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Cj)e jTtfteentl). Cettturp, 



&c kc. &c. 



LONDON: . : 




• • • 

* • • 

« • 

• * 

• • • 

• • • 

• • 

•• • • • •• 



Afte r the lapse of a twelvemonth, the fourth 
and lojt volume of this Work is presented to 
the Public. Whatever errors it may con- 
tainy there will still be found, I trust, a 
sufficient body of inforwxition and amusemejit 
to render it acceptable to the lovers of rare 
books, and to the skilful in Bibliography. 

In regard to variety and splendour, the 
volume now published may be considered 
superior to those which have preceded it. 
The Italian Books, although fexv in num- 
ber, are precious for their rarity and intrinsic 
worth ; while the account of the publications 
from the earliest presses of our own 
Country, will be found to conlain many 
curious topics connected with the state of 


Ancient English Literature. In the Supple- 
ment, many uncommon and interesting 
articles are introduced; and the Embellish" 
ments throughout the volume^ whether upon 
Wood or Copper^ have been selected and 
executed zvith equal attention to singularitt/ 
andjidelity. Kor are the Indexes the least 
useful portions oja work which contains such 
multifarious matter. 

Such then is the faithful and minute descrip- 
tion of what may probably be considered as the 
foundation only of the Spencer Library. 
To describe the remainder of the same Col- 
lection with equal minuteness j would by no 
means answer the like useful purpose ; since 
the publications of the XVIth, and of the fol- 
lowing Centuries are^ comparatively ^ of less 
curiosity and rarity, and in general are 
familiar to the Bibliographer and Collector. 

I cannot however terminate my present 
labours, or shut the door of the Library in 
which I have passed so many hours with equal 
instruction and delight, without addressing its 

• • 


Owner and chief Ornament — in the language 
of a distinguished Bibliographer to a 
Mohlenum* whose treasures were laid open 
to the grateful eulogist with the same 
readiness and liberality as those of Earl 
Spencer Aaz/« been to myself , .*Tu primum 
fsays the author to his PaironJ stimulos 
addidisti : in frequentibus quae tecum nun- 
quam habui, quin instructior abirem, coUo- 
quiis saepius me submonuisti, unde lucu- 
brationibus meis plurimum moment! et 
lucis accederet: crebro tua, quod nescio an 
in ulla alia repererim, suggessit bibliotheca : 
ad Te et ad banc facilis semper patuit 

* Maittaire, to the Earl op Pembroke; in the 
Dedication of the 'Armales Typographici,* 1719, 4to. 



l l l | ! l l':ii llll l l ll l l ! l |l | |l iilJ]liMl ! iiL '' JiIi'l"i ' 


fHmnHiinirur>mmiiiiuiiHimimtniiunTnnTTnTnTTnTMmnTinilllilllllimfi|f}| i imilll i iiiliiuiilHin»u^^^ 

^t0eeUaneou0 9[ut|)or0. 

'J^Q. Shirvodus (Iohannes) Ludus Arithmo- 
MACHiJE. Printed at Rome. 1482. Quarto. 

Editio PaiNCBPS. This is in every point of view an interesting little 
tract. The author of it, John Shirwood, Bishop of Durham, was 
among our most distinguished literary characters at the close of the 
fifteenth century ;* and the present seems to be the first impression 

* Upon the whole. Pits gives the best account of John Shirwood; not however witbont 
incoqxirating (as Bale and Godwin hare done) the brief biography of the same character 
by Leiand. The words of Pits are these: < Ioannbs Shirvvoovs natione Anglos, vir 
onmi bonamm litteniniin ganere instnictiflsinius, lingua) turn Latinc turn Graeoe peridsaimus; 
Poeta, RhetcH*, Philosoph as, et Theologus iiiaignis. Postquam Auglicas Academias multo 
tempore magno cum fructu frequentasset : in Galliaro se contulit, Pkrisijs studuit, vbi Rocoo 
Carthnsiano viro plo et erudito pn^ter rooram et doctrina) similitudinera, vsus est familia- 
rissim^. Deinde in Italiam perrexit,Tbi Grsecarom litteramm studiom in Anglia inchoatum, 
in Gallia auctum, ad perfectum perduxit. Ibi etiam selectiasimos auctores Graecos inda- 
gauit, inoenit, coemit, et secum in Angliam aduezit. Qaem librorum thesanrum neglectum 
dill, femnt ArchilandiaB delituisse, donee longo post taropore Cuthbertus Tonstallus doc- 
tissimus ille, et omnium poftremus Episcopus Dunelmensis, dc codicibus illis repertls Isetatus 
est, tanquam qui invenit spoUa multa. Existimat, et merito, Lelandus Sldrwodum hunc 
moltas eximias lucubrationes edidisse, quarum tamen ne titulos quidem nunc inuenimus. 
Ipse quidem refert se aliquando versus quosdam cl^antes in coenobio Fontanensi legiase, 
qnorom hone asserit fuisse fabricatorem,' De Rd>u» AngUcit; p. 889. 

Pitts adds, that, from his virtue and emdition, he was promoted to the see of Dorbam, 
and flourished in the reign of Edward the IVth. Lcland observes that he was particularly 
food of Greek books; and Richardson,the editor of Godwin, informs us tliat he died at 

2 MISCELLANEOUS. [Ludus Arith. 

of a treatifie^ (sufficiently ingenious in itself^) which has not only 
escaped the knowled^ of bibliog^phers, but that oi Lehnd, Bale, God- 
win, and Pits. • Leland (says the latter) observes that Shu*wood com- 
posed or edited many excellent works ; of which even the very titles 
(adds Pits) are now lost.* Bishop Tanner is the first, who, in his very 
slight notice of the author, has mentioned the • Ludus Arithmomachiffi;' 
BibL Briton, p. 669, note e. The edition imder description is appa- 
rently printed by Ulric Han and Simon de Luca ; in the same letter 
in which the epistle of Maffeus Benedictus, ' De Laudibus Pacis,' is 
described to be executed — at page 442 of the third volume of this 
work. The prefix, by way of title, is (m the recto of the first leaf, 

Ad reuerendissimum religiosissimuq; 
in christo patrem ac amplissimura do/ 
minG Marcu Cardinals sancti Mar/ 
ci Yulgariter nucupatuj. lohanis Shir 
uuod quod latie interptatur llpida silua 
sedis apostolice jptonotarii anglici pfa/ 
tio in epitome de ludo arithmomachi^ 
feliciter incipit. 

The preface immediately follows ; from which we learn that, during 
his youth, Shirwood amused himself with the game called ArUhmoma" 
chia^ or the Battle of Numbers ^ but, whether the author of the treatise 
upon this game was grossly incorrect, or whether Shirwood had 
been in the habit of trusting entirely to his memory, the latter tells 
us that he had not procured any copy of the work. * Yet (continues 
he) I i*ather apprehend that 1 liad so completely made myself master 
of the rules necessary for the game, both by dint of memory and 
subsequent practice, that I had no great necessity for the book itself. 
However, about six years afterwards, happening to be in the suite of 
my kind, noble, and liberal benefactor and patron, George Nevil, 

Rome, in the year 1493, in the 11th year of his episcopacy. His monument is yet seen in 
the chapel of the Englbh College at Rome. De PnnuWmi Anglic; edit. 1743. p. 75S-3, 
note u. It was hardly a Tcnial error to have omitted the mention of Shirwood, among 
my Book-Worthia, in the last edition of the Biblictnania; nnce I have lately seen, in the 
library of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, several of the rarer early-printed books, in the 
Greek and Latin languages, with the autograph of Shirwood upon the first page of the print. 

itcNM; 1482.] SHIRWOOD. 9 

Archlibliop of York, at Calais ; — ^his Grace, not having much business 
on his hands, and being rather indisposed, so that he could not apply 
to his severer studies— proposed to me to instruct him. and tlie com- 
pany present, in the rules of this Battle of Numbers. J, of course, readily 
complied with his request. But before we took leave of each other 
(he^ on his return to England, and myself on my way to Rome — never, 
alas, in this woiid to meet again !) the Archbishop enjoined me to 
commit to writing those rules of which I principally approved^ and 
which seemed to be chiefly necessary fbr the game— especially as no 
correct written treatise was hitherto extant.' Shirwood then informs 
us that he composed the present work during his leisure in Flanders ; 
and after a most elaborate eulogy upon the Cardinal, to whom he 
dedicates his work, — and reminding his patron that Achilles, Quintus 
Scssvola, Scipio^ Lelius, and even Socrates, resorted to little amuse- 
ments by way of recreation from severer engagements — he informs 
us that Archita is considered to be the author of this game. He 
then describes the Board, on which the game is played, as follows : 

* In the first place, the table or board is equal in width to that on 
which the game of chess is played ; but it h double the length of it. 
Two chess tables, therefore^ form only one of the present game : on 
which the two armies are respectively arranged towards the extremi* 
ties, leaving a sort of plain or field of battle between them. There are 
three sorts of figures used : eight of which are circular, eight trian- 
gular, and eight quadrangular. From the quadrangular figures, one, 
io a pyramidical shape, obtains on each side the name of leader. That, 
which is played on the even side (pars par) of the table, is a whole*— 
that, on the odd side (pars impar), is a short pyramidical figure.' 
Although the limits of this worlc forbid the analysis of the treatise,* 
it may probably be expected that I should present the reader with 
a fiic-simile of the Board or TahUt just. described — which will be 
found on the recto of the 9th leaf, thus: 

* Heniy Stephens, the Ejder, printed a siniilar treatue (exhibiting nearly a similar 
wood^mt of a playing board) at Fkuris, in 1514, folio, in the black letter : but from the 
dedicatioo of the author, L F. Stapulensia, it should seem that the game was taken almost 
entirely from Severinus Boetius ; or was rather an abiidgment of two books, by the latter, 
upon the subject. The title of the work, as printed by Stephens, ia thus: * Rithmimachie 
Indus qui et pugna numerorum appellator/ 

▼OL. IV. 



ILitdus. Arith. 























1 , 
























I2 1 



It remains only* to extract the concluding section and colophon : 
' Habes modo : quu sis protector angloru preestantissime atque 
amplissime pater : ab anglico quoda tuo certe obsequetissimo seruitore: 
ac filio pientissimo breue hoc de ludo arithmomachise c5pediam« 
Quod cuiuscuquemodi ipsum sit: si benigne accipies: accipies aut 
beigne pro singulari ilia*: ac propemodu incredibili huanitate boni* 
tateq; tua : efficies vtiq; ut opinor vt plurimi ad te fiducialiter libroB 
scribat. Atque quu alii quidam : tu in primis doctissimi ipsi ac 
eloquetissimi viii italics natiouis: postquam intellexerint te hue 
eometariolii non cotemnere hominis quidem no solu vltramdtani verti 
etii : vt sic loquar : extramiidani : si tame no errat Meliboeus a]md 
virgiliu qui esse ait penitus toto diuisos orbe britanos : certatiz 
(Jeinceps sua opera tuo noinini dedicabunt posteritatiq; mandabunt 
litter is suis: tui memoriam sempitemam. Vale semper felix reli- 
giosissime atque piissime paten 

Rome ipsis ka/ 
lendis aprilibus Anno doraini . M • 
cccc • Ixxxii. pontificatus vero sanctissi/ 
mi domini nostri Sixti pap^ quarti. xi. 
Regniq; prpfati christianissimi regis 
Eduuardi quarti anno. xxii. 

In the whole, 14 leaves : without numerals, signatures, or catch- 
words. The preceding colophon is the only one in which I remem- 
ber to have seen (in a^ volume printed abroad) the name of an English 
monarch intix>duced. This curious little tract was obtained through 
the liberal kindness of Mr. Freeling. It is in russia binding. 

777* SiDONius Apollinaris. (Printed by Kete- 
laer.^ Without Place or Date. Folio. 

Editio PaiNCEPs. Panzer informs us that the late Count Reviczky. 
in his letters to Morelli, mentions his recent acquisition of this very 
rare and almost unknown impression ; and of which no notice 
is taken in either of the catalogues of the Count's library, of the dates 
of 1784 and 1794. See the Jnnal. Typog. vol. iii. p. 546 ; where the 
edition is called * primaria, nondum nota bibliog^phis/ That 
omission is however here supplied, by the possession of the Count's 
own ms. memoranda, describing laconically, but perspicuously, the 

e MISCELLANEOUS. [fFithout Date. 

leading features of this impressiou. Yet it is rather amusiii^ to read» 
in each of the printed catalogues just mentioned, the opposition 
shewn by the Count to the reception of any opinion which might 
militate against the precedency of the MUan edition — * Plusieura 
bibliographes (says he) ont annonc6 difi^rentes ^tions» ant^eurea ik 
celle-ci de Milan — niais ces ^itions paroissant trte-apocryphes, on 
regarde celle (de Milan) dont il est ici question, comme la premiere 
de cet ouvrage/ p. 909, edit 1794. In the Coimt's ms. description 
of the present impression, this position is entirely rerersed, and 
Ketelaer's is called — < pene ignota et perquam rara» et pne reliquis 
antiqua editio.* 

From the eyidence adduced by Laire, of a copy of this edition being 
ibund in which there was a coeval ms. memorandum of *' emptus et Uga* 
tus 147T»'* there seems little doubt of Ketelaer's impression being con- 
siderably anterior tu that of Milan (described as the next article); and 
that the conjecture of Ptinzer and Reviczky is not far short of the 
truth, when the date of 1473 is specified for that of its execution. Index 
Libror. vol. i. p. 184. Although no name of printer be subjoined, the 
types are unquestionably those with which Ketelaer and De Leempt 
printed at Utrecht in the years 147 J. It remains to describe a few 
of the particulars of so interesting a volume. On the recto of the 
first leaf, we read this prefix : 

tf^pij^oianim liber ptmm Slntt^it 

^^itioniuier Conjftanttno into istalutem 

A full page has S3 lines. There are neither numerals, catchwords, 
nor signatures. On the reverse of fol. 90, at bottom : 

eirjj^ttit trfi^taieof. libet nmafi, h* h' ii>ft. €. 9. m. tit* 
%mipit ffiaoo ^atttgettct bitti aittetnto ouiptjno b cSi^uIi 

At top of the ensuing leaf: 

tiBtti iuuenmi ^agec ajttca iouem itamca locam. 
t d&ujfrct^iretqs nouu|( resna tietiiietta tinuf * 
Cmauere 0vSi tettetad ttumtna itunten. 
E^ijB^sacfiiujsc tM^ pet tednsxe finpW 


The remaining full pages contain 32 lines. On the recto of Ibl. 151, 
and kstt at bottom, we read as follows : 

{ OicS et pbict03e( et nfftit jstorte jBtecutOjf . 
€qfthi& fittk^ ipm^ tenet trnpecii. 

The present is a fine clean copy ; in old green morocco binding. 

778- SiDONius Apollinaris. Printed by Sdn-- 
zenzeler. Milan. 1498. Folio. 

EoiTTo 8bcunoa. The recto of the first leaf presents us with the 
title, in large lower-case gothic type, in 6 lines. On the reverse, there 
is a privilege conceded to John Passiranus de Asula, the editor, who 
iqppears to have published the impression * at his own care and ex- 
pense :' and no one is to pirate the edition * sub pena uiginti quinque 
aureorum camere nostre applicandorn pro singulis uoluminHifus.' This 
is dated Nov. 9, 1497. We observe, bebw, the names of the woAfi, 
edited by P^usiranus, to which this protection extends : 

Sidonius apollinaris cum cameatariis. 

Nonius marcel lus integer. 

Yarro de lingua latina emendatus cum ennarrationibus. 

A^ius de cibariis* 

Festus popeius cu appedicibus : (signed) 

. B. Chalcus* 

An address of J. Baptista Pius, in 4 pages of prose-^and 2 pages 
of an * elegidion amatorium * by the same author— -follow. These 
pieces occupy signature A, in 4 leaves. The text of Sidonius ensues 
upon sign, a (i), and concludes on the recto of s 8. The colophon is 
thus : 

Impressum Mediolamii* per magistrumVldcricum scizenze- 
ler. Impensis uenerabilium dominorum Presbyteri Hjeronimi 
de Asula necnon loannis de abbatibus placetini. Sub 
Anno domini. M.ccccLxxxxyiii. Quarto Nonas maias. 

8 MISCELLANEOUS. [Milan ; 14791 

From the reg^ter, below, we find that all the signatures are in eights, 
except a and b, which have each only six. A has 4, as above noticed. 
This is a very fair and desirable copy ; in red morocco binding. 


Fran CIS CI Sportije. Printed by Zarotus. 
Milan. 1479. Folio. 

Editio Princbps. The Discourse, or Oration, of F. Puteolanus to 
Ludovicus Sphortia, in praise of these Commentaries concerning 
THE Sforza Family, begins on the recto of the first leaf, with this 
prefix : 


The preface of Simoneta follows on the reverse of the 2d leaf, and 
occupies 2 pages. The first book begins on the reverae of the ensuing 
leaf. The signatures embrace two alphabets : each in eights— -with 
the exception of L only, in the second alphabet, which has but 6 
leaves. On the recto of O 8, we read the colophon in 15 lines, from 
which it is only necessary to extract the ensuing : 


oCC. oCC. oCC 


mthoui Date.} SPECULUM HUM. SALV. 9 

On the reyerse is a short epistle from Franciscus Philelphus to the 
author, with the following date at bottom : 

Mediolani ex asdibus nostris sixto Idus lunias^ M.cccc. 

The reader will do well to consult Saxius*sHi5^ Liter,Typog. col. ecu, 
p. ccccLxxiv-v — DLXxi, whcrc there is a good account of the labours 
of Simoneta, and where the ^bove-mentioned preface of the author, 
and the epistle of Philelphus, are extracted. Saxius thinks the edition 
itself should bear date 1480. He observes, also, that the original MS. 
of the work is yet among the descendants of the author. The present 
may be called a line and desirable copy : in russia binding. 

780. Speculum Humanje Salvationis ; Lat. et 
Grerm. (^Printed by Gunther or lohn Zainer.^ 
PVithout PlacCy or Date. Folio. 

The noble Owner of this very curious and uncommon book has 
prefixed to it the following memorandum, in pencil, on the fly leaf. 
' Vid. Panzer Annal. Typog, vol. i. p. 133 ; Ejusd. AnnaU dtr iUtem 
Deutschen LUterat, p. 6 ; Heinecken, Id^ G^n^rale, &c. p. 464 ; 
Seemiller, Incunab. Typog. fasc, i. p. 125 ; Denis, Suppl, p. 489> 
n®. 4185 ; and Braim, Notit, Hist. Lit., &c. pt. i. p. 37- The preceding 
authors (continues his Lordship) attribute this book to the press of 
Gunther Zainer, at Augsbourg. Its character resembles that of some 
of the books by this printer, but the same character was also used by 
John Zainer. [see fac-simile, p. 242, of vol. i.] at Ulm, and it there- 
fore remains doubtful to which of these two printers it belongs. If it 
could be supposed that the three last lines of the book [see post.] relate 
to the printer, rather than to the author of the Abridgement at the end 
of it, it would determine the question by ascertaining it to be John, 
and not Gimther, Zainer.'* As this point will perhaps ever remaia 

* The euiiest books which I have discovered, with tlie name of John Zainer subjomed, 
are those of Boccaccio de Claris Mulieribus, of the date of 1475, and an edition of what 
we call PatitfU Gritel, without date, bat executed in the same character. My friend Mr. 
Douce possesses a fine co[yy of each of these very rare and carious volumes, and a copy of 
the first work is in the library of the Marquis of Exeter, at Buridgh House in Northamp- 

10 MISCELLANEOU& [fFU&oui Place, 

* iub judke,\'we proceed to a minute, and, it is hoped, interesting, de« 
scription of this extraordinary publication :~-among the moet popular 
of those of the xiii, xiv, and xvth centuries. * Such was its reputation 
among the Benedictins (aays Heinocken) thai acarosly a library or 
monastery was without a MS. of it: sometimes ornamented with 
drawings in distemper, and sometimes without any ornament/ p. 468. 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with the proheme, and with 
the titles of the chapters. The reverse giyes us a title, by which the 
book is called * Speculum SANCTiB Maria Virqinis.' The reverse of 
the ensuing leaf shews a proheme * of a new compilation, whose 
name and title are * Speculum Humakjb Salvationis/ Hence the 
work seems to have received mdifierently the title of either. Heads 
of the several chapters, and a variety of moral sentences, ensue. The 
latter terminate thus, on the reverse of the 8th leaf from the begin- 
ning of the volume inclusively ; 

6one t^'u Ha bt |ac opujstctihim tSn cam^biceat 
#rortmojB( OnUttt. % me (pBatitm tiSA fyxiau 

The reoto of the ensuing leaf is blank. On the reverse begins the 
text of the vecnrk* preceded by a wood-cut (which Heinecken is pleMe4 

toodiire. The type if ray different from thtt of tiie abore work, god imthor racoiblqi 
the printiiig of Anthony Sorg. On the other hand, we know that Gunther Zainee 
prfaited the Speculum, &c in 1471,. in a type similar to that of the above, containing the 
lame number of lines in a foil page, (55,) bat without cutk See Panser, vol. L p. lOa 
The type is also seen in the An Amandi of Ovid, of the same date: see vol. li. p. fOl; md 
it appears to have been chosen by Guuthor on his rejection of the characters whidi he 
used In Bonaventure's L^e rf Chrixt, A. D. 1468, and in the CathoHcon of Bdfrui, 1469 : 
see vol. iii. pp. 38, 194. Schuzler made use of this rejected character, which, it must be 
confessed, is more elegant than that of the SptcvXum and the An Amandi, ficc The name 
of John Zainer is also subjoined to this very character, in the JE$op, without date, which 
is described in vol. i. p. SIS, &c. 

Next, as to the name in the subscription at the end of the volume : see above, post. All 
tliat we observe in the subscription itself, b ' loharmes, mmimus mcnachut.* Velth thought 
Ais name was designed for lohannet de Camiola ; and Krismer, for lohmmes de CrUtimgmt, 
Meennan seems to have mistaken the name for that of the compiler of the work itself; 
whereas, as Heinecken justly observes, it is only that of the author of the Abridgement, or 
Gmipendium. Heinccken's fao-simile of this subscription is very faithless. Idie, dec 
p. 467, note. The same bibliographer's argument about Guuther Zainer having probably 
printed an edition of the work, of about the date of 1471, b useless ', since au impresaioB, 
with this Tery date fabjoined, b in existenoe. See i^uunr, IMcL 


to all s Tigoette) of which the retdev is presented with the ensuing 
fBC-nmile* — beneath the titl^ thus t 

Kudfirr i^mftta^ 4Benef ' pcimo a p&ie ca.C. 
S>tr Gd Suttftr^ nut tfrpnec genflfel^fft. 

TV Oeofioii q^ £tw follows on the t^poeite page ; of which a foebl? 
bc-cimile ia also given hy Heinecken. The Union of Adaat and Eve, 
and the Temptation of Eve follow— represented by wood-cuta of the 
Kune character. On the reverse cotamenceB the Geroan Tersion of 
the Latm text which hoa preceded it ; and this mode is adopted 
tlmmghout the voluine. To describe, or mention the names of, the 
great nnniber of cuts in this entertaining book, would be both 
eodlesa and useless. Thsfirstof thafbllowingonea,iotheoptnionofthe 
vtis^ peremptorily decides a qnestioii which haa long exercised the 
ingennity and learning of llieologians. The second ia unusually 
absurd and strilung. 

* I hid Toohwl upon ^nof m ffr-r-"l* of iht* eat (which ia amoDg the meat tbnrd 
nd grotMqoe dntnglkMit the nlnme) wkbont a prerioiu knowledge of hi hating been 
pgbtuhed 1^ HdncckcD. The reader wiU judge of the eompantin merit* of the two 
Ufia I but I mil be fiaak to cnfai that HdiKckeu't bHonile (beiog ot apoD c<i|>pa< 
Md the ahoTC i^n Mod) IM iM n SMCh tte dhntScr «f the i«%nML 
VOL. IT* « 


SfP^ xnmlmit bomino filiam ^tuttn. 

^acfl epnen ioamtbtn aU et sefoitgrn lag. 




Few subjects hare been more frequently exliilrited, by the artiatt 
engaged in the embellishment of ancient bookii than that of the 
TtmptatioH of Our Saviour in the WUdernen, The reader shall pass hia 
own judgment upon the following r e pre ac ntatlon of it : 

^^m^tatS jrpi A lip^olo in tuf 'to. fil^a^' tii}. ta* 
€ rttfn tf tMcb angetbdEitf bS bent tntffid in b' bntCte. 

3[tannuibiMim.pImtfeiKbemonibi* ttibt^^ai&f 
qurm v tanptatSne^c cecibi^j^e bibmt<>. <x indmo coc 
be jfibi comjpfltt bdbemutf. i^on ^ttm bdan^ ta coH' 
bcninacf bd pi^Uican. JbA p pofjft {incatB ti^. occid^ 
tate a ixntf arc dftt afit n9 9otenm<> excu^arc fiicti per 
pemoi^. j^ cxoi^tomitf ea put potecira'} $1^ intent^ 
8cc. Sec. Sec. 

The triumiAant entiy of our Sarkiar into Jenmlem ii deaoibed ia 
the fi>llowiog dmple aad nute d 

14. MISCELLANEOUS. [VUhatl Pha, 

jEpu# bibentf tiuitatein HlmiMnn flnitt toftc earn 
4Siiia (ognouitiKjr. Xute. im- 1- inatl)'. xt^• 
9$'«i i^ punum ojiiit (tdieitf in bit galma^ 

[TAc German foUov!t.'\ 

The PunifhmeNtf q^ Lamech and oJJA are thus terribly delineated! 


;tat|att oillicit 3|ob flagtilif Iwoc ppcia tudiW 















' h 

The ensuing l« a cniions reprcMntation (repeated more thu once) 
of the Crownmg of our Saoiomr, 

16 MISCELLANEOUS. {mt/tout Place, 

Nor to tiie (cOawnng r^raeatation, of 'Dantl te lAs Dm rf Limt 
fed iy on ^liigd,' Imb curious and extnordiaarj : 





1 -^^ 











Thelut and not the leaat ridicuIouB Bpedmen with whicli I ihall gra- 
tify tha reader) b the foUowing i H bdng aa complete an exemplificatJon 
aa can be produced of the absurdity of attempting, by meaaa of tbe 
pencil, to give a titeral repreaentatioa of an all^;orical ezpreaoion. 
It win be immediately seen that it Ulufltntea the fiallowiDg text : ' The 
Stone tf^k the Bvilden rtjvted became the CAief Corner Simu.' 

i^Daie.] SPECULUM HUM. SAtV. 17 

It will be obvkniSy cxk turning o?er the leares of this singular produc- 
tion, that it contains yet many very extraordinary and ridiculous ear* 
bellishments ; but some limits must be assigned both to expense and 
iUustration. Accordingly, it remains only to add, that the work 
concludes with the Seven Sorrows and Seven Joys of the flrgin : when 
we read, on the rcTerse of the 5l6]8t leaf, this subscription : 

^:i I f 


On the reeto of the ensuing leaf, are the following prefixes to a kind 
of supplemental work. 

9ciori]l iS&n tnatettS lutfce m tfftslbio^t tractate 


This compendium oontaiBi^iatte'^hble, only 8 leaves. Onthereverse 
of the 8th leaf, we read the following imprint, which has given rise to 
the remarks submitted in the first note of this article. 

A ntt fisattt 3[o^dntK tut psttt ottnni^ sSxnt 
trie bBbtcte (uto qu^ tnntttno inonacj^* 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and the im* 
pression might have been executed as early as the year 1475. Although 
the present copy is occasionally wormed, it is large and dean, and, upon 
the whole, in most desirable condition. Bound in black morocco. 

IS . BUSCELLANEOUS. [Brescia; t47S. 

781. Speculum Aureum^ &c. Without Place or 
Date. Quarto. 

The title, above a cut of a schoolmaster and two scholars, is aa 
follows : 

4^9tuerctdfl quoti ^^ttvUA mxm% anime 
^tttaam^ jttj^cti&ituc %wspit Mmtec 

The signatures, a to c, are in sixes : on the recto of c 6 : 

j^l^eotlum aurea attfane iKtcatnctjs? a quoUam 
cactufif jfc ttntittn ftitt £dicittr« 

The editions of this work, in the zvth and zvith centuries, are in- 
numerable. The present is a beautiful copy ; in dark red calf bindingr 
with gilt leaves. 

782. Statuta Brixieksia ; scuStatutaCommunis 
Brixije. Printed by Ferrandus. Brescia. 1473. 

Editio Prikcbps. I have before had occasion to make mention of 
the rarity and value of this interesting volume; and although the 
present is the place for a copious and feithful description of it, I am 
aware very little can be added to the satis&ctory accounts of it by 
Audiffredi and Mauro Boni. The latter, although not always literally 
correct, has, in this article, made some amends for the brevity and 
carelessness of many of his descriptions. I shall endeavour to be 
equally full and accurate. This bulky volume may be divided into five 
or six parts. The first 2 leaves, having 35 lines in a full page, contains 
a table. On the recto of the 3rd leaf we read 


TIS ET gloriosissime dei geaetricis 8c semper uirginis 
Marie 8c beatissimi euangeliste sancti marci 
necno 8c beatorum martin Faustini 8c louite 
8c totius curie celestis statuta comunis brixie 

^mda; 1473.] STATUTA BRIXIBNSIA. 19. 

On the recto of the 84th leaf we read this title : 


On the rereney at bottom: 

FINIS Thoma ferrando auctore : m.cccc.lxxiii 

On the recto of the foDowmg leaf; 


This 18 a prefix to a table of 5 leaves. The reverse of the 5th leaf is 
blank, and the following leaf is entirely blank. Then the text, on the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, beginning thus ; 


On the recto of the 128th leaf, we read this patriotic and interesting 
addrefls of the printer to his countrymen : 


Fiatrie post deii quonia debemus oia/ pecuia qui/ 
^ corporis uiribus ualet : pecuuia ilia ilia corporis 
uiribus tueanl Ego quoq; I109 altero natura altero 
fortuna myitis iferior : la eo quod mihi ptim na 
tura pti industria tribuit i illam d5 ingratus/ 
Quotquot hac forma Ipressa statuta studiosissime 
lector legeris ; Conciuiu meorii comodo tribus mesibus 
feci Et reliqua uolumina breui patus absoluere 
si i his uededis liberals exptus eptore fuero 
no pcissimii. M.cccc.lxxiii. 

The reverse is blank. Next, a table of 5 leaves ; ending with DEO 
GRATIAS. The reverse ia blank* An entire blank leaf ensues. On 
the recto of the following and 135th leaf, we read this title : 


On the reverse of foL 203, is the following subscription : 


20 MISCELLANEOUS. [Brescia ; UJS. 


NEC dum experta qua p finem ciuilium statutorii 
dixi liberalitate criminalia quoq; copleui 8c quonia 
itegrum deposcunt libru adda 8c reliqua ne ego illis 
sed illi mihi iusto iure defuisse nisi emerint iudicent 

A blank leaf follows. Then a table of 5 leaves. Another blank succeeds. 
The text, on the recto of the next leaf, begins thiis : ' VT POSSES- 
SIONES, &c.* This latter part has, in the whole, 70 leaves. The last 
sentence, on the recto of the 980th leaf, presents us with the following 
melancholy picture of the distressed circumstances of the printer. It 
has been also copied by Boni. 

Exquo iprimi p me Thorn a fcrradu statu ta cepta sut 
tata sigate pecuie iactura fca e : ut uededi uolumis i 
quo tata opra ipesamq; imposui spes reliqua uel nulla 
uel exigua sit mihi Du ei p adulterina md| modo p 
tosa moneta : etia no adulterina no tonsa omis interdicif. 
tatii e detrimetu subsecutii ut no m5 que ad ornatii sut 
emere negligat siguli uerii his et abstinet quibus magno 
sine icomodo carere no possut Ego uero i moles tia 
solabor 8c ^ rnalQ hoc mihi e coe cu multis imo cii 
omlbus 8c qf uaria9 reru usu neq; turbari mognoper 
aduersis neq; supra modii letari prosperis didici Ide et 
pecuiosus 8c (melior fortasse) pecunia indiguus ero : Ea 
en! bonas uti adiuuat metes : ita affligit malas Me- 
diocres ante quale mc habere no inficior nequaq melores^ 
efficere peiores facer facillime potest FINIS XII Kl' 
lunii. M.CCCC.LXXIII. 

Then a table of 2 leaves. The text follows with this title : ' STATVTA 


CETERA. This latter part contains 28 leaves : which number, added 

to the preceding, gives us 310 leaves in the whole. On the recto of 

the last leaf, at bottom : 

• Sic. 

Cohffne; 1478.] STATUTA ECCLES. COLON. 21 

Brix Thoma Ferrando auctore. M.cccclxxiii tertio 

Kl' lulii. 

Audifiredi appears to have omitted this latter part ; and says, upon 
the authority of Amoretti, that the volume contains only 306 leaves. 
Edit, Ital, p. 136. See also Boni's LiM a Stampa, Sfc. deW Italia 
Superiorkf 1T94, folio, p. lxxxiv-viii. In all probability, says Panzer, 
Ferrandus never printed again at Brescia till the close of the xv(h 
century. His poverty and the want of patronage seem to have 
crippled all further exertion, and to have caused his self-banishment 
from his native country. This may be inferred from what appears 
in the Annal. Typog. vol. iv. p. 255-6, and from the supposed nature 
of the case. It is in vain to look for an account of this precious and 
rare volume among the earlier bibliographers of the xviiith century. 
The present large and sound copy of it is bound in russia. 

783. Statuta EccLESiJE CoLONiENsis. Printed by 
Guldenschaiff^. Cologne. 1478. Folio. 

Editio Pbinceps. I suspect that Panzer was not only unacquainted 
with this rare and curious production, but that he was unable to refer 
to any other authorities than those of Maittaire, and the Catalogue of 
the Royal Library at Paris, for an account of it : both of which authorities, 
in the present instance, are sufficiently meagre and uninstructive. To 
the antiquary, or historian, few books are more deserving of a careful 
perusal than those which contain the first printed promulgation of 
laws and customs ; and it is only by the possession of such volumes as 
the present, that the topographer can fiilly describe the earliest 
institutes or customs of the place which forms the subject of his pub- 
lication. Accordingly, the Noble Owner of this copy may treasure it 
among the more valuable acquisitions of his library : nor will the 
reader, from the specimens here adduced, be probably disposed to look 
upon the work with a less favourable eye. 

This edition is among the few books, in the xvth century, to which 
the name of Guldenschaiff is subjoined as the printer. The type is 
of the Zel cast or character, and might be decid/edly pronounced as 
having belonged to a Cologne printer ; but it is more elegant, and the 
press-work is better executed, than what we usually observe in the 
performances of Ulric Zel. The text is uniformly printed in double 

2i MISCELLANEOUS. ICologne; 1478. 

columns ; and the recto of the first leaf presents us with the following 
prefix to the first column : 

Sfnc^iat Captttttia jettattitoi^ 
ecdcjsete CoIoB a Bone mmtorte 
tiomtno ConcaHo an^S Co 
iontaijit etitta* 

On the following column is a proheme. On the reverse the Statutes 
begin ; in which we read, with sensations of surprise and indignation* 
the following evils to be remedied by law : ' De manifesta cohabitatione 
Clericorum. De manifesta Clericorum negociatione. De Insufficiencia 
que est illicteratura* Clericorum. De tonsura Clericorum. De Clericis 
Symonlacis. De Clericis irregularibus. De Dorroitorijs, &c. De 
Campanarijs et Custodibus simul. De Decanis Scolasticis cantoribus 
et Canonicis simul, &c. The first evil is thus described : 

€um etttin iiumtfejactojst to^sSntatmt^ ^ta conoifitnatiojer 
ren$?eamujs(. non $?obtm eojst qui in ^vd^ htrntiStu^ tenent 
ronniBinajer. timim tnnnt^ generditet* tn^ ectam qui 
multerejer fotexia^ tthimt^ ^m^ mamntt^ ^va^ xmxtu 
ft^tt proourant itumptiliujst et $?Ujertentant Sec 

The Statutes, contained in this volume, are the ordinances of the fbl* 
lowing characters : namely, of Conrad, of Engilbert, of Sifrid, of Wic- 
boldus, of Henry Archbishop of Cologne, of the second Henry, Arch- 
bishop of Cologne, and of Walram, &c. The 4th prefix, or title of the 
latter, forbids the Clergy * to set up the business of a Tavern Keeper/ 
We continue with the Statutes of Wilhelmus, of Frederick, and of 
Theodoric ; all Archbishops of Cologne. Those of Cardinal Nicolaus 
de Cusa follow, and bear date 1452 : thus — 

€]C9itctunt ftatuta Cm amfiti 
tutit0 pet teueretdiifje^um in 
ttigto patre ac iiB} tiiim j^ico 
laa iie mill pfliite^ cacti\ etiita* 

Then follow the Statutes of Theodoric, relating to the court of Cologne ; 
next, those of Ropertus, Archbishop of Cologne, relating to the same 


mthout Date.] SUMMA COLLATIONUM. tS 

court. These latter are dated 1470. Beneath, and on the recto of 
the 133rd and last leaf, we have the ensuing colophon : 

tkir necKjftana ^a^totifo^ ecde 
jBTtanim n lectotiM. at ^Oi tt 
cSnninicatoii. pem a& |^ 10 
jf onuu^p ^pojf coIottttS. pc^ 
tttr 1 imnbd. ejc I£&(0 pnntt 
9ait $rtatut02^ taSt €oloB. i^er 
$[0|'em tidWjertl^fF tii0tlt ca 
nica in^flU^^ $lt atmo MB. a^. 
ct)(t«Inttrtt|* iii( dtdmaottauo 
ment ^ll|^' cQjertbnata ^t lau 
tem tnxia tiita moituijEi ttiAic 

Thope are neither numerals, catchwords, nor signatures. The present 
may be called a very beautiful copy, and is in russia binding. 

784. SuMMA CoLLATioNUM (^Printed by Ulric 
Zel.^ WitJumt Place or Date. Quarto. 

There are brief descriptions of this uncommon, but not very inte- 
^■esting, collection of Tracts, in the Cat de la Falliere, vol. i. p. d97» 
n^. 1319, and in Lsdre's Index Libror. vol. i. p. 40. According to the 
latter authority, the work passes under the name of Summa GalendiS 
in the Miscell, Lipsien, vol. xii. p. 80 ; and it is also called by another 
name — that of CENTiLoauiUM — by Denis, n*. 974. The Valliere Cata- 
logue observes that this impression is divided into 7 parts, of which each 
has several sections, and each section several chapters. The volume^ 
before us has six divisions or parts ; the first having 10, the second 8» 
the third 5, the fourth 2, the fifth 7, and the sixth 3 chapters. On the 

recto of the first leaf is a table, having this prefix at top, 


Cainda f^ttme pairtM 

24 MISCELLANEOUS. [Naples; 1474: 

and occupying 9 leaves. It ends thus : 

l^dt coIIcSnem jft qittjet iiisitatur in^fitttt it 
|I02^ ttml02^ jsrtue capimlo^ in^tctiontm po 
tent jteQiiotti& ti^^otbtn otbinf 'i pcdjAtm« 

The prologue begins on the reverse of this 9th leaf, occupying 5 
pages, and 4 lines of a 6th page. The text of the first part imme- 
diately follows. There are running titles throughout, and a full page 
has 27 lines. On the recto of the 360th and last leaf : 

j^Oma coilattonft idi Qne 0e 
mti9( |^o!m ^j^jc^iictt fidtcttet. 

The present is a sound, fair copy ; in old red morocco binding. 

785. Sylvaticus. Liber Pandect arum Medi- 
ciNiE. Printed at Naples. 1474. Folio. 

Panzer calls this the Editio Princeps of the work ; although an 
edition by Witrster de Campidonia, of the same date, is placed before it in 
his Index, at vol. v. p. 419. The supposed edition by Azoguidi is 
considered by him to be very doubtful, if not wholly fictitious. The 
name of Amoldus de BruxeUa is assigned by Panzer as that of the 
printer of this truly magnificent volume. It is indeed very rarely 
that we discover a nobler production of any press in the xvth century; 
and, at first sight, the type reminds us of the best printing of Ulric 
Han^ in the Priscian and Tortsllius, and is not very dissimilar to 
that of Moravus, in the Senega and Maius, noticed in vol. ii. p. 338 ; 
vol. iii. pp. 89) JOTy 126. The work is uniformly executed in double 
columns, of which a fiill page contains 50 lines. On the recto of the 
first leaf, at top, begins a dedication to Ferdinand king of Sicily, 
having a prefix in 6 lines of capital letters. This dedication is by 

* Angelus Cato Supinas de Beneuento. Philosophus et Medicus.* The 

* attestation and adjuration' of the same is on the recto of the 3d leaf. 
On the recto of fol. 4, begins the text of Sylvaticus, with a prefix 
printed in red. The work is in the form of a Dictionary ; the words 
being alphabetically arranged. On the reverse of the last leaf but 6, 
we read this imprint : 

fTiihoui Date.] TAMBACO [JOHN D£.] 25 

EXPLICIT, liber Bmdecta 
TuiD. Quem Angelas Cato Supioas 
de Beaeueto Philosophus 8c medicus 
magna cu diligetia z emedate impri 
mendii curauit. in clarissima k nobi 
lissimaatq; pstantissima Dulcissimaq; 
ciuitate Neapoli. Regum Ducum 
Proceramq; matre Prima Aprilis. 
Idcirco excelso deo gracias agamus 

Six Tenses follow. Then a register, called ' tabula seu clavis fblio- 
nim et quintemorum/ on the recto of the ensuing leaf. The reyeree 
18 blank. Next an alphabetical table of the Pandects, referred to bj 
folios, as if the leaves were numbered in print. This table contains 
5 leaves. There are neither numerals^ signatures, nor catchwords. 
This copj is as large and clean as possible : in russia binding, with 
marble edges to the leaves. 

786. Tambaco (Ioannes Db). De Consolations 
Theologijb. Without Name of Printer^ Placey 
or Date. Folio. 

The printer of this edition is supposed to be Mickael Reifwer^ ofNeu-- 
iktdt ; upon the authority of Braun — ^who, in his 5th plate ofvol. L n^.V, 
and yi, gives fiac-similes of types which are justly said, by P^unzer, to 
resemble those in the present volume. The resemblance in the 
capital letters will appear the more striking ; since all the lower-case 
foiunt, or small letters, introduced by Braun, are too delicately and 
sharply executed. These capital letters bear also a strong resemblance 
to those of Cetaru and Stol, as may be seen in the fac-simile at vol. ii. 
page 344 of this work. In the Cat. de la ValUere^ vol. i. p. 199, 
n*« 556, the date of * about 1475 ' is gratuitously assigned to that of 
the present impression; but this is mere coi^jecture. In regard, 
however, to the printer, it may be said that Pftnzer, at page 93, vol. i. 
seems wholly ignorant of his name, but justly censures those who 
consider him to have been Valdarfer : at p. 387 of the same volume 

^ MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Date^ 

he inclines to the supposition of the work having been executed 'Typis 
Reyserianis, seu Eustadianis.' Denis conceives that these types resem- 
ble those of Anthony Sorg ; and the Abb^ Mercier, those of Cesaris 
and Stol. SuppL p. 673, n^ 5988. It has been just observed that 
the capital letters are like those of the last mentioned printers — ^but 
the small ones are wholly dissimilar. Sorg's lower-case type is cer- 
tainly not very much unlike that of the present work — but the con- 
jecture respecting Reyser is probably the more accurate one. We 
proceed briefly to describe the volume itself. 

The head titles of the XV Books, contained in the impression, are 
specified on the recto of the first leaf — foUowed by a prologue, which 
concludes on the recto of the ensuing leaf, vriih this subscription : 


The first chapter ensues on the recto of the succeeding and 3rd leaf. 
A fiill page has 44 lines. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor 
catchwords : on the recto of fol. 281, we read this subscription-'^-evi- 
dently denoting the date of the completion of the original composi- 

^jci^tctt itiKc ht iierolatione ttieoiogie 9 fi^omn $[o> 
iimmem ht €amIiaco ottntttjar i^r^catoi^. puincte t^ 
tl^onte ^actt €l^eoIogie pftC^omn a&itntnatuj^. SUntto 
tax. a^\ttt\\x^if'* S[n tne ^tniinweti. 

The reverse is blank. A table of 5 leaves concludes the volume, in the 
present copy ; but it should have another leaf to be perfect. This 
is, upon the whole, a sound and desiral^e copy; in nissia binding. 

1474.] THURECENSIS, &c. 27 

787. Thurecensis (Physici). Tractatus de 
CoMETis. Printed hy Hans Aurl. 1474. Quarto. 

Whether the present edition, or the one next described, be the 
earliest impression of the work, it is probably difficult to determine^ 
Bnmet places this as the second ; but he appears to have never seen 
a cagj of it. Manuel du Libraire^ vol. ii. p. 575. This is a volume of 
extreme rarity, and of no small importance to the bibliographical 
antiquary. There are, at present, only two books known, to which 
the names of Leonhardus Aurl, and Hans Aurl, are subjoined — whe- 
ther as the editor, or printer, of these respective books, is a point 
which is yet doubtful : consult vol. i. p. 199-dOO, of this work. In 
regard to the impression before us, Maittaire (vol. i. p. 773, note 12) 
supposes it to have been printed at Rome: the authorities of Bibl. 
Menan, p. 909, and BM, Baluz. vol. i. p. 460, being adduced as cor- 
roborative of this conclusion. But on examining these authorities, it 
appears, in the former, (n^. 786,) that the word *RonuE* is gratuitously 
inserted ; and, in the latter, (n^. 5652,^) that both the words, R(nna and 
Avrk are omitted. There is therefore nothing decisive, in respect to 
the place of the impression, in Maittaire, or his authorities. Audififredi 
makes no mention whatever of this impression. * De Hans Haurl (says 
Panzer) non habeo, quae dicam:' Annal. Typog. vol* ii. p. 452^ 
Seemiller, however, has a satisfactory description of the volume before 
us ; but ' whether the name of Hans Aurl stand for that of the printer, 
corrector, bookseUer, or editor, he has no accurate information.* He 
adds, * I do not remember that any bibliographer has made mention 
of this impression.' Incunab. Typog. fasc. i. p. 63. La Serna Sant- 
ander has wholly omitted the name of Hans Aurl : Diet Bibliogr. 
Choiiif vol. i. p. 184. 

Upon the fullest consideration, afforded by these slender materials, 
I incline to think that Leonard and Hans Aurl were brothers and 
printen^ residing at Venice ; and that the Pmparatio EvangeUca^ (see 
vol. i. p. 199,) and the present work, were each executed at that city, 
by these brothers, according to the respective designation of their 
name8.t It has been before observed (vol. ili. p. 498) that Adam db 
Ambbboau (of Venice) and Florbntius de Argentina used similar 
characters ; but the latter of greatly superior elegance. * Characteres 
(says Seemiller, very justly,) quibus impressum est hoc opus, sunt 

* It 19 abore introduced amoDg the MlsceUaneous Pamphlets, and was sold in a parcel 
wkh other small tracts, 
t Braim, vol, L p. 200, b onjostly censured by me for tocb » suppontion. 


Totundi, chaita satis firma, et alba.' Ibid, The work itself is divided 
into two parts : the first treats of the generation, form, courses, &c. 
of comets ; and the second, chiefly of their appearances. To the 
second part, the date of m.cccc.lxzii is prefixed. * The author (sa^rs 
Seemiller) was in the number of those who attributed much to the 
courses of the comets.' The recto of the first leaf presents us with 
the opening, thus : 


Ixit Aristotiles. Nemo eo:^ que ignorat 

bonus e iudex. Multa^ reif scieciaruq; 

periti phla pbates. Euetus oes natu/ 

oCC. oCC« oCC* 
On the recto of the third leaf, it begins thus : 


Niuersalis uero ho;^ generatio. cotigit 
plurimu cu terra supcelesti j)prietate 
aliqua costrigitur. ipsiusq; port coartaf 

A full page has only S4 lines ; and there are neither numerals, catch- 
words, nor signatures. On the recto of fbl. 32 and last, we read the 
conclusion and imprint, thus : 

Hec ergo pro/ 
nunc de significatis huius comete dicta suifi/ 
ciant. quorum ueritatem non uerbalis cotencio 
sed rerum exitus inerrabili creatoris prouidecia 
ab eterno preordinatus arguet uel affirmabit. 


The present copy of this rare and very estimable little volume, it; 
sound and beautiful, and boimd in yellow morocco. 


WiikmiDaie.] THURECENSIS, &c. » 

788. Thurecensis(Physici). Idem Opus. {Printed 
byHeliasHelue.) fVithout Place or Date. Folio. ' 

The OU. de la VaUlerty vol i. p. 5^7* n''. 1816» supposes this im- 
pression to have been executed ' about the year 1473 ;* since it 
resembles the printing of the Speculum Fita Humana of Rod. Zamo- 
ranrtj; which has the year 1472 subjoined to it : see vol. iii. p. 493. That 
BeUuM HtUs^ or De Louffen^ was the printer of the present Tolume, is 
indisputable ; from its exact conformity with the impression of the 
work here just referred to, and which has that printer's name incor- 
porated in the colophon. It may however have been executed sub- 
sequently to the edition last described. I believe no other impression 
of the work under consideration, in the xvth century, is known. 
Consult the brief notice in the Index Libror, vol. i. p. 157 1 and correct 
the strange blunder of Denis, who says that the types of this impression 
resemble those of the Mammotrectus (by the same printer), of which a 
&c-8imile is given at page 156, vol. i. of the present work. Suppl. 
p. 680, n"*. 6050. 

This edition is barbarously and inelegantly executed. The page is. 
disproportionately full. The first page, or recto of the first leaf, pre- 
sents us with this prefix : 

Thurecensis phisiti^ Tractatus de. Cometis Incipit. 

The arrangement of the text is similar to that of AurVs impression. 
The head-titles to the chapters are in capitals ; those to the sectiom 
are in lower-case. A full page has 44 lines. On the reverse of the 
12th and last leaf, we observe a head title 


Then, a separate sentence — beginning, as before, ' Hie Sermo gene- 
ralise &c.' beneath which we read 

SIT :: LAVS :: DEO : 

There are neither numerals, catchwords, nor signatures. A sound copy : 

in russia binding. 

• Sic. 

80 MISCELLANEOUS. [fFiifumtDate. 

789. Trapezuntius. Rhetorica. ( Supposed to 
have been printed byVindelin de Spira^ Without 
Date. Folio. 

Editio Fbincbps. De Bure and Eossi seem to have too impliciUj 
followed Maittaire in assigning the date of 1470 to the present im- 
pression. On the contrary, I apprehend, from the insertion of all the 
Greek passages, that the year 1472 must be the earliest date assign* 
able to this production of the Spira press ; since I have at present no 
recollection that either Jenson, or V. de Spira, used the Greek charac- 
ters* previous to the last mentioned period. De Bure however may 
be right in observing, that this is the only edition, in the xvth cen- 
tury, held in estimation by booksellenB. See Bibliogr, InttrucL vol. iiL 
p. 88 : BibL Magliabech. vol. ii. col. 715. It is, at any rate, a very 
beautiful production of early printing ; yet we may be brief in the 
account of it. On the recto of the first leaf is this prefix : 


Beneath, are S7 lines ; but a full page contains 41 lines. There are 
neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. On the recto of fol.153 
and last — beneath 31 Unes— of which the last line concludes with the 
word TfAo<r — we read as follows : 

Qup superat reliquas artes est facta georgi 
Ars bene dicendi munere nostra tuo. 

Correxit ueneta rhptor benedictus in urbe. 
Hanc emat orator qui bonus esse uelit. 

Si nescis ubi sit uenalis : qupre lemanum 
Spiram : qui precii codicis auctor erit. 


* Unless I am mbtaken (says Maittaire) the word " Lemanum*' is put 
for '' Alemanum ;*' add by <' Spiram '* we are to understand *' Vinde- 

JfUhout Daie.] TUNDAL'S VISION. 81 

linus de Spira Alemanus/' Coradinus is the name of the poet who 
wrote the epigram ; and which was reprinted in the edition by Pachel 
(rf 1493. See AnnaL Tffpog. vol. L p. 2979 note S. The present oopj 
may be considered to be in desirable condition. It is bound in russia. 

790. TuNDALi Visio, &c. fVithout Name of 
Printer^ PlacCy or Date. Quarto. 

There is little doubt of this curious tract having been printed in 
the office of Ther Hoemen; as the types evidently resemble those to 
which that printer's name is subjoined. It is a small volume of only 
18 leaves ; every page of which is filled with such marvellous intelli* 
gence as was well suited to gratify the credulity of former times. 
As Panzer appears to have omitted it in his Index : vol. v. p. 432-3» 
the reader has a sort of claim to be made tolerably well acquainted 
with its contents. It is, however, most probable that the entire nar- 
rative is found in some ancient coUection of Legendary Tales. The 
researches of Vincentius Bellovacensis, or of Jacobus de Voragine, were 
well calculated to lead those lovers of the marvellous to the discovery 
of the Vision of Tundal. The full tide is at top of the recto of the 
first leaf, thus : 

Slitript liiieHujSC tie ^sqftu afe €&tmii a ei9 
tuftSe €ract3|i tie pmfi inkm i navHajsi 

The text commences by informing us that this vision took place in the 
year 1149, in the 4th year of the papacy of Eugenius — * in which year 
that Pope returned from Gaul to Rome.' Tundal is then de- 
scribed as a native ' in hibernia septentrionaliiun Hibermencium 
australium Caselensis : of a noble family, cruel in action, handsome in 
person, of a brave courage, and utterly regardless of the welfiire of 
his soul. He sharply retorted upon those who even slightly men- 
tioned the subject of eternal salvation : he neglected his church ; and 
bestowed upon jesters and bufibons his superfluous wealth, without 
being solicitous of relieving poor and deserving Christians. It chanced, 
among his promiscuous and lawless associates, that a certain soldier 
was indebted to him for monies advanced. Tundal waited upon him» 
his due : the man told him that it was out of his power to 

32 ^ MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Place, 

satisfy him ; and, on his exhibiting symptoms of wrath, Tondal is ear- 
nestly entreated that, before he departs, he would sit down and take 
some refreshment with him. [' rogauit eu ut priusqua recederet secum: 
cibum sumeret*] Tundal sits down; and laying aside a hatchet, 
which he carried in his hand, he begins to eat with him. He it 
instantly and invisibly smitten ; so that he is not able to convey his 
extended hand to hb mouth. And he beghis to cry out terribly, 
begging that his hatchet, or axe, may be conveyed to the wife of his 
Host: " Keep," says he, " this my hatchet, for I am about to die'* 

and instantly his body is deserted by his spirit : and all the signs of 

death appear upon the corpse. The family run to the spot : the food 
is taken away : the attendants cry out : the guests bewail : the body is 
extended: a priest arrives: the people are astonished, and the whole 
city is suddenly alarmed at the death of this brave soldier.* 

Tlie body continues apparently lifeless from the tenth hour * in 
quarta feria,* to the same hour on the following sabbath. At length 
a gentle heat is perceptible in the left part of the breast ; so that they 
are unwilling to bury him. He then begins to breathe softly for the 
space of an hour. Being interrogated whether he wished to confess, 
he nodded, and indicated that he would take the sacrament. [' innuit 
sibi afferri corpus domini. 3 When he had eaten the bread, and drank 
the wine, he began to pour forth praises to God.' Tundal, thus 
reformed, tells his attendants what he had seen, and what bad been 
the ravishment of his soul, during this state of trance. From such 
an opening, the reader is prepared for the marvellous in its most 
tremendous shape. The Jirst vision relates to the * Appearance of 
Demons^ and of the Angel who conducted him. The second vision de- 
scribes a Horrible Valley and a Narrow Bridge. The thirds a Monstrous 
and Terrible Beast. The fourth, a Stagnant Lake. 

Over this lake is a very long and very narrow bridge : the foot-way 
of which is covered with innumerable sharp spikes, or nails, that could 
not fail to penetrate the feet of those who walked over it. All the 
beasts (described in a preceding vision) are compelled to go to this 
bridge for their food. Some of them are of immense magnitude ' like 
unto great towers.' From their mouths issues so strong a flame, that, 
to the beholders, the lake is made to bubble therefrom. Tvmdal sees 
a certain spirit, upon this bridge, bewailing and accusing himself in a 
most piteous manner : and this spirit is compelled to pass over the 
bridge. And although it feels the angubh of the nails running into 


its feett it dreads more to tumble into the lake below, and to £sdl into 
tlie open mouths of the beasts. Tundal enquires of his attendant 
angely what this mig^t be ? " That punishment (resumes his celestial 
guide) is especially desenring of your attention — and is connected with 
the thefts, great or small, which you yourself have committed. All 
thefts are not punished alike. There are greater and lesser sins of 
this kind : but sacrilege is among the greatest. He who steals any 
sacred thing, or any thing from a sacred place, is guilty of sacrilege : 
but those the more grossly ofiend in this particular, who are guilty of 
it imder the garb of religion. It is necessary for you to pass over this 
bridge ; and to bring to me, at the other end of it, a fierce and un- 
tamed cow, unhurt : because you once stole one of your father's cows**' 
To whom Tundal : " Have I not restored that cow ?" " You certainly 
restored it — (says the angel) but not until you knew you were incapa- 
ble of concealing it ; and therefore you shall not sufier the full weight 
of punishment— for to be willing to commit evil is less criminal than 
to perform evil : although both are heinous before Grod.** 

So saying, the angel shews Tundal this untamed cow. Tundal, half 
willing and half resolute, seizes it, and urges it over the bridge with 
many threats. Meanwhile the beasts, before described, approach the 
bridge, and expect their wonted food. Tundal now accelerates the 
passage of the cow, which is unwilling to accompany him. Whenever he 
urges it onward, or stands still, the cow falls ; and now falling, or 
creeping, or standing, they reach the middle of the bridge. The feet 
of Tundal stream with blood, fh>m the incision of the nails. At length 
his cdestial guide approaches him, and tells him he need no longer 
drive on the cow, Tundal shews his wounded feet, and urges the im- 
possibility of his advancing further. *' Remember (says the angel) 
how swift were your feet to shed blood :'* and touching him he cures 
him — and they proceed onward to the fifth vision : Of a Jkamng 
Amoce. The sixth is entitled Of the Bea»U ond of a frozen Lake. The 
seventh. Of the Valley of Iron Forgers or Smiths. This latter is a curious 
chapter. It relates to the tortures and punishments inflicted upon 
the wicked by fire, and by instruments made from forges. ' The 
sufferers desire death, but cannot find it. The tormentors speak to each 
other, saying, " It is never sufficient/' And other tormentors, over 
other forges or furnaces, answer, *' Cast them to us, and let us see if 
ice can accomplish it.'* And they cast them ; and these tormentors 
seize them in their prongs, before they touch the earth — and fling 
them into the flames — ^until their skin, flesh, nerves, and bones are 

84 MISCELLANEOUS. [fFiihout Place, 

reduced to ashes. One of these wretches discovers and reoogniBea 
Tundal ; and thus addresses him : " How are you ? As nothing was 
erer so grateful to you as carnal pleasures, you ought, for such 
gratifications, to sustain a punishment due to your crimes.'* The 
penitent Tundal is unahle to answer/ But we must take kaire of 
such doleful representations^ and hasten to close the description of this 
extraordinary tract. 

The remaining Visions are thus entitled : Of the Infernal Well : 
Of the Prince of Darkness^ and of his Companions : Of the Middle State 
of the EvU and Good : Cf the State of King Tormarcus (exceedingly 
cwAofvta)iOftheFisiansoftheSafntsinGlory.'Ofthesame:* Of the 
same : Of the Four Bishops whom Tundal recognised there : Of the rehim 
of the Spirit of Tundal to his Body, This is the last chapter, and begins 
thus • * But when the Spirit of Tundal had been highly delighted with 
all these visions, the Angel approached, and gently addressed him, 
saying, '* You have observed all these things ?*' The Spirit answered, 
*' I have seen them. Master. I beseech thee suffer me to remain here.'' 
To whom the Angel : '* You must now return to your body, and 
retain the memory of these visions for the benefit of your Christiaii 
brethren." Having heard this, the Spirit becomes sad ; and weeping 
answers — * Master, what great evil have I done, that, leaving this scene 
of bliss, I must return to my body ?*' This parley is inefiectual, and 
the return of Tundal's Spirit to his body is thus described in thft 

4tt txaxi ^t tnjdfjstet an 
0dtijB(« toniut0SL atthna ittatt fitm^it ^ twAt twtjp^ 
gcattati eTjere. l^ttllum ittteruaiium nee tiHum ti 
ptma ittXttctUfit momettta* Q fi i* uno eoHenui) t^if 
fSitta in tt\i0 Io|&ai ati an^da* tt inUifi sitn^ 
Ifeue' toqp jnm. €ac $a tieinitjet* coqualejer tqftmt 

* Thb cbapfter opem with the ibUowfaig respleadtsit scene : * 

Vm autem Tudahu cnriorius drcuspi- 
oeret vidit quasi castnim et papilioiies. 
pluriinas, purpura et bisso. et auro. et argento. 
et seric». mira Tarietote oofectaa. in qoibus cxMndas 
et orgaiia et citlieras cu oi|;anistri8. et C3rmbali5 
canentes. cetera q| omniu musioonuD genera suauit 
limis aoms coonentes. &c. 

t Sic 

147^.] TURRECKBBIATA [I. Dfi]. SS 

MlltlKV* n y nyl ll RIH y* tnCytlq) Dttclip* trjBKJpCjUC ttr/ 

cicQlK f i tt D ft a nt fj i # tt joK^jsttt tmq^ttjl tiitiuuii eft upCA^ 
^aot acttone. tt omnia qik j^abittt* iiQQ^jBttt iKtiit 
ytnijiliiiijl» tt ixgoSi jsfictx cntctjl tmftiwiftitttt jsdttji 
Qutt^ tttisttUludi jftqn af^ iutjftt* Cttncta Q ttttmat 
i| tttixKSt ipotsxox. ttoCii^ poiltiiMbfi fcttatitt* Sec. 

oCC. oCC« oCC* 

Tlie tnet eonclodes with an admonitUm by the author — contrary to 
the opinion of ' the blessed St. Bernard '—that ' there is altogether 
no place* or no middle state of the soul, between that of purgatory 
and paradise/ Beneath, we read 


to captu amme 
€a)iatt % et^ tnOSe* CtactiK tt 
penijBt iGtntt % sattinpl ^aealriitt ; 

There are neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords ; and a fiill 
page contains 97 lines. In the whole, 18 leaves. The present is a fine 
large copy, in red morocco binding. 


PLATioNES. fVithout Name of Printer^ or Place, 
1472. Folio. 

Editio Sbcuhda. The Noble Owner of this rare and curious spe- 
cimen of early printing, has to lament the want of the Editio 
Piiircsps of the work. This first edition was executed by Ulric Ha% 
at Romey in 1467» and is considered to be the earliest essay of his press. 
It has been described by AudifEredi (who never saw it) and by De 
Murr ; the latter of whom has given a fiic-simile of the first cut of the 
Creation of the World ; which dififere fh>m that represented in the 
ensuing article, only in the size and rudeness of its composition : the 
objects introduced being precisely the same.* See the £di^. Rom. 

* De Murr tells m that his fiMWoUe of the first cot is < most ■ocnrately delineated f 
bat I wish it were in my power to present the public with another, executed Orom my own 
knowledge of the original De Moir hat given alist of the cots— lor which see the note in 
tiie ibllowmg impresskm. The type, with which the Editio Frinoept is printed, u ^t of 
iSbt large lowercase gotfais: see vol L p. SSS-3. 
vol. IV. F 


pp. 8-10^ and Mesnmab. ^L Nwrea^^^pU i. p. 961*5. It should seem 
firom Heinecken (Id^ &c. p. 149-1 50») that the same^cuts, with which 
this fii^t edition was exec^t^y wefe' introduced' into the third im* 
pression, ofthe date G^i473»- ffeflieck^ saw a copy of the latter in 
th» Pf^onrf ColkcOon. . j . / 

l«alre ias erfed iH'c^rvitif ihatthfe tjrpea'of tdi8'iilli|^i^fts^n lie 
ble those of the edition erf the Qu^tuar Vhr^fifv Cardhutlm xstJSlmriiau 
Arimmentit^ executed at Spire in 1479> and described at p. 165 of the 
preceding volume of this work* Index Librar. vol. i. p. 289, 890. On 
the oontnuy, they are precisely similar to those of the Getta ChritHf of 
which a £Bc-simile will be seen at p. 338 of the third volume. Hie name 
of the printer is not hitherto known. It is certainly not Peter Drach. 
* Concerning the printer and the place of the impression (says 
Seemiller) 1 am unable to observe any thing.' Incufiab* Typog, feme. i. 
p. 44-5. But this volume has one very peculiar daim to the notice of 
the curious in typdg^phy : it is probably -the/rrt hook which presents 
us with sioNATuaas. I say * prpbably,* beeaufter wd kam from La 
Serna Santander, that a work of John Nider, entitled Precepiorium 
Divvue Legis, and executed by Kodho^ at Cologne, in 1472. has the 
same typographical distinction. Yet as no day of the month is specified 
by this bibliographer, as given in the colophon of the work of Nider, 
the present edition may ' possibly ' take chronological precedence. La 
Serna Santander was wholly ignorant of the vohmie under descrip- 
tion. See his * M6noire sur I'origine et le premier usage des sig^- 
tures et des chi£fres dans I'art typographique,' p. 23-35. Suppl. au 
Cat. SfC. de La Serna Santander, 1803, 8to. We now proceed to the 
volume itself. 

It is printed in double columns, having 34 lines in a full page. At 
the top of the first column, on the recto of a. i. we read the title at 
ftdl length, thus : 

Contemplaciones deuotis^ 
sime per reuerendissimii dnm 
dnm Joh'em de furre cremata 
cardinals quond* sancti Sixti 
edite atq; in parietibus circu 
itus Marie minerue ne dum 
littera:^ caracterib9 ve^ ecia 


ymaginum figuris ornatissime 
descripte atq; deplete icipiut 
felieiter Anno salutis milUsi// 
mo quadringentesimoseptua// 
gesimo seeundo die vero vige 
sima qrta mesis decembris se 
dente Sixto quarto ponti// 
fice maximo 

Contemplacio prima est de 
mudi creacione. 

Ab tliere are aolj two signatures, a and by each having 8 leaves, it 
MkfWB that the impression contains only 16 leaves. On the reverse 
of the last leaf we read this colophon : 

Contemplacoes deuotissel p 
reuendissimu diim dnm Iohe'e| 
de Ire cremata cardinale quon 
da sci sixti edite atq; in parie// 
tib9 circuitus marie minenie 
nedu lia:^ earacterib^ ve:^ eci 
am jmaginii figuris ornatissie 
descripte atq; depicte feliciPr* 
finiut Anno salutis. M.cccc. 
Ixxii. die y'o yigesimaqrta me 
sis decembris sedente Sixto 
quarta pontifice magno ic 

Hambergerus doubted whether this date did not specify the year of 
the composition of the work, rather than that of the printing of it ; 
inasmuch as the same day of the month, as well as the same year, 
denotes both the commencement and the conclusion of itF-«dding that 
these * sixteen leaves could not have been printed in one day.* That 

• Sic 

S8 MISCELli/lNEOUS. [NumeUterj 1479. 

the tDork was compo9ed before the year 1479> ii erident from the exist- 
ence of an edition of it, Awe yean before the present : and (as SeemiUer 
remarks) the same apparent impossibility of executing the whole in 
one day, would apply to the eomporiiUm as well as to the printing of 
it. Seemilkr thinks, therefore, that this is an error of the printer. 
It remains only to observe, that there are neither catchwords nor 
numerals ; and that the present is a beautifiil and most desirable copy* 
In blue morocco binding. 


TioNES s£U CoNTSMPLATioNJBs. Printed by 
Numeister. 1479. Folio. 

Whatever may be the degree of regret in not possessing the -n^tr 
xoiTioN of this work, it is no very trifling consolation to .l|e tbe 
owner of the present rare, curious, and splendid impression t , i^ 
impression, which, if we except the comparatively brief notice of it 
that appears in the Cai. de Gaignat^ vol* i. n^ d7B, will be found to 
be nowhere else previously described. * Nous observons (says De Bore) 
que cette rare ^tttion est demear^ jusqu*k present inconoue h torn lea 
bibliographes, puis-qu*il n*en est fait aucnne mention dans lemi 
ouvrages/ Ibid. Both Denis and Panzer rely exclusively upon this 
description ; which, however, is rather incomplete and erroneouB. Da 
Bure, in his preceding article, bq^ by doubting the existence of the 
previous editions of 1467 aiid 1479. We have shewn that such doufall 
have no foundation : and in regard to the . present impression, by 
Numeister, he observes that the types ' strongly resemble * those of 
the Psalters of 1457 and 1459— insomuch that, if the date of the 
execution were not found in the colophon, we might be tempted to 
assign to it a period of greater antiquity. 

As a fac-simile of this type appears beneath that of the first cut, in 
the ensuing page, the reader shall determine for himself; yet he may 
not object to be informed that such type is> in ckaracter, similar to 
that of the Mazarine Bible (see rdi, i. p. 4.); but more slender, and 
inferior in heiglit, to the smallest type introduced into either of the 
abovementioned editions of the Psalter. Every one will alib observe 
in it a strong resemblance to the character of Pfister (see vol. i. p. 9); 
but it is, in foct, exactly the same type as that with Which the Jgmda 
Mogmnimot noticed at p. 146, of voL iii. is executed : and I have little 

; 147».]TURRECKBMATA [I. D£]. S9 

liasiit, M NnmeiHer dMcribM tumaelf to be ' clericiu nuj^ntiniis,' 
Ibat Um preaent Totume wu printed at MatU, and not at FoUgm^^ 
tbe naual rcaidenoe sf the printer. We now proceed to a minute and 
Aithfiil dcKription of this exceedingly preciou* volume ; premising^, 
tfaHt.thaeopyof itheredeacrilwdmajrbeBaid tobe without a blemisfa, 
aod in iU oripnal itate of amplitude. So beautiful and estimable 
* volume ia nnij aeea in tbe librariea of the most curious collectors. 

On the recto of the fiist leaf, is the ensuing cut of the Citation of 
tke World, with the subjoined title of the work. 

40 MISCELLANEOUS. [Numeigier ; 1479. 

Six lines are below. A fiill page has 26 lines. There are neither 
numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. All the cuts are executed in 
the same singular manner ;* and, at first sight, have the appearance 
of being cut in metal — but as the present fac-similes are upon 
fDood, there is no doubt of the originals having been executed 
on the same material. The order of the cuts seems to be much 
inverted frcmi that of the £ditio Princeps ; f and, in this copy, it is as 
follows. After the preceding, we have 9. The Jnnunciatum (foL ii> 
recto) : 3. The Nativity (fol. iii, rev.): 4. The Circumcmon (fol. vj, rev.): 
5. JudoM betraying Christ (fol. vij, rect.): 6. Christ* 8 Descent into HeU 
(fol. viij, rev.) This cut, with that of John Baptising Christ, (cut 15, 
fol. SI, rev.) shall speak for themselves in the oppositb fac-similbs -^* 
Itoremising that the cut of the Baptism (here placed in its chnmological 
Older) gives an exact notion of the peculiar touch of the engraver; 
while that of the Descent serves to prove the gross and barbarous 
taste of the artist's design. 

