiosity's les 
plus rares was published at Amsterdam, 1709, 
2 vols. , 8. 

Pharmacopte Universelle, Paris, 1697 and 1706, 

4- 

Trail^ . . . des drogues simples, Paris, 1698 (?) ; 
2d ed. 1714 (?); another edition, 1759. 

He was the author of papers on camphor, honey, 
&c., in the Paris Memoirs. A very full list of his 
works is given by QueYard and Haag. 

His son, Louis Lemery, was demonstrator of 
chemistry in the Jardin du Roi. 

Biographie Universelle, Paris, 1819, xxiv. p. 47; 
Paris, n.d. xxiv. p. 83. 

Rees, The Cyciopeedia, 1819, xx. sub voce. 
Biographie Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

25), v - P- 572. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 
p. 291. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830, i. p. 

235- 

Que"rard, La France litttraire, Paris, 1833, v. 
p. 141. 

Cap, Eloge, couronne'e par 1 Acade'mie de Rouen, 
1838 ; reprinted in Cap's Etudes Biographiques, 
1857, Premiere Se>ie, pp. 180-226. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 293- 
300 ; 1869, ii. pp. 284-290. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 183-185, 
&c., &c. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 289. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Medicale, 1855, ii. 
p. 8. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855. PP- S5. 864. 

Haag, La France Protestante, 1856, vi. pp. 538- 
544 (notice with good lists). 

Lebreton, Biographie Normande, Rouen, 1857- 
61, ii. p. 497. 

Edouard Frere, Manuel du Bibliographe Nor- 
matid, Rouen, 1858-60, ii. p. 204. 

Hoefer, Nouvelle Biographie Gdndrale, Paris, 
1862, xxx. col. 593. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-liferarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1417. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mddi- 
cales, 1869, 2eme SeYie, ii. p. 147. 

Kopp, Beitrdge, 1875, "' P- J 86. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iii. 
p. 665 (article by Pagel). 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 56. 



LEMNIUS (LEVINUS). 

Levini Lemnii Medici Zirizsei, De Habitu et Constitutione Corporis, quam 
Grseci Kpaariv, Triuiales Complexionem vocant, Libri II. ; Omnibus quibus 
secunda valetudo cura est, apprime necessarii : ex quibus cuiq; procliue erit 



LEMNIUS 1 3 

LEMNIUS (LEVINUS). Continued. 

corporis sui conditionem, animique motus, ac totius conseruandre sanitatis 
rationem ad amussim cognoscere. Nunc vero ab innumeris mendis, quibus 
passim scatebant, vindicati, formaq; commodiore in lucem editi. Cum Indice 
rerum & verborum copiosissimo. Francofurti Typis Nicolai Hofmanni, 
sumtibus lonae Rhodii. M.DC.IV. 

8. Pp. [16] 185. Index [9). 

This accompanies the 1611 reprint of the De stone of Complexions . . . now Englished by T. N., 

Miraculis. There is an Italian version : Delia London, 1633, small 4, pp. [8] 248 [10, 2 blank]. 

complessione del corpo humano libri due, Venetia, The translator's name is Thomas Newton. 
1564, 8, ff. [4] 124 ; and in English : The Touch- 

De Miraculis Occultis Naturae, Libri IIII. Item de Vita cum Animi et Corporis 
incolumitate recte instituenda, liber vnus. Illi quidem iam postremum emen- 
dati, & aliquot capitibus aucti, hie vero nunquam antehac editus : Auctore 
Levino Lemnio Medico Zirizaeo. Francofurti Typis Nicolai Hofmanni, 

Impensis lonoe Rhodij. M.DC.IV. 

8. Pp. [16] 582. Indices [55, 3 blank]. 

The Secret .Miracles of Nature : in Four Books. Learnedly and Moderately 
treating of Generation, and the Parts thereof; the Soul, and its Immortality; 
of Plants and living Creatures ; of Diseases, their Symptoms and Cures, and 
many other Rarities not treated of by any Author Extant ; whereof see more 
in the Table of the Contents. Whereunto is added one Book containing 
Philosophical and Prudential Rules how Man shall become Excellent in all 
conditions, whether high or low, and lead his Life with Health of Body and 
Mind. Fit for the use of those that practise Physick, and all Others that 
desire to search into the Hidden Secrets of Nature, for increase of Knowledg. 
Written by that Famous Physitian, Laevinus Lemnius. London, Printed 
by Jo. Streater, and are to be sold by Humphrey Moseley at the Prince's Arms 
in S. Paul's Church- Yard, John Sweeting at the Angel in Popes-Head Alley, 
John Clark at Mercers-Chappel, and George Sawbridge at the Bible on 
Ludgate-Hill, 1658. 

Folio. Pp. [16] 398. Title red and black. 

Similitudinum ac Parabolarum quse in Bibliis ex Herbis atque Arboribus 
desumuntur, dilucida explicatio : In qua narratione singula loca explanantur, 
quibus Prophetas, obseruata stirpium natura, conciones suas illustrant, diuina 
oracula fulciunt : Auctore Levino Lemnio. Seorsum accesserunt de Gemmis 
aliquot, iis prsesertim quarum D. loannes Apostolus in sua Apocalypsi 
meminit : De aliis quoque, quarum vsus hoc seui apud omnes percrebuit, Libri 
II, Auctore Francisco Rueo, D. medico Insulano. Item Levini Lemnii De 
Astrologia Lib. I. Francofurti Ex Officina Paltheniana, sumtibus viduas 
Petri Fischeri. M.D.XCVI. 

8. Pp. [15, i blank] 288. At p. 171 there is a separate title to Rueus' tract, but 
the pagination is continuous. 

The tract, De Astrologia, begins on p. 257, with a half-title. 

These tracts are printed along with certain editions of the treatise of Vallesius de 
Sacra Philosophic, (q.v.). 



LEMNIVSLE MORT 



LEMNIUS (LEVINUS). Continued. 

Levinus Lemnius, or Lemmens, was born at 
Zirickzee, 20 May, 1505, studied first theology, 
then medicine under Vesalius, and was a friend of 
Dodoens and Conrad Gesner. He graduated at 
Padua in 1525, became a successful practitioner in 
his native place, and died there (in orders, after his 
wife's death), i July, 1568. He did not write on 
alchemy or chemistry. His chief work, De 
Miraculis . . . Natures, in two books, was first 
published at Antwerp, 1559, 8. The preface is 

Miraeus, Elogia Belgica sive illustrium Belgi 
Scriptorum . . . vitce, Antverp., 1609, p. 99 (under 
Fr. Ruasus). 

Castellanus, Vitce illustrium medicorum, 1617, 
p. 227. 

Adami, Vitce Germanorum Medicorum, 1620, 
p. 99. 

Franciscus Sweertius, Athence Belgicce, 1628, 

P- SOS- 
Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 

1637, P- 335- 

Valerius Andreas, Bibliotheca Belgica, Lovanii, 
1643, p. 608. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 465. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, pp. 748-9. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 1245. 

Jo. Fabricius, Histories Bibliothecce Fabricianes 
Pars VI., 1724, pp. 269, 270, 387. 

Nicolaus Comnenus Papadopolus, Historia 
Gymnasii Patavini , Venet. , 1726, ii. p. 218, No. 99. 

Bayle, Dictionaire historique et critique, 1730, 
iii. p. 72. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 70. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallicce, 

1732, p. 90. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. p. 157 (ii. 2. 2. n). 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1738, xvii. col. 66. 

Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica, 1739, " P- 79 2> 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 468. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2359 ; Rotermund's Forlsetzung und F.rgan- 
zungen, 1810, iii. col. 1568. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mddecine, 
I 755- P- I2 I Z 778, iii. p. SQ- 



dated December, 1558. It was again published 
in 1561, 8, ff. [16] 164. It was enlarged to four 
books, and published at Antwerp, 1564, 8. The 
following editions are enumerated by me in ' Notes 
on . . . Books of Secrets': Antwerp, 1574, 1581; 
Francof., 1590, 1604, 1611 ; Commelin's, s. a. ; 
French by Gohory, Paris, 1567, 1574 ; Orleans, 
1568. There are other editions and translations 
into German by Jacob Horst, 1572, 1588, and 
Italian, 1560, 8, ff. [16] 181 [3 blank]. 

Freytag, Adparatus litterarius, 1755, iii. pp. 
775-776. 

Georgius Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medi- 
corum chronologicus , 1761, p. 335. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 334. 

Les Bibliothtques Francoises de La Croix du 
Elaine et de Du Verdier, revue . . . par Rigoley 
de Juvigny, 1773, iv. (Du Verdier, T. ii.) p. 586 
(Gohory's translation of 1574). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 221 
(contents of 'De occultis naturaj miraculis Libri 
iv.'). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practical, 1777, ii. 
p. 136. 

Saxius, Onomasticon literarium, 1780, iii. pp. 
304, 638. 

Weigel, Einleitung zur allgemeinen Scheidekunst, 
1788, i. p. 286. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 351- 

35 2 - 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. i. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Chemie, 1832, p. 404. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mtdicale, 1855, i. 
p. 212. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1419. 

Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der 
Nederlanden, 1865, xi. p. 315. 

Haeser, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medizin, 
1881, ii. p. 141. 

Ferguson, ' Notes on ... Books of Secrets,' 
Transactions of the Archaeological Society of Glas- 
gow, 1883, ii. pp. 187, 250 ; 1890, New Series, i. p. 
216. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iii. p. 
666. 



LE MORT QAKOB). 

Jacobi Le Mortii, M. D. P. E. C. Chymise Verse Nobilitas & Utilitas, in Physica 
Corpusculari, Theoria Medica ejusque Materia et Signis, ad majorem per- 
fectionem deducendis. Comprehendens opera ejus omnia, hucusque typis 
comrnissa. Quibus seorsim excusa Collectanea, Maetsiana & Marcgraviana, 
Bibliopolae subjunxerunt Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Fredericum Haaring, 
Cornelium Boutesteyn, 1696. 

4. Pp. [2 blank, 10] 150 [14]; [2] 173 [18, i blank]; [2] 237 [11] 2 plates; [4] 
228 [10, 2 blank]. The last tract wants pp. 113-4. Title red and black. 



This collection is made up of the following tracts 
which have separate signatures and pagination. 

Jacob Le Mort. Chymise verae nobilitas & 
utilitas. 

Jacob Le Mort. Pharmacia medio - physica 
ratione & experientia nobilitata. 

Lemort (or Jakob le Mort) was the son of an 
apothecary at Haarlem, and was born 13 Oct., 
1650. He was at school at Leyden and then in 



Jacob Le Mort. Chymia medico-physica ratione 
& experientia nobilitata. 

Collectanea Chymica Leidensia Maetsiana & 
Marcgraviana, olim publice & privatim in Academia 
Lugduno-Batava Chymiam profitentium, ac docen- 
tium. 

the university, where at first he studied theology 
for three years, but then went to Amsterdam and 
took up the study of chemistry, intending to 



LE 




VNtYERS/TY / 

' ;O2* 
LENTILIUS 



LE MORT QAKOB). Continued. 

become an apothecary. On the death of his father 
he returned to Leyden and studied medicine and 
pharmacy, worked in the laboratory of Karel 
Lucas de Maets, but in 1672, in consequence of 
some disagreement, he opened a laboratory of his 
osvn. Three years later, in 1675, ne started a 
pharmacy, where he was visited by a number of 
sick people for advice. He also gave instruction in 
chemistry, pharmacy, and theoretical and practical 
medicine, but this was an offence to the doctors, 
because he had no degree. 

Mercklin, l.indenius renovatus, 1686, p. 487. 
Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 71. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallictz, 

1732, p. 104. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 485. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehr ten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 691 ; Rotermund's Fortsettung und Ergan- 
zungen, 1813, iv. col. 2146. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mfdecine, 
1755, ii. p. 116; 1778, iii. p. 52. 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Historic Medi- 
corum chronologicus , 1761, p. 773. 

Paquot, Aftfmoires pour servir a I'histoire lit- 
itraire des dix-scpt Provinces des Pays-Has, 1763- 
v. p. 136. 

Haller, Bibliot/ieca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 763. 



Six days later, in 1676, lie got the degree of M.D. 
from Utrecht. Returning to Leyden he renewed 
his practice and his teaching, on 28 Dec., 1694 he 
received permission to give public instruction in 
chemistry, and in. 1702 he was created professor in 
the faculty. He died i April, 1718. 

He wrote : Compendium chymicum, Lugd. Bat., 
1682, 12; Chymia Medico-Physica, Lugd. Bat., 
1684, 8, pp. [8] 275 [25]; 1688, 8; and other works. 



Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, '"' 
p. 428. 

Jon. Wilh. Te Water, Narratio de rebus Aca- 
demic Lugduno-BatavcB seculo octavo et decimo . . . 
Lugd. Bat., 1802, p. 199. 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 3. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 284 ; 
1869, ii. p. 275. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 116 ; 
1847, iv. pp. 155, 193. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Medicate, 1855, yi. 

P- 3- 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnlrale, 1859, xxx. col. 
631. 

Van der Aa, Biografhisch Woordenboek der 
Nederlanden, 1869, XII. ii. p. 1064 (and references). 



LENGLET DUFRESNOY (NICOLAS). 

Histoire de la Philosophic Hermetique. Accompagnee d'un Catalogue raisonne 
des Ecrivains de cette Science. Avec le Veritable Philalethe, revu sur les 
Originaux. Tome Premier. A Paris, chez Coustelier, Libraire, Quay des 
Augustins. M.DCC.XLII. Avec Approbation & Privilege du Roy. 

12. Tome Premier, pp. [xxiij. i blank] 486 [20]. Tome Second, pp. xxxij. 120 
(Transmutations Metalliques) ; 360 ('Le Veritable Philalethe'). Tome Troisieme, 
pp. [22] 432. 



Lenglet Dufresnoy (born at Beauvais, 5 Oct., 
1674) was a voluminous writer on historical sub- 
jects, and was possessed of a prodigious memory. 
He died 6 Jan., 1752 (others 1755), in consequence 
of the injuries he received by falling into the fire 
when asleep beside it. 

The present work consists of four parts : lives of 
alchemists, with a chronological table ; histories of 
transmutations ; a translation of Philaletha, and 
a bibliography of alchemical books. The biblio- 
graphy certainly contains more titles, but as 
far as the execution is concerned it shows but 
little advance on Borel's efforts a hundred years 
earlier. The author did not believe in alchemy, 

Michault, Memoires pour servir a I'histoire de la 
vie et les outrages de M. I'Abbt Lenglet du Fresnoy, 
Paris, 1761, 12 r. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 471. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca chemica, 178^, p. 73. 

Beytrag sur Geschichte der hohern (.hftnie, 1785, 
p.. 560. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 302. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 1582 (gives a 



but he does not give any reason, historical or 
scientific, for not believing in it, and his criti- 
cism of books is simply persiflage, which he 
frequently repeats. One asks why he selected the 
subject at all. If to him alchemy was a delusion, 
transmutation deception, and the literature verbi- 
age, it was hardly necessary to write three volumes 
to demonstrate his unbelief. He did not seem to 
be aware that there was any historical significance 
in the origin, growth, and death, of the alchemical 
idea. 

The work published by Figuier, L'Alchimie et 
les Alchimistes, Paris, 1856, is a rehabilitation of 
the descriptive part of Lenglet Dufresnoy 's book. 

short summary of his life and a list of his works, 
but omits the above). 

Biographie Universelle, 1819, xxiv. p. 85 ; no 
date, xxiv. p. 118. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 545. 

QueYard, La France Litteraire, 1833, v. p. 158. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnerale, 1862, xxx. col. 
661. 

\ji&r&ypR,Bibliothe<]ueOuvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 550, 631, 1737, 1742. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 7, 9, 375. 

LENTIL1US (Rosmus). 

Wolgemeintes Bedenken, uber die zu Friihlings- und Herbst-Zeiten unzeitig 
angestellte Praservir-Ader-lassen. Und wie solche zu bequemerer Zeit 



26 



LENTIL! US LEONARD US 



LENTILIUS (ROSINUS). Continued. 

anzustellen, bey miissigen Stunden aufgesezzet von Rosino Lentilio, Academ. 
Leopold. Imperial. Nat. Curios. Colleg. d. Oribasio. Ulm, In Verlag 
Georg Wilhelm Kiihnen, An. 1692. 

8. Pp. [12] 49 LI]- 
Not about chemistry. 



Rosinus Lentilius, whose name is also written 
Linsenbahrdt, was born at Waldenberg 3 Jan., 
1657. He graduated M.D. and practised at Crails- 
haim in Franconia, at Nordlingen and Stuttgart. 
Subsequently he was appointed private physician 
to the Marcgrave of Baden Durlach and the Duke 
of Wiirtemberg, and accompanied the latter on his 
travels in Holland, France and Spain. On the 31 

Mercklin, Lindemus renovatus, 1686, p. 949. 

Cornelius a Beughem, Syllabus recens explora- 
torum in. re medico, physica & chymica, 1696, pp. 
75-77 (from the Ephemer. Acad. Nat. Curiosorum}. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 71. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 470. 

Jdcher, Allgtmcines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2365 ; Rotermund's Fortselzung und Ergan- 
zungen, 1810, iii. col. 1589. 

Buchner, Academies . . . Natures Curiosvnim 
Historia, 1755, p. 472, No. 116. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Medecine, 
1778, iii. p. 84. 



July, 1683, he was elected to the Academia Naturae 
Curiosorum. He died at Stuttgart, 12 Feb., 1733. 
He wrote both on medical and physical subjects, 
and was the first to advise arsenic in intermittent 
fevers. In chemistry he wrote on hermetic phos- 
phorus, on the coal used in England for fires, on 
the difference between fermentation and efferves- 
cence. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 117, 
139, 215, 222 (mineral waters), 351 (English drops). 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 2, 43, 104, 109, 146. 

Biographic Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 6. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 

PP- 465, 553- 

Phillippe und Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 

l8 5S, P- 572- 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-hterarisches Hand- 
worierbuch, 1863, i. col. 1423. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, 1883, xviii. p. 
262. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 60 (mineral 
waters). 



LENTIN (AUGUST GOTTFRIED LUDEWIG). 
See KEIR (JAMES), 1791. 

He was born at Dannenberg 4 Jan., 1764, took 
the degree of Ph. D. and acted as privat-docent at 
Gottingen from 1795 to 1801. In 1795 ne wrote a 
paper on the behaviour of metals when heated in 
deplogisticated air, and in 1798 the first part of his 
'Taschenbuch fur Freunde der Gebirgskunde.' 
At this time he visited England, and wrote ' Briefe 
iiber die Insel Angelsea," Leipzig, 1800, 8, and at 
Hannover in the same year, a translation of a work 
by his father, a physician at Hannover, who died 



Gmelin, Geschichte der Chcmie, 1799, iii. p. 345 
(iiber das Verkalken der Metallen). 



26 Dec., 1804, ' Memorabilia circa aerem, vitae 
genus, sanitatem et morbos Clausthaliensium An. 
1774-77.' He was appointed clerk to a saltwork at 
Rothenfeld, and in 1817 salt inspector at Siilbeck 
and Salzderhelden in the kingdom of Hannover. 
He also made experiments on the roasting and 
smelting of ores at the Rammelsberg in a large 
furnace. 
He died at Siilbeck, near Eimbeck, 18 Jan., 1823. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wbrterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1423. 



LEO. 

See PRACTICA Leonis Viridis. 

See VERBUM abbreviatum Fratris Raymundi de leone viridi. 

See also RAYMUNDUS. 

See also LOWE. 

For works in which Leo, or Lowe, or Leu, or Leeuw, or Lion, appears in the title, see Kopp, Die 
Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 379. 

LEONA CONSTANTIA. 
See LEADE (JANE). 



LEONARDUS (CAMILLUS). 

Speculum Lapidum Camilli Leonard!. Cui accessit Sympathia septem 
Metallorum ac septem selectorum Lapidum ad Planetas. D. Petri Arlensis de 



LEONARDVSLEONHARD 27 



LEONARDUS (CAMILLUS). Continued. 

Scudalupis Presbyteri Hierosolimitani. Parisiis, Apud Carolum Seuestre, & 
Dauidem Gilliu via jacobaea e regione Mathurinoru. Et Joannem Petitpas, 
via D. Joa. Lateran. in collegio Cameracensi. 1610. Cum priuilegio Regis. 
8. Sigs. a, e in eights, i in six. Pp. 499 [i blank]. Index [36]. 

The title is engraved and represents the portal of a Temple or Tomb, with the 
above engraved in the centre. 

De Scudalupis' tract begins p. 245. It is preceded by a blank leaf and a separate 
title, both included in the signatures but not in the paging. 

In this copy two leaves containing the portraits of the author and of the Duke 
de Nivernois are wanting, and the engraved title and another leaf have been pasted 
together. 

The author was an Italian physician in Pesaro at Venice in 1565 as his own : ' 6 turpe plagium ! 6 

the beginning of the i6th century. He was much detestabile furtum ! 6 calamitatem deplorandam 

esteemed by Caesar Borgia to whom he dedicated Litterariae Republicse ' ; as Baglivi righteously 

this book on precious stones. The dedication is exclaims. This is noticed also by Saxius. But 

dated Id. Sept. , 1502. The book was printed at Baglivi is wrong about the date of the first edition. 

Venice in 1502 by Joan. Baptist. Sessa, in 4^, The English version was printed in London, 

ff.lxvi., but Van der Linden and Mercklin and 1750, 8", pp. 240; but Book III., relating to en- 

Rotermund say at Pesaro, an edition which I have graved stones, is omitted. 

not seen. Then, Venice, 1516,4, ff.lxvi. , by Melchior Rotermund's criticism is that he has collected 

Sessa and I'etrus de Ravanis ; Aug. Vindel., 1533, many fables about the formation and hidden powers 

4 ; Paris, 1610, 8 : Hamburg, 1717, 8. This of precious stones. 

last edition contains a ' Clavis to the Sympalhia According to Vogt the present edition is mutilated 

by Petrus Constantinus Albinius, first printed in and worthless. I have compared this 1610 edition 

1611. Baglivi says it was written in 1516, and roughly with that of 1502, and so far as I have 

published at Venice, and then Leonardus' book was observed it is a literal reprint, except that the table 

translated into Italian by Ludovico Dolci, who, of chapters has been omitted, 

suppressing the author's name, had the assurance The present seems to be the first publication of 

to put his own name on it, and published it at the tract of Petrus Arlensis (q.v.). 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 

1637, p. 93. col. 2382 ; Rotermund, Fortsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 138. 1630. 

Baglivi, Opera Omnia Medico-practica et anatom- Christ. Saxius, Oaomasticon Literarium, 1780, 

ica, Ed. 6ta, 4, Lugduni, 1704, p. 500, in his iii. p. 397 (under Ludovicus Dulcis). 

' Dissertatio de Vegetatione Lapidum.' Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, pp. 594, 658. 

1731, II. i. p. 73. Lessing, Kollectaneen zur Literatur, 1790, i. pp. 
Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca: metallica, 204, 212. 

1732, p. 90. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors), ii. 
Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 5990. 

p. 472. Pouchet, Histoire dcs Sciences Naturelles au 

Vogt, Catalogus . . . Librorumrariorum, Hamb. , Moyen Age^ 1853, p. 519. 
1747. P. 54- 

LEONHARD VON ALTENBURG. 

Delarvatio Tincturae Philosophorum, das ist: Kurtze und einfaltige Erklahrung 
des Lapidis Benedicti, worinnen die Hieroglyphica Nomina Philosophorum 
obscura, welche die Philosophi senigmatisch beschrieben, klar und deutlich 
gemachet, durch einen der wahren Philosophic Liebhabern entdecket und 
erklaret, der in der Wahrheit Genuine Feuer-Arbeit Liebet, und da es wohl 
heissen mag : Aut hie, aut nusquam. Ober- und Nieder-VVasserberg, gedruckt 
durch Mercurium Schwefelmann. 1769. 

8. Pp. [16, including the emblematical frontispiece] 94. Register [xoj. 

An edition, probably the first, with the same The author is Leonhard von Altenburg, accord- 
imprint appeared in 1747 (Ladrague, Bibliotheque ing to the Hermetisches A. B. C., 1779, iv. p. 122. 
Ouvaroff, 1870, No. 1463 ; Kopp, Die Alchemie, 
1886, ii. p. 352). 

Delarvatio Tincturae Philosophorum. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iv. p. 122. 



28 



LEONHARDI LESSER 



LEONHARDI (JOHANN GOTTFRIED). 

See BAYEN (PIERRE), Chymische Untersuchungen iiber das Zinn, 1784. 

Leonhardi was born at Leipzig, 18 June, 1746. 
He studied there, graduated in philosophy, and in 
1771 in medicine. As a privat-docent he read 
lectures on medicine and chemistry, and in 1781 
was extraordinary professor of medicine at Leipzic, 
and iu 1782 ordinary professor of medicine at 
Wittenberg. He performed the duties of this 
office till 1791 when he was summoned to Dresden 
to be physician and Hofrath to the Elector. He 



retained his professorship for which he provided a 
deputy. He died at Dresden, n Jan., 1823. 

He wrote numerous dissertations on chemical, 
physical and physiological topics ; translated Mac- 
quer's Chemical Dictionary, 6 vols. , 1781-1783; 
second edition, enlarged, 7 vols., 1788-1791; the 
additions were printed separately in 1792. He 
translated also Scheele's Treatise on Air and Fire, 
1782, 8 ; Schwedisches Apothekerbuch, Leipzig, 
1782, and published other works. 

Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 10. 

L. F. F. Fleming, De Vita et Meritis deati Joh. 
Gottfr. Leonhardi, Dresden, 1823, 8. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historiqiie de la Mlde- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 431. 

Kopp, Geschichle der Chemie, 1847, iv. pp. 82, 

97- 3i- 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Mtdicale, 1855, 
ii. p. 708. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aersfe aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iii. p. 
674 (article by Pagel). 



Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. pp. 655, 
688. 

Weis, Das Gelehrte Sachsen, Leipzig, 1780. 

Klabe, Neuestes Gelehrtes Dresden, Leipzig, 
1796. 

Meusel, Das Gelehrte Teutschland oder Lexikon 
der jetzt lebenden Teutschen Schri f tsteller , 1797, iv. 
p. 417. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 688 
note f ; 1799, iii. pp. 318, 615, 722, 797 note d, 800, 
802, 820, 851, 903. 

Reuss, Repertorium Coinmentationum, 1803, iii. 
(C 'hernia et Res Metallica), p. 174. 

LE PELLETIER JEAN). 

La Pyrotecnie de Starkey, 1706. 
See STARKEY (GEORGE). 

LESSER (FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN). 

Friedrich Christian Lefsers, der Kirchen zu S. Jacob und Martin in der 
Kayserl. freyen Reichs-Stadt Nordhausen Pastoris des Minister! i daselbst, der 
Kayserl. Academic der Naturforscher, der Konigl. Preufs. Gesellschaft der 
Wissenschaften, und der Konigl. Grosbrittannis. teutschen Gesellschaft zu 
Gottingen Mitgliedes, Lithotheologie, das ist : Natiirliche Historic und 
Geistliche Betrachtung derer Steine, also abgefafst, dafs daraus die Allmacht, 
Weifsheit, Giite und Gerechtigkeit des grossen Schopffers gezeuget wird, 
Anbey viel Spriiche der Heiligen Schrifft erklahret, und die Menschen allesamt 
zur Bewunderung, Lobe und Dienste des grossen Gottes ermuntert werden. 
Neu-verbesserte Auflage. Hamburg, bey Christian Wilhelm Brandt. 1751. 

8. Pp. xlviii. 1488. Register [64]. 3 folding tables. 10 engraved plates, 
one of which is of the Prague medal. Wo< 

Lesser was born at Nordhausen, 29 May, 1692, 
acted as tutor in Berlin, pastor of the church ' nd 
montem Marias Virginis ' and administrator of the 
Orphanage at Nordhausen, and died there 17 
Sept., 1754. He was devoted to natural history, 
and besides the present work (ist ed. Hamburg, 
1736) he wrote others of a similar character on the 



[64]. 3 folding 
Voodcut. 



Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliolhecce vietallicce, 
1732, p. 91. 

Biichner, Academics . . . Natures Curiosorum 
Historia, Halae, 1755, p. 503, No. 452. 

Joh. Philip Friedr. Lesser, Nachricht von dem 
Leben und Schrifften Herrn Friedrich Christian 
Lesser, Nordhausen, 1755, 4, pp. 64. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 368. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 280. 

Meusel, Lexikon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 
verstorbenen Teutschen Schriftsteller, 1808, viii. p. 
172. 



sun, insects, and one called Testaceotheologie. 
He wrote a description of a visit he paid that 
remarkable place at Rubeland, in the Harz : Bau- 
maiin's Huhle, Nordhausen, 1734, 4th ed. 1745. 
He was a member of the Leopoldine Academy, and 
the Berlin Academy. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrlen-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 1683 (and refer- 
ences). 

Biographie Universe lie, 1819, .xxiv. p. 301 ; no 
date, xxiv. p. 317. 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 23. 

Nouvelle Biographie Giln^rale, 1862, xxx. col. 
966. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1436. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 236 ; ii. p. 196. 



LETTER-LEUTMANN 29 



LETTER. 

A strange Letter concerning an adept. 

See FREDERICK, Duke of Holsatia and Sleswick. 

LETTER (A) to the true Disciples of Hermes, containing six principal Keys 
of the Secret Philosophy. [Signed : Dives Sicut Ardens S * * * .] 
See HERMETICAL (The) Triumph, 1723, p. 116. 

LETTRE aux Vrais disciples d'Hermes contenant six principales Clefs de la 
Philosophic Secrete. [Signed : Dives Sicut Ardens S * * * , i.e. Sanctus 
Desiderius, or Limojon de Saint Disdier (y.v.)]. 
See TRIOMPHE (Le) Hermetique, 1689, 1699, p. 121. 

LETTRE d'un Philosophe sur le Secret du Grand Oeuvre. 

See LIMOJON DE SAINT DISDIER (ALEXANDRE TOUSSAINT DE), l688. 

LETTRE Philosophique. 
See PHILOVITA. 

LETZTES Testament eines Vaters seinem liebsten Sohne hinterlassen. 

See QUADRATUM ALCHYMISTICUM, 1705, Alipuli : Centrum Natures Concentralum, 
p. 68. 

LEURSEN (JOHANN GERHARD). 

Chymischen Schauplatzes Vortrab, das ist : Griindliche Anleitung zu der waren 
Chymie, worinnen begriffen der Animalien, Vegetabilien, Mineralien und 
Metallen Ursprung und Kraffte, Wachfsthumb und Verwandlung, aus selbst 
eigner Erfahrung mit unumbstofslichen Griinden bewiesen und erklaret, durch 
Johann Gerhard Leursen. 

Sap. c. 12. v. r. Und dein unverganglicher Geist ist in Allen. 
Franckfurt am Mayn, bey Jacob Gottfried Seyler, Minden, druckts Johann 

Piler, M.DC.LXXXI. 

4. Pp. 39 [i blank], 

Lenglet Dufresnoy quotes an edition: Franckfurt, 1708, 8, which is copied by Gmelin. Neither of 
them takes any notice of an earlier edition. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. 321. 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 203. 

[Another Copy.] 

[Another Copy.] 

LEUTMANN (JOHANN GEORG). 

Vulcanus Famulans oder sonderbahre Feuer-Nutzung welche durch gute Ein- 
richtung der 



Stuben-Ofen 
Gamine 
Brau- und 
Saltz-Pfannen 



Schmeltz 
Destillier 
Treib- und 
anderer Ofen 



LE UTMANNLE WIS 



LEUTMANN QOHANN GEORG). Continued. 

kan erlanget, und auf solche Art mit wenigem Holtze starcke Warme und 
grosse Hitze gemachet auch das Rauchen in Stuben verhindert werden. 
Andere Edition iiber die Helffte vermehret und mit raren Experiments 
erklaret von M. Joh. Georg Leutmann, P. D. Wittenberg Bey Gottfried 
Zimmermann. 1723. 

8. Pp. [title, 2 blank, 5, i blank] 154, [4] ; title red and black. Table at p. 35, 
38 plates, two being numbered 30, and plates lettered A R. Wants the frontispiece? 

Other editions mentioned are : Wittenberg, 1735, 8 ; fifth edition, Wittenberg & 
Zerbst, 1764, 8. 



Leutmann was born at Wittenberg, 30 Nov., 
1667, studied theology there, but was also devoted 
to mathematics and mechanical science. In 1694 
he was pastor at Dabrun, but in 1725 was made 
professor of mechanics and optics in the new 
Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, and in 
1733 went to Moscow in connection with the 
mint. He was distinguished by his mechanical 
and optical inventions ; the polishing of glass, an 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 203. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrf en-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2412 ; Rotermund, Fortsetsung, iSio, iii. col. 
1732. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chtmie, 1798, ii. pp. 449, 

579- 



assay-balance without a tongue, clocks, fire- 
engines, and pumps ( ' three necessities of a town,' as 
he called them), instruments for investigating the 
air, for taking specific gravities, thermometers, etc., 
etc. His books were published at Wittenberg, 
Halle, Danzig, and his papers appeared in the 
Commentationes of the St. Petersburg Academy. 
He died in 1736. 

Fischer, Geschichte der Physik, 1802, iii. p. 354 ; 
1804, v. p. 16 ; 1805, vi. p. 910. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 236, 357. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 375 ; 
1869, ii. p. 367. 



LEWENHEIMB (JACOBUS SACHSIUS A). 
See SACHS (PHILIP JACOB). 



LEWIS. 

Experiences Physiques et Chymiques, sur plusieurs Matieres relatives au 
Commerce & aux Arts : Ouvrage traduit de 1'Anglois de M. Lewis, de la 
Societe Royale de Londres; Par M. De Puisieux. Tome Premier. 
A Paris, Chez Desaint, Libraire, rue du Foin-Saint-Jacques. M.DCC.LXVIII. 
Avec Approbation, & Privilege du Roi. 

12. Tome Premier, pp. xl. 400. 4 plates. Tome Second, pp. viij. 392. 
M.DCC.LXIX., Tome Troisieme, pp. xij. 410 [2]. Engraved plate. 



William Lewis was born in London in 1714, 
went to Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated 
M.A. in 1737 and M.D. in 1745. He went into 
practice in 1745, first in London, afterwards at King- 
ston-on-Thames, and in 1745 was a ^ so elected to 
the Royal Society. He published a course of Prac- 
tical Chemistry, London, 1746, 8; An experimental 
History of the Materia Medica, 1761 ; in German 
by Ziegler, 1771 ; in French, 1775 ; The New Dis- 
pensatory, London, 1753, Edinburgh, 1781 ; in 
German, 1768, again 1783-86, and 1797 ; Pharma- 
copoeia Edinburgensis, London, 1748 ; History of 

Haller, Bibliotheca Bolanica, 1772, ii. p. 426. 

Jerem. David Reuss, Das Gelehrte England . . . 
vom Jahr 1770 bis 1790, 1791, p. 241 (death 19 Jan. 
1781). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 381, 
3 82 . 399, 401 note, 5S 8 . 696 ; 1799. > PP- 20, 35. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 284, 314, 344, 356. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetsung und Ergdnzungen, 1810, iii. 
col. 1737. 



Gold, and in German by Ziegler, 1764, 8; Com- 
mercium Philosophico-Technicum, 1763-66, 4 parts, 
4 ; in German by Ziegler, Zurich, 1764, 8vo. 
There seems to be another translation by Joh. Geo. 
Kriinitz, Berlin, 1764, 8vo, 2 parts, and in French, 
1768. He translated Caspar Neuman's chemical 
works in 1759, and published two papers on 
platinum in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1754 and 1757. He was one of the founders of the 
Society for the Improvement of Arts, Manufactures, 
and Commerce. He died 21 Jan., 1781, but others 
say 19 Jan. 

Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 
App. iv., p. xliv., 31 Oct., 1745. 

Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, 1815, ix. p. 764. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, ii. (authors), 
604^. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 

458. 

QueYard, La France httt'raire, 1833, v. p. 285. 

The Georgian Era, 1834,- iii. p. 484. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historique de la Mede- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 451. 



LE WISLIBA VI US 3 1 



LEWIS. Continued. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 368 ; den Aerste aller Zeiten utid Vblkcr, 1886, iii. p. 

1869, ii. p. 361. 697. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, iv. pp. 71, Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, 1888 (Late Series), 

223. vols. iii. and iv. p. 849. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarischcs Hand- Dictionary of National Biography, 1893, xxxiii. 

worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1443. p. 199 (article by W. A. J. Archbold). 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 

LEYTER (Die) der Philosophorum. 
See SCALA Philosophorum. 

LIBAVIUS (ANDREAS). 

D. O. M. A. Alchemia. Andreae Libavii Med. D. Poet. Physici Rotemburg. 
opera e dispersis passim optimorum autorum, veterum & recentium exemplis 
potissimum, turn etiam prseceptis quibusdam operose collecta, adhibitisq; 
ratione & experientia, quanta potuit esse, methodo accurata explicata, & in 
integrum corpus redacta. Accesserunt tractatus nonnulli Physici Chymici, 
item methodice ab eodem autore explicati, quorum titulos versa pagella exhibet. 
Sunt etiam in Chymicis eiusdem D. Libavii epistolis, iam ante impressis, 
multa, huic operi lucem allatura. Cum gratia & Priuilegio Csesareo speciali 
ad decennium. Francofurti Excudebat lohannes Saurius, impensis Petri 
Kopffij, M.D.XCVII. 

4. Pp. [18] 424. Index [19]. Device and Colophon [i] 2 blank. 

D. O. M. A. Alchymia Andreae Libavii, recognita, emendata, et aucta, turn 
dogmatibus & experiments nonnullis; turn Commentario Medico Physico 
Chymico : qui exornatus est variis Instrumentorum Chymicorum picturis ; 
partim aliunde translatis, partim plane nouis : In gratiam eoruin, qui 
Arcanorum Naturalium cupidi, ea absq; inuolucris elementarium & aenigmati- 
carum sordium, intueri gaudent. Praemissa Defensione Artis: opposita censurae 
Parisianae : Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Caesareo speciali ad decennium. 
Francofurti, Excudebat Joannes Saurius, impensis Petri Kopffii. Anno 

ClD.lD.VI. 

Folio. Pp. [20] 196. Index [12]. F.ngraved border to the title. 

D. O. M. A. Commentariorum Alchymioe Andreae Libavii Med. D. Pars Prima, 
Sex Libris declarata : Continens explicationeni operationum chymicarum priore artis 
libro comprehensarum, adiectis fornacum et aliorum vasorum figuris, partim ex im- 
pressis antehac autoribus, partim aliunde acceptis, & ex latibulis officinarum productis. 

Pnemissa est Defensio Alchemia; et refutatio obiectionum ex Censura scholae 
Parisiensis, quae licet videri nolit hanc Alchemiam, sed Quercetani damnasse, nimis 
tamen frigide de arte sentit, eaq; proponit, qu?e in ludibrium & ignominiam artis 
simpliciter possunt conuerti, nee sonant aliter : Pag. 15. Antiturq. Alchymite h!c 
caussa agitur von Quercitani Cum gratia & priuilegio Cresarco speciali ad decennium. 
Francofurti. ad Moenum Excudebat Joannes Saurius impensis Petri Kopffij. 

Folio. Pp. [10] 402. Numerous woodcuts of apparatus. 

. . . Pars Secunda, continens tractatus quosdam singulares ad illustrationem eoruin 
potissimum, quae libro Alchemiae secundo habentur difficiliora laboriosioraq'; quasq"; 
plurium simul artium adminiculo indigent, & veluti ex multis constituta, peculiarium 
scientiarum dignitatem & nomen merentur. Cum Gratia et Privilegio Speciali. 
Francofurti. Typis loannis Sanrii, Impensis Petn Kopffii. Anno M.DC.Y1. 

Folio. Pp. 192. Index [10, 2 blank]. 



LIB A VIUS 



LIBAVIUS (ANDREAS). Continued. 

D. O. M. A. Alchymistische Practic : Das ist, von kiinstlicher Zubereytung der 
vornembsten Chymischen Medicinen : In zweyen Tractatlein klarlich entdecket : 
Deren das Erste, von destillirten Wassern, Ohlen, Saltzen, Extracten, 
quintis essentiis, aquis vitae, floribus, balsamis, &c. Aufs den vegetabilibus 
animalibus vnd mineralibus : zu allerley Innerlichen vnd Eusserlichen 
Artzneyen recht vnd griindtlich zubereyten : von einem vnbekandten Artisten, 
aufs eigner Erfahrung, bester form, auffs fleissigst vnd trewlichst beschrieben : 
Das Ander, vom Lapide Philosophorum : Wie derselbe kiinstlich soil 
gemacht warden : ohn figiirliche vnd Parabolische reden, eigentlich vnnd 
deutlich also gelehret, dafs dergleichen zuvor wissentlich niemals im Truck 
gesehen worden. Alle beyde, nach vermogen, vnd verleihung Gottlicher 
Gnadt, corrigiert, vnnd erklaret, durch Andream Libavium von Hall in 
Sachsen, Medicum vnd Statt Physicum zu Rotenburg auff der Tauber. Mit 
Romischer Kayserlicher Mayest. Priuilegien auff sechs Jahr nicht nachzu- 
trucken begnadet. Getruckt zu Franckfort am Mayn, bey Johann Saurn, 
In verlegung Petri Kopffen. M.DC.III. 

4. Pp. 293 [3]. Title red and black. Woodcuts in the text. 

D. O. M. A. Commentationum Metallicarum Libri Quatuor de Natura 
Metallorum, Mercuric Philosophorum, Azotho, et Lapide seu tinctura physi- 
corum conficienda. e Rerum Natura, Experientia, et Autorum praestantium 
fide Studio & labore Andreae Libavii M. D. P. et Physici Rotemburgici 
deprompti & expositi, more veteris philosophise cum perspicuitate euidente. 
Francofurti ad Moenum, In Officina Typographica lohannis Saurij, impensis 
Petri Kopffij. Anno M.D.XCVII. 

4. Pp. [7, i blank] 392. 
[Another Copy.] 

D. O. M. A. Exercitationis Casimirianae Loco Trium Qusestionum Scitu 
Jucundarum Explicatio. 

I. De medicamine Tyriorum, quo a Diodoro Siculo scribuntur in murum 
intortos ab Alexandro M. lapides mollivisse ne nocerent. 

II. De auro in homine nato ex historia pueri cujusdam Silesij ante annos 
21 : certantibus inter se Martino Rulando, & Joh. Ingolstetero, ante sexennium 
denuo argumentis propugnante Osvvaldo Crollio, Medicis Chimicis. 

III. De ventriculorum lapides, arenas, ossa, aurum, argentum, & alia con- 
coquentium virtute ex historijs miris. 

De quibus inter Gymnasij Studiosos Disputatio publica erit 16. lanuarii 
Anno currente 1615. Coburgi Praeside Andrea Libavio M.D.P.L. Gymnasij 
Directore & Prof. Pub. Respondente Primislao Altersbergero Pragensi 
Philosophiae Bacc. & Studioso in Casimiriano publ. Ibidemq; ex Officina 
Typographica Casparis Bertschij. Anno 1615. 

4. Pp. [20]. 

Rerum Chymicarum Epistolica Forma ad Philosophos et Medicos quosdam in 
Germania excellentes descriptarum Liber primus, in quo turn rerum 



LIB A VIUS 33 



LIBAVIUS (ANDREAS). Continued. 

quarundam naturalium continentur explicationes ingeniosae ; turn Chymiae 
disciplina pyronomica, sceuastica & vocabularia cum quibusdam inter arcana 
habitis declarantur fideliter. Autore Andrea Libavio Med. D. Poeta & 
Physico Rotemburgo tuberano OVK avev 6cov KOL <f>vare<as. Ecce vestibulum 
Chymiae. 1595- Cum Priuilegio Cses. Maiest. special ad decennium. 
Francofurti, Excudebat Joannes Saurius, impensis Petri Kopffij. 
8. Pp. [32] 300 [i emblem, 3 blank]. 

. . . Liber Secundus, continens operationes Chymicas artificum praeceptis, naturae 
documentis & experientia declaratas, additis de physicis quibusdam & aurificio pro- 
blematis iucundis : ad docendum discendumque facilime chymiam vtiliter comparatus 
studio & opera Andreae Libavii . . . Claues porrigo : Cape & vtere. . . . 

Pp. [30, 2 blank] 615 [i blank]. 

D. O. M. A. Syntagmatis selectorum vndiquaque et perspicue traditorum 
Alchymiae Arcanorum, Tomus Primus. In quern congesta sunt Commentaria 
Chymiae hactenus desiderata : Insertis passim Scholijs, & commentationibus 
ipsis, ad penitissima huius Philosophiae & Medicinae ducentibus. Conscriptus 
et in IIX. Libros digestus. Studio Andreae Libavii Med. D.P.C. & illustris 
Gymn. Casimiriani apud Coburgenses Directoris, & Professoris publici. 
Cum gratia & priuilegio Caesareo speciali ad decennium. Francofurti 

Excudebat Nicolaus Hoffmannus, Jmpensis Petri Kopffii. Anno M.D.CXV. 

Folio. Pp. [n, i blank] 480. Index [7, i blank]. Engraved border to the title. 
Woodcuts in the text. 

. . . Tomus Secundus. In quem congesta sunt partim noua, eaq; penitiora 
Spagyrorum secreta, partim prioris tomi nonnulla explicatius tradita, & inter ea etiam 
aenigmatica Quercetani, aliorumque Hermeticorum non pauca studiose inuestigata, 
declarata & iudicata, ab Andrea Libavio . . . Cum Indice copioso duplici, Chymico 
& Medico. . . . Francofurti, . . . Anno M.D.CXIII. 

Folio. Pp. [12, 1-8] 9-453. Index [14, i blank]. Border to the title. Separate 
leaf with woodcut, p. 307. Woodcuts in the text. 

D. O. M. A. Appendix necessaria Syntagmatis Arcanorum Chymicorum Andreae 
Libavii, M.D.P.C. Halli-Saxonis Illustris Gymnasii Apud Coburgenses Directoris, 
Professoris Publ. et Medici Chymici-practici. In qua praeter Arcanorum nonnullorum 
expositionem illustrationem, quorundam item Medicorum Hermeticorum, & mysti- 
corum descriptionem, continentur defensiones gemmae, Primum eorum quae ab 
Henningo Scheunemano, & iuniore Gramano sunt impugnata, Postea quae in transmu- 
tatoria metallorum a Nicolao Guiberto, Lotharingo, M.D. quibus fieri potuit viribus, 
sunt attentata. Accesserunt 

I. ludicium breue de Dea Hippocratis, seu Ilygeia argentea (argentipara) 
Henningi Scheunemani, quam nuper excogitauit ex commentariis nostris valde 
fugitiuam, deserta causa fixorum istorum quae volaticis Galenicis opposuit infeliciter ; 

II. Schema medicinae Hippocraticae & Hermeticae simul, cuius rudimentum doctis 
censendum commititur, vt ppstea elaborari ppssit ; 

III. Examen Philosophise magicae C'rollii ; 

IV. Censura Philosophiae vitalis loannis Hartmanni Marpurgici Professoris ; 

V. Admonitio de regulis Nouze Rotas, seu harmonicae Sphaerae Fratrum De 
Societate Rosere Crucis iuxta Famas editoe indicem. 

Omnia studio & opera Andreae Libavii, M.D. &c. M.DC.XV. Francofurti 
Kxcudebat Nicolaus Hoffmannus, Impensis Petri Kopffij. 

Folio. Pp. [12] 279 [10] [i, device and colophon] [2 blank]. 

D. O. M. A. Examen Philosophiae Novae, quos Veteri abrogandae opponitur : 
Jn quo agitur de modo discendi nouo : 
De veterum autoritate : 
De Magia Paracelsi ex Crollio : 

De Philosophia viuente ex Seuerino per Johannem Hartmannum : 
De Philosophia harmonica magica Fraternitatis De Rosea Cruce. 
II. C 



34 



LIB A VIUSLIBELLUS 



LIBAVIUS (ANDREAS). Continued. 

Operi & studio Andreoe Libavii Philos. et Med. D. P.C. Halli-Saxonis, illustris 
Gymnasii Casimiriani apud Coburg: Directoris & Professoris public!. Impressum 
Francofurti ad Moenum Sumptibus Petri Kopffij. M.DC.XV. 
Folio. Pp. 306 [12]. 

D. O. M. A. Analysis Confessionis Fraternitatis De Rosea Cruce pro admonitione 
et instructione eorum, qui, quid iudicandum sit de ista noua factione, scire cupiunt. 
Authore Andrea Libavio M.D.P.C. Illustris Gymnasii Casim. Apud Coburgenses 
Directore & Professore publico. Impressum Francofurti ad Moenum Sumptibus 
Petri Kopffii. M.DC.XV. 

Folio. Pp. 28 [2 blank]. 

See LIBER PRAXEOS ALCHIMICjE. 

Libavius was born at Halle in Saxony in 1540, 
and graduated doctor of medicine. In 1588 he 
became professor of history and poetry at Jena, in 
1591 he was a teacher in the gymnasium and town 
physician at Rotenburg o/T., and on 20 March, 
1607, director of the gymnasium at Coburg, where 
he died 25 July, 1616. Though an enthusiastic 
chemist and author of numerous works he was not 
a blind follower of Paracelsus, but of moderate and 
independent views, and carried on controversies 
both with the Paracelsists and Galenists as Amwald, 
Erastus, Gramannus, Guibertus, Riolanus, Scheune- 
mannus, and the Paris school. He was among the 
first to describe chemical actions in plain language, 

Van der Linden, De Scrip 'tis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 26. 

Borel, Bibliotheca chimica, 1654, p. 135. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 47. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 1334. 

Witte, Diarium Biographicum, 1688, sig. NS 
recto, Ann. 1616. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer 
der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 120. 

Jo. Casp. Zeumer, Vitce Professorum . . . qui in 
. . . Academia lenensi . . . vixerunt et adhuc 
uivunt . . . Jense, 1711, Classis iv. p. 51. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1713, vi. p. 805. 

Stahl, Zufallige Gedancken . . . uber den Streit 
von dem sogenannten Sulphure, 1718, p, 13. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 76. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicin- 
ischen Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 781, 782, 840. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallica, 

i73 2 P- 92. 
Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, n. pp. 250, 403, 434, 

445- 

Brucker, Kurtze Fragen aus der Philosophischen 

Historie, 1735, vi. pp. 1239, 1290. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 474- 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Hisloire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 382, 476 ; iii. pp. 203-208 ; 
280. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon , 1750, iii. 
col. 2417 ; Rotermund's Forsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 
1756. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Midecine, 
1755, ii. p. 121 ; 1778, iii. p. 68. 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Medi- 
corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 363. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 393. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 266. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 254. 



and he has the credit ascribed to him of writing the 
first real text-book. He attempted the analysis of 
mineral waters, and described several substances 
which he discovered. 

Other works by Libavius are the following : 

Gegenbericht von Panacea Am waldina, Franckf., 
1595. 4, PP- [20] 189 [i]. 

Singularium . . . Pars Prirna [Quarta], Francof. , 
1599-1601, 8. 

Defensio et Declaratio perspicua Alchemiae trans- 
mutatoriae, Vrsellis, 1604, 8. 

Praxis Alchymise, Francof. , 1604, 8. 

Alchymia triumphans, Francof., 1607, 8'. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1776, i. 
p. 97 ; 1777, ii. p. 282. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 8. 
Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

PP- 515. 571, 5 8l > 595- 

Christ. Ehrenf. Weigel, Einleitung zur Allge- 
meinen Scheidekunst, 1788, i. p. 131. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 345- 
5 1 . 353. 35.6, 3 61 - 3 6 4. 557, 592 ; 1798, ii. p. 766. 

Murr, Uber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 1803, p. 28. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), p. 147. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 90-92. 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 37. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, 
iii. p. 550 ; iv. pp. 89, 549, 553. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830, i. p. 174. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Akhemie, 1832, p. 348. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, " P- 2 9 '> 

1869, ii. p. 26. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. p. 112, &c. 
1 Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 
278, 281, 289, 316; 1849, ii. p. 174. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Medicale, 1855, i. 
p. 381. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apolheker, 
1855, pp. 453, &c. 

Figuier, L Alchimie et les Alchimistes , 1856, p. 70. 

J. Giinther, Lebenskizzen der Professoien der 
Universitat Jena von 1588 bis 1858, Jena, 1858, 
p. 172. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1449. 

Ladrague, BibliothequeOuvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 

1870, No. 581. 

Kopp, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Chemie, 1875, 
iii. p. 145. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 19, 21, 45, 87, 
99, 216, 231, 249. 



LIBELLUS duodecim aquarum ex libro Emanuelis. 
See EMANUEL. 



LIB ELLUS LIGHT 35 



LIBELLUS Minera philosophorum, dictus. 
See GIN^CEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 349. 

LIBELLUS, sive restrictus theoricus, Radius ab Umbra vocatus cum brevi dialogo. 
See GIN.*CEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 368. 

LIBELLUS qui Testamentum inscribitur. 
See ARNALDUS de Villa Nova. 

LIBER, cujus nomen Alze. 
See ALZE. 

LIBER Aureus de Principiis Naturae & Artis. 

See BENEDICTUS (LIBERIUS), 1630. 

See also LIBER de Principiis Naturalibus, . . . 

LIBER de Magni Lapidis Compositione et Operatione, Authore adhuc Incerto. 
See LAPIS Philosophorum. 

LIBER Mutus Alchemiae mysteria . . . aperiens. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. ad finem. 

LIBER Praxeos Alchemicae cum additionibus Libavii. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 700. 

LIBER de Principiis Naturalibus, & principiis Artis Chemicae. 
See also LIBER Aureus de Principiis Naturae & Artis. 

See GIN^ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 517. 

See HERMETISCHES MUSEUM, 1785, Hi. p. 1 5 1. 

LIBER Secreti maximi totius mundanae Gloriae. 

See BARNAUD (NICOLAS), Triga Chemica, 1599, p. 25. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, Hi. p. 774. 

See PHILOSOPHUS CALLUS anonymus. 

LIBER Secretorum. 
See KALID. 

LIBER de Septem Verbis Philosophorum cum explicatione. 
See MAGNI PHILOSOPHORUM Arcani Revelator, 1688, p. 369 

LIBER Trium Verborum. 
See KALID. 

LIBERIUS Benedictus. 

See BENEDICTUS (LIBERIUS). 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, p. 608. 

LIBORIUS AB INDAGINE (INNOCENTIUS). 
See INDAGINE (INNOCENTIUS LIBORIUS AB). 

LIGHT. 

Das aus der Finsternis von sich selbst hervorbrechende Licht. 

See CRASSELLAME (MARC-ANTONIO). 



LIGHT LI EB A UT 



LIGHT. Continued. 
Licht der Weltweisen. 

See HELLWIG (CHRISTOPH VON), Fasciculus, 1719, p. 126. 

Called also Licht aller Philosophorum, or Luminare or Lumen Luminum. 

Das hellscheinende Licht in Finsterniss. 
See LUX in tenebris lucens. 
For Alchemical books referring to ' Light,' see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 385. 

Liecht (Vom) der Natur. 
See LUMINE (De) Naturae. 
See ZWEY schone Chymische Tractatlein. 

LIEBAUT QEAN). 

Quatre Livres des Secrets de Medecine, et de la Philosophic Chymique. Fails 
Francois par M. lean Liebaut Dijonnois, Docteur Medecin a Paris. Esquesls 
sont descrits plusieurs remedes singuliers pour toutes maladies tant interieures 
qu'exterieures du corps humain : traittees bien amplement les manieres de 
distiller eaux, huyles, & quinte-essences de toute sorte de matieres, preparer 
rantimoine & la poudre de mercure, faire les extractions, les sels artificiels, & 
1'or potable. Derniere Edition. A Rouen, Chez Pierre Calles, Libraire : 
rue aux luifs, pres la grand' porte du Palais. M.VI.C. 

8. Pp. [8] 352. Table [6, 2 blank]. Vignette and 52 woodcuts in the text. 



This is a translation of the second part of 
3esner's De Secretis Remediis Liber, edited by 
Caspar Wolfius, and printed by Froschover, in 
1569. (See GESNER (CONRAD).) Various editions 
of the translation appeared, Lyons, 1593 ; Rouen, 
1628, 1643; Paris, s.a., and Gmelin quotes one, 
Rouen, 1616, 8. 

The book was translated into English by George 
Baker, under the title : The Newe Jewell of Health, 
London, 1576, 4, in black letter with woodcuts. It 
was reissued with the title: The Practise of the new 
and old Phisicke, London, 1599, 4. 

In the article on Baker in the Dictionary of 
National Biography, it is not noticed that this is 
the second part of Gesner's work. Liebaut wrote 
also Trois Livres de I'embelissemetit et orncment du 
corps humain, Paris, 1582, 8, now rare ; Lyons, 
IS95. I2 - 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 26. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 627. 

Conring, In Universam artem medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, pp. 109, 123. 

Bayle, Dictionaire historique et critique, Amster- 
dam, 1730, iii. p. 114. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 1731 , 
II. i. p. 79. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 476. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 209. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2425 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung, 1810, ii. col. 

1783- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 274. 
Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 228. 



Liebaut, or Lie'bault, was a native of Dijon, born 
in the earlier part of the sixteenth century, prac- 
tised medicine in Paris, and wrote some medical 
and other books. 

L' Agriculture et maison rustique de Charles 
Etienne et de Jean Liebaut, Paris, 1574, 4 ; en- 
larged, Paris, 1586, 4 ; other "editions : Rouen, 
1602, 1625, 1637, 1658 ; Paris, 1640, 4 ; Italian, by 
Hercules Cato Ferrarius, Venet. 1581, 4 ; German, 
by Melchior Sebitz, Argent. 1592, fol. ; Amstelod. 
1593, fol., Argent. 1607, Amst. 1622, fol. ; English, 
by Richard Surflet, London, 1606, 4 ; Dutch, 
Amster. 1588, fol. Beschreibung des edlen Krauts 
Nicotiana, 1643, 4. 

In 1594 he signed the Act by which the University 
of Paris acknowledged Henry IV. to be their king. 
He died at Paris, 21 June, 1596. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicince practice, 1777, ii. 
p. 192. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 73. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, ii. pp. 308, 

567- 

Biographie Universelle, 1819, xxiv. p. 461 ; no 
date, xxiv. p. 505. 

Biographie Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke, (1820- 
25). vi. p. 44. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gdnirale, 1862, xxxi. col. 
172. 

Ferguson, ' Notes on ... Books of Secrets,' in 
the Transactions of the Archceological Society oj 
Glasgow, 1883, ii. pp. 188, 194. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885, iii. p. 7. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Z.eiten nnd Volker, 1886, iii. p. 
73- 



LIEBHABER 37 

LIEBHABER der Cabalistisch-Gottlichen Magie. 

See GEDANCKEN, 1754. 

LIEBHABER der Chymie. 

See KIRCHWEGER (ANTON JOSEPH), Aurese Catenae Homeri Dritter Theil, 1726. 

See WUNDER-DREY, 1737. 

See GEHEIMNISS vom dem Leben und Vermehrung aller Dinge, 1748. 

LIEBHABER der Chymischen Grund-Mischung. 

See KURZE Bericht von den Metallischen Glafsern, 1767. 

LIEBHABER der curieusen Wissenschaften . . . 
See CURIEUSE GEDANCKEN, 1702. 

See CURIEUSE UNTERSUCHUNG, 1703. 

LIEBHABER der geheimen Physik. 

See THEORETISCH und praktischer Wegweiser zur hohern Chemie, 1773. 

LIEBHABER gottlicher und natiirlicher Geheimnisse. 

See WELLING (GEORG VON), Opus Mago-Cabbalisticum et Theosophicum, 1735. 
See MICROCOSMISCHE Vorspiele, 1744. 

LIEBHABER der Hermetischen Kunst. 

See DREBBEL (CORNELIUS). 

LIEBHABER der Hermetischen Kiinste. 

See RARE PHYSICALISCHE und andere Fragen. 

LIEBHABER der Hermetischen Philosophy. 

See HOLLANDUS (JOHANN ISAAC), 1665. 

LIEBHABER der Koniglichen Kunst Chymiae. 
See MYSTERIUM Occultae Naturae, 1657. 

LIEBHABER der Naturlehre. 

See MAROT (CLAUDE TOUSSAINT), Chymia hydraulica, 1755. 

LIEBHABER natiirlicher Wahrheiten. 

See VERNUNFTIGE Erklarung der Smaragdenen Tafel des Hermes, 1760. 

LIEBHABER naturlicher Wissenschafft. 
See GEHEIME Unterredungen, 1722. 

LIEBHABER seines Nachstens. 

See SCHREIBEN an den Gold-begierigen Liebhaber der Chymie und Alchymie, 
1770. 

LIEBHABER in Philadelphia. 

See GOLDMACHER-CATECHISMUS, 1776. 



38 LIEBHABER LIGNUM 

LIEBHABER der Philosophic. 

See KONIG (Der sich . . . zeigende), 1711. 

LIEBHABER Philosophischer Geheimnisse. 

See DREY curieuse . . . Chymische Schrifften. 
See GLAUBERUS Concentratus, 1715. 

LIEBHABER der Philosophischen Kunsten. 
See K. (G. A.). 

LIEBHABER der reinen Wahrheit. 

See KONIGLICHE . . . Special-Concordenz, 1723. 

LIEBHABER und Schiiler der geheimen Weisheit. 

See THEORETISCH praktisches Handbuch der hohern Chemie, 1784. 

LIEBHABER des Theophrasti Paracelsi. 

See ERBINAUS VON BRANDAU (MATTHAUS). 

LIEBHABER verborgener Kiinste. 

See QUADRATUM ALCHYMISTICUM, 1705. 

LIEBHABER und Verehrer der wahren Weisheit. 
See FUNF Curieuse Chymische Tractatlein 

The introduction is so signed. 

LIEBHABER der wahren Weifsheit. 

See GULDENE (Die) Hoffnung, 1721. 

LIEBHABER der Wahrheit. 
See SCHMIDT (j. G.), 1706. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. p. 289. 
See EROFNETES Philosophisches Vater-Herz, 1750. 
See UNWANDELBARE (Die) und ewige Religion der altesten Naturforscher, 1760. 

LIEBHABER der Weisheit. 

See ARTREMONT (H. D'), Eroffnetes Grab der Armuth, 1702. 

See CHYMISCHES LUST-GARTLEIN, 1747. 

LIECHT der Natur. 
See LIGHT. 

LIGHT of Alchymy. 

See TRUE (A) Light of Alchymy. 

See F. (j.), A New Light of Alchymy, 1674. 

LIGNUM Vitse. 

See BRACESCO (GIOVANNI). 



L1LWMLIMOJON 39 



LILIUM inter Spinas. 

See JOHANNES de Padua. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 323. 

See GRASSHOFF (jOHANN), Aperta Area Arcani Artificiossimi, 1687, P- 67. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 596. . 
See PHILOSOPHIA Salomonis, 1753, p. 59. 

Borrichius' estimate of this tract is not quite does not connect it with Grasshoff, who was 
favourable : Lilium inter Spinas, vere spinosum apparently the author. For the ' lily ' in connection 
opus est, &, ut paucis multa, tenebricosum ; but he with alchemy, see Kopp. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Serif torum Chemicorum, Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 351. 
1697, p. 25, No. xxxv. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 378. 

LILIUM de Spinis evulsum. 

See TECENENSIS (GUILHELMUS). 

According to Kopp (Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 378) this tract was believed by some to be due 
to Albertus Magnus. 

LILLY (WILLIAM). 

See BURMAN (CHARLES), The Lives of ... Elias Ashmole, . . . and . . . William 
Lilly, 1774. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. Elias Ashmole, Esq. Published from the Original 

col. 2439. MS., London, 1715, London, 1822, 8, pp. [4Ji.-v. 

Aikin, General Biography, 1807, vi. p. 277. [6-7] 8-260, 12 portraits. (This is the same as that 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, contained in the above.) 

1815, xx. p. 266. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 

Rees, The Cyclopedia, 1819, xxi. sub voce. worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1462. 

William Lilly's History of his Life and Times Dictionary of National Biography, 1893, xxxii. 

from the year 1602 to 1681. Written by himself in p. 258. 
the sixty-sixth year of his age, to his worthy friend, 

LIMOJON DE SAINT DISDIER (ALEXANDRE TOUSSAINT DE). 

Lettre d'un Philosophe, sur le Secret du Grand Oeuvre. Ecrite au sujet des 
Instructions qu'Aristee a (sic) laissdes a son Fils, touchant le Magistere 
Philosophique. Le Nom de 1'Auteur est en Latin dans cet Anagramme- 
Dives Sicut Ardens, S. A Paris, Chez Laurent d'Houry, rue S. lacques, 
devant la Fontaine S. Severin, au S. Esprit. M.DC.LXXXVIII. Avec 
Privilege du Roy. 

12. Pp. 61 [i blank]. Verba Aristei Patris ad filium, p. 42, in Latin and French. 
La Lumiere des Mercures, Extraite de Raymond Lulle, pp. 9 [i]. L Chemin du 
Ciel Chymique, Par Jacques Toll, pp. 31 [i blank]. 

Sendschreiben eines Adepten iiber das Geheimnis der grossen Kunst. 

See HERMETISCHES MUSEUM, 1785, iii. p. 95. 

CLIII. Aphorismes Chimiques. 

See HELMONT (FRANCISCUS MERCURIUS VAN). 

Letter (A) to the true Disciples of Hermes. 
See HERMETICAL (The) Triumph, 1723, p. 116. 

Lettre aux vrays Disciples d'Hermes. 

See TRIOMPHE (Le) Hermetique, 1689, p. 121 ; 1699, p. 121. 

Sendschreiben an die wahren Schiller Hermetis. 

See HERMETISCHE (Der) Triumph, 1707, p. 195 ; 1765, p. 195. 

Limojon was born about 1630 at Avignon of a of many important matters. He accompanied the 

noble family belonging to Dauphin^. He was count to the Congress of Nimwegen in 1678, of 

ecuyer of Jean-Antoine de Mesme, Count d'Avaux, which he published an account at Paris, 1680, 12 ; 

and he acquired his confidence and esteem to such to Holland, 1684, when the count was ambassador, 

an extent that he was entrusted with the execution and again when he was ambassador from Louis 



40 L1MOJON LINDERN 



LIMOJON DE SAINT DISDIER (ALEXANDRE TOUSSAINT DE). Continued. 

XIV. to James II. in Ireland in 1689. Limojon, esteemed at a time when chemistry was in its 

who was commissioned by the count to describe to infancy, has become rare ; but one need not much 

the French King the state of affairs in Ireland, regret it," says H. Audiffret. 

perished on the return journey. He was Knight of The anagram on the title of the above book, and 

Mount-Carmel, and of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. at the end of his Letter to the true disciples of 

Besides the above he wrote a book on the city and Hermes, corresponds exactly with Sanctus Desi- 

republic of Venice, Amsterdam, Elzevir, 1680; Paris, derius. It is also put as equivalent to Dydacus 

1685 ; La Haye, 1683, And La Triomphe hermttique. Senertus, but it is not exact. 
" This little work of 153 pages, curious and much 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Nouvelle Biographie Gentrale, 1862, xxxi. col. 

Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 315. 241. 

Biographie Universelle, 1819, xxiv. p. 502 ; no Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

date, xxiv. p. 543 (article by Audiffret). Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1148-1154. 

LINDEN (DIEDERICH WESSEL). 

Griindliche Chemische Anmerkungen iiber Herrn D. Schiittens Physicalische 
Nachricht vom Ursprunge der mineralischen Wasser und den Bestand-Theilen 
in dem Clevischen Sauer-Brunnen-Wasser ; wie auch iiber des Herrn von 
Welling Opus Mago-Cabbalisticum, und was von dessen Verbesserung der 
Metalle zu halten sey. Diesen sind beygefugt niitzliche medicinische Nach- 
richten von der Kraft der Mistel gegen die Epilepsie; und von einer neuen 
Art den tollen Hunds-Bifs zu heilen. Verfasset, aus dem Englischen iibersetzt 
und erleutert von Diederich Wessel Linden. Amsterdam und Leipzig, In 
Verlegung Peter Mortier, 1746. 

8. Pp. [16] 260. Index [12], Title red and black. Engraved plate. 

The present treatise is only one of several which origin of chalybeate waters and natural hot Baths, 

the author wrote upon mineral waters, a subject to London, 1748, 1755 ; Medicinal Mineral Waters at 

which he seems to have devoted himself. He Llanrindod in Radnorshire, London, 1756 ; and 

wrote tracts on Shadwell Spavv, London, 1749 ; Three letters on Mining, London, 1750. 
Hyde Spaw at Cheltenham, 1751 ; Treatise on the 

LINDERN (FRANCISCUS BALTHASAR VON). 

Speculum Veneris oder Venus-Spiegel worinnen sich ein jeder besehen, und 
was fur abscheuliche Zufalle von einer unreinen Liebe sich aussern, wahr- 
nehmen, auch im Fall der Noth, in Ermanglung eines habilen Medici oder 
Chirurgi, sich selbsten Rath schafTen kan. Nebst einigen merckwiirdigen 
Begebenheiten und einem Unterricht einiger approbirten Specificorum durch 
vielfaltige Erfahrung an das Licht gestellet von Francisco Balthasare von 
Lindern, Medic. Doctor. & Practice. Vierte neuvermehrte Auflage. 
Strafsburg, Verlegts Johannes Beck, Anno M DCC LI. 

8. Pp. [8] 64 [14] 617 [31]. Title red and black. Frontispiece extra and 
plate of instruments. 

This book passed through several editions. It does not relate to chemistry. 

Franciscus Balthasar Linder, or von Lindern, a new edition of which appeared in 1747, under the 

was born at Buchsweiler in Elsass, i March, 1682, name : Hortus Alsaticus. 

studied medicine at Jena under Wedel, graduated He also published some medical works, and 
at Strasburg and practised medicine there, where Haller quotes : Unterricht von alien Gebeinen des 
he died 25 April, 1755. He cultivated botany and menschlichen Korpers und von der Art zu balsam- 
wrote a work entitled Tournefortiusalsaticus, 1728, iren und ohne Drahte ein Sceleton zu praepariren, 

Argent., 1710, 12; Augspurg, 1736, 12. 

Goelicke, Introductio in Historiam litterariam Biographie Mitdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Anatomes, 1738, p. 465 (his work on Osteology). 25), vi. p. 53. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 223. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 189. genden Aerzte aller 7-eifen und Volker, 1886, iii. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 73. p. 716. 

Biographie Universelle, 1819, xxiv. p. 511 ; no . 
date, xxiv. p. 554. 



LINSIUSLIVRE 41 



LINSIUS (PAULUS). 

Occultus Aeris Cibus juxta mentem Hermeticorum quorundam expositus, & 
Deo T. O. M. Adjuvante in illustri Salana Permissu Amplissimae Facultatis 
Philosophic*, sub Prsesidio M. Pauli Linsii, Fac. Phil. Witt. Adj. Liberalioris 
Exercitii Gratia Examini publico submissus a Resp. Aut. Johanne Justo 
Biickingio, Alsfeld. Hasso. Ad diem 20. Martii. Jenae, Typis Johannis 
Nisi. Anno M.DC.LXXV. 

4. A in four, B in two ; or pp. [12]. 

Linsius wrote another dissertation, De Corallis, tomica, but, as that work was printed in 1774, it is 
printed at Jena this same year, 1675, 4. Haller not obvious how the anomalous dates are to be 
quotes the present tract in his Bibliotheca Ana- reconciled. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 578. Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 625. 

LINTHAUT (HENRI DE). 

Commentaire de Henri de Linthaut, Sieur de Mont-Lion, Docteur en Medecine : 
Sur le Tresor des Tresors de Christofle de Gamon, Reveu & augment^ par 
1'Auteur. A Lyon, Par Claude Morillon, Imprimeur de Madame la 

Duchesse de Montpensier. 1610. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

12. Pp. [8] 177 [3]. Title red and black. Wormed. 

Borel quotes the above, and another edition in the first. I have not found any notice either of de 
16, without Linthaut's Commentary, presumably Gamon or of Linthaut. 

Borel, Bibliotheca chimica, 1654, p. 101. Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 

Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 209. 

LIVES (The) of the Adepts in Alchemystical Philosophy, with a Critical Catalogue 
of the Books m this Science, and a Selection of the most Celebrated Treatises 
on the Theory and Practice of the Hermetic Art. London : Lackington, 
Allen & Co. 1814. 

8, in fours, pp. 384. Index [2]. Engraved plate. 
This copy has also inserted the title-page subsequently printed, viz. : 

The Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers ; with a Critical Catalogue of Books in 
Occult Chemistry, and a Selection of the most Celebrated Treatises on the Theory and 
Practice of the Hermetic Art. London : Printed by Macdonald and Son, Cloth Fair, 
for Lackington, Allen, & Co., Finsbury Square. 1815. 

The name of the author is nowhere given, but mentioned, but the execution of it is as bad as bad 

the book is ascribed to Francis Barrett, the author can be. 

of The Magus, as by Watt (Bibliotheca Britannica}, The book, edited by Arthur Edward Waite, was 

and in the Catalogues of the British Museum and reissued at London, by Redway, in 1888. The 

Advocates' Library. It is a poor production ; the alchemical treatises have been omitted, a number 

biographies are superficial and superstitious ; the of additional lives have been inserted and the others 

extracts from the hermetic treatises are by no have been enlarged and generally re-written on the 

means lucid, and the 'critical catalogue' (pp. 95- basis of the 1815 edition. The catalogue, pp. 276- 

112) is about the worst and least critical compilation 306, has had a number of new titles incorporated 

of the kind extant. It does contain, however, with it, but it has not been revised and corrected, 

a great number of titles and some rare books are and the additions are drawn up pretty much in 

the same way as the original entries. 

Watt, Bibliolheca Britannica, 1824, i. (authors), mous and Pseudonymous Literature oj Great 
77 s. Britain, 1883, ii. p. 1500 (ascribed to Francis 

Halkett & Laing, A Dictionary of the Anony- Barrett). 

LIVES (The) of ... Elias Ashmole, ... and Mr. William Lilly. 1774. 
See BURMAN (CHARLES). 
See ASHMOLE (ELIAS). 
See LILLY (WILLIAM). 

LIVRE de la Nature. 
See D * * * 



42 LOBGESANGLOHNEYSS 

LOBGESANG (Ein) von der Gottlichen Weifsheit. 

See HERMETISCHE (Der) Nord-Stern, 1771, p. 127. 

LOCQUES (NICOLAS DE). 

Les Rudimens de la Philosophic Naturelle touchant le Systeme du Corps Mixte. 
Cours Theorique, ou sont clairement expliquez les Preceptes & les Principes 
de la Chymie, qui ont este jusques icy cachez des anciens Philosophes. Par 
Nicolas de Locques, Medecin Spargyrique (sic) de Sa Majeste. Livre 
Premier. A Paris, Chez Geoffroy Marcher, rue Saint Jacques, a la ville de 
Rome. M.DC.LXV. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

8 8 . Pp. [22] 184 [8]. Frontispiece. In the 8 pp. at the end are chemical 
characters and apparatus. 

Les Rudimens . . . Cours Pratique. Ou il est traite" des operations suivant la 
Doctrine de Paracelse ; qui n'ont pas jusqu'icy este" connues, que de fort peu de 
personnes : Compos6 par Nicolas de Locques, . . . Livre Second. A Paris, . . . 

Pp. [16] 214 [a]. 

Les Rudimens . . . De la Fermentation, Ou on void ce qui se passe interieurement 
dans les mouvemens divers des substances. Avec le Traitte' du Sang & les proposi- 
tions de la Chymie Resolutive. . . . Traite Second. . . . 

Pp. [16] 146 [2 blank]. 

Les Vertus Magnetiques du Sang, De son vsage interne & externe. Pour la 
guarison des maladies. Par Nicolas de Locques D. Medecin Spagyrique. A Paris, de 
I'lmprimerie de lacques le Gentil rue des Noyers. Et se vend chez 1'Autheur, rue des 
Mauvais-Gar9ons, a 1'Image Saint Martin. M.DC.LXIV. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. [16] 54 [a]. 

Propositions touchant la Physique Resolutive. Par Nicolas de Locques, Medecin 
Spargyrique (sic) de Sa Majeste'. A Paris, Chez Geoffroy Marcher, rue S. lacques, a 
la ville de Rome. M.DC.LXV. Avec Privilege du Roy, 

8*. Pp. 39 [i blank]. 

Elemens Philosophiques des Arcanes et du Dissolvant General, de leurs Vertus, 
Proprietez, et Effets. Ou sont ponctuellement explique"es en general leurs secrettes 
compositions, & les experiences qui en ont este' faites ; 1'ordre & la maniere de s'en 
servir pour les usages de la Medecine. Par N. de Locques, D. Medecin Spargyrique 
(sic) du Roy. Livre sixi^me. A Paris, Chez Geoffroy Marcher, rue S. lacques a la 
Ville de Rome. M.DC.LXVIII. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. [19, i blank] 87 for 89 [i blank]. 

In a brief notice ot Nicolas de Locques in the great number of positive facts, which are both 

Biographic Universelle, Tabaraud says that the curious and interesting. This collection is said to 

Rudimens is an extremely rare work in which are belong both to Nicolas de Locques, who was then 

to be found good observations alongside of alchemi- spagiric physician of the king, and to Lebreton, 

cal reveries. After the author's death a work was physician of the faculty of Paris. There is a copy 

in circulation which was never printed, but of of the above book in the British Museum (1034. i. 3 

which a few copies exist. It consists of a series of (1-3) ), but the author is called Nicolas de Lo9ques. 

experiments, chiefly on zinc, and almost all from In one place Lenglet Dufresnoy calls him Jean, in 

the alchemical point of view. There is however a another Nicolas. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoirc de la Philosophie Biographie Universellt, 1819, xxiv. p. 616 ; no 
Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 482 ; iii. pp. 5, 209. date, xxv. p. 15. 

LOHNEYSS (GEORG ENGELHARD VON). 

Georg Engelhard von Lohneyfs, Erbherrn in Remlingen und Neuendorff, 
weyland Fiirstl. Braunschweigischen geheimbten Berg-Raht und Stallmeister 
zu Wolffenbiittel, Griindlicher und aufsfuhrlicher Bericht von Bergwercken, 
wie man dieselbigen niitzlich und fruchtbarlich bauen, in gliickliches Auffneh- 
men bringen, und in guten Wolstand bestandig erhalten ; Insonderheit die 
Ertze und Metallen, als Gold, Silber, Kupffer, Zien, Bley, Wifsmuht, Spiefsglafs, 



LOHNE YSSLOEN 



43 



LOHNEYSS (GEORG ENGELHARD VON). Continued. 

Stahl-Stein, Magneten und Eisen-Stein, ein jedes nach seiner rechten Natur, Art 
und Eigenschafft auffs niitzlichste bearbeiten, rosten, waschen, puchen, seigern, 
auff mancherley Weise in kleinem Feuer probiren, cimentiren, und scheiden, 
auch im grossen Feuer ohne Abgang schmeltzen und zu Nutze machen soil. 
Nebenst vielen kiinstlichen Abbildungen allerhand darzu nothigen Ofen und 
Werckzeuge; wie auch vortheyliche Anweisung vom Schwefel machen, Vitriol, 
Alaun, Salpeter und Saltzsieden. Sampt beygefiigter niitzlicher Berg-Ordnung, 
und Bericht von der Bergleute Verrichtung und Freyheiten. Allen denen, so 
Bergwercke bauen, und dabey dnteressirt sind, zu Dienst Gefallen auffs neue 
wiederumb an den Tag gegeben. Stockholm und Hamburg, In Verlegung 
Gottfried Liebezeits Buchhandlers. Gedruckt in Leipzig bey Christopff 
Gunthern, Im Jahr Christi 1690. 

Folio. Pp. [21, i blank] 343 [i blank]. Engraved title extra and n plates. 
Sheets K and L are numbered partly by pages partly by leaves. Sheet Ss by leaves. 



This work deals with mining, metallurgy and 
assaying, and reminds one of Lazarus Ercker's 
book. It was published also at Zellerfeld, 1717, 
fol. 

In the 'Zugabe' to the Bifolium metallicum, 
1771, p. no, ab Indagine quotes von Lohneyss' 
account of the making of zinc at Goslar in the 
Harz. 

Loeneiss or Loehneys or Lohneyss was a nobleman 
of the Palatinate, ' Stallmeister ' at the court of the 
Elector Augustus of Saxony, an experienced courtier 
and statesman, entered in 1583 the service of the 
hereditary prince Heinrich Julius of Brunswick- 
Wolfenbuttel and became Berghauptmann. In the 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1709, iii. p. 545 ; 1710, v. 
p. 269. {Reimmann (iii. p. 545) calls the miner- 
alogist 'Christopher,' but the politician (v. p. 269), 
'Georg Engelhard.' The mineralogist and poli- 
tician are identified in the British Museum Cata- 
logue.) 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromuf Bibliothecce metallic^, 
1732, p. 94. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. p. 403 ((ii. 2. 2. 29. 
4), calls him Christopher). 

LOEN (S. E. VON). 

Geheimnifs der Verwesung und Verbrennung aller Dinge. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iv. p. 137. 

The date of the first edition of this book is not 
recorded, but Fictuld quotes an edition of 1733, 
which according to the entry by Ladrague is the 
second : Das Geheimnufs der Verwesung und 
Verbrennung aller Dinge, nach seinen Wundern 
im Reich der Natur und Gnade, Macro et Micro- 
cosmice, als die Schliissel : dadurch der Weeg zur 
Verbesserung eroffnet, . . . (von S. E. de Loen). 
Zweyte und mit vielen curiosen Observationibus 
vermehrte Auflage. Franckfurt am M., Job. 
Friedr. Fleischer, 1733, ' n 8 of 109 pp. The 
third edition, same place, publisher and size, was 
issued in 1759. There was also an edition, Frank- 
furt, 1771, 8. One of the few persons who have 
noticed the book is Fictuld, who has put it in his 
first class, and has praised the author for his wis- 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Tn - * P- 8a - 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
P- 675- 



dukedom of Wolffenbuttel he bought the estates of 
Remlingen and Neundorf, and at the former place 
he wrote his books, designed the plates, woodcuts 
and initials with his own hand, and had them 
printed at his own press. He wrote other books : 
Aulico-Politica, oder Hof-, Staats- und Regier- 
kunst, Remlingen, 1622, fol. A new edition ap- 
peared at Frankfurt, 1679, fol., without the words 
'Aulico-Politica.' The copies of the first edition 
were destroyed by a fire. Delia Cavalleria, seu de 
arte equitandi, 1609, fol. ; translated into German 
by Valentin Trichter, Nurnberg, 1729, fol. ; Griind- 
licher Bericht des Zaumens, 1588, fol. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Gelahrheil, 

I73 6 . P- 7i- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehr ten- Lexicon, 1750, ii. 
col. 2494 ; Rotermund's Fortsettung, 1810, iii. col. 
2042. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 65. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 173. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, iv. p. 118. 



dom, but adds that he has said more than was 
perhaps admissible ; still he commends it strongly 
to the lovers of nature and grace. He states that 
a person called Cron, at the Court of Weimar, 
claimed the authorship, but when pressed to say 
whether he was the author or not he made no 
reply. Fictuld is inclined to believe that it was 
written by von Loen, who was the King of Prussia's 
' resident ' at Frankfurt. But Fictuld s statements 
must always be taken for what they are worth, and 
in all cases they require confirmation. The editor 
of the Hermettsches A. B. C,, however, assigns the 
work to von Loen. The comment in the Btytrag 
is that it is ' theosophical and mystical, like most of 
the books of its time on the subject.' 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarof, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1456-57. 



44 LOWE LOWER 



LOWE (Der) defs Rothen Creutzes. 
Schlufs-fiihrender Erlauterungs-Anhang. 

See MONTE HERMETIS (jOHANN DE), Explicatio Centri in Trigono Centri, 1680. 
See also LEO. 

LOWENHEIM. 

See SACHS (PHILIP JACOB). 

LOWENSTERN (JOHANN KUNCKEL VON). 
See KUNCKEL (JOHANN) von Lowenstern. 

LONDON. 

Pharmacopee. 

See PEMBERTON (H.), 1761. 

LOVER of the Hermetick Science. 

See ALIPULI, Centrum Naturae Concentratum, 1696. 

LOWER (RICHARD). 

Englisches Artzney-Buchlein das ist : Des welt-beriihmten Englischen Medici 
Hrn. D. Loweri, und unterschiedlicher anderer vortrefflichen Englischen 
Medicorum in London, niitzliche, bewehrte und viele Jahre lang an vielen 
Menschen probirte und gut befundene Recepte und Artzney-Mittel, worinnen 
enthalten die sicherste und beste Methode, allerhand Kranckheiten, Gebrechen 
und Schwachheiten des menschlichen Leibes, innerlich und ausserlich zu 
heilen : Welche als sehr nutzlich, nicht allein alien Medicis, Chirurgis und 
andern der Artznez-Befliessenen, sondern auch andern Personen, absonderlich 
aber dem gemeinen verlassenen Mann zu sonderbahren Nutzen, im ver- 
wichenen Jahre in Engelland mit grossem Applausu gedruckt worden, und 
nunmehro wegen ihrer grossen Nutzbarkeit, aus der Englischen Sprache in 
unsere Hochdeutsche iibersetzt und an den Tag gegeben, von C. Ludovici, M. 
Leipzig, bey Johann Ludwig Gleditsch, Anno 1702. 

8. Pp. [8, portrait of Lower included] 226. Index [14]. Advertisements [8J. 
Title red and black. 

Lower was distinguished as an anatomist and Royal College of Physicians in 1675 and of the 

physiologist, but so far as I know, contributed Royal Society in 1667. He had a very large and 

nothing to chemistry. He was born at Tremeere, fashionable practice for many years, but on account 

near Bodmin, in Cornwall, in 1631, was educated of his politics he got out of favour and it shrank 

at Westminster School and went to Oxford where considerably. He died in London 17 Jan., i69/j. 

he graduated in Arts and Medicine. He studied He is noted for his work on the brain, and for his 

chemistry in Oxford, assisted Dr. Willis, and in experiments on transfusion. 
1666 went to London. He became a fellow of the 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 939. Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-I^exicon, 1750, ii. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . , . col. 2547 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung, 1810, iii. col. 

Introductio, 1687, p. 137 (Add. iii. 37. 3) ; p. 183 2188. 

(Add. iv. 39. i). Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Alddecine, 

Paschius, De Novis Inventis . . . Tractatus, 1755, ii. p, 130; 1778, iii. p. no. 

1700, p. 302 (transfusion of blood). Biographia Britannica, 1760, v. p. 3009. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 558. 

1731, II. i. p. 116. Haller, Bibliotheca Medicinte practices, 1779, iii. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Medicinischen pp. 164, 235. 

Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 494. Aikin, General Biography, 1807, vi. p. 350. 

Goelicke, Introductio in Historian, litterariam Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 

Anatomes, 1738, p. 247. App. iv., p. xxv. , Ann. 1667. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1740, Biographie Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

p. 490. 25), vi. p. 121. 



LQ WERL UDOLF 45 



LOWER (RICHARD). Continued. 

Wood, Athena Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1820, iv. Evelyn, Diary, 1850, ii. p. 333. 

col. 297. Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Mfdicale, 1855, i. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824 (authors), ii. p. 495. 

p. 6i8y. Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mtdi- 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arsneykunde, 1827, iv. cales, 1870, 2eme SeYie, iii. p. 143. 

pp. 90, 91, 94, 105-106, 138, 190. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

Dezeinieris, Dictionnaire historique de la HMde- genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 487. p. 51. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 312, Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1887, viii. p. 368. 

316 ; 1849, ii. p. 195. Dictionary of National Biography, 1893, xxxiv. 

Pepys, Diary, 1848, iv. p. 482. p. 203 (article by Dr. J. F. Payne). 

LOYS (GEORG). 

Georgii Loysii c. v. Pervigilium Mercurii, in quo agitur de praestantissimis 
peregrinantis virtutibus. Et qua ratione unusquisque citra majorem diffi- 
cultatem exteras peragrare provincias, regiones adire exoticas, & cum cujusvis 
conditionis hominibus, bene & honeste conversari potest. Iterum nunc 
Manual! forma tertib editum. Francofurti, Impensis Christian! Kleinii. 
M.UCXLIV. 

12. Pp. 270 (misprint for 200) [12]. 
This does not treat of chemistry but of travelling. 

LUCENS Lux in tenebris. 

See LUX in tenebris lucens. 

LUCERNA Salis Philosophorum. 

See HAUTNORTHON (jOSAPHAT FRIEDRICH). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicee, Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 
1737, p. 94. der Rosenkreuzer, 1788, iii. pp. 38, 45. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetiqve, 1742, iii. p. 209. 

LUDEEN (JACOBUS). 

J. N. J. Jacobi Ludeen, Med: D: & Prov: Scaraburg: in W: Gothia Phys; ord: 
de Lithogenesia Macro- et Microcosm!, Exercitatio Physico-Medica cujus 
Pars Prior Generationem Lapidum in Majori mundo oftendit & petrificationis 
modos, Pars Posterior Generationem lapidum in omnibus corporis humani 
partibus ex Observationibus scriptorum idoneorum demonstrat. Lugduni 
Batavorum, Apud Coenradum Wishoff. M DCC XIII. 

12. Pp. [8] 187 [3]. 

This seems to be all he wrote. There is a copy in the British Museum (977. a. 28). I have not found 
his name mentioned by any of the authorities. 

LUDOLF (HlERONYMUS). 

Die in der Medicin siegende Chymie bestehend in aufrichtiger Mittheilung 
derer in Bereitung der wichtigsten Medicamentorum mit Nutzen gebrauchter 
Chymischen Handgriffe. Erstes Stuck, darin gezeiget wird : 

I.) Eine herrliche Verbesserung der bishero iiblichen Tincturae Antimonii, 
dafs sie nemlich in der Extraction so roth wie ein Blut wird, welches auch mit 
alien andern metallischen Tincturen angehet. 
II.) Ein achtes Arcanum Tartari zu bereiten. 

III.) Wie ohne Kosten ein reines Sal Alcali Fixum in ziemlicher Menge zu 
verfertigen, und wie ein Balneum Marias umsonst unterhalten warden konne. 



4 6 LUDOLF 

LUDOLF (HIERONYMUS). Continued. 

Mit einem hierzu nothigen Kupfer versehen, und alles aus gnugsamen 
Chymischen und Physicalischen Griinden bewiesen von Hieronymo Ludolfo, 
Philos. et Medic. Doct, Facult. Philos. Assess. Extr. et Profess. Publ. Itemque 
Practico Erford. Erfurt, zu finden im Jungnicolischen Buchladen, 1743. 

4. Pp. 38. Frontispiece included in the pagination. 

. . . Zweytes Stuck. Darinnen gezeiget wird die Nothwendigkeit, Nutzen und 
Verfertigung des Spiritus Mercurialis, samt denen wichtigsten Vortheilen, einenachten 
Spiritum Vini zu erhalten ; dabey auch zugleich die nachhero in Bereitung der 
Tincturae Antimonii gefundene Handgriffe treulich angefiihret vverden, und die 
Anlegung eines hierzu bequemen Schmeltz-Ofens gewiesen wird. Mit einem nothigen 
Kupfer versehen. . . . 1746. 

4. Pp. [8, including the frontispiece] 32. 

. . . Drittes Stuck. Darinnen gezeiget wird eine Tincturam Antimonii durch den 
destillirten Wein-Essig zu bereiten, desgleichen auch auf eben solche Art die achten 
metallischen Oele zu erhalten, dieselben fliichtig und wieder fix zu niachen, nebst einem 
Vortheil, die Terram foliatam Tartari auf eine geschwinde und leichte Art auf das 
hb'chste zu reinigen, zugleich auch ein Athanor beschrieben wird, darinnen man mil 
einem Feuer wohl zwantzigerley und mehrere Arbeiten verrichten, und besonders auch 
einen bequemen Putreficir-Kasten halten kan. Mit einem nothigen Kupfer versehen, 
. . . 1746. 

Pp. [8, including the plate] 32. 

. . . Viertes Stiick. Darinnen gezeiget wird : 

Auf welche Art man am mehresten von der Naphtha Chymica oder Oleo vitrioli 
dulci bekommen konne, und 

Warum diese Naphtha aus dem Aqua regis das darinn aufgelosete Gold an sich 
nimmt ; 

Desgleichen auch, wie man durch das Laboratorium 3 bis 4 Zimmer heitzen konne, 
nebst 

Einer gefundenen Verbesserung des Balnei maris. 

Mit einem nothigen Kupfer versehen. . . . 1747. 

Pp. [8, including the plate] 32. 

. . . Fiinftes Stiick. Darinnen gezeiget wird : 

I. ) Wie man dem Salpeter seine Ro'the oder Quintam Essentiam ausziehen, ingleichen 
aus demselben viele Naphtham oder oleum nitri dulce erhalten konne, und warum 
solche Naphtha aus dem Scheide-Wasser das darinne aufgelosete Silber in sich nimmt. 

II.) Wie das Saltz aus dem ungeloschten Kalk zu erhalten, und aus was fur Theilen 
ein Sal alcali fixum bestehe. 

III.) Wie man in der Haufshaltung bey einem Feuer waschen, brauen, braten 
kochen, backen, darren und bis 6 Zimmer heitzen konne. 

Nebst einer gefundenen nothigen Verbesserung meines Athanors. Mit einem 
nflthigen Kupfer versehen. . . . 1747. 

Pp. 40, including the plate. 

. . . Sechstes Stiick. Darinnen gezeiget werden 

Die fernere Versuche von der Naphtha Vitrioli und Naphtha Nitri, ingleichen, wie 
das Sal metallorum aus dem Wismuth zu erhalten. Mit einem nothigen Kupfer 
versehen. . . . 1748. 

Pp. [4, including the plate] 36. 

. . . Siebentes und letztes Stiick. Darinnen gezeiget wird 

Wie die Weine iiberhaupt verbessert, insbesondere aber die schlechtere Land- 
' Weine in Spanische, Italianische, Ungarische, Champagne, Burgunder, Stein- und 
Rhein-Weine, ohne den geringsten Zusatz, sondern in und durch sich selbsten verwan- 
delt werden konnen, ingleichen, wie in Obst-Landern aus Obst ein guter Wein zu 
erhalten, und wie solche Weine zu Verfertigung der schonsten Spirituum und Essentzen 
der Vegetabilien zu gebrauchen. Mit einem nothigen Kupfer versehen. . . . 1749. 
Pp. [4, including the plate] 36. 

Zugabe zu der in der Medicin noch immer und immer siegenden Chymie, worin 
gezeiget wird : 

Wie eine Tinctura Antimonii in Pulver zu verwandeln ; wie die allerbeste erdhafte 
Mittel zu bereiten ; wie die Naphtha aus dem Kiichensalze zu verfertigen ; die rechte 
Zubereitung der Salium essentialium der Vegetabilien ; der Schade des Mercurii dulcis 
in den Franzosenkrankheiten, und endlich wie der Mercurius durch ein Laugensalz 
aufzulosen, und daraus so wol ein achtes Mittel fur die Franzosen, als auch ein starkes 
Menstruum die Metalle vollig aufzuschliessen, zu verfertigen. . . . 1750. 
Pp. [4] 93. Inhalt [8]. 




L UDOLFL UDO VIC US 



47 



LUDOLF (HIERONYMUS). Continued. 

D. Hieron. Ludolfs, offentlichen Lehrers der Chymie und Mathematik, der 
philos. und medicinis. Facultat Decanus und ordentl. Beysitzers, wie auch 
Stadtphysicus allhier, vollstandige und griindliche Einleitung in die Chymie, 
darin nicht allein alle Chymische Arbeiten deutlich gezeiget und griindlich 
erklaret, sondern auch zu derselben Erlauterung die wichtigsten Versuche 
aus der Pharmacie, Metallurgie und Alchymie nebst alien Vortheilen treulich 
ausgefuhret worden. Mit nothigen Kupfern versehen. Mit Rom. Kays. 
Maj. auch Kon. Poln. und Churf. Sachs, allergnadigsten Privilegien. Erfurt 
1752, im Verlage Joh. Heinr. Nonnens. 

8. Pp. [20, including frontispiece] 1104. Register [12]. 20 plates of apparatus 
and symbols. The frontispiece is a curious, full-length portrait of the author in his 
Wants Ggg i, pp. 833-4. 



laboratory. 

Ludolf, son of Hiob Ludolf, was born at Erfurt, 
ii Dec., 1708, attended school there and studied 
law in the university in 1725, and in 1728 went to 
Copenhagen ; in 1730 was through want obliged to 
take the post of a clerk with his uncle at Wetzlar, 
and in 1731 continued his law studies at Jena. In 
1734 he held the position of a tutor to a youth at 
the Witgenstein Court at Berleburg, and lived there 
till July, 1737. While there he pursued watch- 
making for a year to earn a livelihood, and then his 
taste for medicine revived, whereupon he returned 
to Jena in 1737, and took up the subject, paying 
special attention to chemistry. On his return to 
Erfurt he took the degree of Master and Doctor of 
Medicine, soon made a large practice, and in 1740 
began to lecture. In 1741 he was extraordinary 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothtca tnefallica, 

1737, P- 95- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Ckemie, 1798, ii. pp. 344, 
3 6 3- 3 8 5. 47-7 2 . 6 49. 686. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 290, 293, 295, 301. 

Meusel, Lexikon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 ver- 
storbenen Teutschen Schriftsteller, 1808, viii. pp. 
384-388. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsettung und Erganzungen, 1813, iv. 
col. 55. 

LUDOVICI (C.). 

See LOWER (RICHARD), 1702. 

LUDOVICI (DANIEL). 

See LUDWIG (DANIEL). 

LUDOVICUS (JOHANN). 

Tractatus de Elixire Arboris Vitae, id est, Medicina mea Universali : Quae 
omnibus Morbis in genere, desperatissimis etiam, & qui pro incurabilibus 
vulgb habentur, felicissimo successu acommodari potest. Observatis duntaxat 
nonnullis in hoc Libro determinatis : 

In morborum profligationem, 

Ad vitam pacatiorem. 

Conscriptus & publici juris factus a Johanne Ludovico a Frundek, Germano, 
Equite, & Medicinarum Doctore, Serenissimae Electoralis Principis, &c. &c. 
Ducis Kuerlandise, Celsitudinis Exarchiatro & Consiliario Medico, diversa- 



professor of philosophy, 1745 ordinary professor 
of chemistry, ordinary assessor of the medical 
and philosophical faculties, was appointed town- 
physician, and then private physician of the 
Kur-Mainzischer Statthalter there. He was after- 
wards summoned to Mainz as physician of the 
Kurfiirst Joh. Friedr. Karl, with permission to 
retain the professorship, to which he returned on 
the death of the Kurfiirst in 1764. In 1752 he had 
been ennobled, and died 7 Nov., 1764. Gmelin, 
who in one place (ii. p. 470) calls him ' Heinr,' but 
in others ' Hier." correctly, refers repeatedly to 
his having been a teacher at Erfurt. 

He made several new pharmaceutical compounds, 
and wrote a number of books and dissertations on 
pharmaceutical and medical subjects. 

Biographic Mtdicale t Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 126. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1511. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mtdi- 
cales, 1870, 2eme Se"rie, iii. p. 173. 

L.&dra.gue,fftMiot,'i}<tue Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 1391, 1642-43. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der htrvorra- 
genden Aerzte alter Zeiten und Vdlker, 1886, iv. 
p. 58 (article by Pagel). 



48 LUDOVICUSLUDWIG 



LUDOVICUS (JOHANN). Continued. 

rumque Vrbium quondam Physico Ordinario. Hagae-Comitis, Ex Typo- 
graphia Adriani Vlacq, Anno 1660. 

8. Pp. [4] 147 [i]. 

LUDUS Puerorum. 

See ALCHIMIA (DE) OPUSCULA, 1550, i. f. 135. 

See ARTis AURIFERJE . . . volumina, 1610, ii. p. in. 

Das Kinderspiel (oder Weiberwerck). 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, ii. p. 154. 
See ARNALDUS de Villa Nova, Chymische Schrifften, 1748, p. 359. 
See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1750, ii. p. 198. 
See OPUS Mulierum. 

Maier, Symbola aurece mensce, 1617, p. 559. 

LUDWIG (DANIEL). 

Danielis Ludovici, Archiatri quondam Ducal. Saxo-Goth. Opera Omnia, vide- 
licet 

I. De Pharmacia moderno Seculo applicanda Dissertationes in. cum 
Commentario. 

II. De Volatilitate Salis Tartar! Dissertatio. 

III. De Morbis Castrensibus & Dysenteria Tractatus duo, in gratiam 
Exterorum e lingua Germanica in latinam translati. 

IV. Observationes Physico-Chymico-Medicse XLIIX. ex Ephemeridibus 
Academiae Naturae Curiosorum transcriptae. 

Quibus uti Index Locupletissimus subjicitur, ita Vitae Autoris Curriculum 
praeponitur exaratum a Georgio Wolfg. Wedelio. Cum Privil. Reg. Pol. et 
Elect. Saxon. Lipsiae, Apud Joh. Herbordum Klosium. Anno M DCC XII. 

8. Pp. [16] 1 102. Index [85] [i blank]. Title red and black. Portrait of the 
author included in the pagination. The true number is 1098, because 933-4 and 979-80 
have been dropped. 

Danielis Ludovici Med. Ducal. Sax. Goth. De Volatilitate Salis Tartari 
Dissertatio. Editio Secunda. Gothae,. Impensis Salomonis Reyheri. 

Exscrib. Christoph. Reyhero. Anno M.DC.LXXIV. 
12. Pp. [20] 73 for 93 [3 blank]. 

Daniel Ludwig, called Ludovici by Kestner and was published at Gotha, 1667, 12, pp. [4] 92 

Others, and also Ludovicus, was born at Weimar, [i, i blank]. 

5 Oct., 1625, studied there and at Jena and The Observationes contain a number of papers 

other places, but graduated at Jena -in 1647. He bearing on chemical and pharmaceutical questions, 

practised at Konigsberg in Franconia, at Saltz- The present edition of Ludwig's collected works 

ungen, and at Gotha in 1666, where he died ii is not mentioned by any of the authorities I have 

Sept., 1680. His work, De pharmacist moderno consulted. The edition always given is that by 

seculo accommodate., first published in 1671 at Johann Conrad Michaelis, Francof. a. M., 1712, 4. 

Gotha, went through several editions, and was There are apparently notices of his life by Joh. 

translated into French and German. In it he Heinreich in the introduction to his translation 

attempted to reform the pharmacopoeia by purging into German of Ludwig's tract, De moderatione 

it of useless and dangerous substances. On this Taxarum, Gotha, 1714, 8; by Michaelis, prefixed 

account he has been commended by Sprengel and to his edition of the collected works and there is 

others. the 'Autoris Vitoe Curriculum' by Wedel, in the 

The dissertation, De Volatilitate Salis Tartari, present edition. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 232. (Add. viii. 9. 2); p. 294 (Add. ix. 7. 2); p. 386 

Conring, In Univcrsam Artem Medicam . . . (Add. xi. 6. 2). 
Jntroductio, 1687, p. 30 (Add. i. 12. i); p. 273 Cornelius a Beughem, Syllabus recens exflora- 



LUDIVIGLULLIUS 49 



LUDWIG (DANIEL). Continued. 

forum in re medico, physica &* chymica, 1696, pp. Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 

79-80. (Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 28, 53, 60, 73, 83, 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 85, 101. 

1731, II. i. p. 117. (He gives a list of his disserta- Biographic Midicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

tions and observations.) 25), vi. p. 128. 

Stolle, Anleitung zttr Historic der Medicinischcn Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 

Gtlahrheit, 1731, pp. 749, 791, 792, 793. p. 289. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicce, Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtde- 

!737. P- 95- cine, 1837. III. ii. p. 489. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-l^exicon, 1740, K.opp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 116 ; 

p. 492. 1845, iii. p. 29 ; 1847, iv. p. 352. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gtlehrten-Lexicon, 1750, ii. Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 289. 

col. 2584 ; Rotermund, Fortsetzung, 1813, iv. Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mfdicale, 1855, i. 

col. 91. p. 472. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 553. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 604. -worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1512. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, p. 409. K. F. H. Marx, 'Zur Anerkennung des braven 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, Arztes Dr. Daniel Ludwig, des Reformators der 

1778, iii. p. 116. Pharmakologie und Pharmacie,' in Abhandlungen 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicince practices, 1779, der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

iii. p. 300 ('rei pharmaceuticae peritissimus, chemi- Gotlingen, 1875, xx. p. 3. 

cus idem, vir excitati ingenii '). Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 138, genden Aerate aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

215, 216, 256 note i, 258, 373. p. 59. 

LUFFT-GOLD. 

See CLAUDER (GABRIEL), Dissertation von der Universal-Tinctur, 1682. 

LUGDUNUM Gallorum. 

See PHARMACOPCEA LUGDUNENSIS, 1674. 

LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). 

Raymundi Lullii Opera ea quae ad adinventam ab ipso Artem Vniversalem, 
Scientiarum Artiumque Omnium breui compendio, firmaq; memoria apprse- 
hendendarum, locupletissimaq'; vel oratione ex tempore pertractandarum, 
pertinent. Vt et in eandem quorundam interpretum scripti commentarii : 
Quae omnia sequens indicabit pagina : & hoc demum tempore coniunctim 
emendatiora locupletioraq; non nihil edita sunt. Accessit huic Editioni 
Valerii De Valerijs Patricij Veneti aureum in artem Lulli generalem opus : 
Adiuncto indice cum* capitum, turn rerum ac verborum locupletissimo. 
Argentorati, Sumptibus Lazari Zetzneri Bibliopolae. M.DC.VIIII. 

8. Pp. [16] 1109. Index [40] [i, colophon and emblem, 2 blank]. 3 folding 
diagrams ; woodcuts in the text. Not about chemistry. 

[Raymundi Lullii Majoricani Elucidarium, geschrieben iiber sein Testament 
und Codicill, wie die recht zu verstehen.] s. 1. & a. 

8. Pp. 57-68. 
This is a fragment from the Alchymistisch Sieben-Gestirn, 1675. 

Analysis Partis Practicae in Testamento. 

See GERHARD (jOHANN), Exercitationes perbreves, p. 73. 

See also MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 778. 

Apertorium, & Accuratio Vegetabilium. 

See RICHARDUS Anglicus, Correctorium Alchymiae, 1581, f. 81. 
See RICHARDUS Anglicus, Correctorium Alchymiae, 1596, f. 81. 

This is different from the other tract entitled Apertorium de veri lapidis compositione. 
II. D 



50 LULLIUS 

LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued. 
Apertorium de veri lapidis compositione. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 104. 

Apertorium von der wahren Composition des Steins der Weisen. 
See ALCHYMISTISCH Sieben-Gestirn, 1675, P- 2 5- 
See ALCHYMISTISCH Sieben-Gestirn, 1772, p. 35. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1778, i. p. 312. 

Apertorium. Commentatio Perbrevis & Perspicua in Apertorium Raimundi 
Lullii. 

See GERHARD (jOHANN), 1641. 

See CLAVICULA. 

Arcanum Lullianum, seu Modus secretissimus conficiendi & componendi 
Vniversalem Medicinam, per verum & genuinum Artis Spagyricae Artificium. 
See GERHARD (JOHANN), Panaceae Hermeticae . . . Assertio, 1640. 

Ars Compendiosa. 

See DE TINCTURIS Compendium, seu Vade Mecum. 

Ars intellectiva super lapidem Philosophorum. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 112. 

Brief oder kurtzer Begriff. 

See LACINIUS (JANUS), Pretiosa Margarita, 1714, p. 379. 
See EPISTOLA. 

Cantilena. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 822. 
See CODICILLUS. 

Capitulum valde magnum in albedine, & omnibus nobilius, ex libro qui dicitur 
Philosophus mirabilis. 
See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. 180. 

Clavicula quas et Apertorium dicitur. 

See BROUCHUISIUS (DANIEL), Secreta Alchimiae Magnalia, 1612, p. 57. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 295. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 872. 
Clavicula, Apertorium, or little Key explaining all the rest of his works. 

See AURIFONTINA CHYMICA, l68o, p. 163. 

Codicillus, seu Vade Mecum & Cantilena in quo fontes Alchemicae Artis, ac 
Philosophise reconditioris uberrime traduntur. 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 880. 

Compendium animse Transmutationis Artis Metallorum, Ruperto Anglorum 
Regi transmissum. 
See ALCHIMIA (De) Opuscula, 1550, i. f. 92. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, IV. p. 171. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 780, and i. p. 853. 



LULL 1 'US 51 

LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued. 

Compendium Artis Alchemiae et Naturalis Philosophise. 
See ARTIS AURIFER.E . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. p. 83. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 875. 

Compendium Artis Magicae (sic for Magnae), quoad compositionem lapidis 
philosophorum. 
See ARTIS AURIFER/E . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. p. 165. 

Elucidarium iiber sein Testament und Codicill. 
See ALCHYMISTISCH Sieben-Gestirn, 1675, P- 57- 
See ALCHYMISTISCH Sieben-Gestirn, 1772, p. 71. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1778, i. p. 315. 

Elucidatio Testamenti. 

See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN), Ein Philosophischer . . . Tractat: genannt Der kleine 

Baur, 1619, p. 370. 
See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN), Ein . . . Tractat genannt : Der kleine Baur, 1658, 

P- 363- 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 823. 

L'elucidation ou I'eclaircisseinent du Testament. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes chimiques, 1754, iv. 
P. 297. 

Elucidatio Testamenti totius ad R. Odoardum. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^E . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. p. 139. 
This is different from the above. 

Epistola de accurtatione Lapidis Benedict! missa Anno 1412 Roberto Anglorum 
Regi. 
See LACINIUS (JANUS), Pretiosa Margarita Novella, 1546, f. 160 ; 1714, p. 379 (in 

German). 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 863. 

Experimenta. 

See ELUCIDATIO Secretorum, 1602, p. i. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die Gulden Arch, Schatz und Kunstkammer, 1614, Part iii. 

p. 88. 
See MANGET (J. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 826. 

Experimenta . . . von Raimundo in Latein beschrieben. Jetzt aber durch 
Herrn Georgium Sanderreuter von Wasserburg verteutscht worden. 
See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 664. 

Explicatio Lulii. 

See VOGEL (EWALD), De Lapidis Physici Conditionibus Liber, quo . . . Raimundi 
Lulii methodica continetur explicatio, 1595. 

De Intentione Alchimistarum Liber. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 139. 



52 LULLIUS 

LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued. 

Intentio Summaria, quse aliter dicitur Repertorium, valde utilis ad intelligentiam 
Testament!, Codicilli & aliorum librorum Raymundi Lullii. 
See GRATAROLO (c.), Verse alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 185. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 730. 

Lapidarium. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^E . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. p. 98. 

Libellus utilissimus de mercuric solo. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verge alchemize . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 163. 

Liber Artis compendiosas, quem Vade Mecum nuncupavit. 
See DE TINCTURIS Compendium, seu Vade Mecum. 

Liber experimentorum. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Veras alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 174. 

Liber mercuriorum. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 183. 

Liber dictus Lux Mercuriorum. 

See MANGET (J. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 824. 

Lignum Vitse. 
See MYSTERIA. 

La Lumiere des Mercures. 

See LIMOJON DE SAINT DISDIER (ALEXANDRE TOUSSAINT DE), Lettre d'un 

Philosophe, 1688. 

Modus accipiendi Aurum potabile. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^E . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. p. 77. 

Mysteria. 

See BRACESCO (GIOVANNI), De Alchemia Dialogi n. Quorum . . . alter Raimundi 
Lullij Maioricani Mysteria in lucem producit. 

This second dialogue is also called Lignum Vita. 

Potestas divitiarum, in quo expositio Testament! Hermetis continetur. 
See ARTIS AURIFER^: . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. p. 56. 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 866. 

Practica. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae Alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 127. 

Praxis universalis magni operis. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 165. 

Precatio ante Medicinarum exhibitionem. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM. 1659, i. p. 682. 



LULU US 53 

LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued. 

Pulcherrimum opus de transmutatione metallorum. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verse Alchemize . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 175. 

Repertorium. 

See INTENTIO Summaria. 

Summaria lapidis consideratio et eius abbreviationes. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae Alchemias . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 156. 

Testamentum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. i (Theoria) ; p. 135 (Practica). 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 707 (Theorica) ; 
p. 763 (Practica). 

Testamentum Novissimum, Partes duo. 

See ULTIMUM TESTAMENT. 

Theoria et Practica. 

See TESTAMENTUM. 

De Tincturis Compendium, seu Vade Mecum. 
See ALCHIMIA (De) Opuscula, 1550, i. f. 153. 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 849. 
This tract is different from that called 'Codicillus seu Vade Mecum.' 

Tractatus de Lapide et Oleo Philosophorum. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^E . . . Volumina, 1610, Hi. p. 92. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 878. 

Tractat vom Philosophischen Stein. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 79. 

Tractatus de Praeparatione Lapidis Philosophici. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 146. 

Ultimum Testamentum. 

See ARTIS AURIFERJE . . . Volumina, 1610, iii. pp. 1-55. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 79- 

The version of this tract in the Ars Aurifera chapters, which is not contained in the Ars Auri- 

consists of one part only. Mangel has reprinted fera and is different from the 'Practica' in the 

this, though not verbatim, and he has added (pp. Testamentum, 
806-822) ' De Praclica Liber Secundus ' in 27 

Vade Mecum. 

See CODICILLUS. 

See DE TINCTURIS Compendium, seu Vade Mecum. 

Verbum abbreviatum Fratris Raymundi de leone viridi. 

See RAYMUNDUS. 



54 



LULLIUS 



LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued. 

Ramon Lul (Brambach) or Lull, or Raimundo 
or Raymundo Lulio, or Raymundus Lullus, or 
Lullius, Raymund Lulle, Raymund Lully, was a 
native of Palma in Majorca. The year of his birth 
is given variously : Pascual puts it in 1232, Perro- 
quet in 1240 or 1242, others in 1234, 1235, 1236, 
1239. During his youth he followed the court and 
was given up to pleasure, till his whole life was 
changed by a lady whom he admired showing him 
how she was suffering from malignant disease. 
Thereafter he became extremely religious, is said 
to have had heavenly revelations, and devoted him- 
self to the conversion of the Saracens to Christi- 
anity. For this purpose he learned Arabic and 
had permission to found a small monastery of 
Franciscans, whose duty it was to learn Arabic and 
assist in the work. He tried to have similar 
establishments elsewhere but without success, and 
he even attempted to get up another Crusade. He 
himself travelled and preached to the unbelievers, 
not without many perils (see Brambach), and at 
last in 1315 he was all but stoned to death at Bugia 
in Africa. His body was rescued by some Genoese 
sailors who brought him to Majorca, but he died 
30 June, 1315, in sight of his native country before 
he could be landed. After his death he was 
canonized as a martyr and a monument or mauso- 
leum was erected to him, a drawing of which is 
given by Sollerius. 

He was a voluminous writer on divinity, the 
liberal arts, philosophy, physics, law, medicine, 



mathematics, metaphysics, logic, and his own art. 
Wadding enumerates 400 works, and by some that 
number is multiplied nearly by 10. As to the 
books on chemistry which pass under his name and 
are enumerated by several of his biographers, they 
are considered to be not by him, and the transmu- 
tations said to have been effected by him are also 
considered unauthentic. The whole of the story 
about his coming to England, on the invitation of 
Cremer Abbot of Westminster, to make gold to 
induce King Edward III. to undertake a war 
against the Turks, which gold the king afterwards 
used against France, seems to be without founda- 
tion, and will not stand examination. 

As the works however must have been written by 
some one, De Luanco ascribes them to a Raimundo 
de Tarraga who lived ' por los anos de 1370, esto 
es, en el siglo en que muri6 Ramon Lull.' He was 
a converted Jew whose devotion to the occult 
sciences, and the censures his works provoked are 
strong proofs that if he did not write all the al- 
chemical books, he was author of some of them. 
Fabricius, who does not refuse to the blessed 
martyr the fame of an alchemist, says in the article 
devoted to Raimundo de Tarraga that he wrote 
books ' de secretis na.tv.rcB, de Alchimia et alia qua; 
jussu Gregorii XI. An. 1372 flammis sunt exusta.' 
To a person of the name of Raymundus Lullius 
Neophytus, 60 years later, are ascribed the chemi- 
cal books as well as the Liber de Daemonum 
Invocatione, by Morhof. 



Lully's reputed alchemical works were published singly and in collections. The 
following are some of the separate editions : 

De Secretis Naturae siue Quinta essentia libri duo . . . M. D.XLI. Colophon: 
Argentorati apud Balthassarum Beck. Anno XLI. Mense Martio. 8, ff. [4] 183 [4, 
i blank]. 

libri quinque, and was edited by 



Venetijs apud Petrum 



This also contains Albertus, De Mineralibus . . 
Ryff. 

De Secretis naturae siue Quinta essentia libri duo . 
Schoeffer . . . Anno M.D.XLII., 8 pp. 324 [8]. 

Codicillus seu Vade Mecum, Colonise, 1563, 8, pp. 271 [i blank] ; Colonise, 1572, 
8, pp. 248 ; Rothomagi, 1651, 8, pp. 206 [2 blank]. 

Testamentum, item Compendium Animae transmutationis artis metallorum, 
Coloniae Agrippinae, 1566, 8, ff. [4] 240 [8]. 

Libelli aliquot chemici : [Testamentum novissimum ; Elucidatio vocabulorum ; 
Vade mecum ; Compendium de transmutatione animae metallorum ; De compositione 
gemmarum ; Epistola accurtatoria ad Regem Neapolitanum ; Medicina Magna ; 
Dialogus Demogorgon]. Basileae, Perna, 1572, 8, pp. [16] 480 [31, i blank]. Basileae, 
Waldkirch, 1600, 8, pp. [12] 393 [26, i blank]. 

Mercuriorum Liber. Item Apertorium ; Repertorium ; Artis intellectiuas Theorica 
& Practica ; Magia naturalis. Coloniae Agrippinae, 1567, 8, pp. [16] 381 [i]. 

De Secretis Naturae, seu de Quinta Essentia liber Unus ; Epistola ad Regem 
Robertum ; Tractatus de aquis. Coloniae, 1567, pp. [8] 376. 

Tractatus de Conservatione Vitae ; liber Secretorum seu Quintae essentiae. 
Argentorati, 1616, 8, [8] in [i blank]. 

Testamentum. Rothomagi, 1663. Pars i. pp. [1-8] 9-355 [n]; Pars ii. [14] 393 [27]. 

Part i. contains Theorica & Practica (the two divisions of the Testamentum}, and Compendium 
Animae transmutationis ; Part ii. contains a reprint of the Libelli aliquot chemici. 

Secreta Secretorum. Colonias, 1592, 8, pp. [8] 155 [i]. 
Wadding, Annales Ordinum Minorum, 



Ann. 1275, 1287, 1290, 1293, 1295 ; iii. Ann. 1315. 
(He maintains that the alchemical books are sub- 
sequent to Lully's time. ) 

Henr. Cornelius Agrippa, De Incertitudine et 
Vanitate Scientiarum et Artium atque excellentia 
Verbi Dei Declamatio, 1530, sig. 63 rectu ; English 



translation, 1569, f. 24 verso, cap. 9. (Here he 
criticises the ' Lullian Art ' severely, though he 
himself wrote a commentary upon it which was 
published at Cologne, 1531, 1533, 1538, and in his 
collected works. ) 

Nazari, Delia tramutatione Metallica Sogni 
tre, 1599, p. 142. 



LULLIUS 



55 



LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued. 

Mariana, De rebus Hispanic, Mogunt. , 1605, ii. 
p. 9 (lib. xv. cap. iv. Raymundi Lulh obitus). 

Juan Segui, Vida y hechos del admirable Doctor 
y tndrtir Ramon Lull, Mallorca, 1606. 

Bellarminus, Operum Tomus Septimus, Col. 
Agrip. , 1617, ' Liber de ScriptoribusEcclesiasticis,' 
col. 168, Ann. 1285 ; col. 263. 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Mensce, 1617, p. 403. 

Abr. Bzovius, Annales Ecclesiastici, Colon. Agr. 
1618, xiv. (Ann. 1372), col. 1398. ( Long discussion 
and refutation of his errors. ) 

Crollius, Basilica Chymica, 1620, ' Prefatio Ad- 
monitoria,' p. 92. 

G. Naud6, Apolog ie pour tous Us grands Person- 
nages qui ont este faussement soupconnez de Magie, 
Paris, 1625, pp. 373-376 ; English translation, 1657, 

PP- 175-177. 

John Selden, Mare Clausum, 1636, pp. 436-440 
(Lib. ii. cap. 25, with a drawing of a rose noble) ; 
or Opera Omnia, 1726, II. ii. col. 1386 (with the 
same illustration. He refers to the reputed al- 
chemical origin of the gold, but does not mention 
Lully). 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 413. 

Joannes Imperialis, Museum Historicum et 
Physicum, Venet. , 1640, p. 12, and portrait. 

Jacob. Gaddius, De Scriptoribus non ecclesiasticis, 
1648-49, p. 285. 

Ashmole, Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, 
1652, p. 443 (rose nobles), p. 467 (connection with 
Cremer). 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 141-47, 
246, 267. 

Quenstedt, Dialogus de Patriis illustrium Doc- 
trind et Scriptis Virorum, 1654, p. 35. 

A. Per roquet, Apologie de la vie et des Oeuvres 
du bien-heureux Raymond Lulle, a Vendosme, 

1667, square 8, pp. [24] 390 [6]. (Livres de Chy- 
mie, p. 377. ) 

Borrichius, De ortu et progressu C hernia Disser- 
tatio, 1668, pp. 129-142. 

De Vernon, Histoire de Raymond Lulle, Paris, 

1668, 12. 

Conring, De Hermetica Medicina libri duo, 1669, 
Lib. ii. c. 15, p. 414. 

Morhof, De Metallurum transmutatione ad . . . 
Joelem Langelottum . . . Epistala, 1673, pp. 120- 

131- 

Wm. Camden, Remains concerning Britain, 7th 
edition by John Philipot, 1674, p. 242. 

John Webster, The Displaying of supposed 
Witchcraft, 1677, p. 5. 

Kdnig, Bibliotheca Vetus et A'ova, 1678, p. 486. 

Isaac Bullartius, Academie des Sciences et des 
Arts, 1682, ii. p. 150, with a portrait. 

Will. Cave, Cartophylax ecclesiasticus, Londini, 
1685, p. 265. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 930. 

Conring, In universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 102 (Intr. c. iii. 27). 

Magirus, Eponymologium Criticum, 1687, p. 536. 

Freher, TJieatrum Virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, ii. p. 1208, portrait, plate 54. 

Petrus Bennazar, Breve ac compendiosum rescrip- 
turn; nativitatem, vitam, martyrium, cultum in- 
memorabilem pii hcrremitte, ac venerabilis martyris 
Raymundi Lulli, Maiorcis, 1688, 4. 