After the Descent, comes 7. Christ with the Doctors in the Temple 
(fol. ix, rect.): 8. Presentation and Benediction by Simeon (fol. xi, rev.): 
9. Christ worshipped by the Magi (fol. xiv, rect.): 10. FUght into Egypt 
(foL XV, rect.): 11. Christ before Caiaphas (fol. xvi, rev.): 12. Mary 
mipjported^ or comforted by her friends (fol. xvii, rect.): 13. Christ wadung 
ike feet of lUs Disciples (fol. xix,rcct.): 14. The last Supper (fol. xxt lect) 
15. Baptism by John (fol. xxi, rev. see above): 16. Temptaikm in ike 
Wilderness (fol. xxiii, rect.) : 17. T^ Creator discoursing wUh Admm 
(foL xxiv, rev.): 18. Adam and Eve eating the forbidden fruit (fol. zxyi» 

* This maj be the proper place to remark, that the ftc^hniles of the cnti fai IfiSs 
Imprewion are cienitcd with extraordiaaiy fidelity axul briUiancy by Mr. Ebxvsuk ( 
Btfield. Hie difficulty of their execodoa ii extreme. 

t I ihall here give the order of the cub in the Edido Princeps, upon the airthpri^ «^ * ] 
DeMnrr. 1. Creation of the WorUL 9, The CreaUr ditamnhg wkh Adam., 9.JStflC^ 
of the forbidden fruit. 4. The Annunciation, 5. The Natimty. 6. The CircnmcitioH, 
7, Adoration of the MagL 8. Simeon*s Benediction. 9. FHght into Egypt. 10. Chriit among 
the Docton. 11. Bt^tim of Christ. 12. Temptation in the WUdemeu, 13. The Keys 
idioered to St. Peter. 14. The Tran^guratum. 15. WaslA^ ^the Dite^les Feet, 16. 7^ 
kat Sitpper. 17. Betrayal by JudoM. 18. Christ before Caittphas: 19. The Crucifixim. 
SO. Hory eawforted by her Assodates, SI. The Descent into HelL 22, 7^ Resmrectiom^ 
^, Christ ducoursing with Feter and the Aposties. 94* The Ascension, %5i Descent of the 
Hobf Gkust. 96, Carrying of the Host, 27. Abraham*s Adoration of one rf the Sasmts, 
fS. The Geneakgical J\ree above deserved. 29. Appearance of Christ to St, 
90. Asmm^Hon of the Vhgin. 3U Christ in a Choir rf Angels, S9. Christ with the 
mffeoven. SS^OffiuofthsMusforthaDead, 34. Dty of Judgment. 




; l'^2.]TURRECREMATA. [I. DE] 43 

rect.): 19. CrucifixUm of our Saviour (fol. xxviii, rev.): 20. Delivery 
rf the Keys to St. Peter (fol. xxx, rect.): 21. The Transfiguration (fol. 
zzxiy rev.): 22. The ji$cension (fol. xxxii, rect.): 23. Descent of the 
Holy Ghost (fol. xxxiii, rev.): 24. Carrying of the Host (foL xxxiv, rect.) 
25. Christ discournng with St. Peter and the Apostles (foL xxxv, rev.) 
2($. Assumption of the Firgin (fol. xxxviii, rect.): 27* Christ seated on his 
throne surrounded by a choir of Angels Tfol. xxxix, rect.): 28. Appearance of 
Christ to St. Sixtu^ (fol. xl. rev.) : 29. Christ sitting at the left hand of 
the Virgin (fol. xli, rect.) : 30. Resurrection of Christ (fol. xlii, rev.) 

31. Abraham worshipping three Jigures, or Saints (ful. xliiL rect.) 

32. A Genealogical Tree of eleven figures in the branches^ and the Virgin 
heneaih : a dog is at her feet (fol. xlv, rect. This cut is much larger 
than the rest, and is perpendicularly oblong): 33. Mass for the Dead: 
the surrounding figures {spirits of the dead) naked (fol. xlvi, rev.): 
34. Day of Judgment (fol. xlvii, rev.) The ensuing, and 48th leaf 
concludes the impression. In the whole, 34 cuts. Some of the 
pages contain scarcely more than 7 or 8 lines : in order that the cuts 
may be arranged virith due efiect. On the reverse of the 48th and last 
leaf we read the colophon, thus : 

Contem^IatSejet js(ttpcat)icte pec retieroi 
litljB?tmum pattern tiomina ^ol^mtem 
He Curcectemata Catlitnalf (anctt jettjcti 
mrHtntjsr pretntatomm etiite : ixxcfftti^t s 
iol^amtem nttmetjsftei: dericum mason 
ttitfl SBnno Hfii St^nefimoquabthtgen^ 
tejettmoje^eptuagejettmonono tnt tercta mf 
^ jeteptfbrijt feltctter jAtnt tonjs^ummate. 

It only remains to congratulate the Noble Owner upon the possession 
of this perfect and splendid copy of one of the moet interesting speci- 
mens of printing in the xvth century. It is beautihlly bound in blue 

* The appeanmce of our Savioar resembles nther that of a Pope; m a tiara u tqxm ha 
head, A cross ii in bis left hand. 


44 MISCELLANEOUS.' [/.^f%rona,- 1472. 

793. Valturius. De Re Militabi. Printed by 
John of Verona. 1472. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. This magnificent and interesting volume has 
been hitherto superficially described. The accounts of it by De Bure 
and Laire are equally unsatisfactory; while the Gaignat and La 
Valliere catalogues exhibit still greater sterility of description. Mait- 
taire has been probably copied by P&nzer. Fossi is comparatively full 
and particular. The reader may consult the BibUogr. Instruct, vol. IL 
p. 579, n^ 9132; Index Libror. vol. ii. p. 290-1 ; Cat. de Gaignai, 
vol. i. p. 344, n^ 1313 ; Cat. de la Valliere. vol, i. p. 591, n«. 2057 ; 
Anhal. Typog. MaUt. vol. i, p. 312, note 5 ; AnnaL Typog. Panzer^ 
voL iii. p. 501-2; and Bibl. Magliabech. vol. ii. col. 759. We shall 
have occasion to quote other authors in the course of the present 
description ; but it may be further premised that this volume is the 
second book printed at Verona — and is the first book, vfith a date, executed 
in Italy, in which we observe wood-cuts. De Bure calls these cuts 
* assez bien ex^ut^ pour un ouvrage de cette antiquity.' Ibid. But 
Mafiei and Lanzi, and the evidence of the ensuing &c-8imiles, will 
authorise a more favourable mention of them. I shall endeavour to be 
copious and particular. At top of the first leaf» we read as follows : 


rum militarium qup singulis codicis huius i 
uolumibus continel ut ipromptu sint uniuersa 
hoc est ne talium renim curiosi perlegant : sed 
potius sine labore ac molestia cum quidpiam 
hinc uel inde iutelligere uolueriot id tantum 
qu^rant sciantq; quo in loco paratum inueniri 
qupat : exquibus ^q; elegantissimis auctoribus 
sumptum comprobetur. 8cc. 

This * Elenchus ' occupies 7 pages, or 3 leaves and a half. The 
reverse of the 4th leaf is blank ; and two entirely blank leaves ensue. 
On the recto of the 7th leaf, the author's dedicatory address to 
Sigismund Fandulf commences thus : 

/. of Ferona; 1472.1 VALTURIUS. 45 

nescius Dux & imp. incljte sigismunde pa/ 
dulfe : Tanta est liuoris 8c inuidias nostri hu 
ius seculi malignitatisq; puersitas 8cc. ice. 

This address terminates* on the 4th leaf, inchisively from its com*^ 
mencement. The text immediately follows, but there are no prefixes 
to the several chapters ; and the impression is entirely destitute of 
numerals, catchwords, and signatures. A full page has 37 lines. The 
text continues without any embellishment, as far as fol. 85 ; when we 
observe, on the reverse, two cuts on the same page — representing 
the mode of measuring the altitude of a tower. One figure, in the 
upper cut, is discharging an arrow from a cross bow ; the other figure 
is lying down : with a line from the top of the tower to his left eye. 
The figure, in the lower cut, is measuring the altitude with an astrolabe. 
On the recto of the ensuing leaf the text follows thus, without prefix : 


gismunde Pandulfe profundissimam quan^ 
dam Matheseos : hoc est Astronomicp rationis 
tradere disciplinaai : 8cc. 8cc. 

On the recto of the 98nd leaf there is a large wood-cut of a 
machine, in the shape of a tub or bucket, with a leathern vessel and 
weight dropping from a transverse beam-^at the end of which seems 

* The following u tbe conclosion of this address : ' Sit itaque tuo tantum nomini dicatum : 
M quid de te mihi poUioear ludeas obseoro : Nimquam enim huiiuoe libri exordio nomen 
^Mon legetor tuum: quom pasran et ubique gentiu sublime Magnificuqae praedicetur : 
qm mihi spledoiis et grati» plm'imum sit aUaturum : Putabunt eiiira singuli ad quos liber 
iste pemenerit non pama nee inutiKa se percepturos Dmn tam spledidum tarn pneccUens 
tarn iilmtre ipos primis apkibiis nomen tnu intuebutur et leg^. Susdpe igitur clemen- 
tisne ac optie princeps Sigismunde pandolphe gratissis ulnis Munusculu hoc cziguu : licet ab 
animo ta tibi deditissimi toiqne amantissimi profectu : intetiusque leges qoom aspirare tibi 
inter plnrima strepentiu occnpationu tuaru agmina licebit : inuenies profecto pluriroa in 
liocopere: qua tibisintaut uoluptati maxime legisse: automamento uidisse: aut usui 
mcminisse! quippe qast praeoeptis et exeplu suis oblectare : atque instruere bene institutu 
■nliuam poisint : De cuius causis nil attinet plura nunc dtsserere: qwnn quidem singula 
paites eius destinatis aliquod nolumhiibus explicandsB sint : quas ordine suo tunc dema 
perseqoar : quom prefatus foero pauca qusdam de ipsius rei origine ab aliis pene omnibus 
omissa scriptoribus : quam reor ad uninerse etia rei desoriptione ab aliis quoque pluribua 
itifCta nuude profuturao : 

46 MISCCLLANEOUS. [/. ofFirona; 1477. 

to be, according to the test, an harologium. On the ret-ene, this 
hoTolo^ is enlarged, with two suns at the opposite extreme of the 
outer circle. We have next an interval of 60 leaves, witliout any em- 
bellishment ; when, on the recto of the ISSnd leaf fk)m the address to 
Sigtamund, inclusively, there is a large cut, about 7 inches aqd a half 
in height, wilh the description below, commencing thus : 

Aleoli tela sunt in miiHebris coll fortnam : kc. 

A cut of a ' missile spear ' is on the reverse. The recto of the ensuing 
leaf is blank : «n the reverse is a large cut, occupying nearly a full 
page, representing an instrument for the effectual discharge of these 
' missilia hastilia.' We have, next, an account of various species of 
erou botrn, with cuts : spear-heads, at the top of fences ; succeeded by 
cars, drawn by oxen and horses ; of the latter of which the following 
is, in part, an excellently executed foc-umile : 

I.t^rmma: 1473.] VALTURIUS. 47. 

All sorts of defensive constructioiu, in the forms of turrets, &c. ensue. 
Hien <»mes, on the 4th fullowing leaf, a moat terrific machine, in thB 
form of a dragon with outstretched wings ; of which I shall only 
venture upoiL the upper part : 

NTnnerons implements and machines, for the tranaportation oF 
mter, are next seen ; and a little onward there is a machine for the 
craveyaace of a man, according to the ensuing foc^imile, to the upper 
part of a tower. A man, below, catches hold of that part of the lever, 
which, by means of a swivel in the centre, nearly reaches the ebrth. 
A cord is fastened at tlus nether extremity. 

MISCELLANEOUS. (/. o/Pirtmai Ufa, 

Kbchines, for passing fi-om oue tower to another, are next exhibited i 
and we presently behold a curious and eflectual ccmstniction for a drop, 
or drawbridge. A machine, in the shape of a platform, anned at the 
extreme end of the bottom, id next seen. It is floating upon the 
water; a windlas is towards the centre of it, beneath which is a 
coiled rope. To the right, a man in armoor is seated, holding the rope 
that it should not escape too rapidly. To the left, a man is pulling 
down, by means of a rope, (which runs below upon a cog wheel) a 
sharp projecting instr\mient of defence. Both tfaese figures are well 
executed. A blank leaf eosues. We have, next, a great variety of 
scaling ropes and ladders, applied to towers. Of the last but one of 
these, 1 shall give a fec-eimile of a part : 

7. tfrenmai 1472.] VALTURIUS. 

We now come to ofieiuive wei^tona in the shape of camum, mor- 
tars, and bombs ; but the whole is preceded hj aa elegantlj designed 
figure shooting at an aperture in a tower, with a cross bow, thus : 



t U72. 

The recto of (he eiuuing leaf is blank. Cannons of Tarious fiKiiu, 
and applied in variuus ways, by means of elevations, immediately 
succeed. From these I shall give a sjiecimeo of what would be called, 
is modern Trarfaie, a bomb : tlie tiact preceding it is as fi)Uow8 : 

[IjNVENTVM est quoq; allerum MacbioB huiusce tuum 
ligismonde paodulfe : Qua pilse KDentormeDtarii pulueris 
pleD^ cum fungi aridi fomte * urientis emittuutur. Sec. 

One of the modes of elevating cannon, represents eight heavy guns 
pointing various ways, upon a circular platform. A less formidable 
elevation ia that wliich exhibits the following upon a cylindrical tower, 
of which the surface only is given : 

/. ie Vtrtmn ; 1472.] VALTURTUS. 61 

Then ftrilow TariouB modes nf coitig^ ttaut » tUxgt, hj the aid of 
mechanical powers, or machiaea. The stone usually ^pears of con- 
riderible magnitude. We have next as anted galkg, of the uumner of 
armiog the mast and Anudt of'Whicfa, the following is a fac-similc : 

Battering ramt axe then displayed, of various constructions, and with 
Tariooa powers. A series (tf Sttatdardt next arrests the attention ; when, 
after an inteml of a dozen pages, we obserre a large marine tower, 
with a fish-tailed figure, at top, blowing a conch. A great number of 
instruments for enabling persons to swim across rivers, and pass under 
water, now ensues : amoDg these, is the following figure, which 
reminds us of the modem divii^-bell. 

MISCELLANEOUS. iFnmia; 1472. 

Thia it tbe but embellulimeDt in the volume. There is text on the 
rererae of it; and 44 ensuing leaves tenDioate the impresion. Od 
the recto of the last of these 44 leaves, beneath the verses u extracted 
below,* we read the colophon, thus : 

* Viltuiri noitra priooepa coIliBiiiK lingnc 
Culque etiun gniu donit apotto fidci. 
Xe dnce miiiiia muniu regmnque prioruin 
Vcmere in Iwcm fintitk (cM wmio. 

I.derenna; 1472.] VALTURIUS. 5tS 



lohannes ex uerona oriundiis : Nicolai cjrugip* medici 
filius : Artis impressorip magister : hunc de re militari 
librum elegantissimum : litteris k figuratis signis sua 
in patria primus imprpssit . An . M.CCCCLXXII . 

The revene is blank. As Ptozer properly remarks, Laire is wrong in 
saying that thb book was printed by loannes Cyrurgia. * John of 
Verona (says P^udzer) was the son of Nicolaus, who, without doubt, 
exercised the medical profession.' 

Thus have we (it is presumed) made good the promise of giving a 
full and faithful account of the splendid volume under consideration. In 
regard to the wood-cuts— -(which form so interesting and elegant a 
feature in it) as the printer has not thought fit, in his prefatory 
address, to disclose the name of the artist who designed, or executed 
them in wood— *we are left almost entirely to conjecture who he may 

Ipse DOOM belli l^g^ preoepteque pagna 

Scripaisti : aaaoPMB oenaor honestst Ijrm* 
£t per te uiuit pagmmdi regoia moris 

Antiqiu: et per te norma probata nooL 
Sub castra locat miles : roetitur et idem 

lignatiir tutus: uincit et arma refert* 
T«la dooes quibus omne mat : qmbu amie tueri 

Poasit opus : duoe te BCars fiierit usque feroz. 
Et mode fidcatos cums: modo tecta uidemus 

Vmbooe Ac peltis agmma lasta uirum. 
Ipse genus uarium tonuenti : et rara notasti 

Omamenta ffmua plorima militw. 
Ballistas: pluteosqoe simul : scalasque dedisti : 

Et pontis uarium peipetuumque genus. 
Nunc solers fossas imples subducitur unda 

Arte tua : et uictor moenia miles babet. 
Hec Sigismundo foeBx sub prindpe scribis. 

Cuique operis causas dat tibt sepe tui, 
Dumque tbaraconias etrusoo ab Uttore gentes. 

Vertit babes unde bssc ipse notare qneas« 
Prisca hmc Vahurri se tempora nacta fiusBent 

Militiae ferres premia magna tuae 
Teque Palatini ooepissent cufanina plebi 

Roberte etatis gloria prima tuse, 
Aeteroos igitur uiues cultiasimus annos 

BfilitisB uerus rexqae paterque sinuL 
Nos sub te pariter muss armisque uacamus 

Teque sequi o Scriptor not htuat usque gTMis. 

• Sic. t 

64 MISCELLANEOUS. [fFithout Place, 

be. But it should seem from Maflfei, (Ferona lUustrata, pt. iiu ool. 
195-9), that Mattbo Pasti was a celebrated painter at Verona, and 
friend of Valturius, at the time of the present publication ; and the 
evidence of the Miscellanea Baluzii (quoted by Maffei) is very strong 
in confirmation of the talents of Pasti. Lanzi, in his Staria PUtariea, 
vol. i. p. 77, edit. 1794-, seems to acquiesce in the same opinion. A 
medal of Benedictus de Pasti, vrith his profile on the obverse and a man 
shooting arrows at a rock on the reverse, will be seen in pt. ii. col. 75-6^ 
of Mafiei's work. Whoever may have been the artist, these cuts are un- 
questionably the production of a skilAil and spirited hand ; and the 
adaptation of the various pieces of mechanism, or the machinery, is most 
distinctly and satisfactorily shewn. Although those are in en'or who say 
that this is thejirst book with wood-cuts, it may yet be safely affirmed 
that this is the earliest book, having the text of metal type, which has 
the least merit in the graphic department. 

The type is rather loose and broken, but the page is well and 
elegantly set up ; and copies of it, like the one before us — with an 
amplitude of margin — ^are of excessive rarity and in very considerable 
request. Neither Gerdes, Engel, Bauer, Brunet, nor Panzer, notice any 
copies UPON vellum;* but I have seen an imperfect one of this 
description, which was sold by Mrs. Collins, the bookseller, to Mr. 
James Edwards. The present copy, although upon paper, is in most 
desirable condition ; and bound in red morocco. 

794. Vegeus (Maffeus). Dialogus Inter Ali- 
THiAM ET Philaliten. WUJwut Place or 
Date. Quarto. 


As it is evident that the typographical arrangement of this edition ii 
not conformable to the description of either of the two dateless editions, 
in quarto, mentioned by Panzer, vol. iv. p. 206. n*». 1260, 1261 —and as 
it is not less evident that the impression is an early production of the 
press of Ulric Zel (although no name of printer be subjoined)— we may 
conclude that it has escaped the notice of bibliographers ; and it may 

• Lord Spencer informs me that his Mother, when she wa« in Italj, pareLased a perfect 
copy of it, for him, upon tellum ; but thia precious Tolume, with several other books, was 
lost bj the foundering of the vessel in her voyage homewards. 

Brescia; 1485.] VERGERIUS. t;5 

therefore be added to the number of choice and rare specunens of the 
press of Ulrk Zel, with which this Collection abounds. The present 
oopj is large, clean» and every way desirable. On the recto of the 
first leaf we read this title : 

a^aftt totsn tM^g^xfi intec SBlttirtam 
et ^I^Mttni $[tuq^ Mini* ^olo^u^ 

Below, there are 24 lines : a full page having 27 lines. In the wholes 
14 leaves ; without niunerals, signatures, or catchwords. The reverse 
of the last leaf presents us with the following termination : 

ejremptujst ago * Sn l^aie; ego ittjert forte Ga$(titii$t . 
te arctpia vftfi meajsr . %. isi^tmine fojsttt&to . qfi 
paatAi ettS ^acetuji ionge pluti^ foctettiiajBi 
puto . ^. <£amujd[ tarn . j^am oXmzfipeta^dt . tBi 
te^ \ihi fwxiVit tecta : ^m muititm alij^umujei . 
tttttn timg tOic contatemujsr « ^. %ti tgo te 

^Brpltont fielictter iS^fn Witgei tit> 
aiogujst itti %\tag& a f^Paltten . 

Denis, p. 688, n^ 6121, refers to Caes. GoiL JVeis. for a dateless edition 
in quarto ; but quaere if it be the one under description ? This fine 
copy is in red morocco binding. 

795. Vergerius (Petrus Paulus). De Ingenuis 
MoRiBUS, &c. Printed by Britannicus. Brescia. 
1485. Quarto. 

Although the present copy of this elegant little volume be defective 
in size and condition, it is nevertheless a rare book ; and the contents 
justly deserve that popularity, which previous and succeeding impres- 
sions warrant us in supposing was formerly attached to it. The type 
is round and legible, and is among the best specimens of the early 
firesda press. Neither Quirini nor Boni have noticed the existence 
of this book : see the L\bri Stamp. &c. t» Ital. Superior, of the latter ; and 
the Specimen Varia Literqturec Brianana of the former. Morelli has a 

5(5 MISCELLANEOUS. [Pari$; 1476. 

mere entry of the title, in the Bibl, Pmell. yoI. iii. p. 333. Maittaire 
18 more full and explicit; justly noticing that the impression con* 
tains also treatises of St. Basil, the Plutarch, and St. Jerom upon 
a similar subject. That of Vergerius begins on the recto of a ii, and 
ends on the recto of e iiii: a and b in fours, the rest in eights. The 
treatise of St. Basil, wrhich is translated fh>m the Greek into Latin by 
Leonard Aretin, begins on e iiii rect. and ends on the rererse of f ▼ : 
e haying eight leaves. The colophon is thus : 

Impressum Brixias per lacobum Britannicum 

Brixianum die. xxviiii. Nouembris. 



Then a blank leaf. The pre&ce of Guarinus Veronensis, upon Plutarch's 
treatise * De Liberis Educandis,^ follows, on sign. a. The treatise 
itself translated by Guarino, succeeds on the reverse of the same lea^ 
and ends on the reverse of b 8 : when that of St. Jerom presents us 
with * a brief admonition of the duties of Children towards their 
Parents.' This latter concludes on the reverse of the next leaf but 
one. Beneath the word * Finis,' is the colophon : 

Impressum Brixias per lacobum Britaimicum 

Brixianum anno domini. M.cccc.lxxxv. 

die septimo Decembris. 

The signature a has 8, and b 9, leaves. In russia binding. 

796. VoRAGiNE (Iacobus de). Historia Lom- 
BARDiCA^ SEU Legenda Aurea. Printed by 
Gering^ CrantZy and Friburger. Paris. 1475. 

It is not improbable that the present maj be the earliest impres- 
sion of this once much celebrated and yet amusing production. Denis, 
p. 42» n®. StQ6^ mentions a previous edition, of the date of 1474, so 
slightly, (and Panzer on the same authority, exclusively,) that, till we 
are &voured with a more satisfactory desaiption of it, we may give 
precedence to the volume before us. The Cat. de la FaUiere^ vol. iii. 

Paris; 1475.] VORAGINE [I. DEJ «r 

p. 84y n*. 4698, is the only authority quoted by Panzer for the existence 
of the present impression ; and La Caille and Marchand have alike 
omitted to notice it : although Cheyillier, in his second list of the pub- 
lications of the above printers, at page 69, mentions the present work 
and the Durandus, of the same date, both of which are printed in the 
gothic character.* We proceed to a brief, but sufficiently particular, 
account of this rare and interesting edition. 

A prokigue, succeeded by a table, occupies the first 3 pages, and a 
portion of the first column of the 4th page. The Valliere copy wanted 
the first kaf of this table. The second column of the 4th page, on the 
reverse of the 8nd kaf, has this prefix to the wcnrk : 

3[nt^piititt tosnttK $(ait(toe& ♦ ^ ipA^ 
mo i» tonpoce tettouattotiMt a^ttuc/ 
quoH ejft itfnientUjBt domttti . 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords; and a fitll 
page comprehends 45 lines. The legend of St. Thomas k Beckbt, on 
the 2^d leaf, is, in this copy, most dreadfully mangled and defaced. 
A few other blembhes also mark the present copy. On the recto of 
the SSlst leaf, beneath 5 lines of the text, on the first column, we read 
the ensuing colophon : 

f tttit atitea Segente aliajet ^Mtoeia 
{0190'^ai^tttCA tiocttata/ Mtcttn?* 
Sfmprefjfti f^aeiichusr pec tiftaicica 
seeing « Ai^attttta cran^ . et fl^tcj^ 
dem faSmtgn . %tmo tiotntttt 

The reverse is blank. Next follows an alphabetical table, preceded by 
a prologue ; in which the instructions for finding out the name or 
passage, referred to, shew the difficulties which are attached to old 
volumes, printed without numerals or signatures. This table, like 
the entire work, is executed in double columns, and terminates the 
volume at its 10th leaf. An indi£ferent copy; in old red morocco 
binding. Formerly in the Alchome Collection. 

* A &c-ninile of this type may be seen in the aoooiint of tiie Bible, by tiie above 
printers at toL i. p. 29. A beautifiil copy of the Daiandus, in tlie same type, was 
pmchaaed by Mcvrt. J. and A Arch, at the lale of the Merly library, for 112. lli. 8iM. 

58 MISCELLANEOUS. [Fhnrnce; 1497. 

797* Zenobius. Epitome Proveebioeum Tab- 
RHAEI9 &c. Gr. Printed by Philip Junta. 
Florence. 1497. Quarto. 

£ditio Princbps. We at length reach the Uut article in the copioui 
and perplexing department of Miscellaneous Authors. This first 
specimen of the Junta press enables us to make rather an interesting 
conclusion; since it was unknown to Fabricius, and has been 
so briefly described by Maittaire, that we may doubt whether he 
ever saw it. Jnnal, Typog. vol. L p. d37- Panzer, in his 4th vol. 
p. 313, has, by the aid of Fossi, (BUtL Magliabech. vol. ii. col. 841) 
given a much better description of it than in his first vol. p. 427* 
Bandini designates the edition as * very rare;' and. observes that, as 
well as the copy in his own library, there are copies in the Magliabecchi» 
Bodleian, and Royal Society, Collections. JrmaL Juatar. pt. ii. p. 1. 
He is tolerably particular in his description. BIr. Beloe, in his Jnec* 
dotes of Literature, ^. vol. iv. p. 35 1, has given some account of it ; justly 
observing, that the pi-efeitory epistle of Ricardinus, leads us to expect 
that the same editor contemplated an edition of Aristophanes (which 
he never published) and that the types of this impression * entirely 
resemble ' those of the Orpheus of 1500, noticed at vol. ii. p. 189 ante. 
They are, in fact, the same Greek characters with which the first 
Msopf and the first Homer are printed ; and it is extraordinary that 
the JuntsB should have made no other use of them before the year 1500. 
At least we have, at present, no testimony of such intermediate use of 

Bandini tells us that thb volume contains 65 leaves ; but there are 
66 leaves in the copy under description — as each of them is marked 
with a pen on the recto. It is evident that the prefatory epistle was 
printed subsequently to the body of the work — both because it has no 
signature, and because it contains a notice of errata. It is printed in 
a rude, and rather large Gothic character, having this prefix : 

tt3ilti ISeuerftia ! cIprMto tiomitm dUeotfpSi Wa 
« tj^fl tanonita florentiitu : at ^atcanft epi arrettnt 
trijpnljsitma: S^cnetiictt ntat^im flocentnti 

Florenee; 1497-] ZENOBIUS. 59 

Bimdini has reprinted all that is interesting in this preface, which bears 
date the 9th of October, 1 497* and ends on the recto of the second leaf. 
Beneath, we read a notice of errata, beginning thus : 

ffv TOO jffgoSroo rerga^ioo 

I shall give a short specimen of these Corrigenda — relating chiefly to 
an omission in the 5th leaf: 

ev TOO tsreftrloo* fvKKot) Ivjixgurloiflai hw'UpvrlovTois 

iv TOO avloa t fine prtmae paoinae ne^unt l^aec urriia» 

etsrira^s Ir^s yo§yo¥0$ Iviv xsfoAijy xof^l^elv • 

The errata may be said to contain two fiill pages : ending on the recto 
of the 3rd leaf. The general title to the work is on the recto of the 
ensuing leaf, sign. aX: 

t SHNOBi'or 'EnrroMH tx2n 





The signatures, to inclusively, run in eights. The proverbs are 
arranged in alphabetical order — as the prefixes of the respective 
capital letters evince. On the recto of 6 vij, the work concludes thus : 

12; 7^y h apyu ao^riSa xaiiXtiov o-e/xvuvelai. 6f /xiv 

hpiv fourh cTvai kv i^ni eunrl^ xodeXou/xcvijy 6- 

X^poiv xa) dtMrxa$otlperov* 

01 hi Xoyov ^oia\v ehou 

iv apyu rdov mimj 

axfJM^Maty vf 

avtcxoov ov 




TiXog . 


i¥ Tlj 

f Xa)pevT/« • 

• Sic. 

t Sk. 

vou IV. 


60 MISCELLANEOUS. [Florence ; 1 497* 

The reverse is blank ; and a following leaf should seem to form the 
Sth leaf of signature 6. The margins of the present copy of this exceed- 
ingly rare and estimable impression are much (but neatly) written up<m. 
It is, however, perfectly clean and sound, and in most desirable condi- 
tion. In russia binding. 



3ftalian Soob0. 

798. Aretino. (Leonardo Bruno) Historia 
FioRENTiNA. Printed hy lacomo de Rossi, 
(or lacohus Ruheus^. Venice. 1476. Folio. 

First Edition of the Italian Version of Aretino's History of Florence ; 
written originally in the Latin tongue. This elegantly executed 
Tolume was published very little more than three weeks before the 
printer of it put forth an Italian version of Poo6io*s Florentine 
History ;* and the copy under description is bound in the same volume 
with a copy of the latter work. Panzer is perhaps unnecessarily 
copious in his references, as this impression is by no means of rare 
occurrence. He properly corrects, however, the date of 1473 — assigned 
to the edition in the Finelli Catalogue.f See the Armal. Typog. vol. iii. 
p. 1 17> n^* ^41. The author of this version was Donato Acciaioli ; as 
we learn from the following prefix on sign, a [ii]. 



Lui In Yulgare Alliexcellentissimi Signori Priori Di Li- 

berta Et Gonfaloniere Di Giustitia Del Popolo Fioren 


* See article Poooio, post. 

t The date of the oompletioD of the version is mistaken for that a( the printing. 

64 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nfc. Ihde$cho 

On the re^rse begins the proheme of Aretin ; and on the recto of 
the fldlowing leaf, a. 5., at bottom, we read the title to the first book» 



The signatures, from a to x, run in tens ; except kk, (coming 
strangely after k, and the only double signature in the volume) which 
has only 6, and q with 12, leafw. On the recto of m IQ^ the colophon 
is thus: 

FINE Delduodecimo k ultimo libro della historia del 
Popolo Fiorentino composta da Messer Leonardo aretino 
in latino : Et tradocta ! lingua tosca da Donato Acci-^ 
aioli a di. xxvii. dagosto . Mcccclxxiii. Impresso a Yinegia 
perlo diligente huomo Maestro lacomo de Rossi 
di natione Gallo: Nellanno del Mcccclxxvi. a di 
zii. di Febraio: Regnante lo inclyto Principe Messer 
Piero Mozenico.* 


This is a sound and desirable copy, in old (foreign) red-morocco 

799. Berlinghieri (Francesco). Geografia. 
Printed hy Nicolo Todescho. Morenee. Without 
Date. Folio. 

Prima Edizionb. We are about to describe a volume of equal 
interest and rarity ; and such a magnificent copy of it as is the one 
under description is seldom seen in the most choice collections. Cle- 
ment may take the lead in our authorities. This bibliographer tells us 
that Raidelius, (who wrote an express commentary upon the edition of 
Ptolemy's Geography— noticed in vol. ii. pp. ^93-300) — knew nothing 

• It is curious to observe how difFerently some of the above words are spelt in the colo- 
phon to Poggio's veruon, publbhed witbiu so sUcMt a period aflerwardi. 

fFahoui Date.] BERUNGHIERI. 65 

of the present work but bom the brief mention of it by Maittaire in 
his Jtmal, Tifpog. vol. i. p. 757 : that he found it in no catalogue* and 
that he never could procure any printed copy of it : he was therefore 
obliged to content himself with a ms. copy in the library of Count 
Pertusati* A copy of it, however* is found in the Bibl. Barberin, voL i* 
p. 138. Alphonsus Lazor a Varea (continues Clement) in his Umo» 
Terror, Orb. Scriptor. calamo deUneahu, vol. ii. p. 566, col. 3, cites a 
Florentine edition of the date of 1470 ; but most probably upon mere 
conjecture. Crescimbeni mentions the author of this work* in his 
Comment 4c. deU, volgar, Poes, 1730, 4to. vol. iv. p. 46; and observes 
that the present impression of it was probably executed before the year 
1489, since the Duke d*Urbino, to whom it is dedicated, died in the 
course of that year.* Giulio Negri has noticed the author in his 
Scrittari Ftorentini^ Ferrar. 17^» fol. p. 185— observing that * he 
vigorously applied himself to the study of poetry and geography, and 
rejoiced only in transmitting to posterity the abundant and pleasant 
fruits of his labour — ^by translating the geography of Ptolemy, into 
elegant Italian verse; in a measure, at once natural, easy, soft, and 
agreeable.' Father Coronelli speaks with commendation of the fomily 
of Berlinghieri, m his Bibl, Unw. vol. v. col. 1177, &c. Such is the 
interesting notice of Clement: BihL Curieuse, &c. vol. iii. p. 189. 

Fontanini, and his annotator, Apostolo Zeno, have each mentioned 
this imcommon book ; the former observing that it b executed ' con 
gran barbaric d'ortografia, e dinterpunzione :* but, adds the latter, 
* dicaci egli per grazia, qual libro in lingua Toscana fosse stampato in 
quel tomo, che fii tra 1 1490 . e V 1500 . senza tali difetti e imper- 
fezioni.' Zeno informs us that Berlinghieri was both the disciple and 
friend of Marsilius Ficinus. Bibl. delV Eloquenz, Ital. vol. ii. p. 27^ 
edit. 1753. 

Notwithstanding these particular notices, and that there was a copy 
of the present edition in the Mazarine Library (according to Heineken), 
De Bure has omitted to introduce so curious and rare a volume into 
his Bibliogr. Instruct. What is more extraordinary, it is omitted by La 
Sema Santander. Brunet, however, is concise and correct: Manuel 
du Librairet vol. i. p. iir. Heineken has paid particular attention to 

* Heiiteken properly remarks that the Dedication is no proof of the year of printing 
any work, but is applicable only to that of its compositum. The Bologna Ptolemy is dedi- 
cated to Pope Alexander V. who died in 1410. J(Ue, ^c, p. 147. Heineken does not 
howtrtt appnte the above date of the printing. 

ee ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nic. Todeschor 

this ▼olmne; which he pronounces to be printed in a manner * sale 
et irr^uli^re :' he thinks also that the plates are much inferior to 
those in the impression of Budnck (vide Supflhibitt),* and that 
the artist, who was a goldsmith, having little or no practice with 
the hurvn^ has executed his work in a sufficiently careless manner. 
Idee G^hSrtde, &c. p. 146-8. 

This impression has also been frequently noticed in Catalogues; and if 
we begin with that of Capponij p. 58, we shall see a particular account 
of it — in which the authorities of Negri and Crescimbeni are likewise 
referred to. Catal. delta Librer. CapponU p* ^8. In the FUmcel Catalogue 
there is a judicious and instructive note upon this edition : the work 
is there called ' exceedingly rare and little known ;* and it is supposed 
that there is not another copy of it in such fine preservation as the 
one there described. ' Many bibliographers (it observes) have been igno- 
rant of the place where this book viras printed, and of the name of the 
printer ; and especially the author of the description of it in the Capponi 
Catalogue.* It proceeds to notice the value of the maps, gives a brief 
account of Berlingbieri, and quotes, in addition to the foregoing au- 
thorities, QuadrioandMazzuchelli. Librer. FUmcel. ^.223-9; n^3089. 
De Miu*r published an express treatise upon this impression* at Nurem- 
berg, 1790, 8vo. In the Crevenna, Pinelli, and La Valliere Catalogues 
(especially in the latter) it is fedthfuUy described ; but the supposed 
date of 1478, attributed to it in the Crevenna and La Valliere Cata- 
logues, seems to be incorrect; as the greater weight of authorities 
induces us to affix to it the year 1480, or 1481, or 1483. See Bibl. 
Crevenn. vol. iii. pt ii. p. 10 ; Bibl. Pinell. vol. iv. p. 372, n**. 1863 ; 
and Cat, de la Valliere, vol. ii. p. 514. Each of these copies was fine 
and perfect; but was sold at a very moderate price. The taste and 
better judgment of modem collectors would not suflFer a copy of so rare 
and interesting a volume to part from them under a very considerable 

Laire has been less copious, but equally feithfiil with the author of 
the description in the La Valliere Catalogue ; observing, very correctly, 
that the volume, to be perfect, should contain 133 leaves (including 
the last leaf of the register, which is sometimes wanting), and 31 
copper-plates; namely, 1 plate of the World: 10 of Europe: 4 of 
Libya : 4 of Africa : and 12 of Asia. The order of the signatures is 
so confused, that it is better to designate the copy, as perfect, by the 

• The &c-similes in the present article, and those in the one ahove referred to, will best 
•nable the reader to decide upon the oomparative merits of the originab. 

fFUhtmi Date.] BERUNGHIERI. 67 

namber of the leaves. Index Libror. vol. i. p. 95-6. Laire adds : * De 
hoc rarissimo libro multa disseruit Abbas Saint Leger» Lettres au Banm 
de Hesse, p. 13 ; sed non omnia conveniunt cum hae nostra descriptione.* 

It now remains to be as full and particular as our predecessors in 
the account of so valuable an impression. The title, printed in red, is 
on the recto of the first leaf, thus : 









ctione dele 

tauole di Ptolomeo. 

Cum sratta tt i^rtuilegto. 

On the reverse we read as follows, in black : 










• Sic. 

68 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nic. Todescho ; 

A table occupies the recto of the following leaf ; on the reverse is a 
poetical address to the Duke D*Urbino. On the recto of the ensuing 
leaf the version of Ptolemy ♦ begins thus : 


la lauriga di Tilano 
adorno El sagiptario 
g urtaua orientale 

Difiame acceso 
correggiando il giorno 
Candida quasi tutta 
ogni mortale 
la casta arnica 
anchor dendimione 

CO raggi et collo strale : 
Quando nella diuina uisione 

mosse dum yerde lauro el graue canto 

dogni terrestre et nota regione. 
Segui dipoi o muse o sacrosancto 

diuino appollo nella cui balia 

e posto luniuerso immenso tanto : 

Sec* oCC« oCC. 

On t})e conclusion of the Second Book there b a table of 4 leaves. 
A map of the world follows. As I have given specimens of two of 
the fVinds from Leonard Hoi's edition of Ptolemy, of the date of 1482, 
(see vol. ii. p. 301-4,) I shall, in the annbxed plate, present the 
reader with two of the Winds in the upper part of this large copper- 
plate ; premising that they are evidently from the design of no rude 

* The lid chap, of Berlinghieri corresponds with the 1st of Ptolemy i and so on, to 
the end. 

*imifr.r /■/■//-• WiW* w ri-- t'ir/i Map .-I' Ihf \\'pr\A:K- .t'a fprbon 't' iJw 

fFUhaut Daie.] BERUNGHIERI. 69^ 

artist. Tlie &c-siinile» beneath the winds, is a representation of 
Corsica, taken from the vith map of Europe; as it is the best 
specimen (which I could discover) that exhibits the peculiar manner 
in which the engraver executes both sea and land, I might have 
selected several other very singular specimens, but such copious 
illustration belongs rather to the history of Engraving; and even in 
submitting the accompanying plate (as in the account of the edition of 
Ptolemy, of the supposed date of 1469) I have done more than what 
will be found in the labours of preceding bibliographers. 

The remaining features of description need not be numerous. Each 
of the VII Books is accompanied by a table. The plates, in this copy, 
do not run consecutively, from beginning to end — but are disposed, in 
numerical order, in their appropriate places, with intervening pages of 
text. The conclusion of the viith Book — at the top of the second 
column, just before the table to the same book, is as follows : 

Ne fini script! in rap to alto k sourano 
dellato dcuropa 8c libya aprica 
k secondo etractati equal! babbiaDO 

De piu uctusti del la etate ant!ea. 

Then follow the table of 2 leaves, and the 3 last maps of Asia. The 
register occupies the recto of the last leaf, and shews tlie extreme 
irregularity of the order of the signatures. 

At the bottom of the register we read the colophon, thus : 

Impresso iniirenze per N!colo Todescho 

k emendato con somma dili 

gentia dallo auctore. 

The reverse b blank. I should observe (in case of fragments of this 
impression coming into the hands of the curious) that a full page con- 
tains 51 lines. It is agreed among bibliographers that, as the type of 
this impression exactly corresponds with the larger type of the Dante 
of 1481, and as the different modes of describing each printer (see 
post.) do not militate against their being the same person, each of these 
splendid volumes is considered to have been executed by the same 
individual, at the same press. The fine condition of this magnificent 
copy has been before mentioned. It is superbly hound by Mackinlay 
in russia leather. 

70 ITAUAN BOOKS. [Ger. ik Flandria ; 

800. Brunetto Latino. Il Tesoro. Printed by 
Gerard de Flandria. Treviso. 1474. Folio. 

Pbima Edizione. This is not only a very rare, but an exceedingly 
curious and desirable volume. The note below*^ may satisfy the reader 
of the justice of this remark, llils impression has been described by 
De Bure and Crevenna with brevity and accuracy ; but no copy of it 

* MaittaJre (as Panzer juAtly remarks) has erroneously described the work as if it were 
written in the Latin language ; but Crevenna, and more particularly Mr, Van Praet, have 
satisfactorily proved the contrary; and that its original tongue was ' Romais selonc le 
pattois de france/ The author was a Florentine, living in the xiiith century ; and he 
happened to be in France during the time of its composition. Bono Giamboni (as Crevenna 
and Tiraboschi remark) made the above Italian translation; * which is much esteemed and 
sought after in Italy, on account of the purity of its style.' In the CaL de la ValUere, 
vol. i. p. 435-7, there is a long and interesting article upon a MS. of this work, of the xivth 
century. This article, whkh was written by Mons. Van Pniet (the present very re- 
spectable and disfingui&hcd librarian of the Royal Collection at Paris) informs us that, at 
the end of the prologue, the scribe has copied the author's own words, thus : 

Et si auciis denumdoH porcoi cest Uures ett acript ftn £a 
Bomais selonc le pattois de france. fmimiue nM johnms 
ytaliens, je diroi que nos somes en franc lautre porceque 
la parleure ett plus delitahle et plus comune a tas 

* The work itself (says Mons. Van Praet) may be considered as the Encydopsedia of the 
ziiith century, since it treats of every thing.' It is pretended that Brunetto Latino took the 
idea of it from the ' Thesaurus ' of a Troubadour of the name of Pierre Corbian ; but proofs 
are wanting to establish this opinion^ This fine MS., which did not produce 60 livrcs at the 
aale of the Duke's libraiy , came from the collection of the celebrated Claude d^rfi§. 

The elegant and instructive Gingnene has not only noticed the preceding particulars, but 
has given a brief account of the work Hsplf ; which, he seems disposed to admit, might have 
furnished Dante with a few ideas for his Divina Commedia, Gmguen^ tells us, also, (on 
the authority of Tiraboschi) that on his return to Florence, Brunetto composed his Tesoretto 
(or Small Treasury) in the Italian tongue ; which b not, as many have imagined, an 
abridgment of his Tesoro, (or larger work,) but only a collection of moral precepts, in rhyming 
eouplets of seven feet. The Tesoro, on the other hand, is a sort of abridgment of a part of the 
Bible, of Pliny the Elder, of Solinus, and of other autliors who have treated of various 
sdeuces. Ginguen^ further remarks that the Royal Libraiy at Paris contains 12 copies of 
the original French MS. of this latter work ; and that a singularly beautihil one b in the 
Vatican library, with someras. notes of Petrarch. Thb latter copy belonged in the xvth 
century, to Bernardo Bi'mbo, who bought it in Gascony :— according to a memorandum, 
in the hand-writing of Bembo, upon the first leaf of it Consult the Histoire Litt^raire 
d^ItaUe, vol. i. pp. 384-386 ', 490-491 : vol. ii. p. 27. A copy b aUo in theBritbh Museum. 

IVwUo; 1474.] BRUNETTO. 71 

will be fband in the Capponi, Floncel, CroffcB, or La Valliere Colke* 
tions. The copy of it in the Gaignat Catalogue, yoI. i. p. 604, n^ ttl5^ 
is described as * petit in fbl.;^ but the Crevenna copy is noticed to 
be * as perfect and fine as can be wished* Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iv. p. 
849-250: edit. 1775. FEwzer, probablj relying; up^n the £uth of 
Crevenna, informs us that, to be complete, the volume should contain 
125 leaves. Jnnal. Typog, vol. 1. p. 32. See also the Bibliogr. Insiruci. 
vol. iv. p. 291. We now proceed to a description of so scarce and desir- 
able an impression. 

The prefix or title to the table is as follows : 

^itt comtnda la touola « nel tejloto tie 
^ 5)foiinetto latino tii fioren$^ : el g^^ 
psxtito d inio toolume in tee iidct. 

This table occupies the first 5 leaves ; but, in the Crevenna copy, 
these leaves were transposed to the end of the impression. 

On the recto of the 6th leaf, we read the first prefix to the first book, 

4Riitinel^omtncia d te$(oto iii f^ 95ntnetto 
latino tii fften^e « € pada tid nojBtiinSto 
e iieQa natura tn tute le coile . taj^ pimo 

The work is uniformly printed in 2 columns^ having 44 lines in a full 
page. The letter is rather elegant, and perfectly clear and legible : it 
is also a very early specimen of the Gothic type of Gerard de Lisa. 
Towards the bottom of the first colimm, and just before the prefix to 
the last table — on the reverse of the last leaf but one — we read 

^ttt ntdkt d tejeioro tt Jbet SC^tunetto. 

The last line, on the recto of the last leaf, furnishes us with the date of 
the impression : 

% €ciuije(o atii. x^l tuObtio. 9^. tttt. Ijntitti 

The name of the printer (as Panzer justly observes) is obtained from 


72 ITALIAN BOOKS. [TYevito; 1474. 

the following venes subjoined to those given in the note below,* 
which, it is luurdljr necessary to say, could not possibly be written by 

^utui tnt otcot^t <&xattMt f\at6ttinn 
SDti^qtno et arte ^msA turn )io Hire 
^ phi t|dl 0ran Cl^ootl^ 9 trio * Xatino 

€tta tiogita ton jsttta arte tiol fintre 

* Rbposta di Date a Ser Brunetto latino 
ritrouado da lui nel quintudecimo canto 
del suo iuferno. 
Di letida e dolor tatto comosao 

partiami rimebrando o Ser Brunetto 
Lo antiquo uizegno a tal soolgio peroosso 
Andando oltra dicea tra me soletto 
Quato laspro voltar dc duri delli 
Pno far ddente Ihuomo e puol fiu* lieto 
O dio che ci fonnasti puri e belli 
Come e cocesso al alma santa e pura 
£ piu : dotata de costumi snelli 
Contaminar tal resta* e iarsi obacura ? 
Che se colpa condana tanto errore 
Biammn tropo asuo cicl prona naturm. 
Cbe qnanto Ihuom e con magior femore 
Espinto da ragion s^guir lo drito : 
Tanto natura gliofusca el valore. 
CoBsi lassauo Rubel maledito 

Pesando ognor par quel dolente cboio 
Che ancor vezo co gliochi : e toco adito, 
£ vezo et odo anchor dir tia coloro 

Che ano sugieto ragion a sua voglia 
: : Siati ricomidato el mio Thesoro. 
Propta dunqi al seguJr : che no mi nolgia 
Po9cia chio ritomai douc Minerua 
Phiesole adoma di Athene Ic spolgia: 
La qual tristo laviai perche proterua 
AC panie aliquato : che tardo imparai 
Felice in dir chl molto in se riserua : : 
Done partito. e piancendo ne andai 
La done Sile el bel paese acolta 
£mpie Tauriso di olgio e graiio assoi 
Amadona del mar oorrendo inuotta 
Come suo fiindo da ftrina e vino 
Legname fruti et altra farra oiolta. 
(Then the tenet at above,) 

fFUkolit Date.] BOCCACao. f 8 

^fetcl^e tntlTe per )iti €i|e^or if i troni 
^(colt &tti oquieta d gran U0itt 
'Calcfie come Gnwe tt rtnous 


There are neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords. In the 
whole, 125 leaves. It is well known to bibliographers that Girardo 
FUmdrino^ Gerardus de Flandriti, and Gerardus de Lisa, are one and the 
same person. The copy mider description is perfect, large, and bound 
in green morocco. 

801. Boccaccio.* Il Decamekone. fVithout 
Name of Printer y Placey or Date. Folio. 

This is probably the third edition of the Decameron of Boc* 
CACCio; and is known by the designation of the Deo Gratias impressioii 
— these words being printed on the recto of the last leaf, beneath the 
4th concluding line of the text. In the present copy such termination is 
wanting ; but it is supplied by MS.: beneath which we read the printed 
words — IL FINE — evidently of modem date, and dissimilar to the 
capital letters in the body of the work. In calling this edition the 
third, I would be understood to consider the impression of Valdarfer, 
of 14/1, as the first; and that by Peter Adam de Michaelibus, of 1473» 
as the second; while the supposed Venice and Florence editions, of 
1470, must be treated as non-entities. The note below f will shew 

* Tlie article * Boccaccio ' should have preceded * Bnmetto Latino.' 

t It may, in the first place, not be immaterial to obsenre, that the above edition under 
description is the very one placed by bibliographers as anterior even to the supposed im« 
pressions of 1470. What Haym and MaszocheUi, and others hare inserted, seems to have 
been copied from Buonamid. The following is the sobatanoe of Haym and M'!*nifMH : 
' this edition u the first, or one of the first--in small folio, without notification of phice, Jfv, 
or printer — without title to the beginning, or to any of the novels— without numerals or 
registers— and the verses which are at the end of each Day, are extended like proses At 
the end of the volume there appears only < Deo Gnuaas.' This edition (continues Haym) is 
much esteemed, and very rare ; being printed aooording to the MS. of Francesco Maneili, 
which b the best and most ancient extant BibL Ital voL iil p. 5, no. 1. Scrittari d^htMtu 
vol. iL pt ill p. 1341. In the Jmrwd des Saamt, voL Ixxxii, p. 200, (Amst 1727) it is 
thus observed: ' h was towards the year 1470, that the first edition of the Decamota 
appeared. It b m folio, without name of printer,, pbce, or date. It differs a little finom the 
text of Manelli; and if the printer had been less careleM and negligent, it might have been 
•ooaderedasooeofthe best, and inferior only to the impreMWOs of 1573 and 158S. 

74 ITMJAN BOOKS. [fFUhottt JPUce, 

upon what data iliia conclusion ib drawn. As 'to the tatact period of 
the present impressiony it will be difficult to qpeak with decision : but 
we may confidently affirm that there is evidence of the existence of the 

latter, being a veiy close copy of the text of Maoelli, is coniddered by Buonamid as tlie best 
yet published. 'Buonamid in his RaceoUo ^Ojnucdi 9eieni^ici, torn. L p. S79, says, * about 
the year 1470, the Decameron was first printed in folio. It neither apecifies the plaoe« nor 
the printer's name : no copy of such first edition is fimnd in which the time, place, or 
printer's, name can be discovered.' Fabridus, in his Bibl, Med. et Ittf. JEtat, toL i p. 684b 
edit 1734, quotes Buonamid, and the Journal de$ Savons, A. 1797. Juul p. 198. BM, 
An. 17d0, Septemb. p. 49 — and M^. de Trewntx, A. 1727, p. 1611. Upon the wholes 
this FIRST (dateless) editiun seems of most doubtful existence. 

In the second place, the supposed editions of 1470«one at Venice, and the other at 
Florence— have no stronger claims to our belief. They are inserted by Maunichelli and 
Haym in a very brief and superficial manner, apparently upon the authority of the Catalogue 
of the MSS. and Printed Books of Bishop More — attached to tiie Catalog, Ubror, Ma, 
Anglia: et Hibemia, 1697, fol. pt. ii. p. 381, no. 82 ; where it is thus briefly described : ' U 
Decaroerone di M. Boccaodo. Venetia. 1470, fol. .-* but Morchaud, Clement, and Panaer, 
disbelieve the existence of such an edition. The present one is supposed to be anterior to 
Valdarfer's, and to have been executed at Florence, m the year 1470 ;•— with what jostioey 
will be presently shewn. 

By the kmdness of my friend, Mr. Roger Wilbraham, (whose knowledge as well ai bve 
of every thing rare and curious connected with Italian literature, will be readily •Himff f^ 
by those who know biro,^! have been &voured with a particular aoooont of this copy in the 
collection of Bishop More— now in the Public Library at Cambridge : which account I give 
fai the wurds of Mr. Wilbrahara. ' In the public Library at Cambridge, b that copy 
of the edition of the Decamerone of Boccacdo, mentioned by Manni in his TUoria del 
Deeamerone. It b certain that Manni never saw it ; but that he takes his account of it 
finom the Catak)gue of the MSS. of England and Ireland, par. l torn. f. p. 381, No. 82. It 
is there noted as one ot Bp. Moore's books, and said to be printed at Veiuce in 1470. From 
what authority- it is put down with that notice of place and year, I am wholly ignorant ; for 
it has no mention of either the one or the other. It is deficient in one leaf at the beginning ; 
oontttiiiing what may be supposed the title on one side of the leaf, and a few lines of the 
proemio on the other side, and in three ptges at the end : these are supplied by MS.; one leaf 
is wanting also near the end. It is {nrinted ui>a round character, very old, in two columns^ 
no catchwords or numbers to the pages, no number to each novel or each giomatOf but 
simply the title of it.' 

Mr. Wilbraham further remarks, that it seems to be the same as the dateless editioa 
described by Mazzuchelli, as ' the first, or one of the first ' But finom his own further 
account, I liifller from such crjuclusion : fir>t, it is printed in double columns— and no notice 
of this is taken by bibliograpbei's : secondly, it has the title before every novd, contrary to 
his description : thirdly, there are initial letters at the beginning of each novel, but they are 
small oneii, to be enlarged by the illuminator ; and fourthly, although the verses at the end 
of each novd are written in the form of prose, as Mazzuchelli and Haym denote, yet tha 
* Deo Gratias' is not only not added in print, but is defective in ms. also. The three last 
pages m ms.,seem to have been supplied (as Mr. Wilbraham observes) from some other 

arlkOe.] BOOCAGCIO. Ji 

Ibantof letter, with niiichit is executed, ki the fiippokiui ondLeonora, 
printed hj Gerard de Lisa, in 147 1» at Treviso— in the Damte^ priotad 
at Mantua in 147S-*and in the VvtgUt printed at Bresda in 1473 1 ^ee 

Clement, 2^61. Cwriaue, torn. Vr. 348, note 9t, quotes Bibl. des Romuis da C. Gordon de 
Parcel, t B. p. 286^, and Bfutshand, £Bir. dt Nmp. p. 101, noteviii; battbis latter, in* 
aocorately ; m Afarchand speaks only of the sapposed Venice edition ef 1470. lldttdbv 
knaw notUng of tliis Fkwenoe editkm. Aodiffiredi, EdU, /to/, p. fS7, ghres as a cnriooa 
piece of information. He says, tbat Manni, who edited an edition of the Deoameran inl74f, 
tbos observes upon a supposed edidon of 1470, mentioned by Fabridos (p. 623) : ' in like 
manner, in the year 1470, an edition is supposed, by Fabridas, to hare been executed pt 
Florence in 1470 : it seems certain that an edition of that year is found in several libn|rie| 
wkkautyear and place ; which is thought to be the first.' This, it must be confessed, is nitber 
a strange mode of elgcidatigo ! Panzer, AtmaL Typog. vol iv, p. 4, quotes Focit,. I. c 1 1. p. 
375 (see above) ; in addition to Benif, Clement, and AucUffiredL 

We may again conclude, that the copy in the collection of Bishop More was not only nei 
frmted at Fhrenee hi 1470, but tlutf, from its being printed in double columns, it u of a 
date at least two or three years more recent The tasteful Ginguen^ has avoided all men- 
tion of the knotty subject of the first printed text of the Decamerun. So much more inviting 
is a description of the subject, ttua of the impressions, of the Cent Nouvelles! Hittoin 
LUUrmkre ^Itatie, voL iii. ch. xn* Ta refute the existence at the sapposititious Venetian 
edition of 1470, is wasting the time both of the reader and myseifl I proceed therefore to 
a very particular and &idifnl description of what I conceive to be the leoitimatb pikst 
EDITION, printed byValdaifer in 1471 : premising that this description has already appeared 
among my friends, in a small tract, privately printed, to the number of 36 copies only, and 
entitled ' Book Rarities.' It was taken fitm an examination of the copy in the llbnurj 
of the late Duke of Boxburghe, and now in that of the Marquis of Blandford— and it has 
recently appeared in the privately printed Catalogue of the Marquis's own Books :— bat I 
shaU be justified in daiming my own property, or availing myself of my former laboors. Hie 
description stands thas» in the aathorities just mentioued : 

Boccaccio. 11 Deeamerone. Frmted hy Chfistopher Faldarfer. {Venetut.y 
1471. Folio. 

First Edition. The reader will be pleased to examine what is said of the subsequent 
impression, before be qnesdons the propriety of pbcnag this edition in its present order >— 
he will observe finom thence, that De Bore, although be had never seen a copy oT it, waa 
justified m giving precedence to the typographicai labours of Valdarfer: BibL Jrutruet, 
vol. iv. na 3654. Maittaire, AnnaL Tyfog, vol L p. 306, was the first who gave the oofe* 
phon, or subscription, of the present edition^ which, it b probable, he took from thb very 
copy: as may be gathered from the note below. This subscription is not literdly correct : 
nor are those of Clement, De Bure, Panser, and La Sema Santonder; who probably all 
copied Maittaire. It is supposed that Marchand alludes to the present hnpression, what 
be speaks of some one having given ' a hundred guineas* for the Boccaccio of 1471 f 

• Mr. Bdoe has told the foUoving aneodoCe, oo the aut^Kiri^of Mr. G. Niool: • Tba 

76 ITALIAN BOOKS. [WUhaut Place. 

a facHsimile of the latter in vol. ii. p. 473 of this work. It follows, 
therefore, that the impression before us might have been executed in 
* 1471» as well as in 1473 ; but the safer conclusion will be in feivour of 
the latter year. 

Biit. de flmpfim. p. 102^ Haym •btonlly nodcei it as the fourth in his liit, and as 
ooDtaining correctiQns and enlargements which have been afterwards altered and omitted : 
he tells ns too, that ' the tale of Masetto da Lamporeochio u in particular corrected f BikL 
ItaL vol. ili. p. 5-6, edit. 180S. 

The public are now presented, for the first time, with a correct and nunute account of 
this edition ; not less distinguished for its almost unparalleled rarity, than for its intrinsic 
worth and curiosity. 

There is no title prefixed : but the work begins on the recto of the first leaf, thus :— • 
premising that every book in the list of chapters, has a headHitle printed in a dnular 
manner, in capital letters : 


Viai inoomida la prima g^mata del 

dicamerone nel quale doppo la demon- 

stradone facta del auctore perche ca^one 

aduenisse didouersi quelle persone che 

appresso si dimostrano ragunate ad ragiooare in/ 

sieme : Sotto il regimento di Pampinea si ragiona 

di quella materia che piu agradisde ad ciascuno 

C ome Pampinea oonforta le compagnie ad usdre 

dela terra 
C ome le donne udita pampinea alchuna diloro 

respuose & ultimamente ri accordarono al dicto 

C ome le donne stando nella chiesa di tal ragi- 

ouare uideno uenire linfirascripti tre giouani 
C ome udito il parlare di pampinea di conoordia 

elessono lei loro r^ina per la prima giomata 
C ome pampinea focta regina ordino 11 officii & 

iiiche modo douessino uiuere 
C ome per oumandamento della regina la brigata 

si soUaza et puoi uanno ad magnare & doppo 

C ome laregina foce leuar tutta la brigata 
C ome laregina oomanda che daschwia dica 

una nouella 

above copy of the Decameron came into the hands of a London bookseller, who shewed it 
to Lord Oxford and Lord Sundi*rland, (the great collectors of books and competitors for 
rare publications in their time—) and demanded a kiaidred gumeat as the price of it. 
•Whilst tliey were deliberating, an ancestor of the Duke of Roxborghe saw and porchased 
the volume,' &c. AntcdoUi of Litemttire ami iSbarcc Booh; voL vL p. 234. 

fFUhmU Daie.] BOCCACCIO. 77 

The recto of the firet leaf of the present copy begins thus, &t top : 

. PRIMA . 


Yiui icomicia la prla giornata del decamerone nela 

qle doppo la derndstratione facta del auclore pche 

cagione adueisse didouersi quelle psone che appresso 

si dimostrano raguanre* ad ragionare insieme : Sotto il 

regimeto di Papinea si ragiona di quella materia che 

piu agradiscie ad ciascuno . 

These are the first niue heads of chapters, without any Roman nomeralt at the end of 
each : the tenth and every renaining chapter having them. The^rst hook has xxii marked 
chapters ; the tecond hook has chapter \x at the termination ; but the numerab run thus«— 
xxiiii, xxvi, xxviii, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxviii, xliii, L, Ivi, Ix : there arc, however, only eleven dis- 
tinct sections, or heads of chapters : the third hook lias Ixxxxii attached to the la^t head or 
section, the preceding being numbered in a like irregular manner: the fourth hook hat 
.cxvii: the Jifih .cxliiii : the sixth .civ : the tevaUh .dxxviii : the eigJuh : the niiUh 
.ocxxvi : the tenth .ccliiii. These heads of chapters occupy the first seven leaves.t On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, it begins thus : 



ecome che ad ciascuna persoa stia bene : 

ad coloro masnamente e richesto: li- 

quali gia hanno dioonibrto hauuto 

mistieri. &c hanok> trouato inalcuno fra iquali 

se alcuno mai nhebbe : ogli fu caro o gia neri' 

duette piadere : lo sono uno di quelli perdo che 

dala mia prima giouanezxa in sino adquesto 

tonpo : oltra nodo essendo stato aoceso da altis^ 

simo & nobile amore furiose piu assai chdamia 

basn ooditione no parebbe narrandolo io laru 



The following is the oondusioo of the text, with the colophon 4 

• Sic. 

t Brunet says (describing, I presume, tlie copy in the Royal Collection at Paris) that ' m 
blank leal' follows these seven introductory ones ; but there is no such leaf in theRoxbiu^he 
copy. He alM remarks that the work concludes on the rever$e of the 257th folb ; but it 
will be teen, firom the above account, that in this point too he differs from the above 
description. Consult his Manuel du Libraire; tom. i. p. 141. 

X A friend has supplied me with a translation of this conclusion. The colophon seems 
almost to defy intdligiUe translation. 

' And now, leaving every one to speak, believe, and think as he pleases, it is time to pat 
an end to my discourse; humbly thanking him, who after so lone a labour, hath by his 
assistance brought it to the wbhed for encH And ye, agreeable ladies, with his grace ■'•m*^ 
in peace ; and i percfaance any of ye benefit by what ye have reed, remember me.' 

7S ITALIAN BOOKS [fViihtmi Date. 

The heads of the chapten immediately follow : but like the preceding 
edition, the first eight heads of chapters are without Roman numerals 
at the end ; and the ninth is irregularly numbered viii. Seven leaves 
are devoted to these heads of chapters: the last chapter having 

£t laaciido omai addaacbedima dire & cre- 
dere & pennre eome lipare : tepo e dapor fine 
ulle parole : oolai hamilmete rigratiado che dopo 
siluga &tica oolsoo oiuto nha aldesideralD fine 
Godocto. £t noi piaoenoli doue c6 lasua ptiiim 
i pace uirunanete: dime rioordadoni sefivae ad 
alcuna oosa gioua hauerle lecte : 

I O son Vn cerchb dor che dnxxucrine 

Cento giemme figiadre : inchid sbtila 

Le oriental perle : chanoda e perfik 

Le tosche lin^e pelegrine & dhie. 
P £ro qnal cercha lombre disnu RIoe. 

Mi cholga Inpreiso : cbe amor mi poiCifai 

Vofltre doloeae : epar che anchor sfiinifai 

Gioco e miserie di qnalnnche Vfoe. 
M Eser giouan bochacio el primo Antora 

Fu di mie prose e di quel bel paeae 

Che marte uenero per degno bonoreu 
C Hrbto&l Valdarfer Indi minprese 

Che naque in radspona : il choi folgore 

Daldel per gratia infra mortal diseae 
Se donque di mi amese 
V cstir uoleti isuono ad ogni spirto 

£1 mio Vulgar che oma diloro e mirto 

According to the andent ink-nmnbered folios of the Roxbor^ieoopy, this edition contains 
two hundred and sixty leaves, exclugvely of the seven leaves of heads of chapters. It is 
printed in long lines in the Roman letter, and has neither numerals, signatures, nor catch- 
words. A full page contains 40 lines, and is a little more than dght inches and a half in 
length, and five and a quarter in width. The entire length of a leaf, induding the top and 
bottom margin, b nearly deven inches and a half; in width, nearly eight. The dots of the 
i's are frequently omitted ; and the initial letter of every chapter is supplied by an iliumi- 
nated one. 

As Valdarfer was the printer of thb volume, it was probably executed at Venice, among 
^ earliest productions of his press. But considering the great credit of Carbona, who 
was hb chief, if not only, corrector, it is somewhat surprising that the preceding extracts 
were not more accuratdy printed. Consult Dkt, BibL Choisi ; voL L p. ISO, 212. See 
also the Preface to the CataU^ue of the Library of the Late John Duke rfRoxburghe, 1807» 
Sfo. p. 10. 

When the preceding description was written, I little imagmed that the book then under 
my eyes would cue day be disposed of at the enormous sum of 2260L\ but this, it u weU 

Wiihaui Date.] BOCCACCIO. 79 

reference to folio . cc : 1 . This copy being imperfect. Lord Speneer 
has remarked that, after the heads of the chapters, a leaf is wanting : 
*the prehce in the Aldine edition of 1522 — ^beginning " Humana cosa 
^** and ending " a lor piaceri" — is here omitted.' The recto of the 
following leaf commences thus» at top : 

Yantuque uolte gia gratiosissime 8c nobi/ 

lissime donne mecho pensando riguardo 

quanto uoi naturaloiete tutte pietose siate 

tanto cogQOsco che lapsente opra aluostro 

giudicio hara graue 8c noiosa principio : sicome 

ladolorosa ricordatione dela pestifera mortalita 

trapaffata uniuersalmete ad ciaschuo che quella 

uiddeo altrimete cogDobbe danosa 8c lagrimeuole 

molto : La^l essa porta nela sua frote. 8cc. 

Another deficiency of one leaf appears at fbl. 31 : and the following 
leaves — ^fblios 171> 189, 198, 239, and 249, are also wanting. ' Also 
the peroration (says Lord Spencer) contained in the edition by Aldus, 
of 1522, — beginning " Nobilissime Giorani'* — and ending *' giova 
harerle lette" — ^is here wanting : namely, between the two last leaves* 


There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and a fuH 

known, was the mm at which its present possessor ohtsdned it, at the sale of the Boxborghe 
library. The Marqnu was regolariy and firmly opposed, in hu biddings, by the NoUe 
Owner of the copy above described. The diarro, however, of its being unique has ceased 
to operate. Another copy, not perfect, is tn the Blenheim Collection ; and a third, ui fine 
oonditkni, wanting only one leaf of the table, is in the Royal Library at Paris. It u mider- 
stood that a fourth copy is in the possession of a well known Collector at Mihm. 

It remuns, in the last place, to notice the second edition, with a date, which was printed 
by Petrus Adam de Michaelibus, inl472 ; and of which the colophon is as follows— «ooord- 
ing to the Catalogo delia Libreria Capponit p. 66 : In fine : ' Jo: Boccaccii poetae lepidiss. 
decameron : opus facetum : Mantuae impressmn : cum ejus florentiss. urbis prindpatum 
felidss. ageret diuus Ludouicus gonxaga secundus. Anno ab origine Christiana Mococlxzii. 
Petrus adam de Michaelibus ehisdem urbis Civis imprimendi auctor.' A copy of this veiy 
uncommon edition u in the Blenheim Library. Both Mazzuchelli and Haym call it ' very 
rare,' and no other copy of it, I believe, exists in thb country. It should seem from 
Pknzer, vol iL p. 3, no. 1, that this edition of the Decameron was the first book execated atf 


ITALIAN BOOKS. IfFkkamt Date. 

yi|f« isMilAiiMi 4 1 Unit, (hippoflng the GO|fjr to be perfect^ there should 
Im «4ftft iMivMf exclufttvdjr of tboie of the introductory chapters ; or» 
WA III \\w wiMile. '{"he recto of the lift leaf preients uf only with the 
fiillmvliiK I 

giiiilu tirl cliMcrcU) ro uerio firezc siritornarono 
Ul iiro Kioimiii IttNcinto leaepte donne insanta 
nmiia iioiiolla cloiiUc c5 lore partiti serano da 
raiir at oiiimtaU^i alluro altri piaceri attesero : k, 
raw' i)\iadu It^pt) \k\x paruo icuetoruarono alle lor 

mit« 1^^ «\>i^HM I^^R^t» i^vvi^ lliM» eannal l» itcemd a» ^ 
#^VM>i^ ^w w<>»^U \Mt IW^ vdillMA ; ainU whiMa VVwtt telb u» Ihodt the fina 
l\N^ Wa^v« ^Mf IW^ |:<MftU^ ^ IW Omaw' <Mlilam oMilaia tiie ifl^icL — 
Mm ^m iW Mk^ )wfi^ IW le\t Wyifc^ that «K^ «ifiicaML canpcvkauis 
>^)^ WaH^f«k auMl iWm iImiv axv ^miI^ M 1Im» la a paj g e fe » c«rt;;iiit£« 

M^ w^vhnVk «mA ¥f«Mfc iW ^ lialf ift iftit trihmuiip tiOMgn^cuu 
%^«j|^^M >4i <^ NvMr \^a«MC : ^ Kte «tffeiiMa Mit :jii» ]>Mamtiron > 
il<<y^^/<Mft^ w> V ya^NkM ^jKma nW ^hmt IC^ Ifc w^ mtsn* ?aiti, lou 
^|j#^H uaM«x<i^ t)a blir CN\h RNw tihifi pmKMii iu l^^^ a 'iM iuus«: 


Padua; 1472.} BOCCACCIO. 81 

802. Boccaccio. La Fiammetta. Printed by 
Martinus de Septem Arbarilms Prutenius. 
(Padua.^ 1472. Quarto. 

Prima Edizionx. It is rather surprising that both Laire and Fosd 
should refer to De Bure (Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iv. p. 110, n^ 3748) 
for a description of this exceedingljr rare and elegant edition, when 
such description is not only brief and superficial, but it is evident that 
De Bure had never seen a copj of the impression. See the Index 
Libror. vol. i. p. 265-6. Fossi, however, is copious and particular: 
BU>L MagUabecK voL i. coL 380-1 . Maittaire depends entirely upoa 
the Catal. Seidel. p. 373, n**. 77S- AnnaL T^pog. vol. L p. 321, note 
10. Panzer notices the error in the Capponi Catalogue^ p. 71f where 
this edition b designated as of the date of 1473. An ingenious and 
accurate note in the BUd. Crevenn. vol. iv. p. 190-1, refutes the suppo- 
sition of De Bure, that a dateless edition (alleged to be of the year 
1470) is anterior to the present: * Qu*il nous soit permis (says 
Crevenna) de kd dire que nous doutons tr^ fort que telle Edition 
puisse toe la poemi^re'*-* et que ceUe, que nous annonfons id, soit 
v£ritablement la premiere de cet ouvrage.' Edit. 1775, 4to. A * superb 
copy' of it was in the PineUi CoUection : Bibl. PmeU. vol. v. n*. 3251. 
We now proceed to a particular description of this precious volume. 