Reyher, Dissertatio de Nummis . . . ex Chymico 
Metallo factis, 1692, p. 13. 

Ada Eruditorum, 1697, p. 304 ; 1710, p. 397. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 16, No. xxiii. 



Moller, Homonymo-Scopia Historico-Philologico- 
Critica, Hamburgi, 1697. pp. 610-612. (A certain 
R. Lullius Neophytus is the reputed author of the 
Liber de Damonum invocatione. The opinion of 
Wadding and Vine. Mutius is that the chemical 
books are by a much later Raymundus, and Moller 
thinks 'nee sine ingenti veri specie,' 'while Bor- 
richius and Morhofius in replying to Mutius get 
into more difficulties than they resolve. 1 ) 

Joh. Jacob. Hoffmann, Lexicon Universale, 1698, 
iv. p. vij. (a mere note : he distinguishes him from 
Raimundus Lullius Junior de Terraga and makes 
no allusion to alchemical writings). 

Morhof, Dissertation.es, 1699, pp. 287, 288-89. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer 
der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 56. 

Joan. Baptista Sollerius, Acta Raymundi Lulli 
Majoricensis , Doctoris illuminati, Bugia in Africa 
Marlyris el ab eo denominate Lullisticee Academics 
patroni, Antverp., 1708, fol. (Contains i an intro- 
duction by the editor, with a life of Lullus and 
engravings of his monuments. Sollerius doubts 
the genuineness of the alchemical works, and of his 
making gold for Edward III. in 1333, seeing he 
was dead by 1315, pp. 25-28. 2. An anonymous 
contemporary biography. 3. Life by Carolus 
Bovillus. 4. Encomium, by Nicolas de Pax, 1519. 
5. Select miracles at his canonization. 6. The 
orthodoxy of his works. 7. Catalogue of his 
genuine works. 8. Catalogue of works ascribed 
to him, p. 75.) 

Placcius, Theatrum Anonymorum et Pseudony- 
morum, 1708, ' De Scriptoribus pseudonymisdetectis 
Liber,' p. 425, No. 1620. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die historiatn liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1709, iii. p. 189. 

Pope-Blount, Censura Celebriorum Authorum, 
1710, p. 420. 

Giornale de' Letterati a" Italia, 1713, xiv. p. 392. 

Miraeus, 'Auctarium de Scriptoribus Ecclesias- 
ticis,' in Joh. Alb. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Ecclesias- 
tica, 1718, p. 71, CCCXC1H. 

Fabricius, Histories Bibliotheccs Fabriciana Pars 
y., 1722, p. 526. 

Roth-Scholtz, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1727, p. 103. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Gelahrheit, 
1727, p. 538, xxv. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, pp. 
194, 254. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum,\Tsi, 
II. i. p. 119. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metal 'licet, 
1732, p. 96. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, I. 2. 5. 4 (i. pp. 350- 
366), (a discussion on Lully's Ars Magna and those 
who, like Cornelius Agrippa, have written on it). 

Jacob Brucker, Kurtze Fragen a us der Philoso- 
phiichen Historie, Ulm, 1734. v. pp. 1337-1360 (p. 
1345 discusses if he were an alchemist or not). 

Nic. Hier. Gundling, Vollstdndige Historie der 
Gelahrheit, 1734, ii. pp. 1769-75. 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina media et infima 
^Etatis, 1735, iv. p. 863. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1738, xviii. col. 1146. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1740, i. 
p. 396 (Th. i. H. xiii. c. 5, 6). 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 493. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
hermttique, 1742, i. pp. 144-187, 222-226, 466-468 ; 
ii. pp. 6-10 (with a drawing of a rose noble) ; 
iii. pp. 210-225 (gives a long list of his alchemical 
writings). 



LULLIUS 



LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). Continued, 

Will. Cave, Scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Historia 
literaria, 1743, Appendix ... in qua de Scrip- 
toribus ecclesiasticis, ab anno MCCC. ad annum 
MDXVII. . . . agitur, p. 5, Anno, 1301 ; addition 
by Henry Wharton. 

Tharsander, Adeptus Ineplus, 1744, p. 337. 

Mundanus, ' Responsa, ' in Edmund Dickinson's 
tract, De Chrysopoeia, no date, p. 122. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1750, 
ii. col. 2599 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung, 1813, iv. 
col. 151. (They quote very few of his more im- 
portant books, and enumerate mainly the chemical 
ones. ) 

Fictuld, Probier-Kunst, 1753, Th. i. p. 107. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, 
1755, ii. p. 132; 1778, Hi. p. 117. 

MoreYi, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique et 
critique, 1759, VI. ii. p. 503 (a meagre account). 

Georgius Matthise, Conspectus Historia; Medi- 
corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 61. 

Brucker, Historia Critica Philosophic, 1766, IV. 
i. pp. 9-21 (discusses whether Lully was a chemist 
or not) ; 1767, vi. pp. 679-681. 

Wiegleb, Historisch-kritische Untersuchung der 
Alchemie, 1777, pp. 214-222 (against Lully). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 78. 

Torbern Bergman, Historice chemice medium seu 
obscurum sEvum, 1782, p. 19 (artificial gems). 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 101, 487, 574, 576, 578, 582, 585, 595. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1787, ii. pp. n, 12 ; 1788, iii. 
p. 20. 

Nicolas Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus, 
1788, ii. lib. 9, c. 3, pp. 122-141. 

Kortum verteidiget die Alchemie .... 1789, pp. 
87-99 ( a ver y complete discussion by a believer as a 
reply to Wiegleb). 

Wiegleb, Geschichte des Wachsthums und der 
Erfindungen in der Chemie in der dltesten und 
mittleren Zeit, 1792, p. 140, note. 

Tiedemann, Geist der Spekulativen Philosophic, 
1796, v. pp. 58-66. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 68- 
83- 556-557 I 1798, ii. p. 299. 

Murr, Litterarische Nachrichten zu der Geschichte 
des sogenannten Goldmachens, 1805, pp. 8-12 (con- 
tents of a I4th century MS. of Lully's alchemical 
writings, partly in Spanish ; and of another MS. 
dated 1422, written in Italy). 

Wadding, Scriptores Ordinum Minorum, Romae, 

1806, p. 201. 

Tiraboschi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana, 

1807, V. i. p. 220. 

Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, 
London, 1817, i. pp. 129-30, 424 ; 1840, i. pp. 62, 
63, 220. 

H. Loew, De Vita Raymundi Lullii Specimen, 
Halis, 1830, 8. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830, i. p. 
38. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 
166, 601. 

Felix Torres Amat, Memorias para ayudar a 
formar un Diccionario Critico de los Escritores 
Catalanes, Barcelona, 1836, p. 348 (no allusion to 
the alchemical works). 

Mackay, Memoirs of extraordinary Popular 
Delusions, 1841, iii. p. 25 ; 1852, i. p. 105 (with a 
portrait). 

Grasse, Literdrgeschichte , 1842, II. ii. 2, pp. 638- 
640 (his alchemy). 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 397 ; 
1866, i. p. 421. 



Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 67-72, 
&c. , &c. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 
204, 214. 

Pouchet, Histoire des Sciences Natu relies au 
Afoyen Age ou Albert Le Grand et son Epoque, 
1853, pp. 188, 373, 378, 382. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Alddicale, 1855, i. 
p. 115. 

Adolf Helfferich, Raymund Lull und die An- 
fdnge der Catalonischen Literatur, Berlin, 1858, 
8, pp. iv. [2] 163 [i blank]. (Alchemy, pp. 82-83.) 

Graesse, Trtlsor de Livres rares, 1863, iv. p. 295. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 1518. 

Cap, Etudes biographiques, 1864, Deuxieme 
Serie, p. 349. 

Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters , 
1865, ii. pp. 924-952 ( 244-249). 

Fern. Weyler y Lavina, Raimundo Lulio juzgado 
par si mismo, Palma, 1866. 

Acta Sanctorum, Parisiis & Romae, 1867 ; Junii 
Tomus Septimus, pp. 581-676. (Life by Sollerius, 
with the engravings ; contemporary anonymous 
life, p. 606 ; Bovillus' Life, p. 613 ; Nicolaus de 
Pax, Encomium & Epistola, p. 618 ; Miracula, p. 
623 : Dissertatio on his orthodoxy and list of his 
works, p. 634. This is a reprint of the Acta 
Sanctorum, Tomus V. Junii 30, pp. 633, 661 ; 
Bovillus, p. 668 ; Pax, p. 674.) 

Raymond Lully's Great Elixir, A Dramatic 
Poem, London, 1869, 8, pp. [6] 98. 

Jos6 Ramon de Luanco, Ramon Lull {Raimundo 
Lulio} considerado como Alquimista, Barcelona, 
1870, 8, pp. [1-5] 6-50 [i, i blank], (and refer- 
ences). 

Ladrague , Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 767-785, 1829. 

Figuier, Vies des Savants illustres (savants du 
Moyen Age), 1877, pp. 256-289. 

Piinjer, Geschichte der christlichen Religions- 
philosophie seit der Reformation, 1880, i. p. 24 ; 
English translation by Professor Hastie, 1887, p. 34. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 24 et passim. 

H. Carrington Bolton, Contributions of Alchemy 
to Numismatics, New York, 1890, p. 8 (reprinted 
from the American Journal of Numismatics). 

Antonio Raynmndo Pascual, Vida del Beato 
Ray mundo Lulio Mdrtir y Doctor iluminado . . . 
publicada . . . par la Sociedad Arqueoldgica 
Luliana, Palma, 1890, 1891, 2 vols., sm. 8. 
(Libros de Alchimia, Tomo ii. pp. 328, 369.) 

Wilhelm Brambach, Des Raimundus Lullus 
Leben und Werke in Bildern des XIV. Jahrhun- 
derts. Zwolf Lichdrucktafeln, Karlsruhe, 1893, 
folio, pp. 9 [i], 12 photographs. 

Francisco de Bofarull y Sans, El Testamento de 
Ramdn Lull y la Escuela Luliana en Barcelona, 
Barcelona, 1896, 8, pp. 44 [i, i blank], photo- 
graphic facsimile. 

L6op. Delisle, Testaments d'Arnaud de Ville- 
neuve et de Raimund Lulle, 20 juillet 1305 et 26 
Avril 1313. Journal des Savants, Juin 1896, pp. 
14. 

H. C. Macdowall, ' Raymond Lully,' Macmillan's 
Magazine, 1897, Ixxvi. p. 23. 

Homenatge al Doctor Arcangelic lo glorids 
Martir de Crist Beat Ramon Hull sos deixebles, 
admiradors i devots al primer d' any de 1901 i 
comencament del segle XX., 8, pp. 98 [i, i blank], 
with illustrations and music. 

Conr. Haebler, Bibliografia Ibdrica del Siglo 
XV., 1904, pp. 180-183 (logic, theology, &c., 
printed in the isth century, but no alchemy). 



LULUUSLUMINE 57 



LULLIUS Redivivus Denudatus. Oder neu-belebter und griindlich-erklarter 
Lullius. Durch seine vier und dreyssig weltbekannte Kunst-Proben, oder 
Experimenten. Nunmehr aus dem Lateinischen in unser Teutsche Mutter- 
Sprach iibersetzet mil Erkliirung des Duncklen erortert. Durch nothige 
Anmerckungen erlautert durch offters-bewehrte Kunst-Griffe deutlich aufgelofst 
und alien der wahren Weifsheit nachforschenden ans helle Tags-Liecht 
gelegt. Niirnberg, In Verlegung Johann Ziegers, Gedruckt im Jahr Christi 
1703. 

8. Pp. [8] 334 [8]. 4 woodcuts in the text. 

LULLIUS Redivivus Denudatus. Oder neu-belebter und griindlich erklarter 
Lullius. Durch seine vier und dreyssig weltbekannte Kunst-Proben oder 
Experimenten. Nunmehr aus dem Lateinischen in unser teutsche Mutter- 
sprach iibersetzet, mit Erklarung des Dunklen erortert. Durch ofters 
bewahrte Kunstgriffe deutlich aufgelofst, und alien der wahren Weifsheit 
nachforschenden ans helle Tagslicht gelegt. Frankfurt und Leipzig, zu 
finden im Kraufsischen Buchladen. 1771. 

8. Pp. [1-9] 10-230, 231-2 contain book advertisements. 4 woodcuts. 

[Another Copy.] 

Of this work Fictuld can only say that it con- for the sake of posterity the best fate for it is to be 
tains nothing but 'arch-sophistic lies,' and that burned. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
HermMque, 1742, iii. p. 225. p. 646 (1703 edition). 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, ii. p. 91. Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1493-94. 

LUMEN Apothecariorum. 

See QUIRICUS de Augustis, 1520, ii. f. i ; 1566, f. 143. 

LUMEN Juvenis Experti Novum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, IV. p. 934. 

LUMEN Novum Chimicum. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

LUMEN Philosophorum. 

See LIGHT der Weltweisen. 
For alchemical writings on ' Light,' see Kopp, Die Alchernie, 1886, ii. p. 387, and see also under LUX. 

LUMIERE (La) sortant par soi-meme des Tenebres, poeme sur la Composition 
de la Pierre des Philosophes, traduit de 1'Italien avec un Commentaire. 

See CRASSELLAME (MARC-ANTONIO). 

LUMIERE tiree du Cahos. 
Sec G * * (L.), 1784. 

LUMINARE Majus. 

See MANLIUS DE BOSCHO (JOANNES JACOUUS). 

LUMINE (De) Nature. 

See ZWEY schone Chymische Tractetlein. 



58 LUNA LUX 



LUNA Compacta. 

See EINFALTIGER iedoch deutlicher und verhoffentlich niitzlicher Unterricht von 

der Luna compacta et fixa, 1715. 
For alchemical books bearing the name of the ' Moon,' see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 390. 

LUST GARTLEIN. 

See CHYMISCHES Lust-Gartlein. 
For alchemical books referring to 'Garden,' see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 375. 

LUX lucens in tenebris. 

See LUX in tenebris lucens. 

LUX obnubilata suapte natura refulgens. Vera de Lapide Philosophico 
Theorica, metro Italico descripta, et ab Auctore Innominate Comment! 
gratia ampliata. Pars Prima. Venetiis, M DC LXVI. Apud Alexandrum 
Zatta. Superiorum Permissu, & Priuil. 

12. Pp. [83, i blank] 216 [10]. 
See CRASSELLAME (MARC-ANTONIO). 

This volume contains the three ' Canzoni ' of in Latin. It is a reprint of this book which is con- 
Crassellame in Italian, followed by a ' proemium,' tained in the GIN.&CEUM CHIMICUM following, 
and by the anonymous commentary on each stanza, 

LUX obnubilata suapte natura refulgens : vera de lapide Philosophico Theorica. 

See GIN^ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 579. 

LUX in Tenebris Lucens. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die Gulden Arch, Schatz und Kunstkammer, 1614, Partiii. 

P-55- 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchymias, Ander Buch, 1614, p. 169. 
See VIER Chymische Tractatlein, 1677, p. 3. 
See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, Pars iii. 1682, p. 142. 
See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 636. 
For alchemical books on ' Light,' see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 387. See also under LUMEN. 



M. (C. G.}-M. M. M. 59 



M. (C. G.). 

See GEDANCKEN vom rechten Gebrauch der Naturweisheit, 1754. 

M. (D.). 

Drei Tractatlein. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, ii. p. 288. 

M. (D.). 

Erstes Tausend neuer Chymischer Versuche und Erfahrungen, so mit allem 
Fleifse angestellet und sorgfaltig aufgezeichnet worden von D. M. Leipzig 
bey Christian Gottlob Hilschern. 1768. 

8'. Pp. [2] 452 [a]. 

Divided into 5 parts. Each 2 parts have a title-page, introduction, and index, but 
the paging is continuous: Erstes und zweytes Hundert, 1766, [i-n] 12-88 [89-96]. 
Drittes und viertes Hundert, 1767, [97-105] 106-176 [177-184]. Funftes und sechstes 
Hundert, 1767, [185-193] 194-270 [271-280]. Siebendes und achtes Hundert, 1768, 
[281-289] 290-368. Neuntes und zehntes Hundert, 1768, [369-381] 382-452 [453-462]. 

Fiinftes und sechstes Hundert neuer Chymischer Versuche und Erfahrungen, so 
mit allem Fleifse angestellet und sorgfaltig aufgezeichnet worden von D. M. 
Leipzig, bey Christian Gottlob Hilschern. 1767. 

8. Pp. [9] 194-270 [10]. 
Another copy of the same parts in the preceding. 

M. (E. C. D.). 

Uber allgemeine Arzneien. 

See MAGAZIN fur die hohere Naturwissenschaft und Chemie, 1784, i. p. 291. 
The initials D.M. possibly stand for Doctor Medicinae. 

M. (M.). 

See MEURDRAC (MARIE). 

M. M. M. 

Felix Puerpera seu Observationes Medicae, circa Regimen Puerperarum & 
Infantium recens natorum, ad. Cl. Virum D. D. Drelincurtium per M. M. M. 
Lugd. Batavor. Apud Petrum Vander Aa, M DC LXXXIV. 

12. Pp. [8] 40. 



6o 



MA CH YMA CQ UER 



MACHY (JACQUES FRANCOIS DE). 

See DEMACHY (JACQUES FRANCOIS). 

He is entered under this heading by Baumer, 
and the following works by him are quoted : Insti- 
tuts de Chymie, Paris, 1766, 2 vols., 12 ; Precedes 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Midecine, 
1778, iii. p. 125. 
Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 42. 



chymiques rouge's methodiquement et definies, 
Paris, 1779 ; L'art du destillateur des eaux fortes, 
Paris, 1773. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 577 (the translation of Juncker's ' Elements 
of Chemistry '). 



MACQUER (PIERRE-JOSEPH). 

Dictionnaire de Chymie, contenant la Theorie et la Pratique de cette Science, 
son application a la Physique, a 1'Histoire naturelle, a la Medecine, & aux 
arts dependans de la Chymie. Par M. Macquer, Docteur en medecine de la 
faculte de Paris, de 1'academie des sciences, de la socidte royale de medecine, 
professeur de chymie au Jardin du roi, &c. Nouvelle edition, corrige'e & 
augmentee. Tome Premier. En Suisse, Chez les Libraires Associe"s. 
M.DCC.LXXIX. 

8. Pp. xxviij. 580. 
Tome Second. 

8. Pp. [2] 654 (655 not numbered) and i blank. 

Tome Troisieme. Seconde edition, revue & consideYablement augmentee. A 
Paris, chez P. Fr. Didot jeune, Libraire de la Faculty de Medecine, Quai des 
Augustins. M.DCC.LXXVIII. Avec approbation, & Privilege du Roi. 

8. Pp. [4] 520. 



Tome Quatrieme. En Suisse 



Macquer is said to have sprung from a Scottish 
catholic family which removed to France on 
account of its religion and adherence to the 
Stuarts. He was born at Paris, 9 Oct., 1718, 
and had a younger brother, Philip, who was 
trained as a lawyer but devoted himself to history 
and literature. 

Pierre on the other hand studied science and 
medicine, in which he graduated in 1742, but he 
did not practice, and occupied himself entirely with 
chemistry, which he pursued under Rouelle, and 
which he was one of the first to deal with as a 
science, apart from its application to pharmacy and 
the arts. Nevertheless he did not neglect chemical 
technology, for he specially studied the dyeing of 
silk, and was appointed by Louis XV. to super- 
intend the manufacture of porcelain at Sevres, and 
in 1750 to perform the chemical examination of 
certain remedies said to be new, which were to 
be sold to the government. He was admitted to 
the Academy of Sciences in 1745, and succeeded 
Bourdelin as professor of chemistry in the Jardin 
des Plantes. He was member of the Academies of 
Stockholm and Turin, of the Society of Physicians, 
Paris, 'royal censor,' and 'doctor regens' of the 
medical faculty of Paris. 

He died on the 15 (18) Feb., 1784, and as he 
himself wished an autopsy, it was found that the 
aorta was ossified, and that in the cavities of the 
heart were stony concretions which had caused him 
untold suffering for a long time. 

Macquer's researches are numerous, varied, and 
original. Though he worked just before the oxygen 
period he seems to have been conscious of the 
defects of the phlogistic hypothesis, and some ot 
his work has a bearing upon the later development. 
In 1771 he first witnessed the combustion of the 
diamond, he wrote memoirs on alumina in 1758 



M.DCC.LXXX. 
Pp. [ 4 ] 776. 

and 1762, examined sulphate of calcium, sulphate 
of ammonium, and sulphate of magnesium. In 
1746 he demonstrated the metallic character of 
arsenic, and later described potassium arseniate ; 
he investigated zinc, the oxidation of tin and of 
silver, the volatilization of gold, the properties 
of platinum, the solubility of india rubber (in 1768), 
and the composition of milk. He made researches 
on the solubility of salts in alcohol, showed that the 
sulphates are much less soluble than the nitrates 
and chlorides, and that in general alcohol dissolves 
those salts most readily in which the acids are less 
firmly combined, an adumbration of some recent 
views. 

He wrote books on pharmacy, a Dictionnaire 
portatif des Arts et Metiers, 1766, 8, 2 vols. ; 
Manuel du Naturaliste, 1770, 8 ; L'Art de la 
Teinture en Soie, 1763, fol. ; in German, Leipzig, 

1779. 8. 

Elemens de chimie theorique, 1741, 12 ; 1749, 
12 ; 1753, 1756, 12 ; in German, Leipzig, 1752. 

Elemens de chimie pratique, 1751, 12; 1756, 12. 

The two together in English, 1758, 8 ; German, 
1768, 8 ; Dutch, 1773, J 775> 8 ; Russian by Kosma 
Florinskie, 1774, 8, pp. 428 ; with 4 plates, 2nd 
part, 1775. 

His chief book was the dictionary, which may be 
regarded as the first scientific work of its class. 

Dictionnaire de chymie, Paris, Lacombe, 1766, 
2 vols., 8 (this first edition was anonymous) ; 
1776, 1778, 2 vols., 4, or 4 vols., 8; edited by 
H. Struve, Neuchatel, 1789, 5 vols., 8. 

Danish, Copenhagen, 1771, 1772, 8. 

German, with observations by C. W. Poerner, 
Leipzig, 1768, 3 parts, 8 ; second French edition, 
translated into German by J. G. Leonhardi, with 
additions and remarks, Leipzig, 1781-83, 6 vols., 
8 ; and edition, Leipzig, 1788-1791, 7 vols., 8. 



MA CQ UERMA GA/JN 



61 



MACQUER (PIERRE-JOSEPH). Continued. 



English, by Keir, London, 1777, 3 vols., 8 
(translated from the anonymous first French 
edition). 

Italian, by Scopoli, Pavia, 1783, i.-vi. ; 1784, 
vii.-ix., 8. 

Scopoli's observations were incorporated by 
Leonhardi in his second edition, Leipzig, 1788-91 ; 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. pp. 384, 
410. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 318. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 375. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 126. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782,^. 37. 

Histoire de la Socictf royale de Mtdecine, Paris, 
1782-3, pp. 69-94. 

Journal de mtdecine militaire, Paris, 1784, iii. 

PP- 387-39 6 - 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 548- 
550, 687-688 (list of his works) ; 1799, iii. pp. 30, 34, 
39, &c., &c. 

Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, ii. pp. 
100-106. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 32, 36, 72, 73, 75, 
80, 89, 91, 99, 106, 123, 162, 165, 166. 

Vicq-d'.\zyr, Eloges Historiques, An. xiii.-i8o5, 
i. pp. 277-303. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 283, 293, 306, 310, 315, 363, 369, 516, 
&c., &c. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetzung und Erganzungen, 1813, iv. 
col. 325. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xxi. p. 83. 

Rees, The Cyclopedia, 1819, xxii. s.v. 



new edition, Leipzig, 1792, 8, pp. 1008 ; Leipzig, 
1809, 8. 

Third edition, entirely revised by Dr. Jeremias 
Benjamin Richter, Leipzig, 1806, 1807. 

From 1768 to 1776 Macquer acted as editor of 
the section of the Journal des Savants relating 
to medicine and surgery, natural history, anatomy, 
chemistry and pharmacy, and physics. 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 145. 

Biographie Universelle, 1820, xxvi. p. 76 ; n.d. 
xxv. p. 658 (by Cadet Gassicourt). 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830, i. pp. 
295-301. 

QueYard, La France litttraire, 1833, v. p. 418. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, " PP- 393- 
394 ; 1869, ii. pp. 385-386, 530. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, ' PP- 22 * 
224, &c., &c. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mtdicak, 1855, 
p. 430. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 

1855. P- 634- 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnlrale, 1863, xxxii. col. 
595 (by H. Fisquet). 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarischts Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 7. 

Dictionnaire encycloptdique des Sciences Midi- 
cales, 2eme SeYie, 1870, iii. p. 630. 

Barbier, Dictionnaire des Ouvrages anonymes, 
1872, i. col. 959, d. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexicon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 
89. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, i. pp. 89, 250 
(Macquer's attitude towards alchemy]. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1887, viii. p. 494. 



MADATHANUS (HENRICUS). 
Aureum Seculum Redivivum. 

See MUSAEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, P- 53- 
See MYNSICHT (HADRIAN A). 



The above is a pseudonym of Hadrian a Myn- 
sicht, as is said in Keren Happuch, and also in 
the British Museum Catalogue. Borel, however, 
includes only this work by Madathanus, and makes 
no allusion to Mynsicht at all. The book appeared 
in German with the title: Aureum seculum redi- 
vivum, das ist : die uhralte entwichene giildene 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 149. 

Kbnig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 492. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 91. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermltique, 1742, iii. p. 47 (he quotes the above 
from the 1677-78 edition of the Miisteum Hermeti- 



Zeit, 1621, 8, and it was included in the collection 
by Condeesyanus or Grasshoff, Dyas Chymica 
Tripartita, 1625, pp. 67-87, and in Latin in the 
previous editions of the Musaum Hermeticum, 
1625, pp. 75-99 ; and 1677-8. pp. 53-72. 

Konig quotes the above book but misnames the 
author ' Madanathus," and refers to Mynsicht. 

cum, and calls the author ' Madastanus ' and 
' Madasthanus,' but identifies him with Mynsicht). 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1787, ii. pp. 114, 117. 

Murr, Ober den wakren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 1803, p. 58. 

L,adra.gue,ffiMiotMgue Ouvaroff,Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 1255 (entered under Mynsicht). 



MAGAZIN fur die hohere Naturwissenschaft und Chemie. 
Tubingen bey Jakob Friedrich Heerbrandt. 1784. 

8. Pp. xxxi [i] 392. 



Erster Band. 



Zwerter Band. 1787. 



8. PP- [32] 376. 



MA GAZINMAIER 



MAGAZIN fur die hohere Naturwissenschaft und Chemie. Continued. 
The two volumes contain the following tracts : 



Vol. I. 

I. Ueber die allgemeine Auflosungsmittel von 
D. Rud. Job. Fried. Schmid, p. i. 

II. Geschichte des Feuer-wassers und hollischen 
Feuers nebst einigen damit angestellten Versuchen 
von Joh. Wilh. Agricola, p. 217. 

III. Eine Perle den Schweinen vorgeworfen, das 
ist, der Stein der Weisen in seinen mathematischen 
Anfangen der Welt vorgelegt, p. 277. 

IV. Ueber allgemeine Arzneien. Vor Liebhaber 
philosophischer Wahrheit. Durch E. C. D. M., 
p. 291. 

V. Carl Fried. Zimmermanns Gedanken von der 
Uebereinstimmung, welche an etlichen Sazen aus 
der wahren Alchemic mit verschiedenen im Mineral- 
reich sich erzeigenden Umstanden zu bemerken ist. 
p. 355, Nebst 

Dessen Gedanken iiber die magische und medi- 
cinalische Steine, p. 386. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 596. 



Vol. II. 

1. Das Goldene Vliefs, Oder von der Moglichkeit 
der Verwandlung der Metalle. Von dem Prof. 
Creuling (sic, for Creiling), p. i. 

2. Der alchemische Wegweifser, p. 177. 

3. Ausziige aus denen vier Schriften : 

1. Lumen de Lumine von Eug. Philaletha, 

p. 265. 

2. Antroposophia Theomagica von eben 

diesem, p. 301. 

3. Philosophische Brieftasche von einem 

Ungenannten, p. 319. 

4. Wasserstein der Weifsen, p. 365. 

nebst noch zweien Traktatlein 

1. von Johann von Mesung. 

2. Via Veritatis. 

These last two tracts do not appear in this copy. 



uvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 



1870, No. 628. 



MAGIA Naturalis. 

See GEHEIME UNTERREDUNGEN zwischen zweyen vertrauten Freunden, 
Magia Naturalis, 1722. 



von 



MAGISTERIO. 

See ARNALDUS de Villanova. 

MAGNI (De) lapidis compositione & operatione. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 5. 



MAGNI Philosophorum Arcani Revelator. Quo Hermetis Discipuli, Magnfque 
Scrutatores Operis omnia ad suum laborem necessaria, clarissime explicata 
invenient. Tractatus contentos proxima indicat pagina. Genevae, Apud 
Samuelem De Tournes. M.DC.LXXXVIII. 

12. Pp. [2] [1-8] 9-490 [9] [i blank]. Engraved plate of apparatus, p. 302. 
Portrait of Hermes Trismegistus on the title-page. 



The tracts in this volume are as follows : 
Pretiosissimi Arcani Arcanorum et Philosophorum 
Magisterii Verissima ac Purissima Revelatio. De 
Transmutatione Metallorum : in qua dicta obscura 
Philosophorum optimfe ac clarissime deteguntur. 
Recens in lucem edita a quodam Philosopho 
Anonymo, p. i. 

Opus Philosophicum quod Opus lovis nuncupatur, 
cum aliis Operibus Particularibus De Transmuta- 
tione Metallorum, p. 305. 



Liber de Septem Verbis Philosophorum cum 
explicatione, in quibus totum Opus Philosophicum 
continetur, p. 369. 

Reverendissimi Archipresbyteri Magistri Antonii 
de Abatia Epistolas Duse, Scrutatoribus Artis 
Chymicze mandatae, p. 421. 

Annotationes in duas Epistolas . . . Antonii de 
Abatia, p. 473. 

Arcanum a quodam Philosopho anonymo de- 
ductum, p. 483. 



MAHLER (JOHANN ANDREAS). 
See LEMERY (NICOLAS), 1709. 

He was Respondens for a dissertation with Fr. cum cautelis, Halae Magdeburgicae, Typis Johanni 
Hoffmann as Proeses: Dissertatio medica inauguralis Gruneri [1705], 4, ff. 18. 
tradens praxin clinicam et compendiosam febrium, 



MAIER (MICHAEL). 

Atalanta Fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica, 
Accommodata partim oculis & intellectui, figuris cupro incisis, adjectisque 



MAIER 63 

MAIER (MICHAEL). Continued. 

sententiis, Epigram matis & notis, parti m auribus & recreationi animi plus 
minus 50 Fugis Musicalibus trium Vocum, quarum duae ad unam simplicem 
melodiam distichis canendis peraptam, correspondeant, non absq; singular! 
jucunditate videnda, legenda, meditanda, intelligenda, dijudicanda, canenda & 
audienda : Authore Michaele Majero Imperial. Consistorii Comite, Med. D. 
Eq. ex. &c. Oppenheimii Ex typographia Hieronymi Galleri, Sumptibus 
Job. Theodori de Bry, M DC XVIII. 

4. Pp. 211 [3, 2 blank]. Title within an engraved border. Portrait of Maier. 
50 engraved emblematic pictures, with an ' epigramma,' each of which is set to music. 

For a later edition, see ' Scrutinium Chymicum,' 1687. 

Michaelis Majeri, Imperial. Consistor. Comit. Med. D. Eq. Ex. &c. Cbymisches 
Cabinet, derer grossen Geheimnussen der Natur, durch wohl ersonnene 
sinnreiche Kupfferstiche und Emblemata, auch zu mehrerer Erleuchterung und 
Verstand derselben, mit angehefften sehr dienlich- und geschickten Sententien 
und Poetischen Uberschrifften, dargestellet und ausgezieret. Welches, nach- 
deme es wegen vieler darinn entdeckten raren Geheimnussen und Erlauterung 
der Philosophischen Subtilitaten, von verschiedentlichen hocherleuchtenden 
und zu grossen Kiinsten sich applicirenden Liebhabern zum 6'ffteren begehret 
und verlanget worden ; Der Chymischen Republic und dero Liebhabern, zur 
Speculation, Betracht- und Untersuchung aus wohlmeinender Veneration und 
Liebe zum zweyten mahl in der Lateinischen Sprach ausgefertiget, vor jetzo 
aber zum ersten mahl in das Hochteutsche iibersetzet ist; von G. A. K. der 
Philosophischen Kiinsten Liebhabern. Deme beygefiiget ist, eine Application 
des Hohen Lied Salomonis, auff die Universal-Tinctur der Philosophorum. 
Franckfurt, Verlegts Georg Heinrich Oehrling, Anno 1708. 
4. Pp. [4] 153 [i blank]. 50 emblematic engravings. 
This is a German translation of the Scrutinium Chymicum. 

Examen Fucorum Pseudo-Chymicorum Detectorum et in Gratiam Veritatis 
Amantium succincte refutatorum. Authore Michaele Maiero, Com. Pal. Eq. 
Ex. Med. D. Francofurti Typis Nicolai Hoffmanni, sumptibus Theodori 
de Brij, Anno M.CDXVII. 

4. Pp. 47 [i blank]. Vignette. 

Lusus Serius, quo Hermes sive Mercurius Rex Mundanorum Omnium sub 
Homine existentium, post longam disceptationem in Concilio Octovirali 
habitam, homine rationali arbitro, judicatus & constitutus est. Authore 
Michaele Majero Com. Pal. Med. D. 

Horat. 

Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci. 

Oppenheimii Ex Chalcographia Hieronymi Galleri, Sumptibus Lucae Jennis 
Bibliop. 1616. 

4. Pp. 79 [i blank]. Vignette. 

[Another Copy.] 



64 MAIER 

MAIER (MICHAEL). Continued. 

In this copy the date has been altered. It was an edition, Oppenheim 1619 ; but I doubt if one 

originally 1616, but the top of the 6 has been exist apart from that of 1616. 

scraped out and a tail has been added with a pen, There is an edition, Francofurti, 1617, 4 ; a 

so that it appears to be 1610. German translation : Frankfurt, 1615 (?), 8, and 

This alteration from 1616 to 1619 seems to have 1625 ; an English translation by J. de la Salle : 

been done systematically; I have seen another Lusus Serius, or Serious Passe-time, London, 1654, 

copy with the date altered, and Schmieder quotes 12, pp. [8J 139 [i blank]. 

Michaelis Majeri, Imperial. Consistor. Comit. Med. D. Eq. Ex. &c. Secretions 
Naturae Secretorum Scrutinium Chymicum, per oculis et intellectui accurate 
accommodata, figuris cupro appositissime incisa, ingeniosissima Emblemata, 
bisque confines, & ad rem egregie facientes sententias, doctissimaque item 
Epigrammata, illustratum. Opusculum ingeniis altioribus, & ad majora natis, 
ob momenta in eo subtilia, augusta, sancta, rara, & alioqui nimium quantum 
abstrusa, quam maxime expetitum, desideratum ; Iterata vice amplissimaa 
Reipublicse Chymicae Bono & Emolumento, non sine singulari jucunditate 
legendum, meditandum intelligendum, dijudicandum, depromptum. Franco- 
furti, Impensis Georgii Henrici Oehrlingii, Bibliopolae. Typo Johannis 
Philippi Andrese. M.DC.LXXXVII. 

4. Pp. [8] 150 [2 blank]. 50 symbolical engravings. 

This is a reprint of Atalanta Fugiens, The portrait, the omission of the music, and of the 
differences in this edition are the alteration of the ' Epigramma Authoris' and ' Epistola dedicatoria. ' 
title, the omission of the engraved title and Maier's 

Silentium post Clamores, hoc est, Tractatus Apologeticus, quo causae non solum 
clamorum seu Reuelationem Fraternitatis Germanicae de R. C. sed & Silentii, 
seu non redditae ad singulorum vota responsionis, vna cum malevolorum 
refutatione, traduntur & demonstrantur, scriptus Authore Michaele Maiero 
Imperialis Consistorij Comite, Eq. Ex. Phil. & Med. D. Francof. Apud 
Lucam lennis. M.DC.XVII 

8. Pp. 142 [2 blank]. Vignette. 

This was translated into German, Franckfurt, pp. 236 [4 blank]. At p. 101 begins a reprint of 
1617, 8, pp. 190 [2 blank]. The second edition Themis Avrea, with a separate title-page, 1624. 
of the Latin was published at Frankfurt, 1622, 8, 

Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum. Hoc est, Hermsea seu Mercurii 
Festa ab Heroibus duodenis selectis, artis Chymicae vsu, sapientia & authoritate 
Paribus celebrata, ad Pyrgopolynicen seu Aduersarium ilium tot annis iacta- 
bundum, virgini Chemiae Iniuriam argumentis tam vitiosis, quam conuitiis 
argutis inferentem, confundendum & exarmandum, Artifices verb optime de ea 
meritos suo honori & famae restituendum, 

Vbi & artis continuatio & veritas inuicta 36. rationibus, & experientia librisque 
authorum plus quam trecentis demonstratur, 

Opus, vt Chemiae, sic omnibus aliis Antiquitatis & rerum scitu dignissimarum 
percupidis, vtilissimum, i2riibris explicatum & traditum, figuris cupro incisis 
passim adiectis, Authore Michaele Maiero Comite Imperialis Consistorii, 
Nobili, Exempto, Med. Doct. P.C. olim Aulico Caes. Francofurti Typis 
Antonij Hummij, impensis Lucse lennis. M.DC.XVII. 

4. Pp. [20] 621. Index [43], Portrait of the author, the same as in Atalanta 
Fugiens, 12 symbolical engravings. The title is enclosed in a border containing 
12 medallion portraits of the chief alchemists of 12 Nations. Woodcut, p. 345. The 



MAIER 65 

MAIER (MICHAEL). Continued. 

portraits are of Hermes, Maria, Democritus, Morienus, Avicenna, Albertus, Arnoldus, 
Thomas Aquinas, Raymundus, Bacon, Melchior Cibinensis Ungarus, and Anonymus 
Sarmata, who is probably Sendivogius. (Compare the Viridarium, p. 39, where the 
Emblem is repeated. ) 

Tripus Aureus, hoc est, Tres Tractatus Chymici Selectissimi, nempe 

I. Basilii Valentini, Benedictini Ordinis monachi, Germani, Practica vna 
cum 1 2. clauibus & appendice, ex Germanico ; 

II. Thomse Nortoni, Angli Philosophi Crede Mihi seu Ordinale, ante annos 
140. ab authore scriptum, nunc ex Anglicano manuscripto in Latinum trans- 
latum, phrasi cuiusque authoris vt & sententia retenta ; 

III. Cremeri cuiusdam Abbatis Westmonasteriensis Angli Testamentum, 
hactenus nondum publicatum, nunc in diuersarum nationum gratiam editi, & 
figuris cupro affabre incisis ornati opera & studio 

Michaelis Maieri Phil. & Med. D. Com. P. &c. Francofurti Ex Chalco- 
graphia Pauli lacobi, impensis Lucae lennis. Anno M.DC.XVIII. 

4. Pp. 196. A blank leaf between pp. 182-3 anc * a blank leaf at the end. 
Vignette, portrait, and 19 engravings. 

This collection was reprinted in the Musceum Hermeticum, 1749 (q.v.). 

Michaelis Majeri Viatorium, hoc est, De Montibus Planetarum septem seu 
Metallorum ; Tractatus tarn utilis, quam perspicuus, quo, ut Indice Mercuriali 
in triviis, vel Ariadneo filo in Labyrintho, seu Cynosura. in Oceano Chymi- 
corum errorum immenso, quilibet rationalis, veritatis amans, ad ilium, qui in 
montibus sese abdidit De Rubea-petra Alexicacum, omnibus Medicis desidera- 
tum, investigandum, uti poterit. Oppenheimii Ex typographia Hieronymi 
Galleri. Sumptibus Joh. Theodori de Bry. M.DC.XVIII. 

4. Pp. 136 [misprint for 138] [2 blank]. The title is surrounded by an engraved 
border, with Maier's portrait in the centre at the top, a landscape at the bottom, and 
the gods and goddesses representing the seven metals in compartments along the sides. 
Seven symbolic engravings in the text. 

Michaelis Majeri Viatorium, hoc est, De Montibus Planetarum septem seu 
Metallorum ; Tractatus tarn utilis, quam perspicuus, quo, ut Indice Mercuriali 
in trivijs, vel Ariadneo filo in Labyrintho, seu Cynosura in Oceano Chymi- 
corum errorum immenso, quilibet rationalis, veritatis amans, ad ilium, qui in 
montibus sese abdidit De Rubea-petra Alexicacum, omnibus Medicis desidera- 
tum, investigandum, uti poterit. Rothomagi, Sumpt. loannis Berthelin, in 
area Palatij. Anno M.DC.LI. 

8. Pp. 224, Engraved title included. 7 engravings. Vignette. 

Michaelis Meyeri, D. Viridarium Chymicum, das ist : Chymisches Lust- 
Gartlein, in sich begreiffend etlich und fiinffzig Philosophische Sinnenbilder, 
deren Beschreibung in teutsche Reimen gefasset, durch einen Liebhaber 
deren Wissenschafft. Franckfurt am Mayn, Bey Herman von Sand. 

M DC LXXXVIII. 

Oblong 8. Pp. 112. Title; preface pp. 3-6; p. 7, blank; p. 8, verses; p. 9, 
copper plate engraving, and thereafter verses on the verso and engraving on the recto 
of each page. Compare Stolcius de Stolcenberg's book. 
II. 



66 



MAIER 



MAIER (MICHAEL). Continued. 
Aenigma. 

See BOREL (PIERRE), Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 275. 

Subtilis Allegoria super Secreta Chymiae. 
See MUSAEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, p. 701. 

Treuhertzige Warnungs-Vermahnung, ... an alle wahre Liebhaber der Natur- 
gemafsen Alchymiae transmutatoriaa. 
See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FREDERICK), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. 

p. 289. 
See THARSANDER, Adeptus Ineptus, 1744, p. 95. 

Tripus Aureus. 

See MUSAEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, P- 373- 



Maier was born at Rensburg in Holstein about 
1568. After graduating as doctor of medicine he 
lived at Rostock, then at Prague, was physician to 
the Emperor Rudolph II., and in 1619 to the 
Landgrave Moritz of Hesse ; he was also a Pfalz- 
graf and private secretary to the emperor. 

In 1620 he was at Magdeburg, where he died in 
1622, in his 53rd or 54th year. He was a keen 
alchemist and defender of the Rosicrucians, and a 
voluminous writer. He had the reputation of being 
the most learned amongst the chemists of his time. 
Little account of him, however, is made by 
Schmieder, Kopp, and others. 

In addition to the above he published the follow- 
ing books : 

Arcana Arcanissima, s. 1. eta. , 4, pp. [12] 285 
[i blank, 14]. 

Cantilenas Intellectuals de Phcenice redivivo, 
Rostochii, 1622 ; Chansons . . . sur la resurrection 
du Phenix, Paris, 1758, 12, pp. [8] 129 [i blank], 
Latin and French. 

Civitas Corporis Humani, Francofurti, DCXXI. 
(sic), 8, pp. 216. 

De Circulo Physico Quadrate, Oppenheim. , 1616, 
4, PP- 79 [i blank]. 

Examen Fucorum Pseudochymicorum, Francof., 
1617, 4, pp. 47 [i blank]. 

Jocus Severus, Franco?., 1617, 4, pp. 76. 

Verum Inventum, hoc est, munera Germanise, 
Francof., 1619, 8, pp. [16, i-io] 11-249 [i, 6 blank]. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
l6 37. P- 362. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 149-153, 
267. 

Morhof, De Metallorum transmutatione ad . . . 
Joelem Langelottum . . . Epistola, 1673, pp. 84, 
104, 146. 

Kbnig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 
496. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686. p. 817. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicomtm, 

1731, II. i. p. 128. 

Jacob L^eupolds Prodromus Bibliottiecce Metallica, 

1732, p. 96. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. pp. 100, 123 ; ii. pp. 
169, 422, 434, 444 ; iii. p. 554. 
Kestner, Medtcinisches Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1740, 

P- SOS- 
Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, 
Bd. ii. p. 253 (Th. ii. B. xvii, c. xviii. 24) ; Bd. iii. 
A. p. 116, 3. 



Septimana Philosophia, Francof., 1620, 4, pp. 
[36] 228 [52]. Folding plate. 

Themis Aurea, Francof. , 1618, 8, p. 192 ; 2nd 
edition, 1624, along with ' Silentium post cla- 
mores (q.v. ). 

The Rosicnician work : Tractates Post humus, 
sive Ulysses, Francofurti, 1624, 8, pp. 274 [2 
blank], was published after his death. It was 
short (pp. 41), but the editor added others on the 
same topic, and issued it as a kind of memorial 
volume. The other tracts are : 

Colloquium Rhodostauroticum, p. 43 ; 

Echo Colloquii Rhodostaurotici, p. 163 ; 

Christianas Religionis Summa per Joan. Diazium 
Hispanum, p. 203 ; 

Scholasterium Christianum, p. 217. 

So far as I have observed this is one of the 
rarest of Maier's works. 

Kopp mentions another work : Comitia philoso- 
phica, which I have not seen. 

De Volucri Arborea, Francof., 1619, 8, pp. 180. 

Themis Aurea, English translation, London, 
1656, 16, pp. [30, 2 blank] 136. 

Echo Fraternitatis Rosea Cruets, Dantisci, 1616, 
8, has been ascribed to him. 

A good deal of the interest of Maier's books now 
turns upon their symbolical illustrations by De Bry, 
apart from the treatment of the subject of alchemy 
and Rosicrucianism. 



Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 384, 477 ; iii. pp. 47, 48, 
225-230, 284. 

Moller, Cimbria literata, Havniae, 1744, i. pp. 
376-380. 

Vogt, Catalogus Historico-Criticits I.ibrorum 
Rariorum, Ed. 3*, 1747, p. 430. 

Jb'cher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 329 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1106. 

Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, pp. 366-67. 

Guil. Francois De Bure, Bibliographie instructive, 
1764, Volume . . . des Sciences et Arts, Nos. 1912- 
1924 (gives a list of fourteen of his works). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 425. 

Haller, Bibliotheca. Medicince practices, 1777, ii. 
pp. 470, 498. 

Missiv an die hocherleuchtete Briiderschaft des 
Ordens des Goldenen und Kesenkreutxts, Leipzig, 
*7 8 3. PP- 61-63. 



MAIERMAL VASIA 



biography, a list of his principal works, and a dis- 
cussion on the Rosicrucians). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 353. 

Nouvellc Biographic Gnerale, 1863, xxxii. col. 
862. 

L>adra.gue,BidIio/Atyue Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 1127. 

Bauer, Chemie und Alchymie in. Osterreich, 1883, 
p. 18. 

H. Peters, Aus pharmazeutischer Vorzeit in Bild 
nnd Wort, 1886, p. 205. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 220 ; ii. pp. 8, 
220, 323, 339, 341, 350, 354, 366-370, 375, 381, 382, 

384- 

Bricka, Dansk Biografisk Ltxicon, 1897, xi. p. 67 
(article by S. M. J^rgensen). 



MAIER (MICHAEL). Continued. 

Beytrag sur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 520, 601, 603. 

Beckmann, Beyirage sur Geschichte der Erfin- 
dungen, 1792, iii. p. 458 ; English translation, 1814, 
iv. p. 577- 

Gmzim, .Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 516. 

Murr, Uber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 1803, pp. 28, 

34- 44-45, 57- 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 115, 116, 118, 119, 121, 123. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xxi. p. 138. 

Biographie Mtdicalc, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 236. 

Biographic Universelle, 1820, xxvi. p. 231 ; n.d. 
xxvi. p. 113 (article by Weiss, contains a short 

MAISNER (DANIEL). 

See NORTON (THOMAS). 

MALDINY (JOANNES JACOBUS DE). 

Joannis Jacob! de Maldiny Equitis Pedemontani, Sacra Regise Maj. Danicae et 
Norweg. Consiliarii, Mirabilia Mundi, sive de Scientiarum Artiumque omnium 
Origine et Progressu Tractatus, in quo perutilia reserantur Arcana Mathe- 
matica, Mechanica, Physica, Medica et Chymica. Accesserunt insuper rara, 
certa, elaborataque Arnoldi De Villanova Experimenta, usque ad nonum 
Artis Chymicae Opus, Authoris usu et annotationibus illustrata. Cum 
elegantibus manupictis Figuris. Augustse Vindelicorum, Sumptibus Joannis 
Jacobi Lotteri, Hseredum, Anno 1754. 

8. Pp. [12] 135 [5]. 2 folding plates. 

Ferguson, ' Bibliographical Notes on ... Books of Secrets,' Transactions of the Archaeological 
Society of Glasgow, 1888, N.S. i. p. 329. 

MALVASIA (CARLO CESARE). 

Extractum e Tractatu super Epitaphio Bononise . . . insculpto. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 717. 



The work of which the above is an excerpt has 
the following title : 

Aelia Laelia Crispis non nata resurgens in es- 
positione legal! Co: C'aroli Caesaris Malvasiae 
V. I. ac. Sac. Paginae Doct. Colleg. necnon in 
patrio Archigymnasio horis vespertinis ordinarii 
legum Interpretis Primarii illustrissimo viro Domino 
D. loanni Baptistae Colbert dicata. 

Bononiae, Typis HH. Dominici Barberii, 1683, 
Superiorum permissu. Expensis losephi Antonii 
Davici de Turrinis. 4, pp. [24, including the en- 
graving of the stone], 196. 

He gives a list of those who have attempted inter- 
pretations of the /Enigma, beginning with Marius 
Michael Angelus and Richardus Vitus Basin- 
stochius down to Petrus Hercules Belloius, forty- 
three in all, the text of the inscription with the 
various readings which occur in the versions given 
by the different interpreters, and then an elaborate 
exposition of the inscription supported by numer- 
ous illustrations taken from other Roman inscrip- 
tions. His solution of the puzzle is that it is an 
epitaph on a girl who died before her birth, and 
who had been promised in marriage to the author 
of the inscription. 



Carlo Cesare, Marquis of Malvasia, was born at 
Bologna, 18 Dec., 1616. He studied law, medicine, 
philosophy and divinity, and sustained theses on 
these subjects, was a canon of the Cathedral and 
professor of law in the University, and a member 
of various literary societies. All his life he made a 
study of the history of art, and one of his most 
important books is on this subject : Felsinapittrice, 
vite de Pit tori Bolognesi, Bologna, 1678, 2 vols., 
4; Bologna, 1841, 2 vols., 8. 

He also collected the inscriptions found in 
Bologna and its neighbourhood, and published 
them in a work entitled Marmora Felsinea, 
Bologna, 1690, 4. 

Possibly the sElia Leelia Crispis inscription, 
which was found in the house of the senator Volta, 
and was believed by Malvasia to be ancient, though 
others did not accept it as Roman, may have been an 
outcome of his palreographical pursuits. He wrote 
another small work Pitture di Bologna, Bologna, 
1732, 12, edited after his death by Zanotti, and a 
number of books on law, letters, poems, etc., which 
remain in manuscript and are mentioned by 
Orlandi. 

Malvasia died at Bologna, 10 March, 1693. 



68 



MAL VASIA-MANGET 



MALVASIA (CARLO CESARE). Continued. 



Konig, Bibliotheca Vetus el Nova, 1678, p. 500. 

Pellegrino Antonio Orlandi, Noiizie degli Scrit- 
tori Bolognesi e delt opere loro stampate c mano- 
scritte, Bologna, 1714, 4, p. 80. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 74 ('Malvasius, in Epita- 
phium '). 

Luigi Crespi, Vite de Pittori Bolognesi non 
descritte nella Felsina Pittrice, Roma, 1769, pp. 
1-15 ('Vita del Conte Carlo Cesare Canonico 
Malvasia,' with a portrait). 



Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortzetsung und Erganznngen, 1813, iv. 
col. 525. 

Biographic Universelle, 1820, xxvi. p. 417 ; n.d. 
xxvi. p. 291. 

Malvasia, Felsina Pittrice, ed. Giampietro Zan- 
otti, Bologna, 1841, Tomoi. pp. ix. -xviii. (a reprint 
of Luigi Crespi's. ' Vita,' quoted above, with a por- 
trait of Malvasia as frontispiece to the volume). 

Nouvelle Biographic Gitnirale, 1863, xxxiii. col. 

121. 



MANGET (JEAN JACQUES). 

Jo. Jacob! Mangeti, Medicinae Doctoris, et Sereniss. ac Potentiss. Regis Prussiae 
Archiatri, Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, seu Rerum ad Alchemiam perti- 
nentium Thesaurus Instructissimus : quo non tantum Artis Aurifewe, ac 
Scriptorum in ea Nobiliorum Historia traditur; Lapidis Veritas Argumentis 
& Experimentis innumeris, immb & Juris Consultorum Judiciis evincitur ; 
Termini obscuriores explicantur ; Cautiones contra Impostores, & Difficultates 
in Tinctura Universal! conficienda occurrentes, declarantur: Verum etiam 
Tractatus omnes Virorum Celebriorum, qui in Magno sudarunt Elixyre, quique 
ab ipso Hermete, ut dicitur, Trismegisto, ad nostra usque Tempora de Chryso- 
poea scripserunt, cum praecipuis suis Commentariis, concinno Ordine dispositi 
exhibentur. Ad quorum omnium Illustrationem additae sunt quamplurimae 
Figurae aeneae. Tomus Primus. Coloniae Allobrogum, Sumpt. Chouet, 
G. De Tournes, Cramer, Perachon, Ritter, & S. De Tournes. M.DCC.II. 

Folio in sixes. Pp. [20] 938. Title red and black. Portrait-leaf (damaged at 
one corner). 16 plates. 

Tomus Secundus. Oenevae, Sumpt. Chouet. . . . M.DCCII. 

Pp. [2] 904. Leaf of advertisements. 14 plates. Title black. 



The following are the titles of the tracts contained 
in Mangel's collection : 

Tomus I. 

Olaus Borrichius. De Ortu et Progressu Chemias 
Dissertatio (contains ' Elia Lelia Crispis,' p. 26), 
i. p. i. 

Olaus Borrichius. Conspectus Scriptorum Chemi- 
corum Celebriorum, i. p. 38. 

Athanasius Kircher. De Lapide Philosophorum 
Dissertatio, i. p. 54. 

Athanasius Kircher. De Alchymia Sophistica, 
i. p. 82. 

Salomon de Blauvenstein. Interpellatio brevis 
ad Philospphos pro Lapide Philosophorum contra 
Antichimisticum Mundum Subterraneum Athan- 
asii Kircheri Jesuilas, i. p. 113. 

Gabriel Clauder. Tractatus de Tinctura Vni- 
versali, ubi in specie contra R. P. Athanasium 
Kircherum pro existentia Lapidis Philosophici dis- 
putatur, i. p. 119. 

Daniel Georg Morhof. De Metallorum Trans- 
mutatione ad ... Toelem Langelottum Epistola, 
i. p. 168. 

Philippus Jacobus Sachs a Levvenheimb. Aurum 
Chymicum, i. p. 192. 

Joh. Fridericus Helvetius. Vilnius aureus quern 
mundus adorat et oral, in quo traclatur de raris- 
sim6 Naturae Miraculo Transmutandi Metalla, 
nempe quomodo lota Plumbi Substanlia, vel inlra 
momentum, ex quavis minima Lapidis veri Philo- 



sophici particula in Aurum obryzum coinmutata 
fuerit Hagae Comitis, i. p. 196. 

Joannes Chrysippus Fanianus. De lure Artis 
Alchemise, hoc est varipram Aulorum & proeserlim 
Jurisconsultorum Judicia & Responsa ad Qurestion- 
em, An Alchemia sit Ars Legilima, i. p. 210. 

Gulielmus Johnsonus. Lexicon Chymicum, i. 
p. 217. 

Gulielmus Johnsonus. Lexicon Chymicum. Liber 
Secundus, i. p. 275. 

Pelrus Joannes Faber. Manuscriptum . . . Res 
Alchymicorum obscuras extraordinaria perspicui- 
tate explanans, i. p. 291. 

Pelrus Joannes Faber. Epistolne aliquot, i. p. 
304. 

Joannes Joachim Becher. Oedipus Chymicus, 
obscuriorum Terminorum & Principiorum Chymi- 
corum Mysteria aperiens el resolvens, i. p. 306. 

Theobaldus de Hoghelande. De Alchimias 
Difficultatibus Liber, in quo docelur, quid scire, 
quidque vitare debeat verse Chemise studiosus ad 
perfectionem aspirans, i. p. 336. 

Cato Chemicus, Tractalus quo verae ac genuinae 
Philosophise Hermeticas & fucatae ac sophisticae 
Pseudo-Chemiae, & ulriusque Magislrorum Char- 
aclerismi accurale delineanlur, i. p. 368. 

Hermes Trismegislus. Tabula Smaragdina. 
Cui titulus Verba Secretorum Hermetis Trisme- 
gisti W. Chr. Kriegsmanni & Gerard! Dornei Com- 
mentariis illustrata, i. p. 380. 

Arnoldus de Villa Nova. Testamentum, i. p, 389. 



MANGET 



69 



MANGET (JEAN JACQUES). Continued. 

Hermes Trismegistus. Expositiones Dornei, i. 
p. 389. 

Hermes Trismegistus. Tractatus Aureus de 
Lapidis Physici Secret6, in septem Capitula divisus, 
cum Scholiis Anonymi, i. p. 400. 

Turba Philosophorum ex antiquo Manuscripto 
Codice excerpta, qualis nulla hactenus visa fuerat 
editio, i. p. 445. 

In Turbam Philosophorum Sermo unus Anonymi, 
i. p. 465. 

Allegorise Sapientum supra Librum Turbae Philo- 
sophorum XXIX Distinctiones, i. p. 467. 

Turbae Philosophorum aliud exemplar, i. p. 480. 

Allegoriae super librum Turbae, i. p. 494. 

/Enygma ex visione Arislei Philosophi & Alle- 
goriis Sapientum, i. p. 495. 

Exercitationes in turbam Philosophorum, i. p. 

497- 

Artephius. Liber qui Clavis majoris Sapientia: 
dicitur, i. p. 503. 

Calid. Liber de Compositione Alchemiae quern 
edidit Morienus Romanus, Calid Regi ^Egyptiorum; 
quern Robertus Castrensis de Arabicd in Latinum 
transtulit, i. p. 509. 

Geber. Summa Perfectionis Magisterii in sua 
natura, i. p. 519. 

Geber. Liber Investigations Magisterii, i. p. 558. 

Geber. Testamentum, i. p. 562. 

Joannes Braceschus. De Alchemia Dialogus 
veram et genuinam librorum Gebri sententiam 
explicans, i. p. 565. 

Joannes Gerhard us. Exercitationes perbreves in 
Gebri Arabis summi Philosophi libros duos Sum- 
ma; perfectionis, i. p. 598. 

Rogerius Baco. De Alchymia Libellus cui titu- 
lus Speculum Alchemiae, i. p. 613. 

Rogerius Baco. De Secretis operibus Artis & 
Naturae et de Nullitate Magiee Epistola (ad 
Guilielmum Parisiensem conscripta), i. p. 616. 

Avicenna. Tractatulus de Alchemia, i. p. 626. 

Avicenna. De Congelatione et Conglutinatione 
lapidum, i. p. 636. 

Aristoteles. De perfecto Magisterio Tractatus, 
i. p. 638. 

Aristoteles. Tractatulus de practica lapidis 
philosophici, i. p. 659. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Thesaurus Thesauror- 
um & Rosarium Philosophorum, omnium Secre- 
tprum maximum secretum, de verissima composi- 
tione Naturalis Philosophiae qua omne diminutum 
reducitur ad solificum & lunificum, i. p. 662. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Novum Lumen, i. p. 
676. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Perfectum Magisterium 
& Gaudium transmissum ad inclytum Regem 
Aragonum, quod quidem est Flos Florum, The- 
saurus omnium incomparabilis & Margarita, i. p. 
679. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Epistola super Alchemia 
ad Regem Neapolitanum, i. p. 683. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Speculum Alchemiae, i. 
p. 687. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Carmen, i. p. 698. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Quaestiones tarn Essen- 
tiales quam accidentales ad Bonifacium Octavium 
cum suis Responsionibus, i. p. 698. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Semita semitae, i. p. 
702. 

Arnaldus de Villanova. Testamentum, i. p. 704. 

Raymundus Lullius. Testamentum, & primum 
de Theorica, i. p. 707. 

Raymundus Lullius. Testamentum. Pars Prac- 
tica super Philosophic Lapide, i. p. 763. 



Joannes Gerhardus. Analysis Partis Practices 
Raymundi Lullii in Testamento, i. p. 778. 

Raymundus Lullius. Compendium Animae 
Transmutationis Artis Metallorum, Ruperto Ati- 
glomm Regi transmissum, i. p. 780. 

Raymundus Lullius. Testamentum novissimum, 
Carolo Regi dicatum, i. p. 790. 

Raymundus Lullius. Testamenti novissimi pars 
altera, i. p. 806. 

Raymundus Lullius. Elucidatio Testamenti, i. 
p. 823. 

Raymundus Lullius. Liber dictus Lux Mer- 
curiorum in quo explicatur quod in aliis Libris 
occultatum est, i. p. 824. 

Raymundus Lullius. Experimenta in quibus 
verae Philosophiae Chemicae Operationes clarissime 
traduntur, i. p. 826. 

Raymundus Lullius. Liber Artis Compendiosae 
quem Vademecum nuncupavit, i. p. 849. 

Raymundus Lullius, Compendii Animae Trans- 
mutationis Artis Metallorum aliud exemplar, i. p. 

853. 

Raymundus Lullius. Epistola de Accurtatione 
Lapidis Benedict! missa Anno 1412. Roberto 
Anglorum Regi, i. p. 863. 

Raymundus Lullius. Liber Potestas Divitiarum 
dictus, in quo optima expositio Testamenti Hermetis 
continetur, i. p. 866. 

Raymundus Lullius. Claviculaquae&Apertorium 
dicitur, in qua omnia quae in opere Alchemiae 
requiruntur, aperte declarantur, i. p. 872. 

Raymundus Lullius. Compendium Artis Al- 
chemiae et Naturalis Philosophiae, i. p. 875. 

Raymundus Lullius. Tractatus de Lapide et 
Oleo Philosophorum, i. p. 878. 

Raymundus Lullius. Codicillus, seu Vademecum 
& Cantilena in quo fontes Alchemicae Artis, ac 
Philosophiae reconditioris uberrime traduntur, i. 
p. 880. 

Joannes Braceschus. Lignum Vitse, seu Dialogus 
ex Italicd in Latinum versus a G. Gratorolo Physicd, 
quo Raymundi Lulli Scripta explicantur, i. p. 911. 

Liber Mutus Alchemiae Mysteria filiis Artis nudis 
figuris, evidentissime aperiens (15 plates), i. p. 
938. 

Tomus II. 

Petrus Bonus. Margarita pretiosa novella, ii. 
p. i. 

Joannes de Rupescissd. Liber Magisterii de con- 
fectione veri Lapidis Philosophorum, ii. p. 80. 

Joannes de Rupescissa. Liber Lucis, ii. p. 84. 

Rosarium Philosophorum, ii. p. 87. 

Rosarii Philosophorum aliud Exemplar . . . per 
Toletanum Philosophum maximum, ii. p. 119. 

Rosarium Abbreviatum Ignoti, ii. p. 133, 

Guido de Montanor. Scala Philosophorum, ii. 

P- 134- 

Clangor Buccinae, ii. p. 147. 

Correctio Fatuorum, ii. p. 165. 

Marsilius Ficinus. Liber de Arte Chemica, ii. 
p. 172. 

Calid Filius Jaici. Liber Secretorum Artis, ii. p. 
183- 

Kalid Rex. Liber Trium Verborum, ii. p. 
189. 

Merlinus. Allegoria, ii. p. 191. 

Thesaurus Philosophiae, ii. p. 192. 

Aurelia Occulta cum Semoris Zadith Tractatulo 
de Chemia, ii. p. 198. 

Consilium Conjugii, seu de Massa Solis & Lunae 
Libri III., ii. p. 235. 

Richardus Anglicus. Libellus utilissimus irpi 
eio?, cui titulum fecit Correctorium, ii. p. 266. 



MANGE T 



MANGET (JEAN JACQUES). Continued. 

Georgius Ripleus, Liber Duodecim Portarum, 
ii. p. 275. 

Thomas Northon. Tractatus Crede Mihi, seu 
Ordinale dictus, ii. p. 285. 

Joannes Dausten. Rosarium arcanum Philoso- 
phorum Secretissimum, ii. p. 309. 

Dialogus inter Naturam & filium Philosophise, 
ii. p. 326. 

Dionysius Zacharias. Opusculum Chemicum, ii. 
P- 336. 

Nicolaus Flamellus. Cpmmentarius in Dionysii 
Zacharii Opusculum Chemicum, ii. p. 350. 

Collectanea ex Democrito, ii. p. 361. 

Nicolaus Flamellus. Tractatus brevis, seu Sum- 
marium Philosophicum, ii. p. 368. 

Joannes Aurelius Augurellus. Chrysopoeia, & 
Vellus Aureum, seu Chrysopoeia major & minor, 
ii. p. 37i- 

Nathan Albineus. Carmen Aureum, ii. p. 387. 

Nathan Albineus. ^inygma, ii. p. 388. 

Bernardus Trevisanus Liber de Secretissimo 
Philosophorum opere Chemico, ii. p. 388. 

Hermes. Tabula Smaragdina, p. 389. 

Bernardus Trevisanus. Responsio ad Thoniam 
de Bonpnia, . . . super eddem Opere, ii. p. 399. 

Basilius Valentinus. Liber de magno Lapide 
Antiquorum Sapientum, ii. p. 409. 

Basilius Valentinus. Liber duodecim Clavium, 
ii. p. 413. 

Basilius Valentinus. De prima Materia Lapidis 
Philosophic}, ii. p. 421. 

Basilius Valentinus. Brevis Appendix & per- 
spicua repetitio aut iteratio in librum suum de 
Magno lapide Antiquissimorum, ii. p. 422. 

Gerardus Dorn. Congeries Paracelsicae Chemise 
de Transmutationibus Metallorum, ii. p. 423. 

Michael Sendivogius. Novum Lumen Chemi- 
cum, ii. p. 463. 

Michael Sendivogius. Parabola, seu ^Enigma 
Philosophicum, ii. p. 474. 

Michael Sendivogius. Dialogus Mercurii, Al- 
chemistae et Naturae, ii. p. 475. 

Michael Sendivogius. Tractatus de Sulphure, 
ii. p. 479. 

Michael Sendivogius. Apographus Epistolarum 
hactenus ineditarum super Chemia, ii. p. 493. 

Orthelius. Commentarius in Novum Lumen 
Chemicum Michaelis Sendivogii XII. figuris in 
Germania repertis illustratum, ii. p. 516. 

Guilielmus Trognianus. De lapide, ii. p. 530. 

Hydrolithus Sophicus, seii Aquarium Sapientum, 
P- 537- 

Joannes Franciscus Picus Mirandulaa Dom. 
Opus Aureum de Auro turn aestimando, turn con- 
ficiendo, turn utendo, ii. p. 558. 

Joannes Grasseus, alias Cortalasseus. Area 
Arcani artificiossimi de Summis Naturae Mysteriis, 
constructa ex Rustic6 ejus majore & minore, & 
Physica naturali rotunda, per visionem Cabalisticam 
descripta, ii. p. 585. 

Anonymus Discipulus Joannis Grassei. Mysteri- 
um Occultas Naturae ; DeduobusFloribusAstralibus 
Agricolas minoris in ejus Area Arcani Artificiosissimi 
contentis, ii. p. 619. 

d'Espagnet. Enchiridion Physicae restitutae, ii. 
p. 626. 

In these volumes Manget has classified the 
authors partly according to subject, partly chrono- 
logically. The first book contains the authors who 
have written the history of alchemy ; those who 
have written against or for it ; those who have 
given examples of transmutation ; those who 
have written on the difficulties of alchemy and its 



d'Espagnet. Arcanum Hermeticae Philosophise 
Opus in quo occulta Naturse & Artis circa Lapidis 
Philosophorum materiam & operandi modum, 
canonice & ordinate fiunt manifesta, ii. p. 649. 

Philaletha. Introitus apertus ad occlusum Regis 
Palatium, ii. p. 661. 

Philaletha. Tractatus de Metallorum Meta- 
morphosi, ii. p. 676. 

Philaletha. Brevis Manuductio ad Rubinum 
Caelestem, ii. p. 686. 

Philaletha. Fons Chemicae Philosophiae, ii. p. 

693- 

Joannes Ferdinandus Hertodt a Todtenfeldt. 
Epistola Contra Philaletham, ii. 697. 

Anonymi ad praecendentem Epistolam Responsio, 
ii. p. 699. 

Liber Praxeos Alchemic* cum Additionibus 
Libavii, ii. p. 700. 

Nicolaus Bernaudus a Crista Arnaudi Delphinas. 
In ^Enygmaticum quoddam Epitaphium Bononia: 
ante multa soscula marmoreo Lapidi insculptum, 
Commentariolus [Aelia Lnelia Crispis], ii. p. 713. 

Carolus Caesar Malvasius. Extractum e Tractatu 
super eodem Epitaphio conscripto, ii. p. 717. 

Pantaleon. Bifplium Metallicum, seu Medicina 
duplex pro Metallis et Hominibus infirmis . . . in- 
venta . . . , ii. p. 718. 

Pantaleon. Tumulus Hermetis apertus, ii. p. 728. 

Pantaleon. Examen Alchemisticum, ii. p. 736. 

Pantaleon. Disceptatio de Lapide Physico, in 
qua Tumbam Semiramidis ab Anonymo Phantastice 
non Hermetice sigillatam ; jam ver6 reclusam, si 
sapiens inspexerit ipsam, promissis Reguni Thesauris 
vacuam inveniet, ii. p. 744. 

Tumba Semiramidis Hermetice sigillata quam 
si sapiens aperuerit, non Cyrus ambitiosus, avarus, 
Regum ille thesauros divitiarum inexhaustos, quod 
sufficiat inveniat, ii. p. 759. 

Ludovicus de Comitibus. Tractatus de Liquore 
Alchaest, & Lapide Philosophorum, . . . item de 
Sale volatili tartari &c., ii. p. 764. 

Ludovicus de Comitibus. Metallorum ac Metal- 
licorum naturae operum ex Orthophysicis funda- 
mentis recens Elucidatio, ii. p. 781. 

Ludovicus de Comitibus. Appendix Symbolas 
Crucis aliqualem explicationem exhibens, ii. p. 840. 

Claudius Germain. Icon Philosophiae occultae, 
ii. p. 845. 

Christianus Adolphus Balduinus. Aurum su- 
perius & inferius Aurse Superioris & Inferioris 
Hermeticum, ii. p. 856. 

Melchior Friben. Brevis enumeratio hactenus 
a se in Chemia actorum, ii. p. 875. 

D. I. B. De Spiritu Mundi Positiones aliquot, 
ii. p. 876. 

Andreas Cnoffelius. Responsum ad Positiones 
de Spiritu Mundi, quod in se continet Reserationem 
Tumbas Semiramidis, ii. p. 880. 

Trames facilis & planus ad Auream Hermetis 
Arcem recta perducens, ii. p. 887. 

Daniel Stolcius de Stolcenberg. Hortulus Her- 
meticus e Flosculis Philosophorum cupro incisis 
conformatus, & brevissimis versiculis explicatus ; 
qu6 Chemise studiosi pro Philotheca uti, fessique 
Laboratoriorum ministri, recreari possint, ii. p. 895. 

language. Then follow the treatises from Hermes 
to Raymund Lully, with the Liber Mutus, which 
completes the first volume. The second volume 
contains authors from Lully down to Mangel's own 
time, the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 
the first volume there are 69 tracts, in the second 
there are 71. 



MANGE T MANGOLD 



MANGET (JEAN JACQUES). Continued. 

Mangel was born at Geneva, 19 June, 1652. 
His father was a wealthy merchant, and his uncle 
a physician of the King of Poland. To gratify his 
parents his studies were at first directed to divinity, 
but afterwards he taught himself medicine by pri- 
vate study and reading, graduated as doctor in 
1678 at Valence, in Dauphine, and practised in his 
native place with great acceptance and success. 
He became dean of the Medical Faculty there, in 
1699 the Elector of Brandenburg made him his 
first physician, and when he became king of 
Prussia, Mangel still conlinued lo hold Ihe posilion 
unlil his death. His literary work, in which he is 
said to have been helped by Daniel Leclerc, con- 
sisted chiefly in collecting and reprinling in large 
volumes irealises on medicine and surgery, and Ihese 
are valuable as works of reference lo books which 
eilher are now difficull lo oblain or which have 
disappeared. 

They are : 

Messis Medico-spagyrica, Colon. (? Genevae), 
1683, fol. 

Bibliolheca analomica, Genevae, 1685, 2 vols. , 
fol. ; 1699, 2 vols., fol. ; London, 1711, 3 vols., 4. 

Bibliolheca pharmaceutico-medica, Genev., 1704, 
2 vols. , fol. 

Bibliotheca chirurgica, Genev., 1721, 4 vols., fol. 

Journal des Savans, 1703, pp. 499-504. 

Slolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Medicin- 
ischen Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 343, 465, 494, 497, 
540. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. pp. 217-257 (biography, and contents of 
his different books). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 

1732, p. 97. (' Bibliotheca chemica curiosa,' iv. 
vols. fol., Genuae, 1695, 1702. It is in two volumes, 
and I have seen no other mention of a 1695 
edilion.) 

Lenglel Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 2 ('Bibl. Scriplorum 
Medicorum '), 60 (' Bibl. Chemica Curiosa, 1 wilh a 
reprint of the contenls). 

Me moires pour I' Histoire des Sciences &* des 
beaux Arts (Memoires de Tr^voux), 1743, Mars 

1743. PP- 549-SSi- 

Jbcher, Allgemeines Gelehr ten-Lexicon, 1751, in. 
col. 1 10 ; Rolermund's Fortsetzuns; und Ergdnzun- 
gen, 1813, iv. col. 570. 

Ficluld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 93. (Hor- 
lacher's abslract ; Fictuld condemns both, and 
laments the loss of time in compiling them.) 

More'ri, Lt Grand Dicfionnaire historique, 1759, 
vii. p. 159. 

Osmont, Dictionnaire typographique, 1768, i. 
p. 442. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botamca, 1772, ii. p. 72. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 803. 

Haller, Bibliotlieca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 520. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mldecine, 
1778, iii. p. 150. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice, 1779, iii. 



Bibliolheca scriptorum medicorum, 1731, 4 vols., 
fol. 

(This contains the whole of Mercklin's Lin- 
detiius renovatus, with reprints of biographical 
notices and reviews from a variety of sources, and 
addilional authors subsequent lo Mercklin's lime. 
This lasl seclion, however, is not so full as il mighl 
have been.) 

Bibliotheca medico-practica, Genev., 1695-98, 
4 vols., fol. ; Ib. 1739, 4 vols., fol. 

Tbeatrum analomicum, Genev., 1716-1717, a 
vols., fol. 

He edited Ihe works of some olher writers on 
medical subjecls. 

The presenl work is the largest of the collections 
of chemical aulhors, and ihough il conlains a num- 
ber of works which had already been prinled in 
Zelzner's Theatrum chemicum, il conlains a great 
number of olhers which Zelzner did not reprint. 
The originals of many of Ihe trealises are now 
exlremely scarce, so thai for hislorical reference 
Mangel's collection is indispensable. The only 
drawback under which it labours is thai Ihe lexl 
as prinled differs sometimes from that of other 
editions. 

Mangel died al Geneva, 15 (25) Augl., 1742, in 
his 9151 year, wilhout having had a day's illness 
during his lifetime. 

p. 603 ( ' aliqua mecum adfinitate conjunclus, 
magnus collector '). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 2. 

Jean Senebier, Histoire litttraire de Geneve, 
Geneve, 1786, ii. pp. 316-18. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 

255. 3o, 371, 480. 

Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, u. p. 122. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xxi. p. 236. 

Biographic Mfdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 173. 

Biographie Universelle, 1820, xxvi. p. 486; n.d. 
xxvi. p. 340 (article by Weiss). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 513. 

Que'rard, La France litttraire, 1833, v. p. 488. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtde- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 509. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mtdicale, 1855, ii. 

P- 5 1 - 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 588. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtntrak, 1863, xxxiii. col. 
201. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 538. (Horlacher's abstract ; 
there is no copy of Ihe original work.) 

Dictionnaire Encyclopfdique des Sciences Midi- 
cales, 2eme SeYie, 1871, iv. p. 505. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexicon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte oiler Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 
115 (article by Pagel). 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 88 ; ii. p. 326, 
340. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1887, viii. p. 578. 



Bibliotheca Chemico-Curiosa, D. Mangeti enucleata ac illustrata, 1707. 

See HORLACHER (CONRAD). 

MANGOLD (CHRISTOPH ANDREAS). 
Versuche mit Farben. 

See ALLGKMEIN niitzliches chemisch-physikalisches Mancherlei, 1781, i. p. 319. 



72 MANGOLD MANLIIS 

MANGOLD (CHRISTOPH ANDREAS). Continued. 

These experiments on colours, on cinnabar, etc., him that he studied himself to death. On the 29 

were communicated to the Academy of Sciences at June, 1767, he took a fancy in the evening to write 

Mainz. a dissertation, and he worked at it through the 

Mangold was born at Erfurt in 1719, where he cold night till i o'clock in the morning ; at 9 o'clock 

began his studies. He became doctor of medicine, he was found unconscious, and his death took place 

assessor of the medical and philosophical faculties on 2 July, 1767. 

and of the Academy of Sciences at Erfurt, ordinary In 1761 he translated the first part of J. G. 

professor of anatomy, chemistry and philosophy Wallerius' Physical Chemistry from Latin into 

there, and a member of the Academy at Mont- German. The second part was translated by Chr. 

pellier. From Erfurt he went to Jena, and after- Ehr. Weigel, 1776, amended 1780. In 1748 at 

wards accompanied Count Gotter in his travels in Erfurt he published a volume in 4 : Chymische 

France. In 1751 he was professor at Frankfurt, Erfahrungen und Vortheile, and a continuation of 

where he was distinguished as a teacher and author, them at Arnstadt, 1749, 4. This last contained a 

but his plans for the improvement of chemistry and refutation of Hieronymus Ludolph's dissertations : 

medicine were never carried out owing to his feeble Die in derMedicin siegende Chymie, Erfurt, 1743-50. 
health, and Rotermund adds that it can be said of 

Baldinger, Ehrengeddchtnifs des Prof. Mangolds, verstorbenen Teulschen Schrifsteller, 1808, viii. 

Jena, 1767, 4. p. 455. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 433. Jocher, Allgemeines Gtlehrten- Lexicon ; Roter- 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 39. mund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen, 1813, iv. 

Gmelin, Geschichtt der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 461, col. 574. 
471, 472, 650 (list of his papers), 694. Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 25), vi. p. 174. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), p. 4. Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historique de la Med- 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 512. 
1806-08, p. 296. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 

Meusel, Lexicon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p, 116. 

MANLIIS (JOANNES JACOBUS DE) de Boscho. 

Luminare maius. 

Cinthius vt totum radijs illuminat orbem. 
Illuminat latebras sic medicina tuas. 
Lumen Apothecariorum. 
Thesaurus Aromatariorum. 

Folio. Ff. 75. Tabula [2, blank leaf]. 
After the ' Tabula ' comes this Colophon : 

Impressum Venetijs ere ac sollerti cura heredum. q. domini Octauiani Scoti ciuis ac 
patricius Modoeciensis : & sociol|.. Anno a dominica incarnatione. 1520. Die. 23. 
Martij. 

followed by the Registrum & Scotus' device. Black letter. Double columns. 

Lumen Apothecariorum, ff. 1-24. Thesaurus Aromatariorum, ff. 25-64. 

The above colophon is repeated, f. 62 verso, with the Registrum and Scotus' device. 

Luminare Maius quondam elaboratissimis, loannis lacobi Manlii Alexandrini, 
Commentario, & Nicolai Mutoni Mediolanensis Appendicibus, locuples ; Nunc 
verb etiam luculentissima; lani Matthaei Durastantis Sanctoiustani expositione 
locupletius adeb redditum ; vt, quod illorum ope solis iam erat Pharmacopceis 
vtile, Nunc quidem huius opera sit etiam Medicis vtilissimum. Connexa 
prseterea sunt, tam Lumen Apothecariorum, quam Thesaurus Aromatariorum, 
cum dilucidissimis, illud Quirici Augusti, hie Pauli Suardi; Commentariolis. 
His demum accessere et copiosissimi Quatuor Indices, Primus, ac Secundus 
in Luminare ; Tertius in Lumen ; Vltimus in Thesaurum, adeb plane, 
examussim, affabreq; a Durastante facti ; vt ; nihil in Testibus ; nihil in, 
Commentario, Appendicibus, Expositione, & Commentariolis, sit legere ; quod 
ab eisdem Alphabetico digito non breuitur indiceter. Cum Privilegio. 
Venetiis, Apud Lucam Antonium luntam. Anno M D LXVI. 
Folio. Ff. [36] 1-142 ; Index [ioj 143-213, 214 blank. 



MANLI1SMARBODAEUS 73 

MANLIIS (JOANNES JACOBUS DE) de Boscho. Continued. 

Colophon : Impressum Venetijs, in Officina Lucoe Antonij luntae. Anno a 
Salubernmo Virgineo Partu. M D LXVI. 

The Lumen Apothecariorum is by Quiricus de must light it up with Diogenes' lantern if one wishes 

Augustis de Dertona and the Tlusaurus Aroma- to enjoy a twinkle from it ; and in the note he adds 

tariorum by Paulus Suardus. that any one who turns over its leaves will see the 

According to the bibliographers this book passed truth of his observations, and will come across 

through many editions: Soec. XV. without place and concoctions of such a kind that he doubts if any 

date; Ven., without date; 1490; Pavia, 1494; Ven. one to-day(i73i) would black his boots with them ! 

1496, 1499; 1501, 1503, 1506, 1517, 1549, 1551, 1556, The author, Joannes Jacobus Manlius, or de 

1561, 1563, 1566, all in folio ; Lugdun. 1525, 1536, Manliis, with the addition, de Bosco or Boscho, 

in small folio. The 1520 edition is not mentioned, was an Italian physician, born at Alexandria, who 

An Italian version by Pietro Lauro, Venez. 1559, 4. flourished in the fifteenth century. The best edition 

Haller makes no unfavourable remark on the of the Luminare is said to be that by Nic. Mutonus. 

book, and says it was not contemned by Cordus. He wrote also : Interpretatio simplicium secundum 

But Stolle is particularly severe on this much-prized rituni omcinarum, printed in Otto Brunfel's Her- 

Luininare, and says that even in full day light one barium Ntmum, Argent. 1531, fol. ii. nom. xi. 

Van der Linden, DC Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1776, i. 

1637, p. 281. p. 471. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vet us et nova, 1678, p. 503. Panzer, Annales Typographic i, Norimbergae, 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 614 1794, ii. p. 258, No. 98; 1795, iii. pp. 281, 1259; 

(adds a Libellus medicus variorum experimentorum, 387,2028; 453,2480; 1799, vii. pp. 369, 830; 1800, 

Bas. 8). viii. pp. 407, 575 ; 1801, ix. pp. 301, 281 ; 328, 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Uistorie der Medicinischen 768 b ; 521. 567 c. 
Gelakrheit, 1731, pp. 769, 770. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 167. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, Hain, Repertorium bibliographiciim^ 1831, II. i. 

p. 509. Nos. 10708-10713 (of the six editions Hain saw 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. only the last two, dated respectively 1496 and 1499). 
col. 115; Rotermund's Fortsetsung und Ergdnz- Graesse, Trisor de Livres Rares, 1863, iv. p. 366. 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 586. Nouvelle Biographic Gndrale, 1863, xxxiii. col. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 238. 231 (from Rotermund). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1887, viii. p. 581. 

MANNA COELESTE. 

Auszug aus dem Lateinischen Manuscript, Manna Coeleste, das himmlische 
Manna genannt. 

See WELLING (GEORG VON), Opus Mago-Cabbalisticum et Theosophicum, 1735, 
P- 549- 

MANTISSA Chymica Spagyrica. 
See LEMERY (NICOLAS). 

MARBODAEUS. 

Marbodaei Galli Caenomanensis De gemmarum lapidumq; pretiosorum formis, 

naturis, atq; uiribus eruditu cu primis opusculu, sane q\ utile, cum ad rei 

medicae, tu scripturae sacrae cognitione ; nQc primu no mo cetu ferme uersib. 

locupletatu pariter & accuratius emedatu, sed & scholijs qq; illustratu p Alardu 

AEmstelredamu 

C Cuius studio E// iJMpydpirop ri 

addit^ sunt & praeci fito//. "Avofioif 

pU82 gernmap lapi aTSavra. Aa/i/?ave. 

dflqj ptiosop expli- En margaritu no- 

catides, ex uetustiss. bile, Erne si cupis 

qbusq; autoribu 9 co- ditescere. 

actae. Cu scholijs Pi Rationale. Exodi 

ctorij Villingefi. 28 & 39. Leui. 8 

Coloniae excudebat Hero Alopecius, Anno 1539. 



74 



MARBODAEUS 



MARBODAEUS. Continued. 

8". Ff. 124 (misprint for 126) [a]. Ai and Aij are not numbered. Aiij numbered 
3. Aiiij not numbered, AS numbered 5, Avj not numbered, Avij 7, Aviij not numbered, 
Bi numbered 9, and thereafter each leaf numbered to 124. 

The lower part of the title is occupied with a half-length representation of the 
Jewish high priest, whose breastplate is adorned with twelve stones arranged as in the 
following table. 



Smaragdus 
Leui 

2 

Topazius 
Simeon 

i 

Sardius 
Ruben 
12 

Beryllus 
Beniamin 



Carbucul 9 
luda 

9 
amethystus 

Aser 

10 

chrysolitus 
Nepthalim 

ii 

Onychirius 
loseph 



Saphirus 
Zabulon 

6 

laspis 
Isachar 

7 
Lincurius 

Dan 

8 

Achates 
Gad 



Marbodaeus, or Marbodus, was a native of 
Anjou; b. about 1035, he died at Angers, n Sept., 
1123. He was bishop of Rennes and was the 
author of several works in prose and in verse. 
Pits makes him out to be a Welshman, who ulti- 
mately went to France. Leyser calls him an 
Englishman, but these statements are not correct. 

The poem on precious stones, which is the work 
by which he is remembered at the present day, 
must have been widely circulated. Upwards of 
sixty manuscripts of it are known, and there are 
translations in French, Provencal, Italian, Spanish, 
English, Irish, Danish, and other languages. 

This poem, revised by Joan. Cuspinianus, was 
first printed at Vienna in 1511. It was not known 
to Beaugendre, Fabricius, Lessing, and others, but 
it is described by Beckmann. 

It is contained in Marbodus' works printed at 
Rennes, by Johannes Baudouyn, for Johannes Mace, 
1524, sm. 4 , a book so rare that Beckmann never 
saw it and Beaugendre could find only one copy in 
France. The copy I have came from the Sunder- 
land Library. The poem is on Dvi verso to Eii 
verso. Subsequent editions : Friburg (probably), 
1531, small square 8, A to G in eights, with the 
notes of Pictorius ; Paris, 1531, Christianus 
Wechelus, small square 8, pp. no [a]; Cologne, 
J 539 ( { he present edition) ; Francof. 1540, in Cor- 
narius' edition of Macer's De materiel medico, libri 
5 ; Basil. 1555, Marbodi Dactyliotlieca, and again 
in 1740 ; Witteberg. 1574, ed. Rantzovius ; with 
preface by Henricus Moller ; reprinted at Liibeck, 
J575. 8 I reprinted at Leipzig, 1585 (in these 
three editions the poem goes under the name of 
Evax) ; Lugd. Bat. 1695 and 1707 in Gorlseus 
Dactyliotheca, ed. Jac. Gronovius; Paris, 1708, the 
edition of Beaugendre, appended to his edition of 
Hildebert's works, in folio, pp. 1635-1690 ; Wolf- 
fenbuttel, 1740, 4, pp. 84 ; Beckmann 's edition, 
Gottingen, 1799, 8, pp. xxviii. 164. Beckmann 
gives a full account of the issues of the book and a 
critical edition of the text. Marbodaeus' poems 
are printed in Migne's Patrologia, vol. 171, and 
in Franz's edition of Pliny's Historia naturalis, 
Lips. 1791, x. pp. 734-762. 

There is an almost contemporary translation of 
the poem into old French. It was printed by 
Beaugendre from a MS. of S. Victor and reprinted 
by Beckmann. The fullest account of the old 
French translation, with the corresponding lapi- 
daries of Modena, Berne, and Cambridge and 
other similar works, is that by Leopold Pannier. 



There is an edition of the poems, with a trans- 
lation into modern French, and an introduction 
about the author by Sigismond Ropartz, Rennes 
(1873), 8, pp. 227 (the 'Lapidarium,' pp. 141- 
207). What amounts to a translation into Spanish 
is found in a MS. in the British Museum, from 
which it was edited by Karl Vollmoller : Ein 
Spanisches Steinbuch, Heilbronn, 1880, 8, pp. 
vi. 34. The Danish translation was made by 
Molbech, and that into English by King, printed 
in the appendix to his work on antique gems. 

The poem under the title of ' ' Lapidarium " is 
often quoted and whole passages are transferred or 
copied by Vincent de Beauvais, Speculum Natitrale, 
Lib. ix., and by Bartholomew Glanville, De Fro- 
prietatibus rertim, Lib. xvi., and it is also a source 
used in the Liber Aggregations attributed to 
Albertus Magnus. 

One of the questions connected with this work is 
whether it is by Marbodus or by an Arab called 
Evax. It has arisen because the poem opens with 
an allusion to a person of that name. Lessing 
(ii. p. 139) does not see why Evax should not have 
written a work on precious stones, or why Mar- 
bodus should have said that his poem was extracted 
from Evax's work, if it were not so. Reinesius 
thinks Marbodus made himself the interpreter of 
Evax. See also Beckmann's notes in his edition, 
1799, pp. 1-5. In the Histoire Litdrairc de la 
France, there is a sustained discussion about 
the authorship of the poem. Dom Rivet in 1735 
at first argued against the probability of Mar- 
bodus the bishop being the author, but in a later 
article he seems to have assigned it to him after all. 
The author of the article on Marbodus in a subse- 
quent volume criticises and refutes D. Rivet's 
views and on the whole decides in favour of the 
bishop, though he admits that the question is not 
absolutely settled. According to D. Rivet (ii. p. 
338) only two MSS. have the name of Marbodus. 
In a MS. on vellum (about 1380) in my possession 
(which I do not suppose is one of these two) there 
are at the end three lines marked ' Marbod' re- 
donSsis eps,' and the Colophon runs : " Explicit 
liber Marbodi eps redonSsis natura lapidS An. 
J. C. M. viij. xij." The lines occur in the 1524 
edition without any heading ; they are entitled 
'jMarbodei epilogus' in Pictorius' edition, 1531, 
f. 54; in the present edition, Epilogus, f. 76 verso; 
in Rantzovius' of 1585 they are called 'Conclusio 
operis,' and in Beckmann's they form part of 
what is termed 'Epilogus.' 



MARBODAEUSMARENGUS 



75 



MARBODAEUS. Continued. 

According to Beaugendre ( Venerabilis Hilde- 
berti primo Cenomanensis Episcopi . . . Opera 
. . . accesservnt Marbodi Redonensis episcopi . . . 
opuscula, Paris, 1708, fol., cols. 1379-80) the author 
is Marbodus Andegavensis, the bishop, and he 

Macri de Materia inedica Libri V. versib-us con- 
scripti, ed. Cornarius, Francofurti, 1540. (The 
poem : De naturis lapidum liber, forms Liber V. 
tf. 97 verso to 132 recto and the author's name is 
spelled ' Marboldus.') 

Wolfgang Jobst ( Justus), Chronologia sive Tetn- 
porum supputatio omnium illnstrium medicorum, 
Francophorti ad Viadmm, 1550, p. 75. ('Evax 
Rex Arabum ' in the time of Nero, noticed by 
Suidas and Symphorianus Campegius). 

Bale, Scriptorum . . . Brytannice Catalogus, Basil. , 
1557, Cent. ii. p. 154 (calls him ' Marbodus Euan x, 
Brytannus, ex Cambria'). 

Lilius Gregorius Gyraldus, ' Historiae Poetarum 
DialogusQuintus," Opera Omnia,i$8o,p. 223, No. 30. 

Gesner, Bibliotheca, ed. Simler, 1583, pp. 467 
(Marbodus), 501 (Merboldus). 

Antouius Possevinus, Apparatus Sacer, 1608, ii. 

P- 53- 

Sixtus Senensis, Hibliotheca sancta, 1610, lib. 4, 
p. 274 (calls him Marbadus). 

Pits, ' De Illustribus Britanniae Scriptoi ibus,' in 
Relationes Historic^ de Rebus Anglicis, Paris, 1619, 
p. 185. 

Gerardus Joannes Vossius, De Historicis Latinls 
libri III. , 1651, lib. 2, c. 44, p. 372. 

Reinesius, Defensio rariarum lectionum, 1653, 
p. 76. 

G. J. Yossius, DC I'etcntm Poetarum Tempori- 
bus Libri II., 1654, ' De poetis Latinis.'c. vi. p. 72. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 505. 

Conring, In Univenam artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio^ 1687, p. 93 (Evax). 

Du Pin, Nouvelle Bibliotheque des Auteurs 
Ecclesiastiques, 1697, ix. p. 159. 

Du Pin, A new Ecclesiastical History, 1698, x. 

p. 15- 

Ada Eruditorum, 1709, p. 145. 

Fabricius, Bibliolheca Latina, 1712, i. pp. 719 
(1524 edition), 869 ('do lapidibus') (the author is 
put under various names, Marbodeus, Merbodeus, 
Merboldus, Merobaudes) ; 1721, ii. pp. 308-313 
(list of his works) ; 880-881 (' Carmen de Gemmis '). 

Polycarp Leyser, Historia Poetarum et Poem- 
ntum Medii Aevi, Halre Magd. , 1721, pp. 368-70. 

Heumann, Poecile, 1722, I. lib. ii. n. xi. pp. 266- 
272 (' Emendatio Sententiarum Marbodi'). 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, 1728, xiv. p. 118 
(list of references in Vincent de Beauvais' Speculum 
Naturale to the book ' de Lapidibus,' which passes 
under the name of Evax). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothectz metallicce, 
1732, p. 98. 

Histotre Littraire de la France, 1735, ii. pp. 335- 



expresses some surprise at MoreYi calling him M. 
Cenomanensis. But Beaugendre either did not 
know or had forgotten that in Alard's present 
edition he is actually so entitled. 

340 (article by Dom Rivet); 1867, Avert. Ivij. , vii. 
p. 134 ; 1868, x. pp. 343-392- 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina media et infima 
/Etatis, 1736, v. pp. 45-56 ; iii. p. 761. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1751, 
iii. col. 134; Rolermund'sFortsefzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 641. (They draw a distinction 
between Marbodaeus and Marbodus.) 

MoreYi, Le Grand Dictionnairt historique, 
Amsterd., 1759, vii. p. 190. 

Mailer, Bibliotheca Medicinte practices, 1776, i. 
p. 429 ( ' de gemmis '). 

Lessing, Kollektaneen, 1790, under Edelsteine, 
i. p. 203 ; Evax, i. p. 226 ; Marbodus, ii. p. 137. 

Panzer, Annales Typographici, 1800, viii. p. 244, 
Xo. i (Marbodus, Hymtii, Rhedonis, 1524, 4 ) ; 
p. 149, No. 2077 (Marbodaeus, De lapidibus, 
\Vechel, 1531) ; 1801, ix. p. 7, No. 35 (Viennae, 
1511, 8); p. 152, No. 456 (without place, 1531). 

Chaudon et Delandine, Nouveau Dictionnaiie 
Historique, Lyon, An xii.-i8o4, vii. p. 592. 

Biographie Universelle, artcienne et moderne, 
Paris, 1820, xxvi. p. 568; n.d., xxvi. p. 424 (by 
Weiss). 

Morwitz, Geschichte dcr Medicin, 1848, i. p. 175 ; 
1849, ii. p. 105 (list of editions). 

Ernst H. F. Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik, 
Konigsberg, 1856, iii. p. 539. 

Gallia Christiana, Pans, 1856, xiv. col. 746. 

Nouvelle Biographie Ge"n<!rale, Paris, 1863, xxxiii. 
col. 366. 

C. W. King, The Natural History of Precious 
Stones and Gems, 1865, p. 7. 

C. W. King, Antique Gems, 1866, pp. 389-417. 
(Verse translation of Marbodceus' poem. King 
regards the ascription to Evax as merely a poetic 
license.) 

Steinschneider in Virchow's Archiv, 1868, xlii. p. 
57, note 16. 

C. Ferry, De Marbodi Rhedonensis episcopi Vita 
ct Carminibits, Nemausi, 1877, 8, pp. [8] 107 
[i blank] (' Lapidarium,' pp. 67-83.) 

Leopold Pannier, Les Lapidaires Franfais du 
Moyen Age des XII*, XIII et XIV* Siecles, Paris, 
F. Vieweg, 1882, 8, for/iiing the 52t)d fascicule of 
the ' Bibhotheque de 1'Ecole des hautes Etudes.' 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 
123. 

Lon Ernault, Marbode Evtque de Ken.nes sa vie 
et ses CEuvres (1035-1123) avec une preface et des 
notes de son frere Emile Ernault ... et de Ftlix 
Robiou, Rennes, 1890, 8, pp. [4] v. [i blank] 260 
[i, i blank] (' Liber Lapidum,' pp. 102-125). 



MARCHASITA (D E ). 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verre Alchemiie . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 254. 
See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 173. 

MARCK (BERNHARD VON DER). 

See BERNHARDUS TREVISANUS. 

MARENGUS (JOANNES BAPTISTA). 

Palladis Chymicae Arcana Detecta, siue Mineralogia Naturalis, & Artificialis. 



76 



MARENGUSMA RGGRAF 



MARENGUS (JOANNES BAPTISTA). Continued. 

Opus plane aureum. In quo prsecipue ostenditur modus efficiendi Philoso- 
phorum Lapidem, & multa alia lucrosa traduntur. Secunda Editio. In multis 
praxeis aucta, in omnibus clarius explicata, & in duas partes diuisa. Auctoris 
nomen in hoc puro anagrammate iterum delitescit. lanus Gobrat sapiens 
manet. Genuas, 1678. Typis Antonij Georgij Franchelli. Superiorum 
permissu. 

12. Pp. 426, 355 [3]. The second part has a short title included in the pagination. 

The first edition has the following title-page : 

* Palladis Chymicae Arcana detecta, siue Mineralogia Naturalis, & Artificialis. In 
Natural! ostenditur, quoniodo a natura metalla in visceribus terrse generentur : in 
Artificial! vero modus, quo per artem metalla imperfecta reducantur ad perfectionem 
Solis, vel Lunae, demonstratur Opus plane aureum in tres partes divisum. Auctoris 
nomen in hoc puro anagrammate delitescit lanus Gobrat sapiens manet. Genuae, 
M.DC.LXXIV. Typis Antonij Georgij Franchelli. Superiorum permissu. 

12. Pp. [1-18] 19-285 [2 of errata, i blank]. 



This first edition is said to be extremely rare. 
The second edition, as is obvious from the pagina- 
tion, has been much enlarged, and, in fact, re- 
written, besides being arranged in two parts 
instead of three. Lenglet Dufresnoy is, therefore, 
quite correct when he says that it is necessary to 
have both editions. But that is not quite easy to 
attain to, and in the British Museum, so far as I 
have observed, there is a copy of the second 
edition only. 

The author's anagram which appears in both 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoirc de la Philosophic 
Hermitique, 1742, iii. p. 253. 



editions, is explained in a note by the printer at the 
end of the second part of the second edition, p. 
355. He says that it stands for loannes Baptista 
Marengus, a citizen of Genoa, a man distinguished 
in literature. 

Similarly Lenglet Dufresnoy calls him Jean- 
Batiste Maringue. Kopp in his note on alchemical 
books with the title from ' Pallas ' quotes the first 
edition, but does not mention either the anagram 
or name of the author, and makes a little slip in 
saying that the book was published at Geneva. 

Kopp, Die Alcliemie, 1886, ii. p. 367. 



MARGARITA. 

See ARNALDUS de Villanova. 
See BONUS (PETRUS). 

For alchemical works called Margarita, see Kopp, Die Akliemie, 1886, ii. p. 374. 

MARGGRAF (ANDREAS SIEGMUND). 

Andr. Siegm. Marggrafs Directors und Chymici der Konigl. Preufsischen Aka- 
demie der Wissenschaften und der Churmaynz. Akademie niitzlicher Wissen- 
schaften ordentlichen Mitglieds Chymischer Schriften Erster Theil. Neue 
verbesserte Auflage. Berlin, bey Arnold Wever, Buchhandler. 1768. 

8. Pp. [22] 330 [6]. Folding table. 2 plates. 
Zweyter Theil, 1767, pp. xiv. 206. [i, i blank], i plate. 

[Another Copy of the second part.] 



The name is also spelt Marcgraf, Marcgrav, and 
Margraf. He was born at Berlin, 3 March, 1709. 
He had long training in pharmacy under Caspar 
Neumann in Berlin ; in 1731 he went to the 
Apothecary Rossler at Frankfurt a. M., and to 
Spielmann in Strasburg in 1733 ; studied medicine 
at Halle under Hoffmann and luncker, and miner- 
alogy and metallurgy under Henckel, at Freiberg. 
He travelled a good deal, and in 1739 paid a visit 
to the Harz, which he subsequently repeated. In 
1738 he was member of the Berlin Academy, and 



in 1754 head of its Chemical Laboratory, and in 
1760 director of the physical class of the Academy. 
He died at Berlin, 7 August, 1782. He was a 
Foreign Associate of the French Academy. He 
wrote numerous papers embodying important 
novelties, and is specially remembered for his dis- 
covery of beetroot sugar. In 1777 a medal was 
struck in his honour by Jacob Abramson. 

The first edition of his collected works, with a 
preface by J. C. Lehmann, appeared at Berlin, in 
two parts, 1761, 1767, 8. 



MARGGRAF--MARIA 



77 



MARGGRAF (ANDREAS SIEGMUND). Continued. 



E. G. Baldinger, Biographien jetslebender Aerzte 
und Naturforscher in und ausser Dentschland, 
1772, i. Stuck i (1768), pp. 87-98. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 372 
(paper on beetroot sugar). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. pp. 358, 
780 (calls him Alexander'). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 58. 

Histoire de I'Acadtmie Royale des Sciences, 
Annte 1782, Paris, 1785, pp. 122-130. 

Nouveaitx Mtfmoires de I'Acade'mie Royale des 
Sciences et Belles-Lettres, Ann<!e 1783, Berlin, 1785, 
pp. 63-72. 

Crell, Chemische Annalen, 1786, St. 2, pp. 181- 
192. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 612- 
20, & passim. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 4, 29, 41, 51, &c. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 289, 298, 313, 322, 326, 330, 331, 334, 
345-346, 354- 367. 378, 394, 477- 



La Prusse Littraire, ii. p, 456. 

Meusel, Lexikon der rom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 
verstorbenen Tentschen Schriftsteller, 1808, viii. 
pp. 487-490. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetzitng und Erganzungen, 1813, iv. 
col. 706. 

Biographic Mtdirale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 192. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 414- 
428 ; 1869, ii. pp. 407-421. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843-47, i. pp. 
208-211, &c., &c. 

Miscellanea Berolinensia, vi. p. 54 ; vii. p. 324. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
Jena, 1855, pp. 594-602 & passim. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 48. 

Aug. Wilh. Hofmann, Chemische Erinnerungen 
aits der Berliner Vergangenheit, 1882, pp. 10, 60, 
158. 



MARHERR (PHILIPP AMBROSIUS). 

Herrn Philipp Ambrosius Marherr Chemische Abhandlung von der Verwand- 
schaft der Korper, aus dem Lateinischen iibersetzt von E. G. Baldinger, der 
Weltweisheit und Arzneywissenschaft Doctor, Sr. Majestat des Konigs von 
Preufsen zu Dero Armeen ordentlichem Arzte, der Herzoglich deutschen Gesell- 
schaft der schonen Wissenschaften zu Jena Mitgliede. Leipzig, bey Christian 
Gottlob Hilschern 1764. 

8. Pp. 144. Two folding affinity tables. 



Marherr was born at Vienna in 1738, graduated 
there as doctor of medicine in 1762, his thesis (with 
Neppmuc Cranz as praeses) being entitled : Quaestio 
medica : Quae sint caussae musculorum motrices, 
Viennae, 1761, 4, and in 1766 was appointed pro- 
fessor of the Institutes of Medicine at Prague. He 
maintained against Haller, that the course of the 
blood through the lungs was quicker than through 
the rest of the body. He died 28 March, 1771. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 626. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 61. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 697. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 349. 

Meusel, Lexicon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 
verstorbcnen Teuischen Schriftsteller, 1808, viii. 
p. 490. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-I^xicon Roter- 



The present work was first published in Latin : 
Dissertatio chymica de affinitate corporum, Viennae, 
1762, 4. The preface of the translation is dated 
Prague. He wrote another paper : Program ma de 
electricitatis aereae in corpus humanum actione, 
Viennae (Prague?), 1766, 4, and after his death 
appeared Praelectiones in Hermanni Boerhavii 
institutiones medicas. Tom. I. -III., Viennae et 
Lipsiae, 1772, 8 ; Editio nova, Viennae, 1785, 8. 

mund's Fortsetzung und Ergiinzungen, 1813, iv. 
col. 710. 

Biographie Mfdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. 194. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historiqve de la Mtde- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 326. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 384. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte alter Zeiten ttnd Volker, 1886, iv. 
P- 134. 



MARIA. 

Dialogue de Marie et d'Aros, sur le Magistere d'Hermes. 

See RICHEBOURG (J. M. D.), Biblioth&que des Philosophes Chimiques, 1740, i. 
P- 77- 

Excerpta ex interlocutione habita cum Philosopho Aros. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL), Lumen Chymicum Novum ; Epilogus, 1624, p. 129. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 479. 

Explicatio verborum Mariae Prophetissae. 
See ORTHELIUS, 



MARIA MAROT 



MARIA. Continued. 
Practica. 

See ARTIS AURlFERjE . . . Volumina, 1610, i. p. 205. 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, i. p. 269; 1750, i. p. 329. 

See ARN ALDUS de Villa Nova, Chymische Schrifften, 1748, p. 263. 



By some Maria, or Maria Prophetissa, is iden- 
tified with Miriam, the sister of Moses, but by 
others she is described as a Jewess, who was 
trained in Egypt, was skilled in all its learning, 
and together with Pammenes was found in the 
Temple of Memphis by Democritus. Pammenes 
revealed the mysteries too freely, but Democritus 
and Maria concealed the processes in judiciously 
chosen language and thus gained renown. There 

Stephanus, ' Artis auri conficiendi actio nona ' in 
Pizimenti, Democritus Abderita De Arle Magna, 
Patavii, 1573, f. 59, verso. 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione metallica Sogni 
tre, 1599, p. 141. 

Maier, Symbola aurea Menses, 1617, pp. 56-63. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 154. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chetnicorum, 
1697, p. 7, No. viii. 

Lambecius, Prodromus Histories Literaria, 1710, 

P- 155- 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoirt de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, i. pp. 26, 460; iii. pp. u, 12, 
J 7. 37 44. 45 addition, No. 19. 



cannot be much doubt about her enigmatical 
language if the above writings be genuine. She 
gets the credit of having invented or introduced 
the use of the water-bath which to this day is 
known as Balneum Marias, or Bain Marie. Maria 
is quoted as an authority by Stephanus Alex- 
andrinus. Kopp considers the inclusion of Miriam 
among the alchemists as by no means modern. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 112 
(identifies Maria with Miriam, Moses' sister). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 
48-50. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Ckimie, 1842, i. p. 27 ; 
1866, i. p. 282. 

Kopp, Beitrage sur Geschichte der Chemie, 1869, 
St. ii. p. 402. 

Ladra.gne,BiZ>ZiotAe<fue Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 648-652. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 202, 207 ; ii. 

PP- 370, 395- 

Berthelot, Collection des . . . Alchimistes Grecs, 
1888, passim. 



MAROT (CLAUDE TOUSSAINT), Comte De La Garaye. 

Chymia Hydraulica oder neu-entdeckte Handgriffe, vermittelst welcher man das 
wesentliche Saltz aus Vegetabilien, Animalien und Mineralien mit schlechtem 
Wasser ausziehen kan. Erfunden und anfanglich in Franzosischer Sprache 
bekannt gemacht von dem Herren Grafen von Garaye, nunmehro aber wegen 
Vortrefflichkeit der Sache ins Teutsche iibersetzt von einem Liebhaber der 



Naturlehre. zweyte verbesserte Auflage. 
Johann Friedrich Fleischer, 1755. 
8. 



Franckfurt und Leipzig, bey 



Pp. [32] 364 [4]. 2 plates. The translator's initials are L. C. P. S. g. v. S. 

The French original is as follows : Chymie hydraulique pour extraire les sels 
des vegetaux, animaux et mineraux, par le moyen de 1'eau pure, par M. L. C. D. L. G., 
Paris, 1745, 12 ; and with notes by Parmentier, Paris, 1775. The German translation 
first appeared at Franckfurt and Leipzig in 1749, 8. 



This author was born at Rennes in Brittany, 
27 (26) Oct., 1675. He was educated in Paris, and 
distinguished himself at the College d'Harcourt. 
Urged by the desire to be of help to the unfor- 
tunate het>ecame a physician, and in this way was 
able to give them the benefit of his skill and of his 
fortune. He founded schools and hospitals at 
Rennes, Dinan, and other places, and even in 
Paris, where he established the refuges of Saint 
Saviour and Saint Bennet. His life was devoted to 
charitable objects, and the number of institutions 
he created was so great that it is difficult to under- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 353. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 628. 

Les Epoux Charitables, mi Vie du Comte et de la 
Comtessc de Lagaraye, 1782, 8. 

De La Bastie, 6veque de Saint Malo, Memoires 
ur la vie et les vertns du comte de La Garaye, 1786. 

Gme\\n,GeschichtederChemie,i.j<)%, ii. pp. 359, 520. 

Fuchs, Rcpertoritim der chemischtn Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 285. 

Biographie Universclle, 1819, xxiii. p. 144 ; n.d, 
xxii. p. 514 (calls him Lagaraye). 



stand how he could afford it. He was a diligent 
chemist, and devised methods for extracting a 
number of principles from plants, as from Peruvian 
bark, the extract from which was known as the 
essential salt of Garaye. He devised a rapid 
method for making black oxide of iron, and pre- 
pared an ammoniacal chloride of mercury called 
'Tinctura mercurialis, ' and wrote Recueil alpha- 
bMque des pronostics dangereux et mortels sur les 
di/erentes maladies des homines, pour servir a MM. 
les cures et autres, Paris, 1736, 18 ; 1770, 18. He 
died 2 July, 1755. 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), iv. p. 333 (article by Jourdan). 

QueYard, La France littirairc, 1832, iv. p. 423. 

Journal des Savants, Nov. 1858, p. 706 (article 
by Chevreul). 

Moniteur du 16 Janvier, 1859 (article by Paul 
Pougin). 

Nouvelle Biographie Generate, 1861 , xxviii. col. 814. 

Poggendorff 1 , Biographisch-Hterarisches Hand- 
, 1863, i. No. 1341. 



MAROTMARSCIANO 79 



MAROT (CLAUDE TOUSSAINT), Comte De La Garaye. Continued. 

J. Marie Peigne\ Le Comte Marot de la Garaye, Dictionnaire Encyclopedique del Sciences Medi- 

etude biographique, Paris, 1864, 8, pp. vii. [i cales, 4eme Srie, 1880, vi. p. 718. 

blank] 60. (Chemistry, pp. 47-53.) Hirsch, Biographisc/tes Lexikon der hervorra- 

"L&AraL^it t Bibli(>tMqueOHvarq/,Sciences Secretes, genden Aertze, 1885, ii. p. 492. 
1870, No. 1380. 

MARROW of Alchymy. 

See TRUE (A) Light of Alchymy, 1709. 

See PHILALETHA (iREN^EUS PHiLOPONUs), Kern der Alchymie, 1685. 

MARS. 

Die mit dem Marte genau vereinigte Venus. 
See TRACT ATUS Physico-Chymicus, 1706. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothectc metallic^, 1732, p. 98 (Rostock, 1706, 8*). 

MARSCHALCK QOHANN). 

See GLASER (CHRISTOPHLE), Novum Laboratorium, 1677. 

The translator and the translation are just men- Rotermund simply refers to Jocher and has nothing 
tioned by Jiicher, but no account of him is forth- of his own to add. 
coming, except that he was a physician, and 

Jocher, Allgemeines Geh-hrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. col. 206 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnsungen, 
1813, iv. col. 785. 

MARSCIANO (FRANCISCUS ONUPHRIUS DE). 

Clavis Arcis Hermetis Epistolae Tres Responsoriae Comitis Francisci Onuphrii 
de Marsciano Authoris ad Comitem Caesarem de Kulmiski a praedicto con- 
scriptae, quas Responsorias Epistolas idem Comes de Kulmiski pro hujus 
Sacrae Hermeticae Scientiae Inquisitorum eruditione propriis sumptibus typis 
edi curavit, Anno Salutis 1743, in gratiam Filiorum Artis. Ac sub Auspiciis 
Illustrissimi Domini, Domini Baronis Caroli Matthaei De Rechpach, Domini 
in Mederndorf, Neuhaufs, & Drassing, & caet. Sacrae Majestatis Reginae 
Ungariae, Bohemiae, & caet. Consiliarij Provincialis, nee non Inclytae Provinciae 
Carinthiae Deputati Actualis, exhibitas, dicavit. 

Isai. cap. 45 vers. 3. Et dabo tibi thesauros absconditos, & arcana 
secretorum: Etenim Eccl. cap. 20. 32. Sapientia abscondita, & thesaurus 
invisus, quae utilitas in utrisque ? Unde Job. cap. 28. Et non dabitur 
aurum obrizum pro ea, nee adaequabitur ei aurum neque conferetur 
Indiae Tincturis. Eccl. cap. i. & Prov. cap. 4. Viam ergo Sapientiae 
monstrabo tibi, & ducam te per semitas rectas. 
Cum permissu Superiorum. Coloniae. 

4. Pp. 134 [a]. Small woodcuts in the text. 
The epistles are dated Casciovine, 1739, 1740, and 1741 respectively. 
On the fly-leaf is the following MS. note : 

Der V. hat dieses Werk 1764, in Wien dem beriichtigten Herman Fictuld eigen- 
handig iibergeben ist auch bald darauf gestorben. Jm Maimonat 1773 h^ 06 cs vom 



Fictuld (defsen eigentlicher Namen Mumen thaler ware) zu Langenthal als seinem 
Geburths Ort erhandelt. 

N.B. Fictuld hat mir ein ehrlicher mafi geschienen da/umahl 74 Jahr alt, er hat 
viel gereiset und viel erfahrn aber er war gewifs kein Adeptus. Er hat zuerst in <B L 
seit 20 Jahren aber im B gearbeitet welchen er ftir die wahre Materia hielt. er wolte 
mir 10 Louis dor abentlehnen (?) nachher ano 1775 habc vernomen dass er mit selbst 
gemachter handle, und sich mit durchbrachte, Aflo 1777 im 78 jahr sein 

alters starb er. 



8o MARSCIANO 



MARSCIANO (FRANCISCUS ONUPHRIUS DE). Continued. 

Unfortunately the writer of the note does not The MSS. in question are quoted in the Cata- 

add his name. As for Fictuld's true name it does logus chemico-alchemico . . . cnriosorum, 1788 

not agree with Johann Heinrich Schmidt, which is (g.v.), said to have been drawn up by Graffer at 

given him by Kopp (Die Alchemie, Heidelberg, Vienna, and will be found in the 'Codices 

1886, ii. p. 367). Alchemic!,' p. 142, and 'Codices Cabalistici,' 

The name of this person is practically unknown p. 55, respectively. 

to the writers on alchemy. Kopp mentions him The author is called by Rotermund Franz 

in connection with some manuscripts, but he Onofrius Marsejano, an Italian count, Patricius of 

makes no reference to his printed works. And yet Orvieto and Fuligno, celebrated as a poet and 

it is said of him that he attracted much attention alchemist. He quotes none of his alchemical 

while he lived, and had still (in 1788) many ad- writings, but mentions a poem : L'Ebreo dis- 

herents. In one of the MSS. he calls himself singannato. Poema sacro, Venice, 1743, 4, pp. 

Franciscus Comes de Mno & Mte Jove and he 188. 
wrote in Italian. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- \^fa&g$R. t Bil>liothequeOuvaroff,SciencesSecrltes, 
mund's Fortsetzung und Erganzungen, 1813, iii. 1870, Nos. 1389-90. 
cols. 788-89. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 233. 

Lux Hermetica Clarificata, seu Circulus Quadratus sapientum, Opus Her- 
meticum de Vero, ac Probato Lapide Philosophico. Comite Francisco 
Onuphrio de Marsciano Authore. Sub Gloriosis Auspiciis Illustrissimi, ac 
Excellentissimi Domini, Domini Joannis Antonii Crotta, Patritii Veneti Meri- 
tissimi exhibitum. 

Paul. i. ad Cor. Oculus non vidit, nee auris audivit similia. Apocalyps. 
cap. 10. 9. Accipe ergo, & comede hunc librum, & erit in ore tuo 
tanquam mel dulce: scilicet lege, & pasce te hac dulcissima Doctrina 
Ezech. cap. 3. Et felicissimus eris in orbe, si verb EccL documenta 
cap. 2 1 . observaveris vers. 2. ubi dicit : Quasi a facie colubri fuge 
peccatum, & caet. Quapropter inde quid erit? r. Reg. cap. 14. vers. 
13. Gustans gustavi paululum mellis : & ecce morior. Unde fac, lit 
Prov. 3. vers. 17. &<:. si felix esse cupias. 

] Typis Joan. Frid. Kleinmayr, In [ ] Typ. 1742. 

4. Pp. 284 [4]. Woodcuts in the text. Out of the title-page has been cut the 
name of the place. 

Der unterwiesene Anfanger in der Chymie Hermetisches Sendschreiben von 
Comite Francisco Onuphrio de Marsciano an seinen auservvehlten Schtiler in 
der Kunst iiberschicket. Anno 1744. zu Coin auf Kosten dieses seines Schiilers 
gedrucket zum Nutzen derer Liebhaber der Chymie. Die Geheimnusse der 
Kunst und von niemand bifshero erklarte wunderwiirdige Dinge. Darum 
Job cap. 28. v. 17. Es wird ihm das Gold nicht gleich geachtet werden, 

und goldene Geschirr werden daflir nicht vertauschet werden. 
Wienn, bey Joh. Paul Kraufs, nachst der Kaiserl. Konigl. Burg. 1751. 

8. Pp. [112] 176. Title red and black ; nine woodcuts in the text. This copy 
wants pp. 177-182 [2 blank], containing advertisements of chemical books. 

[Another Copy, 1752.] 

8. Pp. [112] 176; 177-182 [2 blank]. Title red and black. Nine woodouts in 
the text. 

This is identical with the preceding except that the date is altered. This copy has the six pages of 
advertisements and the two blank pages. 

Auszug aus des Grafen Francisci Onuphrii de Marsciano Schriften. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C, 1779, iv. p. 202. 



MARSILIUSMARTIUS 81 



MARSILIUS FICINUS. 

See FICINUS (MARSILIUS). 

MARTINI (GREGORIUS). 

Commentatiuncula in libri qui inscribitur de Chymicorum cum Aristotelicis et 
Galenicis Consensu ac Dissensu Caput XI. Quod est de principiis Chymi- 
corum. Tractationem quaestionis : an sal sulphur & mercurius sint prima 
perfecte mixta, & reliquorum perfect^ mixtorum principia : novam perque 
utilem continens. Autore Gregorio Martini, Suibus. Sil. Doct. & Ducatus 
VVolavici in ejus Mesopoli, quae est Steinovia ad Oderam, Physico. 
Francofurti ad Oderam. Typis Friderici Hartmanni, M.DC.XXI. Impensis 

Martini Guets Bibliopolae. 

8. Pp. [12] 243 [i blank]. 

This is a commentary on the work of Sennertus, The book is mentioned by Mercklin, Manget, 
published in 1619. The author calls himself and Gnielin, but nothing is said about the author. 
Martinius, and apparently also Martini, and by 
others is styled Martinus, and Martini. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, Hi. 
1637, p. 183. col. 228 (merely quotes the book). 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 363. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 595. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 270. 

MARTINIERE ( DE LA). 

Tombeau de la Folie. Dans lequel se void les plus fortes raisons que 1'on 
puisse apporter pour fair connoitre la realitd & la possibilite de la Pierre 
Philosophale, & d'autres raisons & experiences qui en font voir Tabus & 
rimpossibilite. Par le S De La Martiniere, Medecin & Operateur ordin. du 
Roy. A Paris, Chez 1'Auteur rue de la Coutellerie au grand Dauphin Royal. 
Avec Privilege Du Roy. 

12. Pp. [12] 128. Portrait on the verso of the title. 

Haller quotes two books by a De la Martiniere : Jacob quotes it under a different title : Le 
L Empirique charitable, Rouen, 1664, 1667, 12 ; Chymique inconnu, ou I Imposture de la Pierre 
and Traite de la maladie venerienne, Paris, 1664, philosophale, Paris, about 1660, 12. 
1684, 16. He calls the author : Chemista, chir- According to his portrait he was born at Paris, 
urgus, peregrinator. It is possible that he was the 24 Feb., 1634, and at the age of twenty-eight began 
author also of the present work. Haller, however, to write his books on medicine, 
does not mention it. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie P. L. Jacob, Curiosith des Sciences Occultes, 
HermMque, 1742, iii. p. 231. 1862, p. 84. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicince practices, 1779, iii. 
P- IS*- 

MARTINUS DE DELLE. 
See ALIPULI. 
See DELLE (MARTINUS DE). 

In addition to the passages quoted in the Peg- In the list of manuscripts proposed in 1735 by 

fever horn De Belle's poem, reference may be made Augustinus Crusius of Erfurt to be printed, there 

to a few lines repeated by Petraeus with which De is one: ' Rarissimum Particulare,' by Martinus de 

Delle concludes his review of the questionable Belle. This may possibly be a misprint for de 

practices of the would-be adepts. Petraeus styles Delle. The list is contained in Abraham Eleazar"s 

him ' pious,' and Kammer-Diener of the Emperor 'Werck, 1 1735, 2nd edition. 
Rudolph. 

Fr. Basilii Valentini , . . Chymische ScAri/fen. ed. Petraeus. 1769, Neue Vorrede, sig. cs recto. 

MARTIUS (JOHANN NlKOLAUS). 

Unterricht in der Natiirlichen Magie. 

See WIEGLEB (JOHANN CHRISTIAN), Die Natiirliche Magie, 1782. 

II. F 



82 



MA R Tl US MA UGIN 



MARTIUS (JOHANN NIKOLAUS). Continued. 



Rotermund tells us that Martius was a celebrated 
medical practitioner at Brunswick who wrote the 
above book in Latin : De magia naturali ejusque 
usu medico ad magice et magica curandum, Lips., 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1788, iv. 
pp. 298, 421. 
Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 713. 



1715,4; 3rd ed., Ibid. 1717,8. The above was 
a thoroughly revised edition. Haller quotes edi- 
tions : Erford., 1700; 1705, 4; Lips., 1715, 4. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetzung und F.rganzungen, 1813, iv. 
col. 884. 



MATHEW (RICHARD). 

The Unlearned Alchymist His Antidote : Or, A more full and ample Explana- 
tion of the Use, Virtue and Benefit of my Pill, Entituled, An effectual 

whereunto is added ' Sund ^ Cures 



and Experiences, with particular direction unto particular Diseases and 
Distempers. Also, Sundry plain and easie Receits, which the Ingenuous may 
prepare for their own health. By Richard Mathew, and are to be had at 
his house by the Lyons Den at the Tower, next Gate to the By Ward. 
London, Printed for Joseph Leigh, at the upper end of Bazing-hall-street, 
near the Naggs-head Tavern, 1662. 

8. Pp. [16] 192. 



This book has two title-pages, which coincide 
exactly except that the second has after "Tavern " 
the additional words : ' ' and are there to be sold 
together with this Pill, 1662." 

There was a previous edition of 1660. 

The virtues of the pill are set forth in the narra- 
tives of the cures which it effected. The narratives 
are very much in the style of his contemporaries, 
Christopher Packe's, Dickinson's, Winter's, and of 
other vendors of secret specifics, both then and now. 
The accounts given are curious, and historically 
interesting, from the side lights thrown on the 
manners and customs of the times. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, iii. 
p. 140. 
Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 267. 



It is not said, however, that it was possibly this 
pill which was the cause of the death of Dr. Isaac 
Barrow. 

But Mathew had also to pay the penalty of 
every inventor ; his claim to the discovery was 
contested by Starkey, who wrote a tract upon it, 
and referred also to the subject in his chapter on 
' Oil of Sulphur,' in the COLLECTANEA CHYMICA, 
1684, p. 149 (q.v. ). 

The edition cited by Haller has the date 1663, 
and another tract by Mathew mentioned by Haller 
is : A pretious pearl in the midst of a dunghill, 
London, 1663, 8. 

John Aubrey, Brief Lives, chiefly of Contempor- 
aries, edited by Andrew Clark, 1898, i. p. 91. 



MATTH^US (JOANNES). 

Enodatio qusestionis : an armor um unguentum, ad curanda vulnera, nee visa nee 
tractata aliquid conferat ? 

See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, 1662, p. 573. 



Though the above is not included in the list of 
his works which I have seen, the author is the 
person distinguished as Johann Matthaus, or 
Matthai Hessus. 

He was the eighth son of Conrad Matthaus, 
professor of history and rhetoric at Marburg. He 
was born there 15 March, 1563, he was doctor and 
professor of medicine at Herborn from 1607, 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 519. 
Caspar Burman, Traiectum eruditum, 1750, 
p. 214. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 



private physician 01 the Count of Nassau, and 
wrote some books on medical topics. Among 
these was a treatise on the hot springs at Baden, 
Hanau, 1608, 8; 'Speculum sanitatis," ' Hortulus 
medicus'; ' Tractatus de febre pestilentiali' ; 
' Centuria difficultatum medicarum, practice im- 
primis necessariarum, 1 1616. 
He died at Marburg in 1621. 

col. 287 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 974. 

Strieder, Grundlage zu einer Hessisclien Gelehrten 
und Schriftsteller Geschichte, 1788, viii. p. 253. 



MAUGIN DE RICHEBOURG QEAN). 

See RICHEBOURG (JEAN MAUGIN DE). 



MAULIUSMAURER 83 



MAULIUS (JOHANNES PHILIPPUS). 

Griindliche Beschreibung des hochsten Kleinods der Welt -in Geistlichen und 
Leiblichen, vorgestellet in vier erbaulichen und Christlichen Gesprachen vom 
Gold von Mitternacht, darinnen von der hochsten Medicin und Stein der 
Weisen, und also den allerniitzlichsten Materien in der Gottlichen und Natiir- 
lichen Weifsheit, nach der heil. Schrifft, Natur, und Erfahrung nachdriicklich 
gehandelt wird. Gott zu Ehren und dem Nechsten zum besten heraus gegeben 
von loh. Phil. Maulio, M.D. Konigl. Preufs. Brunnen-Medico, Consule 
Lunensi &c. Gotha, Bey Jacob Mevio, An. 1714. 

8. Pp. [68] 1264 [2]. Title red and black, printed across two pages. Engraved 
frontispiece on two pages included in the pagination. P. 1155: Prodromus Jobi 
Chymici, Authore Job. Philippo Maullio, . . . Anno MDCCVIII. 

This book seems to have been originally issued with another title-page, which is added on at the very 
end of the present volume : 

"pBSMfl 2!"5T sive Medicina Theologica, Chymico-Irenica, & Christiano-Cabba- 

listica, Vorgestellt in der Ersten Continuation Curioser und Erbaulicher Gesprache 
Vom Gold von Mitternacht oder von der Hochsten Medicin, Darinnen gezeiget wird, 
wie diselbe in der Heiligen Schrifft, nach dem Grundtext, zu finden ; Und dafs die 
Vergleichung der Geistlichen, und Leiblichen Hochsten Medicin, die rechte Cabbala 
der Alien, oder ware Chimie seye ; Auch dafs nach diser erkanten Einhelligkeit, die 
Entscheidung der Theologischen Controversien, insonderheit die wiirckliche Einigkeit 
der beyden Evangelischen Religionen, unpartheyisch zu ersehen seye, von Joh. Philippo 
Maullio, St. Goarino, Med. Doctore, und Practico zu Liinen in Westphalen, auch 
Ihrer Konigl. May. in Preussen Medico, bey denen Neuen Mineralischen Wassern, 
und Gesundsheits-Brunnen, zu Schwelm in der Grafschafft Marck. Anno MDCCIX. 
Wesel zu finden Bey Jacobus von Wesel, Buchhandler daselbst. 

The book with this title and date 1709 is referred because he appears as the author of a dissertation : 

to by Kopp. In the Ouvaroff Catalogue the title- De abortu, Leyden, 1686, 4, quoted by Haller, 

page is given, but the date is 1713, and only 56 practised at Liinen in Westphalia, was physician 

preliminary pages are quoted. The present title- of the king of Prussia, at the then newly-discovered 

page of 1714 is not referred to. mineral springs at Schwelm in the Marck. Upon 

There is no information about the author's these he wrote a treatise : Von Schwelmer Sauer 

biography except what he himself says. He be- brunnen, 1706, referred to by Gmelin. 
longed to St. Goar, was M. D. possibly of Leyden, 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca: metallica:, Kortum verteidiget die Alchimit, 1789, p. 46. 
1732, p. 99. Gmelin, Gcschichte der CAcmie, 1798, ii. p. 781. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i., p. no (gives Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

the date as 1713). Secretes, 1870, No. 1639 (gives the 1709 title, but 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1788, iv. the date 1713). 
p. 8. Kopp, Die Akhemie, 1886, ii. p. 391. 

MAURER. 

See WARUM gelangen nur wenige Menschen zum Meisterstiik der koniglichen 
Kunst ? 

MAURER (FELIX). 

Observationes Curioso-Physicse, oder besondere Remarques und Anmerckungen 
der geheimen und grossen Wunder der Welt in natiirlichen Sachen, welche 
sowol, am Himmel, in der Lufft, Feuer, Wasser, auf und in der Erde, an 
Menschen, Thieren, Gewachsen u.d.g. sich erzeiget, aus der erfahrensten 
Physicorum und Natur- Verstandigen Schrifften herausgezogen, und iiber die 
curieusesten Materien der natiirlichen Wissenschafften gestellet von Felix 
Maurer Physico & Medico. Franckfurth und Leipzig, Bey Johann Leon- 
hard Buggeln, Buchhandlern in Niirnberg. 1713. 

8. Pp. [32] 1039. Index [17]. Title printed across two pages. Folding plate of 
natural wonders. 

All that Rotermund can tell us is that the AllgemeinesGelehrten-Lexicon; Rotermund's Fort- 
present author was a doctor of medicine and a setzung und Erkl&rungen, 1813, iv. col. 1030. 
'physikus,' and wrote the above book. Jocher, - 



84 MA YERMEDICINISCH 

MAYER (JOHANN FRIEDRICH). 

See MEYER (JOHANN FRIEDRICH). 

MAYER (LUDWIG CASPAR). 

See KIRCHMAIER (GEORG CASPAR), Metallo-Metamorphosis, 1693. 

MAYER (MICHAEL). 

See MAIER (MICHAEL). 

MEDIC AMENTIS (De) Universalibus Dissertatio. 

Without place, date, and printer's name. 
See PANTALEON, Disceptatio de lapide Physico, 1678. 

MEDICAMENTORUM (De) Dosibus Index omnium, qui hactenus prodierint 
longe locupletissimus. Bononise, M DCC XLV. Ex Typographia 

Dominici Guidotti, & Jacob! Mellini. Superiorum Permissu. 

4. Pp. 244 [2] 2 blank. 

MEDICES (CHRISTIAN DE). 

Concursus Philosophorum, das ist griindlich-wahrhafftig- und einfaltige Beschrei- 
bung und Philosophische Zusammenstimmung, welcher gestalt die lieben 
Alten das grofse Geheimniifs vom Stein der Weisen zu wercke gerichtet und 
hinterlassen, auch wie noch heutiges Tages, auch andachtiges Beten, fleifsiges 
Lesen, und wohlgefafsten Grund, solch hohes Mysterium zu erlangen und 
zu bekommen seye. Aus treuhertzigem Wohlmeynen den Meinigen, und alien 
Gottliebenden Nachforschern, zu einer unfehlbaren Richtschnur und Unterricht 
auffgesetzet durch den Wohlgebohrnen Herrn, Hn. Christian de Medices, 
Freyherrn von Scharfenstein, Herrn zum Rosenthal und Silbersdorff &c. Und 
zum offentlichen Druck befordert durch Lt. Johanne Friederico Brebifs, der 
Zeit Hoch-Furstl. Brandenburg. Culmbach. Physicato Adjuncto der Stadt und 
sechs Aemter Wohnsiedel. Jena, In Verlegung Johann Bielckens, 1706. 
8. Pp. [16, frontispiece included] 768. Title red and black. 

This is a collection of passages from various authorities systematically arranged so as to elucidate 
different questions connected with transmutation. 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoire de la Philosophic L.a.&ra.g\\e,Bibliothtque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secrltes, 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 232. 1870, No. 1332. 

MEDICINISCHE Betrachtung iiber Alchymistische Medicinen, worinnen durch 
Analysirung vieler Arbeiten der angeriihmtesten alchymistischen Authoren 
erwiesen wird, dafs alle Partikular- sowohl als Universal-medicin der Philo- 
sophen nichts sey, als Sal Metallorum est Lapis Phylosophorum. Wien 
1792 in der Zierchischen Buchhandlung im deutschen Hause. 
8. Pp. [18] 53 [i blank]. 

MEDICINISCH- Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum darinnen man nicht 
nur alle Zeichen und Abkiirzungen welche so wohl in den Recepten und 
Biichern der Aerzte und Apothecker als auch in den Schrifften der Chemisten 
und Alchemisten vorkommen findet sondern deme auch ein sehr rares 



MEDICINISCHMEERHEIM 85 

MEDICINISCHE- Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum. Continued. 

Chymisches Manuscript eines gewissen Reichs * * * beygefuget Ulm un 
Memmingen 1755 in der Gaumischen Handlung 

8. Pp. [6] 72 [2 blank]. Symbols. 2 woodcuts. 

P. 41: 

Geheimnifs aller Geheimnisse oder Clavis Sapientiae omnium Philosophorum et 
Adeptorum in einem guldenen Kleinod und Compendio Veritatis Philosophico aus 
einem uralten Manuscript von Anno 1300. mitgetheilet und ans Licht gestellet. 
M DCC LV. 

MEDIOLANUM. 

Antidotarium Mediolanense. 

See PROSPECTUS PHARMACEUTICUS Galenico-Chymicus, 1698. 

MEDULLA Alchymiae Veteris. 
See HORN (GEORG). 

For alchemical books called Medulla, see Kopp, Die Alchetnie, 1886, ii. p. 347. 

MEDULLA Destillatoria et Medica. 

See KHUNRATH (CONRAD), Lipsiensis. 

MEERHEIM (JOHANN GOTTFRIED). 

Discurs Curioser Sachen, insonderheit Hermetisch-Philosophischer Physicalisch- 
Medicinischer und anderer Wissenschafften, im Monath Januario 1708. 
Heraufsgegeben von Johann Gottfried Meerheim, Eq. Arc. Cr. Leipzig, 
Verlegts Johann Heinichens Wittwe. 

8. Pp. 79 [i]. 

Discurs . . . im Monath Februario 1708. Herausgegeben von J. G. M. 
E. A. C. Leipzig . . . 

8. Pp. 72 (misprinted 27). 

Theosophischer Discurs von denen tribus Partibus Essentialibus zu Ergantzung 
des Discurses Im Monath Februario 1708. Versprochener massen heraus- 
gegeben von J. G. M. E. A. C. Leipzig . . . 

8. Pp. 47 [i blank]. 

[Another Copy of the January number.] 

There were also numbers in March and April, after which apparently it ceased. 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoire de la Philosophic Gmelin, Geschichte der Ckemie, 1798, ii. p. 325. 
ffermdlique, 1742, iii. p. 233. 

MEERHEIM (PAUL WILHEM VON). 

Paul Wilhem von Meerheim eines Obersachsischen Chymici glucklich vollfuhrte 
Reise-Beschreibung nach denen unbekannten Ost- und Siidwerts gelegenen 
Indianischen Insuln, von wannen derselbe nebst seinen Cameraden glucklich 
und zur grosten Freude seiner Freunde retourniret ist, vielen zum Vernugen 
begannt gemachet. Erlangen und Leipzig, 1753. Zu finden in dem 

Miillerischen Buchladen. 

8. Pp. 56. 
This journey is an allegory of the search for the stone. 



86 



MEGISERUSMEISNER 



MEGISERUS (HiERONYMUs). 

See ARNALDUS de Villanova, Opera, 1603. 



Saxony called him to Leipzig to be extraordinary 
professor of history. In 1605 he undertook the 
establishment of a school at Gera, on a new plan. 
In 1609 he was recalled to Leipzig, and three years 
later settled at Linz in Upper Austria, where he 
died in 1616 or 1618. 

Megiserus was a man of immense acquirements, 
especially in history, geography, and languages. 
His numerous and laborious books are entirely 
connected with these subjects, and lists are given 
by Rotermund and Elze. 

The only contribution to Alchemy which he made, 
so far as I know, is the present collection of tracts 
by Arnaldus. 



Nouvelle Biographic Gdndrale, 1865, xxxiv. col. 
722. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1885, xxi. p. 
183 (article by Th. Elze). 

Kopp, Die Alckemie, 1886, ii. p. 335. 



Megiserus was born at Stuttgart in 1553, where 
his father was conrector of the gymnasium, studied 
at Tubingen under Frischlin, and took his master's 
degree in 1577. In 1582 he went to Padua to study 
jurisprudence, and in 1584-88 he returned as tutor 
with some young noblemen. In 1588-89 he travelled 
in Italy and visited Malta, and in subsequent years 
he travelled in Germany, Holland, and England. 
In 1590-91 he was living at Graz in Styria and was 
nominated Historiographer by Archduke Charles. 
From 1592 to 1598 he was rector of the gymnasium 
at Klagenfurth, but at the end of that time he had 
to retire on account of the Jesuits, and went to 
Frankfurt on the Main. In 1603 the Elector of 

Witte, Diarium Biographicum, 1688, Ann. 1616 ; 
Sig. N4, recto. (Witte calls him Megisterus. ) 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 356 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
tingen, 1813, iv. col. 1188. 

Biographie Universelle, 1821, xxviii. p. 115 ; 
n.d. xxvii. p. 503 (article by Weiss). 

MEHUN. 

See JEAN DE MEHUN. 

MEINSTOOF. 

See FURSTLICHE ROSE (Die) von Jericho. 

MEISNER (LORENTZ). 

Gemma Gemmarum Alchimistarum. Oder Erleuterung der Parabolischen und 
Philosophischen Schrifften Fratris Basilij, der zwolff Schlussel, von dem Stein 
der vhralten Weisen, vnd desselben aufsdrucklichen vnnd warhafften prepara- 
tion. Sampt etlichen feinen Particularen. Durch, Laurentium Meisnerum 
Chirurgum, Eschvvegiensem Hassum. Item, Aufslegung Rythmorum Basilij, 
von der Materia des Steins der Philosophen, Gefertiget durch Conrad Schulern. 
Eifsleben. Mit Rom. Keys. May. Freyheit. Anno M.DC.VIII. 

8. No pp. Sigs. A-G in eights ( = 111, i blank), a-e in eights (=77, 3 blank). 
Title red and black. 5 woodcuts. 

e-j recto, Colophon: Gedruckt zu Eifsleben, Durch Jacobum Gaubisch. In 
vorlegung Jacob Apels, Buchhandl. in Leipzig, Anno M.DC.VIII. 

Schiller's tract has a separate title included in the foliation (aj), as follows : 

Griindliche Aufslegung vnd warhafftige Erklerung der Rythmorum Fratris Basilii 
Valentini Monachi. Vonn der Materia, jhrer Geburt, Alter, Farb, Qualitet vfl Namen, 
des grossen Steins der Vhralten Philosophen. Gefertiget durch, Conrad Schulern, 
Furstlichen Wurtembergischen Obern Rath zu Stuttgart. 

Ad Momum ha ha he. 

Rides me ? Magis rideo te. 

Spernis me ? Magis sperno te. 

Lachestu mein ? Viel mehr ich dein. 

Haltestu dann auch nichts von mir, 

Viel weniger halt ich von dir. 
Anno M.DC.VIII. 



Gmelin states that Schiller was author also of 
'Artis tractatus,' Cassel, 1612, 8; ' Collatio plus- 
quam Aurea Comitis Bernard! Trevisani, de 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 518. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen &u 
. . . Jdcher's Allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1813, 
iv. col. 1279. 



miraculo Chimico sive de Lapide Philosophico, ' 
1616. See SCHULER (CONRAD). 

Meisner and this book are just mentioned by 
Rotermund. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 208. 
\jsAr3.gu&,Bibliotheque Ouvarof, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 990-991. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 373. 



MEISTERSTUKMENNENS 87 

MEISTERSTUK der koniglichen Kunst. 

See WARUM gelangen nur wenige Menschen zum Meisterstiik der koniglichen 
Kunst ? 

MELCHIOR, Episcopus Brixiensis. 

Ein Philosophisches Werck und Gesprach von dem Gelben und Rotten Man. 
See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii. 1598, p. 177. 
See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemiae, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, 

p. 299. 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 296. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 299. 

MELVOLODEMET (FRANCISCUS SEBASTIANUS FULVUS), Pisanus. 

Non plus ultra Veritatis, Untersuchung der hermetischen Wissenschaft. 

See WELLING (GEORG VON), Opus Mago-Cabbalisticum et Theosophicum, 1735, 

p. 556. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, ii. p. 269. 

MEMORIA che serve d' Introduzione alia Riforma del Catalogo de' Medicamenti 
della Spezieria dello Spedal Maggiore di Brescia scritta dalla Medica Deputa- 
zione per ordine dell' Illustriss. Presidenza di detto pio luogo. In Brescia 

M DCC XCIV. Dalla Stamperia Locatelli con permissione. 

8. Pp. 47 [i blank]. 

MENAPIUS (F G ). 

See 'AvTiK/Dwris ad Responsum Florentini de Valentia, 1618. 

Copia Literarum. 

See FORTALITIUM scrENTi^;, 1617, 1618. 

Murr, Uber den waAtcn Ursprung der Rosenkreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 
1803, pp. 36, 46. 

MENNENS (GUILIELMUS). 
Aurei velleris libri tres. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66o, V. p. 240. 

Munnens, son of Willem Mennens and Mechteld Bellerum, 1604, 4. He died at Antwerp, 28 Dec., 

van Doorne, was born at Antwerp in 1525. He 1608, and was buried in the church of St. James, 

pursued poetry, natural history, theology, medi- and left a son, Franciscus. 

cine, and chemistry, and was a 'searcher for the Of his book Paquot says 'it is an allegorical, 

blessed stone.' He edited the poems of Adrianus symbolical, physical, chemical and alchemical 

Scorelius, and wrote the above work : De Aureo history of Gideon and Jason, or, if you will, a heap 

Vellere, sive Sacrae Philosophiae, Naturae & Artis of visions.' 
admirabilium libri iii. Antverpiae apud Gasp. 

Franciscus Sweertius, Athena Belgica, 1628, p. Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 

315. Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 56, 233. 

Paquot, Mtmoires, ii. pp. 671, 672. Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, col. 437. 

1637, p. 189. Kloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mfdecine, 

Valerius Andreas, Bibliotheca Belgica, 1643, p. 1778, iii. p. 266. 

329. Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 157. der Rosenkreuzer, 1788, iii. p. 69. 

Kbnig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, pp. 531, Kortum verteidiget die Alchemie, 1789, p. 50. 

532. Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatits, 1686, p. 381. 1806-08, p. ico (misnames him Meneus). 

Wittc, Diarium Biographicum, 1688, Ann. 28 Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 

Dec. 1608 ; sig. F 4 verso. 360. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der 

1697, p. 33, No. 1. Nederlanden, 1869, xii. p. 593. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Ladrague.lj Bibliotheque Ouvarof, Sciences 

1731, II. i. p. 299. Secretes, 1870, No. 986. 

Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica, 1739, i. p. 415. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 244. 



MENNIMENTZEL 



MENNI QOHANN HEINRICH). 

See TILEMANN ( ), Lapis Ignis Basilij, das ist : Guldiner Apffel . . ., 1666. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy (Histoire de la Philosophic redivivum, quo Franciscus Antonius mira morbos 
Hermttique, 1742, p. 233) does not quote this, curando praestabat, Francof., no date, 8. 
but another tract by Menni : Aurum potabile, Menni seems to have been the editor of Tile- 

mann's tract. 

MENSENRIET. 

D. Mensenriet. Vrim & Thumim Moysis welches Aaron im Amts-Schildlein 
getragen Feuer-bleibendes Wasser der Maccabaeorum aus dem allgewaltigen 
grossen Buch der Natur hervor gebracht, und Sonnen-klar an das Tage- 
Liecht gegeben, durch die ohnbekandten Ritter der streitbahren Insul 
Colchon. Philosophisches Hermetisches Kleinod, d. i. Ein hellbrennendes 
Feuer und Mercurialisches-Licht der Weisen, das in der Finstere leuchtet, 
die rechte Anima der Metallen, das Principium movens, die rechte Forma 
der Metallen, der rechte Sulphur &c. wodurch alles gezeiget wird. Virtutes 
Alchimize Artificialis, d. i. Anima Animae maximae, vel Forma Metallorum & 
Mineralium & essentialis ignis generativis (sic), ein Funcklein Dei, Salomon 
nennet es, eine Flamme des Herrn, so nimmer verloschet. Niirnberg, bey 
Joh. Friedrich Riidiger, 1737. 

8. Pp. 96. 

Fictuld calls the author Doctor Mensenried, and Ladrague puts Mensenriet as the author, 

quotes this book, which he condemns, while he In the British Museum Catalogue there is no 

admits that he knows nothing of the author. reference to Mensenriet, and I have not discovered 

The author of the Beytrag includes the book in any other heading under which the book might 

his catalogue, but takes no notice of Mensenriet have been entered, 

and does not speak of the author. Nor is it included by Graesse in the Trdsor. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 94. Ladrague, BibliothtqueOuvaroff Sciences Secretes, 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 1870, No. 1371. 
p. 665. 

MENTZEL (CHRISTIAN). 

Lapis Bononiensis in obscuro lucens, collatus cum Phosphoro Hermetico clariss. 
Christiani Adolphi Balduini, cognomine Hermetis, &c. nuper edito, et cunctis 
naturae indagatoribus ulterioris scrutinii ergo exhibitus a Christiano Mentzelio, 
D. Sereniss. Elect. Brandenb. Consil. & Archiatro S. R. Imp. Acad. Naturae 
Curiosor. Collega. Bilefeldiae, Sumtibus Auctoris. Typis lusti Trenckeneri. 
M.DC.LXXV. 

12. Pp. [42] 77 [ij. 2 plates. 

Christian Mentzel was born at Fiirstenwald in the to retire into private life. He carried on a 

' Mittelmarck,' where his father was burgomaster, voluminous correspondence, even with friends in 

15 (22) June, 1622. He studied at Frankfurt on India, and he was considered the best Chinese 

the Oder, and at Konigsberg, accompanied the scholar in Europe of his time. He died at Berlin, 

Brandenburg ambassador to Warsaw in 1647, and 17 Jan., 1701, in his 79th year. He was a member 

afterwards spent a year at Danzig. In 1650 he of the Leopoldine Academy, admitted 18 Feb., 

started to travel, and by Hamburg went to Holland, 1675, with the name ' Apollo.' 

Italy, the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, His writings refer principally to botany, and 

and Candia, and in 1654 was at length at Padua, include a polyglot dictionary of botanical terms, 

where he took the degree of doctor. When he and he compiled also a chronology of all the 

returned home he accompanied the Churftirst, Chinese kings. 

Frederick William, as travelling physician to the Besides the above he communicated to the 

Rhine, and was created councillor and private Leopoldine Academy papers on mineralogical 

physician. He accompanied him during subse- topics : on toad-stones, on aetites, belemnites, 

quent years in all his campaigns and journeys, and chelonites, &c. 
on his death in 1688 Mentzel requested permission 







MENTZELMERCURIJ. 89 



MENTZEL (CHRISTIAN). Continued. 

Miscellanea Academics Naturce Cnriosoru w, Ann. col. 441; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnx- 

1676, Appendix ad Annum Quartum.et Quintum, ungen, 1813, iv. col. 144^. 

pp. 180-214 (or in the other issue, pp. 158-189); Biichner, Academies . . . Leopoldino-Carolince 

Ann. 1699, Appendix, p. 191. Natures Curiosorum Historia, 1755, p. 467, No. 57. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 532. Matthia:, Conspec tus Histories Medicorum chrono- 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 170. logicus, 1761, p. 598. 

Decad. II. Actorum Medicorum Berolinensium Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 622. 
. . . volumen IV., 1724, pp. 3-5, with a portrait. Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Me"decint, 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorutn Medicorum, 1778, iii. p. 268. 
1730, II. i. p. 300. Haller, Bibliotheca Medicinte practice, 1779, "' 

Stolle, Anhitung zur Historic der Medicinischen p. 383 ('archiater Brandenburgicus, vir poly- 

Gelahrheil, 1731, pp. 679, 680, 681. mathos '). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallicte, Biographic Universelle, 1821, xxviii. p. 327; n.d. 

1732, p. zoo. xxvii. p. 663. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, Nouvelle Biographic Generate, 1865, xxxiv. col. 

P- 537- 1012. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelekrien-Lexicon, 1751, iii. Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 279. 

MENUDIER (JEAN). 

See GLASER (CHRISTOPHLE), Chymischer Wegweiser, 1710. 
Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 384. 

MERCKWURDIGE Nachricht, wie es einem Schuler der Hermetischen 
Philosophic in dem Gesuch des Steins der Weisen ergangen. 
See v. (j. R.), M.D., Giildene Rose, No. ii. 

MERCURE (Le) Indien. 

See ROSNEL (P DE). 

MERCURII Zweyfacher Schlangen-stab, das ist : 

I. Gliicks-Ruthe zu Paracelsi Chymischem Schatz. 
II. Menstruum seu Solvens Universale Philosophicum, 

darinnen das Gold sine strepitu, wie Eyfs in warmen Wasser zerschmiltzt : 
Samt dem gantzen Philosophischen Procefs. Ulm, In Verlegung Balthasar 
Kiihnen Seel. Wittib. 1679. 

12. Pp. [4] 112 [4 blank]. 
Each tract has a separate title-page as follows, included in the pagination. 

I. Gliicks-Ruthe, zu Erhebung defs von Paracelsoangezeigten KoniglichenSchatzes, 
zwischen Beyern und Schwaben. Beschrieben, durch A. A. Naturalium Cultorem, also 
benahmt. 

Kont ich rheinem Namen geben 
Einen Athem oder Leben : 

Wer' er gleich dem Stein Saphir, 

Dieses woll man glauben mir. 

Meine Wohnstatt wol bekannt 

Wird vom Hbchsten Haubt genafit, 
Thet' ich ihren Durch-Flufs nennen 
Wurde sie ein jeder kennen. 
Anno Salutis. HeVs ! 
DesVper & eX CoeLIs Gaza roratVr In terraM. [=1672, or 1677?]. 

II. Menstruum seu Solvens Vniversale Philosophorum. Das ist: Klarliche Beschrei- 
bung defs Universal-Subjecti, darinnen solch Menstruum begriffen : Und wie dessen 3. 
Principia zu extrahiren ; mil seinem Mare Hermetice zu componiren ; Auch zur Universal 
Tinctur zu perficiren ; zu Fermentiren und zu Augmentiren. Durch G. C. Saphir. 
Anno Salutis. OranDo & LaboranDo aCqVIrltVr (iaza eX FVnDo. [=1677.] 

Can there be any allusion in the verses in the preceding title-page to the author of this second tract ? 

MERCURIJ-ARBEIT (Ein), vnd Augment mit dem Mercuric Lunse. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die gulden Arch, Schatz und Kunstkammer, 1614, Part ii 
p. 245. 

See EROFFNETE GEHE1MNISSE des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 545. 



MERCURIO MERLIN 



MERCURIO (De) Alchymistarum. 

See ZWEY schone Chymische TraCtetlein. 

MERCURIO (De) Philosophico parvus tractatus. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, Hi. p. 697. 

MERCURIUS TRISMEGISTUS. 

See HERMES TRISMEGISTUS. 



MERLIN. 

Allegoria de arcano lapidis. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^ . 



volumina, 1610, i. p. 252. 



Allegoria . . . lapidis arcanum perfecte continens. 

See GINJECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 569. 

See GEBER, Summa Perfectionis, 1682, p. 265. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 191. 

Allegoria vom Geheimnuss des Steins. 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, i. p. 340; 1750, i. p. 413. 

Allegoric vom Stein der Weisen. 

See GEBER, Chymische Schriften, 1751, p. 271. 

See GEBER, Commentaria iiber Gebers Werke, 1792, p. 306. 



The 'Allegory' of Merlin, which was printed 
along with Geber from the Vatican manuscript 
by Marcellus Silber before 1520, probably for the 
first time, seems to be a fairly ancient document. 
It describes in a symbolical way certain operations 
with gold and mercury, and curiously enough it 
quotes no authority, but refers to Egyptian and 
Alexandrian physicians, and it might have eman- 
ated from that source. It does not appear, how- 
ever, among the Greek writings which have re- 
mained to us. 

How it came to be attributed to Merlin is a 
question %vhich, so far as I am aware, has received 
no answer, nor is it at all certain whether it is to be 
ascribed to Ambrosius Merlin, or Merlin Caledonius, 
or to some one who has simply assumed the name. 

To suppose it the work of either of the two semi- 
historical personages who lived in the fifth and sixth 
centuries respectively, involves assumptions which 

La Vita di Merlino, Venetia, 1480, 4; Florentia, 
1495.4; Venez., 1539, 1554. 

El baladro del sabio Merlin con sus profecias, 
Burgos, 1498, fol. 

Histoire de la vie, miracles, enchentemens et pro- 
pheties de Merlin, Paris, Verard, 1498, fol. 

Bale, Illustrium Maioris Britannia Serif torum 
. . . Summarium, Gippeswici, 1548, f. 27 
(Ambrosius Merlinus); f. 32 (Merlinus Caledonius). 
(Both were prophets, both were skilful about 
nature, but there is no allusion to chemistry.) 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione Metallica Sogni tre, 
1599, p. 141. 

Maier, Symbola aurete menses, 1617, p. 559. 

Pits, Relation-urn Historicarum de rebus Anglicis 
Tomus Primus, 1619, p. 101 (Merlinus Caledonius, 
Ann. 570) ; p. 89 (Ambrosius Merlinus, Ann. 480). 

Thomas Heywood, The life of Merlin, sirnamed 
Ambrosius. His Prophesies, and Predictions 
interpreted, London, 1641, 4. (This is in fact a 
history of England.) 



it would be difficult to substantiate. That they 
were said to be of supernatural origin, that they 
were reckoned prophets and magicians, and that 
they took part in the now dimly seen events of 
their times, is a matter for historical investigation ; 
but how they acquired a knowledge of alchemical 
operations long before such were known in this 
country at all, or, for that matter, in Western 
Europe, makes one doubt the authorship of the 
present writing. The problem, therefore, at pre- 
sent remains without a satisfactory solution. The 
plausible explanation of Schmieder that the writer 
learned his alchemy at Alexandria is destitute of 
proof, and the events of the lives of the two Merlins 
show that they had something else to do than 
engage in alchemical experiments. 

The references which follow are chiefly to the 
historical persons of the name, not to the legendary 
Merlin, or to the present writer. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 158. 

Morhof, De Metallorum Transim/tatione ad 
. . . Joelem Langellotum . . . Epistola, 1673, p. 132. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 55. 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina medics et infinite 
Aetatis, 1736, v. p. 209 (Ambrosius Merlinus) ; 
p. 210 (Merlinus Caledonius). 

Fr. Gotthilff Freytag, Programma de Merlino 
Britannico, Naumburg, 1737, fol. 

E. D. Hauber, Bibliotheca magica, 1741, iii. pp. 
480-486 (reprint of the article by Friedr. Gotthilff 
Freytag). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 37, 42, 70, 170. 

Freytag, Analecta litleraria, 1750, p. 592 (about 
the above life in French printed by Verard). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 465 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1513. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. in. 



MERLIN METALLISCHER 



MERLIN. Continued. 

Jeremias Nicolaus Eyring, Synopsis historic 
literaries, 1783, i. p. 140. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

P- 483- 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 125. 

Biographic Universelle, 1821, xxviii. p. 379 
(article by Weiss) ; n.d. xxviii. p. 46 (article by 
Weiss and Alf. Maury). 

MERRETT (CHRISTOPHER). 

See NERI (ANTONIO), De Arte Vitraria. 

Merrett was born 16 Feb., 1614, at Winchcombe, 
iu Gloucestershire, and was named Christopher, 
like his father. He entered Gloucester-Hall at 
Oxford in 1631, after two years removed to Oriel 
College, and took the degree of B.A. in 1634. Re- 
turning to Gloucester-Hall he studied medicine, 
graduated M.B. in two years, and in 1642 M.D. 
(Eloy says: 31 Jany., 1643.) He removed to 
London, acquired a considerable practice, was 
elected a fellow of the College of Physicians and 
keeper of Harvey's Museum and Library, and was 
an original fellow of the Royal Society. He wrote 
some papers on natural history and on tin mining, 



Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 113. 

Hoefer, Histoire de -la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 335 ; 
1866, i. p. 354 (thinks the Allegory may be by 
Rachaidib). 

1jzAT&g\Mz,Bibliotheque Ouvaroff,Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 663. 

Veitch, The History and Poetry of the Scottish 
Border, 1878, p. 129. 



and got into a controversy with Stubbe about the 
practice of Apothecaries. He wrote also a small 
tract entitled ' Observations on the Ordering of 
Wines,' which accompanies Dr. Charleton's: 'Two 
Discourses. The first concerning the different wits 
of men. The second, A brief discourse concerning 
the various sicknesses of Wines.' London, 1692, 
pp. 113-126. 

' He died,' says Wood, ' in his house near to the 
chappel in Hatton Garden in Holbourne, near 
London, on the igth of Aug., in sixteen hundred 
ninety and five, and was buried 12 foot deep in the 
church of S. Andrew in Holbourne.' 



Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, pp. 534, 

571- 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 178. 
Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 317. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecee metallicce, 

1732, p. 101. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. pp. 415, 425. 

Theophilus Sincerus(?>. Georg Jacob Schwindel), 
Thesaurus Bibliothecalis, 1739, iii. p. 246, No. 
clvii. 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1739, xx. col. 1032. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Ltxicon, 1740, 
P- 542. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 468 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergans- 
itngen, 1813, iv. col. 1517. 

Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 623. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 539. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 279. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, iii. 
p. 98. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 100. 

MESUNG QOHANN VON). 

See JEAN DE MEHUN. 

METALLISCHER Baumgarten, in welchem das einzige wahre Subjectum 
Philosophise oder Primum ens Metallorum blofs und gantz offenbar, vor 
Augen gelegt, und bechrieben worden ist; von einem Freunde, deme die 
Wahrheit bewust ist, und der einen ieden vom falschen Weg gern ableiten, 
hingegen zu dem wahren einzigen Brunnen der Metallen, fiihren und bringen 
will. Franckfurt und Leipzig, Bey Johann Friedrich Fleischer. Anno 1741. 

8. Pp. 87 [i]. 

About the authorship of this tract see STEIN- edition, of date 1753, 8, pp. 87, same place and 
BERGEN (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH VON). Another publisher, is quoted by Ladrague. 



Rich. Pulteney, Historical and .Biographical 
Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, 1790, 
i. pp. 290-297. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 166, 195. 

Aikin, General Biography, 1808, vii. p. 56. 
. Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 
Appendix iv. p. xxii. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xxii. p. 75. 

Rees, The Cyclopcedia, 1819, xxiii. sub voce. 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25). vi. p. 258. 

Wood, Athene? Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1820, iv. 
cols. 430-2. 

Munk, The Roll oj the Royal College of Physicians 
of London, 1861, i. p. 240. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte, 1886, iv. p. 214. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 196. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1894, xxxvii. 
p. 288. 

John Aubrey, Brief Lives, chiefly of Contempo- 
raries, edited by Andrew Clark, 1898, ii. p. 59. 



Beytrag zur Geschichte der kbhern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 672. 



\^aArz.^R.,BibliothequeOuvaroff, Sciences Secretes^ 
Moscow, 1870, No. 1382. 



92 METALLISCHERMEURDRAC 

METALLISCHER Baumgarten. Continued. 
[Another Copy.] 

[Another Copy.] 
[Another Copy.] 

METALLORUM (De) generatione Tractatus. 
See MUS/EUM HERMETICUM, 1749, p. 305. 

METALLORUM (De) materia, & artis imitatione Vetus Epistola. 

See GRATAROLO (c.), Vera Alchemise . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 263. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 187. 

METALLORUM (De) Metamorphosi Tractatus. 

See BIRRIUS (MARTIN), Tres Tractatus . . ., 1668, p. i. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 676. 
Mangel assigns this to Philaletha. 

METALLURGIA. 

. See BERNHARDUS TREVISANUS, 1746, 1747. 

METAMORPHOSIS. 

See MONTE-SNYDER (jOHANN DE). 

METHOD and Materials pointed at, composing the Sophick Mercury. 
See TRUE (A) Light of Alchymy, 1709. 

MEUNG (JEAN DE). 

See JEAN DE MEHUN. 

MEURDRAC (MARIE). 

Die mitleidende und leichte Chymie, dem loblichen P>auen-Zimmer zu sonder- 
bahrem Gefallen in Frantzosischer Sprach beschrieben durch Jungfer Maria 
Meurdrac, nunmehr in Teutsch ubersetzt, und zum zweyten mahl heraufs- 
gegeben, von J. L. M. C. Sampt einem Tractatlein, wie man allerhand 
wohlriechende Sachen kiinstlich prsepariren sol, durch Johann Muflfatz. 
Franckfurt, In Verlegung Johann David Zunners, 1676. 

12. Pp. [8] 312 [19, i blank]. Wants pp. 141-2. 

La Chimica Caritatevole, e Facile, in favor delle dame scritto in Francese 
dalla Sig. M. M. e tradotto da Narbonte Pordoni. Dedicato all' Illustriss., & 
Eccellentiss. Sig. Donna Anna Altieri Colonna Principessa di Carbognano &c. 
In Venetia, M.DC.LXXXII. Appresso Pontio Bernardon a 1'Insegna del 
Tempo. Con Licenza de' Superiori, e Priuilegio. 

12. Pp. 12, 256 [20]. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Ckemie, 1798, ii. p. 228 Ferguson, 'Notes on ... Books of Secrets,' 
(quotes editions of Frankf., 1673, 1676, 1689, 1712, Transactions of the Archaeological Society of 
1738 ; Erfurt, 1731, 8). Glasgow, 1883, ii. pp. 194, 251. 

Ladrague,Z?z'Ww/A<tywe Ouvaroff, Sciences Secrltes, 
1870, No. 1104. 



ME YERME YNIER 



93 



MEYER (JOHANN FRIEDRICH). 

Johann Friedrich Meyers, Apothekers zu Ofsnabriick, Chymische Versuche, zur 
naheren Erkenntnifs des ungeloschten Kalchs, der elastischen und electrischen 
Materie, des allerrelnsten Feuerwesens, und der urspriinglichen allgemeinen 
Saure. Nebst einem Anhange von den Elementen. Hanover und Leipzig, 
bey Johann Wilhelm Schmidt, 1764. 

8. Pp. 16 [8] 418 [28, 2 blank]. Vignette with the motto : Non sine elatere, and tail-piece. 
There was a French translation by Le Dreux, Paris, 1766, 12. 

Alchymistische Briefe. Von dem Verfasser der Chymischen Versuche zur 
nahern Erkantnifs des ungeloschten Kalchs, &c. an den Herausgeber gegen- 
wartiger Briefe. Hannover, gedruckt bey H. E. C. Schliiter, 1767. 
4. Pp. 6 1 [i blank, i, i blank]. 

[Another Copy.] 



Meyer was born at Osnabruck in 1705. He 
received his first education from his father and in 
the gymnasium. At the age of nine he lost his 
father, but he still went on reading and studying 
till he was 15, when he was apprenticed to an 
apothecary. After this was finished he went to 
Leipzig and then to Nordhausen. On his recovery 
from an attack of fever he went up to Clausthel and 
St. Andreasberg in the Harz. Next to Frankfurt 
a. M. and to Trier, whence, after a year's residence, 
he went to Halle. After two years he was sum- 
moned home to take charge of an apothecary's 
shop belonging to his grandmother, and in 1738 he 
married. His wife lived for 21 years and then 
died. He seems to have been always delicate, and 
in March, 1765, when he wrote his autobiographical 
letter to Baldinger he tells how he had suffered for 
twenty eight years from violent acidity, and that he 
had used 1200 pounds of a form of chalk to correct 
it ! He died of fever in November, 1765. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 60. 

Giildenfalk, Sammlungvon . . . Transmutations- 
geschichte, 1784, p. 376 (describes Constantini's 
experiments). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 330, 

587- 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergiinzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1813, 
iv. col. 1622. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 564. 



Meyer is remembered in the history of chemistry 
by his theory of an acidnm pingite and his view as 
to the causticity of lime, which was the reverse of 
that put forward by Black. He was a diligent 
chemist, and for some time his views had strong 
support, even from Lavoisier, but they ultimately 
disappeared. 

Stimulated by the results obtained by his friend 
Dr. Constantini in Hanover, he also made experi- 
ments with a view to transmutation, and these are 
recorded in his 'Alchymistische Briefe,' but inci- 
dentally he made some positive observations. The 
' Briefe ' were edited by Andreas, who in his preface 
speaks in high terms of Meyer. 

For his life see his letter to E. G. Baldinger 
above mentioned, prefixed to Joh. Christian 
Wiegleb's Kleine Chymische Abhandlungen von 
dem grossen Nutzen der Erkenntnifs des Acidi 
pinguis .... Langensalza, 1767, or 1771. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 362 ; 

1869, ii. p. 354. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1845, iii. pp. 16, 
34-42, 317, 318 ; 1847, iv. pp. 214, 341, 373. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 603 ('acidum pingue'). 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 134. 

La.Arzg\\e,Bibliotheque Ouvaro/,Sciences Secretes, 

1870, No. 594. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 80. 



MEYNIER (DENIS). 

Speculum Vniversi. Cathena Homeri Aurea in hac Mundi Vniversitate. 
Nomen-Clatura. Physico Chimicis Exoptatissima. Et pro Choronide pro- 
fundissimum totius Medicinae Arcanum in Auro Potabili, Panacea Vniversali, 
& Particulari conficiendis sub Idiomate Gallico. Authore, Dionisio Meynier 
luris Vtriusque Perito, turn Philosophic Naturalis Professore acuratissimo (sic). 
Bonnse, Anno Salutis, 1674. 

8. Pp. 104. 



94 ME YNIERMICHELSPA CHER 

MEYNIER'(DENis). Continued. 

The Nomenclatura and Le Tresor de la Vie have separate titles and pagination as follows : 

Nomenclatura ad Artem Trismegisticam, et Elixiris Magni, seu Lapidis Physici 
Compositionem ; Phisico-chymiae-amazio non solum perutilis, imo Curiosissima secun- 
dum Eruditissimos, Antiquissimos, nee non recentiores Philosophos. Eodem Authore 
Anno Domini M.DC.LXXIV 

Pp. 1-69 [p. 70 blank]. 

Le Tresor de la Vie. Consistant ez Mysteres les plus releve's de toutte la Medicine : 
tant Hipocratique, Galenique, que spagirique. En faveur des Enfants de la Science, 
et pour 1'utilite du Public. Par Denis Meynier Docteur en droit Civil, & Canon & 
Professeur tres fidelle en Philosophic Naturelle. A Bone en l'Anne"e 1.674. 

Pp. 7I-I54- 

MEZAHAB Epistola de Auro potabili. 

See HANNEMANN (jOHANN LUDWIG), Ovum Hermetico-Paracelsico-Trismegisturn, 
1694, p. i. 

MEZAREPH. 

See AESCH MEZAREPH. 

MICHAEL SCOTUS. 

See SCOTUS (MICHAEL). 

MICHAELIS QOHANN). 

See HARTMANN (JOHANN), Praxis chymiatrica edita a J. Michaelis &c., 1647. 

Dissertatio Pharmaceutico-Therapeutica de Natura Tincturse Bezoardicse. 
See SCHULTZ (GOTTFRIED), 1678. 

Michaelis was a native of Soest in Westphalia, his whole attention, for the works of Hartman were 

where he was born in 1606 (1607, Billings). He edited by him, and H. ab Heer's Spadacrene, and 

studied medicine at Wittenberg under Sennertus, prefaces were contributed by him to other works, 

but, as was the custom, he visited other Universi- His death took place at Leipzig, 29 Nov., 1667. 

ties in Germany and Holland, and finally graduated His works, Opera Omnia, were collected and pub- 

at Leipzig, Mag. Phil., 1630; Dr. med., 1631. lished at Niirnberg, 1688,4; 1698. 

He became professor of medicine there, and he in- Haller (Bibl. Med. Prac., ii. p. 325) ascribes to 

troduced the use of chemical remedies and invented J. Michaelis: Apologia chymica ad versus Libavii 

several specifics. He was a very successful prac- calumnias, Middelburg, 1597 ; but this seems an 

titioner, and was physician to the Courts of Saxony error on Haller's part, or else it must be a different 

and Altenburg, and filled various academical posi- J. Michaelis. 
tions. Medical practice did not, however, occupy 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam , . . Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 

Introductio, 1687, p. 135 (Cap. III. Addit. 37 * * *) ; pp. 325, 407 (edition of Crollius), 591 (theses) ; 1779, 

p. 385 (Cap. XI. Add. 6**). iii. p. 170. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarortim, Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Midecine, 

1688, p. 1404. 1778, iii. p. 293. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 21. 

1731, II. i. p. 323. Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Medicinischen 1806-08, p. 185. 

Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 711. Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallicce, 25), vi. p. 272. 

1732, p. 101. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon , 1740, worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 143. 

p. 546. Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Medi- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. cales, 2eme SeYie, 1873, vii. p. 551. 

col. 512; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1669. genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

Matthiae, Conspectus Hi siorice Medicorum chrono- p. 230 (article by Pagel). 

togicus, 1761, pp. 468-9. Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 245. 
Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 328. 

MICHELSPACHER (STEPHAN). 

See CABALA, Spiegel der Kunst und Natur : in Alchymia. 



MICHELSPA CHERMICROCOSMISCHE 



95 



MICHELSPACHER (STEPHAN). Continued. 



The edition of the Cabala quoted by Rotermund 
is that of August. Vindel. , 1654, 4. 

Michelspacher, belonging to the Tyrol, is called 
by Kestner a physician who lived at the beginning 
of the I7th century and issued in 1615 an ana- 
tomical work with the title : Pinax microcosmo- 
graphicus, seu admirandas partium hominis fabricas 
historica enarratio, as well as the above. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 436. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 213. 

Kb'nig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 539. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 983. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 336. 

Douglas, Bibliographies Anatomicce Specimen, 
1734, p. 209. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 548. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 299, 300. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 



Michelspacher was a friend of Rernmelin's and 
dedicated the Cabala to htm. Their names are 
also associated in the production of the anatomical 
plates in the Pinax, but Remmelin was really the 
author, as Michelspacher himself explains in the 
dedication to the present work. See REMMELIN 
(JOHANN). 

col. 521 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdns- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1693. 

Matthias, Conspectus Hislorice Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 549. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern CAemie, 1785, 
p. 617. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 517 
(Alkumistica), 563 (Cabala). 

Murr, Uber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens , 1803, p. 31. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 327 ; 
1869, ii. p. 319. 

Kopp Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 230, 354. 



MICONIUS (ACHATIUS). 

See MYCONIUS (ACHATIUS). 

MICRERIS. 

Tractatus, suo discipulo Mirnefindo. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66o, V. p. 90. 

The above is a reprint of the first edition : Tractatus Alchymisticus suo discipulo Mirnefindo dicatus, 
Ursell., 1622,8. 



In one place (p. 159) Borel quotes the above from 
the Theatrum under Micreris, but in another (p. 249) 
he puts it under Mireris : Mireris tractatus de Al- 
chimia, ad discipulum. Nazari has a similar entry : 
Mireris tractatus ad discipulum. So Lambye quotes 
Mireris and other writers also. 

If they be identical, as may be plausibly assumed 
from the title of the writing, addressed as it is ' to a 
disciple ' in both cases, then according to Borel 
there are other forms of the name, viz. : ' Miserius 
philosophus alchimicus, ex Brachesco ' ; ' Miseris 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione Metallica Sos>ni tre, 
I S99. P- I 4 I (calls him Mireris, and quotes the 
above). 

Lambye, Re-delation of the Secret Spirit, 1623, 
p. 34 (quotes the ' Book of Documents ' of Mireris), 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 366. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 159, 161. 
162, 249. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 824. 



(idem forsan cum praecedenti) ab Hortulano & 
Brachesco inter Chrysoposire scriptoresmemoratus' ; 
' Mirneris, idem forsan, ac Mireris.' 

Whether this be correct or not, and whether 
Micreris and Mireris denote the same person or 
not, it is difficult to decide ; but there is some scope 
for speculation about both the person and his name. 
I have not succeeded in getting any information 
as to either Micreris or Mirnefindus. There is not 
even a bold guess or hazardous speculation by 
Schmieder, for he does not mention him at all. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriplorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 336. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
HermMque, 1742, iii. p. 56. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon \ Roter- 
mund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen, 1813, iv. 
col. 1699. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 335 ; 
1866, i. p. 354. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 1096 (the above). 



MICROCOSMISCHE Vorspiele des Neuen Himmels und der Neuen Erde; Wie 
dem Menschen, als dem Bilde Gottes, von Gott zugelassen, aus der alten 
verfluchten Erde eine neue vom Himmel gesegnete Erde, zur Ergotzung des 
Gemiiths, und zur Erhaltung des Leibes, microcosmisch und quintessentialisch 
heraus zu bringen : Item, Was es mit dem Paradiefs und dem Fall Adams vor 
eine Bewandnifs habe, und wie Jesus die gantze unter dem Fluch liegende 
Schopffung wieder zu rechte bringen und Paradiesisch machen konne und 



96 MICROCOSMISCHE MIZALDUS 

MICROCOSMISCHE Vorspiele. Continued. 

wolle, auch defswegen an seinem eigenen in der Maria angenommenen Leibe 
den Anfang gemacht habe, nach denen in der aussern sichtbaren Natur 
wiirckenden zwey ewigen unsichtbaren Principiis, nemlich des Lichts und der 
Finsternifs, zur Verherrlichung des grossen Jehovah, der Welt vor Augen 
geleget von einem Liebhaber gottlicher und natiirlicher Geheimnisse. 
Andere von dem Autore selbst verbesserte Edition. Amsterdam, Anno 1744. 
8. Pp. [16, Symbolic frontispiece included] 128. Title red and black. 

There was a later edition : Frankfurt und Leipzig, Fictuld (Probter-Stein, 1753, part I. p. in) 

1784, 8. makes much of this work (which, he says, first 

In the preface the author narrates how after appeared in 1733) and defends it from the attack of 

spending a year in operations which had no result, Dippel, putting it in " the first class." There is no 

he at last had revealed to him the secret methods reference to where Dippel's criticism can be found. 

which are explained in this tract. Both editions are mentioned in the Beytrag sur 

Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, pp. 667, 683. 

MICROCOSMISCHE (Das) Vorspiel eines neuen Himmels und der neuen 
Erde. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iv. p. 167. 

MILAN. 

See PROSPECTUS Pharmaceuticus Galenico-Chymicus. 

MINERA (De) Philosophica. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 655. 

MINERA Philosophorum. 

See GINjECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 349. 

MINERALISCHE (Das) Gluten. 

See W(ALCHIN) (D(OROTHEA) I(ULIANA)), 1705. 

MINERALOGIA. 

See THEOPHILUS. 

MIRANDOLA (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO Pico BELLA). 
See PICUS MIRANDULANUS (JOANNES FRANCISCUS). 

MIRERIS. 

See MICRERIS. 

MIRIAM. 

See MARIA. 

MIRONE-PASQUALI (GIUSEPPE). 

See SCOPOLI (GIOVANNI ANTONIO), Element! di Chimica, 1790. 

MIZALDUS (ANTONIUS). 

Centuriae ix. Memorabilium, Vtilium, ac lucundorum in Aphorismos Arcanorum 
omnis generis locupletes, perpulcre digests ; Antonio Mizaldo Monluciano, 
medico auctore. Accessit his Appendix nonnullorum Secretorum, Experi- 
mentorum, Antidotorumque contra varies morbos, tam ex libris manuscriptis 



MIZALD US MOD US 



97 



MIZALDUS (ANTONIUS). Continued. 

quam typis excusis, collecta. Seorsum excusa, Harmonia caelestium 
corporum & humanorum, dialogis vndecim Astronomice & Medice per Anton. 
Mizaldum elaborata & demonstrata. Item Memorabilium aliquot naturae 
Arcanorum Syluula, rerum variarum Sympathias & Antipathias, libellis n. 
complectens. 1592. Francofurdi Ex officina typographica loannis Wecheli. 

Square 16. Pp. [32] 267 [i blank]. Printer's device. 
The Harmonia and the Silvula have separate titles, signatures, and pagination as follows : 

Harmonia Ccelestium Corporum et Humanorum Dialogis vndecim astronomice & 
medice per Anton. Mizaldum Monlucianum elaborata & demonstrata. Ad Antonium 
Olivarium Lumbariensium antistitem eximium. Francofurdi ex officina typographica 
loannis Wecheli, M.D.XCII. 

Pp. 93 [i] [2 pages, blank? wanting]. 

Memorabilium Aliquot Naturae Arcanorum Silvula, Rerum variarum Sympathias, 
& Antipathias, seu naturales concordias & discordias, libellis duobus complectens. 
Autore Antonio Mizaldo Monluciano. Francofurti, apud loannem Wechelum, & 
Petrum Fischerum consortes. 



Pp. 88. 



Mizaldus was born at Monlucon, in the Bour- 
bonnais, studied at Bourges and Paris, where he 
graduated, and devoted himself to medical practice, 
in which he acquired much success and renown by 
the extraordinary cures which he effected. He was 
also distinguished in Mathematics and Philosophy, 
but when he was at the height of his fame he with- 
drew from practice to devote himself to the study 
of science and of the wonders and secrets of Nature, 
upon which he wrote many books. Niceron gives 
a list of forty-one on meteorology, comets, as- 
tronomy (astrology), cosmography, sympathy and 
antipathy, almanacks, mathematics, agriculture, 
gardening, notable things, secrets of the moon, 
etc., etc. He died at Paris in 1578. 

Thuanus commends him for his learning and 
judgment. Other critics, however, have taken a 
much less favourable view of his work, La Monnoye 
finding fault with his Latinity, Niceron complaining 
of his books being stuffed with false and useless 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 41. 

Ghilini, Teatro d'Huomini letterati, 1647, i. pp. 
17-19. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 543. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 75. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687 (Add. c. ix. 4*), p. 287. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 1276. 

Teissier, \Les Rloges des Hommes Savans, 1715, 
iii. pp. 154-157- 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 339. 

Douglas, Bibliographies Anatomicce Specimen, 

1734, P- 144- 

Niceron, Mtmoires, 1739, xl. pp. 200-213. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1740, 
P- 552. 



notions, and Teissier quoting the opinion of the 
author of the Diversitez Curieuses, ii. p. ii, who 
expresses his surprise at people being simple enough 
to put any belief in the ' Centuriae,' seeing that the 
book is full of trifles and superstitious nonsense, of 
which he gives an example. 

M6nard, the publisher, meditated an edition of 
his collected works, but the Mascurat (p. 135) pre- 
vented him carrying out this design by showing 
him that Mizaldus was a man ready to believe any 
fabrication : Quaelibet 4 quovis mendacia credere 
promptus. 

The 'Centuriae' were first printed at Paris in 
1566, and repeatedly afterwards. Editions appeared 
at Cologne in 1572, 1573, 1574 which are of special 
interest, for they contain reprints of Pizimenti's 
translation of the writings of Democritus, Synesius, 
and Pelagius on Alchemy. These I have considered 
in communications to. the Glasgow Philosophical 
Society. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
HermMque, 1742, iii. p. 237. 

Jb'cher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 560 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1816. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mtdedne, 
1755, ii. p. 190 ; 1778, iii. p. 306. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 244. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
p. 91. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 71. 

Ferguson, Proceedings of the Philosophical Society 
of Glasgow, 1885, xvi. p. 39; 1891, xxii. p. 295. 

Billings, Index- Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 352. 

Ferguson, ' Notes on ... Books of Secrets,' 
Part iv. , Transactions of the Archaeological Society 
of Glasgow, 1888, New Series, i. pp. 301-315. 



MODUS procedendi in praeparatione lapidis philosophici. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii. 1598, p. 126. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemiae, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, 

p. 201. 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 258. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 200. 
II. G 



9 8 



MOEBIUS 



MOEBIUS (GOTTFRIED). 

Anatomia Camphone, ejus originem, qualitates, praeparationes Chimicas, ac vires, 
quas in omnibus fere totius humani corporis morbis instar panaceas cujusdam 
praestat, nee non in aliis rebus usum succincte exhibens Gothofredi Moebii, 
Med. D. P. P. Medici Elect. Brandenburg, nee non Admin. Archiepicop. (sic) 
Magdeburg. Jense, Impensis Joh. Ludovici Neuenhahnii, Charactere 

Sengenvvaldiano, Anno M DC LX. 

4. Pp. [8] 104. 



A collection of opinions about camphor, from a 
number of writers. The latter part contains the 



preparations of camphor and the ailments for which 
they are useful. 



Neu-angeziindt-hell-brennendes Feuer, oder Mercurial-Liecht, so denen verzagten 
Alchymisten aufs neue widerum angeziindet wird, von einem wohl-bekandten, 
doch ungenanten Freund. So geschehen im Jahr Christi 1 680. Augspurg, 
Gedruckt bey Jacob Koppmayer. 

8. Pp. [12] 33 [3 blank]. Folding symbolical engraving. Preface signed 
Gottfried Moebius M.D. 



[Another Copy.] 



Wants the symbolical plate. 



[Another Copy.] 



Wants the symbolical plate. 



After 14 years' constant labour in pursuit of the 
stone he came to the conclusion that it was a mere 
fancy. To warn his fellow-men from pursuing this 
chimaera he wrote a tract which he called ' Gauckel- 
Taschner,' in which he pointed out the errors or 
delusions into which the chemists ran. When he 
was about to print this he encountered an aged 
chemist, and when he tried to prove to him that his 
search was futile, the chemist ultimately showed 
him that he was in error, and that all alchemists 
were not cheats. So he burned his tractate and 
received the present one from the chemist with per- 
mission to print it, which he accordingly did. 

Gottfried Moebius, the editor (or author), was born 
in 1611 at Laucha in Thuringia, studied medicine 
under Rolfinck, with whom he was a favourite, took 
his degree at Jena and became professor of medicine 
there, and was an active practitioner and author. 
He had a remarkable escape from drowning, in 
memory of which he gave away on each succeeding 

Concio Funebris D. Christiani Chemnitii Theol. 
Prof. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 544. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 355. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 182 (Add. c. iv. 39 *) ; p. 
229 (Add. c. vi. 7*); (commended by Schel- 
hammer). 

Freher, Theatrum virorum erudition* clarorum, 
1688, p. 1396 ; portrait, plate 64. 

Witte, Diarium biographicum, 1688, sig. Ttt i 
verso, 25 April, 1664. 

Joannes Caspar Zeumer, Vita Professorum medi- 
cince Academia Jenensis, 1711, Class iii. pp. 42-46. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historian, liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1713, vi. p. 703. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 341. 



anniversary of the event certain alms to poor 
people. He died at Halle on 25 April, 1664, and 
was buried at Jena. 

He wrote a large number of academic disserta- 
tions, a list of which is given by Haller, and other 
books, for which see Mercklin, Mangel, Pauly, and 
others. His work is commended by Schelhammer, 
but rather unfavourably noticed by Bayle & 
Thillaye, and flaws are poinled oul by Reimmann. 

The presenl Iract is not contained in any of these 
lists, and it is mentioned only by Jocher. Looking 
at the date, Ladrague asks pcrtinenlly whelher the 
editor (or author) is Ihe falher or ihe son of Ihe 
same name? Of the latter the only thing I have 
found is that he edited a work of his father's in 
1667. If the events recorded in the preface took 
place in 1680 they could not apply to the elder 
man, but the preface itself seems to indicate that he 
really wrote it. There is however some doubt 
about the authorship. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 6, 7, 278, 279, 507. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 553- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 567 ; Rotennund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1836. 

Matthiae, Conspectus Historic Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 497. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 508. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 422 
(calls him ' Gottlieb'). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirtirgica, 1774, i. p. 342. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practicce, 1777, ii. 
p. 647. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de a Mt'decine, 
1778, iii. p. 308. 



MOEBIUSMOHYUS 



99 



MOEBIUS (GOTTFRIED). Continued. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 128. 

Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), v'i. p. 279. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Medicale, 1855, i. 
p. 421. 

Johannes Giinther, Lebensskizzen der Professoren 
der Universitiit Jena, 1858, p. 121. 



Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroft, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 1187. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique dts Sciences Mtdi- 
cales, 2eme SeVie, 1874, viii. p. 265. 

Pauly, Bibliographic des Sciences Mldicales, 1874, 
cols. 461, 462, 710. 

Hirsch, Biographisches I^exikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zeifen und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 253. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 355. 



MOGLIN (JOHANN LUDWIG). 

Vellus Aureum, Das giildene Fliifs : Das ist Chymisches Kleinod, oder Philo- 
sophische Beschreibung der hochsten Medicin, und erquickenden Bronnen defs 
Lebens Auri Potabilis. Geschriben und bereitet von Job. Lud. Moglin, Med. 
Doct. Stuttgart, Gedruckt bey johann Weyrich Rofslin, Anno 1665. 

12. Pp. 72. 



Johann Ludsvig Moegling, or Moglin, was born 
at Tubingen in 1613, and was the son of Daniel 
Moegling, a native of Tubingen, and professor of 
medicine there. Johann Ludwig studied in his 
native place and took the degree of master, went to 
Altdorf on account of the unrest caused by the war, 
in 1640 graduated doctor of medicine at Tubingen 
and became town physician, ordinary professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy, and extra- 
ordinary professor of medicine in 1660, and then 
ordinary professor in 1687. He died in 1693. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 43, No. Ixviii. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, 
iii. col. 568 ; Rotermund's Fortzetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1840. 

Boeck, Geschichte der Universitiit Tubingen, p. 
134- 



His inaugural dissertation was entitled : Palin- 
genesia seu resurrectio plantarum ejusque resurrec- 
tionem corporum nostrorum applicatio, Tubing. , 4. 

He is said also to have written : Tractatus de 
i nconsiderato acidularum usu and Theoria sanitatis. 

Haller ascribes to him : De febre epidemica ab 
anno passim seeviente, Tubingen, 1621, 4, but the 
Tractatus de inconsiderate acidularum usu, Fri- 
burg. , 1615, 8, he assigns to Johann Phil. Moe- 
gling- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines Practices, 1777, ii. 
p. 448. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chetnie, 1785, 
p. 620. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 244. 



MOGLING (DANIEL). 

See FLORENTINUS DE VALENTIA. 
See SCHWEIGHARDT (THEOPHILUS). 

MOFFETT (THOMAS). 

See MOUFET (THOMAS). 



MOHYUS (ERVCIUS). 
Pulvis Sympatheticus. 

See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, l66o, p. 336. 
See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, l66l, p. 231. 
See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, 1662, p. l6$. 



According to Eloy, his name was Henri Mohy, 
latinized Erycius Mohyus, and he belonged to 
Rondchamp, a village near Liege, on the frontier 
of Luxembourg. He had studied medicine and 
practised it with credit from 1620 to 1654, and two 
writings are ascribed to him : 

Tertianse crisis, Lovanii, 1642, 4. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 545. 
Mercklin, Lindenius renovalus, 1686, p. 262. 
Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 342. 



Pulvis sympatheticus qu6 vulnera sanantur 
absque medicamenti ad partem affectam applica- 
tione et superstitione, 1654, 4, without place or 
printer's name. 

For a criticism of Mohyus' views, see DEUSING 
(ANTON). 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mddecine, 
1778, iii. p. 309. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mtdi- 
cales, 2eme Serie, 1875, ix. p. 71. 



IOO 



HOLLER MONTANOR 



HOLLER (FRIEDRICH). 

D. O. M. A. Ternio Reliquiarum Alchymise oder drey schone Tractatlein, vom 
Stein der Weisen. So zuvor niemalfs inn Druck kommen, auch bifshero 
gantz verborgen gehalten worden sind. Nun aber den Filijs Doctrinae vnd 
alien Liebhabern Alchymiae, zu Ehren publiciret, vnd in offenen Druck 
verfertiget, durch Fridericum Mollerum, Philosophise & Medicinae Doctore, 
Churf. Brandenburgischen bestalten Medicum der Veste Ciistrin in der New- 
marck, etc. Gedruckt zum Berlin, Im Jahr 1618. 

8. Sigs. A-D in eights, E in four, or pp. [72]. 



The three tracts are : 

Paracelsus : dafs zehende Buch Archidoxis, vom 
Stein der Weysen, Bij. 

Ein Procefs auff den Lapidem Philosophorum, 
aufs einem gar alien Biichlein eines Scriptoris 
Anonymi, Dij. 

Eine Beschreibung von der wahren Tinctura 
Philosophorum, eines Autoris Anonymi, Dvij. 

Though nothing seems to be recorded about this 
person, it is possible that he was the father of 
another Friedrich Moller or Moller, who was born 

Beughem, Syllabus recens exploratorum in re 
medica, physica et chymica, Amst., 1696, p. 88. 



at Ciistrin in the Marck, and after travelling in 
Holland, Denmark and Poland, graduated at 
Kb'nigsberg in 1644 as Doctor of Medicine, and 
ultimately became the private physician of the 
Churfurst in his native place. He wrote a disserta- 
tion, De partu 173 dierum vivo, Ciistrin, 1662, 12, 
and some other medical tracts, and if it were not 
for the dates, one might be disposed to identify the 
present author with the later physician, who is 
mentioned by Jocher. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 571 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1813, iv. col. 1854. 



MONDEN-SCHEIN. 

See CHYMISCHER MONDENSCHEIN. 
For alchemical books with the Moon for the title, see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 390. 



MONGEZ (JEAN-ANDRE*) le jeune. 

See OBSERVATIONS sur la physique, &c. 



Jean-Andre", the brother of Antoine Mongez, 
was born at Lyons in 1751, was a physician and 
member of several academies and canon regular of 
Ste. Genevieve. He joined the expedition of 
Laperouse as surgeon and almoner, and perished 
in it. He wrote a description of an apparatus for 



Biographic Universelle, 1821, xxix. p. 372 ; i 
date, xxviii. p. 622. 
Querard, La France litteraire, 1834, vi. p. 205. 



reducing fractures, and translated Bergmann's 
mineralogy from the Swedish, 1784. He took a 
great share in drawing up the early volumes of the 
' Course of Agriculture ' of Rozier, and from 1779 
was one of the editors of the above journal, which 
was afterwards entitled ' Journal de Physique.' 



no Nouvelle Biographic Gdndrale, 1865, xxxv. col. 



MONTANOR (Guioo DE). 
Scala Philosophorum. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 134. 
See also SCALA Philosophorum. 

Guido de Montanor, or Montano, or Guido 
Magnus de Monte, not Guido de Monte, was 
apparently a Frenchman, who flourished in the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century, judging from the 
fact that while he quotes Roger Bacon and 
Richardus, he in turn is referred to by writers of 
the fifteenth century, as by Ripley, who says that 
his ' fame goeth wide,' and calls him also ' sapient 
Guido.' Besides the Scala Philosophorum, he is 
credited with Decreta chymica, printed in Rhenanus' 
Harmonia imperscrutabilis, and De arte chymica 
libellus, printed in CondeKsya.nus' ffarmonta, Fran- 
cofurti, 1625, 8. Of this there is a German translation, 
Guidonis Magni de Monte Thesaurus chymiatricus, 



oder lange verborgener Schatz der Chyinie, Halle, 
1623, 8. Borel says that he is praised by 
Ripley, and wrote an Epistola chemica to a certain 
Greek Bishop. He also quotes De arte Alchemice 
libellus, which is probably only a variation of the 
above title. Some of these tracts I have not seen, 
and am consequently unable to say whether they 
are different or not. Nazari includes the Scala 
philosophorum in his list, but does not allude to 
Guido de Montanor. Baumer ascribes to him not 
only the Scala Philosophorum and Libellus de 
Arte chemica, but also the Clangor Buccinff, and 
Correctio Fatuorum. 



MONTANOR MONTANUS 



101 



MONTANOR (Gumo DE). Continued. 

Ripley, The Compound of Alchymy, 1591, V^recto 
(' The fourth Gate,' stanza 8) ; Fj recto ('The fifth 
Gate,' stanza 8) ; or in Ashmole's Theatrum Chemi- 
cwn Britannicum, 1652, p. 146, st. 8 ; p. 150, st. 8. 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione Metallica Sogni tre, 
1599, p. 144. 

Maier, Symbola A urea Menses, 1617, p. 347. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 109, 163. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Herntitique, 1742, iii. pp. 43, 58, 69. 



Fictuld, Turbo. Philosophorum, 1763, p. 117. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 93. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 607. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 53. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 155. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 404; 
1866, i. p. 428. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 914. 



MONTANUS (LUDWIG CONRAD). 

Lud. Conr. Montani Griindliche Anweisung, zu der wahren Hermetischen 
Wissenschaft, und zu dem Geheimnifs der Alten des Steins der Weisen zu 
gelangen. Aus einem sehr alten raren Bamberigischen Manuscript, ans Licht 
gestellet von Johann Ludolph ab Indagine. Franckfurt und Leipzig, 1751. 

8. Pp. [32] 94 [2]- 

Occulta Philosophia, oder Coelum Sapientum et Vexatio Stultorum. 
See ORVIUS (LUDWIG CONRAD). 



In the preface we are informed that the MS. 
from which this book was derived bore the date 
1635, so that it is not of such a great age as the 
title-page would lead us to infer. It was drawn up 
by the author as a complete exposition, and sent 
to a friend in Bamberg, by name Sonneberger. As 
the author had concealed himself under the name 
Montanus, Sonneberger stated that his actual name 
was Ludwig Conrad von Bergen, while Sonneberger 
called himself, Ich Sags Nicht. This phrase, it 
may be noticed in passing, has been also held as 
referring to Johann Ambrosius SIKBMACHER. 

The editor goes on to say that where Montanus 
resided is not so easy to determine, but from a 
phrase in Cap. VI. the editor thinks it possible he 
may have lived in the Rhineland and on the borders 
of France, as he shows himself well acquainted 

Missiv an die hocherleuclitete Briiderschaft des 
Ordens des Goldenen und Rosenkreuizes, 1783, p. 
103. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 671. 

MONTANUS (JOANNES BAPTISTA). 
Sententia de Sublimatione. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), VercG AlchemicC . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 35. 



with mines in that country. ' But whoever he was, 
and whatever his name was, he was an excellent 
guide.' 

The book is a new edition of the work of Ludwig 
Conrad Orvius, which, however, has been subjected 
to a good deal of alteration both in the preface and 
in the text. From the former has been omitted the 
author's account of his treatment by a society of 
Rosicrucians, and in the text there are not only 
changes of words and phrases, but passages have 
been omitted and others have been inserted. The 
chapters, too, have been differently divided. 

How much of this is due to differences in the 
original sources, how much to the later editor ab 
Indagine, it would be hardly possible now to say. 
See more under ORVIUS. 



Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic der 
R'osenkreuzer, 1786, i. pp. 114, 122 ; 1787, ii. p. 177. 

Murr, Uber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 1803, pp. u, 
58. 



Presumably the author of the above is Joannes 
Baptista Montanus, the physician and poet, who 
was born in 1498, and belonged to a noble family 
at Verona. He practised at Rome and Naples, 
where also he expounded the odes of Pindar, then 
at Padua, where after four years he was appointed 
professor of medicine. On 6 May, 1551, he died of 
stone at Terazzo in the Veronese district, where he 
had gone for change of air. 

Ghilini, Teatro d 1 Huomini letterati, 1647, ii. 
p. 140. 

Borel, Btbliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 249. 

Konig, Btbliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 551. 

Freher, Theatrum virorutn erudilione clarorum, 
1688, p. 1232 ; portrait, plate 55. 

Teissier, Eloges ties Hommes Savans, 1715, i. 

PP- 92-95- 

Stolle, Anleitung zur His forte der Medicin ischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 134, 136, 137, &c., &c. 



He wrote a number of works relating to medicine, 
explanations of Galen, Avicenna, Razis, a treatise 
' De medicamentis simplicibus,' Venice, 1554, 8, 
and ' Demonstrationes aquas destillatas per alem- 
bicum etiam a calidis herbis esse frigidas. Several 
of his works were edited by his pupils. The above 
is not mentioned in the lists of his writings, if it be 
by him. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon , 1740, 

p. 560- 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 237, 238. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 627; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
itngen, 1813, iv. col. 2027. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der A fedicin, 1848, i. p. 237; 
1849, ii. p. 131. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 426. 



io 2 MONTE MONTE CUBITI 

MONTE (GuiDO MAGNUS DE). 
See MONTANOR (GUIDO DE). 

Tractatulus seu Descriptio Philosophic! Adrop. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 543. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 382. 

MONTE CUBITI (VIGILANTIUS DE). 

Dreyfaches Hermetisches Kleeblat, in welchem begriffen dreyer vornehmen 
Philosophorum herrliche Tractatlein. Das erste von dem geheimen waaren 
Saltz der Philosophorum, und allgemeinen Geist der Welt, H. Nuysement aus 
Lothringen. Das andere Mercurius Redivivus Unterricht von dem Philoso- 
phischen Stein so wol den weisen als rohten aus dem Mercurio zu machen, 
Samuelis Nortoni sonsten Rinville. Und das dritte von dem Stein der Weisen 
Marsilii Ficini Florentini, welche ehedessen von denen Authoribus in Frantz- 
osischer und Lateinischer Sprach beschrieben, nunmehro aber alien Lieb- 
habern, so der Lateinischen Sprach unkiindig, zum besten, in unser Teutsche 
Muttersprach iibersetzet, und mit einem zweyfachen Register zum Druck 
verfertiget. Durch Vigilantium de Monte Cubiti. Niirnberg, In Verlegung 
Michael und Johann Friderich Endtern, 1667. 

8. Pp. [24, engraved title containing emblematical sorrel included] 448. Index 
[32]. 16 symbolic engravings. Nuysement, p. i ; Norton, p. 209 ; Ficinus, p. 373. 

Herrn de Nuysement Tractat von dem waaren geheimen Saltz der Philosophorum, 
und von dem allgemeinem (sic) Geist der Welt. Zu ergantzung des lang-begehrten 
dritten Principii, Michaelis Sendivogii, welches er vom Saltze verheissen hat. 

Mercurius Redivivus oder Unterricht, wie man den Philosophischen Stein, sowol 
den weissen, als den rohten, aus dem Mercurio machen solle. Erstlich von weiland 
Samuele Nortono, sonsten Rinvillo Briszollensi angefangen. Nachmals mit Fleifs ver- 
bessert und vermehret, durch Edmundum Deanum von Oxonien, Doctorem der Artz- 
ney, zu Eborach in Engelland. Nunmehr aber wegen seiner grossen Nutzbarkeitdieser 
Kunst Liebhabern, die der Lateinischen Sprach unkiindig sind, zum besten aufs 
fleissigste in die Teutsche Muttersprach versetzet worden. Bey welchem Ttractiitlein 
(sic) zu finden, wie man beede Fermenta, so wol zum weisen, aus der Luna oder dem 
Silber, als zum rohten aus Sole oder dem Golde machen solle. 

This is in eight books, each of which has a short Metamorphosis Lapidum ignobilium in Genimas 

title in Latin and German : pretiosas, p. 313 ; 7. Alchymiae Complementum et 

I. Mercurius Redivivus, p. 211 ; 2. Catholicon Perfectio, p. 329 ; 8. Auslegung der duncklen 

Physicorum, p. 231 ; 3. Venus vitriolata, p. 247 ; Wbrter, Namen und seltzamen Reden, so in dieser 

4. Elixir, seu Medicina Vitae, p. 263 ; 5. Saturnus Kunst gefiihret werden, p. 355. 
saturatus dissolutus & Coelo restitutus, p. 283 ; 6. 

Marsilii Ficini Btichlein vom Stein der Weisen, erstlich von dem Authore selbsten 
in Lateinischer Sprach beschrieben, anjetzo aber alien Liebhabern und des Lateins 
unkiindigen zulieb in die Teutsche Muttersprach iibersetzet. 

[Another Copy.] 

The name of the present editor appears in Dresden, in 1757, under the title Eines wahre/i 

Lenglet Dufresnoy's list, with an inaccurate and Adepti besondere Geheimnisse von der Alchymie. 

ignorant transcription of the title ; it is given by See under H. (c. G. ). 

Gmelin, by Ladrague, and by Kopp, but nothing For other editions of the tracts see under the 

is said as to the true name of the editor. names of the respective authors. 

Deane's or Norton's tracts were reprinted at 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Gmelin, Geschichle der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 13. 

Hermctique, 1742, iii. p. 238. Ladrague, Bibliolheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hb'hern Chemie, 1785, Secretes, 1870, No. 611. 

p. 621. Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 338. 



MONTE HERMETIS- MONTE RAPHAIM 103 

MONTE HERMETIS (JOHANN DE). 

Joannis de Monte Hermetis Explicatio Centri in Trigono Centri per Somnium, 
das 1st : Erlauterung defs Hermetischen Giildenen Flufs, alien desselbigen 
emsigen Bestreitern zur Nachricht, darzu zu gelangen ; Aufs einem Cabalis- 
tischen Ratzel' erklaret und an Tag gegeben, auch mit sonderbaren 
Anmerckungen und einem dienlichen Anhang aufsgefertigt. Ulm, In 

Verlag Georg Wilhelm Kiihnen, Im Jahr 1680. 

8. Pp. [42] 78, 83 [i blank, 17, 3 blank]. 8 woodcuts in the text of the Anhang. 

./Enigma Cabalisticum, sig. 03. 
Explicatio Centri in Trigono Centri. Pp. 78. 

Schlufs-fuhrender Erliiuterungs-Anhang, worinnen der Geniige nach das gantze 
Opus Philosophicum, samt alien desselbigen Philosophischen und gebrauchlichen 
Manipulationibus und Operationibus weit-lauffig und klarer als noch iemals durch 
offenen Truck an Tag gegeben, von dem Lowen defs Rothen Creutzes, sonsten genandt 
der Gehuldigte. Gedruckt im Jahr Christi M.DC.LXXX. 

Pp. 83 [r blank]. 

Chymicus Deo bene placens, atque homini proximo inserviens, oder Alchymis- 
tische Nachrichtungs Regulen, alien und jeden derwahren Chymiae getreuen Liebhabern, 
und fleissig obligenden Nachforschern, aufs Gut- und Wohl-meinenheit beschrieben, 
und zur Nachricht durch offenen Truck an Tag gegeben, Von dem Lowen defs Rothen 
Creutzes, sonst genandt der Gehuldigte. 

Pp. [10} 

Astronomias Medicos Theologico-Philosophica Delineatio. Hoc est : Modus 
Curandi Morbos, Mediantibus Astris. 

Deus Miserere Mei secundum magnam Misericordiam tuani. 
ExcusumAnno M.DC.LXXX. 

Pp. [7] [ 3 blank]. 

[Another Copy.] 

This work is included by Kopp amongst those He adds that the same author published in 1680 

that bear the title of the Golden Fleece, of which also another book : ' Schlussfuhrender Erlauter- 

there are several. It is referred to by other writers, ungs-Anhang von dem Leiien des Rothen-Kreutzes,' 

but nothing is said about the author's life or name, which again contains sophistical follies and lies, 

for, presumably, the above is a pseudonym. whereby the ignorant are plunged into temporal 

Fictuld makes on him a specially violent attack, and eternal misery, which is surely ascribing to it 

1 One can see that he was a man without love for too much power. It is given above, 

his neighbour (this is a Fictuldian formula), else he The author of the Beytrag who has more humour 

would have kept back this book, seeing that it is than Fictuld, and is never in such unreasonable 

arch-sophistical and chymistical, with nothing in it earnest, merely remarks ' excellent reading for 

but braggart follies and perversions,' and so on. theosophists ! ' 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Gmelin, Geschichie der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 14. 
Hermitique, 1742, iii. p. 238. Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 96. Secretes, 1870, No. 1094. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 244; ii. pp. 

p. 632. 331, 353- 

MONTE RAPHAIM (JOHANN DE). 

Johann de Monte Raphaim Vorbothe der am Philosophischen Himmel hervor- 
brechenden Morgen-Rothe. Hamburg, zu finden bey Samuel Heyl, 1716. 
8. Pp. [44, frontispiece not included, 2 blank]. 

Ladrague says the first edition is that of Amsterdam, 1703. The reprint in the 
Hd'inetisches Museum is from that edition. 

loannis de Monte Raphaim Vorbothe, der am Philosophischen Himmel 
hervor brechenden Morgen-Rothe. Sammt einem Anhang etlicher Lehr-Satze, 
vor die Schiller der Weifsheit, von neuem ans Licht gestellet. 



104 MONTE RAPHAIMMONTE-SNYDER 

MONTE RAPHAIM QOHANN DE). Continued. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. 

P- 597- 
See FUNF Curieuse Chymische Tractatlein, 1767. 

8. Pp. 40, including the frontispiece. 
This is the fourth tract in the collection. 
See HERMETISCHES MUSEUM, 1782, i. p. 65. 

Kopp alludes to this work in connection with guished himself by the chemical works he had 

others about ' Aurora ' and the dawn. brought out. 

The Beylrag says nothing about the author, but Fictuld once more indulges in one of his tirades 

oddly mentions the publisher as having distin- without giving any information about anything. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 98. Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 1806-08, p. 231. 

p. 657. Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarq/, Sciences 

Gmelin, Geschichte -der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 315. Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1341-44. 

Kopp, Die A Ichemie, 1886, ii. p. 389. 

MONTE-SNYDER (Jon. DE). 

Job. de Monte-Snyders, Metamorphosis Planetarum. Das ist : Eine wunder- 
barliche Veranderung der Planeten und Metallischen Gestalten in ihr erstes 
Wesen, mit beygefiigtem Procefs und Entdeckung der dreyen Schliissel, so zu 
Erlangung der drey Principia gehorig, und wie das Universale Generalissimum 
zu erlangen, in vielen Oertern dieses Biichleins beschrieben. Anjetzo 
wiederumb zum Druck befordert durch A. Gottlob B. Franckfurt 

am Mayn, verlegts Georg Heinrich Oehrling, Buchhandler. Wetzflar (sic) 
druckts Georg Ernst Winckler, 1700. 

8. Pp. 142. Frontispiece extra. 
The editor's name is Adam Gottlob Berlich or Berlig. 

Jo. de Monte-Snyders, Metamorphosis Planetarum. Das ist : Eine wunder- 
barliche Veranderung der Planeten und Metallischen Gestalten in ihr erstes 
Wesen, mit beygefiigtem Procefs und Entdeckung der dreyen Schliissel, so zu 
Erlangung der drey Principien gehorig, und wie das Universale Generalissimum 
zu erlangen, in vielen Oertern dieses Biichleins beschrieben. Anjetzo 
wiederum zum Druck befordert durch A. Gottlob B. Frankfurt und 

Leipzig. Zu finden bey Johann Paul Kraus, in Wienn, 1774. 

8. Pp. 173 [3 pp. advertisements]. The frontispiece is not included and 
pp. 15-16 are omitted. 

Joh. de Monte-Snyders Tractatus de Medicina Universali. Das ist Von der 
Universal Medicin, wie nemlich dieselbe in denen dreyen Reichen der 
Mineralien, Animalien und Vegetabilien zu finden und daraus zu wege zu 
bringen, durch ein besonders Universal Menstruum, welches auff- und 
zuschliessen, und iedes Metall in Materiam primam bringen kan, auch wie 
dadurch das fixe unzerstorliche Gold in ein warhafftes Aurum potabile zu 
bringen, so sich nimmermehr wieder in ein fix Gold-Corpus reduciren lasset, 
Gott zu Ehren, und dem menschlichen Geschlecht zu sonderbahrem Trost und 
Nutzen anitzo wiederum zum Druck befordert, und mit einer kurtzen griind- 



MONTE-SNYDER 105 



MONTE-SNYDER (Jon. DE). Continued. 

lichen Erklarung auch beygefiigeten Spagyrischen Grundregeln illustriret durch 
A. Gottlob B. Franckfurt und Leipzig, In Verlegung Thomae Matthise 
Gotzens sel. Erben. Im Jahr 1678. 

8. Pp. 176. Berlich's Regeln have a title-page, with engraved vignette, included 
in the pagination, pp. 139-176. 

[Another Copy.] 

Joh. de Monte-Snyders Tractatus de Medicina Universali. Das ist : Von der 
Universal-Medicin, wie nemlich dieselbe in denen dreyen Reichen der 
Mineralien, Animalien und Vegetabilien zu finden und daraus zuwege zu 
bringen, durch ein besonders Universal-Menstruum, welches auf- und 
zuschliessen, und jedes Metall in Materiam primam bringen kan, auch wie 
dadurch das fixe unzerstorliche Gold in ein wahrhafftes Aurum potabile zu 
bringen, so sich nimmermehr wieder in ein fix Gold-Corpus reduciren lasset, 
Gott zu Ehren, und dem menschlichen Geschlecht zu sonderbarem Trost und 
Nutzen anjetzo wiederum zum Druck befordert, und mit einer kurzen griind- 
lichen Erklarung, auch beygefiigeten Spagyrischen Grund-Regeln illustriret 
durch A. Gottlob B. Frankfurt und Leipzig. Zu finden bey Johann Paul 
Kraus, in Wienn, 1773. 

8. Pp. 208. Pp. 169-208 contain the Spagyrische Grund-Regeln by Berlich himself. 

Commentarius iiber des Monte-Snyders Schrifften. 

See BECKER (JOHANN JOACHIM), Chymischer Clucks- Hafen, 1726, p. 108. 

Commentatio de Pharmaco Catholico. 

See RECONDITORIUM ac Reclusorium Opulentiae Sapientiaeque Numinis Mundi 
Magni, cui deditur in titulum Chymica Vannus, 1666. 

This is a Latin version of the tract De Medicina Universali, and may have been the first edition. It 
does not bear the author's name. 

Schmfeder says that though apparently Dutch, other writers. It took place at Aix-la-Chapelle in 
his name was Mondschneider, and he was a native 1667, in presence of Guillaume, a goldsmith and 
of the Palatinate. Others say that Monte-Snyder assayer, and Monte-Snyder on that occasion pro- 
was a grandson of Levinus Lemnius on the mother's duced gold of extraordinarily fine quality from lead 
side, and from him got the tincture with which he and copper. After his stock of 'tincture' was 
performed several transmutations. One of the exhausted, he is said to have died at Maim: in 
most notable of these was narrated by van Vrees- poverty, 
wyk, and from him the narrative was copied by 

Goossen van Vrees wyk, De Goude Leeuw, 1675, Wiegleb, Historisch-kritische Untersvchung der 

pp. 6-12. Alchemie, 1777, p. 301. (He passes over this per- 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicoruin, formance as of no importance.) 

1697, p. 43, No. Ixx. Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 95. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutscftes Fegfeuerder Beytrag zur Geschichte der ho/tern Chemie, 1785, 

Scheide Kunst, 1702, p. 42. (Not complimentary pp. 349, 619, 630. 

to Monte-Snyder.) Korium verteidiget die Alchemie, 1789, p. 181. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 148. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 18. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca mctallicce, Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 

1732, p. 103. mund's Fortsetzung und Ergdmungen, 1813, iv. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic col. 2044. 

Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 238. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 

Tharsander, Adeptus Ineptus, 1744, pp. 328-331. 403-408, 601. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Theil ii. p. 98, \-.a.drngue,BibliofhequeOuvaroff,Sciences Secretes, 

(calls him a learned man, but no adept). 1870, Nos. 1116-17, 1622-24. 

Kunckel, Laboratorium Chymicum, 1767, p. 169, Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 155 ; ii. pp. 312, 

(expresses a very poor opinion of his writings, and 364. 
calls him a "sophist "). 



io6 



MORGENROTHE MORGENSTERN 



MORGENROTHE. 

See AUFSTEIGUNG der Morgenrothe. 

MORGENSTERN (PHILIPP). 

Turba Philosophorum; Das ist, Das Buch von der guldenen Kunst, neben 
andern Authoribus, welche mit einander 36. Biicher in sich haben. Darinn 
die besten vraltesten Philosophi zusamen getragen, welche tractiren alle 
einhellig von der Universal Medicin, in zwey Biicher abgetheilt, vnnd mit 
schonen Figuren gezieret. Jetzundt newlich zu Nutz vnd Dienst alien waren 
Kunstliebenden der Natur (so der Lateinischen Sprach vnerfahren) mit 
besonderm fleifs, miihe vnnd arbeit trewlich an tag geben : durch Philippum 
Morgenstern Islebiensem. Zu Basel, in verlegung Ludwig Konigs, 1613. 

8. Pp. [14] (containing Vorrede, Propositiones and Contents, followed by a 
cryptograph) ; Text, pp. 560. The title is in red and black, and has a symbolic 
vignette (from the Rosarium) of a lion devouring the sun, with the legend : 
Ich bin der war griin vnd giildische Low ohn sorgen, 
In mir steckt alle heimlichkeit der Philosophen verborge". 

The second part has a separate title : 

Das ander Theil, der giildinen kunst die sie sonst Chymia nennen, welches in 
sich hellt die Schrifften Morieni Romani, von den Metallischen dingen, vnnd von der 
verborgenen vnd hochsten Artzney der alien Philosophorum, mit andern Authoribus, 
die da auff dem nachfolgenden Blatt angezeigt werden. Verteutscht durch Philippum 
Morgenstern, wie forn im ersten Theil geschrieben worden. Getruckt zu Basel, bey 
Johann Schroter, M. DC. XI 1 1. 

Pp. [6] (Contents and Vorrede); Text, pp. 455, [i blank]. Vignette of the 
Philosophers, and symbolic woodcuts in the text of the Rosarium. 



Theil I. 

Propositiones Maximae, seu Satzungen der Gold- 
kunst, oder Chemise artis, sig. ):( v recto. 

1. Turba Philosophorum, p. i. 

2. Das Ander Exemplar der Turbae Philosopho- 
rum, p. 60. 

Ettliche Allegorize in die Turbam, p. 101. 

3. Etliche Retzel, oder Aenigmata aufs dem 
Gesicht [oder dem Traum] Arislei und aufs den 
Allegoriis der Weissen, p. 107. 

4. Ubung in die Turbam, p. 114. 

5. Auffsteigung der Morgenrothe [Aurora Con- 
surgens], p. 141. 

6. Rosinus ad Eutichiam (Euthicam), das i ste 
Buch, p. 199. 

7. Rosinus ad Eutichiam, das ander Buch, p. 208. 

8. Rosinus an den Bischoff Saratantam, das i ste 
Buch, p. 228. 

9. Rosinus an den Bischoff Saratantam, das ander 
Buch, p. 237. 

10. Rosinus, Beschreibung von den Gottlichen 
Aufslegungen, p. 242. 

11. Die Practica Marias Prophetissae, p. 269. 

12. Das Buch der Geheimnussen der Alchimiag 
Calidis Jazichi Sohn, p. 274. 

13. Das Buch der dreyer Worter, defs ver- 
mischten Kallidts [i.e. Kalid Rachaidib], p. 301. 

14. Aristoteles : Tractatlein oder Biichlein von 
der Practica defs Philosophischen Steines, p. 310. 

15. Avicenna: von der Congelierung und zu- 
sammen fiigung des Steins (or von der Zusammen- 
leimung), p. 322. 

16. Epistola Alexandri, p. 331. 

17. Ein klein Werckstuck oder Biichlein, eines 
vnbekandten Authoris, der da metaphorice be- 
schreibet die Geheimnus defs Philosophischen 
Steines, p. 337. 

18. Allegoria Merlini, vom Geheimnufs defs 
Steins, p. 340. 

19. Rachaidibi, Veradiani, Rpdiani und Kanidis, 
Schreiben von der Materia Lapidis, p. 344. 



20. Avicenna : Tractatulus von der Alchimia, 

P- 35i- 

21. Semita Semitae, oder, Fufssteig defs Fufs- 
steigs, p. 378. 

22. Clangor Buccinae, oder, der Thon der Schal- 
meyen, p. 389. 

23. Correctio Fatuorum, oder, die reformierte 
Alchimij oder Straffung der falschen Alchimisten, 

P- 475- 

24. Das Buch von der Kunst Chimia, eines 
ungewissen Authors, p. 504. 

Theil II. 

Das Buch von der Zurichtung der giildinen 
Kunst, welches Morienus Romanus hat lassen 
aufsgehen an den Calid der Egypter Konig, welches 
Robertus Castrensis aufs dem Arabischen in Latein 
gebracht hat, sig. Aij recto. 

Ein Antwort Bernhnrdi von Trier, an Thomam 

de Bononia, von den Mineralen, vnnd zusammen- 

setzung oder zurichtung dels Elixirs, erklaret vnnd 

aufsgelegt mit den Tafeln Roberti Vallensis, p. 46. 

The ' Tafeln ' are on p. 91. 

Ein Buch voj) der guldenen Kunst, welches 
Author vnbekandt, vnd zuvor noch nie aufsgangen. 
[No such tract. Compare vol. i. p. 504.] 

Die Leyter der Philosophorum [Scala Philoso- 
phorum], p. 94. 

Das Weiber-Werck oder Kinderspiel [Opus 
Mulierum et Ludus puerorum], p. 154. 

Rosarium der Philosophorum mit den Figuren, 
P- 185. 

Arnoldus, Schatz aller Schatze, vnd das Rosarium, 

P- 369- 

Arnoldus, Newes Licht [Novum Lumen], p. 393. 

Arnoldus, Blum aller Blumen an den Konig 
Aragonum geschrieben [Flos florum], p. 407. 

Arnoldus, Epistel vber die Alchimia an den 
Konig Neapolitanum oder zur Newstatt, p. 422 

Rogerius Bachon, Von der wunderbarlichen Ge- 
walt der Kunst vnd Natur &c., p. 426. 



MORGENS TERNMORHOF 



107 



MORGENSTERN (PHILIPP). Continued. 

Turba Philosophorum, Das ist, Das Buch von der giildenen Kunst, neben andern 
Auctoribus, welche mit einander 36. Biicher ausmachen, darinnen der besten 
uraltesten Philosophorum Schriften zusammen getragen, welche alle einhellig 
von der Universal-Medicin handlen, in zwey Theile abgefasset, und mit 
schonen Figuren gezieret. Zu Nutz und Dienst aller Kunst- und Natur- 
liebenden mit besonderem Fleifs, Miihe und Arbeit in die deutsche Sprache 
iibersetzt und heraus gegeben durch Philippum Morgenstern, Islebiensem. 
Erster Theil. Verlegts Johann Paul Kraufs, Buchhandler in Wienn, 1750. 

8. Pp. [12] 680. Title red and black. Vignette : a Lion on its haunches 
swallowing the sun ; the engraving has the following couplet on left and right sides : 
Ich bin der wahre griin und giildisch Low ohn Sorgen 
In mir steckt alle Heimlichkeit der Philosophen verborgen. 

. . . Zweyter Theil [1-14] 15-551 [*] Vignette, and 8 separate engraved plates. 
1 1 woodcuts and the vignette of the first part repeated. 

Theil 1. 

Propositiones Maximae, oder Satzutigen der Gold- 
Kunst oder Chemicae artis, sig. ) ( ) ( i redo. 

1. Turba Philosophorum, p. i. 

2. Das andere Exemplar der Turbae, p. 76. 

3. Etliche Allegoriae in die Turbam, p. 125. 

4. Etliche Ratzel aus dem Traum oder Gesicht 
Arislei, p. 133. 

5. Ubung in die Turbam, p. 142. 

6. Aufsteigung der Morgenrothe, p. 173. 

7. Das erste Buch Rosini ad Euthichiam, p. 244. 

8. Das andere Buch Rosini ad Euthicam, p. 255. 

9. Das erste Buch Rosini an den Bischoff Sara- 
tantam, p. 279. 

10. Das andere Buch an den Bischoff Saratantam, 
p. 289. 

11. Der dritte Theil Rosini von der Beschreibung 
von den Gottlichen Auslegungen, p. 295. 

12. Die Practica Mariae Prophetissae, p. 329. 

13. Das Buch der Geheimnufs Calidis, lazichi 
Sohn, p. 335. 

14. Das buch derer drey Worter, p. 367. 

15. Das Buch Aristotelis von dem Philosophischen 
Stein, p. 377. 

16. Avicenna von der Zusammenleimung des 
Steins, p. 391. 

17. Epistola Alexandri Macedoniae, p. 402. 

18. Ein unbekannter Author von den Geheim- 
nussen des Steins, p. 409. 

19. Die Allegoria Merlini vom Geheimnufs des 
Steins, p. 413. 

20. Rachaidibi, Veradiani, Rodiani und Kalidis, 
Schreiben von der Materia Lapidis, p. 418. 

21. Avicenna von der Alchymia, p. 426. 

22. Semita Semitae oder Fufssteig des Fufs- 
steigs, p. 460. 

Morgenstern may be, and most likely is, a 
pseudonym. This is a translation of the Ars 
A vr if era of 1593 or 1610. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 124. 
Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1866, i. p. 311. 



23. Der Thon der Schalmeyen [Clangor Buccinae], 

P- 473- 

24. Die reformirte Alchymie oder Bestraffung 
der falschen Alchimisten [Correctio fatuorum], 
P- 578. 

25. Ein ungewisser Author von der Kunst Chimia, 
p. 612. 

Theil II. 

Das Buch von der Zurichtung der giildenen 
Kunst, welches Morienus Romanus hat lassen 
ausgehen an den Calid, der Aegypter Kdnig, 
welches Robertus Castrensis aus dem Arabischen 
in Latein gebracht hat, sig. AS recto and p. 15. 

Eine Antwort Bernhardi Treuisani an Thomam 
de Bononia von den Mineralien, und Zusammen- 
setzung oder Zurichtung des Elixirs, erklaret und 
ausgelegt mit den Tafeln Roberti Vallensis, p. 68. 

Ein Buch von der giildenen Kunst, dessen 
Auctor unbekannt und welches zuvor noch nie 
ausgangen. 

[There is no such tract in this volume.] 

Die Leiter der Philosophorum, p. 127. 

Das Kinderspiel [das Weiberwerck], p. 198. 

Rosarium Philosophorum mit den Figuren, 

P- 2 35- 

Arnoldus, Schatz aller Schatze und das Rosarium 
der Philosophorum, p. 447. 

Arnoldus, Neues Licht [Novum Lumen], p. 476. 

Arnoldus, Blume aller Blumen an den Konig von 
Arragonia geschrieben [Flos florum], p. 493. 

Arnoldus, Epistel iiber die Alchymia an den 
Konig von Neapolis, oder zur Neustadt, p. 511. 

Rogerius Baco, Anglus, von der wunderbarlichen 
Gewalt der Kunst und Natur, &c., p. 517. 

Curiously enough Kopp did not know either this 
edition or that of 1750, and was not aware of the 
connection of the book with the Ars Aurifera. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 324. 



MORHOF (DANIEL GEORG). 

D. G. Morhofl. De Metallorum Transmutatione ad Virum Nobilissimum & 
Amplissimum Joelem Langelottum, Serenissimi Principis Cimbrici Archiatrum 
Celeberrimum Epistola. Hamburgi, Ex Officina Gothofredi Schultzen, 

Prostant & Amsterodami. Apud Joannem Janssonium a Waesberge. 
M.DC.LXXIII. 

8. Pp. x68. 



io8 



MORHOFMORIENUS 



MORHO.F (DANIEL GEORG). Continued. 

De Metallorum Transmutatione ad Joelem Langelottum Epistola. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 168. 

Daniel Georg Morhof vom Goldmachen, oder physikaiisch-historische Abhand- 
lung von Verwandlung der Metalle. Aus dem Lateinischen. Bayreuth, zu 
finden bey Johann Andreas Liibeck, 1764. 

8. Pp. 136. 



Wahrhaffter . . . Bericht von der Generation . 
Danielis Georgii Epistel an Joelem Langelottum. 
See c, (H. d.). 



der Metallen 



auf 



1 08 Quaestiones Chemicse. 

See HANNEMANN (JOHANN LUDWIG), Ovum-Hermetico-Paracelsico-Trisme- 
gistum, 1694, p. 251. 

cvin Problemata olim auton proposita. 

See HANNEMANN (JOHANN LUDWIG), Pharus ad Ophir Auriferum, 1714, p. 161. 



Morhof was born at Wismar, 6 Feb. , 1639. From 
1660 to 1666 he^was professor of poetry at Rostock, 
in 1666 he removed to Kiel as professor of poetry 
and rhetoric, and in 1673 he was professor of 
history. In 1680 he was made librarian, an office 
for which he was admirably fitted, and which he 
turned to the best account in his writings. He 
would have been no exception to the rule that the 
librarian who reads is lost, but he has been saved 
by writing, and his account of libraries and library 
work has made him an authority with the librarian 
of to-day. He died at Liibeck, 30 July, 1691. 

He was a man of very great learning, and of 
sound critical judgment. His encyclopaedic read- 
ing and knowledge are displayed in his chief work 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 554. 

Acta Eruditorum, Julii, 1699, pp. 291-293 (review 
of the Dissertationes). 

Morhof, Dissertationes Academicce & Epistolicce, 
1699, 4. Appended to this is his life : ' Vita, qua, 
. . . labores ejus Academici, & Scripta praecipue, 
turn edita, turn edenda, . . . enumerantur : . . . 
accedunt elogia . . .,' pp. 143 [i blank], 

Reinhard Heinrich Rolle, Memoricephilosophorum, 
oratoriim, poetarum, &c. , 1710, ii. p. 283. 

Christianus Henricus, Vita eruditissimorum in 
re literaria virorum, 1713, p. 282. 

Niceron, Memoires, 1727, ii. p. 16 ; 1731, x. p. 

79- 

Die Edclgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 180. 

Stolle, Anleitung zitr Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 173, 499, 592, 598, 609. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metalliccr, 
1732, p. 103. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Gelahrhcit, 
1736, p. 29, &c. , &c. . 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 391, 392, 416, 484 ; iii. pp. 
62, 239. 



Polyhistor, which is a survey of learning on all 
topics to his own time. The work first appeared 
at Liibeck, 1688-92, the second edition in 1695, and 
a revision of this at Liibeck in 1714. For it, 
Johannes Moller as full of erudition as Morhof 
himself wrote elaborate Prolegomena on Morhof s 
life and works, including the Polyhistor. The third 
edition appeared in 1732. To both of these 
editions portraits of Morhof are prefixed. 

In the Polyhistor he discusses alchemy and 
chemistry, among a multitude of other subjects. 

In his collected papers : Dissertationes Academica 
et Epistolicce, 1699, 4, there is a reprint of the 
' De Metallorum Transmutatione Epistola,' pp. 
245-302. 

Moller, Cimbria literata, 1744, ii. pp. 560-1 ; iii. 
pp. 453-488 (elaborate account). 

Jocher, Allgetneines Gelehrten- Lex icon, 1751, iii. 
col. 671 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnzun- 
gen, 1813, iv. col. 2119. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 99. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 633. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1779, iii. 
p. 171. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 91. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

P- 55- 

Rees, The Cyclopedia, 1819, xxiv. , sub voce. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 419. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 205. 

Ladrague, Bibliothtque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1233-34. 

Prideaux, ' Library Economy (chiefly continental) 
at the end of the Seventeenth Century,' The Library 
Association Record, isth March, 1904, vi. pp. 129- 
138. 



MORIENUS. 

Morieni Romani, quondam Eremitae Hierosolymitani, de transfiguratione 
metallorum, & occulta, summaque antiquorum Phil osophorum medicina, 



MORIENUS 



109 



MORIENUS. Continued. 

Libellus, nusquam hactenus in lucem editus. Cum Privilegio, Parisiis, Apud 
Gulielmum Guillard, in via lacobsea, sub diuae Barbarae signo, 1559. 

4. Ff. [a] 34. 

Liber de Compositione Alchemiae. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^E . . . volumina, 1610, ii. p. 3. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 509. 

Das Buch von der Zurichtung der giildenen Kunst. 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, ii. sig. Aij. recto, & p. I. 
See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1750, ii. sig. AS recto, & p. 15. 

Bericht von dem ersten Vrsprung vnd rechten Grund der Alchimey. 
See CAESAR (THEOPHILUS), Alchimey-Spiegel, 1613, p. 14. 

Entretien du Roi Calid et du Philosophe Morien, sur le Magistere d'Hermes. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1740, ii. 
p. 56. 



For what is known about Morienus' life and 
adventures we are indebted to his own narrative 
contained in the present book. 

Morienus, a native of Rome, was living there 
with his parents, and svas studying diligently, when 
he heard of a philosopher, called Adfar, at Alex- 
andria, who was reputed to know the Hermetic 
mysteries. He had also seen some of his writings, 
and so irresistible was his desire to understand 
them, that he set off for Alexandria, discovered 
Adfar after much searching, and became so 
favoured by him that he was ultimately in- 
structed in all the secrets. On the death of his 
teacher, Morienus retired to the neighbourhood of 
Jerusalem, where he lived a hermit's life. While 
there he heard that Kalid, the son of Gezid, who 
reigned in Egypt, was desirous to find some one 
who could interpret for him the writings of Hermes 
and of Adfar. He accordingly went to Egypt, 
found Kalid surrounded by adventurers who pro- 
fessed to be able to reveal all the mysteries, but 
who could perform nothing. Morienus set to work 
in a house which Kalid gave him, and when he had 
finished the preparation of the elixir wrote on the 
vessel containing it : ' Omnes qui secum omnia 
habent, alieno auxilio nullatenus indigent,' left the 
country and returned to his hermitage. 

His abrupt departure caused Kalid great dis- 
appointment, for he perceived what he had lost, 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione Metallica Sogni 
/re, 1599, p. 141. 

Maier, Symbola Aurea Mensa, 1617, p. 141. 

Ashmole, Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, 
1652, p. 53 (Norton's Ordinall of Alchimy, chap. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 163, 249. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 12, No. xvii. 

Keren Happuch . . . odcr Teutsches Fegfeuer 
der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 54. 

Boerhaave, Elementa Chemiae, 1732, p. 16. 

Jacob Leopolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicce, 
1732, pp. 104, 120. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, i. pp. 86-98, 465 ; iii. pp. 37, 

45- 65. 239- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lcxicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 675 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganznn- 
gen, 1813, iv. col. 2122. 



and what no one else could supply. So the pseudo- 
adepts were despatched happily, by command of 
Kalid, whose eyes had been opened. Then he set 
about a search for Morienus, and after many years 
succeeded at last in finding him and in obtaining 
from him the key to the mysteries which he had 
been so long anxious to possess. 

So sought King Kalid of manie men, 
Till he met with Aforien, 
Which helped Kalid at his neede 
His Vertues caused him to speede, 
as Norton says in The Ordinall of Alchimy. 

The ultimate fate of Morienus is unknown, but 
his conversations with Kalid must have been com- 
mitted to writing, and they may have come to the 
West about the time of the Crusades. They were 
in Arabic, but to make them available they were 
translated into Latin in February, 1182, by Robertus 
Castrensis, with a short preface. Jourdain has tried 
to identify him with Robert de Retines. 

By Arabic writers the teacher of Kalid is called 
Marianus or Mourianus ; he is probably the same 
as Morienus. See under Kalid Ben Jesid. 

Morienus was the name taken by R. J. F. Schmidt 
(q.v. ), as a member of the Leopoldine Academia 
Naturae Curiosorum. Guillard published the second 
edition : Parisiis, 1564, 4, ff. [2] 66 [41]. The 
added part contains Bernhardus' Responsio ad 
Thomam de Bononia. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 115. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 76. 

Beytrag enr Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 483. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen sur Historic 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1787, ii. p. 2. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 23, 24. 

The Lives of the Adepts in Alchemystical Philo- 
sophy, 1814, pp. 9-11. 

Jourdain, Recherches critiques sur I' Age et 
rOrigine des Traductions La tines d'Aristote, 
Paris, 1819, p. 104. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 
121. 

L,a&ra.gue,Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 682-683. 

Lucien Leclerc, Histoire de la Mtdecine Arabe, 
Paris, 1876, i. pp. 62-64. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 346, 353. 



no MORITZMORLEY 



MOR1TZ (PETER). 

See AMOR PROXIMI. 

Moritz is one of the authors to whom this tract He is belauded in the usual terms by Fictuld. 
has been assigned. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien , 1741, ii. Fictuld, ProHer-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 123. 
pp. 424-427. 

MORLEY (CHRISTOPHER LOVE). 

Collectanea Chymica Leydensia, id est, Maetsiana, Margraviana, Le Mortiana. 
Scilicet trium in Academia Lugduno-Batava Facultatis Chimioe, qua publice, 
qua privatim, Professorum, nunc viventium, atque docentium, qui isthaec 
discipulis suis, ex omni Europa illo confluentibus, per hos annos, non solum 
ostenderunt, verum etiam suis verbis dictarunt. Opus, quingentis, & amplius, 
processibus adornatum, omnibus & Medicis, & Chimicis, & Pharmacopasis, 
imprimis utile; cum ob insignem plerorumque usitatiorum processuum 
varietatem, turn ob novam, atque elegantem in singulis operandi rationem, 
tribus his, tantisque viris, in usu habitam. Collegit, digessit, edidit, Christo- 
phorus Love Morley, M.D. Anglus. Quis huic operi sit scopus, qua? 
methodus, quinam Auctores, cseteraque quse Lectorem ignorare non expedit, 
prsefatio indicabit. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Henricum Drummond, 

M DC LXXXIV. Sumptibus J. A. de la Font. 

4. Pp. [32] 506. Index [21, i blank]. Vignette of a tortoise, with the motto : 
Qui va piano va sano. 

Collectanea Chymica Leydensia, Maetsiana, Margraviana, Le Mortiana. Olim 
trium in Academia Lugduno-Batava Facultatis Chymicse, qua publice, qua 
privatim, Professorum, viventium, atque docentium, qui isthsec discipulis suis, 
ex omni Europa illo confluentibus, illis annis, non solum ostenderunt, verum 
etiam suis verbis dictarunt. Ante hac collecta, digesta, edita, a Christophoro 
Love Morley, M.D. Anglo. Nunc autem plurimis novis elegantioribus & 
accuratioribus experimentis instructa & aucta, meliorem in ordinem redacta, 
ubivis correcta, a superfluis Processubus mundata per Theodorum Muykens, 
Med. Doct. Amstelod. Opus nulli non Physico-Medico, Chymico, & Pharma- 
copaeo necessarium & perutile. Lugduni Batavorum, Sumptib. Cornelii 

Boutesteyn & Frederici Haaring. M DC XCIII. 

8. Pp. [48, Engraved title included] 587 [37]. 

Collectanea Chymica Leydensia oder Aufserlesene mehr als 700. Chymische 
Processe welche von Hn. Maetsio Margravio und le Mortio, ehedessen dreyen 
beriihmten Professoribus der Chymie zu Leyden, denen damals aus alien 
Theilen Europae gegenwartigen Autitoribus (sic) so wohl publice als privatim 
nicht nur gewiesen sondern auch Miindlich dictirt worderi. Vor diesen von 
Hn. Christoph Ludvvig Morleii. Med. Doct. aus Engelland zusammen getragen, 
in Ordnung und ans Licht bracht, Nachmals durch Hn. Theodorum Muyckens 
Med. Doct. zu Amsterdam mit vielen neuen schonen und accuraten Experi- 
menten vermehret, in richtigere Ordnung gestellet, allenthalben verbessert und 
von iiberfliifsigen Processen gesaubert Nun aber auf Ersuchen guter Freunde 



MORLE YMORSIUS 



in 



MORLEY (CHRISTOPHER LOVE). Continued. 

ins Teutsche iibersetzt, Welches alien Medicis, Chymicis, Physicis, Apotheckern 
und jeden seine Gesundheit liebenden ho'chst nothig und niitzlich. Jena, 
Verlegts Henr. Christoph Croker, 1696. 

8. Pp. [8, Frontispiece included] 724. The true pagination is 728. 

Morley (called erroneously Christian by Jocher, 
and Ludwig by his German translator) flourished 
about 1680, was a doctor of medicine, and 
F.R.C.P. He wrote ' De morbp epidemico tarn 
hujus, quam superioris anni, id est, 1678 et 
1679, narratio'; ' Disputatio de rachitide,' Lugd. 
Bat., 1679, 4, London, 1679, 1682, 1686, 12, 
which I have not seen, and the present work. 

Manget, Bibliotheca ScriptorumMedicorum, 1731, 
II. i. p. 362. 

Stolle, Anleitung sur Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 791. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetiqve, 1742, iii. pp. 239, 240. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
684 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganzungen, 
1813, iv. col. 2134 (calls him Christian Lowe 
Morley). 



Besides the above other editions are mentioned : 
Leyden, 1688, 4 ; Antwerp, 1702, 8. The edition 
of 1696 seems to be the first of the German transla- 
tion. Others are enumerated : Jena, 1700,8; 1726, 
8. 

A review of the Collectanea is given by Manget 

under THEODORUS MUYKENS (q.V.). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, iii. 
p. 470; 1788, iv. p. 131. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 28. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der CAetnie, 1798, ii. p. 122. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Aledicin, 1848, i. p. 321. 

Munk, Roll of the Royal College of Physicians, 
1861, i. p. 418. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1894, xxxix. 
p. 73 (by Dr. Payne). 



MORSIUS (JOACHIM). 

See NOLLIUS (HEINRICH), Via Sapientias Triuna, 1620. 

See SUCHTEN (ALEXANDER VON), Tractatus de Vera Medicina, 1621. 



Kornelius Drebbels Abhandlung von der Quintessenz von Joachim Morsius 
herausgegeben im Jahre 1621. 
See SCHRODER (F. j. w.), Neue Alchymistische Bibliothek, 1772, I. ii. p. 291. 



Morsius, a Hamburg patrician, was born 3 
January, 1593. After his school years, spent in 
his native place, he studied theology and polite 
letters (to which he latterly was specially attracted) 
from 1610 to 1613 at Rostock, and then at Jena and 
other German universities. This he did with such 
success that in 1615 he was chosen by the rector 
and professors of Rostock University to be their 
librarian. He undertook the office, but foreign 
travel proved more attractive to him than literary 
work, and in 1616 he set out on a ' learned ' 
journey, and stopped in Hamburg, Stettin, and 
Leyden, and in 1617 he went to Pomerania, Den- 
mark and Holland. In 1618 he visited France and 
Italy, and in 1619 he was at Liibeck, Hamburg, 
and Rostock, and also in Bremen, Westphalia, 
Holland, and Belgium, and was present at the 
Synod of Dordrecht. 

He crossed to England this same year, and 
resided in London, Oxford, and Cambridge. In 
October, 1619, at Cambridge, he was enrolled 
among the Masters of Arts, and acquired the 
friendship of many illustrious men. He also 
makes a boast of the great progress he had made 
in chemistry. 

In 1620 he returned to Leyden, and then to his 
own country and people, where he lived for some 
time. In 1627 he visited Copenhagen, and Leyden 
once more in 1628. 

As this constant travelling, not to speak of his 
generosity to poor literary men, had made inroads 
upon his patrimony, though considerable, he was 
summoned in 1629 before the magistracy by his 
irritated heirs and relatives as a man of unsettled 



life, who wasted his means upon non-productive 
learning and such like pursuits, and who should be 
deprived of the control of them. Against this he 
wrote a protest, which was printed in 1629, and 
went off to Frankfurt a. M. and Strasburg. 

He seems to have returned soon, for from 1631 to 
1636 he made annual journeys to Denmark and 
Holstein. He was again summoned about 1634 to 
be restrained from administering his estates. His 
defence and the part taken by his friends provoked 
his relatives to such an extent that on his return 
from Copenhagen in 1636 he was confined in an 
asylum on the plea that he wasted his property and 
was not sound in mind. He was kept here for four 
years, and in 1640 was liberated by order of the 
King of Denmark. 

He left his native country and lived in Gltick- 
stadt, Itzehoe, Kiel, and Ltlbeck. 

In 1642 he was at the last-mentioned place, but 
after that date Moller says that he was unable to 
ascertain what had come of him. He may have died 
in that year. 

During his travels he made the acquaintance of 
a multitude of people, and he kept an album (to 
which Moller makes reference) in which were 
autographs and various compositions by the people 
whom he had met. He had a great reputation for 
learning and ability, as can be gathered from the 
dogia and complimentary verses written upon him, 
as well as front the incidental allusions to him by 
numerous writers, which are always in the warmest 
terms. 

He wrote several books, and edited a consider- 
able number of works by various writers, but he 



112 



MORSIUSMOR W YNG 



MORSIUS (JOACHIM). Continued. 

also left works which were never printed, as well as 
some which were never completed. Lists of these 
are given by Moller. 

Among his printed books are the tracts by Nollius, 
Drebbel, and v. Suchten, and among those that 
were not printed was a collected edition of the 
writings of Joh. Isaac Hollandus, Basilius Valen- 
tinus, Roger Bacon, Guido Magnus, and other 
alchemical philosophers. 

One of the most important of his printed works 
however is that which he wrote under the name of 
Anastasius Philaretus Cosmopolita, which epithet 
refers to his wide travels. It is a catalogue of two 
hundred and twenty-eight manuscripts on theosophy , 

Placcius, Theatrum Anonymorum et Pseudony- 
inorum , \ 708 , Part i i. ' De Scriptoribus Pseudony mis, ' 
p. 500. 

Moller, Cimbria literata, 1744, i. p. 440. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
cols. 579, 690 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung and 
Ergdnzungen, 1813, iv. col. 2145. 



the cabala, magic, chemistry, medicine, and philo- 
sophy, printed at Philadelphia, 1626, 4. 

This collection contained manuscripts of Para- 
celsus and others relating to the Rosicrucians, and 
Moller conjectures that the collection belonged to 
Michael Maier or to Nollius, but to the catalogue 
was added an account of the documents in Morsius' 
own possession. 

He also wrote an epistle to the Rosicrucians, 
Philadelphia, 4, without date. From these works 
and references in his writings it is plain thas he was 
deeply interested in chemistry or alchemy, and in 
the subjects which were at that time associated 
with it. 

Freytag, Adparatus Litterarius, 1755, iii. pp. 
321-326. 

Thiess, Versuch einer Gelehrtengeschichte von 
Hamburg, 1780, ii. p. 47. 

Saxius, Onomasticon Literarium, 1782, iv. p. 
325 (born 1593, died about 1642). 



MORT QAKOB LE). 

See LEMORT (JAKOB). 

Conring, In uni-versam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 388. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 304, 336, 791. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 566. 



Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 763. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, iii. 
p. 428 (list of his writings). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, pp. 27, 116. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller '/.eiten nnd Volker, 1886, iv. 
p. 289. 



MORVEAU (Louis BERNARD GUYTON DE). 
Esame delle Affinita' Chimiche. 

See DANDOLO (VINCENZO), Trattato Elementare di Chimica, 1792, Tomo III. 



Guyton de Morveau was born at Dijon, 4 Janu- 
ary, 1737. From 1755 to 1782 he was Avocat- 
Geneial in the parliament there, professor of 
chemistry from 1774 to 1787, and member of the 
Academy. During the Revolution he occupied 
various political positions in Paris. On the estab- 
lishment of the Ecole Polytechnique in 1794, he 
was appointed professor of chemistry, which post 
he held till 1805. Subsequently he was Director 
of the School and Administrator of the Mint. 
From 1796 he was a member of the Institute. His 
death occurred at Paris, January i or 2, 1816. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 47. 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentatiomim, 1803, iii. 
(Chemia et Kes Metallica\ pp. n, 20, 24, 32, 33, 
36, 40, 61, 66, 84, 86, 93, 101, 117, 120, 154, 158, 
169, 170, 173, 174, 176. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratnr, 
1806-08, pp. 392, 396, 397, 411, 430, 473, 554, 555. 

Berthollet, Fune'railles de M, le Baron Guyton- 
Morveau (Paris, 1816), 4. 