On the recto of the first leaf we read as follows : 


Vole amiseri crescere di dolersi 
uageza qndo dise discernano 
o sentaoo conpasion i alcuua 
Adooche . che a cio in me uo/ 
lutarosa piu che altra a doler# 
mi : dico che per longa usaza 
• Si& Sec. Sec. Sec. 

80 ITALIAN BOOKS. [fTti/umi DaU. 

page oontaiDs 41 lines. Supposing the copy to be perfect, there should 
be S55 leares, ejiclusively of those of the introductory chapters ; or» 
S^ in the whole. The recto of the last leaf presents us only with the 
following : 

guida del discreto re uerso fireze siritomarono 
£t itre giouani lasciate lesepte donne insanta 
maria nouella donde co loro partiti serano da 
esse acomiatatisi alloro altri piaceri attesero : 8c 
esse quado tepo lor parue seoetoroarono alle lor 

A m^. line ensues, thus : 

Deo Gratias. 

Beneath which, in print, we read 


But, for reasons before given, these cannot be received as genuine 
accompaniments of the edition ; and when Fossi tells us that the first 
two leaves of the genuine * Deo Gratias * edition contain the index- 
that on the 5th jiege the text begins — ^that such edition comprehends 
253 leaves, and that there are only 40 lines in a page — it is certainly 
erroneous to designate the pretent as such edition. See the B\bl, 
Magliabech, vol. i. p. 375. Upon the whole, I am compelled to leave 
the reader to his own unassisted conclusion. This copy is bound in 
blue morocco; and upon the fly leaf is the following observation 
written by its Noble Owner: * This edition of the Decameron is 
supposed to be printed about the year 1470. It is very rare, and 
differs materially in the text from that printed in 1522, in the house 
of Aldus and Asulanus, at Venice/ 

Padua; 1472.} BOCCACCIO. 81 

802. Boccaccio. La Fiammetta. Printed by 
Martinus de Septem ArborUms Prutenius. 
(Padua.^ 1472. Quarto. 

Prima Edizionx. It is rather surprising that both Laire and Fossi 
should refer to De Bure {BibUogr. Instruct, vol. iv. p. 110, n**. 3748) 
for a description of this exceedingljr rare and elegant edition, when 
such description is not only brief and superficial, but it is evident that 
De Bure had never seen a copj of the impression. See the Index 
Libror. vol. i. p. 265-6. Fossi, however, is copious and particular : 
BU>L MagUabtcK voL i. col. 380-1 . Maittaire depends entirely upoa 
the Catal. Seidel. p. 373, n**. 77S. AnnaL Typog. vol. L p. 321, note 
10. Panzer notices the error in the Capponi Catalogue^ p. 71» where 
this edition b designated as of the date of 1473. An ingenious and 
accurate note in the BUd. Crevenn, vol. iv. p. 190-1, refutes the suppo- 
sition of De Bure, that a dateless edition (alleged to be of the year 
1470) is anterior to the present: * Qu*il nous soit permis (says 
Crevenna) de lui dire que nous doutons tr^ fort que telle Edition 
puisse toe la psemi^'*-' et que ceUe, que nous annonfons id, soit 
v£ritablement la premiere de cet ouvrage.' Edit. 1776, 4to. A * superb 
copy* of it was in the PinelU CoUection : BibL Pinell. vol. v. n*. 3251. 
We now proceed to a particular description of this precious volume. 

On the recto of the first leaf we read as follows: 


Voie amiseri crescere di dolersi 
uageza qndo dise discernano 
o sentaoo conpasion i alcuua 
Adooche . che a cio in me uoi 
lutarosa piu che altra a doler# 
mi : dico che per longa usaza 

' Sic OCC* oCC» oCC. 

82 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua ; 1472. 

The first chapter begins on the recto of the following leaf. After a 
prefix of S lines, in capital letters, we read the opening of it thus : 

el tempo nel qle la reuestita terra piu che 

tuto laltro ano si mostra bella da pareti 

nobili j>creata ueoi io nel mondo da benigna 

fortua habudeuole riceuuta. O maledeto ql 

giorno ame piu che niuno altro nel qle io na^ 

oCC* oCC« oCC* 

A full page, dirested of capitals and spaces, contains £5 lines. There 
are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. On the recto of tUe 
132nd and last leaf, we read the following text and colophon : 

soto quel la cerchate . di sotrarce si siamonele 
aduersita antiquati che cum quelle spalle cum le 
quale le magiore cose habiamo sostenute e so^ 
steniao sosteneremo li minori . Et per cio entra 
doue la uole . uiue adoq; nuUo ti puo di questo 
priuare exemplo eterno e ai miseri dimora dele 
angoscie dila tua donna . 







BAR . VAL . P&tauus .P.P. 
Martinus de septc arboribus Prutenus • 

The first two words of the last line but one, are intended for ' BAR- 
THOLOMEO DE VAL DE ZOCHO ;' and there can be no doubt, as 
the Capponi Catalogue intimates, that the impression was executed at 
Padua. It is therefore the first book printed in that city. On the 
reverse, all that we read is as follows : 

Date.] BOCCACCIO. 88 















The present may be considered a sound and desirable copy ; and is in 
green morocco binding. 

803. Boccaccio. La Fiammetta. Without Name 
of Printer y PlacCy or Date. Folio. 

This is probably the edition for an account of which Panzer refers 
to Maittaire exclusively. The latter describes it * cum signaturis 
tantum;* ^thout any further designation. Annal. Typog, vol. i. p. 
768. It is of uncommon neatness ; the type being rather small, but 
clear and legible. A full page has 35 lines. The first page, on the 
recto of a i, commences thus : 

iDcomincia il libro di madonna Fiammetta da lei 
alle innamorate mandate • 

VOLE Amiseri crescere di dolersi Va/ 
ghe^: quando di se disceroeno o senteno 
copassione in alcuno . Adunque accio che 

oCC« oCC. oCC. 

84 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Rmtrm; 1475. 

lliere are neither numerali nor catchwords. The signatureSy from a 
to k» are in eights ; but a has 9f and k only G, leaves. On the reverse 
of the last of which, beneath the 17th line of text, we read the 
colophon, thus : 

Finis Dea gratias : amen . 

I should conjecture this impression to be as early as 1474, or 1475. A 
small letter is printed in the square spaces to be supplied by capital 
initials. Upon the whole, a sound and desirable copy : in blue morocco. 

804. Boccaccio. LaTheseidx. Printed by Au^ 
gtistinus ( Camerius) Bemardi Films. Ferrara. 
1475. Folio. 

Prima Edizionb. This exceedingly scarce impression contains the 
Commentary of Andreas de Basis, a poet of Ferrara, and author of the 
work next described under the title of Fatichb di Ercolx. The latter 
work is sometimes bound with this edition of the Theseid of Boc< 
caccio, as it was printed by the same printer, in the same year, and 
with the same types. Malttaire saw a copy of the present edition 
without such accompanying work; and while he describes the one 
under consideration very briefly, he refers to Orlandi for the other. 
JkumH. Tifpog. vol. i. p. 354. Audifredi notices this account of Bfiaitr 
taire, and refers us to the satisfi|etory descriptioiis of both impressions 
in Barufialdi. Edit. Ital. p. 233-4. Baruffiddi, although copious and 
interesting, is less particular than the reader will find the ensuing 
. account to be. He properly chastises, however, the inaccuracies of 
Orlandi ; and after making mention of Consul Smith's copy, he con- 
fines himself to the one * preserved in the choice library of Signor 
Francesco Containi, at Ferrara.* Tet his description, like that of 
Maittaire, is confined chiefiy to the colophon, "npograf, Ferrar. 
p. 63 — 69. In the first Bibl. Crevenn. (1776, 4to.) vol. iv. p. 188, there 
is a somewhat particular description ; but De Bure, Panzer, La Sema 
Santander, and Brunet, are comparatively brief and unsatisfactory. 
Clement was ignorant of this impression, and Mazzuchelli and Haym 
are alike imperfect* According to Ginguend, the Theseid of Boccaccio 
presents us with the first specimen of the octave stanza.* 

* < he Trissino, daiu sa Poitiqutf le Creacimbeii]* dans son HuL de la Po6rie mUgaire, 
et presque tous les auteurs Italiens, attribuent cette invention a Boocace. he Cresdmbeni 
croit cepcndant, T, i. p, 199* que la premiere origine de oc rhjthme est due aux Sidliens. 


F^rrof 1475.] BOCCACCIO. 85 

On the recto of the first leaf begins the fbUowiag pn^me of the 
commentator, the top line being printed in red : 

Adsit prittcipio uirgo beata meo 

£R Che preclariggimo priocipe con de- 

gantissima fiM^udia li philosophanti ne di- 

mostra la ineudissiina arte de poesia essere 

processa da una reieuata nobilita de ani- 

mo la quale fu ne li principii de lalma natura : per 

la opera de la quale poesia occSre : cfae le uirtu e 

releuati gesti de memSia digni : de li illustrissinii 

signori : essendo li lor corpi de le anime orlmti : 

per la resonate tuba e modulato scriuere ae li 

poeti la loro gloriosa fama uerde e uiua: p lo 

uniuerso mSdo diuulgata : in eterno rimane. 

oCC. oCC* flCC* 

The whole of this introductory part is printed on four leaves : the 
first page having the words ' azzo primo— aldrouadino— ^zzo secodo^ 
—in the left margin, printed in red. Then fi>llow9, on the recto of the 
fifth leaf- 
one cbe a memoria tornandomi le 

felicita trapassate ne la miseria uedendomi 

douio sono mi sieno di graue dolore ma- 

Le Bembo, en adoptant oette opinioii^ obieiTe qae les andens Skaliens ne composuent 
pourtant Toctave qoe snr deux rimes, et qae I'addidon d'une troisieroe rime pour les deux 
derniera vers appartient anx To9caut. FrMe, Fkn*. 1549* p. TO. £n effet, dans le recueil de 
TAUacd (Poett AMichi raecoiti da codid manoKTt etc., Napoli, 1661), on trouve une canaumt 
de Giovanni de Buonandua, dont les quatre strophes sont de huit vers heuddcasyllabes, 
sor deux seules rimes crois^es. M. Baldelli (p. S3, note), en dtant d'autres auteors qui out 
^ de la m§me opinion qoe le Bembo, oonvient avec sa caodeur acooutum^, que I'octave 
avec trob rimes a ^k employee en France avant Boccace, par Thibault, comte de Cliampagne* 
et il rapporte toute entiere ime de ces octaves dt^ par Pasquier (Bicherckei de la France, 
Puis, 1617, p. 7S4, Amsterdam, 1723, T. L col. 691,) &c. &c mais il ne par^t pas que ce 
rhythme agriable, que Toreille delicate du comte de Champagne lui avait uupLr6, efit ^ 
adopts et flit devenu oommun en France. En Italie, les Toscans furent siirement les premiers 
i en &ire usage ; et Boccace, le premier de tous, soit qull connih la chanson de Tbibault, 
iok qnll ne la conndt pas, employa, dans sa Th6aBde, I'octave a trob rimes telle qii'eHe est 
itil6e dopuis.' JEKftoirc LiM^rtrirv (Tlkiiie, voL m. p. 4fi» note. 

M ITALIAN BOORS. [Ferrara; 1475. 

nifesta cagiooe. Non me e p tato discaro 
il red u cere spesso ne la fatigata mente ecrudele 
dona la piaceuole imagine de la uostra intera bel- 
lezza. La 2|le piu possete che il mio j>ponimeto 
di se e de amore giouane de anni edi sono mi 
fece subiecto. Equella quanta uolte mi uiene c5 
itero aimo coteplando piu tosto celestiale che 
humana figura essere co mecho delibero. Eche 
aasai quello chio cosidero sia il suo effecto ne 
poi^e argomento cliiarissimo 

This introduction occupies one leaf. The poem, on the recto of the 
following 1eaf» begins thus : 

Sorelle castalie che nel monte 

Elicona conteote dimorate 

Dintorno alsacro gorgoneo fonte 

Sottesso lombra de le frode amate 

Da Phebo : de lequal achor la frote 
S pero de ornarroe sol che concediate 
L e sancte orechie amei priegi porzeti 
E quelle uditi como uui doueti 

E Ime uenuto uoglia cum pietosa 
R ima descriuere una historia anticha 
T anto ne glianni riposta e nascosa 
C he latino auctore non par ne dicha 
P er quel chio senta in libro alcuna cosa 
D onque si fate che la mia faticha 
S ia gratiosa achi nefia lectore 
O in altra manera ascoltatore 

The commentary is on the right margin; and continues almost 
entirely throughout the volume : the text being printed in the centre, 
and sometimes entirely surrounded by it. The word Comparation is 

Terrara; 1475,] BOCCACCIO. 87 

frequently printed, letter under letter, between the text and tho 
commentary : and sometimes without any commentary. 

On the recto of the last leaf: 

^'Sacre muse le quale io adoro 
Ecoo* digiuni honoro e uigilando. 
Di uuy la^^ratia in tal guisa cercado 
Quale aquistaro da palade costoro 

A i quai uuj desti il gratioso alor« 
I n sul fonte castalio poetando 
I uersi lor souente examinaodo 
C ol uostro canto sotile e sonoro 

I o bo ricolte de la uostra mensa 
A Icune miche da quella cadute 
E come seppi qui le ho eompilate 

L e qual ui priego che uuj le portiati 
L iete ala dona in cui la mia salute 
y iue : ma ella forsi non sel pensa 

E con lei in seme el nome date el canto 
E 1 corso ad esse sel uene cale tanto 

Ortati abian tuo uersi e bel lauoro 
O caro alumno di tbeseo cantando 
De idue tbeba IG preso elaltro i bado 
G ombater per emilia dona loro 

L a piu tua dona chessa di coloro 

G li altrui feruenti amori a se rechando 

F ra se solletta disse sospirando 

H a quanta damor forze in costor foro 

P oi di fiaihe de amor tutta accesa 
C i porse priego : che non fusser mute 
L e ben scripte prodezze e la beltade 


• i 


On the rcTerae : 

T heseida de le nozze de emilia ouate 
N omar lor piaque e noi con note agute 
D arenlt in ogni etade fama immensa. 
C ussi li abiam rottati al fonte sancto 
L icentiati agire in ogni canto. 

Then follows the colophon, immediately beneath : 

H oc opus impressit theseida nomine dictu 
B ernardo genitus bibliopola puer : 

(A ugustinus ei nomen :) cu dux bon9 urbem 
H erculeus princeps ferrariam regeret. 


The very fine copy of this edition, which was in the Crerenna 
collection, was purchased by the late Mr. Quin of Dublin ; but it 
contained only 160 leares ; whereas, to be perfect, the edition should 
contain 164. It has neither niunerals nor signatures; yet on the 
reverse of several leaves there is a catchword. A copy of it is also in 
His Majesty's collection; which was purchased at the sale of Dr. 
Askew*s books, together with the work next described. See Bihl, Smith, 
p. Lxiii. In the Addenda, p. cxl, the whole of the introductory letter 
of Boccaccio, and the preface, in this first edition, are printed entire in 
modernised orthography. Paschali, the compiler of the Catalogue, 
observes, that the former is not perfect in this edition; but was 
published in a perfect form by Doni, in his Raccolta di prose antiche ; 
Firenz. edit, 1547t p* 53. The present is a large and sound copy, in 
green morocco binding. 

Ferrara; 1475.] BOCCACCIO. 89 

805. Fatiche di Ercole; (seu Labores Her- 
cuLis.) Printed by AiigtLstinus Camerius. 
Ferrara. 1475. Folio. 

This woric, which is usually attributed to Boccaccio, is the perfbnn- 
ance of Andreas de Bassis, and the present is the first edition 
of it. It is most probable that it was published with the preceding 
impression, as the type and mode of printing are precisely similar. On 
the recto of the first leaf we read as follows : 

Ome che a memoria tornandomi le felicita 
trapassate ne la miseria uedendomi douio 
sono mi sieno di graue dolore manifesta 
cagione. Non me e p tato discaro il re- 
ducere spesso ne la fatigata mente ecrudele dona 
la piaceuole imagine de la nostra intera bellezza 

See. Sec. Sec. 

This first page^ which is a full one, has 38 lines. On the recto of the 
•econd leaf— 

I antiquissimi excellenti passati co ornatis- 
sima ebreue facudia p extollere le uirtu 
edeprimere le uitii soleuano exprimere co 
succite oratione poderose pole le ^le loro 
e poi nuj appellemo jpuerbii fra li ^le me 
ricorda auere uisto e audito dire. 

Sec. Sec. See. 

On the reverse of the 8th leaf: 


Every distinct Deed, or * Labour,' is preceded by a title in capital 
letters, in a similar manner. On the recto of the last leaf but 8, is the 
' Vltima Faticha,' &c. 


* ■ ^ 

* ' 

•1. ■■• 


90 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fernet; 1481. 

At the bottom of the last page but one, we read the word 


forming a catchword to the top of the last page; which contains 20 
lines exclusively of the following colqphon: 

Labores Herculis impress^ sunt ferrarip^ quarto nonas 
lulii per me Augustinu carneriu magistri Bernard! biblyo> 
polp filium diuo Hercule sec undo regnante. 


The impression contains 65 leaves, and has neither numerals nor 
^natures ; but there are catchwords on the reverses of the leaves. 
Two or three words are sometimes printed at bottom, at a distance 
from the text. A copy of this work, with the Thbsbid, as was 
before remarked, was purchased at the sale of Dr. Askew's books, 
for his M^'esty, for 852. See BibL Jskev. n"". 685. Warton, Hist Engl. 
Poetry, vol. i. 359, refers to these editions so vaguely, that I question 
whether he ever saw either ; although he mentions the text being a 
corruption of the legitimate MS. The present edition is rather super- 
ficially described by Audifiredi, ftt>m Barufialdi. Edit Ital, p. 233. 
This copy is as large and desirable as the preceding one; and is in red 
morocco binding. 

806. Boccaccio. Il Philocolo. Printed by 
Philipo de Piero. Venice. 1481. Folio. 

This is the sixth edition of the Philocolci, in the chronological order 
observed by Panzer ; and is therefore entitled to only a slight notice. 
It is printed in double columns ; the first of which* on a z recto, (a i 
being blank — as I conjecture) presents us with the foUowing prefix : 


mod* florio Sc di brazafiore chia 
mato philocolo che tanto e adire 
quato amorosa faticha Coposto p 
il clarissimo poeta oiiaer lohanne 


J T 


4 u 




Fhrence; 1494.] BUCOLICHE. 91 

boccacio da certaldo ad instacia di 
la illustre : 8c generosa madona Ma 
ria. figluola naturale deliuclito Re 


A fall page has 38 lines. The signatures, from a to z and &, are in 
eights, with the exception of f, which has 10 leaves. After &, we have 
A, B, and C, in sixes : and D and £ in fours : the eighth of £ being 
blank. On the recto of £ 3 is the colophon : 

II libro del pbilocolo di misere io 
bane boccacio da certaldo poeta il 
lustre qui finiscie. Impresso per 
maestro Philipo de piero : in lalma 
patria Venetia nelli ani del signo 
re. M.cccc.lxxxi. a giorni. xviiii. de 

A register is on the reverse. The present is a tolerably fair copy, in 
rtBsia binding. 

8O7. BucoLicHE, &c. Printed by Miscominus. 
Florence. 1494, Quarto. 

This is an elegant volume of pastoral poetry, containing translations 
and original poems. The translations are from the Bucolics of Virg^, 
by Bernardo Pulci ; and the poems are by Francesco de Arsochi^ 
Hieronymo Benivieni, and lacopo Fiorino de Boninsegni. The title 
page, which specifies these, with an ornamental wood-cut, will be 
found copied in the Bihliographical Decamerom ; as an early specimen 
of an crnamental title-page composed in the modern-fashion. It should 
bowever be noticed that there are two original elegies by Pulci, upon 
the deaths of Cosmo de Medici and Sumonetta. Consult Mr. Roscoe's 
Lor. de Medici, vol. i., p. 397-S, 8vo. ed. upon the subject of this desirable 
volume. Denis, p. 377> has been copious in the title ; apparently upon 
the authority of Bibl, Crevenn.^H>\. iv. p. 63, edit. 1775, 4to.; where a 
copy of it, ' in the finest preservation,' is mentioned. The signatures run 

.^^M ^ ^ V.-. ^^H. *Jk. 



V Xt; 

92 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Ftarence; 1494. 

to n : of which m contains six, and n four : the rest hare eight leaves. 
The register is on the recto of n It : on the reverse we observe the 
colophon thus elongated : 

€[ Finite sono lequattro Buccoliche sopra decte 

Con una el^ia della morte di Cosimo. 

£t unaltra elegia della morte 

della Diua Simonetta. Et 

rigposta della decta 

Diua Simonetta 

Et un altra 







in Firenza 

per Maeitro 





Beneath is the device — of which a fitc-simile is given in vol. iii. p. 467* 
The present is a sound but cropt copy ; in ruasia binding. 


♦ ^ ^■.. ^' 

-' ■ ■ I- 




Date.] CAVALCA. Qs 

808. Caorsin. Descriptione della Obsidione 
DELLA CiTADE Rhodiana. fVithout Name of 
Printer y Placey or Date. Quarto. 

Both DeniB and Panzer refer exdusively to the Cappani Catalogue 
for a description of this impcession: but in the Librcria Cappani^ 
p. 98-9, the account relates rather to the author of the work, than to 
any distinctive marks of this edition. We shall therefore be more par- 
ticular, but brief. On the recto a a (i) the title, at top, is thus : 

Descriptione del la obsidione della citade 
Rhodiana copillata per Gulielmo Caorsin 
uicecaneilier de Rhodiani. 

There are 23 lines beneath ; and this, and every similar full page, 
contains 26 lines. In the whole, 22 leaves : upon signatures a 12, 
and b 10, leaves. On the reverse of b 10, at bottom, it is thus : 

laude de dio : exaltatione della regione christian 
na : Sc a gloria de Rhodiani. Finis. 

The type is large and round, and the h is turned inwards, at the 
bottom of the circular part. A neat copy ; in dark calf binding, gilt 

809. Cavalca. Specchio della Croce. With- 
out Name of Printer y Placey or Date. Quarto. 

In the Bihl, Crevenn. toI. L p. 178, n^ 809, this singular impression 
Is well described as being executed * in a handsome roman letter, with 
25 lines in each page. It was probably printed towards 1480, and has 
neither numerals nor catchwords — ^but signatures, in a very extraor- 
dinary manner : for, first, the first leaf, which ought to be sign, a, has 
none ; secondly, the signatures in each sheet are only twice designatedt 
although there are 8 leaves to each signature ; and, thirdly, the first 
leaf in each signature is marked ; the second leaf is without any mark ; 



94 ITALIAN BOOKS. ifTiihoui Date. 

and the third leaf has the mark z* for 2i the fourth leaf is also desti- 
tute of signature.* The preceding is from the Crevenna Catalc^ue ; 
which is sufficiently correct. The first leaf contains the beginning of 
the prologue, with thb prefix : 

Incomincia il prologo nel.deuoto e morale 
libro intitulato Spechio de, croce • 

The first chapter begins on the reverse of the second leaf. The sig- 
natures run to f in eights; but f has only 6 leaves. The last tw» 
leaves contain a table. The present is an indifierent copy : in russia 

810- Cecco D'Ascoli- (seu Francesco Stabili 
L'AcERBA.) Printed by Ferrandtcs. Brescia. 
TVithout Date. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. This exceedingly rare volume, of which another 
copy is not yet known to be in existence^ is placed, by Boni as the 
second work in the order of those executed by Ferrandus. Its rarity, 
therefore, must necessarily be of the very first class ; nor is its intrinsic 
curiosity less worthy of attention : since, according to Ginguen^ ' it 
was one of the causes of the condemnation and death of the author.' 
Hist. Literar. d* Italic, vol. ii. p. 291, note 3. Cecco was burnt alive 
at Florence, in the year ld27» and in the 70th of his age. He 
cultivated astrology ; and his principles being obnoxious to the Inqui- 
sition, he was arraigned and condemned accordingly. Both Boni and 
Ginguen^ refer to the enlarged and accurate account of the author 
to be found jn Tiraboschi, vol, v. p. 1— S04. . Ginguen^ also refers to 
Quadrio, vol. vi. p. 39 ; whence we learn that ' a brother inquisitor, 
playing upon the VFord Acerha (the name of the poem)-— which signifies 
immaturity, and something bitter and hard— observed, that he found 
this title very significant ; for the book contained nothing that savoured 
of maturity or Catholic gentleness — ^but, on the contrary, much here- 
tical bitterness!' It seems doubtful whether Ginguen^ or Quadrio 
knew of the existence of this early impression ; but Boni has briefly, 
yet accurately, described it. Libri a Stampa, 4rc. deW Ital. Super, p. 



jmkauiDaie.] CECCO D^ASCOLI- 95 

The recto uf the first leaf presents us with the opening of the poem, 
without prefix, thus : 

VLTRA no seque piu la nostra luce 
Fuor de la supficie de quel primo 
In qual natura p poter conduce 
La forma itelligibele che diuide 
Noi animali p lo habito extremo 
Qual creatura maino tutto uide 

Sopra onde cielo substatie nude 
Stando benigne p la dolce nota 

kclcc. Sec. 

The first book contains 9 chapters. The iecond 600& opens thus, on the 
recto of the 11th leaf: 

Capitolo. I De FortuniA e soa Diffinitione 

Torao nel canto de le prime note 
Dico checcio che sotto il ciel creato 
Dipende p uertu de le sue rote 
Chi tuto moue sepre tuto regie 
Di fine e moto principio e stato 
In ciachun cielo pose la sua legie 

oCC* KC* oCC. 
The second book contains 19 chapters. The thxrltUtok opens thus : 

D Al terzo cielo si muoue tal uirtute 
Che fa doi corpi una cosa animata 
Sentendo p^ia de le dolce ferute 
Oonformita de stelle muoue afiecto 
Transforma lalma nella cosa amata 
Non uariando lesser del subiecto 

ice. Sec kc. 

VOL. IV. *^ m 


96 ITALIAN BOOKS. [fFUhaut Daie. 

.This third book contains 56 chapters. The fintrth book opens as 
follows : 

Qui comeza quarto libro di dube naturali C i 

lO VOGLio qui chel quare troui el quia 

Leuando lale dela cerba mete 

Seguendo del philosopho la uia 

Del dubitare querendo e gran uirtute 

Che lo mirare de la prima gete 

Feci noi certt de lalte uedute 
Amor pur nasce de consimel stelle 

oCC« oCC* sec* 

Thirteen chapters are contained in the fourth book. The Jifth book 
begins thus : 

Libro ^nto e prima remoue dubi cotra fede 

CONVIEN Chio Cati De La Saeta Fed 
Lassando le potetie sesetiue 
E dica cio che lalma mia ne crede 
Sopra loctaue spere che noi uedemo 
Ossauna che ternalmete uiue 
Formo doi cieli iquai noi chiamemo 

oCC* oCC« oCC* 

This fifth and last book contsuns only 2 chapters ; the whole of the 
latter, and the colophon, are as follow : 

Capitulo Secondo De Ternitate 

BEL EL TACERE DE Cotanta Cosa 
Considerado el mio pocho itellecto 
Ma la gra fede mi moue e scossa 
Si chio p^o la uirtu di sopra 
Che alcum lalma del beato aspecto 
Che limaginare cSseguiBcha lopra 



FoHgno; 1472.] DANTE. 97 


Era el filiolo nati el i^ioto el tempo 

El padre col filiolo Vna nala 

Eterna che no cade mai so tepo 

Questo era in prima psso al primo agete 

El essere tuto p lei sinfigura 

E fato fato seza lui dico niente 

Cio che fato era uita in lui 
Si como forma in ella mete eterna 
E questa uita in luce di noi 


In the whole, 72 leaves : without numerals, signatures, or catchwords. 
The paper is of stout manufacture, but the press work is irregular and 
the type inelegant. A most genuine and desirable copy : In green 
morocco binding. 

811. Dantb. LaCommedia. Printed by Numeister. 
(Folignoy 1472. Folio, 

Pbima Edizione. ' Before the end of the XTith century (says 
Ginguen^) the public chairs at Bologna, Pisa, Venice, and Placenza 
were devoted to explanations of Dante. Copies of his poem were 
quickly deposited in all the public and private libraries ; and before 
even the invention of printing could contribute to the rapid multipli- 
cation of copies, the * Commedki ' was every where the theme of pane- 
gyric, study, disputation, and commentary. The art of printing, from 
its infancy, laid hold of it with siich ardor, that in the single year of 
1472 three editions of it appeared almost at the same time,* &c. 
Hisiaire LitUraire d^Italie, vol. i. p. 486. From thb observation we 
are led to express some surprise, that a poem so exceedingly popular, 
and written in the vernacular tongue of the country, should not have 
been printed several years before the actual period of its impression : 
the more so, as Petrarch was printed in 1470, and Boccaccio in 1471 : 
authors, both of whom were subsequent to Dante, and admirers, if 
not pupils^ of their great master. The enterprise or good fortune of 

- •Sk. 

98 ITALIAN BOOKS- [NumeUitr, 

some future bibliographer may bring to light an edition, a year, or two 
earlier than the present : which, however, till such discovery take place, 
must maintain its rank as the first £diti«n. 

This is a volume of extreme scarcity. De Bure tells us that * there 
are hardly any copies of it in existence, and that Pkris could then only 
boast of three— of which the Gaignat copy was the only disposable 
one.* The other two copies were in the Royal and Mazarine Collec- 
tions. See the Bibl. Instruct, vol. iii. p. 618-616. De Bure himself 
afterwards bought Dr. Askew's copy, and the Valliere Collection 
became enriched with the one in the library of Oaignat. Bibl, Aiken^ 
n^ 694 ; Cat. de Gaignat^ vol. i. p. 490 ; Cat, de la VaUiere^ vol. ii. 
n^. 3558. It is a little remarkable that the Collections of Capponi, 
Floncel, Magliabechi, and the elder Crevenna, contained no impression 
earlier than that of the year 1477 — accompanied by the Commentary 
of Benvenuto da Imola : see the Catalogo della Libreria CapporU^ p. 15; 
Cat. della Libr. Fhncel, vol. i. p. 243, n*>. 3297; Bihl. MagUahech. 
vol. i. col. 588 ; and Cat, de Crevenn, (1775, 4to.) vol. iv. p. 3. A 
copy of this impression was, however, in the Crevenna Collection 
before the sale of it in 1789 : see Cat. de Crevenn. vol. iiL pt. ii. p. 3, 
n**. 4544 : — which copy is the one under description. It is by no^ 
means in desirable condition — especially the first 10 leaves of it-— but 
it is perfect, and therefore a valuable acquisition. 

On the recto of the first leaf we read the commencement, thus : 


dante allqghieri di fiorenze nella ^le tracta 
dellepeneet punitioni de uitii etdemeriti 
et premii delle uirtu : Gapttolo primo detla 
pma parte de questo libro loquale sechiania 
inferno : nel quale lautore fa prohemio ad 
tucto eltractato del libro : . 

El mezo dekaipin dinra uita 
mi trouai puim selua oscura 
che la diricta uia era smarrita 
Et quanto adir l^lera cosa dura 

FcKgno; 1472.] DANTE. 99 

esta selua seluagia aspra eforte 
che nel pensier renoua la paura 
Xante amara che pocho piu morte 
ma pertractar del ben chio uitrouai 
diro delaltre cose chi uo scorte 

De Bui^ has committed a strange error in supposing this impression 
to have been executed at Mentz. There can be no doubt of its having 
been printed at Foligno, a small town of Umbria in Italy, where 
Numeister exerdsed his art, and where a publication of Aretinus, (' de 
BeUo Italico contra Gothos*) was printed in 1470, by the same printer 
(see post : ' Supplbmbnt*) with the town of Foligno specified in the 
colophon. I shall give a specimen of the type from the opening of 


the ixth canto of the Inferno : 

Vd color dbc nflta difoor mipinfe 
aeg^dio ildaca inio tx>mar inolta 
piu tofb dctfo ilfuo a ouo riftrinfe 
A ttentso £[{eiino cotndbaom cafcolta 
dx locdbio noa potea menar alnnga 
perlaere nero efc pedanebbia folta 

The same characters appear in the edition of Cicero*s * Epistolse ad 
FamiliareSy' executed by the same printer, about the same year : see 
vol. i. p. 327. In the recent edition of Haym*s Biblioteca ItaUana^ 
vol ii. n^. i. this impression is properly said to be ' senza luogo, ma 
fii Foligno.' 

On the recto of the 8Srd leaf, the Second Fart, or the Purgatorio, 
thus conunences : 

dela conmedia* di dante allighieri difirenze 
nellaqual parte sipurgano licomessi peccati 
et uitii dequali luomo e comfesso* et petuto 

• Sic 

100 ITALIAN, BOOKS. [FoUgno; I4f2. 

conaaimo disatisfatione. Et cimtiDe. xxxiii. 
canti. Qui nel primo canto sono quelli che 
sperao diuenire quado chesia alebeati geti :• 

ER CORRER meglior 
acque alzai le uele 
OMAI la nauicella del 
mio in gnegno 
CHE Lascia dietro asse 
mar si crudele 

Et catero diquel secodor regno 

done luhumano spirto npurga 

et disalire alciel diuenta kdegno 

Ma qui la inorta poesi ri&urga 

osate muse poi cbe uostro sono 

et qui caliope alquanto surga 
Sec. 8cc, Sec. 

The colophon* on the recto of the last leaf, is as follows— Irom which 
it may appear that La Sema Santander ' has been less exact than 
Maittau^. See Diet. BUflUfgr. Oufiri, toL ii. ^^ 594 ; and Ami^. 2Vpo^. 
Tol. i. p. 316. 



Nel mille quatro cento septe et due 
nel quarto mese adi cinque qt sei 
questa opera gentile impressa fue 

lo maestro lobanni Numeister opera dei 
alia decta impressione et meco lue 
Elfulginato Euangelista mei : 

Thb impression, without signatures, catchwords, or numerals, con- 
tains 247 leaves ; which, with 2 blank leaves (according to Brunet) 
would make the number 949*— as mentioned in the Manuel du Libr(ure, 
▼ol. i. p. 321 : but such blank leaves (the 83rd and 166th) seem to be 
no requisite appendages. A full page contains 30 lines. It should be 
observed that Panzer (vol. i. p. 438, n^ 3) has properly omitted the 

Mmtua; 14720 DANTE. 101 

epithet of ' diTine * to tliii» and to otlier earljr impresftionB of Dante's 
Commedia; which DeBore and Santander have inconaiderately attached 
to it. Haym tells us that this epithet did not appear in any title-page 
till the Venice edition of 15549 in l^mo. This cc^ is in red-morooco 

812. Dante. La Commedia. Printed by Geargitis 
and Paulus. Mantua. 1472. Folio. 

This is considered to be the sbcoitd edition of the Commedia oT 
Dante. The whole is printed in double columns ; and begins, on the 
recto of the first leaf» with a poetical epistle of Columbino Veronesi to. 
Philipo Nuvokmiy thus : 

Capitulo di columbino Veronese al No/ 
bile e preatitiasinio huomo philippo Nu/ 

e laticha tua patria alma risplede 
8 del suo uirgilio tuba alta e j>f5da 

onde tanta uirtu se ode e cophede 
Non men ne stia lei lieta e ioconda 
se una altra seguitando ne uien drieto 
cogliendo le foglie e la sua fronda.^ 
La qual se ascriue a te per bel decr^o 

Sec. tec. 8cc. 

This epistle occupies the first leaf, filling entirely both the pages. 
On the recto of the ensuing leaf, the prefix is thus : 


The work begins about three inches below, thus 

* This space is supplied id the present copy by a veiy elq;uit iilumiiiaticHi of the head 

102 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Mtmtua; 1472. 

El mezo del chamin di nostra uita 

miritrouai per una selua schura 

cbella diritta uia era smarita 
Ah quanto adir qual era echosa dura 

questo selua seluagia aspra e forte 

che nel pensier rinuoua la paura 
Tanto e amara che poco e piu morte 

oCC* oCCa see* 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; but each 
chapter has a numerical prefix. A full page contains 41 lines* The 
first chapter of ' Puroatort' has the following prefix : 


A similar space (here occupied by an appropriate illumination highly 
preserved) ensues before the commencement of the text. On the 
reverse of the 91st and last leaf, beneath the second column, is the 
ensuing colophon : 


Magister georgius 8c magister paulus teui^ 
tonici hoc opus mantuae impresserunt ad 
iuuante Columbino ueronensi. 

Although De Bure's account be not so particular as the present, it is, 
nevertheless, much fuller than that of preceding bibliographers. Haym 
appears to have lx>rrowed firom Maittaire, whose description is both 
brief and undetermined. This impression exhibits the same type as 
that of which a &c-simile is given at p. 473, of vol. ii. The present is 
a large and desirable copy ; in blue morocco binding. 

JErii; UJ2.] DANTE. lOS 

813. Dante. La Commedia. Printed by Federieus 
Veronensis (JEsii or Jdst). 1472. Quarto. 

The learned AudiAedi is* I believe, the first who has given a correct 
nccoont of this extremely rare impression. He tells us that ' it is m|ich 
scarcer than the Foligno and Mantua editions, and that neither Haym 
nor De Bare had been able to discover a copy of it. The Catalogues of 
the Ihike de la Valliere, Boze, Smith, Lord Oxford, Capponi, Jackson, 
Floncel, and Hossi, are said not to contain it. The first who noticed it, 
says he, was Volpi, in his catalogue of the editions of this poet ; edit. 
Pktav. 17^f vol. i. p. xxxiii et seq. ; but in calling it * a small folio* * 
he has erred; as the volume is a quarto.' Audifiredi speaks from a 
personal examination of a copy. EdUi. lUd. p. 3, 4. The first leaf of 
the copy before us is supplied by a most skilfully executed ms. fiM»- 
simile, and presents us with the follovring commencement : 

el mezo del camin di nostra uita 
mi ritrouai per una selua oscura 
chela diricta liia era smarrita 
Et quato adir l^lera cosa dura 
esta selua seluagia aspra e forte 
che nel pensier renoua la paura 
Tante amara che poco piu roorte 

The second canto has neither separation nor prefix ; but the third, on 
tiie recto of the 5th lea( commences thus—without any space from the 


Er me si ua nela citta dolente 
p me si ua nel asterno dolore 
p me si ua tra la preduta gente 

oCC. oCC» oCC. 

* iiodiffiredi reoMrks, that the Milan edition of Hajni, 4to, 1771, torn. 1. p. 183, had 
rq>eated the error of Volpi, in calling it a small folio. It may be observed that the same 
error is oontmued in the octavo editioo of Hajm, 1803, vol. iL p. 5 : ' in f. non molto 
grande.* The water-marks, being horiaontal, denote it to be a quarto ; but in point of 
km^todinal appearance the vohmie b deurlyja folio. Quadrio relies upon Volpi. DeU. 
Sioria, &c. vol, vi, p. t49. 


10 1 ITALIAN BOOKS. [JSsH; U72. 

Two leaves of van. are unluckily introduced into the Vth Canto ; and 
another similar leaf is in the Xth Canto. The Xllth Canto has no 
prefix ; nor have the XVIIth, XVlIIth, XlXth, XXVIIth, XXVlUth. 
XXXIst, XXXIInd, XXXIllrd, Cantos any prefixes. The Purgaiano 
begins thus, without prefix : 

Er corer meglior al| alza leuel 
omai la nauicella del mio igeg 
che lassa drieto ase mar si crudel 

oCCa oCC« oCC« 

Both the PurgcUorio and Paradiso are entirely without prefixes to the 
cantos. On the reverse of the last, and 816th leaf, the subscription is 
as follows ! 


TBnzer has given a somewhat better account of this rare impression 
in his fourth volume, p. 291, than in his first volume; by availing 
himself of the labours of Audifiredi.f Laire, in his Index Librorum, 3rc. 
vol. i. p. 353, speaks as if he had seen a copy of this edition ; but 
Fournier has the indiscretion to doubt of its existence : Diet, Port, de 
Bibliogr, edit. 1809, p. 163. Brunet prudently avoids the repetition of 
Fournier's error : Manuel du Libraire, vol. i* p. 320. It remains only 
to add, that it is printed in a Roman letter of a roiuid and elegant form, 
without signatures, numerals, or catchwords. A full page contains 33 
lines. With the foregoing exceptions, the present may be considered 
a sound and desirable copy : in green morocco binding. 


t ' Federid VeronensU iiomeD— desideratur in Amudibos Bfaettarii, Be Originibos Oriandi, 
ct etiam in locupledasimo Supplemento Annal. Maett cl Denis ; nee hocosqae liber aliquia 
■b eodem typographo impressus, alteriusque loci, preter quam iCsti, nomine notatus, a 
quoquani, quod adam, in locem prolatus est. Quamobrem donee roonumenta typographica, 
Don .£esii modo, sed et alibi, Federicom impressisaie* non produut, et insignem quamdam 
DANTIS Comoediae edidonem, in qua ejus nomen, nuUo designate loco, inscriptum tst^ 
ime temeritatis not» eidtm dvitati adscribi posse cradiderim.' E^. ItaL p. S. 

Fenice; 14770 DANTE. 105 

814. Dante. La Commedia. Col. Commento 
Di Benvbnuto da Imojla. Printed by Vindelin 
de Spira. (Venice.^ 1477- Folio. 

Prima Edizionb. Before we describe tliis impression, it may be as 
well to observe upon a supposed anterior one, exhibiting the same 
commentary, and considered to have been printed at Milan, by 
Zarotus, in 1473. There can be little or no ground, I submit, for 
entertaining any rational opinion that such previous impression exists. 
Orlandi is the first who notices it ; Orig. e Progr. p. 101, 320 ; but in 
a brief and superficial manner. Maittaire, without quoting Orlandi» 
has evidently copied his predecessor; for his description is equally 
meagre and unsatisfieu^tory. Annal. Typog, vol. i. p. 326. Saxius thus 
remarks upon these authorities : ' An edition of Dante was printed 
this year [mcccclxxiii] at Milan, by Zarotus, according to Maittaire 
and Orlandi ; but I have never seen it, and am therefore unable to say 
any thing about it.' Hist, Lit. Typog. Mediol. col. cxxxi. A doubtful 
notice of it is also inserted at p. dlx, in the same work. Panzer 
quotes the same authorities, without adding any information upon the 
subject; and Haym seems equally brief and sceptical. Upon the 
whole, we may return to the edition under description with some 
confidence of its being entitled to the distinction above mentioned. 

The Catalogues of Capponi and Floncel are less particular and in- 
structive than those of Crevenna (edit. 1775) and Magliabechi ; both of 
which latter the reader mi|y consult with advantage ; but in the Librer* 
Floncel, p. 243, n^. 3297, the book is called ' rarissimo.' The entire 
impression is executed in double columns, in a close and barbarous 
gothic type ; which we may rather wish, with Crevenna, had been 
exchanged for the roman character, than assent, with Fossi, to calling 
it ' neat.' The typographical execution of it is utterly unworthy of 
the reputation of Vindelin de Spira. It commences on sign, a, with 
a Life of Dante, which has this prefix. 

41 ut comicta ia litta e coftumt tieHo txtdiftt 
l^eta tmlffart jSDante a! i^l^iett tit ftren$e 
lionore e gloria tieUlnotna ftorenttno* Jbm 
9to e coitqpojsito ^et lo Gamojerifjeitmo fioino 

106 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fetiieef 1477. 

mit0\n 0iotumi 29occl^cto to cmalEbo. 0tti 
ptoitia ori0at(t)ita. j^tnbiieeofititini bel 
danlj^o ^uomo jDatite alicgj^im l^oeta 
jptorenthtt. € ttdiq^eit conqpo^ ^er iut in 
(omiittta fdtdmente. 4i in quej^ pmnn ca 
(itido totl^ la Ihttnitia tie ^done. la^jua 
lee nud itegmta ^ gtt jf iom i UiU , 

This Life and Summary of hia Wcurka comprehends 15 teaves : upon 
signatures i 7 and c 8. A blank leaf, fimning signature a i, ensues. 
We have next a tables beginning upon the recto of a 9. The fiist 
canto of the Inferno opens thus, on the recto of a 3 : 

Canto pnmo tiella pttma parte laqnde fi 
cl^ma $[nGmto. j^elquale iauctoce Gfi p> 
licniio a tucta oi^cta* 

^iniQ$o bel canun 
tii nojitra tita* fl^d 
trouai ptt tma Gdua 
(intra* €^ iabtticta 
Ilia era fiiiarrita. €t 
ipatn atiire et come 
ra cod bura. qfta M 
na Cduamtia alnra i 

oCC. oCC. see* 


The commentary regularly follows each canto. The signatures run 
thus : a to t in tens : t and v have each eight leaves : and x and y are 
each in tens. There is no ) ; and the index of chapters to the ParatHso 
commences on the recto of what should be at — when the signatures 
run in tens, (except hh and ii, in eights) as far as j^lP ; but this latter 
has 12 leaves, including a blank one:— on the recto of the 11th of 
which are two sonnets — called • m^hant et pitoYable * by Crevenna — ' 
thus concluding the impression : 

; 1477.] DANTE. lojr 

jD anti alighieri son minerua oscura 

dintettigentia e darte nd cut ingegno 

Megantia matema agionse alsegno 

che si iim che miracol de natura 
L aUa mia fantasia prompta e sicura 

passo U tartareo e poi U celeste regno 

el nobil nUo volume feci degno 

di temporale e spiritual lectura 
F iorenxa magna terra hebbi per madre 

anzi matregna : % io piatoso Jiglio 

gratia di lingue scelerate e ladre 
R auenafu mio albergho nel mio exiglio 

1 ella ha U corpo : lalma ha il somo padre 

presso acui inuidia non vince consiglio 


F inita e lepra ddinclito % diuo 

dante aUeghieri Fiorentin poeta 

lacui anima sancta alberga lieta 

nel del seren oue sempre ilfia uiuo 
D imola benuenuto maijia uiuo 

Detemafama che sua mansueta 

lyra opero comentando il poeta 

per cut U texto a noi e IteUectiuo 
C hristofal Berardi pisaurense detti 

opera e facto indegno corrector e 

per quanto intese di quella i subietti 
D e spier a vendelinfu il stampatore 

del mille quattrocento e settantasetti 

correuan glianni del nostro signore 


108 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nkolo tU Lorenzo, 

The rererse is blank. Both these sonnets are extracted by Fossi, 
but Crevenna has contented himself with the last ; observing upon the 
extremely inaccurate manner in which this latter is printed in the 
Bibliogr. Instruct, of De Bure, vol. liL p. 618, 619. In the Cat. de 
Creoenn, voL iv. p. 3*6 (edit. 1775) there is a correct account of this 
impression, and a very lively and smart attack upon Voltaire for hb 
superficial knowledge and judgment of Italian poetry. Crevenna*s 
copy, as well as the one in the Magliabechi collection, was large and 
illuminated. Fossi notices the curious mention of Mahomet, (and of his 
elevation to the cardinalship — according to De Bure) by the commen* 
tator, as proofs of Benvenuto's warm attachipent to the Roman Catholic 
religion : see the Bibl. Magliabech, vol. i. col. 588-591. The present 
may be called a fine and desirable copy ; in green morocco binding. 

814. Dante. LaCommedia. Col Commento'di 
Christophoro Landing. Printed by Nicoh theSon 
of Lorenzo J of Germany. Florence. 148 L Folio. 

We are about to describe a volume of very considerable interest 
among the collectors both of books and of prints. To begin, bibliogra- 
phically, we may remark that this costly and magnificent work presents 
us with the first impression of the Commbntakt of Landino, upon 
the Divina Commedia of Dante. The printer of it was Nicolo di Lorenzo 
deUa Magna^ or Nicolo Todescho; who published the Geography of 
Berlinghieri, as noticed at p. 64 ante. Whoever examines the larger 
type of this work with that of the one just mentioned, will find a 
perfect conformity between them : the printer having designated him- 
self by both of the foregoing names. Bibliographers have perhaps 
spoken a little too warmly in commendation of the typographical 
execution : the page is full, and the letter, of either form, is rather 
clumsily worked ; but where copies have an amplitude of margin, like 
the one before us, there is a>better proportion and considerable elegance 
of effect. What may be the splendor of the copy of it upon vellum, 
so minutely described by Fossi (and somewhat strangely omitted to be 
noticed by Panzer and Brunet), it were perhaps difficult to conceive : 
or, rather, as most would imagine, what must have been the superior 
attractions of that copy which was enriched by the drawings and 
illuminations of Michel Angelo Buonaroti*— but which unfortu- 
nately perished at sea ? ! 

* See the note in Audifiredi's Edit. ltd, p. 388. 

\ • 

Florence; 1481.] DANTE. 109 

The first leaf, on signature . i . presents us with the Prohbme of 
Landing. This is followed by an Apoloot, or Dbfbncb op Dantb : 
the latter concluding on the reverse of signature . i . iii « We have, 
next, short disquisitions upon the excellence of the Florentines in 
Lbabnino, Eloaubncb, Music, Sculpturb, Civil Law, and Com- 
MBBCB. These conclude on the reverse of the 6th leaf, from the 
beginning of the volume inclusively. Next follow three treatises upon 
the Life and Manners, and upon the general Excellence, of Dante : oc- 
cupying nearly 7 pages. A brief eulogy of Dante, by Marsilius FicinuB» 
ensues ; which again appears in the Italian version of Landino. The 
last preliminary piece is thus entitled : 


Hiese prdiminary pieces occupy 12 leaves. On the recto of the 
13th (sign, a i .) the texts of the Poet and of the Commentator b^in 




CL ^ abbiamo narrato non solamente lauita del 
ME poeta et eltitolo dellibro et che cosa sia poeta 
20* ^^ etiam quito sia uetusta et anticha quato 
DEL i^^^^^® ^^ uaria quanto utile et ioconda tal doc- 
CA trina. Quanto sia efficace a muouere Uiumane 
]y|J meti : et quato dilecti ogni liberale igegno. Ne 
ICO giudicammo da tacere quanto in si diuina disci- 
p. J plina sia stata la excellentia dello ingegno del 
nostro poeta. Inche sisono stato piu brieue 
che fbrse non si conuerebbe: consideri chi 
legge che lanumerosa et quasi infinita copia 
-^^ dellecose delle quali e necessario tractare mi- 
VI sfbrza non uoledo chel uolume cresca sopra 
TA modo: &c« 

* Tbe Z in the original ii reversed. 


1 10 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nkoh tU LormMO, 

The space, to the left, is to be filled by an illuminated N ; here not 
ungracefully supplied. The Inferno concludes on the reverse of s 6 : 


The order of the signatures, in the Inferno^ is thua : a 9 ; b 8 ; c, 
d, e, each 10 ; f 8 ; g 10 ; h, i, each 8 ; (k is omitted— there being no 
deficiency in the text or in the catchword) 1 10 ; m, n, each 8 ; o, p, 
q^ r, each 10 ; s 6. On what should be aa i, the prologue to the 
Purgatorio begins. On aa ii (omitted to be so marked) the text and 
commentary begin— beneath a prefix of two lines in capital letters-— 
the text is thus printed : 



p 6LIOR 

A L Z A» 

homai laaauicella del mio ingegno 

che lascia drieto ase mar si cradele 
Et cantero diquel secondo r^no 

doue Ibumaoo spirito sipurga 

et disalire alcielo diuenta degno 

oCCa oCC« oCC» 

The Purgatorio concludes on the reverse of oo vj* having the order 
of its signatures thus : aa ; (a blank forming the 10th as is con- 
jectured) bb, cc^ dd, ee, ff, gg^ each 10 leaves ; hh 12 ; (i and k are 
omitted ; and 11 i, 11 iii, not marked : v 11 is also misprinted for 11 v) 
U 10 ; mm 10 ; (nn omitted) and lastly, oo with 6 leaves. As fiBir as the 
XXVIth Canto, the running tiUe of PVRGATORIO is printed on the 
reverse of each leaf; but, from the XXVIth Canto to the conclusion, 
inclusively, this word is printed on the right. 

The prologue to the Paradiso begins on the recto of aaa i. The 
reverse of this leaf is blank. On the recto of aaa ii, the text of tins 
poem — surrounded above, as well as beneath, and on each side, with 
commentary-^begins thus : 

* The Z in the origiiuil is reversed. 

flaremet; 1481.1 DANTE. Ill 


per luniuerso penetra et risplende 
in una parte piu et meno altroue 
Nel ciel che piu della sua luce prende 
fu io et uidi chose che ridire 
ne sa ne puo chi dilassu discende 

OCC* oCC« oCC* 


The recto of the next leaf presents us with a change of the 
signature aaa (iii) into . A . iii . These signatures continue thus : A 
8 ; (A iui not marked) B^ C, D, E, F, and G, each with 10 leaves, 
(C iii is repeated, and sign. G. i, is omitted to be marked) H 10, I 6, 
and L 10 leaves. 

' On the reverse of L 10, and the last leaf, we read the ensuing 
colophon : 







There are running titles and signatures throughout, but neither 
numerals nor catchwords. Andiffredi says that, upon twice counting 
the leaves, he found them to amount to 368 in number ; which enu- 
meration probably included a blank leaf for the 10th of signature aa of 
the Purgatorio. The former possessor of a copy, in the Casanat^ensian 
library, had made the same calculation. Edit, ItaL p. 288. Thus much 

* Tbe Z in the original is reversed. 

112 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nhoh di Lorenx6, 

for a iaithftil bibliographical description of the magnifioeiit yolume 
before us; a description, which will not be deemed unnecessarily 
minute by those who know the worth, or covet the possession, of so 
estimable an edition. We are now to pay equal attention to another 
very interesting feature in this book; namely, the Copper Pl\tb 

Tin the time of Heineken it was conceived that there were only two 
engravings belonging to the work ; which were attached to the first 
two cantos of the Inferno. There are some copies without a single 
engraving (although Audifiredi says he never saw such a copy), and the 
one which Maittaire saw was probably of that number ; since he makes 
no mention of any decoration. AnnaL T^pog, vol. i. p. 419. De Biure 
speaks of only two engravings ; and the copies in the Floncel and La 
VaDiere Collections had only the same number. See the BibHogrtqihie 
Instructive, vol. iii. p. 622-4; Biblioteca di Floncel* vol. i. p. 243, 
n?. 3298, and Catalogue de la Valliere, vol. ii. p. 490. In this 
latter copy there were 17 drawings, or fec-simil€s» to make up the 
number of 19. The copy in the Crevenna Collection had 3 copper, 
plates ; Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 3, n<>. 4548. That in the Pinelli 
Library (described as ' Esemplare, di maravigliosa belleza, che ha 
larghissimi margini, e le tre lettere iniziali delle tre Cantiche del 
Poema vagamente miniate e dorate,' &c.) had only 2 copper-plates, with 
17 fecsimile*. BibL Pinell. vol. iv. p. 280, n^ 1913. Neither the 
Haym nor the Gouttard Collections contained a copy ; and the one in 
the Bibl, Bautourlm, p. 297, n^ 988, is not described as containing a 
single plate. Heineken had seen 13 plates; but 11 of these (which 
were in the famous collection of Mariette) were detached, and not 
inserted in the volume. He adds, that he has seen only 2 plates struck 
off upon the paper on which the text is printed. Id^ G^^ale, 8sc. p. 
14i;2. Haym is very superficial. He describes the volume to be in 
large or royal folio^ with the cuts of Botticelli ; and that it is • a very 
beautiful and rare edition/ Bibliot. Ital. vol. ii. p. 6, edit. 1803. 
Audifiredi mentions rather a singular circumstance relating to the first 
two vignettes. He says, that in one of the two copies in the Casana- 
tensian library, there were three cuts, but the second and third were 
the same. The first cut was not placed, as usual, at the bottom of the 
first page of the first canto of the Inferno, but at the bottom of the 15th 

* Tills copy bears a colophon as if the edition had been printed at Venice, by Petnis 
Oremouensis, in the same year. 

Ftorence; 1481.] DANTE. 118 

pag^e of the same. The second cut was inserted in its proper place, but 
repeated at the beginning of the third canto. Edit Ital. p. 288. Foisi 
appears to have seen this copy. Bibl, MagUabech, vol. i. col. 597* 

We are next to mention, in the order of research, the remarkable 
copy of this edition which was preserved in the Lomenie Collection ; 
and which is described, by Laire, as containing 19 original copper- 
plates, or vignettes, with 16 drawings. The former were attached to 
the first 19 cantos of the htfemo; and the latter, or the drawings, 
were inserted in the Paradito from the 15th to the d3rd cantos. 
Of the copper-plates, the first three only were pri$Ued upon the 
paper of the text ; the remaining 16 were struck off upon separate 
paper, and afterwards attached to the impression. La Sema Santander 
has availed himself of the particular description of Laire, and tells us 
that the copy was sold for 1030 livres. See the Index Libror. voL ii. 
p. 41-4 ; Diet. Bibliogr. Choiii, vol. ii. p. 363 ; and Manuel du Libraxre^ 
vol. i. p. 321. Audifiredi saw this very copy at the bookseller's 
(Barbiellini's) at Rome ; and observes that, ' in the estimation of the 
skilful, the cuts were executed with sufficient elegance.' He seems» 
however, very shy of sending his reader to Laire's particular descrip- 
tion of it ; although he acknowledges that he had heard it had been 
purchased by Laire for the Cardinal Lomenie de Brienne. EdU. ItaL 
p. 287-8. 

Mention has been made, in the early part of this description, of a 
copy UFON VELLUM in the Magliabechi Collection. This copy, which 
is particularly and animatedly described by Fossi, is the identical one 
which Landino is reported to have carried to the Pope ; [S. P. Q. F. 
obtulisse fortur Landinus] and although it appears, from such descrip- 
tion, not to have contained a suigle copper-plate^ or vignette,* yet the 
splendor of the lUummated Omaments and of the Binding almost seems 
to make compensation for such deficiency. The small initial letters 
(serving as a guide to the illuminator) are enlarged and emblazoned 
with gold and other colours ; and the first page of the Prolegomena^ as 
well as the pages of the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso, have their 
margins filled and decorated with genealogical illustrations of the 
Florentine People and Republic — ' stemmatibus Populi et Communis 
Florentine ad fkbre coloribus et auro pictis, aureisque characteribus 
decorantur.' ' But (says Fossi,) the first page of the Inferno exhibits 
a more brilliant and interesting decoration than either of the others ; 

• ( 

nulla Kttm tabula toI. in&ignitur.' 

114 ITAUAN BOOKS. [Ftorence; 1481. 

as we behold in it a portrait of Dante, and, at the lower part of the 
bottom margin, the genealogy and portrait of Landino— executed on 
a small scale.' The same bibliographer dwells with admiratioa upon 
the binding—' Tegmen voluuiinis albo et rubro rasili serico involutum 
laminis argenteis cum auratis ornamentis decoratur, quae stemmata 
S. P. Q. F. repraesentant eo artificio quod Niello vulgo dicebatur, 
quodque in ere caelandi invento lampadem pnetulit.' Bibl, MagUab, 
▼ol. i. col. 594-7. 

Hie Magliabechi Library (according to the same authority) contains 
two other copies ; both upon paper. One of these has ] 9 copper-plateg, 
with the first two vignettes printed upon the paper of the text : the other 
has only the first two vignettes. It follows therefore, from the preceding 
account, that only two copies are known, abroad, conkitfitfig 19 copper- 
plates ; namely, the Lomenie and Magliabechi copies. These copies are 
now probably in other collections upon the Ck)ntinent. AsFoesi justly 
observes, they are * of the greatest rarity.' It is however the peculiar 
distinction and boast of the present copy, that it has not only xix 
oopper-plates — but it contains an original duplicate vignette 
for the vth canto. As this may be called an unique distinction, I shall 
gratify the reader by a fac-simile of the vignette as it usuaUy appears, 
with a delicately executed outline of the duplicate plate : and in order 
to render the description of so magnificent a volume still more perfect 
and interesting, I shall add a third plate^ being a fiaic-simile of the 
vignette which precedes the vith canto.* 

This is the proper place to say a few words (by way of conclusion) 
respecting the artists by whom these cuts are supposed to have been 
executed. According to the authorities of Vasari and Baldinucd, (as 
quoted by Heineken, Laire, and others) Boticblli has the credit of 
making the designs, if not of engraving them : although the more 
generally received opinion is, that the engravings were executed by 
Baldini. By a ms. note of Mr. Roger Wilbraham (from whose 

* Heineken has supplied two excellent fao-«imiles of tbe first two ctiti of the Jtfemo. 

Copies of this edition of Dante* in our own country, are oomparadvely common : but 
they have generally only two cuU in each. Such u the case with the copies in the coUecdons 
of Sir Bi. M. Sykes, Bart and Mr. Roscoe. The Duke of Devonshire has however a very 
fine copy with 4 cuts ; and Mr G. Hibbert, in purchasmg Lord Spencer*9 former copy, fit)m 
Messrs. I. and A. Arch, is the fortunate possessor of 15 copper-plates a^td two well executed 
fac-sunilcs. Mr. Grcnville is yet more fortunate — in owning himself possessor of a copy 
with SIX vignettes. The Bodleian library contains one of the finest copies I ever behekl ; 
having only three plates — but the third plate (which is a duplicate of the second) has the 
extraordinary distinction of being prmted upside doumxard upon the paper of the text ! 




Florence ; 1400.] DANTE. 1 16 

choice Collection of Italian Books this fine copy was obtained) it should 
seem that, in the year 1770, when he was at Florence, * the common 
tradition among men of learning and artists there, was, that these en- 
gravings were executed upon silver : and possibly (adds Mr. Wilbraham) 
the abandonment of the original plan, of supplying cuts for the whole 
work, may afibrd some kind of colour to such tradition-~as it is imagined 
that plates, of so soft a metal as silver, would soon wear out/ It only 
remains to add that this copy, which is most tastefully and skilfully 
bound by C. Lewis, in blue morocco, has the additional value of a 
large pkite,* executed before the date of the hooky representing a group 
of demons torturing the damned, and one large demon, in the centre, 
devouring them. 

816. Dante. Convivio. Printed by Fraficesco 
Bonaccorsi. Florence. 1490. Quarto. 

Prima Edizionb. De Bure, Mittarelli, and Laire, are equally brief 
in their descriptions of this volume (which I do not consider to be 
particularly rare) ; but Audifiredi is copious and satisfiictory : see the 
BlhiUogr. Instruct, vol. iii. p. 699; -/fyp. Libror. Sec, XF. col. 185; 
Index Libror, vol. ii. p. 155 ; and Edit. Ital, p. 318. The latter pro* 
perly informs us both of the nature of the work and of the method 
of its typographical execution; but Ginguen^ as might have been 
ex))ected, is yet more particular upon the former subject. * C*est un 
ouvrage de critique dans lequel il [Dante] comptait donner un com- 
mentaire sur quatorze de ses canzoni ; mais il n*ex^uta ce dessein que 
sur trois seulement. 11 voulut faire entendre \)bx le titre que ce serait 
une nourriture pour Tignorance. II semble en efiet y 6taler comme )k 
plaiiir T^tendue de ses connoissances en philosophic platonique, en 
astronomie et dans les autres sciences que Ton cultivait de son temps. 
Les formes en sont toutes scholastiqucs ; la lecture en est fotigante ; 
mais on le lit avec im int^r^t de curiosity philosophique. On aime k 
reconnaitre lefiet des m^thodes adopts, dans le tour qu'elles donncnt 
aux esprits les plus distingu^ ; or, cet ouvrage prouve tr^ 6videm- 
ment que Fauteur avait une force d'esprit et des connoissances au- 
dessus de son si^le, et que les m^thodes suivies alors dans les Etudes 

* This plate ii of ocmne R gntuitocu ornameot; but it leeiiis an eokxigeiiient of the one 
iiitroduced in the Ifbnie Soncto d€l>io: tee poit 


^taient d^testables.' Histovre LUt&aire d:itaUe^ vol. i. p. 468-9. We 
now return to the volume itself. 

On the recto of a i it commences thus : 



pbo nel principio della prima philosophia : 
Tutti gli buomini naturalmete desiderano 
di sapere. Laragione di che piio essere sie/ 

oCC. oCC. oCC. 

The poetry is uniformly printed in a large, and the commentary in a 
small, roman type ; and the first canzone commences on the reverse of 
b iiii. The signatures, from a to 1, run in eights ; but 1 has 10 leaves. 
On the recto of 1 10, we read the following colophon : 

Impresso in Firenze per ser Francesco bonaccorsi Nelan 
no mille quattrocento nouanta Adi. xx. di septembre. 

In the whole, 90 leaves«-not numbered. This is a tolerably fiBiir copy ; 
in old French morocco binding. 

817- Decor Puellarum^ seu Honore De Le 
DoNZELLE. Printed by Jenson. {Venice. 1461: 
or rather 1471.) Quarto. 

This is the celebrated impression, concerning which, for upwards of 
half a century, bibliographers were engaged in discussions respecting 
the genuineness of its date, and the consequent introduction of print- 
ing into Italy, by Nicholas Jensok, four years before its acknow- 
ledged establiBhment in the Monastery of Soubiaco; where the 
Institutes of Lactantius were printed in the year 1465 : see vol. i. 
p. 204. These discussions, or controversies, now cease to engage the 
attention of the A^elUinformed ; since it appears quite decbive, that 
instead of the date of 1461, we should read that of 1471 • Paitoni and 
the Abb^ Boni * were among the most zealous defenders of the 

* PaitODi's work bears thu title : ' Venena, la prima Citti^ fitori delta O ernu mi a, dove si 
esercith I* Arte deUa Stampa, Diuertasionet <$c. In Venn, 1756, 8to. The Abb6 BoDi'a 
dissertation is introduced at the end of his Bibliateca PortatUe, toI. ii. zli. 

rmice; 1471i] DECOR PUELLARUM. 117 

genuineness of the printed date, as below; and Dr. Adam Clarke has 
taken the pains of presenting the English reader with a version of 
Boni's essay-^which is not divested of interest : see hb Bibliograpfacdl 
Miscellany; vol. ii. p. 17-47* The most forcible objection against the 
legitimacy of the date of 1461» is, the annplete inactivUy of Jenson's 
press from that period to the year 1470 — ^when, after this latter period, 
it was constantly employed till the death of its director.* 

Whoever reads the accounts of this impression by Morelli and Sardini* 
— ^to which add Denis's disquisition upon the legitimate claim of John 
Spxra to the parentage of the Venetian press— need not have recourse 
to sounder reasoning upon the fallacy of considering the present 
volume as the first production of printing in Italy : see the Bibl. PineU, 
vol. iv. p. 43-46 : Storia Critica di Nicolao Jensen ; lib. iii. p. 10 ; 
Suffragium pro Johanne de Spira, 4*c. Vienn, 1794, 8vo. Panzer has 
collected, in his usually concise manner, almost all the authorities u)x>n 
the subject : Jnnal, Typog, vol. iii. p. 75. It remains now therefore 
only to subjoin a minute and faithful account of this rare and inte- 
resting volume. The whole of the first page, on the recto of the first 
leaf, is as follows : 


* Booi is both whimncal and feeble in combating this argument. ' To this spedoos 
•bjection (sajrs h«) of *' What has Jenson done from 1461 to 1470 ?** — it mny be replied— 
" The Doge MaIipiero> who was perhaps his Mcoenas, having died suddenly in the year 
146f > and left him without protection, he went elsewhere to better his circumstances.' 
But if (as Boni afterwards observes,) ' he became rich by teaching the art to the Italians, 
prerious to 1470/<— what was to prevent his continuing to exercise his art after the death 
of hb tuppoted patron? What could have more effectually < bettered his circumstances ?*— 
And why was he to ' go elsewhere * to teach this art? Whoever b in the least conversant 
with the history of ancient printing, will find, that there b generally, if not always, a regular 
succes sio n of dates in books authenticated to have been executed at certain places : and it u 
chiefly the hiatus between the year 1468 and 1478 that renders the book, supposed to have 
been executed at Oxford, at the former period, a spurious production : that b, not printed 
at the Universi^ according to iti date. I should add, that Booi, incorrectly, calb the above 
Toiume an octana. 

118 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fenieei 1471. 



Mosso da li accesi k calidi 

desiderii uogtri : k dagli 

soliciti priegi che humel/ 

mente frequentate che cum le mie 

debeluce oratioe de priegi lo altissomo 

Sc eterno signor dio che ue concedi 

bona uentura nel uostro maritate : o 

deliberate per uostra roaior satisfacioe 

Ic perpetua consolatione de notarui 

el modo de aquistar dal signor dio k 

da gli homini del mondo bona 8c opti/ 

ma uentura : lo qual ordene se uui 

oCC. oCC oCC. 

A full page contains 22 lines. There are neither numerals, signatures, 
nor catchwords. The first book begins on the reverse of the third leaf; 
and the whole work is much divided and subdivided into chapters and 
sections. On the reverse of the loth leaf, begins a set of pious ejacu- 
lations to the Virgin, which occupy 6 pages. On the recto of the 59th 
leaf^ mention is made of the treatise called ' Fior de Vvrtu^ and ' Specchio 
deUa Croce ;* thus — ' Ancora fior de uirtu : quello libreto che si chiama 
palma uirtutum : & quello che se chiama gloria de la done : spechio 
della croce & simel altri utili & uirtuosi libri.* Again, at folios 96 rev. 
and 97 recto, we find the following notice of the work entitled ' Luctus 
Christianorum,** 'uui porete esser satisfacte per una operetta chiamata 
luctus christianorum zoe pianto de christian! : &c.* f May not these 
notices refer to the works already printed (probably by the same printer) 
under their respective denominations ? and if so, how can the present 
volume be the first production of an Italian press ? On the recto of the 
1 18th and last leaf, is the following extraordinary colophon : 

* See ante ; and pmt 

t The above passages are submitted to the reader in conaeqoence of sUps of paper having 
been inserted, in the respective places where they occsr, by the Noble Owner of the copy 
imder descriptioD. 

Peruscim; 1481.] FREZZI. 119 



The reverse is blank. De Bure, who has rather a particular account 
of this rare book, observes that there were only three copies of it 
known in Paris. Those of the President de Cotte, and Randon de 
Boisset were incomplete ; but the copy in the Graignat Collection was 
equally perfect and beautiful. Bibliogr. Tnttruct. vol. ii. p. ^04-10. The 
present is a sound and desirable copy, in red morocco binding. 

818. Frezzi. Il Quadriregio. Printed by 
Stephen Ams. Perusda. 1481. Folio. 

Prima Edizionb. * Editiones omnes buius operis rare, sed hsec 
ranssima :' says Fossi in the BibL MagUabech, vol. L col. 709-10. Fossi 
refers to a very good account of this edition by Freytag, in his AnaleeU 
LUerar. p. 350-1 ; but Freytag is chiefly indebted to a still better 
description of the earlier impressions of the Quadrir^o in Niceron*8 
M6n, des Hommes lUustreSy vol. vii. p. 143-153. This 7th volume of 
Niceron bears the date of 17^9; and the author of it does not scruple 
to say thaty ' of the first six early editions of Frezzi* — not only 
Maittaire, but many Italian authors, who have written upon the 
History of Printing, are entirely ignorant.' There are, however, brief 
but correct notices of it in Maittaire's 1st vol. (edit. 1733) p. 423» 
in Blarchand's Hut. de rimprimeriey p. 76, and in the more recent 
authorities of the Cat. de la FaUiere^ vol. ii. p. 510, and Index Libror. 
vol. ii. p. 46. Fossi (ui supr.) is more satisfactory than either. In the 
BiU. Bigot 1706, p. 43> n^ 1799, there is a copy of it described to be 

* The dates of these six editions are 1481, 1494, 1501, 1508 (twice at Florence in 
thb year) and 1511. Nioeran hhnself was therefore ignorant of the impressions of 1468^ 
and of a dateless one in the XVth century. See Puuer, toL il p. 56 ; vol. L p. 4S4. 

120 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Perusda; 1481. 

with ms. notes. We proceed to a particular and foithfiil description of 
this exceedingly rare volume. 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with the following titles, 
printed in red ; above a large rude wood-cut of the letter L, with a 
border, in the same style of embellishment, on the left : 

S[tt comtnck d ItBro tntttitlato <6uatrtregto 
lid liecurjeru tieOa utta l^aana SDe xnt^tt ft 
tttito fvatte HeHocbine tie jetancto a^omi 
two ^jdmto maejertro in ^atta tfiedioffia: <Ct 
ia ueisrcoito tidia cicta lie ftAisni : WmdHt^e 
in quactto Itbtt parttdi jetetontio quactco teg 
itt« i^ei 9nmo ffe tracta tiei regno tit tito €u 
pitn. ^A jetetontio tiei regno lie Jbat^i 
If^el tertto tie regno tiellt btttt. ^A quarto i 
idtio tid r^sno tie liea iSl^ierua n; lie utrtu^ 

€^ttolo 9rtmo ^n efjeto letdiejercrtue d teitq^o 
1 d ioto quatio n; tioue diautore luocante ap 
parue tito €:tq^ <St jetua tocontia Gurma B 
tnantftjerta promectQioit ati lAio noto fertre et 
attaiere tn amore jMo una uenuietta tSp^ he 
tiea SDtana titcta f tiena €t cStiucelo in ort 
erne n; (erua la promefisra* 

The impression * is uniformly printed in double columns, in a neat 
Gothic character, having 40 lines in a full page. The signatures, from 
B to n, run in sixes : n has eight leaves, including a blank one for the 
eighth. On the recto of n vij, we read the colophon thus : 

* Niceroa observes that there arc ' some very instroctivc passages in the poem of the 
Qmulrire^ ', and that the greater number of those who have spoken of it, place it next in 
estimation to Dantc*8 works, to which it is hardly inferior.* A recent authority remarks that 
the Dettamondo of Fazio degV Uherti, and the above work, are in many respects servile imi- 
tations q£ their illustrious model— »the Dmna Commedia. Hie Quadriregio lias met with a 
better fortune than the Dettamondo, and has consequently been more read. But notwith- 
standing it also possesses a tolerable share of poetical merit, its mystical subject, encumbered 
witli all the heavy dulness of the fashbnable ' theology, appears to render it less vrorthy of 
prcter>'ation. Quarterhf Bsuievf, vol. xi. No. XXI, fh 25, 

. ^ 

Without Date.] GLORIA MULIERUM. 121 

ftnijecde d IJUmt Hetto el <@uatrttre0to bei tie 
euriAt Hella utta fiflana tie meCtscr jpcetienco 
ia ueiGftotio tieOa cicta tie ftdifftnt St^aeatro ei; 
tmio i jSiacca tl^edo0ta ftatre tieOortOe tie 0& 
tto SDomtmto eon j^Qma ttfi^jentia ementia 
to- €t tn^refi^o a fpetUje^cta ^er ^aefitn 
4&tef&no anus? almatto tie! ^.ttttXxxxt 

This copy, which is rather a large and desirable one, although in 
some places much stained, was obtained at the sale of Mr. Wogan 
Browne's library, in Ireland, at a price proportioned to its rarity. It 
has been since elegantly bound in green morocco. 

819. Gloria Mulierum. (^Printed by Jenson; 
without Place or Date.^ Quarto. 

De Bure (Bibliogr, Instruct vol. ii. p. 208-9} has given a very fiuthful 
description of this rare volume, to which Morelli is well content to 
refer his reader : BibL PinelL vol. iv. p. 46-7. The former says it was 
unknown till his own time ; and conceives it to he a sort of continua- 
tion of the ' Decor Puellarum.* It is printed in the same form with this 
latter work, but a full page contains only 21 lines. There are neither 
numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. The prefix, on the recto of the 
first leaf, is thus : 


The present copy, which was in the Crevenna Collection, unluckily wants 
the 7th leaf. To be perfect, there should be 15 leaves. On the reverse 
of the 15th, we read the ensuing colophon : 


122 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua; 147S. 

pater nostri e cu codolerue de quello 
haueti facto subito ue e remesso e per/ 
donato . FINIS. 

This is rather an indifierent copy ; in highly ornamented red morocco 

820. GuERiNo II M eschino. Printed by Bartho- 
lomeus de Valdezochio. Padtia. 14/3. Folio. 

Prima Edizionb. This is without doubt one of the rarest volumes 
in existence. No copy of it will be found in the Collections of Capponi, 
Floncel, Crofts, Crevenna, or Pinelli ; and although a copy of it is 
noticed in the Catalogue of the Royal Fjibrary, at Paris (BeUes-LettreSf 
pt. ii. p. 40)» yet the Catalogues of De Boze, Haym, Guyon, Pompadour, 
Gaignat, and La Valliere, will be searched in vain for any mention of 
it. On the other hand, with the exception of Maittaire, none of 
the older bibliographers * had a knowledge of it. The account 
in the Jnnal. Typog» vol. i. p. 325, note 2, is not quite so particular 

* Tbe Capponi Catalogue refers us to the Eloquaua ItdUauh p* 82» of Fontaiiiiii ; but in 
the edition of that work by Apostolo Zeno> toL il p. 160, 199-^beiiig chapters vi and vii, 
demoted to Romances) I find no mention made of tbe above Romance. Oresdmbeni, 
Comment, vol. i. p. 531 » thought that the impression of 1480 (the onlj one in the Cappon! 
CoUecdon) was the first. The compiler of the Capponi Catalogue takes his description of 
the edition of 1473 from Maittaire. Ginguen6 is particular and uistructhre. He admits 
that, of all the prototypes or supposed originals of the Dwina Commedia, the 27 chapters 
(namely, from ch. 160 to ch* 188) of the 6th book of Guerino the Unhappy may have 
the best claims to that pretaision. These chapters relate to the Episode of St. Patrick under- 
going the purgatory of th^ welL * Entre ce plan et oelui du Dante (says Ginguen^) il y a 
oertainement de grands rapports.' But it should seem, firom the same authority, that the 
Romance of Guerino was of French original ; and that, in such original, Dante might have 
bad a glimpse of his plan— while the stronger features of resemblance, which now appear 
between the two works, are the performance of an Italian trantlator, of the name of 
Audreus, who chose to &shion this epdode after the popular model of Dante's poem. The 
learned Bottari is of this opinion, to which Ginguen^ seems to subscribe ; especially as, in a 
still more ancient French Romance (Marie de France) the tale of St. Patrick is introduced, 
but in a shorter and shnpler manner. Histoire LittSraire d*JtaUe, vol. ii. p. 24-6. Mr. Diuilop, 
in hb arousing and instructive History of the Origin of Romantic Fiction in Europe, has 
given an interesting analysb of the Romance itself. 

Padua; 1475.] GUERINO IL MESCHINO. 13S 

as could be wished ; yet it is evident that the author of that work had 
either seen, or was favoured with a particular description of, the 
volume itself. Clement, Mittarelli, Braun, Seemiller, and Fossi, have 
alike omitted to notice it. Later bibliographers have however a brief 
memorandum of it ; and one rejoices to see the meagre sum of 60 
Hvres, affixed as the value of it by Foumier, corrected by the more 
judicious valuation of Brunet ; who tells us it is ' at least worth from 
400 to 600 francs.* See the Diet. PortaHf, 8iC. p. 244 ; 1809 : Manuel 
du Librcure, vol. i. p. 501. La Sema Santander is not so satisfactory 
as Brunet : Diet Bibliogr. Choisij voL iL p. 473. It remains therefare 
to give a fiiithful description of this precious volume. 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with a brief outline of the 
chief particulars of the Romance, under the following title : 

In questo libro Vulgarmente setratta al una jstoria 
breue de re Karlo Imperatore poi del nascimeto 8c opere 
di quello magnifico caualieri nominato Guerino. 8c 
prenominato Mescbio per lo qualle se uade la narratioe 
de le prouintie ^si di tutto lo niodo e dela diuersita 
de li homini e gete. de loro diuersi costumi. de niolti 
diuersi animali e del babitatione d'la Sibilla che se 
troua uiua in le montagne in niezo Italia Sc ancora del 
inferno secondo dechiara la jstoria seguilando lo ex- 
ordio. Capitulo primo 

This and every full page contains 34 lines. There are neither numerals, 
signatures, nor catchwords. The chapters are numbered in the roman 
numerals ; and have a prefix, more or less, in capital letters. The last 
chapter, on the reverse of the last leaf but one, has this prefix : 

MO HEBEEL Meschino molti figlioli k como mori An 
tenisca k El Meschino. Capitulo. , CC.LIIL 

On the recto of the ^3d^ and last leaf, we read the ensuing colophon : 
* Bruoet nys there are only 909 leares; bat I ooimt 905, 

124 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Wtthaui Date. 

Lo infelice Guerino dito Meschino fiolo de dio Marte 

de sangue Reale de Franzia Magnifico k 

uallcroso Capitanio qui felicemente 

lo libro suo furnito e ia Padua 

adi xxi. de Aurilie 

. M . CCCC. 


Bartbolomeus de Valdezochio ciuis P^tauus 
Martinus de septem arboribus Prutenus. F. F. 

The reverse is blank. This edition is executed in the usually ^egant 
manner of its printer ; and the present copy of it, although sh'ghtly 
cropt and washed,^ may be considered a great acquisition to the library 
of its Noble Owner. It is superbly and appropriately bound, in dark 
red morocco, by Mr. C. Lewis. 

821. HiERONYMO (La Vita, &c. ) Without Name 
of Printer^ Place y or Date. Quarto, 

We have here another specinien of that delicate and peculiarly 
formed letter with which some of the earliest Classics have been 
described to be executed: see the editions of Flokus, Horace, and 
LucAN, at pages 30, 65, and 139 of the 9d volume of this work. It 
should seem that all the books, executed with this type, are of extreme 
rarity ; as Panzer appears to have seen few or none of them, and as 
the present impression will not be found in the Index of his 5th 
volume, at page 244, or p. 451. We proceed therefore to a feithful 
description of the edition ; which, being in the Italian language, was 
probably not executed before the year 1471. The first 2 leaves are 
occupied by a table of the Visions and Miracles, &c. recorded in the 
biography of the Saint. The last tiUe in the table, marked C • XX .» 
corresponds with the description given just before the end of the 
work ; and therefore we may conclude the table to be perfect. The 
title has this prefix : 

* That is, haviiig the stains taken out by washing. 


rrUhout Date.] HIERONYMO. 125 





On the recto of the 3d leaf is the prefix to the Life, thus : 




The impression is without signatures, numerals, or catchwords ; and a 
full page contains 28 lines. After the life and death of the Saint, there 
b a brief narrative of the Miracles performed by him. The commence- 
ment of the latter will be found on the reverse of the 104th leaf, ex* 
dusively of the 2 leaves of the table just mentioned. It has this prefix : 

Incominciano certi miracoli de sancto Hieronjmo 
doctore exceleatissirao de la chiesia de dio : quali 
fuorono facti io la cita de troia dopo la morte de 
sancto Hieronymo. 

These Miracles occupy the 4 following leaves. I shall extract the last 
by way of a specimen : 

Miracolo duno caualiero. 
Nche fo un caualier fracesco il ^le bauea un suo 
cauallo molto bello e de grade ualuta al qle ca 
uallo preso uo di molto forte i dolori iacea i terra e 
no si potea adiutare ne mutare laql cosa il caualier 
uededo 8c essedo despato de la uita del cauallo p 
ultimo remedio si uoto a sacto Hieronymo che se 
redesse sanita al cauallo offerirebbe uno fiorno do 
ro alpoa de la cbiesia sua e facto il uoto : il cauallo 
&i leuo tutto sanato tc il caualier adipi il suo uoto. 


126 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Ftorenee; 1493. 

Four leaves and a half are then devoted to the testimoiuea of certain 
fiithers in oomnendation of St. Jerom. On the averse of the 5th of 
these leaves are some Italian verses, thus entitled :* 

Oratione deuotissla dedicata a sacto Hieronjroo 

These verses conclude on the recto of the ensuing leaf; when we read 
as follows : 


Qui si coDtien del glorioso e degno 
Hieronymo : lauita el bel finire 
Chei fece a nostro exempio per salire 
Con uerde palma nei beato regno. 

The reverse is blank. In the whole, induuvely of the 2 leaves of 
table, there are 116 leaves. The present may be called a sound and 
desirable copy : in red morocco binding. 

822. losEPHO. Della Historia Della Guerra 
Hebbono I GuDEi CON I RoMANi. Printed 
hy BartholomeiLS. P. adU VI. di Luglio. Flo^ 
rence. 1493. Folio. 

Pbima Edizionb. This is not only the first impression of an Italian 
version of Josephus, but it appears to be the only edition, in the Italian 
language, published during the XVth century. De Bure tells us that 
* several bibliographers have mentioned it, but have not entered into any 
details upon the subject.* De Bure himself being equally barren with 
his predecessors, it is probable the volume never came under his notice. 

* They begin thus : 

heronymo doctor grane & diserto 
lume di nostra chiesia : & gran splendore 
de U fede diristiuiA per too merto : 
Tu sei preaente aquel padre & signore 
che per hnmana giente pati morte : 
et |)er la facda aedi il cr e a t o re 
Gnui parte tu sd quel che maochonforte: 


Bibihgr, Instruct vol. v. p. 467- Laire refers to I>e Bure; adding 
little to his account of it. Index Libror. vol. ii. p. 1 86. It shall be our 
object to supply these deficiencies. 

The recto of the first leaf is blank : the reverse of it contains an 
epistle in commendation of history in general, and of that of Josephus 
in particular. The recto of the 2d leaf, sign, a i, has the following 




The first book commences on the recto of a 3. .The signatures, a to z, 
&, 0, and 9f run in eights, with the exception of EP ; which has only 6 
leaves. On the recto of the 6th of this latter signature, we read the 
following colophon : 

€1 Imprcsso in Firenzeper Bartliolomeo. P. adi. vi. di Luglio 


Tliis edition is elegantly printed ; but the present copy of it is unluckily 
a very indifierent one. In vellum binding. 

823. LucTus Christianorum. Printed by Jenson. 
{Venice.^ 1471. Quarto. 

This is the identical copy which is described (in rather too flattering 
a manner) in the Crevenna Catalogue, vol. i. p. 184. It is defective in 
the 7th leaf.* On the recto of the 1st leaf we read this prefix : 


• Tlwi saoae defect u found in the Crevenna copy of the Gloria Mumcrum : see p. 
131 ante. 

VOL. lY, R 

128 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1477. 

Hiere are 14 lines below ; but a full page contains 29 lines. Wben per- 
fect, the copy should contain 64 leaves ; without numerals, signatures, 
or catchwords. The recto of the 40tli leaf is blank. On the reverse 
of the last leaf is the colophon, thus : 


nonas apriles a praeclarissirao librov 
exculptore Nicolao gallico impressa 
est passio christi deuotissima. 

. FINIS . 

Bibliographers notice the exact similarity of the mode of printing 
between the Lucius Christianorumj the Decor Puellarum^ and the Gloria 
Mulierum ; and Sardini, who places this volume as the first in the year 
1471, arranges the Decor PueUarum as the 5th in the same period. 
Indeed, there seems hardly any reasonable doubt about their having 
been all consecutively printed within the last mentioned year. This 
copy is in red morocco binding, elaborately ornamented. 

824. Monte Sancto di Dio. Printed by Nicolo 
di Lorenzo. Florence. 1477- Quarto. 

There is a particular account of this interesting and very uncommon 
work in Laire*s Catalogue of the early printed books of Cardinal 
Lomenie de Brienne; Index Libror, Sfc, vol. i. p. 409-416. It was 
unknown to Maittaire, Haym, Mazzuchelli, the author of the Bib- 
liographie Instructive, and Heinecken ; and has escaped the researches of 
La Serna Santander. Denis briefly notices it from the Duke de la 
Falliere's Catalogue } in which latter publication, vol. i. p. 255, and par- 
ticularly in the ' Additions,' p. 30, it is described somewhat minutely. 
That copy, however, was not so complete as was the one in the 
Casanatensian library at Rome ; which furnished the Abb^ St. Leger 
with the materials of his description of it. This minute description, 
with some curious remarks upon the first books ornamented with 
engravings, will be found in the Abb^*s three Lettres addressees d M. ie 
Baron H*** (Hass) : 1 783, 8vo. a brochure, which has long escaped my 
researches ; and to which Laire, De Murr, and Fossi» seem to refer 

Florence; 1477] MONTE SANCTO. 129 

with satisfoction. It must also be observed that the latter, in his BibU 
MagUabech. vol. i. col. 317-318, has well described this work; calling 
it * £ditio rarioribus bibliothecanim cimeliis adnuroeranda.' The 
Abb^ Rive, in a note in his Chasse aux BU>liographes, p. 365, &c. has 
given some desultory account of it, in his tediously-systematic abuse 
of De Bure. He tells us that the Duke de la Valliere obtained it 
fn>m the library of M. Jackson of Leghorn, who gave only 3 1 livres 
10 sous, for it ; and that it was sold at the Valliere sale for 610 livres : the 
original velvet binding having been taken off for a morocco one. The 
author of the work itself, was Antonio da Siena, surnamed Bettini. 

This work is divided into three parts. The first part treats of The 
Mount op Christ, and has 115 chapters: the second, of The Glohy 
OF Paradise, and has 15 chapters: the third, of The Punishments 
op Hell, and contains 7 chapters. An engraving precedes each of 
these parts. On the recto of the first leaf, we read thus : 

[S]Ommario et brieue dimostratione diquanto si con* 
tiene inquesto libro detto monte sancte didio : Compilato 
et composto daldeuoto docto seruo di ybesu Cristo^ frate 
Antonio dasiena pouero ybesuato Alpresente Reuerendis- 
simo uescbouo difulgino Nel quale si dichiara qualsia il 
fine pfecto 8c soramo delfidel cristiano : &:c. 

At the bottom of the following page, or reverse of the same leaf, 

: AMEN : 

Then a table of three leaves : on the recto of the third, at bottom— 



On the reverse of this third leaf, which is the foui-th from the 
beginning, is a large copper-plate, from a part of which the subjoined 
fac-simile is taken. At top, there is a fine whole length figure of our 
Saviour, three inches high, with elevated arms and hands : the drapery 
of this figure is extremely tasteful :* a glory surrounds his head, and 

* Mr. Ottley has made a fac-iimile of it in hb valuable work upon The History cf 

130 ITALIAN BOOKS. IFIarence; 1477. 

a number of flaming cherubim and seraphim encircle him. Beneath, 
are the figures engraved on the annexed plate. The ladder extends 
to the feet of our Saviour: a mountain, with Christ ciiicified, is in the 
back ground. A label extends from the arm of the man, with a Latin 
inscription, ' Lbvavi ocvlos megs I motes vndb veniat avxiliam 
MICH I AvxiLivM MEYM A DOMINO.' Beneath is the fiend, as in the 
plate. The ladder b chained to the mountainous rock in the back 
ground. Many more inscriptions are to be seen upon the ladder — of 
which the accompanying fac-simile, taken by myself, is presumed to 
convey a tolerably just notion. 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf: 

' Inconmincia ellibro intitulato monte sancto didio Com- 
posto damesser Antonio da Siena Rcuerendissimo ueschouo 
difuligno della congregatione de poueri lesuati. Capi- 
tulo. Primo.' 

On the next leaf but one ensuing, or on the recto of the tliird from the 
copper-plate, is sign. a. i., which runs to eight; b, has the same 
number ; but is only marked b. i , b. ii. The signatures continue in 
eights, (except i, with nine^) but are irregularly printed, as far as 
r. iiii. : on the recto of which is the colophon : 

f Finito elmote sco didio pme Nicolo dilorezo dellamagna 

The reverse is blank. Tlie fuller pages contain from 33 to 36 lines. 
We now proceed to describe the remaining copper-plates. On the 
reverse of sign. n. viii. is another fine engraving of a whole length of 
our Saviour, as in the second annexed plate ; surrounded, in the ori- 
ginal, by cherubim and seraphim. On the recto of p. vij. is a copper, 
plate of a' tri-mouthed fiend eating men and women; of which a 
fac-simile is given in the Cat. de la Valliere, vol. i. p. 255. This book 
is printed in a full size Roman type, similar to the larger type of 
the Dante of 1481, and to that of the Berlinghieri : vide pp. 64, 108. 
There arc neither numerals or catchwords. Laire advises the reader 

* Signature I v seeius to have been designed for a copper-plate, as the text is curtailed 
of its usual length. 

1 - 


Fenice; 1470.] PETRARCH. 131 

not to trust to the signatures, which are ' faithlessly marked;* but he 
says, correctly, that the voUune contains 131 leaves. 

It is observed by Laire, that these copper-plates are executed on 
separate leaves, and not incorporated with the text ; on the contrary, 
each of them has text on the reverse of the impression. They are 
undoubtedly very great curiosities ; and exhibit the earliest spe- 
JOINED, ill a printed book. Whether they were executed by Baldiniy 
or Uoticelli, must perhaps reniuin a disputed point. They are 
precisely in tlie manner of those of the Dante of 1481 ; uf which 
fac-similes have been given at page 114 ante. The present is a sound 
and perfect copy ; beautifully bound by Roger Payne, in olive-colour 
morocco, and probably, for tasteful decoration, is exceeded by no 
effort of that distinguished artist. 

826. Petrarch A. Sonetti e Trionfi. Printed 
by Vindelin de Spira. Venice. 1470. 

Prima Edizione. This first edition of the Sonnets and Triumphs 
of Petrarch was so scarce in the time of De Bure, that it is said, in the 
Bibliogr, Instruct, vol. iii. n°. 3341, that not a single copy of it could 
be found in Paris. Accordingly De Bure, instead of giving a descrip- 
tion of the present volume, has entered into a comparison of the Padua 
edition of 147^, with an ancient one of which he had an imperfect copy, 
and which he conceived, erroneously, to have been this first impression 
by Vindelin de Spira. He has also given three several wa)s of piinting 
the colophon to this edition ; none of which is accurate. Tlie ancient 
edition, as will also be presently proved, turns out to be the one printed 
by Leonard Achates, in 1474. We may now proceed to a description 
of this exceedingly precious volume : among the most beautiful, as well 
as the rarest, of those executed by Vindelin de Spira. 

On the recto of the first leaf the table begins, thus : 

Pie dccolli oue labella uesta 
Amor piangeua &: io chonlui taluolta 
A polio sancor uiue el bcl disio 
A mor chonsue promesse lu-singando 

132 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Penice; 1470. 

A i bella liberta come tu mai 

A uenturoso piu chaltro terreno 

A mor fortuna k lamie mente schiua 

There are 30 lines to this page ; and the table occupies the first 
seven leaves, or fourteen pages. On the recto of the ensuingy and 
8th leaf, the first Sonnet begins thus : 


me sparse ilsuono 

Diquei sospiri ondio nudriual core 

Insulmio primo giouenile errore 

quandera in parte altro huom da quel chi sono 

del uario stile incbio piango 8c ragiono 

fra le uane speranze el uan dolore 

oue sia clii per proua intenda amore 

spero trouar pieta non cbe perdono 
Ma ben ueggio bor si come alpopol tutto 

fauola fui gran tempo onde souente 

dime medesmo meco miuergogno 

ic delmio uaneggiar uergogna el fructo 

el pentersi el conoscer cbiaramente 

cbe quanto piace almondo e breue sogno 

This page has 29 lines. The Sonnets occupy 136 leaves. On tlie 
recto of the following, or 137th leaf, the Triumphs begin thus : 


imiei sospiri 

This page contains 25 lines ; a full page 30. The Triumphs extend 
to 37 leaves. In the whole, 179 leaves : without numerals, signatures, 
OI catchwords. On the recto of the last leaf we read the following 
colophon : 


Qup fuerat multis quodam confusa tenebri» 
Petrarc^ laur^ metra sacrata su^ 

Fenice; 1470.] PETRARCH. * 133 

Christophori et feruens pariter cyllenia cura 

Transcripsit nitido lucidiora die. 
Vtq; superueniens nequeat corrumpere tepus 

En Vindelinus pnea plura dedit. 

This colophon is printed with tolerable accuracy in Laire's Index 
Libror, vol. i. p. 226-7; and in the Diet, Bibliogr. ChoisL vol. ill. p. 
245. A ' marvellously beautiful ' copy of it was in the Pinelli collec- 
tion, and was sold for 27l. 6s, : see BU>L Pinell, vol. iv. p. 343, n** 2350. 
In the Crevenna copy about a dozen leaves required to be inlaid; 
otherwise it was a good one : Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iii. n®. 4676. The Duke 
de la Valliere*s copy was sold for 1330 livres : Cat. de la Falliere, vol. ii. 
n^. 3579 : and that of Cardinal de Lomenie*s, in Laire's Index, for 
664 livres. A copy was in Consul Smith's library : see the Bibl, Smithy 
p. cccLXii. The reader may consult the brief notice of Maittaire, 
vol* i. p. 296 (who erroneously thought there was an anterior edition 
by Valdarfer) and Haym, vol. ii. p. 61 ; which latter is copied from the 
edition of 1741, where the sum of 80 livres is affixed as the value of 
this impression. Haym notices a beautiful copy of it in the library of 
Signor Gagliardi of Brescia ; and seems to infer, from Tomasini, that 
there was a copy of it upon vellum in the library of St. Mark. This is 
not improbable ; as it is justly observed by him ' tliat it was the custom 
of the early printers to strike ofif a few copies of their books upon 
vellum ; by way of making them rarities.* The usual copy, ' adorned 
with a miniature at the beginning,* was in the Capponi Collection; 
Cat, Capponi^ p. 294 ; and an imperfect one, wanting only the table, 
was purchased by Mr. Roscoe, at the sale of the Merly Library, for 50 
guineas. The present copy, in red morocco binding, is a most desirable 
one, from the beauty and soundness of its condition. 

ISi ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua; 1472. 

827- Petkabcha. Sometti e Tbionfj. Printed 

by Martinus de Septem Arboribus, Padua. 1472. 

Sbconda Edizione : of extreme rarity and value. On the recto of 
the first leaf begins the table, thus : 

A piedi colli dela bella uestft a C^ iii. 

A qualuncba animal chalberga Iterra Ti. 

A mor piangeua &: io co lui tal uolta x. 

A polio se ancor uiue el bel desio xv. 

A mor cum sue promese lusengando xxxv. 

A i bella liberta come tu mai xli. 

A uenturoso piu cbaltro terreno xlv. 

The table ends on the recto of the eighth leaf: * Explicit Tabvla/ 
On the reverse of the same leaf, we have an interesting memorandum 
of Petrarch, concerning Laura's life, &c. ; wliich, as it does not occur in 
the first edition, shall find a place in the note below.* 

On the recto of the following, and 9th leaf, the first sonnet is printed 
wholly in capital letters : thirty lines. The Sonnets occupy 138 leaves. 
On the recto of tlic 138th : 

X * [L]avra propriis Virtutibns illustris & meis logQ celebrata carmlnibas prinium 
oculis nicis appaniit sub primuni adolescetis mcs tcinpas Anno Domini .M.CCC.XX\^I. 
die \\. aprilis in eclesia itactac clane auinioni Iiora matutina. & in eade ciuitate code mese 
aprilis. eodc die sexto, eade hora. matntina Anno aut domi iM.CCC.XL\1I. ab hac luce lux 
ilia subtracta. di ego forte Verone essem heu fati mei nescius. Rumor aut ifelix per litteras 
Ludouici niei roe repit anno eodemcnsc maio die xviiii. mane. Corpus illud castissimum ac 
pulclicrrimum in locum fratrum roinorum repositum ipso die mortis aduespcram Anima quide 
elus ut de affricano ait Senecca i caelum unde erat rcdii&sc mihi persuadeo. Hare aute ad 
acerbtt rei memoria amara quadam dulcedine scriberc uisu e. Hoc potissimu Iocd. (|ui ssepe 
sob oculis meis rediit. ut cogitem nihil esse deberc. quod amplius mihi placeat i hac uita, 6l 
effracto maiori laqueo tempus esse de babiJone fugiendi Crebra horum inspc<:tione ac fugacis- 
sinuc static extimatione commouear. quod pneuia dei gratia : facile erit pra>teriti tcmporis 
curas superuacuas : spcs iuanes. & inexpectatos exit us acriter ac uiriliter cogitanti.' 

We learn from the Venetian edition, supposed to have been printed by Jenson, in 1473, 
that this memorandum of Petrarch was written by him in a MS. volume of Virgil in th« 
Pope's library : vide post. 

FaOaa; 1472.] PETRARCH. IS5 







On the recto of the following leaf, begin the Tkiumphs : the first 
pnge being wholly in capital letters, and containing 36 lines. The 
Triumphs conclude on the reverse of the S7th folio, from the beginning, 
inclusively, thus : 


A fuU page has 30 lines. Then follows a life of Petrarch, written ia 
Italian, in seven pages, ending thus : 

quando el Petrarcha mori era il bochazio 

diminor eta de lui de an 

ni. ix. &: cosi per sue 

cessione andoro 

no lumuse 






On the reverse are two Italian lonnets in praise of the poet's memory. 
The colophon occupies the recto of the following leaf, thus— 

VOL. IV. s 

136 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Paiua; 1472. 

Francisci petrarcas laureati poets 
necnOD secretarii apostolici 
benemeriti. Rerum 
uulgariu fragmei 
ta ex origioali 
libro extracta 
In urbe pa 
tauina li 
ber abso 
lutus est 
BAR. de Valde. patauus. F F. 
Martinus de. septem arboribus Prutenus. 

The preceding description of this rare and beautiful volume will 
probably be found more accurate and satisfactory than those of De 
Bure and La Sema Santander ; see the Bibliogr, Instruct vol. iii. n^ 
3342 ; and Diet, Bibliogr, Choisif vol. iii. n**. 1066. De Bure is prolix, 
without being particular. He notices copies in the collections of 
Gaignat, Lauraguais, and Paris de M eyzieu. The copies of La Valliere 
and of the Cardinal de Lomenie were not in desirable condition. The 
Crevenna copy was perfect, with a transposition of the kst five leaves. 
See Cat. de la Valliere^ vol. ii. n®. 3580 ; Index Libror, vol. i. p. 283 ; and 
Bibl, Crevenn, vol. iii. n®. 4677- It may be worth noticing that Panzer, 
vol. ii. p. 363, has made an hasty reference to Maittaire, vol. i. p. 416, 
instead of to p. 316 — the page here referred to being erroneously 
numbered 416. "piis impression was not in the Pinelli collection ; but 
a copy of it will be found in the Catalogue of Consul Smith's Books, 
p. cccLxii : which copy is thus noticed by the editor of the Bibl, ItaL 


Fmke; 1473.] PETRARCH. 137 

p. 98, edit. 1741 : * Vn esemplare di questa Edizione ritroyasi nell* 
ioestimabile raccolta d'ottimi, antichissimi, e nobilissimi libri stampatiy 
e inanoscritti, fatta dal diligentissimo Signor Giuseppe Smith, Inglese 
abitante in Venezia.' Speaking of the volume itself, he adds—' E in 
fbglietto bifl lungo, di carattere molto bello/ There are neither numeraK 
signatures, nor catchwords. In the whole, 1 96 leaves. The present is a 
fine copy, in red morocco binding. 

828. Petrarch A. Sonetti e Trionfi. (Supposed 
to have been printed by Jenson.^ Venice. 1473. 

Bibliographers are agreed in assigning this edition to the press of 
Nicolas Jenson. Its elegance undoubtedly justifies this conclusion. 
Such was the estimation in which it was formerly held, that De Bure 
tells us, till the two preceding editions were discovered, the present 
was considered the first impression ' by weU informed men ;* yet these 
' gens fort instruits* appear to have never consulted Haym, where it 
stands as the fifth edition in succession. It should seem, that the 
copy of it, in the Hoym Collection, there called the first, had misled 
the bibliographers of that time.* 

A table of 7 leaves, as in the former editions, precedes the text. A 
part of the fourth Omzone is here selected : 

n £l dolce tepo de la prima etade 

Che nascer uide Sc ancor quasi i herba 
La fera uoglia che p mio mal crebbe 
Perche catando il duol si disacerba 
Cantero comio uissi in libertade 
Metre amor nel mio albergo asdegno sebbe 
Poi seguiro si come alui nencrebbe 
Troppo altamente . e cbe di cio mauene 

* Count Hoym's copy had been, formerly, Du Fay's; and the note in the Btbl. Hoym, 
no. 2463, is an exact transcript of wlwt appears in the BibL Fayana^ no. 2060. llus note 
informs us that Du Fay liad, in his own copy, written ' a curious and copious ' account of the 
differences of the edition from those whicli followed. Tliis copy was sold for 240 livres, at the 
dispersion of Du Fay*» library, 1725 j but produced only 174 at the sale of G^uut Hoym's 

1S8 ITALIAN BOOKS. {Fmkei U71 

Di cio son facto a molta gente exempio 

Ben chel mio duro scempio. 

Sia scripto altroe . si cbe mille penne 

Ne son gia stanche. 8c quasi in ogni ualle 

Ribombi il suon de miei graui sospiri (foL xiii. rev.) 

At the end of the Sonnets* on the reverse of folio 144— •including 
the table— we read as follows : 





.-. FINIS .'. 

At the end of the Triumphs, on fol. 37, reverse, fiom the beginning of 

.-. DEO GRATIAS .♦. 









.-. FINIS .-. 

Then follow the MemoraUUa, and the Life of Petrarch : (the latter in 
the Italian language) comprehending 6 leaves.* On the reverse of the 


However particular may be the accounts of De Bure, and of the La 

* On the rerene of the first of theie 5 learet, there it a fragment of a letter firm 

Boat; 1478.] PETRAHCH. 1S9 

Valliere» Crevenna, and Pinelli* Catalogues, it is presumed that the 
preceding is the roost copious and careful description of this precious 
edition. Consult, however, the Manuel du Libraire^ vol. ii. p. 968. 
Both La Serna Santander and Brunet mention the copy, printed upon 
TSLLUM, which was in the library of Cardinal de Lomenie de Brienne^ 
and which was sold for 1800 livres. Index Libror, vol. i. p. 309-10. 
Consul Smith had the usual paper copy : see Bibl. Smithy p. ccclxii* 
Maittaire and Haym are very brief; and Panzer refers only to the 
foregoing authorities. To be perfect, the volume should contain 186 
leaves. The present may be considered a desirable copy; in blue 
morocco binding. 

828. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Trionpi. Printed 
by Leonard Achates. Basil. 14/4. Folio. 

This edition is probably rarer than either of the preceding : at leasts 
it is certain that no bibliographer has as yet given a complete account 
of it. Maittaire slightly notices it at p. 340, vol. i. ; referring to p. 

Petrarch to Jacobus 'de Coluim Lomborieiisem epdm/— oondadiiig with these elegpmt 
venes upon his fimnirite retreat of Vaocluse : 

V aile locus cbusa toto mihi nulhis in orbe 
Gratior : aut studiis aptior ora meis. 

V alle puer dausa fiiera : iuuenemq; renersum 
^ouit in aprioo Yallis anioena ainu. 

V alle uir iu dausa meliores dulciter annos 
Exegi : & uitae Candida fila mee. 

V alle senex dausa suppremum ducere tempus 
£t clansa cupio te duoe uallc mori. 

* The copy m the PinelU CoUectbn (Bibl PineU. vol. W. p. 544.) is now m the libraiy 
of Mr. S. W. Singer. It u remarkable for containing an andent (perhaps the original) MS. 
of the celebrated commentary of Aktokio Da Tempo ; which Morelli, unaccountably, 
describes as ' the copious annotations of an anonymous author :' whereas the ' Proemio di 
M. Antonio da Tempo' is written in a very legible hand, on a blank leaf, immediately 
following the table; and a further express totimony, in the same hand, immediately 
ensues. Zeno says that the first edition of thu commentary appeared m 1477, at Venice; 
Lettere di Apottolo Zeno, vol 3. p. 318. But this copy of the impre»ion of 1473, now in 
Mr. Singer's possession, exhibits a decided proof that the text was twice set up, or printed, 
oT at least a portion of the volume : since Mr. Singer has found the following variations ia 

Cannme iv. foL 6. rev. 
Earl Spencer's copy. Mr. Singer's copy, 

line 1 tepo Tempo 

2 1 in 

S p per 

4 CBtando cantando 

140 ITALIAN BOOKS. IBasU; 147S. 


98 of his anterior Tolume ; where, however, no mention of it u mad 
De Bure has contented himself with citing Maittaire's brief description 
of the colophon, but declares his total ignorance of the book itself. It 
was unknown to Fontanini, Haym, and Panzer ; nor will a copy of it 
be found in any of the catalogues before referred to. 

Dc Bure had, in fact, obtained possession of an imperfect copy of it ; 
his description of which, comparing it with the Padua edition of 1472, 
exactly corresponds with the book itself; as the present account will 
partly shew : 

The volume commences with the table ; which, as usual, occupies 
seven leaves: on the reverse of the seventh, is the memorandum 
relating to I^aura. On the recto of the 8th leaf commences the first 
sonnet ; printed wholly in capitals, with the exception of the two last 
words in the tenth line — ' chi sono : * which are in small Roman letters. 
On the reverse of the 128th leaf of the Sonnets, (exclusively of the 
table) we have 







Then the first Triumph, wholly in capitals. On the reverse of the 
16dd leaf, from the beginning of the Sonnets : 





Next, the life of Petrarch in Italian : • Vite . F. P.' at the end. Two 
laudatory sonnets, as before, (see p. 135) follow : the whole of this 
supplementary part is in 4 leaves. On the reverse of the 4th : 

fFUhoui IMie.] PETRARCH. 141 

Francisci Petrarche laureati poete 

necnoa secretarii apostolici 

benemeriti. Rerum 

uulgariii fragmeta 

ex originali 

libro ex 


Vrbs Basilea mihi nome e Leoardus achates : 

Anno christi humanati. M.cccc.lxxiiii« 

Venet. Duce. Nicol. Marcel. 

A full page of the Triumphs contains 32 lines. La Serna Santandef 
has noticed this edition as if it contained only the Triumphs : see hia 
Diet, BU>liogr, Cho'ui, vol. iii. p. 250. It has neither numerals, signatures, 
nor catchwords ; and is of moderate typographical beauty. The present 
is a sound copy, in green morocco binding. 

829. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Trionpi. fVitJiout 
Name of Printer^ Place^ or Date. Folio. 

As &r as I can discover, this barbarously printed edition has escaped 
the notice of bibliographers. The type is partly gothic and partly 
roman : at least the ^'s are always of the former character. I have 
designated it a folio, from the perpendicularity of the water mark ; but 
the copy imder description (7{> inches in height, by &}• in width) is of 
the dimensions of a small quarto. This copy is without a table, but 
it presents us with the commencement of the first sonnet thus : 



Insul mio primo giouenile errore 
Quado era i pte altro huo da ql chi sono 
Del uario stile ichio piango et ragiono 

&:c. 8cc. Sec. 

142 ITALIAN BOOKS. [fPUhoutDate. 

There are 23 lines below : a fiill page contains SO lines. The impres- 
sion is entirely destitute of catchwords, signatures, and numerals. The 
Someti termiitate on the reverse of fbl. 137, thus : , 





. FINIS : 

Ae Triumphs commence thus : 


Che fu principio a si lunghi martiri 
Scaldaua il sol gia lun et laltro corno 

oCCs oCCs vCQ» 

On the reverse of the second foUowmg leaf, 


Each series of Triumphs is designated in a similar manner. At the 
end of the Triumphs, on fbl. 178, recto : 


Then the memorandum (as at p. 134 ante) respecting Petrarch's first 
sight of Laura, and the verses as at p. 139 ante. A brief biography 
of the poet, in 7 pages, and written in the Italian language, terminates 
the impression. At the bottom of the reverse of the last leaf : 


In the whole, 176 leaves. This copy afibrds a remarUble specimen 
both of the skill and elegance of Roger Payne's binding. From the ms. 

Feniee; 1476.] POGGIO. 14S 

memorandum of Roger, it should seem that when the volume was put 
into his hands, it was in a most crazy and shattered state ; but he has 
almost restored it to its pristine condition and strength. The gilt 
ornaments are in the very piurest style of that extraordinary artist. la 
olive-colour morocco binding. 

830. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Canzone. Col 
Comment© di Francesco Filelpo. Printed 
by LeoTMrduslVilddeltatisbona. Venice. 1481. 

Although this impression seems to have escaped F^zer, it is not 
entitled to particular notice — as there were previous editions of the 
same commentary. The type is a close Gothic ; and a full page dis- 
plays an abundant portion of both text and commentary. The signatures 
run to K ; and, with the exceptions of I and K, are in eights : the latter 
have each 6 leaves. On the recto of K vj, we tead the imprint thus : 

fimS^ il commento bdt Jbmati tt €aa^mt tid l^etrae^ 
c$a: compojtfto 9tt A pcejSttattfjBttmo orotoce n pteta 
aiMjeferfrantejetcoJ^pielpI^ S[mpcel]^oitdfoindpta€itta 
tia mttttm : vet Xeonattia totlti tie ISatiier&ona tteSt attni 
M ^tsnote. ^.ttaixxxi* 

The register is below. A desirable copy ; in russia binding. 

831. PoGGio. IsTORiA FiORENTiNA. Printed by 
lacomo de Rossi {lacobeus Rubeus.^ Venice. 
1476. Folio. 

This seems to be the earUest Italian version of the original Latin 
tlistory of Florence by the celebrated Poggio. The translator was 
the son of Poggio. Ftozer refers to various authorities, but a brief 
yet a circumstantial description of this impression seems only requisite. 
Consult the Jnnal, Typog. vol. iii. p. 11T» n^ 242. The type and 
press work bespeak the master-hand of the printer: — few offices 
having put forth more elegant productions than those which contain 


144 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1485. 

the name of Jacobus Rubeus. The recto of the first leaf, sign. a. i* 
presents us with the title of the proheme, in 5 lines of capital letters. 
The proheme occupies 2 leaves. On the recto of a. iii, we read the 
prefix to the text of the History, thus : 


There are 37 lines beneath, but a full page contains 41 lines. The 
signatures, a to n, (with the exception of i and k, in sixes) are in 
tens ; but n has only 8 leaves, a blank leaf forming the 8th. The 
ensuing colophon is on the recto of n vij — ^beneath 13 lines of text : 

Finito loctauo 8c ultimo libro della historia fiorentina 

di Messer Poggio tradocta di lingua latina in lingua 

toscana da lacopo suo figliuolo impresso Auinegia 

per Ihuomo di optimo ingegnio Maestro lacopo de rossi 

di natione gallo neli anni di Cristo M.CCCCLXXVI 

a octo di marzo Regniante loinclito Principe Messer 

Andrea uendramino. 

Laus Deo 

This is a sound copy in old (foreign) red morocco binding. An 
Italian version of Aretin's Florentine Hbtory, by the same printer, is 
boimd with it : see p. 63 ante. 

832. PoGGio (Jacopo). Commento sopra El 
Triompho DEL.LA Fama DI Petrarcha. Printed 
by Bonaccorsi. Florence. 1485. Quarto, 

Prima. Eoizione. There is, at first sight, a great resemblance 
between the types of this volume and those of Miscomino, who printed 
at the same place. Indeed, as there is scarcely any perceptible differ- 
ence between the types of these printers, it is probable that they used 
the same fount of letter. On the recto of the first leaf, a. ii, is the 
following prefix : * 

reniee; 1499.] POLIPHILO. 145 






A full page has 25 lines. The signatures, from a to q, run in eights ; 
q has only 5 leaves, on the recto of the 5th leaf of which, is the fol- 
lowing colophon : 

Impresso in Firenze per ser Francesco Bonaccorsi 

A petitione di Alexadro di Francesco Yarrochi 

Cittadino Fiorentino. 

Nel anno. MCCCCLXXXV. adi. xxuii. di gen 



The reverse contains the register. A blank leaf forms q vj, as well as 
a i. Maittaire, vol. i. p. 470, and Laire, Index Librar. vol. ii. p. 90, are 
sufficiently brief. The present is a sound and desirable copy ; in russia 

833. PoLiPHiLo- Hypnerotomachia. Printed 
by Aldus. Venice. 1499. Folio. 

Prima Edizionb. If the rarity and intrinsic worth of this volume 
were equal to its beauty, we might safely pronounce it to be one of 
the most desirable books in the library of a collector. It is however 
very far from becoming an object of indifierence, while it presents us 
with the most perfect specimen of the press of Aldus, and of the taste- 
fidness of wood-engraving, in the XVth century. In these latter 
respects, there is no volume to be put in competition with it. I shall 
therefore take some pains, first, to present the reader with an 
account of the author and of the nature of tlie work, and, secondly, to 
submit such facsimiles of the original engravings as may serve to 
secure his assent to the truth of the foregoing remarks. 

• Sic. 

146 ITALIAN BOOKS. [JS^gnun^fomocMBy 

The name of Polipbilus* appears as that of the author of the 
work. This name is in the title-page ; hut although the real name is 
mtjpposed to have been Colonka, it is very doubtful whether posterity 
wiU ever be acquainted with the truth upon this point. The author is 
said to have been a priest, and to have assumed the name of Poliphilus, 
as well from his attachment to a lady» under the feigned name of 
PoLiAy t (who is the heroine of the rhapsody or romance) as from fear 

* ' Vosaiiis, pr^c^e en oela, et soiyi de pliuieiin autres, a 6crit Poiiphile, oomme si oe 
nom renoit de FIoX^tAAf : nam histDrioo huJc open, (dit il dans Pendrcnt que j*ai d^ja dtQ 
ut ex eo (Baltasare Boni£uao) cognosoo, propositum ett ostendere coneta* qaonim aiiiore 
depereunt homines, nihil aliud quAm somniuro Tideri, et prope tuspioor eo etiam nomen 
veXvf tAir quod amids abondantem signat, assumptisse, quia omnes fere magis amant 
mundana quam seterna.' Son raisnnnement, dont ponrtant il se aait boo gr6 en marge, n*est 
point juste. Si cet Ecrivain en effet a eudessein de &ire Toir que lea choses did-bas ne sont 
qu*un songe : ii s'ensuivra que le nom de Polipfaile, cVst-a-dire qui a beaooonp d^amis, ne 
lui conTiendra point du tout, puiaque contne son sentiment, toutes p^rissables qoe sont les 
dxMes de ce monde, la pidpart ue laisseut pas de s^ attacber pr^fi^blement il cdies de 
I'etemit^. II devoit dire, que cet Ecrivain ayant fait connottre par son bistoire qu^ avoit aim6 
passionn^roeiit les choses de la teire, qui ne sont qu*un songe, s'^it fort a propos nomm^ 
Poliphile, pouvant se vanter d'avoir en cela beauooup d'amis, puisque la plCipart des bommes 
^OX la m6me inclination que lui. Vossius n'knroit en garde de songer i oette aublflit^, s*il 
e(it lu oe seul endroit do livre 1. cbap. 6. ou Poliphiie introdoit la njiiipbe Osphrasie lui 
parlant ainsi. Dimi, giovane, cbe e il nome tuo ? £t io riTerentemente li resposi : Polipbilo 
era. Piacemi assai, mi disse, si 1* effecto al nome comesponde. £t senaa indusie sobjunae : 
£t come chiama so la tua chara amorosa } Io morigeratamente resposi : Polia. £t ella dixe : 
Obe : io arbitrava che il tuo nome indicasse molto amante, ma quello cbe al presente io 
sentD : vole dire amico di Polia.' 

' De U ce gentilbomme de Vioeace noami6 Camillo Scrofi^ de qni nous avons des Sonnets 

en style p^dantesque sous le nom dc fid^iio Glottocbiysio, s'appelle Camillipbilo, parce 

qu^ amoit son Camillo aussi ardemment que Polipbilo sa Polia. Void comme il s*eu 


II lacUo coUo, i crfMjJi, i d^txtetrmi 

Manbri, U bel corpo t^fmmetriaiittmio 

Del mio Camillo, il Itpor venuititsimo, 

I costtimi modetti, 4* vntegerrimi 

jykora in hora wifan si Gomttitp^iia 

CWio non kb aUro ben, attre ktitie 

Che la toave lor remtviicentaa. 

Nonfii nd nottro Upide PoUphUo 

Di Polia sua tanta concujrittxnHa 

QMonta in me din rare, alte divitie,* 

Menagiana, toI. iv. p. 953-4. 

t * C'est ainsi qu*il lui a plu d'appeler sa maitresse, soit d*un nom Romanesque fiut a 
plaisir, soit que, comme Baiilet, pag. 315 de ses Auteurs deguis^ le devine,il y e(lt il Treviso 
une famiUe des Poll dont elle fQt : soit pliitdt, que comme il 6toit grand amateur de Tantiquit^, 

Femce; 1499.] POUPHILO. 147 

of iocurring the cenBure of the Church for the singularity and freedom 
of his descriptions. The names of Columna (or Colonna) and Poli^ 
are gathered from the initial capital letters to the respective chapters of 
the worlc : a discovery, which seems to have been made as eariy as the 
year 1512— from a copy of the romance in the Dominican Library, oUe 
Zattere, at Venice. Tb^ enigma is thus solved : 

Moxii. XX Junii mdxxi. 
Nomen verum est Frandscus Columna* Venetus qui fitU Ordinis Pnediea^ 
iorunif et dum amore ardeniissimo cujusdam HippotiUs teneretur TarvkS, 
mutato nomine, PoUam earn caUumat, cui opus dedicat ut patet Lihrorwm 
capita hoc ostendunt, ut pro unoquoque libro prima Utera ita simul Juncim 


et que iious donnons vokmtiers aax penoimes, que noas aimons et honorons, le nom det 
choses qui nous soot cheres, et en T^^ratioD, il ait par cette raison donu6 a sa maitrease, 
quoique jeune, le nom Grec de «oXi«y en latin Canities, qui fignr^roent signifie AntSqmt^ 
La ooojectore de Baillet me parott d*autant plus douteuse, que Polia dle-m^e, chap. 1. 
du K 2, declare que son nom de bat^e ^toit Lucrece, et qu'elle desoendoit d*un CSato 
Mauro nomme originairement Lelio Mauro, de l*ancienne fiunille Lelia de Ti^nso '* lo de 
gli superatiti iineali, & priaca familia Lelia alumna, & prognata fuL Et posto mi il prestinte 
nomma della casta Romana, che per il filio del superbo Tarquinio se ocdse, notrits FMif- 
damente* ochi molte delitie, penreni al fiore della eCate mia nel anno della redempdooe 
hnmana* dopogU quatio cento £c mille nel sexagesimo aeoondo." II n*y a rien dans les noaw 
de Ldio Biann^ de Cato llauro, ni de Lucrece, qui revienne a celui de Poll, ni de Mia, 
on lieu que moQ espUcation est fond^ sor ce que Poiiphiledans sod Roman n'est pas nioioi 
amoureux de Tantiquit^ que de sa maitresse mdme, aussi semUe-t-il qu*il y oonfonde l*uiio 
avec PauCfe.' Menagiona, tqL it. p. 250. 

* Adhnc (id est 1512 a 1522,) vivit Venetiis in S. Joanne et Paula See the Giormde 
det Uttt^nU d' Italia, voL 36, p. 300: Fontanini BibUat. dell Eloq, Jtal EdU. Zeno, voL ii. 
p. 170, note b ; and Temausa's Viite dei ptu Cdebn ArchiUiti, fc 1778, 4to. vol. L p. 3. 
La Monnoye (Ma^gtona, vol. iv. p. 255) says he iias not able to ascertain to whom we are 
indebted ' fiv the key of this •cm^tick.* From a copy of the Hypnerotomachia in the 
possesuon of Mr. J. Edwards, this discovery seems to have been known, through a diffiBreot 
channel, in the year 1635. The inscription in Mr. Edwards's copy is as follows : 

Misterium paueimmis cognihim, et mihi 

forte deteetum le^ii : ctun aaper em 

acire quimam amaok PtHiamf 

Vduit ttofue sum Amoret Attetw^puhUci mru 

facere, arcane tamen artifieio . 

Lector . Sunte singfUas UteraSf h qmbtu capita iaitium 

tumtmt, et invemes, tmguUu comnectetu, 



F. Pona, 16S5. M, Oct. 

148 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hypneroiomachta, 

The real name of the object of Colonna's passion was (according to 
the extract in the note at p. 147)> in all probability, Lucrbtia; 
although the names of Hippolita and Lelia have been assigned to 
her. Whether the birth place of the author were Venice, or TrevUoj is 
also a point of uncertainty. All that we gather from Menage, Zeno, 
and Temanza, is, that the author was born between the years 
14^ ; and, like another Petrarch, was deeply smitten with his beloved 
from a first and transient view of her. ' He saw her one d'ly at a 
window, while her maid servant was braiding her hair, and he was 
instantly and indelibly enamoured of her.* This mi^t be about the 
year 1462. Two years afterwards, the plague broke out at Treviso ; 
when Hippolita, reduced to great extremity, and in danger of her life, 
made a vow that, on her recovery, she would devote the remainder of 
her days to celibacy and solitude.f In consequence, she proceeded to 

Mr. Singer hu pointed out to me a similar discovery from the advertisement to the first 
edition of the French version of it in 1546— by Jan Martin : ' Tant y a, que pour vous faire 
oognoistre le nom de I'authcur, bien dirai-je ce mot en passant, qull faut suy vrc depuis le 
commencement jusques a la fin les lettres capitales enrichies des feuilles arabesques, ct 
celles la vous instruirrout de ce que vous desirez.' This circumstance is also mentioned by 
Tabourot in his Bigarrures, which were published before the year 1600. 

That it was currently believed Francesco Colonna vras the author at an early period 
of the XVIth century appears certain, for Benedictus Curtius (Benoit le Court) m his 
corioas comment on the Arresta Amorum of Martial d'Auvergne— first publiahed at Lyons 
by Gryphius, iu 1535-*in enumerating the Amatorum Autoret, thus mentioiis him, ' inter 
quos vero doctior frater Franciscus Colonna cognoroento Poliphilo qui Fdiam soam illam 
omnium disdplinarum doctissimam interpretationem, ac omnium artium officinam instnictis- 
simam exomat.' 

t ' Univcrsalimente, [cosi Polia parlando di se stessa, says Temanza J in qnelli di grande 
stragc di morlalitate degli humani & di qualunque etate promusculi essendo per lo infecto 
aere corrupto da contagioso,& intemecivo morbo, pestilente,uua extrema multitudine moriteno. 
Et gia atroce terrore, & spavento Venuto sopra della morbata terra & gli huomini di terrifico 
mortale concussi ritrovandose, dascuno solicitamente fora delle sue citate fuga prehendendo 
agli suburban!, & rurali lochi fligivano. Di que per mia debile, e maligna sorte di gland ula 
mi sentivi nel pudico inguine peroossa. Per la quale cosa deserta da tutti & relicta fui. Si 
non dalla mia pietosa & optima altrice, che restata, & adveder era Tultimo suspirio, & exito 
del spirito mio. £t gia sovente implicata dal grave morbo, inoomposite parole, & sepiculi 
lameuti, & gemiticuli variameute carivarendo, 6c vacilante io ritomava in me. £t quivi 
melio, che io poteva & sapeva mnceramente dalla divina Diana soccorso mvocavi. II perche 
alhora a lui daltri numi non era notitia, ne cultura alcuna se non essa Dea. £t cum multi- 
plicate prece, cum la tremula voce puramente exorante precava. Alle sue sancte & gelide 
castimonie, cruciantime di grave valitudine pollicita, supplice mi votai, & religiosamente di 
servire sempre agli sui sacri tenpli cum tenace castimooia. Si ella me misera liberava dal 
mortale contagio, e morbo.* 

Fenice; 14990 POUPHILO. 149 

put her vow into execution, and was necessarily withdrawn fh)m the 
sight of Columna for a considerable time. The lover sought long and 
anxiqu5ly for his mistress ; and having at length found her, and prevailed 
upon her to renounce her vows, he composed the romance in question, 
which he dedicates to his beloved. The date of its composition is 1467 : 
a date, which many (Pope, among the rest,) have mistaken for that 
of the impression. 

The title of the work is as follow: Hypnerotomachia PoUphiii, ubi 
humana omnia non nisi somnium esse docet, atque obiter plurUna scihi sane 
quam digna commemorat. It should seem, from the dedication, that it 
was the intention of the author to have written the romance ' in pure 
Italian imdeBled ;* but at the instance of Polia, * the high empress of 
his soul,' he both created and adopted a style, in which the Greek, 
Latin, Lombardic, Hebraic, and Arabic, as well as the Italian, are 
said to prevail. In this work, Polia is considered the oracle who 
introduces, explains, and illustrates every thing. She developes the 
histories of antiquity, and conducts her lover into a temple, where he 
sees those curious inscriptions which are noticed in the 19th chapter of 
the 1st book ; and in which he is exhorted to gratify his passion for that 
species of intellectual entertainment.* In short, nothing more fre- 
quently occurs than architectural descriptions and designs ; the author 
(according to Temanza) having studied the works of Vitruvius and 
Leombatista Alberti, which were the sole and popular publications of 
the day. Temanza quotes a splendid passage from the 5th chapter of 
the 1st book:t but the whole work exhibits a singular species of 

* * PoUphile, di tutti amantissiino, giamai non son ignara che le antiqoiare opere ad tc 
iummamente piaoeno di vedere. Adunche commodaroente potes tu in questo intervallo, 
che ntu U signore Cupidinc aspettianio, ire licemente queste cede deserte, & dalla edaoe, & 
cxoleta vetustate collapse, & per inccndio assumpte, overo da annositate qnassate, a tuo 
ftolatk) mirare, & gli fragmcnte nobile rimasti, di vcnerato dignlssirai specuiare.' 

t ' Ordinatamente da posda seguiva la £Eudnofx>sa coronice di tali lineamenti, qoali ad 
tanta el^antia di opera decentementc concorreno, perche altiimeote cuai quale nel humano 
oorpo una qoalitate da altra discorde, la aegritudine acoede, perche la couvenienta non te 
ritrova in amicida del composito et gli aoddenti al loco dovuto non essendo oondnnamente 
distribuiti, seguita deformitate cusi nd pid n^ meno, disiona e quella fabrica, & inferma, ore 
non si trova debita harmonia, & comodolato ordine. Imperu il sapientissimo maestro noftro 
(Altruvio) al bene partidpatamcnte proportionaio & deconunente vestito oorpo hmnaoo 
assomiglta lo edificia' £ qnanto a Leombatij»ta e cosa degna d* osservadone che Pdifilo 
accenna, e ripete ooUe sue stesse parole gli awertimenti di loi, doe che conviene Tedere, 
amifidcrare, misurare, e dliegnare le opere degli Antiche maestri, Leombastists dice; 


Tketilk ofdfee 
<iilBck skorid be s%Mtaie 1) J 


gvAM may A com 


« • • 

•li akw /V'uitlSjUa, j^ /9ir> ' f'^^tbjk tea 

tBU <&Or.^«ieirA^ JMffftf "^JM MMW '.AM 

• laaiadcUerfibM/.hM^trfarty* 
tnmrhii, * tbe meat wtawMt «d Ifce 
Wthe bn^iii^ being LuBfawific Itafiut,' 

p0cbe sndo n <fi 


niLnr. p.f48. 

Ftirieti 1499.] TOUPHILO. lil 





From the first Mfprd, by which the book is usually designated, we 
gatlier the niUure of the work : namelys that it represents trs Combat 
OF Slbep Avp Lots ; or, rather, the Combats of Love seen in a 
Dream. An address of L^nar4us Crassus Veronensis, toGuido Duke 
of Urbinp, js on the reverse of this leaf; from which we learn that 
Crassus was at the sole expense of the publication. * Venit (says 
the editor) nuper in manus meas nouum quoddam et admirandum 
Poliphili opus (id enim nome libro inditS est), quod ne in tenebris 
diutius lateret, sed mortalibus mature prodesset, sumptibus meis 
imprimendum et publicandum curaui. uerum, ne libfer iste parente 
orbatus ueluti pupiUus sine tutela, aut patrocinio aliquo esse uideretur 
te patronum presenteai delegimus, in cuius aofpienaadaculus prodiret» 
quo, ut ego amoris nunc et obseruantis in te mcvs ministro et nundob 
sic tu ad studla, et multipBcem doctiinam tuam socio ssepe utereris • 
tanta est enim in eo no modo scientia, sed copia, ut cum hunc uideris, 
non magis omnes ue^erfi Mbras, quam aatune ipsius occultas res 
uidisse uidearis . res una in eo mininda est, quod cum nostrati lingua 
loquatur, non minus ad eam oognoscendum opus sit grseca & romana, 
quam tusca et uemacula'-— * Hind accedit, quod si qu» res natura sua 
difficiles es^nt, amoenitate quadam tanquam reserato omnis generia 
iftormn uiridi^o oratSone suaui dedarentur, et ptoferuntur figurisque 
& imaginibus oeulis subiect» patent et referuntur^' 

This address is followed by some verses, beginning thus : 

lo. Bap. Scyths carmen ad clarissimum 
T^ponanhim Crassum artium ac iuris Fon^ 
tifidi eoaaultum. 

Hie oiirabills k noma libeUus 
Aequandus uet^rom libris suorum, 
Quo, quicquid dat in orbe uita toto 
, ' Rarum & nobil^ kxtar et refertur, 

Tantum ftart tibi Crasse gratjarum» 

VOL. IV. u 


IB2 ITALIAN BOOKS. iS^^mmiiomuMd, 

Qaantfim Poliplulo tulit parent! 
Vitam PoliphiluA dedit, dedifiti 
Vitam tu quoque, sed necem repellk. 

&c. &c. &c. 

These Terses occupy two pages. They are succeeded by an address 
of the printer to the reader, containing a summary of the contents of 
the worlc, and a poetical tragnslation, in the Lombardic-language, of the 
preceding poem. These again are followed by the subjoined.* W6 
have, next, (on what should be sign, a i) a second titl^— oompreh^d- 
ing the first six lines only, as given at pag6 ISO ante. t>n the reverse 
of this leaf is the dedication of the author to his mistress, as below.f 
The work commences on the recto of the next leaf» a ii, with the 

* ABdreas Maro Briziainii. 

Cains opus die muaa? meam est, odoq; sororwn. 

Vestmm ? cor datus est Poliphilo titulos ? 
Phis etiam a nobb meruit commnnis alumnus. 

Sed rogo quis aero est nomiiM Folipfailiis? 
Nolmnus agDOsd : cor? oertum est ante oidere 

An diuina etiam linor edat rabidus. 
8i paroet, quid crit? nofloetar. sin fldnas? hand n(» 

Digoamnr nero nomine PoliphilL 

O quam de cunctis foliz mortaHlm$ una ea 

Polia, qusB uiais mortua, sed melius. 
Te dam Poliphilus somno iaoet obrutos alto, 

PeruigUare fiuat docta per ont uirum. 


i • 

Molts Fiatb Polta CooiTAvno che gli antichi Aucbori. ad gH prindpi ic magnanimi 
homini, alcuni per pretio, altri per fauore, tali per laud^, le opere sue aptamente dicauano. 
Dique per niuna di cosi facta cagione, se non per la media, questa mia Hypnerodomachia, 
no trouado a cbi piu digno pridpe, che ad te mia alta imperatrice dicare la offerisco. La 
coi egregia conditione, & incredibile bellecia, & oenerande, & maxime uirtute, & oostnmi 
pnedarissimi, Sopra qualuque Nympha negli nostri ssecoli prindpato tenendo, exceasioa- 
nente me hano dU too insigne Amore infiammato, arso, & consumpto. Reoeui dunque di 
bellecie diffoso splendore, & de onuii uennstate deooromento, 6c di indyto aspecto coospicoa, 
questo munuscalo. II quale tu indostriosamente, nel aaoimo core cum dorate sagitte iu 
quelio depincto, £c cum la tua angelica effigie insignito £c fabricato hai, che singuhumente 
PUrona il possedi. II quale dono sotto posoia al too solerte de ^genioso iudido (lasdando 
il prindpiato stilo, 6c inquesto ad tua instantia traducto) io il oommetta Onde si raenda 
appare, & meno dilla tua elegvote dignificatione in alcuna parte sterile & iduno trouerai, 
incusata sarai tu optima operatrice» 6c uoica danigera dilla mente 6c dil core mio. Il 
premio dunque di magbre taleto 6c pretio, non altro spedalmcnte estimo 6c opto, che il 
tuo amore gratio8o» & ad questo il tuo benigno fiuiore. Vale.' 

Phriee; 1499.] POUPHILUa ISS 

fbUowing description of the mornifig : l>eiiettth a title, in the ItaUan 
language, in seven lines of capital ktten. 


'^ do^ che la fronte di Matuta Leucothea candi- 
daua^ foragia dalle Oceane unde^ le uolubile 
rote sospese non dimonstraua^ Ma sedulo cum 
gli 8ui uolucri caballi. Pyroo primo^ k Eod al/ 
quanto apparendo^ ad dipingere le Ijcophe quadrige 
della figliola di uermigliante rose^ uelocissimo 
insequentila^ non dimoraua. Et coruscantegia sopra 
le cerulee k inquiete undule^ le sue irradiante 
come crispulauano. kc* 

It is impossible to describe the order of the contents of .the book 
without immediatelj introducing the wood-cuts to the notice of the 
reader. Thus, on a iii, reverse, we have the first cut, representing 
Poliphilus walking in a wood. The beauty with which this cut is 


* The ' free yernon' of J. G. Legrand, 1804, 8vo. 8 vols, begins thus: * Printemps, 
ta venais de rendre aux pr^ llteiaU des fleors, et la Terdure aox foists, tu renaiMais pour 
parer la nature, et I'aube da matin semblait promettre un jour d^lideux : une douoe langueor 
capttvait tous mes sens : le court sommeil que je venab de goftter ihe fiusait desirer de ufj 
UTTsr encore ; et cependant je combatais avec plainr pour nooirir moo esprit de douce* 
rhexiet,' . 

The ancient version of 1561 (now before me) seems to be equally unfiuthful to tbe 
original : ' Par vn matin do mojs d'Aoril cnuiron l^ube du iiur, ie Poliphile estois en mo 
lict, sans autre compaignie que dema loyale garde Argypnie, laqoeUe m'auoit entretenu tonte 
oelie nuict en pluneurs propos, & mis peine de me consoler: car ie luy auoie dcclai4 
ToocasioQ de mes souspirs/ &c. As Bnmet justly observes, these are rather abridgments^ 
or inutatioiis, than translatioiis* 

The old English version, as given in the Britith Biblwgnpher, vol. iv. p. t87, is tfaost 
• What boure as Phoebus issuing foorth, did bewtifie with brightnesse the forhead of . 
Leucothea, and appearing out of the Ocean wanes, not fully shewing his turning wheeles, 
that had beene hung vp, but speedily with his turning horses Pyrous and Eous, bastning his 
coone, and givmg a tincture to the spiders webbes, among the green leaues and tender 
pritUes of the vermilion roses, hi the pursuite whereof be shewed himself most swift and 
glislering, now vpon the neoer restmg and still mouuig waves, he crysped vp his irradlait. 
heyres,' &c Edit 1 j»9t, 4to. This vcnioo has the opposite character of literal fideUt|r. 

ITAUAN BOOKS. I H^n m l o m mt Ut, 

f be tumeAnd fHm a fiM-«ini9c of » portkm of MotlMr 
cot, executed in the same styki uid K^meMiBg the mbw chuacUC 
emerging bom the wood, bj the lUe of a t^mlet. 

Two other cats, in ^MA tite smm flgwv is iBbvduced, intovoM 
between the above cot and the ftnt arcUtectur^ eagnviag t -wbea, 
on b i rev^ we have a vast pyramldical temple, of the entire size of 
the page, with a figure holAng a comuaqtta at top. The laagnage, 
describing this temple, is, as Teraanza observes, sufficiently warm atul 
aitimated. Altars, groups, grotesque and beautiful, begin to surprise 
the reader fw a series (rf pages. Ihe elephant (cm b vij reverse) with 
an obeUsk on his back, is not among the least dt time ' singalar' 
deconAi<»B; but our research is rather connected with tbeg;t«ceftil-in 
the human form. On e i, recto, are a satyr and sleepbig nymi^ Mt 
uiifrequently mutilated. Hie group of females, on e ii reverse, hat 
great elegance ; and the fountain, on f i reverse, may vie with many of 
the more fiiushed specimens of ancient Greece. The arabesque sma- 
ment, on f V rectus has not less beauty i an olsgant screen is on the 
revetiie. On the reverse of the ensuing lea^ f vi, is a'qflendtd grot^ 

rmknl49».y FOdPHILO. M 

at ftnaks btradncing the aodnr' ta tba. AraM of VeoM,' Tie 
p wtnrt» fig«B» of Po tiphil ui i» fiifl at grace. 