Biographie Universelle, 1817, xix. p. 262 ; n.d. 
xviii. p. 296 (article by Cuvier). 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), iv- P- 555- 



He was a member of the Commission with 
Lavoisier, Berthollet and Fourcroy, which drew 
up the new nomenclature of chemistry, Paris, 1787, 
8 . He introduced chlorine as a disinfectant, was 
joint editor of the Annales de Chimie, and he or 
rather his wife translated Scheele's ' Essays,' and 
Werner's 'Characteristics of Fossils.' His papers, 
which are numerous, appeared in the Dijon Me- 
moirs, Turin Memoirs, Memoirs of the Institute, 
and Annales de Chimie. 



QueYard, La France littiraire, 1829, iii. p. 561. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 317- 
324, &c., &c. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtntrale, 1859, xxii. col. 
968. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
ivorterbuch, 1863, i. col. 981. 

Hoefer, La Chimie enseignte par la Biographie 
de ses Fondateurs, 1865, p. 123. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1869, ii. p. 545. 

Kopp, Die Entwickelung der Chemie in der 
netiern Zeit, 1873, pp. 87, 132, &c. , &c. 



MORWYNG (PETER). 

See GESNER (CONRAD), A new booke of destillatyon of waters, 1565. 



MOR WYNGMO UFET 



He was subsequently appointed private chaplain 
to Dr. Bentham, bishop of Lichfield, and on 25 
Jan., 1559, was ordained prebendary and afterwards 
canon of Lichfield, and well beneficed. 

He translated Josephus' History of the Wars of 
the Jews, besides the present work. 

He was still living at Lichfield in May, 1579, and 
was one of Bishop Bentham's administrators. 

Wood, Athenee Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1813, i. 
cols. 454, 526, 582 ; 1815, ii. col. 174. 



MORWYNG (PETER). Continued. 

Morwyng, a native of Lincolnshire, studied in 
Oxford, graduated B.A., and was made perpetual 
fellow of Magdalene College in 1552. He was a 
famous Reformer, and when Queen Mary came to 
the throne, he, like others, went abroad and lived 
in Germany. On the accession of Elizabeth he 
returned and was reinstated in his fellowship, and 
in 1559 obtained the degree of M.A. , and was dis- 
tinguished for his skill in Greek and Latin. 

Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, 1748, 
P- 536. 

Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 379. 

MOSES. 

Testament, oder der Fiirstlich-Monarchische Rose von Jericho. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iv. p. 39. 

Urim et Thumim Moysis. 

See MENSENRIET, 1737. 

Der von Mose und denen Propheten iibel urtheilende Alchymist. 
See SCHMID (j. G.), 1706. 



The name of Moses appears in some of the 
Greek alchemical manuscripts, but he is a different 
person from the Hebrew lawgiver. The latter, 
however, was also claimed as a chemist and 
alchemist, on the ground of the destruction of the 
golden calf. Much controversy on this subject 
was engaged in in the seventeenth century, and it 
was even revived in the nineteenth, some holding 
that the gold was dissolved, thereby implying on 

Libavius, Commentariorum AlchymicE Pars 
Prima, 1606, pp. 2, 15. 

Maier, Symbola Aurea Mensce, 1617, pp. 59-61 
(maintains that the destruction of the gold was not 
effected by ' sharp waters ' or by the addition of 
anything, and that Moses was a true chemist), 
189-190. 

Conriug, De Hermetica sEgyptiorum vetere ct 
Paracelsicorum nova ' Medicina liber unus, 1648, 
pp. 64, 142, 143, 161, 393. 

Borrichius, De Ortit et Progressu Chemice, 1668, 
p. 46. 

Conring, De Hermetica Medicina, Libri duo, 
1669, pp. 22, 41, 65, 158, 431. 

Borrichius, Hermetis, Aegyptiorum et Chcmi- 
cortim sapientia . . . vindicata, 1674, p. 225. 

G. W. Wedel, Exercitationum medico-philologi- 
carum Decades IX. , Jense, 1699, p. i. 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Tentsches Fegfeuer 
der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. i. 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, ed. Harles, 1708, 
i. p. 49. 

Lambecius, Prodromus Histories literaries, 1710, 
p. 151 (a tract on Chemistry). 

G. E. Stahl, Opitsciilnmchymico-physico-medicum, 
1715. P- 585- 



Moses' part acquaintance with aqua regia, others 
that it was merely mechanically subdivided. 

By certain writers, as by Huetius, Hermes and 
Moses were identified, and this subject is referred 
to also by Fabricius and Libavius. See the refer- 
ences under HERMES and compare JANITOR 
PANSOPHUS. 

The Greek writings which pass under his name 
have been printed by Berthelot. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1723, Th. ii. p. 26 (meant 
as an answer to the ' Fegfeuer '). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, i. p. 18 ; iii. pp. 22, 240. 

W. Herapath, ' Early Egyptian Chemistry,' 
Philosophical Magazine, 4th Series, 1852, iii. p. 
528. 

J. Denham Smith, ' Early Egyptian Chemistry,' 
Philosophical Magazine, 4th Series, 1852, iv. p. 
142 (a reply to Herapath's paper). 

Kopp, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Chemie, 1869, 
pp. 396-402. 

Ladrague, Bibliothlque Owaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 647. 

Berthelot, Les Origines de I 'Alchimie, 1885, pp. 
54, 171 & passim. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 209 ; ii. p. 395. 

Berthelot, Collection des Anciens Alchimistes 
Grecs, 1888, i. pp. 16, 61, ty* passim ; ii. pp. 300-315 
& passim (writings in Greek) ; iii. pp. 287-302 
(translation) <b* passim. 

Berthelot, Introduction a I' Etude de la Chimie 
des Anciens et du Mcyen Age, 1889, pp. 16, 61 6* 
passim. 



MOUFET (THOMAS). 

De lure et Praestantia Chymicorum Medicamentorum Dialogus apologeticus : 
Authore Thoma Mufetto Londinaie Anglo. Accesserunt etiam Epistolas 
quaedam medicinales ad medicos aliquot conscriptae. Francofurti Apud 
haeredes Andreas Wecheli, MDLXXXIIII. 

8. Pp. in [i blank]. 
II. H 



114 



MOUFET 



MOUFET (THOMAS). Continued. 

Dialogus Apologeticus de jure & praestantia Chemicorum Medicamentorum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, i. p. 64. 



Epistolae Quinque Medicinales. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, i. p. 

Thomas Moufet, or Moufetus, or Muffet, or 
Muffetus, or Mufettus, or Moffett, was born in 
London, and was educated there and at Cambridge. 
He matriculated at Trinity College, in 1569, B.A. 
at Cains, 1572-73, and M.A. at Trinity, and then 
went abroad (he was at Nurnberg and Frankfurt 
in 1580), made the acquaintance of the most 
eminent physicians and chemists and became 
doctor of medicine at Basle. On his return he is 
said to have acted as a physician in Ipswich, then 
in London, where 'he fell into a great practice,' 
and became a favourite of Peregrine Bertie, Lord 
Willoughby of Eresbie, who took him in 1582 to 
Denmark on the occasion of his conveying to the 
king the Order of the Garter. On 22 Dec., 1585, 
he was admitted a candidate of the Royal College 
of Physicians, and on 29 Feb., 1588, Fellow, being 
also appointed Censor. In 1591 he accompanied 
the Earl of Essex in his expedition to Normandy. 

He latterly lived at Bulbridge near Wilton in 
Wiltshire, and, as is said, was private physician to 

Pitseus, Relationum Historicaruin de Rebus 
Anglicis, Tomus Primus, 1619 (De Illustribus 
Angliae Scriptoribus), p. 916 (merely quotes the 
present book). 

Van der Linden, De Serif tis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 454. 

Quenstedt, Dialogus depatrns tllustriumdoctrina 
et scriptis virorum, 1654, p. 80. 

Crato a Kraftheim, Consiliorum et Epistolarum 
Medicinalium Libri Septem, Studio . . . Laurentii 
Scholzii . . . in lucem editus (sic), 1671, iii. pp. 
243-251 (Moufet's letters to Monavius). 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 557. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 1021. 

Conring, In universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687 (cap. ix. 7), p. 284 (his work on 
insects) ; (Add. c. ix. 7, **) p. 294. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 370. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Medicini- 
schen Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 64, 166, 553. 

Niceron, Memoires, 1733, xxiv. p. 146. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 568. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 49, 241. 

Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, 1748, 
p. 536. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 717. 

Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 375. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 491. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 383. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicintz practice, 1774, i. 
pp. 35. 96; 1777, ii. p. 257 ('peregrinator, doctus 
vir, neque naturae ignarus '). 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique.de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 383. 

Aikin, Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in 
Great Britain, 1780, pp. 168-175. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 277, 310. 

Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, ii. pp. 
170-174. 



the Earl of Pembroke. He was Member of 
Parliament for Wilton in 1597. By the favour of 
the Countess Mary, he enjoyed a pension from the 
Pembroke family. He died 25 June, 1605, and 
was buried in Wilton Church. 

His letters to Monavius were collected and 
printed by Laurentius Scholzius, and some letters 
relating to chemistry were printed in the present 
volume. He wrote a work : Nosomantica Hippo- 
cratea, Francof. , 1588, 8, pp. [15] 194, which was 
attacked by Theodore Collado, a French physician, 
who set himself up as a defender of the ancients and 
convicted all modern writers of being full of error ; 
and he also made large additions to the Insectoritm 
Theatrum of Gesner and Wotton, which was 
published long after at London by Thomas Cotes, 
1634. 

Moufet was widely known and was ' esteemed 
the famous ornament of the body of physicians and 
the true pattern of all polite and solid literature.' 

Brydges, Censura Literaria, 1808, vi. p. 143, 
Art. vii. 'The Silkwormes and their Flies.' 

Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 
p. 88 (his work on insects). 

Wood, AthencB Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1813, i. 
col. 227, 574 ; 1815, ii. col. 175 ; 1817, iii. col. 396. 

Bibliotheca Anglo-Poetica, 1815, p. 317, No. 667. 
(The work here quoted is entitled : The Silke- 
wormes and their Flies : Liuely described in verse, 
by T. M. a Countrie Farmar, and an apprentice 
in Physicke, London, 1599, 4. The author was 
unknown to the compiler of this catalogue, but 
from the initials, the subject, and the dedication to 
Marie Countess of Pembroke, the assigning of it to 
Moufet, as is done by Lowndes, may probably be 
justified. The book is assigned to Moufet, with a 
query, in the British Museum catalogue. ) 

Rees, The Cyclopcedia, 1819, xxiv. sub voce. 

Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 301. 

Biographie Universette, Supplement, 1843, Ixxiv. 
p. 466 ; no date, xxix. p. 442 (article by Weiss). 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, " P- a6 '< 

1869, ii. p. 23. 

Cooper, Athetxe Cantabrigienses, 1861, ii. pp. 
400, 554 (and references). 

The Gentleman' s Magazine, N.S. xxiii. pp. 376, 378. 

Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London, 1861, i. p. 84 (from Wood). 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnerale, 1865, xxxvi. col. 
762. 

'La.Ara.gu^Bibliotheqne Ouvaroft, Sciences Secretes, 

1870, Nos. 1604-05. 

Dictionnaire Encyclopddique des Sciences Mtftfi- 
cales, 2eme Se'rie, 1876, x. p. 214. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragcn- 
den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 295. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 525. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1894, xxxviii. 
p. 101 (and references). 

John Aubrey, Brief Lives, chiefly by Contem- 
poraries, edited by Andrew Clark, 1898, i. p. 311; 
ii. pp. 89, 218. 



MULLER 115 

MULLER (AMBROSIUS). 
Paradeis-Spiegel. 

See DREY Curieuse Chymische Tractatlein, 1704. 

Of Ambrosius Miiller's parentage, birth and bach's catalogue he seems to have been regarded 

early years I have not met with any statement. On as the author of the three tracts in the above little 

account of his religious opinions he was driven out book, whereas in reality he is the author only of 

of Bohemia, and became a lacquey of Gustavus the first. He wrote another book entitled : Der 

Adolphus, settled in Hamburg, and pretended that Teutsche Schutzenhof. ' From his diction one can 

he possessed the secret of making gold In Uffen- see that he is no scholar. 1 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer und deren Schrifften, Cothen und Dessau, 1757, iii. 

der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 100. p. 553, No. 2618. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 200. Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Uffenbach, Bibliotheca, 1731, iv. p. 377. p. 498. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Rotermund, Fortsctzung und Erganzungen zu 

Herm^tique, 1742, iii. p. 241. ... Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 115. v. col. 22. (Rotermund's account is copied from 

Critische Bibliothek, Leipzig, 1755, m - St. 5 P- Dunkel's. ) 

405. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 376. 

Johann Gottlob Wilhelm Dunkel, Historisch- Ladrague, BibliothequeOuvaroft, Sciences Secretes, 

Critische Nachrichten von verstorbenen Gelehrten 1870, No. 1331. 

MULLER (BALTHASER). 

Niitzliche und bewahrte Destillier-Kunst, darinnen gehandelt wird, vom rechten 
wahren Gebrauch, Natur, Krafft und Vermogen so wohl rarer als auch 
gemeiner und gebrauchlichen Wasser, wie dieselbe von den Edelsten und 
fiirtrefflichsten Krautern, von fleifsigen Haufshaltern, nicht alleine bereitet 
und ausgebrennet, sondern auch von manniglichen vor allerhand innerliche 
und auserliche Leibes-Gebrechen gleich einer Haufs Apothecken konnen 
geniitzet und gebrauchet werden, alles aus langwieriger Erfahrung, auch 
von den beriihmtesten und besten Medicis approbiret und bewehrt befunden, 
in unterschiedlichen Tractaten zum Druck befordert von Balthaser Mullern. 
Franckfurt am Mayn In Henning Grossens Buchladen, Im Jahr Christi 1692. 
4. Pp. 44, 76 [12]. Title red and black. 

Haller cites a much earlier edition : ' Balthasar metallarii, Eisleben, 1605, 4. Nimia elogia 
Muller von rechtem wahren Gebrauch der gemein- aquarum destillatarum.' 
sten 147. distillirten Wasser, opus Henrici Muller 

Haller, Bibliotheca Mediciruz practices, 1777, ii. p. 379. 

MULLER (PHILIP). 

Miracula Chymica et Misteria Medica. Libris quinque enucleta (sif), quorum 
summam pagina versa exhibet. Studio & Opera Philippi Mulleri Friburg. 
Brisgoi, Philosoph. & Med. D. 1611. Cum Gratia & Privil. Sacr. Cses. 
M. ad decennium. Ex Typographia Laurentij Seuberlichs Sumptibus 
dementis Bergeri Bibliopolse. 

12. Pp. [23, i blank] 189 ( = 191, because 167-8 bis), [i blank]. Title red and 
black. Vignette. 19 woodcuts of apparatus. 

Miracula & Mysteria Chymico-Medica Libris quinq; (quorum summam pagina 
versa exhibet,) enucleata. Studio & opera Philippi Mulleri Frib. Bris. Phil. 
& Med. D. Editio quarta. Accesserunt his : 

1. Tyrocinium Chymicum. 

2. Novum Lumen Chymicum. 



MULLERM UFFA TZ 



MULLER (PHILIP). Continued. 

Summa horu, juxta seriem capitu & Tract: ad calcem invenienda est. Cum 
Gratia & Privil. S. C. M. ad decennium. Wittebergae, Sumptibus Clement. 
Bergeri. Typis Johannis Haken, 1623. 



12. Pp. 

12 woodcuts. 



Title red and black, with a border. 



[22, 2 blank] 493 [4, i blank]. 
Pp. 151-190 are duplicated. 

Tyrocinium Chymicum Johannis Beguini, p. 151 (for 191). 
Novum Lumen Chymicum, p. 369. 



The first edition of Miiller's book appeared in 
1610. It passed through a large number of editions 
both by itself and along with the Tyrocinium of 
Beguinus and tracts by Sendivogius. The book is 
pharmaceutical, and contains the preparation of a 
number of substances, amongst which (p. 66) is 
" Terra foliata secretissima " (potassium acetate). 

Of the author of the present work Jocher gives a 
notice, but it does not quite tally with Miiller's own 
account. According to Jocher, Mttller was born at 
Hertzberg, n Feb., 1585, where his father was 
rector, devoted himself to philosophy and medicine, 
was a licentiate of medicine, professor of mathe- 
matics at Leipzig, and afterwards of physics, and 
held other academic posts there, and died 26 March, 
1659. He wrote works on astronomy and mathe- 
matics. Jocher omits a letter, De usu Musculorum, 
published by Gregor. Horstius in his Observat. 
Medicinal. Singular, Lib. IV. Ulm., 1628, p. 540, 
referred to by Mercklin, and he credits him with 
the Tyrocinium Chymicum, which is by Beguinus, 
and the Novum Lumen, which is by Sendivogius. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 406- 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia 
Parisina, hoc est, Catalogus omnium Librorum 
Parisiis annis 1643, fir 5 1644, inclusiue excussorum, 
Paris, 1645, p. 71. 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia 
Gallica Vniversalis . . . Paris, 1652, p. 33. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 559. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 920. 

Witte, Diarium Biographicum , 1688, Sig. Nnn 
3 recto, 26 Mart. 1659. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriplorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 374. 

Douglas, Bibliographies Anatomicee Specimen, 
1734, p. 238. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Herm6tique, 1742, i. pp. 383, 477 ; iii. p. 241. 



As both of these accompany Miiller's book in 
several editions, this may have misled Jocher. 
Moreover, as he has omitted all reference to 
Miiller's own statement about his connection with 
Freiburg in the Breisgau, and his being " Phil. & 
Med. D.," I am inclined to infer that he has 
confused two distinct persons, or, if not, that his 
account is defective and inaccurate. 

Haller has not simplified the matter. To a 
Philip Miiller he has ascribed a work, De plantis iti 
genere, Lips., 1607, 4; 1609, 4 ; Miracula chymica, 
Witteb., 1616 ; and Depoculo salutis, Jena, 1666. 

These cannot well be all by the same person. 
The first may be by the Leipzig professor described 
by Jocher, the second is by Miiller of Freiburg, the 
third may be by the Jena professor of theology. 
But Haller also quotes Hieron. Kromayer's Pro- 
gramma adfunus Philippi Muller, Lips. , 1659, 4, 
which tallies with the death year of the person 
described by Jocher, but whether he is identical 
with our author does not seem to me certain. 



Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 740. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 405. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
P. 457 5 1779, "i- PP- 79. 202. 

Weigel, Grundriss der reinen nnd angewandten 
Chemie, 1777, i. p. 9 (quotes ' Phil. Mulleri nouum 
tyrocinium chymicum . . . 1610, 12,' which seems 
a confused and erroneous title). 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 355. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 22. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

P- 599- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 515. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 482. 



MULLNER (LEONHARD). 

Griindlicher Bericht von der Generation und Geburt der Metallen. 
See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. 
P. 313. 



Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 101 (calls 
him Miiller). 



Ladrague, Bibliotheque 
Secretes, 1870, No. 989. 



Ouvaroff, Sciences 



MUFETTUS (THOMAS). 

See MOUFET (THOMAS). 



MUFFATZ QOHANN). 

See MEURDRAC (MARIE), 1676. 



MULLERMUND Y 



MULLER (JOHANN ELIAS). 

P^3 Jb. El. Mullers, D. Saxo-Goth. Christlicher und vernunfftmafsiger 
Begriff, vom wahren Uhrsprung der Goldhervorbringenden Wunder-Materie, 
oder des sogenannten Steins der Weisen bestehende in einer Meynung, 
welche nicht allein der Ehre des Allerhochsten am beforderlichsten, und der 
Wahrheit am nachsten ist, sondern auch zumahl zu ietzigen Zeiten (i.) 
Einer Lands-Obrigkeit, (2.) Eines Landes samtlichen Einwohnern, (3.) Den 
Besitzern des grossen Philosophischen Schatzes selbsten fast unschatzbare 
Vortheile und eine rechte giildene Zeit ohne die geringste Unkosten, Hazard, 
Miihe &c. verursachen kan. Franckfurt am Mayn, In Job. Ludwig 
Gleditschens Buchladen daselbst zu finden, Ao. 1707. 
8. Pp. [16] 112. Title red and black. 



He was a native of Gotha Gotha Thuringus, 
says Moller who graduated in medicine at Erfurt, 
3 Oct., 1703, and practised in Hamburg. 

Schmieder gives the author's name in full as 
Johann Eleasar Miiller (sic). But Lenglet 
Dufresnoy and, after him, Gmelin refrain from 
this, and retain the contracted form 'El.' His 
' Disputatio inauguralis de casu monstrosi 
affectus verminosi ' was published at Erfurt, 1702, 
4 U . A work addressed to Oliger Pauli in which he 
professes to give the true meaning of the words : 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 242. 

Moller, Cimbria literata, 1744, ii. p. 564. 
Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 325. 



' Eli Eli lama sabachtani,' was edited by Pauli, 
without Muller's knowledge, and published^ 1703, 
8. According to Moller it displays the fanaticism 
of the author much more than the marked skill in 
theology and philology, of which he himself boasts. 
A continuation of this work appeared in 1704, 8. 

Whether or not he be the same as Johann Elias 
Muller, the translator of Abtala Jurain's Hyle und 
Coahyl, I am unable to say, but it seems probable 
that he is. The book, however, is not mentioned 
by Moller. 

Sch'mieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, ii. p. 
SH- 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvo.ro/, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 1339. 



See JURAIN (ABTALA), Hyle und Coahyl, 1732. 

MUNDANUS (THEODORUS). 
Antwort. 

See SCHRODER (F. j. w.), Neue Alchymistische Bibliothek, 1771, I. i. p. 114. 
See DICKINSON (EDMUND). 



It was to Mundanus that Dickinson addressed 
his ' Epistola de Quinta essentia Philosophorum. ' 
Somehow Horrichius has inverted this, and made 
the epistle emanate from Mundanus. He says 
that, as the letter evinces, Mundanus was without 
dispute in possession of the philosophic magistcry, 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriplorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 44, No. Ixxii. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 238. 



but he has expressed himself so obscurely that one 
must ' gang warily ' to observe when he is speaking 
in allegories and when stating matters of fact, and 
he says of him : vir maturus judicio, pietate gravis, 
& ab ineptiis seculi alienissimus, which is con- 
siderable praise. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 
242, 460. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 1215. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 100 ; ii. p. 344. 



MUNDY (HENRY). 

BIOXPH2TOAOITA seu Commentarii De Acre Vitali De Esculentis De 
Potulentis. Cum Corollario de parergis in Victu. Authore Hen. Mundy 
Med: Oxonise, Impensis Jo: Crosley Bibliopol: 1680. 
8. Pp. [23, i blank], 362 [i, of advertisements, i blank]. 



Mundy, or Munday, or Mundey, son of Henry 
Mundy, was born at Henley-on-Thames, in 1623. 
He matriculated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
24 May, 1642, and was afterwards postmaster at 
Merton. He received the degree of B.A., 2 April, 
1647. 

In May, 1656, he was appointed head-master of 
the Free Grammar School at Henley, and was very 



successful. As he entered, however, on the practice 
of medicine, the school fell off, and he might have 
tieen dismissed but for his accidental death, 28 June, 
1682. Returning from a visit to John, Lord Love- 
lace, he fell from his horse, and died from the 
injuries he received. His age was about 58, and he 
was buried in Henley church. 
The present work appears to have passed through 



n8 



MUND YMURRA Y 



MUNDY (HENRY). Continued. 

several editions, if the following list be correct: 
Oxford, 1680, 1685 ; London, 1681 ; Frankfurt, 
1685 ; Leipzig, 1685 ; Leyden, 1685 (hardly 1615, 
as it seems to be misprinted in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography'). 

Schelhammer patronizes the book ; he says it is 
elegant, he would even go the length of saying it 
was useful, so long as the author keeps to bare 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 397. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 423 (Schelhammer's criticism, 
cap. xiii. 8). 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 57 1 - 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 608. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 670. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, p. 
469. 



statement of facts, but when he goes off into 
explanations of their nature he is not always to be 
agreed with. Schelhammer takes special exception 
to his views about air, for he seems to have 
followed Mayow's theory about a nitrous spirit in 
it, which did not at all commend itself to Schel- 
hammer, but which he criticises in no measured 
terms. 

Wood, A thence Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1820, iv. 
col. 49 ; Fasti, 1820, ii. col. 101. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 536 (Ley- 
den, 1685, edition). 

Foster, Alumni Oxoniensis, 1500-1714, 1892, 
vols. iii. and iv., p. 1045. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1894, xxxix. 
p. 297 (under Munday). 



.MURR (CHRISTOPH GOTTLIEB VON). 

Christoph Gottlieb von Murr Litterarische Nachrichten zu der Geschichte des 
sogenannten Goldmachens. 

Nostro Saeculo, qui artem auriferam crepant, imperitisque, earn se tenere, 
persuadere conantur, omnes sunt fumiuenduli, lucripetae, quorum 
animos vanae gloriationis et nummorum cupido obsedit. Guern. 
Rolfincii Chemia, pag. 436. 
Leipzig, bey Paul Gotthelf Kummer. 1805. 

8. Pp. vi, 154. 



Von Murr was born at Niirnberg, 6 Aug., 1733. 
For many years he resided in Holland, England, 
France, and Italy, and then he returned to Niirn- 
berg, where from 1778 he held the office of superin- 
tendent of weights. He died at Nurnberg, 8 April, 
1811. 

He was a voluminous author, and a list of eighty- 
two works by him was published by Rotermund. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 706 
(a work on Chinese Anatomy). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon ; Roter- 
mund's Fortsetsung und Erganzungen, 1816, v. col. 

2I S- 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 
542, 600. 



Besides the above he wrote another work relating 
to alchemy and Rosicrucianism : Uber den wahren 
Ursprung der Rosenkreuzer und des Freymaurer- 
ordens, Sulzbach, 1803, small 8, pp. 160. 

Kopp commends the above work because it gives 
valuable information about events which happened 
in Germany. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
uiorterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 243. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 478, 1533. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 167, 199, 233 ; 
ii. p. 1 80. 



MURRAY (JOHANNES ANDREAS). 

Apparatus Medicaminum tarn Simplicium quam Praeparatorum et Compositorum 
in praxeos adjumentum consideratus. Volumen Primum. Auctore Jo: 
Andrea Murray D. Equite Ord. R. de Wasa Consiliario R. Brit. Aulse Professore 
Medic, et Botan. Ord. in Acad. R. Getting. Prsefecto Horti R. Botan. 
Societatum Scientiarum Getting. Stockholm. Upsal. Gotgenb. Lund. Florent. 
Lugdun. Divion. Aurel. et Batavo-Flesing. Medicarum Paris. Nanc. et 
Haun. Ac Oeconomicarum Bern. Cell. Georgoph. et Paris. Membro. 
Venetiis Typis Sebastian! Valle MDCCXCV. Superiorum Permissu. 

8. I. pp. xvi, 336; II. pp. 240; III. pp. 272; IV. pp. 296 ; V. pp. 272; VI. pp. 136' 



MURK A YMUSAEUM 



119 



MURRAY (JOHANNES ANDREAS). Continued. 



On 27 January, 1740, Murray was born at Stock- 
holm. His early education till he was sixteen 
years of age was acquired in Stockholm and 
Upsala. In 1759 he travelled in the south of 
Sweden, crossed to Copenhagen, in 1760 went on 
to Gottingen, where he continued his studies and 
graduated in 1763. The year following he was 
made extraordinary professor, in 1768 he became 
magister philosophise, and in 1769 ordinary pro- 
fessor of Medicine and inspector of the Botanic 
Garden. The order of Wasa was conferred on him 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 456. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chfmica, 1782, p. 114. 

Meusel, Das Gelehrte Teutschland, oder Lexikon 
der jetztlebenden Teutschen Schriftsteller, 1796, ii. 
p. 644 ; 1786, Supp. i., pp. 452, 750; 1787, Supp. 
ii. p. 257; 1788, Supp. iii. p. 258; 1791, Supp. iv. 
pp. 476, 855 ; 1795, Supp. v. p. 1022. 

Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 309 (calls him ' Jean-Adolphe ' Murray). 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historique de la Mlde- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 617. 



in 1780, and in 1782 the rank of councillor followed. 
He died 22 May, 1791 (1793). 

His works are numerous ; they deal with medi- 
cine, materia medica, botany, and cognate subjects. 

Among these, which are all meritorious, the 
present treatise on the materia medica takes the 
first place, and it is commended by the historians, 
while the author himself has been styled the most 
learned and most judicious of all who wrote on the 
materia medica in the eighteenth century. 



Biografiskt Lexicon ofver Namnkunnige Svenska 
Man, Upsala, 1843, ix. pp. 198-200. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1845, iii. pp. 93, 

2 99. 357, 358. 366- 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Midicale, 1855, ii. 
p. 645. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 653. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mdi- 
cales, 2eme Se'rie, 1876, x. p. 482. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 545. 



MUSAEUM Hermeticum Reformatum et Amplification, omnes sopho-spagyricae 
artis discipulos fidelissime erudiens, quo pacto summa ilia veraque Lapidis 
Philosophici Medicina, qua res omnes qualemcunque defectum patientes, 
instaurantur, inveniri et haberi queat. Continens Tractatus Chimicos xxi. 
praestantissimos, quorum nomina et seriem versa pagella indicabit. 

In gratiam filiorum doctrinae, quibus Germanicum idioma ignotum est, 
Latina lingua ornatum. Francofurti et Lipsiae, MDCCXLIX. 

4. Pp. [12] 862 [i, i blank]. Forty-one illustrations in the text, mostly symbolical. 
Frontispiece and engraved title included in the pagination. Four folding engraved 
plates with letterpress. 



Tractatus Aureus de Lapide Philosophico, p. i. 
Henricus Madathanus, Aureum Seculum Redi- 
vivum, p. 53. 

Hydrolithus Sophicus, seu Aquarium sapientum, 

P- 73- 
Joannes de Mehung, Demonstratio Naturae, p. 

MS- 

Nicolas Flamel, Summarium Philosophicum, 
p. 172. 

Via Veritatis Unicae, p. 181. 
Gloria Mundi, seu Tabula Paradisi, p. 203. 
Tractatus de Generatione Metallorum, p. 305. 
Liber, cujus nomen Alze, p. 323. 
Lambspring, De lapide Philosophorum Figurre 
et Emblemata, p. 337. 

Michael Maier, Tripus Aureus, hoc est tres 
Tractatus Chimici Selectissimi, p. 373 : nempe, 
Basilii Valentini . . . Practica una cum XII. 

Clavibus et Appendice, p. 377. 
Thomae Nortoni Crede mihi seu Ordinale, p. 

433- 

Cremeri Testamentum . . . figuris cupro 
affabre incisis ornati, p. 533. 

This collection was first published : Francofurti, 
Sumptibus Lucas Jennisii, 1625, 4, pp. [16] 445 
[2 with engravings, i blank], Lambspring, pp. 35 
[i blank]. The general title-page has an engraved 
border, representing the four elements, the sun and 
moon (gold and silver) and some emblematical 
designs. Each tract has an engraved title-page 
included in the pagination. Lambspring's tract, 
though dated 1625 and printed uniform with the 



Michael Sendivogius, Novum Lumen Chemicum 
e Naturae Fonte & manuali Experientia depromp- 
tum, p. 545. 

Michael Sendivogius, Enigma Philosophicum, 

P- 585- 

Michael Sendivogius, Dialogus Mercurii, Alchy- 
mistae et Naturae, p. 590. 

Michael Sendivogius, Novi Luminis Tractatus 
alter de Sulphure, p. 601. 

Philaletha, Introitus Apertus ad occlusum Regis 
Palatium, p. 647. 

Michael Maier, Subtilis Allegoria super Secreta 
Chymiae, p. 701. 

Philaletha, Metallorum Metamorphosis, p. 741. 

Philaletha, Brevis Manuductio ad Rubinum 
Coelestem, p. 775. 

Philaletha, Fons Chymicae Veritatis, p. 799. 

Joannes Fridericus Helvetius, Vitulus Aureus 
quern Mundus adorat et oral, p. 815. 

Janitor Pansophus, seu Figura ^inea quadri- 
partita cunctis Museum hoc introeuntibus, superi- 
orum ac inferiorum scientiam Mosaico-Hermeticam, 
analytice exhibens, p. 863. 

rest of the book, has separate signatures and 
pagination. 

Of the tracts above enumerated this first edition 
contains only the first ten, namely from the 
' Tractatus Aureus ' to Lambspring's verses, in- 
clusive. 

A revised and much enlarged edition appeared 
fifty years later : Musaeum Hermeticum Reforma- 
tum et Amplificatum, Francofurti, Apud Her- 



120 



MUSAEUMMYLIUS 



MUSAEUM Hermeticum. Continued. 

mannum a Sande, 1678, 4, pp. [12, including the 
engraved title and a plate] 863 [i]. Four folding 
plates. 

The general title has an engraved border similar 
to that in the first edition, and it is dated 1677. 
The tracts have each a title-page included in the 
pagination. The engraved title-pages of the pre- 
vious edition are repeated in this, but of the added 
tracts some have only printed titles. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Ph.ilosoph.ie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 47. 



This edition contains all the tracts above 
enumerated, the present edition of 1749 being 
merely a reprint of that of 1677-78. 

The Hermetic Museum was translated into 
English by Arthur Edward Waite, and published 
at London by James Elliott & Co., 1893, 2 vols., 
4 ; vol. i. pp. xi. [i blank] 357 [3 blank] ; ii. pp. 
[8] 322 [2 blank]. Only 250 copies were printed. 

Kopp Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 341. 



MUTONUS (NICOLAUS). 

See MANLIUS DE BOSCHO (JOANNES JACOBUS), Luminare Majus. 

Mutonus' father came from Lucca, but he him- 
self was born by the shores of Lake Lugano, early 
in the sixteenth century. He was a keen botanist, 
and collected plants from almost everywhere in 
Italy. He seems to have practised in Milan and 
to have devoted himself to pharmacy, and 

Joh. Georg. Schenkius, Biblia latrica, seu 
Bibliotheca Medico., 1609, p. 420. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
*637, p. 373 (about ' Mithridate '). 

Kbnig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 563. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 840. 

Conring, In universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, cap. xi. 8, p. 373. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 391. 



he wrote a commentary on Mesue, and edited the 
above collection of pharmaceutical writings. An 
edition of Venice, 1556, fol., is quoted, and he was 
also the author of a work : ' De Mithridatii legitima 
constitutione Collectanea,' i55i,enlargedby Michael 
Doring, and published at Jena, 1620, 8. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 575- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 785. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. pp. 306, 
426. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practical, 1777, ii. 
pp. 88, 397. 



MUTUS Liber. 
See ALTUS. 



MUYKENS (THEODOR). 

See MORLEY (CHRISTOPHER LOVE), Collectanea Chymica Leydensia. 

Muykens or Muyckens was born at Amsterdam 
in 1665, studied at Leyden, and graduated there in 
1691 ; settled at Amsterdam in practice, and brought 
out the Collectanea in 1693; went to Groningen in 

Gelehrten-Zeitungen, 1721, p. 263. 
Mangel, Bibliotlieca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 391. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 576. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 239, 240. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
p. 786. 



1706 as professor of anatomy, botany, and 
chemistry, and died there in 1721. 

He re-edited and enlarged Morley's book. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1788, iv. 
pp. no, 131. 

Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der 
Nederlanden, 1869, xii. p. 1190. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker^ 1886, iv. 
P- 325- 



MYCONIUS (ACHATIUS). 

Kurtzer Bericht vom Stein der Gesundheit und des Reichthums. 

See RISUGDASBIUS (SAMUEL), Gesprach vom Stein der Weisen, 1747, p. 20. 



MYLIUS (JOHANN DANIEL). 

loannis Danielis Mylii Vetterani Hassi M.C. Opus Medico-Chymicum : 
Continens tres Tractatus siue Basilicas : Qu orum prior inscribitur Basilica 



MYL1USMYNSICHT 121 



MYLIUS (JOHANN DANIEL). Continued. 

Medica. Secundus Basilica Chymica. Tertius Basilica Philosophica. 
Francofurti, apud Lucam lennis, 1618. 

4. Pp. [8] including the engraved title and the author's portrait. Each tract 
has a separate title and pagination, viz. : 

. . . Tractatus Primus. Seu Basilica Medica continents Tres Libros seu Partes de 
salutifera Mediciua Antiqua Hippocratica : i. Physiologiam. 2. Pathologiam. 
3. Therapeuticam. succincte demonstrat. Francofurti apud Lucam lennis. 

M.DC.XVIII. 

Pp. [36] 428. Vignette. 

. . . Tractatus II. Seu Basilica Chymica continens Lib. VII. i. Anatomiam 
Auri. 2. Argenti & Mercurij. 3. lovis, Martis ac Veneris. 4. Tractat de gemmis. 
5. Examinat mineralia. 6. Vegetabilia resoluit. 7. Animalia explicat. Francofurti 
apud Lucam lennis. M.DC.XVIII. 

Pp. [247, i blank] 184, 492. [Vignette of a Laboratory.] Three folding symbolical plates. 

[Basilica Philosophica continens Libros Tres. i. Philosophprum ac Sapientum 
antiquorum Consilia super Lapidem Philosophorum, seu Medicinam universalem. 
2. Chymicorum Vasa et Fornaces. 3. Qucedam Philosophorum obscura. Pp. [88] 271 
[i] 44-] 

This copy wants the Basilica Philosophica. An index to this work was published in 1630 at 
Frankfurt. 

loannis Danielis Mylii, Vetterani Hassi, M.C. Antidotarium Medico-Chymicum 
Reformatum : Continens Quatuor Libros distinctos. Quorum 

I. Generaliora in pharmaciam requisita explicat. 
II. Tractat de quibusdam exoticis in nostris Basilicis omissis. 

III. Tradit prsecepta Galenic. & Chymicorum de praeparatione medica- 

mentorum. 

IV. Resoluit formas & diuidit medicamenta tam Galen, quam Chymicorum. 
Francofurti Sumptibus Lucse lennis. M.DC.XX. 

4. Pp. [12] 1044. Index [71, i blank]. Title within an engraved border, with 
portraits of Hermes, Geber, Morienus, R. Lullius, Roger Bachon, Paracelsus, with a 
mine and an apothecary's shop. Portrait of Mylius, with books and apparatus. 

Mercklin quotes also an edition of 1638, 4. 

See BURNETT (DUNCAN), latrochymicus, . . . Studio ac Opera Joannis Danielis 
Mylii, 1616. 

Mylius, from the Wetterau, calls himself Theol. Anatomia Auri, sive Tyrocinium Medico- 
et Med. Candidatus. He was a physician and Chymicum, Francof., 1628,4. 
chemist early in the seventeenth century, and wrote Pharmacopeia Spagyrico-Medica, Francof., 1628, 
several other works on iatro-chemistry, which are 8. 

enumerated by Mercklin. Philosophia Reformata, Francof., 1622, 4; 1638, 

4- 

Konig, Dibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 564. Haller, Bibliotheca Medicine practice, 1777, ii. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 567. p. 477. 

Jacob Leu folds Prodromes Bibliothecce metallic^, Strieder, Grundlage zu einer Hessischen Gekhrten 

1732, p. 105. und Schrtflsteller Geschichte, 1794, ix. pp. 335-338. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 519. 

Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 386 ; iii. pp. 235-236, 242, Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 335 ; 

243. (There are entries both under Milius and 1869, ii. p. 327. 

Mylius.) Hirsch, Biographisches Lfxikon der hervorra- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, ii. genden Aerzte alter Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

col. 793 ; Rotermund's b'ortsetzung und Erganz- p. 327. 

ungen, 1816, v. p. 312. Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 600. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 340. 

MYNSICHT (HADRIANUS A). 

D. O. M. A. Hadriani a Mynsicht alias Tribudenii, Germani, Comitis Palatini, 
Phil, et U. Med. Doct. P. L. Caes. et Diversorum S. R. Imp. Principum 
Consil. & Archiatri, Thesaurus, et Armamentarium Medico-Chymicum. Hoc 



122 MYNSICffT 



MYNSICHT (HADRIANUS A). Continued. 

est selectissimorum, contra quosvis morbos, pharmacorum conficiendorum 
secretissima ratio. Propria laborum experientia, multiplici & felicissima 
praxi confirmata, & nunc una cum remediorum virtute Usu, & Dosi, doctrinae, 
& sapientiae filiis fideliter revelata & communicata. Cui in fine adjunctum est 
Testamentum Hadrianeum de Aureo Philosophorum Lapide. Cum Privilegio 
S. Caes. Majest. & Sereniss. Electoris Saxoniae. Lubecae, Impensis Augusti 
Johannis Beckeri, Typis Haeredum Schmalherzianorum, Anno M.DC.LXII. 

4. Pp. [ro] 530 [52, 2 blank]. The pagination is irregular. Testamentum (in 
verse), 24. 

U. O. M. A. Hadriani a Mynsicht alias Tribudenii, Germani, Comitis Palatini, 
Phil, et U. Med. Doct. P. L. Caes. et Diversorum S. R. Imper. Principum 
Consil. et Archiatri Thesaurus et Armamentarium Medico-Chymicum. Hoc 
est selectissimorum, contra quosvis morbos, pharmacorum conficiendorum 
secretissima ratio, propria laborum experientia, multiplici & felicissima praxi 
confirmata, & nunc una cum remediorum Virtute, Usu, & Dosi, doctrinae, & 
sapientiae filiis fideliter revelata & communicata, Cui in fine adjunctum est 
Testamentum Hadrianeum de Aureo Philosophorum Lapide. Cum Privilegio 
S. Caes. Majest. & Sereniss. Electoris Saxoniae. Francofurti. Impensis & 
Typis Balthas. Christoph. Wustii, Ann. M.DC.LXXV. 

8. Pp [16, portrait and engraved title included] 525 [54] 22 [2 blank]. 

The Testamentum Hadrianeum (in verse) is added as an appendix in this edition also. 
Aureum Seculum Redivivum. 

See MADATHANUS (HENRICUS). 

The first edition of the Thesaurus was published which was Siimenicht or Seumenicht. He was a 

at Hamburg, 1631, 4, then at Liibeck in 1638 and physician and chemist, count palatine, imperial poet 

1646. Other editions are: Rothomagi, 1651, 8; laureate in 1631, councillor and body-physician to 

Francofurti, 1658, 4, in two parts ; third edition Adolph F'riedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg, and to 

corrected, Venetiis, 1696, 8 ; Hanau, 1726, 8 ; several other German princes. The Thesaurus 

translated into German, Stuttgart, 1682, 8. Edi- contains a description of the preparation of a 

tions with the Mantissa of Car. Musitanus, Frank- number of medicines discovered by him and still 

furt, 1675, 1701, 8, 1707. ( I 75i) in use by the apothecaries. He wrote also 

The author was born in 1603 at Ottenstein in the under the pseudonym" of Henricus Madathanus 

Brunswick district. At Helmstadt he took the (</-v-). 

degree of doctor of medicine, under the name of He was the first to prepare tartar emetic from 

Tribudenius. After he was ennobled he called roasted antimony sulphide and cream of tartar, 

himself Mynsicht, which is a transposition of though this is not admitted by Hoefer. 

Symnicht, itself a modification of his real name, His death occurred in Oct., 1638. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 

1637, p. 192. col. 794 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia ungen, 1816, v. col. 322. 

Gallica Universalis, hoc est Catalogus omnium Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 

Librorum per universam Gallia Regnum, anno p. 598. 

MDCLI. excusorum, Paris, 1652, p. 33. Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 106 (calls 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 387. him Andreas). 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Introduction 1687, p. 377 (cap. xi. 12 ***). pp. 497, 612. 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 573. 

der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 91. Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 25), vi. p. 313 (list of editions of the Thesaurus). 

1731, II. i. p. 401. Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicinischen p. 288. 

Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 777, 778. Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, " P- 2 4^ ; 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 1869, ii. p. 237. 

p. 577. Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 90, 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 112; 1844, ii. p. 114; 1847, iv. pp. 189, 351. 

Herme"tique, 1742, iii. pp. 47, 237, 243. Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 289. 



M YNSICHTMYREPSUS 



123 



MYNSICHT (HADRIANUS A). Continued. 



Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 484. 

Ladrague,Z?/W/W/z<ty Ouvarof, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 1255. 



Hirsch, Biographize he s Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 

3 2 7- 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, xi. p. 601. 



MYREPSUS (NICOLAUS). 

See PR.POSITUS (NICOLAUS). 

Nicolaus Myrepsus, or Alexandrinus, a native 
of Alexandria, flourished in the thirteenth century, 
and was one of the latest Greek medical writers. 
His period is not difficult to fix, for while, on one 
hand, his authorities are known, on the other, 
passages are found in the works of Pietro d'Abano 
and other writers early in the fourteenth century 
which correspond with his. He was private 
physician at the court of the Emperor, Johannes 
Ducas Vatatzes (1222-1255) at Nicsea, and lived 
long enough to mention Pope Nicolaus III. (1277- 
1280). 

In the course of his travels he seems to have 
paid a visit to the already old school of medicine 
at Salerno, and there to have become acquainted 
with the Antidotarium of Nicolaus Praepositus, 
with whom Myrepsus has been confused by more 
than one writer. Haller, indeed, though he does 
not confuse them, seems to be of opinion that 
Praepositus was subsequent to Myrepsus, ' quod 
150 capita ex Myrepso descripserit. ' But there is 
some misapprehension here on Haller's part, for 
though Choulant possibly exaggerates the interval 
when he says that Praspositus preceded Myrepsus 
by two hundred years, there were at least a hundred 
and thirty years, more or less, between them. In- 
fluenced by the Antidotarium Myrepsus set himself to 
work up a treatise of the same kind, and in carrying 
out his design he laid under contribution not only 
Praepositus, but also Actuarius and Mesue, and 
collected everything on his subject to be found in 
the medical writers down to his time. His work 
was divided into forty-eight sections, and contained 
two thousand six hundred and fifty-six remedies 
for all kinds of diseases. 

Wolfgang Justus (Jobst), Chronologia sive Tern- 
porum Supputatio omnium illustrium Medicorum, 
Francophurti ad Viadrum, 1555, pp. 106, 144 
(Nicolaus Praepositus). 

Spachius, Nomenclator Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1591, p. 185. 

Castellanus, Vita Illustrium Medicorum, 1617, 
P- 134. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, P- 373- 

Lipenius, Bibliotheca realis medtca, 1679, pp. 
33^, 261^. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovalus, 1686, p. 840. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 374. 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, 1711, iv. p. 581 ; 
1724, xii. p. 575 ; 1726, xiii. p. 4 (account of him, 
followed by a list of the authorities he mentions), 
P- 346. 

Freind, The History of Physick, 1725-26, i. 
pp. 292-3 ; ii. p. 211. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 401. 

Stolle, Anleitung sur Historie der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 101. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lcxicon, 1740, 
P- 577- 



Various judgments or 'censures,' as they used 
to be termed have been passed on the work, some 
strongly adverse, others more favourable. One 
says that it shows the depths to which Greek 
medicine had fallen, and Justus says that it was 
compiled when superstition and barbarism were 
rampant. If that be so, Myrepsus can hardly be 
held responsible for corruptions of language and 
superstitious matter contained in his book. He 
was merely a voice of his time. On the other hand 
he is commended for the mention of substances 
and medicines which are not to be found in other 
writers, and it would appear that, so far from the 
work not being widely known as is asserted by one 
authority, it was, in France at least, a sort of 
standard book. In the archives of the Faculty of 
Medicine at Paris there is a scheme for regulation 
of apothecaries, according to which every master 
apothecary should have a copy, revised by the 
Faculty. 

The book has not been printed in the original 
Greek. It was translated, as Fabricius states (xiii. 
p. 346), by Nicolaus Rheginus, and it was first 
published under the following title : Nicolai Alex- 
andrini liber de Compositione Medicamentorum, 
ed. J. Agricola Ammonius, Ingolstadt, 1541. Sub- 
sequently with Myrepsus' name it was again 
translated into Latin by Leonhard Fuchs and 
printed at Basel in 1549, fol., and other editions 
mentioned are : Lugdun., 1550, fol. ; Paris., 1567, 
8 ; in Medicas Artis Principes, Francof. , 1626, fol. 
Tom. i. p. 338, and under the title : Theatrum 
Medico-practicum, Noriberg. , 1658, 8. 



Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrlen- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 795. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la M4decine, 
1755, ii. p. 205 ; 1778, iii. p. 367. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 166 ; 
1772, ii. p. 638. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 113. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice, 1776, i. 
pp. 324, 526. 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Literdrge- 
schichte der Medicin, 1792, p. 103, 109. 

Choulant, Handbuch der Bucherkunde fur die 
Geschichte und Literatur der dlteren Medicin, 
1841, pp. 156-158. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 
126, 1 80. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mcdicale, 1855, 
i. p. 115- 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 84, 359, 394, 395, 404. 

Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik, 1856, iii. p. 381. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1875, i. p. 480. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller /.eiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

p. 3 28 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 605. 



124 MYSTERIUM 



MYSTERIUM Magnum oder : Der durch die Gnade Gottes gefundene sicherste 
und unbetriiglichste Weeg den Lapidem Philosophorum oder so genannten 
Stein der Weisen zu bereiten. Aus besonderer Freundschafft von einem 
wahren Adepto communiciret, ohne dessen Wissen und Willen aber aus 
besonderen Ursachen zum Dienst unwissender und ungeschickter Laboranten 
zum Druck befordert von einem In Allen Stucken Wahrhafften Francken. 
Anno M.DCC.XXXIX. 

8. Pp. 28 [2 blank leaves ; i amissing], 

This is a large title for a very small tract, upon an edition of 1740 is given ; the writing is assigned 

which a former owner has written " ist sehr un- to Jane Leade, and ' der wahre Adeptus " is said to 

wahrhaft." It is quoted in the Beytrag with the be Pordage. Fictuld is Ladrague's authority for 

remark "ein klein unbedeutender Aufsatz." It is this. See LEADE (JANE). 
just mentioned by Schmieder, and by Ladrague 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 106. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 544. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
p. 666. Secretes, 1870, No. 1364. 

MYSTERIUM occultae Naturae. Das ist : von der herrlichen und edlen Gabe 
Gottes, der Sternfliissigen Blumen defs kleinen Bawerfs, oder Universal 
Brunquels der Metallen, so Gott der Allmachtige Schopffer unter alien 
erschaffenen Creaturen, mit so wunderlichen Krafften und Tugenden begabet, 
auch desselbigen subjecti wunderbarliche resolution, dadurch alle Welt eine 
heilsame allgemeine Medicin, zu rettung ihrer Gebrechligkeiten haben 
mochten, umb dessenthalben defs hochsten Gottes Heiliger Nahme, von uns 
schwachen Creaturen moge hochgeehret und gepreiset werden. Allen 
frommen und Gottsfiirchtigen Liebhabern der hochberiihmbten und herrlichen 
Kunst Chymise zugefallen, dieses Tractatlein an Tag gegeben durch einen 
Trewhertzigen Liebhaber der Koniglichen Kunst Chymiae verfertiget, dessen 
Nahmen folgendes Anagramma begreifft. Harr gewifs Trost von Gott. 
Hamburg, Gedruckt bey Michael Pfeiffern, In Verlegung Christian Guths. 
Buchf. Im Jahr 1657. 

8. Pp. [54, 2 blank]. 

This is a sort of exposition of the ' little country- its author, 'though small, it is full of arch-lies,' 

man ' by Grasshoff, whom the author styles in his and so on. 

tract ' his preceptor.' The author's name is given The Beytrag says : "A very useful book for ' par- 

in the anagram, the introductory verses are by ticularists " and masters of the second-class, who 

J. F. H. S., i.e Johann Friedrich Hautnorthon, prize the "big and little countrymen" like the 

Suecus, whose real name was Harprecht. Bible ! ' 

Fictuld is most severe : the book testifies against Kopp has not mentioned it amongst books of 

like title. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

1697, P- 35- P- 6l 8. 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoire de la Philosophif Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Hermtiique, 1742, iii. p. 73. Secretes, 1870, No. 1259 (reprint in the Theatruin 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 101. only, see the following). 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 350. 

MYSTERIUM Occultae Naturae Anonymi Discipuli Johannis Grassei Chortalassei 
dicti de duobus floribus astralibus Agricolae minoris in ejus Area Arcani 
Artificiosissimi contends. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 523. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 619. 

See GRASSHOF (JOHANN). 

This is a translation of the preceding tract, omitting the verses by Hautnorthon. 



N. v. E. I. (I.} NAHUYS 125 



N. v. E. I. (I.). 

See NAXAGORAS (EHRD DE), Alchymia Denudata, 1728. 

N. (S.)- 

See VAUGHAN (THOMAS). 

NACHKLANG. 

See v. (j. R.), M.D., Giildene Rose, No. xi. 

NADASTI (TEODORO). 

Trattati Teorici-Pratici, ne' quali con tutta la distintione, e chiarezza possibile 
si favella del Secreto, o sia Medicina universale de' Metalli imperfetti, che 
tanto hanno occultato gl' altri Filosofi. Opera di Teodoro Nadasti, data in 
luce per beneficio comune di tutti gli Amatori della Verita, al lume della 
quale potranno avvedersi de' loro errori, e non piu caminare nelle tenebre 
dell' ignoranza, e sfuggire T imposture, ed inganni de' falsi Ermetici. 
In Cosmopoli, 1718. Per gli Heredi di Francesco Bonaventura. 

8. Pp. [8] 191 [i]. 

Though the book is written in Italian it is not spiracy against the King of Hungary (see Alexius 

impossible that the author was a Hungarian, con- Horanyi, Memoria Hungarorvm et Provinclalittm 

nected with the noble family Nadasdi or Nadasti, a scriplis editis notorum, Viennae, 1776, ii. p. 667, 

distinguished member of which was Ferencz, who and for the trial and execution of the conspirators 

lived in the seventeenth century and published in a curious little volume entitled The Hungarian 

1664 a work on the Kings of Hungary. This same Rebellion, London, 1672, 12). To the present 

Ferencz was executed in 1671, along with Serin or writer I have seen no reference. 
Zrin, and Frangepan or Frangepani, for a con- 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiii. col. 320 (an account of the family). 

NAHUYS (ALEXANDER PETER). 

Alexandri Petri Nahuys A. L. M. Philos. & Medic. Doctoris Tractatus Chemicus 
continens nova quaedam Experimenta cum Basi Salis Marini, Nitri et 
Aluminis. Pars Prima. Amstelodami, Apud Joannem Schreuder & Petrum 
Mortier Juniorem. MDCCLXI. 

8. Pp. [8] 48. 

Followed by : 

Oratio de Quoestione ilia : Utrum Uroscopus ex sola Urinne inspectione Morbos 
quorumvis ^Egrotantium rite detegere, iisque ex Arte mederi possit. Publice dicta 
Harderovici in Auditorio Majore, Die 30 Junii M DCC LXI. [By Nahuys.] 

8. Pp. 48. 



126 



NAHUYSNA TURGEMASSER 



NAHUYS (ALEXANDER PETER). Continued. 



Nahuys was born in 1737 at Monnikendam, 
studied at Harderwyk, and graduated Phil. D. and 
M.D. in 1761. After travelling in France he 
settled at Hoorn and then at the Hague as a phy- 
sician. In 1771 he went to Harderwyk as professor 
of medicine, and in 1775 to Utrecht in the same 
capacity. From the Academy at Lyons he received 
the double prize for an investigation into the in- 
jurious properties of the air in hospitals and prisons, 
for which he proposed a remedy. It was published 
in Dutch at Haarlem, 1770, 8, as well as in a 
Latin translation at the same time. In a Dissertatio 
de aqua origine ex basibus aeris puri et inflamma- 
bilis, Traj. ad Rhen., 1789, 8, he tried to show that 
water is produced by the union of vital and inflam- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 

554-555. 734 I i799 ' P- 286 - 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, in. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica), pp. 8, 61, 84. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 356. 

Ho&kr,^Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 377 ; 
1869, ii. p^ 369. 



mable air. There is a German translation by J. A. 
Scherer, Vienna, 1790. He is the author also of 
the following : 

Oratio de religiosa plantarum contemplatione, 
acerrimo ad divini numinis amorem et cultum 
stimulo, Utrecht, 1775, 4. 

Verhandling over een bijzonder middenzout uit 
de mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Verhandl. 
van het Utregtsch. Genootsch., iv.). 

Verhandl. over den waren aart van het rotte- 
kruid(//*. id.). 

Andwoord op den Vraag : Is het phlogiston een 
waar beginsel der lighamen ? (Ib. v. ). 

He died at Utrecht, 6 April, 1794. 



Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 251. 

Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der 
Nederlanden, 1868, xiii. p. 37. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

P- 333- 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 618. 



NAMREMMIZ (HEINRICH THEODOR). 

See ZIMMERMAN (HEINRICH THEODOR). 

NARDIUS (JOANNES). 

De Prodigiosis Vulnerum Curationibus. 

See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, 1662, p. 605. 



Giovanni Nardi, or Joannes Nardius, was born 
in Montepulciano in the Florentine district, gradu- 
ated in medicine at Pisa, practised in Florence 
with so great reputation that he was called the 
Florentine ^Esculapius, and he and his works 
formed the theme of laudatory verses by his con- 
temporaries. He was a member of the Society of 
Apathistae. He wrote the following : 

Lactis physica Analysis, Flor., 1634, 4. 

Apologeticon in Fortunii Liceti Mulctram, vel de 
duplici calore, Flor., 1638, 2 and 4. 

De igne subterraneo physica Prolusio, Flor., 
1641, 4. 

Giulio Negri, Istoria degli Scriltori Fiorentini, 
Ferrara, 1722, fol. p. 829. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 404. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. p. 392. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
P. 58. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 816 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 374. 

NARRHEIT. 

Geschichte der menschlichen Narrheit. 

See ADELUNG (JOHANN CHRISTOPH). 



NATUR und Kunst (Von der). 
See H. (j. c.). 

NATURGEMASSER Beweifs von Gold und Silber. 

See s. (J.). 



De rore, disquisitio physica, Flor., 1642, 4. 

De voce, disquisitio physica, Flor., 1642. 

Noctium Genialium physicarum, Annus primus, 
Bonon., 1655, 4. 

He published also an edition of Lucretius, with 
a paraphrase and notes, Florent. , 1647, 4, with 
nine plates of antiquities. 

The tract on dew is commended by Morhof. 
Nardius had also observed the effect of water on 
lead, and objected to the use of leaden vessels in 
chemical operations. 



Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 463. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 381. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 361. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicincz practice, 1776, i. 
P- 83 ; 1777, ii. p. 609. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Hislorique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 371. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 603. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 631. 



NAXAGORAS 127 



NAXAGORAS (HRD DE). 

Alchymia denudata revisa et aucta, oder: Dafs bifs anhero nie recht geglaubte, 
durch die Experienz nunmehro aber wiircklich beglaubte und aus alien Zweiffel 
gesetzte neu iibersehene und vermehrte oder in vielen besser erklahrte Wunder 
der Natur, nebst angehangter ausfuhrlichen Beschreibung der unweit Zwickau 
in Meissen zu Nieder-Hohendorff und anderer umliegenden Orten gefundenen 
Goldischen Sande. vorstellend, welchergestalt aus unterschiedenen allhier 
aufrichtig mit Nahmen genannten Materien, wie auch auf unterschiedene Art 
und Weise in der That und Wahrheit eine Universal-Median auf menschlichen 
Leib und zur Verbesserung der Metallen, zu bereiten, Wie auch dafs ausser 
dem Fonte universal} aller Philosophorum Schrifften ungeachtet, dennoch ein 
hochst-nutzbahres und grossen Profit tragendes Particulare zu erlangen sey ; 
Alles nach langwierigen dem Studio Chymico obgelegenem Fleisse, theils mit 
Augen gesehen, theils mit Handen selbst gemacht, und des von vielen sich 
darauf beruffenden Philosophischen Fluchs ungeachtet, um erheblicher 
Ursachen willen und andern zu einem guten Exempel in dergleichen mit 
Experimenten nachzufolgen an Tag gegeben, von J. N. v. E. I. Romischen 
Rittern und Comite Palat Leipzig und Stralsund, Verlegts Samuel Gottlieb 
Lochmann, An. 1728. 

8. Pp. [30] 202. Title red and black. 

The Ausfiihrliche Beschreibung der unweit 1728, and in the order of the author's initials 

Zwickau . . . gefundenen Goldischen Sande, p. 161, I. N. V. E. I. etc., instead of I. E. V. N. I. etc. of 

has a title-page which is a transcript of that of the the edition of 1696. See below, 
edition of 1696. The only difference is in the date, 

The second part has the following title : 

Der ini guten Ruff und Auffnehmen stehenden, auch zu vielen mahlen schon frisch 
wieder aufgelegten Alchymiae Denudatre, oder : Des bifsanhero nie vecht geglaubten, 
durch die Experienz aber nun wiircklich beglaubten und aus allem Zweiffel gesetzten 
Wunders der Natur Anderer Theil, vorstellend worinnen eigendlich der Vortheil der 
im ersten Theile erwiesenen Wahrheit der Transmutation oder geringerer Metallen in 
bessere und vollkommene beruhe, und wie an denen alldorten unterschiedenen aufrichtig 
mit Nahmen genenneten Materien, wie anch auf unterschiedene Arth und Weise nicht 
nur in der That und Wahrheit eine rechte und weit hohere Universal-Medicin auf 
menschlichen Leib, sondern auch zur Verbesserung der Metallen, als alldorten ange- 
wiesen worden, zu bereiten, indem er specialiter anweiset, wie effective oder wiircklich 
zum Fontem Universalem zu gelangen. Ebenfalls alles nach langwierigen und in die 
etliche dreyssig Jahr dem Studio chymico obgelegenem Fleifse, so wohl mit Augen 
gesehen, als mit Handen, durch die Gnade Gottes, dem ew. Lob und Danck dafur 
gesaget sey, nun selbst gemacht, und aus Ursachen, wie in der Vorrede gedacht werden 
wird, an Tag gegeben von J. N. v. E. & G. Romischen Rittern und Comite Palatine. 
Leipzig, verlegts Joh. Sigmund Straufs, Buchhandler in Hof, i72[8]. 

8. Pp. [20] 348 [? 4 blank, wanting]. 

[Another Copy of the first tract] 

Alchymia Denudata appeared at Breslau, 1708, ' Die entlarvte Alchemic,' 1713. 8, by the notorious 

1716; Leipzig and Wismar, 1723; Leipzig and Baron von Klettenberg (q.v.), ' one of the craftiest 

Stralsund, 1728 (the present copy); Leipzig, 1769. impostors of his time,' was compiled from the 

Kopp has given an account of certain of these. present work, and it is added that a comparison of 

According to the Beytrag (p. 654) the book called the two will show the truth of this statement. 

Ehrd de Naxagoras, Joh. Equit. Roman, aurat. ac Sacri Palat. & Aulae Later. 
Comitis Aureum Vellus, oder Guldenes Vliefs : Das ist, ein Tractat, 
welcher darstellet den Grund und Ursprung des uhralten giildenen Vliefses, 
worinnen^dasselbe ehemahls bestanden und noch, was vor eine gefahrliche 
weite Reise deswegen angestellet worden, und von weme, auch wie es endlich 



128 NAXAGORAS 



NAXAGORAS (HRD DE). Continued. 

zu einer allerhochsten Ritter-Orden gediehen, durch wem und warum solche 
billig alien andern Orden wegen ihrer Vortrefflichkeit vorzuziehen, und wie 
solche unmafsgeblich auch in der That zugleich wieder auf den alten Fufs 
zu restituiren und zu setzen sey, so dafs auch das Erstere wieder bey solcher 
hohen Orden ware. Und zugleich Deo Gratias, wegen der bifs anhero, 
vermittelst seiner Gottlichen Gnaden und Seegen, durch die unwidersprechliche 
richtige Concordanz der Philosophorum Hermeticorum endlich noch erfundene 
Warheit und Moglichkeit derselben Kunst. Wie auch Ultimum Vale bey der 
gantzen Welt, in Specie aber all denjenigen, welche bifs anhero seine Schrifften 
werth geachtet, mit dem Versprechen, wo er ein- oder den andern bey seinem 
Leben particulariter noch dienen kan, sonderlich denen er nic'ht vollkommene 
Satisfaction gegeben hatte, sie sich aber gleichwohl hofflich aufgefiihret, er 
nichts ermanglen werde ; und zugleich ein Beschlufs aller seiner nach der 
Harmonic der Philosophorum heraus gegebenen Tractsetgen, so meist in 
einem kurtzen Begriff ex veris Philosophis sincere extractum & ipso facto 
nunc comprobatum, bestehen. Franckfurth am Mayn, zu finden bey den 
Stockischen Erben und Schilling, 1731. 

8. Pp. 60 [4] 384. Title red and black. Symbolical plate hand coloured. Pars 
Altera, pp. 320. 

This is the first edition. The plate belongs to the supplement which was added to the second edition. 

Ehrd de Naxagoras, Joh. Equit. Roman, aurat. ac Sacri Palat. & Aulae Later. 
Comitis Aureum Vellus, oder Giildenes Vliefs : Das ist, ein Tractat, 
welcher darstellet den Grund und Ursprung des uhralten giildenen Vliefses, 
worinnen dasselbe ehemahls bestanden und noch, was vor eine gefahrliche 
weite Reise deswegen angestellet worden, und von weme, auch wie es endlich 
zu einer allerhochsten Ritter-Orden gediehen, durch wem und warum solche 
billig alien andern Orden wegen ihrer Vortrefflichkeit vorzuziehen, und wie 
solche unmafsgeblich auch in der That zugleich wieder auf den alten Fufs 
zu restituiren und zu setzen sey, so dafs auch das Erstere wieder bey solcher 
hohen Orden ware. Und zugleich Deo Gratias, Wegen der bifs anhero, 
vermittelst seiner Gottlichen Gnaden und Seegen, durch die unwiedersprechliche 
richtige Concordanz der Philosophorum Hermeticorum endlich noch erfundene 
Wahrheit und Moglichkeit derselben Kunst. Wie auch Ultimum Vale bey der 
gantzen Welt, in Specie aber all denjeningen, welche bifs anhero seine Schrifften 
werth geachtet, mit dem Versprechen, wo er ein oder den andern bey seinem 
Leben particulariter noch dienen kan, sonderlich denen er nicht vollkommene 
Satisfaction gegeben hatte, sie sich aber gleichwohl hofflich aufgefiihret, er 
nichts ermangeln werde ; und zugleich einen Beschlufs aller seiner nach der 
Harmonic der Philosophorum herausgegebenen Tractaetgen, so meist in 
einem kurtzen Begriff ex veris Philosophis sincere extractum & ipso facto 
nunc comprobatum, bestehen. Editio Secunda. Cum Supplemento Aurei 
Velleris vermehret. Franckfurt am Mayn, bey Stocks Seel. Erben und 
Schilling, 1733. 

8. Pp. 60 [4] 384. Pars Altera, pp. 320. Folding title, red and black, printed 
across two pages. 



NAXAGORAS 129 



NAXAGORAS (HRD DE). Continued. 

The supplement has a separate title as follows : 

Ehrd de Naxagoras. Job. Equit. Roman, aurati &c. Supplementum Aurei 
Velleris bestehend in einer freundlichen Antwort an den ungenannten Authorem der 
unlangst in Druck herans gegebenen Tabulas Smaragdinoe. Wie solche in der Hiero- 
glyphica oder der Egyptischen Bild-Schrifft vermittelst einer absonderlichen derselben 
geheimen magischen Figur nicht allein bezeichnet, sondern was auch von einigen Hoch- 
gelahrten Philosophis und theils Medicis davon geschrieben worden Welche Antwort 
darinnen beruhet und insonderheit beweiset, wie Hn. D. Nentners Explication meist 
gantz unrecht, anderer mehrern Authorum zu geschweigen, und hingegen den wahren 
Grund gedachter Taffel vollstiindiger und richtiger nach der That und Warheit ausfiihret, 
weil auf solcher die gantze Hermethische Philosophic beruhet, indem sie gleichsam der 
wahren Chymicorum ihr Moses mit seinen zweyen Taffel Gesetzen und Rechten, woran 
auch derselben Propheten alle hangen. Franckfurth am Mayn, Bey Stocks seel. 
Erben und Schilling, 1733. 

Pp. 62. Engraved plate, separate. 

Tabula Smaragdina, from the Aureum Vellus Nenter's version and translation, pp. 24, 25. 
(Rorschach, 1598), p. 23. Reimen, p. 56. 

Ausfiihrliche Beschreibung der umweit Zwickau in Meifsen, zu Niederhohendorff 
und anderer umliegenden Orten gefundene Goldischen Sande, wie selbige und 
durch wen sie erfunden worden, warum sie nach gemeiner Art nicht, aber auff 
Chymische Weise und wie sie zu gute zu machen, darbey zugleich ein Experi- 
ment den von aller Welt oder den gantzen Alchymistischen Reiche so gar 
hoch verlangten Mercurium Metallorum zu bereiten, wie nicht weniger der 
Metallen und Mineralien Tinctur zu extrahiren, und in eine geistliche so wohl 
auff menschlichen Leib angenehme Medicin als auch andere geringere 
Metallen gradirende Substanz zu exaltiren, und endlich weswegen das Werck 
bifs anhero dennoch liegen blieben, Allen Liebhabern der Curiositaten zu 
dienlicher Nachricht und sonst selbst eigener erheischender Nothdurfft willen 
zum offentlichen Druck befordert von I. E. [V.] N. E. A. ac. S. P. & A. L. C. 
In Verlegung defs Autors 1 696. 

8. Pp. 64. Title-page a little wormed. 

Chymischer oder Alchymistischer Particular-Zeiger, das ist : Treuer Unterricht 
vom Gold- und Silber-machen, vermittelst welchem einer, der sonst sein Brod 
erwerben mufs, blofs durch die eine Zeither nach einander, von einem und 
andern Authore in offentlichen Druck befdrderte dem Ansehen nach geringe 
Zinnober Experimenta zu einen (sic) hochstnuzbaren und bewehrten Stiicke 
gelangen, und sein nicht nur nothdiirfftiges ehrliches Auskommen, sondern 
auch reichl. Interesse, in kleinem Verlag mit gutem Gewissen und unge- 
krancket seinem Nechsten im Jahr heraus finden oder verdienen konne. 
Allen Ignoranten, so die Transmutation oder Maturation der Metallen aus 
blossen Eigendiinckel verkleinern und lastern zum Truz, denen jenigen aber, 
so bereits in Chymia oder Alchymia stecken, u. daran selbst zu zweifeln 
anfangen wollen, zum hochsten Nuz aus herzlicher wohlmeynenden Intention 
an Tag gegeben von I. N. V. E. J. E. A. S. P. C. Dritte Auflage. 
Rostock und Leipzig, zufinden bey Joh. Heinrich Rufsworm, 1715. 

8. Pp. [16] 79 [i blank]. Title red and black. 
At the end : 

Waldenburg, in der Grafschafft Schonburg druckts Johann Theodorus Heinsius, 
Hochgrafl. Schbnburgl. Buchdrucker. 
II. I 



130 NAXAGORAS 



NAXAGORAS (HRD DE). Continued. 

Kopp quotes editions of Rostock, 1706, 1707, The edition of Rostock, 1726, I have not seen. 
1715, 1716, 1726. He saw only the first two : That now before me is of Stockholm and Leipzig, 
pp. '[13] 75. Although they agree page for page, 1726, 8, pp. [16] 77 [3 blank], 
they are different and do not form two issues of the 
same edition with different title-pages. 

Experientia Naxagorse, secundum Annulos Platonicos et Catenam Auream 
Homeri. Worinnen der wahrhaffte Process, die Universal-Medicin zu elabor- 
iren, so wohl vor den menschlichen Leib, als die Metalla zu verbessern ; 
klar und aufrichtig vor Augen lieget Franckfurt am Mayn, Auf Kosten 
guter Freunde, und in Commission bey Domenico von Sand, 1723. 

8. Pp. [8] 184. 

Sancta Veritas Hermetica, seu Concordantia Philosophorum consistens in Sale 
et Sole vel Mercurio et Sulphure, das ist : Die ehemals excerpirte und darauf 
mit eigener Hand experimentirte Sonnen-klare Wahrheit der Philosophen 
Schrifften, vermittelst welcher Ich Ehrd von Naxagaras, Johann. Eques, in 
diesem 1700. Seculo durch die mir von oben herab verliehene Gnade und 
Barmhertzigkeit Gottes zu der Erkanntnifs des hochsten Geheimnisses dieser 
Welt, menschlicher und metallischer Gesundheit gelanget; Ehemalen mehr 
mir selbsten zur Erinnerung meiner gehabten Speculationen und Arbeiten, als 
anderer Ursachen willen, also auffbehalten ; Nunmehro aber ohne alles Lob, 
weil das Werck sich selbsten riihmen wird, durch offentlichen Druck, alien 
rechtschaffenen Filiis Doctrinae, aus wohlmeynendem und treuem Hertzen, zum 
Besten gegeben, auf dafs sie wissen mogen, in was vor Puncten die wahren 
Philosophi iiberein kommen, oder wie viel derselben, und welche es sind, weil 
sie einhellig schreiben : Quod nullibi veritatem scripserint, quam ubi con- 
venerint Brefslau, Bey Johann George Stecks seel. Wittib. 1712. 

8. Pp. [32] 902 (for 912). Title red and black, printed across two pages. 
In the Vorrede, the author states briefly how he came to study alchemy and his fortune therein. 

See KONIGLICHE Hermetische Special-Concordanz, 1723. 

Besides the preceding there are ascribed to real name was Neidhold or Goldhold, and that he 

Naxagoras Fama Hermetica^ 1714 ; Abgetrungene was the editor only of the Concordans, the author 

Urtheils-Fragen, 1715, 1717; and Ultimum Vale, having died at Danzig during the plague. The 

This last, so far as I know, is not separate, same statement was made later on by Fictuld : 

but occurs in the title of the Aureum Vellus. that " Naxagoras called himself Niethold, or some- 

His works seem to be rare, as Kopp got them times Nichthold." Whether the correct form be 

only in the libraries of Breslau, Frankfurt a. M. , Niethold or Neithold is immaterial : they obviously 

and Rostock. confirm one another. Fictuld adds that he called him- 

The name is fictitious and Weller did not know self a Silesian nobleman, but, whoever he might be, 

the real author. No more apparently did the he was in the Fictuldian formula ' an arch-deceiver 

author of Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, for and a master of sophistry : he had not a hair's 

he quotes a story of a transmutation from the girth of chemical truth, and was ignorant of the 

'Concordantia' of 'a quite new writer, calling materials and true method, and his works deserve 

himself Naxagoras.' Kopp says, however, that he to be burned.' To them individually he applies 

was informed that in certain volumes in the Breslau such epithets as 'abortion,' 'rhodomontade,' 

town library the name of the author is given in 'babblement.' 

manuscript as Neidhold and as Johann Neithold, Petraeus without any hesitation ascribes Alchy- 

while in one in the Rostock University Library mia denudata and Sancta Veritas Hermetica to 

there is the inscription 'Naxagoras or Neithold.' Joh. Erh. Neithold. 

Kopp does not seem to have observed that this Kopp has a long note upon Naxagoras in which 

information had been published for at least a he gives an account of most of his books and their 

century and a half. The author of the book : Die editions, and discusses his name and its resemblance 

unvorsichtig verlohrne . . . philosophische Brief to Anaxagoras. He suggests that the letters which 

Tasche, 1728 (g.v.), says (p. 78) that he could follow the initials I. N. are those of the titles which 

discover nothing about Naxagoras, except that his are given in full in the Aureum Vellus, or some 



NAXA GORA SNAZARI 



NAXAGORAS (HRD DE). Continued, 

modification of them. This, I think, is correct. 
He also makes reference (p. 220) to a MS. described 
in the Catalogusmanuscriptorumchemico-alchemico 
. . . curiosorum, Vienna, 1786, No. 311, which 
contains Naxagoras' process. I have not seen this 
edition, but in the Catalogus manuscriptorum . . . 
of 1788 (q.v.) there is one, p. 277, No. 364 : Annuli 
Platonis, Catena Homeri, et Naxagoras experi- 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 277. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallic^, 
1732, p. 106. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiii. col. 1358. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 245-246. 

Fictuld, Probier- Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 102. 

Petraeus, Fr. Basilii Valentini . . . Chymische 
Schriften, 1769, ' neue Vorrede,' sig. f 2 recto. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hdhern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 649, 650. 654, 655. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 314. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litferatur, 
1806-08, pp. 222, 226, 243, 256 (under Joh. de 



entia, written and dated August, 1712. In a note 
it is said that this is the MS. of the well-known 
Naxagoras. This entry does not seem to be the 
same as that of the 1786 catalogue, for Kopp, who 
was interested in the A urea Catena Homeri, would 
hardly have overlooked the present significant col- 
location, and besides the numbers do not tally in 
the two editions. 

Neidhold, or Neidholdt, or Neidtholt or Neidt- 
hold). 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 420 (quotes three or four works only, and 
suggests his identity with Nazari !) 

Schmieder, Geschichte derAlchemie, 1832, p. 516. 

Weller, Index Pseudonymorum, Leipzig, 1862, 
p. 215 (an ' unmasked pseudonym '). 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1351-55, 1444. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 244, 248; ii. 
pp. 208-220, 333, 367, 382, 396. 



NAZARI (GIOVANNI BATTISTA). 

Delia Tramutatione Metallica Sogni Tre, di Gio. Battista Nazari Bresciano ; 
Nel primo de quali si tratta della falsa tramutatione sofistica : 
Nel secondo della vtile tramutatione detta reale vsuale : 
Nel terzo della diuina tramutatione detta reale Filosofica. 
Aggiontovi di nuovo la Concordanza de Filosofi, & loro Prattica: Nellaquale, 
si vede i gradi, & termini di esso diuino magistero, & della verissima Com- 
positione della Filosofia Naturale, con laquale ogni cosa diminuta si riduce al 
vero Solificio, & Lunificio. Con vn copioso Indice per ciascun sogno de gli 
Auttori, & delF Opere c'hanno sopra di cio trattato. In Brescia, Appresso 
Pietro Maria Marchetti. M.D.XCIX. Con licenza de' Superior!. 

Aldine anchor as vignette. 15 woodcuts in the text, some 



4. Pp. [16] 231 [i]. 
of them very grotesque. 

P. 159 : Canzone di Rigino Danielli lustinopolitano. 
la Filosofica arte del precioso Lapis de Filosofi. 



Nellaquale si tratta tutta 



The ' Concordanza de Filosofi ' includes the 
following tracts : 

Rosario de Filosofi, p. 169. 

Novo Lume, p. 211. 

Libro Chiamato Magisterio et Allegrezza, all' 
inclito Re d'Aragona, il quale e il Fiore de Fiori, 
& Tesoro piii di tutti incomparabile, & Margarita, 
p. 220. 

Epistola al Re di Napoli, p. 229. 

These are ascribed usually to Arnaldus de Villa- 
nova. 

The first edition : // Metamorfosi Metallico et 
Humane, Brescia, 1564, forms a small 4 of 34 
leaves with two or three grotesque woodcuts. It 
contains two ' sogni ' or dreams, and the con- 
cluding poem of Uanielli. 

In the edition of 1572, 410, pp. 167 [i blank, 7, 
i blank], another ' sogno ' is added, and the 
second of the preceding edition becomes thereby 
the third. The book besides is rearranged and 
revised. 

The 1599 edition is a page for page reprint of 
that of 1572, but the ' Concordantia de Filosofi,' 
pp. 169-231, is added. 

The 1564 edition contains (ff. 25 verso 27 verso) 
a list of alchemists and alchemical books. This is 



given in a greatly enlarged form in the subsequent 
editions, pp. 135-144. It is of interest as showing 
the extent of the literature at the time. 

Dufresnoy says Nazari had read an infinity of 
authors, even those little known, and had worked 
at the subject for forty years, though probably not 
practically, in which case ' he was not so foolish as 
he might have been." But he blames him for de- 
scribing spurious operations which possibly helped 
to ruin the people who tried them, a criticism 
he repeats in vol. iii. Dufresnoy also says that the 
first edition of his ' Concordance des Philosophes ' 
is of 1572 ; the second, much enlarged, is of 1599. 
If by the ' Concordance des Philosophes ' he means 
the present work, he is wrong as to the title ; but if 
he means the 'Concordanza,' then he is wrong 
about the first edition, for it appeared only in 1599. 
In vol. iii. pp. 244-245, he quotes the present 
edition of 1599, and the ' Concordanza ' of the same 
date as distinct from it, but as its continuation, 
which is more correct. He does not seem to have 
known the edition of 1564. His criticism is smart, 
but empty ; but it might have been tolerated if he 
had recorded something about Nazari. 

Schmieder has merely copied and condensed 
Dufresnoy, and he too makes a separate publica- 



132 



NAZARINEA NDER 



NAZARI (GIOVANNI BATTISTA). Continued. 



tion of the ' Concordanza dei filosofi,' Brescia, 

I 599. 4. 

Rotermund ascribes to him : Discorso della 
futura et sperata vittoria contra il Turco, Venet., 
1570, 4, besides the Sogni tre, 1599. He says that 
he is perhaps the same person as Naxagoras, quite 
overlooking the fact that there is an interval between 
them of more than a hundred years. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 165. 

Leonardo Cozzando, Litraria Bresciana, 1694, 
p. 115. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 313-15, 474 ; in. pp. 244- 

45- 
Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. 299. 



Cozzando says that Gio. Battista Nazari pre- 
sumably the same person with much pains and 
study succeeded in putting before the eyes of ' new 
Brescia' the appearance of 'old Brescia,' its build- 
ings and temples, in a work called ' Brescia Antica ' 
which was often printed, the last edition then being 
in 1658, 4. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungcn zu 
, . . Jochers attgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 421. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 294. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 131 ; 
1869, ii. p. 126. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 353. 



NEANDER (THEOPHILUS). 

Heptas Alchymica Das ist: Aufserlesene Philosophische Tractatlein von dem 
Magisterio Lapidis, so zum Complement, des Promtuarii Alchymiae Herrn D. 
Joachimi Tanckii weyland vornehmen Professoris bey der loblichen Vniversitet 
zu Leipzig gehoren, vnd zu vorhergegangener Biicher deutlichen Verstand 
dienen vnd notig seyn, auch hiebevor in offenen Druck nicht gesehen worden. 
Jetzo aber der edlen Kunst Alchymiae zu ehren, denn auch den filiis vnd 
discipulis Hermeticis zum besten produciret vnd an tag gebracht, Durch 
Theophilum Neandrum Tessanum Chymiatrum. Gedruckt zu Hall, In 

Henning Grofsen Buchladen zu Leipzig zu finden, Im Jahr: 1621. 

8. Pp. [16] 430, misprinted 130. The pagination is irregular. Title red and 
black. Woodcut. Each tract has a separate title. 

Lob der Alchymiae (Introductory verses). 

I. Secretum omnium Secretorum, das ist : Von 
der Heimligkeit aller Heimligkeiten, p. i. 

Turba Philosophorum, das ist : ein Verzeichnifs 
der Namen aller vprnembsten Philosophorum, p. 37. 

II. Ein Buchlein des hocherfahrnen Philosophi 
Johannis Trithemii de Lapide Philosophorum, p. 43. 

III. Liliuin inter spinas Johannis de Padua, p. 155. 
item Arcanum de Multiplicatione Philosophica, 

p. 221. 

IV. Ein gut Fundament, oder Tractat vom Philo- 
sophischen Stein, p. 227. 

V. Das zehende Buch Archidoxorum Theophrasti 
Paracelsi, so bifshero gantz verborgen gewesen, 
p. 241. 

VI. Liber qui vocatur clavis Thesaurorum, das 
ist : Ein edles Buchlein, so genandt ist, der 
Schliissel der Schatze, p. 261. 

VII. Thesaurus Mundi. Ein Buchlein, welches 



genandt wird ein Schatz der Welt (by Rupe- 
scissa?), p. 294. 

Von der Heimligkeit aller Heimligkeiten, p. 321. 

A reprint of No. I. above. Appended, a poem 
on Transmutation : Vom Stein der Weisen Philo- 
sophen, p. 354. 

Anfang der Werck der Philosophen, p. 366. 

Zwey schone Chymische Tractatlein : 

I. De Mercurio Alchimistarum, p. 380. 

II. De Lumine Naturae; VomLiechtder Natur, 

P- 395- 

Speculum utriusque luminis Gratise et Naturae, 
das ist, Spiegel beyder Liechter Naturlichen vnd 
Vbernatiirlichen : darinnen durch hiilff der edlen 
Kunst Chymiae, neben erklarung der Natur vnd 
Eigenschafften der 7. Metallen, so sie zum Theil 
fur sich selbst, zum theil gegeneinander haben : 
Geben und in Druck verfertigt durch Samuel 
Genttersberger, p. 403. 



[Another Copy.] 

References to this book are few. It is quoted by 
Lenglet Dufresnoy and by Gmelin, who is careful 
to distinguish the author from Michael Neander, 
who wrote Syntagma, a sort of history of medicine, 
Bremen, 1623. Both are to be distinguished from 
another Neander, author of Candidus Chymicus, 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 406. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiii. col. 1415. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 246. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 104. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 571, 
note k. 



or Der aufrichtige Chymist, Dresden and Leipzig, 
1731, mentioned by Fictuld and Kopp. Curiously 
enough the Heptas alchymica has escaped Kopp's 
notice, though he enumerates other collections of 
seven tracts. I have found nothing about the 
compiler. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. , . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 435 (ascribes the Heptas and Der aufrichtige 
Chymist to the same person). 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. pp. 337, 340, 
355- 



NEBEL-NEGROPONTE 133 

NEBEL (WILHELM BERNHARD). 

Dissertatio Physica de mercuric lucente in vacuo quam annuente seterno 
luminum Patre Permissu Sapientiss. Philos. Ord. in Univ. Basil, sub Prsesidio 
Viri Excellentissimi, Celeberrimi Job. Bernouilli, Ph. & Med, D. Math. P. P. 
Trium Societatum Scient. Gall. Angl. & Boruss. Socii, Patroni & Praeceptoris 
sui omni observantiae cultu prosequendi, publico eruditorum examini sub- 
mittit ad D. 24. Mart. CIolDCCXIX. Wilhelm. Bernhard. Nebel, Hasso- 
Marpurg. M. C. Auctor. In Auditorio Collegii inferioris. Basileae, Typis 
Friderici Liidij, Acad. Typogr. 

4- Pp. M 73 [4 

Nebel was born in 1699 at Marburg. From He was the author of another dissertation : 

1718 he studied at Strasburg and Basel, and Dissertatio de lapide nephritico novo, Heidelb. , 1733, 

subsequently at Geneva and Lausanne, graduating 4, and in Commerc. litter.. Nor. 1734, Hebd., 38, 

at Heidelberg. After studying anatomy at Stras- pp. 301-334. 

burg, he taught experimental physics at Heidelberg, He is not to be confused with Daniel Wilhelm 

and in 1724 mathematics and physics at Herborn, Nebel (1735-1805), professor of chemistry and 

and medicine later. In 1728 he was teacher of pharmacy at Heidelberg, 
medicine at Heidelberg, and was appointed Hof- 
medicus. He died 18 April, 1748. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

1731, II. i. p. 407. 1806-08, p. 255. 

Acta Academice Natures Curiosorutn, Norimb., Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 

1752, ix. (App.) pp. 209-226, portrait. . . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 308. v. col. 440. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 133. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 343. genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Vblker, 1886, iv. 

^>\.r\fA&r,GrundlagezueinerHessischenGekhrlen p. 342. 
und Schriftstelkr Geschichte, 1797, xi. p. 369. 

NEDAGANDER. 

Kurze jedoch griindliche und einfaltige Anleitung zu dem grossen Natur- 
geheimnifs des Lapidis Philosophici in einem Briefe an die wahren Besitzer 
nebst einem Probierstein der Materia entworfen von Nedagandro. Ham- 
burg, gedruckt mit Trausoldischen Schriften. 1753. 

8. Pp. 32. 

[Another Copy.] 

Kurtze Anleitung zum Natur Geheimniss. 

See GEDANCKEN ... in einer Antwort auf des Herrn Nedagandri Brief, 1754. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C. 1779, "I- P- 203. 

Under the erroneous form Nelagander this Gmelin, but not by any of the other authorities, 
author with the above book is referred to by 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der liohern Chemie, 1785, Gmelin, Geschichte der Cheinie, 1798, ii. p. 316. 
p. 672. 

NEGROPONTE (JACOBUS WENCESLAUS DOBRZENSKY A). 

See DOBRZENSKY (JACOBUS WENCESLAUS). 

To what has been already said under Dobrzen- Prague in 1668, was extraordinary professor of 
sky may be added that Matthioe calls him a medicine in 1659, wrote a book, De Fpntium genio, 
Bohemian, says he took the degree of M.D. at Ferrariae, and in 1680 the Praservativum. 

Georgius Matthine, Conspectus Historic Medi- Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice 1779, iii. 
coruin chronologicus, 1761, p. 846. p. 285. 



134 NEIDHOLD-NERI 



NEIDHOLD (JOHANN). 

See NAXAGORAS (EHRD VON). 

NEITHOLD QOHANN). 

See NAXAGORAS (EHRD VON). 

NENTER (GEORG PHILIPP). 
Bericht von der Alchemie. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. p. 147. 
The Tabula Smaragdina, with a German version, is printed on p. 154. 

See also NAXAGORAS (EHRD VON), Aurei Velleris Supplementum, 1733, p. 24. 
Reprint of the Tabula Smaragdina and the German version. 

Nenter, of Gelnhausen (Haller), apparently the works in which he expounded his views were 

graduated at Strasburg in 1704, with a ' Dispu- severely criticised. In none of the authorities is the 

tatio de vesicatoriorum usu.' He became a present work included. It is interesting, however, 

distinguished practitioner and professor at Stras- as a historical sketch and defence of alchemy by a 

burg, and was a declared follower of Stahl, but believer in it. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1788, iv. 

1731, II. i. p. 407. p. 373. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicinischen Fuchs, Repertorium der chemiscken Litteratur, 

Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 379. 1806-08, p. 223. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 345 ; 

p. 584. 1849, ii. p. 247. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiii. col. 1706 Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Mddicale, 1855, ii. 

(list of works). p. 378. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mdde- 

col. 856; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- cine, 1858, III. ii. p. 634. 

ungen, 1816, v. col. 485. 'La.d.ragMe,BibliothequeOuvarofi,Sciences Secretes, 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 104. 1870, No. 1358. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 88. Dictionnaire encyclopddique des Sciences Mfdi- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 567 cales, seme SeYie, 1878, xii. p. 94. 

(where he calls him ' J. Phil. Nenter'). Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 530. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 38. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der kervorra- 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mddecine, genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

1778, iii. p. 382. p. 352. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 703. 

NERI (ANTONIO). 

AntonI Neri Florentini, de Arte Vitraria Libri Septem, & in eosdem Christoph. 
Merretti Med. D. & Societ. Regiae Socii. Observationes & Notse. In quibus 
omne gemmarum artificialium, encaustorum & laccarum artificium explicatur. 
Amstelodami, Apud Andream Frisium, 1668. 

12. Pp. [28] 1-232 [2 blank] ; Merrett's Notes, 233-455 (f r 445) t 1 ?]- Engraved 
title included in the pagination. 6 plates. Woodcut of a Prince Rupert's drop. 
Vignette with the motto : Optimi Consultores Mortui. 

Anthonii Neri, eines Priesters und Chymisten von Florentz Sieben Biicher : 
Handlend von der kiinstlichen Glafs- und Crystallen- Arbeit, oder Glafsmacher- 
Kunst und alle dem jenigen, was dazu gehoret. Sambt denen, dariiber von 
Christoph Merret, der Artzney Doctorn, und Mitglied der Konigl. Gesellschafft 
in Engelland, &c. gefertigten aufsbiindigen Anmerckungen. Und wird 
hierinnen zugleich auch die vollkomene W[is]senschafft, wie man allerhand, 
denen Natiirl. gantz gleichkommende E[del]gestein nachkiinstlen, wie auch 
vielerley rare (vor die Gold- und Silbfer-] Arbeiter hochst niitzliche) in Europa 
noch nicht bekandte oder gebrau[ch]lich gewesene durchsichtige Rubin- und 
Rosenfarbene Schmeltze und sch[6ne ?] Lacken, sambt der wahren Ultramarin- 



NERINEU-A UFFGEHENDE 



135 



NERI (ANTONIO). Continued. 

Farb &c. auf Spagyrische (das [ist] Chymische Weise) zubereiten moge, 
griindlich gehandlet, aufsfiihrlich demonstrirt und deutlich erklahrt : Wie 
ingleichen auch ein Bedencken, ob und welchergestalt wohl konne die Mallea- 
bilit[at] dem Glase (das ist : dafs es sich hammern lassen moge) beybracht 
werden, mit eingefuhret ist. Verdeutscht durch Friedrich Geifslern. 
Franckfurt und Leipzig, In Verlegung Johann Grossen und Consorten. 
Gedruckt bey Christoph Uhmans sel. Witbe. 1678. 

8 U . Pp. [32] 283 [5] ; 3 engravings ; Merrett's Anmerckungen, 184, 6 plates and a 
woodcut. Title red and black. The title-page is cropped in the front margin. 



Neri flourished at the end of the sixteenth and 
beginning of the seventeenth centuries, and is said 
to have been born in Florence. He was a priest 
(see L'Arte Vitraria, 1612, cap. 31, p. 27), 
worked probably at Murano, was in Florence 
in 1602 (Ibid. cap. 22, p. 21), at Antwerp in 1609 
(Ibid. cap. 44, p. 48), where he lived for a long 
time in the house .of Emanuel Ximenes, a Portu- 
guese, returned to Italy and resided at Pisa, to 
which place he often refers, and published his book 
in 1612. His death is put in 1614. He was an 
adept in the making of coloured pastes. 

The editions of his book which I have seen are 
the following : 

L'Arte Vetraria, Firenze, 1612, 4. 

Hardly any of the older authorities seem to know 
this edition, not even Beckmann, who quotes the 
edition of Venice, 1663 only, though he adds that 
there must have been one of an earlier date. 

L'Arte Vetraria, Impressione Seconda, Firenze, 
1661, small 8. 

The Art of Glass, translated by Christopher 
Merrett, with his notes, London, 1662, 8. 

L'Arte Vetraria, Venetia, 1663, 12. 

Konig, Bib/iotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 571. 
Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 255. 
Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 408. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 

1732, p. 106 (Kunckel's edition, 1689). 
Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. p. 416. 
Theophilus Sincerus, Thesaurus Bibliothecalis, 

1739, iii. pp. 246-48, No. clvii. (refers to Neri, 
p. 246 ; to Merrett, pp. 246-7 ; to Kunckel, p. 248). 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiii. col. 1794 
(Neri wrote seven books on the Art of Glass no 
date given translated by C. Merrett, Lond. , 1622 
(which is a misprint), later editions : Amst., 1668, 
12 ; 1679, 4). 

Jocher, Allgemcines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, HI. 
col. 863 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdm- 



Ars Vitraria, Latin translation, by Andreas 
Frisius, with Merrett's notes, Amstel., 1668, 12. 

Reissued with an altered title-page in 1669. 

L'Arte Vetraria, Venetia, 1678, 12. 

Johann Kunckel, Ars Vitraria Experimentalis 
(in German), Frankf. u. Leip., 1679, 4. 

Also with the imprint, Amsterd. u. Dantzig, 
1679, 4. 

Ars Vitraria, Frisius translation, Amst., 1686, 
12. 

Kunckel, Ars Vitraria, Frankf. u. Leip., 1689, 4. 

Holbach, Art de la Verrerie, Paris, 1752, 4. 

Kunckel, Glassmacherkunst, Niirnberg, 1756, 

4- 

L'Arte Vetraria (appended to the Italian trans- 
lation of Baume"s Chemistry), Venezia, 1787, 8. 

L'Arte Vetraria, Milano, 1817, 8. 

Art of Glass, Middlehill, 1826, folio. 

The book is commended by Morhof, and there is 
a note about Neri and the gold purple in Beck- 
niann's Beytrage. 

It formed the main part of the work on glass- 
making afterwards issued by Blancourt. 

ungen, 1816, v. col. 496. (Rotermund quotes the 
editions of 1612, 1661 (Venetia, sic), 1663; Amst, 
1668, Geifsler's translation, Frft. & Leipz. 1678, 
8 ; Kunckel's translation, 1743, 4, Italian, 1781, 
with Baum^'s Chemistry.) 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 100. 

Beckmann, Beytrage zur Geschichte der Erfin- 
dungen, 1786, i. p. 383 ; English translation, 1814, 
i. p. 203. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 605. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 188, 307. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 354. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 303 ; 
1869, ii. p. 294. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wdrterbuch) 1863, ii. p. 269. 



NEUE Alchymistische Bibliothek fur den Naturkundiger. 
See SCHRODER (FRIEDRICH JOSEF WILHELM). 

NEU-ANGEZUNDT-HELL-BRENNENDES Feuer, oder Mercurial-Liecht. 
See MOEBIUS (GOTTFRIED). 

NEU-AUFFGEHENDE (Die) Chymische Sonne, samt ihrem Glantz und 
Schein, weiset alle Gott-ergebene Sucher, auff den rechten Pfad, subjectum 
ac primam materiam Lapidis Philosophorum & omnium rerum zu suchen, zu 
finden, und zu elaboriren; wie dann das nothigste aus wahrer Philosophorum 



1 36 -NE U-A UFFGEHENDENE UMANN 

NEU-AUFFGEHENDE (Die) Chymische Sonne. Continued. 

Schrifften extrahirt beygefiigt zu finden. Von einem Treu-meinenden Freunde 
zusammen getragen, und alien Bekiimmerten zum Trost heraus gegeben. 
Franckfurt und Leipzig bey Johann Friedrich Fleischer. 1740. 

8. Pp. [1-8] 9-118 [2 pp. errata, 2 pp. blank] ; Supplementum, 119-133 [i blank]. 

About the authorship of this tract see STEINBERGEN (c. F. VON). 

Kopp (Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 390) quotes this edition. 

NEU-AUFFGEHENDE (Die) Chymische Sonne, samt ihrem Glantz und 
Schein, weiset alle Gott-ergebene Sucher, auf den rechten Pfad, subjectum 
ac primam materiam Lapidis Philosophorum & omnium rerum zu suchen, zu 
finden, und zu elaboriren ; wie dann das nothigste aus wahrer Philosophorum 
Schrifften extrahirt beygefiigt zu finden. Von einem Treu-meinenden Freunde 
zusammen getragen, und alien Bekiimmerten zum Trost heraus gegeben. 
Franckfurt und Leipzig bey Johann Friedrich Fleischer, 1750. 

8. Pp. [1-12] 13-112; Supplementum, 113-127 [i blank]. 
Ladrague (Bibliotheque Ouvarqff, Sciences Secretes, 1870, No. 1383) quotes this edition only. 

NEU-EROFFENDE Schatz-Kammer allerhand rarer sehr curioser und sender- 
barer Chymischer, Physicalischer und Oeconomischer Geheimnisse, wobey 
nicht nur eine aufrichtige Handleitung zur wiircklichen Bereitung der so 
genannten Philosophischen Tinctur, sondern auch unterschiedene sehr vor- 
theilhaffte Particularia, Allen Liebhabern naturlicher und hermetischer Wahr- 
heiten auf das deutlichste gezeiget werden. Leipzig, verlegts David Richter, 
1734- 

8. Pp. 87 [9], Title red and black. Imperfect, wants pp. 53-4, 59-60, 71-4. 
Anderer Theil, 1736. 

Pp, [2] 89-178 [4]. Imperfect ; wants pp. 103-4, II 7' I 34- 

On the assumption that the substances named not. The want of sound theory is everywhere 

are the same as those meant now, this tract is of apparent, and no better demonstration of its indis- 

some value as disclosing the practical methods of pensability for true scientific and technological 

certain of the chemists of the time and the ideas by progress could be desired than the consideration of 

which they were guided. The processes are such a collection of haphazard processes as the 

empirical and the practical results, or the substances present, 
obtained, are more frequently misinterpreted than 

NEUMANN (CASPAR). 

Lectiones Chymicae von Salibus Alkalino-Fixis und von Camphora, als zwey 
Proben, umb daraus zu sehen, wie alle iibrige Lectiones bey dem in Berlin 
gestiffteten Konigl. Collegio Medico-Chirurgico publice abgehandelt, und die 
Chymische Materien bearbeitet oder demonstriret werden von D. Caspar 
Neumann Chymiae pract. Prof. P. Mit-Glied des Konigl. Ober-Collegii 
Medici und der beyden Societaten der Wissenschafften zu Berlin und London, 
wie auch erster Hoff-Apothecker. 

Veritas est Simplex. 

Berlin, gedruckt bey des Konigl. Preufsis. Hof-Buchdr. Gotthard Schlech- 
tigers Wittwe. Anno MDCCXXVII. 

4. Pp. [8] 164. 



NEUMANN 



137 



NEUMANN (CASPAR). Continued. 

Lectiones Publicas Von Vier Subjectis Pharmaceuticis, Nehmlich vom Succino, 
Opio, Caryophyllis Aromaticis, und Castoreo. . . . 

Nee adfirmare sustineo, de quibus dubito, nee subducere, quae accepi. Curt. 

Lib. ix. Cap. i. 
Berlin, bey Ambrosino Haude. M DCC XXX. 

4. Pp. [19, i blank] 226 [should be 228]. 

Lectiones Publicae Von Vier Subjectis Chimicis, Nehmlich vom Salpeter, Schwefel, 
Spiefs-Glas und Eisen, . . . 

Quantum experientia in universa Chymia procedit 
Tantum ratio de ejus certitudine statuere debet. 
Berlin, gedruckt bey Job. Gottfr. Michaelis, Konigl. Preufs. privil. Buchdr. 1732. 

4. Pp. [14] 440. Wants pp. 43-46, 131-134. 

Lectiones Publicae Von Vier Subjectis Diseteticis, Nehmlich von den . . . viererley 
Gelrancken, Vom Thee, Caffee, Bier, und Wein, . . . 

Sanior esse poles, si cum moderamine poles, Non quantum veils, sed quanlum 

debeas, non quid cupias, sed quid convenial. 
Leipzig, bey Gottlob Benjamin Fromman, Buchhandl. des Waisenhauses in Ziillichau, 



4. Pp. [28] 468. 

Disquisilio de Ambra Grysea, welche an die Konigl. Gros-Brillann. Wellberiihmle 
Socielal der Wissenschafflen geschickel worden von D. Caspar Neumann, . . . Samml 
einem kurlzen Vorberichl solcher Memoire halber, Anielzo, weil wenigen Personen 
die Englandische Transacliones Philosophicae vorkommen, in deutscher Sprache pub- 
licirel, von Einem Liebhaber der Hisloriae Naluralis. Drefsden, bey Golllob 
Chrislian Hilschern, Konigl. Pohln. und Churfl. Sachfs. privil. Hof-Buchhandlern, 
1736. 

4. Pp. [16] 116. 



Neumann was born al Ziillichau in Silesia, n 
July, 1683, sludied pharmacy, iravelled wilh Ihe 
king as his apolhecary, and also al his expense in 
Germany, Holland and England, where he resided 
for five years. He returned lo Berlin, made fresh 
journeys lo England, France and Ilaly, was ap- 
pointed Court apolhecary and afterwards professor 
of praclical chemislry in Ihe Medico-chirurgical 
College, and in 1724 he was made supreme surveyor 
of the apothecaries in Prussia. He was a member 
of the Royal Societies of London and Berlin, of the 
Instilule of Bologna, was received i March, 1728, inlo 
the Academia Nalurae Curiosorum wilh the name 
Synesius, was Hofrath, honorary doclor of Halle, 
and assessor of the Supreme College of Medicine. 
He died at Berlin, 20 Oct., 1737, highly esteemed at 
home and abroad, and familiarly acquainted with 
all the chemists of his time. 

'Ma.r\gzl,Bibliotheca Scriptorum Mtdicorum, 1731, 
II. i. p. 409 (review of his ' Lectiones chymicte de 
sal i bus alcalino-fixis. . . . 1727'). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicce, 
1732, p. 107. 

Kestner, Medicmisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
P- 585- 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiv. col. 244- 
247. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. pp. 246-47. 

'Elogiaseu Historia Vilas Casp. Neumanni,' in 
Acta Academies Cessarece Natures Curiosorum, 
1748, viii. App. pp. 243-262, where also is a portrail 
of him. 

Jbcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 882; Rolermund's Fortsetznng und Ergdnzun- 
gen, 1816, v. col. 564. 

Blichner, Academia . . . Nature Curiosorum 
Historia, 1755, p. 499, No. 400. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 189. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 196. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 232. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 385. 



He published his preleclions at the request of his 
friends, so that the scope of his teaching might be 
known. He communicated papers lo Ihe Berlin 
Academy and some lo Ihe Royal Society. That on 
fixed alkaline salts was read to the latler sociely by 
Hankwitz (remembered as the first manufaclurer of 
phosphorus) and was prinled in Ihe Phil. Trans. 
for 1726-27, xxxiv. Nos. 392, 393, and his disserta- 
tion on camphor was also communicated to the 
same society (Phil. Trans, for 1724-25, xxxiii. No. 
380). He was an energetic and successful chemist. 

His systemalic leclures were published after his 
death. They were translated into English by 
Lewis, Lond., 1760, 4; 2nd ed. Lond., 1773, 8, 
2 vols. ; into French by Roux, Paris, 1781, 4, and 
Dulch, Leeuwarden, 1766, 8. His papers were 
collecled and prinled : Ziillichau, 1749-55, 4 vols., 
4- 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. in. 

Grnelin, Geschichte der Chetnie, 1798, ii. pp. 473, 
603-05 (his life), 684 (his leclures), 705 ; 1799, iii. 

P- !S- 

Reuss, Repertorium Commentationum, 1803, 111. 
(Chemia et Res Metallica\ pp. 66, 67, 70, 95, 108, 
116, 160, 184. 

Fried. Carl Golllob Hirsching, Historisch-litter- 
arisches Handbuch beriihmter und denkwiirdi$er 
Personen die in dem achlsehnten Jahrhunderte 
gelebt haben, Leipzig, 1804, vi. p. 130. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Lilteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 128, 244, 251, 260, 262, 269, 298. 

Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 322. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 413 ; 
1869, ii. p. 411. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Me'dicalc, 1855, ii. 
p. 208. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
iwrterbuch , 1863, ii. col. 273. 

Aug. Wilh. Hofmann, Chemische Erinnerungen 
aus der Berliner Vergangenheit , 1882, pp. 10, 61. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix. p. 825. 



138 NEUNNIGROPONTE 



NEUN und siebenzig grosse und sonderbahre Wunder. 

See REIBEHAND (CHRISTOPH), 1690. 

NEW (A) Light of Alchymy. 
See F. (j.). 

NICHTHOLD. 

See NAXAGORAS (EHRD VON). 

NICHT-WESENDE Dinge. 
See UTIS UDENIUS. 

NICOLAUS Praepositus. 

See PR^POSITUS (NICOLAUS). 

NICOLS (THOMAS). 

Thomas Nicols Professoren der hohen Schule zu Cambridge in Engeland, 
Beschreibung der Steine sowol Edel als Gemeine darinnen derer Gestalt, 
Kraffte, Tugenden, Medicin, Eigenschafften, Preifs und Werth auf das Deut- 
lichste gezeiget wird Samt beygesetzten Warnungen sich fiir derer Verfalschung 
wohl zu hiiten wegen seiner Fiirtrefflichkeit aus dem Engelischen ins Teutsche 
iibersetzet durch Johann Langen. Culmbach, zu finden bey Nathanael 
Lumscher, druckts Friederich Elias Dietzel, 1734. 

8. Pp. 16, 274. Index [14]. 

A translation by Lange of A Lapidary, or the N. Brooke, 1653 ; third, Gemmarius fidelius, or 

History of Pretious Stones, by Thomas Nicols, the Faithful Lapidary, London, H. Marsh, 1659. 

sometimes of Jesus-Cottedge in Cambridge, Cam- The author was born in Cambridge, and was the 

bridge, 1652, 4, pp. [12] 239 [i blank], folding son of Dr. John Nicols, a practitioner there. No 

table. The translation originally appeared at Ham- details of his life are given. 

burg in 1675, and as it had become rare and was an The editors of the German translation could find 

excellent book, Roth-Scholtz was minded to publish nothing about him. 

a new edition. He did not accomplish his design, Jocher has confused him with Thomas Nicolls, 

and it was left therefore to Lumscher and Dietzel to the translator of Thucydides, who lived a century 

bring one out. earlier. 

The English work was issued with three different Rotermund calls the present work a valuable 

title pages : first, with that already quoted; second, one. 
Arcula Gemmea : a Cabinet of Jewels, London, 

Roth-Scholtz, Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, (calls him Nicolotius, a learned Englishman who 

1730, ii. p. 570. wrote a book on precious stones). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicce, Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, Hi. 

1732, p. 107 (edition of Hamburg, 1675). col. 930 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnzun- 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. p. 412 (II. ii. 2, gen, 1816, v. col. 692. 
c. 33, i). Gentleman's Magazine, 1842, ii. pp. 430, 594. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiv. col. 626 Cooper, Annals of Cambridge, 1845, iii. p. 475. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1895, xli. p. 54. 

NIETHOLD QOHANN). 

See NAXAGORAS (EHRD VON). 

NIGER HAPELIUS (NICOLAUS). 

See HAPELIUS (NICOLAUS NIGER). 

NIGROPONTE. 

See NEGROPONTE (JACOBUS WENCESLAUS DOBRZENSKY A). 



NODUS NOLLIUS 139 



NODUS Sophicus Enodatus. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., i. p. 73. 

NODUS Sophicus Enodatus. Das 1st, Erlauterung etlicher Vornehmen Philoso- 
phischen Schrifften und Tractaten vom Stein der Weisen, nach dem Lauff der 
Natur zusammen gewunden und verkniipffet, nunmehr aber in diesen letzten 
Zeiten, nach erschienener Morgenrothe der Weifsheit und eingetretenen 
Seculo Eliae Aristae (sic) den filiis Doctrinae Hermeticas zum besten auffgeloset 
und erklaret : Durch einen treuen Teutschen Philosophum und Liehhabern 
der Natur gemasen Chymischen Kunst und verborgenen Weifsheit Gottes. 

Kinder-Bett, des Steins der Weisen durch einen unbekandten Cavalier, in 
Frantzosischer Sprache beschrieben, und nun aus den Frantzosischen ins 
Teutsche iibersetzet. Durch J. L. M. C. Hamburg, Verlegts Gottfried 
Liebernickel, 1692. 

8. Pp. [2] 45 [3 blank]. Title red and black. This contains the Kinder-Bett 
only, with a separate title-page. 

The Ouvaroff copy was apparently complete, it author of the Deutsches Fegefeuer der Chemisten, 

contained pp. xiv. 96. the artist Elias, as he calls himself, is the editor of 

In the Beytrag a different title is given (which these small tracts." The author referred to is Dr. 

was repeated by Kopp) : Beschreibung der uralten Soldner (y.v.), if this be correct ; but it was Lange 

Wissenschaft vom Stein der Weisen : Erlauterung and not he who was the translator of the Kinder- 

etlicher alchemistischer Schriften, und Kinderbette Bett. I have not met with the French original 

des Steins der Weisen, aus dem Franzosisch, of the latter tract. 
Hamb., 1692, 8, and there it is said that "the 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
p. 644. Secretes, 1870, No. 1291. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. pp. 352, 383. 

NOTHIGE Erinnerung an die Liebhaber der Kunst Gold zu machen. 
See ZORN (j.). 

NOLLIUS (HEINRICH). 

Naturae Sanctuarium : Quod est, Physica Hermetica. In Studiosorum Sincerioris 
Philosophiae gratiam, ad promouendam rerum naturalium veritatem, methodo 
perspicua & admirandorum Secretorum in Naturae abysso latentium Philoso- 
phica explicatione decenter in vndecim libris tractata ab Henrico Nollio Phil. 
& Medicinae vtriusq; Doctore, eiusdemq; in incluto Arnoldino, quod est Stein- 
furti, Professore publico. 

En dabo in Hermetis doctrinam introitum ! attende : 
Sapiens Amplectitur Tacite Veritatem Reiectis Nugis Vanitatum 

Scholasticarum. 

Sub finem duae Appendices, quarum I. Pansophiae fundamentum, & 
II. Philosophiam Hermeticam de lapide Philosophorum quatuor tractatibus 
antehac editis, iam vero recognitis & auctis comprehensam explicat, annexa 
sunt. Praeterea etiam Remora studij Medici, ex qua de Medicina mea 
Hermetica breue in lucem emittenda cordatus Lector facile iudicare potest, 
adiecta est, & errores Medicorum multorum inibi dilucide deteguntur. 
Francofurti Typis Nicolai Hoffmanni, sumptibus lonae Rosae. M.DCXIX. 

8. Pp. 838 [for 848] [12, 4 blank]. 
The initials of the motto denote SATVRNVS. 



140 NOLLIUS 

NOLLIUS (HEINRICH). Continued. 

Theoria Philosophise Hermeticae, Septem Tractatibus, quorum primus est ; 
I. Verus Hermes. 
II. Porta Hermeticse Sapientige. 

III. Silentium Hermeticum. 

IV. Axiomata Hermetica. 

V. De Generatione Rerum Naturalium. 
VI. De Regeneratione Rerum Naturalium, & 
VII. De Renovatione. 

Explicata ab Henrico Nollio Medicinae in Illustri Illustrium Comitum Benthe- 
micorum Gymnasio, quod est Steinfurti, Professore ordinario. 

Ambros. de Off. Non est gloriosa victoria, nisi vbi fuerint laboriosa 

certamina. 
Hanoviae, Apud Petrum Antonium, Anno M. DC. XVI I. 

8. Pp. 119 [i blank]. Vignette: A man trying to scale a rock on the top of 
which is a pelican's nest, with this legend : Invia virtuti nulla est via. 

Via Sapientiae Triuna Henrici Nollii, Theosophi & Medici, Professoris Stein- 
furtensis. Edita ab Anastasio Philareto Cosmopolita. 

Ludovicus Vives. Quae in iuventute elato supercilio putabam esse 
Thesauros in Philosophia, tam conversus & senex, video vix stercora 
esse, & tantum remoras vitae piae, studiorumq; necessariorum fuisse. 
Anno Saplente IVDICe, trIVMphat Verltas. 

8. Sigs. A 1-4, B-D in eights ; or pp. [56]. The chronogram is 1620. 
Anastasius Philaretus is a pseudonym of JOACHIM MORSIUS (q. v.). 

Systema Medicinae Hermeticae Generale, in quo 

I. Medicinae verae fundamentum. "| . ,., . ,. . ... 

TT . . Methodo dilucidissima generahter 
II. Samtatis conseruatio. ,. 

TTT i r i , ^ exphcantur 

III. Morborum cogmtio, & Curatio. ) 

Ab Henrico Nollio Philochymiatro. Prostat. In nobilis Francoforti Palthe- 
niana. Anno MDCXIII. 

8. Pp. 127 [i blank]. 

This was translated into English with the following title : 

Hermetical Physick : Or, The right way to preserve, and to restore Health. By 
that famous and faithfull Chymist, Henry Nollius. Englished by Henry Uaughan, 
Gent. London. Printed for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold at his shop, at 
the Princes Armes in St. Pauls Church- Yard, 1655. 

Small 12, pp. [8] 130. 

Heinrich Nolle, or Noll, or Nollius, flourished in conformatus, Francof. 1615, 8 ; Verae Physices 

the first quarter of the seventeenth century. He Compendium novum, Steinfurti, 1616, 8; Ars et 

was a teacher at the Gymnasium at Steinfurt in per propriam indagationem et per revelationern 

Westphalia, professor of philosophy at the newly- aliquid discendi, Steinfurti, 1617 ; Alchimia philo- 

founded University of Giessen, and pastor in sophica, Francof., 1619, 8. Mundanus in his 

Darmstadt. He had studied not only philosophy answer to Dickinson alludes to a sort of alchemical 

and theology, but had devoted himself to chemistry romance or allegory entitled : ' Iter Philareti ad 

and medicine, and was a devoted follower of Montem Mercurii.' The German translator, as 

Paracelsus. His works relate chiefly to hermetic quoted by Schroder, is of opinion that this writing 

medicine and philosophy. is not by Dickinson but by Nollius. One hundred 

Besides the above he wrote : De Generatione and twenty years ago his books were said to be 

rerum naturalium liber, ex vero naturae lumine rare. 



NOLL1USNOR TON 



141 



NOLLIUS (HEINRICH). Continued. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 167, 268. 

Edmund Dickinson, De Chrysopoeia, no date 
(about 1683), p. 171. 

Mercklin, Lin dent us renovatus, 1686, p. 397. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1709, iii. pp. 482-490. 

Burcardus Gotthelff Struvius, Bibliotheca Philo- 
sophica, Jena, 1728, p. 159, viii. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptoritm Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 414. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrien-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 592- 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiv. col. 1198. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741 
(T. ii. 1. 17. c. 18. 26. p.m. 652), T. ii. p. 254. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 476 ; iii. p. 247. 



Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 971 ; Rotennund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 786. 

Fictuld, Probier-Siein, 1753, Th. i. p. 116. 

Schroder, Neue Alchymistische Bibliothek, 1771, 
i. p. 170. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice, 1777, ii. 

P- 433- 

Missiv an die Hocherleuchtele Bruderschaft des 
Ordens des Goldenen und Rosenkreutzes, 1783, pp. 
119-121. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 572, 600, 602, 604. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie t 1797, i. pp. 514, 
515 note d (list of his works). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 350. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 344, 357, 384. 



NON-ENTIA Chymica. 
See UTIS UDENIUS. 

NORMA. Regel vnnd wahre Richtschnur, oder der wahre Probierstein, auff 
welchen alle Alchymisten, beydes bofs und gut sollen probiert werden. 
See KIESER (FRANZ), Cabala Chymica, 1606, p. 277. 

NORTHON. 

See HERMAPHRODITISCHES Sonn- und Monds-Kind, 1752. 

The person here called Northon is the same as Josaphat Friederich Hautnorthon. 

NORTON (SAMUEL). 

Alchymiae Complementum, et Perfectio seu Modus et Processus argumentandi 
sive multiplicand! omnes Lapides, & Elixera in virtute, sive qualitate, & etiam 
in quantitate, una cum projectionis via. Olim a Samuele Nortono Bristollensi 
inchoatus nunc verb ab Edmundo Deano Anglo Med. D. Medico Eboracensi 
auctior & perfectior editus. 

Cui accessit Explanatio Intentionis Philosophorum, cum de decimo 
loquuntur numero, in quo Opus finiri debet : in qua etiam miraculosum 
ostenditur Secretum Lapidis animalis ex sanguine humano secundum Georgium 
Riplaeum. Denub adjuncta est Conclusio libri, omnibus sex Libris Alchymicis 
prius a nobis editis, Deque ac huic, inserviens 

Terentius. ^quum est ignoscere, quae sine reprehensione veteres facti- 

tarunt, si faciant novi. 
Idem. Bum esse quaestum in animum induxi maximum, quam maximb 

servire vestris commodis. 

Francofurti, Typis Caspari Rotelii, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, Anno 
M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 17. [3 full-page engravings.] 

[Another Copy.] 

Catholicon Physicorum, seu Modus Conficiendi Tincturam Physicam & 
Alchymicam a veteribus Philosophis adeb sollicite quaesitam, sed a nullo 
adhuc mortalium, seu priscorum, seu recentiorum plene ac perfecte traditam ; 



142 NORTON 

NORTON (SAMUEL). Continued, 

vna cum eiusdem Tinctune accurtatione. Olim a Samuele Nortono Bristollensi 
inchoatus : Nunc verb editus labore & industria Edmundi Deani Angli Med. 
D. Eboracensis Medici, auctior & perfection Cui accessit Ramus Triplex de 
compositione Lactis virginis, seu Aceti Philosophorum. 

Autor incertus, 

Hie Lapis triangulus est in esse, quadrangulus in qualitate. 
Francofurti, Typis Caspar! Rotelij, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, Anno 
M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 16. 3 full-page engravings in the text. 

[Another Copy.] 

Elixer, seu Medicina Vitse, seu Modus Conficiendi Verum Aurum, et Argentum 
potabile cum vtriusq; virtutibus, & potestatibus secundum antiquorum, & 
neotericorum consensum, Olim a Samuele Nortonio Bristollensi inchoatus : 
Nunc verb editus industria, & opera Edmundi Deani Angli, Med. D. Ebora- 
censis Medici auctior, & perfection Cui etiam accessit modus reddendum 
vitrum ductile, & malleabile. 

Paracelsus. Recta via facilis, sed & paucissimis reperitur. 

Terentius. Vna ad quodlibet cuivis accedendi via non est. 
Francofurti, Typis Caspari Rotelij, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, Anno 
M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 14 [2 blank], i full page engraving. 

[Another Copy.] 

Mercurius Redivivus, seu Modus Conficiendi Lapidem Philosophicum tarn 
album, quam rubeum e Mercurio. Olim a Samuele Nortono Bristolensi 
inchoatus: Nunc verb editus opera & studio Edmundi Deani Angli Med. D. 
Eboracensis Medici, auctior & perfection Cui accessit modus faciendi 
utrumq; Fermentum tarn album e Luna, siue argento, quam rubeum e Sole, 
siue auro. 

Clangor Buccinae. Extrahe Arg. Vivum, seu Lapidem Philosophorum tarn 
a corporibus, quam ab Arg. viuo, quoniam vnius sunt naturae, & 
habebis Mercurium, & Sulphur de ilia materia super terram, de qua 
aurum, & argentum generatum est in terra. 

Francofurti, Typis Caspari Rotelij, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, Anno 
M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 20. 5 full-page engravings in the text. 
[Another Copy.] 

Metamorphosis Lapidum Ignobilium in Gemmas quasdam Pretiosas, seu Modus 
Transformandi Perlas parvas, et minutulas, in siagnas & nobiles ; ac etiam 
construendi Carbunculos artificiales, aliosque lapides pretiosos, naturalibus 



NORTON 143 



NORTON (SAMUEL). Continued. 

praestantiores, Olim a Samuele Nortono Bristollensi inchoatus : Nunc vero 
editus diligentia Edmundi Deani Angli Med. D. Eboracensis medici, auctior 
& perfection 

Cui accessit modus componendi Electrum artificiale, omnium Elixerum 
supremum ; cum indicatione Electri naturalis & metallici, veteribus prorsus 
incogniti. 

Terentius. Plurima, dum incipias, gravia sunt, dumque ignores : ubi cogno- 

veris, facilia. 

Francofurti, Typis Caspari Rotelii, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, Anno 
M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 12. i full-page engraving. 

[Another Copy.] 

Saturnus Saturatus Dissolutus, et Coelo Restitutus, seu Modus Componendi 
Lapidem Philosophicum tam Album, quam Rubeum e Plumbo; ac etiam 
eadem methodo e loue, siue Stanno. Olim a Samuele Nortono Bristolensi 
inchoatus. Nunc vero edente Edmundo Deano Med. D. Eboracensi Medico, 
auctus, illustratus, & perfectus. 

Cui accessit Accurtatio operis Saturni, vna cum modo extrahendi Arg: 
viuum e Plumbo. Accessit prseterea Tractatus paruus de metho (sic) Philoso- 
phorum in opere Saturni secundum Georgium Riplaeum auctus, & emendatus; 
vna cum Accuratione Riplaeana Mercurij Sublimati emendata etiam, & auctiore 
reddita. 

Terentius. Nihil recte fit, quod contra naturam fit. 

Paracelsus. Alchymia vera est, quse vnica tantum arte Lunam, & Solem ex 
S. Metallis imperfectis fabricare docet. Aliud receptum non admittit 
prseter illud, quod sic & vere loquitur : Solum ex Metallis, in Metallis, 
per Metalla, & cum Metallis perfecta Metalla fiunt. Nam in alijs 
Metallis est Luna, & in alijs Sol. 

Francofurti, Typis loan-Nicolai Stoltzenbergeri, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, 
Anno M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 24. 3 full-page engravings. 

[Another Copy.] 

Tractatulus de Antiquorum Scriptorum Considerationibus in Alchymia; Con- 
tinens Interpretationem obscurorum verborum, nominum & locutionum Artis, 
Olim a Samuele Nortono alias Rinuillo Bristollensi inchoatus : Nunc verb 
editus studio, labore & industria Edmundi Deani Angli Med. D. Oxon. Medici 
Eboracensis emendatior, auctior & perfectior. Fraocofurti (sic), Typis 
Caspari Rdtelij, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri. Anno M.D.XXX. (sic). 

4. Pp. 13 [2, i blank]. 

Venus Vitriolata, in Elixer conuersa ; nee non Mars victoriosus, seu Elixerizatus, 
siue Modus Conficiendi Lapidem Philosophicum tam e Venere, siue Cupro, 



144 



NORTON 



NORTON (SAMUEL). Continued. 

quam a Marte, siue Chalybe. Olim a Samuele Nortonio Bristollensi inchoatus: 
Nunc verb editus studiis, & diligentia Edmundi Deani Angli, Med. D. Ebora- 
censis Medici auctior, & perfectior. 

Terentius. 

Nil tarn difficile, quin quaerendo investigari possit. 

Francofurti, Typis Caspari Rotelij, Impensis Guilielmi Fitzeri, Anno 
M.DC.XXX. 

4. Pp. 16. 2 full-page engravings in the text. 

[Another Copy.] 



Mercurius Redivivus oder Unterricht von dem Philosophischen Stein. 

See MONTE CUBITI (v. DE), Dreyfaches Hermetisches Kleeblat, 1667, pp. 209-372. 
See H. (c. G.), Eines wahren Adept! besondere Geheimnisse von der Alchymie, 

I757- 

This is a German translation of S. Norton's eight tracts. 



Samuel Norton was the son of Sir George Norton 
and great-grandson of Thomas Norton (q.v.). He 
was born in 1548, studied at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and in 1584 succeeded to his father's 
estate of Abbots Leigh in Somerset. He occupied 
several public positions, and died about 1604. 

The notice given by Jocher is erroneous. He 
has put Briissel for Bristol ! 

His works were edited by Edmund Dean or 
Deane, who, as Wood informs us, was son of 
Gilbert Deane of Saltpnstall in Yorkshire, and 
brother of Richard, Bishop of Ossory, and was 
born in Yorkshire. In 1591 he entered Merton 
College, Oxford, in his nineteenth year, took a 
degree in Arts, retired to St. Alban's Hall, studied 
medicine and graduated in it, returned to York, 
and practised there. 

He wrote : Spadacrene Anglica or the English 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 168 (thinks 
Deane may be the same as Dee !). 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 26 ; No. 1. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 415. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiv. col. 1351 
(ascribes to him ' Crede mihi seu Ordinale '). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 397, 479 ; iii. pp. 146 (Ed. 
Deane), 247-248 (Norton). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 980 ; Rotermund's Fortsetsung und Erganzun- 
gen, 1816, v. col. 823. 

Beytrag sur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 525, 610. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 510-11. 
(Gmelin quotes a ninth tract ' Alchymise Perfectio,' 
but asks if it be not the same as ' Alchymiae Com- 
plementum. ' There is no reason for doubting their 
identity.) .. 

Murr, Uber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens , 1803, p. 66. 



Spaw, being a brief Treatise of the acid or tart 
Fountain in the Forest of Knaresborough in York- 
shire, London, 1626. 

Some, who have referred to Norton, seem to 
think that only ' Mercurius redivivus,' and perhaps 
one or two others, were edited by Deane, but it is 
plain from the preceding that he had the whole set 
through his hands, and it even looks as if he not 
only edited Norton's tracts but had completed 
them, for what else can be understood by the 
expression ' inchoatus ' as applied to Norton's 
share in them? Some have gone the length of 
ascribing them to Deane entirely, while Schmieder, 
who is never at a loss for a bold, not to say a reck- 
less, suggestion, calmly states that Deane was a 
name assumed by Norton ! 

Deane speaks in high terms of Norton, and 
compares him to Cabot, another Bristolian. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 127. 

Wood, AthencB Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1815, ii. 
col. 600 (incidentally in connection with Edmund 
Deane). 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), iii. p. 406 (Deane). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 

3 6 4- 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 334 ; 

1869, ii. p. 326. 

W. H. Black, Catalogue of the Manuscripts be- 
queathed unto the University of Oxford by Elias 
Ashmole, 1845, cols. 1113, 1149, 1156, 1157, 1170, 
1307, 1308. 

Cooper, Athena Cantabrigienses, 1861, ii. p. 284. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, i. col. 531 (Deane). 

'L&&rag\ie,Bi6liotheque Ouv aroff, Sciences Secretes, 

1870, No. 860 ('Mercurius redivivus'). 
Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 365, 393. 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1895, xli. p. 

220 (article by Miss B. Porter). 



NORTON (THOMAS). 

Chymischer Tractat Thomas Nortoni eines Engellanders, Crede Mihi seu 
Ordinale genandt : vor vngefehr anderthalbhundert Jahren, in Engellandischer 



NORTON 



NORTON (THOMAS). Continued. 

Sprach, Reimenweifs beschrieben. Nachmaln aufs dem Manuscripto so zuvor 
niemals in Truck kommen, von Herrn Michaele Maiero, Lateinisch 
vertirt. An jetzo aber aufs dem Lateinischen, in gewonliche Teutsche 
Rhythmos gebracht, vnd mit etlichen schonen in Kupffer gestochen Figuren 
gezieret, dutch Danielem Maisnerum, P. L. C. Franckfurt am Mayn, 

In Verlegung Lucae lennisl. Anno M.DC.XXV. 

8. Pp. 238 [2 blank], 7 engravings. Text and title within a beaded border. Uniform 
with and forming the second part of the volume containing Jamsthaler's Viatorium. 

Crede Mihi seu Ordinale. 

See MAIER (MICHAEL), Tripus Aureus, 1618, p. 77. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 285. 

See MUSAEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, p. 433. 



According to the author's concluding lines, this 
poem was begun in 1477. The first publication of 
it was in the Latin translation by Michael Maier in 

1618, above mentioned. For in his book Symbola 
Aureee Menses, printed the previous year, he speaks 
of it as being still ' uneditus,' but ' to be published 
shortly by us,' and it appeared of course in the 
subsequent reprints of the Tripus aureus. 

The English poem was first printed in Ashmole's 
Theatrum from a fine manuscript. He says (p. 
455) : ' In the search I have made after Authentique 
Manuscripts to compleate this worke, a private 
Gentleman lent me a very faire one of Norton's 
Ordinall, which I chiefly followed ; yet not omit- 
ting to compare it with fourteen other copies. It 
was written in Velame and in an auntient sett 
hand, very exact and exceeding neate." 

This, Ashmole thinks from various circumstances, 
may have been the dedication copy to George 
Nevell, Archbishop of York, whose magnificent 
entertainment of Edward IV. with lavish display of 
plate and other treasure was so thoroughly appreci- 
ated by the king that he took possession of the 
whole ' and made of the Arch-Bishop's Mitre (set 
with precious stones) a Crowne for himself.' 

The poem appears to be anonymous, but as 
Ashmole has pointed out in language, worthy 
almost of Sir Thomas Urquhart, the author's name 
is contained in the poem itself. He says (p. 437) : 

' From the first word of this Proeme, and the 
Initiall letters of the six following Chapters (dis- 
covered by Acromonosyllabiques and Sillabic 
Acrostiques) we may collect the authors Name and 
place of Residence : For those letters (together with 
the first line of the seventh chapter) speaks thus, 
Tomas Norton of Briseto, 
A parfet Master ye maie him trowe. 
Such like Fancies were the results of the wisdome 
and humility of the Auncient Philosophers, (who 
when they intended not an absolute concealement 
of Persons, Names, Misteries, &c.) were wont to 
hide them by Transpositions, Acrostiques, Iso- 
grammatiques, Symphoniaques, and the lyke, (which 
the searching Sons of Art might possibly unriddle, 
but) with designe to continue them to others, as 

Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium Maioris Britannia 
Summarium, 1559, ii. p. 67. 

Maier, Symbola Aurea Mensee, 1617, pp. 467- 
480 (gives extracts from the work). 

Pitsaeus, De illustribus Anglia Scriptoribus, 

1619, p. 666. 

Ashmole, Theatrum Chemicum Britannicitm, 
1652, pp. 1-106 (the poem), 437-455 (the notes). 
Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 168. 

II. 1 



concealed things ; And that upon the Question no 
other Answer should be returned, then the like of 
the Angell's to Manoah. [His name was Peli, to 
wit, admirable and secret].' 

The author of the Ordinall was the son of 
Thomas Norton, and was born at Bristol towards 
the end of the fourteenth century. He was member 
of Parliament for the borough of Bristol in 1436, 
member of privy chamber of Edward IV. , acted on 
embassies and accompanied the king when he fled 
to Burgundy. 

At the age of 28 he is said to have visited George 
Ripley and to have asked to be instructed in the 
preparation of the red stone. His master, whether 
Ripley or another, seeing him to be a suitable 
person, ultimately put him on the right road and 
at the end of forty days (the appropriate period of 
a ' philosophic month ') the pupil had acquired the 
secret. In the Ordinall, chap. ii. , he refers to his 
master in terms of the greatest admiration and 
affection. He describes (chap, vi.) a furnace of his 
invention by which he could get ' threescore 
degrees,' and carry on as many operations simul- 
taneously, each with its own heat. He complains 
of the troubles which beset the adept ; his perfected 
work was stolen by servants, and he says : 
' I made also the Elixer of life 
Which me bereft a Merchaunt's wife : 
The Quintessens I made also, 
With other secrets many moe, 
Which sinfull people took me fro, 
To my great paine and much more woe. ' 

The lady here referred to is said to have been 
Mrs. Canynges, the wife of William Canynges, 
who rebuilt the church of St. Mary Redcliffe at 
Bristol. His master mason was called Norton, and 
it has been sought to identify him with the alchemist. 

The poem contains a number of interesting 
details and throws light on the beliefs of the period. 

Manuscripts of the work exist in the British 
Museum, the Bodleian, in Trinity College, Dublin, 
and in the library of the Marquis of Bath. 

Other works are ascribed to him, or bear his name : 
De transmutatione Metallorum ; and De Lapide 
Philosophorum. They have not been printed. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 26, No. xxxvii. 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer 
der Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 68. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 415. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, i. pp. 246, 470 ; iii. pp. 47, 71, 
248-249. ( ' ' Norton told with sincerity all he knew ; 



146 NORTON NUCK 



NORTON (THOMAS). Continued. 

perhaps he did not know everything," a useful W. H. Black, Catalogue of the Manuscripts 

statement, which advances our knowledge of bequeathed unto the University of Oxford by Elias 

Norton considerably. ) Ashmole, 1845, Nos. 57 (transcribed by John Dee, 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i.pp. 132-134. in 1577), 972, 19; 1445, ii. i, 3; 1464; 1479, 32; 

Ritson, Bibliographia Poetica, a Catalogue of 1490, 83. 

English Poets .... 1802, p. 92. Samuel Lucas, Secularia, or Surveys on the 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, Mainstream of History, 1862, pp. 121-125. 

1806-08, p. 117. Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1874, ist 

The Lives of Akhemystical Philosophers, 1815, Report, App. p. 32 b; 1872, 3rd Report, p. i86b; 

PP- 43. 3 02 I 1888, edited by Waite, p. 130. 1881, 8th Report, i. p. 583 a. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 246. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 214 ; ii. p. 339. 

Warton, The History of English Poetry, 1840, ii. Dictionary of National Biography, 1895, x ^- 

p. 336 (calls him John). p. 220 (article by Miss Porter). 

Grasse, Lehrbuch einer allgemeinen Literar- Bale, Index Britannice Scriptorum, edd. Reg. 

geschichte, 1842, II. ii. 2. p. 649. L. Poole and M. Bateson, Oxford, 1902, p. 447. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la chimie, 1842, i. p. 442 ; 
1866, i. p. 467. 

NOTHWENDIGE Erinnerung des Verdeutschers dieses Hermetischen Triumphs 
an den Leser. 
See HERMETISCHE (Der) Triumph, 1707, p. 159; 1765, p. 159. 

NOTHWENDIGE Refutation auff etliche Johann-Rudolph Glaubers . . . Biicher 
von Verbesserung der Metallen. 

See GRUNDLICHE WIDERLEGUNG etlicher Johan-Rudolff Glaubers . . . Schrifften, 
1661. 

NOUVEAU Cours de Chymie, suivant les Principes de Newton et de Sthall (sic). 
See SENAC (JEAN BAPTISTE). 

NOVA Disquisitio de Helia Artista. 

See DISQUISITIO de Helia Artium, 1606. 
See PERCIS (HELIOPHILUS A). 

NOVO Lume. 

See ARNALDUS de Villanova. 

NOVUM Lumen Chymicum. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

NOVUM Testamentum. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii., 1598, p. 210. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemiae, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, 

P- 369- 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 318. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 368. 

NUCK (ANTON). 

Antonii Nuck Harderoviceni, Medicinse Doctoris & Anatomise Professoris. De 
Ductu Salivali Novo, Saliva, Ductibus Oculorum Aquosis, et Humore Oculi 
Aqueo. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Petrum vander Aa, M.DC.LXXXV. 
12. Pp. [12, engraved title included] 175 [17], 3 folding plates. 

Nuck (1650-1692) was first reader of anatomy and tionsof theglandsandlymphaticsand for various con- 
surgery at the Hague, and then in 1687 professor at tributions to surgery. The present volume contains 
Leyden. He was distinguished for his investiga- some of his best work. But he was not a chemist. 

Conring, In universam Artem Medicam . . . Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Medicinischen 

Introductio, 1687, p. 183 (Add. iv. 39*), (praised for Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 483, 484, 489. 

his ' felix dexteritas ' in an eye operation). Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

Mangel, BibliothecaScriptorumMedicorum, 1731, p. 593. 

II. i. pp. 416-419 (reviews of certain medical works). Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiv. col. 1574. 



NUCKNUYSEMENT 147 



NUCK (ANTON). Continued. 

Jb'cher, Allgemdnes Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. Sprengel, Versuc h einer fragmatischen Geschichte 

col. 995; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv p. 192, & passim, 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 853. Hoefer, Histoirc de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 251 ; 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 684 ; 1869, ii. p. 243. 

1777, ii. p. 766. Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 
Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 478. 312, 325 ; 1849, ii. p. 204. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. Bayle et Thillaye, Biographie Midicale, 1855, ii. 

p. 226 ; 1779, iii. p. 420. p. 151. 
Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtdecine, Van der Aa, Biographisck Woordenboek der 

1778, iii. p. 405. Nederlanden, 1868, xiii. p. 342. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 334 ; Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 293. 

1798, ii. p. 273. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

Biographie Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- genden Aerzte alter Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

25). vi. p. 327- P- 388. 

NUSCHELER QOHANN JACOB). 

See GESNER (CONRAD), Kostlicher Artzneyschatz, 1608, Part ii. 

Niischeler's name is included in his list by Jocher Latin into German, and published it at Zurich, in 

(Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. col. 996), 1608, in 4. Rotermund has nothing to add to 

but he tells us nothing more than that he translated that, 
the second part of the secrets of Evonymus from 

NUSSENSTEIN. 

See RUESENSTEIN (ALEXIUS), Baron von. 

NUTZLICHER Unterricht in der hermetisch-philosophischen Wissenschaft, nebst 
einem Anhang von der Ursach der Electricitat, nach den Grundsatzen der 
natiirlichen Philosophic und nach dem Sinn des grofsen Zoroaster. Frank- 
furt und Leipzig, bey Johann Eberhard Zeh, 1771. 

4. Pp. [8] 40. The paper on electricity has a half title. 

'Alchemic und Elektricitat, welcher seltsame Still less, if the twentieth century hypothesis be 
Kontrast ! ' says the Beytrag, 1785, p. 675. But it adopted of the identity of electricity and matter and 
is not so great after all if electricity be dealt with of the transmutation of radium into helium, 
from the alchemical and Zoroastrian point of view ! 

NUYSEMENT (JACQUES DE). 

Poeme Philosophic de la Verite de la Phisique Mineralle, ou sont refutees les 
obiections que peuuent faire les incredules & ennemis de cet Art. Auquel est 
naiifuement & veritablement depeinte la vraye matiere des Philosophes. Par 
le Sieur de Nuisement, Receueur general du Comte' de Ligny en Barrois. 
Dedie* a Tres-Haut, Tres-Puissant, & Tres-Vertueux Prince, Monseigneur le 
Due de Lorraine & de Bar, &c. A Paris, Chez leremie Perier & Abdias 
Buisard, a la place Dauphine, pre"s le Palais, au Bellerophon. M.DC.XX. 
Auec Priuilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. 80. 

Besides the ' Poeme ' there are at the end Schmieder says that it includes an explanation 
' Stances ' and ' Visions hermetiques.' of the Hermetic Table, but so far as I have noticed, 

This work is contained in the edition of 1639, the Table or anything suggestive of it does not 
printed at the Hague, 12, pp. 57 [i blank], occur in this poem. 

Tractatus de Vero Sale Secreto Philosophorum, & de Universal! Mundi Spiritu, 
Gallice primo scriptus a Domino de Nuysement, nunc simplicissimo stylo 
Latine versus a Ludovico Combachio, D. & Illustrissimorum Hassiae P. P. 
Medico Ordinario. Liber non minus curiosus quam proficuus, utpote tractans 
de cognitione verae Medicinae Chemicae. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud 

Arnoldum Donde, Anno 1671. 

12. Pp. [16] 244 [4 blank]. Title red and black. 



148 NUYSEMENTNYMPHEN-FANG 

NUYSEMENT JACQUES). Continued. 

[Another issue, 1672.] 

12. Pp. [16] 244 [4 blank]. Title red and black. 

This is a re-issue of the preceding with a change 12. For German translations see the cross 

of date. It appeared first in French : Traittez references. 

du way sel secret des Philosophes, et de I Esprit The English translation was made apparently 
general du Monde, . . . Paris, 1621, 8, pp. [26] from the Latin of Combachius by Robert Turner, 
332 [2, 2 blank]. It was reprinted at the Hague, who also turned some of Paracelsus' works into 
1639, 12, pp. [22] 115 [i blank] ; translated into English. It was issued twice with different title- 
Latin by Combach as above, and printed at Cassel, pages but with no other alteration. 
1651, 8, pp. [16] 212 [2], and at Frankfurt, 1716, 

The first title-page is as follows : 

Sal. Lumen, & Spiritus Mundi Philosophici : or, The dawning of the Day, discovered 
by the beams of Light : shewing the true Salt and Secret of the Philosophers, the first 
and universal Spirit of the World. Written originally in French, afterwards turned 
into Latin, by the illustrious Doctor, Ludovicus Combachius, ordinary Physitian to the 
King, and publick Professor of Physick in the University of Mompelier. And now 
transplanted into Albyons Garden, by R. T. 3>i\ofj,a8. Printed at London, by J. C. 
for Martha Harrison, at the Lamb at the East-end of S. Pauls. 1657. 
Small 8, [2 blank, 30] 220, [2 of advertisements, 2 blank]. 

This title was cancelled and the following substituted for it : 

Fundamenta Chymica : or A Sure Guide into the high and rare Mysteries of 
Alchymie by L. C. Philomedico Chymicus. London, Printed by William Godbid, 
for William Barlow, without Aldersgate, 1658. 
Small 8, [2 blank, 30], 220. The last four pages cancelled in all the copies I have seen. 

Von dem wahren geheimen Saltz der Philosophorum. 

See MONTE-CUBITI (v. DE), Dreyfaches Hermetisches Kleeblat, 1667, p. i. 

Vom wahren Salz der Weisen und dem allgemeinen Geist der Welt. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1778, i. p. 230. 

A series of excerpts only. 

See BIRKHOLZ (ADAM MELCHIOR), Die ganze hohere Chemie, 1787, p. i. 
Contains a translation into German, different from that in the ' Kleeblat.' 

Concordantz iiber des Nuysements Sal cceleste. 
See SPIESS ( ), Pater. 

Tractat von dem wahren geheimen Salz der Philosophen, und allgemeinen Welt- 
geiste. 

See H. (c. G.), Eines wahren Adepti besondere Geheimnisse von der Alchymie, 
1757, P- 233- 

By Schmieder he is called Jaque Nuysement, and in the duchy of Bar. He was regarded by the true 

in the British Museum catalogue he is entered as philosophers as a mere compiler. He must not be 

Jacques Nuisement, Baron. He himself states that confoundedwithClovisHestau,SieurdeNuysement > 

he was receiver general of the county of Ligny, who published a volume of poems at Paris, 1578,4' 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 169, 251. col. 1001 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 

Georg Caspar Kirchmaier, Nocliluca Constans, ungen, 1816, v. col. 871. 

1676, Sig. 63 verso. Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, p. 526. 

1697, p. 33, cap. 1., and reprinted by Mangel, Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 506. 

Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. p. 48, cap. li. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 358. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Olliffe, Les Alchimistes d'autrefois, 1842, p. 140. 

1731, II. i. p. 420. Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 331 ; 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxiv. col. 1618. 1869, ii. p. 323. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic \jaAr&%u&,BibliothequeOuvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 

Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 393, 477 ; iii. pp. 96, 249. Moscou, 1870, Nos. 1119-26. 

Jocher, Allgemrines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, Hi. 

NYMPHEN-FANG. 

Philosophischer Nymphen-Fang, 1679. 

See PHILARETES (HONORIUS). 



OBERLEINOBERNDORFFER 149 



OBERLEIN (CASPAR). 

Oleum Antimonii : die Fixatio, sein Quinta Essentia. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die gulden Arch, Schatz: vnd Kunstkammer, 1614, ii. 

p. 293. 
See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 579. 

Oberlein is the name of the author as it appears in the text, but in the table of contents it has the 
form Eberlein. 

OBERNDORFFER QOHANN). 

Apologia Chymico-Medica Practica Johan. Oberndorfferi : Com. Palat. Caesarei : 
&c. Adversus illiberales Martini Rulandi Person. Medici Calumnias. 

Basilius. Ad calumnias tacendum non est, non ut contradicendo nos ulcis- 
camur : sed ne Mendacio inoffensum progressum permittamus ; aut eos, 
qui seducti sunt, damno inhaerere sinamus. 

'EXevdepov yap avSpos TdXr)6f} Xeyfiv. 
Quae vera sunt, loqui virum ingenuum decet. 
Ex Typographeo Forsteriano. MDCX. 

4. Pp. [12] 88 [3, i blank]. 

Though the place of printing is not mentioned, Descriptio horti medici, qui Ratisbonae est, Ratisb. , 

Van der Linden says it was Amberg, and I have 1621, 8. 

no doubt that that is correct, as Michael Forster In the present work he incidentally gave a few 

was printing there at that time. biographical facts, and made a violent attack upon 

Oterndorffer, or Oberndorffer, or Johann von Martinus Rulandus, the younger, and his chemical 

Oberndorff, lived at the end of the sixteenth and remedies, but he did not on that account reject 

beginning of the seventeenth centuries, but the these, but claimed to have himself used them 

exact dates of his birth and death are not given. thirty years before. Rulandus wrote a reply : 

He travelled much, remained a long time in Italy, Alexicacus Chymiatricus, Francof. , 1611, 4, q.v. 
practised medicine at Gratz in Styria, and then The manuscript works left by Oberndorffer were 

went to Regensburg as physician. He was a to have been published by his son-in-law, Johann 

Count Palatine and was councillor and private Ste^phan Strobelberger, but this never came to pass, 
physician to several princes, and was still living at On the other hand Oberndorffer wrote an address 

an advanced age in 1621. to the reader and a set of verses for Strobelberger's 

He wrote several books : De veri et falsi Medici Tractaius . . . de Cocco Baphica (Kermes or 

agnitione tractatus, Lavingiae, 1600, 4 ; De febre Cochineal), Jena, 1620, 4. The address is dated 

Ungarica, Francof. , 1607, 4 ; Epistolae aliquot Ratisbonae, 29 Aprilis, 1620. 
medicoe, in the Cista Medica, Norib. , 1625, 4' 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 144. 
1637, p. 294. Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 

Lipenius, Bibliotheca realis medica, 1679, pp. Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 250. 
12 a, loib, 1573, 268 b. Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicott, 1751, iii. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686 p. 651. col. 1007. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1777. 

1731, II. i. p. 421. ii. pp. 318, 340, 424. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, Gmelin, Geschichie der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 345, 

P- 596. 571, 580- 



1 50 OBSER VA TIONESOCCUL TA 

[OBSERVATIONES quaedam ad decantatum, ita dictum, physicum, seu Philoso- 
phorum Lapidem, spectantes.] 

8. Pp. 40. 

No place, date, or printer. 
The above is a sort of bastard title. The tract was printed in the latter part of the eighteenth century. 

OBSERVATIONS sur la Physique, sur 1'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, avec 
des Planches en Taille-douce ; Dedie"es a Ms r - Le Comte D'Artois ; Par M. 
l'Abb Rozier, de plusieurs Academies; par M. J. A. Mongez le jeune, 
Chanoine Regulier de Sainte Genevieve, des Academies Royales des Sciences 
de Rouen, de Dijon, de Lyon, &c., &c., & par M. de la Metherie, Docteur 
en Medecine, de 1' Academic de Dijon. Janvier 1787. Tome XXX. [-XCVI. 
& Table Gene'rale.] A Paris, Au Bureau du Journal de Physique, 
rue & hotel Serpente. M. DCC. LXXXVII. [-M. DCCC. XXIII. ] Avec 
Privilege du Roi. 

Of this journal and its continuations there are 67 There is a Table gdnerale by L. Cotte, of the 

volumes, from 1787 to 1823. The set begins with contents of the ' Journal de Physique ' from 1787 to 

Tome xxx. as above, and the volumes to xxxvi. are 1802, that is of the preceding 26 volumes, 

dedicated to the Comte d'Artois. The following The journal was founded in 1752 by Gauthier- 

three volumes are dedicated to Charles Philippe D'Agoty and continued by Toussaint. It was taken 

Bourbon, and the next two to Charles Philippe, over by Rozier in 1771, edited first by himself, and 

Prince Francois. Vols. xlii. and xliii., for 1793, then along with Mongez and de la Metherie. 

have no dedication and no privilege. Jacques Gauthier-D'Agoty (b. at Marseilles, d. at 

With the following volume the title changes : Paris, 1785) was an artist and anatomist at Dijon, 

Journal de Physique, de Chirnie et d'Histoire who wrote on colour, physics, anatomy, etc. 

Naturelle, avec des Planches en Taille-douce ; par Franfois Rozier (1734-1793) was an abb, doctor 

Jean-Claude Lametherie, and it is called Tome of theology, director of the Royal Veterinary school 

Premier. It was published : Nivose 2nd year of at Lyons, etc. He wrote a course of agriculture, 

the Republic, i.e. 1794, but in the second volume etc. He was killed in his bed by a bomb-shell 

' 1794 vieux stile ' is added. during the siege of Lyons. 

This new numeration is retained in four volumes Jean Andr6 Mongez (1751-1788), abbe, perished 

only. in Laperouse's expedition. He was the author of 

There was a blank of four years in the publica- papers on meteorology and mineralogy, 

tion between Tomes ii. and iii. Jean Claude de la Metherie (1743-1817), M.D., 

With the volume for the year VII., i.e. '1799 professor of natural history at the College de 

v. si.,' the old numeration is resumed and it appears France, was the author of works on physics, 

as Tome xlviii. This numeration continues to the geology, mineralogy, etc. 

end of the series. Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), 

Tome Ixi., 1805, still bears 'an XIII.' but with M.D., was professor of zoology, anatomy, and corn- 
Tome Ixii., 1806, the 'vieux stile' resumes its old parative physiology at Paris, and wrote largely on 
place, and the year of the republic vanishes after these subjects, 
lasting 13 years. Louis Cotte (1740-1815), was priest of the Oratory, 

In Tome Ixxxiv. , for 1817, de la Metherie has the professor of philosophy and then of theology at the 

name of H. M. Ducrotay de Blainville as joint editor, College of Montmorency, keeper of the library of 

and in Tome lxxxv.de la Me'therie's name is wanting. Ste. -Genevieve. He wrote papers on mathematics, 

The series ends with Tome xcvi. for the first half of meteorology, physics. 
1823. This is the conclusion of the journal. 

OCCULTA (De) Magico-Magnetica Morborum quorundam curatione naturali, 
Tractatus. 
See SCHMUCK (MARTIN). 

OCCULTA Philosophia von den verborgenen Philosophischen Geheimnussen der 
heimlichen Goldblumen, vnd Lapidis Philosophorum, was derselbige : vnd wie 
zu Erlangung dessen zu procediren, aufsfuhrlicher Bericht in einem Philoso- 
phischen Gesprach verfasset, sampt Der Schmaragd-Taffel, Paraboln, Symbolis, 
vnd 1 8. sonderbaren Figuren, der hochberiihmten Philosophen Hermetis Tris- 
megisti, vnd F. Basilii Valentini durch welche diese Kunst der Philosophischen 




NIVERSITY 






OCCULTAOCELL US 



OCCULTA Philosophia. Continued. 

Goldblumen vollkomlich erklaret an Tag gegeben. Gedruckt zu Franck- 
furt am Mayn durch Johann Bringern. Anno M.DC.XII1. 

4. Pp. [8] 78. Title red and black. Vignette : Senior and Adolphus with the tree 
of the metals between. 14 symbolic woodcuts. 



Das erste Theil : Ein Colloquium oder Gesprech 
zwischen einem alien [Senior] vnd jungen Studen- 
ten [Adolphus], p. i. 

Das ander Theil : Aureliae Occultae Philoso- 
phorum, p. 47. 

Verba Hermetis in Pimandro, p. 49. 

Schmaragt Tafel Hermetis, p. 50. 

Symbolum Fratris Basilii Valentini, p. 52. 



The dedication to Ludwig Georg, Count of Stol- 
berg, Konigstein, Rochefort, Wernigeroda and 
Hohenstein, dated 8 January, 1613, is signed by 
Bringer, the printer. He says the collection was 
made by a diligent lover of the subject, so that it 
might be acquired without special trouble. 

A former owner has written : Dieser Tractat ist 
Echt und Recht ; Sehr Rahr zu haben. 



OCCULTA PHILOSOPHIA. 

Von der Occulta Chemicorum Philosophia, ein Kurtzer Tractat 

See BASIL VALENTIN, Triumph wagen Antimonii, 1624, p. 561. 
Die drey letzten Capital de Occulta Philosophorum Chymia. 
See CHYMISCH-UNTERIRDISCHER Sonnen-Glantz, 1728, p. 24. 

This last excerpt is in verse. 
Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1048-50. 

OCCULTA (De) Philosophia. Epistola cujusdam Patris ad Filium. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, Hi. p. 852. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes^ 1870, No. 1035. 



OCELLUS. "flKeAAos 6 Aev/cavos irepi "njs TOV iravros 
Brevis & absoluta qualitatum elementarium enarratio. 
Neobarium, Regium Typographum. 1539. 

Sm. 4. Sigs. a, ; or, ff. [8]. 



Parisiis per Conradum 



Ocellus, called Lucanus, because he belonged to 
Lucania, was of the school of Pythagoras, but his 
date is uncertain. From the vocabulary and 
phraseology used Meiners infers that the author 
could not have been an old Pythagorean, but must 
have lived subsequently to Plato and Aristotle, and 
Mullach places him as late as the first century B.C. 
Of his writings besides the above there remain 
ragments of a book on law ; others on sovereignty 
and health are lost. 

Pope-Blount, Censura Celebriorum Authorum, 
1710, p. 6. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. pp. 13 (II. i. 2. 3); 
322 (II. ii. i. ii. 7). 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 338. 

Jb'cher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, Hi. 
col. 1014. 

Brucker, Historia Critica Philosophies, 1767, i. 
pp. 818, 1 1 22. 

Meiners, Geschichte des Ursprungs, Fortgangs 
und Verfalls der Wissenschaften in Griechenland 
und Rom, Lemgo, 1781, i. p. 584. 

Christoph Gottfried Bardili, Epochen der vorziig- 
lichsten philosophischen Begri/e, 1788, i. p. 130 
(System des Ocellus) ; p. 163 (Aechtheit des Ocellus 
und Timiius). 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Gra-ca, ed. Harles, 1790, 
i. pp. 855-59. 

Fiilleborn, Beytrdge zur Geschichte der Philo- 
sophie, Jena u. Leipzig, 1799, lotes St. pp. 1-77. 



The present work is in four books : i Of the 
Universe ; 2 Of the composition of the Universe ; 
3 Of man and his origin ; 4 Of the duties of man, 
chiefly as to marriage. 

The present book is the first edition and is in 
Greek. The Latin version appeared in 1541 ; it 
was translated into French, 1762 ; and by Thomas 
Taylor into English, 1831, 8, pp. [xi. i blank] 96, 
along with writings by Taurus, Julius Firmicus 
Maternus and Proclus, and a notice of Ocellus. 

Biographie Mldicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

25). vi. p. 333- 

Biographie Untverselle, 1822, xxxi. p. 484 ; no 
date, xxxi. p. 141. 

Schweiger, Handbuch der classischen Biblio- 
graphic, 1830, i. p. 215. 

Grasse, Lehrbvch einer allgemeimen Literdrge- 
schicfile, 1837, I. i. p. 394. 

Mullach, Fragmenta Philosophorum Greccorum, 
1845 ; Paris, Didot, 1860, i. p. 383. 

Diogenes Laertius, De claromm Philosophorum 
Vitis, . . . libri decem, ed. Cobet (lib. viii. 80), 
Paris Didot, 1850, p. 223. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnerale, 1862, xxxviii. col. 
428. 

Graesse, Trtsor de Livres Rares, 1864, v. p. 4. 

Engelmann, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum, 
1880, i. p. 526. 



152 



OCYOR USOECONOMISCHE 



OCYORUS (TARQUISTIUS). 

Experiment Biichlein von xx. Pestilentzwurtzeln. 

See APOLLINARIS (QUINTUS), Kurtzes Hand-Buchlein, 1659, f. clxxiiij. 



Ocyorus, or Ocyorius, is also called Schnelleu- 
bergius, Med. Doct. of Dortmund. 

The title given by various authorities is : De 
viginti quinque radicibus pesti resistentibus, and 
numerous editions are quoted. With Apollinaris 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 441. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovalus, 1686, p. 990 
(Argent., 1589, 8, only). 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 428 
(from Van der Linden). 



as above : Strasburg, 1633, 1651, 1677, 1700. 
Separately : Konigsberg, 1551, 1555, 4 ; Francof., 
1546, 12 ; 1552, 8 ; 1563, 1579 ; Strasburg, 1577, 
18; 1587, 1589, 1594, 1621, 8; Frankfurt, 1613, 
8 ; Annaberg, 1680, 8. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1017 (calls him ' Ocyotus ') ; Rotermund's 
Fortsetzung und Ergdnsungen, 1816, v. col. 920. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
p. 114. 



ODOMARUS. 

Practica, ad discipulum. 

See GRATAROLO (a), Verae Alchemize 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. 

There are two accounts of this writer. 

One, the earliest authority for which, so far as I 
know, is Lenglet Dufresnoy, is that he was practis- 
ing the Hermetic Art in 1330. Gmelin calls him a 
monk, which may be justified by the fact that he 
addresses his disciple as ' frater Ludovicus,' saying 
at the same time that he is violating all the rules of 
the sages in revealing the secret. Schmieder 
decorates these bare statements and depicts the 
monk in his cloister at Paris working hard at 
alchemy in spite of the pope's bull against the 
alchemists. He describes him as a true teacher 
who stated what he knew, but that he was more of 
a worker than an author, and he quotes his pre- 
paration of common salt. 

Hoefer following the same line calls him a monk 
who pursued alchemy in Paris about the middle of 
the i4th century, in the reign of Philippe of Valois. 
He quotes the advice which Odomarus gives, to 
guard against the fumes which are liable to be pro- 
duced in alchemical operations by stopping the 
nostrils with cotton dipped in oil of violets, and 
refers to his method of preparing aqua regia. 

The other account is given by Zedler. Accord- 
ing to^it Odomarus was a ' physicus ' of the i7th 
century, and wrote not only the ' Practica,' but the 
six or seven tracts following it in the above collec- 
tions. 

From the way in which these books are printed, 
there is some colour for this statement of Zedler's, 
but at the same time he seems to have credited him 
with too many. Judging from the arrangement of 
the tracts and the sub-divisions, the following seem 
to be the most that could be assigned to Odomarus : 
Practica ad discipulum, Theatrum Chemicum, 
1659, iii. p. 166. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 170. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 507. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 468 ; iii. pp. 36, 52. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 59. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Erganzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, v. 
col. 936. 



. doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 249. 
p. 1 66. 

Arcanum philosophorum ut ex Saturno facias 
Aurum perfectum, p. 168. 

Perfecta salis communis praeparatio ad lapidem 
philosophorum, p. 168. 

Historiola antiqua de Argento in Aurum verso, 
p. 170, ending p. 172. 

The ' Tractatus de Marchasita ' and the others 
which are quoted by Zedler apparently belong to 
other writers. 

Oddly enough Zedler refers not to the Theatrum 
CAemicum,bultothe Thesaurus cAymtcus, Strassb., 
1613, iii. I do not know a collection of that name 
and date, but there is the Theatrum Chemicum, 
Argent., 1613, and the above tracts are in vol. iii., 
pp. 154-161. They are also in the Theatrum 
Chemicum, Ursellis, 1602, iii. pp. 164-171. 

The 'Practica,' as its name denotes, is a series 
of directions for certain preparations and experi- 
ments, with silver, lead, mercury, common salt, 
green vitriol, saltpetre. By heating Roman vitriol 
one part, saltpetre one part, common salt two parts 
in an alembic the author got a corrosive liquid 
which attacked all metals, ' even mercury,' and he 
calls it 'aqua calcinationis omnium metallorum.' 
But to the mixture he also added half a part of 
quick lime, possibly with the idea of increasing its 
corrosive effect. 

One writer at least has affirmed that the above 
tract was brought out in a new edition by Ortho- 
lanus in 1358, under the title ' Practica vera 
Alkimica.' Comparison of the two tracts, however, 
does not confirm this, and so far I have failed to 
see any connection between them. If Ortholanus 
edited Odomarus' tract he has edited it out of 
existence, or at least past recognition. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Chemie, 1832, p. 185. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 416 ; 
1866, i. p. 441. 

Ladrague, Bibliothbque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 798. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 348. 



OECONOMISCHE Maximen, 1728. 
See K. (c. A.). 



OERTEL 153 

OERTEL (EUCHARIUS FERDINAND CHRISTIAN). 

Universal- Wasserdoktor. Oder : Die herrlichen Wirkungen des kalten Badens 
und Trinkens des kalten Wassers zur Starkung des menschlichen Korpers, 
Verhiitung und Heilung vieler Krankheiten, namentlich des Fiebers und 
verschiedener Leibesgebrechen. Nebst einem Anhange von den Heilkraften 
des Essigs und der Milch. Von drei beriihmten Aerzten J. Floyer, einem 
engl. Dr., Friedr. Hoffmann, dem beriihmten Hallischen Arzt, und J. Han- 
cocke, einem engl. Dr. Neu bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Prof. Oertel 
in Ansbach. Zweite Auflage. Schw. Hall u. Leipzig, F. F. Haspel'sche 
Buch- und Kunsthandlung. 

12. No date, but after 1833. 

Each tract has a separate title, and separate pagination. The tracts are : 
Dr. John Floyer, ein englischer Arzt, von den herrlichen Wirkungen des kalten 
Badens und Trinkens des kalten Wassers zur Starkung des menschlichen Korpers, 
Verhiitung und Heilung vieler Krankheiten und Leibesgebrechen. Aus dem Englischen. 
Nebst einem Anhange : Von den Heilkraften des Essigs und der Milch. Fiinfte ver- 
besserte und vermehrte Auflage vom Professor Oertel in Ansbach. Schw. Hall u. 
Leipzig, F. F. Haspel'sche Buch- und Kunsthandlung. 

Pp. i.-xii. [13-15] 16-140. 

Dr. Friedrich Hoffmann, jener beriihmte Hallische Arzt, vom Wasser als Univer- 
salmedizin. Neu aus dem Lateinischen iibersetzt und erlautert vom Professor Oertel 
in Ansbach. Nebst einem Hoffmannischen Nachlasse. Zweite Auflage. Schw. Hall 
u. Leipzig, F. F. Haspel'sche Buch- und Kunsthandlung. 

Pp. i.-viii. [9] 10-98. 

Dr. John Hancocke, ein englischer Wasserarzt, vom gemeinen Wasser als dem 
besten Fiebermittel. Neu bearbeitet und erlautert vom Professor Oertel in Ansbach. 
Zweite Auflage. Schw. Hall u. Leipzig, F. F. Haspel'sche Buch und Kunsthand- 
lung. 

Pp. [>]i.-iv. [5] 6-60. 

Oertel was born at the Ansbach village of Besides the present reprint he wrote also a 

Streitberg, 18 May, 1765. He received his first history of the subject with the following title : 

instruction from his father, and on his death Geschichte der Wasserheilkunde von Moses bis 

attended the school at Neustadt on the Aisch, auf unsere Zeiten : zum Beweise, dafs das frische 

where he remained till about 1785, when he went Wasser ein Allheilmittel ist. Leipzig, Verlag von 

to the University of Erlangen for philosophy and Heinrich Franke, 1835, small 8, pp. viii. 200, with 

theology. He, however, did not confine himself a portrait. 

to these subjects, but acquired English, Italian, This is a chronology with short notes and a list 

Spanish, Arabic, and studied medicine. In 1789 of the writings of all those who have dealt with 

he took the degree of doctor of philosophy, and water as a curative agent. He mentions Floyer, 

acted as tutor in the family of von Seckendorff of p. 50, Nos. 104-5; Hancocke, p. 54, No. no; 

Oberzenn, whence he removed to Ansbach as third Hoffmann, p. 64, Nos. 127-134. He refers also to 

master in the Gymnasium. He held this post for the third edition of the present collection by him, 

thirty-two years, and retired in 1827. He died Scheible, 1834. The ' Geschichte ' is an interesting 

16 May, 1850. work, and though small it shows much research. 

He was a copious writer, and a long list of his His autobiography is not to be passed over : 

works is given in his autobiography and in the Professor Dr. Oertel in Ansbach, keiner Aka- 

Nekrolog. They include translations of the classics, demie Mitglied, keiner Behorde Rath, keines 

works on theology, and on the healing virtues of Ordens Ritter, &c. , als Theolog, Philolog und 

cold water, a subject which during the last ten Hydrolog von ihm selbst dargestellt. Nebst Vei- 

years of his life he advocated with persistence and zeichnifs seiner 70 Druckschriften. 

energy. Geboren in Streitberg, 13 Mai 1765. 

In connection with this subject he makes a Gestorben in Friedberg, Ev. Job. 21, 23. 

display in his autobiography (p. 128) of his Ein Spiegel fur Gelehrte und Ungelehrte. [Mil 

humour, his scholarship, and his poetic vein, for dem Bildnifs des Verfassers.] 

he has there an ode in German and Greek Cic. N. D. ii. 2. 

Eii rov 'Y5<op, which is an adaptation of that of Opinionum commenta delet dies, 

Anacreon. It begins: e?'A<o \tyeiv rbv Olvov, and Naturae judicia confirmat. 

in German: Ich will vom Weine reden, &c., and Der Meinungen Traumereien vernichtet die Zeit, 

he goes on to state that though he wished to sing Der Natur Ausspriiche bestatigt sie. 

the praises of wine his barbitos would have none of Erlangen in der Palm'schen Verlagsbuchhandlung, 

it and, in fact, threw cold water on all his efforts. 1840, 8, pp. viii. 172 [i, i blank]. 

It can be commended to the attention of the hydro- This is a quaint book, and the portrait (as also 

pathists and water drinkers of to-day. that in the other book) depicts him as a man of 

great humour. 



154 OERTELOLIVERIIS 



OERTEL (EUCHARIUS FERDINAND CHRISTIAN). Continued. 

Neuer Nekrolog der Deutschen, 28, i. pp. den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 

338-346. 408 (article by Pagel). 

Callisen, Medicinisches Schriftsteller-Lexicon, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1887, xxiv. p. 

1833, xiv. p. 96 ; xxxi. pp. 73-76. 434. 

Dlctionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Midi- Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 84. 

cales, 2eme Se"rie, 1882, xvii. p. 717. See also the notes to Floyer, Hoffmann and 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- Hancocke respectively. 

OFFENBARUNG der Geheimnussen der Alchimy. 
See VOGEL (HEINRICH). 

OFFENBARUNG (Von) der philosophischen materien und dingen, aufs welchem 
volbracht wird die Meisterschafft inn wiirckung defs edlen vnd gebenedeyten 
Steins der Philosophen. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die gulden Arch, Schatz und Kunstkammer, 1614, 
Part iii., p. I. 

See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 593. 

Fictuld, Probier- Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 105. 

OFFENBARUNG Gottlicher Majestat. 

See GUTMANN (/EGIDIUS). 

OFFENBAHRUNG. 

See CHYMIPHILUS (j. J.), Der wahren Chymischen Weisheit Offenbahrung, 1720. 
Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 52. 

OHRSCHALL QOHANN CHRISTIAN). 

See ORSCHALL (JOHANN CHRISTIAN). 

OLEUM ANTIMONIL 

See OBERLEIN (CASPAR). 

OLEUM PHILOSOPHORUM. 
De Oleo Philosophorum. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, 1598, Tractatus iii. p. 205. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemiae, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, 

P- 359- 

See EROFFNETE GEHEIMNISSE des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 314. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunst Kammer], p. 359. 

OLEUM VITRIOLI. 

See BACON (ROGER). 

OLIVERIIS (OLIVERUS DE). 

Tractatus Duo. De Lapide Philosophorum Conficiendo Vnus De Auro 
Potabili Alter. Auctore Olivero De Oliveriis Tudertino. 

Place and date torn off. 
8. Pp. 102 [i, i blank]. 

The dedication to Ferdinando Gonzaga, Uuke of He had the intensest admiration of chemistry, 

Mantua and Montferrat, is dated : Mantuag, xiii. believed thoroughly in transmutation because the 

Kal. Martij CIO.I3.C.XX., from which it is pro- metals had a common origin from sulphur and 

bable that the book was printed there in that year. mercury; he distinguished between the true chemists 

The author signs the dedication as Oliverus Oliver- and the alchemists, and he himself was not without 

ius Tudertinus, but I have found no notice of him. some experimental skill. 



OL1 VERIISOP USCULUM 1 55 

OLIVER! IS (OLIVERUS DE). Continued. 

See GINJECEUM CH1MICUM, 1679, p. 415. 

In this reprint the dedication is omitted. 

ONUPHRIUS DE MARSCIANO (FRANCISCUS). 
See MARSCIANO (FRANCISCUS ONUPHRIUS DE). 

OPERA Arcta. 

See GRATA REPOA, 1785. 

This tract was first published in 1770. Murr Judging from the names it seems to be a rifaci- 

points out that Grata Repoa is an anagram of mento from ordinary classical authorities made 

Arcta Opera and that the Masonic degrees are about 1770, the sceptico-superstitious and credulous 

emblematically unfolded under the guise of Egyptian period of the eighteenth century. Egypt has very 

mysteries. It was reprinted in 1778 by Stahlbaum little to do with it. Heckethorn confesses his 

in Berlin, and included with notes in Part II. of the ignorance of the meaning of the two mysterious 

Freymaurer-Bibliothek, pp. 1-24. words Grata Repoa. 

Heckethorn has devoted a chapter to this book : There is an allusion to chemistry in the book 

'Grata Repoa, or Highest Degree of Egyptian for in the fifth degree the symbol was fire, the 

Initiation. 1 He has given an abstract of it and the password was Chymia, and the instruction of the 

mode of initiation into the successive seven degrees. candidate was in chemistry. 

Murr, Uber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- Heckethorn, The Secret Societies of all Ages and 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 1803, p. 87. Countries, 1897, i. pp. 51-56. 

OPUS ad Album. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 957. 

OPUS breve ad Rubeum cum sole per aquas fortes. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 984. 

OPUS Jovis. 

See MAGNi PHILOSOPHORUM Arcani Revelator, 1688, p. 305. 

OPUS Mulierum. 

See ALCHlMlA(De) Opuscula, 1550, i. f. 135. 

See ARTIS AURIFER^E . . . volumina, 1610, ii. p. in. 

Weiber- Arbeit. 

See ARN ALDUS de Villa Nova, Chymische Schrifften, 1748, p. 359. 

Das Weiber Werck. 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, ii. p. 154. 
See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1750, ii. p. 198 
See also LUDUS Puerorum. 

OPUS Philosophicum. 
See OPUS jovis. 

OPUS Saturni. 

See HOLLANDUS (ISAAC). 

OPUSCULA de Alchimia. 
See ALCHIMIA, 1550. 

OPUSCULUM philosophic! lapidis secreta metaphorice describens. 

See GIN^ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 566. 



1 5 6 



ORSCHALL 



ORSCHALL (JOHANN CHRISTIAN). 

Sol sine Veste. Oder Dreyfsig Experimenta dem Gold seinen Purpur aufszu- 
ziehen, welches theils die Destructionem auri vorstellet, mit angehangtem 
Unterricht, den schon langst verlangten Rubin-Flufs oder Rothe Glafs, in 
hochster Perfection zubereiten, ans Licht gegeben aus eigener Erfahrung 
von J. C. O. Augspurg, gedruckt bey Jacob Koppmayr, Anno 1684. 

12. Pp. [22] 68 [2 blank]. 

[Another Copy.] 

Sol sine Veste. Oder Dreyfsig Experimenta dem Gold seinen Purpur auszu- 
ziehen, welches theils die Destructionem Auri vorstellet, mit angehangtem 
Unterricht, den schon langst verlangten Rubin-Flufs oder Rothe Glafs, in 
hochster Perfection zubereiten, ans Licht gegeben aus eigener Erfahrung von 
J. C. O. Hochfiirstl. Hefsischen Berg-Inspector. Cassel, Bey Johann 
Bertram Cramer. 1742. 

12. Pp. [l-I 7 ] 18-84. 



Schmieder quotes an edition of Augsburg, 1739, 
4. ' Sol sine Veste ' has been ascribed to Grum- 

Sol sine Veste. 

See VANDERBEEG (l. C.), 1739. 
See APELLES, 1684. 

Beckmann tells us that Orschall was at Dresden, 
in 1682, in the service of Johann Heinrich Rudolff 
from whom he acquired, in particular, the method 
of amalgamation by which he made money in 
Bohemia. He afterwards became a mining officer 
in Hesse, but got into trouble "by polygamy and 
other irregularities," and died in a monastery in 
Poland. 

To what Beckmann has said, Strieder has added 
that Orschall was appointed on Dec. 29, 1684, by 
Count Carl, to be Mining Inspector at Frankenberg, 
because he had promised to make the mine there 
one of the best and most complete in the whole 
empire, by his skill and experience, in the course of 
two or three years. This, however, he was not 
able to accomplish, and he was discharged appar- 
ently in 1687, and then vanished without leaving a 
trace behind him, though Strieder says he appears 
to have been at Cassel in 1688. 

He was the author of several books, in addition 
to the above. The following are reported : 

Wunderdrey d. i. Beschreibung dreyer dem 
Ansehen nach unannehmlicher, der Practic nach 
aber wohl practicabler Particularien, aus eigener 
Kxperientz von einem Liebhaber der Chymie, 
Augsb., 1684, 12; Cassel, 1696-8, 1737, 1753, 12. 

Wunderdreyes Continuatio . . ., 1686, 12 ; 
Cassel, 1737, 12. 

On p. 6, the author refers to a Historia Metal- 
lorum by him, which is possibly that published by 
David Kellner : Praxis metallica curiosa, oder 
curieus angestellte und experimentirte Schmelz- 
proben von einem wohlerfahrnen Erzki'mdiger, 
Nordhausen, 1693, 8; 1701, 8; 1707, 8. 

Ars fusoria fundamentalis et experimentalis, 
d.i. griindliche und aus Erfahrenheit stammende 
Schmeltz-Kunst, oder griindlicher Unterricht vom 
Rohschmeltzen, Rosten und Seigern, aus sonder- 
bahren Ursachen herausgegeben vom Hoch-Fiirstl. 
Hess. Berg- und Hiittenwerks-Inspectore [without 



met (q.v. ), as in Kurze Nachricht von den Metal- 
lischen Gldfsern, Leipzig, 1767, p. 12 (y.v. ). 



his name], Cassel, 1689, 12 ; 1730, 12 ; 1750, 12. 

Leupold calls it a rare book which gives sound 
instruction on the subject. 

In Sol sine Veste, Beckmann says he gave a 
clearer account of the making of ruby glass than 
any one before him, though it was from Cassius he 
learned how to make gold-purple by means of tin, 
and glass containing this substance had been 
manufactured to some extent. He made attempts 
to extract a purple colour out of gold without the 
gold itself. 

Stahl, referring to the full treatment of certain 
topics by Cassius in his book on gold, adds: Cui 
tamen merito adjungitur libellus laude sua nequa- 
quam privandus sub titulo, Sol sine veste. Stahl 
apparently did not know the author's name, but 
esteemed the book. 

His little tract was attacked in several publica- 
tions : 

' Apelles post tabulam observans maculas in sole 
sine veste.' ' A worthless production. ' 

' Helioscopium videndi sine veste solem chymi- 
cum.' 

'Sol non sine veste,' by Christopher Grummet 
(q.v. ), to whom Orschall's work has sometimes 
been erroneously allocated. 

These are contained in Holbach's French trans- 
lation of Neri, Merret, and Kunckel, 1752. 

Orschall's works appeared in French : 

Oeuvres Mdtallurgiques . . . contenant I. 1'art de 
la fonderie ; II. un traitd de liquation; III. un 
trait6 de la maceration des mines; IV. le traite' des 
trois merveilles . . . Paris, . . . 1760, 12, pp. 
xxxij. 394 [i, i blank], folding plate. Strieder 
mentions an edition of 1761. The translator is 
said to have been Demachy. 

Fictuld says that if the author I. C. O. , who was 
unknown to him, meant only to make ruby-glass, 
he had nothing to say against it, but if he meant 
that by his process one could attain to the Hermetic 



ORSCHALL OR THOLANUS 



157 



1684, calls him J. C. O. throughout, until on the 
last page he states that while his tractlet was in the 
press he had got positive information that the 
author of 'Sol sine veste' was Johann Christian 
Orschall. But Fictuld may have missed this. 

Fictuld, Probier- Stein, 1753, ii. p. 130. 
Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 98. 
Beytrag zur Geschichte der h'ohern Chemie, 1785, 

PP- 535. 6 37- 

Beckmann, Beytrdge zur Geschichte der Erfin- 
dungen, 1786, i. p. 386. English translation, 1814, 
i. p. 205. 

Strieder, Grundlage zu einer Hessischen Gelehr- 
len und Schriftsteller Geschichte, 1795, x. pp. 107- 
no (under Ohrschall). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 27, 
28, 166 ; 1799, iii. pp. 69. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 454. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. n ; ii. pp. 338, 
372. 



ORSCHALL (JOHANN CHRISTIAN). Continued. 

tincture and get the philosophers' stone out of gold, 
it was mere deception, and he had much better 
have burnt his experiments than have published 
them to the world. 

It is curious that Fictuld should not have known 
Orschall by name. The author of 'Apelles,' in 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teulsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 122 (where he is put among 
the 'phantasts'). 

J. H. Rudolff, Elementa Amalgamations, 
Arnstadt. 1712, 4. See the German translation, 
in Roth-Scholtz, Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 
1730, ii. p. 414. 

Stahl, Fundamenta Chymiae dogmaticae et ex- 
perimentalis, Pars. ii. Tract, ii. pp. 45, 46, 148. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallicce, 
1732, p. 107. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 300. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Ltxicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1105 (under Orschall) ; Rotermund's Fortset- 
zung und Erganzungen, 1816, v. col. 1006 (under 
Ohrschall). 

ORTHELIUS. 

Epilogus & Recapitulatio in Michaelis SendivogI Poloni Novum Lumen 
Chymicum Opera & Studio 'AvS/aos "Op6o<s "HAios. In gratiam genuinorum 
Hermetis filiorum publici juris facti. Anno M.DC.XXIV. 

8. Signatures F to V in eights. Pp. [i] 230. 
This is the appendix to the edition of Sendivogius' Lumen chymicum novum, by Orthelius. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL), Lumen Chymicum Novum, 1624. 

. Commentarius in Novum Lumen Chymicum Michaelis Sendivogii Poloni, xn. 
figuris in Germania repertis illustratum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 397. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 516. 
Commentatio in Epistolam Joh. Pontani de Lapide Philosophorum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1 66 1, vi. p. 489. 

Discursus de Epistola Andraese de Blawen. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 470. 

Explicatio Verborum Marias Prophetissse. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 480. 



Little more is said about Orthelius than that he 
wrote the commentary on Sendivogius, but rather 
different opinions have been expressed about the 
author's merits. Lenglet Dufresnoy found him to 
be not so complicated as others, but to have 
written simply and naturally. His remarks de- 
serve the attention of 'artists,' and by close scrutiny 
of the commentary and comparison of it with the 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 123. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 386, 478 ; iii. pp. 57, 58, 
72. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
P- 535- 

ORTHOLANUS. 

Practica vera Alkimica Parisiis probata et experta, sub anno Domini millesimo, 
trecentesimo, & quinquagesimo octavo, quam Practicam Joannes Dumbeler 



epilogus of Sendivogius they may even ascertain 
what is the "first mercury of the philosophers." 
But forty years earlier a different opinion was 
expressed in the Fegfeuer, the adoption of which 
may possibly save the intending reader some fruit- 
less study : ' ' Ortel is a stupid ' bletherskite ' with- 
out skill or understanding. " 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 520. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 334 ; 
1869, ii. p. 326. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1098-1101. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 388. 



i S 8 



OR THOLANUSOR VI US 



ORTHOLANUS. Continued. 

de Anglia excepit, & compilavit de libris prasfati Magistri inquantum com- 
pendiosius potuit & brevius, ex mandate Illustrissimi & Serenissimi Principis 
patris Philosophorum, Domini ac Domini Comitis de Falckenstain, divina 
providentia Sanctae Treverensis Archiepiscopi, Anno Domini, 1386. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, IV. p. 912. 

It may be as well to say at once that beyond the 
information given in the title, nothing is known 
about this person. 

Schmieder calls him Richardus, but without 
adducing any authority. Haureau calls him Mar- 
tinus Hortolanus, or Ortholanus, who in a French 
manuscript of the sixteenth century appears as 
Martin Lortholain. The latter certainly occurs, 
but he gives no authority for the Latin forms, and 
none for coupling Martinus with Hortulanus, what- 
ever ground there may be for assigning it to 
Ortholanus. 

The problem in connection with this person 
waiting to be solved is whether Hortulanus, the 
author of the Commentary on the Smaragdine 
Table, is identical with Ortholanus, the author of 
the above tract 'Practica.' Borrichius uses them 
as synonymous ; Gmelin merely raises the question 
of identity without answering it ; Schmieder holds 
that they are different without giving any good 
reason ; Haureau maintains that they are the same. 
"Haureau is probably right in his contention that 
John Garland had nothing to do with the alchemical 
writings which pass under the name of Hortulanus, 
but it is not necessary on that account to look 
about for some one else with whom to identify the 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione metallica Sogni tre, 
1599, p. 141. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 172, 251. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, pp. 3, 25. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
HermMque, 1742, i. p. 469 ; iii. pp. 55, 252. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 

COl. 1 1 12. 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Medi- 
corum chronologicus, Gotting, 1761, p. 71. 



nominal author. Anyhow, before assuming his 
identity with Ortholanus, or Martinus Ortholanus, 
or Martin Lortholain, it would be desirable to 
determine whether or not the name Hortulanus, 
called so 'ab hortis maritimis,' has older authority 
than Ortholanus ' ab ortis Martini ' ; whether or 
not the manuscripts attributed to each show 
identity of authorship, or whether there is internal 
evidence of difference. They may have emanated 
from the same person, but the point does not 
seem to me to be established beyond question by 
Haur^au's argument. There seems no prima facie 
reason for there not being both a Hortulanus and 
an Ortholanus. See also the note to HORTULANUS 
and the references there. 

Under Odomarus reference has been made to 
the statement that the present work is a new edition 
of Odomarus' ' Practica,' and that Odomarus is 
referred to in it. In Ortholanus' tract I have not 
seen any reference to Odomarus, but only to 
Hermes, Geber, and Arnoldus, and one or two to 
Ortholanus himself, from which it may be inferred 
that the tract as it stands is not original, but has 
been re-edited as is stated in the title. There is no 
apparent connection between the two writings. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 59-60* 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 188. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 417 ; 
1866, i. p. 441. 

L,a.drague,Bil>ltotAtyue Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 814. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 348. 

Catalogue des Manuscrits francais de la Biblio- 
theque imperials, 1868, i. No, 1330. 



ORTHOMONT (IGNATIUS VON). 

Kurtzer Bencht . . . von . . . Ignatii von Orthomont 
Astro Solis und Junonischen Saltz. 1719. 
See ARNOLD (GUIDO FERDINAND). 



. neu-erfundenen 



ORVIUS (LUDWIG CONRAD). 

Ludovici Conradi Orvii Occulta Philosophia oder Coelum Sapientum et Vexatio 
Stultorum. Darinnen ordentlich, deutlich, und griindlich, als noch von 
keinem geschehen, gezeiget wird, wie man zu dem acidosischen solventen und 
wahren hermetischen Wissenschaft gelangen soil. Wobey zugleich eine sehr 
curiose Nachricht von dem Leben des Auctoris und einer Bande Adeptorum 
befindlich ist. Jezo zum erstenmahl aus einem sehr alien und raren Manu- 
script den Liebhabern der edlen Chimie, und nicht den einfaltigen Spottern, 
zu Nutz heraus gegeben. Von L. H. J. V. H. J. D. Gedruckt, in der 
Insul der Zufriedenheit. 1737. 

8. Pp. 80. Three hand-coloured drawings inserted. MS. notes appended. 



ORVIUS 



159 



ORVIUS (LUDWIG CONRAD). Continued. 

Griindliche Anweisung zu der wahren Hermetischen Wissenschaft, 1751. 
See MONTANUS (LUDWIG CONRAD). 

The book is without place and printer, but it 
may have been printed by Augustinus Crusius at 
Erfurt. For in the first edition of Abraham 
Eleazar's work, printed by him in 1735, there is a 
list of eleven alchemical manuscripts which he was 
minded to publish, of which No. 6 is called : 
L. C. O. Occulta Philosophia, Coelum Sapientum 
et Vexatio Stultorum. 

The author, in his preface, describes how very 
badly he was used in the year 1622 by a band of 
adepts who claimed as their founder a certain 
Christian Rose. He was suspected of having 
revealed certain of their secrets, he was summoned 
before a 'public meeting of these great Pharisees,' 
he was accused of Crimen \xsx Majestatis, he was 
expelled from the order, and, to make him keep 
silence about it, he was threatened with death. 
The threat does not seem to have had much effect, 
for he describes fully the suffering to which he had 
been subjected, and gave an account of the order, 
its symbols, greetings, diploma, and mansions. 
He makes no mystery of the policy and practice of 
these 'Rosians,' who, when they failed to find 
the philosophers' stone, had no scruple in appro- 
priating the would-be-philosophers' money. The 
writer having been a victim could speak definitely 
on the subject. 

The story looks genuine enough, but it is hard to 
tell sometimes when such a story is not an allegory. 

Who the writer was and what his name was is 
not quite clear. Semler says confidently that his 
name was Orvius, and that no reliance is to be 
placed on ab Indagine's statement that it was 
Ludwig Conrad von Bergen, or Ludwig Conrad 
Montanus, which seems only a Latinized form. 

Murr, on the other hand, is disposed to accept 
the name Montanus as genuine, but points out 
certain difficulties as to date connected with 
Semler's view, and he stigmatizes as gross false- 
hoods what is said about the houses of the order. 

In his remarks on this topic Findel seems to 
regard the society described by Orvius as an 
offshoot or imitation of the original Rosicrucians. 
His words are to the effect that the adherents of 
one of those theosophic and hermetic societies 
which spread over Europe, gave as their founder 
'a certain Christian Rose or C. L. von Bergen,' 
which is a very curious confusion to fall into, 
especially as he quotes Orvius' preface and the 
revelations he made of their practices. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1710, iv. pp. 488-491 (Mor- 
mius). 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. pp. 130-135 (Tom. i. 
lib. i. cap. xiii. 35-51). 

Bergman, Dissertatio . . . sistens Chemies Pro- 
gressus a media Sac. vii. ad Medium Sac. xvii., 
Upsal. (1782), pp. 7-8. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermftique, 1742, iii. pp. 240 (says it refers to the 
Rosicrucians) ; 287 (petit livre rare et curieux). 
(P. 282 he quotes an edition of the Area arcanis- 
sima Mormii de F. R. C. 1617, in German along 
with other two works, but this date seems to be an 
error). 

Missiv an die hocherleitchtete Bruderschaft des 
Ordensdes Goldenen und Rosenkreutzes, 1783, p' 102. 

Beytrag zur Gcschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 322 (Rose and Morm), 609 (Mormii Arcana), 
665, 671. 



The society referred to by Orvius took its origin, 
as Gmelin tells us, on the borders of Dauphin^, 
from a certain Christian Rose, was called by his 
name, and is not to be confused, as was done by 
Reimmann, Lenglet Dufresnoy and Bergman, with 
the Rosicrucian Fraternity. It admitted only 
three pupils, and had three great secrets ; motus 
perpetuus, lapis philosophorum, medicina univer- 
salis, but there were a good many minor ones as 
well. Peter Morm, or Mormius, who had been an 
attendant, laid, at the instigation of Rose himself, a 
certain number of their secrets before the States 
General, and, when he failed to get a hearing, 
published them in a book entitled : Arcana totius 
natures secretissima, nee hactenus unquam detecta, 
a Collegia Rosiano in lucent produntur, opera 
Petri Mormii, Lugduni Batav., 1630, 24. Mor- 
hof has given an ample account of the Society and 
its secrets from Mormius' work, and the Beytrag 
contains a romantic narrative of Rose and his 
secrets, and Mormius. 

Kopp has devoted a paragraph to Orvius' work, 
which he found to be rare, and of which, after 
considerable search, he got a copy in the library at 
Darmstadt. But he did not know how this 
rarity was accounted for by the author of the 
Missiv, who, after quoting the title at full length, 
proceeds as follows : 

"The manuscript was indicated in Eleazar by 
the Erfurt bookseller Crusius, and I know from 
sure information that the whole edition was at once 
bought from the publisher and the copies sup- 
pressed, presumably because the author gave such 
a revolting delineation of the Rosicrucians and an 
expose" of their treatment of him. It would be 
tedious to repeat it all, so I refer the curious reader 
to the extremely rare book itself, and let each pass 
his own judgment upon it." 

He then goes on to speak of the edition of ab 
Indagine, who puts it under the name of Montanus, 
to whom reference has been already made. The 
differences between the two editions of the book, 
which are considerable, may be briefly recapitulated. 
There is, ist, the difference in the title-pages ; 2nd, 
the preface, from which in the second edition the 
main part of the strictures on the Rosian society 
have been excised ; 3rd, the text, which, in the 
second edition, has been subjected to no small 
amount of alteration. See the note upon MON- 
TANUS. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic der 
Rosenkreuzer, 1786, i. pp. 114, 122; i787i p. 177- 

Wiegleb in his translation of Bergman's disser- 
tation : Geschichte des Wachsthums und der Erfin- 
dungen in der Chemie in der altesten und mittlern 
/.eit, 1792, pp. 143-147, corrected the mistake into 
which Bergman had fallen. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 566 ; 
1798, ii. p. 331. 

Murr, ifber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuzer und des Freymaurerordens, 1803, pp. n, 58. 

Buhle, Ueber den Ursprung . . . der Orden der 
Rosenkreuzer, 1804, p. 230. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Lilteratur, 
1806-08, p. 261. 

Kloss, Bibliographic der Freimaurerei, 1844, 
p. 194, No. 2619; p. 196, No. 2638. 

J. G. Findel, Geschichte der Freimaurerei, 2te 
Auflage, Leipzig, 1866, p. 128. 

Kopp,DieAlcAemie, 1886, ii. pp. 204,316,344,361. 



i6o 



OSIANDEROVO 



OSIANDER (ANDREAS). 

Tractat von der Philosophia oder Weltweisheit. 

See HELLWIG (CHRISTOPH VON), Fasciculus, 1719, p. 143. 



Osiandrische Experiment von Sale, Luna & Mercuric. 
See RESCH (JOAN ULRICH). 

Most of the historians mention a certain Johann 
Adam Osiander, a theologian, who was born at 
Vaihingen, 3 Dec., 1622, and died at Tubingen, 20 
Oct., 1697, and is stated (incorrectly) to be the 
person denoted in the work of Joan Ulrich Resch, 
who gives his name as Lucas. Andreas Osiander, 
however, is not referred to by them, and it is a 
question whether the author of the present tract is 
or is not one of the two theologians of that name. 
The earlier of the two lived between 1498 and 1552, 

For Johann Adam Osiander : 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione metallica Sogni ire, 
1599, p. 141. 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 2103. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 252. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1120; Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 1225. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 619. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 624. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 410. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 329. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1887, xxiv. p. 



1659. 



and besides engaging in theological controversy, 
assisted in the publication of the works of Coper- 
nicus. The latter bearer of the name was born in 
1562, and died in 1617, studied theology, was dis- 
tinguished as a preacher, and wrote a number of 
theological works. The present tract is not enu- 
merated among the works of either writer. 

Nazari quotes ' Osiander medicus de distilla- 
tionibus,' who seems to be different from the 
others. 

Teissier, Les Eloges des Hommes Savans, 1715, i. 
pp. 108, 112. 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 2098. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1117 ; Rotermund 's Fortsetzung und Ergdnt- 
ungen, 1816, v. cols. 1213-1222. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wbrterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 336. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1887, xxiv. pp. 



For Andreas Osiander, the elder : 

Melchior Adami, Vitce Germanorum Theo- 
logorum, 1653, pp. 226-240. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 158 ; portrait pi. 7. 



For Andreas Osiander, the younger : 

Melchior Adami, Vita; Germanorum Theologorum, 
1653, pp. 860-862. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 391. 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1740, xxv. col. 2100. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1119; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1816, v. cols. 1222-24. 

l^a.d.rSig\i&,Bidliothegue Ouvarojf, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 1349 (the same as the above). 



OSTEN (HANS VON). 

Eine grofse Herzstarkung fur die Chymisten; nebst einer Dose voll gutes 
Niesepulver, fur die unkundigen Widersprecher der Verwandlungskunst der 
Metalle, im Kloster zu Oderberg, seit Anno 1426. aufbehalten, durch Hans 
v. Osten ; welche vor wenigen Monathen von einem Maurer-gesellen daselbst 
gefunden worden. Begleitet mit einer Zuschrift an die Chymisten, und einer 
wahrhaften Nachricht dieser Geschichte, nebst dem dazu gehorigen Kupfer. 
Auf Kosten des Verfassers. Berlin in Commifsion bey dem Antiquarius 
Johann Friedrich Vieweg, 1771. 

8. Pp. [14] 108 [2 blank]. Frontispiece and engraved plate extra. 

A mason making an alteration in the Abbey at book was edited by Hans von Osten in 1771. In 
Oderberg found this box and a pamphlet, with 
chemical characters and illustrations. The box 
contained a powder which he threw away. They 
had been put into a cavity in the wall in 1426 by a 
monk, Hans van Osten. The story was repeated 
by Kortum. Schmieder says inaccurately that the 
Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

P- 675- 

Kortum verteidiget die Alchemie, 1789, pp. 225- 
227. 



the Beytrag it is said that "when the first 'rota- 
tion ' has missed the mark, and all the expenses 
have met with no return, then the alchemist needs 
this reviving cordial." It contains historical 
notes of transmutations and an account of a num- 
ber of alchemical deceptions. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 210. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 385. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 1495-96. 



OVO Philosophorum (De). 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, VI. p. 565. 

The 'Ovum Philosophorum' or philosophers' egg, is a vessel of suitable form in which the matter is 
digested or concocted for the proper time. 



P. M. G.- PACKE 161 



P. M. G. 

See HOLLANDUS (JOHANN ISAAC). 

p. <j.)- 

See PORDAGE (JOHN). 
P. (O. A. v.). 

See PAYKULL (OTTO ARNOLD VON). 

PABST (MICHAEL). 

See BAPST (MICHAEL). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. col. 1162 ; Rotermund's Fortsetsung und Ergdnt- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 1346. 

PACKE (CHRISTOPHER). 

Medela Chymica : Or, an Account of the Vertues and Uses of a select 
Number of Chymical Medicines Adapted to the Cure of the most 
Chronick and Rebellious Diseases. To which is Subjoyned A brief History 
of Cures effected by them. As also, An Essay upon the Acetum Acerrimum 
Philosophorum, or Vinegar of Antimony; with some Experiments made 
therewith. By Christopher Packe Professor of Chymical Medicine. 

Dii Sudoribus vendunt Artes. 

London: Printed for John Lawrence at the Angel in the Poultrey, 1708. 

8. Pp. [16] 173 [3]. 

Lowndes does not seem to have known this the works already specified he published a trans- 
book. Packe translated "153 Chemical Aphorisms," lation of De Graaf's book : De Succo Pancreatico, 
Lond., 1688, 1690, 12 (see HELMONT (F. M. VAN)) ; 1674, 8, price 2/- bound; Praxis Catholica, by 
nnd wrote the works mentioned below, but he is best Robert Couch of Boston, New England, 1680, 
known in chemical literature by his translation of edited and enlarged by Packe ; and Mineralogia, or 
Glauber's writings. an Account of the preparation, manifold Vertues 

The present work is what it purports to be, and Uses of a Mineral Salt, . . . London, 1693, 8. 

namely, an enumeration of chemical medicines In 1687 he dated his translation of the " 153 

used by Packe during a more than thirty years' Aphorisms " (by van Helmont, the younger), from 

practice, and an account of the cures he had his house at the Sign of the Globe and Chemical 

wrought with them. There is nothing bearing Furnaces in the Postern St., near Moorgate ; in 

specially on chemistry in it unless it be the last 1688 he was living in the house next the Sign of the 

chapter on the Acetum Acerrimum Philosophorum Gun, in Little Moorfields, and in 1708 he had 

(apparently hydrochloric acid), which the author moved to a house near the New Meeting-House. 

sold at i8d. per oz. , or 22/- per Ib. At the end of the Aphorisms a scheme is pro- 

The catalogue on M7 is a price list of the drugs, posed for publishing Glauber's Works by sub- 
the virtues of which are set forth in the treatise, so scription. He accomplished this purpose success- 
thai the whole volume is little more than a long fully, although by an advertisement at the end of 
advertisement. the present work he had still in 1708 a few copies 

Packe was born about 1635-45, and was a ' in Quires,' which he was willing to dispose of ' at 

chemist, medical practitioner, and author. Besides a reasonable price. 1 
II. L 



1 62 



PACKS PA LA CIO Y PEREZ 



PACKE (CHRISTOPHER). Continued. 

Packe was a believer in transmutation, and 
quotes as evidence the testimony of Helvetius 

!q.v.\ and of his friend Dr. Edmund Dickinson 
q.v.), and refers to the epistles to and from 
Mundanus (q.v.). He seems to have thought that 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Herme'tique, 1742, iii. p. 252. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 230 
(Aphorisms), 380 (Medela Chymica). 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824 (Authors), ii. 
726 m. 

See GLAUBER (JOHANN RUDOLPH), 



in his so-called ' Vinegar of Antimony ' he had a 
means towards transmutation, and he calls it ' a 
key to a very pleasant prospect.' He is not to be 
confused with Christopher Packe, M. D. , who wrote 
a dissertation on the surface of the earth. 

Allibone, A Critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1878, ii. p. 1480. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1895, xliii. 
p. 30. 



1689. 



PADUA (JOANNES DE). 

See JOANNES de Padua. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 173. 

PAGES (JEAN). 

L'Oeconomie des Trois Families du Monde Sublunaire, a scavoir, animale, 
vegetale, et minerale : et particulierement de la Nature de 1'homme : centre 
toute fausse Philosophic naturelle, Alchymie, Cabale, Astrologie ludiciaire, 
Charmes, Predictions, Sortileges, & Atheisme. Avec vn traicte de I'im- 
mortalite' de 1'Ame. Par lean Pages Docteur en Medecine. A Paris, 
chez lean Libert, demeurant rue Sainct lean de Latran, deuant le College 
de Cambray. M.DC.XXVI. Auec Priuilege & Approbation. 

8. Pp. [27, i blank] 478 [55, i blank]. Wants e iij & iv. and 353-370. 



Jocher calls the author a ' philosophus ' at Paris, 
who flourished between 1626 and 1634, and wrote 
the above work. Another book is ascribed to him : 

Les Essais de Maistre lean Pagez Docteur en 
Medecine. Sur les miracles de la creation du 
monde. Et sur les plus merveilleux effects de la 
Nature. Dedie' a Monseigneur le Cardinal de 
Richelieu. A Paris, chez Nicolas Rousset, en la 
grande Salle du Palais, du costs de la Cour des 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 252. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, 
iii. col. 1180. 



Aydes. M.DC.XXXII. Auec Approbation, & 
Priuilege du Roy. 8, pp. [7, i blank] 234 [7, 
i blank]. 

It deals first with God and the creation of the 
universe, angels, the heavens, and after that a 
large part of the book is taken up with sympathy 
and antipathy. 

I have not found anything about the author. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 437 
(gives the date of the above as 1625). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 355 
(gives the date as 1625). 



PALACIO Y PEREZ (MIGUEL). 

Llave del Tesoro de la Piedra Philosophal de la Salud Humana. Dedicase 
al Ilustrissimo Senor Don Martin Francisco Climente, del Consejo de su 
Magestad, y su Regente en el Sacro, y Supremo de Aragon. Por el Dotor 
Don Miguel Palacio y Perez, Colegial del Colegio de Medicos de la 
Imperial Ciudad de Zaragoga, y al presente Medico de la Ciudad de 
Viana. Con Licencia : En Zaragoga, por Manuel Roman, Impressor de 
la Vniversidad, afio 1688. 

8. Pp. [48] 392. Indice [60]. 



This book is not about the philosopher's stone, 
but contains a discussion upon certain medical 
theories. 

The author studied medicine at Zaragoga under 
Jose" Lucas Casalete, and graduated there. As the 
title-page informs us he practised in Viana (Na- 
varra), which may have been his native place, and 
wrote this book in compliance with a request by a 
lay Capucin, who was a nurse at Mallorca, for in- 



structions how to deal with those who fell ill in his 
convent. 

It contains a long discussion with Dr. Onofre 
Esteban, of Mallorca, on the question of blood- 
letting, which was the subject most in dispute at 
the time, and his chief aim was to remove the abuse 
of it. In his work he treated Onofre and his 
opinions with courtesy and respect, but Morejon 
commends his just criticism and his superior train- 
ing and sounder reasoning. 



PAL AGIO Y PEREZ PALM ARIUS 



163 



PALACIO Y PEREZ (MTGUEL). Continued. 



Instead of the above title the following is some- 
times given : 

Breve Description de la nueva Methodo de curar, 
con pocas Sangrias todas las fiebres, y afectos. Por 
el Dotor D. Miguel Palacio, Colegial del Colegio 
de Medicos de la Imperial Ciudad de Zaragoca. 

Antonio Hernandez Morejon, Historia Biblio- 
grafica de la Medicina Espanola, obra pdstuma, 
Madrid, 1850, vi. pp. 157-158. 

Dictionnaire Encyclopldique des Sciences Midi- 
cales, zeme SeYie, 1884, xix. p. 684. 



Dudas, Anotaciones, y Reparos del Dotor D* 
Onofre Estevan, Medico Mallorquin ; y Respuestra 
a ellas del Dotor Palacio. 

This, however, is not an independent or alterna- 
tive title-page, but is only a rather full heading to 
the opening of the text, p. i. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
%enden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 
p. 466 (by Pagel). 



PALLADIS Chymicae Arcana Detecta, 1678. 
See MARENGUS (JOANNES BAPTISTA). 

PALMARIUS (PETRUS). 

Lapis Philosophicus Dogmaticorum. Quo paracelsista Libauius restituitur, 
Scholaa Medicse Parisiensis iudicium de Chymicis declarator, Censura in 
adulteria & fraudes Parachymicorum deffenditur, asserto verae Alchemiae 
honore. Per P. Palmarium Doctorem Parisiensem Galeno-chymicum. Ad 
Illustrissimum Cardinalem Perronium. Adiecta est Historia Lseprosae 
Mulieris Persanatae. Parisiis, Apud Davidem Doulceur, via lacobea ad 
Mercurium inuolucrem, 1609. Cum Privilegio Regis. 

8. Pp. [32] 160 [12]. Vignette of Mercury as a ' Terminus." 



All the authorities quote this 1609 edition only, 
though it had been issued the previous year, Paris, 
1608, 8. The tract entitled Historia Iceprosce 
mulieris was also issued in 1608, and afterwards 
the two conjointly as above. This book had so 
enraged the Galenists of the time that a censure 
was passed on it and its author by the Medical 
Faculty of Paris, on the 28th of January, 1609. The 
book was condemned as full of errors, deceits, im- 
postures and lies, and unworthy of having seen the 
light. In six months the author was to publicly 
confess and abjure all these errors, and was to pro- 
fit by the study of Hippocrates, Galen and the 
Paris school, which must have been the hardest part 
for Palmarius to bear ! In the meantime he was 
not to enjoy any benefits. Failing compliance 
with this decree, his name was to be removed from 
the roll of doctors, and he was to be deprived of all 
academic privileges, honours and emoluments. 

This document, signed by the dean George Cor- 
nuty and printed, was apparently scattered far 

Gilbert G6n6brard, Chronographia Libriquatuor, 
Lugduni, 1609-08 (Pars altera), p. 591 (Censure of 
the Paris Faculty). 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Menses, 1617, p. 523. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 400. 

Borel, Biblioiheca Chimica, 1654, p. 174. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 902. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, i. 
p. in (Censure of the Paris Faculty). 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 438. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophi 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 253. 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Historice Medi- 
corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 442. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 278. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
PP- 319. 369- 38o, 402. 



and wide, and a copy with his best wishes having 
been sent to the editor of G6n6brard's book, he 
printed it so that all the Universities of the world 
might understand it. Whelher il puls Ihe aclion 
of the Faculty in Ihe besl light may be questioned. 
Palmarius, however, when this judgment was read 
' respondil se facultatis Decreto salisfaclurum.' 
Whether this was done lo Ihe Faculty's satisfaction 
I am not aware, but he wrote another book, the 
title of which is as follows : Laurus palmaria 
fugans ventaneum fulmen cyclopum aliquot falso 
Scholoe Parisiensis nomine evulgalum, in librum 
Petri Palmarij Doctoris Medici Parisiensis. Luletiae 
Martij 26. Anni Domini, 1609, 8, pp. [4] 74 [2]. 

In this tracl he replies lo Ihe objeclions brought 
against his views and does not spare his critics. 

Paulmier, or Palmarius, was the nephew of Julien 
Le Paulmier who wrote on gunshot wounds. He 
was born in 1568, studied al Paris, gradualed M.D. 
and was physician in Ihe H6lel-Dieu. He died 15 
Jan., 1610. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Medecine, 
1778, iii. p. 501. 

Gmelin, Geschichte derChemie, 1797, i. p. 504. 

Rotermund, Fortselzung und Erganzungen su . . . 
Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, v. 
col. 1453. 

Biographic Midicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
2S). vi. p. 384. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneikunde, 1827, iii. 
p. 546. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 

359- 

Dictionnaire Encyclopfdique des Sciences Mdi- 
ca/es, 2eme SeYie, 1885, xxi. p. 656. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerste aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 
512. 



r64 PANDORA PANTALEON 

PANDORA. 

See FAUST (JOHANN MICHAELIS). 

See REUSNER (HIERONYMUS). 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 118. Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 368. 

PANTALEON. 

Pantaleonis Alchimistische Tractatlein : 

I. Das eroffnete Hermetische Grab, vom Philosophischen Quecksilber. 
II. Alchimistische Priiffung eines waaren Philosophi und betrtigerischen 
Sophistens. 

III. Metallisches Zweyblat, vom Stein der alten Weisen. 
Welche erstlich vom Autore Lateinisch beschrieben und absonderlich gedruckt, 
nunmehr, auf Begehren unterschiedlicher Liebhaber der edlen Chimie, ins 
Teutsche ubersetzet und zusammen gedruckt heraus gegeben Christophorus 
Victorinus, Artis filius. Niirnberg, zu finden bey Paul Fiirstens, Kunst- 
und Buchh. seel. Witben und Erben. Gedruckt daselbst bey Christoff 
Gerhard, An. 1677. 

8. Pp. 175 (ought to be 183) [i blank]. Wants Ai, a frontispiece ? 

Bifolium metallicum, seu Medicina duplex pro Metallis et Hominibus infirmis 
. . . inventa. 

See GIN-ffiCEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, p. 453. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 718. 

Bifolium Metallicum, das ist Metallisches Zweyblat, oder Zweyfache Artzney 
fur mangelhaffte Metallen und Menschen. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1730, ii. p. 313. 
In Leupold's Prodromus an edition printed at Niirnberg, in 1676, 8, is quoted. 

Disceptatio de Lapide Physico, in qua Tumbam Semiramidis ab Anonymo 
Phantastice, non Hermetic^ Sigillatam : ab Anonymo Reclusam, Si Sapiens 
Inspexerit Ipsam, Promissis Regum Thesauris Vacuam Inveniet. Anno 
M.DC.LXXVIII. 

Without place and printer's name. 

8. Pp. [2] 95 [i blank]. 
Followed by : 

Tumba Semiramidis Hermetice Sigillata, Quam si Sapiens aperuerit non Cyrus 
Ambitiosus Avarus, Regum ille Thesauros, divitiarum inexhaustos, quod sufficiat, in- 
veniet. Excusa Primum. Anno M.DC.LXXIV. Recusa Secund6 Anno 1676. 
Terti6 Anno 1678. 

8. Pp. [2] 28. The signatures are continuous, though the pagination is separate. 

Followed by : 

De Medicamentis Universalibus Dissertatio. 

8. Pp. 56. 

The Disceptatio was written against the Tiimba Pantaleon is quoted, and he is distinguished as 

Semiramidis. It was published anonymously, but ' inter Neotericos facile princeps,' which looks like 

it is ascribed to Pantaleon by Manget (Bibl. Chem. blowing one's own trumpet. But perhaps that comes 

Cur,, 1702, Index) from similarity of style. In the well off one whose name was Gassman. 
Disceptatio, p. 31, the Bifolium Metallicum of 



PANTALEON 



PANTALEON. Continued. 
[Another Copy.] 

[Another Copy.] 

Both of these copies want the tract : De Medicamentis Universalibus Dissertatio. 

Disceptatio de lapide physico, in qua Tumbam Semiramidis ab anonymo 
Phantastice non Hermetice sigillatam : ab anonymo reclusam, si sapiens 
inspexerit ipsam, promissis Regum Thesauris vacuam inveniet. 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 744. 

See TUMBA SEMIRAMIDIS. 

See CNOFFEL (ANDREAS). 

Examen Alchymisticum, quo, ceu Lydio lapide, Adeptus a Sophista & verus 
Philosophus ab Impostore dignoscuntur, institutum in gratiam Magnatum 
& eorum, qui, ex defectu multae lectionis & Vulcanicae experientiae, punctum 
Chymicum plenarie non intelligunt ; ne tarn turpiter a perditissimis istis 
fumivendulis ac impostoribus Thrasonicis, in opprobrium artis mere divinae, 
decipiantur. Necessarium ac summe proficuum opusculum, quale, a mundo 
condito, typis non fuit exaratum. Authore Pantaleone, Hermeticae Sophias 
Adepto. Prostat Noribergae, apud Pauli Fiirstl, bibliopolae b. m. viduam 
& hceredes. M.DC.LXXVI. 

8. Pp. [1-6] 7-44 [4 blank]. 

Examen Alchemisticum. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 736. 

Examen Alchymisticum, oder : Alchymistische Prtiffung. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1730, ii. 
p. 259. 

Pantaleon delarvatus. 

See BECHER (JOHANN JOACHIM). 

Tumulus Hermetis Apertus in quo ad Solem Meridianum sunt videndae 
antiquissimorum Sophorum absconditae veritates Physical & Recentiorum 
quorundam erroneae opiniones de laudatissimo illo liquore Mercuric 
Philosophorum, ita ut jam cuilibet etiam mediocriter ingenioso, Regia 
via pateat ad hoc mysterium perquirendum, inveniendum & praeparandum , 
in gratiam errantium illuminatus ab Anonymo Pantaleone, Sophiae Her- 
meticae Adepto. Viennae Austriae, Typis Jo: Bapt: Hacque. Anno 
M.DC.LXXV. 

8. Pp. [12] 38 [a]. 

Tumulus Hermetis Apertus, in quo ad Solem Meridianum sunt videndae, 
antiquissimorum Sophorum absconditae veritates Physicae & Recentiorum 
quorundam erroneae opiniones de laudatissimo illo liquore Mercuric 
Philosophorum, ita, ut jam cuilibet, etiam mediocriter ingenioso, Regia 



166 PANTALEONPANTHEO 

PANTALEON. Continued. 

via pateat ad hoc mysterium perquirendum, inveniendum & prseparandum, 
in gratiam errantium, illuminatus ab Anonymo Pantaleone, Sophise Her- 
meticae Adepto. Prostat Noribergae, apud Pauli Fiirstii, Bibliopolse b. m. 
viduam & haeredes, An. 1684. 

8. Pp. [4] 49 [2] [i blank]. 

Tumulus Hermetis apertus. 

See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 728. 

Tumulus Hermetis apertus; oder, das eroffnete Hermetische Grab. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FREDERICK), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1730, ii. 
pp. 197, 259. 

Pantaleon's real name was Franz Gassmann. some he was believed in. He certainly believed 

He was a native of Silesia, physician in Passau and in himself, as can be seen by his title-pages, 

afterwards in Vienna. He claimed to have made Becher, however, regarded him as a cheat, and 

mercury 'magnetic,' so that it followed gold as a with this conviction wrote Pantaleo/i delarvatus. 

needle the magnet. He acquired considerable Becher does not name him in this tract, but refers 

reputation by his operations with mercury, and by to him constantly under the initial of G. ... 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, Fictuld, Probier- Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 106. 
1697, p. 39, No. Ixi. Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 92. 

J. M. Faust, Philaletha illustratus, 1706, p. 106. Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Beecher, ' Alphabetum Minerale,' Opuscula Chy- pp. 532, 627, 629. 
mica Rariora, 1719, p. 137 (calls him Gassmann). Kortum verteidiget die Alchemie, 1789, p. 172. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Ale hymia, 1730, p. 99. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 7 

Roth-Scholtz, Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, (' Examen '), pp. 14-15 (' Bifolium 1 ). 

1730, ii. p. 269. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 442. 
Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 187. 

1731, p. 439 ('nomen fictitium'). Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallica, Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1235-37. 

1732, pp. 30, 109. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 233 ; ii. pp. 
Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 332, 338, 360, 373, 393 (calls him Franz Gass- 

Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 484 ; iii. pp. 74, 75, 149, 254. mann). 

PANTHEO (GIOVANNI AGOSTINO). 

Voarchadumia contra Alchimiam : Ars distincta ab Archimfa & Sophia : 
cum Additionibus : Proportionibus : Numeris : & Figuris opportunis loannis 
Augustini Panthei Veneti sacerdotis. Venetiis. Diebus. Aprilis. 

M.D.XXX. 

4. Title leaf ; i blank (defective) ; two leaves marked : 0,00; ff. 1-69. The 
title is within a woodcut border, and is printed in different colours, and there is 
coloured printing also on ff. 2, 7, and 8. Woodcut bird's eye view of Venice. Wood- 
cuts of furnaces and other apparatus in the text 

[Another Copy.] 

Wants the introductory leaves marked o and oo, and the blank leaf. 

Ars et Theoria Transmutationis metallicse cum Voarchadtimia, proportionibus, 
numeris, & iconibus rei accommodis illustrata. loanne Augustino Pantheo 
Veneto Authore. Vgneunt apud Viuantium Gautherotium in via lacobe, a 
sub intersignio Sancti Martini, 1550. 

8. Ff. 34 ; 55 [i], of which 25-31 are counted twice. Tract i, 3 woodcuts ; Tract 
2, 12 woodcuts. Map of the old world as vignette on the first title-page. 

Tract 2 has a separate title : 

Voarchadumia contra Alchimia : Ars distincta ab Archimfa, & Sophia : cum Addi- 
tionibus, Proportionibus : Numeris, & Figuris opportunis loaiiis Augustini Pathei 
Veneti sacerdotis. Parisiis, Apud Viuentium Gualtherot, via ad Diuum lacobum, 
sub signo D. Martini. 1550. 



PANTHEOPAPIN 



167 



PANTHEO (GIOVANNI AGOSTINO). Continued. 

Ars et Theoria transmutationis metallicae, cum Voarchadumia. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. p. 459. 

spurious alchemy and he deals partly with the assay 
of gold, which is illustrated by drawings of rolling 
mills, furnaces of various sorts with the accom- 
panying apparatus and a balance and weights, and 
partly with the chemical preparation of various 
substances which were made at Venice in his time 
and were used in the arts. He describes, for 
example, the manufacture of white lead and of an 
alloy for mirrors, which latter has escaped Beck- 
mann's notice, though it is referred to by Gobet. 

Schmieder, besides the editions of 1530 and Paris, 
1550 (not of 1518-19), quotes also : Venice, 1550, 
8 ; 1556, 8 ; and the German version of Johann 
Schauberdt, 1608, 8 (y.v.). 

Pantheus was a priest at Venice, but seems 
nevertheless to have been devoted to chemical 
research. The word Voarchadumia barbarous, 
as it has been styled by some writers is com- 
pounded, according to the author himself, of a 
Chaldee word signifying gold, and of a Hebrew 
expression meaning ' out of two rubies,' and he 
explains it all as equivalent to ' gold of two perfect 
cementations,' that is, thoroughly refined. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehr ten-Lexicon, 1751, Hi. 
col. 1228. 

Gobet, Les anciens Mintralogistes du Royaume 
de France, 1779, ii. p. 709. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen sur Historie 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1786, i. p. 78 (Schauberdt's 
edition) ; 1788, iii. p. 24. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der CAemie, 1797, i. p. 298. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 58. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 
118, 260, 352. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la CAimie, 1843, ii. p. 131 ; 

1869, ii. p. 126. 
~Laj&xz%MR,BibliothequeOuvaro/,Sciences Secretes, 

1870, No. 915. 



Of these tracts the ' Ars et Theoria ' appeared 
before the other in a separate volume : Ars Trans- 
mutationis Metallicae cum Leonis X. Ponti. Max. 
et Conci. Capi. Decemvirum Venetormv (sic) 
edicto, 4, ff. 38. On the verso of f. 26 there is the 
following colophon : Ars transmutationis Metallicre 
lo. Augustini Panthei sacerdotis Veneti Leone X. 
Pontifice Maximo : ac Leonardo Lauretano op- 
timo PrTcipe in sedibus loinis Tacuini impressoft 
accuratissimi Venetiis edita. VII. Idus Septembris : 
M.n.xvm. 

On the recto of f. 27, there is a new title : Corn- 
mentarium Theoricae Artis Metallicae Transmuta- 
tionis. 

On the verso of f. 38, there is another colophon : 
Commentarium Transmutationis Metallicae lo. 
Augustini Panthei Sacerdotis Veneti, sub Leone X. 
Pontifice Maxfo : ac Leonardo Lauretano optimo 
Principe : in aedibus loannis Tacuini irnpressorum 
accuratissimi Venetiis editum. tertio Kalg. Januarii. 
MD.XIX. 

Portions of this were reproduced in the Voarch- 
adumia in 1530, but that is quite a distinct work 
and is much enlarged. Pantheus wrote against 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Menscc, 1617, p. 388. 

Horel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 175, 269. 

Morhof, De Metallorvm Transmutatione ad . . . 
Joelem Langelottum . . . Epistola, 1673, p. 72. 

Koenig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 605. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 523. 

Jacob Frid. Reimmann, Versuch einer Einleit- 
ung in die Historiam literariam Antediluvianam, 
1709, p. 261.' 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 439. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallicce, 

1732, p. no. 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 51, 255. 



PAPIN (NICOLAS). 

Nicolai Papinii Blsesensis M.D. de Pulvere Sympathico Dissertatio. Illustris- 
simo et Generosissimo D.D. Francisco Cimae in Archilycseo Patauino D.D. 
Theologorum, Philosophorum, ac Medicorum Syndico, & Prorectori Vigilan- 
tissimo. Patavii M.DC.LVI. Apud Jo. Bap. Pasquati Superiorum 

Permissu. 

8. Pp. [8] 43 [i blank]. 

De Pulvere Sympathico. 

See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, 1660, p. 253. 
See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, l66l, p. 173- 
See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, 1662, p. 143. 

These last tracts are not reprinted in the Thea- 
trum Sympathelicum, and are not referred to by 
Papin's biographers. Papin wrote also a tract : 
Cordis diastole, Alen9On, 1653, 4, against Harvey's 
innovating views ; a treatise in French on the salt- 
ness, flux and reflux of the sea, and on the origin 
of fountains, Blois, 1647, 8, and one on deafness, 
Saumur, 1648, 12. 

According to Haag he was the uncle and not 



This dissertation was published at Paris in 1644, 
8; 1647; 1650, 8; Patavii, apud Matth. Cador- 
inum, 1654, 8, and the above. 

Then Isaac Cattier of Montpellier wrote : 
Response a Monsieur Papin . . . touchant la Poudre 
de Sympathie^ Paris, 1651, 8, pp. 8 [i], to which 
Papin replied : La Poudre de Sympathte defendne 
centre les objections de M r - Cattier, Paris, 1651, 8, 
pp. [8] 56. 



168 PAP IN PARACELSUS 



PAPIN (NICOLAS). Contimied. 

the father as stated by Eloy and others of the He was born at Blois, practised medicine there 

much more distinguished Denis Papin, who in- and at Aleii9on, and his death occurred subse- 

vented the digester and made investigations in quent to 1653. 

hydrostatics and hydrodynamics. Haag says that he united a great deal of pre- 

Rotermund has inadvertently put the digester to sumption with a great deal of false knowledge, 
the credit of both Nicolas and Denis Papin. 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia Portal, Histoire de V Anatomic et de la Chirurgie, 

Parisina, hoc est, Catalogus omnium librorum 1770, ii. p. 639. 

Parisijs,Annis 1647. 6*1648. inc lusiue exc usorum, Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 431. 
Paris, 1649, p. 38. Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 343. 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia Eloy., Dictionnaire historique de la Medecine, 

Gallica Vniversalis, hoc est, Catalogus omnium 1778, iii. p. 459 (father of Denis Papin). 
Librorum per Vniversum Gallics Regnum, Anno Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

MDCLI. excusorum, Paris, 1652, p. 32 (Papin's 25), vi. p. 360 (father of Denis Papin). 
' Poudre de Sympathie,' 1651, and Cattier's ' Re- Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, Authors, ii. 

sponse,' 1651). 73y ( a confused notice, according to Haag). 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 175. Haag, La France protestante, 1858, viii. p. 119 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 841. (uncle of Denis Papin). 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Nouvelle Biographic Centrale, 1862, xxxix. col. 

1731, II. i. p. 440. 166. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Midi- 

p. 616. cales, 2eme SeVie, 1884, xx. p. 485. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxvi. col. 663. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. den Aerate oiler Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 

col. 1239 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 481 (father of Denis Papin). 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 1533. Billings, Index. Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 404. 

Georgius Matthias, Conspectus Histories Medi- 
corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 454. 

PARABOLA seu ^Enigma Philosophicum. 
See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). 

See DORN (GERHARD), Congeries Paracelsicae Chemiae, 1581. 

See PENOTUS (BERNARDUS GEORGIUS), Theophrastisch Vade-Mecum, 1596. 

See HESSLING (ELIAS JOHANNES), Theophrastus Redivivus. 

Aurora Thesaurusque Philosophorum, Theophrasti Paracelsi, German! Philosophi, 
& Medici prse cunctis omnibus accuratissimi. Accessit Monarchia Physica 
per Gerardum Dorneum, in defensionem Paracelsicorum Principiorum, a suo 
Praeceptore positorum. Praeterea Anatomia uiua Paracelsi, qua docet autor 
prseter sectionem corporum, & ante mortem, patientibus esse succurrendum. 
1577. Basileae. 

8. Pp. 63 [ i blank]. Vignette : Palma Guarini. 

Philippi Aureoli Theophrasti Paracelsi Chymischer Psalter, oder Philosophische 
Grundsatze vom Stein derer Weisen Anno 1522. Aus dem hochst seltenen 
lateinischen Grundtext iibersetzt, von einem Liebhaber natiirlicher Geheim- 
nisse, 1771. Berlin, bey dem Antiquarius Johann Friedrich Vieweg. 

8. Pp. [16] 36. Interleaved. MS. notes. Vignette : a device with the legend : 
Omnia ab uno, omnia ad unum. 

Philippi Aureoli Theophrasti Paracelsi Chymischer Psalter, oder Philosophische 
Grundsatze vom Stein der Weisen Anno 1522. Aus dem hochstseltenen 
lateinischen Grundtext iibersetzt, von einem Liebhaber natiirlicher Geheim- 
nisse. Neue Auflage. Berlin, bey Friedrich Maurer, 1791. 

8. Pp. [16] 36. 

The device, as in the preceding, is a point in a square in a circle in a paral- 
lelogram in a triangle in a circle, with the legend : Omnia ab uno omnia ad unum. 



PARACELSUS 169 

PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). Continued. 

Aureoli Philippi Theophrasti Bombasts von Hohenheim Paracelsi, des Edlen, 
Hochgelehrten, Fiirtrefflichsten, Weitberiimbtesten Philosophi vnd Medici 
Opera Biicher vnd Schrifften, so viel deren zur Handt gebracht : vnd vor 
wenig Jahren, mit vnd aufs jhren glaubwiirdigen eigener hangeschriebenen (sic) 
Originalien collacioniert, vergliechen, verbessert : vnd dutch loannem Hvservm 
Brisgoivm in zehen vnterschiedliche Theil, in Truck gegeben. Jetzt von 
newem mit vleifs vbersehen, auch mit etlichen bifshero vnbekandten Tractaten 
gemehrt, vnd vmb mehrer Bequemligkeit willen, in zwen vnterschiedliche 
Tomos vnd Theil gebracht, deren Begriff vnd Ordnung, nach der Vorrede 
zu finden, sampt beyder Theilen vleissigen vnd volkommenen Registern. 
Strafsburg, In verlegung Lazari Zetzners Buchhandlers. Anno M.DCIII. 

Folio. Pp. [12] 1127 [53]. 

Title red and black, within an elaborate woodcut border. Portrait of Paracelsus at 
the top ; right and left, Virgilius and Hermes, four goddesses of the arts, Cupids, 
wreaths, architectural ornaments, apparatus. 

Aureoli Philippi Theophrasti Bombasts von Hohenheim Paracelsi, des Edlen, hoch- 
gelehrten fiirtreffenlichsten weitberiihmtesten Philosophi vnd Medici Opera Biicher 
vnd Schrifften, so viel deren zur Hand gebracht : vnd vor wenig Jahren, mit vnd aufs 
jhren glaubwiirdigen eigner Handgeschriebenen Originalien collationiert, verglichen, 
vnd verbessert, &c. Ander Theyl. Darinnen die Magischen vnd Astrologischen 
Biicher, sampt jhren Anhangen vnd Stiicken, auch von dem Philosophischen Stein 
handlende Tractatus, begriffen, &c. Fornen mit einem kurtzen Begriff vnd Ordnung 
dieses Theyls Biicher, vnd derselben Innhalt : Hiuden aber mit einem durchaufs 
vollkommenen Register vermehret. Strafsburg, In verlegung Lazari Zetzners Buch- 
handlers. Anno Domini, do ID cIII. 

Folio, i leaf with device. Pp. [7, i blank] 691. Index [12, i blank]. Woodcuts in 
the text. Imperfect; wants pp. 575-592. The portion wanting contains the explana- 
tion of the Niirnberg figures, torn out by some zealous person, who cared only for this 
part of Paracelsus' writings. 

Aur. Philip. Theoph. Paracelsi Bombast ab Hohenheim, Medici et Philosophi 
Celeberrimi, Chemicorumque Principis, Opera Omnia Medico-Chemico- 
Chirurgica, Tribus Voluminibus Comprehensa. Editio Novissima et Emenda- 
tissima, ad Germanica & Latina Exemplaria accuratissimb collata : Variis 
tractatibus & opusculis summa hinc. inde diligentia conquisitis, vt in 
Voluminis Primi Praefatione indicatur, locupletata : Indicibusq; exactissimis 
instructa. Volumen Primum, Opera Medica Complectens. Genevae, 

Sumptibus Joan. Antonij, & Samuelis De Tournes. M.DC.LIIX. Cum 
Privilegio. 

Folio. Pp. [34, 2 blank] 828 [39, i blank]. Title red and black. Portrait, by 
Tintoretto, as frontispiece, on the verso of the fly-title. Printers' device, as vignette, 
with the motto : Quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris. 

. . . Operum Volumen Secundum Opera Chemica et Philosophica Complectens, 
Procfatione, Librorum Elencho & Indice general! instructum. . . . 

Folio. Pp. [22, 2 blank] 718 [32, 2 blank]. Title red and blank. 

. . . Operum Volumen Tertium, Chirurgica Opera Complectens, DuabusSectionibus 
distincta, quanim Prior Chirurgiam Magnam, Posterior ver6 Bertheoneam siue Chirur- 
giam Minorem cum Libris adiectis continet. Extat in vtramque Praefatio, singulae 
Librorum Elencho & Indice general! sunt instructae. . . . 

Folio. Pp. [12] 212 [27] i blank. Bertheonea : [4] 119 [i blank]. Index [7, 
i blank]. Testamentum, Dictiouariuni, &c. , 18 [2 blank]. Title red and black. 



i;o PARACELSUS 

PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). Continued. 

Apocalypsis Hermetis, von der Offenbahrung des verborgenen Geistes der 
Natur. 
See CHYMISCHES Lust-Gartlein, 1747, p. 4. 

Liber Apocalypseos Hermetis, de supremo Mundi Secreto. 
See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Pandora, 1608, p. i. 

De Auro Potabili. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Pandora, 1608, p. 275. 

Das zehende Buch Archidoxis. 

See MOLLER (FRIEDRICH), Ternio Reliquiarum Alchymiae, 1618, sig. Bij. 

Das zehende Buch Archidoxorum. 

See NEANDER (THEOPHlLUs), Heptas Alchymica, 1621, p. 241. 

Das Biichlein Theophrasti mit der Himmlischen Sackpfeiffen. 
See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 202. 

Coelum Philosophorum seu Liber vexationum. 

See GLAUBER (JOHANN RUDOLPH), Operis Mineralis Pars Tertia, 1651. 

Explicatio tincturae physicorum. 
See SUCHTEN (ALEXANDER A). 

Four curious small Treatises, viz. the I. of Fevers, the II. of the Jaundies, the 
III. of Madness, and the IV. of Diarrhseas, Lienteries, &c. 
See HEADRICH (JOHN), Arcana Philosophia, 1697, p. 89. 

Geheimes und vollstandiges Wunschhiitlein. 

See HERMETISCHES MUSEUM, 1782, i. p. III. 

Nine Books of the Nature of Things. 

See FRENCH (JOHN), A New Light of Alchemy, 1674, p. 155. 

Paracelsische Schrifften. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus II. [1598]. 
See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen [1708], p. 91. 

Sechs Tractatlein. 

See F. (j. J.), Der Hermetische Nord-Stern, 1771. 

Secretum Magicum (von dreyen gebenedeyeten magischen Steinen). 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Rosarium Novum Olympicum, Pars prima, 1608, 
p. 23. Extracts only. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. i. 

Tractaet van de Alchymie. 

See HALTEREN (NICOLAES VAN), Princelijck Gheschenck, 1633, p. 179. 

Tractatus de lapide Philosophorum. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 209. 

Paracelsus was born at Einsiedeln in Canton and surgery. In 1506 he went to Basel University, 

Schwyz, on 10 Nov., 1493. His father, who was a where he displayed a liking for chemistry, and he 

licentiate of medicine, gave his son a careful afterwards lived for some time with Trithemius, 

general training, besides instruction in medicine and from him went to the mines which belonged to 



PARACELSUS 



171 



PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). Continued. 



Sigismund Fugger, where he acquired knowledge 
not only of metals, their ores and working, but 
of the diseases of the work-people as well. To 
increase his knowledge and to make the acquaint- 
ance of skilled and learned men he began a long 
course of travel throughout Europe, studied at 
various universities, and, it is said, acted as a field 
surgeon. After an absence of many years he 
returned to Germany with a great reputation, and 
in 1527 was appointed physician to the town of 
Basel. At first he met with much acceptance, and 
his practice increased, as he was successful in his 
cures when other physicians failed. It was not 
long, however, before he met with opposition from 
the ordinary physicians ; his doctrines were con- 
trary to theirs, he was an unbeliever in Galen and 
Avicenna, he was a jealous critic of the bond which 
united the physicians and the druggists, and he 
was not at all moderate in the language he em- 
ployed in controversy. The strained relations 
which had thus grown up reached at last the 
breaking point over the case of the Canon 
Lichtenfels, who, having refused Paracelsus his 
promised fee for curing him, was summoned by 
him before the judges. They, however, decided 
against Paracelsus, who stated without any reserve 
his opinion of their verdict. After this, by the 
advice of his friends, Paracelsus got away from 
Basel as quickly as he could, and began the 
wandering life which he henceforth spent. He 
finally came to Saltzburg by the invitation of the 
Archbishop, and it looked as if he might settle 
there in a good position. This expectation how- 
ever was not fulfilled, as he died shortly afterwards 
on 24 Sept., 1541. 

Paracelsus' works are numerous, and were often 
printed. 

They were collected first by Huser, 1589-91, in 
ten volumes, 4, and other collected editions 
appeared in Latin and in German, in folio and 
quarto, details of which are given in the biblio- 
graphies. 

Leo Suavius, Theophrasti Paracelsi Philosophic 
et Medicines utriusque universes Compendium, 
Paris [1567], pp. 7 (life and works), 84-87 (lists of 
his works) ; also in the edition of Basel, 1568. 

Petrus Severinus, Epistola, Bas., 1572, 8. 

Thomas Erastus, Disputationum de Medicina 
Nova rhilippi Paracelsi Pars prima [ Quarla et 
Ultima], Basileae, 1572-73, 4. 

Reusner, Icones, 1587, sign. Fvj verso-Gi verso, 
with portrait. 

Paschalis Gallus, Bibliotheca Medica, Basil., 1590, 
pp. 342-347- 

Spachius, Nomenclator Scriptorum Medicorum, 
Francof. , 1591, p. 34. 

Hoissa.rd,/conesWrorumiHustrium,i$<)8,n. p. 290. 

Andreas Brentzius, Farrago Philosophorum, 1606, 
pp. 73-107 (' Processus Paracelsi'). 

Michael During, De Medicina et Medicis adversus 
latromastigas et Pseudiatros Libri //. , Giessae 
Hessorum, 1611, pp. 140-263 (a review of Para- 
celsus' system). 

Maier, Symbola Aurees Menses, 1617, pp. 277-289. 

J. V. Andreae, Mythologia Christiana, 1619, p. 316. 

Adami, VitaeGermanorum Medicorum, \t>-20,\>. 28. 

Nando", Apologie pour tous les grands personnages 
. . . soupfonnez de Magie, 1625, p. 391 ; English 
translation, 1657, p. 184. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, pp. 57-63. 

Connng, De Hermetka ALgyptiorum vetere et 



A special set of his writings have been collected 
and turned into English by A. E. Waite : ' The 
Hermetic and Alchemical Writings of Aureolus 
Philippus Theophrastus Bombast,' London, 1894, 
2 vols. , 4. 

For the separate English translations of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, see my Biblio- 
graphia Paracelsica, Part iii., 1890, pp. 31-49. 

Quite recently a new edition of his works has 
been projected, of which one part has appeared : 
Theophrastus Paracelsus Das Buch Paragranum, 
herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Dr. Phil. Franz 
Strunz. Verlegt bei Eugen Diederichs, Leipzig, 
1903, square 8, pp. [4] 112, with a portrait. 

For an account of all known editions of Para- 
celsus' works with the fullest bibliographical details, 
reference must be made to the great monograph 
of Dr. Sudhoff, which not only supersedes all 
other bibliographies of Paracelsus, but is the most 
complete and thorough of any author whatever. 

The expounders and critics of Paracelsus require 
to be considered cautiously. Some, and especially 
the older writers, are prejudiced, unsympathetic, 
and unperceptive ; others are over enthusiastic and 
read more into Paracelsus' words and views than 
they contain. But, whatever may be thought of 
himself or of his doctrines, Paracelsus will endure 
as one of the greatest forces of the sixteenth 
century. He revolutionized medicine. 

Articles on Paracelsus are to be found in every 
biographical dictionary, in every history of medi- 
cine and of its fundamental sciences, the consolida- 
tion of which was one of his great aims, and he is 
the theme of numerous, not to say innumerable, 
monographs. As he confined his researches to no 
one topic, but discoursed on theology, philosophy, 
science, as well as on medicine and surgery, and as 
he provoked opposition in all, Paracelsus-literature 
is voluminous, and references to him and his views 
pervaded chemical and medical literature for long 
after his decease. Only a few indications, however, 
can be given. 

Paracelsicorum nova Medicina Liber Unus, 
Helmestadii, 1648, 4. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, pp. 176-181, 
218, 269. 

Quenstedt, Dialogus depatriisillustrium doctrina 
et scriptis virorum, 1654, p. 132. 

Erasmus Franciscus, Die lustige Schau-Biikne 
von allerhand Curiositdten, Nurnberg, 1663, pp. 
649-654. (His epitaph : opinions about him, &c.). 

Crasso, Elogii d'Huomini letterati, Venetia, 
1666, ii. pp. 45-49 (with Tintoretto's portrait of 
Paracelsus). 

Conring, De Hermetica Medicina Libri Duo, 
Editio secunda, Helmestadii, 1669, 4. 

Morhof, De Metallorum Transmutatione ad . . . 
Joelem Langelottum . . . Epistola, 1673, p. 138. 

Thomasius, Dissertatio . . . de Plagio literario, 
Lips. [1673], sig. Dd 4 r, 514. 

Borrichius, Hermetis, s&gyptiorum, et Chemi- 
corum sapientia abHermanni Conringii animadver- 
sionibus vindicata, Hafniae, 1674, 4- 

Adamus Lebenwaldt, Vierdtes Tractdtel von 
defs Teuffels List vnd Betrug in der falschen Al- 
chymisterey, 1680, pp. 80-110. 

Johann Tileman, Zugab vnd Beysatz gewisser 
vnuberwindlicher I''undamenten, daraufsdefs Nebel 
oder Lebenwalds Tractatlein so su Saltzburg ge- 
druckt warden, sollen gdnlzlich zu nichts, vnd 
offentlich zu Schanden werden, sig. A 9 verso. 

Mercklin, Lindeniusrenovatus, 1686, pp. 101-108. 



172 



PARACELSUS 



PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). Continued. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, pp. 10, 53, 65, 67, 69, in, 131, 
132, 286, 380. 

Freher, Theatrum Virorum Eruditionedarorum, 
1688, p. 1225, portrait, plate 54. 

E. G. D. Colberg, Das Platonisch-Hermetische 
Christenthum, Franckf. und Leipzig, 1690-91, 2 
Thle., I. cap. iv. vom Paracelsismo, pp. 178-205. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 30, No. xlv. 

Paschius, De Novis Inventis . . . Tractatus, 1700, 
pp. 323-327, & passim. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 58. 

Pierre Poiret, Bibliotheca Mysticorum selecta, 
1708, p. 174, 48. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1709, iii. pp. 201, 4753, 
4793 ; 1713, vi. p. 550. 

Pope-Blount, Censura Celebriorum Authorum, 
Genevae, 1710, p. 597. 

Teissier, Les Eloges des Homtnes Savans, Leyden, 
1715, iii. pp. 137-147- 

Mencken, Zwey Reden von der Charlatanerie . . . 
der Gelehrten, Leipz., 1716, pp. 67 note, 107, 249, 
267. 

Barchusen, De medicines origine et progressu dis- 
sertationes, Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1723, pp. 364-397. 

Dan. Le Clerc, Histoire de Me'decine, Afnst., 
1723, pp. 792-820. 

John Freind, The History of Physick from the 
time of Galen to the beginning of the Sixteenth 
Century, 1725, i. p. 2 ('illiterate enthusiast'), 66, 
264 ; 1726, ii. 336 (' Paracelsus's idle system '). 

Conring, De Scriptoribus XVI. post Christum 
natum seculorum Commentarius, cumprolegomenis, 
. . . notis perpetuis, et additionibus, Wratislavise, 
1727, p. 159. 

Joh. Heinr. Fiirstenau, Desiderata medica, Lips., 

1727, pp. 12, 89, 137, 412, 428. 

Mencken, De Charlataneria Eruditorum De- 
clamationes Duo;, 1727, pp. 119, 256, 271. 

Buddeus, ' Untersuchung von der Alchemie,' in 
Roth-Scholtz, Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 

1728, i. p. 62 & passim. 

Nenter, ' Bericht von der Alchemic,' in Roth- 
Scholtz, Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. 
pp. 162, 167, 181-188. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. pp. 440-443. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Geschichte der Medicin- 
ischen Gelahr/ieit, 1731, passim. 
Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliuthecee metallicce, 

1732, p. no. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. p. 92; ii. pp. 118, 

274. 394- 

Jacob Brucker, Kurlze Fragen aus der Philoso- 
phischen Historie, Ulm, 1735, vi. pp. 1067-1137. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Gelahrheit, 
1736, pp. 542, 565, 566. 

Goelicke, Introductio in Historiam litterariam 
Anatomes, Francof. a. V., 1738, pp. 145 (discus- 
sions as to whether Paracelsus was the first to 
criticise the Galenic system), 180 (takes the part of 
Paracelsus against Freind and others, who accuse 
him of ignorance of anatomy and indifference to it). 

Hauber, Bibliotheca Acta et Scripta Magica, 
Lemgo, 1739, I. Stuck vi. (Paracelsus' portrait as 
frontispiece) ? pp. 367-378 (remarks on the portrait), 
349-366 (review of Lebenwaldt's observations), 382- 
398 (vindication of Paracelsus from the accusation 
of magic). 

Joh. David Kohler, Historischer Miinz-Belu- 



stigung Eilfter Theil, 1739, pp. 369-376 (engraving 
and description of a portrait-medal of Paracelsus). 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon^ 1740, 
p. 617. 

Zedler, Universal- Lexicon, 1740, xxvi. col. 721. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, I. 
pp. 899-904 (Th. ii. B. xvi. cap. 22, r-8) ; I. 
Num. xci. p. 1500 ; Num. xcii. pp. 1502, 1511, 
1521 ; II. p. 226 (Th. ii. B. xvii. cap. 17, 7) ; p. 
251 (cap. 18, 18) ; III. ii. p. 38, 7 ; p. 344. 

Petrus a Castro, Bibliotheca Medici Eruditi, 
Bergomi, 1742, p. 33. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermttique, 1742, i. pp. 271, 279-284, 471 ; iii. pp. 

255-257- 

Brucker, Historia critica Philosophies, 1743, IV. 
i. pp. 647-671, 676-685. 

Jdcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1245 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 1545-49. 

Fictuld Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 118; ii. p. 107. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire hislorique de la Mtdecine, 
1755, PP- 237-250 ; 1778, iii. pp. 461-471. 

Moreri, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique, 1759, 
VIII. ii. p. 64. 

Matthioe, Conspectus Historice Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 170. 

Jo. Maria Mazzuchelli, Museum Mazzuchellianum, 
Venetiis, 1761, i. p. 237 ; Tab. liii. Num. v. 

Joh. Matthias Schrockh, Abbildungen und Le- 
ben schreibungen beruhmter Gelehrten, Leipzig, 1766, 
i. pp. 13-22, with a portrait. 

Portal, Histoire de I ' Anatomie et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, i. p. 347. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 249. 

J. C. W. Moehsen, Verzeichnis einer Samhing 
von Bildnissen, grostentheils beruhmter Aerzte, 
Berlin, 1771, Th. ii. pp. 99-101. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 158 ; 
1777, ii. p. 739. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. pp. 183- 
185 ; 1775, ii. p. 598. 

Der Teutsche Merkur vom Jahr 1776, Drittes 
Vierteljahr, pp. 85-91 ('Einige Nachrichten von 
Theophrastus Paracelsus'). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicin practices, 1777, ii. 
pp. 2-12. 

J. A. Hemman, Medicinisch-chirurgische Auf- 
sdtze historisch-practischen Inhalts, Berlin, 1778, 
pp. 1-40. 

Herzog, Athencz Rauricee, 1778, pp. 170-173. 

Saxius, Onomasticon, 1780, iii. pp. 146, 604, 659. 

' Nachricht von dem Leben des Theophrastus 
Paracelsus, 1 Hermetisches Museum, 1782, i. pp. 
113-116 (prefixed to the ' Wunsch-Hiitlein '). 

Corrodi, Kritische Geschichte des Chiliasmus, 
Frankf. und Leipzig, 1783, iii. p. 276. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 156, 507. 

Gottlieb Emmanuel von Haller, Bibliothek der 
Schweiser Geschichte, 1785, i. p. 482, 1602 ( Pfeffers, 
Opera) ; ii. pp. 313-317, i2i4- 1227 (Life). 