To describe, individaallf, the Taiicnu antbesqiie and other omameati, 
would be a tedious, as well as oaelesa, task ; but the foUowing specimen, 
flvB k B^^P ^ ftonlea iMidDg Aran s mo^ bM gR>t cC^nMWK 
It Kpraents the «mbrace of Poliphiius and Polia : on i U. rerene : 

The atrtltor, looldiig thnogfa a boeage, (on i iil rerene) wUIe Ui 
oMnm b approaching at a distance is executed with much tMt« 
and a true knowledge of perspectire. Hie same CDiqilc^ retieatiHg 
from the same recess, is beautifbl^ described on i v^ recto. T^ 
next 8 leaves have often 2 cuts in one page ; of smaller dimfmrinofc 
and not executed with the same delicacy as the rest. On ^i g n a twr e a k 
V and T), we begin to be treated with some ooatljr, and beattttfbSjr 
deigned, JYoeeniofU; which conthme for seretalpagec^ with a pleaaliy 
variety of sniaD [naces. That the reader majfbnn some notion of the 

MM ITAUAN BOOKS, [^pment tm tt th ia, 

bomlT of these cots, he la preMnttd with Qk ftHowiiiff &c-iiB^le tikm 
ftom the Second PneenuM ; ahhouf^ it maj bp doabtftil irtwther it fa 
not exceeded in degaiux by the toe which i^ipean on therect^ of 1 t. 

Hm cfiTS ore sometimes represented as being drawn by elqihaots, 
uniconu, or tigers. On the recto of m iiii, an elderly male figure 
with ft female holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a branch of fhiit 
in the otlier, are seated upon a car, and drawn hy satyrs i damsels are 
in the bBck'gTDund playhig upon iustrumenta of music ; two ffemakfl, 
wHh branches of fhilt, bring up the rear. It should seem, from the 
text, that the figum in the car are intended to represent Fertumma 
and Amadryat. The whole has a splendid and joyous appearance. A 
lew turiralent, but equally interesting, spectacle is exhibited in th* 

rmm; I499i] 


foDowhiggnoefulflgimafft femiJe,' «M «ndBdbyCMpidionthe w ww» 

of the laiDe leaf. The original hu a ki^er ardutectonl frame Wcrfc 
wmmd it, but the ciuuiiig embracea the whole of tlie figores. 


On the opposite page are two figorea, within an oral (ungte lint) 
frame. The top one i> designated ' una Daniigella nel aipecto uirgineo' 
— 4ad is crowned with * the yellow harveat:' the one below lb called 
' uno in&nte coronate de Botyri de uu^, tutto de lascinia ridib(Midp.' 

A large print, on ra vj recto,* occupiea our attention Ibr a few 
noments ; when we pass on to a series of processions of a duractcr 
diferent from the ibregoing; and representing groups of femaleSi 
with solemn and measured steps, approaching the altars of Lore and 

* TUh print, which occii)ue« the «ntin p«gc^ Kprawiil) the WjnUp omhpat; utd ti 
mibUj tom, or disCgnred bj Ink. 



Inteiestiiig, ^odjoani of thnr bcautr I 

It gweeftd^r wcHtoi wo- 

A more complete speeimea will be seknowledgad in the sooeeed- 
ing: taken firomtbe recto of OTij. ItugiTCn ehieflf tothew the style 
of the draiieriee of the feimk figurei ; the BrcjiitMtunil frune-work 
being omitted. 

iniere are sevcnl siniilu- compositions in thia part of the work ; 
ui4 those on o vi)j, and p ii eshibU such a tastefijl comluDatjon 
of figures and fi:diage, that the pencil of fbunaa mis^t, witboOt 

niM0#; 1499.] POUPRILO. tB9 

nprcmdtk to its director, be oonsidertsd at it« parent.* We novr 
i^iproach temples, arehitectaral fragments, and inscriptions ; wiicn a 
magnificent portal presents itself to our admiration on the recto of 
r ii ; followed by rather an eleg int representation of the portraits of 
PoLiPHiLO and Folia, above an elaborate inscription. f A naked 
figure of a youth stands on each side, undrawing the curtain behind 
which these portraits are placed. Fragments (supposed relics) with 
various inscriptions next succeed; and at u viij, we enter upon a 
series of StandardM^ exhibited with all the character and grace of 
antiquity. Fanes, AltarSj Processions, Buildings, Gardens and Bowers (the 
last, on z is reverse, very curious) follow in order, and conclude the 
first book on the recto of z x. The imprint is thus : 






On the recto of A (i) we commence the Skcono Book ; and, at the 
opening of it, we are struck with one of those tasteful specimens of 
capital initials with which this extraordinary volume abounds.^ A 
new series of cuts now present themselves. Poliphilo is represented 
fainiting, and prostrate, within two temples; that is to say, tQ.Qne 
temple he is fainting, while Polia is kneeling and reading by his side : 
in the other, he is prostrate^ and she is dragging him by his feet. 

^ A.6iC-siiiiile of tbis ^roap will be given In my Bibliographical Decameron; acoomp^aied 
by other specimeas of a iew of the more curious and beautiful ornaments. 

t Has inscription begins thus : 


I It Is the letter L; but Tarious spedmeus of the smaller letters will be found in Mn 
Soger*! beautiful little ▼olnne, entitled NovelU Scdte 

I« ITALIAN BOOKS, [^pmrotomackia, 

Wean ttow ■truck with a new and terrific q>eciea of embeUiahnwnt, 
Of the firstof the cuts, illustrative of these eii^idlishineata,tbe icadex 
■hall judge for himself, by the foUowiog &c-tiinile of the greMer 
portion of it. 

lite other cut shews one of these female figures to be hewn, limb by 
limb, to pieces — while the remaining female, with her hands tied, and 
kneeUng, is expecting a similar &te fhnn Cnpid ; who bnmdishea a 
■cymitar above her head. Potia is standing behind some trees, view- 
ing this extraordinaTy scene ; as indeed she does in the preceding cut. 

Oq the recto of the succeding leaf, B iiii, Polia is earnestly contem- 
plating a lion, a dogi an harpy, or dragon, who are devouring the 
slaughtered limits of both females. Above, Cupid appears with a naked 
scymitar, taking his triumphant flight in the air. Well might the 
author say beneath : " O spectaculo di icredibte acerbitate, & di cru- 
dditate insigne, O inaudita et isolente calamitate, scena daspectare 
borrenda,' &c. We are agaia introduced, on the recto of C v, to the 

nmeet 1499,] POUPHILO. 181 

BWDOding tnd prostrate FoliphUo, in a besuUAiltf dmple cut— of 
whidi the ensuing is a hc-umik of the Hero and his Bekmd t 

The next cut represents Poliphilo recoveriog, in the li^ of his 
mistress. There is great tenderness and wannth of expression in the 
fitUowing extract — which precedes this cut : — ' Quale si lesione padto 
non hauesse, & alquantulo reaosumete il conlaminato uigore, cumo 
alhora ello ualeua, cum tremula uoce, & suepiritti, mansuetunentc 
disse, Ptdia Signora mia dolce, perche cusi atorto me iki ? Di subittH 
Ome Nympbe celeberrime, me sentiui quasi de dolcecia amoroea ft 
pietosa , & excessiiua alacritate i] core per medio piu molto dilacerarc^ 
per cbe quel sangue che per dclore, & nimia fbrmidine in se era con- 
stricto per troppo & inusitata Isticia, laxare le uene il sentiua exhaosto, 
& tuta absorta, & attonita ignomua che medire, si non che io agli 
ancoia pallidati labri, cum soluta audacia, gli oflerai blandicula udo 
lasciuo & mustulento basio, Ambi dui serati, & conatrecli in amDrososi 
amplexi, Quali nel Hermetico Caduceo gli intrichatamente coDUoluti 
serpi, & quale il bacuk) inuoluto del diuino Medico.' On the following 
page we find this bithful pair driven away by femalea, with clubs in 
their hands : a female, to the left, standing in an undisturbed attitude. 

We may pass rapidly over the remaining cob ; as, although equaDj 
elegant, they exhibit Utile more than compositions similar, in part, to 
the foregoing. A beautiful bed'chamber arrests our attention, for a 
minute, on the rererae of E i : where Polia, in the fon^round. is 

168 ITALIAN BOOKS. [HypneroiomaeUm, 

reading a letter, and a dog is sitting to the left of her. The enamoured 
Couple are next described, by cuts as well as by text, as being oon^reyed 
to the upper regions, before Venus ; and are happily united in the 
last embellishment to the volume. On the recto of F iii, is the date 
of the composition of the work, thus : 

Taruisii cum clecorissimis Polias amore lorulis, distin* 

tineretur miselliis Poliphilus. 

. M . CCCC . LXVII . Kalendis Maii. 

The reverse of this leaf presents us with the Epitaph of PoUa, which 
I shall give in the note below.* On the recto of the ensuing and last 
leaf is a very full page of Errata; terminating with the following 

Yenetiis Mense decembri. M.ID. in asdibus Aldi 

Manutiij accuratissime. 

In the whole, 4 leaves without signature : then a to z in eights : z ten ; 
A to F in eights : F four. 


F oelii Polia, quae sepulta uiub 
C haro marti Pollpbilas qaieacens 
I am fedt uigilare te sopitun . 







NWQVAM REviviscrr . 


Fenice; 1499.] FOLIPHILO. IM 

The revei*se is blank. Thus have we travelled through a aomewhat 
intricate, yet not unpleasing road» in the present copious descrip« 
tion of this extraordinary volume. Whatever be its defects, or the 
characteristic obscurity of the text, it must be remembered that Mira-^ 
beau thought it worth while to make an extract from it ;* and that the 
credulous, and the lovers of mystery, have treasured it in their choioeat 
arcana, as containing most curious and recondite matter. The lan«> 
guage, however barbarous, is not undeserving of the attention of the 
philological antiquary ; as we find in it (so pointed out to me by an 
ingenious friend), among other singular words, the earliest specimen 
of that of Cameo. No bibliog^pher, or collector of books, has pro- 
bably yet summoned sufficient courage to peruse the whole of the text; 
but there are detached parts of equal beauty and interest — and de* 
scriptions of scenery, and of the human passions, by no means unde- 
serving of our applause.f What, however, may be denied to it oa 
the score of intrinsic worth, will be readily granted on that of intrinsic 
beauty. Every thing in it conspires to charm the tasteful collector, 
dooming, or ornamental capital initials— borders — arabesque orna- 
ments — classical compositions of figures, designed, and cut in wood, 
with equal elegance and felicity —a fine roimd roman letter, worked 
in the best manner of the Aldine press :-^s--all these embellishments* 
executed upon paper of a beautiful tint^ and fine substance, delight 
the eye and gratify the judgment of the firtuoso, 

A question, perhaps of some little interest, is iuTolved in the con- 
sideration of the ornaments. By whom were they designed and 
engraved ? The usually received opinion, of their having been exe- 
cuted^xtfter the designs of Andrea Mantbona, (an opinion in which 
Messrs. Renouard and Legrand have also coincided) i^ perhaps not 
very far from the truth: although my friend Mr. Ottley is inclined 
to think that the designs partake rather of the character of those of 
Benedetto Montaona. That Raphael was the author of them, is 

^ * Je ne dois oependaiit pts kiMer ignorer que Mirabean, ezodlent juge en litt^nturib 
en a £ut on tres court extrait dans aes Contes et Noavelles, sous le mdme titre de Songe 
dc Paliphile.' Legrand, vol. i. p. 7, 8. 

t ' Au milieu de beaucoup dliicoherences que le titre de Songe pent rendre excusables, et 
d*im grand amasd'^rudition, on ne peut nier qu*U n*y ait aossi beaucoup dlmagiuation. D% 
tres habiles artistes, des lit^teurs d'lstingu^ ne se sont fislt aucune scrupule d'y puiter 
oomnie dans une mine fikxxide : lorsque je nommerai Le Bemm, PerrauU, Le Sueur, L$ 
Pauitin, et La FonUune enfin, le boa La Fontaine, amateur passionn^ de la litteratura 
italienne, on me dbpeusera sans doute de m*6tendre lor uu plus grand nomlirt de citations.' 
liKORAVP, ToL L p. 7. 

l64 rrALIAN BOOKS. [IfypneroUmaehia, 

wholly without foundation. The safer conchiflion if, to coincide 
with Mr. Ottley's opinion* that the author, both of the designs 
and of the engravings, is unknown.* Sufficient, it is presumed, has 
been shewn to prove that there is nothing in the fifteenth, and little in 
the earlier part of the sixteenth century, to be put in competition with 
them Ibr beauty and truth: not, however, that they are faultless. 
Hie pi'evailing defect seems to be a disproportionate shortness of 
figure, and enlargement of head ; especially in the females. 

This work has been frequently translated into the French language : 
namely, in 1546, 1554, 1561, folio ; and in 1600, quarto. Of the folio 
impressions, Legrand calb that of 1561 * the most beautiful.' The 
quarto impression of 1600 was edited by fieroaldus de Verville, an 
hermetic philosopher. I have possessed the editions of 1561 and 1600; 
and am &r from subscribing to the opinions of Messrs. Renouard and 
L^rand, that the wood-cuts, in these editions, copied after those in 
the Aldine, are executed in better taste. On the contrary, they appear 
to me to be considerably inferior ; having less simplicity and purity of 
outline, and exhibiting, what artists call, too much flutter and oma* 
ment : the figures in them, being, almost uniformly, too tall — a fault, 
the reverse of that which has been said to attach to those in the Aldine 
impression. Of the merit, or rather demerit, of these French versions, 
Legrand says that they are ' si gauloises, qu'il est a^jourd*hui impos- 
sible de les lire.* This opinion probably induced the same writer to 
publish, in two beautifully-printed small octavo volumes, executed by 
the elder Didot, his ' Songe de Poliphik, Traduction libre de Vltalien,' 
1804 : but it may be fairly asked, of what utility is such a publication 
in giving us a correct notion of the original? The English language 
has not been deficient in presenting us with a version of this curious 
rhapsody. The title of this translation, or rather of the 1st book of 
the original, is as follows : * Hypnerotomachia The strife of Loue in 
a Dreame. At London, printed for Simon Waterson, and are to be 
sold at his shop, in S. Pauleys Church-Tard, at Cheapegate.f 1592, 4to. 

* Coiuult the £fi^try into the Origin and Early Hittary (f Engraving, p. 959, 4to. 1815. 

If it were worth while to indulge in conjecture on this subject, one might naturally 
inppoae that as the book wa4 executed at Venice, the designs were made there also ; now 
the two younger Bellini, and Domcuico Ghirlandajo were livhig there at the end of the 15tli 
century. Giov. Bellini too was a very skilful arcliitect, and the master of Titmn. 

t Mr. R. Triphook, bookseller, is in possessbn of a copy of this very rare volume, which 
has escaped the researches of Herbert My friend Mr. Douce also possesses a c^py. 

PMce; 1499.] POUPHILO. 166 

104 leaves.* See the Britiih Bibliographer, vol. ir. p. 885. This version 
contains wood-cuts ; but, comparativelys of coarse execution. 

It remains to add, that of this first, and best Italian, impression, his 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire is the fortunate possessor of a perfect, 
and therefore unique, copy printed upov vbllum : a similar copy, in 
the possession of Count Trivulcio, at Milan, being imperfect. The 
present copy, although upon paper, is perhaps unrivalled for its sisa 
and beauty. It was formerly in the library of Grolisr, and is bound 
in the usually tasteful manner of the books of that distinguished 
Collector.* The frequent appearance of this edition has been noticed 
at the outset of these remarks. I believe not fewer than SO copies 
have come under my inspection : of these, those in the collections of 
Earl Gower, Sir M. M. Sykes, Mr. Grenville, Mr. G. Hibbert (the latter, 
formerly in the Merly Collection, and in beautiful binding), Mr. Heber^ 
Mr. J. Edwards, and especially of Mr. S. W. Singer, are of unusually 
fine condition. 

* On the fly leaf of this copy is the foUowinfi; ancient ms. memomndam : 

Opera tutta Inamoraia 
tun Uibfd€gno et pien di moUo omato 
che ibi du mm Lege hauera La menU Ingrata, 

In a copy of the French transhition of the Poliphilo, now in the libraiy of Mr. Beckfofd, 
(jf Fonthill, and formerly belonging to Pope, there u the foUowtng, not veiy important, 
note in the poefs own hand writing : 

' Written at Trevisa in 1467. The designs might be of Francesco Francia (who engraved 
and taught Marc Antonio) or of Andrea del Mantegna, or possibly of Leonardo da Vino. 
(A. Durer, M. Angelo, and Raiaelle were bom allerwards). Vide book ii. ch. 1. where Polia 
relates her history. In 1463 she was in the flower of her age, when Poliphilo fell in love 
with her. The plague happened in 1463, when she professed herself a nun, ibid, chap, t.; 
but soon after, followed by her lover, yielded to his solicitations. Book iL usqne ad chap. 5, 
qua? confer cum lib. i. chap. 17, in fine : and this book is written four years after. She 
was of Trevisa on the river Sile in the state of Venice, Lucretia Trevisana, he of the 
&mily of Colonna, a monk, as appears from the initial letters of the chapters, Poliam Frater 
Francisciii Ookmua peramavit 

166 ITALIAN BOOKS. [fFUhoia Dmte. 

834. PuLci. (Luc A. ) II Ciripfo Calvaneo. Wtth^ 
cut Name of Printer y Places or Date. Quarto. 

It is observed, in the fly leaf of this copy, by a skilful bibliographer 
in Italian literature, that 'this is the first edition, exceedingly rare^ 
and not mentioned by any bibliographer.' That it is the earliest 
impression, and of extreme rarity, is unquestionable ; but that no notice 
has been taken of it by any bibliographical writer, is n(jt jierfectly 
correct ; since a particular and rather interesting description of it will 
be found in the Bibl. MagUabech, vol iL col. 427 : the only authority, 
however, to which Panzer refers the reader.* A ms note, by Antonio 
Maria Biscionio — in the copy seen by Fossi — informs us that ' this im- 
pression was probably executed by Miscomino liefore the year 1490.* 
There seems to be truth in this memorandum : as the character, in 
the elegance of its form, and in the skilfulness of its arrangement, 
bears a strong resemblance to the works professedly printed by Mis- 
comino, or Bonaccorsi : see p. 144, ante. The recto of the first leaf, 
sign, a, presents us with the opening of the poem, thus : 



riffo caluaneo 

Cyriffo ilquale per 

paesi diuersi 
Errando ando per farsi almondo iddeo 
Nuoui amori : nuoui casi : 8c nuoui uersi 

* Mr. Rosooe informs us that the poem, intitled // Ciriffo Calvaneo, is an epic romance, 
•nd was probably the first that appeared in Italy ; it being certainly produced some years 
prior to the Morgante of Luigi Puld, and to the Orlando Jnnamorato of Bojardo ; two pieces 
which have generally been considered as the first examples of this species of poetry.' A 
short but satisfactory analysis of the poem is given by Mr. Roscoe, m a note, vol, i. p. 530, 
Lor, de Medici, 8vo. edU, We are further infer ed, by the same intelligent writer, that 

Miena: 149L] REAU DI FRANZA. , 167 

Porteran forse al gran Gioue tropheo 
Non pur gli assiri egiptii parthi o persi 
£t prestandomi il celo qui del suo aiuto 
Comincieremo al Pouero adueduto 

ice. ice. ice. 

A full page has 24 lines. The signatures, from a to o, inclusively, 
run in eights. On the reverse of o viij, the following are the conclud- 
ing lines : 

T ibaldo cognoscea falcone apunto 
Et disse o falcon niio benche tu finga 
Tu sai chio so che il capresto doro iicto 
Meritasti insino gia sendo aoringa 
Hor se il peccato ascalona ta giunto 
Non uo che piu lemaschere dipinga 
Per tanto io son disposto che tu muoia 
£t cosi decto fe chiamare ilboia 

No indication whatever of printer, place, or date, ensues. The 
present is a cropt, but sound and perfect copy, in old red morocco 

835. Reali Di Franza. Printed by Peter Maufer. 
Modena. 1491. Folio. 

This seems to be the earliest impression of any work under the 
above title : the ' Faiti ' of Charlemagne having been published at 
Venice in 1481, and the life of the same renowned monarch having 
been printed by Caxton in the year 1485. This impression b elegantly 
executed in the Gothic type, in double columns, and the first page of 

the poem was left unfiuished ; but, at the instance of Lorenzo do Medici, was, after the 
death of Luca, completed by Bernardo Giambullari. In the note (6), ibid, Mr. Rosooe ii 
properly persuaded that the poem bad probably been printed before the year 1535 ; ' as it 
IS dedicated to Lorenxo de Medici, tlie grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent, wbo died in 
the year 1519/ It should seem, tberefore, that of the above very scarce impression, the 
biographer of " Lorenzo the Magnificent " had, at that time, no information. Let us hop* 
that a copy of it has, ere this, enriched the treasures of his Italian Collection. 

168 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Modena; 14»1. 

the first book is embellished with « tasteful border, containing portr&tU 
of CoJisTANTiNB, Fiovo, and Ricibri. 

For the gratiBcation of the DUineroui clauof ColUeton of Rommcei, 
and in order that they niap be enabled to Uliatrate their early copies 
ot the present work, I subjoin foc-rimiles of the poitruta i 

The capital initial of the first word ot the text; presents us with 
a rude wood cut of the portnut of Pope Sylvester. Brunet, vol-.ii. 
p. 375-6, has copied the description of this impresuon from the 
BOilwgr. InstTucL vol. iii. p. 667; telluig us, howerer, that a copy 
of it was sold at the first sale of the Duke de la Valliere's 
books, in 1767, (Cat. de la Falliere, vol. i. p. 651, a". 3380,) for 168 
livres. The copy there described is said to be bound in red morocco ; 
and the present has the same (foreign) binding; but there is a trans- 
position of two leaves in the table, which othervrise has its full com- 
plement of 7 Leaves. On the recto of the 8th leaf b a general title to 
the six books, thus :* 

* T ilull licre HibjoiD the title of «ch of IM lii liooki : 

^ Qui dMumeiua el tccooda libro de le by- 
■lurie dc gli rede dc Cmia luli de CoastaDtl 

noimpendore: e(chiuiiaieeiFkirauiite:et par- 
te de Riueri priiuo palidinu tt de nltri baro- 
□1 poi chfl fuorona ipiuii. ^ in pTinveome 
el re Fiorello regnstui in frma et lo re Fiure i 
dardea : el come el re liarello uie nto £olo cu 
d neieio tii la fpalla rita iiaque d> ma donna 
de bauiera *ua mogne chiainaM Iri BianidD 
n: et lo nato Adu hebbe noitie nonoantc : et 
fu el pnlDO cbe naque cum qud agno . Ca ■ i . 

Modena; H9I.] REALI DI FRANZA. 169 

tt €)ui ft tSmrnsa b l^jertoria r Heal tit fran 
3a (SmtnjonDo a €oni0^3ttno tmpatore je^ccon 
bo molte Ic^enDe (t)e to i)o attroitate c racoli 
te inisflcme : 1 e ^ttto qucjstto taolumc in fiti lihtu 
So prtmo tratta be f iouo t bi nictictt prtnii 
palabtni bi ftsrn^. (L 3.1 j^csmibo be f torau3 
ti e parte be Atetten prtmo palabmo. tt So 
tcr^o tracta bi Octauiano be lione come an^ 
bo tit estpto. C Ho quarto tracta be S3uotio 
be Kntotma. tt So qnto tracta be la benbet 
ta hi S3uouo be 3i!ntontia £acta per <6utbo c 
/^tnibalbo e per lo llle <3itHeliiio be %xqfiii 
terra lafuoi SoU. tt Xo jfejcto tracta bei tta^cimi 
to bi Carlo xMBgrn t be la ^eura tnorte be |^i 
pino ba but jfttoi (toU bajittarbi 


fl. Qui commenta el terxo libro de la gesta 
de Costantino impeFadore di roiiia : et tracta 
&e de OctauJaDo de lione come ando in egip 
to per raqu'istare la dota de la sua moglie. 
Capltulo Primo . 


C Qui commeiiza el quarto libro de gli rea- 
li de franta intitulato Buouo de antona. In 
prima tracta et nam 9e la sua natione ct doue 
et come foe alleuato insino ala eta de anni no- 
ne et come il foe reduto al padre : et de lu odio 
cbe Bradoria prese contra a guidone suo ma 
rito per cbe ello era vecbio . Capitulo primo . 


C Qui comroenxa el quinto libr« de li deaoe 
denti de Constantino iroperadore: et in la pri 
ma parte se tracta come se diede online de &- 
re la vendetta de Buouo datona per Guido 
re : per Sinibaldo : et per lo re Guielmo de in 
gliterra figlioli cbe fiiorono de Buouo : et de 
molti altri fignori et prindpi . Gipitolo primo 

170 ITALIAN BOOKS. \Modena; 1491. 

The reverse of the last leaf presents ub with a repster ; from which, 
however, we do not understand the exact order of the signatures. In 
the present copy they run thus — beginning with the text : a 8 ; b 6 ; 
c8; d6; eS; f0; g8; h6; i8; k6; 18; m6T n8; o6; p8; 
q6;r8;f6;t8;u8. On the reverse of u 7 (a blank leaf farming 
the 8th,) beneath the register, the colophon is as follows : 

CSImpredAim lar^tme atmo tfcdbttM^ flt^ctcdr^ ipaSoat 
'ttm0 ^ttOna^ pet jl^obtfem tnagiintitm pettft maufte 
fiaSttn opera tt impensta pttfttaa^ tain magiigttn l^auli 
muittetotijBt mutmenjfijf : i^tao i^cuieeftenistt regtiante. 

A desirable copy ; in foreign red morocco binding. 


C Qui oommenza et sexto reaK anti 
qui de franza : ma in spedaltadd ttudmetD dt 
Carlo magno : et de la obscnra morte del re pi 
piQo et de dui soi figliolibastardU : et oome Car 
k) fugi in fpagna cbiamandofe Maynecto per 
paura : et pero qoesto fibro te cliiama el may- 
necto In Christi ihesa nomine. 
Q Come re Pipino reg;naiia : et oome il fii in 
recheza oonrigliato da baroiu che il togliesie 
moglie per hauere herede. Capitolo primo . 


It may he necessary to premise a few words respecting the present 
department of the fVork^ which contains an account of Books printed 
BY William Caxton. The reader will probably be aware that, iti this 
department, much ground must be gone over which has been already 
explored in the recent edition of our Typographical Antiquities. In order 
therefore to avoid unnecessary repetitions, and to exhibit equally valuable 
descriptions of such works, in this Library, as have been executed by the 
Father of the British Prbss, it has been my object to compress the 
bibliographical part within a comparatively narrow compass ; and to substitute, 
where necessary, copious and interesting extracts: faithfully printed from the 
original text. In consequence, it is presumed that a Body op Caxton ian 
Literature (if such an expression may be used) will be submitted to the 
attention of the curious, from which no unpleasing information may be 

I cannot however enter upon thk department of th^ work, without 
expressing a considerable degree of gratificatton at the task which is thus 
pleasingly imposed upon me. The Collection of Volumes, printed by Caxton, 
of which an account is now presented to the public, has never been 
EttUALLED. The Noble Owner of the Harleian Library, in one of his 
letters to Heame,* seems to have felt no ordinary satisfaction on possessing 
* forty two volumes printed by thcU good honest man" (Caxton), It will 
be seen that Lord Oxford is here eclipsed — in a department even in which 
he had good reason to boast of his strength and superiority. 

* Letters written by eminent Pertons in the xviith and xviiith Centuries, j[C, and Lives 
of Eminent Men, by John Aubrey, Esq, 1813, 3 vols. S«e vol. ii. p. 85. Thu is a publica- 
tioD well deserving of a place in the library of every scholar to whom the memories of 
the ILLUSTRIOUS English dead are dear. 


HSBilUam Cajrton. 

836. Le Recueil bes Hibtoibes de Tboyes. 
Witlwut Name of Prmterj Place, &r Date. 

- Th»b is good iMBon .to consider this Tolome as having been exe- 
<ated by Caxton, and as the fimt paoDucriow op bis msBs. It is (tf 
exccfflire mity ; and with the exception of the accounts of it pub- 
liahed by La S«rna Santander, and Brunet, it will be in vain looked 
for in the works of foreign bibliographers. The particular de- 
scription of it which appears in the recent edition of our T^pogra- 
jihkal jintiqaitiet, vol. i. p. 3— tc^ether with a fkc-aimile of the type-~ 
renders a very copious bibliographical account umnecessary in the 
present place : but it will be material to notice the leading feature* 
of the volume. The recto of the first leaf presents us with th« titles 
as follows : 

€p tmnmenu U \uAvam 3[ntttule It cmidl bcjt ^i^tabetft 
IK taxpt0 €ompo^ pete latmtabh itoinmt raotd le finm 
pctftrc ttjappeHam be mon tug ceOoubte ^tigneui; a^mfttifi 
eamr le SDut ^^ippt be iEtom^oiitgne <£n lanbegtace.. 
mil. ccct-Iniii. : . 

The text immediately follows, having S5 lines beneath. Tliis 
opening part will be found reprinted in the authority just referred to. 
There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and a full 

174 WORKS PRINTED BY {fFithimt Date. 

— •• 'i 

page contains 31 lines. The vroA n divided into three Booics. The 
Flnt Book ends on the leverse of the llfth kaf, at the end of the 
bottom line, thus ; 

The Second Book has the following prefix: 

c p commettte ie jftconti Ittm feu teoieS feQ( 1^jttmtt0 . 
ttt ttopt qui fSoAt tn0 jftoatUtt^ feu fivt j^ttodQ. 

and concludes on the recto of the 203rd leal, thus : 

€tanin{ tp 

The reverse is blank. The recto of the S04th leaf presents us with 
a proheme, of 20 lines, to the Th^d Book} succeeded by this title— 

€^mtittnt U top 3^rpant ffl$ feu top Xamtufeon ceppa 
ta fo tote cite fee tropejst fee 0m manage a!a ropne j^eoifea 
et feejl fii$ qutl eut feeOe / tft comment 9[iafjfeinfeIajfon con 
Itetl pout enuopet en gtece pout tauott enomte 0a 0aum. 

The third book terminates on the reverse of the 283rd leaf, with 
the word 

«:• ^jcpltctt «:* 

In conformity with the plan suggested in the ' Memorandum^ ' pre- 
fixed to this department of the work, I proceed to gratiiy the reader 
with a copious extract from this rare volume -^descriptive of the 
Combat of Hbbcules and Cacus ; as will be found on the reverse of 
the 180th leaf: and to which a translation, by the pen of Caxton,* will 
be considered no uninteresting companion : 

q Vant herculez vist le grant trou que la rachine de larbre auoit 

&it 11 en fut moult Joyeulx et dist. Vrayement cest Jcy que le 

grant larron deroeure II fault veoir sil y est et quelz marchans 

y habiteut^t £n disant ces paroUes herculez sabaissa et regarda a vng 

* [w]Han hercoles sawe the grete hoole that the root of the tree liad made, he was ryght 
loyooif and glad, and 8aid.TrewIy hit ia here that the grete theef dwellith, I must sec if he be 
here and what marchautes enliabite in this place, In saying these wordes herculcs bowed 

t Sic 

rVUAaui Date.} WILLIAM CAXTON. 176 

boot de k cane Oil n Tkt eaci^f SitOBt qofl Tiet k Itfr^ 
dont II fut plus Joyeux qae deuant et lui eacryai Cacus Je te voy Tu 
par cy deuant as trouble les regnes despeiye par Innombrables delitz 
que fiunto pnblioqiieiiieiit et enappert, Ce ftit la cause de la perdicion 
de ta seigncmrie Mamtenuit tu trembles les ytalies par t}Tannies nracees. 
couuertes et Incongneues Je congnois ta vie tu ne la peulz nyer ne 
yguorer 11 fieiult que tu meores et que Je fache franches les ytalies de 
tes enonnes larrecins. O. mal heureux homme cy ne te peuent se 
courir tes oooronnes, tes dyademes, tes ceptres, tes bruitz et tes 
honneors royaulx, £t pourquoy, Certes pour ce que tu es enueilly en 
tes pechiez et ne tes amende ne corrigie pour pugnicion ne pour peine 
que tu ayes endure ne soufierte, Aincois en lieu de donner qui appar- 
tient a roys et a princes tu as este larron. £n lieu de faire Justice ta 
as este murdrier et bouteur de feu et en lieu de garder et sauueur les 
femmes tu les as villonnees, Ochetif roy sans toy gehyner ne coniurer 
certes Je voy bien que tu es cil que les Itayles ne congnoissent et si les 
as persecutees Ton malice a este grant quant jusques a ce jour nas este 
trouue Be accuse et as fieiit vne fbrte chose mais se plus fort ne fais tu 
en es en peril pnrachain. car tu me rendras raes beufz et finablemet me 
mettras amort on tu mourns par mes mains et ne le gaigneras par 
courir ne par faire tes feux subtilz : 

down hys heed and beheld on the oonside of the caue where he sawe cacus. Assone as h« 
Mwe the theef he knew hym anone, wherof he was more Joyous than he was to fore and 
eacryed hym, Cacus I see thee, Thou haste to fore this tyinc troblyd the Royamcs of 
hesperye by innumerable delyctes and grete synnes that thou madeste openly and apperte. 
This was the cause of the pardicion of the seignourye, Now thou troblest the ytaliens by 
tyrannyes hyd & unknowen, I knowe thy lyf, thou mayste not denye hit ne forsake hit, 
hit beboueth that thou dye therfiire And that I make the ytalyens franke and free of thyn 
horrible & odious theftes. O cursed man yf thy crownes. thy diademes. thy septres. thy 
brujtes, thy ryall men myghte not socoure the, why than and wherfore arte thou wrapped 
in synnes and amendest the not ne correcte the for the pugnycion that thou hast suffired. 
But yet in the stede and place tliat thou sholdest dispose tlie to thai, that apperteyneth t» 
a kynge Ac a prynce, thou haste ben a theef. In stede to do justice thou haste ben a mur- 
drer, and a putter in of fyre to brenne callages and bowses And where thou sholdest haue 
kqit and sauyd woman, thou hast defowltd them and don hem vilonnye. O kaytif kynge* 
witfaoute ooniuiyng or pynyng of the. certes I see well that thou art he that the ytalyent 
knowe not that thou hast pemcuted hem. thy malyce hath ben grete and thy subtylte^ 
whan into thys day thou were neuer accused. And hast doon a grete thyoge. But hit is 
not 80 grete, ner hast nut so hidde the bat thou arte right nyghe perill, fibr thou shalt yelde* 
to me agayn my oxen. And ffiuably thou shalt put me to deth, or thou shalt deye by my 
hand. And thou shalt not escape by rennyng ne by thy subtyll fyres, 
VOL. lY. Z 

m BOOKS PRINTED BY [Htstaires de Troye, 

qVant cacus entendit celle sentence II fut fort efiraye NeantoMnils 
II kua la teste, et voyant quil estoit trouue par herculez lomme du 
monde quil amoit le moins II lui dit, Hellaz herculez homme tout 
corrompu de conuoitise quelle maudditte fortune ta fait tirer larbre 
dont les parfbndes racynes ont descouuert le repos tail du roy cacus 
ladiz regnant Mais orendroit priue de regne et bany de toute mondaine 
proeperite Ne te suffit 11 moy auou* desherite de nies naturelz biens 
Quant tu mas tout toliu tant quil est force que Je viue de proye dont 
la coulpe doit redonder sur toy que ne me scuffres tu tirer le residu de 
ma poure vie entre les pierres . entre les chardons et entre les vers de 
la terre Ck>nsidere maintenant ce que tu as fait ace ray et ne le quiers 
plus tu las assez greue,. ''Cacus respondit herculez se tu te trouues en 
labisme des miseres tes demerits lont acquis et suis bien dollent de veoir 
vng roy en si honteux estat, mais quant tu ne sauroyes aomer tes jours 
passez ne les preseiis dun seul bien fait quel reine de Tu as joumellement 
exerce tjrrannye tant en prosperite quen aduersite, Je scay bien que tu es 
le nouueau persecuteur des Italyes et que ta main est toute honnye de 
leursang. Je ne te queroie pas ne les ytaliens ne sauoient a parler de toy 
Et pour ce quilz se taisoient a leur preiudice cest arbe aperele pour eulx 
et par ses rachines adescouuart lembuche Si £Eiult que tu eslises ou 

[w]Han Cacus vnderslode this sentence : he ivas strongly affirayed. neaerthdesse he lyfte 
up his hede And seeyng that he was found by heraUes the man of the worid that he moate 
hated, he sayd to him, Alas hcrcules man all coirumped with couetyse. what cursid fortune 
hath made the to drawe oute the tree wherof the parfonde and depe rootes hath disoouerid 
the reposayll of kyiige Cacus late regnyng. But now piyued fro regnyng & hanjsshid fro 
all worldly prosperite Suffiseth not to the that I may haue the chierte of roy uaturell 
goodes. whan thou hast taken alle away fro me. And that hit is force that I syue of robberye 
and proye, wherof the culpe and synne ought to redonde vpon the, Why suffrest thou 
not me to syue & drawe forth the residue of my poure lyf, amonge the stones amonge the 
rokkes. and amonge the wormes of the erthe. Considere now what thou haste to do this 
kynge, And seke hym no more, thou haste hurted and grcuyd him ynowhe, Hercules 
answerd Cacus yf thou were in the abysmes of wrecchidnes and myseryes. thy demerytei 
wole accuse the. And I am ryght sory and dolant to see a kyng in so bounteous and 
shamefuJl Estate. But whan thou canste not Aoume thy dayes passid ne these presente with 
one only good dede what remedye, thou hast dayly exercysed tyrannye as well in prosperyte 
as in aduersite. I wote well that thou art the newe persecutour of the ytaliens And that 
thy hands is all fowll of their blood. I seke the not, ne the ytaliens can saye nothyng of 
the. And for as rooche as they com play ne not of the to their preiudyce this tree hath 
spoken for them. And by hys rootes he hath discouuerd thyn embusshe : So behoueth hyt 
that thou chese. Wheder thou wilt come and fyght with me here in the ayer, at Urge, or 
elUs that I come and assaylle the their withmne: ffor jf hit be to me possible I shall 
desyuere the world of thy tyrannyes &6. 

WiihouiDaie.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 177 

que ta Tiengnes combatre cj al aer et au large oa que Je tenualiiflaes 
la dedens car sil mest possible Je delhireray le monde de tes tyrannies : 

p Ar celle responce Cacus congneut quil ny auoit nul respit en son 
fiut, Adont II se cuida sauuer comme II auoit fait autresfbis £t fist par 
son art de magique vne si grand fiunee quil sembloit du trou que larbre 
auoit &it que ce fust vng droit puys denfer et e&toit celle fumee lardee 
de flambes si ardantes que merueilles,. Pour celle fiimee oncques 
liercukz ne habandonna cacus aincob sailly en la caue panny flambes 
et fiunee cooune cellui que estoit mabtre de ce niestier et fut tautost 
pourueu des remedes qui y appartenoient et sen alia plainement 
enuahir cacus ainsi comme sil ny eust fumee ne empeschemet Si fan 
donna si grant cop de sa macbue sur le plus bault du beaume quil fan 
hurta la teste contre vng des mu» de la caue, Cacus au recepuoir oe 
oop faussa a desgorgier sa fumee voyant que par ceste &con eschiqiper 
ne pouoit et prit vne tres grande bache quil auoit aupres de lui pour 
soy defiendre, Herculez lui soufiry prendre sa bacbe, Cacus rua sur lui 
car la caue estoit fort creuse, Ilz combatirent longuement la dedens, A 
la rescousse de cacus nndrent les . iii . seurs qui menerent grant dueil 
et jetterent pierres sur herculez en grande babondance plourans ame- 
remet • ces trois domoisell amoient moult cacus, Herculez et cacus se 
combatirent plus dune heure sans cesser tant que reposer les conuint 
par escbaufiemet A dont cacus print en lui vne fblle oultre cuidace et 
lui sembla en soy reposant que herculez nestoit pas si puissant quil 
auoit este autreflbis ^t quil ne le pourroit jamaiz vaincre puis que ala 

[b]y thb answer cacus Imewe that tfacr was no reqiite in hu feet.Tban he supposid to nne 
hymas he had doon afore tjme And maad by hb crafte so grete a smoke and fumee, diatlnt 
aemed oome oute of the huoie that the tree had maad. that hit had ben a right pytte of 
belle. And this fumee was lardid with flames brennyng as meruaylL flbr thb fumee hercolet 
ahand nnn cd neoer cacus, but leq» in to the caue in the myddell of the flames and fumee at 
be that was maistre of this crafte, and was arone pourueyed of remcdjes that thcrto a]iper- 
tcjned. And wente hym playnly and aasayled cacus in suche wyse as he fehe no fumee ne 
cnpesshement. And than he feaf hym so grete a strook vpon the behne widi his cinbbe.- that 
be maad hym to hurtle his heed ayenst oon of the wallis of the caue. Cacus with the 
resKyuyiig of this strooke. lete the fumee disgorge out of hb stomack. Seyng that by that 
manyer he ooulde not escape. And tdce hb ly^t grete axe that stode by hym for to deflende 
hym with, Hercules snflrid hym to take hb axe. Cacus smote Tpon h^Tu ffor the caue was 
not large, they fought longe therin«vnto the resoours of cacus cam the thre susters that made 
grete torowe And casted stones Tpon herculcs in grete habondacce And wept bittcHy. These 
thre damoy^Ues louyd sore well cacus, Hereules & cacus fought more than a longe 
oure witboote costing At the ende of the oore. they were bothe so sore chaoffid that they 
mnste reste them Than cacus tdie in hym a grete piyde. fibr he was stronge of body And 
hym icmed wfaao he reitid that herculet was not to stronge as be had ben afore tymea. 

173 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Hisifrirti de IVq^, 

premiere fbis'ne lauoit vaincu. Pour celle presumpcioii II depuMlida a 
herculez sil vouUoit peracheuer la bataille hors de la caue, Hercul^ lujr 
respondit quil en estoit content/ A celle responce cacus print la pierre 
qui fermoit la caue et en yssit Et berculez allant apres choisit ses vaches 
qui estoient mortes en vng coinget ses beufz qui estoient au pres loyez 
par les museaulx a vne coulopne 11 eut grant dueil quant 11 veyt ses 
▼aches en ce point, neatmoins 11 passa oultre et poursuiuit cacus qui 
estendoit ses bras et se mettoit a point, et lui dit, Mauuaiz larron oertes 
tu mas fait vng grant desplaisir dauoir tuees mes vaches Larrd mauuaiz 
toy mesmes respondit cacus encores mas tu fait plus grant desplaisir 
dauoir occis mes hommes et emble mes rpyames, Tu es seul coulpable 
des maulx que Jay fais et de la mort de ces vaches Pleust aux dieux 
que Je te tenisse aussi bien en ma mercy comme Je les ay tenues soyes 
sceur que Jamais royammes nembleroies, or acheuos nostre bataille, A 
ces mots herculez et cacus reuerent lun sur lautre moult lourdement 
et par grant felonnie leurs cops retentirent sur leurs armes, Au reten- 
tissemet le roy enander* et les gregois vindrent veoir la bataUle qui se 
&isoit deuat lent re de la caue la ou estoient les trois seurs nviult desolees, 
Cacus sefiforcoit de toute sa puissance car II veoit quil estoit heure ou 
jamaiz de monstrer et mettre auant ce que Daire pouoit • 11 manyoit 
▼ertueusement sa hache et bien lui auenoit a en ouurer II estoit dur et 
robuste et de gros couraige 11 donna maint cop a herculez et sembloit 
souuent que Jusques en abisme le deust confondre, Mais aussi herculez 

And that he myght neuer vaynquysahe hym, for as mocbe at lie had not oneroome bym at 
the begynnyng, By thb presumption he demanded of hercules, yf he wold achieae the 
Batayll wyth oute the caue. Hercules answerd that he was oontente. With this answer 
cacds toke awa^ the stone that shette the caue and wente oute. And in goyng oute after 
bym, hercules espied his kyen that were ded in a comer. And h|s oxen that were bounden 
by the mosels Tuto a piler, he was sory whan be sawe hys kyen in that poynt. Neuertheless 
he passid forth and poursiewed cacus, that racchid oute Ins armes and maad bym redy, and 
aayd to hym. thou cursid theef thou haste doon to me grete di^Iaysir to have slayn mj 
kyen, ye cursid theef thou thyself answerd cacus, yet haste thou doon to me more 
displaysir, to have slain my men aud taken away my Qoyames. thou art only culpable 
of the euyll that I haue doon and of the detb of thy kyen, I wold hit plesyd th^ 
goddcs that I liad the as well in my mercy . as I had them. . be thou sewer that thou 
sholdest neuer take away Royarae firo no man And now late vs achieue oure batayll : At 
these wordes Hercules and Cacus smote eche otlier right sore and by grete fdonnye, thdr 
strokes clcuyd to their hamoys . and sowned . At this sownyng the Kynge euander & the 
grekes cam to tlic* bataill for to see hit . whiche they maad to fore theritre of the Caue : 
Where as were the tbre susters passyng desolate : Cacus enforced hym wyth alle his 
puyssance . ITor he sawe hit was tyme thoo or neuer to shewe and put forth all that he 
myght He handled Iiis axe right myghtly And well was hym iiede so to doo. He was hanle 
& boystous . he gaf many a strook to hercules. And hym semed other while that he sholde 

• Sic 

IFithout Date.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 1^9 

de sa part ne si fiediidoit paSy Sil auoit fbrte partie II estoit fort a 
laduenant et plus certes qtiil ue* conuenoit pour la sante de cacus, II ne 
actaindoit oncques cacus quil ne lui fist toumer les yeuU en la teste ou 
quil ne le fist cliner puis dun lez puis dautre on desmarcher rudement, 
Ceste bataille par estente de dtiree ennuya aux regardans, Hz sentre 
queroient atous costez et durement sentre tastoient,. Finablemet Hz 
firent tant que bon mestier leur eust este de reposer et quilz fuoient par 
tous leurs cm-ps, A dont Herculez voyant que encores nestoit pas le pris 
done et que la nuyt approuchoit II eut grant honte en lui et se com* 
menca atenner de si longue bataiUe, Lora se print aquerir cacus de pref 
et redoubla ses cops et sa vigueur en ruant de telle radeur sur cacus 
quil le porta fin de compte tout estonne par terre et lui fist perdre 
sa hache. puis lui osta son heaume. Les trois seurs senfuirent lors en 
▼ne forest n5mee octa toutes plaines de larmes et de cris, Flusieurs 
gregois Touldrent aller apres mais herculez les fist retourner, Puis 
appella le roy euander et ses gens et dist au roy. Sire vecy cil qui 
soulloit les ytalies troubler par secretz murdres. couuers larrecins et 
mescongneuz viollemens des femmes, Nen souspeconnez plus les dleux, 
vecy le ministre et faiseur des delitz Jay Intencion de le pugnir non 
pas selon sa desserte, mais Jusques ala mort: 

J%e speech of King Evander, comprising 23 lines, has not been deemed of 
sufficient importance to extract. The narrative continues immediatebf as 

confounde hym vnto the depe abysme of the erthe« But herculea on his syde faylled not yf 
he had stronge partye ayenst him. He was also stroDge at a Tenant and more stronge 
certayn than was good for the helthe of cacus, he snx>te neuer cacus but he toroed the eyen 
ii> his heed . or made hym to atoupe or knele on that oon side or that other or goo aback 
shranefuUy, This batayll by longe during anoyed the beholders they sought eche other and 
tasted harde on botlie sides. Fynally they dide so nioche that hit was nede to reste them And 
that all their bodies swette all aboutes, than hercuies sawe that yet was not the pryse gyuen 
And that the nyght approched he had grete shame in hyrobelf . that he had hold so longe 
hatayll. Than he b^an to aeche cacus so nygh . and redowblid his strokes by suche vigour 
▼pen, cacus so fiercely . that at laste he bare hym doou to the ground ail astoyncd And 
made hym to lese his axe And ^)rn toke of his helme. The thre susters fledde tlian in to a 
forcste named Octa all full of tceris and of cryes. Many grekes wold haue gone after. But 
hercuies made hem to retome. After he caiiid the kynge Euander and his folk and said to 
the kyng Syre lo here Is he that was wonte to troble the ytalyens . by secrete murdres, 
couuerte theftes, & vnknowen defowlyng of women . gyue no more suspecion to thegoddes, 
Lo here is the menyster and doar of thise trespaces, I haue entencion to punysshe hym. Not 
only after his deserte . but vnto the detb : . 

\Tke speech rf Evander, which immediately folhw$, is omitted ; m carfarmUy with Us omistion 
in the above text,'] * Sic. 

108 BOOKS PRINTED BT [Histaites de Traye, 

e Ntre ces parolles cacus se releua tout estourdy du cop quil auoit 
receu et sen cuida fiiyr. Mais herculez courut apres et le rataindit 
si lembracha et le rapporta si serreemet qiiil ne le pouoit mouuoir 
dnn coste ne dautre et le porta en vne fosse parfonde quil auoit £Eiicte 
en la caue ou II gettoit toutes ses ordures, quelzconques. Herculez venu 
acell fosse que les gregois auoient trouuee planta cacus dedens la teste 
dessoubz en le ruant du hault en bas, A dont les Italyens vldrent euiron 
la fosse et letterent tant de pierres sur cacus que tres miserablement 
II fina lUec sa TieyTelle fiit la fin du poure roy cacus II mourut en vng 
trou plain dordure et de puanteur : Fol. 180-183. 

The preceding afibrds a sufficiently copious specimen of the phraseo- 
logy and character of the work. The translation also exhibits Caxton 
in no very unfavourable point of view ; and there is throughout the 
whole, in the dialogue, and in the incidents, a ncStoati and spirit which 
cannot fail to be interesting to the curious. I beliere I can fully 
pledge myself on the extreme accuracy of both the texts. The volume 
under consideration is unluckily imperfect : wanting 31 leaves : that 
is to say, 30 leaves between fol. 29 and 59, and the 147th leaf. It was 
purchased in a deficient state, by the late John Duke of Roxburghe, 
of Mr. Payne, for 5/. 5«.; and after it had been deprived of several 
other leaves, in order to render the copy in the Royal Library perfect, 
it was obtained at the sale of the Duke's Library, by the present 
Noble Owner of it, for no less a sum than \\6L lis.! see Bt6Z. 
Roxburgh, n^. 6201. It is sound, very clean, of good dimensions, and 
is beautifully bound in olive-colour morocco by Charles Lewis. 

[d] Vryng these wordes [of Evander] Cacus rdeayd hym that was astonyed of the strook 
that he had recejoed And wende to have fledd. But hercules mine after & retayned hym 
And embraced hjm in his arms so harde y' he myght not meue And brought hym agayn 
And bare hym vnto a dope pytte that was in the caue where he had caste in all ordures and 
filthe, hercules cam vnto this fowle pytte that thegrekes hadfounden And planted cacus there 
inne . his heed dounward from on bye vnto the ordure benethe, Than the ytaHens cam 
aboute the pitte and caste so many stones vpou hym that he deyde there myierably. Sadie 
WM the ende of the poure Kynge Cacus.' & -. FoL S20— 2SJ. 

1471.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 181 

837> The Recutell of the Historyes of Trote. 
Supposed to have been printed in 1^1. Folio. 

FiBST Ekolish Impebssion of this work, and tbb fibst book 
PRINTED IN ouB LANGUAGB. It has claiiDS therefore to be thoroughly 
described and well introduced to the notice of the curious : yet I know 
not that any thing material can be added to the copious description of 
it which appears in the first volume (p. 16 to 88) of the recent editimiL 
of our Typographical Antiquities. The prefix, on the recto of the first 
leaf, is lineally and literally as follows : 

d< &t0piiiut|^ tl^ tioluntt itttituldi onb nam A 
^ tfie vtcagiSi of t^ l^tjitorpejj of Crope^ con^poiscdi 

miti titatiKit out of tipuerce (wdttir of lotpit in 
to fixttfln^t 1^ t||t tp0i^ tiomalUc ^iftt^iiot anb tnoc^ 
l^^q^fun man . |{aouI U fGnnre . igttt^t mtb cl)iq?dapi 
Intto t!^ cpgl^t nodle giorpou^ attfi mp0l^tp Tgagmt in 
^ tpme l^l^dijp buc of ^SHnn^opne of SC^cfiBat^ %t 
%n tfyt pete of t^ Sfncamacton of out iot^ gob a tfiou" 
^cs6x fouce Iionbceb jf ijctp attfi fouce^ $lnb tcmueSat^ 
anb bcatoen out of ftaneH^ in to etq^iiiri^e Sip IINilpant 
Caieton xatttet of p« cpte of Sonbou/ at t^e comtfibemtt 
of ttje n0|t lipe mpg^ anb bectuoujsse l^cpntefjie |^ 
teboubt^ iabp . d^argatete iip ttie gene of gob . 9>n« 
ti^ of ^lE^mugopne of Xotcpit of S^tabanb •»/ // 
inl^lie i^b ttauj^Iacion anb toerlte ina^ begonne in 
SStogtj^ in ti^e COuntee of f launbce^ t|^ fpon bap of 
marcl^e tf^ pete of t$e 3[ncatnatton of ouc jsiaib loib goli 
a t^ou^anb Gnux lionbctb j^i)ctp anb epgl^' $llnb otbcb 
anb fpnpiri^b in t^e l^p cpte of €o{en tl^e . jcijc . bap of 
itceteaHyct t^t pece of out itapb loib gob a tJ^oujAnibi: 
Goure l^onbcrb ^iirtp anb etdeuen *u . 

$lnb ontt)at otl^et i^ibe of t|^ leef folotuet^ tiiepnlogt. 

laa BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histories of Ttaye, 

The preceding is printed in red. The prologue, to which Caxton 
refers, commences on the reverse of this leaf, and occnpies about two 
pages, and a third part of a third page. It is reprinted entire in the 
new edition of Ames and Herbert (the work just referred to) in its 
ancient form ; but the conclusion of it, so descriptive of the simplicity 
of the translator, merits to be laid before the reader— -even if it be in a 
moderniaed orthography : ' meekly beseeching the bounteous highness 
of my said Lady [the Lady Margaret] that of her benevolence list to 
accept and take in gre this simple and rude yftiA^ here following . and 
if there be any thing written or said to her pleasure . I shall think my 
labour well employed and where as there is dfifinilt • that she axHie it 
to the simpleness of my cunning which is full small in this behalf and 
mpiiiie anrd pray all them that sfiall i^ead this stf<l work Xjs correct it 
and to hold me ^zeased of the rode and simffe tfiAdition And tins I 
end my ptologue.' * 

^e prcAogue of Caston is immediately sticceeded by a protogtle of 
the author* having this prefix : 

4Sxt GsibrtDttl^ p^ pbi0ttt of ti^ tttOtjffppfUl xiiSOX 

ftomilte (intre W^vi^ ftmir ^tuxtte «f t|^ i^ceitent 
iiooiitn tgc tecntj^ tott^ • 

The author is not less courteous^ than his translator, in his condht«> 
sion; which runs thus: * And alle them that shall rede hyt for 

^ A 8il»U spae^ may be here ■Hotted to a precetSng put of tUs prologue, deacriptiYe of 
the printer's cdncatioD, and conduct of the Tcnkn: ' And afterward when I remembered 
myself of my simpleness and unperfectness that I had, in both languages z-*- that is to wit* 
in French and in EngU^ — (for in France ^ms I nerer, nid was bom and learned nihie 
English in Kent, in the weald, where I donbt not is spoken as broad and rude English as 
is in any place of England —and have continued by the space of xxx years for the most 
part hi the coimtries of Brabant Flanders, Holland, and Zesissid) and thus when all these 
thingi came tbfore me, after that I had made and written five or six quires, I fell in despair 
of th]^ work, and purposed no more to have continued therein, and tho [the] quires laid 
f^artt-aud iu-two year after labored no more in this werk ; and was fiilly in will to haw 
left it, till on a tune it fortuned,' Ace. 

Caxton goes on to tell us that his patroness, Margaret Duchess of Burgundy, happened 
to discover his attempt at the version— corrected his language — and commanded him to 
finish the work. The printer obejed her ii^unctions : for he adcnowledges that he n a 
servant of her Grace, and ' receives of her yearly fee and other many good and great 
benefiia* He concludes his prologue exactly at above. 



I* O <» D 

•^ O .v 9 4 








? « 

* ft; 


1471.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 183 

tescbewe jdlenes . that so rudely haue pat mj penne vnto the histories 
afore named . that hit plese them not ondy haue regarde vnto my 
poiu* consayte . but also to y* obscure and derke abisme or sualowe 
where y haue gadryd them to gyder . by obeyssauce And vnder all» 
ryght humble correccions • .* On the reirerse is the title to the Pint 
Bookt printed in red; whkh, with the title to the Third Book^ also 
printed in red, will be found in the accompantino »ac-simx£»b. 

As I may have led the reader to expect some forther extracts from 
this curious volume, however abundantly I have before * gleaned irom 
it, I shall present him with the following : illustrative of that extreme 
simplicity and tuOeeli with which oiu* venerable Printer thought it his 
duty to make a literal version of his original text. They describe events 
of very diflerent complexions. The first relates to the Battle of Titamt 
AND Saturn. 

' [f ]Rom as ferre as the Tjrtanoys sawe the Satumyens come . they 
were right glade and made them self the grettest chiere of the worlde • 
And meuyd them silf joieusly ayenst them and with a grete crye, they 
had grete sheldes of tree, maces and poDaxes and guysarmesof strange 
fiicions . and they were all on fote . resemyd Tytan and his sones • 
whyche as Synges had theyr Curres and Chares f in whiche they were 
brought and caried not by the force of hon but by the puyssance of 
men, they approched so nyghe that they cam to filghtyng and began to 
werke, than the archers of kynge satume began to drawe & shote And 
maad the tytannoys to arest and stande also longe as th^ shotte dured* 
and slowe and hurte many of them whan the shotte foyled . the 
tytanuoyst that had grete sorowe for to be so seruid of the satumyens, 
esmeuyd hem self agayn And swore that oon to that other that they 
wold be auengid And cam for to fight hand oon hand in whiche they 
employed them so aygrely that of the noise and dene that their axes 
and guisarmes smote vpon their sheldes hit semed as hit had ben thond^r. 
At thencounteryng than the batayll was right ffell, Lychaon . Egeon . 
Creon . lyphon. and encheladus were in the first front, ther was many 
a shslde broken for the weight of the dubbes & polaxes & many heedos 
broken/ foL 29. rev. 

The second describes the interview of Jupiter and Danab : 

* [t]He mayde danes toke grete playsir wyth all these thinges, whan 

* See the Typographical Antiquitiet, vol i, p, 24-7 ; and p. 174, 180, ante. 

t A little above, Caxtoo tays: < iibr in this tynic the kynges went to batBill in diaret** 

t Sic. 


1^ BOOKS PRINTED BY [HUtories of TV^t 

th^ d^moyseUed had partyd among hem her jewels of gold wHh greto 
Joye, they brought danes to hedde» And departyd from her chambre 
whiehe tliey lefte open by forgetyng, as they had sette alle her mynde 
and entendementes on her rychesses, And so wente to thyr beddes into 
Iheyr chambers* Jupiter liyng in his bed at this hour fbnde hym self so 
aunnoQntyd wyth covetyse of loue • That he uras oonstraynd to aryse 
And to loke out at a wyndoweto beholde yf the day approched liftyng 
his eyen agayn the sterres of the heuene. And was rauysshed in his 
herte by the remembrance of &yr danes and sayd, O noble danes that 
hath more beaulte than the sterre shynyng. And that ye shyne by 
aouerayn clerenes, Alas where be ye this houre, the paync that I endure 
Ibr your cause, ye knewe not the grete Jeopardye and the paryllous 
paas that I haue put me in. to attayne your loue, vnkendenes . may she 
haue place in yow • with desdayn rygour and fiersnes, whiehe ben myn 
enemyes enuenymed with mortall venym , O danes remembre your self 
of me. And thou fortune that hast aooouryd me in alle myn a&yres, 
aocoure me in this present nede/ 

* sifh this word his complaint cessed, and gaf his entendemet to 
many sharp thoughtes that percyd his herte ryght pensifly. This 
thoughte was grete and touchyng a right auenturous enterprise all 
accoutyd &abatid he detennined in himself to assayeyf he mocht come 
Tnto the ende of his thoughte, and aiayde and dothid hymself and 
went out of his chambre vnto the tour, where he sawe the dore opene 
to his semyng And finding trouthe that hit was open he wente vp as 
softely as he cowde that he shold not be herd, and cam so ferre that he 
cam to the chambre of danes wherof the dore was open In whiehe 
chambre was a lampe brennyng, Jupiter all full of gladnes put his hede 
into the chambre to beholde yf the damoyselles had ben wyth danes, 
and whan he had beholden that ther were none but that danes was 
aUone in her bedde, he auenturyd hym to go vnto her where he fond 
her slepyng and awdce her by kyssynge,* &c. 

' d Anes was so sore abasshed whan she Mt ber self so kyste, that 
she crept wyth in the bedde. Jupiter nyghed neer so for that he 
desoourid her face for to speke to her, wherof she beyng a frayd 
opend her eyen and whan she wiste that hit was Jupiter, and was allone 
by her bedde side, she made a ryght grete shryche and crye,whan 
Jupiter herd this crye be was not right well assured,' &c. {FoL 60-1.) 

The Fint Book contains 144 leaves, exdusively of the prologue of 
Caxton and of Raoul Le Fene. On the reverse of the 144th : 


1471.] WILLIAM CAXTON. lis 

salitptm to gelMc of t^ ^tjttocpcif of Ccopt» 

On the recto of the following leaf, the Second Book has this prefix x 

i^tttc iicgpiutttl^ ti^ Gttontie iiooiic of t^t ncucffl of 
t|^ l^iftotpeit of Cropt> t^t jiptiKtl^ of t|^ xpaiioiXBt$ 
<f t|^ Ittconse l^etadejst anb of j^tist bet|^ ac : :« 

From this book I have given a very copious extract, accompanying 
the French text at p. 174 ante. The conclusion of this book is on the 
recto of fol. 248, and will be found in the new edition of Ames and 
Herbert, at vol. i. p, 19. On the recto of folio 849, exclusively of the 
three preliminary leaves, the Jlwrd Book commences with this prefix t 

Sftt tt)tjft tloo bofttjl pcctttwntc ♦ tw 1^806 ftp tfyt Ifdfft 
of 0oti ttetpb of t^t tloo ftcfit tKisttniccponjet of Ctopt 
Initio tl^t ntSAt Gtpttj^ anti Ittbtj^ of tl^t fittotigt ai^ 
l^ljftDtt i^erode^ • tl^t mate at^ tiptie leto manp nut 
tepOiQst t|^ t^t tngpnt j^umapit of cdle men oug^ to 
mentaplle . Slnti aljsro |^ f^t fAOot Vjit iiimge Xaome 
boti hm boun aitfi put HtjBt cpte of trope to ntpne l^oto 
in tj^e tl^trtie anb iajstte &00E1 gob to fore . ine ^|^ ^aie 
l^otD t|^e jftqib epte toaft ftp f^tiamiijet itone of tj^e jAiib 
itpnge iaomcbon teebtifi^ anb te^apc^ mote ftcongt 
anb more pupf^mtt t|an euer |^t toajl before « 9lltft 
aftettnarb l^obi fto t|^ rattp(j9t||ement of bame j^ela^ 
pne tnpf of ftpnge ai^ettQaiijl of grece . tHe jetapb cpte 
toafT totaUp be^tropeb f^damujtf j^ector anb alle ^ 
itmt^ jeslapn ftDttj^ nobled^e iDptl^ out nombre • air ^it 
Iffian an^ere in t]^ procejst of t|^ c||apitre^ « « 

The title, in red, immediately following, is given in the fiic-simil*' 
p. 1S3. From this book the reader is below * presented with a 

* ' [w]Haii perys koewe that the qnene helajne that was wyf of l[ynge Menelaui ofie of 
the mofte noble kynges of greoe was oomeD Ynto this tenpie» He aimyecl hym in the motts 

IM BOOKS PRINTED BY [Hutories of Tn^ 

rery iatemtiDg^stiict, deeartliiiig tlit riatr mbitivo of WtMin akd 
Helen, and the carrying off of the latter. The pn^hetie ravings of 
CAssANDaA, in consequence, are thus deftcribed : 

gentiliiiuiUeft wjie that be ooude and his comiMmijre And woote b to tbe tenple. For he 
hi^ loqge tyme before herd qpeke of her grete beaalte. And th&n as he was oomen and 
SBine^Mr, fi^ was gredy esptlsed with her lone And beguk stmifly to fadbdde her. And to 
de^i»«eetbaAckNiflf her hodjr That was so 6yr «nd well dnpen in aU tUagas, nad hi 
SQche wise that hit seemed properly to them that sawe tier. That nature had made Iier to be 
beholden &beseyb. Forklwr was m thing bntdnit hit aefosfd to ^IMsanattetebetAe 
y* royght be foonden in a woman, wherefore parys might not fori)ere to beholde her, sayng in 
l^ym self that lie had neuer seen neherdespeke of coy soiayre«Bd towtUfoannedAnd as 
be heheUe her. In like wysehelayne beheldehym also ittny limes and ofte. andhersentd 
that he was more foyrer a grete dele than had ben reported to her. And well sayd in her 
self that she sawe neaer man of so grete beaulte, Ne that plesid her so well to beholde And 
so she leftc alle her deaodon and alle other thooghtes And gaf no fon ne raught of no tlung 
than, sane oiJy for to beholde paiys. Whan parys knewe and sawe this lie had grete joye, 
and bebdde her iiwetly more and more and slie hyro. By whiche ^hte they sbewyd ynowhe 
of theyr desires, that one to ths* ^ther, And thooghte gredy by what nrfiawi they nyght 
^leke tQ gyder. And so longe they beheUe eche other that by semblannt, Hehyne made a 
token or signe to peiys that he approchid to her. And anone parys astto dotm bes&de hef^ 
vtnlis that the peple played in the ten^ And spack to her wytfa a aofta voy s lyght fw€ta|y 
and she to hym. And exposid eche to other how they were surpiyski of the loue uf that one 
and of that other, And how th^ myf^t oome to the eode after her deure, And whan Aey 
had qxiken ynowgh of theyr bote loue, Paiystokeloiieof herAndyssuedoutof tbetevpiqi 
He and his felawshipp. And hekiyne sente after hym her eyeu al so fer as she mygbte.' 

[Paris ttddretsa hit Companiont, and pUrttthe manner cf carrying cff Hden^ 

* [n]Ow hit happend that die nyght was oome, and tbe none was nygbe goon dooa 
The trohuis armed thera the moste secrete wiia that tiiQf cowde And lefte aooie of them 
for to kepe theyr shippys, And the other weiite preoyly vnto the temple. And entryd 
therm so armed as they were And with lityll daffenea take aDe then that tfiey foode 
■1 the temple and alle the lychesses that were therin. ' And parys frith his oweu hande 
toke helayne and them of theyr companye And bruughte m to theyr shippes alle the 
hole and put hit m sure gtfde. And after retntnadjto tibe piioy«» Tho began die nqjie 
passing grete with in the temple of the prysoopers. And of tlie so^ie that had leiser suffre 
to be slayn than for to be take prysonners, the noyse was herd ferre In soche wyae that they 
of the castell that stodc therby herde bit, and incootynent they aroost and armed hem 
and cam to assaylle tbe troians as vayllyant as they were, Tho begatn the niedle lygbt fyfifl^ 
and mortallc. But the troians that were foure ayenst one slewe many of them And die 
other fledde and reentryd in to theyr castdl. And tliaa the traians toke as moche u they 
ooude fyude of good. And bare hit vnto theyr shippis. And entryd in to them. And drew 
Tp theyr sayilys And sayllyd so longe that on the seuendi day they cam and arryuyd at the 
porta of troye theyr shippes full of good prisonners and of good Rychesses And they abood 
at the porte of thenedon that was but thre myle fro TVoye, And there were they receyuyd 
wytli grete joye, And tlion parys sente a propre messanger vnto his fader the kynge ptyaat 
to lete hym haue knowleche of his comynge and of alle that, that he had doon in greoe of 
these tidynges the kynge was gretly reyoyssyd and commanded m alle the c^te to make 
fcste solempnly for these tidyiiges.* &C. FoLfte^-4. 

14710 WILUAM CAXTON. 187 

* [w]Han Caaaandra knewe for troiithe that paiys her broder had 
wedded helayne* she began to make grete sorowe to cry & braye as a 
Woman oute of her witte, And sayde thuA O vnhappy troians wherfore 
reioysse ye yow of the weddyng of parys. Wberof so many euyll^ shall 
come and foUowe. And wherfore see not ye the deth of yourself and 
of your sones that shall be slayn to fore your eyen And the husbondes 
to fore their wyuys with grete sorowe, Ha. A noble cyte of Troyes 
how thou shalt be destroyed and put to nought. Ha. a vohappy moden^ 
what sorowe shall ye see, whan ye shall see your lityll children taken 
and dismembryd to fore yow, Ha. a hecuba kaytyf and vnhappy where 
shalt thou take the water that thou sh^t wepe for the deth of thy 
children Ha. a peple blind & foU^ht why sende not ye Incontynent 
helayne home agayn» And yelde her vnto her righte husbond to fore 
that the awerdes of yoiu* enemyes come and slee yow wHh grete sorowe, 
wene ye that this prynce the husbonde of helayne wole dwelle at home 
with oute greuous vengence, Certe9 that shall be your dolorouse iynand 
ende, ha. a vnhappy helayne, thou shalt do vs moche sorowe As cassandra 
said and cryed thus with hyghe vo3rs and with grete sorowe The kynge 
pryant knewe hit And did her to be taken prysonner And sende to her 
and did do praye her that she shold cesse, but she wolde not. And than 
he comanded that she shold be &st shette in prison and in yrons, where 
she was kept maoy dayes O what pyte was hyt. That the Troyans 
beleuyd not this warnyng and amonycion. For yf they had beleuyd hyt. 
They had eschewki the right grete euyllis that cam after vnto them. 
That shall be told in fieiyblfis to them that wole here hem vnto the ende 
of the world' &c. Fol. 265, recto. 

It remains only to subjoin that, what may be called, the EpUogns of 
the PrifUer terminates the volume on the last leaf but one. This 
concluding address to the reader has been before faithfully reprinted 
by me in the Tifpographical Antiqmtiei of our country ; vol. L p. 20-M. 
A part of it, however, is too interesting to be here withheld. The 
venerable translator begins by assuring us that * in writing of this 
book his pen was worn, his hand weary and not stedfast, his eye 
dimmed with over-much looking on the white paper, and his oourag* 
not so prone and ready to labour as it had been, and that age crept on 
him daily and feebled all his body ' — ' therefore he had practised and 
leamt at his great charge and dispense to ordain this said bock in print 
after the manner and form as we may there see.' He goes on with 
telling us that ' divers books which men have made in all points aoooid 
not as dictes. Dares. & Homer : for Dictes & Homer, as Greeks, say 

186 BOOKS PRINTED BY [HUtoriea of IVay. 

and write ifororably far tbe Greekii and give to them more worahip 
than to the Trqjans :' and conchides by beaeediiDg a blessing of peace 
lore and duuity from him that soffiered for the same to be crucified 
«n the rood tree : and say we all amen for diari^.' 