Jo. Frid. Blumenbach, Introductio in Historiam 
Medicines litterariam, Goettingae, 1786, p. 139. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen sur Historie 
der Rosenkreuser, 1786, i. p. 18 ; 1787, ii. p. 18. 

Adelung, Geschichte der Menschlichen Narrheit, 
1789, vii. p. 189 (he enumerates authorities for the 
life and gives a list of the works of Paracelsus). 

Kortum verteidiget die Alchemie . . . Duisburg, 
1789, p. 113. 

J. M. Schrockh, Lebensbeschreibung beruhmter 
Gelehrten, 1790, i. p. 42. 



PARACELSUS 



'73 



PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). Continued. 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Lilerdr- 
geschichte der Medicin, 1792, pp. 173, 175, 158, 
pp. 195-199, I73-I75- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 9, 
I95-25 8 . 340-44, 556-557, 675. 

Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, pp. 197- 
209. 

Leonard Meister, Helvetiens Beriihmte Manner, 
ate Aufl., ed. J. C. Fasi, Zurich, 1799, ii. pp. 28- 
34, with a portrait. 

C. G. v. Murr, ' Litterargeschichte des Theo- 
phrastus Paracelsus,' Neues Journal zur Litteratur 
und Kunstgeschichte, Leipzig, 1799, ii. with 3 
plates. 

Ludwig Vogel, Alte Zeit und neue Zeit, Erfurt, 
1802, I. pp. ii-xxxviii (Paracelsus' medicine) ; 97- 
227 ( ' Blumenlese aus dem Theophrast '). 

Daub & Creuzer, Studien, Frankfurt, 1805, i. 
pp. 228-291 (Uber Theophrastus Paracelsus von 
Hohenheim, by Loos). 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 



1806-08, pp. 43-46. 

A. F. Hecker, Die Heilkunst auf ihren Wegen 
zur Gewifsheit, Wien, 1813, pp. 68-78 (Paracelsus' 
system). 

Joh. Nepomuck Ehrhart, Medicinisch-chirur- 
gische Zeitung, 1815, i. p. 47 (cause of Paracelsus' 
death). 

Rixner & Siber, I^eben und Lehrmeinungen 
beriihmter Physiker, Sulzbach, 1819-23, 8 (the 
section on Paracelsus was reprinted in 1829). 

Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. pp. 361-363. 

A. N. Scherer, Theophrastus Paracelsus, St. 
Petersburg, 1821, 8. 

Biographie Universelle, 1822, xxxii. p. 543 ; n.d. 
xxxii. p. 112 (article by Renauldin and references). 

Markus Lutz, Geschichte der Universitat Basel, 
Aarau, 1826, pp. 48, 49, 92, 93. 

Retrospective Review, 1826, xiv. pp. 98-135 
(article on ' Paracelsus of the Chemical Transmuta- 
tion ... of Metals '). 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iii. 
pp. 205-208, 213, 217, 250, 255-57, 43-49 2 - 

F. Jahn, 'Paracelsus,' in J. F. C. Hecker's 
Litterarische Annalen der gesammten Heilkunde, 
Berlin, 1829, xiv. pp. 1-31, 129-152. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830, i. p. 140. 

Schultz, Die homoobiotische Medizin des Theo- 
phrastus Paracelsus . . . Berlin, 1831, 8. 

J. C. Maris, Dissertatio medica inauguralis de 
Paracelso, Lugduni Batavorum, 1832, 8. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 265. 

Robert Browning, Paracelsus, London, 1835, pp. 
ix. [i blank] 216 (Advertisements, 35, [i]). 

Andreas Fredericus Bremer & Eduardus Augustus 
Dahlerup, Dissertationes de Vita et Opinionibus 
Theophrasti Paracelsi, Hauniae, 1836, pp. [2] 1-72 

[5] 73-191 [i]. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire Historiqut de la Mide- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. pp. 665-671. 

Ersch & Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopcidie, iii. 
Section, 1838, xi. pp. 285-296 (article by Escher). 

Preu, Das System der Medicin des Theophrastus 
Paracelsus, Berlin, 1838, 8. 

Preu, Die Theologie des Theophrastus Paracelsus, 
Berlin, 1839, 8". 

Lessing, Paracelsus, sein Leben und Denken, 
Berlin, 1839, 8, with a portrait. 

Rohatzsch, Compendiose Geschichte der Medicin. 
Pforzheim, 1839, i. pp. 233-285. 

Ad. Fr. Stoerzel, De Paracelsi Vita atque 
Doctrina Dissertatio inauguralis, Ilnke, 1840, 8. 



Isensee, Die Geschichte der Medicin und ihrer 
Hiilf swissenschaf ten, 1840, i. pp. 234-249. 

Haeser, ' Mil welchem Rechte wird Paracelsus 
der Reformator der Medicin genannt?' Archivfur 
die gesammte Medicin, Jena, 1840, i. pp. 26-43. 

Mackay, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular 
Delusions, 1841, iii. p. 97 (with a portrait) ; 1852, i. 
p. 142 (with a portrait). 

Fabre d'Olivet, Theophrastus Paracelsus, der 
Arzt, Magdeburg, 1842, 3 Bde (Historical romance, 
translated by Dr. Eduard Liber from the French). 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 9-23 ; 
1869, ii. pp. 5-19. 

Karl Friedrich Heinrich Marx, ' Zur Wurdigung 
des Theophrastus von Hohenheim,' in Abhandlun- 
gen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 
zu Gottingen, 1843, i. pp. 72-212 (also in a separate 
reprint). 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 92-103, 
&c. , &c. 

Sasz, ' Paracelsus, sein Leben, sein System und 
seine Bedeutung,' in Mundt' s Der fret Aa/en, Altona, 
1843, pp. 204-232. 

Chrzescinski, De Paracelso ejusque opinionibus, 
Vratislaviae (1844), 8. 

Dierbach, ' Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Pharma- 
kologie des Theophrastus Paracelsus,' in Szerlecki's 
Zeitschrift fur Therapie und Pharmakodynamik , 
Freiburg, 1844, Hft. i. p. 24. 

Quitzmann, ' Paracelsus,' in Lewald's Deuischer 
Heldensaal und Ehrentempel, 1844, i. pp. 111-126. 
.Meihsner, De Paracelso, Dissertatio, Berlin, 
1847, 8. 

Frankenberg, Geschichte der Heilkunst und der 
Heilschwarmerei, Leipzig, 1848, p. 192. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 
200, 262-275, 39 I l8 49. " P- J 59- 

Dictionnaire des Sciences Philosophiques, Paris, 
1849, iv. pp. 549-557. 

Soane, New Curiosities of Literature, 1849, i. pp. 
134-156. 

Cap, ' Paracelse,' Journal de Pharmacie et de 
Chimie, 1851, 36 S6rie, xxi. pp. 136-149 ; reprinted 
in Etudes biographiques, Premiere SeYie, 1857, p. i. 

Locher, Theophrastus Paracelsus Bombastus von 
Hohenheim der Luther der Medicin, Zurich, 1851, 
8. 

A. Moll, ' Philipp Bombast von Hohenheim,' in 
Medicinisches Correspondenz-Blatt des Wiirtem- 
bergischen Aertzlichen Vereins, Stuttgart, 1851, 
xxi., pp. 249, 257, 265. 

F. A. Pouchet, Histoire des Sciences Nature/let 
au Moyen Age, 1853, p. 558. 

J. Le Fevre Deumier, Etudes biographiques et 
littiraires sur quelques cilebritts ttrangeres, Paris, 
1854, pp. 155-248. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Medicale, 1855, i. 
pp. 181-188. 

K. Mueller, 'Theophrastus Paracelsus, 1 Die 
Natur, Halle, 1855, No. iv. Beilage, pp. 33-36, 
with a portrait 

Phillippe & Ludsvig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
Jena, 1855, pp. 422, 500, 993. 

Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, 1856, 11. pp. 
46-53. 

Knight, The English Cyclopedia, Biography 
1857, iv. col. 660. 

W. Grundhoff, A. Vesalii et Theophrasti Para- 
celsi instauratorum artis medicce Germanorum 
vita et merita et scripta, Dissertatio, Berolini, 1860, 
8. 

Rudolf Wolf, Biographien zur Kulturgeschichte 
derSchweitz, Zurich, 1860; DritterCyklus, pp. 1-50. 



174 



PARA CELSUSPARISIJE 



PARACELSUS (THEOPHRASTUS). Continued. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 357. 

NouvelleBiographieGe'nirale, 1865, xxxix. col. 178. 

Friswell, Varia, 1866, pp. 163-194. 

Jobert, Essai sur Paraceheetsa rtforme mtdicale 
an XVI* siecle, Paris, 1866, 4. 

R. Finckenstein, ' Ueber den Einfluss der Chemie 
auf die Medicin des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts,' in 
Deutsche Klinik, 1866, No. 48, p. 433. 

Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters , 
1866, iii. pp. 430-452. 

Figuier, Vies des savants illustres de la renais- 
sance avec I' appreciation sommaire de leurs travaux, 
Paris, 1868, pp. 49-99, with a portrait. 

E. Schmeisser, Die Medicin des Paracelsus in 
ikrem Zusammenhange mit seiner Philosophic 
dargestellt, Berlin, 1869, 8. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 900-913, 1275, 1326, 1707, 1843. 

Bouchut, Histoire de la Mtdecine, 1873, i. p. 265, 
&c. 

J. C. Dalton, 'Galen and Paracelsus,' New York 
Medical Journal, 1873, No. xvii. 5, pp. 449-475. 

A. Rittmann, Das reformirende Deutschland, 
und sein Paracelsus, Wien, 1875, 8. 

Friedr. Mook, Theophrastus Paracelsus, eine 
kritische Studie, Wiirzburg, 1876, 4, pp. [6] 136 
(a bibliography of his writings only). 

Ferguson, Bibliographia Paracelsica, Parts i.-vi., 
1877-1896, 8, pp. 306. 

Aberle, Theophrastus Paracelsus und dessen 
Ueberreste in Salzburg, 1878, 8, with a plate. 

Ferd. Zohrer, ' Ein alpiner Vagabund der Wis- 
senschaft," in Jager's Tourist, Wien, 1878, x. 
Jahrgang, Bd. ii. pp. 10, 33. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1880, xii. pp. 
675-683 (article by Hugo Delff). 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicine, 1881, ii. pp. 
33, 71 (life, with references), 165, 215, 217, 411, 522. 

Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Mtdi- 
cales, 2eme Se"rie, 1884, xx. pp. 502-509. 

Stanelli, Die Cellular-Therapie als Heilkunst 
des Paracelsus . . ., Wien, 1881, 8. 

J. Kerschensteiner, Zum Geddchtnisse an Theo- 
phrastus Paracelsus an dessen 340 Todcstage, 
Salzburg, 1881, 4. 

Christoph Sigwart, KleineSchriften(i%%i), i. pp. 
25-48. 

L. Joerg, Die Naturwissenschaft des Paracelsus, 
Landau, 1882, 8. 

H. Rohlfs, Kritik yon ' Theophrastus Paracelsus 
eine kritische Studie von F. Mook,' Deutsches 
Archivfiir Geschichte der Medicin, Leipzig, 1882, 
v. pp. 213-242. 

Stanelli, Die Zukunfls-Philosophie des Paracelsus 
als Grundlage einer Reformation fur Medicin und 
Naturwissenschaften, Wien, 1884, 8. 



Ferguson, ' Paracelsus, 'Encyclopedia Britannica 
9th Ed., 1885, xviii. pp. 234-236. 

Barbillon, Histoire de la Mddecine, Paris, 1886, 
pp. 44-49. 

R. Eucken, Beitrdgc zur Geschichte der neueren 
Philosophie vornehmlich der deutschen, Heidelberg, 
1886, pp. 32-53 (Paracelsus, ' Lehre von der Ent- 
wicklung '). 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zelten und Vdlker, 1886, iv. pp. 
482-485 (by Pagel). 

K. Kiesewetter, ' Paracelsus Philipp Aureolus 
Bombast von Hohenheim, nach seinem Leben und 
Denken geschildert,' Sphinx, Leipzig, 1886, ii. 
pp. 249-258. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 33, 41, 48, &c., 
&c., &c. 

H. Peters, Aus pharmazeutischer Vorzeitin Bild 
und Wort, Berlin, 1886, pp. 48-51, 150, &c. 

Stanelli, Philosophie der Krafte, Leipzig, 1886, 
8 (an attempt to correlate Paracelsus' and modern 
views). 

Hartmann, The Life of Paracelsus, London, 1887, 
8. 

Hedderwick, The old German puppet play of 
Doctor Faust, 1887, p. 188. 

Schubert & Sudhoff, Paracelsus-Forschungen, 
2 parts, Frankfurt, 1887-89, 8. 

Billings, Index -Catalogue, 1889, x. pp. 406-409 
(and references). 

Michel Emery, Renaudot et f Introduction de la 
Medication chimique, Paris, 1889, pp. 16-28. 

Carl Aberle, Grabdenkmal, Schiidel und Abbil- 
dungen des Theophrastus Paracelsus, Salzburg, 
1891. (Contains an enumeration and classification 
of the portraits, and conclusions as to the cause of 
his death drawn from the state of his skull, as it 
was found at the opening of his tomb. ) 

Sudhoff, Versuch einer Kritik der Echtheit der 
Paracelsischen Schriften, Berlin, 1894, 8, vol. i., 
Bibliographia Paracelsica ; vol. ii., Paracelsische 
Handschriften, 1899. 

Ernst von Meyer, Geschichte der Chemie, 2te 
Aufl. , 1895, p. 59; English translation, 1891, p. 65. 

Louis Durey, La Mtdecine Occulte de Paracelse 
et de quelques autres Mtdecins Hermdtistes, Paris, 
1900, 8. 

Raymund Netzhammer, Theophrastus Paracelsus, 
Das Wissenswerteste iiber dessen Leben, Lehre und 
Schriften, Einsiedeln, 1901, 8 (with Tintoretto's 
portrait and other illustrations). 

Franz Strunz, Theophrastus Paracelsus sein Leben 
und seine Persohnlichkeit. Ein Beitragzitr Geistes- 
geschichte der deutschen Renaissance, Leipzig, 
1903, 8, pp. 126 [2], with portraits and facsimiles. 

R. Julius Hartmann, Theophrast von Hohenheim, 
Stuttgart & Berlin, 1904, 8, pp. iv. [2] 222 [2]. 
Portrait of Paracelsus. 



PARADEIS-SPIEGEL. 

See MULLER (AMBROSIUS). 



PARADEISS-TAFEL, Paradysi Tabula. 

See GLORIA MUNDI. 

PARADISUS Aureolus Hermeticus. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 317. 

PARISH. 

See CODEX Medicamentarius, seu Pharmacopoea Parisiensis, 1732 



PARISIENSISPAULLINI 175 

PARISIENSIS (CHRISTOPHORUS). 

See CHRISTOPHORUS Parisiensis. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica t 1654, pp. 181, Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
182. p. 43- 

PAROLE (La) delaissde. 

See BERNHARDUS. 

PARTICULAR vnd Vniversal Tincturen (Von den). 

See BASILIUS VALENTINUS, Triumphwagen Antimonii, 1624, p. 294. 

PARTICULARS. 

See ALLERLEY PARTICULARIA. 

PARTICULAR-ZEIGER. 

See CHYMISCHER oder Alchymistischer Particular-Zeiger. 

PASCAL (JACQUES). 

Discours contenant la Conference de la Pharmacie Chymique, ou Spagirique, 
auec la Galenique, ou Ordinaire. Ensemble la Demonstration des abus qui 
se commettent sur les principaux medicamens officinaux de 1'Apothicaire 
ordinaire. Par lacques Pascal, Maistre Apothicaire de Beziers. A Beziers, 
Pour lean Martel, marchant Libraire de ladicte ville. M. DC. XVI. Auec 

priuilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. [48] 330 [3, 3 blank]. 

Haller, followed by Rotermund, quotes of the belongs to a much better known man than Jacques 

above book only the edition of Toulouse, 1616, Pascal ! The incompatibility of the dates of the 

8. But Rotermund also ascribes to him a work two works does not seem to have been observed by 

' de 1'equilibre des liqueurs et de la pesanteur Rotermund. 
de la masse de 1'air,' Paris, 1663, 12, which 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicine practices, 1777, ii. Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Erganzungen zu . . . 

p. 457. Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Ltxico, 1816, v. col. 

1608. 

PASSERA (FELICE). 

II Nuovo Tesoro degP Arcani Farmacologici Galenici, & Chimici, b Spargirici, 
Consagrato al Serenissimo Marc' Antonio Giustiniani Principe di Venetia. 
Da Frate Felice Passera di Bergamo Capuccino Infermiero della Prouincia di 
Brescia. Opera molto vtile, non solo a Farmacologici, mh. ancor' ad ogni 
Medico, & Professore della Medicina. Divisa in Tre Libri. 

^ , rp , (Vna delle Osseruationi, & Distintioni, 
Con due Tauole J , 

[L'altra delle cose pm Notabih, & particolan. 

In Venetia, M.DC.LXXXVIII. Appresso Giouanni Pare, all' Insegna della 
Fortuna. Con Licenza de' Superiori, e Priuilegio. 

Folio. Pp. [8] i, columns 2 to 865, p. [i], 
LibroTerzo, M.DC.LXXXIX. 

Pp. [4], columns 688, Indice, pp. [28]. Title red and black. 

In addition to the above, Passera wrote another The author was, as he tells us, a physician and 

work: Practica Universale nella Medicina, Milano, Capuchin monk at Bergamo. The work is reviewed 

1693, fl- by Mangel. 

Ada Eruditorum, 1690, p. 216 (review of the Zedler, Universal-lexicon, 1740, xxvi. col. 1202. 

above work). Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1788, iv. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, p. 49. 

1731, II. i. p. 452. Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 534. 

PAULLINI (CHRISTIAN FRANZ). 

C. F. Paullini Kleine doch curiose und vermehrte Bauren-Physic, von neuen 
mit unterschiedlichen Stticken vermehret und verbessert. Dritte Aufflage. 



176 



PA ULLINI-PA YKULL 



PAULLINI (CHRISTIAN FRANZ). Continued. 

Franckfurt und Leipzig, Bey Johann Christoph Stofsels seel. Erben in 

Erffurth 1719. 

8. Pp. 166 [2 blank]. 

This is a treatise on meteorology, the winds, engaged by the Bishop of Munster as premier 
snow, hail, etc. , certain phenomena in the mineral, physician and historiographer, but in 1689 he 
vegetable and animal worlds, of tree planting, of removed to Eisenach where he died 10 (18) June, 
cattle, of portents indicated by comets, and such 
like physical topics. It is 



sort of shepherd's 

calendar. An edition of it appeared at Frankfurt 
and Leipzig, 1705, 8. Paullini (Christian, not 
Christopher, as Haller sometimes calls him) was 
born at Eisenach, 25 Feb., 1643 (1645), studied at 
different Universities, Konigsberg, Copenhagen, 
Kiel and Rostock. When he was a student at 
Copenhagen he acted as interpreter for the Italian 
adventurer Gioseppe Francesco Borri (q. v. ). When 
at Hamburg he was crowned as poet with a laurel 
wreath sent from Jena. He was Master of Arts of 
Wittenberg, and on his return from a visit to 
England graduated M.D. at Leyden. He thereupon 
travelled in Norway and Sweden, in Curland and 
Livonia, and was going to Italy but was prevented 
by the state of his health. He then practised in 
Hamburg' and Altona, and in all Holstein up to 1675, 
which year he spent in France, after having been 
created Count Palatine. On his return he was 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 168. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam liter- 
ariam derer Teutschen, 1710, v. p. 477. 

Buddeus, ' Untersuchung von der Alchemic,' in 
Roth-Scholtz, Deutsches Theatrum C/iemium, 
1728, i. p. 126 (quotes him in connection with Burr- 
hus, or Borri, of whom he gives a long account). 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. pp. 471-475 (review of his works). 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der Medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 355, 535. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 628. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1740, xxvi. col. 1569. 

Moller, Cimbria literata, 1744, ii. pp. 622-633. 

Jb'cher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1317 (a long account condensed from Moller's) ; 
Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganzungen, 1816, 
v. col. 1718 (list of 54 of his works). 

Chaufepie', Nouveau Dictionnaire historique et 
critique, Amst. & La Haye, 1753, letter P, pp. 79-82. 

Biichner, Academiae . , . Naturtz Curiosorum 
Historic, 1755, p. 467, No. 59. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 639 
(list of several writings). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 482. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mddecine, 
1778, iii. p. 500. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicince practices, 1779, iii. 
p. 298. 



1712, having been paralysed on his right side for 
seven years. 

He was skilled in medicine, theology, history, 
and antiquities, and wrote numerous books on 
many curious subjects besides those on medicine 
and natural history. He made translations and 
conducted a large correspondence. 

He was admitted, 17 April, 1675, a member of 
the Academia Naturae Curiosorum with the name 
Arion I., and belonged to other learned societies, 
and, as already said, he was imperial poet laureate, 
Count Palatine, and ducal physician. 

He wrote a dissertation on Mount Hecla, Ham- 
burg, 1676, 4 ; 

Theriaca ccelestis, Francof. a. M., 1701, 8 (com- 
pare GREIFF (FRIEDRICH) ) ; 

Nucis Moschatae descriptio, Franc, et Lips., 
1704, 8 (to this last is prefixed a life of the author 
by Esaia Dahlborn). He also wrote a life of 
Johannes Dolaeus, q.v. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 210. 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

2 5). vi - P- 3 8 2. 

Biographie Universelle, 1823, xxxiii. p. 207 ; 
n.d. xxxii. p. 307 (article by Weiss). 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 
p. 464. 

Ersch & Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopadie, iii. 
Section, 1840, xiv. p. 168. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Medicale, 1855, i. 
p. 548. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, p. 458. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gfadrale, 1865, xxxix. col. 
407. 

K. F. H. Marx, ' Zur Beurtheilung des Arztes 
Christian Franz Paullini,' in Abhandlungen der 
Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zti 
Gottingen, 1873, xviii. pp. 53-91. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 
428 (refers to Marx). 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mtdi- 
cales, 2eme SeYie, 1885, xxi. p. 650. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 
512 (by Pagel). 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1887, xxv. p. 
279 (article by Wegele ; calls him Franz Christian 
Paullini). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 582. 



PAULMIER (PIERRE). 

See PALMARIUS (PETRUS). 

PAYKULL (OTTO ARNOLD VON). 

Problema Chymicum oder des Weyland (Tit.) Herren General Lieutenants 
O. A. v. P. Chymischer Proces, wodurch nach proportion eines Quentleins 
prseparirten Sulphuris Antimonii, anderthalb Loth Bley in das schoneste und 
feineste Gold verwandelt worden, Allen der wahren Chymie Liebhabern 
und rechtschaffenen Philosophis mitgetheilet, und zu Dero genauen Unter- 
suchung aufgegeben, nebst beygefiigter Vorrede, in welcher so wohl die 



PA YKULLPELLETIER 



177 



PAYKULL (Oxro ARNOLD VON). Continued. 

Ursache der Publication, als auch dasjenige, was in selbigem Procefs ermangele 
und annoch zu erforschen sey, kiirtzlich eroffnet und angezeiget wird. 
Berlin, Bey Johann Christoph Papen, 1719. 

4. Pp. [8] 20. 

In 1705 when the Swedes under Charles XII. 
defeated the Poles, they took prisoner at Warsaw the 
officer Otto Arnold von Paykull. As his home was 
in Livonia, which then belonged to Sweden, he was 
tried at Stockholm as a rebel and traitor. Implor- 
ing mercy of the king, he promised to supply him 
annually with a specified amount of gold, and 
asked that he might be permitted to give a demon- 
stration before a commission of his ability to carry 
out his promise. This was done, and a certain 
amount of lead was transformed into gold, from 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 220. 

Goran Nordberg, Leben und Thaten Carls des 
Zwdlften (translated by Johann Heinrich Heubel), 
1742, i. pp. 118, 606 (battle at Warsaw and capture 
of Paykul, and his correspondence) ; 1746, ii. p. 8 
(his execution, and the medal struck from alchemi- 
cal gold). 

Tharsander, Adeptus Ineptus, 1744, p. 347 (cap. 

5. 21)- 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 118 (calls 
him Baycull, and decries his ' process '). 

Petraeus, Basilius Valentinus, Chymische Schriff- 
ten, 1769, Neue Vorrede, sig. b6 recto. 

Wiegleb, Historisck-kritische Untersuchung der 
Alchemic, 1777, p. 304. (Considers it as unworthy 
of examination.) 

Bergman, Dissertatio . . . sistens Chcmife Pro- 



which a coin or medal was struck, a drawing of 
which is given by Nordberg. On the obverse it 
has the likeness of the king with the words : 
CAROL, xn. D.G. REX SVE. and on the reverse: 

HOC AVRVM ARTE CHEMICA CONKLAV1T HOLMI.& 

A. 1706. o. A. v. PAYKVLL. Notwithstanding 
this, his execution was not delayed, and he was 
beheaded at Stockholm, Feb. 4, 1707. 

Various comments have been made on this case 
by Schmieder and others. 

gressus a media sac. VII. ad medium sac. XVII., 
1782, p 30; Wiegleb's translation: Geschichte des 
Wachsthums und der Erfindungen in der Chemie 
in der dltesten und mittlern Zeit, 1792, p. 201. 

Giildenfalk, Sammlungvon . . . Transmutations- 
geschichten, 1784, p. 28, 22. 

Kortum verteidiget die Alchimie, 1789, p. 193. 

Henckel, Mineralogische, chymische und alchy- 
mistische Briefe, 1794, i. p. 148. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 294. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Erganzungen zu 
. . , Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 1759. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 506. 

Hermann Peters, A us Pharmazeutischer Vorteit 
in Bild vnd Wort, Berlin, 1886, p. 217. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. pp. 192, 206. 



PAYSAN. 

See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN), Le Petit Paysan. 

PELAGIUS. 
De sacra arte. 

See DEMOCRITUS, De Rebus Sacris, 1717, p. 32. 



The original tract on transmutation, of which the 
present is a translation, occurs in the St. Mark's 
MS. and in the larger number of the Greek MSS. 
The present edition is reprinted from that of 
Pizimenti, which appeared at Padua 1572-3. ff - 18 .- 2 3- 
and also appended to Mizaldus' ' Memorabilia,' 
Coloniae, 1572, f. 239 ; 1573, f. 239 ; 1574, f. 239. 

Borel, Bibliotlieca Chimica, 1654, p. 183. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 875. 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, 1724, xii. p. 764. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 481. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermltique, 1742, i. p. 463 '< ' PP- 9, I2 . l8 . >> 
25, 259. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 314. 

Murr, Litterarische Nachrichien zu der Geschichle 
des sogenannten Goldmachens, 1805, p. 3. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 70. 

Grasse, Lehrbuch einer allgemeinen Literdr- 
geschichte, 1838, I. ii. p. 99- 

PELLETIER (JEAN). 

See STARKEY (GEORGE). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 259, 302. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1788, iv. 

P- 43i- 
II 



Nothing is known about the author, not even the 
date at which he lived. Murr calls him the oldest 
of the Greek alchemical writers ; but that is not 
correct, seeing that he himself quotes Zosimus. 
His name does not occur in the oldest catalogue of 
Greek alchemists, but it is included in some of the 
later ones. For details see Kopp and Berthelot. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. pp. 262- 
263 ; 1866, i. pp. 271-272. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 154. 

Kopp, Beitrdge zur Geschtchte der Chemie, 1869, 
pp. 424-428. 

Berthelot, Les Origines de r Alchimie, 1885, 
passim. 

Berthelot, Collection des Anciens Alchimistes 
Grecs, iii. Tomes, 1888 (i. ' Introduction,' passim, 
the MSS. ; ii. Texte Grec, pp. 253-260, & passim ; 
iii. Traduction, pp. 243-250, & passim). 

Berthelot, Introduction a I' Etude de la Ckimie 
des Anciens et dn Moyen Age, 1889, passim. 



Hoefer, Histoire tie la Chimie, 1843, " P- 4 O1 \ 
1869, ii. p. 394. 



1 7 8 



PELSHOFERPEMBER TON 



PELSHOFER QOHANN GEORG). 

See BEGUINUS (JOHANNES), Tyrocinium chymicum. 

See WECKER (HIERONYMUS), Dissertatio Philosophico-Medica de Paracelsistarum 
Unguento Armario sub prassidio Johan. Georgii Pelshoferi. 



His name is also spelt Pelzhofer. He was a 
native of Gratz in Lower Styria, and was born in 
1599. In 1624 he graduated M.D. at Basel, and 
practised at Hayna in Silesia, and in 1627 passed 
to Wittenberg as professor of medicine. 

He edited the above work of Beguinus with a 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 589. 

Witte, Diarium biographicum, 1688, sig. LI 2 
recto, Ann. u Jul. 1637 ; Riga, 1691, Tom. ii. p. 
46, ii Jul. 1637. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 482. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
P- 634. 

Zedler, Universal- Lexicon, 1741, xxvn. col. 214. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1363 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 1835. 



preface, Hartmann's Treatise on Opium, Witten- 
berg, 1635, 4 ; De Paracelsistarum unguento 
armario, Argent., 1650, 4 ; Decas Paradoxorum 
Chymicorum, ib. 1650, 4, and other treatises on 
medicine. 

He died at Wittenberg, ii July, 1637. 

Matthioe, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 484. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 319. 
Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 

P- 535- 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mddecine, 
1778, iii. p. 511. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 573. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 117. 



PEMBERTON (HENRY). 

See PHARMACOPE du College Royal des Medecins de Londres, 1761. 



Pemberton was born at London in 1694, was 
educated under John Ward, and in Aug., 1714, 
went to Leyden to study medicine with Boerhaave. 
He next went to Paris for anatomy, returned to 
London for clinical study at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
and finally graduated at Leyden, 27 Dec., 1719. 
He did not cultivate the practice of medicine when 
he settled in London, but rather pursued mathe- 
matical science, which had a strong attraction for 
him, and ultimately brought him into intimate 
relations with Sir Isaac Newton, for whom he 
edited the third edition of the Principia. In 1728 
he was appointed Gresham professor of physic, and 

Jacob Brucker, Kurtze Fragen aus der Philoso- 
phischen Historie, Ulm, 1736, vii. p. 747. 

John Ward, Lives of the Professors of Gresham 
College, 1740, ii. p. 301. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxvii. col. 221. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, 1771, p. 143. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 353 
(Pharmacopoeia). 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 703 
(Course of Physiology). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 388. 

Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, The Philosophical 
Transactions . . .from 1665 to 1800, abridged, 1809, 
vi. p. 570. 

Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 
App. iv. p. xxxv., 8 Dec., 1720. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1815, xxiv. p. 279. 

Rotermurid, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 1835 (calls him Pemperton). 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25). vi. p. 387. 

Biographie Universelle, 1823, xxxiii. p. 306 ; no 
date, xxxii. p. 422. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, Authors, ii. 

743 P- 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1828, v. 
pp. 172, 227. 



he gave lectures on chemistry, his scheme of which 
was published in 1731 and the lectures themselves 
in 1771, edited by James Wilson. From 1739 to 
1746 he was occupied with the fifth edition of the 
London Pharmacopoeia for the Royal College of 
Physicians. The experimental work for it was all 
done by himself. The book was published in 1746. 
Pemberton died 9 March (April, Thomson), 1771. 
He is the author of a good number of published 
works, lists of which are given by Chalmers and 
others. He also left a number of works in 
manuscript. 



The Georgian Era, 1833, ii. p. 556. 

Ersch & Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopadie, iii. 
Section, 1841, xv. p. 335. 

C. R. Weld, A History of the Royal Society, 
1848, i. pp. 312-313. 

Brewster, Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and 
Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, 1855, i. p. 
318 ; ii. pp. 378, 383. 

Knight, The English Cyclopcedia. Biography. 
1857, iv. col. 726. 

Poggendorff, Blographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wdrterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 398. 

Nouvelle Biographie Genrale, 1865, xxxix. col. 
520. 

Allibone, A Critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1878, ii. p. 1548. 

Munk, The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians 
of London, 1878, iii. pp. 382-3. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 706. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Mfdi- 
cales, zeme SeYie, 1886, xxii. p. 410. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 

P- 527; 

Billings, Index -Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 643. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1895, xliv. p. 
280 (article by G. L. G. Norgate). 



PENES PENO TVS 1 79 



PENES Nos Vnda Tagi. 

See ESPAGNET (JEAN D'). 

PENOTUS (BERNARDUS GEORGIUS). 

Apologia. Bernard! G. Penoti, a Portu S. Mariae Aquitani in Duas Partes 
divisa ad losephi Michelii Middelburgensis Medici scriptum, quo Bern. 
P. a Portu Aquitani sententiam de pseudotemporistis, in praefatione Dialogi 
inter Naturam & Filium Philosophise expositam turpi inscitia & calumnia 
impudenti inuertit. Cui sequentia opuscula adiuncta sunt : De Physici 
Lapidis materia, & quibus signis dignoscatur. Item de multiplici igne lapidis 
1600. Francofurti, e Collegio Paltheniano Sumtibus lonae Rhodii. 

8. Pp. 1-96. 

Apologiae . . . adversus losephi Michelii Lucensis Medici Middelburgensis cauilla- 
tiones Pars Altera, in qua auctor non solum iniurias immerito sibi a Michelio illatas, in 
ipsum retorquet, verum etiarn plurimos errores, absurditates & contrarietates, quibus 
Michelii scriptum de veteri & vniuersali medicina editum scatet, proponuntur, exarnin- 
antur & refutantur. . . . 

Pp. 97-166. 

Axiomata Physica ex grayissimorum Philosophorum Libris eruta, quibus adiuncta 
est epistola summi philosophi loannis Pontani de lapide philosophorum, in qua non 
solum de materia lapidis agitur, verum etiam de igne physicorum, quo mediante, totum 
opus perficitur. Et Epistola Bernardi Penoti a Portu, ad D. Andream Libauium et 
Librorum ab auctore editorum Catalogus. 1600. Francofurti E Collegio Paltheni- 
ano Sumtibus lonse Rhodii. 

Pp. 167-169 (misprint for 199), [i blank] [32]. 

Theophrastisch Vade Mecum. Das ist : Etliche sehr niitzliche Tractat, von 
der warhafftigen bereittung vnd rechtem gebrauch der Chymischen Medi- 
camenten. Durch den Achtbarn vnd Hochgelarten Herrn, Bernhardum G. 
Penotum, a portu S. Marise, Aquitanum, beider Artzney D. zu Franckenthal, 
erstlich in Latein heraus geben. Jtzo aber alien Kunstliebende Teutschen 
zu sonderbarem nutz in vnsere vernehmliche Muttersprache transferiret, durch 
lohannem Hippodamum, Cheruscum. Den Inhalt aller Tractatlein, findet 
man nach der Vorrede, Vnd mit einem ordentlichen Register zu Ende 
gesetzet. Zu Magdeburgk bey Johan Francken Anno 1596. Cum Gratia 
et Privilegio, &c. 

4. Pp. [16] 278 (for 240). Title red and black. The Index and Errata seem to 
have been added to the 1597 issue, or else are wanting in this copy. 

Other editions are mentioned by Sudhoff. 
[Another Copy.] 

It is dated 1597, and it contains Index and Errata, pp. [15, 4, i blank], MS. Notes. 
Chrysorrhoas, sive de Arte Chemica Dialogus. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. p. 139. 

Epistola. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 364. 

Praefatio. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. p. 4 ; p. 81. 



i8o 



PENOTUS 



PENOTUS (BERNARDUS GEORGIUS). Continued. 
Quaestiones tres de corporali Mercuric. 
Ad varias quaestiones responsio. 
Quinquaginta septem Canones de opere Physico. 
Vera Mercurii ex auro extractio cum sua historia. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. pp. 129-138. 

Tabula, diversorum Metallorum vocabula, quibus usi sunt veteres ad artem 
celandam, explicans. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. p. 109. 

De vera praeparatione & usu Medicamentorum chemicorum, Tractatus varii. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, i. p. 592. 

Tractatus varii de vera prrcparatione et usu 
medicamentorum chymicorum, Francof., 1594, 8. 

This collection of tracts contains the following : 

De vera Ellebori nigri praeparatione. 

Libellus de Spagyricorum quorundam medicam 
dosibus et administratione. 

Quomodo omni tempore anni Hydromel parari 
possit, vino Malvatico asquipollens. 

Panacea vegetabilis, qua radicitus Podagra tolli- 
tur, variique morbi sauantur. 

A collection of tracts by Paracelsus and others 
with prefaces by Penotus was translated into 
English by John Hester : ' A hundred and fourtene 
experiments and cures of the famous Phisition 
Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Paracelsus . . . 
whereunto is added certaine . . . workes by B. G. a 
Portu Aquitano. . . .' No place or date [1584], 
small 8. The following is probably the second 
edition : ' A hundred and foureteene Experiments 
and Cures of the famous Physitian Philippus Aureolus 
Theophrastus Paracelsus : Translated out of the 
Germane tongue into the Latin. Whereunto is 
added certaine excellent and profitable workes by 
B. G. a Portu Aquitano. . . . London, Printed by 
Vallentine Sims dwelling on Adling hill at the 
signe of the white Swanne, 1596. Small 4, pp. 
[15, i blank] 82. It was reprinted with the works 
of Leonard Phioravant, London, 1652, small 4, 
pp. [12] 75 [i blank]. These are of interest as 
containing tracts by Paracelsus. 

Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Mediconim chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 272. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hofiern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 277, 516, 590, 689. . 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 280. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 78, 95, 97. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 297. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 27 ; 
1869, ii. p. 24. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 214. 

Haag, La France Protestanic, 1858, viii. p. 184. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 399. 

Nouvelle Biographie Generate, 1865, xxxix. col. 
533 (from Kestner). 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 589, 966-68, 1598. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, i. p. 235 ; ii. p. 320. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 671. 

Ferguson, Bibliographia Paracelsica, 1885, ii. 
pp. 29, 30, 41 ; 1890, iii. p. 35 ; 1892, iv. p. 6. 

Sudhoff, Bibliographia Paracelsica, 1894, pp. 
328-331, 420, 421, 423, 424, 472, 474, 490, 573, 574, 
575. 663. 684, 700. 



was born between 1520 and 1530 at 
Port-Sainte-Marie in Guienne. He studied at the 
University of Basel, and there he seems to have 
been fascinated by the doctrines of Paracelsus, 
whom he subsequently styled an arch-plagiarist, 
and to have devoted himself to the pursuit of the 
philosopher's stone. He lost all his money and was 
reduced to such a state of poverty that he had to 
go into the poor's house of Yverdun in Switzerland, 
where, blind and in the direst want, he died at the 
age of ninety-eight years (Haag) about 1620, it is 
said. Before his death he told Fabricius Hildanus 
that if he had an enemy that he did not dare to 
attack by force, and yet wished to do him the 
greatest possible injury, he would urge him by all 
the means he possessed to pursue alchemy. 

Besides the preceding the following are ascribed 
to him, but I have not seen them : 

Libellus de sale nitro et ejus praeparatione, Basil. 
1606, 8. 

De vera Hellebori praeparatione, edit, cum ejus 
tract, variis, Basil., 1616, 8. 

Tractatus de Denario medico, quo X. medica- 
minibus omnibus morbis internis medendi via 
docetur, Bern., 1608, 8. 

Tractatus de quarumdam herbarum salibus, 
eorum praeparatione et varia administratione, 
Ursel., 1601, 8. 

Abditorum chymicorum tractatus varii, Francof., 
1595. 8. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 86. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 184. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 129. 

Coming, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 380 (cap. xi. 17). 

Paschius, De Novis Inventis . . . Tractatus, 
1700, p. 332. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 386. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Mediconim, 

1731, II. i. p. 485. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheccc metallicee, 

1732, p. in. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1740, 
P- 634. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxvii. col. 276. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermetique, 1742, i. p. 474 ; iii. pp. 50, 260. 

Tharsander, Adeptus Ineptus, 1744, p. 86 (cap. 
3- 2). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1370 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung tind Erganz- 
itngen, 1816, v. col. 1849. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historiqitt de la Medecine, 
1755, ii. p. 265 ; 1778, iii. p. 512. 



PERCISPERNETY 181 



PERCIS (HELIOPHILUS A). 
Philochemicis [Epistola]. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 214. 

Nova disquisitio de Helia Artista Theophasteo (sic) super metallorum trans- 
formatione. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 22O. 

See also ELIAS der Artist. 

See EGLINUS ICONIUS (RAPHAEL). 

See HAPELIUS (NICOLAUS NIGER). 

This is a reprint of the tract : Disquisitio de Matthias gives a succinct account of this book : 
Helia Artium, 1606, q.v. The preface by Helio- Anno 1606 Marpurgi prodiit personal! Heliophili 
philus a Percis docs not occur in the 1606 edition, a Percis nova disquisitio de Helia Artista Theo- 
nor is the Disqutsi&O assigned to him as it is here phrasteo, in qua de metallorurn transmutatione 
in the Thealntm. adversus Hagelii & Pererii Jesuitarum opiniones 

disseritur. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Georgius Matthioe, Conspectus Historic: Medi- 

1637, p. 194. corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 540. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 389. Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, der Rosenkreuzer , 1786, i. pp. 45-46. 

1731, II. i. p. 485. Sudhoff, Bibliographia Paracelsica, 1894, p. 491. 

PERFECTA Salis communis praeparatio ad lapidem philosophorum. 
See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae alchemize . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 250. 

PERLE (Eine) den Schweinen vorgeworfen. 

See MAGAZIN fur die hohere Naturwissenschaft und Chemie, 1784, i. p. 277. 

PERNAUER (GEORG FERDINAND). 

Panacea Mirabilis, corrigendi potissimum vitiosi Sangvinis, seu Quinta Essentia 
Auri, Raras Virtutis. In usum verae Medicinae Chymicae Studiosorum, & 
Proximi emolumentum edita a Georgio Ferdinando Pernauero L: B: de 
Perney. Ratisbonae, Literis Dalnsteinerianis, An. 1679. 

8. Pp. [2] 25 [i blank]. Vignette with the motto : Fumus Albus Amplectitur 
Fumum Nigrum. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 326. (calls him ' Frid.' and gives the size of the book as 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 4). 
1731, II. i. p. 487. Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen u 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicine practicce, 1779, iii. . . . Jochers allgemcinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, v. 

p. 445- col. 1916. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 268 

PERNETY (ANTOINE-JOSEPH). 

Dictionnaire Mytho-Hermetique, dans lequel on trouve les Allegories Fabu- 
leuses des Poetes, les Metaphores, les Enigmes et les Termes barbares des 
Philosophes Hermetiques explique's. Par Dom Antoine-Joseph Pernety, 
Religieux Benedictin de la Congregation de Saint-Maur. 

Sapiens animadvertet parabolam & interpretationem, verba sapientum, & 

aenigmata eorum. Prov. i. v. 6. 

A Paris, Quai des Augustins. Chez Bauche, Libraire, a Sainte Genevieve 
& a S. Jean dans le Desert. M.DCC.LVIII. Avec approbation et Privilege 
de Roi. 

8. Pp. [4] xx. 546. [Privilege 2, advertisements 4} 



10*2 



PERNETY 



PERNETY (ANTOINE-JOSEPH). Continued. 



Pernety was apparently a devoted student of the 
cabala and occult sciences. His principal 
treatise is entitled " Les Fables 6gyptiennes et 
grecques devoile'es," of which an edition in 2 vols., 
8vo, appeared at Berlin in 1758, at Paris in 1758, 
and again in 1786 and 1795. In this work he tries 
to prove that the whole ancient mythology is 
merely a long sustained allegory of the preparation 
of the philosopher's stone. 

The ' Dictionnaire ' is permeated by the same 
idea, but in addition it professes to give explana- 
tions of all the curious words used by Paracelsus 
and other writers, and what is perhaps still more 
useful to the readers of Hermetic books, the ex- 
planation of the synonyms and common words used 
in a peculiar way found in these books. For 
example, under the word matiere there is a list of 
over five hundred words, all used to denote the first 
matter of philosophers. But after all one does not 
feel the difficulties of the Hermetic writers much 
diminished by the author's explanations. A second 
edition appeared in 1787. 

Pernety was born at Roanne, 13 Feb., 1716. 
He entered the order of the Benedictines of St. 
Maur, and availed himself of the opportunity for 
study which presented itself to him in the abbey of 
St. Germain-des-Pre's. In 1763 he went as chaplain 
with the expedition to the Falkland Islands under 
Bougainville, of which he afterwards published an 
account. On his return he tried to get the regula- 
tions of the order relaxed, but finding his efforts 
useless he left the order and accepted the invitation 
of Frederick the Great to become royal librarian at 
Berlin. 

Thie'bault has described how this invitation came 
about, and has added some other information about 
Pernety. In his youth Frederick had read ' Lettres 
sur les Physiognomies,' printed under the name of 
M. l'Abb6 Pernety, and he remembered both the 
book and the name. It was written, however, by 
a certain P. Bougeant, who, afraid lest his superior 
should send him again to the dreary Maison de 
la Fleche, as had been done to him for a little book 
which he wrote on the 'Language of Beasts,' gave 
the MS. to a young Abbd Pernety to be published 
by him under his own name, and both were to keep 
the secret. 

Frederick, finding a M. Pernety among the 
bankers sent him by Helvetius, asked him if he 
were related to the Abb6 Pernety, to which he 
replied in all good faith that he was his brother, 
the king thinking of the author of the Letters, and 
the banker of the author of the voyage to the 
Falkland Islands. Thereupon the king proposed 
to the brother to bring the Abbe 1 to be his librarian, 
with the title of Academician and 1200 Reichsthaler 
salary. 

When the Abbe" arrived and the king took him 
for the author of the letters, nothing was talked 
about but physiognomy, and a discussion for and 
against the reality of it was arranged between 
Pernety on the affirmative side, and the king's 
secretary on the negative. The secretary lost 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, p. 598 (voy- 
age to the Falkland Islands). 

Nouveaux Mhnoires de V Acadtmie Royale des 
Sciences et Belles-Lettres, Annee MDCCLXXXHI, 
Berlin, 1785, p. 10 (farewell address to the Academy 
when Pernety left Berlin). 

Journal des Savants, Octobre, 1786. 

Dieudonne' Thi6bault, Ales Souvenirs de Vingt 
Ans de Sejour d Berlin, Paris, An. xii. (1804), v. 
pp. 86-96. 



himself in metaphysics and the librarian in anatomy 
and morals, and they left the subject where it was 
without convincing each other, and the only result 
was an epigram on the two of them. M. le Catt, the 
secretary, who had no looks to boast of, was bound to 
cast doubt on it, and so M. de Horst, who was in the 
same position, maintained that the man had an 
excellent physiognomy, and when one insisted that 
it was false, perfidious and mean, replied : ' 1 tell 
you it is excellent, for it deceives nobody.' The 
Abbe\ on the other hand, was good-looking, and 
maintained the validity of the science, which had 
become a sort of creed in his family. It is curious, 
as Thie'bault remarks, that Bougeant by his original 
treatise should have imparted a taste for physiog- 
nomical observation to all the Abba's connections, 
for even the banker cultivated it. 

Pernety wrote a work about the Americans 
against M. l'Abb6 de Paw, who maintained that 
they were a degenerate race. It was tiresome, but 
the Abb6 de Paw could not reply to it. 

He was the author also of a long treatise, ' De la 
Connoissance de 1'homme moral par celle de 
1'homme physique,' which 'caught on,' perhaps by 
virtue of its title. He translated also some of 
Swedenborg's works in whom for a time he was a 
thorough-going believer. 

In 1783 Pernety left Berlin and returned to 
France, and on this occasion he read a farewell 
address to the Berlin Academy. Trouble caused 
him by the Archbishop forced him to leave Paris 
and to live with his brother at Valence as manager 
of his farms, whence he retired to Avignon, where 
he formed a sort of sect, numbering in 1787 about 
a hundred members. When the revolution broke 
out he passed through it as quietly as he could, 
meddling with nothing, saying nothing, and keep- 
ing out of sight ; but for all that he passed some 
months in prison, keener than ever in the search 
for the philosopher's stone, and fully persuaded 
that he would live for centuries. 'I believe,' adds 
Thie'bault, ' that when he died of old age in this 
city in the year VIII. or IX. [1800-1801], he did 
not believe himself to be in any danger ; when he 
died, he did not think that he was doing more than 
falling asleep.' 

Thi6bault describes him as a man of very great 
but confused and undigested learning ; very 
amiable, never quarrelled, extremely agreeable in 
society, and never argued. But on the other hand 
he was credulous and easily persuaded ; he believed 
in the cabala, the philosopher's stone, fortune- 
telling, giants, witches, ghosts. In spite of his 
weaknesses, however, everybody liked him ; he 
was discretion itself, never uttered a word or gave 
cause for the smallest quarrel or even an explanation. 

In money matters he was said to be a little 
mean ; it would, probably, be more correct to say 
that he was careful and considerate. 

Besides the works already mentioned, he wrote : 
A dictionary of painting, sculpture and engraving, 
edited the 8th part of ' Gallia Christiana,' and wrote 
dissertations for the Berlin Academy. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, v. 
col. 1918-20. 

Kloss, Bibliographie der Freimaurerei , 1844, 
Nos. 3810 (' Les Fables Egyptiennes '), 3811 (' Dic- 
tionnaire'), 3911, 3913. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apothckcr, 
1855, p. 668. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gi'tu'rale, 1865, xxxix. col. 
619-21 (and the references). 



PERNETYPETRAEUS 183 

PERNETY (ANTOINE-JOSEPH). Continued, 

Ladrague, Bibliothegue Ouvaroff, Sciences Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 36. 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 552 (' Les Fables Egyptiennes '), Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 963. 
570 (' Dictionnaire '), 114, 115 (editions of Svveden- 
borg). 

PERVIGILIUM Veneris, ex editione Petri Pithoei, cum ejus & Justi Lipsii 
Notis ; Itemque ex alio codice antique, cum notis Cl. Salmasii et Pet. 
Scriverii. Accessit ad hsec Andr. Rivini Commentarius. Ausonii Cupido 
Cruci Adfixus, cum notis Mariang. Accursii, El. Vineti, Pet. Scriverii et 
Anonymi. Accessere ad calcem Jos. Scaligeri et Gasp. Barthii Animadver- 
siones. Hagse Comitum, Apud Henricum Scheurleer. MDCCXII. 

8. Pp. xvi. 208. Index [15] i blank. Title red and black. 

The Pervigilimn Veneris is not an alchemical poem, see Schweiger, Handbuch der Classiscken 

treatise on copper, though it seems to have got in Bibliographic, Leipzig, 1834, II. ii. p. 718, and 

here through that belief. Engelmann, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum, 

For the bibliography of this anonymous Latin 1882, ii. Abtheilung, Scriptores Latini, p. 47. 

PETERMANN (ANDREAS). 

D. Andrese Petermanni, Anatom. & Chirurg. Prof. Publ. & Practici Lipsiensis, 
Chimia, Opus posthumum editum a Filio D. Benj. Bened. Petermanno, 
Praefecturae Lipsiensis Physico. Lipsise Sumptibus Friderici Lanckisii, 
Anno 1708. 

8. Pp. [ 4 ] 130 [38]. 

Andreas Petermann, son of a clergyman, was 1688 he was made extraordinary professor of 
born at Werblin, near Danzig, 7 March, 1649. anatomy and surgery at Leipzig, and was pro- 
He was educated at Halle and Leipzig, and studied moted to the ordinary professorship in 1691. He 
arts and theology as well as medicine, and practised wrote numerous works, disputations and program- 
for a time at Gera. Then he graduated at Altorf mata on medicine ; he was an excellent obstetrician, 
in 1673, practised at Torgau and other places and and was the author of a treatise on the philo- 
then settled at Torgau, where he was of great sophy of Descartes. The above posthumous work 
assistance during the visitation of the plague in is all that was published on chemistry by him. 
1680. He himself was attacked but recovered. In He died 5 (3) Augt., 1703. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practices, 1779, iii. 

col. 1420 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- p. 278. 

ungen, 1816, v. col. 1982. Ladra.gu.e,Bi6UotAeyueOuvarof, Sciences Secretes, 

Portal, Histoire de I' Anatomic et de la Chirurgie, 1870, No. 1340. 

1770, iv. p. 147. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 576. genden Aerate oiler Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 500. 540. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mddecine, Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1889, x. p. 1028. 
1778, iii. p. 518. 

PETIT ALBERT. 

See ALBERTUS PARVUS. 

PETIT (Le) Paysan. 

See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN). 

PETRA ALBA (CAROLUS A). 

See WITTESTEIN (KARL). 

PETRAEUS (BENEDIKT NIKOLAUS). 

See BASILIUS VALENTINUS, 1769. 

Critique iiber die Alchemistischen Schrifften. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1730, ii. p. i. 
Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th - P- 108. Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, i. p. 160. 

Ladrague, Bibliothtque Ouvarof, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 584-85, 841. 



PETREUSPETRUS ARLENSIS 



PETREUS (PETRUS PAULUS). 

Musaeum Travaginianum, seu Hermeticorum Medicamentorum quae in Clariss. 
Viri D. Francisci Travagini Musaeo elaborata reperiuntur, Elenchus, Vbi 
eorumdem Virtutes, Doses, Cautelse, & Vsus clare designantur, cura, & studio 
Petri Pauli Petrei Phil. & Med. Doct. Venetiis, MDCLXXIX. Apud 
lo: lacobum Hertz. Superiorum permissu, & Priuilegio. 

12. Pp. [36] 141 [3 blank]. 4 folding plates. 



The present work is quoted by Rotermund. 

Franciscus Travaginus was a mathematician and 
physicist of Ragusa, who lived about 1613, accord- 
ing to Jbcher. That date, however, seems too 
early, for the only tract, apparently, which he pub- 
lished was that on the earthquake which took place 
on the 6th April, 1667, and destroyed nearly the 
whole of Ragusa. Its title is : ' Francisci Trava- 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iv. 
col. 1295 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1816, v. col. 2036. 



gini super observation! bus a se factis tempore 
vltimorum TerrEemotuum, ac potissimum Ragusi- 
ani Physica Disquisitio, Seu Gyri Terras Diurni 
Indicium. Lugduni Batavorum M. DC.LXIX.,' 
4, pp. [n, i blank] 29 [3 blank]. Another edition : 
'Juxta Exemplar Venetiis impressum, Anno 
M.DC.LXXIII., 1 4, pp. [7] 17. The dedication is 
' Datum Venetijs, Kal. April. 1669.' 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicine practice, 1779, '" 
p. 447. 



PETRUS ARLENSIS DE SCUDALUPIS. 

D. Petrus Arlensis de Scudalupis enucleatus, oder kurtzer Auszug der Alchy- 
mistischen Processe und anderer Curiositaten, so dieser Autor, als Presbyter 
Hierosolymitanus, in seinem vormahls Anno 1610 zu Parifs gedruckten, 
anietzo aber sehr raren Tractat von der Sympathia der sieben Metallen, 
und sieben auserlesenen Steine, die sie mit denen sieben Planeten haben, heraus 
gegeben ; Nunmehr aus dem Lateinischen ins Teutsche iibersetzt, und denen 
Liebhabern Natiirlicher und curioser Wissenschafften communiciret. Berlin, 
Bey Johann Andreas Riidiger, 1715. 

8. Pp. [8] 104. 

Sympathia. 

See LEONARDUS (CAMILLUS), l6lO. 



The work of Petrus Arlensis is said to have 
appeared first at Madrid and then at Rome. This, 
however, lacks confirmation, and Lessing doubts 
the existence of these editions. 

According to Schmieder the epithet ' Arlensis ' 
denotes that he was a native of Aries in Rou- 
sillon, Presbyter Hierosolymitanus, that he lived in 
the East, and his mention of Peru that he must 
have lived in the sixteenth century and not in the 
thirteenth. His book was a commentary on the 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 29 (under 
Arlensis). 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1697, p. 46, No. Ixxviii. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. no. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 284. 

Arpe, De Prodigiosis Natures et Artis operibus, 
Talismanes et Amuleta dictis, 1717, pp. 122, 151. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 
1732, p. 132. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. p. 99 (T. J. lib. i. 
cap. xi. n). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermitique, 1742, iii. p. 103. 



Arab Balemis (?) who does not appear to be known 
before 1500. 

It was first printed in 1610 along with Camillus 
Leonardus, then in 1715, in German ; afterwards 
at Hamburg, 1717, ' P. Arlensis de S. redivivus ' 
by Hannemann, and at Augsburg. The preface 
of the 1715 edition contains an account of the 
opal which the writer endows with all the virtues 
of the other precious stones and which he praises 
for its beauty and its curative power. 

Vogt, Catalogus historico-criticus librorum 
rariorum, 1747, p. 54. 

Clement, Bibliotheque Curieuse historique et 
critique, 1751, ii. p. 113 (edition of Madrid, 1602, 
fol. tres-rare). 

Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 458 (' Matrit. 1602, fol. rarissimum 
est '). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 81. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

PP- 593. 655- 

Lessing, Kollektaneen zur Literatur, 1790, i. p. 
86 ; ii. p. 212. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 299. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der A Ichetnie, 1832, p. 276. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 364. 



PETRUS BONUS PETTUS 



'85 



PETRUS BONUS. 

See BONUS (PETRUS). 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Mensee, 1617, p. 381. 
Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1733, iv. col. 691. 
Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 124. 

PETRUS DE SILENTO. 



F. A. Pouchet, Histoire des Sciences Naturelles 
au Moyen Age, 1853, p. 387. 



Vom metallischen Kunststiicke der Weisen, ubersetzt und mit Anmerkungen 
begleitet von J. . . . 

See SCHRODER (FR. J. WIL.), Neue Alchymistische Bibliothek, 1774, II. ii. p. 131. 
Opus. 



See THEATRUM CHEM1CUM, 1659, iv. 

This person is called Petrus de Silento, or Silen- 
tinus, or Petrus de Zalento. 

From the fact that Petrus quotes only Geber, 
Aristoteles, Morienus, and no authority more 
recent than the ' Vision ' of Arisleus, or ' Turba 
Philosophorum,' Schmieder is of opinion that he 
flourished about 1 160-80. But, not to speak of 
Hermes, to whom he frequently refers in fact the 
tract is more of a lengthy paraphrase of the Smar- 
agdine Table than anything else he mentions also 
Albertus. Now if it be Albertus Magnus he means, 
he must have lived at least a century later. 

Nazari, Delia Tramulatione Metallica Sogni 
tre. ^99, p. 141. 

Maier, Symbola Aurea Menste, 1617, p. 382. 
Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 212. 

PETRUS TOLETANUS. 

See ROSARIUM PHILOSOPHORUM. 

Petrus Villanovanus, said to be a brother of 
Arnoldus of the same name, lived at Toledo and 
was therefore called Toletanus. 

He is said to be the author of the oldest tract 
entitled ' Rosarium Philosophorum ' which was 
printed so often and circulated even to a recent 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Menses, 1617, p. 332. 
Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 64. 
Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 
146. 

PETRUS DE ZALENTO. 

See PETRUS DE SILENTO. 



p. 985. 

Petrus himself is not quite accurate, for he gives 
Morienus the credit of the statement : Festinatio 
est ex parte diaboli, which really belongs to Geber. 

Schmieder says correctly that a number of Arabic 
words occur in this tract. 

The ' Septem ^Enigmata ' may have been by 
him. Nazari ascribes to him 'Epistola de Occulta 
Philosophia,' and also mentions ' Petri Silentii, in 
Arte alchimica tractatus,' who seems to be the 
same person. 



Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 907. 
Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 127. 
Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, " Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1010, ion. 



date in manuscript. Later tracts of a similar name, 
' Rosarius major ' and ' Rosarius minor ' are also 
extant. The earliest one was published at Frank- 
furt in 1550, and an abstract in Balbian's collection 
in 1599. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 411 ; 
1866, i. p. 435. 

P. A. Pouchet, Histoire des Sciences Natvrelles 
au Moyen Age, 1853, p. 387. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 376. 



PETTUS (JOHN). 

Fleta Minor. The Laws of Art and Nature, in Knowing, Judging, Assaying, 

Fining, Refining and Inlarging the Bodies of confin'd Metals. In Two Parts. 

The First contains Assays of Lazarus Erckern, Chief Prover (or Assay-Master 

General of the Empire of Germany) in v. Books : originally written by 

him in the Teutonick Language, and now translated into English. 

The Second contains Essays on Metallick Words, as a Dictionary to many 
pleasing Discourses. By Sir John Pettus, of Suffolk, Kt. Of the Society 
for the Mines Royal. Illustrated with 44 Sculptures. 

Mai. 3. 3. Numb. 31. 31. 

Jehovah Chimista Supremus. 

Carolus, D. G. Secundus. 



1 86 



PE TTUSPFEFFER 



PETTUS QOHN). Continued. 

London, Printed for and sold by Stephen Bateman at the Sign of the 
Bible over against Furnivals-Inn Gate in Holbourn. MDCLXXXVI. 

Folio. Pp. [44] 345 [i blank]. Title red and black. Portrait (separate) and 41 
plates in the text. 

Fleta Minor, Spagyrick Laws, The Second Part. Containing Essays on Metallick 
Words : Alphabetically composed, as a Dictionary to Lazarus Erckern. Illustrated 
with two Sculptures. By Sir John Pettus, of Suffolk, Knight. 

Scire tuum nihil est, 

Nisi te scire, hoc sciet alter. 

London, Printed, for the Author, by Thomas Dawks, his Majesty's British Printer, at 
the West-end of Thames-street. 1683. 

Folio. Pp. [8] [1-80] 81-133 [i blank]. 2 engravings. 



Pettus was born in the year 1613. He entered 
the service of Charles I. in 1639 and was knighted 
25 Nov., 1641. He was taken prisoner by Crom- 
well at Lowestoft, and kept a prisoner in Windsor 
Castle for fourteen months. In 1645 at the siege 
of Bristol his life was saved by Colonel Charles 
Fleetwood, but afterwards he was put on his trial 
for four charges, two of which he answered com- 
pletely, while the other two apparently never came 
to a hearing. As he was disposed favourably to- 
wards the crown he exerted himself to save the life 
of Charles I. and subsequently furnished money to 
Charles II. Notwithstanding, he lived apparently 
on good terms with Cromwell, and was appointed 
deputy governor of the royal mines. 

In 1670 he was returned to Parliament and in 
1672 was deputy lieutenant of Suffolk and rendered 
good service during the war with Holland. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothectz metallic^, 
1732, p. in. 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
ffermMque, 1742, iii. p. 260. 

Wood, Athence Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1815, ii. 
col. 402, (a political book). 

Rotermund, Fortsetsung und Erganzungen zu 
. . . Jo'chers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1816, 
v. col. 2iii (quotes Fleta Minor, 1683, fol. ; Fodinse 
regales, 1670, 4 ; Volatiles, 1666, 8). 



By his expenditure on behalf of the crown he 
became much impoverished, and seemed latterly to 
be in absolute want. He died in 1690. 

Under Ercker, reference has already been made 
to this translation of Ercker's book. He also wrote : 
' Fodinae Regales, or the History, Laws and Places 
of the Chief Mines and Mineral Works in England, 
Wales, and the English Pale in Ireland. . . . 
London . . ., 1670,' sm. fol. pp. [20, including a fine 
portrait by Sherwin of Pettus, aged 57, and two 
plans of mines] 108 [7, i blank] ; ' Volatiles from 
the History of Adam and Eve : containing many 
unquestioned Truths and allowable Notions of 
several Natures. London, 1674,' 8, pp. [8] 188 
[2], which is a running commentary on the narrative 
of the creation and fall as told in Genesis ; some 
historical and political works, and he left a number 
of manuscripts. 

Granger, A Biographical History of England, 
1824, v. p. 289. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) 
ii. 7$ic. 

Donaldson, Agricultural Biography, 1854, p. 34. 

Allibone, A Critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1878, ii. p. 1573. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlv. p. 
in, and references (article by W. A. S. Hewins). 



PEZELIUS (MICHAEL). 

Opus singulare ... ex Theophrasto Redivivo M. Pezelij. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, vi. 1 66 1, p. 518. 

Ein sonderbar Werck ... ex Theophrasto redivivo. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL), Lumen Chymicum Novum. 
1624, p. 224. 



Epilogus Orthelii, 



PFEFFER (ERICUS), Itzehoensis Holsatus. 
See AMOR PROXIMI. 



Ericus Pfeffer is one of the authors mentioned by 
Crusius (see his list inserted in Abraham Eleazar's 
Uraltes Chymisches Werk, Erfurt, ist edit., 1735), 
manuscripts by whom he had the intention of print- 
ing. The entry is : Erici Pfefferi, Itzenhohensis 
Holsati Secretum denutatum (sic) Philosophies 
Occultae. Pfeffer, however, is said to have left 
eighty manuscripts behind him. To what is stated 
in the note to AMOR PROXIMI, the following may 
be added. It is from the Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst that information is obtained on this 



subject: 'Pfeffer lived on the " Neglandirs Kraft" 
in Amsterdam, and left eighty works behind him, 
which consist of mere trash. Out of them, how- 
ever, capital was afterwards made by Ernestus 
Aurelius Reger. He compiled from them "Amor 
proximi" and " Noscete ipsum physico-medicum."' 
Semler, however, who quotes these statements, 
defends Reger from the insinuations against him, 
and considers him as not a cheat, but an adept. 
For details of his manuscripts, Schmieder refers to 
a book which I have not seen : Griindlicher Bericht 



PFEFFERPH&DRO 187 



PFEFFER (ERicus). Continued. 

auf einige Fragcn, nebst einem Catalogo vieler Besides the ' Occulta Philosophia ' already men - 

raren und sonderlichen Manuscripten des neulichen tioned, he is credited by Arnold with the authorship 

Philosopher E. P. I. H., Hamburg, 1683, 8. of the following works: Hydrolithus Sophicus 

Schmieder considers that his retired manner of ('The Waterstone of the Wise men'), Coelum 

living and devotion to experimental alchemy tended Sapientum, and Liber Clavis Artis. 
to confirm the general opinion that he was an adept. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic 

Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 119. der Rosenkreuzer, 1788, iv. p. 117. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, ii. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 419. 

p. 429. In the note under AMOK PROXIMI for Kirchen 

Beytrag zur Geschichle der hohern Chemie, 1785, und Ketzer Geschichte should be substituted 

p. 534, p. 670. Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien. 

PFLUGK (CHRISTOPH). 

Lapis Philosophorum Non Ens, oder : Kurtzer Vorbericht dafs der Stein der 
Weisen nie gewesen, noch nicht ist, aus Gottlieb- und menschlicher Weifs 
heit zum Nachdencken vorgestellet von Christoph Pflugk, Seelsorger in 
in Vielau. Auf Kosten des Autoris, und in Schneeberg zu finden bey 
Carl Wilh. Fulden, 1732, 

8. Pp. [10] 84. 

Rotermund, who quotes this book, calls the interesting discussion, with a criticism of the tradi- 
author 'Christian,' which is a mistake. It is an tions, beliefs, and literature of the time. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, ii. p. 108 (quotes Rotermund, Forlsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
the present svork and devotes two and a half pages . . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, 
to a violent attack upon the author). vi. col. 30. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 543. 

PFORTE zu dem Chymischen Kleinod. 
See R. (i. M.), 1728. 

PH^EDRO (GEORG). 
Vom Stein der Weisen. 

See BASILIUS VALENTINUS, Triumphwagen Antimonii, 1624, p. 393. 

Rare Chymische-Medicinische Arcana und Geheimniisse. 

See TENTZEL (ANDREAS), Chymisch-Spagyrische Artzney-Kunst, 1736. 

Corollarium de Hermaphrodito : et Lapide Philosophorum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66o, V. p. 804. 

Chymischer Tractat vom Stein der Weisen. 

See THEORETISCH und praktischer Wegweiser zur hohern Chemie, 1773, P- '4 1 - 

Phaedro's ' Medico-Chymicall Practise ' appeared In the British Museum there is Phaedro's 

in English with the following title: The Art of 'Physical and Chemical Works,' London, 1654, 

Chymistry, written in Latin by George Phaedro. 8, but I do not know if this be the same as the 

And done into English by Nicholas Culpepper above or not. 

student in Physick and Astrology. The Third Kopp quotes : Aquila Coelestis, Basil., 1575, but 

Edition. London, printed for Simon Neale at the I have not seen it. 

Sign of the three Pidgeons in Bedford Street in Rotermund mentions Magnus Georg de Geleinen 

Covent Garden, 1674. Small 8, pp. [16] 133 Phaedron, physician and chemist of Gellcnhausen 

[i blank], with a portrait of Culpepper prefixed. in Franconia, who wrote : 
I have seen two copies of this edition, or rather of Liber de Balneis Puteolanis, Basil., 1571, 8. 
this issue, for the quoted title page seems to be a Chirurgia minor, Ibid. 1562, 4. 
cancel. I do not know the date of the first issue Praxis medico-chymica (in his Opera), 
of the book. It is a collection of receipts or pre- Eleenus s. perfecta epilepsiae curatio in Alex, a 

scriptions for the treatment of diseases, but pp. 79- Suchten, Libellus de Antimonio, Basil., 1575, 8. 
128 contain the methods of preparing certain Praxis latrochemica, Francof., 1611, 8. 
chemical compounds. Opuscula latrochemica quatuor, ed. J. A. 



1 88 



PH&DROPHARMA COPOEA 



PH^EDRO (GEORG). Continued. 

Schenck of Graffenberg, Frankfurt, 1610 (1611), 
8. 

Opuscula, inter quae Chirurgia minor, Basil., 
1562, 4 ; Francof., 1621, 8. 

The author himself speaks of two works, ' De 
Podagra ' and ' De Medicina Sophistica,' but I do 
not know if they have been published. 

Gesner, who calls him Georgius Phaedro Rodo- 
cheus, quotes the following besides the ' Chirurgia 
Minor' : Halopyrgicas siue latrochemica pestis 
epidemicae curatio ; Chirurgia cum libris Theo- 
phrasti de Spiritibus Planetarum, 1571, 4. 

As a supporter of Paracelsus and advocate of 
his views, he was attacked by contemporaries and 

Gesner, Bibliotheca, ed. Frisius, 1583, p. 274. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 175- 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 185. 

'N[erc\i\m,Lindeniusrenovatus, 1686, pp. 334,591. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 498. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 56, 261. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 123 (under 
Rodocher). 

Matthias, Conspectus Historic Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 342. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 215 
( ' Paracelsicus homo, ob pessimum testimonium 
C. Gesneri mihi notus '). 



in special by Bernardus Dessenius Cronenburgius 
(q.v.}, who wrote in defence of the old medical 
system. In reply to these attacks (he mentions 
Cronenburger by name on sig. Biii recto} he wrote 
the following vindication of himself, in which he 
gives an account of certain cures which he per- 
formed in the Netherlands : 

Verantwortung, Ge. Fedronis von Rhodoch, 
Auff etlich vnglimpff der Sophistischen Artzten 
vnd seiner Mifsgiinner, darundter viel gewaltige 
geheimnufs, zu gemeinem nutz der wahrhafftigen 
Medicin offenbart werden. Virescit vulnere Virtus. 
Anno M.D.LXVI. Small 4, ff. [17, i blank]. 

Gmelin, Geschichle der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 265. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 108, 181. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnsungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, vi. 
col. 40. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) ii. 



Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykitnde, 1827, iii. 
p. 510. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 280. 

Li&d.ra.gVie.,Bibliothcque Ouvarqf, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, Nos. 687-88, 1640. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 381. 



PHARMACOPOEIA Augustana Auspicio Amplissimi Senatus Cura Octava 
Collegii Medici Recognita Hippocratica et Hermetica Mantissa Locupletata 
Recusa. Augusta. Anno M DC XLVI. 

Folio. Pp. [10] 26, 351 [i blank] ; [30], Engraved title with emblems portraits 
of Hippocrates and Hermes, and a plan of " Augusta." Cut close at the bottom, and 
most of the date cut off. 

Taxa, pp. [2] 56. 

PHARMACOPOEA Austriaco-Castrensis. Ticini. Apud Haered. Petri 

Galeatii. 1795. 

8. Pp. 96. 10 MS. tables added of the price of drugs (Tassa del 1795). 

PHARMACOPCEA Austriaco-Provincialis Emendata nunc primum Notis uber- 
rimis locupletata Venetiis 1798. Typis Sebastiani Valle. 

8. Pp. xvi. 168. 
Billings (Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 9) quotes an edition : Viennae, 1774, 12. 

PHARMACOPCEA BREMENSIS. 
See VOLPI (THOMAS), 1793. 

PHARMACOPOEA Helvetica, in duas partes divisa, quarum Prior Materiam 
Medicam, Botanico- Physico- Historico-Medice descriptam, Posterior Com- 
posita & Prseparata, Modum Prseparandi, Vires & Usum exhibet. Scitu 
& Consensu Gratiosi Collegii Medici Basileensis digesta. Prsefatus est 
Albertus de Haller, Dominus in Goumoens Le Jux, et Feudi in Eclagnens. 
Prseses Societatis Reg. Scient. Goetting. Sodalis Acadd. Reg. Scient. Paris. 
Reg. Chir. Gall. Imper. Berolin. Suecic. Bononiens. Arcad. Bavar. Societ. 



PHARMACOPOEA 189 



PHARMACOPOEA Helvetica. Continued. 

Scient. Britann. Upsal. Bot. Flor. Batavic. Physico-Medic?e Basil. Oeconom. 
Bernens. In Senatu Supremo Bernensi Ducentumvir. Accedunt Syllabus 
Medicamentorum, in classes divisus, et duo Indices Necessarii, primus 
Morborum & Curationum, alter trilinguis, I^at. Germ. Gall. Basileae, 

Sumptibus & Literis Job. Rod. Im-hof & Filii. 1771. 

Folio. Pp. 13 [i blank] 28, 212, 384, 54. Engraved frontispiece. Title red and black. 

PHARMACOPEE du College Royal des Medecins de Londres, Traduite 
de 1'Anglois sur la seconde Edition donnee avec des Remarques, par le 
Docteur H. Pemberton, Professeur en Me'decine au College de Gresham : 
Augmentee de plusieurs Notes & Observations, & d'un grand nombre de 
Precedes interessans, avec les Vertus & les Doses des Mddicamens. 
Premiere Partie. A Paris, Chez Jean-Thomas Herissant, rue Saint-Jacques 
a S. Paul & a S. Hilaire. M.DCC.LXI. Avec Approbation et Privilege 
du Roi. 

4. Pp. [2] xvj, cxlviij [there is an extra leaf in signature r, *rij, pp. *cxxix-*cxxx] ; 
415 [i blank, 4]. 

Tome second. A Paris, Chez P. Fr. Didot jeune, Libraire, Quai des Augustins. 
M.DCC.LXXI. Avec Approbation, et Privilege du Roi. 

Over the imprint is pasted a slip of paper with the words: Chez P. The'ophile 
Barrois le jeune, rue du Hurepoix, pres le Pont Saint-Michel. 

4. Pp. [ 4 ] 781 [5l 
See the note under PEMBERTON (H.). 

PHARMACOPOEA Lugdunensis Reformata. Mandato & cura Inclyti Collegij 
Medicorum Lugdunensium. Lugduni Gallorum. M.DC.LXXIV. Ejusdem 
Collegii sumptibus excusa. Typis lacobi Faeton. Cum Superiorum 
Permissu. 

4. Pp. [12] 246 [8] [2 blank]. 
Billings (Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. n) quotes an edition : Lugduni, 1628, small 4. 

PHARMACOPCEA PARISIENSIS. 

See CODEX MEDICAMENTARIUS. 

PHARMACOPOEIA Pauperum, in usum Nosocomii Regii Edinburgensis. 
Francof. et Lipsiae, In Officina Pleischeriana MDCCLX. 

8. Pp.' iv, 76. Vignette of the seal of the ' Nosocomium Regiuin.' 

PHARMACOPOEA Rossica. Opus plane novum. Petropoli, 1803. J. Z. 
Logano Commissum. 

8. Pp. [6] 1-164, 173-286. 
Billings (index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 15) quotes editions of 1782, 12 ; 1798, 8 ; 1821, 8. 

PHARMACOPOEA Suecica. Cum Gratia & Privilegio S:ae R:ae Maj:tis. 
Holmise, M DCC LXXV. Typis Henr. Fougt, Eq. Ord. Wasae, Typogr. 
Reg. 

8. Pp. [10] 237 [3], 

This is apparently the first edition. The second was issued in 1779 and repeatedly afterwards. 
Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 16. 



1 90 PHA RMA COPCEA PHIL ALE THA 

PHARMACOPCEA Taurinensis nunc primum edita Jussu Augustissimi Regis. 
Augustas Taurinorum. M.DCCXXXVI. In JEdibus Academicis, apud 
Joannem-Baptistam Chais Typographum Regium. 

4. Pp. [8] 246 [15, i blank]. Two folding plates. 

PHARMACOPOEA Wirceburgensis. 
See WILHELM (FRANC. HEINR. M.). 

PHARMACOPOEA Wirtenbergica in duas partes divisa quarum Prior Materiam 
Medicam Historico-Physico-Medice descriptam Posterior Composita et 
Praeparata Modum Praeparandi et Encheireses exhibet. Jussu Serenissimi 
Domini Ducis adornata et Pharmacopoeis Wirtenbergicis in normam 
praescripta. Accedunt Syllabus Medicamentorum Compositorum in Classes 
divisus et Indices Necessarii. Editio Nova revisa aucta et emendata. 
Cum Gratia & Privilegiis Sacr. Caes. Maj. Seren. Elect. Saxon, nee non 
Seren. Ducis Wirtenberg. Stutgardiae Sumtibus loannis Christophori 

Erhardi Bibliopole. Anno MDCCLXXI. 

Folio. Pp. [24] 156 ; [2] 252 [60]. Engraved frontispiece. Title red and black. 
Syllabus Medicamentorum compositorum in Pharmacopoea Wirtenbergica comprehensorum, pp. 48. 

PHARUS Chymiae, Oder hell-leuchtender Wegweiser zur chymischen Wissen- 
schafft, welcher in dem ersten Theile von der Moglichkeit einer zu bereiten- 
den Universal-Medicin handelt: Und in dem zweyten Theile die dunckeln, 
fabulosen und allegorischen Redens-Arten der Philosophen nebst der 
Zubereitung soldier Medicin selbst klar und deutlich anzeiget. Auf vieler 
Kunst-Liebenden Verlangen zum Druck gegeben von einem In Chymicis 
Experimentis Cooperante. Regensburg, Gedruckt und zu finden bey 
Emanuel Adam Weifs. 1752. 

8. Pp. [6] 120. Title red and black. 

The person who wrote this tract and who says 1742 (q.v. ). I have no information about the 

that is by one ' In Chyrnicis Experimentis Cooper- author. The present work is quoted by Ladrague. 

ante' had possibly as the initials of his name the It is not to be confused with Hanneman's ' Pharus 

letters I. C. E. C. He wrote another book en- ad Ophir Auriferum.' It is quite up to date, and 

titled : ' Unvorgreiffliches Gutachten von der Mog- mentions -rb <f>\oyi<rrbv . 
lichkeit einer . . . Universal-Medicin,' Regensburg, 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1469, 1470. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

See PHILOCTETES (iREN^EUS). 

PHILALETHA. 

See GEBER, Chymische Schrifften, 1751. 

PHILALETHA (CYREN^US). 

See PHILALETHA (EIREN^EUS). 



PHILALETHA 

Abyssus Alchymiae Exploratus (sic) : oder die lang-gesuchte, und nunmehro gliick- 
lich gefundene Verwandelung der Metallen, Vermoge des Steins der Weisen, 
als des grossesten Geheimniisses, und Wunderwercks der natiirlichen Kunst 
und kiinstlichen Natur, umstandlicher und griindlicher, als sonsten jemahls 



PHILALETHA 191 

PHILALETHA (EIRENJEUS), Continued. 

von einem einigen Lapidisten geschehen ist, von Thoma de Vagan, einem 
Englischen Adepto, zum nutzen der Philosophorum, zu Erweiterung der 
Metallurgie, und zum Trost derer, die da Knechte dieses Erbes seyn sollen, 
gezeiget und beschrieben. Hamburg, verlegts Christian Liebezeit, 1705. 

8. Pp. rs] 113 [5]. 

This is an extract from the QUADKATUM ALCHY- of Eugenius Philalethes, or Thomas Vaughan. 

M1STICUM, q.v. The ascription of the book here to Thomas de 

Notwithstanding its name, it is a translation of Vagan and the mis-spelling are part of the con- 

the Inlroitus Apertus ad occlusum Regis Palatium fusion into which the whole of this subject has 

by Eirenaeus Philaletha, and it is naturally not fallen, 
mentioned by Antony i Wood among the writings 

[Another Copy.] 

Abyssus Alchemise explorata. 

See QUADRATUM ALCHEMISTICUM, 1705. 

Arcanum, or Secret of the immortal Liquor Alkahest, called Ignis-Aqua. 

See COLLECTANEA CHYMICA, 1684, p. 5. 

This is a different tract from Starkey's Liquor Sebastian Wirdig's Nova Medicina Spiriluum, 
Alchahest, edited by Astell, 1675. Hamb., 1688, which work contains also a chapter 

There is a version of it in Latin appended to on the same topic. 

Brunn der Chemischen Wissenschaft. 

See LANGE (JOHANN), Des hochgelehrten Philalethas und anderer auserlesene 
Chymische Tractatlein, 1748, p. 301 ; 1749, p. 301. 

See HERMKTISCHES A. B. C., 1779. i> P- 8 3- 

Brevis Manuductio ad Rubinum Ccelestem. 

See BIRRIUS (MARTIN), Tres tractatus de Metallorum Transmutatione, 1668, p. 51. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 686. 
See MUSEUM Hermeticum, 1749, p. 775. 

Eine kurze Anleitung zu dem himmlischen Rubin von dem Stein der Weisen 
und seinen Geheimniissen. 

See LANGE (JOHANN), Des hochgelehrten Philaletha: und anderer auserlesene 

Chymische Tractatlein, 1748, p. 254 ; 1749, P- 2 54- 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii. p. 80. 

Enarratio Methodica Trium Gebri Medicinarum, in quibus continetur Lapidis 
Philosophici Vera Confectio. Autore Anonymo sub nomine ^Eyrengei 
Philalethes, natu Angli, habitatione Cosmopolit.se. Amstelodami, Apud 
Danielem Elsevirium. clo IDCLXXVIII. 

8. Pp. 222 [2]. 

P. 189 : Vade-Mecum Philosophicum sive Breve Manuductorium ad Campum Sophine . . . Auctqre 
Agricola Rhomaeo, horum Arcanorum vere adepto. 

Fons chemicae Philosophiae. 

See BIRRIUS (MARTIN), Tres tractatus de Metallorum Transmutatione, 1668, p. 88. 
See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 693. 

Fons chymicae Veritatis. 

See MUSEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, p. 799. 



192 PHILALETHA 

PHILALETHA (EIREN^EUS). Continued. 
De Metallorum Metamorphosi. 

See BIRRIUS (MARTIN), Tres tractatus de Metallorum Transmutatione, 1668, p. i. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 676. 

See MUS/EUM HKRMETICUM, 1749, p. 745. 

Von Verwandlung der Metalle. 

See LANGE (JOHANN), Des hochgelehrten Philalethae und anderer auserlesene 

Chymische Tractatlein, 1748, p. 189 ; 1749, P- l %9- 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii- P- ?8. 

There is an English version of this tract con- ' A short Manuduction to the Ccelestial Ruby ' and 

tained in : Three Tracts of the Great Medecine of 'The Fountain of Chymical Philosophy,' the whole 

the Philosophers, by Eirenoeus Philalethes, Cosmo- corresponding to Birrius' collection, 
polita, London, 1694. The other two tracts are 

Introitus Apertus ad Occlusum Regis Palatium ; Autore Anonymo Philaletha 
Philosopho. In gratiam Artis Chymicse Filiorum mine primum publicatus, 
Curante Joanne Langio. Amstelodami, Apud Joannem Janssonium a 

Waesberge & Viduam ac Haeredes Elizei Weyerstraet. 1667. 

8. Pp. [16] 79 [i blank]. On the title-page the sphere. 

This is usually regarded as the first edition. note to the reader he states distinctly that the 

Cooper, however, in his epistle to the English English edition is from the original and is not a 

edition, says that he had seen the treatise in MS. retranslation of Langius' version, 
long before Langius had translated it, and in a 

Introitus Apertus ad occlusum Regis Palatium, Das ist : Offenstehender Eingang 
zu dem vormals verschlossenen Koniglichen Pallast. 
See CARDILUCIUS (JOHANN HISKIAS), Magnalia Medico-Chymica, 1676, p. 297. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 661. 
See MUSJEUM HERMETICUM, 1749, P- 647. 

Secrets Reveal'd : or, an Open Entrance to the Shut-Palace of the King : 
Containing, the greatest Treasure in Chymistry, Never yet so plainly 
Discovered. Composed by a most famous English-man, styling himself 
Anonymus, or Eyraeneus Philaletha Cosmopolita : who, by Inspiration and 
Reading, attained to the Philosophers Stone at his Age of Twenty three 
Years, Anno Domini, 1645. Published for the Benefit of all English-men, 
by W. C., Esq; a true Lover of Art and Nature. London, Printed by 
W. Godbid for William Cooper in Little St. Bartholomews, near Little- 
Britain, 1669. 

8. Pp. [2 blank] [13, i blank, 16], 120 [6, 2 blank]. 

Eroffneter Eingang zu defs Konigs verschlossenem Pallaste. 
See LANGE (JOHANN), Chymisches Zweyblatt, 1674, p. 9. 

See LANGE (JOHANN), Des hochgelehrten Philalethae und anderer auserlesene 
Chymische Tractatlein, 1748, p. 9 ; 1749, p. 9. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, i- P- 73- 

Traite" de 1'entr^e ouverte du palais ferm du roi. 

See LENGLET DUFRESNOY (NICOLAS), Histoire de la Philosophic Hermetique, 
1742, ii. p. 121. 

In Latin and French. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. p. i. 



PHILALETHA 



193 



PHILALETHA (EIREN^EUS). Continued. 
Explication de ce traite". 

See RICHEBOURG (J. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. p. 121. 

Experiences sur Poperation du mercure philosophique. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. p. 138. 

Principes, pour la Conduite de 1'Oeuvre hermetique. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. p. 174. 

Philaletha Illustratus, sive Introitus Apertus ad Occlusum Regis Palatium . . . 
explanatus. 

See FAUST (JOHANN MICHAEL), 1706. 

Ripley Reviv'd : or, an Exposition upon Sir George Ripley's Hermetico- 
Poetical Works. Containing the plainest and most excellent Discoveries 
of the most hidden Secrets of the Ancient Philosophers, that were ever yet 
Published. Written by Eirenaeus Philalethes an Englishman, stiling himself 
Citizen of the World. London, Printed by Tho. Ratcliff and Nat. 
Thompson, for William Cooper at the Pelican in Little-Britain. 1678. 

8. Pp. [i6][ 2 ] 4 7 [i, 2 blank]; [2] 389 [3]; [2] 10 [2 blank]; [2] 28 [a]; [4] 25 
[3] ; [3, i blank]. Engraved title included in the pagination. 

W. Cooper was the editor of this book and con- exposition upon Ripley's First six Gates of the 
tributed a couple of introductions and an advertise- Compound of Alchymie ; Experiments for the pre- 
ment in which he mentions Starkey's connection paration of the Sophick Mercury ; A Breviary of 
with Philaletha and gives a list of Philaletha's Alchemy ; An exposition upon Ripley's vision, 
writings. At the end Cooper has added in Latin : Porta 

The works contained in this volume are : An Prima. De Calcinatione Philosophica ; a chapter 
exposition upon Ripley's Epistle to King Edward belonging to Philaletha's Fans Chymicce Philosophic, 
IV. ; an exposition upon Ripley's Preface ; an which has been omitted by Birrius. 

Cyrenaei Philalethse Erklarung uber die Sechs Chymischen Pforten des beriihmten 
Englischen Philosophi Georgii Riplaei, sampt Eugenii Philalethas Euphrates, 
oder die Wasser von Auffgang, welches ist ein kurtzer Bericht von den 
geheimen Brunnen, dessen Wasser aus dem Feuer quillet, und bey sich die 
Strahlen der Sonnen und des Mondes fiihret, aufs dem Englischen in die 
Hoch-Teutsche Sprache iibersetzet durch J. L. M. C. Stockholm und 

Hamburg, Bey Gottfried Liebezeit Buchhandl. Im Jahr An. 1689. 
8. Pp. 384 [13, 3 blank]. 

Cyrenoeus seems to be merely a misprint for In the present work pp. 3-98 contain Lange's 

Eyrenaeus. The tract Euphrates by Eugenius translation of the Exposition on Ripley's Preface, 

Philalethes mentioned in the title is not contained and pp. 99 to the end the Exposition on Ripley's Six 

in this copy. It is to be observed that Johann Gates. 
Lange evidently discriminates between the two 
authors. 

Commentarius in Epistolam Georgii Riplsei. 

See PHILALETHA (iRENJEUS PHILOPONUS), Kern der Alchymie, 1685 

Explication de la lettre de George Riple'e a Edouard IV 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. 
p. 148. 

Epistola contra Philaletham. 

See HERTODT VON TODTENFELDT (JOHANN FERDINAND). 
II. N 



194 



PHILALETHA 



PHILALETHA (EIRENAEUS). Continued. 

All that is known about this author is that he 
wrote the Introitus in 1645, when he was 23 years 
old, having, at that early age, become an adept. 

But not only is his name not exactly known, but 
great doubt exists as to his identity. With a very 
large number of writers, they can hardly be called 
authorities, he is jumbled up with Eugenius Phila- 
lethes (g.v.), that is, Thomas Vaughan. By others 
his works are assigned to George Starkey (see 
British Museum Catalogue). In Die Edelgeborne 
Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 196, he is called Child, 
or Zheil, which appears to be merely a phonetic 
corruption, whereas Bacstrom says distinctly that 
his name was Winthorp and that he was Starkey's 
patron. With the ascription of the book to Child 
may be compared what Starkey says in the dedica- 
tion to Boyle of his Pyrotechny, that he was intro- 
duced to him by their " mutual friend, Dr. Robert 
Child." Kopp is not quite sure as to his identity 
with Vaughan. 

The greatest confusion of all is made in the 
Hermetisches A. B.C., vol. iii. All the works, 
both of Eirenaeus Philaletha and Eugenius Phila- 
lethes, except Aula Lucis, are there ascribed 
to a person whose name is given as Henry 
Vanghan (sic) which is doubly wrong. The name 
of Eirenasus Philaletha is not mentioned at all ! 
The Aula Lucis is assigned to Thomas Vanghan 

Morhof, De Metallorum Trans mutalione ad . . . 
Joelem Langelottum . . . Epistola, 1673, p. 143. 

William Cooper, A Catalogue of Chymicall 
Books, 1675, Part i. signs. Q 4 verso, Ri recto; Part 
ii. signs. C 4 verso Di verso. 

Mercklin, Lindenins renovatus, 1686, pp. 108 
(Ayreraeus (sic) Philalethes, author of the 'Enarratio 
Methodica '), 1060 (Philaletha, author of the ' In- 
troitus, &c.). 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1697, p. 38 (Philaletha, ' candidus, ingenueque 
disertus scriptor '). 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, Hamburg, 1702, p. 118 (first con- 
fuses Philaletha with Thomas Vaughan, and then 
condemns him). 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 196. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 499. (Manget, following Mercklin, 
makes a distinction between Philaletha, author of 
the ' Introitus,' &c. f and Ayreraeus (sic) Philalethes, 
author of the ' Enarratio methodica. ') 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca met allies, 

1732, p. in. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 402-10 ; reprint in Tome 
ii. iii. pp. 48, 73, 74, 261-266. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein , 1753, ii. pp. 111-114 
(Philaletha is very severely handled and is called 
the " most horrible lying spirit and sophist that 
was ever heard of or read about.") 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 88 (assigns 



(sic), brother of the aforesaid Henry. Henry 
Vaughan, who is presumably meant, has nothing 
to do with these writings. 

Schmieder knows nothing about the facts and 
talks a lot of nonsense, as he usually does under 
such circumstances. 

Waite confused Thomas Vaughan with Eirenaeus 
Philaletha, but afterwards in his edition of the 
Lives of the Adepts, London, 1888, p. 187, he 
altered his opinions, having apparently had his 
attention directed to Wood's Athena: by a writer in 
the Saturday Review. 

Will. Cooper, however, is quite clear on the 
subject. In his Catalogue of Chymicall Books, 1675, 
Part I., he distinguishes between Eugenius Phila- 
lethes, author of Anthroposophia Theomagica, etc., 
and Eir. Phil. Philalethes 'alias George Starkie,' 
and in Part II. between 'Eugenius Philalethes alias 
Thomas Vaughan,' Eir. Philalethes Cosmopolita, 
author of Secrets reveal 'd, and Eir. Phil. Philalethes 
author of the Marrow of Alchemy. As Cooper 
was a contemporary and seems to have known 
something personally of Starkey at least, perhaps 
the best course to pursue may be to accept what he 
says as the nearest approximation to the actual 
facts. 

The author otthtBtyfnyis in helpless confusion. 

all the tracts to Eugenius Philaletha, or Thomas 
de Vaughan, along with ' Lumen de Lumine '). 

Giildenfalk, Sammlung von mehr als hunderf 
wahrhaften Transmutationsgeschichten, 1784, pp. 
172, 287. 

Beytrag ztir Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 530, 621-2, 626, 630, 638. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1788, iii. Vorrede ; iv. pp. 49, 53. 
(Absolute confusion about Childe, Philaletha, and 
Thomas de Vagan.) 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 13. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 199 (Cyrenaeus Philaletha said to be D. 
Childe ; Ripley's Six Gates). 

Lives of the Adepts, 1815, p. 88; 1888, p. 187. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, pp. 
389, 601. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 207. 

Figuier, L'Alchimieet les Alchimistes, 1856, pp. 
276-286. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Onvctroff, Moscou, 1870, 
Nos. 1155-73, 1717-18 (mixes them all up). 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 200 ; ii. pp. 87, 
179, 33 6 . 34L 347- 362, 391. 

Waite, The Real History of the Rosicrucians, 
London, 1887, p. 308. 

Saturday Review, for Oct. 22, 1887, vol. Ixiv. p. 

567- 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 84 (Phila- 
lethes Cosmopolita Eirenaeus : Ripley reviv'd ; 
Enarratio methodica trium Gebri medicinarum. 
Three tracts of the great medicine of philosophers). 



PHILALETHA (!REN>EUS PHILOPONUS). 

Kern der Alchymie, das ist Ein durch Erfahrung bewahrter Tractat welcher 
eroffnet das geheime und hochverborgene Geheimniifs des Elixirs der Weisen, 
abgetheilet in zwey Theil worvon der erste fiirnehmlich die Theoriam der 
ander aber die Practicam der Kunst erklaret, in welchen die Kunst so deutlich 
eroffnet ist, als noch niemahls geschehen, zu Nutz und Dienst der jungen 
anfahenden Arbeiter, und zur Uberweisung derer, welche in dem Labyrinth 



PHILALETHAPHILALETHES 195 

PHILALETHA (!REN;EUS PHILOPONUS). Continued. 

der Irrthtimer verwirret sind. Geschrieben durch Irenap.um Philoponum 
Philaletham. Aus dem Englischen iibersetzt von Johann Langen. Leipzig, 
Verlegts Valentin Adler, 1685. 

8. Pp. [16] 206 (a misprint for 205) [i blank]. 

Anonymi Philalethae Commentarius in Epistolam Georgii Riplaei, Aus dem 
Englischen ins Teutsche ubersetzt von Johann Langen. Leipzig, Verlegts Valentin 
Adler, 1685. 

Pp. 62 [2 blank]. 

The first part is a translation of ' The Marrow The Commentary on George Ripley's Epistle is 
of Alchemy, by George Starkey, 1654, reprinted by Eirenaeus Philaletha. 
in A TRUE LIGHT of Alchymy, 1709, (</.v.). 

Marrow of Alchymy. 

See TRUE (A) Light of Alchymy, 1709. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorvm Chemicorum, Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
1697, p. 45, No. Ixxiv. Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 343. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 13. 

PHILALETHES (EUGENIUS). 

Anima Magica Abscondita; oder eine Rede von dem Allgemeinen Geiste der 
Natur, sampt dessen tieff-verborgenen, wunderbahren und merckwiirdigen 
AufT- und Nieder-steigen. Durch Eugenius Philalethes. 

Stapul: in Dion: Est autem Universum Speculum unum, ad quod 

astans amor suum efformat Idolum. 
Du a Digon : Heb Dhu, Heb Dhim. 
Aus dem Englischen ins Deutsche iibersetzet. Im Jahr 1704 [Amsterdam]. 

8. Pp. 83 [i blank], 

Anima magica abscondita. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, ' P- 122. 

Antroposophia Theomagica, das ist, eine Rede von der Natur des Menschen, 
und seinem Zustande nach dem Tode, an seines Schopfers erste Chymie 
gegriindet, und durch eine mit der Hand verrichtete Untersuchung derer 
Anfange der grossen Welt bekrafftiget von Eugenius Philaletha. 

Daniel. Viel werden hin und her lauffen, und die Erkantniiss wird 

vermehret werden. 

Zoroaster in Oracul. Hore die Stimme des Feuers. 

Aus dem Englischen ins Teutsche iibersetzet. Im Jahr 1 704 [Amsterdam]. 

8. Pp. 75 [i blank] 

The first edition in English was published at The German version was reprinted in the Archiv 

London in 1650, small 8, pp. [15, i blank] 70. f itr Freimdurer und Rosenkreutzer, Berlin, 1783, i. 

It is followed by Anima Magica Abscondita, 1650, p. 353. 
small 8, pp. [14] 56 [r, i blank]. 

Antroposophia magica. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii. p. 115. 

[Extract from Antroposophia Theomagica ] 

See MAGAZIN fur die hohere Natunvissenschaft und Chemie, 1787, ii. p. 301. 



196 PHILALETHES 

PHILALETHES (EUGENIUS). Continued. 
Aula lucis, oder das Haufs des Lichts. 

See CHYMISCH-UNTERIRDISCHER Sonnen-Glantz, 1728, p. 394. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1732, iii. 
p. 855. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii. p. 177. 

The original edition was published in London, Wood informs us, are the last letters of the author's 
1652, small 8, pp. [10] 39 (misnumbered 25) [12, name : Thomas VaughaN. This is the very rarest 
3 blank]. It bears the letters S. N. which, as of Vatighan's writings. 

Euphrates, oder die Wasser vom Aufgang. 

See PHILALETHA (CYREN^US), Erklarung, 1689. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. p. 415. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii. p. 134. 

Euphrates is mentioned on the title-page, but is London, 1655, small 8, pp. [2 blank, 13, i blank 
not contained in the above copy of the Erklarung. 124 [16 of advertisements] ; reissued, with a differ- 
The original English edition was published at ent title-page, 1671. 

Lumen de Lumine oder ein neues Magisches Liecht, geoffenbahret und der 
Welt mitgetheilet durch Eugenium Philalethen. 

Gen. I, 3. Und Gott sprach, es sey Liecht. 
Joh. I, 5. Und das Liecht scheinet in der Finsternis. 
Pythag. Ne loqvaris Deo absq; Lumine. 

Anietzo aus dem Englischen ins Teutsche iibersetzet, Von J. R. S. M. C. 
Hamburg, Bey Gottfried Liebezeit, Buchhandlern. Anno 1693. 

8. Pp. [12] 122 [5 blank, i epilogue]. 

The original English edition was published at strengthened by magical power shines through the 
London in 1651, small 8, pp. [16] 101 [i blank]. thickest midnight darkness" (!) * 

The comment in the Beytrag, is this : "A light Ladrague gives another edition : Hof, Joh. Gottl. 

Vierling, 1750, in 8, pp. 288. 

Lumen de Lumine, neues magisches Licht. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii. p. 151. 

[Extract from Lumen de Lumine.] 

See MAGAZIN fur die hohere Naturwissenschaft und Chemie, 1787, ii. p. 265. 

Magia Adamica oder das Alterthum der Magie als dererselben von Adam an 
herabwarts geleitete Erweisung, welcher eine gantz vollkommene Entdeckung 
des wahren Himmels, der Erden, oder derer Magorum himmlischen Chaos 
und erste Materia aller Dinge zugefiiget durch Eugenius Philaletha. 
Eyw S TI fBovXo/Jiat ; 



Anitzo aus dem Englischen ins Teutsche iibersetzet. Amsterdam, Gedruckt 
im Jahr Christi, 1704. 

8. Pp. 160. 

The original English edition was published at Magica Abscondila and the Anthroposoplria Theo- 

London, 1650, small 8, pp. [25, i blank] 140, magica have distinct title-pages and pagination 

along with ' The Man-Mouse.' they are intended to accompany this tract. 

Though the German translation of the Anima 

Magia Adamica oder Alterthum der Weisheit, oder Himmel der Erde. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, iii. p. 86. 



PHILALE THES PHILANDER 



i 97 



PH1LALETHES (EUGENIUS). Continued. 

The Second Wash : or The Moore Scour'd once more, Being a Charitable Cure 
for the Distractions of Alazonomastix. By Eugenius Philalethes. 

Loripedem rectus derideat, ^Ethiopem Albus. 
London, Printed by T. W. and are to be sold at the Castle in Cornhill. 1651. 

8. Pp. [18] 188. The leaf of Errata is wanting. 



Alazonomastix was Dr. Henry More of Cambridge. 
Vaughan having made remarks on his Psychodia 
Plalonica, he retorted by a criticism of Vaughan's 
Anthroposophia and Magia Adamica, in 1650, 
and Vaughan replied in the Man-Mouse taktn in a 
trap, London, 1650, small 8, pp. [ir, i blank] 116. 
More answered him in The Second lash, London, 
1651, and Vaughan followed with The Second 
Wash, as above. 

More's tracts were reprinted along with his 
Enthusiasmus Triumphatus, London, 1656, 8. 

It is a pretty specimen of vituperation, on both 
sides. On the whole Vaughan bears away the 
bell. 

Eugenius Philalethes is the pseudonym of Thomas 
Vaughan (1621-1665). 

For his life see Wood and the Dictionary 
of National Biography. 

He was an admirer and follower of Cornelius 
Agrippa, and wrote some verses which accompany 
Agrippa's portrait in his Anthroposophia Theo- 
magica, p. 53, and in the English translation 
of Agrippa's Occult Philosophy (q.v.). The verses 
are contained in the German translation, but not 
the portrait. 

A list of Vaughan's works is given by Wood and 
by Watt, copied by Allibone. 

Eugenius Philalethes has been identified with Eir- 
enasus Philaletha, the Cosmopolite, and from this 
has arisen a vast amount of confusion. His actual 
name is misspelled and he is called Thomas de 
Vagan ; an unconnected scribe's or printer's mistake 
makes him into Thomas Vanghan, and he is con- 
fused with Henry Vaughan (see HERMETISCHES 
A. B. C). 

Kopp is not sure whether he is the same as 
Eirenoeus Philaletha, ornot, and mlheBtytrag (1785) 
the works of the latter are erroneously ascribed to 

Wood, Athena; Oxonienses, 1721, ii. cols. 368- 
370 ; ed. Bliss, 1817, iii. cols. 722-726. 

Lenglet Dufrcsnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. pp. 264, 266. 

Matthias, Conspectus Historice Medicorum chrono- 
logicus, 1761, p. 651. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 88 (as- 
cribes the 'Iijtroitus,' etc., to Eug. Philalethes). 

Missiv an die hocherleuchtete Bruderschaft des 
Ordens des Goldenen und Rosenkreutses, 1783, 
p. 85. 

Beftftg sur Gescluchtc der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 644. 

Semler, Utiparteiische Samlungen zitr Historic 
der Rosenkreuser, 1786, i. p. 85 ; 1788, iii. p. 94 ; 

iv - P- S3- 
Gmelin, Geschtchte der CAemie, 1797, i. p. 619. 



him. Cohausen (Hermippits redivivus, 1748, p. 
86) ascribes the Introitus to Eugenius Philalethes, 
or Thomas Vaughan, and speaks of Starkey as an 
acquaintance of Philalethes, so that the confusion 
here is palpable. 

Waite, The Real History of the Rosicrucians, 
Lond., 1887, p. 308, also confused them, but after- 
wards corrected his statements in the new edition 
of the Lives ofAlchemystical Philosophers, 1888, p. 
187, and also in his edition of The Magical Writ- 
ings of Thomas Vaughan, London, 1888, small 4, 
with a biographical notice taken from Antony 
Wood and from a MS. diary of Vaughan's. 

In addition to the magical and the controversial 
books the name of Eugenius Philalethes is prefixed 
to the Fame and Confession of the Fraternity of 
R.C. [i.e. Rosy Cross], London, 1652, small 8, 
pp. [14, 55, i blank] 64 ; io A brief Natural History 
. . . and Observations of the burnings of Mount 
sEtna . . ., London, 1669, small 8, pp. [14] 120, 
which is possibly not his ; and he has also the 
credit of the translation of Nollius' Chymists Key,, 
London, 1655, and of Michael Maier's Themis 
Aurea, London, 1656, small 8, pp. [2 blank, 14] 
120 [2 blank], though this last is probably not by 
him either. 

Eugenius Philalethes is highly commended by 
Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, i. p. 124, but the 
value of his commendation has the gloss taken off 
by his inaccuracy. For he calls the author Henry 
Vanghan (stc\) of Breknot (sic\), and yet he 
ascribes the A ula Lucis to Thomas Vanghan and 
quotes Wood's A thence, ii. p. 369 ! Can he have 
read this authority? Fictuld calls him a learned 
man and warns his readers not to confuse him with 
Eirenius (sic) Philaletha, who was a sophist and 
deceiver. 



Murr, Vber den wahren Ursprung der Rosen- 
kreuser und des Freimaurerordens, 1803, p. 78. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteralur, 
1806-08, pp. 198, 220, 300. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1821, (authors) ii. 



Kloss, Bibliographic der Frcimaurerei, 1844, No, 
2435 (' Fame and Confession '). 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarojf, Sciences 
Secretes, Moscou, 1870, Nos. 1163-64, 1167-68, 
1717-18. 

Allibone, A critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1877, iii. p. 2513. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 310, 888, 390. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1899, Iviii. p. 
181. 



PHILANDER (JOACHIM). 

Das Goldene Kalb, ein Gotzenbild der Anbetung. Oder Physico-Critico- 
Patheologico Moralische Untersuchung der Natur und Wirkung des Goldes, 
welche die wunderbare Kraft, die es iiber die Gemiither der Menschen hat, 
und die erstaunenswiirdigen Veranderungen, so es darinn verursachet, 



198 PHILANDER PHILOSOPHY 

PHILANDER (JOACHIM). Continued. 

anzeiget. Nebst einer Nachricht von den Wundern des Psychoptischen 

Spiegels, der neulich erfunden ist von Joachim Philander, M.A. 
Consuluit melius, qui prsecipit ut facias rem, 
Si possis, recte, uerum quocunque modo rem. Hor. 

Aus dem Englischen iibersetzet. Hamburg, in der Hertelschen Handlung, 

im Dom. 1745. 

8. Pp. [2] 318 [4], Vignette : A calf on a pillar, with people of various ranks 
and professions adoring it. 

A satirical work. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 
p. 669. ( ' Probably the author has ploughed with 546. 
the Calf of Helvetius or Schweitzer '). 

PHILARETES (HONORIUS). 

Honorl Philaretis Hermopolitani Jager-Lust oder Philosophischer Nymphen- 
Fang, das ist : Griindliche und aufsfiihrliche Beschreibung des uhralten Steines 
der Weisen, In welcher nicht allein desselben Art, Natur, und Eigenschafft, 
sondern gantzliche Preparation, (neben alien dazu gehorenden Sachen) Wiirde, 
Hoheit, endliche Wirckung and Tugend, Allen rechtschaffenen Kunstliebenden 
Hertzen zu gute, und mercklicher Befoderung ihres Vorhabens, Philoso- 
phischer Art und Poetischer Freyheit nach, zwar einfaltig doch klar und aufs- 
driicklich, beschrieben, mit den furnehmsten Philosophis und ihren Schrifften 
bekrafftigt, und auff eine Newe Manier in einer anmuhtigen Jagt vorgestellet 
und begriffen ist. Hamburg, In Verlegung Georg Wulff, Buchandl. in S. 
Johannis Kirch, Im Jahr 1679. 

4. Pp. [16] 88. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, p. 13) quotes this book, but misnames the author 
p. 631. Gmelin (Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. ' Honorius Philalethes Hermopolitanus.' 

PHILARETUS (ANASTASIUS), Cosmopolita. 

See MORSIUS (JOACHIM). 

See NOLLIUS (HEINRICH), Via Sapientias Triuna, 1620. 

PHILOCHIMICUS, i.e. Jean Menudier. 

See GLASER (CHRISTOPHLE), Chymischer Wegweiser, 1710. 

PHILOCTETES (IREN^US). 

Philadelphia oder briiderliche Liebe fur die Liebhaber der Hermetischen Wissen- 
schaft. Eine Schrift, worinne die Grundsatze der Hermetischen Philosophic 
mit aller Aufrichtigkeit und auf das deutlichste endekt werden von Irenaeus 
Philoctetes. . . . Nach dem Englischen Original iibersetzt. 

See HERMETISCHES MUSEUM, 1785, Hi. p. 37- 

PHILOPISTIUS. 

See AGRICOLA (DANIEL), Philopistius, Galerazeya, 1631. 

PHILOSOPHE. 

Traite d'un Philosophe inconnu, sur 1'ceuvre Hermetique revu et elucide par le 
Disciple Sophisee, sous les auspices des Cohermeites, Philovites & Christophiles. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. 
p. 461. 



PHlLOSOPtfIA PHILOSOPHISCHE \ 99 

PHILOSOPHIA die edle Kunst. 

See VIER aufserlesene Teutsche Chemische Biichlein, 1697, p. 244. 
See VIER unterschiedene Chymische Tractatlein, 1772, p. 40. 

PHILOSOPHIA (De) Metallorum, Tractatus. 

See BERNAUD (NICOLAS), Quadriga Aurifera, 1599, p. ir. 

PHILOSOPHIA Salomonis, oder: Geheimes Cabinet der Natur und Kunst des 
weisen Koniges Salomons eroffnet dutch den sogenannten Grossen und 
Kleinen Bauer. 

See GRASSHOFF (jOHANN). 

PHILOSOPHICAL (A) Riddle of Gold, in Verse. 

See AURIFONTINA CHYMICA, l68o, p. 1 8$. 

PHILOSOPHICI Lapidis Secreta. 

See ARTIS AURIFERA . . . volumina, 1610, i. p. 249. 
See GIN/ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, P- 566. 
See GEBER, Summa Perfectionis, 1682, p. 261. 
See GEHEIMNUSS des Philosophischen Steins. 
See GEHEIMNISS vom Stein der Weisen. 

PHILOSOPHIE Naturelle. 

See DIVERS TRAITEZ de la Philosophic Naturelle, 1672. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE (Das) Auge in der Chymie. 
See G. (F. A.), 1751. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE Betrachtung von der Materia Lapidis, und seiner Bereitung. 
See BASILIUS VALENTINUS, Triumphwagen Antimonii, 1624, p. 512. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE Brieftasche. 

See UNVORSICHTIG (Die) verlohrne aber doch gliicklich wiederum gefiindene 
Philosophische BriefT-Tasche. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE (Die) Hand. 

See HORTULANUS (JUSTUS SIMPLICIUS), 1719. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE (Der) Perl-Baum. 

See WALCHIN (DOROTHEA JULIANA), 1722. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE Regeln oder Canones. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Pandora, 1608, p. 216. 

See ABRAHAM (ELEAZAR), Uraltes Chymisches Werk, 1760, part ii., p. 87. 

PHILOSOPHISCHE Schaubiihne. 
See BENTZ (ADOLPH CHRISTOPH). 

PHILOSOPHISCHE (Das) Vaterherz. 

See HERMETISCHES A. B. C., 1779, ii. p. 56. 
See EROFFNETE (Das) Philosophische Vaterherz. 



2CX5 PHILOSOPHISCHEN PHILOSOPHISCHES 

PHILOSOPHISCHEN Wasser (Von dem). 

See VIER aufserlesene Teutsche Chemische Biichlein, 1697, p. 71. 

See AUSERLESENER (Ein) herrlicher Tractat von dem philosophischen Wasser, 
1772. 

PHILOSOPHISCHEN (Von) Werck des Steins der Weisen. 

See H. (E.) Ein ausflihrlicher Tractat von philosophischen Werck &c., 1702. 

PHILOSOPHISCHER Haupt-Schliissel iiber Fratr. Basilii Valentini seine XII. 
Chymische Schliissel. 
See PHILOSOPHISCHES LIGHT und Schatten, 1738, No. iii. 

PHILOSOPHISCHER Nymphen.Fang. 

See PHILARETES (HONORIUS). 

PHILOSOPHISCHER Phoenix. 
See RIST (JOHANN), 1668. 

PHILOSOPHISCHER (Ein) vnd Chemischer Tractat: genannt Der kleine 
Baur. 1619. 
See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN). 

PHILOSOPHISCHES BLEY. 
Von dem Philosophischen Bley. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii., 1598, p. 211. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemise, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, 

P- 37i. 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 319. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 371. 

PHILOSOPHISCHES Hermetisches Kleinod. 

See MENSENRIET, 1737. 

I. PHILOSOPHISCHES Licht und Schatten oder Ausfiihrlicher Unterricht de 
Prima Materia Lapidis Philosophorum, Worinne klahr, deutlich und mit 
vielen rationibus, Beweifs-Griinden, angestellten Experimentis und aus eigener 
Experienz gelehret und gezeuget wird 

I. Welche Objecta man hierbey zu vermeiden 

II. Welches Subjectum man zu eligiren, wie die prima materia, und endlich 
Lapis Philosophorum hieraus zu prsepariren und zu multipliciren. Deme als 
eine Zugabe beygefuget ein wahres Particular, oder eine schone Tinctura, und 
Citrination der Lunse, welche die Coleur jederzeit auf der Capell bestandig 
behalt, hoch als Ducaten-Gold, geschmeidig und ziehig hieroglyphice vorge- 
stellet. Leipzig und Nordhausen, Bey Johann Heinrich Grofs, Buchhandler 
Anno 1738. 

8. Pp. 46 [2 blank], 

II. Pleiades Philosophies Rosianae oder Philosophisches Sieben-Gestirn der 
Rosen-Creutzer, bestehend in 7. sehr geheimen und vortreflichen Processen 
das Universal betreffend. Wie solche per Testamentum von dem seel. 




^x* 
PHILOSOPHISCHES PHILOTHEUS ioi 

PHILOSOPHISCHES Licht und Schatten. Continued. 

Autore, so ein wahrer Possessor gewesen des Lapidis Philosophorum einem 
guten Freunde vermacht in einer mit Golde geschriebenen Schrifft auf Per- 
gament, von welcher man solches Verbotenus abgeschrieben, und auf instan- 
diges Ansuchen vieler Liebhaber dem Publico zum besten in Druck gegeben ; 
Deme beygefiiget D. J. W. so das Mineralische Gluten geschrieben, richtiger, 
wahrer u. sehr geheim gehaltener Grosser Universal-Procefs, wie solcher von 
dem Autore selbst einem Amtmann, bey dem er logiret, und es selbst 
elaboriret, communiciret worden. Leipzig und Nordhausen, 1738. 

Pp. 56. 

III. Pilosophischer (sic) Haupt-Schliissel iiber Fratr. Basilii Valentini seine 
xn Chymische Schliissel, worinne 

I. Die Parabeln und Gleichnifse expliciret werden, 

II. Gelehret wird, wie a) nach dem alien langen Wege aus dem gemeinen 
Golde und dann b) nach dem kurtzen Wege aus dem philosophischen Golde 
der Lapis Philosophorum zu pnepariren. Deme beygefiiget Francisci Clingii, 
J. U. D. niitzliche Anweisung und Explication iiber Basilii Valentini Chymische 
Schrifften, auf was Weise solche niitzlich konnen gelesen und verstanden 
werden. Leipzig und Nordhausen Bey Johann Heinrich Grofs Buchhandler. 
Anno 1738. 

Pp. 72. 

D. J. W. denotes Dorothea Juliana Walchin. 

PHILOSOPHISCHES Ratzel an die Kinder der Wahrheit. 
See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

PHILOSOPHISCHES Ratzel in Teutsche Reimen gebracht. 

See ZESEN VON FURSTENAU (FILIP). 

PHILOSOPHISCHES (Ein) Werck und Gesprach vom gelben und rotten Mann. 
See MELCHIOR, Episcopus Brixiensis. 

PHILOSOPHUS CALLUS ANONYMUS. 
See INSTRUCTIO de Arbore Solari. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Hermitiqw, 1742, iii. pp. 39, 267. 

PHILOSOPHUS CALLUS DELPHINAS. 
Liber Secreti Maximi totius mundanse gloriae. 

See BARNAUD (NICOLAS), Triga Chemica, 1599, p. 25. 
See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 774- 

PHILOSOPHUS MIRABILIS. 

See LULLIUS (RAIMUNDUS). 

PHILOTHEUS DE LIMITIBUS. 

Das Hermetische Triklinium oder drei Gesprache vom Stein der Weisen von 
Philotheus de Limitibus. Aus dem Lateinischen iibersezt und mit Anmer- 
kung begleitet von J. J. Grienstein. Zweites Werkchen. Philadelphia, 1792. 
8. Pp. [16] 172 [a, 2 blank]. Frontispiece extra. 4 vignettes. 



202 PHILOVITE ^ ICO 



PHILOVITE. 

Lettre Philosophique de Philovite a He'liodore. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. 
p. 511. 

Enigmes et Hieroglifs physiques, qui sont au Grand Portail de 1'Eglise . . . de 
Notre Dame de Paris . . . Le tout recueilli des Ouvrages d'Esprit Gobineau 
de Montluisant, . . . Par un Amateur des Verite's Hermetiques, dont le nom 
est ici en Anagramme. Philovita, 6, Uraniscus. 

See RICHEBOURG (j. M. D.), Bibliotheque des Philosophes Chimiques, 1754, iv. 
PP- 37-393- 

Philovite was the author of another tract : La deni hermetischen Brunnen hervorquellende Wahr- 

VeYite" sortant du puits hermetique oil; la vraye heit, . . . Leipzig, 1783. In the original the author 

quintessence solaire et lunaire, baume radical de says that he has no wish but to be unknown and 

tout estre, et origine de tout vie, confection de la he therefore calls himself ' Philovite. * * * * cosmo- 

Me'decine universelle. Londres, 1753 (Paris, 1783), cole.' He appears as 'Philovita, 6, Uraniscus' 

12. It was translated into German by AdaMah and as ' Ph. . . . Ur. ..." 
Booz (that is Adam Melchior Birkholz) : Die aus 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1309, 1319-22, 1482. 

PHOENIX Alchymi33. 

See BENEDICTUS (LIBERIUS), Liber Aureus, 1630, p. 102. 
See HERMETISCHE (DER) PHILOSOPHUS, 1709, p. 75. 

PHOENIX Philosophica. 

See CANDIDA Phoenix Philosophica, 1680. 

PHOENIX (Philosophischer). 
See RIST (JOHANN), 1668. 

The phoenix plays a marked part in alchemical literature, and its name occurs in the titles of the 
symbolism, repeated references to it occur in the above and of some other books. 

Maier, Symbola Aurees Mensce, 1617, pp. 29, Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. pp. 114-115. 

33, 151, 197, 434, 562, 568, 597-598, 599, 603-607. Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Joseph Pellicer de Salas y Tobar, El Fenix y su pp. 614, 632, 633. 

Historia natural, Madrid, 1630, fio letra E. Ladrague, BibliothequeOuvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 

(meaning of the phoenix in alchemy, and a criticism 1870, No. 1046-7, 1263. 

of alchemy itself). Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 381. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 42. 

PHYSIC A Exotica, seu Arcana Naturae, et Artis. Continens selecta, curiosa, 
jucunda, & omni fere hominum statui utilissima. In eorum gratiam denuo 
edita qui amsena aequfc ac prodigiosa ejusdem utilitate delectantur. 
Cassoviae, Typis Collegii Academici Soc. Jesu, A. 1767. 

12. P P . I8 3 [ 9 ]. 

This is a collection of receipts and secrets relat- mestic animals, insects, &c. , and at the end there is a 
ing to colours, to plants, trees, fruits, to liquors, short vocabulary of technical names, chiefly of plants, 
metals, the art of fire, medicine and surgery, to do- in Latin, Hungarian, German and Bohemian. 

PICO (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO). 

loannis Francisci Pici Mirandulse, et Concordiae Domini, Libri III. De Auro. 
Opus sane Novum ac Aureum, in quo de Auro turn aestimando, turn con- 
ficiendo, turn vtendo, ingeniose ac docte disseritur : Accessit Bernhardi 
Comitis Antiqui Treuirensis, Philosophi experimentissimi He/at X?//iias Opus 
Historicum dogmaticum, ex Gallico in Latinum simpliciter versum, & nunc 



Pico 



203 



PICO (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO). Continued. 

primum in lucem editum. Cum explicatione perutili Sr periucunda com- 
plurium tarn Philosophic, quam facultatis Medicae arcanorum. Impressum 
Vrsellis, impensis Cornelii Sutorii. M.D.XCVIII. 

8. Pp. 13 [3 blank] ; 223 [i blank]. 

Opus Aureum de Auro. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. p. 312. 

See MANGET (j. j.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 558. 



Joannes Franciscus, a nephew of the great 
Joannes Picus Mirandulanus, and son of Galeotti 
one of the most learned men of his time, was born 
about 1469. He devoted himself to philosophy and 
theology, on which he wrote many treatises. 

In spite of all his excellent qualities, he failed to 
gain the goodwill of his subjects, and his brother, 
Ludovicus, often made war on him, expelled him 
in 1500, and held the Castle of Mirandula for 10 
years. On his death Joannes Franciscus and Pope 
Julius II. besieged the castle and took it from the 
widow in January, 1511. Before the end of the 
year he was driven out again ; then he recovered it, 
and so remained continually fighting with the 
widow and her son for the possession of the castle 
till 1533, when the castle was surprised in the night 
by the nephew, Galeotti II., along with forty armed 
men. Joannes Franciscus and his son were killed, 
the former while praying before a crucifix. His 
wife and grandchildren were thrown into horrible 
prisons and Galeotti usurped the principality. 

Paolo Giovio, Le Inscrittioni paste sotto le verc 
imagini degli Huominifaniosi in Lettere. Venetia, 
1558, p. 182. 

Leander Albert!, Descriptio totius Italia, 
Coloniae, 1567, p. 557. 

Paolo Giovio, Elogia Virorum literis illustrium, 
X S77. P- I0 3 ( no portrait). 

Jo. Matth. Toscanus, Peplus Italia, Lutet., 1578, 
p. 51, No. Ixxxiii. 