The following and conduding leaf, being the SSlst from the begin* 
ning of tlie volume, inclusively, terminates the impression thus : 

l^etgaim fine toolo * fiita tuamiif tuta jgtolo 

JbtSo capta tiolo . oq^ta rebacta jatolo 

€aaifa matt taW . mtcttdf fUit ejctctaltil 

femttta letalt^ . ftmina Tfism mattjec 

Jbi fuerM Iota . iA tnta ^etpunfi 0ona tota 

Jbi td^ ignota . nott m^ a&fig$ ttota 

|^(j^ pm0 ptacitem * ntbtjec motto tj^jsria (tttiem 

€if Uittava ffliem . ne ttttta^ in itiem 

^umot tie Mttai . femt Centura ttmen 

€m^ poterunt Sen . tttt^ta fiimt l^m 

^cdta Quiti nutfdi! • mocti cpit tttnti ttaMjf 

Cut tu mm datiti^ . nmcia daHe ttUit^ 

jpemjna ti^^na moti . teamatuc amoct p 

Heti^ta toictod. tOimfi iq t|on 


Of this very rare and interesting work there are scarcely fewer than 
twelve known copies ; but to obtain a perfect copy is a circumstance of 
angular good fortune. The libraries of His Majesty and the Marquis of 
Bath may however boast of such an acquisition ; while the two imperfect 
copies, in the Public Library of Oxford and of Cambridge, are inadequate 
even to supply a complete copy between them. His Grace the Duke of 
Devonshire was the purchaser of the copy which was in the library of the 
late John Duke of Roxburghe : a copy, not more distinguished for the 
eztraodinary price at which it was obtained, than for the beauty and sin- 
{[ulaiity of the volume itself. It has been before observed* that there 
is every reason to imagine that this copy was originally a presentation 
one, by Caxton,to Elizabeth Grey, Queen of Edward IVth, and sister- 
in-law to the Dutchess of Burgundy, the patroness of the printer. 

* See the recent editjoo of the Typog. Antiq* vol i. p. ff7* 

Ckeis Play; 1474.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 189 

This copy contains also an ancient copperplate engraving, illustratiire 
of one of the subjects of the work. It is however deficient— in thft 
last leaf only. The copy under description is also not exempt from 
imperfiection ; wanting only the first leaf* — but being, in other 
respects, sound and desirable : and formerly in the collections of Mr. 
Tutet and Mr. Austin. It is bound by Roger Payne in rossia leather* 

838. The Game and Playe of the Chbsse. 
[Moralised.] 1474. Folio. 

FiasT Editiom of this work ; and, like all the earlier publications 
of Caxton, of extreme rarity. This impression has been before so 
copiously described by me,t that, in a bibliographical point of view* it 
may be only necessary to observe that the dedication, to the Duke of 
Clarence, by Caxton, occupies the first leaf; the table of the chapters, 
the second ; and on the recto of the did leaf the text of the work 
begins thus 4 

€|^ fir^ c^q^ttee of tfie ficjtt nactate QeiDrt^ Wut 

iMDat kpntt i^t jfiof of ti|e c|^ toaft finiti^en atiti 


99on0t aH tj^e titpK contndonjt at^ Ugnttt 

t|^tmapiieinainattt|^(!rftanftp^ IpcetttSt 

i0 lD|^ 1^ Utcti^ nati tie tntfKtl^ to tiiSfit^t 

atiti malte torotj^ goti hp fptme/ aiib t^ 

jftjfit dp ipupt^ Mfottiptiatipi io|^ 1^ ttt^ 

oCC* oCC. oCC. 

In pursuing the plan of giving extracts from the earlier and rarer 
books of Caxton's press, I shall inresent the reader with the foUowing 

* Herbert, who stw thii copy, aud < the title wm mipplied hy a weU-written M^ 
This obtenratkni b true, as the copy now appears ; nnoe the former ms. leaf, which had nq 
raemhUmee to the original, has been sapplied by ou admirably-czecated fao-dmile by Ifir. 
Whttaker, the bookbiiiderc 

t TSfpographical Antiqukia; toI. i. p. f8-d6. 

t A iBdre oopbos extract from tius optnfaigv in modenrited orthography, will be found M 
tiie work JQft abore (pioted. 


few specimens of this * monlisiiig' work. These shall be ghreii in 
thehr original dress ; leferring to the work bekyw quoted for some 
copious extracts in a modernised form. 

* The thirde tractate of the offices of the comjm peple. The fyist 
chiEipitre is of the office of the labourers and werkemen. 

[f ]Or as moche as the Noble persone canne not rewle ne goueme with 
oute y* seruyce and werke of the peple» than hit behoueth to deuyse 
the oeuurages and the offices of the werkemen, than I shall begjnne 
lyrst at the fjrrst pawne, that is in the playe of the chesse. And sig- 
nefieth a man of the comyn peple on fete. For they be all named 
pietous* that is as moche to saye as fbotemen And than we wyll begynne 
at the pawne whiche standeth to fore the rooke on the ryght si^ of 
the kinge for as moche as this pawne apperteyneth to seme the vicaire 
or lieutenant of the kynge and other officers vnder hym of necessaryes 
of vitayll. And this maner a peple is figured and ought be maad in tbe 
forme and shappe of a man holdynge in his ryght hande a spade or 
shouell and a rodde in the lifte hand. The spade or shouell is for to 
dehie & labom* therwith the erthe. And the rodde is for to dryue k 
Qonduyte wyth all the bestes vntoher pasture also he ought to haue on 
his gyrdelly a crokyd hachet for to cutte of the superffuytees of the 
Tignes & trees, And we rede hi the bible thiA the first kbo«rer that 
euer was, was Caym the fyrste sone of Adam that was so euyU that he 
daee his broder Abd^ for as iMxte aa tiie smoke cf his tythes went 
sitrayt unto heueiv And the smoke & fumee of the tythes of Caym 
wente doun^^ard vpon the erthe And how well that this cause was 
tiewi^yet was ther another canse of enuye that he had ^mto his broder. 
Iter whan Adam their hdet iMried tkem for t» multyplye ye erthe of 
hya lygnye, he wolde not maiTe ner joyne to gydar the two that were 
bom attones, but gaf unto caym her that was bom wyth Abd, And to 
Abel her that was bom with caym. And thus began thenuye that 
eaym had ayenat ahel. For his wyf was foyrer than cayms wyf Aad 
for this cause he slough abel with the dbdiebone of a beste, & at that 
tyme was neuer no maner of yron blody of mannes blood. And abel 
wase yc first martier in thcdde testament, And this caym dide many 
other euyl thinges whiche I leue, for it apperteyneth not to my mater/ 
FoL «8. 

A little onwards (on the reverse of the ensuing leaf) a story or two is 
tekl, from Valerius Maximus» of the fidelity and courage of the labouring 

• Sic. 

1474.] WILLtAM CAXTON. 191 

daa^ under the denomination of serrants — the second story is thus : 
' And also telleth Valerius that ther was another labourer that was 
named penapiou, that seruyd a mal»ter whos name was Themes whiche 
was of meruayllous faith to his maystre. For hit befell that certain 
koyghtes cam to his maisters hows for to slee hym And anone as 
papiryon knewe hit, he wente in to his maisters chambre And wold not 
be knowen. For he dide on his maisters gowne and his rynge on his 
fynger, And laye in his bedde And thus put hym self in parill of deth 
for to respite his maisters lyf. But we see now a dayes many fooles 
that daigne not to vse groos metes of labourers. And flee the cours 
dothynge And maners of a seruant,' &c. 

The following story, from the Fitas Patrum^ (on the reverse of the 
same leaf, SO,) has rather an epigrammatic or whimsical conclusion* 
though intended to be of a serious cast. ' And herof fynde we in Vitas 
patrum. that ther was an erle a riche & noble man that had a sone 
onely, and whan this sone was of age to haue knowlech of the lawe, 
he herde in a sermone that was prechid that deth spareth none, ne 
riche ne poure, and as well dyeth y* yonge as the olde, and that the deth 
ought specially to be doubted for. iii. causes, one was, y^ no man 
knoweth whan he cometh, and the seconde, ner in what state he taketh 
m man. And the fbirde Ykt wote mtter whither he sha^ goo. Therfore 
eehe man shokl despise mitA flee the world and lyue wett and hokk 
hym toward god And whan this yong man herde this thynge, he 
wente oute of his contrey and flede vnto a wyldernesse vnto an her- 
mytage, and whan his feder had loste h3rm he made grete sorowe, and 
dyde do enguere & seke hym so AiMtke at Ibst he was ftmnden infte 
hermitage, and than Us fader cam theder to hym and sayde, defe aone 
come from thens» thou shalt be after my deth erle and chyef of my 
lignage, I shall be lost yf thou come not out hrom thens. And he than 
that wyste non otherwise to eschewe the yre of his fader bethought hytik 
and sayde, dere fkder ther is in your contre and lande a ryght euyll 
enstome yf hit plese yow to put that away I shall gladly come out of this 
place and goo with yow The fader was glad and had grete loye And 
demanded of hym what hit was And yf he wold telle hym he promysid 
hym to take hit away and hit shold be left and sette a parte. Than h^ 
sayde dere fader ther dyen as well the yong fblk in your contrey ar the 
olde, do that away I pray you, whan his fader herde that he sayde 
Dere sone that may not be ner no man may put that away but god 
only. Than answerd the sone to the fader, than wylle I serue hym and 


192 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Game of Ckesw, 

dwelle here wyth hym that may do that. And lo abode the childe in 
the hermytage & lyujd there in good werkes.* 

Maxims, interspersed with supposed and real cases, historical cha- 
racters, sacred and pro&ne, are constantly occurring in this ' tractate ' 
upon the game of chess. The story of Demotthenet and Laii is thus 
quaintly narrated : ' Helemand reherceth that demostenes the philo- 
sopher lay ones by a right noble woman for his disporte, and pla^inge 
with her he demanded of her what he shold gyue to haue to do wyth 
her. And she answerd to hjrm, a thousand pens, and he sayd agayn to 
her I shold repente me to bye hit so dere. And whan lie aduysed hym 
that he was so sore chauffid to speke to her for taccoplissh his flelshely 
desire, he dispoyled hym alle naked and wente and putte hym in the 
middes of the snowe And ouide reherceth that this thynge is the leste 
that maye helpe and moste greue the louers/ Fol. 40. recto. 

Recurring to the description of this volume, in a bibliographical 
point of view, we may remark that it is entirely divested of signatures, 
catchwords, and numerals ; and contains 72 leaves. A full page has 
31 lines. The recto of the last leaf presents us with only the fol- 
lowing piece of text, and the colophon :* 

^n toni)iucpii0C |^ ti0|^t6dD[ tii^txitttxnUi tijttt toaxap 
pt00 anti cj^cttc vMp mtntce in bot^t |^ topaxtttfii n^ 
tl^t marcl^mitt^e map l^me |^ coitc^ in ^|^e ftDt^re tfiat 
tuttp man tU^f^ ^tmti anti tncttu in tontuoujl octn 
paciW/ l^aptnge pout 000b grace to reSCtpm t^ litpD 
anb fpmple iiooii matie tontiec tije j^ope anti fj^tiotoe of 
pour no&Ie protection iip Upm tl^at ifi pour moft l^um&Ie 
ttraautt in gree aub t^anftt ^nl» S[ ^|^ prap almig^ 
0oii for pour lon^e Ipf a loelGsre/ iDMe |^e prcjererue 
Slnb Gmbe potn t^ccompIiiTIicment of pour iipe noble. 
9[opouj9(anii toertuoujsr tt^itfi oilmen : | u fpnpfl^tti of t^ 
Xauert tiap of marcj^e t|^e per of our IorI» 0oti. a* tj^ouCmti 
fonre l^ottfireti at^ Ijcjtitii*: : « : : ^ 

A question may here occur, respecting the meaning and force of the 
word ' Funysshid ' in the above coloi>hon. I have probably, with too 

1474.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 193 

inuch precipitation» observed that ' it is controvertible that the preseot 
work is the first book printed by Caxton, to which the date of the 
imprint is affixed/ If the expression * finished,' in this instance, mean 
mdy the completion of the nu. version — it must have the same meaning 
In the title prefixed to the Troy Book : see p. 189 ante. Yet bibliogra- 
phers have considered such word, in lx>th instances, to express the date 
^tke mprmt: and to confirm this conclusion, Caxton, in his prologue 
to the GoUen Legend of 1483, affirms these two works to be the earliest 
m tiie order of his labours. On the other hand, in the colophon of the 
DkieB and Sayings^ 1477» our printer expressly uses the word enprynted^ 
aocxNonpanied by the name of the place where the book was executed* 
Another consideration, however, seems to weigh in fiivour of the word 
'finished* implying the completion of the printing of the work. The 
tjrpe, with which this edition is executed, is precisely similar to that of 
the French and English editions of the Troy Book : and if Caxton in- 
Ibrms us, in the epilogue of the latter work (or English Troy book) 
tiiat he had then learnt the art of printing at a great expense«^it 
ihould seem to infer that the word ' finished* implied the date of the 
prbUmgt and not that of the ms. translation, of it. No other book» 
with the exception below mentioned,* is known to exhibit these types. 
Upon the whole, as the present copy of this rare book is unusually 
sound and large, the Noble Owner of it may congratulate Idmself on 
p bas ess ing a most curious and early specimen of the press of our first 
printer. This copy u handsomely bound by C. Hering, in rusAi leather. 
A beautiful copy, wanting only 2 leaves, is in the possession of the Duke 
of. Devonshire; fit>m the collection of Mr. Roger Wilbraham. The 
^inraries of His Majesty, the Earl of Pembroke, and the Marquis of 
Blandfbrd, contain perfect and fiedr copies. 

* This exception alludes to the ' History op Jason' in the French langiuge; of 
wUdi work, executed in the same types, and therefore prohably printed by Caxton, there 
i»ii perfect copy in the Royal libraiy at Fkria. Mons. Van Praet fitvoiral me, by letter, 
with a particular description of it; which was given by me to the public in the GeiUltman'M 
f; Tul. 82. pt ii. p. 3-4, Sm also Bninet'i Manuel du Ubraire, rol I Edit. 1814. 

VJ I BOOKS PRINTED BY [Game of Chegs, 

839. The Game and Pi, aye op the Chesse. 
[Moralized.] TVithout Place or Date. Folio* 

Second Edition. Having fully described and illustrated this im- 
pression, in the work so frequently before referred to, it reaiains only 
to be brief, yet sufficiently {Muticular, in tlie present account of it« 
The prologue, and the heads of the chapters In the scTeral treatises^ 
occupy the first 3 pages of the work. The reverse of the second leaf 
19 blank. In this prologue Caxton informs us ' an excellent doctor of 
divinity in France, had made a book of the Chess MoraUzed^ which, at 
such time as he was resident in Bruges, came into his hands ; and 
when he had read and overseen it, it seemed full necessary to be had 
in Englbh.' He then set about the translation, and published the 
preceding edition, without cuts ; ' of which he printed a certain 
number, which anon were depeuhed and sold/ He then resolved to 
print it, ' shewing therein the figures of sucl^ persons as belong to the 
play/ Accordingly, the impression appeared with a considerable 
number of rude wood-cuts ; of nearly the whole of which foc-simiks 
are given in the Typog. Antiquitiet, edit. 1810, vol. i. pp. 36«5d. A few 
however were omitted ; not of sufficient importance to be here pre- 
sented to the reader. These cuts have probably rendered the edition 
much scarcer than the preceding one. 

On the recto of the third leaf is the prefix to the first chapter, con- 
cemiDg the origin of the game; beneath which is a rude wood- cut, 
representing a man chopping to pieces a crowned human being, while 
the birds are canning away portions of his limbs. The text imme- 
diately informs us that this is ' Enylmerodach a lolye man without 
lusty^e and so cruel that he did do hcwe his faders body in thre hondred 
pieces and gaf hit to ete and deuoure to thre hondred byrdes that 
men calle voultres. And was of suche condicion as was Nero, And 
right wel resemblid and was lyke vnto his fader Nebiigodonosor. 
whiche on a tyme wold do slec all the sage and wise men of babilone. 
For as moche as they coude not telle hym his dreme that he had 
dremyd on a nyght and had forgoten hit like as hit is wreton in the 
byble in the book of danyel. Vnder this kyng thene Enylmerodach was 
this game and playe of the chesse founden. Trewe it is that some men 
wene, that this play was foiiden in the tyme of the bataylles and siege 
of troye. But that is not so. For this playe cam to the playes of the 

JoMm; [H75.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 195 

Caldees as diomedes the gretk saith and relierceth, that amongc the 
philosophres was the most renomed playe amongc all other playet* 
And after that cam this playe in the t jme of alixander the gretc in to 
cgypt and so vnto alle the parties toward the south. And the cauaa 
iHierfore this playe was so renomed shal be ayd in the ig chapitre.* 

On the recto of the succeeding leaf the first chapter of the * fint 
tractate ' begins ; prefixed to which is a figure, before a chess board, as 
given at page 38 of the work above referred to. Another wood-cut, 
not introduced into this work, is on the recto of the 5th leaf: repre« 
aenting the king and the philosopher playing the game of chess. All 
the remaining Ggures, with the exception only of one of two* — sitting 
together above the ' third chapter of the second treatise* — are repre« 
aented iu the fbrementioned work. The impression contains signatures^ 
atok, in eights: a blank leaf forming a i, andk and I having each only 6 
leaves. On the recto of 1 vj, we read the concluding sentence (not to 
be found in the first edition) and tlie colophon, tlius : 

d^eiutt \0tt tnttp matt of ttf[^t 
conlipdan ||c itt tfiftt tttiptfi oc iitcitl^ tfitjBtlitKliKioItKbbt^ 
ttdbc tfytdtp (ttGntmpfe to atnrabe l^pni ♦ 

The present is a large and most desirable copy ; perfected and cleaned 
with considerable skill and success. It formerly belonged to the femous 
Laurence Sterne, and was purchased by him, at York, for a few shiliingt. 
It is in russia binding. 

840. The Historie of Jason. Supposed to have 
been printed in 14^5. Folio. 

This volume is among the scarcest, and the most interesting of those 
which owe their first existence, in an English form, to the pen and 
press of Caxton. The immediate original of the work is a French 
version, by Raoul de Fevre, from the Latin texts of Dares Phrygiuf and 

* One of these two figures is only a representetioQ of the B'uhop, as ghren at page 41 nT 
te I^. iUKgiHtMy, edit. %9i0, toL i. 

196 BOOKS PRINTED BY [ERsttny ofJatm; 

Outdo de Colonna ; and the present performance may be considered a 
compilation of all the histpries extant of the hero whose deeds it 
celehrates* Comparatively with the Marie dPArihurf there are few 
digressicnfl and few wearisome episodes. The hero is generally kept 
in view ; while his uniform (and almost systematic) treachery towards 
the ladies who had surrendered to him their honour, is narrated in 
a manner softened down, and not studiously or obtrusively disgusting. 
The general sentiments of the romance are oomplelely chivalrous ; 
and the hardy exploits and perilous escapes of the hero are varied by 
numerous little touches of domestic life and common-place adventure. 
Upon the whole, there is much natural and beautiful colouring in this 
performance ; as it shall be my endeavour to prove in the copious' 
extracts which follow. 

The impression is entirely destitute of signatures, numerals, and 
catdiwords, and a full page contains 89 lines. The prologue, which is 
a very interesting one, fills the first two pages and a half. As it has 
been before printed entire in my edition of our Typograpfucal AMiqui' 
fjer; (vol. i. p. 53-59) it shall be my present object to select only the 
most material part of it — which relates to the probabU daie of the im* 
pression. The coi\jecture, which has assigned to it the date of 147flw 
is formed from the supposed age of the then Prince of Wales, after- 
wards Edward the Vth, on whose account the version appears to have 
been undertaken. Caxton, in this prologue, informs us, that the 
husband of hb patroness, Philip Duke of Bui^gundy— was * the first 
founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece : that he made a chamber 
in the castle of Hesdjrn, wherein was craftily and curiously depainted 
the conquest of the Golden Fleece by the said Jason : in which chamber 
he [Caxton] had been, and seen the said History so depainted : and in 
remembrance of Medea, and of her cunning and science, he had do 
make in the said chamber, by subtil engine, that when he would, it 
should seem that it lightened, and after thunder, snow, and rain : and 
all within the said chamber as oft times and when it should please him : 
which was all made for his singular pleasure.' Our printer, after 
telling us that he supposes his patron possesses the original French text» 
goes on and concludes his prologue strictly in the following order : 

S mtettfie ffp "^ licence t coitgpe tftj^t^e ^upftntatSti 
of out mo0t retiouliteti it^ latip « moojS(t ejtrdlent prtn^ 
ttf^e tl^e quelle to pceiiente t^ jfafdie iioite tmto t^ 

14751 WILLIAM CAXTON. 197 

mo^ fopre . mrti tnp nmojtt rdioulit^ pons lom * lati^ 
fanrb l^cpnce of IStdej^ our tocotnpiQ jfoQapne lorbe . 
lol^oin S prape g^ jfaue attfi emnajeietn bertue a BrpiQ 
{|tin tmto Oj^ocj^ tooties^^ dttti 001^ ^otSittt a$( cittc 
liati onp of Dtjf noble ^n^enptouciBt to tj^eittent/ l^ nuq^ 
^egpnite to ieme reUe <$t^ind . not for onp htaxtte or 
goob €ttb|itttQ of our ^Snglifl^ tonge tl^ ifi ti^ertn . 
fott fior t|)e noudte of t^ ^torie^ tofiicl^ djf 31 jAq^poif e 
|at|| not l^e fiab Btfore tiie tranieslacton fierof mooift 
Kiumidte U^tkjfns nip jteipb mo^ brab ^ouerapn n 
nature! it^ lorbe tl^e Upne anb aijs^o t^ (fiuene to 
j^bon me Ho prejiumpiq^ . 3llnb ntp $rapb to comptig 
jAnierapne lorb/ di^ lorb ti^e f^rpnce to reeepue it in 
gree 1 tpniie of me |n.«( fiumble jerubgtett 1 ^eruaate . 
anb to parbone me of ttiij^ mp isrim^Ie anb Itube tran^t^ 
lactou/ anb sSi ot^er tl^t Ivntu to rebe or '^txe it/ to 
correcte inl^ an tl^ep ^|^e finbe befotdte 

l^ere enbet^ tiie prologue of t|e tranartatour 

The prologue of the Author follows, on the reverse of the second 
leaf. This shall be extracted (as it has not been previously given) 
befbre we come to the question of the date of the impression. It is 
very curious, and is literally thus :* ' The galeye of myn engyn floting 
not long syn in the depnes of the sees of dince aucient histories in suche 
wise as I wold haue brought myn esperite vnto the porte or hauen of 
rest . Sodaynly append by me a ship conduited by one man only .- 
This man anon behelde my r^;arde and contenance . Which gaue me 
title and cause of thought and of abasshemente . for as moche as I saw 
his visage trist . heuy . & desolate, wherof smyton with a passion of 
his ennuye & greef Assone as he conceyuid that I so t>eheld him by 
grete desir he helde him still and sayde to me in this wise . Man of 
rude engyn What meruaillest thou . Ancre thy galeye here & talce thy 
pene for to write & put in memorie my iaites & dedes . The Kyng 

* See the oammcnceiDent of the French venioD of the origind edition (in the Bojral 
Ubmy U Pkrit) in the GentUman'i Magiame, troL 82, pt ii p. S> 

19S BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jason; 

Jupiter of Crete was myn olde bele fader, and he engendred Cacua 
Kyng of myrmidone . This cacus engendred my &der Eaon . I am 
Jason that conquerd the flees of gold m the yle of colchos, And that 
dayly laboure in sorowe roted in trbtresse for the dishoneur that some 
persones hurte & empesshe my glorie . Inposing to me not to hane 
liolden my promys anenst medea, wherof thou hast red the truth . 
Thene I pray the that thou do make a boke vnto them that dayly speke 
& impugne my glorie maye knowe their indiscrete jugement . And 
Ibr taccomplisshe the same I haue chosen the to thende, that thou pre. 
aente this present writing vnto the fiider of writars of hlstorisB . 
Wfaiche ys vnto Philip fader & louer of all Tertues in his time Doc of 
Bougoygne and of Brabant &c. The whiche hath ben in all his time 
enclyned and of grete affeccion to here and see red the auncieni 
histories . And to here tolde the foytes of the worthy and noble somcf- 
tyme flourisshing in vertues in valyance and prudence Ibr his singnlear 
paasetemps . Thyse wordes accomplisshki the shippe & Jason vanisshid 
away and I abode there pensyf, But in thende desiring to shewe the 
honour and declare the vertues of the sayd Jason I ancred my galeye & 
put in wrytyng hys fa3rte8 as here after shall be declared playnly & a 
long, so than I presente my liUl book vnto right hye and right redoubted 
I>uc of Bourgoyne not presimiing myn Ineloquence, but presenting 
myn right humble & iudigne seruice . Thus endeth myn Auctor his 
prologe, And how wel that hit is sayd afore this prologe that Eson 
was sone to Cacus . Yet bochace saith in the genealogy of goddes that 
he was sone to Erictheus the . zxix . sone of Jupiter, As ye may see 
more playnly in the • xiij . book of the Genelagye of goddes the . xxiiij • 

The prologue of Raoul le Fevre ends on the recto of the third leaf; 
the reverse is blank. The text begins at the top of the recto of the 
4th leaf: a full page comprehending 29 lines. In respect to the 
legitimate date of this impression, it may, I think» be fairly said that 
the year 1475, or 1476, is as late a period as can be assigned to it. 
The young prince was * beginning to learn to read English * according 
to the prologue of Caxton ; and according to the printer's conclusion, 
or epilogue, he was then ' in his tender youth.* In the year 1483» 
according to Granger, the same prince, then Edward the Vth, and in 
his eleventh year, was murdered in the Tower. This fixes the year of 
his birth in 1472 ; and if we suppose him to be three or four years old, 
when he began to learn to read his native tongue, it follows that the 
date of 1475, or 1476, is that which we must assign to the edition. 


Moreover, Caxton, in his prologue to the Golden Legend of 1483, 
flkpressly tells us that this book was the third work of his press. 

I shall now present the reader wi|h a variety of extracts from a 
volume of such curiosity and rarity ; beginning with a highly wrought 
description of the passion of Jason for his first-beloved, Myrrho : * The 
^yr Idyrro cam than to mete with Jason ganusshed with a gracious 
maintene . And made to him the grettest honour and reuerence that 
was to her possible, leding him vnto her palays, where he entrid with 
grete payne . for the peple was assembled there on alle partes aboute 
him in a meruayllous nombre for to see him and cryed alle with an 
hyhe voys sayng . Nowe is retoumed agayn victorious our defendour • 
our swerd, our helthe and all our esperauce . whiche hath only in him- 
self more of vaisselage than is in all Esklauonye, and ought to be 
honoured & recomanded aboue alle other . Certes the noble Jason waf 
fosted this night & recomended of suche and semblable loenges of 
them of Olifeme, whiche made in the stretes daunses & esbatemens 
thanking their goddes And alwaye Jason was more and more in the 
grace of the ladyes, for the best bom the most foyre the best accom- 
plisahed & the most special! fyxed their loue in hym, Alle were jalouse 
of him. But Jason neuer thought on none of them, but onely upon the 
seuUe & oultrepassed beaute of the vertuouse Myrro, whiche alwaye was 
in his memorie And alle they had wondre & meruayle of the beaute 
gradousete wytte & parfecion of Jason . And for to abregge this storie 
the vaillyaiit & oultrepreu Jason was in this glorie & tryumphe vnto 
mydnight whiche than withdrewe hym . And whan he was withdrawen 
in his chambre he reentred into his reuerie of loue as he hadde ben to 
fore acustomed. 

. ' And sette alle in oublie and forgeting the poysaiit and dangerous 
strokes that he had that day receyued in the bataylle ayenst the 
Esklauons wherof his body was right sore;, and concluded in himself 
that on the mom he wolde declare his corage vnto the lady . But 
whan the daye was come and whan he cam to fore her • he folte him- 
self so sore surprised with loue that he wiste not what to saye. And thus 
he drof forth longe and many a day that he for alle his hardi^ies of 
Armes, his Qwete speche ne his strengthe coude not auaylle in gy uing him 
hardiesse, for to discouere his corage vnto his lady • Wherfore on 4 
night he beyng in his bedde began to blame hymself . and saide softely 
to himself in this manere. 

* What may prouffiten the contynuell bewailinges that I make fur my 


900 BOOKS PRINTED BY [ERfiory ofJnm. 

lady, I am not a ferde whan I fiDde me in a trovbkus balaiUe of aa 
honderd thousand men, hut whan I aiq^poae to aptisft to my ladj« I 
tremble for feere & drede & wote not what to saye . for tofore her I 
am as all rauisshed, in like wise as a poure and shamefest man that 
sufireth to dye for honger rather thene for shame he dar hegge his 
hreed, O what vergoigne p[ro]cedeth of such shamefostnes, I speke to 
my selfallone & I answere, oftetymes I am aduised that to morn Ishal 
do meruayles & so I conclude right wel, but whan it cometh for to be 
don I haue no memorie ne remembrance of all my conclusions. Am I not 
ihene wel simple, whan vnto the most feyr . the moste sage . the most 
diserete & the most vertuo9 of all other . I haue no hardjmesse for to 
saye my desire & will, how wel my herte iugeth that 1 am somwhat in 
her grace, but now cometh vpon me an other iugement, & me semetli 
that she wil neii accorde to my requestes, O right noble & nonparaille 
Mirro. she is without peer, as the rose among thornes . Alas & what 
shal I do without you, I haue made a p[re]sente to you of my hert & my 
will, if I vnderstode that ye were bom in a consteDacion enpesshing 
you of thinfluence of loue, & that loue had no power tesproue vpon you 
his vertues J wolde not enploye my tyrae for to thenke on you . but 
whan me semeth that so grete habondance of thexcesse of beaute 
naturell as youris is . it may not be but that it b entremedUd of loue 
of pite & of mercy, it must nedes be that your humble firende be 
rauisshed in the contemplacon of your gloriouse value • desiring your 
good gee wisshing your aliance . & requiring the goddes and fortune 
that of yow & me they make oon hows & one bed whiere we mighte 
enbrace the souexaine playsirs of this worlde & plainly f^nde amerouse 

' The preu Jason with thise wordes fyU a slepe, and after he awoke 
■o alumyned with the fyre of loue that hit was to him impossible to 
take his rest, but to tourne and walowe & trauaille in his bedde. And 
there as loue thus assaylled hfan agayn . he determined ytterly that he 
wolde aduenture him to speke to his lady, what that en happen therof . 
And so he dide, for the same day he cam vnto her and sayde in this 
wyse • Madame J haue seruid yow as well as to me is passible for two 
causes. Principally that one for thacquite of cheualerye. And that oliier 
not for to disserue the richesses that ye haue mder the power of 
fortune. But all only that singuler thing that nature hath made yow 
lady of and vpon whiche fortune hath puissance, Madame ye haue don 
to me plente of curtoysies, And ofired grete yeftes of monoye • Wherof 
I thanke yow, how wel I holde thi^m but of litU eatime, for couetise of 

[147S.] WnilAM CAXTON. fM 

anrice have not ftkuned me of their ffre, I demaade not the grete 
teflouvs that ben in the abbmesof the see . nerthem that ben endosed 
is the montaignesy my desir restith in two singuler thinges, that one is 
for to conquere name in armes» whiche ought to be thappetite of the 
^iMadon of alle noble hertes Tliat other is to obejre vnto the com- 
flidements & pkisaaees of lone that bindeth, & ebligeth me to be 
^^ooris, for to thenke on yow, to attende & abide your beniuolence to 
doD thing that may playse your eyen and your herte.* F6L 319. 

. From the extract, in the subjoined note, * it should seem that the 
Yaimg Mm of former times were equally rude and undutiful with those 
of the present day. The dialogue concerning the Dream ofJasonf 
between Jason and the Ancient Knight, has an air of great simplicity 
and frankness, llie hero is first overcome by the prudent arguments 
aiiuB venerable monitor : when the author continues thus : 

'lason with these wordes coudenomore replicque for he apperyceued 
that he coude not make his mater good ner mayntene it agaynst the 
olde knight, & thus endyng their parlament he slepte vnto the tyme hit 
was nyghe daye And thene Jason awoke & began to make new sighes 
in so moche that thauciennt knight herde it agayu. how well that he 
was a slepe & was sodainly awaked. And thene whan lason^ki^e^^ ^^^ 
he was awaked he salewed him &gaf him goode morow & sayd to him. 
Sir knight because of your grete iige ye haue seen moche thing in your 
tyme, I demande you by your fiaiyth yf ye haue knowleche in dremes 
Wherfore axe ye ansuerde the knight. For as moche sayd J.ason as I 

* ' But in this preient time hit goth all otherwiie. the yong men pretome to go .& aitte 
■bone olde & aoncient men. & nooqoe h ikorne them that ben come to grete aage 
Saying, that they be feUe of their membret of tliHr entendement and of naUire. And ther 
be many cli3dren. that don their fiider to TOdentande that they be fo(^. WyQiDg to haue 
in gonemance the poore oMe men. not ponre but ridie. For hit is grete Rychesse to a 
man whan that hooorably may amasie and bringe his dayet vnto the degre of old oagcL 
And yet ben ther children that doo wone. fer they desire and wissfae their faders and 
modcrs ded. and seme hem inth thinges contiarye to their belth and lyf. the whiche is the 
grettett tresoor that a man may bane as to wordly goodes. Ha a howe many ben ther of 
dwm In tliese dayes I see al most non other, for the yong peple may not here the doctrine 
of tfie olde men. and wene tint they ben so wyse. that men nede not Id shewe them oity 
wiMiome, & also they ben mltinde and foil of ingnuitiide, in so moche that yf they ltnew« 
ony tiling wherwith they might dishonoure them they wolde do hit & they resemble vnto 
the sooe of noe whiche by derision shewed the sacretq membres of his fiite Alai what 
cprad&blindeyongOie* was that.' FoL4Ureet. 


•03 BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jamm. 

hMie not cessed this nyght to dreme. By my loyaulte £Biyr Sire ansofli^ 
^tbe good old knighte yf he haue dremed ony thing that have nede of 
' exposicion or ony interpretacon. there k noman in grece that shal 
better answere therto thene my self. And therfore without ony doobte 
Tell me plainly your dreme, and I shal eiLpowne to yow the gnhrtance. 
Certes sire knight saide Jason I had a meniailous dreme this night. 
Whiche in numer of a passe temps I shal declare to yow for as modie 
as ye ar conning in the science of thexposicion therof. Whiche dreme 
or vysion was this. Me thpughte that I sawe two swannes whiche were 
right £edr in a medowe, of whom that one was a male and that other a 
lemale. The male cam vnto the female & made semUaut for to haue 
accompanyed with her. the female sette nought therby, but withdrewe 
her aback. And whan the male sawe that, he entrid ynto a Ryuer 
that was by and passidouer & cam lye with me here in this bedde. and 
hit was not long after but me thoughte that the female passed the 
Ryuer in like wise, and cam vnto the chambre dore and made many 
pyetous cryes after her nature, that the male mi^te not here, for he 
was a sleepe. And so hadde I moche grete pite for the sorrowful chere 
that she made in so moche that I awoke. And nomore I sawe. 
Wherfore I wote neuer what to thinke 

* Whan the aundent knight hadde wel Tnderatande a longe the dreme 
of the preu lason he sayde to him in this manere. Sir knight what 
wole ye saye if that noble lady for whom ye suffire so moche sorow be 
as moche or more Amerous of yow as ye be of her. And by thys loue 
she beoomen into this howse after yow. Ha, a sir knight adswerde 
lason. I haue no charge of that stroke, for my lady is so noble and so 
endowed of so hyghe beaute that she setteth nought by ony man in 
the worlde. Alleway feyr sir sayde than thauclent knight, your dreme 
signifieth by thise, ij, swannes, of whom wolde make the bataille or 
thenterprise that desireth conpanye of the female, that ye haue willed 
to be husbonde to your lady, the whiche wold not here you And neuer- 
theles whan she hath knowen that ye entred on the see, she entred 
after in semblable wise & is comyn after you into this propre hous. 
Where by auenture she is moche grete payne for the loue of you. In 
this fec5n mayc I prenostique and dyuyne this werk after the nature 
of your dreme. Fol. 44-5. 

There is something very natural and pleasing in the following— 
which may be considered a sequel to the dream : * Whan the two 
noble kuightes were rysen and clad in poynt, lason wente strayt into 


the stable to hys horse, whome he looyd wdl. but incontioent whan 
he had ben there a litil and that he hadde perceyuid the two palfirayis 
of the lady and of the damoiseUe, him seined that he had seen tlwi 
tofbre tyme. Thene he callyd the seruaut of the stable & demanded of 
him .to whom the two horses belonged* Thene the seruaut aasuerde 
that they apperteyned to two damoiselles that were loggid there wilih 
inne Truly frende saide Jason what damoiselles that euer they be 
The two horses belonge to my lady best belouyd, & whan the good 
ancient knighte vnderstood lason. he sayd to him, Jason Remember ye 
of your dreme 1 take hit on my life that your lady is in this hou8» or 
elUs the damoiselles ben here for her. the whiche shal saye to you 
goode tydinges withoute ony other question or answere lason departed 
incontinent from the stable, and wente vnto the hostesse. and whan he 
had boden to her goode morowe he sayd to her, Fair hostesse. know 
ye the two Damoyselles that ben logged herein. Certes sir knight 
ansuerde the hostesse, I knowe hem none otherwise but as me semeth 
that they ben gentil women and comen of a good hows. Is hit possible 
that I maye see hem saide lason. I wote neuer saide thostesse but I first 
demande them. Fair hostesse said than lason I require yow that I may 
see them. And that ye wylle go saye that here ys a knight their 
seruaut, that hath grete desire to speke with them.' 

*The goode hostesse for to do plaisir vnio Jason, wente vnto.the 
two Damoyselles and sayd to them. My &3rr maystresses I come to yow 
in the name and at the , request of a gentil knight he saying your 
seruaiit, the whiche requireth yow, that of your grace hit wolde plese 
yow that he might speke with yow. And aduise yow what hit shal 
plese yow that I answere to him. But incontinet that the Queue 
Myrro had herd her hostesse speke of the requests of the knight. 
Certes the colour began to chauge meruaillously and her thought, that 
alle her body was esprysed with fyre. But this notwithstanding she 
held her contenaunce the beste wyse she myghte. And howe wel that 
she doubted of the comyng of the preu Jason, and that she was, then 
in a traunce what she shold saye to her. yet she aa^werd and aayd. 
Fair dame, who is that knight that hath sente yow hether, Certes sayd 
the hostesse I sawe him neuer to fore that I wote of. But to my setning 
he is the most gentil and the most well made of body and also most 
curtois that ony man may or can finde or speke of. Dame sayde thene 
the fajT Myrro, syn that he is so vertuous & so well accompEsshed ad 
ye saye, do him to come hether. With these wordes the goode hostesse 
dide do Jason come mto the chambre. And thenne assone as he cam 


ia, lie behelde the noUe quene ifvfaicbe wbb riglit sliAiiieft»te, and 
hmjng the herte i^ytte & ranlishid made Tuto her the Reuerenoe ft 
Htowed her» And the ihyr Mjrrro welcomed & takwed him egayn 
omehe eomtoisly. This don they entrid into deuises. And thenne 
irffeMr eerCajm wordes Jason aaide to the qnene in this maner.' JFW. 46^ 

The Soliloquy of Medea, acknowledging and yielding to» her passioii 
finr JasoDy is not divested of dramatic effect. — * Alas myn eyen in what 
labour haue ye putte me. Certes ye be the cause and none other that 
I am not she that was wonte to be. For ye haue enuoloped myn hert 
with an ardant fyre of amerous desire. Ela, a what shall beUle or 
what shall I nowe doo beyng in this payne and soiowe. Certes I can 
saye no more but of veray necessite I yelde me all in the anbycyon 
and seruitude of loue. in his seruitude shall I be subgette hit is Ibroe* 
And wherfore For as moclie as I am smyten to the herte with the grata 
beaute of Jason the bruyt of alle the worlde. And to my Jugement 
the glorie of Grece. O meruayllous dart wherewith I fele me smyten 
to the herte. Certes myn eyen ye ben the cause whiche dispkseth me. 
And for what reson. for as moche as ye be coulpable of thii folye. how 
be it. hit is no folye» hit is. I beleue hit not. hit must be beleukL £Dr 
hyt is grete folye to desire thing that can not be goten, 1 know 
▼erayly that Jason is sore enamoured of a lady in hys oootrey. And fur- 
thermore his courage is garnysshid of agrete and meruayllous Constance. 
!rhene may it be sayd that I maye not enioye him. And by consequent 
I maye cxmdude that myn eyen haue encHned & submised me vnto an 
ouer grete fblye,' Fol. 87-8. 

We may now hasten to close these extracts by specimens of that 
part of the Romance which describes the Taking of the Golden Fleece by 
Jason; and which hath this prefix: * How the promesses betwene 
lason & Medea were rateffied, And howe medea deliuered to him all 
the mestier & crafte that he ought to haue to conquere the noble 
moton or flees of golde, & how he gate hit.' 

'At the poynt thene whan the sterres rendrid their dereness & 
clarte. and that the mone began to enlumyne the night, labon with* 
drew him into his chambre. & Medea slept not. she espyed and seeyng 
that he was withdxawen al allone as she had charged him, she opende 
the dore of the steyre by whiche descended doun from the chambre of 
lason into heeirs. And callid doun lason whiche w^s right pensi^ 


And whan laaon sawe the dore open & Modea tha(t cailid hiui* ba 
wente vnto her moche ioyoiulj and lalewed her* and after approohii: 
to her for to haue kyste & cnbraced her, but Med^ aaide to him thai, 
he sholde cease* & Ukyng him by the hande brought him into her 
chambre where they satte vpon a moche riche tapyte» The maistrciie: 
of medea cam thene bytwene them. And whan she was comen Medeat 
began to speke & saye. lasoa my lorde & my frende ye knowe well 
the promesses that ben bytwene you & me, 1 will well that in the: 
presence -of my goode moder that hers is^ that we make jecognydoB' 
& ratefye them to thende that they be hdb & permanent., and after 
that we shal entende to your conquest. And thene Jason & Medeat 
swore &creaiced that they sholde take eche other by manage. & thetie: 
made solempne promesMS, wherof lledea was right ioyeuse & so alao: 
was her maistresse, Thene medea opende a oofive whiche the had madii 
redy where out she daemae a sherte with the UUe conteynyag tfaofdep- 
naikes whiche were revise and pvqpice for to go into the yle of colchoa 
to make the con(}ttest of the lees of golde,' {FoL 97.) * '* 

.---...._ \^th thise wordes she toke a vestyment whiche 
was riche and gaf it to him saying, Afy foyr loue ye be pourueyed jot 
aU that is befaouefull for you so that ye haue this vestyment ypon 
your armes, see that ye werke frely & corageously with this that ye 
haue. ye must be pourueyed with hardynesse & valiancy, kepe well 
your bille. and be diligent to do and accomplisshe al that it conteineth. 
and by the playsir of the goddes, I shall haue yow here at euene urilh 
more gretter consolacion. Thene laeon dad him aboue his hamoys 
with propre vestyment that appollo was cladd at tbe houre whan he 
receyuyd the bille afore said With that the day apperid foyr and dere^ 
wherfore Jason toke leue of Medea whiche was al Rauisshed with loue. 
At leue taking they kyssed eche other many tymes. Fynably Medea 
conueyed Jason vnto his chambre dore, and their* began theref amo- 
rouse baisiers and kyssinges vnto the time that It was force that medea 
must withdrawe her, & thene she recomanded lason in the garde of 
the goddes, and shette fost the dore. Fol. 99. rev. 

The departure of Jason from the town, andUthe^nt apfteanmea of 
the brazen bulls, are thus described : " This morenyng was fiiyr and 
cleer, & clene from aU dowdes . And the sonne casted his dew rajtea 
and hemes vpon the erthe . The ladyes tod Damoysdles mouted and* 


206 BOOKS PRINTER BY [History of Jamt.' 

wente vpon the hyghe stages of the palays . And the hourgejses and 
marchants with the comyn people of the cite ran som to the creueaulx' 
and batillements of the walles^ and other to the Ryuage of the see for 
to beholde the auenture of the noble knight of grece» lason that 
loyously wente with Argos his maister maronner that broughte him 
into a right good entree of the meruailous yle adressid lum & sette fote' 
a grood vpon the grauell • And tokehis glewe and liis asshes and entrid 
into the yle by grete desire and hardynesse. And he had not ferregocm 
whan he espyed the riche moton or shepe of gold wluche was so 
resplendisant that it reioyced all the yle, After he espyed the twobulles 
lepyng out of their holes • so grete . so drede full . so right fiers & 
hidouse, that only for to loke on them it was ynough for to lose witte ' 
and mderstanding, and whan he had well beholden them • He kneled 
doun on the erth ayenst the eest where he sawe a temple al of gold of 
the gretnes of . xyj . foot in eyght squares fioiided on . Tiij smak pylers, ' 
liiretty foot of heyght . in the myddes where of was an auter vpon 
whiche was an ymage repsenting the god mars.' Fol. 99-100. 

We have next the Combat with tfie Bulls, and the Dragon, (who watched 
the fleece of gold) thus terribly described :— ' the two bulles whiche 
behelde him right fiersly and asprely with her eyen sparldyng and 
brennyng as fyre grekyssh . And they began to desgorge fyre and 
flambe out of their tbrotes ayenst the knight so desmesurably that aUe 
the Regyon of the ayer and alle the coutre semed brenne with wild and 
grekyssh fyre . But this notwithstanding they might neuer trauayle 
ne do harme vnto the noble preu lason . But he by grete hardines 
approched by the fyre the flambe & venym that they casted And dide 
so moche that enoynted the moseU of bothe two And caste into their 
throtes the glewe that was myxed and medlid with asshes which he 
brought with him as sayd is . But assone as thise bulles felte the glewe 
& cendres to gyder medlid certes they closed their throtes and mosels 
in such wise as they might neu open after ne caste more fyre . Wherof 
the noble knight was so loyous as he might be seeing thexperiment to 
be of so hygh recomendacon Thene he tliought on Medea & saide wel 
in him self that she had deliurid to hym a goode and verray socours, & 
for certain he had lost his Ijrf in this auenture ne had she haue ben 

* After this consideracion Incontinent as the noble preu lason 
apperceyuyd that these two meruaillous bulles were oucomen & 
adauted, theiie h6 behelde the contenu of his byll, and fonde that theiie 
him behoued anon to go flghte ayemt the meruaillous dragon & terrible 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 207 

withoute comparison, Thene he drew out his good swerde of the 
shethe & wente vnto the temple where the dragon helde him, anon as 
the monstre had apperceyued lasou he enfeloiied him self, & by grete 
Ire opend his throte right terrible in gretnes out of whom sprang 
out thre tonges castyng fire flambe and venym in suche wyse that the 
goode knight had al his body aduironed ther with, how wel that the 
fire ne the venym had no power vpon him . but passed by lason like 
as hit had be the clerenes of the sone . and he cam and gaf the monstre 
80 grete a stroke with his swerde bytwene the two eyen that he made 
his heed hurtle ayenst his croupe right sore & durely. And whan the 
dragon felte this streok, he releuyd him self & syn opende agayn his 
throte & disgorged vpon lason a fiimee so thikke of venym that the 
noble knight sawe nothing aboute him . but this notwithstonding he 
hauced his swerde a discharged hit vpon the dragon where he thought 
his hede was, & smote so wel the monstre that he cutte of his thre 
tonges euen by the mosel as nigh as they might be . wherof the serpent 
felte so meruaillous payne & dolour that he began to frote & rubbe his 
hede . And toumed on that one side so sodaiuly . that with his taill 
he smote the valiaiit knight on the back that he fill doun on the sande.' 

* Whan lason felte him so smyten douii to the erthe he was so sore 
astonyed that he wist not what was befidle him. And with this he had 
grete shame. He Releued him & stode vp anoii . but at his releuyng 
the fiunee of the dragoii was vanisshed, & in seeyng aboute him he 
apperoeyud the thre touges of the serpent whiche he hadde smyten of 
& syn he behelde the dragon whiche f roted his mosell on an herbe, and 
theiie he ran vpon him agayii & smote in the myddes of the taiU . in 
exploiting the moste part of al his strength & also his trenchant swerde 
in such manere, that he cutte of a piece whiche was seuen foot long 
Thene the dragon by the grete payn that he felt hauced his heed and 
cam right fiersly and recoutred lason wyth all his pesaiiteur and 
might . in suche a &cdn that lason was beten doun to the grounde . 
And the dragon passed ouer him • But theiie the preu lason toke his 
swerd & roof into the paunche of the dragon vp to the crosse & smote 
him to the herte, & the dragon feling that he was smyten to the deth 
began to renne with the swerde of lason in his body wenyng to hyde 
him selfe in his caueme . But his lyf departed out of the body euen as 
he shold haue entrid into the temple . And there he ouerthrewe alle to 
strached and fowlid of his blood and of hys fiumeurs full of venym In 
suche wise as hit semed that hit had ben a sourse or a sprynge rennyng 
oute of hys body lenger thene a grete howe. 


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* Incontinent that Jason was releued and that he apperceyued the 
dragon reversed and dede at thentre of the temple, with an herte 
recomfbrted he wente theder and drew out his swerde of his body, and 
putte him agyn in his shethe or skabarde, and thene he wente & seased 
the buUes by the homes, & yoked them in a plowe that ther was by 
And made them to ere foure mesures of londe . endoeing their eyen . 
And theiie whan he had so doii he retourned to the dragon and esrachd 
out of his hede . xij . teth, after that he sowed them in the erthe that 
he plowed . & that don he dide the bulles do harowe hit . And thene 
the bulles fyll doun to the erthe and loste the spyrite of lyf, and out of 
the k)nde that lason had sowen with the teth of the dragon grewe and 
sprang vp in an instant . xij . geants of a terrible maintene . the 
whiche were al armed after the maner at that time. And assone as 
they were comen out of the erthe drewe their swerdes & without 
delayng cam & supposed to haue smyten vpon lason, but^ lason toke 
the cendres or asshes pure that he had kept of his sacrifice . & cast it 
into the ayer . & theiie sodainly tho same . xg . Geants assailed that 
one that other by suche asprete & sharpenesse that in a litil while eche 
slew otlier . wherof lason was right ioyous and rendrid thankinges & 
louynges to the goddes. 

* Whan these . xij . geants had slayn eche other, as I haue reherced 
vnto you lason drewe out his swerd whiche was yet all bloody . and 
cam to the Ryche moton or shepe whom he foade in the right noble 
medowe • & toke him by the homes and brought him into the temple 
tofbre the awter of the god mars . And there he slew him with moche 
grete payne . and syn flew him and toke tlie flees that had the woUe 
all of fyn gold and leyd hit a parte And the body he dispieced by 
membres . & bare it vp on an awter whiche stode without the temple • 
& put therto largely strawe & drye wode,* &c. FoL 101, 102-5. 

We may conclude with the description of Jason's return with the 
fleece of gold : after sacrificing to Mars, for having obtained the 
victory. * Wyth these wordes the goode shipninn began to rowe with 
a franck corage. And the Grekes that were standyng vpon the 
Ryuage of the see began theiie a grete stryf. For some sayde that 
lason was re-entred into the barque, and that they had seen the r^- 
plendis shour of the noble flees of golde, whiche was with grete payne 
creable for as moche as from this Ryuage vnto the yle of colchos was 
foure goode myles. And the other saide. that lason was long agoii 
dede. and that he sholde neuer be seen, but thus as eche man was 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON, 209 

susteyning his argument, therwith was the boole seen approchyng^' 
moche radely the Ryuage. And was aboute a myle nygh to tlie porte^ 
lason toke his flees & lyfte hit vp a lityl in the ayer. ye as hygh as he 
mighte And helde hit so hye, that they that were at the Ryuage and on 
the walles of the Cyte beheld hyt and apperceyued hit and shewed hit 
one to an other by grete admyracion & wondre.* 

' Many ther were that demened grcte loye and thanked the goddes 
with good herte whan they had perceyuid the noble & riche flees, 
wherof the preu lason made the mustre fro ferre, and som ran for to 
gadre of the grene herbes & verdure for to caste a long on the vnje 
where as lason sholdc passe for to goo to the palais sayng to euery 
man that they were certayn of his retournyng, 8c that alle honour 
ought to be maad to him for one so noble & gloriouse conqueste^ 
Medea among all other was so right Joyous whan she espyed the light 
and shining of the flees of golde that her seemed that she shold entre 
in to a paradyse terrestre. And comanded that her ladies & Damoiselles 
shold put on the fayr fronte in entencion to make feste solempne for 
the honour of this right excellent victoire. & for to come to a con- 
clusion, trompes tabours. mencstrels. homes sarasinois & busines 
began to blowe vp & sowne melodiously after that tyme vsed/ FoL 104. 

Some apology may be due for the unusual length of these extracts ; 
but it is hoped that their intrinsic curiosity, and the extreme rarity of 
the volume from which they are taken, will plead their jusUflcation. 
It remains therefore only to subjoin the concluding passage, or rather 
the printer's epilogue, on the reverse of the 148th and last leaf, thus : 

anti moce fiaue 3[ not tdi of t^ tuSAe pcm ^eattmi fnst 
t^ iimie $[ foanen mote tl^ mpn aucrot teiienetH in 
W fi^ti t tiierfore % malie j^ere an entie of t^ ^tmt 
of ^aieton/ ioiiom bt&ce meS Blame l^ecauj^e ti^at i|e {eft 
'I repubteii lai^tiea/ But in tfyUi present liofte pe map 
jBtee tl^t eupHent temt^^ tofni |^ jsro tipH. 3^tapng mp 
iaiti lorbe 3Nnce taccepte 'i tafte yt in scee of me 1^ 
isHttgnt jsrenttteut. ioiiom $[ ftt^tt^t gob aimtg^ to 
iB^aue 1 encrece in bettu nolo in tjijl tenbre iongtj^^ t|)at 

• Sic. 

mo BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sayings; 

|ic map comt tntto ^0 peccbot t8gt to fytjtf j^onintc fli^ 
tim^^ i^ W Umant mape petpetuellp fit remtm> 
firtti among t|^e mojeet iDoctl^. 3ilnti aftet t^ pEe^ettt 
lift ealaisettng lift in l^eiiett iol^o giant |^tm 'i lufi t^at 
IbougDte tijf toitD Htjer fAooUt Uefl^i^ S|]^.if ^men 

This may be considered a sound and most desirable copy ; and is in 
rossia binding. The text of this edition was reprinted in a beautiful 
manner by Gerard de Leeu at Antwerp, in the year 149^, in folio ;♦ 
and of this re-impression His Grace the Duke of Devonshire is in 
possession of the copy which was in the library of the late Duke of 

841. The Dictes and Sayengis of Philosophres. 
Printed at fVestinestre. 1477 ^ Folio. 

There are probably at least three editions of this very interesting 
Tolume ; but I hesitate to which of them to attribute the priority. 
The Noble Owner of this Collection possesses two out of the three, 
which are here described : the third, seems to be the one which has 
Caxton*s large mark on the recto of the first leaf, 31 lines in a fiill 
page, signatures throughout, and the words ' Caxton me fieri fecit ' 
on the recto of I, v, or last leaf. Of the latter description appear to 
be the copies in the Lambeth and Lee Priory Collections. See the 
Typog. Antiquities, vol. i. p. 71-2, and British Bibliographer, vol. iv. 
p. 237, 241. 

Having before given a copious and particular account of this impres- 
won, together with something of the literary history of the Noble 
Translator of the work, I may here pass briefly over the introductory 
parts, by observing that the prologue of the translator occupies 2 pages 
and a half; t the reverse of the second leaf being blank. The text 
begins on the recto of the third leaf, having 29 lines in a full page: 
the first 5 pages of which may be found in the British Bibliographer, 
vol. iv. p. 238-40. From this extract I do not discover any vaiiation 
in the substance of the text ; which is probably the same in all the 

• See Typographical Antiquities, edit 1810, vol. i. p. 58. 

t See llic work first above referred to j where the prologue is extracted entire. 


copies. The reader, however, may be pleased with a few spedmens 
of a work, rendered into English by one of our most distinguished 
Noble authors, of early repute, and in itself rather of an uistructive and 
interesting character. Never was a string of moral sentences more 
elaborately put together, or more singularly extended. We sliall first 
commence our extracts with an account of Abistotlb — who cuts m 
conspicuous Ggure in the work, and from whose mouth many of these 
wise ' Dictes and Sayinges * proceed. 

* Aristotle by interptacion in grekes toge, is fidfilled or complete of 

goodnesse. And he was sone to Nichomacus the whiche has right 

connyng in fisike and a good fisicien, & was boren in the Towne of 

Slagp:^ and he was of the kinred both by his fadxrs syde, and by his 

moders syde of Esculapius of the whiche here byfor hath be made 

mencion for he was in his tyme the moost excellent And the best of 

all the grekes, and whan the sayde aristotle was. viij. yeres of age his 

fader putted him in the cite cf Athenes that than was called the Cyte 

of Wysdom. and there he lemed Gramare Retorlke and other bookes 

of poetrie. And therin he studyed, the space of .iv. yeres proufiyting 

gretely therin. And in thoos dayes men sette moche store by the 

foresayde sciences and was their opynion that it was the laddre to go 

vp into alle other sciences, A nd certayn other wyse men at the same 

tyme as Pytagoras and pytoras and dyuers other reputed and held the 

sayd sciences for no sciences & did but moke and scome theim that 

lemed them, Saying that suche scyence as Gramare Retorik and 

poetrye, were not couenable to come to any wysdom. And that Gramare 

is not but for to tecbe the childeren, Poetrye but for to tell fables 

and to make lesynges, Retorike for to speke fiaire and in termes. 

And whan Aristotle harde this wordes he had grete merueyle therof, 

and was gretely agreued with suche as helde the same opjmyon. And 

strength him after his power to susteyne alle manere of Gramaryens 

the poetes and also the Retoriciens* Fol, 38-9. 

We proceed in our account of the Stagirite, with the following 
rather singular extract : 

' and after he [Aristotle] deyde in the age of .Ixiij. yeris. they of 
Stagire tooke his bonys and right worshipfully put hem in a shryne 
wher they held their counscile for his grete Mritte, and also for the grete 
and feruent loue that they hadde to him. and as often tymes that they 
hadde ado eny grete matere for to haue the declaracion therof. the men 
whiche were of counscile wolde go and stande as nigh the smde shryne 

f 12 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Dkts and Sayings; 

wber the bonys were as they cowde for to haue knowlege of y* trouth 
of their matere. and thus they did for to worship him the more, and 
their opinions and verry trast wer for onely beyng nygh the said shryne 
their Wittes shulde be the bettir and their vnder8tand3mg more pure 
and subtill. And the said Aristotili hadde in his tyme many kinges 
aones that wer his disciples, and he made in his dayes wele an .C. 
bodkis of the whiche we haue nowe. xxvi^. in logike. viij. in nature 
the book of Ethik the book of politik the booke of Methafisike. that is 
named theologike and the bookis of the wittes of geometrie. and platon 
rebuked him bicause that he wrotte his sciences in bookis, to whom 
he said in excusing him that it is a thing knowen and notified ynowe, 
that all tho that loueth science ought to do nothing that shulde cause 
the losse of her. And therfbre it is good to compose and make bookis 
by the whiche sciece shal be lemed, & whan our memorie shal foyle it 
shal be recouered by meane of bookis for he that hateth science shal 
not proffite in hit though it be so that he se the bookis & beholde hem 
yet frhal he sette not by it. but departe wors & lesse wyse than he was 
a fore. & I haue made and ordeigned my bookis in suche forme that 
the wyse men shal lightly & aisely vnderstande hem but the ignorauut 
men shal haue but litil auayle by hem. Fol. 40. 

The advice of Aristotle to Alexander, concerning the government 
of his empire, is worth attention : 

* And said he that maketh his Royaume seruant to the lawe shall 
reigne, & he that taketh & put out the lawe from the royame shall 
not reigne And said. A king ought to be of goode & strong courage, 
to remebre wele the ende of the werkes, & to be courtoys & free. & to 
refrayn his wrath wher it apperteigneth and shewe hit where it nedeth, 
to kepe him h'om couetise, to be true to gouerne him as nygh as he 
may aftir his goode predecessours to geue to his men as they haue 
deserued. to deffende and kepe the lawe & the faith. & euir to do wele 
after his might, & if the strength of his body faile him thenne to kepe 
the might of his corage, by the whiche he shal be the more assured in 
all his nedis And said the king that gouemeth him & his roaume 
wele by his wysdom Is worthy to be greetly praised and lauded And 
said to Alexandre, seche to wynne the richesses that be not trasitories. 
the lyf that is not moueable the kyngdd that can not be taken aweye 
from the. & the euer lasting Joye. & be pitefuU but not so moche that 
thou stade in daungier therby, do pugnicion & Justice to thaim that 
haue deserued it.' Fol. 42. 


The reader had probably no very de6nite notions of the severe 
treatment of Aristotle toward his royal pupil. He will be here 
surprised to find the liberties taken by the tutor. 

* And saide A moche wysemau is he that pronounseth not the 

thinges into the tyme that he is present that wol vnderstande hem. 

And the best speker is he that speketh not til he is wele purueyed what 

he shal saye. & y^ best werkeman is he that begineth not his werke into 

the tyme that he hath wele disputed & auised it. in his herte Nether is 

none that ought to baue somoche thought as the w}'seman. for it ia 

necessarie to him to be purueyed and certain of his workis And saide 

men are more enelined to couetise than to reason, for couetise hath 

acompaigned them from their childehode. & reason cometh not to them 

til that they be of parfyte age And saide. the children hate their 

maistres whan they teche hem for they knowe not what good may 

befoU them therby. but think onely the labour of the peyne of theire 

Icmyng And the said Aristoteles callid Alexidre axing him questions 

vpon the gouemace of the lordis & of the peple. to whom alexandre 

gaue good answeres. But neuer the lesse Aristotiles beet him with a 

Rod. And It was axed of him why he had beet him without cause. 

And he ansuerd this childe is like & able to be a grete lord & a mighty 

king. And I haue bete him all onely for to holde him lowly, and in 

mekenesse for he shal be to soon prowde And said If thou canst direct 

another, directe him as thy self. And a yong man axed him why he 

was so pouer. To whom he ansuerd. My pouerte hath nothing offisnaed 

me, ne doth me no harme But thyn hath doon the and shall do harmei 

ynowhe.' Fol. 46. 

We shall now perceive the good effects of such a wholesome spirit of 
discipline : 

' And after this Alexander made grete conquestis. and whan he had 
conquered Inde he wente to acontre callid Bragman, the whyche whaa 
they wiste his comyng, they sente many wyse men to him, whiche 
•alewed him & saide, sir akxader thou hast no cause to werre vpon vb, 
ne to be euil willig for we ben both poure & meke, & we haue nothing 
but only sapiece, the whiche if thou wolt haue pray to god that he wol 
yeue her to the for by batayll thou shalt not haue her And whaa 
alexander herd hem saye so, he made al his Ooste to tarye & with fbwe 
of his knyghtes wente within the said contre for tenquere further of 
the truthe And whan he entred within the same ground, he fond many 
poure folkes women & chyldren al naked gadnng herbes in the feldea 

214 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sayings; 

And he axid of them many questions, to whiche they ansuerd right 
wysely, and than he had hem axe of him somme thing that myght doo 
hem good & to alle their peplc, & he wolde yeuen it hem gladly And 
thenne they saide. Sir we axe the none other thing but y^ thou wilt 
gyuc vs euerlasting lyf Thenne Alexader ansuerd & said, hou might ama 
make other menes Hues euerlastig, wha he maye not lengthe his 
owen lyf an oure And that ye axe of me is in no mannes pouer that 
lyueth Than they said to him. Syth thou hast goode knowleche therof. 
Wherfore trauayllest thou thyself to destroye all the world, and to 
gadre alle the worldly tresours and wost not whan thou must leue hem 
Thenne Alexander said to hem. I do not alle these thinges that ye 
saye of myself, but god hath sente me thurgh alle the worlde for 
texalte and magnifye hys lawe and to destroye them that bileue not in 
hym. And somtyme Alexander wente dysguysed yisyting his lordes and 
enqueryng of her dedes.' Fol. 47* 

The * Diets and Sayings' of Ptolemy, shortly after, arrest our 
notice. From these the following is selected : 

* And sayde. It is bettir, a king to directe his peple, than to haue g^te 
habondaunce of knyghtis And sayde Surete putteth aweye sorowe, and 
fbre empescheth gladnes And sayde The wordis of god auayleth not 
to them that haue put al their best to the world And sayde It is to 
grete folie a man to thinke to moche on the thmges that passith his 
▼nderstandyng And sayde men been of . ^ . natures som woUe neuer 
be content howe be it that they finde ynough, & somother seke and 
finde nothing And sayde men cause tacquere & gete money. And 
money is the cause tacquere men And sayde. He of the which the 
Science excedith his witte may be likened to a feble shepherd that hath 
a grete keep of sheep in his keeping And saide he that hath put al his 
entent to his flessly delites, is more bonde than a keytif Fol, 53. 

Again, of Legmon the Prophet: * Sone enhabyte thy self with the 
wysemen continuelly, for god enlumind their hertes by wordes of 
sapience in suche wyse as the goodes vnder erthe ben moysted by rayne 
and with dewes And somme men say that legmon is buried in a toun 
called karaualle bitwene the mesquitte & the marche. And ther ben 
buried • Ixx • prophetes that deyde after legmon the whiche the children 
of ysr^l kept so long in hostage that they deyde for hunger And whan 
Legmon was nygh his deth he wept sore. & his sone axid him why he 
wepte for fere of deth or sorow that he had leue the world. He ansuerd 

1477.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 215 

I wepe for none of the two thinges but I wepe bicause I iiaue away for 
to goo. from whiche I sawe neuer man come agayn,* and I bere but 
litill vytaill with me. & am charged with many grete charges. And I 
wote neuer whether I shal be aleged & discharged or none whan I shal 
come to thende of my waye* Fol. 58. 

A strange melange is afforded by the ensuing extract : * It was asked 
of one called protege, wherfore it was that one of his neyghbours made 
dye his here in blak, he ansuerd. by cause noo man shulde aske to 
leme sapience of him. and plures sayde, the more goode that a foole 
hath the more he is fowle. And it was axid of one Aristan, whan it 
was goode to lye with a woman, he ansuerd, at al tymes whan a man 
wyll hurt enpayre and feble his body. And it was asked of dymicrates 
wherby he knewe and perceyued best his witt^, He ansuerd In that, 
tha^ I thinke, I vnderstaude and knowe but lityll And saide the wyse- 
man that repUeth is bettir than the foole that accordeth to euery 
porpose. And ther was awyse man called azee, that was a prisoner to 
whom his mayster axed, of what kynrede he was, He ansuerd enquere 
not of my lynage, but axe of my prudence apd connynge,* Fol. 63-4* 

Our author is * bold and brave * in his advice to princes : * And 
Amenyus sayd, ther be. i\j. thyngis that a pr)'nce ought to eschewe. 
The fyrst is to moche dryuking. The seconde is to moche delectacion 
in musyk. And the therde dotyng of women, for thyse. iij. thyngis put 
awey all his other good thoughtes.' Fol. 65. There is much quaint- 
ness and point in the following : * Pyctagoras sayde. Science hath non 
enemyes, but ygnorant men And saide, clateringe of folies is displeysir 
to wysemen. Like as the stenche of a kareyn is to them that smell it, 
for the foole knoweth no more the fawte of his speche than the kareyn 
doth of his stench. And it was axed of another howe men might kepe 
him from moche diynking. And he ansuerd in beholding wele the grete 
Inconuenientis that be fall the dronken men And Engene saide. Many 
persones hauyng reason and vnderstandyng axen candell, and light for 
to ete their mete, but fewe persones ther be that kyndeU & sharpe their 
wittes in geting sciences for the prou£Eyte of their saules' FoL 66. 

The following is deserving of notice : * And one Rebuked a wiseman. 
To the whiche the wyseman saide. Thou rebukes me not of alle my 
rices. And It was axid of him. why he wolde haue no sone, he ansuerd 

* Might not this puage be introduced in a note, in nome future Vanorum Shahpemt, m 
lUostrative of Hamlefs ' bourne firom which no tniTdler returns?* 


2\G BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sayings ; 

I had leuer be withoute. for whan I beholde the grette loue that a man 
hath to his chylde and the gretc pcynes and troubles he hath to hryng 
him yp. and atte last must lesc him. that sorowe were more to me, 
than the loye, It was aduised one that was goyng in a ferre vyage, 
that he shulde not holde his Jumey, lest he dyed therin. And he 
ansuerd That dcth is all one to me, be it in other Countrees or at home/ 
Fol. 68. 