Andr6 Thevet, Pourtraits et Vies des Hommes 
illustres, 1584, ff. 518-521 (treats both of the uncle 
and nephew, with a portrait of the uncle). 

Maier, Symbola Aurecs Menses, 1617, p. 616. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 269. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 187. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 582. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 764 (no portrait). 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, P- 3 2 . No. xlix. 

Mpller, Homonymo-Scopia, 1697, p. 711. 

Reimmann, Einleitung in die Historiam literari- 
atn derer Teutschen, 1713, vi. p. 589. 

Papadopolus, Historia Gymnasii Patavini, 1726, 
ii. p. 42. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 273 
(instances of transmutation). 

Paul us Colomesius, Italia et Hispania Orientalis, 
Hamburg!, 1730, pp. 46-51. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 339. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 

1732, pp. 102, in. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. p. 97 (I. i. ii. 3); 
I. p. 40 (II. i. 7. 16). 

Jacob Brucker, Kurtzc Fragen aus der Philoso- 
phischen Historic, Ulm, 1734, v. pp. 1449, 1456. 



Joannes Franciscus was a great admirer of his 
uncle, of whom he wrote a life, but he had not the 
uncle's phenomenal ability or his prodigious 
memory. 

His only alchemical work was this on gold. It 
was written so early as 1515 and in it he endeavours 
to prove the possibility of the transmutation of 
metals both speculatively and historically by actual 
cases, of some of which he himself was eye-witness. 

The first edition of this book, which is said to 
have become now very rare, has this title : lo. 
Francisci Pici Mirandulae et Concordiae Domini, 
De Auro Libri Tres. Opus sane aureum in quo de 
Auro turn aestimando, turn conficiendo, turn vtendo 
ingenios6 & docte disseritur. Cum explicatione 
perutili & periocunda complurium, tarn Philosophig 
quim facultatis Medicas arcanorum. Cum Privi- 
legio. Venetiis, Apud loannem Baptistam Somas- 
chum. MDLXXXVI. Small f. pp. [8] 131 
[i blank]. The book appeared also at 1-errara, 
1587, 8. 

Niceron, Memoires, 1736, xxxiv. pp. 147-156. 
Stolle, Anleitung sur Historic der Gelahrheit, 

I73 6 . PP- 413. 414- 

Hauber, Bibliotheca Ada et Scripta Magica, 
Lemgo, 1739, ii. (St. xx.), pp. 508-514 (review of 
his work ' Strix '). 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 61. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetiquc, 1742, i. pp. 270, 471 ; iii. pp. 51, 73, 
267. 

Joh. Vogt, Catalogus hislorico-crilicus librorum 
rariorum, Hamburgi, 1747, ed. tertia, p. 531 (1586 
ed. ' Libris omnium rarissimis adnumeratur in 
Catal. Biblioth. Heukelom-Akerslopt, P. ii. p. 81.') 

Freytag, Analecta litteraria, Lipsios, 1750, p. 
689 (quotes what Vogt says about the rarity of the 
first edition). 

Jbcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1 552 ; Rotermund's Fortsetsung und Ergant- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 140. 

Brucker, Historia critica philosophies, 1766, IV. 
i. p. 60. 

Les Bibliothiques Francoises de la Croix du 
Maine et de Du Verdier, ed. Juvigny, 1773, iv. 
(Du Verdier, II.) p. 493. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 87. 

Riccardo Bartoli, In Jo. Franciscum Picum 
praeclari ingeniorum phanicis Nefotem ad excel- 
lentissimum preetorem virosque illustrissimps 
Mirandulano Lyceo prosfeclos Allocutio, Bononiae 
MDCCXCIII. 8 Q , pp. 54 [2]. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 163. 

Fuchs, Kepertorium der Chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 38. 

Tiraboschi, Storia delta Letteratura Italiana, 
1810, VII. i. p. 397; ii. pp. 442-446. 

Ginguene, Histoire Litteraire de Fltalie, 1819, 
vii. p. 461. 



io4 PICOPLAtilS CAMPY 

PICO (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO). Continued. 

Grasse, Lehrbuch einer allgemeinen Lilerdr- Nouvelle Biographic Gdnlrale, 1866, xl. col. 47. 

geschichte, II. ii. pp. 386-388, 699; III. ii. pp. 774, Kopp, Beitrcige zur Geschichte der Chemie, 1869, 

939, 972, 1019. i. pp. 13, 14. 

Biographie Universcllc^ 1821, xxix. p. 125 ; no Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

date, xxviii. p. 381. Secretes, 1870, No. 877. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 259. Kopp, Die Alchcmie, 1886, i. p. 217; ii. 229. 

Stockl, Geschichte der PhilosophiedesMittelalters, 
1866, iii. p. 179. 

PILGRAM. 

See LEITUNGS-FADEN (Der) zu dem Chymischen und Alchymischen Labyrinth, 
1691. 

A pseudonym taken by the author of this tract. 

PITSCHKI (GEORG). 

Zenexton, vel Mercurius coagulatus, oder eigentliche Beschreibung, was fur 
eine gloriosa & arcana Medicina, oder herrliche Wunder-Artzney das coagulirte 
Qvecksilber sey, daraus die so genannten Flufs- Praeservativ- Pest- und Wunder- 
Ringe oder Bleche gemacht werden, aus den Welt-beriihmtesten alten und 
neuen Medicis zusammen gezogen und auf Begehren zum gemeinen Besten 
ans Liecht gestellet, von Georgio Pitschki. Gedruckt im Jahr Christi 1678. 

4. Pp. M. 

There are some remarks on ' Zenexton ' in Hermann Peters' A us Pharmazeutischer Vorzeit in Bild und 
Wort, Berlin, 1886, pp. 160, 162. 

PLAIN (A) and true description of the Treasure of Treasures, or the Golden 
Medicine. 

See AURIFONTINA CHYMICA, 1680, p. 97. 

PLANIS CAMPY (DAVID DE). 

Bouquet compose des plus belles Fleurs Chimiques. Ou ajencement des 
preparations, & experiences es plus rares secrets, & Medicamens Pharmaco 
Chimiques; prins de Mineraux, Animaux, & Vegetaux. Le tout par vne 
methode tres-facile, & non commune aux Chimiques ordinaires. Par David 
de Planis Campy, dit L'Edelphe, Chirurgien du Roy. A Paris. Chez 
Pierre Billaine, rue S. lacques, a la Bonne Foy. M. DC. XXIX. Avec 
Priuilege du Roy. 

12. Pp. [2] 591-1005 [2, i blank]. Contains a Chemical Dictionary and Tables of 
Characters at the end. 
This is only the second half of the ' Bouquet ' and will be found in the Oeuvres, p. 518. 

L'Hydre Morbifique exterminee par 1'Hercule Chimique. Ou les sept Maladies 
tenues pour incurables iusques a present, rendues guerissables par 1'Art Chimique 
Medical. Ou est traicte briefuement de leur definition, causes, differences, 
signes, pronostic & Cure. Le tout selon 1'ancienne & moderne Medecine, 
diuise en sept liures. Par David de Planis Campy, diet 1'Edelphe, Chirurgien 
du Roy. Dedie' au Tres-Chrestien Roy de France & de Nauarre, Louys Le 
luste, XIII. du nom. A Paris, Chez Herve du Mesnil, rue S. lacques, a la 
Samaritaine. M.DC.XXVIII. Avec Priuilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. [46] 576. Portrait of the author on eij verso. Wants the engraved title. 

Oeuvres, p. 142. 

[Another Copy.] 

8. Pp. [46] 376. Wants the portrait, but has the engraved title. 



PLANTS CAMPY PLATNER 



205 



PLANTS CAMPY (DAVID DE). Continued. 

L'ouuerture de 1'escolle de Philosophic Transmutatoire Metallique, ou, la plus 
saine et veritable explication & consiliation de tous les Stiles desquels les 
Philosophes anciens se sont seruis en traictant de 1'oeuure Physique, sont 
amplement declarees. Par David de Planis Campy, Chirurgien du Roy. 
A Paris, chez Charles Sevestre, rue des Amandiers, au Pelican pres le College 
des Grassins. M.DC.XXXIII. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. [36] 185 [3]. Engraved title and portrait included in the pagination. 
Woodcut on the verso of the last leaf. 

Oeuvres, p. 663. 

[Traicte" de la vraye, vnique, grande et vniverselle Medecine des Anciens, dite 
des recens Or Potable.] 

Pp. [18] 163 [i]. Wants the title-page. [1633.] 8. 
Oejtvres, p. 617. 



De Planis Campy's name seems to have disap- 
peared from the history of pharmacy and medicine, 
yet he was councillor and surgeon in ordinary to 
Louis XIV. He was born in 1589 and died about 

1644, Besides the works above specified he wrote 
several on medicine which are enumerated by 
Haller, and are all printed in the Oeuvres de David 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Catalogus . . . 
Annis 1643 6* 1644 inclusiue excussorum, Paris, 

1645, P- 69- 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia 
Parisina, hoc est, Catalogus omnium l.ibrorum, 
Parisiis, Anno 1645, inclusiul excusorum, Paris, 

1646, p. 40 (' Les Oeuvres,' Paris, 1646). 
Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 

1697, p. 37, No. Ivi. 

James Douglas, Bibliographies Anatomicts Speci- 
men, 1734, p. 257. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 647. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 393, 479 ; iii. p. 268. 

Portal, Histoire de I 'Anatomie et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, ii. p. 427. 



de Planis Campy, Paris, 1646, fol. The licence is 
dated 1644, and the book was printed after his 
death. 

Rotermund just mentions his name and quotes 
some medical writings, Petite chimie medicinale, 
Par., 1621, 4 ; and his Opera, 1646, but none of 
the above. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 307. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1777, ii. 
P- 495- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 508, 
568. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu . . . 
Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, vi. col. 
350- 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 332 ; 
1869, ii. p. 323. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. 1616. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 377. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 350. 



PLATNER QOHANN ZACHARIAS). 

See DIETZE (DAVID GOTTLOB), De Generatione Metallorum, 1717. 



Plainer was born at Chemnitz, 16 August, 1694. 
His father, one of the chief merchants of the town 
and burgomaster, had designed that the son should 
succeed him in what had become a hereditary 
business. Before doing it, however, young Plainer 
wished to have a good educalion and take his 
courses in the humanilies and philosophy. His 
parents consented, and, in consideration of his 
delicate constitution and the progress he had 
already made, allowed him lo pursue ihe study of 
medicine. He began at Leipzig in 1712, remained 
there till 1715 and removed lo Halle. During Ihis 
winler he pursued melallurgy at Chemnitz, returned 
lo Halle and gradualed 25 Sepl., 1716. 

To perfect himself in his knowledge and experi- 
ence he Iravelled, visiting the German Universities 
and then passing on to Lyons, Switzerland and 
Savoy. He returned to Paris for anatomy and 
surgery, and devoted himself especially lo opera- 
tions on the eye and became an adept in this branch 
of surgery. 

When he left Paris he journeyed to Holland, and 



visiled Boerhaave and Albinus at Leyden and 
reached Chemnitz in 1719. 

The prospect of promotion took him to Leipzig 
in 1720. He was made extraordinary professor of 
anatomy and surgery, in 1721 ; in 1724 he was 
advanced to ihe chair of physiology in succession 
to Rivinus, in 1734 to be ordinary professor of 
surgery and anatomy, and in 1737 to the chair of 
pathology. In 1736 he was senior professor of 
medicine, was appointed perpetual Dean of the 
Medical Facully, and in 1747 Councillor of the court 
of Saxony, and professor of therapeutics. 

He died suddenly 19 Dec., 1747 (1748), in con- 
sequence of a violent attack of asthma. 

His works all relate to medicine, surgery and 
anatomy, and lists of his numerous programmes 
and disputations are given by Rotermund, Billings, 
the Biographie mtdicale, and other authorilies. 

His unique and praclically complele library 
of medicine and especially of surgery was unfortun* 
alely dispersed after his death. 

His portraits are mentioned by Moehsen. 



206 



PLA TNER-PLA TT 



PLATNER (JOHANN ZACHARIAS). Continued. 



Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 437. 

Biographic Universelle, 1823, xxxv. p. 31 ; no 
date, xxxiii. p. 491. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1828, v. 
PP- 7S 2 - 79 8 > 8l 7, 839. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mide- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 724. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic M^dicale, 1855, ii. 

P- 255- 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-Uterarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 468. 

Nouvelle Biographic GtSnlrale, 1866, xl. col. 420. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 680. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 

587. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, 1888, xxvi. p. 
262 (article by Hirsch). 

Dictionnaire Encyclopfdiqiie des Sciences Afe'di- 
cales, 2eme SeYie, 1888, xxvi. p. i. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 356. 



Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce inetallicce, 
1732, p. 112. 

Jb'cher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, 
iii. col. 1624; R.otermund.'sf'or/setzungund'JErffdnz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 367 (list of 32 dissertations, 
programmata, etc.). 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historiqite de la Me'decine, 
1755, ii. p. 289 j 1778, iii. p. 585. 

Portal, Histoire de I' Anatomic et de la Chirur- 
%ie, 1770, v. p. 23. 

Moehsen, Verzeichnis einer Samlung von Bild- 
nissen, 1771, Th. ii. p. 106. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 65. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 101. 

J. F. Blumenbach, Introductio in Historiam 
Medicince Litterarium, 1786, p. 366 ('Vir elegan- 
tissime doctus'). 

Job. Aug. Ernesti, Denkmaler und Lobschriften 
auf verdienstvolle Manner, Leipzig, 1792, pp. 162- 
180. 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Literar- 
geschichtt der Medicin, 1792, p. 389, 302. 

Der Biograph, Halle, 1807, vi. pp. 59-76 (a good 
biographical sketch). 

PLATO. 

Libri Quartorum, seu Stellici, cum commento Hebuhabeo Hamed, explicata ab 
Hestole. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1660, v. p. ioi. See also p. 801. 
See ANNULUS Platonis. 
See NAXAGORAS (EHRD VON). 

Maier assures us that ' Plato chymicus ' is neither 
Latin nor Greek, but Arabian, and he quotes 
various dicta by him, and references to him, as in 
the Rosarius major, and by Calid and others. 

A person of this name was known to Stephanus 
Alexandrinus (Pizimenti, Democrilus, 1573, f. 59 
recto). 

The name of Plato, as Kopp correctly observes, 
occurs in the book by Albertus Magnus De Mincr- 
alibus et rebus metallicis (Lib. i. c. 4 ; Lib. ii. c. 
2 ; ed. 1541 with Lullius De secretis nature?, f. 66 

Michael Maier, Symbola Aurece Menses, 1617, p. 
218. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
HermMque, 1742, iii. p. 56. 

PLATT (HUGH). 

Remedies against Famine. 

See COLLECTANEA CHYMICA, 1684, p. 

Sir Hugh Platt was born in 1552, matriculated at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 12 Nov., 1568, and 
took the degree of B.A. in 1571-2, after which he 
became a member of Lincoln's Inn and published 
a volume of apophthegms and poetry. 

He did not pursue literature, however, but 
turned to natural science and practical invention 
and agriculture, making many experiments and 
becoming famous, as Harte points out, for the 
number of fertilizing agents which he introduced. 
The agricultural and horticultural experiments 
were carried on at Bishop's Hall, Bethnal Green, 
and at St. Martin's Lane. 

In 1594 he published an account of his inventions 
in 'The Jewell House of Art and Nature, ' and in 
other tracts, and his receipts in domestic economy 
were collected in his little volume : ' Delights for 
Ladies," first published by Peter Short in 1602, 12. 



recto, f. 87 verso), but it seems to me that it is the 
philosopher to whom reference is made and not to 
an alchemist of the same name. 

Schmieder is of opinion that the present writer 
cannot possibly be confused with the Greek ; but 
at the same time he does not doubt that Plato is the 
author's own name, and not a pseudonym. 

Kopp, on the other hand, seems disposed to 
think that it was the philosopher himself that was 
enrolled among the alchemists and that writings on 
alchemy were ascribed to him. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 120. 
Kopp, Beytrdge zur Geschichte der Chemie, 1869, 
Stuck ii. p. 358. 



153- 

Of this book there were numerous editions, to which 

I have referred elsewhere. 

He received the honour of knighthood from King 
James I. at Greenwich on May 22, 1605. 

In 1608 appeared his work on gardening en- 
titled ' Floraes Paradise,' dated from Bethnal 
Green, and in it he describes wine made from 
grapes grown there. This book appeared after- 
wards under the title : ' The Garden of Eden, ' and 
passed through several editions. 

Rotermund quotes two dated 1671, 1675, respec- 
tively. It was reviewed in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, and Horace Walpole alludes to its obscurity, 
for the author, he says, had ' concealed his principal 
secret in a figurative description ... so that you 
might as soon understand a book of alchemy as 
Sir Hugh's treatise, at least his secret.' 



PL A TTPLA TTES 



207 



PLATT (HUGH). Continued. 

In the British Museum are preserved various 
manuscripts by Platt on chemical, alchemical, and 
medical subjects, a list of which is given by Cooper. 

In 161 1 was published his ' Closet for Ladies and 
Gentlemen on the art of Preseruing, Conseruing 
and Candying,' which was a reissue of the first part 
of the ' Delights for Ladies. ' 

Cooper reports the statement that he died in 
1605, and was buried at Hornsey, but he seems to 
have been alive and writing after that year, and his 
death may have occurred subsequent to 1611. 
The exact date, however, is not known. 

Harte gives the following account of him : 

' Sir Hugh Platt (not to mention his other ex- 
cellent talents) was the most ingenious husbandman 
of the age he lived in : Yet so great was his modesty 
that all his works seem to be posthumous, except 
the Paradise of .Flora, which appeared in 1600, 
when it is probable he was living. He spent part 
of his time at Copt-Hall, in Essex, or at Bishop' s- 
Hall, in Middlesex, at each of which places he had 
a country-seat ; but his town residence was Lin- 
coln 's-Inn. His Jewel-House was published by Dr. 
Beati, commonly called, in England, Dr. Boat 
(who, by the way, was as great a genius in hus- 
bandry, as most we have mentioned) and the 
Flora's Paradise (with a second original part) was 
published tycmitBellingham, the author's kinsman, 
who changed the title to the Garden of Eden. 

' Sir Hugh held a correspondence with all lovers 
of agriculture and gardening throughout England. 
And such was the justice and modesty of his 
temper, that he always named the author of every 
discovery communicated to him. 

1 In a word, no one man in any age ever dis- 
covered, or, at least, brought into use, so many 

Philosophical Transactions, 1675, No. 113, p. 
302. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 741. 

Tanner, Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, 1748, 
p. 600. 

Rev. Walter Harte, Essays on Husbandry, Lon- 
don, 1770, and edition, Essay ii. p. 113. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 458; 
1772, ii. p. 681. 

Rotermund, Fort set sung und Ergansungen zu . . . 
Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, vi. 
col. 375. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) ii. 
761 n. 



new sorts of manure. Witness his account of the 
COMPOST and COVERED DUNGHIL, and his obser- 
vations on the fertilizing qualities lodged in SALT ; 
STREET DIRT AND SULLAGE OF STREETS in 
great cities ; CLAY ; FULLERS EARTH ; MOOR- 
ISH EARTH ; DUNGHILS MADE IN LAYERS ; 
FERN ; HAIR ; CALCINATION OF ALL VEGE- 
TABLES ; Malt-dust ; Willow-tree earth, Soap- 
boilers ashes ; and broken-pilchards and MARLE.' 

He was the author of several works : ' The 
Jewell House of Art and Nature,' London, Peter 
Short, 1594, 4. It is in three separate parts which 
have separate titles and pagination : ' Diverse new 
and conceited experiments,' pp. [16] 96, with a 
large folding sheet containing all the diagrams of 
the different pieces of apparatus printed in the 
text ; ' Diuerse new sorts of Soyle,' pp. 60 ; ' Diuers 
Chimicall Conclusions concerning the Art of Distil- 
lation,' pp. 76. The title-pages have elaborate 
ornamental borders, and on the -verso of the first- 
title-page are the arms of Robert Deuorax, Earl of 
Essex, to whom Hugh Platte or Plat (for he uses 
both forms) dedicates the book. It was reprinted, 
London, 1653, 4, pp. [8] 232. 

' A discoverie of certain English wants,' London, 

I59S. 4- 

' The setting of Corne ' [1600], 4. 

' A new, cheape and delicate Fire of Cole-balles, ' 
London, 1603, 4, ff. [15]. This very rare pam- 
phlet gives an extended account of an invention ot 
his mentioned in the third part of the 'Jewell 
House.' 

The present tract was published separately : 
' Sundrie new and Artificiall remedies against 
Famine, Written by H. P. Esq., upon thoccasion 
of this present Dearth, London,' 1596, 4. 

John Donaldson, Agricultural Biography, 1854, 
p. ii, No. ix. (after Harte). 

Horace Walpole, Letters, 1861, vi. p. 373. 

Cooper, Athena Cantabrigienses, 1861, ii. pp. 
436-438 (and references). 

Allibone, A critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1878, ii. p. 1606. 

Ferguson, ' Notes on Histories of Inventions and 
Books of Secrets," Transactions of the Archaolo- 
gical Society of Glasgow, 1883, ii. p. 194 ; p. 259 ; 
1890, N.S. i. p. 459. 

Hon. Alicia Amherst, A History of Gardening 
in England, 1895, pp. 142, 152, 171, 329. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlv. p. 
407 (and references ; article by S. Lee). 



PLATTES (GABRIEL). 

An Invaluable Discovery ol all Sorts of Mines from Gold to Coal. 

See COLLECTION (A) of scarce and valuable Treatises upon Metals, 
pp. 194-241. 

This work was originally published with the 
title : A Discovery of Subterraneal Treasure, 
London, 1639, 4, pp. [10] 60 ; 1679, 4> PP- [3 * 
blank] 24 ; and an edition of 1684 is mentioned 
by Watt. 

Harte (i. p. 35) calls him an original genius in 
husbandry, who began his observations in the 
latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and came 
down to three or four years of the Commonwealth. 
He further says of him : 

1 As great a genius as this writer was, the public 
allowed him to drop down dead in London streets 
with hunger only ; nor had he a shirt upon his 
back when he died. He bequeathed his papers to 
i". Hartlib : whom a cotemporary author addresses 
in this manner: "None (but yourself, who want 



1740, 



not an enlarged heart, but a fuller hand to supply 
the world's defects) being found, with some few 
others, to administer any relief to a man of so great 
merit." Letter to Hartlib/rww Flanders, 1650. 

1 Another friend of Hartlib 's gives Plattes the 
following character : "Certainly that man had as 
excellent a genius in agriculture as any that ever 
lived in this nation before him, and was the most 
faithful seeker of his ungrateful country's good. 
I never think of the great judgment, pure zeal, and 
faithful intentions of that man, and withal of his 
strange sufferings and manner of death, but am 
struck with amazement that such a man should l>e 
suffered to fall down dead in the streets for want of 
food, whose studies tended to no less than pro- 
viding and preserving food for whole nations, and 



208 



PLA TTESPLENCK 



PLATTES (GABRIEL). Continued. 

that too as with much skill and industry, so without 
pride or arrogance towards God or man." 

' C. D. in a tetter to Hartlib, 1653. Legacy, pp. 
183, 184. 

' Hartlib, as far as can be learnt, published but 
few posthumous papers of Gabriel Plattes ; and 
indeed an author, so extremely poor as this unfor- 
tunate person was, would in all probability have 
sold his writings to the booksellers, had they been 
so far finished as to deserve publication. 

' The pieces already published are these which 
follow : Practical Husbandry improved, or, A Dis- 
covery of infinite Treasure, 4 , containing 120 
pages, 1656. 

A Discovery of subterranean Treasure, 410, 
1638. About three sheets. 

Mercurius Lcetificans, 410, 1644. Twelve pages. 

Observations and Improvements in Husbandry, 
accompanied with twenty Experiments, imparted to 
S. Hartlib by Gab. Plattes. 32 pages, 410, 1653. 

' This author had a bold adventurous cast of 
mind, and seems to have preferred the faulty 
sublime, in matters of invention, to the faultless 
mediocrity. As to his MS. intitled Art's Mistress, 
containing a series of observations and experiments 
in agriculture for fifty years, and in all probability 
the most valuable in matter, as well as most con- 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 22. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 
1732, p. 112. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 268. 

Rev. Walter Harte, Essays on Husbandry, Lon- 
don, 1770, and Edition, Essay i. p. 35 ; Essay ii. 
pp. 63-64. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botamca, 1771, i. p. 456. 



siderable in size, of all his writings, we have spoken 
thereof in the ist essay. 

' In a letter to Hartlib, May 14, 1644, he men- 
tions a work of his called, The Treasure-house oj 
Nature unlocked, and set wide open to the World, 
&c. Whether this performance was ever printed is 
more than I know, or whether it be not the tract 
first mentioned in this list, which I am partly in- 
clined to believe.' 

The fact that he died of starvation is mentioned 
by Haller. 

The list of his works given by Donaldson does 
not quite tally with that by Harte, and I cannot 
help thinking that one book appears under more 
than one title. They are the following : 

A Treatise of Husbandry, London, 1638. 

A Discoverie of infinite treasure, hidden from the 
world's beginning in the way of husbandry, Lon- 
don, 1636, 1639, 4. 

A Discovery of Subterranean treasure, London, 
1639, 4- 

Observations and Improvements in husbandry, 
with twenty experiments, London, 1639, 4. 

The profitable intelligencer, London, 1644, 4. 

Recreatio Agriculturae, London, 1646, 4. 

Of this last there is said to be an edition of 1640. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) ii. 
761 /. 

Donaldson, Agricultural Biography, 1854, p. 20, 
No. xxvi. 

Allibone, A critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1878, ii. p. 1607. 

Ferguson, ' Notes on Histories of Inventions and 
Books of Secrets,' Transactions of the Archcco- 
logical Society of Glasgow, 1883, ii. p. 194; p. 251 ; 
1890, N. S. i., p. 226. 



Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlv. p. 
410 (and references). 

PLEIADES Philosophies Rosianae, oder Philosophisches Sieben-Gestirn der 
Rosen Creutzer. 
See PHILOSOPHISCHES LIGHT und Schatten, 1738, No. ii. 

For alchemical works referring to the Pleiades and other stars, see Kopp. 
Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 340. 
p. 666. 

PLENCK (JOSEPH JAKOB VON). 

Farmacia Chirurgica del celeb. Professore Gioseffo Jacopo Plenck, ovvero Dottrina 
de' Medicamenti Preparati e Composti che si sogliono adoperare nella Cura de' 
Morbi Esterni. Seconda Edizione. In Venezia, Appresso Francesco di 
Niccolb Pezzana. MDCCLXXXVI. Con Approvazione, e Privilegio. 

12. Pp. [12] 100 [2]. 

Plenck, or von Plenck, or Plenk, was born at enumerated by Rotermund, and he wrote also 
Vienna, 28 Nov., 1732 (1738). He was a disciple 
of Cranz, and in 1770 he was professor of anatomy 
surgery, and obstetrics at Ofen, in Hungary. 
After holding the chair of anatomy, surgery, 



and obstetrics at Basel for some time, he 
was appointed in 1783 to the professorship of 
chemistry and botany in the military medico- 
chirurgical academy at Vienna. He was also made 
director of the field dispensary, and was appointed 



Elementa Chymicz, Vienna, 1800, 8. 

The present work appeared first in Latin : 
Pharmacia chirurgica, sive doctrina de medica- 
mentis proeparatis ac compositis, quag ad curandos 
morbos externos adhiberi solent, Vienna, 1775, 8 ; 
afterwards 1777, 8 ; 1781, 8 ; 1786, 8 ; 1791, 8. 

Fuchs quotes : Materia chirurgica, Vienna, 1771, 
which is, presumably, the same book. 

Plenck died at Vienna, 24 Aug., 1807; Fuchs, 



staff-surgeon. In 1798 he was raised to the rank of however, says, July 1785, referring to the Go't- 
a Hungarian noble, and received the secretaryship tingische Anzeigen. This, however, seems to be 
of the Joseph Academy. 

He was the author of numerous works on surgery, 



a mistake, for the only mention of Plenck in July, 
1785, is in a review of his ' Toxicologia seu Doct- 
obstetrics, medicine, toxicology, forensic medicine, rina de Venenis et Antidotis,' Wien, bey Grafer, 



botany, pharmacology, of which forty-three are 1785, 8, pp. 338. 



PLENCK PLUSIUS 209 



PLENCK (JOSEPH JAKOB VON). Continued. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 610. Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtde- 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1775, ii. p. 528 cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 730. 

('chirurgus et obstetrix'). Biographic Universelle, 1845, Supp. Ixxvii. p. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 652. 326 ; no date, xxxiii. p, 514. 

Ignaz de Luca, Das Gelehrte Oesterreich, 1778, Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Medicale, 1855, ii. 

I. ii. p. 24. p. 630. 

Ekkard, Litcrarisches Handbuch, p. 29. Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 

Gottingische Anzeigen von Gelehrten Sachen, 1855, pp. 281, 641, 870. 

1786, i. p. 508. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 

Meusel, Das Gelehrte Teutschland oder Lexikon wdrterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 472. 

der jttzt lebenden Teutschen Schriftsteller, 1798, Nouvelle Bio^raphie Generate, 1866, xl. col. 465. 

vi. p. 121 ; 1803, x. p. 418 ; 1805, xi. p. 615 ; Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiser- 

1811, xv. p. 52. thums Oesterreich, 1870, xxii. pp. 423-426 (and the 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, references). 

1806-08, p. 385. Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. pp. 690, 

Der Biograph, Halle, 1808, vii. p. 501. 691, 723, 734. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung and Ergdnzungen zu Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der heryorragen- 

. . . Jochers allgetneinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, den Aerzte alter Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 590. 

vi. col. 391. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, 1888, xxvi. p. 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 272 (article by E. Wunschmann). 

25), vi. p. 444. Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Midi- 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1828, v. cales, 2eme Serie, 1888, xxvi. p. 7. 

PP- 5871 756, 770, 839, 859, 864. Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 362. 

PLUSIUS (EDVARDUS). 
Speculum Modernae Alchimiae. Autore Eduardo Plusio Belga. 

Geber lib. I. summse perfectionis capite 7. 
Miserrimus & infcelix est is, cui Deus post operis sui atq; laboris finem 

veritatem conspicere denegat. 
Lignicii typis Nicolai Sartorii. 1607. 

8. Sigs. A to D in eights, 4. =pp. [68, 4 blank]. Woodcut border round the 
title. Numerous MS. notes in the handwriting of Grofschedl, whose name is on the 
title-page. 

This first edition is not mentioned by any of the I have seen is in the preface to the German trans- 
usual authorities, and the only reference to it which lation. 

Eduard Plusii Spiegel der heutigen Alchimie, das ist, wohlgegriindeter Bericht, 
was von der so beruffenen Goldmacher Kunst zu halten, und wie man sich 
darinnen behutsam zu erzeigen habe ; Allen aufrichtigen Liebhabern derselben 
zu Dienste aus dem Lateinischen wegen seiner Nutzbarkeit ins Deutsche 
iibersetzt. Budifsin und Gorlitz, bey David Rich tern, Buchh. 1725. 

8. Pp. 80. 

According to the translator, Eduard Plusius is a have been made, if a book of 1607 could serve to 

feigned name, but he does not tell us what was the keep off readers from the same cheats, errors and 

real one or anything about the author. dangers in 1725 and 1756. 

The book is meant to warn students of alchemy Only this 1725 edition is mentioned by Gmelin, 

from the pitfalls wherewith they are surrounded. Schmieder and Kopp. Plusius' book is not in the 

One must conclude that very little advance can Ouvaroff collection, or in Lenglet Dufresnoy's list. 

Der heutige Alchimist, oder der beruffene Gold-Kocher, wie solche Wissenschaft 
beschaffen seyn musse, nebst wohlgegriindeten Berichte, was davon zu halten, 
und wie man sich dabey behutsam zu erzeigen habe. Budissin, bey David 
Richtern. 1756. 

8. Pp. 80. At the end, p. 77 : Alte Verse, worinne die Bereitung des Philo- 
sophischen Steines Ratzel-weifs beschrieben. 
II. O 



210 



PL USIUSPOLEMANN 



PLUSIUS (EDVARDUS). Continued. 

This tract, issued without the author's name, 
consists of the remainder copies of Plusius' Spiegel 
der heutigen Alchimie, 1725. The only difference 
is that in this reissue the title-page has been recast, 
and the " Avertissement an den geneigten Leser" 
by the translator and the "Vorbericht des 
Authoris " have been omitted ; so, in order not to 
disturb the pagination, the first sheet has been re- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 316. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 542. 



printed and sufficiently widely spaced to make what 
went into 10 pages in the 1725 edition fill 14 in this 
reissue. Moreover, in the reissue, the running 
title to p. 16 is 'Der heutige Alchimist,' but from 
p. 17 to the end it is, of course, ' Spiegel der heu- 
tigen Alchimie.' In all other respects the books 
are identical. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 354. 



PORNER (CARL WILHELM). 

D. Carl Wilhelm Porner, Churfurstl. Sachsischen Bergraths chymische Versuche 
und Bemerkungen zum Nutzen der Farbekunst. Erster Theil. Leipzig, 
bey M. G. Weidmanns Erben und Reich. 1772. 

8. Pp. [10] 524 [10]. 

D. Carl Wilhelm Porner, Churfurstl. Sachfsl. Bergraths chymische Versuche und 
Bemerkungen zum Nutzen der Farbekunst. Zweyter Theil. Leipzig, bey M. G. 
Weidmanns Erben and Reich. 1772. 

8. Pp. [2] 604 [8, 2 blank]. 
A third part was published at Leipzig, in 1773. 

Pb'rner's father was a practising lawyer in Leipzig lain works at Meissen. He died there 13 April, 
and he himself was born there 16 Jan. , 1732. He 1796. 
was educated at the Nicholas School and the Uni- 
versity, graduated M. D. in 1754, and gave lectures 
on chemistry. He was appointed electoral Saxon 
mining councillor and commissarius in the porce- 



Haller, BMiotheca Botanica, 1772, ii. p. 707. 

Weigel, Grundriss der reinen und angewandten 
Chemie, 1777, passim, 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 46. 

Allgemeiner Literarischer Anzeiger, 1796, p. 210. 

Leipz. gel. Tagebuch, 1796, p. in. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 387 ; 
1799, iii. p. 31. 

Meusel, Lexicon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 ver- 
storbenen Teutschen Schriftsteller, 1810, x. p. 482. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 



He was devoted to chemistry and published 
books and papers on the subject. Lists of these 
are given by Weigel, by Gmelin, and by Meusel. 

The present is an important experimental work 
on dyeing and printing cotton. 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, 
vi. col. 465. 

Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 456. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, iv. pp. 62, 
91, 316, 390. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 640, 694. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 479. 

Nouvelle Biographic Ginirale, 1866, xl. p. 548. 



POLEMANN (JOACHIMUS). 

Psal. 36. In deinem Lichte sehen wir das Licht Novum Lumen Medicum in 
welchem die vortreffliche und hochnothige Lehre des hochbegabten Philosophi 
Helmontii, von dem hohen Geheimnis des Sulphuris Philosophorum. Aus 
getreuen wolmeynenden Gemiithe gegen die Unwissenden und Irrenden, wie 
auch aus mitleidendem Hertzen gegen die Krancken, griindlich erklaret wird, 
von Joachimo Polemann. Amsterdam, Auf Kosten Wilhelm Welmsonii 
und Leipzig, bey Joh. Herbord Klofsen zu finden, Im Jahr 1699. 
12. Pp. [6] 245 [i blank]. 

Novum lumen Medicum de Mysterio Sulphuris Philosophorum. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, VI. p. 600. 



Other editions of the book are mentioned : 
Francof., 1647, 8; Amsterd., 1659, 12; 1660, 12; 
Frankfurt, 1747, 12. The English translation: 
Novum Lumen Medicum ; wherein . the excellent 
and most necessary Doctrine of the highly-gifted 
Philosopher Helmont concerning the Great Mystery 
of the Pholosopher's (sic) Sulphur is fundamentally 
cleared. . . . London, Printed by J. C. for J. 



Crook at the sign of the Ship in St. Pauls Church- 
yard, 1662, small 8, pp. [8] 206 [2 blank]. 

After the word 'cleared' the British Museum 
Catalogue inserts: "Written by the author in 
German, and Englished by F. H., a German." 
As these words do not occur in my copy, it may 
be inferred that if the work did not actually go 
through two distinct editions, it appeared with two 
title-pages, if not more, 



POLEMANNPOLISIUS 



211 



POLEMANN (JOACHIMUS). Continued. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromns Bibliotheca metallicee, 
1732, p. 112. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 59. 

Jocher, Allgemeincs Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1656 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 505. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 115. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1779, iii. 
P- 79- 



Beytrag zur Gcschichle der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
p. 618. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 625. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 379. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1607-08. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 388. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 478. 



POLI (MARTINO). 

II Trionfo degli Acidi vendicati dalle calunnie di molti Modern!; Opera Filoso- 
fica, e Medica fondata sopra de' Principij Chimici, & adornata di varij 
esperimenti; contro il Sistema, e Prattica delli Modern! Democritici, & 
Epicure! Riformati, divisa in Quattro Libri ; di Martino Poli Spargirico (sic) 
in Roma, aggregate alia Reale Accademia delle Scienze in Parigi; Dedicata 
alia Sacra Reale Maesta di Lodovico XIV. II Grande Re Cristianissimo. 
In Roma, MDCCVI. Nella Stamperia di Giorgio Placho Intagliatore, e 
Gettatore di Caratteri alia Piazza della Chiesa di S. Marco. Con Licenza de' 
Superior!. 

4 . Pp. [24] 463 [i]. 



Poli was born at Lucca, 21 January, 1662, and at 
an early age developed a taste for chemistry which 
was fostered by his uncle. At the age of sixteen he 
left Lucca and went to Rome to his uncle, who 
had promised to help him. 

In 1691 he got leave to establish a laboratory as 
extra chemist, and in 1700 he received from the 
pontifical government letters patent, conferring on 
him the title of apothecary. Having made a dis- 
covery of great importance for war, which would have 
given the French an immense advantage, he went 
to France in 1702 to lay it before the king, Louis 
XIV. He, however, while commending the in- 
ventor, declined the invention and urged its sup- 
pression on account of its destructive character. 
Poli, however, received a pension and the title of 
engineer to the king, and extra foreign associate of 

Histoire de I'Acadhnie Royale des Sciences, 
Annie 1714, Paris, 1717, p. 129 (by Fontenelle). 

L'Europe Savante, La Haye, Janvier, 1718, i. 
pp. 63-66 (from Fontenelle). 

Ada Eruditorum, 1719, num. 8, p. 350. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 1481. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1659 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 516. 

Fontenelle, Oeuvres, 1764, v. pp. 215-220. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Medccine, 
1778, iii. p. 596. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practicee, 1788, iv. 
P- 43i 



the Academy of Sciences. In 1704 he returned to 
Italy, where he had soon engagements with Pope 
Clement XI. and the Duke of Massa. On his 
return to France in 1713 he was well received by 
the king who increased his pension and urged him 
to bring his family to Paris. He did so, and after 
a long and disagreeable passage by sea, they reached 
Paris on the 28 July to find him so ill with fever that 
he recognized them with difficulty. He died the 
following day, 29 July, 1713 (1714). 

The only book he wrote is the present one, but 
he communicated papers on bismuth, saltpetre, on 
the ' fermentation ' of acid salts with acid salts and 
of alcalis with alcalis, on the effect of concentrated 
spirit of sulphur with water, to the Academy at 
Paris, published in 1713, 1714. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 413, 
515 (distilled a stupifying volatile oil from laurel 
leaves ; prepared butter of bismuth from which by 
repeated extraction he got a powder glistering like 
pearls, and showed how to concentrate sulphuric 
acid). 

Biographic Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 467. 

Biographic Univcrselle, 1845, bcxvii. (Supp.), p. 
371 ; no date, xxxiii. p. 615. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, iv. p. 377. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wortcrbuch, 1863, ii. col. 493. 

Nouvelle Biographic Gtnerale, 1866, xl. p. 603. 



POLISIUS (GOTHOFREDUS SAMUEL). 

De Metallis imperfectis duris duobus, Ferro et Cupro. 
See ROLFINCK (GUERNER), 1679. 



Was this person any connection of Melchior 
Polisius mentioned by Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehr- 
ten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. col. 1661, who lived between 



1600 and 1671, was M.D. and professor of medicine 
at Frankfurt on the Oder, and wrote some medical 
disputations ? 



212 



POL VCARPUSPONTANUS 



POLYCARPUS CHRYSOSTOMUS. 

See DREBBEL (CORNELIUS), Tractat . . . von Natur . . . der Elementen, 1723. 



POLYDORUS (CHRYSOGONUS). 
See ALCHEMIA, 1541. 

Chrysogonus Polydorus was the editor of this an address to the reader. I have found no indica- 
collection of alchemical tracts, and prefaced it with tion of the author's real name. 



Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 188 ('est 
nomen fictum '). 



Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 297. 



PONCELET (POLYCARPE ?). 

See CHIMICA (La) del Gusto, 1792. 

To the references given under that heading may 
be added Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzun- 
gen zu . . . Jochtrs allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 



1819, vi. col. 589, who, however, has nothing new 
to say. 



PONTANUS (JOANNES). 

Beschreibung des Secreten Philosophischen Feuers. 

See ERBINAUS VON BRANDAU (MATTHAUS), xii. Grund-Saulen der Natur und 
Kunst, 1689, p. 27. 

Epistola, in qua de lapide quem Philosophorum vocant, agitur. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL), Lumen Chymicum Novum ; Epilogus, 1624, p. 149. 

See also ORTHELIUS. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, iii. 1659, p. 734 ; vi. 1661, p. 487. 

Ein Sendbrief, darinn vom Stein der Weisen gehandelt wird. 
See ALCHYMISTISCH Sieben-Gestirn, 1675, p. 219. 

His name was Johann Bruckner, according to 
Schmieder, and he was a doctor of philosophy and 
of medicine, and professor of philosophy at Konigs- 
berg during 1544 and 1545. In 1552 he passed to 
the chair of medicine and physics, but after a year 
removed to Jena. He was assessor of the medical 
faculty and was appointed physician of the Prince 
of Gotha, and next of the Duke of Weimar, whom 
he accompanied to Vienna. On this journey 
Pontanus died at Vienna, 9 July, 1572, not without 
suspicion of having been poisoned. 

Besides the ' Epistola ' he wrote : ' Methodus 
componendi theriacam et praeparandi ambram 
factitiam,' in Johann Wittichius' Consilia Observa- 
tiones et Epistola Medicce . . . Collecta, Lips. 
1604, 4 ; and ' De prodigiosis episcopi Spirensis 

Maier, Symbola AurecE Mens&, 1617, p. 264. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 299. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 189. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 662. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 1265. 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide- Kunst, 1702, p. n/. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 528. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 1459. 



jejuniis,' in Lentulus' Historia admiranda de pro- 
digiosa Apollonice Schreicrce . . . inedia, Bernse, 
1604, 4. 

The Latin text of Pontanus' ' Epistola,' with a 
German version different from both the above, 
appeared in Johann Peter Gerhard's Gedanken vom 
Feuer, Halle, 1750, pp. 198-207. 

There is also an English translation by Eirenseus 
Orandus, which was printed along with Nicholas 
Flamel ' His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall 
Figures' and 'The secret Booke of Artephius,' 
London, 1624, 12, pp. 237-[247]. 

He himself printed nothing, and if what he had 
written had not been published by others, his name 
would have been unknown. 



Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermitique, 1742, iii. pp. 53, 58, 268. 

Jocher, Allgemdnes Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1688. 

Fictuld, Probier-Kunst, 1753, Th. i. p. 126. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. pp. 302, 
401 ; 1772, ii. p. 671 (Haller had a manuscript 
of Pontanus' travels in Russia, Prussia, and Poland. ) 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice?, 1777, '' 
P- 87. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 605. 



PONTANUS POPPIUS 213 



PONTANUS (JOANNES). Continued. 

Moehsen, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Wissen- Johannes GUnther, Lefrenskiszen der Professoren 

schaften in der Mark Brandenburg, 1783, p. 37. der Universitdtjenaseit 1558 bis 1858, 1858, p. 116. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 502, Poggendorff, Biographize h-literarisches Hand- 

520. worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 499. 

Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarojft Sciences 

25), vi. p. 473. Secretes, 1870, No. 1004-06. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 224. 
35. 

POPPIUS (HAMERUS). 
Basilica Antimonii. 

See HARTMANN (jOHANN), Praxis Chymiatrica, 1647, p. 595. 

The above tract was published, with the title, the increase of weight when a mass of antimony is 
Basilica Antimonii, sive expositio naturas And- calcined by a burning mirror. I have not met with 
monii, Francofurti, 1618, 4, and in it he describes any notice of the author. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 189. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. ,"519, 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 387. 568. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Rotennund, Fortsetzung ttnd Ergdnzungen zu 

1731, II. i. p. 537. . . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, 
Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothecce metallicce, vi. col. 646. 

1 73 2 , p. 112. Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1845, iii. p. 120. 
Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoirc de la Philosophic Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apolheker, 

Hennctiquc, 1742, iii. p. 269. 1855, pp. 501, 572. 

POPPIUS (JOHANN). 

Chymische Medicin von dem Nutz vnd gebrauch der distillierten Oelen, 
Extracten, Quintis essentiis, Aquis vitse, Balsamis, Floribus, Saltzen vnd 
Wassern, aufs den Mineralibus, Animalibus vnd Vegetabilibus, zu allerley 
jnnerlichen vnd eusserlichen Artzneyen, recht vnd niitzlichen zu gebrauchen : 
Sampt der Preparation vnnd Chymischen zubereittung, auch anderer vor- 
nehmen Sachen, alien Liebhabern dieser Edlen Kunst, zu trewhertzigem 
gefallen, beschrieben durch lohannem Poppen, dieser zeit Fiirstlichen Sach- 
sischen Destillatorem zu Coburg. Mit Churf. Sachs. Freyheit nicht nach zu 
trucken. Gedruckt zu Franckfurt, Bey Egenolph Emmeln, In verlegung 
Simonis Schambergers. Im Jahr, 1617. 

8. Pp. [14, 2 blank] 523 [5]. 

Chymische Medicin, von dem Nutz vnd Gebrauch der distillierten Oelen, 
Extracten, Quintis Essentiis, Aquis vitae, Balsamis, Floribus, Saltzen vnd 
Wassern aufs den Mineralibus, Animalibus vnd Vegetabilibus, zu allerley 
jnnerlichen vnd aufserlichen Artzneyen, recht vnd niitzlichen zu gebrauchen : 
Sampt der Preparation vnd Chymischen zubereitung, auch anderer vornehmen 
Sachen, alien Liebhabern dieser Edlen Kunst, zu trewhertzigem gefallen, 
beschrieben, Durch lohannem Poppen, dieser zeit Fiirstlichen Sachsischen 
Destillatorem zu Coburg. Franckfurt am Mayn, in verlegung Daniel vnd 
David Aubrij, vnd Clemens Schleichen. Im Jahr, M.DC.XXV. 

8. Pp. [14, 2 blank] 523 [5]. 
Identical with the previous edition, except the first leaf which has been reprinted. 

Hodogeticus Chymicus, oder Wegweiser zu der Chymischen Medicin, in 
welchem gehandelt wird, wie ein Medicus auff Hermetische art geschaffen seyn, 



214 POPPIUSPORDAGE 



POP PIUS (JOHANN). Continued. 

worauff er sehen, was er gebrauchen, vnd was er meiden miisse. Zu con- 
tinuirung seiner vorigen zweyen Tractatuum an statt des dritten Theils, aus 
eigener mit grosser Miihe erfahrungen zusammen getragen, vnd Bono Publico 
zum besten an Tag gegeben Durch Johannem Poppium, Fiirstlichen Sach- 
sischen vnd Brandenburgischen Chymicum zu Coburg. Zu End ist beygesetzt 
ein niitzlicher Vnterricht, wie ein Medicus den Lauff des Himmels, vnd den 
Influxum Stellarum fruchtbarlich in acht zu nemen habe. Cum Privilegio. 
Leipzig, In verlegung Zacharise Schiirers vnd Matthias Gotzens. Gedruckt bey 
Friederich Lanckisch. 1627. 

8. Pp. [16] 1-271 [i blank, i] 273-404 [i] [2 blank]. From 273 to the end, the 
even numbers are on the recto. 

Thesaurus Medicinae, oder Chymischer Artzney Schatz, in welchem aufserlesene 
vnd bewehrte, vnd theils bifsanhero nicht allerdings gnugsam bewuste Mittel, 
theils zu Erhaltung, theils zu Wiederbringung menschlicher Gesundheit, so 
viel des Haupts, der Brust, der Eingeweyde, vnd auch anderer gefahrlichen 
eusserlichen Gebrechen anlangen thut, eroffnet vnd angezeiget werden, alles 
aufs eigener erfahrner Heimligkeit, oder aufs andern bewehrten Autoribus, 
furnemlich aufs Theophrasto, zusammen gelesen, von Johanne Poppen, 
Fiirstl. Sachs, vnd Brandeburgischen bestalten Chymico zu Coburg. Cum 
Privilegiis. Leipzig, In Vorlegung Zachariae Schiirers vnd Matthiae Gotzen. 
Anno M.DC.XXIIX. 

4. Pp. [16] 812. Title red and black. Portrait. 

Commentaria, ... in J. Poppii Chymische Medicin, 1638-39. 
See AGRICOLA (JOHANN). 

He himself writes his name Popp, Poppe, Poppius. Hodogeticus chymicus, and enumerates other eleven 

Rotermund calls him a physician and chemist at works dealing with medicine. Haller calls him 

the beginning of the seventeenth century. Of the 'Chymicus Coburgensis, uon plenae fidei homo.' 
above he quotes the Thesaurus medicines and 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 189. Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 106. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 521, 

Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 269. 568. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 436 Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Erganzungen zu 

(' Krauterbuch,' Leipzig, 1625, by Johann Poppe. . . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, 

Is he the same person?). vi. col. 644. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, i. p. 41 ; ii. p. 384. 
p. 347. Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 506. 

PORDAGE (JOHN). 

Ein griindlich philosophisch Sendschreiben vom rechten und wahren Steine der 
Weifsheit : Worinnen der ganze Procefs des philosophischen Werks, oder wie 
man das Werk der wahren Wiedergeburt recht anfangen, darinnen gliicklich 
fortgehen, und es zum vollkommnen und seeligen Ende bringen soil, griindlich 
angewiesen und ausgefiihrt wird. Geschrieben durch J. P. M. D. Zum 
Unterrichte und Warnung an eine gute Seele, die nach der ersten Materie 
dieses herrlichen Steins der gottlichen Tinctur zwar mit grossem Ernste gesucht 
und gegraben, dieselbe auch wirklich gefunden und geschmeckt gehabt; aus 
Ermanglung genugsamen Lichts aber Ihn vollkommlich zu besitzen, und zu 



PORDA GEPOR TA 



215 



PORDAGE (JOHN). Continued. 

volliger Ruhe gekommen zu seyn, ihr allzufriihzeitFg eingebildet gehabt. 
Nunmehro alien in diesem Procefs begriffenen gleichfalls zur Warnung und 
Unterrichte aus dem Englischen iibergesetzt und ans Licht gegeben. Neue 
Auflage. Berlin 1779. Bey Christian Ulrich Ringmacher. 

8. Pp. 16. 



This tract is couched in such symbolical and 
allusive language that one is at a loss to know 
whether to attach a spiritual, an alchemical, or a 



physiological meaning to the author's words and 
descriptions. 



Philosophisches Send-Schreiben vom Stein der Weifsheit. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1728, i. 
P- 557- 



His name takes on strange shapes, such as 
Poordetsch, Pordaedsche, in other languages, for 
phonetic effect. He was the son of a grocer in 
London, and was born there in 1607. He preached 
at Reading, and in 1647 was rector at Bradfield, 
which living was in the gift of Ashmole. From 
this he was ejected by the Commissioners on the 
ground of intercourse with evil spirits, for blas- 
phemy, ignorance, 'divilism,' and scandalous 
behaviour. Against these charges he wrote a 
defence: ' Innocency appearing,' but it produced 
no effect. Pordage admitted his having been 
attacked by evil spirits, though the accusation about 
scandalous behaviour was shown to be unfounded. 

Poiret, Bibliotheca Mysiicorum Selecta, 1708, p. 

174- 49- 

Sammlung von alien und neuen theologischen 
Sachen, 1732, p. 912, with his portrait. 

Jacob Brucker, Kurtze Fragen aus der Philosoph- 
ischen Historic von Christi Geburt bifs auf unsere 
Zeiten, Ulm, 1735, vi. pp. 1179-81. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, ii. 
p. 915 [Th. iv. num. 32, 159]. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 1558. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehr ten- lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1704 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
nngen, 1819, vi. col. 654. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 127. 

Moehsen, Verzeichnis enter Samlung von Bild- 
nissen, 1771, Th. ii. p. 108 (mysticus Celebris, 
mysterii Sophioe defensor, arcanorum, uti putabat, 
ccelestium plenus, qui incipit ubi Bohemius [i.e. 
Bbhme] desinit). 



But the charges were renewed, and new ones 
added, and Pordage was relentlessly attacked by 
Christian Fowler, who, Wood says, was latterly 
out of his mind. These trials lasted from 1651 to 
1655, and at the end he had to resign Bradfield. 
He was subsequently reinstated, and lived there 
for several years. In 1663 he became acquainted 
with Mrs. Jane Lead, or Leade, and they studied 
Bohme's works together, and were members of the 
Philadelphia!! Society. He died in 1681. He 
wrote a few books of mystical theology, but had 
really nothing to do with alchemy. His 'Theologia 
mystica' and 'Sophia' were translated into Ger- 
man, and published at Amsterdam, 1698, 1699. 

Tiedemann, Geist der Spekulativen Philosophic, 
1796, v. pp. 528-538 (discusses his system). 

Buhle, Geschichte der Neuern Philosophic, 1800, 
ii. p. 445. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 213. 

Wood, Athena Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, 1817, iii. 
col. 1098 ; 1820, iv. col. 715. 

J. Granger, A Biographical History of England, 
5th edit., 1824, iii. p. 344. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Brilannica, 1824 (authors), ii. 

769?- 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. pp. 183, 

239- 

R. A. Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, 1856, ii. 
p. 115. 

Allibone, A, Critical Dictionary of English Liter- 
ature, 1878, ii. p. 1640. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlvi. p. 
150 (by Rev. A. Gordon). 



PORDONI (NARBONTE). 

See MEURDRAC (MARIE), La Chimica Caritatevole e Facile, 1682. 
Is this an anagram for Pontio Bernardon? 

PORTA (GlAMBATTISTA DELLA). 

loannis BaptisUe Portae Neapolitani, de Distillationibus, Libri IX. Quibus 
certa methodo, multiplicique artificio, penitioribus naturae arcanis detectis, 
cujus libet mixti in propria elementa resolutio perfecte docetur. Nunc primum 
in Germania typis evulgati, ac Indice Capitum & Materiarum exornati. Cum 
Gratia & Privilegio S. Csesarese Majestatis. Argentorati, Sumptibus Lazari 
Zetzneri Bibliop. Anno M DC IX. 

4. Pp. [16] 149 [n]. Portrait on the reverse of the title. 35 woodcuts. 



PORT A (GIAMBATTISTA BELLA). Continued. 

The first edition was published at Rome, 1608, portrait as copied in the Strasburg edition, is not 

4, pp. [20] 154 [6]. It contains a fine portrait of only smaller but is inferior. 

Porta and dedications to him in Hebrew, Greek, The Roman edition is much the finer book. 
Chaldee, Persian, lllyrian, and Armenian 1 The 

[Another Copy.] 

lo. Baptistae Portae Neapolitan!, Magiae Naturalis Libri Viginti. Ab ipso quidem 
authore ante biennium adaucti, nunc verb ab infinitis, quibus editio ilia scatebat 
mendis, optime repurgati : in quibus scientiarum Naturalium diuitiae & deliciae 
demonstrantur. Accessit Index, rem omnem dilucide repaesentans, copiosissi- 
mus. Librorum ordinem, qui in hoc opere continentur, versa pagina indicabit. 
Francofurti Apud Andreas Wecheli heredes, Claudium Marnium, & loann. 
Aubrium. MDXCI. 

8. Pp. [36] 669 [3 blank]. Woodcuts in the text. 

The English translation came out at London, 1658, fol., with an engraved frontispiece or fly-title, con- 
taining the author's portrait. 

Joh. Baptistae Portae Neapolitan! Magiae Naturalis Libri Viginti. Ab ipso 
quidem authore adaucti, nunc vero ab infinitis, quibus editio ilia scatebat 
mendis, optime repurgati : in quibus scientiarum Naturalium divitiae & delicise 
demonstrantur. Accessit Index, rem omnem dilucide repraesentans, copiosissi- 
mus. Librorum ordinem, qui in hoc opere continentur, post prsefationem 
inveniet Lector. Lugd. Batavorum, Apud Hieronymum de Vogel. 

C!D loc XLIV. 

12. Pp. [16, including the engraved title] 670. Index [23 ; 3 blank]. Woodcuts 
in the text. 

Phytognomonica lo. Baptistae Portae Neapol. Octo libris contenta; in quibus 
nova, facillimaque affertur methodus, qua plantarum, animalium, metallorum; 
rerum denique omnium ex prima extimae faciei inspectione quiuis abditas vires 
assequatur. Accedunt ad haec confirmanda infinita propemodum selectiora 
secreta, summo labore, temporis dispendio, & impensarum iactura vestigata, 
explorataque. Nunc primum ab innumeris mendis, quibus passim Neapolitana 
editio scatebat, vindicata ; cum Rerum & Verborum Indice locupletissimo. 
1591. Francofurti Apud loannem Wechelum & Petrum Fischerum con- 
sortes. 

8. Pp. [16] 552. Title red and black. Portrait on the verso of the title. 32 
woodcuts in the text. 

Giambattista Porta or della Porta (1545-1615) Porta's likeness, and there are numerous illustra- 

acquired a great reputation through his book on tions in the text. 

Natural Magic, though he wrote also on plants, The Natural Magic came out first in 4 books, 

physiognomy, physics, mathematics, and other Naples, 1558, and several times afterwards. It was 

topics, besides composing several plays. extended to 20 books, and published at Naples, 

The work on physiognomy is as follows : De 1589. Numerous editions again followed. 

Humana Physiognomonia Libri III. . . . Vici There are several portraits : this just mentioned, 

^Equensis (Sorrento) Apud Josephum Cacchium those given by Imperialis, Freher, and Crasso ; and 

M.D.LXXXVI., small folio, pp. [4] 272 (misnum- in the two editions of the De Distillationibus, 

bered 265). The title-page is engraved and contains that in the Phytognomica, and in the frontispiece of 

the English translation of the Magia Naturalis. 



PORTAPORTZIUS 



217 



PORTA (GIAMBATTISTA BELLA). Continued. 



Joannes Matthasus Toscanus, Peplus Italics, 
Lutet., 1578, p. 116, No. cxcvi. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 251. 

Joannes Imperialis, Museum Historicum et Phy- 
sicum, 1640, p. 122, with a short biography. 

Girol. Ghilini, Teatro d' Huomini Letierati, 
1647, i. pp. 103-4 (much praised for his skill in 
astrology, mathematics, natural science, physiog- 
nomy. List of his works). 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 189. 

Crasso, Elogii d' Huomini Letterati, Venetia, 
1666, i. pp. 170-174, with a portrait. 

Toppi, Biblioteca Napoktana, 1678, pp. 139, 329. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renoi-atus, 1686, p. 536. 

Freher, Theatruin virontm eruditione clarorum, 
1688, p. 1510, and pi. 78. 

Witte, Diarium biographicum, 1688, sig. M2 
recto, 4 Feb., 1615; Riga, 1691, Tom. ii. p. 19, 4 
Feb., 1615. 

Paschius, De Novis Inventis . . . Tractates, 
1700, pp. 602, 731. 

Portal, Histoire de I' Anatomic etdela Chirurgie, 
1700, ii. p. 100. 

Gassendus, Nicolai Claudii Fabricii de Peiresc 
Vita, Quedlinburg, 1706, p. 136 (invention of the 
telescope). 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 540. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 

1732, p. 112. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. p. 726 (I. 4. 2. 3) ; 
ii. pp. 155, 157 (II. 2. 2. 9& ii) ; ii. p. 426(1!. 2*. 40. 
6) ; ii. p. 454 (II. 3. i. 4) ; ii. p. 473 (II. 4. i. id. 

Jacob Brucker, Kurlze Fragen aus der Philo- 
sophischen Historic, Ulm, 1735, vi. p. 633. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 1593. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 269. 

Niceron, Memoirts, 1745, xliii. p. 30. 

Jbcher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1709 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 672. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 116. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Medecine, 
I 755. P- 297 ; 1778, iii. p. 608. 

Freytag, Adparatus litterarius, 1755, iii. pp. 154, 
156-168. 

Montucla, Histoire des Mathematiques, 1758, i. 
p. 628 (researches on vision ; invention of the 
telescope). 

Moreri, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique, 1759, 
VIII. ii. p. 490. 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Histories Medi- 
corum chronologicus, 1761, p. 239. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 328. 

Priestley, The History and present State of Dis- 
coveries relating to Vision, Light and Colours, 1772, 
i. pp. 34-43. 

Les Bibliotheques Francoises de la Croix du 
Maine et de Du Verdier, ed. Juvigny, 1773, iv. 
(Du Verdier ii.), p. 504. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 216 ; 
1777, ii. p. 743. 



Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 215. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
p. 125 ('vir acuti ingenii, mathematicus, ingenii 
praecocis, peregrinator '). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 14. 

J. F. Blumenbach, Introductio in Historiam 
Medicinae lilterariam, 1786, p. 189. 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Literiir- 
geschichte der Medicin, 1792, pp. 210, 211, 184. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 317, 
319-22, 351, 353, 356. 

G. H. Duchesne, Notice sur la -vie et les Oeuvres 
de Jean Baptiste Porta, Paris, 1801, 8. 

Job. Karl Fischer, Geschichte der Physik, 1801, i. 
p. 163, & passim. 

Tiraboschi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana, 
1810, vii. p. 496, &c. 

Aikin, General Biography, 1813, viii. p. 307. 

Biografia degli uomini illustri del Regno di 
Napoli, Napoli, 1814-22. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1816, xxv. p. 206. 

Colangelo, Vita di Giovanni-Battista della Porta, 
Napoli, 1818, 8. 

Gingugne, Histoire litte'raire d Italic, 1819, vii. 
pp. 116, 175-6, 362. 

Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 475 (article by A. J. L. Jourdan, who 
gives a good list of his works). 

Biographic Universelle, 1823, xxxv. p. 442 ; no 
date, xxxiv. p. 124 (by Weiss). 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iii. 

P- 393- 

Colangelo, Storia dei Filosqfi e dei tnatematici 
Napolitani, Napoli, 1833-34. 

Libri, Histoire des Sciences Mathematiques en 
Italic, 1841, iv. pp. 108, 303, 399. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 102- 
106 ; 1869, ii. pp. 96-100. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 362 ; 
1845, iii. p. 241 ; 1847, iv. pp. 70, 71, 86, 132, 152, 
199, 202. 

E. M. Oettinger, Bibliographic biographique, 
Leipzig, 1850, p, 536. 

Grasse, Lehrbuch einer allgemeinen Liierdr- 
geschichte, 1852, III. i. pp. 893, 894-6, Si passim. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 461, 465. 

E. H. F. Mayer, Geschichte der Botanik, 1857, 
iv. p. 438. 

Knight, The English Cyclopaedia, Biography, 
1857, iv. col. 942. 

Nouvelle Biographic Gtne'rale, 1862, xl. col. 841. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
wdrterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 504. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 122. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte alter Zeiten und Vblkcr, 1886, iv. p. 612 
(by Pagel). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 514. 

Ferguson, 'Notes on Books of Secrets,' Trans- 
actions of the Glasgow Archaological Society, 
1883, ii. pp. 191, 252 ; New Series, 1894, vol. ii. 
p. 389- 



PORTZIUS (JOHANN DAVID). 

Vini Rhenani in specie Bacharacensis Anatomia Chymica, ex novis principiis 
potius principiatis acido & alcali resoluta in qua pauca de Terra, Vite, Uva 
Musto, Vino, ejusq; Spiritu, Tartataro (sic\ tandemque Aceto brevibus 



218 



PORTZWSPOSTHIUS 



PORTZIUS QOHANN DAVID). Continued. 

tractantur, suosque in usus rediguntur; a Job. Davide Portzio, Bacharaco- 
Palatino, Phil. & Med. Doct. Heydelbergae Impensis Joh. Petri Zubrodt. 
M.DCLXXII. 

12. Pp. [lo] 84. 



Portzius, or Portius, was a native of Bacharach, 
in the Palatinate, studied at Padua under Pietro 
de Marchettis, and in Leyden under Jan van 
Hoorne, where he was a doctor of philosophy and 
of medicine, which last degree he took at Leyden. 
He afterwards practised with distinction in various 
places in Germany, and wrote his books. He 
lived towards the end of the eighteenth century, 
but the dates of his birth and death are not given. 

The present book is reviewed in the Philosophical 
Transactions, 1673, No. 93, p. 6019. 

A new edition is said to have been printed in 
Holland in 1673, ' DUt if it be a reprint it has a 
different title : Bacchus enucleatus, hoc est, examen 
vini Rhenani ejusque tartari spiritus, aceti &c. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 569. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 544. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, 
iii. col. 1714; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Er- 
gdnzungen, 1819, vi. col. 686. 

Portal, Histoirede I' Anatomic et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, iii. p. 561. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 567. 



Leeuwaarden, 1673, 8 ; and again : Bacchus 
enucleatus, sive, examen vini Rhenani, imprimis 
Baccaracensis anatomia chymica, Leovardiae, 1674, 
12. As I have not seen these reprints, I can say 
nothing about them. Mangel apparently regards 
the 1672 and 1673 editions as being of the same 
book. 

Other works by him are : 

Catalogus van een vylmuntent en overheerlyk 
cabinet van Petrefacta, Amsterd. 1754 (?), 8. 

Demonstratio, medico-chyrurgica de turnoribus 
et in specie de TraiSapdpoKaK^, . . . Leeuwaarden, 
1679, 12 ; Naples, 1727, 4 ; in English, London, 
1706, 8. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Medecine, 
1778, iii. p. 6n. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1779, iii. 
p. 326. (Haller gives both titles as if the Heidel- 
berg and Leeuwaarden editions were different 
books. ) 

Biographic Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 482. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerite aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 614. 



POSTHIUS (JOANNES). 

Schatzkammerlein der Gesundheit, 1628. 

See HILDANUS (WILHELM FABRICIUS). 



This is a collection of maxims in verse aboul 
eating, drinking, sleeping, and so on, for the 
preservation of health, commented on by Hildanus. 

Posth, or Poslhius, afterwards distinguished as 
an anatomist, was born in 1537 (1533?) at Ger- 
mersheim, in the Palatinate, studied letlers and 
philosophy al Heidelberg, and look the degree of 
M.A. in 1558. He Ira veiled in Germany and 
Italy, was shipwrecked in the Adriatic, lived at 
Montpellier, and in 1567 took the degree of M.D. 
at Valence, in Dauphin^. He setlled at Antwerp, 
and as physician accompanied the troops raised by 
the Low Countries against Alba. In 1568 he was 
at Wiirzburg, and acted as physician to the Prince 

Boissardus, /cones Virorum Illustrium, 1597, i. 
pp. 11-16 ; 1598, ii. pp. 74 (brilliant portrait) -82. 
Adami, Vitce Germanorum Medicorum, 1620, 

PP- 33I-33 8 - 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 299. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 660. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 663. 

Freher, Theatrum virorum eruditione clarorutn, 
1688, p. 1298, and plale 59. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum , 
1731, II. i. p. 545. 

James Douglas, Bibliographies Anatomiccc Speci- 
men, 1734, p. 161. 

Zedler, Universal- lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 1801. 

Jakob Brucker, Ehren-tempel der Deutschen 
Gelehrsamkeit, 1747, p. 66 (with a fine portrait). 

Freytag, Analecta litteraria, 1750, p. 706. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1728 ; Rolermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz* 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 730, 



Bishop. In 1583 he wenl to Heidelberg, and 
acted as private physician to Ihe Churfursl's 
adminislralor, Johann Casimir, and subsequenlly 
lo the Churfiirst, Frederick IV. From fear of Ihe 
plague in 1597 he fled lo Mosbach, but died there 
on 24 June, 1597, in the 64th year of his age, 
according to Hildanus, but the 6oth, according lo 
Douglas. 

He was Ihe aulhor of analomical and lilerary 
works, bul did nol engage al all in chemislry. He 
is highly praised as a learned, skilful, and widely 
celebraled philosopher and physician by Hildanus, 
in the preface to the presenl book. His poems, 
Parerga poetica, Basil., 8, are rare. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Medecine, 
1755, ii. p. 299; 1778, iii. p. 614. 

Portal, Histoire de FAnatomie et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, ii. p. 122. 

Moehsen, Verzeichnis einer Samlung von Bild- 
nissen, 1771, Th. ii. p. 108. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice, 1776, i. 

P- 348 ; 1777. ii- P- 291- 

J. F. Blumenbach, Introductio in Historian 
Medicince litterariam, 1786, p. 124. 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Literdr- 
geschichte der Medicin, 1792, pp. 216, 217, 188. 

Biographie Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 484. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, in. 
pp. 63, 82, 84, 105. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. 
p. 617. 

Allgemelne Deutsche Biographie, 1888, xxvi. 

P- 473- 



POTERWS 



219 



POTERIUS (PETRUS). 

Petri Poterii Opera Omnia Practica & Chymica, cum Annotationibus et Addita- 
mentis utilissimis pariter ac curiosis Friderici Hoffmanni, Filii, Hallensis, 
Medici Electoralis Brandenburgici, Philosophi & Professoris Medicinae 
Primarii in Academia Fridericiana. Accessit nova Doctrina De Febribus, ex 
Principiis mechanicis solide deducta. Cum indice locupletissimo. Franco- 
furti ad Moenum, Impensis Friderici Knochii, Bibliop. Typis Johannis Baueri. 
Anno M.DC.XCVIII. 



black. 



Pp. [20, including frontispiece], 882. Indices [26, 2 blank]. Title red and 
Portrait of F. Hoffmann as frontispiece. 



[Another Copy.] 



[Pharmacopoea Spagirica.] 

8. Pp. [6] 308. Index [12]. Wants the title-page. 

This book was published at Bologna, in 1622, edition. Inserted in it is a leaf (pp. 45-46) from 
8, and at Frankfurt, 1628, 8, in two books. The the Bologna (?) edition of his 'Observationes.' 
present is almost certainly a copy of the Bologna 



Manes Poterianae. 

See ETTNER (JOHANN CHRISTOPH VON). 



Pierre de la Poterie is called Pierre Potier by 
Jbcher, and Petrus Poter by Rotermund, Pierre 
Potier and Poterius by Eloy. 

He was a physician and chemist, a native of Anjou. 
Early in the seventeenth century he went to Italy, 
and settled there, and in spite of his youth he was 
barely 20 gained esteem as a successful practi- 
tioner. He took up his residence at Bologna, was 
created a French councillor and Royal physician, 
was a strong supporter of spagyric remedies as 
against those then in fashion, and vaunted his 
' antihecticum ' (antimony oxide containing tin) and 
other secret remedies of his own invention. He 
was one of the first to describe the method of 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 402. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 904. 
Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1731, II. i. p. 545 (review of his works from the 
A eta Lipsiensia). 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metallic^, 

1732, p. 113. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 674. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxviii. col. 
1869. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 270. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1730 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
uiigen, 1819, vi. col. 735. 

Moehsen, Verzeichnis einer Samlung von Bild- 
nissen, 1771, Th. ii. p. 108. 

Moehsen, Beschreibiing einer Berlinischen Me- 
daillen-Sammlung, 1773, i. p. 146. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 296. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicinte practice, 1777, ii. 
p. 444. 



making the Bologna stone. His works contain an 
account of remarkable cures, observations, and a 
treatise on fevers, besides the above. 

He was still living at Bologna in 1640, but is said 
to have been assassinated afterwards by a treacher- 
ous friend, Sancassani. 

De Febribus Libri II. et insignium curationum et 
singularium observationum centuriae tres, Venet., 
1615; Bonon., 1622, 1643, 4; Paris, 1647, 4; 
Cent. I. and II. Colon., 1622-23, I2 - 

Opera, Lugd., 1645, 8; 1653, 8; Francof., 
1666, 8; and 1698, 4, edited by Fridericus 
Hoffmann, as above. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mtdecine, 
1778, iii. p. 615. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 23. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 567, 
592; 1778, ii. p. 4. ('Inventachemica/ed. Ettner). 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 123. 

Biographie Mtdicak, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 485. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Artneykunde, 1827, iv. 
p. 283. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 245 ; 
1869, ii. p. 237. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1847, ' v - P- 42. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 210, 346, 499, 572. 

PoggendorfT, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 509. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 119. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Vdlker, 1886, iv. p. 617. 

Dictionnaire Encycloptdique des Sciences Midi- 
cales, 2eme SeYie, 1888, xxvi. p. 781. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 545. 



220 POTIER 

POTIER (MICHAEL). 

Novus Tractatus Chymicus, de vera Materia, veroq; Processu Lapidis Philoso- 
phici, quo pleniorem, planiorem atque fideliorem hactenus non vidit Mundus. 
Cui accessit sub calcem ut verum, ita sincerum de Fraternitate Rosese Crucis 
judicium. Haec omnia nuper ad amici cujusdam literas responsa, & mox 
subinde hoc publico typo dictse Fraternitati devote dicata a Michaele Potier, 
Give Dortmontano, Westphalorum. Editio prima. 
Adsit Amor. Absit Livor. 

Francofurti ad Moenum, Typis & sumptibus Hartmanni Palthenij, 1617. 

8. Pp. 79 [i blank]. 

Besides the above, Kloss quotes editions : Francof., 1619, 1629, 8, which makes it parallel with the 
work ' Philosophia Pura ' below. 

[Another Copy.] 

Philosophia Pura, qua non solum vera materia, verusque processus Lapidis 
Philosophici multo apertius, quam hactenus ab ullo Philosophorum, pro- 
ponitur ; sed etiam viva totius Mysterij revelatio filijs sapientiae offertur : quod 
typis nunquam visum, quamdiu stetit Mundus. Accessit sub calcem Judicium 
de Fratribus Roseae Crucis. Haec omnia hac Secunda Editione diligentissime 
recognita, ac plurimis in locis novis Responsionibus locupletata, ab autore 
ipso Michaele Potier, Give Dortmontano in Westphalia. 

Invidet Nemini Charitas. 

Francofurti, Typis Pauli Jacobi, Impensis Lucae Jennis. Anno M.DC.XIX. 

8. Pp. 214 [4 blank]. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, followed by Schmieder, quotes apart, though he adds that it is probably identical 
editions of 1617 and 1629, but not this of 1619. with the others, which it doubtless is. The 1619 
Gmelin quotes all three, but puts the 1619 edition and 1629 editions are quoted in the Missiv. 

Michaelis Potier Veredarius Hermetico-Philosophicus Lsetum et Inauditum 
Nuncium adferens ; id est, secreti Naturae secretissimi, de conficiendo 
nimirum lapide philosophico, personalem & vivam Revelationem veris veras 
sapientiae filiis, nunquam & nusquam ante hunc diem viso vel audito modo, 
fideliter & finaliter offerens. Novis ad quorundam literas & theses Respon- 
sionibus informatus, et ex civitate imperiali Essen in Westph. ablegatus, ab 
ipsomet Autore. 

Erubescit Veritas, nisi Abscondi. 

Francofurti Sumptibus Danielis & Davidis Aubriorum & Clementis Schleichii. 
Anno M.DC.XXII. 

8. Pp. L8] 263 [i]. 

This also has been converted into two separate keeps up this distinction, adds however that they 

works by Lenglet Dufresnoy : one called ' Vere- are probably identical. Schmieder maintains the 

darius ' and the other ' De conficiendo Lapide distinction without any correction. 
Philosophico,' both dated 1622. Gmelin, who 

Redivivi Michaelis Potier Philosophi Hermetici Apologia, contra Alchymistam 
Impostorem, qui philosophum hunc in arte lapidis philosophorum verum 
ac indubitatum, imposturae suspectum facere conatus est, fidem ut sibi apud 
rerum incautos pararet. Scriptum sane in arte hac divino-naturalissima adeo 



POTIERPOTT 221 



POTIER (MICHAEL). Continued. 

clarum & apertum, quo clarius & apertius in hoc Europe theatrum prodijt 
nunquam, nee unquam par fidelis scripti exemplum ullibi terrarum visum est : 
quia turn materiam lapidis philosophic! veram & immediatam exhibet, turn 
verum cum ista materia procedendi modum ; adeoque fontem auri & argenti, 
imb & sanitatis uberrimum fideliter offert; a veris verae artis inquisitoribus 
jamdiu desideratissimum. Augustissimo et Invictissimo Romanorum Impera- 
tori Ferdinando II. nee non Potentissimo Regi Hungarise et Bohemia? 
Ferdinando Ernesto, Archiduci Austria? Imperatoris Ferdinandi II. Filio ac 
Haeredi, devotissime dicatum & consecratum ab ipsomet Authore Michaele 
Potier, Philosopho Hermetico dogmatico, vero ac fundamentali. 

Veritas patefacta triumphat. 
Francofurti, Cura & Sumptibus Auctoris. 

In anno Ipso, In qVo Ipso saplente IVDICe, trlVMphablt Ipsa 
Veritas. 

4. Pp. [n, i blank] 131 [i blank]. At the end is another chronogram : In anno 
Ipso, In qVo DeVs benlgne CaVsaM tVebatVr Insontls. 

The chronogram is 1631. Lenglet Dufresnoy boast of his knowledge of the secrets of the art, 

enters apparently an edition of 1630 under the title : but could never be brought to give proofs of it. 

'Apologia Hermetico philosophica,' but that of He ended his life, it is said, in the greatest poverty 

1631 as ' Redivivi Apologia contra impostorem and neglect, early in the seventeenth century. 

Alchimistam.' Gmelin also makes this distinction. Besides the preceding works he was the author 

It is possible that they are different, or there may of the following : 

be merely a difference in the title-page. Schmieder Compendium Philosophorum in Comitem Trevis- 

mentions the edition of 1630 only. anum . . ., Francof., 1610, 12. 

Potier was apparently a Frenchman. For many Fons Chytnicus, Colon. , 1637, 4. 

years he travelled over the whole of Europe, and Philosophia Chymica, Francof., 1648, 4. 

finally settled in Dortmund. His vanity and Vera inveniendi lapidem philosophicum methodus 

reticence are displayed in his works. He made a contra Alchimistas. 

Van der Linden, De Scripti s Medicis libri duo, Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Ckemie, 1785, 

1637, p. 364. pp. 299, 524, 602, 606. 

Borel, Bibliotheca chimica, 1654, p. 189. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, Gottingen, 1797, 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, Norimb. , 1686, i. pp. 504-5, 523, 524 and notes, 560. 

p. 820. Biographie Medicate, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 25), vi. p. 485. 

Geneva;, 1731, II. i. p. 546. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, Halle, 1832, 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic p. 358. 

Hermttique, 1742, i. pp. 387, 478 ; iii. pp. 269-270. Hoefer, Histoire de la CAimie, 1843, ii. p. 331 ; 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, Leipz., 1869, ii. p. 323. 

1751, iii. col. 1730. Kloss, Bibliographie der Freimaurerei, 1844, 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 117. No. 2500. 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Historic Medi- Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 

conim chronologic us, 1761, p. 553. worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 509. 

Moehsen, Verzeichnis einer Samlung von Bild- Kopp, Die Alchemie, Heidelberg, 1886, i. p. 

nissen, 1771, Th. ii. p. 108. 236 ; ii. pp. 332, 333, 344-5, 385, 391. 

Moehsen, Beschreibung ciner Berlinischen Me- Dictionnaire Encyclope'dique des Sciences Midi- 

daillen-Sammlung, 1773, i. p. 146. cales, 2eme Se'rie, 1888, xxvi. p. 781. 

Missiv an die kocherleuchtete Briiderschaft des 
Ordens des Goldenen und Rosenkreutzes, 1783, p. 77. 

POTT QOHANN HEINRICH). 

D. Johannis Henrici Pott Prof. Chym. und Mitgleid der Konigl. Academic der 
Wissenschaften Chymische Untersuchungen welche fiirnehmlich von der 
Lithogeognosia oder Erkantnifs und Bearbeitung der gemeinen einfacheren 
Steine und Erden ingleichen von Feuer und Licht handeln. Potsdamm, 
Bey Christian Friedrich Vofs. 1746. 

4. Pp. [8] 88. 

D. Johannis Henrici Pott Fortsetzung derer Chymischen Untersuchungen, welche 
von der Lithogeognosie, oder Erkantnifs und Bearbeitung derer Steine und Erden 
specieller handeln. Berlin und Potsdam, bey Christian Friedrich Vofs. 1751. 

4. Pp. [8] 120. 



222 



POTTPO YSELIUS 



POTT (JOHANN HEINRICH). Continued. 

Pott was born at Halberstadt in 1692, where his 
father was Prussian councillor and canonicus. He 
was educated at the Cathedral school there and at 
Halle, and in 1709 entered the University. He 
first studied theology, but afterwards turned to 
medicine, in which he graduated in 1716. He then 
went home, but in 1719 again went to Halle and 
thence to Berlin. Almost on his arrival he was 
admitted to the Academy of Sciences, which, later 
on, he left, on account of violent disputes with 
some of his colleagues. On the foundation of {he 
Collegium Medico-chirurgicum he was appointed 
professor of theoretical chemistry, and after Neu- 
mann's death he held also the post of teacher of 
practical chemistry and director of the royal phar- 
maceutical establishment. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermftique, 1742, i. pp. 417, 486 ; iii. p. 271. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 324. 

Nouveaux Mtmoires de I'Acade'mie des Sciences 
et Belles-Lettres, Annte 1777, Berlin, 1779, pp. 55- 
65 (61oge by Formey). 

BauTier, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 57 ('Vir 
in chemicis exercitatissimus, et fide dignissimus 
fuit 1 ). 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Literdr- 
geschichte der Medicin, 1792, pp. 372, 373, 290. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. pp. 350, 
407, 468-70, 603, 605-10; 1799, iii. p. 54. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litterattir, 
1806-08, pp. 232, 238, 246, 263-64, 273, 287, 292, 

295- 324. 3 2 6, 340, 344- 

Meusel, Lexikon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 ver- 
storbenen Teutschen Schriftsteller, 1810, x. pp. 
507-510. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Erganzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, 
vi. col. 746 (and references). 



He died 20 (29) March, 1777. 

He was one of the most distinguished chemists of 
his time, especially for his researches on the effects 
of high temperatures upon mineral substances. 

There was a second continuation of the above, 
Berlin, 1754, 4, and a new edition of the whole, 
Berlin, 1757, 4. 

His experiments on minerals appeared in French : 
Lithogeognosie ou Examen Chymique des Pierres 
et des Terres en ge'ne'ral . . ., Paris, 1753, 12, pp. 
viij, 431 (i blank), with a plate ; continuation, 1753, 
12, pp. 267 (5) ; and his collected works, trans- 
lated by Demachy : Dissertations chymiques . . ., 
Paris, 1759, 4 vols., 12, i. pp. xxiv, 576 ; ii. pp. 
[6] 386 ; iii. pp. [6] 590 ; iv. pp. vj, 536. 

Biographie Mtdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 486. 

Biographie Universelle, 1823, xxxv. p. 530 ; no 
date, xxxiv. p. 197. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1825, v. 

P- 33- 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 408- 
411 ; 1869, ii. pp. 401-404. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 205- 
208, &c., &c. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 533, 578, 579, 596, 611, 636, 638, 693, 714. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
vuorterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 509. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtntrale, 1866, xl. col. 901. 

Hofmann, Chemische Erinnerungen aus der 
Berliner Vergangenheit , 1882, pp. 24, 69. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1888, xxvi. p. 
486 (by Ladenburg). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 546. 



POYSELIUS (ULRICH). 
Spiegel der Alchimey. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii. 1598, p. 60. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, p. 86. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 277. 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 214. 

See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 86. 

Ein Particular Augmentation des Golds. 

See CHYMIPHILUS (j. J.), Der wahren chymischen Weisheit Offenbahrung, 1720 
p. 169. 

than a possessor of the lofty truth, so that it is of 
no use.' 

The above is the only writing ascribed to Poy- 
selius by the authorities, but Georg Phaedro in his 
'Vindication ' quotes a book by the ' noble honour- 
able Ulrich Poifsel ' : De summo philosophorum 
ovo, sive termino, but whether that is another book 
or merely another title, I am unable to say. 



According to the title Poyselius was a priest at 
the Bavarian Court, possessed the 'true stone of 
the Philosophers, ' and wrote the present tract. He 
died in the year 1471, and was buried at Mannfs- 
minster in the old Palatinate. 

Fictuld says he lived in the year 1471, though 
everybody else says he died that year ; ' he gave a 
wretched philosophical tractlet to the world, from 
which anyone can see that he was more of a sophist 

Georg Phaedro, Verantwortieng, 1566, sign. Dj 
verso. 

Maier, Symbola Aurece Menses, 1617, p. 559. 

Borrichius, Conspectvs Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 28, No. xxxix. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. ii. p. 117, 



Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historie 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1788, iv. p. 132. 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemic, 1832, p. 238. 

Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, No. mo. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 354. 



PRACTICA PR&POSITUS 223 

PRACTICA. 

See (LULLIUS) RAYMUNDUS. 

For works bearing this name see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 348. 

PRACTICA ad discipulum. 
See ODOMARUS. 

PRACTICA Leonis Viridis, das ist: Der rechte vnd wahre Fussteig zu dem 
Koniglichen Chymischen HochzeitSaal F. C. R. Neben einem Anhang 
vnnd explication zweyer Tage der Chymischen Hochzeit, alien Liebhabern der 
Kunst zu gute an Tage gegeben, vnd in Druck verfertiget, Durch C. V. M. V. S. 
Gedruckt, In vorlegung Johan Thiemen. Im Jahr M.DC.XIX. 

8. Pp. [2] 132. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

Hermdtique, 1742, in. p. 101. (He gives the title p. 605 ('a rare little book !'). 

in French, for apparently he had not seen the Murr> jjter den. vjahren Ur sprung der Rosen- 

ongmal, and he says he did not know either the kreuzer und des Freimaurerordens. 1803, p. 54. 

place or date of printing.) KlosSt Bibliographit der Freimaurerei, 1844, 

Mtssiv an die Bruderschaft des Ordens des Gold- j^o 2583 

enen und Rosenkreutzes, 1783, p. 48. ('Few know, Ladrag'ue, Bibliothlque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

fewer have seen this altogether rare tract. ) Secretes 1870 No. 1545. 

PRACTICA vera alkimica. 
See ORTHOLANUS. 

PRACTICA vom Universal oder gebenedeyten Tinctur Stein der Alten Weisen, 
Rythmice gestellt. 
See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Thesaurinella, 1682, p. 307. 

PRACTICE of Lights, or an Excellent and Ancient Treatise of the Philosophers- 
Stone. 

See COLLECTANEA CHYMICA, 1684, p. 27. 

PR^tPOSITUS (NICOLAUS). 

Dispensarium magi || stri Nicolai Preposi || ti ad aromatarios.|| 

S. 1. a. & typ. nom. ; folio. Sigs. a-k in eights, 1-n in sixes, n vj blank ; or, ff. xcvii, 
i blank. Double columns. 57-58 lines. Gothic letter. Title, f. i, without number 
or signature; f. ii, with sig. aij, begins: Prologus II Nicolai prepositi dpctoris || medici 
clarissimi Isagoge siue||introductiones in artem apote || canatus incipiunt.|| F. xciii 
verso, col. 2 : Finit Nicolai prepositi doctoris || medici clarissimi ysagogaru siue 
introdu- 1| ctionu in arte apotecariatus opusculu3. || f. xciiii recto, with sig. n ij to f. xcvii 
verso, Tabula. At the end : Finis tabule II Laus deo || followed by the Registrum. 

With the exception of the reading ' introduc- But the best evidence goes to prove that he was 

tionum' for Hain's 'introductorium,' and 57-58' NicolausSalernitanus, or of Salerno, surnamed Prse- 

lines for Hain's 58 lines, the above corresponds positus, because he was head of that great medical 

with Hain's No. '13325, and was printed late in school. He wrote a work entitled ' Antidotarium 

the fifteenth century. parvum," which accompanies the works of Mesue, 

The accounts of this person are so vague, and Venice, 1589, 1623, but, so far as I have ascer- 

are so irreconcilable with each other, that it is tained, was not printed in the fifteenth century. He 

plain the historians have hardly any facts to go was born or flourished in the early part of the 

upon. He has been called Nicolaus Alexandrinus twelfth century, and was about a hundred years 

and put in the sixth century ; he has been identified earlier than Myrepsus, so that he could not have 

with Nicolaus Myrepsus in the thirteenth century ; adopted or adapted anything from that writer, as 

he has been called a physician at Tours at the end has been alleged. 

of the sixteenth century and expressly distinguished Though passing under his name the present 

from Nicolaus Salernitanus. treatise is not by him, but, according to Choulant, 



224 



PRAEPOSITUS PRE TIOSA 



PR/EPOSITUS (NICOLAUS). Continued. 

is a production of the fifteenth century, as appears 
by the authors quoted. It is said to be compiled 
from the work of Praspositus and Mesue. 

The present treatise, under varying titles, was 
repeatedly printed ; and the following editions, 
besides the two printed before 1500, are enumerated : 

Lugd., 1505, 1512, 1532, 1536, 1537 (edited by 
Mich, de Capella). 

Ingoldstadt, 1541 ; Venet., 1543. 

Basil., 1549 (by Leonhard Fuchs). 

Lugd., 1550, 1567, 1582. 

Venet., 1602. 

Francof., 1625, 1626. 

Norimb., 1658. 



Castellanus, Vita illustrium Medicorum, 1617, 
p. 134 (identifies Myrepsus and Praspositus). 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 374. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 661 
(says he compiled an epitome of Myrepsus). 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 842; 
p. 640 (under Mesue). 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 374 (places Myrepsus earlier 
than Praepositus). 

Bayle, Dictionaire historiqut et critique, 1730, 
iii. p. 805. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 547 (seems to regard him as the same 
person as Myrepsus). 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, p. 102 (note a). 

Theophilus Sincerus (i.e. Geprg Jacob Schwin- 
del), Bibliotheca Historico-Critica Librorum . . . 
rariorum, Nlirnberg, 1736, p. 189, No. Iviii. (Dis- 
pensatorium ad Aromatorios, Lugd., 1505). 

Theophilus Sincerus, Thesaurus Bibliothecalis, 
Norimbergae, 1739, iv. p. 50, No. xxiii. (Dispen- 
sarium ad Aromatorios, Lugd., 1512). 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 675 (follows Conring). 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxix., col. 73. 

Repertorium der seltenen Schriften, 2tes Stiick, 
p. 72. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1743 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 782. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. pp. 166, 
168 ; 1772, ii. p. 638. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 113. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicince practices, 1776, i. 
p. 324. 

Torbern Bergman, Dissert atio Gradualis sistens 
ChemicE Progressus a Media Sac. VII. ad Medium 
Scec. XVII., Upsaliae [1782], p. 9. (He quotes 



Sincerus, who quotes the 1505 and 1512 editions, 
said he could find nothing about the author. I 
have not been able to do more than verify and 
confirm Sincerus' result. By several authorities he 
has been entirely overlooked. 

Another work, which is said to bear his name, is 
the Latin translation of the Antidotarium of 
Myrepsus, which he composed in Greek in the 
thirteenth century. Under any circumstances Prae- 
positus could not have been the author of that book. 

It would seem, therefore, as if it had been a 
habit to affix his name to a pharmaceutical treatise 
so as to give it authority. 



'Nicolaus Prevost, Medicus Touronensis,' who 
wrote an Antidotarium, Lugd., 1505, in 4. By 
Prevost is probably meant Praepositus, at least 
Wiegleb has so transcribed it in his translation.) 
Reprinted in Opuscula Physica et Chemica, 1787, 
iv. p. 97 ; English translation, 1791, p. 107. 

Wiegleb, Geschichte des Wachsthums und der 
Erfindungen in der Chemie in der dltesten und 
mittlern Zeit, 1792, pp. 150-151. (Wiegleb, fol- 
lowing Bergman, distinguishes between Nicolaus 
of Salerno and Nicolaus Praspositus of Tours, who 
lived at the end of the fifteenth century.) 

Panzer, Annales Typographici, 1796, iv. p. 180, 
No. 1004 (s. 1. & a.); 1799, vii. p. 282, No. 61 
(Lyons, 1505); p. 301, No. 210 (Lyons, 1512); 
1801, ix. p. 515, No. 347 b (Lyons, 1517). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 24-25. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, p. 17. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1823, ii. 
pp. 498 (Nicolaus of Salerno, not to be confused 
with Nicolaus Alexandrinus, pp. 334, 335). 

Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1838, II. ii. 
Nos. *i3324, *i3325. 

Choulant, Handbuch der Bucher-Kunde der a Item 
Medicin, 1841, pp. 282-291. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 348 ; 
1866, i. p. 367. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. pp. 126, 
180; 1849, ii. p. 109. 

De Renzi, Collectio Salernitana, 1852, i. p. 217. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 394, 395. 44- 

Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik, 1856, iii. pp. 382, 
459- 5o6. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1875, i. pp. 480, 
666, 849; 1 88 1, ii. p. 967. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1886, iv. p. 368 
(calls him ' Nicolaus Salernitanus '). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1888, ix., p. 933. 



PRAXIS Universalis magni Operis, ex Raymundo. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verse Alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 248. 

PREPARATION of the Philosophers Stone. 

See BRIEF (A) Preparation of the Philosophers Stone. 



PRETIOSA Margarita. 

See BONUS (PETRUS). 
See LACINIUS (JANUS). 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 128. 



PRE TIOSISSIM1PR1ESTLE Y 



225 



PRETIOSISSIMI Arcani Arcanorum et Philosophorum Magisterii Verissima ac 
Purissima Revelatio. 
See MAGNI PHILOSOPHORUM Arcani Revelator, 1688. 

PRIESTLEY (JOSEPH). 

Letter to Richard Kirwan, Esq. 

See SCHEELE (CHARLES WILLIAM), 1780, p. 250. 



Dr. Priestley was born near Leeds 13 March, 
1733. His schooling was rapidly acquired; he 
showed considerable aptitude for languages and a 
taste for natural science. Later on his studies ran 
in two distinct lines one, theology, philosophy, 
and politics ; the other, physics and chemistry. 
His career was a chequered one. He was a 
preacher, a schoolmaster, librarian to a nobleman 
and tutor of his sons, and a keen student and con- 
troversialist in theology and philosophy. His views 
on these subjects, or his advocacy of them, rendered 
him unpopular as a preacher and as an individual 
almost all his life through, and the growing dislike 
culminated at last in the burning of his house and 
chapel at Birmingham by a mob, from whose hands 
he himself had a narrow escape. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. pp. 68g 
(on Air). 718 (edition of Hartley on the Mind). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1799, iii. pp. 256, 
270-76. &c., &c. 

Aikin, 'Sketch of the life and character of Dr. 
Priestley,' Monthly Magazine, May, 1804, pp. 355- 
363- 

Der Biograpk, Halle, 1804, iv. p. 220. (Notifi- 
cation of his death at Northumberland, U.S.A., 
5 Feb.. 1804, aged 71 nearlv: 'a man of unblem- 
ished character, who however had so excited the 
hatred of the people that he left England and 
settled in America.') 

The Philosophical Magazine, 1805, xxii. pp. 166- 
171. with a portrait. 

Cuvier, Mi 'moires de Vlnstitut des Sciences, 
I-ettres et Arts. Sciences Mathtmatiques et Phv- 
siqnes, 1806, vi. pp. 29-58. 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 302, 456, 474, 540 (calls him John 
instead of Joseph). 

Edinburgh Review, 1807. ix. No. xvii. pp. 136- 
161 (review of Cooper's ' Life '). 

Hutton, Shaw and Pearson, The Philosophical 
Transactions . . . from 1665 to . . . 1800, abridged, 
London, 1809, xii. p. 510 note. 

Thomson, History of the Royal Society, 1812, 
Apn. iv. p. Iii, June 12, 1766. 

Thomson, Annals of Philosophy, 1813, i. pp. 8r- 
89. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1816. xxv. pp. 207-307. 

Rotermund, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. . . Jochers aJlgemeinem GeJehrten-Lexico, 1819, 
vi. col. 907-916 (list of 145 writings). 

Bieigraphie Mfdicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25). vi. p. 405. 

Biographie Universelle* 1823, xxxvi. p. 83 ; no 
date, xxxiv. pp. 352-356 (article by Cuvier). 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824 (Authors), 
ii. 776.f-777>fr. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1828, v. 
pp. 25, 38, 130. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 18 i, ii. 
pp. 1-25. 

Cuvier, Histoire des Progres des Sciences Natur- 
ellf!. 1894, \. p. 64. 

II. 1 



Not finding any sympathy after this from his 
countrymen, he followed his sons to America in 
1795, and settled at Northumberland, a hundred 
and thirty miles from Philadelphia, where he died 
6 Feb., 1804. Even in America, it is said, the 
feeling which had displayed itself so strongly in this 
country had begun to show evidences of vitality. 

The theological controversies which he carried on 
are now forgotten, but his scientific discoveries 
must necessarily remain. He was a clever experi- 
menter, and successful in getting positive results ; 
but whether from bent of mind or want of training, 
or both, he lacked the power or the patience to 
work out the inferences to which his discoveries 
led. If Priestley does not stand in the first rank, his 
great versatility must bear a large part of the blame. 

The Georgian Era, 1834, iii. pp. 189-198. 
Dumas, Lecons sur la Philosophie chimique, 1837, 
p. 101 ; 1878, p. 109 ; Rammelsberg's German 
translation, 1839, p. 89. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 479- 
493 ; 1869, ii. pp. 472-487- 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 236- 
244, &c., &c. 

Brougham, Lives of Men of Letters and Science 
who flourished in the time of George III., 1845, i. 
pp. 402-408, & passim, with a portrait ; Works, I. 
Lives of Philosophers of the Reign of George III., 
1855, pp. 68-90, &c., &c. (died 6 Feb., 1804, in his 
seventy-second year). 

Weld, A History of the Royal Society, 1848, ii. 
pp. 51-54, 56, 66, 67. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 346, 614, 629, 647, 677, 687, 690, 691, 
700, 712. 

Knight, The English Cyclopedia, Biography, 
1857, iv. cols. 971-975- 

Cuvier, Recueil des eloges historiqucs, 1861, i. pp. 
117-149. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 528. 

Hoefer, La Chimie enseignte par la Biographie de 
ses Fondateurs, 1865, pp. 136-170. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtnerale, 1866, xli. cols. 

2 7-35- 

Ladenburg, Vortrage Uber die Entwicklungs- 
geschichte der Chemie, 1869, p. 16. 

Kopp, Die Entwickelung der Chemie in der 
neuern Zeit, 1873, pp. 61-68, 163-165 (composition 
of the atmosphere), 185-189 (formation of water), 
&c., &c. 

T. H. Huxley, 'Address delivered on the occasion 
of the presentation of a statue of Priestley to the 
town of Birmingham, August i, 1874.' Macmillaris 
Magazine, Oct., 1874. Reprinted in Huxley's 
Science and Culture and other Essays, London, 
1881, pp. 04-127. 

Kopp, Beitrdge sur Geschichte der Chemie, 1875, 
iii. p. 249 (formation of water). 

Allibone, A Critical Dictionary of English 
Literature, 1878, ii. pp. 1683-1687 (the different 
opinions on Priestley here collected arc interesting 
and instructive). 



226 PRIESTLEY PROBIER 



PRIESTLEY (JOSEPH). Continued. 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. pp. 593, Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 649. 

594, 967. Thorpe, Essays in Historical Chemistry, 1894, 

M. M. Pattison Muir, Heroes of Science. Chem- pp. 28-52, 110-141. 

ists, 1883, p. 52. Ernst von Meyer, Geschichte der Chemie, 1895, 

Ed. Grimaux, Lavoisier, 1743-1794, 1888, passim. 2te Aufl., p. 106, &c. English translation, 1891, 

B. W. Richardson, 'Joseph Priestley, LL.D., p. 118, &c. 

F.R.S., and the discovery of vital air oxygen gas'; Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlvi. 

The Asclepiad, Lond., 1889, vi. pp. 51-76, with a pp. 357-371 (life, &c., by A. Gordon) ; pp. 371-6 

portrait. (science by P. J. Hartog). 

Berthelot, La Revolution chimique, Lavoisier, Ramsay, The Gases of the Atmosphere, 1896, 

1890, passim. p. 70, with a portrait. 

PRIM A (De) Materia Lapidis Philosophorum. 
See ELUCIDATIO Secretorum, 1602, p. 465. 
See KIESER (FRANZ), Cabala Chymica, 1606, p. 192. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemize Ander Buch, 1614, p. 700. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 708. 

See DARIOT (CLAUDE), Die gulden Arch, Schatz und Kunstkammer, 1614, part ii. 
p. 15. 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 360. 

PRINCIPIIS (De) Naturalibus et de principiis artis Chemicse Liber. 
See GIN^ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, P- 5 X 7- 
See HERMETISCHES Museum, 1785, iii. p. 151. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy quotes : Liber de Principiis Naturae et Artis Chimise in 12. Geismarire, 1647, 
which presumably is the same book. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic (condemns it as a sophistical hash out of other 
HermMque, 1742, iii. p. 271. writings, and without either a beginning or an end). 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. " P- IX 7 

PRINCIPIIS (De) Naturae et Artis Aureus Liber. 

See HERMETISCHE (Der) PHILOSOPHUS, 1706, p. I. 

See AUREUS LIBER. 

This is a translation of the foregoing. 
PRIVY (The) Seal of Secrets, plainly discovering the first matter of the Philosophers. 

See AURIFONTINA CHYMICA, 1680, p. 41. 

PROBIERBUCH. 

See ZIMMERMANN (SAMUEL). 

PROBIER Biichlein auff Goldt, Silber, Ertz vnnd Methal, mit vil kostlichen 
Alchimistischen Kiinsten, sampt aller zugehor, auch Instrumenten darzu 
dienstlich. Mehr des Goldfarbens besondere Kunststiicklin. Item ein 
Erklarung der Bergknamen, fiir die neuwen angehenden Bergkleuth. Alles 
mit sonderm fleifs fiir die Liebhaber der Kunst beschrieben. Getruck zu 
Franckfort am Main, 1574. 

8. Ff. 78. Colophon [i], [i blank]. Title red and black. Vignette and 2 
woodcuts. 

Colophon : Getruckt zu Franckfort am Meyn, Bey Christian Egenolffs Erben, In 
Verlegung D. Adami Loniceri, M. Johannis Cnipij, vnd Pauli Steinmeyers, Im jar 
nach der Geburt Christi vnsers Erlosers, M.D.LXXIIII. 

Several works on assaying are enumerated by editions of the present work, and a much enlarged 
Leupold, and among these are the 1574 and 1608 edition, Nurnberg, 1706, 8. 
Jacob Leupolds Prodromns Ribliotheca metallica, 1732, p. 114. 

[Another Copy.] 



PROBIERPROCESSUS 227 



PROBIER. Buchlein auff Goldt, Silber, Ertz vnnd Methal, mit vil kostlichen 
Alchimistischen Kiinsten, sampt aller zugehor, auch Instrumenten darzu 
dienstlich. Mehr defs Goldtfarbens besondere Kunstucklin. Item ein 
erklarung der Bergknamen, fur die neuwen angehenden Bergkleuth. Alles 
mit sonderm fleifs fiir die Liebhaber der Kunst beschrieben. Gedruckt zu 
Franckfort am Mayn, 1580. 

8. Ff. 78. Colophon [i], [i blank]. Title red and black. Vignette of furnaces, 
3 woodcuts of furnaces and muffles. 

Colophon : Getruckt zu Franckfort am Mayn, Bey Christian Egenolffs Erben, In 
verlegung Adami Loniceri, Johannis Cnipij, Doctor vnnd Pauli Steinmeyers, Im jar 
nach der Geburt Christi vnsers Erlosers. M.D.LXXX. 

PROBIER Buchlein auff Gold, Silber, Ertz vnd Metall, mit viel kostlichen 
Alchimistischen Kiinsten, sampt aller Zugehor, auch Instrumenten darzu 
dienstlich. Mehr defs Goldfarbens besondere Kunst Stiicklin. Item ein 
Erklarung der Bergknamen, fur die newen angehenden Bergkleuth. Alles mit 
sonderm Fleifs fur die Liebhaber der Kunst beschrieben. Cum Gratia & 
Priuilegio Caes. Maiest. 1608. Franckfurt am Mayn, bey Sigismundo 
Latomo, in verlegung Vincentij Steinmeyers. 

8. Ff. 78. Colophon [i] [i blank]. Title red and black. Altar as vignette. 
Woodcuts of furnaces and muffles. 

Colophon, f. [79] : Getruckt zu Franckfurt am Mayn, durch Sigismundum Latomum, 
in Verlegung Vincentij Steinmeyers, Im Jahr Christi, M.DC.VIII. 

This is a reprint of the 1580 edition. 

PROBIERBUCHLIN. 

See SCHREITTMANN (CIRIACUS). 

PROBIER-KUNST. 

See KURZE und deutliche Vorstellungen der edlen Probier-Kunst, 1718. 

Zwey rare Chymische Tractate darinnen . . . alle Geheimnisse der Probier- 
Kunst . . . gar deutlich gezeiget werden . . . 1717. 
See BEUTHER (DAVID). 

PROBLEMA Chymicum. 

See PAYKULL (OTTO ARNOLD VON), 1719. 

PROCESS (Ein) auff den Lapidem Philosophorum, aufs einem gar alien Buchlein 
eines Scriptoris Anonymi. 
See MOLLER (FRIEDRICH), Ternio Reliquiarum Alchymiae, 1618, Sig. Dij. 

PROCESSUS Chemici Aliquot. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. 755. 

PROCESSUS Lapidis Philosophorum ex Mercuric Corporis. 

See BERNARDUS TREVISANUS. 

PROCESSUS ad Lapidem Philosophorum, Monachi cuiusdam anonymi. 

See FIGULUS (BENEDICTUS), Rosarium Novum Olympicum, pars prima, 1608, p. 79. 

PROCESSUS pro tinctura auff den Mercurium Solis und Lunae. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii. 1598, p. 123. 



228 PROCESSUS PROSPECTUS 

PROCESSUS. Continued. 

See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchymiae, 1610; Appendix Tomi Primi, 

P- '95- 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen, 1708, p. 256. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 195. 

PROMPTUARIUM Alchemic. 
See TANCKE (JOACHIM). 

PROPOSITIONES. 

Propositiones seu maximae artis Chymicae. 

See ARTIS AURIFERAE . . . Volumina, 1610, i. sign, a 5 recto. 

Propositiones maximae, seu Satzungen der Gold-Kunst oder Chemiae Artis. 

See HILDENBRANDT (PAULUS), Auriferas Artis, . . . Uhralteste Authores, 1608 
sign. Avij. recto. 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, i. sign. ):( v. recto ; 1750, 
i. sign. X X ' recto. 

Propositiones oder Satzungen der Goldtkunst. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 427. 
See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemize Ander Buch, 1614, p. 427. 

The preceding are thirteen propositions or maxims about the material suitable for ' the great work of 
philosophers,' and are different from the following. 

Propositiones xxn. in quibus veritas totius artis Chemiae brevissime com- 
prehenditur. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iv. p. 577. 

PROSPECTUS PHARMACEUTICUS GALENICO-CHYMICUS. 

Prospectus Pharmaceutici Editio Secunda, sub quo Antidotarium Mediolanense 
Galeno-Chimicum Excellentissimi Senatus lussu, ac Spetiali Ven. Collegij 
Nobilium Physicorum dictae Ciuitatis ordine olim demandatum loanni 
Honorato Castillioneo Regio Protophysico Patri, nunc vero Brandae Francisci 
Castillionei a Monterutio, Filij, pariter Physici Collegiati, Caesarei Comitis 
Palatini, Almi Collegij Castillionei erecti in Ciuitate Papiae Administratoris, in 
Illustrissimo Sanitatis Magistratu Conseruatoris perpetui, ac Regij, & Ducalis 
Protophysici Generalis in toto Mediolani Dominio opera, studio, & labore 
nouiter emendatum, auctum, & in tres partes diuisum ; Quarum prima com- 
plectitur regulas, & tempora Pharmacopolis aptiora ad disponenda ea, quae 
ad eorum Officinas conferunt, cum exacta Ponderum, ac Mensurarum vsualium 
designatione : Synonymum Alphabeticum ad vberiorem intelligentiam diuer- 
sarum denominationum quorumdam Simplicium : Praeparationes turn generates 
Pharmaciae, turn peculiares aliquarum Drogarum, Simplicium, Mineralium, nee 
non & plurium Medicamentorum Galenicas descriptiones ex Veterum, & 
Recentiorum Auctorum editionibus excerptas continet, additis pariter sin- 
gulorum facultatibus, dosi, duratione, ac distincta componendi methodo. 

Secunda. Mantissam Chimicam Spagiricam Nicolai de Lemmery Physici 
Parisiensis Celeberrimi e Gallico in Italicum traductum. Frequentiores, & 
selectiores in re Medica Chimicas Praeparationes, componendi modum, 
facultates, & dosim. 



PROSPECTUS PRUGGMA YR 229 

PROSPECTUS PHARMACEUTICUS GALENICO-CHYMICUS. Continued. 
Tertia. Tractatus de Tinctura Coralliorum, Alkaest, & Auro Potabile, 
China Chinas, Herba The, Caphe, & Cocolate, quibus accessere Discursus de 
nonnullorum Mineralium, Gemmarum, Lapidum, Drogarum, Aromatum, & 
Simplicium, Origine, Natura, & Cognitione : pro vt & de Compositis, & Forma 
imbalsamandi Humana Corpora; & vltimb de Fuels, alijsque ad Corporis 
ornatum facientibus. Opus Medicis, Chimicae Studiosis, Chirurgiae Pro- 
fessoribus, & Pharmacopolis perquam vtile, & necessarium. Mediolani, 
M.DC.LXXXXVIII. Ex Typographia Caroli losephi Quinti ad Plateam 
Mercatorum. Superiorum permissu. 

Fol. Pp. [44] 484. Engraved title extra. 

Pars Secunda. Lemery, Corso di Chiniica, or Mantissa Chyniica Spagyrica, pp. 
[34] 216. 

Plate of apparatus. Wants pp. 171-4. 

Pars Tertia. Tractatus de Tinctura, [2 blank] 3-118 [2 blank]. 

PRUGGMAYR (MARTIN MAXIMILIAN). 

Scrutinium Philosophicum de vero Elixire Vitae, seu Genuine Auro Potabili 
Philosophic, quo non solum omnes humani corporis morbi quondam sana- 
bantur, veriim & immunda, ac leprosa corpora metallorum curabantur. Opus 
non minus utile, quam necessarium omnibus artis Hermeticae filijs, in quo 
docetur, quid scire, quidque vitare debeat verus Philosophiae Chemicae 
Studiosus : ubi quoque exacte potissima enucleantur, quae circa praeparationem 
Auri Potabilis Philosophici necessario sunt observanda, neque quidquam 
dictum reperitur, quin perspicue, succincte, & ad oculum ex genuinis Philoso- 
phorum Adeptorum textibus comprobetur. Singulari studio, & industria non 
solum in gratiam Filiorum Hermetis ad intelligendos Philosophorum textus, 
verum etiam in emolumentum Celsissimorum Principum, & Magnatum ad 
evitandas Pseudo Alchymistarum fraudes, fugiendosque labores Sophistarum 
inutiles, cum ingenti bonorum jactura hactenus impensos, compilatum Authore 
Martino Maximil. Pruggmayr, Philos. & Medic. Doctore, Physico civitatis 
Graecensis Loimico, ac ibidem Practico. Cum Facultate Superiorum. 
Salisburgi, Sumptibus Joannis Baptistae Mayr, Typographi Aulico-Academici. 

1687. 

8. Pp. [30] 146. Index [6]. 

Of Pruggmayr the notices are meagre. He was Miscellanea of the Academia Natura Curiosoruin, 

born at Voitsberg in Styria, and was a physician at of which society he was admitted a member, 29 

Gratz : " Styrioe Ducat, et Civil. Groecensis Physi- May, 1690, with the name Parmenides. The date 

cus," says Manget ; and Haller calls him Physicus of his death is not given. 

in Styria. He wrote a few papers on medical The book is merely mentioned by Lenglet Du- 

topics, and some of them are contained in the fresnoy, Jocher and Gmelin. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriplorum Mtdicorum, Beytrag sur Geschichte der hohern CAemie, 1785, 

1731, II. i. p. 553. p. 638. (' The author himself commends his book 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie to all students of the hermetic art as absolutely 

Hermitique, 1742, iii. p. 271. indispensable, and so it may be. Many have 

Jocher, Allgemdnes Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. learned the preparation of the stone from it and 

col. 1795. practised it successfully.') 

Uiichner, Academics . . . Natures Curiosorum Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practices, 1788, iv. 

Ilistoria, 1755, p. 478, No. 180. p. 168. 

Missiv an die hocherleuchtcte BrUderschaft ties Gmelin, Gr \chichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 28. 
Ordens des Goldenen und Kosenkreutzes, 1783, p. 
122 (calls the ' Scrutiuium ' an extremely rare book). 



230 PSSA UTIERP YROPH1L US 

PSEAUTIER (Le) d'Hermophile. 

See HERMOPHILE. 

PUISIEUX (PHILLIPPE-FLORENT DE). 

See LEWIS (WILLIAM), Experiences physiques et chimiques, 1768. 

Puisieux was born at Meaux 28 Nov., 1713, was travels, arts and sciences, fiction, among the last 

'avocat' of the Parliament at Paris, and did a being Roderick Random and Fielding's Amelia. 

great deal of translation from Latin, Italian, and The above work by Lewis is among the very last of 

English, sometimes under his own name, but for his numerous versions, for he died in October, 

the most part anonymously. The books treated of 1772. The British Museum copy consists of three 

various subjects geography, gardening, medicine, volumes. 

Biographic Universelle, 1823, xxxvi. p. 305 ; no Nouvelle Biographie Gfatfrale, 1866, xli. col. 187 

date, xxxiv. p. 520 (by Weiss). (says the book is in four volumes). 

Qu6rard, La France Litteraire, 1835, vii. p. 373. 

PURIS (CHRYSOGONUS DE). 

See CHRYSOGONUS DE PURIS. 

PUSTEUINEC (IUSTIN). 

L'Astrea Chirnica overo Sferza per gl' Alchimisti Sofistici, diuisa in quatro capitoli 

Nel primo si dimostra 1' origine, & cause che produssero tal falsa chimica. 

Nel secundo gl' occulti inganni che in questa s' essercitano. 

Nel terzo li errori che prendono gl' Alchimisti nel legger, & interpretar 
1'opinioni, & sentenze de loro Auttori, & particolarmente di quelli lauorano con 
1' oro, & argento viuo. 

Nel quarto si dimostra se si pub dare tal scienza appreso i veri Filosofi per 
sicura, & in che consista. 

Dedicata all' Illustrissimo, & Eccelentissimo Signer Marc' Antonio Giustinian 
Elleto Ambasciatore per la Serenissima Republica di Venetia in Francia. 
In Venetia per Francesco Valuasense 1665. Con licenza de' Superior!. 

12. Pp. 1 2O. 

As the dedication of the book is signed lustin than some others, and, though at the beginning of 

Pusteuinec, it is assumed that that is the author's his book he directs his criticism against ' sophists,' 

name. The book does not occur in the British later on he discourses with skill and sobriety on the 

Museum catalogue, so far as I have observed, and truth of the ' magistery ' and the ' portal of the 

I have found no mention of the author except by work.' 
Borrichius, who says he is more praiseworthy 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 1697, p. 46, No. Ixxvi. 

PYROPHILE. 

Entretien d' Eudoxe et de Pyrophile. 
See TRIOMPHE (Le) Hermetique. 

PYROPHILUS. 

Das Fundament der Lehre vom Stein der Weisen, 1736. 

See KLEFEKER (DETLEF). 

Gmelin (Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 316) p. 328) quotes Klefeker, but he was not aware of 
quotes Pyrophilus and his book, and (Ibid. , ii. the connection between them. 



QUADRATUM 231 



QUADRATUM Alchymisticum : Das ist : Vier auserlesene rare Tractatgen vom 
Stein der Weisen, Speculum Sapientise, in welchem so wol die Sonnen- 
klahrheit von Jesu Christo, als auch die wahre Tinctur der Weisen gelehret 
wird : Centrum Naturae Concentratum, welches von dem Wiedergebohrnen 
Saltze der Philosophorum handelt : Discursus de Universali, worin viel 
Geheimnifs-volle Excerpta von der Universal Tinctur, und Medicin gesammlet 
vvorden. Abyssus Alchymise Explorata in welchem die Verwandelung der 
Metallen handgreiflich, und leichte von Thoma de Vagan, abgehandelt wird, 
zum Dienst der Kunst- und Weifsheit-liebenden Practicorum. Itzo heraus- 
gegeben, von Einem Liebhaber verborgener Kiinste. Hamburg, verlegts 
Christian Liebezeit. Druckts Philipp Ludwig Stromer, 1705. 

8. General Title, i leaf. 
Each tract has a separate title, and signatures, as well as pagination, as follows : 

Speculum Sapientiae. Das ist : Ein Buch des Geheimnisses vom Anfang der Welt, 
genannt : Der Himmlischen Sonnen-Klahrheit und Geheimnifs von unserm Herrn und 
Heiland Jesu Christo. Mit dem Anhang der Goldenen Practica. De Tinctura Lapidis 
Physicorum, welches beschrieben im Jahr 1672. den 27. Martij. Hamburg, verlegt 
Christian Liebezeit, Druckts Philipp Ludwig Stromer, 1705. 

8. Pp. 54, and picture of an Athanor [i] [i blank]. 

Centrum Naturae Concentratum. Oder : Ein Tractat. Von dem wiedergebohrnen 
Saltz. Insgemein und eigendlich genandt : Der Weisen Stein, in Arabischen geschrieben 
von All Puli, einem Asiatischen Mohren, darnach in Portugisische Sprache durch H. L. 
V. A. H. und ins Hochteutsche versetzt, und heraus gegeben von Johann Otto Helbig 
Rittern, Chur-Furstl. Pfaltzischen Rath, Leib-Medico, und bey der Heidelbergischen 
Universitat Professore Publico. Gedruckt im Jahre 1682. 

8. Pp. [2] 80. Symbolical engraving on p. 78. 

This contains : Discursus de Universali Martini freund, p. 61. Letztes Testament eines Vaters 

de Delle, p. 39. Discursus Philosophicus, p. 49. seinem liebsten Sohne hinterlassen, p. 68. Das 

Censura Hermetica, p. 56. Excerpta ex Libro gantze Schema oder Figur, p. 78. 
genandt : Amor Proximi, p. 58. Sebastian Sieben- 

Abyssus Alchymioe Exploratus (sic) : oder die lang-gesuchte und nunmehro gllicklich 
gefundene Verwandelung der Metallen, vermoge des Steins der Weisen, als des 
grossesten Geheimniisses, und Wunderwercks der nattirlichen Kunst und kiinstlichen 
Natur, umstandlicher und griindlicher, als sonsten jemahls von einem einigen Lapidisten 
geschehen ist, von Thoma de Vagan, einem Englischen Adepto, zum Nutzen der 
Philosophorum, zu Erweiterung der Metallurgie, und zum Trost derer, die da Knechte 
dieses Erbes seyn sollen, gezeiget und beschrieben. Hamburg, verlegts Christian 
Liebezeit, 1705. 

8. Pp. [8] 113 [ S ]. 

Stimulus Alchymisticus (in verse), pp. 107-113. 

Of this work Kopp quotes what appears to be an latter gives the title in Latin, and the date 1705, 

edition in Latin, Hamburg, 1705: Quadratum he adds 'en Allemand.' There is probably no 

alchymisticum, id est, quatuor tractatus de Lapide Latin edition. 

Philosophico, and one in German, 1707, but not The 'Abyssus Alchymiae Explorata' is a trans- 

the present German edition. lation of the ' Introitus apertus ad occlusum Regis 

Kopp seems to have taken it from Lenglet Palatium,' by Eirenaeus Philaletha (q.v.). tor 

Dufresnoy, and not to have noticed that, while the Thomas de Vagan see VAUGHAN (Thomas). 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 339. 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 272. 



232 



Q UADRIGAQ UA TTRAM1 



QUADRIGA Aurifera. 

See BARNAUD (NICOLAS). 

For works of similar title, see Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. p. 340. 

QU^STIO an Lapis philosophorum ualeat contra pestem. 

See GRATAROLO (o.), Veroe alchemiae . . . doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 259. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, iii. p. l8l. 



QUATTRAMI (EVANGELISTA). 

La Vera Dichiaratione di tutte le Metafore, Sitnilitudini, & Enimmi de gl' antichi 
Filosofi Alchimisti, tanto Caldei & Arabi, come Greci & Latini, vsati da loro 
nella descrittione, & compositione dell' Oro potabile, Elissire della vita, Quinta 
essenza, & Lapis Filosofico. Ove con vn breve Discorso della generatione 
de i metalli, & quasi di tutte 1' opere di natura, secondo i principij della 
Filosofia, si mostra 1' errore, & ignoranza (per non dir 1' inganno) di tutti gl' 
Alchimisti Moderni. Per Frate Evangelista Quattrami da Gubbio dell' Ordine 
Eremitano di S. Agostino, Semplicista, & distillatore dell' Illustriss. & 
Reuerendissimo Sig. Card, d' Este. Con Licenza de i Superiori. In 
Roma, Appresso Vincentio Accolti, in Borgo nouo 1587. 

4. Pp. [24] 230 [i, i blank] [22, 4 blank], Sig. Ii3 verso contains the Registro, 
device, and imprint. 



What little is known positively about this author 
is derived from his own books. He was a native of 
Gubbio, in Umbria, flourished at the end of the 
sixteenth century, was a doctor of theology, a monk 
of the order of Eremites of Saint Augustine, her- 
balist of Alfonso the last duke of Ferrara, botanist 
or herbalist and distiller of the Cardinal d'Este. 
He, therefore, pursued botany and chemistry for 
pharmaceutical purposes, very commonly practised 
at the time, as is plain from the number of extant 
books on distillation, like those of Ulstad, Bruns- 
wicke, Evonymus, Eremita and others. 

The present work is devoted, however, more to 
an exposure of the deceptions of the spurious 
alchemists than to chemical preparations. 

Besides it he wrote other two which may be 
mentioned. 

Tractatus perutilis atq. necessarius ad Theriacam, 
Mithridaticamq. Antidotum componendam, in quo 
habentur solutiones tot controuersiarum que^ inter 
celeberrimos viros adhuc viguere circa ea omnia e 
quibus Antidota ipsa conficiuntur, necnon & pene 
innumerabilium errorum fidelis declaratio in pub- 
licae vtilitatis gratiam. Ad serenissimum Alphon- 
sum II. Estensem, Ferrarie, &c. Ducem. Auctore 
Fratre Evangelista Quatramio Eugubinio, Ordinis 
Eremitarum Sancti Augustini, Sacrae Theologiae 
Doctore, atq; Serenissimi Ferrarise Ducis Simpli- 
cista. Ferrarife, Apud Victorium Baldinum, 
Typographum Ducalem. 1597. Veniaa Superiori- 
bus concessa. Small 4, pp. [8] 184 [15, i blank]. 
Down to p. 132 the book is in Italian, Cap. i.-xi. ; 
to p. 182, cap. xii.-xxv. it is in Latin, and the 
conclusion and index are in Italian. 

The other work is as follows : 

Tractatus brevis de Prseservatione & Curatione 
Pestis. F. Evangelistoe Quattrami de Agubio, 
Ordinis Eremitani S. Augustini, Botanici Illustriss. 
& Reverendiss. Cardinalis Estensis, ad Reverendiss. 
Patrem Thadda;um Perusinum auctoritate Apos- 



tolici ejusdem Ordinis Vicarium generalem dignis- 
simum. Rome olim ante xxx. annoseditus. Jam 
verb ex Italico Latinus, opera & studio And. 
Hiltebrandi, Med. D. 1618. Lipsiae, Impensis Eliae 
Rehefeldt & Johannis Grosii. Small 8, pp. [6] 94 
[i, 3 blank]. 

Of the original Italian, which was apparently 
issued at Rome about 1588, I have seen no notice. 
For the translator, Hiltebrand of Stettin, see Witte, 
Diarii Biographici Tomus Secundus, 1691, p. 47, 
Anno 1637, and Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- 
Lexicon, 1750, ii. col. 1598. 

Notwithstanding the simplicity of the foregoing 
facts, the author's name has undergone so many 
modifications that confusion has arisen as to his 
individuality. The author's own version of his 
name seems plain enough, and Borrichius gives it 
in the same form, but, so far as I have observed, 
it is altered more or less by every one else. He is 
called Quattrammo or Quadrami de Agobio by 
Borel ; Jacobilli styles him Quadramnus, and this, 
which can hardly be anything but a misprint, is 
copied by Zedler, Jocher and Rotermund. Kestner 
hesitated between Quatrammus and Quadramnus. 
Lenglet Dufresnoy in his ' Table alphabetique ' 
gives Quatrammo or Quadramide, which is an 
amazing transformation of Borel's second form by 
some ignorant or blundering copyist. Gmelin and 
Schmieder call him Quadrammo, but in his index 
Gmelin has Quadramnio. In the British Museum 
Catalogue the form given is Quadramio, for which 
presumably there is authority. I have, however, 
found none for spelling the name with a ' d ' ; the 
author does not use it, and even in the Italian 
verses prefixed to the ' Tractatus perutilis ' the 
name is spelled ' Quattr'am'io.'the 'o' being added 
for the sake of the play upon the name. 

Great as is the confusion over the surname it is 
not so gratuitous or misleading as that over the 
Christian name. All are agreed about the name 



QUA TTRAMIQUERCETANUS 



233 



QUATTRAMI (EVANGELISTA). Continued. 



Evangelista, but the title Frate, or Frater, con- 
tracted to Fr. or F. inaugurated a new series of 
divagations for which we are again indebted to 
Jacobilli. In one place, p. 99, he has the following 
entry : ' Evangelista Quadramnus Eugubinus Ord. 
Eremitarum s. Augustini, familiarip Alphonsi, 
vltimi Ferrariae Duels, edidit Dichiaratione cli tutte 
le Metamorfesi (sic), et Enigmi degli antichi 
Filosophi (sic) Alchimisti . . . Roniae an. 1587. 
De componenda Teriaca . . . Ferrariae an. 1597. 
De praeseruatione, & curatione pestis, in quo Bos- 
tannicus (sic) Cardinalis Estensis nuncupatur. 
Ferrariae an. 1598. Tractatum contra Alchimistas 
cum declaratione Metaphorarum Philosophorum 
Caldeorum, Arabicorum.Graecorum, & Latinorum,' 
which seems to be merely a Latin version of the 
first title. It will be noticed how ingeniously 
Jacobilli has fused the 'Metafore similitudini ' of 
the original into ' Metamorfesi ' in his transcript. 

Not content with this notice, he has another on 
p. 120, in which by a stroke of the pen he creates 
two new persons : Franciscus Quadramnius Eugu- 
binus Ord. Eremit. s. Augustini, edidit Botanicum 
de Peste, Lypsii an. 1618 in 8. 

The confusion here is unspeakable. Franciscus 
is F. or Fr. or may be even Frate, converted into a 

Van der Linden, De Serif its Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. i 4I . 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 191. 

Lodovico Jacobilli, Dibliotheca Umbrioe sive de 
Scriptoribus Provincice Umbrice, Fulginiae, 1658, 
pp. 99, 120. 

Lipenius, BUliotktca, realis medica, 1679, pp. 
341 b, 450 b. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 264. 

Borrichius, Conspectus Scriptorum Chemicorum, 
1697, p. 45, No. Ixxv. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. i. p. 556. 

Gtmdling, Historic der Gelahrheit, 1736, Theil 
iv. p. 5151 (this article is full of confusion, and in 
the Index the reference is to ' Quadramnus, Fran- 
ciscus '). 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 685. 



proper name ; Quadraninius is a further develop- 
ment of the original misprint ; ' Bostannicus ' has 
it is true, been corrected, but, if it have any mean- 
ing at all in the present connection it seems to 
denote some author, Botanicus, whose treatise on 
the plague was published by Quadramnius ' Lypsiae,' 
even that name is not correctly copied, in 1618. 

Jocher has actually reproduced this fiction. 

He has entries under Quadramnus, both taken 
from Jacobilli, one under Evangelista, the other 
under Franciscus, both writing about the plague, 
both with the date 1618, and yet he does not notice 
the confusion. Franciscus wrote ' Botanicum de 
peste,' he says, and these double entries are re- 
peated by Rotermund. 

Schmieder goes a step farther, and assigns the 
present work to Francesco Quadrammo, misled 
probably by Gmelin's contraction Fr. Evangelista. 

From all which one conclusion is that Jacobilli is 
not a writer whose accuracy is to be depended 
upon. 

Boerhaave, however, has none of this blundering. 
He assigns the tract on the plague, Lips., 1618, to 
Evangelista Quattramius, and says there was an 
earlier edition in Italian at Rome about 1590. 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1741, xxx. col. 17. 

Lenglet Dufrcsnpy, Histoire de la Philosophie 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 272. 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 
1751, ii. p. 878. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, 
iii. col. 1824-25 ; Rptermund's Fortsetzung und 
Ergdnzungen, 1819, vi. col. 1091. 

Haller, Bibliothcca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 390. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practice, 1777, ii. 

P- 325- 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 298, 
334 (bis). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 295. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 131 ; 
1869, ii. p. 126. 

J. Wood Brown, An Enquiry into the Life and 
Legend of Michael Scot, Edinburgh, 1897, p. 71. 



QUERCETANUS (JOSEPHUS). 

See AUBERT (JACQUES), De Metallorum ortu . . . explicatio, 1575. 

Josephi Quercetani Cons, et Medici Regii Ad Brevem Riolani excursum brevis 
Incursio. Marpurgi, Typis Pauli Egenolphi, Typogr. Acad. clo lo CV. 
8. Pp. 47 [i blank]. Vignette. 



losephi Quercetani. M. D. Drey Medicinische Tractatlein. 

Das erste, ein kurtze Antwort auff Jacobi Auberti Vindonis Aufslegung, vora 
Vrsprung vnd Vrsachen der Metallen, wider die Chymicos. 

Das andere, von aufsfiihrlicher Eereitung der Mineralien, Thier, vnd Krauter 
Artzneyen, wie dieselben Spagyrisch vnd Kiinstlicher weifs, sollen zugeriistet 
vnd gebraucht werden. 

Das dritte, ein Biichsen-Artzneybtichlein, darinnen aufsfuhrlichen berichtet 
wird, wie man die Wunden Spagyrischer weifs curiren vnd heylen soil, welche 



234 QUERCETANUS 



QUERCETANUS QOSEPHUS). Continued. 

durch Fewerbuchsen geschossen vnd herkommen, auch von zuriistung der 
Artzneyen so man zu den geschossenen Wunden brauchen soil vnd mufs. 

Von weyland dem edlen, weitberiihmten, vnd hochgelehrten Herren Josepho 
Quercetano, M. D. Kon. May. in Franckreich Heinrich defs IV. Raht vnd 
Leib-Artzt, Lateinisch vnd Frantzosich (sic) beschrieben, an jetzo aber Teutscher 
Nation zum besten in die Teutsche Sprach vbergesetzet. Durch M. Thomam 
Kefslern, der Spagyrischen Kunst sonderbaren Liebhabern vnd Chymicum, 
Burgern zu Strafsburg. Strafsburg, In Verlegung Eberhardi Zetzners, Buch- 
handlers. Im Jahr M.DC.XXXI. 

4. Pp. [8] 96 (for 94); 1 17 [4, i blank]. Portrait of Quercetanus. The ' Biichsen- 
Tractatlein ' has a separate title-page and pagination, but the signatures run on. 

los. Quercetani Cons, et Medici Regii Liber de Priscorum Philosophorum verse 
medicinse materia, praeparationis modo, atque in curandis morbis, prsestantia. 
Deque simplicium, & rerum signaturis, turn externis, turn internis, seu specificis, 
a priscis & Hermeticis Philosophis multa cura, singulan'que industria com- 
paratis, atq; introductis duo tractatus. His accesserunt ejusdem los. Querce- 
tani de dogmaticorum medicorum legitima, & restituta medicamentorum 
praeparatione, libri duo. Itemque selecta quaedam consilia medica, clarissimis 
medicis Europseis dicata. Impensis Thomas Schureri & Barthol. Voigt. 
Anno M.DC.XIII. 

8. Pp. [21, i blank] 480 [2 blank]. Vignette, with the motto : Pax lusti et 
Honor Pietatis. 

Senebier quotes an edition, Geneva, 1603, 8, for which see the note. 

losephi Quercetani Medici, Opera Medica : Scilicet, ad lacobi Auberti Vindonis 
de ortu & causis metallorum contra Chymicos explicationem, Breuis responsio. 

De Exquisita Mineralium, Animalium, et Vegetabilium medicamentorum 
Spagyrica pr^paratione & vsu, perspicua tractatio. 

Sclopetarius, siue, de Curandis vulneribus, quae sclopetorum & similium 
tormentorum ictibus acciderunt, Antidotarium Spagyricum aduersus eosdem 
ictus Liber singularis omnibus tarn Philosophis quam Medicis vtilis & 
necessarius. Francofurti ad Moenum, Sumptibus Laurentij Alberti, Bibliop. 
Lubec. Typis Hseredum Romani Beati. CID ID en. 

8. Pp. [15, i blank] 152, Index [15, i blank], 
Senebier quotes an edition of 1600, 8. 

Ad lacobi Auberti Vindonis de Ortu et Causis Metallorum contra Chymicos 
Explicationem losephi Quercetani Armeniaci, D. Medici breuis Responsio. 
Eiusdem de Exquisita Mineralium, Animalium, & Vegetabilium medica- 
mentorum Spagyrica praeparatione & vsu, perspicua Tractatio. Lugduni, 
apud loannem Lertotium. M.D.LXXV. 

8. Pp. [16] 186 [13, i blank]. Vignette, with the motto : Omnibus sed paucis luceo. 

Responsio ad Aubertum, pp. 1-76. 

De Medicamentis spagyric prseparandis, pp. 76-186. 



QUERCETANUS 235 

QUERCETANUS QOSEPHUS). Continued. 

Ad lacobi Auberti Vendonis de ortu & causis metallorum contra Chemicos 
explicationem ; Ac primum ad ejus Epistolam convitiatoriam, qua Paracelsi- 
corum, quos vocat, nonnulla remedia evertere conatur, brevis responsio. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, 1659, ii. p. 150. 



D. O. M. A. Pharmacopoea Dogmaticorum Restituta pretiosis selectisque Her- 
meticorum floribus abunde illustrata. Auctore los. Quercetano Cons, et 
Medico Regio. Parisiis, Apud Claudium Morellum via Jacobaea ad insigne 
Fontis. M.DC.VII. 

4. Pp. [8] 630 [16]. Engraved title and portrait of Quercetanus extra. 

Pharmacopoea dogmaticorum restituta. 

See UFFENBACH (PETRUS), Dispensatorium Galeno-Chymicum, 1631. 

Le Richezze della Riformata Farmacopea del Signor Giuseppe Quercetano 
Medico, e Consiglier Regio. Nuouamente di Fauella Latina trasportata in 
Italiana dal Signor Giacomo Ferrari Medico, e Filosofo Mantouano. 
Oltre nuoue osseruationi, pensieri gratiosi, vtilissime inuentioni, Auuertimenti 
necessarij per la Compositione di molti medicamenti Hermetici: fatiche vera- 
mente degne d' esser lette, & rilette da ogni gran Personaggio, & da qualunque 
persona, che desidera medicarsi citb, tuto, & iucunde. Et in quest' vltima 
impressione corrette, & aggiontoui la Preparatione Spagirica de i Minerali, 
Animali, & Vegetabili, & loro vso ; Con vn ristretto de i medicamenti, ch' 
appartengono alia Chirurgia dell' istesso Auttore. Tradotta nuouamente da 
Gio: Maria Ferro spetiale alia Sanita. 

Dedicate Al Molt' Illustre Signor il Signor Vincenzo Mariani Spetiale alia 
Vigilanza in Piazza di San Marco. In Venetia, Per il Valuasense, 

M.DC.LXXVII. Con Licenza de' Superiori, et Priuilegio. 

4. Pp. [16] 264. 

Le Ricchezze della Riformata Farmacopea del Sign. Giuseppe Quercetano 
Medico, e Consiglier Regio. Nuouamente di Fauella Latina trasportata in 
Italiana dal Sign. Giacomo Ferrari Medico, e Filosofo Mantouano. Oltre 
nuoue osseruationi, pensieri gratiosi, vtilissime inuentioni, Auuertimenti 
necessarij per la Compositione di molti medicamenti Hermetici : fatiche 
veramente degne d' esser lette, & rilette da ogni gran Personaggio, & da 
qualunque persona, che desidera medicarsi citb, tuto, & iucunde. Et in quest' 
vltima impressione corrette, & aggiontoui la Preparatione Spagirica de i 
Minerali, Animali, & Vegetabili, & loro vso ; Con vn ristretto de i medicamenti 
ch' appartengono alia Chirurgia dell' istesso Auttore. Tradotta nuouamente 
da Gio: Maria Ferro Spetiale alia Sanita. In Venetia, M.DC.LXXXIV. 
Per Gio: Francesco Valuasense. Con Licenza de' Superiori. 

4*. Pp. [16] 264. 



2 3 6 



QUERCETANUS 



QUERCETANUS QOSEPHUS). Continued. 

los Quercetani Doct. Medicique Regii. Ad Veritatem Hermeticse Medicinae 
ex Hippocratis vetenimque decretis ac Therapeusi : necnon viuse rerum 
anatomise exegesi, ipsiiisque natures luce stabiliendam, aduersus cuiusdam 
Anonymi phantasmata Responsio. Lutetiae Parisiorum, Apud Abrahamum 
Saugrain, via lacobsea, prope S. Benedict!. CID.IDC.IV. Cum Priuilegio Regis 
Christianiss. 

8. Pp. [16] 312 ; 68 [2] [2 blank]. MS. Index. 
Senebier quotes an edition : Parisite, 1603, 8. 



Joseph Du Chesne, or Duchesne, Latinized into 
Quercetanus, was born at 1'Esture, or Esturre, in 
Armagnac, in Gascony, about 1544. 

Like Quattrami, he affords an instance of a 
person out of whose names two individuals have 
been constituted. He was styled Sieur de la 
Violette, even Patin allows that, and Baron de 
Morence et d'Iserable (Senebier), or Lyserable 
(Du Maine). Zedler, however, has drawn a dis- 
tinction between Sieur de la Violette, the chemist, 
who was a protestant, and had quarrels with his 
contemporaries, from the Baron de Morence, who 
lived in the sixteenth century, was the author of a 
surgical treatise [on gunshot wounds, Lyons, 1576, 
8], and believed that he could discover stolen 
articles by the divining rod. This distinction was 
repeated by Gundling, but there is no authority for 
it from La Croix du Maine, on whom apparently 
Zedler relies. 

Of his early life there is nothing recorded, but he 
is said to have spent a long time in Germany, 
engaged especially with chemistry. But in one of 
the many epigrams upon him, his stay is made out 
to have been much shorter. Quercetanus, ' faiseur 
de vinaigre,' is made to give a pupil the following 
advice how ' to get on ' : 

Dedans trois mois en soufflant 1'Alchimie 
Tu deuiendras gran docteur medicin 
E si pourras pour ceste soufflerie 
D'or e d'argent remplir un magazin. 
Dehet bon cueur, sachant faire 1'or fin 
Autant en droit, comme en Theologie 
Te faut uaquer : e uerras a la fin 
Tes biens, ton corps, e ton ame perie, 
which presumably sums up the charges against 
Quercetanus, and defines the estimate which his 
opponent had formed of him. 

Du Maine is the authority for the statement that 
Quercetanus was physician of Frai^ois de France, 
Duke d'Alen9on, but he gives no date. 

He graduated at Basel about 1573, and in 1575 
published his reply to Aubertus' criticism of the 
chemists' theory of the origin of metals. By this 
work he drew upon himself both rage and ridicule. 
Among these attacks may be mentioned that of 
Fenotus : Alexipharmacum, sive Antidotus Apolo- 
getica, ad virulentias losephi cuiusdam Quercetani 
Armeniaci, euomitas in libellum Jacobi Auberti, de 
ortu & causis Metallorum contra Chymistas. lo. 
Antonio Fenoto Autore. In quo, prater quorundam 
Paracelsicorum medicamentorum discussionem, 
omnia fere argumeta refelluntur, quibus Chymistae 
probare conantur, aurum argentumq ; arte fieri 
posse. Addita est in fine Epistola M. Antiti de 
Cressonieres, ad eundem Quercetanum. Desinant 
maledicere, malefacta ne noscant sua. Basilece ; 
no date, but about 1575, 8, pp. [10] 101 
[i blank]. Fenotus' tract is a discussion on the 
theory of transmutation, and is of historical interest 



as showing what could be said against it at the 
time when perhaps it was most in vogue. 

The epistle of Antitus de Cressonieres is written 
in the macaronic style, and in it Quercetanus and 
his alchemical views are simply laughed at. A 
number of epigrams follow in the same vein in 
Latin, French, Italian, Greek. Quercetanus was, 
therefore, not in favour with certain of his contem- 
poraries. 

He took up his residence at Geneva, the citizen- 
ship of which was conferred upon him in 1584. 
Then in 1587 he was received into the Council of 
the Two Hundred, and, in 1589, was sent along 
with De Sillery and De Sancy, ambassadors from 
France to Switzerland, to ask assistance and to 
prevent the peace which the Bernese wished to 
conclude separately with Emmanuel Philibert. 
Duke of Savoy. In 1592 he helped to bring about 
the terms of the peace which the Republic of 
Geneva made with its neighbours. Apparently, 
therefore, he was a person of considerable standing 
and influence. 

The year following, 1593, he went to Paris, and 
was appointed physician in ordinary to Henry IV. 
and Du Verdier says that he was councillor and 
physician to Monseigneur, the king's only brother. 
As the result he acquired a wide connection, and 
an enhanced reputation. 

On the other hand it is said that his vanity and 
contempt of other physicians made him disliked 
and brought on disputes. Perhaps his attitude was 
not altogether without justification, when one 
remembers how very humble the Galenic physicians 
of the time were and how considerate and friendly 
towards the Spagyrists and Paracelsists ! 

Quercetanus was not prevented by criticism or 
controversy from advocating his views and throw- 
ing off the shackles of routine and the mere 
authority of names. As a chemist who had had a 
training which none of the school physicians ob- 
tained, he did his best to upset the Galenic physic 
in France and to substitute chemical remedies. 
He did not succeed in introducing Paracelsus' 
doctrines, but he was one who helped to overthrow 
the ' old colossus of humorism ' and to inaugurate 
the new epoch of iatro-chemistry. 

All this was, of course, obnoxious to the Paris 
faculty, which ' persecuted him as its most mortal 
foe and forbade its members to have any pro- 
fessional dealings with him ' ; he had violent 
controversies with Riolanus and others, and he did 
not hesitate to return without stint the injuries 
which were showered upon him. 

The embers of these heated discussions took a 
long time to cool. Years after his death he was 
exhumed and reviled by Gui Patin, who was a 
mere child of seven years of age when Quercetanus 
died. The whole is so characteristic that it may 
be quoted for Patin's benefit : 



QUERCETANUS 



237 



Continued. 



QUERCETANUS (JOSEPHUS). 

Cette meme anne'e (1609) il mourut ici un 
mechant pendard de Charlatan, qui en a bien tue 
durant sa vie et apres sa mort par les malheureux 
ecrits qu'il nous a laissfe sous son nom, qu'il a fait 
faire par d'autres Medecins et Chymistes defa et de 
dela. C'est Josephus Quercetanus, qui se faisoit 
nommer a Paris le Sieur de la Violette lequel etoit 
un grand Charlatan, un grand yvrogne et un franc 
ignorant, qui ne savoit rien en Latin et qui n'etant 
de son premier Metier, que garcon Chirurgien [a 
journeyman-barber] du Pai's d'Armagnac, passa a 
Paris et particulierement a la Cour pour un grand 
Medecin, parce qu'il avoit appris quelque chose de 
la Chimie en Allemagne : je ne vous dirai rien de 
ce Monstre davantage. . . . (N. L. i. p. 269). 

Metzger, who quotes this, adds : ' May not one ask 
Tantae ne animis Galenici irae ? ' 

Of this piece of coarse humour parts have been 
reproduced in other estimates. Boerhaave calls 
him ' indoctus homo, et alieno calamo usus'; Eloy 
says that some of his works were written for him 
by hired writers ; and so the reports spread. 

He was a protestant, and that may have been the 
reason, says another, of Bayle's favourable notice 
of him. But why should Bayle be denied the right 
of commending one whom he thought commend- 
able even from the alleged motive, when Gui Patin 
is not challenged for condemning what his bilious- 
ness made condemnable? 

Quercetanus was not in advance of his time in 
many of his doctrines : he believed in signatures ; 
he was one of the first to give an account of the 
notion of palingenesis, and he accepted the philo- 
sopher's stone and transmutation as a matter of 
course. 

It is said that he had some glimmering idea of 
uric acid, and may have come across phosphorus. 
In certain diseases he prescribed ' Mercurius dulcis," 
under the name of ' Panchimagogue,' made up in 
pills known as ' Pillules de M. de la Violette.' 

His death took place in 1609. His wife was a 
grand-daughter of the celebrated scholar Gulielmus 
Budseus. 

Quercetanus' efforts were not limited to diplomacy, 
medicine and controversy, but he ventured on the 
construction of a tragi-comedy, and composed a 
good many poems. The following are mentioned : 
' La Morocosmie ou de la folie, vanitd et incon- 
stance du Monde,' Lyon, 1513, 1601 ; ' La grand 
Miroir du Monde,' Lyon, 1584; 'Poesies chresti- 
ennes,' Geneva, 1594, and his poetic talent has 
teen reckoned as of no mean order by Chdreau. 
Possibly his poetry has stood Time's ordeal better 
than either his medicine or his chemistry. 

Several works on medicine came from his pen, 
of which the following may be mentioned in addi- 
tion to the above : 

Sclopetarius, sive de curandis vulneribus quoe 
sclopetorum ictibus acciderunt, Lugd. , 1576, 8, 
pp. [20] 209 [t blank] [13, i blank]. This was 
translated into French, Lyon, 1576. 

Liber de priscorum Philosophorum veroe medi- 

Draudius, Bibliotheca classica, 1625, pp. 877, 
900, 905, 907, 921, 937, 945, 946, 964, 969, 971, 

987, 997- 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 317. 

Ludovicus Jacob a Sancto Carolo, Bibliographia 
Parisina, hoc est: Catalogns omnium librorum 
Parisijs, Annis 1647 (r 1648, inclusive excusornm, 
Paris., 1649, p. 38. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 192. 



cinae materia, prseparatienis modo, atque in 
curandis morbis, pnestantia. Dque simplicium, 
& rerum signaturis . . . duo tractatus . . . de 
dogmaticorum medicorum legitima, & restituta 
medicamentorum praeparatione, libri duo . . . 
consilia medica, clarissimis medicis Europaeis 
dicata. S. Gervasii, M.DC. III. 8, pp. [241432. 

Dineteticon Polyhistoricon, Paris., 1606,8; Lip- 
siae, 1607 ; excudebat David Anastasius, 1607, 
8, pp. 418 [2], without place. 

Tetras gravissimorum totius capitis affectuum, 
Marburgi, 1606, 8. 

Spagirica, . . . grundliche Beschreibung der 
Mineralischen, Animalischen vnd Vegetabilischen 
Artzneyen, derselben rechten Gebrauch vnd Spa- 
girische Bereitung, . . . durch . . . lohannem 
Cupium Borussum, ... ins Deutsche transferiret. 
Hall, M.DC. VIII. 8, Sigs. A to H in eights, 
14. This is different from Kessler"s translation 
above. 

Pestis Alexicacus, Paris, 1608, 4; Lips., 1609, 
8, pp. [16] 461 [i blank] [25, i blank]. 

Conseils de Medecine, dediez aux plus celebres 
Medecins de 1'Europe, Paris, 1626, 8 , pp. 316 [i, 
3 blank]. 

Quercetanus redivivus, seu Ars medica hermetica, 
ex Quercetani scriptis digesta opera Johan. Schrodi, 
Francof. , 1648, 3 vols. , 4. 

Recueil des plus curieux et rares Secrets touchant 
la Medecine Metallique & Minerale tirez des Manu- 
scripts, de feu M re loseph Du Chesne, Paris, 1648, 
8, pp. [8, including an engraved title-page and 
portrait] 370 [13, i blank]. 

Two or three of his books were translated into 
English : 

The Sclopetarie of J. Quercetanus ... or his 
booke containing the cure of Wounds received by 
shot of gunne or such like engines of warre. Pub- 
lished into English by J. Hester. London, 1500. 
8 ; and the edition along with Paracelsus' ' A 
hundred and foureteene experiments and cures,' 
London, 1596. small 4, pp. [16] 82; and with 
Penotus, London, 1642, small 410. 

A Breefe Aunswere of Ipsephus Quercetanus 
Armeniacus, Doctor of Phisick to the exposition 
of lacobus Aubertus Vindonis, concerning the 
original, and causes of metalles, set foorth against 
chimists. Another exquisite and plaine Treatise of 
the same Josephus, concerning the Spagericall 
preparations, and vse of minerall, animall and 
vegitable Medicines. Whereunto is added divers 
rare secretes not heeretofore knowne of many. 
By John Hester, practitioner in the Spagericall 
Arte. London, 1591, small 8, ff. [3] 61 [5]T The 
second tract has a separate title-page, but the folio 
numbers run on consecutively. 

The Practise of Chyrnicall and Hermeticall Phy- 
sicke for the presentation of health . . . translated 
by Thomas Timme. 2 parts. London, 1605, 4. 
ff.[ 5 ][97l. 

The method of preparing certain of his remedies 
is given by GREIKF (Friederich) (q.v.); 

Lipenius Bibliotheca realis medica, 1679, 99^, 
iiSa, lyja, 140^, 2060, 260^, 276^, 317^, 341^, 
348^, 415^, &c. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 710. 

Conring, In Universam Artem Medicam . . . 
Introductio, 1687, p. 369 (cap. xi. 5) ; p. 134 
(add. iii. 37, 3). 

Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique, 1730, 
ii. p. 156. 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historic der medicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 778, 779, 780, 872. 



238 



Q UERCE TANUSQ UINC Y 



QUERCETANUS QOSEPHUS). Continued. 



Jacob Leupolds Prodromus BibliotheccB metallicce, 
1732, p. 115. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, ii. pp. 394 (Palm- 
genesis), 403. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1733, v. col. 2096 ; 
1741, xxx. col. 201. 

Gundling, Historic der Gelahrheit, 1734, Th. ii. 
p. 2974 (makes two distinct persons of him). 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 686. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermitique, 1742, iii. pp. 50, 272-273. 

Petrus a Castro, Bibliotheca medici eruditi, Ber- 
gomi, 1742, p. 34 (' eruditissimus Quercetanus'). 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 
1751, ii. pp. 598, 695, 726, 871, 968. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1832 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1123. 

Goujet, Bibliotheque Francoise ou Histoire de la 
Littdrature Francoise, 1752, xiv. pp. 103-110. 

More'ri, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique et 
critique, 1759, VIII. ii. p. 677 (list of his works). 

Georgius Matthiae, Conspectus Historic Medi- 
corum chronologicus , 1761, p. 268. 

Portal, Histoire de V Anatomic et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, iv. p. 61. 

Haller, Biblioiheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 353. 

Les Bibliotheques Francoises de La Croix du 
Maine et de Du Verdier, ed. Rigolet de Juvigny, 
1772 (du Maine), ii. p. 5 ; 1773 (Du Verdier), ii. p. 545. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 233 ; 

I77S. P- 6 01 - 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 
p. 201. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Mddecine, 
1778, i. p. 609 ; 1755, ii. p. 307 (praised on the 
whole). 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 105. 
Jean Senebier, Histoire LitttSraire de Geneve, 
1786, iv. pp. 40-43. 

Job. Dan. Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen 
Literargeschichte der Medicin, 1792, p. 230, 196 ; 
p. 236, 201 ; Zusdtze und Verbesserungen, 1796, 
p. 128 (quotes Patin's criticism). 



Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 281- 
285. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1813, ix. p. 245. 

Biographie Universelle, 1814, xii. p. 108 ; 1852, 
xi. p. 389 (article by Weiss). 

Biographie Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), ii. p. 237. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) i. 

220 e. 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iii. 
pp. 214, 216, 257, 539-544. 

Thomson, The History of Chemistry, 1830, i. 
p. 170. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. pp. 27- 
28 ; 1869, pp. 24-25. 

Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843, i. pp. 90, 
no; 1844, ii. pp. 6, 114, 230, 243; 1845, * P- 4 2 I 
1847, iv. pp. 104, 192. 

J. H. Reveille"-Parise, Lettres de Gui Patin, 1846, 
i. p. 509. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 
282. 

Haag, La France Protestante, 1852, iv. pp. 360- 
363- 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographie Medicale, 1855, i. 
p. 386. 

Nouvelle Biographie Gtndrale, 1855, xiv. col. 951. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, pp. 209, 345, 427, 571. 

Mayer, Geschichte der Botanik, 1857, iv. p. 
431- 

~La.&ra.gue,Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1870, No. 579 (reply to Aubertus). 

Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin, 1881, ii. p. 116. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1883, iv. p. 657 (Le 
Ricchezze, 1684) ; 2nd series, 1900, v. p. 536 (1646 
edition), 1890, xi. p. 946. 

Dictionnaire Encyclopddique des Sciences Midi- 
cales, icre SeYie, 1884, xxx. p. 628 (article by A. 
CheYeau). 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiten und Volker, 1885, ii. 
p. 5 (by Max Salomon). 



QUINCY (JOHN). 

Pharmacopee Universelle Raisonne'e, oil 1'on trouve la Critique des principales 
Preparations qui sont dans les Boutiques des Apothicaires, la maniere de 
decouvrir celles qui sont sophistiquees, & les Re'gles qu'il faut suivre pour 
composer des Formules destinies a etre garddes ou mises en usage sur le 
champ. Par M. Quincy, Medecin de Londres, Traduite de 1'Anglois sur la 
onzieme edition Augmente'e de beaucoup, & corrige'e par M. Clausier, 
Medecin de Paris. A Paris, 

D'Houry, Pere, Imprimeur & Libraire de Monseigneur le Due d'Orle'ans, 

rue vieille Bouclerie, au bas du Pont S. Michel. 
Ch. Jean-Bapt. Delespine, Imprimeur & Libraire ordinaire du Roy, rue 

S. Jacques, a la Victoire & au Palmier. 
Laurent d'Houry, Fils, Libraire, rue vieille Bouclerie, au bas du Pont 

S. Michel, au Saint Esprit. 
M.DCC.XLIX. Avec Approbation et Privilege du Roy. 

4. Pp. [6] xvij [i] 490 [for 498] 516. Tables pp. [60], Three plates of symbols. 



Chez 



QUINCYQUIRICUS DE AUGUSTIS 



239 



QUINCY (JOHN). Continued. 

The date of Quincy's birth is not recorded, but it 
is said that he began life as an apothecary's 
apprentice, and afterwards practised medicine as 
an apothecary. In 1717 he published a ' Lexicon 
Physico-medicum,' which went through a number 
of editions, the last appearing in 1811. In 1718 
appeared his ' Pharmacopoeia officinalis," the four- 
teenth edition of which bears date 1769. His 
attack on Dr. Woodward came out in 1719, in the 
reply to which he was vilified in turn. Then in 
1720 and in 1721 he published his edition of Hodges' 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxx. col. 272. 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 
1751, i. pp. 334, 483, SSi ; ii. p. 941, &c. 

Portal, Histoire de I' Anatomic et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, iv. p. 540. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1772, 11. p. 151. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 220. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la MMecine, 
1778, iv. p. 14. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. no. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1788, iv. 
p. loo. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii, pp. 380, 
401. 

Fuchs, Reperlorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 239, 242, 266. 

Rotermund, Forlsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu 
. . . Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, vi. 
col. 1144. 



book on the plague and his Medical Essays, in 
which it is said he showed no skill about the 
diseases, but only about the compounding of the 
prescriptions. He died in 1722. 

After his death Peter Shaw edited and published 
his ' Praelectiones Pharmaceuticae," with a preface 
about him, and in 1725 appeared his translation of 
Albertus Magnus' work, ' De Secretis Mulierum.' 

He was a student of mathematics, and was 
created M.D. by the University of Edinburgh for 
his translation of the 'Aphorisms ' of Sanctorius. 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) 
ii. 786 h. 

Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire historique de la Mfdc- 
cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 772. 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Medicalc, 1855, ii. 
p. 428. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apoiheker, 
1855, pp. 279, 346, 587. 

Nouvelle Biographic Gencrale, 1862, xli. col. 352. 

Dictionnaire encyclopidique des Sciences Medi- 
cales, 3eme Serie, 1874, i. p. 188. 

Pauly, Bibliographic des Sciences Mcdicales, 
1874, coL 1385. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragen- 
den Aerztc oiler Zeiten und Vdlker, 1886, iv. p. 
650. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 952. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlvii. 
p. 112. 



QUINQUAGENTA Septem Canones de Opere Physico. 
See PENOTUS (BERNARDUS GEORGIUS). 

QUINTA ESSENTIA. 

De quinta essentia vini pulcherrimus Tractatus. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, 1598, Tractatus Hi., p. 216. 
See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemize Ander Buch, 1614, p. 368. 
See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 322. 
See [SCHATZ und Kunst Kammer], p. 378. 



QUIRICUS DE AUGUSTIS DE THERTONA. 
Lumen Apothecariorum. 

See MANLIUS DE BOSCHO (JOANNES JACOBUS), Luminare Majus. 



Quiricus de Augustis lived, according to Justus, 
about 1495, and was ' Medicinae Doctor Subtilis- 
simus.' The book was printed along with the 
' Luminare Majus, 1 the best edition being that 
edited by Nicolaus Mutonus. 

Wolfgang Justus, Chronologia sive temporum 
supputatio omnium illustrium Medicorum, Fran- 
coph. a. V., 1556, p. 129. 

Paschalis Callus, Bibliotheca Medica, Basil., 1590, 
p. 265. 

Spachius, Nomenclator Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1591, p. 185 (calls him Quintus de Augustis de 
Torthona). 



Numerous editions of the Lumen Apothecariorum 
are extant : Augsburg, 1486, fol. ; Venice, 1495, 
1504, 1517, fol. ; revised by Mutonus with Manilas' 
Luminare, Lyons, 1536, 4 ; Venice, 1551, 1556, 
1561. 

Joh. Georg. Schenckius, Biblia latrica, Francof., 
1609, p. 460 (editions of 1528 and 1556). 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 928. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, 1. i. p. 187 (' Medicinae doctor subtilissimus '). 

Van der Linden, DC Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1737. P- 4". 



240 



QUIRICUS DE AUGUSTIS 



QUIRICUS DE AUGUSTIS DE THERTONA. Continued. 



Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 64. 

Stolle, Kurtze Nachricht von den Biichern und 
deren Urhebern in der Stollischen Bibliothec, 1741, 
Th. xiii. p. 407. 

Mazzuchelli, Gli Scrittori d' Italia, 1762, II. iii. 
p. 1826 (gives a list of the writings of Giovanni 
Jacopp Manlio dal-Bosco, Alessandrino, Medico, e 
Botanico, and mentions the Lyons, 1528, edition, 
specifying the Lumen Apothecariorum of Quiricus 
de Augustis). 

Joseph-Franfois Carrere, Bibliotheque Litttraire, 
historique et critique de la Mtdecine andenne et 
moderne, Paris, 1776, i. p. 254 (calls him Cyr de 
Augustis de Thertona, and quotes the Lumen, 



Venet. Oct. Scotus, 1517, fol. Lugd., 1736, 4, 
revised by Mutonus). 

Adelung, Fortsetzung und Ergdnzungen zu . . . 
Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1784, i. col. 
1254. 

Panzer, Annales Typographic, 1795, iii. p. 498, 
No. 2811. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 167 
(calls him ' de Tortona, 1 and gives a list of the 
editions). 

Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1826, i. 
Nos. 2116-2122. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apothckcr, 
1855, p. 408. 



R. . . . R. (I. M.}. 241 



R. . . . 

Zwey alte Denkmaale Deutscher Filosofen von der Alchymie, mit Anmerkungen 
von R. . . . aufs neue herausgegeben. 
See SCHRODER (F. j. w.), Neue Alchymistische Bibliothek, 1773, H. i. pp. 345, 379. 

R. (J.) H. 

See RIST (JOHANN), Holsatus. 

R. (J. M. D.). 

See RICHEBOURG (JEAN MAUGIN DE). 

R. (M. S. D.). 

See LIMOJON DE SAINT-DISDIER (ALEXANDRE TOUSSAINT DE). 

R. (S.), i.e. Renatus (Sincerus). 
See RICHTER (SAMUEL). 

R. (I. L. D.), i.e. Jean Lucas de Roy, Medecin Boleducois. 
See BEGUIN (JEAN). 

R. E. I. D. 

See EGLINUS ICONIUS (RAPHAEL). 

R. H. C. 

See HOLLANDUS (ISAAC). 

R. (I. M.). 

Die gantz neue eroffnete Pforte zu dem Chymischen Kleinod oder einige 
vornehmste Chymische Arcana, aus unterschiedlichen zum Theil aus dem 
Lateinischen allhier ins Teutsche iibersetzten Manuscriptis der beriihmtesten 
Chymicorum, desgleichen mancherley Scheidungs-Arten der Medallen, nebst 
einem Haupt-raren Medicinischen Arcanis, so niemahlen so deutlich und 
getreulich heraus gegeben worden, alles mit Fleifs und getreuer Hand 
zusammen getragen, und alien curieusen Chymicis, I-aboranten, Gold- 
Scheidern, Schlagern und Schmieden zum besten im Druck heraus gegeben, 
von I. M. R. Niirnberg, bey Johann Friedrich Riidiger, 1728. 
12. Pp. 264, frontispiece included. 

Ladrague, Ribliothlque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secrites, 1870, No. 1451. 
II. Q 



242 RACHAIDIBI RADIX 



RACHAIDIBI. 

See KALID RACHAIDIBI. 

RACHAIDIBI, VERADIANUS, RHODIANUS, KANID. 
De materia philosophici lapidis fragmentum. 

See ARTIS AURlFERjE . . . Volumina, 1610, i. p. 255. 
See GIN/ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, P- 573- 

See GEBER, Summa Perfectionis, 1682, p. 270. 
Schreiben von der Materia Lapidis. 

See MORGENSTERN (PHILIP), Turba Philosophorum, 1613, i. p. 344; 1750, i. 
p. 418. 

See GEBER, Chymische Schrifften, 1751, p. 248. 

See GEBER, Commentaria iiber Gebers Werke, 1792, p. 286. 

Of these four persons, who are termed cpllec- also by Van der Linden ; as Rachaidiba and 

lively ' Philosophers of the King of the Persians,' Rachaidibse in Geber, while more recent authorities 

nothing definite is known, even if they ever treat the word as a genitive and call him 

existed. The name of the first appears variously Rachaidib, and Rachaidibus. The forms Raidabi 

as Rachaidibi in the Ars Aurifera: 'Dixit and Rachiadabi, given by Nazari, seem to be 

Rachaidibi filius Zetheibidae Philosophus Regis merely misprints. Whether or not he be identical 

Persarum et Principis Romanorum,' and is so given with Kalid Rachaidibi I do not know. 

Nazari, Delia Tramutatione metallica Sogni ire, Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophie 

I 599, PP- 137. r 43- Hermetique, 1742, i. pp. 227, 468 ; iii. pp. 37, 171. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 130. 

I 637, p. 412. Schmieder, Geschichte derAlchemie, 1832, p. 105. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 194. Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1842, i. p. 335 ; 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 929. 1866, i. p. 354. 

Reyher, Dissertatio de Nttmmis . . . ex chymico 'La&r3i.gvie,BibliothequeOuvarqff',Sciences Secretes, 

melallo factis, 1692, p. 96. 1870, No. 668. 

RADIUS AB UMBRA. 

See GIN/ECEUM CHIMICUM, 1679, P- 368. 

RADIX Chymiae. oder Wurtzel des Universals, anweisend die ware Materiam 
Universalis, dessen Preparation, Mittel, Anfang und Ende. Auffs klar- 
und deutlichste angewiesen durch G. M. B. D. S. 

Grofs sind die Werck defs Herrn, der ihr achtet hat eitel lust daran. 
Anno M DC LXXX. 

8. Pp. 1-32. 
At p. 33 the Appendix begins with the following title-page : 

Appendix ad faciliorem Radicis Chymise intellectum. 

I. Introductio Generalis Chymica, cum Dictis Philosophorum, ex libro 
Aureae Rosae. 

II. Dicta Alani. 

III. Anonym! Tractatus Philosophicus ad rubrum et album. Editore Joachimo 
Tanckio, M.D. 

IV. Processes Lapidis Philosophorum ex Mercuric Corporis, juxta doctrinam 
Bernhardi Comitis Trevisani. 

P P- 33- J 59 [i blank]. 

The tracts have the following titles : Dicta Alani, p. 84. 

Introductio generalis Chymica, in die hohe und Tractatus Philosophicus ad rubrum et album 

tieffe Erkantnufs und verstandnufs der uralten Anonymi, p. 108. 

furtrefflichsten und hochsten Medicin des grossen Processus Lapidis Philosophici, ex Mercurio 

wundertbatigen Universal-Steins der Weisen, und Corporis confecti, cum Practica Bernhardi Comitis 

der Signaturos naturalis, seines von Gptt durch die Trevisani maxime conveniens, p. 123. 

Natur beschaffenen gewissen subject! debiti, oder Mantissa Anonymi in gratiam Cupidi Lectoris, 

Materiae ex qua, p. 35. p. 153. 

Dicta Philosophorum ex Lib. Rosas Aurere, p. 66. 

[Another copy of the APPENDIX only.] 



RATZEL RAMSA Y 243 



RATZEL. 

See v. (j. R.), Giildene Rose. 

See THEOPHILUS, Mineralogia, 1703, 1706, p. 458. 

See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

See JENIGMA. 

See PHILOSOPHISCHES RATZEL. 
See PHILOSOPHICAL RIDDLE. 

Kopp, Die Alchemic, 1886, ii. pp. 157, 293, 351. 

RAMELOVIUS (MATTHIAS). 

Kurtze Beschreibung der Sawerbrunnen, zu Wildungen in der Graffschafft 
Waldeck : wie man dieselben mit Nutzen zur preservation vnd curation 
beydes jnnerlich vnd eusserlich gebrauchen soil. Auff Gnadigen Befehl der 
Hoch Wolgebornen Graffen zu Waldeck &c. Durch Matthiam Ramelovium, 
Medicinae Licent. vnd Grafflich-Waldeckischen Hofif Medicum in Truck 
verfertiget 

Fernelius lib. 4. method, med. 

Nullus affectus in nobis subsistere potest, cui non contrarium pariter 
remedium protulerit natura : Nulla usq; penuria est remediorum, 
sed nostra eorum turpis ignorantia. 

Cassel, Druckts Salomon Schadewitz, dero Vniversitat Buchdrucker, 
In Verlegung Johann Schiitzens. Anno M.DC.LI. 

8. Pp. 152. 

Ramelov, or Ramlpv, was a licentiate in medi- des Pyrmonter Sauerbrunnens wie auch des Hof- 

cine and court physician to Count Waldeck, at geifsmarischen Heilbrunnens in Hessen nebst 

whose request he printed the present book. By seinem Bericht von denen Tugenden des Wildun- 

Rotermund he is called Brunswick physician at ger Biers, Marpurg, 1682, 8, edited by George 

Clausthal. Schultze. 

It was published again at Cassel in 1664, and it He wrote : Ortus et occasus calculi renuin, oder, 

appears in the lists with a different title : Speculum Beschreibung des Nieren-Steins . . . Leipzig, 1679, 

acidularum Wildungensium, das ist, Beschreibung 8, and several tracts on the plague, mentioned by 

des Sauerbrunnens zu Wildungen. It was printed Haller. 
also with Georg Bolmann's work : Beschreibung 

Lipenius, Bibliotheca realis medica, 1679, PP- co '- J 889 ' Rotermund's Fortsetzung tind Ergdnz- 

760 ('Ortus . . . calculi renum,' 1679), 491^ ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1302. 

('speculum acidularum,' 1651, 1664); (calls him Portal, Histoire deVAnatomie et de la Chirurgie, 

Ramlovius and Ramelovius). 1770, Hi. p. 567. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliothec<z metallicce, Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 439. 

1732, p. 116. Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practicce, 1779, iii. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxx. col. 741. p. 199. 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 785. 

1751, ii. pp. 622, 748, 900. Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 

Jb'cher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. p. 555 (Wildungen spring). 

RAMSAY (CHARLES ALOISIUS). 

See KUNCKEL (JOHANN), Utiles Observationes, 1678. 

The father, Charles Ramsay, who was probably Tacheographia, seu ars celeriter et compendiose 

of Scotch descent (' Nobilis Scotus ' he is termed), qurelibet inter perorandum verba, ut ne unum 

was living in Prussia in the seventeenth century, quidem excidat describendi, in Latin and French, 

and died at Klbing in 1669. The son, Charles Paris, 1683. He translated the above work of 

Aloys, or Louis, as he is called by French biogra- Kunckel's, and prefixed to it an epistle to the 

phers, may have been born there, and in after-life Royal Society, in which he praises the society and 

devoted himself to medicine and chemistry, but was exalts the importance of chemistry. It is dated : 

best known for having introduced a system of FrancofurtiadMoenum.ipsisnundinisautumnalibus 

shorthand writing which became very popular, Anno 1677. 

and the description of which, first pub'ished in It also contains a list of the Council and Fellows 

1678 in Latin, went through many editions, and of the Royal Society as at 30 Nov., 1677. 

was translated into French and German : Recent enquiries by Fischer necessitate some 



244 



RAMS A YRA TTRA Y 



RAMSAY (CHARLES ALOISIUS). Continued. 



modification of the preceding. It seems to be 
uncertain if he were actually the son of Charles 
Ramsay, town-councillor at Elbing, inasmuch as 
the historians of that place make no mention of 
him, though they refer to other persons of the 
name. He lived in Germany, but it is curious that 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 139. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 1731, 
II. ii. p. 35. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1894 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1314. 

Biographic Universelle, 1824, xxxvii. p. 58 ; no 
date, xxxv. p. 158 (article by Weiss). 

Nouvelle Biographic Generate, 1862, xli. col. 566. 



though the present translation is dated from 
Frankfurt a. M. the book was published at London 
and Rotterdam. 

The treatise on shorthand originally appeared as 
a series of articles in a newspaper in Frankfurt, 
collected and published afterwards in 1678. 

John Westby-Gibson, The Bibliography of Short- 
hand, London, 1867, p. 184. (For some references 
to tachygraphy, see Joh. Joachim Becher, Ndrr- 
ische Weifsheit und weise Narrheit, 1682, p. 73 ; 
Heumann, Conspectus Rcipublicae lite rariae, Hano- 
verae, 1763, cap. iii. 10, p. 41.) 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlvii. 
P- 239. 

Th. A. Fischer, The Scots in Germany, Edin- 
burgh, 1902, p. 233. 



RARES Experiences sur 1'Esprit Mineral. 
See RESPOUR (P. M. DE), 1668. 



RARE physicalische und andere Fragen beantwortet ein Liebhaber der her- 
metischen Kiinste. Frankfurt und Leipzig. 

8. Pp. [8] 55 [i blank]. [The bottom of the title-page has been cut off, and the 
date 1756 has been added in manuscript.] 



Curious questions and as curious answers. They 
resemble somewhat the so-called Problemata attri- 
buted to Aristotle. The querist did not always 
know what to ask, and still seldomer knew what 
to reply. Among the answers are definitions or 
explanations of certain terms used in the hermetic 



chemistry, such as 'Mercurius philosophorum, 1 
'Sulphur philosophorum,' ' Antimonium.' At the 
same time the author had some practical know- 
ledge, as is evinced by his description of the 
preparation of fulminating gold. 



RASES. 

See RHAZES. 



RATTRAY (SYLVESTER). 

Aditus novus ad occultas Sympathise et Antipathise Causas inveniendas. 

See THEATRUM SYMPATHETICUM, 1662, p. I. 



Rattray's biography is meagre, and all that 
seems to refer to him has been collected in Dr. 
Finlayson's paper. 

He was apparently a Forfarshire man, connected 
with an old family of Rattray. He was probably 
the person who matriculated in arts or philosophy 
at St. Andrews, 4 Feb., 1641, graduated in 1644, 
and studied medicine and graduated in it at a 
foreign university. In 1652 he was a doctor of physic 
when his marriage is recorded ; and he settled in 
Glasgow in 1657, when the evidence of his degree 
was examined by a committee of the Faculty of 
Physicians and Surgeons. 

In 1658 the book on Sympathy, dedicated to 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 679 
(only the 1660 reprint). 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 985. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. ii. p. 36. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1741, xxx. col. 1019. 
(His name is just mentioned with the title of the 
book, but no place or date is given.) 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1921 (' Ratrajus, or Ratray, or also a Rattray 
(Sylvester), a physician and philosopher in Scot- 
land'). 



Scot of Scotstarvet, was printed by Andrew 
Anderson at Glasgow. It was reprinted at 
Tubingen in 1660, and in the Theatrum Sym- 
patheticum, 1662, 4, as above, but not in that of 
1660, as Gmelin affirms. 

In 1666 he brought out his Prognosis Medica, 
dedicated to Sir John Wedderburn, printed by 
Robert Sanders, Glasgow. 

The date of his death is not mentioned. He had 
a son of the same name, who entered the Univer- 
sity here, Feb. i, 1680, and was probably the 
Sylvester Rattray Scotus whose name appears in 
the album of the University of Leyden, Mar. 19, 
1689, as a student of medicine. 

Portal, Histoire de VAnatomie et de la Chirurgie, 
1773, VI. ii. p. 816 (the Tubingen edition and that 
in the Theatrum}. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicina practices, 1779, iii. 
p. 69 (' Plurima fabulosa'). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 659 
(Glasgow, 1658, 8; Tubingen, 1660, 12; Nori- 
berg., 1660, 12 ; 1662, 4). 

The Chronicle of Fife ; being the Diary of John 
Lamont of Newton, Edinburgh, 1810, p. 51. 
(" 1652, May. Mr. Sylvester Rattray, a doctor of 
physicke, ane Angus man borne, married . . . 



RA TTRA YRECHTE 



245 



RATTRAY (SYLVESTER). Continued. 

Ingells, Kynggasks daughter ; the marriage feast 
stood in Cuperof Fyfe, at her fathers house there.") 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (authors) 
ii. 792 b. 

Analecta Scotica, 1837, Second Series, pp. 127, 
129. 

Hoefer, Histoire de la Chimie, 1843, ii. p. 247 ; 
1869, ii. p. 229. 

Anderson, The Scottish Nation, 1863, iii. p. 733 
(gives an account of the family called Rattray, but 

RAYMUNDUS. 

See LULLIUS (RAYMUNDUS). 

The famous alchemist is often referred to under his first name only, and he appears under it some- 
times also in alphabetical indices. 



merely mentions Sylvester as the author of the two 
books). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1890, xi. p. 1028. 

Dictionary of National Biography, 1896, xlvii. 
p. 312. 

Dr. James Finlayson, ' Dr. Sylvester Rattray, 
author of the treatise on Sympathy and Antipathy, 
Glasgow, 1658,' in Janus, Archives Internationales 
pour P Histoire de la Mtdecine et la Gtographie 
Mtdicale, Livraisonsxi., xii., Novembre-Decembre, 
1900. 



To the authorities already quoted may be added : 

Symphorianus Champerius, Libelli duo. Primus 
de medicine Claris scriptoribus, no place and date 
(Lyons, 1506?), f. xxix. verso. 

Gesner, Bibliotheca Vniuersalis, Tiguri, 1545, 
f. 579 verso. 

Wolfg. Justus (Jobst), Chronologia, sive temporum 
supputatio, omnium, illustrium Medicorum, Fran- 
cophorti ad V., 1556, p. 108. 

Paschalis Gallus, Bibliotheca Afedica, Basil., 

1590, p. 267. 

Spachius, Nomenclator Scriptorum Medicorum, 

1591, PP- 32, 3 8 > S 8 , 59- 



Joan. Georg. Schenckius, Biblia latrica, Francof. , 
1609, p. 462. 

G. Cojletet, 'La Vie de Raymond Lulle,' pp. 
207-252, in La Clavicule ou la Science de Raymond 
Lulle. Avec toutes les Figures de Rhetorique. Par 
le Sieur lacob. Et la Vie du mesme Raymond 
Lulle, par Monsieur Colletet. A Paris, chez 
Michel Bobin, au Palais, au troisieme Pillier de la 
grand-Salle, a 1'Esperance. M.DC.LV. Avec 
Privilege du Roy. 8, pp. [28, and a folding 
table] 252 [4]. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apothtker, 
1855, PP. 399. 425- 



Verbum Abbreviatum Fratris Raymundi de leone viridi. 

See BACON (ROGER), De Arte Chymias Scripta, 1603, p. 264. 

REALIA. 

Die entdeckten requisita realia. 
See SINCERUS, 1723. 



REBIS. 

Von dem Rebis einem Stein. 

See TRISSMOSINUS (SALOMON), Aureum Vellus, Tractatus iii. (1598), p. 191. 
See TANCKE (JOACHIM), Promptuarium Alchemize, 1610, Appendix Tomi Primi, 

P- 334- 

See EROFFNETE Geheimnisse des Steins der Weisen (1708), p. 305. 
See [sCHATZ und Kunstkammer], p. 334. 

Lapis Alberti Magni Rebis. 

See KIESER (FRANZ), Cabala Chymica, 1606, p. 273. 

The word 'Rebis' is one of the many names of Francis Anthony also wrote a tract on Rebis ; 
' the stone,' and definitions of it are given by see under ANTHONY (FRANCIS). 
various writers. 

Richardus Anglicus, Correctorium, 1581, f. 29 Pernety, Dictionnaire Mytho-Hermetique, 1758, 
verso. p. 426. 

Maier, Symbola Aurete Mensce, 1617, p. 461. Schmieder, Geschichte der A khemie, 1832, p. 309. 

Heptas Alchymica, 1621, p. 94, Stanislas de Guaita, Essais de Sciences Maudites. 

I. Au Seuil du Mysttre, 1890, p. 130. 

RECHTE (Der) Grundt vnnd Fundament aller naturlichen und vbernatiirlichen 
Dingen. 
See KIESER (FRANZ), Cabala Chymica, 1606, p. i. 



246 RECHTERECONDITORIUM 

RECHTE (Der) Weg zu der Hermetischen Kunst, vor die Lehrbegierigen Schiller 
und Liebhaber dieser Wissenschaft, Nebst verschiedenen Anmerkungen iiber 
das betriigliche Verfahren der sogenannten Sophisten und ihrer Irrwege 
herausgegeben von Anonymo. Franckfurt und Leipzig, bey Johann Georg 
Fleischer. 1773. 

8 Pp. 104. 
Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvarqff, Sciences Secretes, 1870, No. 1504. 

Aus dem Rechten Wege zu der hermetischen Kunst. 
See HERMETISCHES A. B. c., 1779, " P- 1 7S- 

RECHTEN (Von dem) wahren Philosophischen Stein : zwolff Tractatlein. 
See SENDIVOGIUS (MICHAEL). 

RECHTER Gebrauch d'Alchimei, mitt vil bifsher verborgenen, nutzbaren vnnd 
lustigen Kiinsten, Nit allein den furwitzigen Alchimismisten (sic), Sender alien 
kunstbaren Werckleutten, in vnd ausserhalb feurs. Auch sunst aller 
menglichen inn vil wege zugebrauchen. Die Character, Figiirliche bedeut- 
tungen, vnd namen der Metall, Corpus vnd Spiritus. Der Alchimistischen 
verlateineten Worter aufslegung. Register am volgenden blat. 

4. Ff. xxvii. Vignette of a jeweller's shop. Colophon: M.D.XXXI. Wants f. xx. 

To all appearance this book was printed at name : Kiinstbtichlin, Augspurg, 1537, 4, again in 

Frankfurt a. M. by Christian Egenolph. The 1538, and repeatedly thereafter in whole or in part, 

authorship of it has been assigned by Schmieder to in various collections of receipts, as in that of 

George Agricola, the metallurgist, but there is lack KERTZENMACHER (q.v.) : Alchimia. Wie man alle 

of evidence in support of this view and it is justifi- farben Wasser, Ulea, . . . machensol, first published 

ably doubted by Gmelin. in 1539, and often in subsequent years. 

The contents are purely practical and consist of A modified Dutch version of it was made by 

chemical receipts for everyday wants and have no- SYMON ANDRIESSEN (q.v.) and published in 1549, 

thing to do with alchemy strictly so called. In and of this translations are contained in the third 

fact the title affords an early use of the word part of the editions in French and English of the 

alchemical in the later wider sense of chemical, work which passes under the name of Alexis, or 

The substances employed are common and the ALESSIO (q.v.). 

operations are such as would be familiar to various A portion of it exists also in Danish. An account 

classes of artists and workmen. of the editions and variations is given in my papers 

The present is doubtless the first edition. It was referred to below. 
reprinted, with other receipts added, under the 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie\ 1797, i. p. 313. logical Chemistry,' Proceedings of the \Roya[\ 
Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832^.270. Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1888, xix. p. 126; 
Ferguson, 'Some Early Treatises on Techno- 'Supplement,' Ibid., 1894, xxv. p. 224. 

RECONDITORIUM ac Reclusorium Opulentise sapientiaeque Numinis Mundi 
Magni, cui deditur in titulum Chymica Vannus, obtenta quidem & erecta 
Auspice Mortale Ccepto; sed Inventa Proauthoribus Immortalibus Adeptis, 
quibus conclusum est, sancitum & decretum, ut anno hoc per Mysteri- 
archam Mercurium, velut Viocurium, seu Medicurium, 

statVta oraCVLa sVa eXorDInfc InoLesCerent, 
& aVrea Verltas perspICaCIorlbVs Ingenlls 
nVDe breVIterqVe InnotesCeret. 

Orbe post Christum natum Millesimo, sexcentesimo, sexagesimo sexto, Idibus 
Majis. Amstelodami, Apud Joannem Janssonium a Waesberge, & Elizeum 
Weyerstraet, Anno 1666. 

4. Pp. 392 (for 292). 12 engravings, one, entitled ' Character Adeptorum,' 
printed in red, all included in the pagination. The chronogram stands for 1666. 



RECONDITORIUMRECUE1L 247 

RECONDITORIUM. Continued. 

Appended is a translation of the tractate Von der Universal Medicin by Monte-Snyder (q.v.). It has 
the following title : 

Commentatio de Pharmaco Catholico ; quomodo nimirum istud in tribus illis 
naturae Regnis, Mineralium, Animalium ac Vegetabilium, reperiendum : atque exinde 
conficiendum, per excellentissimum Universale Menstruum, vi pollens recludendi 
occludendi'que, turn metallum quodlibet, in primam sui materiam, reducendi. Insuper, 
qualiter per idipsum (supple Menstruum) alias fixum illud indestructibile aurum, 
redigendum sit in verum & inculpatum Aurum Potabile, quod nullo se imposterum 
artis stratagemate, in solidum iterum aureum corpus patitur reduci. 

Cumprimis ab honore Dei gloriosi & excelsi ; Deinde in singulare solatium & 
emolumentum Generis humani, propalata mque publicam data lucem, per &c Atque 
Londini in Anglia, ab uno eode'mque Paraphraste, qui usqueadhuc Chymicam Vannum 
instituit ; celeriter, sed tamen fideliter, e Germanismo in Latinismum trajecta ; ^Era 
Christiana Millesima, Sexcentesima, Sexagesima quinta. Kalendis Octobribus. 

Pp. [2] 76 [i, 3 blank]. On the verso of the title, the 'Character Adeptorum' 
diagram, which is repeated, is printed in black. 

[Another Copy.] 
[Another Copy.] 

[Another Copy.] 

This book was reissued at Leyden, 1696, with the first sheet (A) ; all after that is identical in the two 

title ChymicE Aurifodina ittcomparabilis (q.v.). issues. 

Both editions are mentioned under this title by Of the author nothing is known except what he 

Roth-Scholtz, and the book is also described by says incidentally, as in the title of ihe Commentatio, 

Freytag. that he translated it from the German, when he 

The only difference between the two is in the happened to be in London, or in the ' Epigramma 

omission from the 1696 issue of certain engraved in Zoilum ' when he says : 

plates, the new title-page and the resetting of the Gelria ml patria est, sed Venloa propria terra, 

Me mihi scito data non nisi lege loqui. 

Roth-Scholtz, Bibllotheca Chemica, 1727, p. 41. Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern CAemie, 1785, 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic p. 620. 

Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 274. Ladrague. Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

Freytag, Analecta literaria, 1750, p. 247. Secretes, 1870, No. 1284. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 348. 

RECTIFICATION. 

[Von der Rectification des Animirten Geistes &c.] 

8. Pp. 60-63. 
A fragnfent from VIER CHYMISCHE TRACTATLEIN. 

RECUEIL. 

Recueil d'Experiences et Observations sur le Combat, qui precede du melange 
des corps. Sur les Saveurs, Sur les Odeurs, Sur le Sang, Sur le Lait, &c. 
Tres-curieux & utile aux Medecins & a ceux qui s'appliquent a la recherche 
de la Nature, des Qualitez & des Proprietez de toutes sortes de Corps. 
A Paris, chez Estienne Michallet, rue S. Jacques, a 1'Image S. Paul. 
M.DC.LXXIX. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

12. Pp. [18, including the frontispiece] 262 [2]. Engraved plate. 

The authors are Nehemiah Grew ; Robert Boyle, Sur les saveurs et sur les odeurs ; Leeuwenhoeck, Sur 
le sang et sur le lait. These last were made with the microscope. 



RE FORM A TION-REIBEHAND 



REFORMATION der gantzen Weiten Welt. 

See ALLGEMEINE und General Reformation der gantzen weiten Welt. 

REFORMIERTE (Die) Alchymie. 
See CORRECTIO Fatuorum. 

REGELN. 

See BERLICH (ADAM GOTTLOB). 
See REGULJE. 
See REGULEN. 

REGER (ERNESTUS AURELIUS). 
See AMOR PROXIMI. 
See PFEFFER (ERICUS). 

In the Fegfeuer he is styled Reger von Ehrenhart, 
while Gmehn calls him Reger von Ehrenwald, 
which seems to be a mistake. By Semler he is 
called a Dutch physician who had Pfeffer's manu- 
scripts in his possession. 

Opposite opinions are extant about him. The 
Fegfeuer calls him a malicious soul, who scribbled 
the two tracts 'Amor Proximi' and 'Nosce te 
ipsum, physico-medicum ' out of the works of 
Pfeffer. 

Fictuld, however, while quoting what is said both 
by the Fegfeuer and by Arnold, leaves the author- 
ship undecided, but he adds, in Fictuldian phrase, 
approval of the unknown writer, whoever he was, 
as a learned, pious, God-loving mystic and cabalist, 

Keren Happuch, . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der 
Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 120. 

Colberg, Das Platonisch-Hermetische Christen- 
thum, 1710, p. i. c. 5 ; p. 257. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, ii. 
p. 428 (Th. iii. cap. xi. 17). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten- Lexicon, 1751, iii. 



whose tractate he recommends to the lovers of 
Hermetic philosophy. 

Semler is not certain that Pfeffer and Reger were 
real Rosicrucians and adepts, but he does not 
agree with the Fegfeuer in thinking that Reger was 
deceitful and mendacious, but rather that he had 
knowledge. 

Jocher takes no notice of the so-called alchemical 
works, but enumerates the following : ' Bericht auf 
einige Fragen durch die heilige Schrifft, das Buch 
der Natur, und das Buch der Menschheit bekraffti- 
get,' along with a 'Catalogus vieler raren und 
sonderlichen Manuscripte des neulichsten Philosophi 
E. P. J. H.' Hamburg, 1683, 8. 

Rotermund calls him a physician in Amsterdam 
and a theosophist. 

col. 1955 ; Rotermund's Fortsctzung und Erganz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1547. 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p. 8. 

Semler, Unparteiische Samlungen zur Historic 
der Rosenkreuzer, 1788, iv. p. 117. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 23. 



REGIMINA ARTIS. 

See GRATAROLO (G.), Verae Alchemiae . . . Doctrina, 1561, ii. p. 299. 

REGULAE SEU CANONES. 

See PHILOSOPHISCHE REGELN oder Canones. 
See PENOTUS (BERNARDUS GEORGIUS). 

REGULEN. 

See LOWE (Der) defs Rothen Creutzes. 
See REGELN. 

REIBEHAND (CHRISTOPH). 

Filum Ariadnes das ist, Newer Chymischer Discurs von den grawsamen ver- 
fiihrischen Irrwegen, der Alchymisten, dardurch sie selbst vnd viel Leute neben 
ihnen verleitet werden, vnd dann was doch endlich der rechte vhralte einige 
Weg zu dem allerhochsten Secreto sey, wie darinnen zu procediren, vnd 
welcher Gestalt auch particularia zur Hand gebracht werden konnen. Alles 
durch selbst eigene Experientz aus Christlicher Liebe gegen den Nechsten, in 
diesen hochbetriibten Zeiten an Tag gegeben vnd eroffnet, so vorhero niemals 



REIBEHANDREIMLEIN 249 

REIBEHAND (CHRISTOPH). Continued. 

von einigen Philosopho in Schrifften so dentlich (sic) erklaret worden, durch 
Heinrich von Batsdorff, Hermundurum. Zum andern mahl auffgelegt vnd 
gedruckt, im Jahr 1639. Bey Friderich Grunern Buchh. seel. Erben 
zubefinden. 

8. Pp. (1-13) 14-200. 

Batsdorff is a pseudonym of Reibehand, who was Gotha, 1690, "mit 79 grossen und sonderbaren 

an apothecary at Gera. The first edition of the Wundern vermehrt." There was also an edition : 

' Filum Ariadnes ' was published in 1636. Dufres- Gotha, 1718, 8. A commentary on it entitled 

noy gives the title in Latin : Filum Ariadnes, seu Dilucidarius Batsdorfianus was written by I. L. 

Discursus Chimicus de Alchimistarum errpribus, & ab Indagine, and was appended to his work 

vero modo ad summum Secretum perveniendi, per Memorabilia Bismuthi, Nurnberg, 1782, 8. 

Henric. a Batsdorff, Hermundurum, in 8, 1636. The Filet d' Ariadne, ascribed to Duclo (q.v.) is 

The German was republished at Leipzig and not a translation of Reibehand's book. 

Neun und Siebenzig grofse und sonderbahre Wunder, so bey einem Special 
angegebenem Subiecto theils von der Natur, theils aber in der gefuhrten Arbeit 
sich befunden haben. Also dafs ein jeder so in Laboribus Chymicis erfahren, 
und in Libris Philosophicis belesen, zu sententioniren solte bezwungen werden, 
und sagen : 

Aut Hie Aut Nusquam. 

Auf Begehren eines guten Freundes publicirt. Leipzig und Gotha verlegts 
Augustus Boetius, 1690. 

8. Pp. 71 [i blank]. Title red and black. 

This tract which is the supplement to Batsdorff's but scant consideration, says that he had ' little 
Filum Ariadnes seems to have also formed a Christian love, and hid his light under a bushel,' 
separate publication, for it is mentioned as such and on the strength of that concludes that if he have 
not only in the Beytrag (p. 641) and by Gmelin, but not more compassion bestowed on him in the next 
there are copies both of the Filum with the supple- world than he showed in this, he will be in a bad 
ment and the supplement itself in the Bibliotheque way. But how about Fictuld himself? In the 
Ouvaroff. second edition of the Probier-Stein, Fictuld has 
Besides the Filum Ariadnes, Hendreich mentions himself pointed out, and apologised for, this mis- 
Nodus sophicus and sEnigma Sophicum, published placement, and has transferred Batsdorff to his 
at Coburg, in German. true position among the sophists. We may con- 
In the first edition of the Probier-Stein, Fictuld elude, therefore, that his doom is sealed! 
put him among the adepts, and yet he gives him 

Hendreich, Pandectce Brandenburgicce, Berolini, Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 

1699, p. 453. pp. 498, 615, 641. 

Keren Happuch . . . oder Teutsches Fegfeuer der Gmelin, Geschichte der Ckemie, 1797, i. p. 522 ; 

Scheide-Kunst, 1702, p. 90. 1798, ii. p. 4, note q. 

Roth-Scholtz, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1727, p. 19. Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

Fictuld, Probier-Stein, 1740, Th. i. p. 66 ; 1753, 1806-08, p. 134. 

Th. ii. p. 36. Schmieder, Geschichte derAlchemie, 1832, p. 377. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic Ladrague, Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 

Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 115. Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1188-1190. 

Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 97. Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. pp. 209, 369. 

Archiv fiir Rosenkreutzer , 1785, ii. p. 354. 

REIME von der geheimen Filosofie der Chymisten mit Anmerkungen . . . von R. 

See SCHRODER (FRIEDRICH JOSEF WILHELM), Neue Alchymistische Bibliothek, 
1773, II. i. p. 379. 

REIMEN. 

See ALTE TEUTSCHE REIMEN. 
See RHYTHM1 GERMANICI. 

REIMLEIN. 

Uralte Reimlein an alle Goldbegierige Chymistem. 

See GOLDMACHER-CATECHISMUS, 1779, p. 79. 



250 



REINE REINESIUS 



REINE hermetische Wahrheit. 

See HERMETISCHES MUSEUM, 1782, ii. p. 143. 

REINESIUS (THOMAS). 

Chimiatria, hoc est, Medicina, nobili et necessaria sui parte, Chimia, instructa 
et exornata, in Theatrum illustris ad Elistrum Ruthenei Sermone Panegyrico 
producta a Thoma Reinesio, Thur. Philos. et Med. D. t. t. Physico Rutheno- 
Gerano, postea vero Archiatro Saxo-Altenburgico, Medico, Critico, ac Poly- 
histore famigeratissimo. 

P. Andr. Matthiolus ad Andr. de Blauen 1. 4. epistolar. f. 180. 
Ausim dicere, neminem Medicum absolutum esse posse, imb ne mediocrem 
quidem, qui in nobilissima destillandi scientia non sit exercitatus : id cum 
alibi, turn inprimis in chronicis morbis est animadvertere, qui citra metallica 
devinci vix possunt. Nee desunt exempla magnorum Medicorum, qui remediis 
chimicis magnos effectus in curandis segris ediderunt. Jenae, Excudit 
Johannes Gollnerus, Anno M DC LXXVIII. 

4. Pp. [8] 56. Title red and black. 



Reinesius was born at Gotha, 13 Dec., 1587. 
His natural ability was displayed from his earliest 
years. At the age of three he was already 
at school, and when he was twelve he was able 
to write Greek and Latin. Notwithstanding 
his capacity he did not go to the University till 
1603, when he was sent to Wittenberg. Theology 
was the subject designed for him, but as he had a 
difficulty in pronouncing the letter R (which, how- 
ever, he ultimately overcame), and felt that that 
would interfere with his duties, he turned to medi- 
cine and studied it under Sennertus. In 1607, for the 
sake of a stipend open to medical students, he went 
to Jena. Three years later he was in Prague and 
proceeded to Frankfurt a. d. Oder, to hear Rulan- 
dus. His love for medicine and antiquities led 
him to Italy, and he remained some time in Padua. 
On his return he stopped at Basel and graduated 
there. In 1615 he went to Altdorf where his 
relative, Caspar Hpfmann, was professor of medi- 
cine, in hope of being made a professor. He did 
not succeed, and instead was called in 1616 to Hof 
in Voigtland, to be physician to the Count of 
Reuss, and two years later to be head of the 
Gymnasium at Gera, in Misnia. In 1527 he removed 
to Altenburg as Saxon Leibmedicus and town phy- 
sician, and there he obtained such respect and fame 
by his cures and especially by his services during a 
visitation of the plague, that he was chosen Burgo- 
master, with the title of Councillor of the Elector of 
Saxony. In spite of much opposition which he 
had to face, he would not leave, and declined the 
offer of chairs of medicine in various Universities. 
He remained thirty-three years in Altenburg, 
gathered a fine library which was afterwards pur- 
chased by the Duke of Saxony through the inter- 
vention of von Seckendorf, and spent his leisure 
time in reading, book-writing and correspondence. 
Finally he resigned his offices, and retired to 
Leipzig and occupied himself with reading the 
Bible in the original languages and with religious 
exercises. He died 13 (14) Feb., 1667. 

The cause of his resignation is variously accounted 
for. The course of political affairs, it is said by 
Eloy, interfered with his studies and he made that 
the reason. Haller, however, who, by the way, puts 
his death in 1661, states as his opinion, that by his 
free speaking about people whom he ought to have 



cultivated, he made himself enemies, and left 
Altenburg when he saw that he no longer enjoyed 
any consideration. His ability, however, ought to 
have prevented that, for he was not only eminent in 
his profession, but he was exceptionally skilled in 
the language, history, antiquities and criticism of 
the ancients, and on that account received a 
pension from Louis XIV. of France, who .gladly 
observed and rewarded merit wherever it was 
displayed. 

Reinesius' scholarship was not only of the widest, 
but it was deep and accurate, and his insight as an 
original critic was so great that it has probably 
never been surpassed : vir ad miraculum eruditus, 
says Haller, not an unlearned man himself. 

The works in which is displayed the profoundest 
erudition are those which relate to antiquities, the 
most important being the supplement to Gruter's 
Inscriptions. 

But what specially concerns the historian of 
chemistry is his dissertation on the Greek chemi- 
cal writings preserved in the Gotha-Altenburg 
Manuscript. It was composed in German in 
1634 and was printed by Cyprianus in his ' Cata- 
logus codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecze Goth- 
anae,' Lipsiae, 1714. It was afterwards translated 
into Latin by Fabricius in the Bibliotheca Grceca, 
1724, and is often referred to by Kopp. 

In his Varia Lectiones, Altenburg, 1640, and the 
Defensiones Variarum Lectionum, Rostock, 1653 
another specimen of his learning and critical power 
there is a good deal referring to ancient medicine 
and these alchemical writings. 

His projected history of medicine, for writing 
which no one was better qualified, was most un- 
fortunately never executed. The book now would 
have been invaluable. 

The first edition of the present work appeared at 
Gera, 1624, 4. It is an argument for the import- 
ance of chemistry to medicine and for the use of 
drugs prepared from mineral sources, but it also 
deals with and illustrates the greater subject that 
there is no finality in medicine but continual change 
and progress. It gives in brief a review of advances 
which have been made, and it contains abundant 
evidence of the author's professional learning, both 
historical and practical. 



REINESIUSREINHART 



251 



REINESIUS (THOMAS). Continued. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 195. 

Labbe, Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum, 1672, p. 203. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 684. 

Witte, Memories Philosopher um, 1679, Decas 
octava, pp. 461-472 (this is autobiographical to a 
large extent). 

Acta Eruditorum, 1682, p. 89 (review of the 
' Varias Lectiones,' article by Daumius) ; 1685, p. 
594 (notice of his tract ' De Sibyllinis Oraculis '). 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 1022. 

Witte, Dianum biographicum, 1688, sig. Yyy 
3 recto, 14 Feb., 1667. 

Reimmann, Versuch einer Einleitung in die 
Historian literariam derer Teutschen, 1708, i. pp. 
85, 150, 282, 308. 

Reimmann, Versuch einer Einleitung in die 
Historiam literariam antediluvianam, 1709, pp. 
189-90, note. 

Fnd. Gotthilf Gotter, Elogia Clarorum Virorum 
qui Altenburgum . . . illustrarunt, Jenae, 1713, 
pp. 31-35 (Elogium) ; 73-80 (Epistolas Reinesii). 

Fabricius, Histories Bibliothecce sues Pars III., 
1719, p. 93 (work on ' Inscriptions' and references). 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina, Hamb., 1721, i. 
p. 758 ; ii. p. 575 ('Inscriptions'). 

Fabricius, Bibliotheca Greeca, Hamb., 1724, xii. 
p. 748. (Dissertation on the Greek chemical MSS. 
in the Gotha Library, translated from the German.) 

Bayle, Dictionaire historique et critique, 1730, 
iv. p. 43. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca ScriptorumMedicorum, 1731, 
II. ii. p. 50. 

Schelhorn, Amoenitates lilerariee, 1731, Parsxiv. 
p. 606 (note on the purchase of his library). 

Stolle, Anleitung zur Historie der Mcdicinischen 
Gelahrheit, 1731, pp. 280, 281, 282, 693. 

Morhof, Polyhistor, 1732, i. pp. 101 & sqq. (the 
Greek chemical MS.), 284,753 (' doctissimus vir, 
nostraeque, dum viveret, Germanise decus' and 
Morhof was a judge ), 771, 794 ('profundae eru- 
ditionis vir, ac inter proecipuos nostrce Germanice 
numerandus'), 919, 925 ('Variae Lectiones'); ii. 
pp. 184 (Democritus), 253-4 (the Gotha MS.), 419 
(the same). 

Niceron, Memoires, 1734, xxx. pp. 65-73. 

Stolle, Kurtze Nachricht von den Buchern und 
der en Urhebern in der Stollischen Bibliothec, 1736, 
Th. vii. p. 655 (Cotter's opinion quoted); 1741, 
Th. xiii. p. 398 ; Th. xiv. pp. 470, 504. 

Andreas Ottomar Goelicke, Introductio in His- 
toriam litterariam Anatomes, Francof. a. V., 1738, 
p. 1 80. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 
p. 699. 

Arnold, Kirchen- und Ketzer-Historien, 1741, 
ii. p, 215 (Th. ii. lib. 17, cap. 16, 22). (Quotes 
an unfavourable view of his religious opinions, 
already rebutted by Gotter.) 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1742, xxxi. cols. 280- 
282. 

Jacob Brucker, Ehren-tempel der Deutschen 



Gelehrsamkeit, Augspurg, 1747, pp. 110-115, with 
a portrait. 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 
I 7S I . i- P- 387 1 ii. pp. 606, 88 1, 972 (highly 
praised). 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 1989 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Ergdnz- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1685. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique de la Mddecine, 
I7SS. >' P- 322 ; 1778, iv. p. 47. 

Mpr6ri, Le grand Dictionnaire historique, 1759, 
IX. i. p. H2. 

Portal, Histoire de I 'Anatomie et de la Chirurgie, 
1770, ii. p. 444. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 437. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 352. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 332. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practice, 1776, i. 
pp. 97, 226 ; 1777, ii. pp. 332, 528 (life and list of 
his works). 

Metzger, Skizze einer pragmatischen Literdr- 
geschichte der Medicin, 1792, pp. 247-248, 208. 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 595-596 
(Chimiatria, Ger. 1624, Jena, 1678). 

Hutchinson, Biographia Medica, 1799, ii. p. 347. 

Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary, 
1816, xxvi. p. 122. 

Biographic Mddicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25). vi. p. 571. 

Biographic Universelle, 1824, xxxvii. p. 282 ; no 
date, xxxv. p. 372 (article by Weiss). 

Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824, (Authors) ii. 

797/- 

Sprengel, Geschichte der Arzneykunde, 1827, iv. 
p. 456. 

Morwitz, Geschichte der Medicin, 1848, i. p. 

327- 

Bayle & Thillaye, Biographic Mtdicale, 1855, i. 

P- 537- 

Nouvelle Biographic Generale, 1862, xli. col. 
922. 

Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarischcs Hand- 
worterbuch, 1863, ii. col. 597. 

Kopp, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Chemie, 1869, 
p. 298. 

Daremberg, Histoire des Sciences Medicales t 
1870, i. p. 572. 

Dictionnaire Encyclopddique des Sciences Mtdi- 
cales, 3eme Se'rie, 1876, iii. p. 345. 

Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra- 
genden Aerzte aller Zeiien und Volker, 1886, iv. 
p. 697. 

B. Schuchardt, ' Lebensbeschreibungen beruhm- 
ter Aerzte und Naturforscher, welche aus Thiiringen 
stammen,' Correspondenz-Blatt des allgemeinen 
drztlichcn Vereins von Thiiringen, Weimar, 1888, 
xvii. pp. 556, 601. 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic, 1889, xxviii. p. 
29 (article by R. Hoche, and references). 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1891, xii. p. 22. 



RE1NHART (HANS CHRISTOFF). 

Liecht der Natur, das ist : Der warhafftigen Kunst Alchimise, hochstes 
Geheimnifs. Aufs welchem alle Alte vnd Newe Philosophi im vniversal 
vnd particular Werck, jhres begerens, als langes Lebens, stetwerender Gesund- 
heit, vnd erbarlichen Reichtumbsschatze dieser Welt, seynd gewehret 
worden. Nach versuchter Gewifsheit, vnnd eigner Erfahrung, in richtigster 
Richtschnur Linien, angesatzt. Sonderlich aber defs hocherleuchten 



252 REINHARTREMEDIA 

REINHART (HANS CHRISTOFF). Continued. 

Mannes, Fratris Basilii Valentini Schrifften, griindlich zuverstehen, vnd 
niitzlich zu laboriren in Druck geben, durch Hans Christoff Reinhart, bey 
der Rom: Key: May: Hoffgefreyten Seitenstickern. 

lohann: III. Wer die Warheit liebt der kompt an das Liecht, denn 

seine Werck sind in Gott gethan. 

Gedruckt zu Hall, durch Erasmum Hynitzsch. In Verlegung Joachimi 
Krusecken. 

8. Sigs. A-H 8 in eights, or pp. [127, i blank]. Title red and black. No date, about 1608. 
Das Valete : Vber den Tractat der Arcanorum Basilij Valentini zusammen 
gesetzten Hauptschlufs Puncten defs Liechts der Natur. Durch Hans 
Christoff Rheinhart den Eltern. 

Kauffe mich, lifs mich, verstehe mich, darnach judicire mich. 
Gedruckt zu Hall in Sachsen, durch Erasmum Hynitzsch. In Verlegung 
Joachimi Krusecken. 1608. 

8. Sigs. A-F 7 , F 8 blank, in eights, or pp. [94, 2 blank]. 

Johann Christoph Reinhard, an alchemist and As the author here in the Valete calls himself 

enthusiast at the beginning of the seventeenth 'the elder,' that would imply that there was a 

century, was born at Schongau, in Upper Bavaria, junior Hans Christoff. If he distinguished himself 

A tract entitled : Diss. de jure aquarum metalli- at all, it was not in chemistry so far as I have 

carum singular!, von Berg-Wassern, is assigned to observed. 
a Reinhard in Leupold's Prodromus, but it is not 
certain that he is identical with the present writer. 

Borel, Bibliotheca Chimica, 1654, p. 195 (just Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 563, 

mentions the author). note. 

Jacob Leupolds Prodromus Bibliotheca metalliccs, Semler, Unparteiische Samlun^en zur Historic 

1732, p. 117. der Rosenkreuzer, 1798, ii. pp. 54, 65. 

Jocher, Allgemeincs Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, p. 208 

col. 1992. (incidental mention only in connection with Basilius 

Anton Maria Kobolt, Baierisches Gelehrten- Valentinus). 

Lexikon, Landshut, 1795, P- 55 (quotes Jocher, Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 387. 
and Annalen der Baierischen Literatur, Nurnberg, 
1781-84). 

REISE Friedrich Galli nach der Einode St. Michael. 

See JEAN DE MEHUN, Der Spiegel der Alchemie, 1771. 
See CALLUS (FRIEDRICH). 

RELIGION der altesten Naturforscher und so genannten Adepten. 
See SCHADE (GEORG). 

REMEDIA Sympathetica ; das ist Sammlung der bewahrtesten sympathetischen, 
antipathetischen und spagyrischen Mittel und Zauberkrafte bey Krankheiten 
der Menschen und Thiere, gegen Behexen und das Anthun boser Leute, 
gegen allerhand Laster, als Trunk und Spiel, fur die gegenseitige Zartlichkeit 
zwischen Eheleuten, verschiedene Jagerkunste, wider schadliche Thiere, 
Verwahrungsmittel wider Hieb und Stich, u. s. w., ingleichen Anweisung beim 
Verfahren des magischen Schatzgrabens, zu der Metoscopie, oder Kunst aus 
den Runzeln der Stirnen wahrzusagen, und der Deutung der Schonheitsmaaler. 
Gebrauch der Temperamentenblatter, der magischen Briefdruckerey und des 
Eyerschreibens so wie die sehr hohe und geheime Kunst Salomonis. Mit i 
Kupfer. Leipzig, literarisches Centralcomptoir in Commission. 
8. Pp. [2] vi., H2 [2]. Folding plate. Without date, about 1780? 



REMMELIN 



253 



REMMELIN (JOHANN). 

Sphyngis Victor, das ist, Entdeckung Herrn lohannis Faulhaberi, bestellten 
Rechenmeisters vnnd Mathematici in Vim, himmlischen geheimen Magiae, 
oder newen Cabalistischen Kunst : vnd wunder Rechnung, vom Gog vnd 
Magog, geschehen. Von lohanne Remmelino Philos. & Med. Doctore. 
Getruckt zu Kempten, bey Christoff Kraufs. In verlegung Stephan Michel- 
spachers. Anno M.DC.XIX. 

4. Signatures A-C in fours, Da ; or, ff. [14]. Ornamental border to the title-page ; 
on the reverse is a set of symbols, and on D 2 is a drawing of the strange fish caught at 
Neuss in Silesia in August, 1609, which had on its skin the date and a number of 
symbols indicating what was to happen to the Holy Roman Empire. The skin was 
duly sent to the Emperor. This tract is not about chemistry. 



Remmelin was born at Ulm in 1585, studied at 
Tubingen and took the degree of Master in 1604. 
He continued his studies at Basel and was created 
doctor of medicine there in 1607. In Ulm he held 
the post of town physician, but, on account of dis- 
putes with other doctors, he left in 1628 and 
received a similar appointment at Schorndorf, 
whence he went to Aalen and finally to Augsburg. 
According to his contemporaries, he was celebrated 
as an anatomist and skilled in mathematics. A 
portrait of him on copper was engraved in 1618, 
and there is another without place and date. 

He published several works on mathematics and 
on numbers (of which the above is one), enumerated 
by Rotermund. The following book is also ascribed 
to him : Ferince Weltzheimenses oder griindliche 
Erforschung von Natur, Eigenschafften und Ge- 
brauch des heilsamen Wildbrunnens zu Weltzen, 
das Thier- oder Wildbad genannt, Augspurg, 
1619, 4, which is not mentioned by Rotermund. 

Another important and novel work by him is the 
following : 

Johannis Remmelini Suevo-Vlmensis, Philo- 
sophise & Medicinae Doctoris, Catoptrum Micro- 
cosmicum, suis aere incisis visionibus splendens. 
Cum historia & Pinace, de nouo prodit. . . . Ulmae 
Sueuorum Sumptibus lohannis Gorlini M. nc. XXXTX. 
Large folio, pp. 28 (misprint for 26) ; engraved 
title, and plates on pp. 9, 15, 21. The plates are 
marked 'I. R. Inuentor' ; 'L. K. sculptor'; 
' Stephan Michelspacher excudit.' The colophon : 
Ulmae, Sumptibus Johannis Cerlini, Bibliopolae, 
Imprimebat Balthasar Kiihne, Reipubl. istius 
Typographus. Anno M DC xxxix. 

There is said to have been an edition at Augs- 
purg, 1619, fol., but I have not seen it. Of the 
edition of 1639 I have seen two copies, one in the 
British Museum and one in the Hunterian Library, 
Glasgow University. The latter has the plates in 
very good state, considering how easily they can 
be injured by use. This book is a treatise 
on anatomy, and consists of a series of plates in 
layers, so that the parts beneath can be seen 
in succession by lifting the hinged portions, 
an idea which originated with Remmelin. 

This book was translated into German and 
of this version I have seen a copy in the collec- 
tion of my colleague, Professor Cleland. Kleiner 
Welt Spiegel, das ist: Abbildung Gottlicher 
Schopffung an defs Menschen Leib, mil beygesetz- 
ter Schrifftlicher Erkliirung, so wol zu Gottes 
Weifsheit, als defs Menschen selbst Erkandtnus 
dienend, Aufs, Johannis Remmilini, Philosophise et 
Medicinae Doctoris, Lateinischem Exemplar, in die 
Teutsche Sprach vbersetzet, durch, M. lohannem 



Ludovicum Remmelinum, Med. Stud. Authoris 
filium. . , . Augustae Vindelicorum, gedruckt 
durch Johann Ulrich Schonigk, In verlag Johann 
Remelins Burgers in Ulm. Anno M.DC.XXXii. 
Large folio ; title leaf, on the verso of which is a 
portrait of Remmelin, 'An. Chr. 1618. /Et. 35.' 
Pp. 22. Illustrations on pp. 7, 13, 19. 

There is no copy of this in the British Museum. 

There was also a translation into English : A 
Survey of the Microcosm, by Clopton Havers, 
with plates by Michel Spacher of the Tyrol, 
and Remmelinus corrected. London, 1702, fol. 
There does not seem to be a copy of this book 
in the British Museum. 

Michelspacher's anatomical work : ' Pinax micro- 
cosmographicus,' though published in 1615, was in 
reality Remmelin's, because, according to Haller, 
he got the plates from Remmelin ; Michelspacher 
was only the printer. 

Under the entry CABALA Michelspacher has been 
credited with the authorship of the Pinax Micro- 
cosmographicus on the authority of Mercklin and 
others. It is, however, only fair to him to state 
that he himself makes no such claim, and in the 
Epistle or Dedication of the CABALA to Remmelin, 
dated 1662, he describes the position of the affair 
as clearly as his wordinesses and worthinesses, his 
long windedness and constant use of titles, will 
permit. After the usual flourish to his Gracious 
Patron, he refers to the work on anatomy, which 
he had been anxious to publish but was let therein 
by various hindrances till at last Remmelin con- 
sented to its publication on condition that his name 
did not appear as the author's. This, as Michel- 
spacher states, was almost futile, seeing that both 
his arms and ' Contrafactur ' were on the title-page 
and would give the reader a hint on the subject. 
But when it was dedicated to the young nobleman 
Phil. Hainhofer in Augspurg, who was a connois- 
seur and judge of such devices, he became very 
pressing to know the author, and Michelspacher 
having obtained Remmelin's permission made it 
known in this preface. 

Afterwards, of course, Remmelin's name ap- 
peared on the title-page. 

As Remmelin calls himself ' Suevo-Ulmensis ' on 
the title-page of this work, Portal has been misled 
into stating that he was a Swedish physician, and 
he seems to be of opinion that the 'Catoptrum' 
was an instrument of his invention, which magni- 
fied the parts and enabled them to be more easily 
seen. But there is no instrument, unless the 
layered plates be considered such, and the title 
means simply a mirror of the microcosm. 



254 



REMMELINREQUISITA RE ALIA 



REMMELIN QOHANN). Continued. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 685. 

Mercklin, Lindcnius renovatus, 1686, p. 665. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. ii. p. 55. 

Douglas, Bibliographies Anatomices Specimen, 
1734, p. 218 (discussion on the editions ; says no- 
thing about Vesalius, but speaks of Michelspacher). 

Andreas Ottomar Goelicke, Introductio in His- 
toriam litterariam Anatomes, Francof. a. V., 1738, 
P- 275. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1742, xxxi. col. 558. 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 
1751, i. p. 512. 



Portal, Histoire de VAnatomieet de la Chirurgie, 
1770, ii. p. 424. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. p. 332. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire hisiorique de la Midecine, 
1755, ii. p. 313 ; 1778, iv. p. 26. 

'Ro\.e.imw\d,Fortsetzungund Erganzungensu . . . 
Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten-Lexico, 1819, vj. 
col. 1780. 

Ludwig Choulant, Geschichte und Bibliographie 
der Anatomischen Abbildung, Leipzig, 1852, pp. 
82-83. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1891, xii. p. 33. 



RENATUS (SINCERUS). 

See RICHTER (SAMUEL). 



RENODyEUS (JOANNES). 

Institutionum Pharmaceuticarum Libri V. 

See UFFENBACH (PETRUS), Dispensatorium, 1631. 



Jean de Renou, latinized Renodseus, of Coutan- 
ces in Normandy, studied and graduated at Paris, 
became Royal Councillor and Physician, and was 
specially devoted to pharmacy. He did a good 
deal for it, and the dispensatory which he com- 
piled enjoyed great popularity, though it may 
say little for the therapeutics of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries-. 

His works were translated into French by Louis 
de Serres, who places him above all his predecessors 
in the same walk, and says that he surpassed 
Fernelius and Sylvius and all who had written on 
pharmacy, as far as they had excelled Myrepsus 
and Praepositus. 

He was not friendly towards Lazarus Riverius, 
physician of Henry IV., for he calls him an 
empiric. 

He overturned a multitude of popular errors 
about the virtues of plants and minerals, though he 
himself was not devoid of some erroneous notions. 
Having taken some things from the ' Pharmaco- 
poeia ' of Bauderon, he was dubbed a plagiarist by 
that writer's son, who maintained that the 'Anti- 
Will. Cooper, A Catalogue of Chymicall Books, 
London, 1675, sign. Ri verso, D3 recto. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 685 
(Dispensatorium, 1627). 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, p. 666. 

Bayle, Dictionaire historique et critique, 1730, 
iv. p. 48. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. ii. p. 55. 

Zedler, Universal-Lexicon, 1742, xxxi. col. 613. 

Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 
1751, ii. p. 1033. 

MoreYi, Le Grand Dictionnaire Historique, 1759, 
ix. i. p. 141. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 432. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1774, i. pp. 280, 

327- 
Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practica, 1777, ii. 



REQUISITA REALIA. 
See SINCERUS. 



dotarium ' had been made up by innumerable 
thefts and especially from Bauderon. To this 
atlack Renodeus replied showing how absurd the 
accusalion was. 

His works are : 

Dispensalorium Galeno-chymicum. 

Numerous edilions of Ihe ' Dispensalorium ' are 
recorded: Paris, 1608, 4; Francof., 1609, 4; 
1615, 4 ; Paris, 1623, 4 ; Hanau, 1631, 4 (as 
above) ; Geneva, 1645, 4. 

The English translation is mentioned by Will. 
Cooper : A Medicinal Dispensatory . . . discover- 
ing the natures, properties and vertues of Vegel- 
ables, Minerals and Animals, . . . with an 
absolule Pharmacopoaa, London, 1657, 4 ; the 
translator was R. Tomlinson. 

There is a copy in the British Museum. 

De Materia Medica Libri Tres. 

Antidotarium varium et absolutissimum. 

The works were printed at Frankfurt, 1609, 8, 
and with Josephus Quercetanus' Pharmacopoeia 
dogmaticorum, ediled by Peler Uffenbach, Hanau, 
1631, 4. 

p. 402. (Compare also J. de Renou, ii. pp. 271, 
279, 334, 400, for disserlations under that name). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 578 
(Instilulionum Pharmaceulicarum Libri v., Fran- 
cof., 1609, &c. ). 

Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 
1806-08, pp. 122 (Anlidolarium), 129 (Dispensa- 
torium). 

Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 
25), vi. p. 574. 

Phillippe & Ludwig, Geschichte der Apotheker, 
1855, ii. pp. 210, 499, 899, 926 (call the Dispensa- 
torium ' a priceless work, above all praise,' and give 
interesting extracls). 

Nouvelle Biographic Glnfrale, 1862, xli. col. 
1029. 

Daremberg, Histoire des Sciences Mtdicales, 1870, 
ii. p. 826. 

Billings, Index-Catalogue, 1891, xii. p. 40. 



RESCHRESPONSUM 255 



RESCH (JOAN ULRICH). 

Osiandrische Experiment von Sole, Luna & Mercurio. Welche in furnehmer 
Herren laboratoriis probirt worden, daraufs mehr per Exempla als Rationes, 
oder durch viel verwirrte Procefs, verkehrte Sophistische vnd vnniitze Biicher, 
verschrauffte Wort vnd subtile Reden, &c. die wahre Philosophische Materi, 
rechte Solution, Gewicht, Glas, Ofen vnd Regierung defs Feuers zu fassen, vnd 
zumal man richtige Anleitung hat, dem Werck zur Tinctur vnd Artzney weiter 
nachzudencken vnd zu ergriinden. Mit angehangtem hierzu dienlichem vnd 
niemals in Druck gebrachten Tractatlein, De igne Philosophico investigando 
& moderando pro solutione debita acquirenda, auch Historien wahrhaffter 
Verwandlung der Metallen in Gold vnd Silber. Item, wie man sich vor 
Betriegern hiiten soil: safnt andern zur Praxin vnd Haubtwesen gehorigen 
vnd notirten Observationen vnd Explicationen colligirt vnd practicirt durch 
Joan Ulrich Reschen, D. 

Avicenna. Neminem Magisterium lapidis unquam negasse, qui esset 

sapiens. 
Niirnberg, Bey Johann-Andreas vnd Wolffgang Endters defs Jiingern sel. 

Erben, 1659. 

8. Pp. [8] 327 [i blank]. Historical in part. 

I have not found anything about Resch, the earlier. Chapter x. in the present book is a 
editor of this book. He says, however, distinctly in reprint of Ewald von Hohelande's tract : Kurtzer 
the preface that the author of the experiments was Bericht und klarer Beweifs, &c. , so that it contains 
Lucas Osiander, professor and cancellarius at some historical matter. Gmelin assigns the ex- 
Tubingen, with his brother, Johann Otto, Abbot periments to Johann Adam Osiander, without 
of Adelberg. They communicated their experi- specifying which he means, and without considera- 
ments and observations some five and thirty years tion of what Resch himself states. 

Die Edelgeborne Jungfer Alchymia, 1730, p. 65. Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 625. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 329. 
p. 619. 

RESPONS von der F. R. C. zu etlichen ihren Clienten abgeben. 

See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN), Aperta Area Arcani Artificiossimi, 1687, p. 228. 
See SIEBMACHER (JOHANN AMBROSIUS), Wasserstein der Weisen, 1704, p. 204. 
See SIEBMACHER (JOHANN AMBROSIUS), Wasserstein der Weisen, 1743, P- I 9- 
See GRASSHOFF (JOHANN), Philosophia Salomonis, 1753, p. 200. 
This is a translation of the ' Responsiones Duoe ' below. 

RESPONSIO ad Epistolam J. Ferdinandi Hertodt von Todtenfeldt. 
See MANGET (j. J.), Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, 1702, ii. p. 699. 

RESPONSIONES Duae F. R. C. ad quosdam suos Clientes. 

See THEATRUM CHEMICUM, l66l, vi. p. 393. 

RESPONSUM einer beruhmten Juristen-Facultat : da sich ein Ehemann belehren 
lasset : Ob ihm das seiner Frauen in Gold transmutirte silberne Gefasse nicht 
zukomme ? oder doch wenigstens der usus fructus davon. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1730, ii. 
p. 113. 

RESPONSUM ad Fratres Rosaceae Crucis illustris. 

See ROTH-SCHOLTZ (FRIEDERICH), Deutsches Theatrum Chemicum, 1732, iii. 

P- 349- 
See also ROSICRUCIANS. 



256 RESPOUR 

RESPOUR (P. M. DE). 

Rares Experiences sur 1'Esprit Mineral, pour la Preparation et Transmutation 
des Corps Metaliques. Oil est enseigne la maniere de faire les Agens 
necessaires, qui ont este jusques aujourd'huy inconnus & cachez au Public. 
Avec la connoissance du mouvement general & particulier du Monde Ele- 
mentaire & de ce qui y est contenu. Par Monsieur D * * * Tome premier. 
A Paris, Chez Emanuel Langlois, rue S. lacques, a la Reyne du Clerge*. Et 
Chez Claude Barbin, au Palais, sur le second Perron de la sainte Chapelle. 
M.DC.LXVIII. Avec Privilege du Roy. 

8. Pp. [24] 72 ; 106 ; 100 [2]. Though entitled Tome premier the work is 
complete. At all events no second volume is mentioned. Exposition of the Smaragdine 
Table, Liv. iii. pp. 38-42. 

P. M. von Respurs besondere Versuche vom Mineral-Geist zur Auflosung und 
Verwandlung derer Metallen auch von der Bewegung der Welt und ihrer 
Theile. Aus dem Franzosischen iibersetzt mit Anmerkungen erst heraus- 
gegeben von Johann Friedrich Henkeln Konigl. Pohln. und Churfl. Sa'ch- 
sischen Bergrath nunmehro aber aufs neue durchsehen und hier und da 
vermehret von D. Johann Gottlob Lehmann Konigl. Preufsisch. Bergrath, 
Mitglied der Kais. Rufsischen, Konigl. Preufs. Akademie derer Wissensch. 
und der Churmaynzisch. niitzlichen Wissenschaften. Leipzig, bey Engelhart 
Benjamin Schwickert 1772. 

8. Pp.333. Index [15]. Advertisements [2]. Frontispiece. Pp. 15-16 dropped. 
Exposition of the Smaragdine Table, pp. 263-265, and note pp. 280-284. 

Rares Experiences sur 1'esprit mineral pour la preparation et transmutation des 
corps mdtalliques oil est enseigne la maniere de faire les Agens ndcessaires, 
qui ont e"te" jusqu'aujourd'hui inconnus et cache's au Public. Avec la 
connoissance du mouvement general et particulier du Monde Elementaire et 
de ce qui y est contenu. Par Monsieur de Respour. Tome Premier. 
Nouvelle Edition revue et corigee par Christian Frederic Keller, Docteur en 
Medecine et Physicien ordinaire du Baillage de Langensalza. Avec Privilege 
du Se're'n. Elect, de Saxe. a Leipzig, chez Christian Gottlob Hilscher 1777. 

8. Pp. [30] 192. Though called Tome premier the work is complete. Exposition 
of the Smaragdine Table, pp. 146-148. 

The first edition is that of 1668. The author's Henckel, in his preface, says that the author was 

name is contained in the ' Privilege," but whether from Flanders, and is of opinion from his phraseo- 

the letters S. P. M. preceding the name are logy that he was a soldier. He wrote this book at 

Respour's initials or not I am unable to say, but the age of 24, and in French, of which he admits 

have assumed that they are. In the German the he was not quite master. Henckel thinks that the 

initials are P. M. so that S. possibly stands for initial D * * * on the title-page shows that the book 

Seignerir. was edited by some one else, but does it not stand 

The book had become extremely rare when it simply for De Respour? He also questions 

was translated by Henckel, with added notes, and whether the third book is by Respour on account of 

published first at Dresden and Leipzig in 1743, difference of style. It would appear that other 

re-edited by Lehmann and published in 1772 (as books had been composed or meditated by Respour, 

above), and then the original French was reprinted but were not published. Probably that is the 

at Leipzig, 1777 (as above), with a preface by reason why this appears alone as Tome Premier. 

Keller, in which he comments on the translation, A good deal of importance seems to have been 

on Respour's aim, and on the term '/.ink which he attached to this book by the metallurgists of the 

employs. This word seems to have puzzled time. The prefaces to the different editions should 

Lehmann also. be considered. 



RESPO URRE TZEL 



257 



RESPOUR (P. M. DE). Continued. 

In the third book there is an exposition, section 
by section, of the Smaragdine table (pp. 38-42). 

The three books into which the work is divided 
are entitled respectively : 

I. De la Nature en General, pp. 72. 
II. Des Agens Metaliques, pp. 106. 
III. Le Retour d' Hermes, pp. 100. 
In Book I. the signatures run from A to Eiiij in 
eights. 

Lenglet Dufresnoy, Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermttique, 1742, iii. p. 274. 

L.a.Ara.g\ie,Bibliotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences Secretes, 
1770, Nos. 1085. 



In Books II. and III. the signatures run con- 
tinuously from A to N in eights. 

Baumer quotes the German translation by 
Henckel, Dresden, 1743, 8, enlarged by Leh- 
mann, Leipzig, 1771, 8, and this last is also 
quoted by Gmelin. The 1772 issue is not alluded 
to. 



Baumer, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1782, p. 56. 
Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1798, ii. p. 338. 
Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1844, ii. p. 243 ; 
1847, iv. p. 121. 



RESPUR (P. M. VON). 

See RESPOUR (P. M. DE). 



RETZEL (GEORG FRIDERICH). 

Der Sechs Tage-Wercke dieser Welt Geheime Bedeutung im Spiegel der uhralten, 
und Mosaischen Philosophic entdecket, Was die Eigenschafft der oberen, und 
unteren Wasser sey ; und wie daraus alles seinen Ursprung habe ; Wie die 
Wiirckung des Oberen in das Untere vollenbracht, und daher in dieser Welt 
alles erhalten, und fortgepflantzet werde ; Woher jedes sein Leben, auch wieder 
seinen Tod, und Verderben bekomme ; Was der in Eden gepflantzte Garten, 
auch der von Eden ausgehende Strohm mit seiner vierfachen Abtheilung seyn 
konne; Was der Baum des Erkantnisses, wie auch die List, und Sprechen der 
Schlangen gewesen ; Wie das Austreiben von Garten Eden, und der davor 
gelagerte Cherubim mit den blossen hauenden Schwerdte zuverstehen ; 
\Yelchen aus gleichen Principiis beygefiiget wird Ein Bericht von denen 
unsichtbahren Creaturen, Feuer- Lufft- Wasser- und Erd- Geistern, auch 
Gespenstern, und andern diesen zugehorigen Sachen. Denen Suchenden der 
Wahrheit, und vom Geist der verwirrung in denen allermeist recipirten 
mancherley Meynungen noch nicht gantz geblendeten, Aus Liebe mitgetheilet 
von D. Georg Friderich Retzeln Fiirstl. Braunschw. Liineb. Berg-Rath, wie 
auch der Ko'nigl. Preufsischen Societal der Wissenschafften Mitgliede. 
Blanckenburg, Durch H. C. Struven, Hertzogl. privilegirten Buchdr. Anno 
1722. 

8. Pp. [48] 391 [i]. Title red and black, printed across two pages. 



Retzel, or Ratzel, was Dr. and Mining Councillor 
at Blankenburg, and member of the Royal Prussian 
Society of Sciences. Besides the above, he wrote : 

Der geheimen Natur erSffnele Pforten und dero- 
selben wiirkende Eigenschaften in gut und bose, 
woher erkannt werden mag, woraus Gesundheit 



und Krankhcit, ingleichen Medicin und Gift pro- 
ducirt werde, so auch was die Essentia rerum und 
die von alien Chymicis langst zu wissen gewiinschte 
erste Materieder philosophischen Universalmedicin 
sey, denen Suchenden zum Besten. Blankenburg, 
1718, 8. 



Hallische Vermischte Dibliothek, 1715, 1505 and a concluding condemnation of it as a 'fanatical, 
Stuck, p. 177. Bohmistic book '). 

Unschuldige Nachrichten ; Fortgesetzte Samm- Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1741, xxx. col. 577. 
lung von Alien und Neucn Theologischen Sachen, Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 363. 
Leipzig, 1735, pp. 713-731 (an abstract of the work, 

II. R 



258 REUDENIUSREUSNER 

REUDENIUS (MICHAEL). 

Bedencken ob vnd wie die Artzneyen, so durch die Alchimistische Kunst 
bereitet werden, sonderlich vom Vitriol, Schwefel, Antimonio Mercuric, vnd 
dergleichen fruchtbarlich zugebrauchen sein. Menniglich zur nachrichtung 
kiirtzlich verfasset, durch Michaelem Reudenium, der Philosophey vnd 
Medicin Doctorem, vnd der zeit verordneten Physicum der Keyserlichen 
freyen Berckstadt Schlackenwalds. Mit einer kurtzen Vorrede von dem 
vnterschied der Hermetischen vnd Galenischen Medicin loachimi Tanckij, 
D. & Profess. Cum gratia & privilegio. Leipzig In verlegung Johann 
Rosen, Buchhendlers daselbst, Im Jahr M.DC.V. 

8. Pp. [23, i blank] 101 [i]. MS. notes at the end. Title red and black in a 
narrow border. Colophon and Emblem : Michael destroying Satan : Gedruckt zu 
Leipzig bey Michael Lantzenberger. Im Jahr 1605. 

He was the son of Ambrosius Reuden, doctor of De novo gummi purgante epistolaad Schwarzium. 

theology, not at Bamberg, but probably at Jena, Ejusdem apologia ad Hechstetterum cum Payeri 

and was born about 1571 or 1572, and was the Tractat. de thermis Carolinis, Lips., 1614, 8; 

eldest of seven. He became doctor of medicine, Leyden, 1625, 12. 

lived in Schlackenwald, and practised at Karlsbad De corporibus mineralibus, prascipue metallis 

with great reputation. in genere, Jenae, 1600, 4. 

He wrote several tracts : Observations Carolina:, darinnen von der Natur 

Disputatio de dolore, Jena, 1596, 4. des Kaiser Karlsbadcs gehandelt wird, translated 

Observationes de Thermis Carolinis, Jena, 1611, into German by Melchior Rethnicus, Jena, 1611, 

8; Leipzig, 1614, 12. 8; Leipz., 1614, 12. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, Boerhaave, Methodus Studii Medici, ed. Haller, 

l &37> P- 364 (calls him ' Bambergensis '). 1751, ii. P- 1039. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686, pp. 821, Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 

1050. col. 2028 ; Rotermund's Fortsetzung und Erganz- 

Joh. Christoph. Becman, Catalogus Bibliotheca ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1863. 

Publics Universitatis Francofurtance , Francof. ad Frid. Boerner, Bibliothecae Librorum rariorum 

Viadrum, 1706, p. 245 (Observationes Carolinae, physico-medicorum . . . specimen secundum, Helme- 

Jen., 1611, 8; Ep. de novo Gummi purgante, stadii, 1752, pp. 61-65 (' Discursus philosophico- 

Lugd., 1625, 12). medicus,' Jena, 1618, 8, about Karlsbad). 

Jo. Caspar Zeumer, Vitae Professorum . . , qui Haller, Bibliotheca Botanica, 1771, i. p. 417. 

in illustri Academia lenensi . . . mxeriint et ad- Haller, Bibliotheca Medicines practices, 1777, ii. 

hue vivunt, lenae, 1711, Classis I. p. 94. p. 377. 

Manget, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, Beytrag zur Geschichte der hdhern Chemie, 1785, 

1731, II. ii. p. 56. p. 588. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. pp. 513, 

P- 7 2 - 568 ; 1798, ii. p. 771, (discourse on Karlsbad and 

Lenglet Dufresnpy, Histoire de la Philosophic Eger, Jena, 1718). 

Hermetique, 1742, iii. p. 290. Fuchs, Repertorium der chemischen Litteratur, 

Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1742, xxxi. col. 877 1806-08, pp. 101, 124. 
(born at Bamberg). 

REUSNER (HiERONYMUs). 

Pandora: Das ist, Die edelst Gab Gottes, oder der werde vnd heilsame Stein 
der Weysen, mit welchem die alten Philosophi, auch Theophrastus Paracelsus, 
die vnvollkommene Metallen durch gewalt des Fewrs verbessert : sampt 
allerley schedliche vnd vnheilsame kranckheiten, jnnerlich vnnd eusserlich 
haben vertrieben. Ein Guldener Schatz, welcher durch einen Liebhaber 
dieser Kunst, von seinem Vndergang errettet ist worden, vnd zu Nutz alien 
Menschen, furnemlich den Liebhabern der Paracelsischen Artzney, jetzt 
widerumb in Truck verfertiget. Getruckt zu Basel, Durch Sebastianum 
Henricpetri. 

8. Pp. [16] 317 [i blank], [i] Colophon : Getruckt zu Basel durch Sebastianum 
Henricpetri. Anno do IDXXCVIII. [i] Petri's device. 42 woodcuts. 

He was the son of Christopher Reusner, and was physician at Hof in Vogtland and then at' Nord- 
born at Lemberg in Silesia 26 Sept., 1558. He lingen. 
graduated as M.D. at Basel, and became town 



REUSNER 



259 



REUSNER (HIERONYMUS). Continued. 

He wrote a small number of medical works : 

De pollinclura et sepultura cadaverum. 

Decisiones, Basileas, 1578, 4. 

Epistolas, Francof., 1600, 8. 

Tractatus de Scorbuto, 1600. 

Urinarum probationes lodoci Willichii illustrate 
Scholiis Medicis, . . . Remedia item plurima ex 
urina desumpta, Basil., 1582, 8". 

Curationes et observationes medicas in the 
'Sylloge' of Georg Hieron. Welsch, Aug. Vindel., 
1668, 4. 

Beschreibung des mineralischen Bades zu Wemb- 
dingen, Neuburg, 1618, 8. 

This was apparently a posthumous publication. 

' Pandora ' is not mentioned by Eberti, but his 
judgment on the author is flattering : ' Vir certe 
eruditus, qui editis cultissimi sui ingenii & ex- 
quisitse doctrinas lucubrationibus aeternum nomen 
sibi comparavit,' but his name is hardly remembered 
now. 

The first edition of the present work appeared in 
1582, with the following title-page : 

Pandora, Das ist, Die Edleste Gab Gottes, oder 
der Werde vnnd Heilsamme Stein der Weisen, mit 
welchem die alien Philosophi, auch Theophrastus 
Paracelsus, die vnuolkomene Metallen, durch 
gewalt des Fewrs verbcssert : sampt allerley 
schadliche vnd vnheilsame Kranckheiten, jnnerlich 
vnd eusserlich haben vertrieben. 

Ein Guldener Schatz, welcher durch einen Lieb- 
haber diser Kunst, von seinem Vntergang errettet 
ist worden, vnnd zu nutz alien Menschen, fiirnem- 
lich den Liebhabern der Paracelsischen Artzney, 
erst jetz in Truck verfertiget. 

Getruckt zu Basel. Anno M.D.LXXXII. 8 
pp. [16] 309 [i blank]. Colophon : Getruckt zu 
Basel, bey Samuel Apiario. Symbolical woodcuts 
in the text. 

Reusner was apparently only the editor of this 
book, and he calls it ' Pandora Francisci Epi- 
methei ' as if that were indeed the author's name. 
That, however, wears the air of a pseudonym, and 
accordingly Fictuld informs us that the real name 
of the author was Ulmannus, and that he was a 
Franciscan. 

Schmieder, on the other hand, states boldly, 
' Hieronymus Reufsner wrote : Epimethei Pandora, 
oder Stein der Weisen, . . . Basel, 1598, 8.' 

Though the book probably made its first appear- 
ance in 1582, at all events in German, it, or the 
symbolical pictures in it, were known some time 
earlier. 

In an anonymous tract, entitled : ' Liber de 

Ars Aurifera, 1572, p. 664. 

Maier, Symbola Aureee Mensa, 1617, p. 274. 

Draudius, Bibliotheca classica, 1625, pp. 702, 987. 

Van der Linden, De Scriptis Medicis libri duo, 
1637, p. 213. 

Konig, Bibliotheca vetus et nova, 1678, p. 686. 

Lipenius, Bibliotheca realis medico, 1679, pp. 
4ib, i3ib, I57b. 

Mercklin, Lindenius renovatus, 1686. p. 430. 

Johann Caspar Eberti, Leorinum eruditum, in 
quo viri, quos protulit Leoberga Silesiorum, script is 
et eruditione celebres, centuria quadam compre- 
henduntur ac breviter, delineantur, Wratislaviae, 
1714, p. 45, and references. 

Mangel, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Medicorum, 
1731, II. ii. p. 56. 

Kestner, Medicinisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1740, 

P- 703- 
Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1742, xxxi. col. 964. 



arle chimica incerti authoris,' printed in the ARS 
AURIFKRA, 1572, there appears at the conclusion 
of Cap. xvii. a description which applies unmis- 
takably to certain of ihe allegorical plales conlained 
in ihe ' Pandora,' ihough ihe book iiself is not 
menlioned by name. 

After explaining ihese in some detail, and show- 
ing how widely symbols had been used, ihe author 
adds : ' Has not also Ulmannus a Franciscan monk 
and " frater minor" described our wisdom wilh 
greal skill in the German tongue and tesled il by 
ihe Passion, and proved that it is sure?' It is on 
this passage that Fictuld based his stalement thai 
Ulmannus was the author of the Pandora, but it is 
difficult to see any justification of this view in the 
words employed. 

This anonymous tract is contained, of course, in 
the different editions and translalions of Ihe ARS 
AURIFEKA. See the edition of 1610, i. pp. 400-401, 
and Morgenstern's translation, 1613, i. p. 552 ; 
1750, i. p. 671. 

It would seem, however, as if the plates had 
been known before 1572, whether accompanied by 
a verbal elucidation of their meaning or not. 

For, even before this, namely in 1550, one or two of 
the plales had already appeared in ihe ROSARIUM 
PHILOSOPHORUM along wilh ihe verses, which, with 
some omissions, are also contained in the ' Pan- 
dora.' 

One of these plates, which represents a herma- 
phroditic figure holding in one hand a goblet with 
three serpents rising out of it, and in the other a 
single serpent, is referred to by Michael Maier in 
the Symbola Aurets Mensce, 1617, who says that 
between it and the accompanying verses rythmi 
germanici he calls ihem Ihe aulhor elucidates the 
whole of the art. Maier gives a translation, be- 
cause they had not been put into Lalin before, and 
because of their truth and merit. These are the 
verses in the 1550 edilion of the ROSARIUM, sig. 
Miiij. 

Maier, however, has made his quotation from 
the ROSARIUM and not from the 'PANDORA' with 
which, indeed, he does not seem to have been 
acquainted. It may be observed lhal while both 
coniain allegorical pictures, expressing alchemical 
processes, one set is quite different from Ihe olher, 
wilh ihe exceplions already specified. The verses 
also seem to apply more correctly lo Ihe plate in 
Ihe ' Pandora ' to which they are referred, than to 
that in the Rosarium, but the subject is by no 
means clear and it stands in need of further 
investigalion. 

Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, iii. 
col. 203 ; Rolermund, Fortsetzung und Ergiins- 
ungen, 1819, vi. col. 1874 (lisl of his works). 

Ficluld, Probier-Stein, 1753, Th. i. p, 118. 

Eloy, Dictionnaire historique de la Medecine, 
1755. P- 323 ! 1778, iv. p. 55. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Chirurgica, 1774, i. p. 252. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Medicinee practices, 1777, 
ii. p. 236 ; 1779, iii. p. 84. 

Beytrag zur Geschichte der hohern Chemie, 1785, 
pp. 579, 582, 650 (Fauslius 1 edilion). 

Gmelin, Geschichte der Chemie, 1797, i. p. 293 
(Pandora, 1598). 

Schmieder, Geschichte der Alchemie, 1832, pp. 

323, 5i4- 

Ladrague, Bibltotheque Ouvaroff, Sciences 
Secretes, 1870, Nos. 1044. 

Kopp, Die Alchemie, 1886, ii. p. 368. 



RE USNERRE YHER 



REUSNER (HIERONYMUS). Continued. 

Compendium Alchymist. Novum, sive Pandora Explicata et Figuris Illustrata. 
See FAUSTIUS (JOHANNES MICHAEL). 

REUSS (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH). 

D. Christ. Frider. Reuss Medicinse Professoris Publici in Alma Eberhardino- 
Carolina, Serenissimi Ducis Margrafii Badensis Consiliarii, Acad. Imp. nat. 
curios. Reg. Dan. Scient. ejusque oecon. Elect. Mogunt. nee. non Soc. 
Elect. Lips, oecon. Tigur. phys. & Berol. amicorum naturae Scrutator. Sodal. 

Dispensatorium Universale seu Lexicon Chemico-Pharmacevticum ad 
Tempora nostra Accommodatum Editio Secunda aucta et emendata Sectio 
Prior A-L. Argentorati Apud Amand Koenig 1791. 

8. Pp. xxxii. 1-640. Sectio Posterior M-Z [4] 645-1504. Bound in 4 vols. 
Interleaved. MS. notes. 

[Another Copy.] 

Christian Friedrich Reuss was born at Copen- Mainz, and Berlin, and in 1808 was created Knight 

hagen 7 July, 1745. He studied in Tubingen, took of the Wiirtemberg Civil Service order, and died 

the degree of M.D. in 1769, and after graduation 17 (19) Oct., 1814 (1813). 

travelled through Germany. In 1771 he was He is the author of a number of works on medi- 
appointed extraordinary professor of medicine at cine, botany, pharmacy, dietetics, technology, 
Tubingen, and, in 1706, ordinary professor. veterinary medicine, social economy, &c. He con- 
He was councillor of the Marckgraf of Durlach, a tributed nothing to Chemistry in special, 
member of the Academia Naturae Curiosorum, the It was his brother, Jeremias David, who compiled 
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences, the Physical the Repertorium commentationum, and Das gelehrte 
Society of Zurich, and of other Societies in Leipzig, England. 

Haller, Bibliotheca Anatomica, 1777, ii. p. 663. Biographic Medicale, Paris, Panckoucke (1820- 

Balthasar Haug, Das Gelehrte Wirtemberg, 25), vi. p. 576. 

Stuttgart, 1790, p. 151 (list of his writings). Dezeimeris, Dictionnaire Histonque de la Mtde- 

Meusel, Das Gelehrte Teutschland, oder Lexikon cine, 1837, III. ii. p. 798. 

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