The conclusion of the translation, by Earl Rivers, will be found at 
the bottom of the reverse of the 72d leaf: — * And sufiise you with the 
traslacion of the sayingis of these philoeopheres .* .*' On the top of the 
succeeding leaf, we have Caxton*s colophon, thus : 

<Sre ttttitt^ tt)e htuA trnnth tfie tntteier m jerapettgtjf 
1^ of tfie pl^Wttfi^tt^ enptpntdi, bp me n^ltam 

Carton at toejsrtmejertre t^e pete or mt lorti* £19. 
€€€€. flxt^ii. WW^t hwh ut late tcan^iatcti out of 
fttnt^t htto enslpf 1^. bp tfie l^oble anti ^utfjsiant Ituit 
%mtt ^Utttottt Cde of tivapetfi iocti of Jbteiefi &c. &u 

The whole of this conclusion ; or epilogue, will be found in my edition 
of our Typographical Jntiquiiies, vol. i. p. 67-71. The principal pohit 
contained in it is, that the noble translator was loth to introduce the 
'diets & sayings' of Socrates, against the &ir sex, into his work ; but 
which, on Caxton*s emendation, were published by the printer himself. 
There is much naUetd in our printer's account of this matter. Caxton 
says, that he ' supposes some fair lady had desired him [E^l Rivers] 
to leave it out of>^is book ; or else he was amorous on some noble lady, 
for whose love he would not set it in his book ; or else for the very 
affection, love, and good will that he had unto all ladies & gentlewomen, 
he thought that Socrates spared the sothe, and \iTote of women more 
than truth.' He then defends the women * in these parts and regions 
of the world, as not being subject to the same reproaches as are 
bestowed by Socrates upon the women of Greece.' However, as the noble 
translator had told him ' to correct and amend where he should find 
fbult,* Caxton was disposed to exercise the office here deputed to him 
by considering such omission as a fault deserving of cori*ection— -and 
necessar}' to be supplied by the omitted part. He shews a very nice 
sense of courtesy in the execution of his task; by being uncertain 
* whether [the part omitted] was in his Lord's copy or not, or ebe 


peradventure that the wind had blown over the leaf at the time of the 
translation of his book.' In consequence, he does not presume to in- 
corporate these Socratic sarcasms in the body of the work, but only to 
subjoin them by way of appendix. They occupy scarcely two pages of 
the original impression, and may be seen extracted in the work before 
referred to. The printer concludes thus, on the 75th and last leaf of 
the volume. 

toj^nfinx in jSiattjErfpeng of eSi jfoctxt^ 
1 gi0t for extu^ of t^ leraitie 0oaaU0 $i iimte 0tm 
t^e^t lafattie tptttg i irapengijl a patte in tl^entie of t^ 
&ooft, to t^cnm t^t pf ittp fSaph lorti or onp otfyct pttf 
jAme tol^t iseonmia: lie or ^'^ ht t^ ^l)al retie or l^ere 
it, t^ 3[f t^ep ht not tod pleierpb topt^ all tfiat t^ 
toptfi a pmne race it out or tWp^ rente tl^e leef out of tl^e 
Iioofte, l^umblp requiiirpng anb 6eiftc{|pn0 mp jefapti lorti 
to tafte no bij^plapsiir on me js^o vn^mttj^ liut to par^ 
ftone tDJ^ereajsr tie ^^ fpnbe fiaulte> anb liat it pleire igipm 
to talie t^e labour of tfienprpntpng in gre i tfjanlte) 
ttii^ici^e 0latilp l^etionmp bpUgente intl^ccomplpiri^pnir 
of ^10 nt^t anb tommanbement, $[n tol^pe^e 3i am 
bounben $io to bo for t||e 000b retoarb t^t % pue 
reiO^tm^ of ^i^ 0aptt lorbjs:]^, IB^wn % btm^ %lmp» 
0l)tp gob tencrece anb to eontpmte in j^bertuouiet biierpo 
jsridon in tfii^ toodb, Idnb after tfyp0 Ipt to Ipiie euer'/ 
Ugtpng^p in l^euen oilmen 

4it tit eft dm^ * : * 

llie present copy, although diminished in size, is exceedingly clean 
and sound ; and is decorated with a copy of the illumiuation of the 
supposed portraits of Caxton and E^l Rivers, from tiic Lamlieth copy, 
by the pencil of the late Countess Lucan. It is splemlidly bound 
in green morocco, by Roger Payne. My friend Mr. G. Hibbert has a 
large and noble copy of this impression, superbly and tastefully bound 
by Mr. C. Lewis. A fine copy is also in the library of his Grace the 
Duke of Devonshire. 

218 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Moral Praberbs ; 

842. The Dictes and Sayinges of Philosophres. 
PrirUed at IVestmestre. ^477* Folio. 

This copy presents rather a variety, than proof of a distinct impres- 
sion, from the preceding one. The text is executed (as &r as I have exa- 
mined) leaf for leaf, line for line, and word for word,''^ with the previous 
impression ; and is here entitled to a distinct notice, on account of 
its containing a colophon which is not in the one before described. 
Immediately beneath the words ' Et sic est finis ' as before, we read as 
follows : — on the reverse of the 75th and last leal. 

• ♦ 


€|^ ttthtt^ tifi^ fnuA of t^ t^tgfi attfi nota&Ie topisre 
lapengejet of t^t ppoj^op^eris? late tcatusSateti anH ticatoen 
out of fctn^^t into ouc etQiiR^e tonge hp mp tois^aUie Ioi:ii 
^|)rrie of Itlpuetj^ anti {orti <j&ftaIe$E* and iip l^is? coman^ 
titmcnt ^tttt tn focme attfi empcpnt^ in t|^ msMtxt ajf 
pe mape litre in tfiijer boofte jeree JSM^ to^ fpnifl^cti ttie. 
X\iui. tiap of t|e monetj^ of l^ouem&te. a tj^e js^euententl^ 
pete of tj^e regne of iipng ^titoarb t|^. fitntctli. 

This is a fine large copy of the impression, bound in russia ; but it is 
unluckily deficient in about two thirds only of the first leaf of the pro- 
logue of the translator. 

843. The Morale Proiterbes of Cristyne. 
Printed in February. 1477* ^olio. 

We have here another specimen, but in a metrical form, of the 
powers of translation of the gallant and accomplished Earl Rivers. The 
original author of the work was Christine de Pisa ; who was born at 
Bologna in the year 1364 : and of whose multifarious productions a 
particular account will be found in the recent edition of our Typogra^ 
phical Jntiquities, vol. i. p. 74, 77* The object of the Noble translator, 
according to Lord Orford, was, to make almost every line of the 

* At the bottom of the first page of the text, we read, in both copies, ' to tlie lepeop' 
instead of ' to the people.' 

1477] WILLUM CAXTON. 219 

version end with an e — ' an instance of once at his Lordship*s appli- 
cation, and of the bad taste of an age, which had witticism and whima 
to stru^g^le with as well as ignorance.' This whimsical singularity 
will probably be thought, by the tasteful antiquary, to be its chief or 
only claim to notice. However, as the tract itself is both short and of 
extreme rarity, and as early specimens of our early poetry (especially 
when they owe their origin to so dbtinguished an author) are 
usually acceptable to the curious iu * ancient lore,' 1 shall present the 
reader with the entire tract as it appears in the original: premising, 
that it contains, in the whole, only 4 leaves, and a full page has 88 
lines. It is also without niunerals, signatures, and catchwords. 

€^t mmsie ptmaibtfi of €rtj9(tpne. 

t He grete vertus of oure elders notable 
Ofte to remembre is thing profitable 

An happy hous is. where dwelleth prudence 

For where she is raison is in presence 

A temperat man cold from hast asseurd 

May not lightly long saison be miseured 

Constante couraigis in sapience formed 

Wole in noo wise to vicis be conformed 

Where uys justice, that lande nor that coutre 

May not long regne in gode prosperite 

Withouten faith may there no creature 

Be vnto gode plaisant. as saith Scripture 

Propre worldly and to god acceptable 

Can noman be. but he be charitable 

Hope kepeth not promys in eury wise 

Yet in this world hit guideth many awise 

In greet estat ligth not the glorie 

But in vertu whiche worth is memorie 

A crucU prynce gronded in auarice 

Shulde his peuple not truste. if he be wise 

Yiuyng in tyme and wisely to refreigne 

Maketh oon welthy & in estate to reigne 

Now now blame comunely by usance 

Sheweth folyc and noo maniere Constance 

A prynce's court withoute a gouuemeur 

Beyng prudent can not leste in honneur 

220 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Moral Praverii ; 

Crete diligence with a good remembrance 

Dooth aman oftc to hygh honneur anance 

A fool can preyse nought for lak of raison 

And the wise man hath noo presumcion 

A mighty prynce that wole here his consaille 

F^ciently to pros|)ere can not faille 

He is prudent, that maketh pourueyance 

For thing to come before en folle the chance 

A man in pride fixed with hert and mynde 

Casteth noo drede, yet woo soone dooth him finde 

That lande hath hap. Wherof the lorde or kyng 

Is sad & trewe, and vseth good lyuyng 

Lightly to here & to loue flaterye 

Gendreth errour & werre dooth multiplye 

Wise is not he. that weneth to b^ sure 

Of his estate, though he haue bit in ure 

In souffisance of this worldis richesse 

Is surer reste than in the grete largesse 

To hante vertus and vicis to banysshe 

Maketh aman wise, & godly to finysshe 

A benigne prynce of gode condicions 

Drawcth many oon to his opinions 

He is happy that can eiiample take 

Of his neighburgh seing him sorwes make 

Wisdom thay lakke, that fortune doo not drede 

For many awight to trouble dooth the lede 

Muche to enquire is noo thing profitable 

Nor for to be greetly entermettable 

To muche trustyng hath hindred many a man 

Soo hath wenyng, that wel deceyue oon can 

A railing man & for alier knawe 

Onneth hath truste. though he telle asooth sawe 

He is wise, that his Ire can restreigne 

And in angre his tongue also refreigne 

He. that is fed hath his hertb luste 

What peigne the hungry hath, he wole not truste 

Falsehede is not to cautile soo applied 

But by some folkis somtyme hit is aspied 

This tenor shal be good & long lasting 

That hath the fame of trouthe in his deling 

1477] WILLIAM CAXTON. 221 

Ful great peigne is to change condition 
After, that aige hath oon in hire bandon 
Whoo wole himself to greet estate enhance 
Muste byfore be acqueinted with suffrance 
Faueur gileth. aiid many a tyme hit toumeth 
The right to wrong, & wrong to right retoumeth 
Oon aughte to werke. Whil he hath liberte 
For Saisou lost can not recouuered be 
So muche to thinke or elles hauyng noo thought 
Maketh oon forgete suche thyng, as he ne ought 
An aiged man withouten wit or connyng 
Is a vessel, that vertu is lakkyng 
He. that setheth often other to blame 
Giueth right cause to here of him the same 
Trewe gentilesse can be noon other thing 
But the palais where honneur is dwellyng 
Happy he is, that can dispose his lyff 
Justly in trouthe without enuye or stryfF 
Lightly is borne ful many an heuy charge 
By pacience, and conquered at large 
In grete werkis wise conseil to beleue 
Thingis decked to light hit dooth releue 
A dissolute thing used for plaisance 
Thence therof tometh to displaisance 
A fill smal gronde causeth often debate 
And litle reyne doth a greet wynd abate 
He that is yong» and loueth Idelnesae 
Lightly dooth falle in hopeful heuynesse 
Worldly richesse for to wynne wrongfully 
Dooth in dangier bringue the soule & body 
Better honneur is to haue a good name 
Than tresor riche. and more shal dure the fame 
Taking aduys vpon a cause doubtable 
Remembreth oon of thinges profitable 
Worldly richesse is had. in grete chierte 
Whenne deeth cometh. al that here left must be 
Speche to apoynt with a sadde contenance 
Sheweth in man a prudent gouuemance 
Dronkennesse sleeth the wit soule and body 
And maketh oon folle in villain slugardy 

122 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Moral Proverbs ; 

A prudent man* that seeth wel hia-ofienae 
Taketh good hede after for the defense 
A yongly man of chaBtisyng content 
Is signe of grace & of a good entent 
A lou jng drede is better to endure 
Than that . whiche is constreigned bj rigure 
An boost withouten a chief for capitaine 
Is seldeu seen to good effect attaine 
Fewe men there be of promys liberalle 
But some of hem thay wok breke^ or elles alle 
Humylite is grete grace in noblesse 
The lower hert, the higher men him drease 
Fool hardynesse and wenyng dooth deceyue 
Ful many aman. that can hit iK>t perceyue 
Woman & man to guider muche townyng. 
May often cause suspedeuse slandryng 
Labour in yongthe is a greet auantaige 
For to defende in nede oon in his aige 
In vain hit is aman put him to lore 
But if he sette his wit & mynde therfore 
A cruel juge in auarice set depe 
Stroyeth peUple. as wolue doon the shepe 
Dangler hit is in malice to abide 
After that his ennemy hath hit aspide 
To speke in tyme & refreinge at a point 
Is signe of wit & setteth oon in good point 
Hit is greet wit to abandonne the place 
Where f ureur is. if there by tyme & space 
Selden is seen eny fiiueur to be 
Bitwix oon riche. and oon in pouerte 
Little languaige is left finr oon to vse 
For much talkyng dooth many amane confuse 
Blame & reprief to haue is he worthy 
That seeth the good and lugeth contrary 
He. that may not euyl companye escheue 
Yet at the lest late him soone thens remeue 
Grete fblye is in him. that taketh hede 
Vpon other, and not to his owen nede 
Necessite at somtyme to consente 
Causeth famyne greet trouble and tormente 

1477.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 223 

Repented hath many a creature 

Thjng doon away, whiche in hb hand was ture 

Courtoise spekyng refreigneth ofte Fre 

For to the hert hit la a greet plaisire 

Often is seen a man in Indigence 

To hygh estat comen by his diligence 

Opinions with feueured sentence 

Guideth the world more than vraye scyence 

There aughte noman to be fiers ne cruelle 

For what may felle him self» he can not telle 

Rather to bowe, than breke is profitable 

Humylite is a thing commendable 

He is a fool, that dooth his charge enhance 

Upon promys without other substance 

Hit sitteth* not a woman to diflliame 

For ypon him self shal retorne the blame 

For to foryete a yifte or courtosy 

Sheweth ingpratitude euydently 

Sured maniere & fewe wordis wel sette 

In women dooth right wel» where thay be mette 

Seruice in court is noo seur heritaige 

Hit failleth ofte with litle auantaige 

He. that spumeth an al with violence 

Vnto him self dooth moost grief & oflfence 

To tome to lape an Iniury or a wroong 

Is greet wisdam to be vsed emoong 

Goodly raisons not wel taken ne construde 

Semeth floures caste emong bestis rude 

A wrettheful man or oon in geleusye 

Aughte haue noo truste. for often thay wole lye 

Cruell spekyng in amatiere hayneuse 

Axeth answer angry and despiteuse 

There can noo good endure saison ne space 

But oonly suche, as cam by goddis grace 

Idele plaisirs Tsed coustumably 

Be harde to change, though thay be blame worthy 

He that loueth euyl tales to reporte 

To make debate semeth wel his disporte 

Necessite, pouert and Indigence 

Causeth many greet Inconuenience 

« Sk: for ' fitteth.' 

224 BOOKS PRINTED BY [PrwCT-J*; 1477- 

A meene estat is better to entende 

Than hygh clinunyng lest that oon sone descende 

Right to release somtyme is no dotaige 

Soo th&t hit be for a more auantaige 

In wel doyng hauyng a trewe Renon 

Bringueth a man to gode conclusion 

Foryeting god for this worldis richesse 

Sheweth noo faith, but slauthe & grete latcbesse 

There is noo thing so riche I you enseur 

As the seruice of god oure createur 

Litlt vailleth good exemple to see 

For him. that wole not the contraire flee 

Though that the deeth to vs be lamentable 

Hit to remember is thing moost conuenable 

Thende dooth shewe euery werk, as hit is 

Woo may be he. that to god endeth mys 

Of these sayynges Cristyne was aucteuresse 
Whiche in makyng hadde suche Intelligence 
That therof she was mireur & maistresse 
Hire werkes testifie thexperience 
In frenssh languaige was writen this sentence 
And thus Englished dooth hit rehers 
Antoin wideuylle therl Ryuers 

Go thou litil quayer, and recomaund me 
Vnto the good grace, of my special lorde 
Therle Ryueris. for I haue enprinted the 
At his comandement. of fblowyng eury worde 
* His copye, as his secretaire can recorde 
At Wcstmestre. of feuerer the . 3cx . daye 
And of kyng Edward, the . xvij . yere vrave 

^npnrtteti ftp Carton 
3[n fimeter tfie coUk Jtca^m 

This little volume is among the scarcest pieces of Caxton*s press. 
The copy in the British Museum, that in His Migesty's Library,and those 
in the libraries of the Marquis of Blandford and Mr. Grenville, are 
the only ones, exclusively of the present, with which I am acquainted. 
Tiiis is a fair and sound copy ; beautifully bound in blue morocco. 

Cordial; 1480.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 225 

844. The Book named Cordyale. Supposed to 
have been printed in 1480. Folio. 

Earl ' Rivers was the author of this version of a celebrated Latin 
work, in the xvth century, under the better known title of Memorabb 
NovissiMA, or The Four last Things ; namely, of Deaths of the 
Last Judgment^ of the Pains of Hell, and of the Joys of Heaven, See 
my edition of our Typographical Antiquities^ vol. i. p. 77- The volume 
under consideration exhibits a fine specimen of Caxton*8 press, 
although it cannot be classed among the rarer productions of it. It 
commences in the following manneiv— on the recto of the first leaf, at 
top, which is a fiill page containing 29 lines : 

% ^[t^tatttutie tottetip Ctttpt^ a^act/ toe ottie 
A to talle to out mpntiejet/ tf^z tmnpfi(rittie 0pfteje( 
of 0tace/ tmtj^ tl^e benefotttijsc. tl^ out lortie 
of 1^ moojgst i^fentteujere fomte |^t|^ {iinett^ \itt 

oCC. oCC. oCC* 

This introduction concludes on the reverse of the first leaf. The 
second leaf contains a table of the * singuler parties ' in the * four 
principal parties.* This table is printed entire in the work just 
referred to. It occupies the whole leaf, and ends in the following 
manner, on the reverse of it : 

1^ oGtet fdotDejer tf^t ipaAttsat of t|^ tout la^rt ti^ttigejl 

This prologue occupies the third leaf; ending, on the reverse of it, 

€|ntjB( entietl^ t|^ IttoIfQue of tl^ijsr &00& naineti* €ot^ 

The first chapter of the First Part begins on the recto of the succeed- 
ing, and fourth leaf. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor 
catchwords to this volume ; and a perfect copy of it should contain 
76 leaves. I select a brief specimen from the Third Part, descrilmig 
the Pains of Hell^ which will be found on the recto of fol. 48 : 

3K BOOKS PRINTED BY [CbttKoZ; 1480« 

How thoes that descende into helle be cruelly punysshed 

The secunde chapitre of the thirde parte principal 

Owe to procede fblow3n[igl7 by ordre it resteth to 
n be expouned how there be many and diuerse affile 

tions geuen by the soldeours of helle. Thoes 
soldeours been to ynderstonde the deueles, whiche been 
tourmentours and hangemen full abhominable to beholde 
and cruell in their dedis, neuer wery to tourmente nor to geue 
paynes. I say first that thoes deueles be horrible to be holde 
And therefore they be so paynted in the chirche with hideous 
and orrible figures. To this purpose it is redde that where som 
tynie» a religio' man was lying in his dortor among his brethr^i. 
It happened in a nyght that he cryed orribly where thorow 
all the brethren of his couent resorted vnto hjrm, and 
they founde hym staring and his eyen fixid rppon a wall 
firmely without moeuyng, and wolde answerr to no question 
that they demaunded hym. he was so meued with a meruelous 
fere, and in the morowe his prior came vnto hjrm and 
asked what hym ayled that nyght. and he answered 
He hadde seyn the deuelL And theiie it was questioned 
hym, what shappe he was of. And he answered that 
his shappe ne mought lightly be descriued. and saide. 
If ther were here an ouon fid of fire and yondre the figure 
of the deuill, I hadde as leef entre into y* ouon, as 
long to beholde on his moost horrible figure* &c. 

The text of this work is crowded with extracts from the Vitas 
Patrum^ and from the writings of St. Bernard, St. Gregory, and the 
other fathers : which sometimes, perhaps to the disappointment of the 
reader, interrupt the progress of a singular anecdote — like the above. 
The date of the printing of this volume is gathered from two pas- 
sages: both taken from the Epilogue of Caxton (which is printed 
entire in the work before referred to) on the last two leaves. The first 
passage is as follows — on the reverse of fol. 7^ : 

tDliitii Booft toajet ttelhtereb to me ttnlltam 
€axtm &p m^ jiadie noble lotHe i&jpmt^ on t^t bap of 
punficadon of our fiiifieiUi labp/ Mlpng t^e tetDdiap 

Chronicles} 1480.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 227 

ti^ ftcut^e tiap of ti^ nimtetl^ of ftitetec. 3[tt ti^ put 
of one lorn. ^.€€€€lxx!imi to to fie otprhtteli^ ann iro 
midttpiteti to soo abtooti ononis tl^ pepit 

The second passage is on the reverse of the 76th and last leaf : taken 
from the same Epilogue. 

fittit $[ hees& tfyt mors after t|^e ^a^t f^iffcactott of one 
hliUtiit Xatip. H&Me ttiaist ttie tiape t^Jbtmt^Wt^S^ittlfgf 
atiti lau^rttr^ SCttfi 6m(r[)eli on t^ mm of tj^atmundacron 
of one (kiti Wttin Xa^ foHpng on t^e tndmeiBitiap t||ie 
mtt) tiape of a^acc^« $[n t|^ jnr peet of ijfting 4eu»aibe 
t||e fotittj^ 

As Edward the IVth was crowned in June 1461, it should follow 
that this book was printed in the year 1480 ; so that Caxton seems 
to have been two years occupied in the production of it : a space of 
time much beyond what might be conceived necessary for such a 
performance. Yet we have no other work, in the intervening period * 
from the volume last described and the present one, which is known to 
have issued from his press. This is a large, sound» and most desirable 
copy ; in russia binding. 

845. The Cronycles of Englond: with thb 
Descripcion of Bbitayne. 1480. Folio. 

These two works are to be considered as forming only one publica- 
tion ; as they were unquestionably put forth in one volume when they 
were first given to the public. The copy under description, con- 
taining both these works, cannot perhaps be exceeded in the beauty 
and soundness of its condition ; since the greater number of copies are 
in a soiled and imperfect state. I shall be rather brief in the 

* I strongly suspect, howeyer, that Caxton was much occupied, in this space of time, 
in the preparation of hbCiiRONicLs of England and Description of Bbitaim; at 
he published them in the same Dominical year, and at the commeucement of the fOCh 
year of Edward the Fourth's reign: calculating, as I conceive, firom the death of Hen. VI* 
in March ; and not finom the coronatioo of Edward, iu June, 1461. 

288 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chronides; 1480. 

deseriptioD of it ; as it is one of those productions of Caxton's press 
which is pretty generally known, and of which both a critical and 
bibliographical account will be found in the recent edition of our 
Typographical ^ntiquitiet; vol. i. p. dS-IOO. The Chroniclb begins on 
the recto of the second leaf, containing a table of the chapters (963 in 
number) on 7 leaves, or rather 13 pages. 

The date of the printing is taken from the opening of the short 
proheme, prefixed to the table of chapters, on the second lea( (the 
first being blank) aiga. ij. It is thus : 

1^ tl^e pete of tj^pncamacpon of out iodi $[§u tci^ m 

€€€€/ Ijorr/ ^nti in tl^e rj: pete of tl^e ^egiie of 

i ftpng^ttlDactitl^fourt^/^iltteirequejEitoftipiteciregen 

tgHmm S l^tte entKiiopt|rii nie to etq^pnte tl^e €cO" 

npdtfi of <^ontij a|t in tfii^riioolt ^lial ftp t^ jfuf&aunte 
of 00^ UAiADti &t. 

The table contains 7 printed leaves. A blank leaf (forming signature 
a) follows ; and on a 8 tlie text of the Chronicle b^ins. The volume 
terminates on the recto of y 6, in eights ; the reverse being blank. 

The Dbscriptiom op Britatne was finbhed in August, in the same 
year. A brief proheme, with a table of the chapters, 29 in number, 
occupies the reverse of the first leaf: the recto being blank. The entire 
volume contains only 29 leaves, and is without signatures, numerals, or 
catchwords. The colophon, on the recto of the last leaf, is thus : 

i^e tt^itt^ tiie tiijernrij^on of ^Shatapne t^, to^k^amtep^ 
netl^ englonti toaW antt j^cotianlij i al^ Utaugt Stiontie 
i^ imttt t^e mde of enjjionti i of olUe tpme* it {|at|^ jsro 
fontinueti tl^erefote S tiaue ^ette tl^e Ivirtni^n of t|^e 
^ame eXtst tl)e Mt bntupne/ 1 tti^^ 3( l^mie taften ottte 
of JMicrotttcon^ ^nb (icaujPe it ijT necrO^arte to alle 
engiiff^men to iuudue tl^ ^ropreteejr tSmotnteejer i met^ 
usaat0 of t^tm, tl^erefotre % ||Que i^ette tl^mi in enpcinte 
according to tite tcanjEtlacton of €rei]iira/ to^e atte 
re^jsit of t^e lorH IBexktkp tcanjeilatdi tl^e &ooft 

* m reversed in originaL t Sic. 

Chronicles; 1498.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 229 

^Itccontcott in to engitff^f fpnpf^eb iip me lOffltatn 
€^on t|^e Tc\n^, tap of ^tigu^ tl^ pete of out lotb 
gob 2^. €€€C. Ijcie);. anti t|^e xx> pen of t|^e regne of Itpttg 
^tutoarti t^e fourtle* 

The present very desirable copy is elegantly bound in russia. 

846. Cronycles of the Londe of Enolod. 
Printed hy Gerard de Leew. Antwerp. 1493. 

In a note, at page 91 of the 1st vol. of the Typographical Antiquities 
of Great Britain, I had mentioned the extreme rarity of the present 
very beautiful reprint of the Chronicles of England, from the text of 
Caxton. At that time I did not expect to have had the good fortune 
of describing so singular a publication. The copy under description 
was obtained from the choice library of my friend Mr. Roger WiN 
braham ; who presented it to the present Noble Owner, and who 
received, in return, a very fine copy (although somewhat imperfect) 
of Caxton'8 Golden Legend, of the date of 14Sa. 

It seems to be the better arrangement to describe De Leeu's reprint 
of Caxton*8 Chronicle in the order in which it here stands, llie title^ 
or frontispiece, contains the words, above given, printed in a very 
large lower-case gothic character, over the ro3ral arms of England, with 
a large angel, on each side, as a supporter. A broad wood-cut border 
is on each side, and at the bottom of it. The reverse Is blank. A 
table of 6 leaves follows. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a j, at top 
of the first column, we read this prefix : 

!^0lD t^e late of (fittglSbe ttKuf 
fpt^t nameb Wnms Si hy toj^t 
tntt^e^on it toaji jsta tuinidi 

A large ornamental letter (T) precedes the text. There are similar 
capitals, but on a smaller scale, throughout the volume. The entira 
impression is executed in double colunms, in a large square gothic 
type ; and both the paper and press work are of equal beauty. The 
signatures, to i, run in eights : i and k have each 6 only : 1 and m, 
each 8 ; n 6 ; o, p, and q, each 8 ; r, 6 ; s, t, ▼, in eights : x, y, each 6; 
) vig. On the reverse of tlie last leaf, we observe the following 
i:olophon, and device of the printer. 

SSO BOOKS PRINTED BY [Omntclo; 14»3. 

< ipett ten tuty B tit Oanpden of tjie Btame otdigioiit 
InitQ tl^eic ap|ieftn0iuiunteif . ^nptftpb 3[n t^e SDut^pc 
of !0tabaiili. in t^ toteie of Thtttlmcft 3ln tfie pen of 
ouclocti .a^.ctcc.rcUi. !0p moijtec 4E>eta(ti be leeUi. 
amonof gcecelDpjtelianiinalinianecof ItOniii^: tD^pcD 
noble VI come torn ipGe tnao t$e tetti tngtcl) i^ gtete 
Sarnie Gic manp a poure nun . 0n tD!|oj> mlllle gok 
abnp^tp Gbc |ip# 9ps9 oeace fiane metcp 
« a? « » 


Thii book maj therefore be considored the last WDik from the p«M» 
el Gerard de Leea ; and, as such, wiU be aocounted bo small carioBitf • 
The present is a clean and sound copy, in nissia binding. 

847. The M irrour of the World. Printed in 
the Ahhtjf of We^meHre. 1481 . Folio. 

First Editton. This impression commences, with a table, at top^ 
of the recto of the first leaf, on signature a 2 : a blank leaf forming 
the previous signature, a I. This page, and every similar full page, 
contains tS) lines. The table terminates on the recto of a 4, and is 
immediately succeeded by the 

IM(00ue tietlarpng to toiiom tlp^r (ooii ttjwmgttywt l^* 

The conclusion of this prologue, on the recto of the ensuing leaf, is 

to^ttiie tuajT engtoljeteb an^ snalfe ptngaxt^ tts 

tepiKli (p tl^ufisst^ and 6fgaxs$ in f6mi^t in ttjit uam 
9i bnt^s^ tHe igm ti tj^pnutcnadott of one lorb. 9ty, 
€€€^^ Ijai^ itt tHe tnopetd mt Sfnpn/ SBitfi cmpcij^ fiii 
me rpgl^ tnialble anli of iptil campng to tcaiQtIate % 
Iicpii0( it in to one matenjH^ toi^ne p< iinn^ iMip of t|( 
momt^ of ianpnec t|e pies of one ^ai^ lotH* 99*<r€e^ 
loofin tUtibbap of tnc^timi^ttediLlontioni )unAIp trqnp> 
tpng alle tl^ t|^t tl^ fjiitfie Gndte/ to cotcme and 
ainmbe tM^ctf ast t^tf 0^A onp fpnbt/ $lnti of jdncfie jsto 
foQlKn t|^ tfjep ttjfott not tl^ Iblanu on tnti fnxt on mp 
Ufsitt itti[it(^ ) ant c||a<gi^ to fidotiK aif np0|^ aj^ goti 

l0ii spue ntegtact/ tnliom i mojft l^umbip ItefiKl^ to irpi^ 
nv Gcpntct. coiuipns toSt ipf tatcoinplpft^ and tnei to 
Qmpf C^e it/ it 

Thb is succeeded by an admonition to those' who so wylle comprise 
and vnderstande the substaunce of this present volume, for to lerne 
VOL. IV, • e 

SSt BOOKS PRINTED BY [SBrror <f thi 

and knowe epeciallj the creacion. of this world, the gretnn of the 
finnamet & Ijrtflnea of therthe in r^;ard ot heoeo, how the v^ sciences 
were ffbunden and what they bee, ftc' This adaionitioa cooclades on 
the reverse of the same leaf. On the recto of the ensuing leaf (a 6) 
the text begins according to thb fac-simile.* 

(^ttt? ice<r&<9 fJ^ of e^ jp1K« <»n5 f»(r«««« «f S»*2 



_. fbic/ae §8 (b» «|»«K«W 
ird C«&inKj 50* %xe fy fo! 

The circular form^ion of the earth is thna illustrated- — but the 
preceding eiplanatorj part ihould not be omitled : < And yf it were so 
that by adueture two men departed that one bo that other, And that 
one wente alleway toward the eest, and that other toward the weste,so' 
that bothe two wente egally, it behoued that they ahold mete agayn in' 
the opposite place fro where as they deported, & botbe two shold come 
agayn to the place, fro'whena they meuyd first, fibr thenne had that 

* Ttiii rac-siniUe, on minute ^viaim, give* lu FOlber the chtncter ind fcimialioD, Ibia 
the exact uzc, of the t^pe. It is however nifficieiitly illuitrative of Cuton's largest sud 
mori: Sowiug l^pe— tf inch im ctprasion tamy be uied. 


one ftnd that other goon roiide aboute the erthe aboue and viider. Ifb* 
as rounde aboutc a wbele that were atylle on tbertbe in lyke wise 
•hold the; goo aboute tbertbe, u tbey that contynueUy drewe then 
right towanl the myddle of tbertbe, fibr she festneth alle heuy tbyng 
toward her. And that most weyeth, moste droweth and most ner 
holdetb toward the myddle. flbr who* moche depper one dclueth in 
theitbe, so moche heuyer sbal ha {ynde it, and for to Tnderatonde this 
that I baue deuyaed to you here to fore of the goynges of the fljea 
aboute tbsfiple, & of the men aboote tbertbe^ In lyke wyie maye ye 
■ee alle the manera & lacion by thyse two fygures the v^cbe ben 
here to you repreaented and sbewde alle entierly.' Sign. d. 6, 7- 

The author, after a abort interventioD of similar matter, proceed* 
thus : ' aNd yf the ertbe vrere perced thurgh in two places of wbicbe 
that on hole were cutte in to that other lylce a croase, and foure men 
stoden right at the fbure heedes of tbise ij boulcs, on aboue, aut 
wgotber bynetbe, and in lyke wyse on bothe sides, and that eche of 
1]>em threwe a stone in to the bot^ wtiether it were grete or lyty^ 
eche stone shokl come in to [tbe] myddle of thertbe, wythout ewr 
to baue remeuid fro tbens. But yf it were dAwen away by force. And 
they sholden them one aboute another for to take place euoiche in tbe 
• Sle, fi»r ' how.' 

«M BOOKS PRINTED BY laHmtrtftlie 

tnyddle of thertbe. And yf the stonea were of like wci^l, they •bold 
eome therto alle at ooe tyme, auoBc that one u that other, 9br nature 
wold Bufire it none gther wiae, And that one •hold oomeayenatanothw 
m yw nwjr pUynly see by thii tygan. 

These may Bnffice, in tlie present inituce, for specimena of the Stylt 
of Engraving witB which this rolume was intended to be adorned. In the 
T^pog. jfntiq. edit. 1810, vol. Lp. 11(^112, various othaT^-sioiiles will 
be found; and aa this impresrioa is-eopposed to be the fibst book, 
executed ia this country, which contaivi wooi>-cuTa — these specimens 
(rude as they undoubtedly are) will not Ik cooiiidered wholly divested 
of interest. 

The volume under description contains ei^aturcs, a to n, in eights t 
n having only 4 leaves. The printer's mpi^agiM (which ia printed eotin 
in the authority above referred to) informs us that the woHc was 
executed "-at the request, and desire, coat and dispeoie of the bonoui^ 
able and worshipful man. Hugh Bryca Cttixen and AUennan of 
London, ;' who told the printer that he Intended to piesent it ' unto 
tiie puissant, noble, and^irtuous Lord, his Lord Hastings ;' chamber- 
lain to the King, and Lieutenant of the town of Calais. The conclusion 
is, in part, thus : 

mrW) 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. S35 

bitfte in mtttaeptts of tfie Scmamettt^ Jbmtnt, si^one, m 
«f t^ttt^fOt in onp otj^ecmentapnejsr j^n contepneti^ % 

^ttottb tuip of $[anpuec t|^ pete of mtc iotH • 9i^. €C€C ^ 
«Ina;*3bmQinpr^ tl^iitituqi of flt^anj^ tl^ jsrame 
fcret Siiti tj^ric) peceoftj^ftegne of t^e mo^Cepjften 

ttl^oitttriifeptote c f ion 3[ l&fltie enipcpileb i ^npfC^tk t^M 
^ttpb ipttltnedie flrtb BoEtt, &c« 

The precediDg is oa the recto of the last leaf; n iig : the reverse is 
blank. Tram this colophon, I have before presumed the work not to 
have been printed and published till the year 1481 ; that is, after March 
the 25th ; when, according to the ancient ecclesiastical division of the 
jear, the first day of the new dominical year commenced* The pre- 
ient may be classed with the more beautiful volumes of the press of 
Cftxton. The paper is excellent, the press work comparatively good, 
and the margin ample. Those who have witnessed the very extra* 
ofdinary copy of this impression, which was purchased by his Grace the 
Duke of Devonshire at the sale of the Roxburgh library, will admit the 
justice of this observation. The present is a very large andsound, but 
nrth«r soiled copy t in russia binding. 

848. The Mtrrour of the World. Printed in 
the Abbey of West mestre. 1481. Folio. 

Skcokd Entnoir. Before we enter upon the description of this 
impression, it may be necessary briefly to state the difierences between 
it and the one previously described. These diflferenoes are purely 
typographical. This edition is called < the myrrour of the world ;* the 
preceding one, * the Mirrour of the world* — ^in the respective prefixes 
to the tables. There are 31 lines in afiill page ; and the signatures, in 
consequence, extend only to 1, inclusively, in eights. On closer exami* 
nation, we find the A, a, and w^ materially different. In this impressioD* 
the /^ has a loop at top, the a is reversed fix»n the position as seen in 
the first line of the &c-simile of the type, at p. 832 ante, and the is has 


90 circular flourish at top. The initial letter, to the various sections, 
are here capital ones, full bodied, and uniformly black : in the preyjoua 
impression they are small ones, to be enlarged according to the fancy 
of the illuminator. The type, in consequence, •has a fiiHer, closer, and 
Uacker effisct in the volume under consideration ; and the tennioatioa 
of it,^ in the manner hereafter descrttied, confirms its distinction at on# 

The table occupies 2 leaves. On the recto of a ig (the signature- 
numerals here being designated by UUert^ and in the preceding edition* 
by arable numbers, very coarsely executed) the text of the work begins 
similar to what has been given at p. 5239 ante. To vary the descrfptioiis 
of the several editions, and at the same time to give the reader, soine 
tolerably accurate notions of the intrinsic character of a work, whidbi 
was formerly among the most popular extant, I shall present him with a 
variety of extracts which may excite his astonishment and pity at the 
ignorance and credulity of former times. The State of the t^gy is not 
incuriously delineated in the following passage : 

* Ther ben plente of poure derkes that gladly wold leme yf they 
had the power, But they may not entende therto. By cause they haua 
not wherof for to fumysshe them of their nec essy tees as wel for to haua 
bookes as mete drinke & clothes But ben costrayned for to gete tlieir 
liuyng other wyse, for the riche haue now in thise dayes seased sOmoche^ 
that the poure abyde naked & must sufire. Yet ben ther {dente of riche 
derkis that haue bookes wythout n<mibre of one & other richely 
adoubed and couerd to thende that they ben holden for wyse and goode 
clerkes. For they seche to haue no more. But only the loos and 
preysing of the people. And dooo* in like wyse as the Cock that shn^th 
in the duste for to fynde pasture, he shrapeth so longe in the duste and 
mullet tyl he finde a gemme riche and precyous whiche shineth clere, 
thenne he be ginneth to loke theron and beholdeth it, and doth no 
more but lat^ it lye. For he demandeth not after the ouche or gemme, 
but had leue3rr haue somme come to ete. In like wyse is it of many of 
these not wyse clerkys couetous. that haue the precyous bookes richely 
Ijrmned storyed & wel adoubed. that do nothynge but loke & beholde 
them wythout forth while they be newe by cause theip seme that they 
ben feir, & so they beholde them gladly & passe therwyth, & after they 
tome on that other syde & thynke for to fylle their belyes. & to come 
to their folysshe desyres, and they myght lerne ynoughe yf they wold 
entende it. For they haue wel the power. & myght do as the wyse 

• Sic, t Sit. ..)..' 

rrarU; 1481] WILLIAM CAXTON/ nf 

men; dyde hertofbre, the whiche hj their trauayl studfe k dylj^eea 
fonde furst the clerges. But they haue their entendemete fblyssh and 
out of the way, and therfore the sciences & artes perysshe in suehe 
wyse that vnneth and wyth grete payne knowe they their partes of 
reson whiche is the furst booke of gramayre. The whiche is the fyrst- 
of the seuen sciences, But put their artes in their males, and goo 
kme anon the lawes or decretals, and become aduocates and iuristee 
for to amasse and gadre alway money wherin the deuyll conforteth hem,' 
and yet do they not somoche ibr to leme, as they do for to fylle their* 
purses, In Fkrys, Oxenfbrd and Cambrydge is there suche nianer of 
derkes that ben acustomed to wylle haue the renomme and fame to be' 
called maystres for to be the more preysed and honoured. And haue leuer 
to conne lytyll and to haue the name of maystre. than they shold be good 
derkes vrjrthout hauyng the degree and name of maystre. But they be 
called maystres wrongfully. For vanyte maystryeth them in suche wyse 
that they can but lytyl trouthe. bycause that they haue so sone the 
name of maystre they leue the dergye. And take them to the wynn3rng,' 
lyke as marchants do and brokers. And in this wyse ben many in the- 
world that haue the name of maystre. that knowe right lytyl of good and 
reson. For they that now desyre this ben not maystres after right. 
For they ordeyne them otherwyse to the sciences than they dyde that 
foode them first. They entered first into gramayre for to drawe reson 
in thdr ordynauce, and after logique for to preue & shewe the trouth 
lh> the false* After they fbnde rethcMique fbi[ to speke fayr in iugcment 
& right whiche they moche loued. & after ar^etrique for to be expert 
in all thinges, after they foode geometrye for to roesure & copasee all 
maistrye & after they foode they sciecc of musyque for to sette al^ 
thinges in cocordaiice, after they had y* vnderstandyng of astronomyeV 
for therby were they meuyd to haue science & rertue. Sign, b v. vj. 

A brief sketch of Cfuvalry^ and the comparative state of learning in- 
the several universities of Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge, are repre- 
sented to us in the ensuing passage : * And sought a cite in the world.: 
where they myght best be & dwelle for tenquere the state of the clergy©/ 
and thus the better for tadresse them, & to teche other they chees thi' 
cyte of athenes whiche was noble and somtyme one where they had 
their comyn resydence & assemble. And there reyned first chiualrye 
wyth dergye, & after fro thens it wente to Rome, whiche now is oT 
grete renomme. And there cheualrye contynued long. And firothenis' 
after it remeuyd into ffraunce, where chyualrye hath more power than 
ony other place in the world. And thus haboundeth there that one A ' 

f88 BOOKS PRIMTEa> BY [JlbMr^M^ 

llMit other. For cUualrje flteweth a&waj dergfe wbera ibe goCh. thiae 
Ihe kjDge of FraiBiice& of EogloodenMqrbe iojoas tfaattfaeie ii in big 
Boyamefl suche aeigiiourjc m k adeoe of dergye where enerf nut 
nay drawe oul wjrtte & eonjigrng humayn. k thtr tbfdeilk aeaer the 
hwp For it it 8» a fimtayn that contymieUy soordeth and springcth. 
Awl tlie more it renneth and the fertfaer. the more it is holaoii. It 
wow more the sprynge of the ft>atayn renaeth and lerther so mnche k 
tke more o( the water. & the more may be take fro it foroede. Is like 
wyae may I eaye to yow, that parys Oxenfbrd & Cmnhrjgt bea the 
idfitayiis where men may drawe out most science & more in parys thaa 
m other places, & syth it k boo that dergye k too moche aaaunced in 
firaunce. Thenne ought to knowe by reson in e^eojall yf the heym- 
of ffraunce daygne to conne it. For lyke as the soane k most tuyr of 
aUe the sterres. & causeth moste good thynges to grevve in the woiid 
by the bounte that habondeth in him • so onght the kyng be of more 
▼alewe than ony other. & to haue more ▼nderstaiidyng & dergye,. that 
so by hk valyaimce & sufiysawice he myght shyne eaiogc other people,. 
h by thexample of hk wd doyag that they see in hym they myght by 
right conduyte drawe them to our Lord & in sn^ie wyse shokl he be 
kynge by right in thk world, & in heuen, so thenne sheld it be wd 
right & rayson that they do thdr dyligence to kme suche dergye k 
sciece. that alter thk mortal lyf they lese net the seignorye ef hectta. 
For by nature k lygnage ought they alle to kMje deigye and alway to 
kme it certes themperour of aknaygne louyed wyth al hk herte 
dMigy, kc' Sign, b vij. ymi. 

The author's knowledge of Natural HUtoq^ (mich as |t k) k evinced 
in the singular extract which follows : 

' In this partye conuerseth and repayreth another beste whiche is of 
dyuerse colours by spottes whytte black* greene. blewe. and yelow 
fyke as it were paynted, and k moche propre and k called Fknthere^ 
and ther cometh out of hk mouth so swete a saueiur and breeth^ that 
the beestes goo folowyng after it for the swetenes of hk body, sanf 
the serpent, to whom the swete smelle greueth in suehewyse that ofte 
the serpent dyeth, and whan thk beste k otherwhyk so fylled apd fi|U 
oi venyson that he hath taken and eten. He skpeth iy dayes hool 
wythout a wakyng, And whan he awaketh. he gyueth out of hk month 
so swete a sauour and smdle, that anon the bestes that fele it seehe 
hym, Thk beest hath but ones yong fawnes, and when she shal fiiwae. 
she hath suche distresse and anguyssh timt she breketh wyth her 

WoM; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 239 

najles and renteth her matiyce in suche wyae that her fliwnes come 
out. And neuer after vdian the matryee is rente and broken thef 
oigendre ne brenge forth fawnes. Ther is a maner of mares that 
conceyue of the wynde, and ben in a contre that is named Capydoce^ 
but they endure not but iij yere. In this contre ben the Olyphaunts 
iHiicfae is a beest grete stronge and fyghtyng. And whan the see th^ 
blod shedde to fiMre them, they be most corageous & most stronge and 
fyght m alle pLices andalle bataylles vpon this Olyphaunts were wonte 
to fyghte the people of Inde and of Perse, For an Olyphaunt bereth 
wel a tour of woode Tpd his back fulle of men of armes whan it is wel 
sette on & fermdy, And they liaue to fore them in maner of boyell 
grete and large, whiche they ete. by whiche they renne on men, & haue 
anon deuoured them, king Alysandre which was a good clerke and 
prynce of grete recommendackm & that wente in to many contreea 
for to serche and enquyre y* aduentures more than he dyde to con- 
quere thenne whan he shold fyght ayenst them that had taught and 
lemed tholjrfauntes to fyght in playn londe, he dyde do make Vessels 
of fopper in fburme of men, and dyde do fylle them wyth fyre bren- 
nyng, and sette them to fore hym to fyght ayenst them that were vpon 
tholyphauntes. And whan tholyphauntes caste their boyel by whiche 
they slewe the people vpon the men of copper, feelyng that they were 
so hoot that they brenned them, Thenne they that were so taught 
wolde nomore approche tl^ men for doubte of the fyre. For they 
thoughte, that all men had ben a shoot, as they were of copper, 
whiche were full of fyre. And thus k3mge Alysander as a sage prynce 
eschewed the paryll and daunger of these olyphauntes. And con- 
querd this wylde people, & in suche wyse dompted tholyphauntes that 
they durst do no more harme vnto the men. The olyphauntes goo 
moche symply & accordyngly to gydre. And whan they mete and en* 
countrc eche other They bowe their hedes that one to that other lyke 
as they entresalewed eche other. S\^* e iii-iiij.* 

* We will jast notice, at the foot of the text, lome of the author's notions of nundr 
auimak and reptiles : ' wjthin die ryuer and flode of Inde named Ganges goon the edet 
by grete renges whiche ben CCC feet long and ben good mete to ete at nede'^^A little 
onward of Serpentt : ' Ther is in this regjon anodier maner of serpents that hane hornet 
Ijke a shepe, Ther groweth a beest named aspis that may not be deceyuyd ne taken bat 
by chamyng, for he lieryth gladly y« sowne. But assone as he heeiyth the charme he 
puttetli his tayll in his one cere, and that otiier leyeth to the gronude [sic] doobtyng to be 
deceyuyd by y* charme, Other serpentes ther be named Tygrys whiche ben taken alle 
quyck by force of engyns. And of them men make triacle, whyche defieteth and takctii 
away other veiiym, Other wormes ther gnme there whiche haue two armes so looge and m 

840 BOOKS PRINTED BY [3aTar qfUm 

The acconnt of the Amaxom la suflSdently extraordinary : 'Another 
tpgfovk ther is y* whiche oometh toward the north in whiche ther 
dwelleth noman» but wymmen whiche ben as fyers as lyoM, And whan 
nede is they fyghte f rely ayenst the men They go armed as knyghtes 
ip bataylle, & brynge doun their enemyes wythout sparynge, th^ haue 
fidr tresses of their heer whiche hange doun byhynde them* And they 
be gamysshed wyth grete prouesses in all their werkes & af&yrei^ 
And ben called Amazowftfs But they haue men nygfae to their contre 
dweUyngy Whom they euery yere fetche for to be in their companye 
▼i^ orxvdayes longe and sufire them to knowe them camelly so longe 
that they suppose that they haue conceyuyd, and thenne departe the 
men fro that contre And goon agayn thedyr that they came fro» and 
whan thyse wymmen haue childed. yf it be a doughter they reteyne 
her wyth them, And yf it be a sone they nourysshe it fyue or syx yere, 
i|nd after sende it out of the contree yet in other places ben many 
fayr ladyes whiche in bataylles, & in estowrs vse aOe their Armes of 
qrluer for lacke of yron and of steelL of whiche they haue not* In tlie 
woodes of Inde ben other wymmen the whiche haue their berdes so 
iQOg^ that they come doun tP their pappes. They lyue by wylde 
beestys, and clothe them wyth the skynnes of the same wyld beestis.* 
S^pn. e v^. 

The following afibrds a singular melange * And they entretiene & 
deue to gydre wel an hondred in a clustre, & the leues that growe on 
thb apple trees ben wel two fote longe, & a foot brode. Other apples 
ther growe moche grete, wherin appiereth the bytte of a man, wyth 
his teeth. And ben called thapples of Adam by cause of y* bytte that 
q>iereth in them, ther ben other trees whiche here apples, that ben 
right fair wythout forth. And wythin it is as it were asshes. The 
vygnes here there grapes, of which wyn is maade. they ben so habon- 
daunt of fhiyt, And y* dustres of grapes ben so grete & so ful of 
muste. that two men ben gretly charged to here one of them only 
Tpon acolstaf . Also ther growe lytyl smale trees that be remcuyd euery 
yere the whiche here cotoun. also ther growe in many places canes 

^rwrie that they bete and alee the OljpbaunU. Thit worme lyueth right longe. And 
whan he u olde and feletU hym feble, he ooosometh hym lelf by £utynge. And snffineth to 
be enfiunyned so oner moche that lytyl abydeth of his body, Tticnne he golh in to a lytyll 
hooU of sonme stone whiche u wel strayt and thenne he putteth hym self out wyth so 
lyght grete distresse, that hys shynne remayneth all hooL And ther groweth and oometh 
on hym another skynne. And thus renewieth hit ago as a wyse bccate that he ib' 
S^gn, e* iiij. ▼. 

ftmU; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTOM. «l 

grete and longe whiche ben wythin forth tal of sugie. to moche and 
espedall that ther growe none lyke in alle the worlde. At one of the 
heedes of the Royame of babylone groweth the bame whiche is modie 
dere» and cristen men that ben prysonnen there dehie and laboure the 
erthe. And sarasyns saye that they haue ofte preuyd it, that whan they 
doo dehie and laboure that erthe wyth people of other nadons than 
cryaten itien that it bereth no fhiyt ne bame that yere. And vpon the 
Mde where the bame groweth, some saye that there 8pr3^ngeth a 
ftntayne where the blessyd Vyrgine Marie bayned her sone JhesoQ, 
And with the watre of this fontayne is the bame watred. and of tfaU 
water may not be employed ne born in to other place, for in substainice 
it doth no more than other water. Sign. fi. 6j. 

But not the least amusing portion of this volume is contained in 
the description of the Purgatory of St. Patrick i* 

' Ther is also in Irlonde a place called Seynt Patrykes purgatorye^ 
whiche place is perillous yf ony men goon therin & be not confessed 
and repentant of their synnes, they be anon rauysshid and loste in suche 
wyae that noman can telle where they be come. And yf they be con* 
fessed and repentant, & that they haue doon satis&ction and penaunoe 
for their synnes wythout that all be clensed and fill satisfyed therafter 
shal they sufire payne and greef the tormentis in passyng this crymyndi 
passage, And whan he is retomed agayn fro this purgatorye, Neuer 
shal no thing in this world plese hym that he shal see ner he shal 
neuer be joyous ne glad ne shal not be seen lawke. but shal be 
contynueUy in wayllynges & wepynges for the synnes that he hath 
commysed. hit may wel be that of auncyent tyme it hath ben thus as 
«fore is wreton as the storye of Tundale & other witnesse, but 1 haue 

* It b preceded by the folkming no ftry domsy piece of ntfecuiatioa : ' And tiier b 
Donan that knofivedi all sauf ooli god wUdie all seeth and nlle knoweth, The geoontes that 
bn in aom place bane right grete meniaylle of this that we be so lytyl ayensttbem, Lyke 
as wemeniayUe of them that ben halflaaie than we be. As it u to forenjd, & they ben y* 
F^gmant whiche ben but iij foot longe. And in lyke wyse memayle they of ▼& of that we 
ben 80 grete, and repate vs also fir geaontes, they that hane but one eye and one iboti 
haue grete memayle that we haue tweyne, lyke as we doo of tiiem that haue but one. And 
also as we dcnyse their bestis & name them by their names in lyke wise deuyse they ooK%r 
by tfaein, boihe of body & of membres, yf the oenty c ore hane an foot of an bors, in lyke 
wyse hath the hors the fi>ot of a centyoore, also we may wel saye that y* hors hath tiie 
body of Monotfaerofl. fi>r they ben lyke oorsayge. And thus their besds resemble TDto onres 
whidie ben dynersa of bedes of bodyes and of membres, as oures ben oootrayre to tberiit* 
^Ipi. jv. recto. 

242 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Mkrar qfih^ 

spoke with dyuerse men that haue bea therin* and that one o£ them 
was an bye canon of Waterfbrd whiche told me^that be had ben therm. 
8 or 9 times & he sawe ne suffired no suche thynges be aayth tha#wyth 
processyon the relygyous men that ben there brjmge hym in to the hoed; 
and shette the dore after hym. & than he walketh groping in to it 
where as he said ben places & maner of cowches to reste on* And there 
he* was all the nyght in cotemplacion & prayer, and also slepte there^ 
& on the mom he cam out agayn, other while in there slepe some 
men haue meruayllous dremes & other thynge sawe he not. And in lyke 
wyse tolde to me a worshipful knyght of brudgis named Sir John, de 
banste thai he had ben therin in lyke wyse & see none other thyng but 
as afore is sayd.' Sign, f v« vj. 

There is something perhaps approaching the grand and sublime — in 
the following description of the pains of the damned, or theififerief of 

'For this place is of suche nature that the more it brenneth the 
lenger it endureth. this place of belle hath wythin hym alle the euyUes 
of his partye, there deth holdeth his standard, whiche sendeth out 
thurgh all the world for to fetche them that ben his, who that hath 
joye of heuynesse thyder come all euylles and all the euyll aportes, this 
place is called the erthe of deth. For the sowles that ben brought thyder, 
they abyde and dwelle there wytbout ende, certaynly they deye lyuyng. 
And alleway lyue deyeng, the deth is there their lyf and their vyande 
and mete the deth holdeth them there at his commandement, this is 
the right pytte of fyre that brenneth. And all in lyke wyse as the stone 
is drewned in the see whan it is throwen and sonken, and neuer shal 
be after seen right so ben the sowles sonken in to the bottom whiche 
contynuelly brenne and be drowned ther, but for al that they dymy- 
nysshe not ne haue ende. But in suche mysere abye their folyes nyght 
alid day. and so shal endure perpetually and wythout ende. for what 
someuer thyng that is spyritual may neuer dye in suche wyse that it be 
alle deed, but the deth wold they haue and weesshe after it inciessauntly, 
the sowle may neuer deye after that it is out of the body. But whan 
it is there, it shal alleway languysshe. And euer after that it is in belle 
it shal haue nothyng but euyl, this is the contre & the londe of 
oblyuyon and forgetyng. For alle they that ben there shal be forgoten. 
Lyke as they forgate in this world their Maker whiche is ful of pyte and 
of Mysericorde, And therefore he hath leyd them there in foi^getyng 
where they shal neuer haue mercy ne pardon in this londe so tenebrouse 

fTorU^ 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 248 

hydouse and full of all stencbe, and of sorawes. anguyshes. heuynes^ 
hungre. And thinte sbal neuer creature baue gladncifle ne joye tiilaa 
ben the terryble gehynes rtumkynge, And there is fyre so ouer moche 
ardaunt bote and anguysshous tbat our f^re and the bete is nomora 
▼nto the regard of that fyre of belle than a fyre paynted on a walle is 
in comparyson and to the regard of our fyre,' Sign, g i. g iL 

One further extract (exhibiting the author's skill in Natural PUh^ 
9ophy), and we dismiss the volume : 

* Of lyghtnynges and of thondres^ capitulo, xxyiij, 

* In thayer happen many thinges of whiche the people speke not gladly* 
for they retche not moche of suche thynges of whiche they can not wd 
come to the knowlecbe, this that maketh therthe to quaue. And this 
that maketh the dowdes to thondre, that whiche maketh the erthe to 
opene» And this that maketh the ctowdes to sparkle and lyghtne whan 
the thondre is herde, for thondres and lygbtynges ben deboutemens and 
brekyn out of wyndes that mete aboue the clowdes so asperly and 
shdrply,* that in theyr comyng groweth ofte a grete fyre in thayer^ 
And this thondre that falleth in many places whiche the wyndes 
constrayne so terrybly that the clowdes cleue and breke and maketh to 
thondre, and lyghtyne, & fsdletb doun in so grete rage by the wynde that 
destrayneth it so asprely that it confoundeth alle that it atteyneth in 
suche wyse that nothyng endureth ayenst it. And it is of so heuy ns^ture 
that somtyme it perseth therthe vnto the myddle. And somtynie it 
quencheth er it cometh to the grounde after that it is of poyse, and 
that is not of ouer stronge nature, fbr whan the clowde is moche derkflb 
and thycke and that ther is grete pknte of water, the fyre passeth not so 
soone. but it is quenchid in the clowde by the grete quatyte of the water 
that is therin byfbre it may perse thurgh so that it may not approche 
therthe, but in the straynyng & brekyng that hit maketh thenne in the 
clowde. groweth a sowne so grete and stronge, that it is meruaylloiMi 
to here I declare to you fbr certayn that this is the thondre. whiche is 
moche to be doubted & dnuL' Sign, g viij. 

I have probably trespassed somewhat unconscionably upon the 
patience of the reader, by the length of the preceding extracts ; but 
their variety, singularity, and a consideration of the former popularity * 
of the work, must be my principal excuse. Nor is it wholly uninstruc* 
tive or unsatisfactory, to witness the progress and present improve- 
ment of knowledge in the several branches of which the work treats. 

• Sk : for ' ahvplj.* 


Oar emotions of surprise and astoalshnient «t tiie Ignortnce- of tomer 
periods^ is Mghtened or modified Ifjt the sstdsllMTtion we derive on aeon- 
templation of the genend improvement of the modem worid. Divested 
of the charm of a poetic fhncj, and of the spirit of romantic iMkm, 
the grave recitals of monsters^ gi^atSy and pretemataral eventoy 
are only subjects of cold and momentary gratification ; but it is fit^ in 
researches into the lore of * other times^* that the antiquary should 
select what is likely to interest equally the feelings of the phUok^gist 
and phOoBopher. 

It remains only to observe that the edition before us concludes on 
the reverse of the last leaf but one : (1 vij, in eights) haying the same 
date in the colophon with that of the preceding impression. The 
following is the imprint: 

The large devfce of the printer is on the reverse of the following and 
last leaf. The present is a short but sound copy, obtained at the sale 
of the Merly library, and fimnerly in the collection of J. Ratdiflb. It is 
in old red morocco binding, with a broad borderof gilt on the exterior. 

849. The Histoeyb ov Rbtnabd the Foxs. 
1481. Folio. 

FiasT Edition. When an account of * this curious and eicceeding^y 
scares vidume* was given to the puWc in the T)/pog. JnUq. tqL L p. 
114, 1 was impressed with an idea that no copy of it, besides the one 
ihere descril)ed, (from His Majesty's Library) was known to be in this 
country. The existence ci the present co|^, formerly in the very 
curious collection of Dean Honeywood, (Temp. W. HI.] proves that 
the Royal copy is not entitled to the distinction of being unique. It is 
however very questionable whether a third perfect copy be contained 
in any Library, however ancient or unsearched. The wwlc itself which 
is equally curious and interesting, must have been extremely popular 
upon its appearance ; as is proved from the scarcity of the reimpression 
of it, by Pynson ; no copy of this reprint being at present known to 
exist,' except the one in the choice library of Mr. Douce ; and that, in 
an imperfect state. Heame, in his Cuil. Neubrig. voL iii. p. 743-4, 
teUs us that this work is * an admirable thing ; and the design, being 
political, and to represent a wise government, is equally good.' But 
it also appears to be a severe satire upon the Romish Church. In short. 

tie Fhxs 1481 .] WIUiAM CAXTON. M5 

it is equally a satire upon the Bimaa Catholic religion, upoa tlie courts 
and upon courtiers ; containing some verj acute^ yet useful, ilrlimsa 
tions of the selfishness of the human character. The reflections and 
incidents are equally well conceived and expressed, if we may judge 
from the translation; which latter is, unquestionably, among thcf 
happiest specimens extant of the version of the fiuniliar coUoquy of 
one tongue into that of another. 

The original is in Dutch ; and Mr. Douce * thinks that it was com- 
posed long before the twelfth century. The translation places Caxton 
in the first rank of our authors of the xvth century. There is no 
small dexterity in the manner in whidi he shelters himself from the 
imputation which might attach to him on account of the freedom of 
the work :^* If any thing (says Caxton) be said or written herein thatt 
may grieve or displease man, blame not me, but the Fox ; for they be 
his words not mine '. After an introduction of so much promise, the 
reader has a rig^t to expect a few specimens of a work abounding in 
such curious information; and that the specimens be both amusing 
and corroborative of the judgment here pronounced. 1 trust therefore 
that his expectations will be verified from what is laid before him. 
We will commence with the bibliographical department. The first 
leaf, a 1, is blank. On the recto of the second lea^ a 2, the table of 
the chapters commences with this prefix : 

^W t^ t|e tOOt of t|^ Irt^tatpe of npnatt t^ fojce 

The table occupies % pages and a half; and will be found extracted 
entire^ in the modem orthography, in the work before referred to. 
On the reverse of a a, 

^tt htsftmei^ tDpiitoepe of ttptuofe t|^ fiojce 

The first sentence shews the moral object of the work, and is given 
entire in the forementioned work referred to. The first chapter of the 
Lkm sununoning the Beasts * to come to his feast and court,' is also 
printed entire in the same work. The signatmies extend ftt>m a to 1 
in eights ; 1 having only 6 leaves, including a blank leaf; and a blank 
leaf (as before observed) forming a i. Before the odophon is given, 
various specimens of the work (as above promised) shall be submitted 
to the attention of the curious reader. The first is taken firom the Xth 
chapter; in which Tibert^ the Gb<, is prevailed upon to bring Reynard to 

* JVuttnitiont ofSkahpemtp toL iL p; 547. 


ccmrt. After the usual salutatkniSt and an ineflectual eflbrt on the 
put of the fox to keep the cat for the night, the text proceeds : 

* Tybert saide» it is beste that we now goo, for the mone shyneth 
also light as it were daye, I neuer sawe fiiyrer weder, nay dere cosyn, 
suche myght mete vs by daye tyme, that wold make vs good chiere, 
and by nyghtte parauenture myght doo vs harme, it is suspecyous to 
[w]alke by nyghte. Therfore a byde this nyght here by me Tybert 
saydcy what sholde wc ete, 3rf we abode here, reynart sayde, here is but 
lytel to ete ye maye wel haue an hony combe good and swete, what 
saye ye, Tybert wyl ye ony therof, tybert answerd I sette nought therby 
haue ye nothyng eUis yf ye gaf me a good fatte mows, I shold be better 
plesyd, a fatte mows said reyuard, dere cosyn what saye ye, here by 
dwelleth a preest and hath a bame by his hows ther in ben so many 
myse, that a man shdld not lede them a way ypon a wayne, I haue herd 
the preest many tymes complayne that they dyde hym moche harme O 
dere reyner lede me thyder for alle that I may doo for yow, ye tybert 
saye ye me trouthe, loue ye wel myes, yf I loue hem wel said the catte, 
I loue myes better than ony thyng that men gyue me. knowe ye not 
that myes sauoure better than veneson, ye than flawnes or pasteyes wil 
ye wel doo. so lede me theder where the myes ben. and thenne shal ye 
Wynne my loue. ye al had ye slayn my fader moder and alle my kyn. 

Reynart sayd ye moke and Jape therwyth. the catte saide so helpe 
me god 1 doo not. Tybert said, the foxe wiste I that veryly I wolde 
yet this nyght make that ye shuld be ful of myes. reynart qd he. fid 
that were many, tyberte ye Jape, reynart qd he in trouth I doo not, 
yf I hadde a fatte mows, I wold not gyue it for a golden noble, late vs 
goo thenne, tybert qd the foxe 1 wyl brynge yow to the place, er ^ goo 
fro you, reyner qd the foxe, vpon your saufconduyt, I wolde wel goo 
wyth you to monpelier, late vs thenne goo said the foxe we tarye alto 
longe. Thus wente they forth withoute lettyng to the place, where as 
they lipoid be to the prestes bame whiche was fsste wallid aboute with 
a mude wal and the nyght to fore the foxe had broken in, and had 
stolen fro the preest a good fatte henne, and the preest alle angry had 
sette a gryn to fore the hool toauenge hym, for he wold fayn haue take 
the foxe, this knewe wel the felle theef the foxe And said sir tybert 
oisyn crepe in to this hool, and ye shal not longe tarye but that ye 
shal catche myes by grete heepis, herke how they pype. whan ye be 
fill, come agayn, I wil tarye here after you be fore this hole, we wil to 
morowe goo to gyder to the court, Tybert why tarye ye thus longe 
come of, and so maye we retome sonc to my wyf. whiche wayteth 

ike Ar; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 247 

after ts, aad shal make vs good chiere, l^iert saide, reynart cosjrn Is 
it thenne your coiinseyl that I goo in to this hole. Thise prestes bfen 
so wyly & shrewyssh, I drede to take harme, O ho tybert said the fox 
I sawe you neuer so sore aflerde, what eyleth yow» the catte was ashamed 
and sprange in to the hoole, And anon he was caught in the gryn by 
the nedce er be wyste, thus deceyuyd reynard his ghest and oosyn. 
As tybert was wair of the grynne, he was a ferde and sprange forth, 
the grynne wente to, thenne began he to wrawen, for he was alcnost 
ystifan^lyd, he called he cryed & made a shrewd noyse, reynart stode to 
fore the hool and herde al, and was wel a payed and sayde, tybert loue 
ye wel myes, be they fieitte and good, knewe the preeste herof or 
mertynet, they be so gentyl that they wolde brynge you sawce, Tybert 
ye synge and eten, is that the guyse of the court, lord god yf ysegrym 
ware there by yow in suche reste as ye now be thenne shold I be glady 
for ofte he hath don me scathe and harme tybert coude not goo awaye^ 
but he mawede, and galped so lowde, that marty net sprang vp, and cryde 
lowde, god be thanked my gryn hath taken the thief that hath stolen 
our hennes, aryse vp we wil rewarde hym. Sign. b. 6, 7- 

In his .^ray to Court, from apprehension of condign punishment, 
Reynard makes his Ck)nfession« This < Shriving 'shall tell its own tale t 

'How reynard shroef hymCapitulo. xy- 

* Whan reynart and grymbert had goon a whyle to gydre, tho saide 
reynart, dere cosyn now am I in grete fere, for I goo in drede and 
ieopardye of my lyf, I haue so moche repentaunce for my synnes that 
I wil shryue me dere cosyn to yow, here is none other preest to gete 
yf I were shryuen of my sinnes, my soule shold be the derer, grymbert 
ansuerde, Eem wil ye shryue you, thenne muste ye promyse first to 
leue your steelyng and rouynge reynart saide that wiste ye wel, now 
herke dere cosyn what I shal saye, Confiteor tibi pater of alle the 
mysdedes that I haue don. And gladly wil receyue penance for them, 
Gkymbert sayde what saye ye^ wylle ye shryue yow, thenne saye it in 
englissh that 1 may ynderstande. you reynart sayde, I haue trespaced 
ayenst alle the bestis that lyue in especyal ayenst bruyn the here myne 
Eem whom I made his crowne al blody. And taughte tybert the catt* 
to catche myes for I made her leepe in a grenne wher she was al to 
beten, also I haue trespaced gretly ayenst chanteclere with his chil- 
dren, for I haue made hjrm quyte of a grete dele of hem* 

' The kynge is not goon al quyte, I haue sklandred hym and the 


248 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Reynard 

quene many tymes, that they shal neuer be cler therof yet haue I 
begyled ysegrem the wulf ofter than I can telle wel I called hym cme^ 
but that was to deceyue hym, he is nothjmg of my kyn, I made hym 
a monke, Eelmare, where I my self also becam one. And that was to his 
hurte and no prouffyte, I made bynde his feet to the belle rope, the 
lyngyng of the belle thought hym so good that he wolde leme to 
rynge wherof he bad shame, ffbr he range so sore that alle the fblke 
in the strete were aferd therof and meruayUed what myghte be on the 
belle. And ranne thyder to fore he had comen to axe the religyon, 
wherfore he was beten almost to the detb, after this I taught hym to 
catche fyssh where he receyuid many a stroke, also I ledde hym to the 
richest prestes hows that was in Vermedos, this preest had a spynde 
wherin henge many a good flitche of bacon, wherin many a tyme I 
was wonte to fyl my bely, in this spynde I had made an hole, in whiche 
I made ysegrem to crepe, there fbnde he tubbes wyth beef and many 
goed flitches of bacon wherof he ate so moche withoute mcsure, that 
he myght not come out at the hole where he wente in, his belly was 
80 grete and ful of the mete, and whan he entred his bely was smal, 
I wente in to the village and made there a grete showte, and noyse 
yett herke what I dyde thenne I ranne to the preest where he satte 
at the table and ete. And hadde to fore hym as fatte capone as a man 
myght fynde, that capone caught 1 & ranne my weye therwith al that 
I myghte, the preest cryed out & said, take & slee the foxe, I trowe 
that neuer man sawe more wonder, the foxe cometh in my hows and 
taketh my capoone fro my table, where sawe euer man an hardyer 
theef^ & as me thought he toke his table knyf & casted it at me, but 
he touched me not I ranne away, he shoof the table from hym, folewed 
me cryeng kylle & slee hym, I to goo and they after and many moo 
cam after whiche alle thought to hurte me, 

* I Ranne so longe that I cam where as isegrem was, and there I 
lete falie the capone, for it was to heuey for me, and ayenst my wille I 
lefte it there, and thenne I sprange thurgh an hole where as I wolde 
be, and as the preest toke vp the capone^ he espyed isegrem and cryde 
smyte doun here frendes here is the theef the wulf, see wel to that he 
escape vs not. they ranne alle to gydre wyth stokkes and staues & made 
a grete noyse that alle the neyghbours camen owte. and gauen hym 
many n shrewde stroke, and threwe at hym grete stones, in suche wyse 
that he fyl doun as he had ben deed, they slepid hym and drewe hym 
ouer stones and ouer blockes wylhout the village and threwe hym in 
to a dyche and there he laye al the nyght, I wote neuer how he cam 

the Fox; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 249 

thens syth I haue goten of hym, for as moche as I made hym to fylle 
his bely, that he sware that he wolde be myn helpe an hole yere, 

'Tho ledde I hym to a place where I tolde hym ther were vij hennes 
and a cocke whiclie satte on a perche and were moche fatte. And ther 
stode a faldore by, and we clymmed ther vp, I sayde to hym yf be 
wolde bileue me, & that he wolde crepe in to the dore, he sholde fynde 
many fatte hcnes. Isegrym wente al lawhyng to the dore ward and 
crope a lityl in, & tasted here & there, & at laste he sayde to me 
reynarde ye borde & iape with me, for what I seche I fynde not theiie 
said I, eme yf ye wyl fynde crepe forther in, he that wil wynne, he 
muste laboure and auenture, they that were wonte to sytte there, I 
haue them a waye thus I made hym to seche erther in, & shoue hjrm 
forth so ferrc, that he fylle doun ypon the floer for the perche was 
narow, and he fill so grete a ^le, that they sprange vp alle that slepte^ 
and they that laye nexet, the fyre cryden that the valdore was open and 
somthyng was falle and they wiste not wat it myght be,' 

* They roose vp and lyghte a candel, and whan they sawe hym they 
smeton beten and wounded hym to the deth, I haue brought hym thus 
in many a iepardye,moo than 1 gan now rekene, I sholde fynde many moo^ 
yf I me wel bethoughte, whiche I shal telle you here after. Also I haue 
bydryuen wyth dame erswynde his wyf, I wolde I had not don it, I am 
sory for it, hit b to her grete shame. And that me repenteth, grunbert 
saide, Eme I vndcrstande you not, he sayde I haue trespaced with his 
wyf, ye shryue yon, as though ye helde somwhat behynde, I wote not 
what ye mene ne where ye haue lemed thb langage, Ach dere eme it 
were grete shame yf I shold saye it oppenly as it happed, I haue leyen 
by myn aunte, I am your eme I shold angre you yf I spak vylanye of 
wymmen, neuer now haue 1 tolde you alle that I can thynke on, sette 
me penaunce, and assoylie me, flbr I haue grete repentaunce, grymbert 
was subtyl and wyse, he brake a rodde of a tree and saide, eme now 
shal ye smyte your self thryes with this rodde on your body. And thenne 
leye it doun vpon the grounde, & sprynge thre tymes ther ouer without 
bowyng of your legges and wythout stomblyng, and tlienne shal ye 
take it vp and kysse it frendly in token of mekenes and obedience of 
your penance that I gaf yow, herwith be ye quyte of alle synnes that 
ye haue don to this day for, I forgeue it now al, the foxe was glad, tho 
sayd grymbert to his eme, Eme see now forthon, that ye doo good 
werkis, rede your psalmes, goo to chirche feste and kepe your halydayes, 
and giuc your allmesse, and leue your synfiil and yl lyf, yoiu* thefbe and 

350 liOOKS PRINTED BY [Beynard 

your treson and so maye you come to mercy, the fbxe promysed that he 
wold so doo» and thenne wente they bothe to gydre to the court ward. 

* a Lytel besyde the waye as they wente stode a cloyster of back 
nonnes. where many ghees, hennes and capones wente withoute the 
walles, and as they wente talkynge the fbxe brought grymbert out of 
the right waye thyder and without the walles by the bame wente the 
polayle. The foxe espyed them and saw a fiitte yong capone whiche 
wente allone fro his felawes, and leep & caugl^t hjrm that the fethers 
flewh aboute his eeris but the capone escaped, grimbert sayde what erne 
cursyd man what wil ye doo, will ye for one of thise poletes fialle agayne 
in alle your synnes of whiche ye haue shryen yow, ye ought sore repente 
you, reynart answerd, truly cos}ii I had al fbrgoten, praye god that he 
forgeue it ine for I wil neuer do so more, thene torned they agayn ouer 
a lityl brydge, yet the foxe alway loked after the polaylle^ he coulde not 
refrayne hym self, that whiche cleuid by the bone, myght not out of the 
flesshe, though he shold be hanged, he coulde not lete the lokyng after 
the polaylle as fer as he myght see them. Grymbert sawe his maner & 
sayde, ffowle false deceyour, how goo your eyen so after the poleyl, the 
foxe sayde, cosyn ye mysdoo to saye to me ony suche wordes, ye brynge 
me out of my deuocion and prayers, late me saye a pater noster fior alle 
the sowles of polaylle and ghes that I haue betrayed, and ofte wyth 
fidsheed stolen from theyse holly nonnes, Grymbert was not wel a payd 
but the foxe had euer his eyen toward the polayl, til atte laste they cam 
in the waye agayne. And thenne torned they to the court warde how sore 
quaked tho renard whan they aproched the court, ffor he wiste wel that 
he had for to answere to many a fowle feet and thefte that be had doon' 
Sign, c 2, 3, 4. 

Neither the confession of Reynard, nor his artful conduct during his 
trial, avails him any thing. He is condemned to be hung ; and the follow- 
ing is his * last dying speech and confession' under the gallows — after 
having, with great difficulty, obtained the privilege of speaking: 

* The foxe saide my lorde the kynge and noble lady the quene god 
rewarde yow, thys grete worship that ye do to me, I shal thynke and 
also thanke you for hit, in suche wise that ye shal be the richest kynge 
of the world, ffor ther is none lyuyng vnther the sonne, that I vouche- 
sauf better my tresour on, than on yow bothe, thenne toke the foxe vp 
a straw and profred it to the kyng and saide my moste dere lord plese 
it yow to receyue &iere the ryche tresour whiche kynge ermerk hadde^ 

iheFbxi 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 251 

for I gyue it vnto yow wyth a ire wylle, and knowleche^it openly^ 
the kynge receyuid the straw and threwe it meryly fro hym with a 
joyous visage. And thanked moche the foxe» the foxe laughed in hym 
self, the kynge thenne herkened after the counseyl of the foxe, And alle 
that ther were, were at his wylle. My lorde sade he» herkene and marke 
wel my wordes, in the west side of flaundres ther standeth a wode and 
is named hulsterlo, And a water that is called brekenpyt lyeth therby, 
this is so grete a wyldernesse, that ofte in an hole yere man ner wyf 
Cometh therin, sauf they that wil, and they that wille not eschewe it, 
there lyeth this tresour hydde, vnderstande wel, that the place is called 
brekenpit, for I aduyse you for the leste hurte, that ye and my lady goo 
bothe thyder. ffor I knowe none so trewe that I durste on your behalue 
truste wherfore goo your self. And whan ye come to brekenpyt ye shal 
fynde there two birchen trees standyng alther next the pytte, my lorde 
to the byrchen trees shal ye goo, there lyeth tlie tresour vnther doluen, 
there muste ye scrape and dygge a way a lytyl the mosse on the one 
side, ther shalle ye fynde many a jewel of golde and syluer. and there 
shal ye fynde the crowne whiche kynge Ermerk ware in his dayes that 
sholde bruyn the here haue worn yf his wyl had gon forth ye shal see 
many a costly jewel with riche stones sette in golde werk whiche coste 
many a thousand marke, My lord the kynge whan ye now haue alle 
this good, how ofte shal ye saye in your herte and thynke, o how true 
art thou reynart the foxe. that with thy subtyl wytte daluyst and 
hyddest here this grete tresour, god gyue the good happe and wel&re 
where euer thou bee»' 

' The kynge sayde, Sir reynarte ye muste come and helpe vs to dygge 
vp this tresour, I knowe, not the way, I sholde neuer conne fynde it, I 
haue herde ofte named, parys, london akon and coleyn. As me thynketh 
this tresour lyeth, right as ye mocked and Japed, for ye name breken- 
pyt, that is a&yned name, these werdes were not good to the foxe, and 
he sayd wyth an angry mode, and dissymyled and saide, ye my lord 
the kynge, ye be also nyghe that as fro come to maye, wene ye that I 
wille lede yow to flomme iordayn. Nay I shal brynge you out of 
wenyng and shewe it you by good wytnes, he called lowde kywart the 
hare, come here, to fore the kynge. The bestes sawe alle thyder ward 
and wondrcd what the kynge wold, the foxe sayde to the hare, ky- 
wart ar ye a colde, how tremble ye and quake so, be not a ferd, and 
telle my lord the kynge here the trouthe. And that 1 charge you by 
the feyth and trouthe that ye owe hym and to my lady the quene of 
suche thynge. as I shal demaunde of you, kywart saide I shal saye the 

252 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Reynard 

tioothe though I ahold lose my necke therefore, I sh&l not lye ye haue 
charged me so sore, yf I knowe it, Thenne saye, knowe ye not where 
kriekenpyt standeth, is that in your mynde, the hare saide, I knewe 
that wel. x^. yer a goon, wher that stondeth, why aske ye that. It 
stondeth in a woode named hulsterlo vpon a warande in the wylder- 
nesie, I haue sufiPred there moche sorowe for hunger and for colde, ye 
more than I can telle,' &c. &c. Sign. d. 4, 5. 

The Fox gains hts freedom ; but is compelled to do pennance at 
Rome, ' to make him clear of all sins.* He b whimsically shod on 
the occasion : 

' How ysegrym and his wyf ereswyn muste suffre her shois to be 
plncked of, And how reynard dyde on the shoys for to goo to rome 
wyth, capitulo xix, 

* Thus hath this false pylgrym goten fro Isegr3rm ij shooes fro his 
feet, whiche were haled of the clawes to the senewis ye sawe neuer 
foule that men rosted laye so stylie, as Isegrim dyde, whan his shoes 
were haled of, he styred not, and yet his feet bledde* thenne whan 
Isegrim was vnshoed, tho muste dame eerswyn his wyf lye down in 
the grasse wyth an heuy chere. And &he loste ther her hynder shoes, Tho 
was the foxe glad and saide to his aunte in scome, my dere aunte how 
moche sorow haue ye suffred for my sake, whiche me sore repenteth, 
souf this, herof I am glad ffbr ye be the lyeuest of alle my kyn, ther- 
fore I wyl gladly were your shoen, ye shal be partener of my pylgre- 
mage, and dele of the pardon that I shal with your shoen foeche oucr 
the see, dame erswyne was so woo that she vnnethe myght speke, 
neuertheless this she sayde, A reynart that ye now al thus haue your 
wyl, I pray god to wcrke it, ysegrym & his felaw the here holden their 
pees and wherin al stylle, they were euyl at case, fibr they were 
bounded and sore wounded had tybert the catte haue ben there, he 
shold also somewhat haue sufired, in suche wyse, as he sholde not 
escaped thens wythout hurte and shame/ 

* The next day whan the sonne aroos reynard thenne dyde grece his 
shoes whiche he had of ysegrem and erswyn his wyf, and dyde hem on 
& bonde hem to his feet, and weiite to the kynge & to the queue and 
said to hem with a glad chere, noble lord and lady god gyue you good 
morow and J desire of your grace that I may haue male and staff 
blessyd as belongeth to a pilgrym Thenne the kynge anone, sent for 
bellyn the ramme, and whan he cam he saide. Sir bellyn ye shal do 

the For; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 26S 

masse to fore reynait, for he shal goo on pylgremage, and gyue to 
hym male and staf, the ram answerd agayn and said, my lord I dare 
not do that, flfor he hath said that he is in the popes curae, the kynge 
said, what therof, mayster gelys hath said to vs, yf a man had doo 9B 
many synnes as al the world, and he wold tho synnes forsake, shryue 
hem & resseyue penance, and do by the prestes counseyl, god wil 
fbrgyue them and be mercyful vnto hym now wil reynard goo ouer the 
see into the holy lande & make hym clere of al his synnes,' &c. 
Sign, d 8. 

But the innate wickedness of Reynard is not to be subdued by 
contrition for the past, or by pious resolves for the future. He 
returns to his old practices, as we find in the following chapter. There 
is great archness in the conclusion : 

* How Kywart the hare wasi slayn by the foxe Cap**, xx^. 

* Whan the foxe was come to the yate of his hows he sayde to bellyn 
the ramme, cosyn ye shal abide here withoute, I and Kywart willc goo 
in flbr I wille praye kywart to helpe roe to take my leue of ermelyn my 
wyf, and to conforte her and my children, bellyn sayde I praye hym to 
comforte them wel, wyth suche flateryng wordes brought he the hare 
in to his hole in an euyl hour, there fonde they dame ermelyn lyeng 
on the grounde with her yonglyngb, whiche had sorowed moche £fi>r 
drede of reynarts deth, but whan she sawe hym come she was glad, 
but whan she sawe his male and palster, and espyed his shoes, she 
meruailled and sayd dere reynar, how haue ye spedd, he sayd I was 
arestid in the coiut. But the kynge lete me gon, I muste goo a pilgri- 
mage, Bruyn the here and ysegrym the wulf they be plegge for me, I 
thanke the kynge, he hath gyuen to vs kywart hier, £for to do with 
hjrm what we wyl. The kynge saide hym self that kywart was the first 
that on vs complayned, And by the fayth that I owe yow I am right 
wroth on kywart, whan kywart herde thise wordes he was sore aferde. 
He wold haue fledde, but he myght not, ffbr the foxe stode bytwene 
hym and the yate, And he caught hym by the nccke, Tho cryed the 
hare helpe bellyn helpe, where be ye This pilgryme sleeth me, but that, 
crye was sone doon, for the foxe had anon byten his throte a two^ 
Tho sayd he late vs go ete this good fatte hare, the yonge whelpes 
cam also. Thus helde they a grcte feste, ffbr kywart had a good &tte 
body, ermelyn ete the flessh and dranke the blood, she thanked ofte, 
the kynge that he had made them so mery. The foxe said ete as moche 
as ye maye, he wil pay foi; it, yf we wil feche it.* Sign, e 1, 2. 

254 BOOKS PRINTED BY iReynard 

We may conclude these extracts by shewing how cunnugly and 
successfully Reynard extricates himself from this * most foul ' murder* 
After a good deal of ingenious and sophistical discussion, between the 
Fbx and his Wife, in which the former tells the latter how he escaped 
from the power of the IdoUt and the latter tells the former in what 
manner he is to shape his course in future, Bellm the Ram becomes 
impatient for the return of poor Kywart^ the slaughtered Hare : 

* Now was bellyn the rame angry that kywart his folawe was so 
longe in the hole, and called lowde. come out kywarte in the deuels 
name, how longe shal reynart kepe you there, haste you and come late 
Ts goo, whan reynard herde this, he wente out and saide softly to bellyn 
the ramme. lief bellyn wherfore be ye angry kywart speketh wyth his 
dere aunte. me thynketh ye ought not to be dysplesid therfore. he bad 
me saye to yow ye myght wd go to fore. And he shal come after, ha is 
lighter of fote than ye. he muste tarye a whyle with his aunte and her 
chyldren. they wepe and crye by cause I shal goo fh> them, bellyn sayde. 
what dyde kyward. me thoughte he cryed after helpe, the foxe answerd, 
what saye ye bellyne wene ye that he shold haue ony harme, now herke 
what he thene dyde, whan we were comen in to myn hows, and ermelyn 
my wyf vnderstode that I shold goo oi\er see she fyl doun in a swoun, 
and whan kywart sawe that, he cryed kmde bellyn come helpe myn 
aunte to brynge her out of her swoun thenne sayde the nunc In foyth 
I ynderstode that kywart had ben in grete daunger, the foxe sayde, nay 
truly, or kyward shold haue ony harme in my hovra, I had leuer that 
my wyf and chyldren shold sufire moche hurte.' Sign, e 3. 

The reader shall now draw his own conclusion respecting the quantum 
of entertsdnment to be derired ftt>m a perusal of thiis curious per- 
fonnance. Heame tells us (ibid) that * it is strange to see the changes 
that have been made in this book from the present and the succeeding 
impressions of it.' It is better known to the public under the title of 
* The most delectable History of Reynard the Fox, and the shifts of 
Reynardine the Son of the Fox, 1684, 1701, 4to.*— a volume, of equally 
coetse execution, whether we consider the printing or the embellish- 
ments of it. Reverting to the highly valuable impression before us, it 
only remains to observe that it temunates on the reverse of 1 5, in 
dghts, in the following manner, (after the sentence quoted at p. 245 

t|at if 1^ m tW MI tteatifii to tacttttt atOi amentiei 

3\iUy, ^.148\.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 255 

tmi^en t^tp ^i^ f^be faate, fm ^ j^ite not atibeti tie 
mpnuft^eH fmt ^atte foldtoeti asr ttpgfie aj( $[ can mptofge 
toi^lie tD«ij^ in butclie/ aitii lip me IMIm barton tran^ 
latcH in to ttiijer eutie % ^jfrnplt englpft^ in tl^abbcp of tDe^« 
mejttce. fpnpff^eti t|^e t) tiape of $[upn t|^e pete of out 
locH. ^. €€€4t. %xxxh *i t^f XX} pete of t^e tegne of 
itpnge ^trtnatti tl^e iiijti)/ 

^ete enbetl^ t^ liiiBrtotpe of fiepnatb t^ fore kc 

The present b a sound and most desirable copy ; in russia biniling. 

850. The Boke of Tulle op Olde Age: Tullius 
HIS Book of Friendship : Declabacyon Shew- 


This is among the mast elegant volumes from the press of Caxton. 
The copy before us is large, clean, and perfect ; the only blemish in it 
consisting in several of the leaves being inlaid*-but without the least 
injury to the text, which is fair and untouched. I shall be brief, but 
sufficiently particular, in the description of this volume ; as a very 
ample account of it has been before submitted by me to the public. 
The proheme and the table occupy 10 leaves ; namely, sign. 1 9, to 1 6; 
and a 1, to a 5 ; 11 and a 6, being blank leaves. The text of the * Old 
Age * commences on b i, recto, and concludes on the recto of i 3, in 
eights, with the following colophon : 

€Im^ eii&eti) t|)e Mae of €tille of o&ie age traitjsilateti 
out of latpn in to frenf^e ftp laurence tie ^riino &itto at 
ttie tomauiitieinent of ti)e noble ^rpnce Xoiupiet EHtc of 
SEHti^on/ anti entnrpntcb iip me jofpmple perie^one a^iHiam 
C^jcton in to <(CtQlpfl^e at tlie $ia{i$ric jerolace anti teue^ 
tente of men g rotopn g in to olbe age ti^ xii tiap of %u^ 
guft tt)e pttt of ouc lorti« Sl^.€4t€€.lxxxi : 


256 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Oodjrey of 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a 1, the 
text of the ' Book of Friendship ' begins, and ends on the reverse of 
d 4 in eights. On the recto of d 5, we read this prefix to the third 

i^txt UAtAutt^ t^ %tgttxntitt of t|^ tttdatttflcpoit/ ti)|^tc|^ 
i^ottretl^ CO ^^tbie. tttj^erm j^ottottre gi^tSOt u0tt : 

The Answer of * Lucresse vnto her fiader * is on the recto of the 
following leaf, and on the reverse of it begins 

C^e Station of |NUtuj( € Jbtin^. 

On the recto of e 4, at top, we read thus : 

€|^ entietl^ tl^e <0t:acton of Cotmiitijl Jbajpa 
%vib 1^ fblotoeti^ tl^e oracton of 4RajfU^ fVSxamufi 

This latter oration terminates on the reverse of f 7; and the Eulogy 
of Caxton upon the noble translator, Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, 
(given entire in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 1^6-9) concludes the 
volume on the reverse of the ensuing leaf, thus : 

^^itctt pec 4fojCton 

The latter set of signatures, ft-om the commencement of the Book of 
Friendship, to the termination of the impression, ato f, runs in eights. 
A remarkably beautiful copy of this very estimable and interesting 
work, was purchased at the sale of the Merly library for 2102. for the 
Marquis of Blandford. A fine copy is also in the Duke of Devonshire's 
collection. The copy under description is in old russia binding. 

851. GoDEFREY OF BojLOYNE. Printed cU fVest- 
' mester. 1481. Folio. 

This is not among the most entertaining productions in the Class of 
Romances ; but a copy of it, in a perfiect state, is of excessive rarity. 
The present copy, and another which I have seen in the Baptist's Library 
at Bristol, are imperfect; but his Msgesty's library, and the Public 
library of Cambridge, each contain a perfect copy. A perfect one was 
also in the possession of the late Mr. B. White, bookseller, in the year 

Boulogne; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 257 

1780. The copy under description, which was formeriy Herbert's, wants 
the whole of signature a, at the beginning ; the whole of signature 14, 
and the latter part of signature IT* These defects have been supplied 
in ms. by the accurate hand of the same typographical antiquary ; and 
the copy is of large dimensions, although occasionally soiled. It appears 
that the preface* and table occupy the first six leaves, upon signature 
a : a continuance of the table fills signature b— ending thus : 

l^e entol^ i^e taHie of t^t content and tj^a^ptrejf nomBreb 
of tfyig pteUnt ftoofi entttleti tl^ jstiege anti conqueirte 
of ^^ent^alnn ftp tctjCtnt men 

The reverse is blank. This signature has only 4 leaves. On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, 1 2, (1 1 being blank) we read this title : 

3^e Brgpnnetl^ ttie Bofie 3[ntttuleb 4ttadefi, anti eiga 
of ^tHuktp of SMopne/ tl^ tolpcDe ^p^htt^ of t^ 
ConquejB^t of ttie |)oIp lottfie of 3({|entjetaiein/ contepnptQ 
tnuerjsre tnanre jf anb noble fiaptejsr of %vmt0 mabe in tl^ 
jefame iSopamei atdi in tfie contreejsr abiaceitt ^tdi aljsib 
manp mentapQou$r mtthe^ Da^peb anb Men a^ tod on 
tj^ijer jerpbey ajer in tfio pattpt^ tf^ tpme btitpng/ ^nb |)OtD 
t^ balpant buc (<3obefrep of SEkdopne conqiuerb tDit|^ 
^e jBttDerb tl^e jefapb Hopamme/ ^nb toajst ftpnge tj^ece/ 

To vary the extracts from those before given, I shall submit a spe- 
cimen or two of the text of this work ; and shall first extract a short 
chapter relating to Peier the Hermit : 

' How the said peter thereroyte entreprised the more hardyly his 
vyage by thapparicdn or vision that he sawe in his sleep, ca. xiij^. 

' Truly our lord god is swete, p}'teous, and mercyful, ffor he wylle 
not suffre to perysshe, ne to be loste, them that haue in hym ferme and 
stedlast hope. And whan the men lacke helpe, god sendeth to them his 
ayde. And this may clerely be seen in this werke, for fro whens cometh 
that this pour man, whiche was lytil & despysed persone wery and 
brused of so grete joumeye and waye, that durste enterprise so grete 
a dede and werke, how myght he wene that our lord wolde accom- 

* See this prefkee, which u aoimated and iuterestiog, in the T^pog* AtUiq. toL L 
p/130, &c. 

258 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Oadjrey rf 

plysshe so grete a werke by hym, as for to dylyure his peple fro tlie 
myserye and caytyfnes that they had ben in nygh fyue C yere. But this 
hardynesse cam to hyra of the grete charyte tliat he had in hym« And 
the fayth wrought in hym for the loue that he had to his bretheren. 
In tliise dayes happed a thynge, that moche lyft vp his herte to 
poursue his enterprise, ffor this good man, whan he had taken this 
message and charge therof, he wente moche ofter than he was woonte 
to doo to the holy places in the cyte. and cam on an euentide to the 
chirche of the holy sepulchre, and made there his prayers deuoutly 
with grete plente of teeris. After this be sleepte rpon the pamente, & 
hym semed tliat our saueour Jhesu Criste cam to fore hym and 
charged hym self to doo this message. And said to hym petre aryse vp 
hastely, and goo surely thedyr as thou hast enterprysed, ffor I shal be 
with the. It is now tyme from hens forth, that my holy cyte be clensed, 
and that my peple be socoured, Petre awoke in this poynt and was 
fro than for then more abandouned vnto the wayeand also sure as his 
joumeye and message had be doon, he entermed and appoynted his 
departyng for to doo his erande. And had leue and benediction of the 
patriai'ke, he descended doun to the see, and fonde there a shyp of 
marchauntes that wolde passe in to puylle, he entred in to the ship, 
the which liad good wynde & in shorte tyme arryued at bar, peter 
yssued out & wente by londe to rome he fbnde in the contre the pope 
yrban, and salewed hym in the name of the patriarke and of the 
cristen peple of surye and delyuerd to hym theyr lettres, & sayde to 
hym by mouthe moche truli & wysely the grete sorowes the myseryes 
and vyletees that the cristen sufifred thennc in the holy londe, as he that 
was expert therof, and coude wel saye to hym the trouthe. sign. 2 3, 2 4. 

Of the number and maintenance of the Pilgrims, who sallied forth 
on this chivalrous occasion, the author thus relates : 

• How, C. C, M. cristen men a foote and thre. M. a horsbak withoute 
captayn. assembled in this pylgrimage, and of theyr mayntene, capitulo 

• In a litil tyme aftir this grete occisyon that I haue said to fore 
assembled moche grete peple a foote without capytayne neuertheles 
ther were emong them bye men and good knyghtes But the comune 
peple obeyed them not, ne byleuyd them of nothynge. There was 
emonge them Thomas de fere, clerembault of vendueyl, Guillem 
Carpenter. And the counte herman. These peple that were a foote dyde 
many ylles and oultiages by the waye. And ther aroose emong them a 
madnesse and a rage of whiche they coude not kepe them fro sleyng 

Boulogne; 148).] WILUAM CAXTON. 259 

of alle the Jewes in alle the wayes and townes by whiche they passed. 
They slewe merueyllo^ gi^te nombre at Coleyne at Magonce, and in 
other places. In thise partyes as they wente was an erle a right noble 
lord named Emycon, whan he sawe thb peple, he put hym self in theyr 
oompanye for to goo with them in this pylgremage, he chastjrsed not 
ne blamed the mysruled peple, but entysed them to doo euyl tornes» 
They passed by francone and by bauyere so fcrre that they drewe in 
te* hongrye and cam in to a toun naemd raceszebors. wel supposed 
they to haue passed in to hongrye withoute ony gaynsaying, but whan 
they cam to the bry^e, it was defiended them & closed. There was a 
fortresse whiche was closed on that one syde with the ryuer of the 
dunoe, & on that other syde with the ryuer named lintans. The reme* 
naiit was enuyronned with a depe mareys, within the fortresse was 
grete plente of peple wel armed wherfore it was not lyght for to passe 
that toun by force, ffor the. kynge of hongrye had wel vnderstande of 
the comyng of this peeple, whiche were withoute fayllc wel, C, C, M, 
on fote. And on horsbak^were nomoobut thre thousand. And doubted 
moche that they whan they were entred in to his londe. wolde auenge 
thoccision that was doon by falsehed and trayson vpon the peple of 
godechan. fibr the rumoure and speche was moche yet of that fowle 
and yylanous fayte thurgh out al the londe. They that sawe that they 
myght not passe in to the londe. prayd them of the fortresse that they 
wold suffre them to sende messagers to the kyng of hongrye for to 
requyre his grace that they myght passe in good peas, & they wold 
lodge them ther whylest in tho places that were fill of pastures to fore 
the paas/ Sign. 3 5-— 6. ^i . 

There is no small spirit displayed in the following description of a 
battle with the Turks. In a previous contest the Christians had been 

' Of a batayll where our men auenge .t them of the turkes, and of a 
stroke that due godeflProy gaf in this bataylle. cap"". Cv^. 

' It was not longe after, but whyles as they taryed there, and had 
theyr hertes desyryng to doo prowesse yf they had tyme and place, that 
theyr messagers arryued alle rennyng whiche told to them that the 
turkes were nygh. They began to recomande them self to owre lord 
and wente for ward in thejrr bataylles like as they were ordeyned, whan 
they sawe tyme and place they smote theyr hore with theyr spores, and 
cam to so fiersly that the turkes were al abasshed. thenne they begaa 

• Sic 

2C0 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Godfrey of 

to stnyte asprefy on the right syde and lyft. and flewe in to the presse 
in suche wyse that euery man wold be the best and mooet valyaunt, in 
•o moche that they gaf to theyr enemyes qo leyser to aduyse them what 
they shold doo, They myght not endure the grete strengthe of onre 
men» but wold haue drawen toward the brydge. But the due godefiroy, 
that moche knewe of suche thynges was pourueyed therof to fore. And 
bad taken a lytil territoire whiche was ayenst the bridge, and there he 
helde hym in his bataylle, Alle the turkes that they chaced to ward 
hym, he slewe them, or he made retome ayenst them firo whens they 
cam. where they slewe them alle and hewe them, the erle of fflaundres 
dyde right wel this day as a good valyaunt and hardy man in armes, the 
Due of Normandye brak the presse that no turke durst approche hym, 
the Erie of tholouse hym self wold auenge this, that they had made 
h3naQ to spore his hors the day to fore, huon le mayne fbrgate not to 
shewe of what lygnage he was and of what contre, buf* semed that he 
dyde to his enemyes, that alle the werke and charge had ben his, thenne 
eustace brother of due godefifroy. Bawdwyn erle of henawd, hughe 
therle of seynt poul. And alle the other barons knightes and noble men 
in theyr countrees dyde meruaylles of armes. ther was neuer man 
lyuyng that sawe ony werk better enterprised and more ^'alyauntly 
achyeuyd and that communely of alle, Ancean sawe this bataylle so 
grete. And sawe his peple yssue out for to gyne them herte and 
courage, and to put awaye the sperawice of theyr flyght. commaimded 
to shette the yates after them, they cam pryckyng ayenst oure men, & 
wold haue made theyres to retome whichQ were discomfyted. but the 
affraye and the drede was so grete in them that they neuer made 
semblaunt therto, they them self that frely cam on whan they sawe the 
prowesse of our men and the grete strokes that they gaf tomed theyr 
backes with the other, ne neuer made grete resistance, there was the 
fyghtyng g^rete and raerueyllous betyng doun of the turkes that men 
myght not but with grete pajrne passe, ther was so grete noyse. so g^te 
crye. & so terryble neyhyng of horses oueral. that a ma shold not haue 
herd thondre. they that had made the yates to be shette after them 
were ofte this day in peryl to lese theyr lyues. the wyues of the turkes 
the maydens and feble peple of the toun were vpon the walles and 
towrettes where they sawe theyr peple tome to meschyef and to 
destruction, ye may wel thynke that they had grete sorowe, wepynge 
and moche grete crye and noyse wel cursed they that tyroe that they 
so longe had lyued that they shold see suche mischyef happen to them, 
Ancean sawe that he loete alle his men and had none hope for to recoure 

• Sic. 

Boulogne; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 261 

them» commaunded that that yate shold b* opened for to receyue in to 
the toun them that were lefte, whan the turkes sawe the yate opener 
they had so grete wylle to entre in to the toun, that vpon the brydge 
they pressyd so euyl for haste, that they fylle in to the water of thein 
grete plente. The Due Godeffrpye that al that day had so wel dou# 
And whan it cam for to departe to fore the brrdge,* he gaf a strook 
moche valyaunt, and suche one, that it shal perpetuelly and euermore 
be spoken of in wele and in honour, €fbr I trowe ther happed neuer 
none suche to fore, ne neuer shal happen here after. There were thia 
daye many heedes smeton of, Armes and sholdres at one stroke, he wel 
apperceyued one of his eneroyes whiche helde hym nygh to Godefiroy. 
And auaunced hym ofte and peyned to greue hym, The valyaunt Due 
smote hym with his swerde by suche myght and vertue that he smote 
hym in two pyeces in the myddle, in suche wyse that the ouerste part of 
h3naQ fyl to the ground. And that other parte abode styllsyttyng on the 
hors, whiche entred in to the cyte with the other. And knowe ye ccr- 
taynly that this sayd Turke was armed with a good hauberk and moche 
stronge, AUe they that sawe this merueylle, were gretely abasshed. 
And the turkes them self had grete fere and drede O mercyful god what 
myght and strengthe gyuest thou to thy seruaimtes that haue their 
fayth and truste in the, suche a stroke hath not be herd of to fore thb 
tyme. That same daye they of Anthyoche lostc moo than two thousand 
men. And yf the nyght had not comen so sone on. tliey shold haue ben 
so enfebled of men, that with paync shold they haue conne holden and 
kept the toun ayenst oure men. It semed wel that at the brydge were 
many Turkes slayn. ffor it was thycke there of deede bodyes. The ryucr 
that descended to the see, was alle blody vnto the See, Somme Cristen 
men of the londe yssued oute of the toun. And cam to our peple that 
told them that .xij, grete admyrals had the Turkes loste in the bataylle. 
For whom they were ouermoche sorouful ffor they were so endommaged, 
that neuer in theyr lyf shold they be therof restored.' Sign, 8 8.9 1. 

The signatures, with the exception of the last (17)» run in eights: 
IT appears to have but 6 leaves. The colophon, upon 17 6, b thus : 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

.... tDl^l^e hook % &e0an in matcj^ tfie j^ 
bdpe anti ^npff^ti t{|e titj tmp of 3[upn/ t|)e pere of 
out lotb. ^. €t€€. \xxt\ 1 1|^ vxS pere of t{|e tecrne 
of our lETapii $rauerapn lorb ftpng ^titDatti tl^e fburtl^. 
1 in tl^ijsr mano: ^ette in fbnm. i eoj^tpnteti tl^ xx tiap 

• Sic. 

2S2 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Pofyehrm. 1482 

vttuniniunT tpt ptrt atotirspo in tpttiQcp 0t iDtiftiiicipUif 

This colophon is copied from the M& of Herbert ; and therefbn 
may not be quite accurate. The present copy is in russia binding, 

852. The Poltcronycon. 1482. Folio. 

After the year 1481, there are» compantively, few books from the 
press of Caxton, with dates subjoined, which merit very particular 
examination, on account of their scarcity ; or with the hope of enter- 
taining the reader by extracts from them. Some striking exceptions 
however are to be made ; which will be noticed as they occur. 1m. 
regard to the bulky, yet most desirable, volume imder description — 
having before given copious details concerning it — and copies of the 
greater portion of it being frequently before the public — it is only 
necessary, in the present place, to be brief yet faithfully particular in 
the account of it : especially for the sake of those who may conceive 
themselves to be in possession of perfect copies — a circumstance by no 
means of common occurrence : since it is questionable, whether, for 
the last six years, three perfect copies have been sold. 

A proheme,* by Caxton, occupies the first two leaves, a 2, and a 3 : 
a I being blank. Towards the end of this proheme we read thus : 

3Cidi not!) at tjs^^ tpme iFpm^Ip emprpnteii % 
jstette in fiocme hp me H^iOtam Caxton anti a Iptd embe^ 
Ipfl^eb fro tfytUhe maftpng/ anb aljeio Dane attieii je^e 
^tocpt^ ajsr 3( coutie fpntie fro tficntie tl^t t^e lafatti 
manulpl^ fpnpfl^eti ^^ ftooft infiitD Ima^ tfyt pere of ouc 
lotb. ^.€€€ M\ tonto t^e pttt of tfie fame. il^€€€ Ix^ 
tttj^l^ 6en an ||0Htn:eti i; tfire petti %t. 

A pretty copious table ensues, comprehending signatures a 4 to S, 
b 8, and C 4. The leaves now commence to be marked by roman 
numerals, and the signatures to be specified l>y arable numbers. The first 

• Caiton*» proheme wa5 reprinted by W. d« Word©. See the Brititk BilfUotprsphar, 
vol IT. p. 360. 

tHtgrUmgtf 1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. MS 

iMfofsignaturel 18 blank; but on 1 fi» the text of the Polychroiiicoii 
begins, and continues to signature 55» inclusively. Of these, each signa- 
ture has 8 leaves, with the exceptions of signatures 28, and 49 : the 
fomer having 9 leaves, and a blank one ; the latter having only 4 
leaves. On the recto of sign. 5S 7» or fbl. CCCCxxviij, we have the 
following colophon : 

€rtbeb tDe jBrecattti Hap of SfttpO t|e nd| 
pen of tDe ngne of ftpnge CMracb t^e fintitl^ i; of dye 
Sftttamadon of oitee locd a tj^oiufanti Gout ]^iiti(eti fiBitc 
^coce atiti tttttpttt/ 

f pnpfldefe pec Cnrtott 

The present lai^ge and beautiful copy is sumptuously bound in fed 
morocco by C. Herring. Two imperfect copies are in the collectioii 
of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire; and Sir M. M. Sykes has a 
copy, wanting only 3 leaves, which he obtained from Messrs. L and 
A. Arch, for 1502. 

853. The Pylgremagb of the Soule. Printed 
at fVestmestre. 1483. Folio. 

This very rare volume is a translation, ' with somewhat of additions,* 
of the well-known French work entitled Lb Pblbrihaob db la Vib 
HuMAiKB. We may consider it the first in the list of those works which 
were printed by Cazton in the year 1483. The copy under descrip- 
tion, formerly Mr. Heber's,* is unluckily imperfect; wanting the 
table, of 3 leaves, and folios lij, liy. Both the first leaf of the taUa 
and of ' Liber primus ' seems to be blank. On folio ij^ of the first 
book we read 

toe tratutlatefe oitte of frenfl^e in to txiffigXX^t 

The folios are now regularly numbered to the end of the volume ; 
namely to fol. Cx, inclusively ; on the reverse of which we read the 
ensuing colophon : 

* It was obtained Id sxchangt for iqiim Toy nre pi«ocs of «riy-priBt€d£ngUib poctiy. 

264 BOOKS PRINTED BY ILiber FestwaKs^ 

i^ere txaut^ tHe breim of ^plgremage of tf^t ^tn&t 
tran^erlattti oute of ftenfl^e in to <tSn0lpf$etDiti) j^omtoj^t 
of abbidotijer/ tfiepete of oure \atl^^ ^jei^X€i % t^tmi 
oitti entiet^ tit t|e tmispie of ^emtt ^ttj^oimtn 

4^ptpnteb at Wt^tmt^tn ftp H^tQtam Carton/ Sllnti 
^Atpl^eti tfie jStjtrtl^ tiap of Slutrtt/ ^e ^lu of our Icftb/ 
Al^.C€C€Jn:rit) 3llnti ti)e ifEjn: pecje of t|e tejrne (if 
Kpn0ie €tdtorb fl^e fpft^e/ 

The impression is divided into Fwt Books, and is interspersed with 
various pieces of poetry ; of which specimens have been given, as well 
as a copious account of the book itself, in the work so frequently 
referred to : see vol. i. p. 163-161. Although the poetry be of the 
dullest possible description, yet the singularity of the subject of the 
prose, (as befoi-e proved) together with the extreme rarity of the 
volume itself, cannot fail to rank this amongst the most desirable 
books which have issued from the press of Caxton. It is, I believe, 
the only one in which the name of Edward V. is inserted in the colo- 
phon. The present copy is in old nissia binding. 

854. Liber Festivalis. 1483. Including the 
QuATuoR Sermones. Folio. 

The first leaf must be considered as blank. On the recto of a ij, 
without any prefix, we read at top ' tHis day Is callyd the first sonday 
of aduent,* &c. The signatures, to o, run in eights : o and p having 
each only 6 leaves. On the reverse of p vj 

< giip i:y itteb AtW^^tmpnfittchp ioj^pam 4[mm t|^ laOe 
tiap of 3!upn^nno bomitit )Si^€€€€lLxxxai 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a j, without any prefix, at top, it 
begins thus : ' THe mayster of sentence in the second book and the 
first distynction,' &c. This latter treatise is called the Quatuor 
SsRMgNBs ; of which, as well as of the Festival, a very flill and par- 



1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 26& 

licular descriptiou will be found in the Typog. Aniiq. toI. L p. 161, 176w 
The signatures of the latter treatise extend to d, in eights ; d having 
only 4 leaves. On the reverse of d iiij, is the following imprint : 

<tBn|^rpntd> tp tDpHtam Carton at tnt^ttmiftcet 


There can be no doubt of both these treatises having been printed 
and published at the same time ; but whether the present, or the next 
described, edition of them, be the anterior publication, is a point of 
tome doubt ; upon which the reader shall presently judge for himself. 
The work itself is not less interesting than curious ; and must be con* 
sidered a very valuable, and almost necessary, portion of any theologi- 
cal library which embraces the early history of our Liturgy. The 
copy under description was formerly Dr. Farmer*s ; and is a large, 
sound, and desirable one : in russia binding. 

855. Liber Festivajlis ; to which are added the 
QuATUOR Sermonbs. fVithout Date. Folio. 


This edition is distinguished ft-om the preceding one, by being printed 
in double columns, in a larger type, and by having 33 lines in a full 
page. The edition, previously described, is executed in Caxton*s 
smallest type, with long lines, and has 38 lines in a full page. In point 
of rarity, as well as beauty of execution, the preference is entirely with 
the one under descriptiou. Upon the whole, I incline to consider it the 
SECOND EDITION of the Fbstival ; since the text is abridged, and 
the matter is set out with more attention to the gratification of the eye. 
There are also breaks in the text, and the word i^anacio is constantly 
occurring, while in the edition just described it is wholly omitted. 

This impression commences on a ij, (a i being blank) with a short 
prologue of 21 lines, which is not to be found in the preceding edition. 
The first Sunday in Advent immediately follows, with a prefix, and *Grood 
Men & Wymen'— -which latter is omitted in the above. In both of these 
copies, the part relating to St, Thomas a Becket has received no injury ; 
a circumstance of unusual occurrence in the theological publications of 
this period. We are told here, (sign, i ij) that in the reparations of 
the King's palaces at London and Westminster, * bytwene Ester and 
Wytsontyde, thomas made to repayre it ayen. For he had there soo 
many werke men of dyuerse craftes, that a man sholde vnneth here his 


«66 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Cottfeu. Jmantit; 148S. 

Iblowe speke. for doim3nige of strokes.' The Festival ends on tb* 
reverse of s ▼, with 

€fDEton me fEert fintt 

The ether signatures have each 8 leaves ; with the exception of ^ 
which has only two. The conclusion is wholly diiferent ftom that of 
the one previously described. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, A j, 
the QuATUOK Sbbmonbs begin as before, at top of the first cohinin. 
This tract contains A, B, C, in eights, and D with ten leaves. Then 
is no imprint, but the large device of the printer b on the recto of 
D 10. The present very desirable copy, having the fiist leaf of the 
Festival in ms., was obtained at the sale of the Roxbuigh library for 
105/. It is in dark red morocco binding. 

856. CoNFEssio Amantis. Printed in 1483. Folio. 

On sign, g (sign, i being blank) we read the following, what may be 
called, general title^ or prefix to the table of the chapters : 

^ hmlk i^ inttttdefe anxUfi" 
t fivtaxaatttig,t^ti0ttt(ittfft 

in tnffiptS^t t^ cotifiefjfpon of 
t^t Imtt maOt eaait (on^ple^ ftp 
^o|^ iMms^qiapetlmntinWelip^ 
in tlK tpme of Itptig etcl^at^ t|e jstetonti 
toM i&ooft tmeti^ i^oto lie toajf confirf 
fpti to ^enpti|( pue^ of benu^ ti^on 
t^ tdn0e0 of loue in l^ifi fpue iopttejsr 
onti lereuen tttdp sfpnne^, ojf in t^^ 
^ttjgb hmh al tAm^e apppettt^i onb ftp 
emt^e tgetre Iven co iwp tp ^ tl^enn tip/ 
mt0 j^jeetocpeif anb &Uei( totuefipnjr 
euetp matetti S[ IN^ otbepneti a table 
liete fi(iloiopii0 of al je^uel^e j^jftoepejf 
anb fsSiW toliere anD in iD|^ Itoolt 
at^ leef t|^ jftaitfie in a$( |^ after 

SMghi of Tower; 1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. M7 

The table occupies 6 leavesi On the recto of the ensuing leaf (i S) 
the text begins, with two Latin sentences, having the English metre 
to the right, or on the second coluinn. It is entitled at top * Prologus* 
and is numbered ' folio 2/ On the recto of b i, ' Explicit Prologus/ The 
running titles are now printed according to the number of the books ; as 
* Liber primus,* &c. After an interval from fbl 4, to fol. xv\j, in which 
the leaves are not numbered, we observe, on the recto of c i, * foBo 
xvjj ;* and so on, to the end, as far as folio CCxj ; on the reverse of 
which, (there being only one column ; or rather half a one on thia 
page) we read the colophon, thus : 

IBtOpam ^jTtoit Aidi fpitpfl^di tf^ 

regtie of Upttg ^ftid^acft tt|e t|iicb/ 1^* 
pen of ottr lotH a tloitjeratfti/ €€ €€i 

For a full account of this first impression of the Works op 
GowER, consult the Typog. JnHquitimf vol. i. p. 177*-186. The pre- 
sent is a sound and desirable copy ; and was formerly in the collection 
of T. Rateliffe. It is in old red morocco binding. The Duke of 
Devonshire possesses a perfect copy; and a beautifol one, in the Merly 
Library, was purchased by the Marquis of Blandford for S15I. 

857. The Knyght op the Toure. Printed at 
fVestmestre. 1483. Folio. 

The prologue of the printer, being one page and a half, occupies 
the first leaf: sign. j. This has been printed entire in the Typog. 
Antiq, vol. i. p. 902. The table occupies the 3 following leaves ; sign, ij 
(iij and iiy). The prologue of the author begins on the recto of the 
following leaf, a j ; having this prefix : 

9ere iirgpnnetl^ tl^e Booh ttt^]^ t|e impg^ of tj^e tottte 
inatiei ^nti js^ftetl^ of mattp &pre t^emqjksl attti tl^ixu 
fpgiteiueiitpil anb tetl^pn^ of |^ tnamfytec^ 

* Sic. t Eridently inispriiited lor Uxziij. 


This prologue (of which a considerable portion is extracted in the 
work jnst referred to) concludes on the recto of the following leaf, 
ay. It is immediately followed, at bottom, by the prefix to the first 
chapter of the work ; which however does not begin till the recto of 
^gn. a iij ; the reverse of sign, ij being blank. The signatures, a to 
m, inclusively, run in eights : n has only 4 leaves : on the reverse of 
the 4th of which, we read the ensuing colophon : 

9ere fpnpfl^eti ttie hmhti ta^t^t t^t hxtjffjfyt of tt|e Cottre 
ttialie to t^ m^tpummtnt mt tetl^pns of l^ hmgfyut^ 
nattjAateti oitte of fnttfl^ in to our matenian Cnglpfl^e 
toitffue hp me IBffliam Cajtott/ tttiiit]^ tooii toa^ enbeH 
1 fpnpfTlfeti t^t fptjstt ^ of S(nptt/ 1|^ pen of oure lotb 

%t6i tnfftpM^ of l oelh iu mj Btttg tfyt Ugt tiap nf^mpmt 
t^ tptsit pete of tj^e re^ne of ftpnge iSpcl^att) t|^ tfiptti 

From this colophon, it appears that the book was printed and pub- 
lished in 1 483 ; as the commencement of the following year did not 
take place till March 95.* Having before given a copious descriptioa 
of this very rare and curious performance, it only remains to add that 
the present fine and sound copy of it, in russia binding, was obtained 
at the sale of Mr. Brand's library, in 1807> for 111/. Gt. 

858. The Golden Legende. Printed at fVest-^ 
mestre. 1483. Folio. 

The copy under description unluckily wants all the introductory 
part : namely, the proheme or preface of Caxton ; the first table of the 
stories, in the order in whirh they stand in the book ; and the second 
table, which is an alphabetical one : also, a large wood-cut of the 
Saints in Glory, and the prologue of the printer ; in which we are 
informed that the Bjtcutil of the Histories of Troy, the Book of the Chess, 
the H'ulory of Jason, the History of the Mirror of the World, the x v Books 
of the Metamorphoses, in whic^ be contained the Fables of Ovid, and 

* There b, cousequeDtly, an error in the Typog, AnXiq. which assigns the year 1484 to 
this inipresaoiu 

1483 and 1493.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 2G9 

the History of Godfrey of Boulogne, were the eailiest efibrts of Caxiton's 
preae. Such an imperfection afibrds tf)o just cause of regret. 

The text of the work is however complete. It begins with the 
'Advent of our Lord, ' on the recto of a j, numbered * Folio j '-^and 
continues to k k v, third alphabet ; or to folio CCCC xliiii regularly 
numbered throughout from a j. On the recto of the last leaf, secoad 
column* we observe the colophon ; whicht after a recapitulation oi the 
•contents of the volume, concludes thus : 

S fiaue accompUfl^eti at tt)e cotnmatitt// 
tiemente anb tequtau of t|^ uoiile attfk 
j/nptbuntc tfAti aitfi ntp tjfctuii soon 
lorti lepllpam erie of aroitiidi i l^tte 
fptiptri^di it at tot^tsot^ttt ^t ttttttitp 
imp of nouemfore/ tJ^t pete of out locb 
i^i€€€€ilxxxiiii % t||e fpcjB(t pete 
of tfie ttpfsnt of %tig lipel^ti tl^ 

With the foregoing exception, this may be considered a very desir- 
able copy, and is bound in russia. The Duke of Devonshire possesses 
a large but imperfect copy. 

859. The Golden Legends. 1493. Folio. 

I have before stated my reasons* for supposmg the body, or text, of 
the present volume to have been printed by Caxton ; and the colophon 
to have been added by Wynkyn de Worde. Upon a reconsideratbn of 
that opinion, and a careful examination of the type of this impression, 
T own that I feel rather doubts upon the subject. In the first plac6» 
the large lower-case letter is clearly from the fount of W. de Wbrde; 
;liut the body of ^e text, if we except the capital and the small A, is 

* Typog. Antiq, vol. i. p. 194^. 

270 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Golden Legend ; 1493* 

iw decidedly the character of Gaxton ; and such as we observe in 
ChromcUi^ PoUfchronicon^ Second EditUm of Chaucer, Book of Fame, and 
IVoUus and Creenda, &c. There is, however, in this text-type, rather 
a sharpness or squareness which we dm not find in that of the worics 
j\ist mentioned. The ornamental capital initials are also of the fount 
of Caxton ; and when we consider that no book, exhibiting the same 
Ibunt of letter, is yet known to be extant, with the name of W. de 
Woide subjoined— and that the first book, executed by the latter 
printer, of the same date with the above^ has a deddadly difEarent dia- 
meter-— the weight of argument may be in Seivor of the assumption 
that this edition of the Golden Legend vras, v^th the exception of the 
colophon, the production of Caxton's press* It is dear that our first 
printer could not have subjoined the colophon, since he died in 1491* 
We now proceed to a short but aocurate description of the impression 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with a large wood-cut of the 
leather. Son, and Holy Ghost, surrounded by cherubim, &c. above — 
and Apostolical, Pt^pal, and Kingly Characters beneath. This is pre- 
cisdy the same cut as is attached to the previous impression. Over it,* 
we read the following title; in 8 lines and a half: 

^tXt W0pillUt9 tyiC ttStSmt ttfltlUD tit lAtpit VtgttOm 

sastt&i tj^t iit to jGfap in OQlpC^c t^t stBttn itgts^ t 
fnt Ipbt ast paX^tt^ 0oltie in ttaletoe al ot^ metaOpjf / 
^0 ttjijf^ XegnttK txtttutfy aO ot^ fuikt^ : 

The text, or rather the proheme, preceding the table, begins on the 
reverse of the same leaf, with a laige capital T prefixed : of which a 
fJEic-simile will be found in the Tyjx^. AnHq, vol. i. p. cxxiv. The 
table occupies the three following leaves. On signature a i, numbered 
* Folio primo,* the text begins. The leaves are then numbered 
throughout, and on the reverse of folio CCCC xxix we read the 
colophon thus : the same capital T, as before, being prefixed— 

C^ otlttt^ t^e lesfbe nameii in latpn ItgndUL 
attroi/ t|at t^ to jstap in tns^0^ t^t iftM iegfbe foe 
ipitt djBE luSsftt!^ 0olto in tmUtue al ot|(c metaStil/ 
|(oo t^0 Xmenttt cjrcttid^ aO otj^ fuAt^t tDj^cdn 

* An aodeiit ms. memorandum obier?e« here — ' Magnum et hcntndum,' 

Caian; 1483.] ' WILLIAM CAXTON. 263 

Sen conteptteti eXk t^t |M^< «»^ txttt Utitpfi of tm 
ior^e €De ftjttp^ of out hltt^ latip, €||e Iptieiet vat^fi 
% mpcadt0 of ttiani ttfytt 0sanU0 ^fKorpeit i attoli 
atf aH aloiiffe j^en afbre itf tnatie mencpott/ toj^e 
toeritt 31 tiptie accottq^ifl^e^ at tl^ commaiintmnfre 
anfe reque^ of tl^e noSAt anti puptjeraunte oie* i tup 
iffttpa gooti lotH topOpam tcie of $9toHbel/ Snti ttobi 
"^ant* mtetuti "i fpnpC$eti it at toe^tme^rtre t^tnttaif 
of a^api €l^e pen of otic lorft ^€€t€lx)maih ^>ft 
tn t|e trnt pece of t^ vepgat off ftpnge l^eticp t^ Ut/ 

€[52(p titt topOpam ^ejcttttti 

Beneath, there is a wood-cut of the crucifiuon ; which was again 
introduced by W. de Worde in his edition of the Golden Legend, of the 
date of 1498 ; and of which a fac-simile appears in the second volume 
of the Typog, Jntiq, p. 79. It will be observed that the above colophon 
is the same as that to the foregoing impression. The present is a sound 
and desirable copy ; and was in the Alchome Collection — purchased 
from the sale of West's Library. A copy is in the Library of his Grace 
the Duke of Devonshire. 

860. The Book callid Caton. Printed in thahhay 
of westmynstre. 1 483. Folio. 

On signature ij begins * the prologue or prohemye of the book callid 
Caton/ This prologue is among the most interesting pieces of Caxton's 
composition, and has been printed entire in the IVp^* •^'i^* vol. i. p. 
196-8. It is followed by two other introductory pieces which will be 
found in the BnJUiih BibUographer, vol. iv. p. 323-4. Two interesting 
specimens from the body of the work are also incorporated in the 
authority last referred to ; which renders a further specimen unneces- 
sary here, as the book is by no means of uncommon occurrence. On 
the reverse of sign, i^ begins a table, which concludes on the reverse 
of the second following leaf, containing 5 pages. At the end of i^ 
* Thus endeth the table and the Rubrishes of this present boke whiche 
is called caton in Englysshe ryght siiiguler and prouftytable,* Sec He 

^ ♦ S4r. 



yUMJnp leaf (a i} u Uaok- On % ^ the text of the work bi^BA* 
tMudjQlg; prefixes to tbe several seutiojos priuted ia.a larger type, similajr. 
to that of the Dicta and Sayinget; while the text is executed in the 
smidlest of Caxton's types, like that of the Chnmde, &c. and i» desig- 
9iMuIlde^N^^iatile voikfii«liahavii:itfiBix^ The signaHires^ 
4po«x a to i» run in eights ; i having tea leaven^, of which the 10th iax 
hlank. On the recto of i ix, we read this colophon : 

it. c^^ ^tj^oit ttan^bfitti outt tS jftotfl^c in to Cn« 
iipGQr Bp liNIiitni €m«t in l|a6lap aCtWi^tmpi^^ 
t|epneofmn!eiortifl9«M1^m:i^« Sin^tl^lticiniKce 
of t|^en0neor&pn8clii^c|iittit|et|^prb tHe jririti bap 

i « 4 1 n I M 

The present very neat and sound copy» in russia hinding, viras pur- 
chased by his Lordship of Mr. Payne, in the year 17S9> for lOl. 10«. 
A remarkably tall and beautiful copy, belonging to the author of this 
work, was sold by public auction in February last, by Mr. Evans. His. 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire also possesses a beautiful copy: obtained 
from Messrs. I. and A. Arch for 1051. 

861. Parvus Chato & Magnus Chato. Without 
Place or Date. Folio. 

This is a volume of unusual rarity. The copy under description ik 
perfect and dean throughout; although not of laige dimensions^ The 
fint signature, a j, being blank, the text oommences on the recto of 
a ^9 with the following title: 

Mic inciott soBUittf Cftatv 

which b over a cut of * Grrammar,* as at ybl. i. p. ilO of the Typog. 
JntiquUies, For the commencement of the text, see p. 800 of the same 
work. What is rather singular, the *Patfm Caio ' appears to end on the 
recto of the next leaf, a iij, thus : 

0tt Stittf oositi tattonitf 

^tSmMagnus.] WILLIAM CAXtXMI. 

Thislineisoverawolil-Mldr'Logfibk;' iOflvllkh tiDBTe is H ftuMimile 
atp. llOof the work jufitrelenredto. Omtlie rerene of Ike SMie kaft 
at top, we read as follows : 

The entire work is poetkal ; being in levett-linie stanzas, and each 
stanza preceded by a Latin distich. The following, taken almost pro- 
miscuously, is » brief specimen : 

A>%e dt aUo^ ttt fit ti&i cant^ amictti^ 

jtk hmmf ttta htmifi m u nuda batti]^ ^(piStm . 
Xoue dttier men 1 ]^«ie t|em & in cDece 
€^ to t|i9 ^df iDp loue m^ emnlbe 
%iAt no perfime he to t^ more tiere 
4E|^fltt t^ign tftoit toe tf^txtttt t^fitt ^^sSt oiGntttt 
Untt liitctt t|^ ^f an^ ot^rr ftlOu amenbe 
10iit euet cj^crtfi^ otl^ anti loiie i)nn & 
vpnt to top jRif tuou v€ nunoctt no wo 

The .Second Book begins on b \j, recto ; the Third Book on b vig, 
recto ; the Fourth Book, on c ii\i, recto. On the recto of d iig» and last 
leat, we read the conclusion, thus : 

iMo 31 INtt gaftetett flouts to pout it^ 
'^[si&tt^ ti^epm Got t|^ iic iiu^ttuatpf 
l^ofiM:^ ti^Kpit) ftift ^ Sett ^^011 In pout Kitt 
foe tfie pdi^^bttcc tice t0||t^ M infiutif 
3( eoinicepl pou n $[ ienacOe mp tpf 
€|at pe ^^ lete potte lif in OiKntdjf f 
9nb elte atepne to moc|e luoM j^p wfi w 

€|^ nmtt 31 to pou Imtier protection 
4^f pour 0oob etatt fti^t tpme pe ttXit 
0t dOt^ l^atu in t||i^ mattt ini^^ctfton - 
^ja( it biHMtl tfiat pe UmI te in bete 


l^e ]l^ adieue anli be 6il tectuoitjf 

i^ete l^e S( £nib tl^ ^|ai pe gup^ anti Ic^e 

jitntKt^ to gotti 6nK Y Inie pou In Ipr |^oius( 

The reverie is blank. In the whole, 26 leaves : a 7i b 8» c 8, d 4 : 
and a fiill page containing 29 lines. The Latin distichs are printed in 
a larger type than is the English verse. Althougli no name of printer 
be subjoined, there can be no question concerning this volume being a 
legitimate production of the press of Cazton. I know of no other copy 
of it except the one in the library of St. John's College, Oxford. The 
present copy is beautifully bound by C.Lewifl» in olive-colour morocco. 

862. The Osdbe of Chyualry or Knyghthode. 
Supposed to have been printed in 1484. Quarto. 

The appearance of this volume will diminish the value of the copy 
in the British Museum, on the ground of that copy being umque*— as 
I had once imagined it to be. But a great superiority must yet be 
assigned to the Museum copy, when it is known that it is perfect^ and 
that the one about to be described wanU sixteen leaves ; namely, the 
whole of signatures d and e. In other respects, this volume is a very 
material acquisition to the Caxtonian Depastmbnt of the Library 
under description. The first leaf being blank, we read, on the recto 
of a ij, the whole of what follows : 

tt f$tn ht^ml^ tj^e Catile of 
i^isi present boofte STnt^lv t^t 
Booli^ of t^t ottite of c|)^ualt^ 
ot iktt^gl^otie 

^^ ifiaqpt of 0oti/ tBl^t Ut lotti and 

vmwKspiit ftptiffs ^0iu attti wsx 

aOe t^npngtif teUftpsii and lootfiilp/ lite 

Ommlry; 1484.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 267 

l^C0piUtt:ti(|tjf iKHtft of t||t Ottncc of (l^pU^fep . 

jpoc to jsr^rttte t|at to ^e fpneQtmtme of 
go^ tl^ ptpnce almpgl^ l»|^l^ jtepgno^s 
tpetH aBotte ti^ jfntett ^^amttejEt, tfiat tna« 
6e tl^e (oucjgr tde^ai/ aitfi j^aue potno; i 
ftp0noitcpt in joucntpnst *i oi^cpnpnge 
tl^ dobpe^ terrejgrtte and m^eip/ tfiat in 
I^e iDp^re otoen tlie frpngeji j^ncejst anH 
gnte lottiejst to l^aue pitpGfounce mtfi lerepg:; 
nocpe t^on ttie ftnpgfitej^/ ^Unti tfie itnps 
teiet dp fpmpipttUie ot^ten to j^aue 90^ 
tnet anb domination otter tl^e mopen pe^Ie 
^nti tl^ dooitt contepnetti bii) cfiapitceisr 

The heads of the eight chapters are specified on the next pa^ or on 
the reverse of this leaf : but these, as well as some copious and curious 
extracts, from the body of the work, will be found in the Typog. AtMq. 
vol. i. p. 391-938. The text begins, on a iij, with a large ornamental 
capital initial A. The signatures, to g, run in eights : g having only 
three leaves. On the recto of g iij is the following colophon : 

%visi iSsiafi tfip^r Iptpi boolt % pe^ente to 
mp tetiottBteb itaturel anb moft tirabtie fo^ 
tinrapne iotb itpng %(l^aiti iftpiqi of <Bn^ 
0ionb anb of jfraunce< totlientie/ ti^ lie 
conituamilK t^i^ 600ft to ht l^sHt attii tetitit 
bnto otl^ pottn0 iottu|t Itsxfffytt^ anb got 
tplmen toititn Qiji ropame/ t||at t|e noble 
onnx ot Cpptiatirpe ne yccssoxtt tietiei? oteo \ 
l^onoutcti t|^an ||tt fiaij^ Ben in iste liapejf 
ifsSX^i ^nb l^erin 1^ jtl^aSe bo a noUe *i 
tiertuouft bebe^ 3Bnb % ^I^BSk ytaf almp$^ 
tp goli fbt liiil long ipf a i^roj^^eroti^ toA' 
iaxt, 1 t|at ^ tnap ^aue tnctoip of al ^i^ 

S68 BOOKS PRINTED BT [Boymt Boolit 

(imiipcp/ aiiB aim pjnw ppnx it n'aiipinw'p 
Iff to l^nie nifri a fr pBg ipf tn l^cueit/ iD|it^ 
te 0^ ]]f Slope Mb fAvSSt tootlo toitl^oitt 

The reverse is blank. There are neither numerals nor catchwords ; 
and a full page contains only S6 Hues. This is among the smallest 
books which have Issued from the pran of Caxton; and on exa- 
mining the pages, befisre refierred to^ it will be found to be not less 
interesting and curious than it is excessively rare. A third copy is at 
present unknown. The one here described is in old red morocco 
binding ; in die most desirable condition. In iht fly-leaf there is a 
maiked price of IJL lit. Sd. of old date. 

863. The Ryal Book ; or a Book for a Kyng. 
1484. Folio. 

Although the present copy of this very scarce volume be considerably 
imperfect, yet, as possessing the proheme or introduction of the printer, 
the imperfection is not quite so material as it might have been. 
After much admonitory matter, in this proheme, which commences on 
sign, a ij (a j being blank) we read thus on the reverse of the first 
printed leaf: 

tDlPtH iiooii toajF tnatie in fctnXS^t ettt 
teque^ of ^^ le Mt iipng of ftafice in t|^ pat of 
tj^macnadott of otic lorti ii^€€ixfit^ i ntatteik tn to en 
gltfl^e at t|^ nqueitt i; jEpeqial Ittj^ 
ofni{inamettttofi9tiont^peceof ourjBtap^lor^/ ^. 
ttt)Cijcjc)3tt^lD|^&ooft 1 nanuto in ftenfl^e* 

le Ipuce topal. inptl^t tisi to jiap in eujjUir^lie* t^ rpal 
toft* or a &ooii for a iiptQ* ice. 

Tlie table commences on the recto of the ensuing leaf, a iij, and 
terminates on the reverse of sign, a iiij. The text commences on what 
would be marked a v. The signatures, a to v, run in eights ; v having 
only 6 leaves. The copy under description wants the second leaf of 

1484.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 96^ 

the table ; 5 leaves ia signature n, and 7 leaves at the end— 4ifter sigp- 
Biteie t vij. Tike work k, throughout, scriptural and moral ;* but haa 
occasionally (as the short specimen extracted fhmi it in the 1\fpog. 
Antiq. vol. i. p. 239, su€^ently proves) some very quaint and inte* 
resting passages. I extjcact here two short ones ; of a difGerent, bu^ 
aqoally tSmgftikat^ eomplexion • 

Of littengerye and of flaterye 

* Losengtoa anA uijafers ben of one scole. These ben tfie ij 
aemjnes o Hi Mwy s a oaDjidlmennaydes. of whiche me fynde in the book 
•C tha nataae o€ beestya whiche is a monstre of the see that is caliyd 
serajns. whyche hath the body of a wmnan the taylle of a fysshe. &. 
vngto or dawesof an egle» and they synge soo awetdy tiiaet they make 
the maronners to-dqie. and after they deuoure them. These ben tha* 
Ifliengyers du flaterers wfaiehe by theyr fiiyr speche make men to slepe 
in theyr synnes. There been somme serpentes whyche haue the name 
of semyns. that renne more swyftely than an hors. and somtyme thef 
fke^ and'tileyr venym. ia so atvonge tbat tryaole may not auayk ayenst. 

The IbUowing panage^ descriptive of the ftadlty and transitorinesa 
of human life, has a^ good-deal in it which reminds us of the mannec 
of Jeremy Taylor, in his Holy Lwbig and- Dying. 

^Kow. wqie they in heUe. Crye and bowlr. cratdien and sayen ala^ 
what auayltod v& our power^ honour no Mc a oe Joye beaulteea and al 
rychessys. Sone is al thys. departed & fiaiylled. as ashadowe^or smoke; 
ft nH>die fts^erfladde fro vs thaa byrdakfla(rngv.or quamneaiouteoT 
a ciosse bowe. Thus departeth a weye our lyf. Now we were^ and 
anone we ben deed, and alle our lyf was not a lytel moment. Now be 
we in p er du rable tormentes Our Joye in wepyngOur caroOes & feestea 
in soTowe. Roobes hoodes feestes dygnytees games Rychessys & al 
welthe ben fityUed vs. Suche been the songes of helle lyke as holy 
wrytte reconnteth,' Sign. g. ij. 

As the type of this volume is of rare occurrence^ and diflers some* 
what, in its closeness, squareness, and blackness of efiect, from the 
usual types of Caxton — and as there are but very few embellishments 
in it— the reader may be gratified by the following &c-simile of both ; 
from ij recto. 

^ ¥nm tbe bon^th to the faxxrjtii cfatptcr tKere ii -an e ipoiftjua of the IMPt Prayer j 
WgioniDg with dM.tilk MM titt hoKi of Ifaft i«iiod«ii»<-4a te 

270 BOOKS PUNTED BY IBlaacliardin and 

oC ^fs detest It Bnotkii 
jfiumwsoDa ntacSei 

ttUt 8ml i^ nuofi 6^ 
jSjiiig/ tii^ i^ (ms 

Tbe present copy may boost of its n 
throughout. It is in nissia bindiog. 

iTgioal dimenaioDs, and is clean 

864.Blanchabdyn andEglanttne. 1485. Folia 

Although this unconuDonly scarce and curious roniance be arranged, 
in the Typog. Jntiq. voL i. p. 346, among the books printed by Caxton 
without dates, yet, in conformity with the date of 1485, upon tbe 
lading of it, in the time of Ratclifife, it is here described in its present 
order : and very possible it b, that, both the Morte tT Arthur, and the 
BUmchardm and EgiaUine, were given to the public in the same year. 
No volumes from the press of Caxton are of rarer occurrence. 

J^gbmfyne; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTOK. 271 

The copy under description is deficient in several leaves; namely; 
one leaf In the table* another leaf in sign. A, a third in sign* B^ and 
perhaps three or four leaves at the end. We shall describe it howevnr 
with as much care as possible : premising, that a copious account baa 
been already submitted to the public in the work just referred to. 

The address to the Dutchess of Somerset, mother of Henry Vllth, 
occupies nearly tlie wkok of the first leaf. In this address the printer 
Btyles himself : ' I wyllyam caxton hb* most Indygne humble subgette 
and lytn seruait/ Tlie whole of this interesting address has been 
already given by me to the public. The table has this prefix ; 

^ 5£%mc|^attipn/ fotte of t|^e ito&ie Rimg of ftpU 
SUnti of <t?glatttpne ^itene of Cormatiap otliettaipjsre 
oflpti (orgopllcujese liamour|(« IDI)^ i^ to ftapt t^ 
pamht lattp in lotie^ 

The table has 3 leaves. In the whole, there appear to be fifty-fbor 
chapters ; as the following prefix to the last,, on the reverse of M ii^^ 

0S^ { iit| anti \SLfit c^a^^ coiittpitttl^ ^ohi Uand^acbpn 
twbte^lrtjl ioue t^ ptoutie patdl inainourtf : 3llitfi of 
t|e gcete Slope tl^at Hmfi matie t^ece/ anti of pe iipnge of 

On the recto of A j the text of the woi^ begins. Of the nature of 
this text, the reader (in addition to what I have before extracted f) is 
presented wjth the following copious specimens ; which are presumed, 
upon the whole, to be well worth the trouble of perusaL The first 
salute of Eglantine, by her beloved Blanchar^, was of rather a 
singular nature : 

* Blanchardyn seeyng the oure and the poynt that he sholde fumysshe 
hys enterpryse that ful sore he desyred to fynysshe. smote hys courser 
wyth the spore for to kysse her as he furth by her went wherof happed 
by y* bniyt that his hors made that she loked bakward for to se what 
he was that so hastely rode after her. And so well it fortuned Blan- 
chardyn that bothe theyre mouthes recoutred and kyst eche other ia8t» 
Yf blanchardyn was right glad of this aduenture. It is not to be axed. 

* King Ucn^*t. t Typog. ilntig. vol. i. 

VOL. IV. !f K 

272 BOOKS PRINT£D BY [Blamkardin amd 

And of th«t other party the proude mayden in amours coude not kepe 
her behauourre m this byhahie for the grete dyspleasyer that she toka 
therfbre. But blanchardyn wyth a glad chere waloped his courser as 
hruyantly as he coude thurghe the thykkest of all the Iblke, ^VJ^ 
alwaye here and there as hors and man had fbwgthen in the thayer^ 
And dyde so moche in a short while that be had passed ladyes & 
damoselles, knyghtes and squyers & all the grete companye of this 
proude pugelle in amours, gyuyng a gracyouse and honourable salutadon 
to them all where he went forth by. It is not to be axed yf he was weU 
loked vpon of all them of the rowte. And in espall of the ladyes and 
gentyl women that all in one sayde he was a knyght right goode and 
fiiyre. and that it semed wel by oontenance to be a man comen of highe 
extraction menieylling hemself what he myght be and fro whens he 
came there thus alone wythout eny company.* Sign. B ▼, recto. 

Eglantine is well denominated the * proud pucelle ;' since she con- 
tinues inexorable for a long time. At length, however, like a proper 
lady * in amours/ she relents ; and the intelligence of her kind dis- 
position towards her knight is thus pleasantly communicated to 
Blanchardin : 

*"* After the humble leue that the prouost toke of the lady he went 
homward agayn tyl his place all penseful of the wordes that he had 
herde of the pucelle It was tyme to go to bed. so cam he toward blan- 
chardyn that was alredy goo in to his chambre, and gafif hym the 
goode nyght, & on the morowe after the masse, the prouost sayde vnto 
Blanchardyn that he wold talke wyth him atte le3rser. And blanchardyn 
ansuered fayre boost, in good oure be it, Thenne they two sette hem 
self v|K>n a benche. The prouost bygan hym to recounte and telle hou 
the proude mayden in amoures the euen last past had spoken wyth hym 
of many thynges & emonge other tolde hym that she was right well 
content of his seruyce and wolde reteyne hym in wages and gyue hym 
of her goodes. for he was worthy therof. Morouere sayde y* prouost 
sire she hath tolde me that ye be enamored of a hyghe and a riche 
pr3mcesse whiTof I merueyll me not, for on my feyth ye be well the man 
that ought to chuse your specyall loue in a hyghe place But allewayes 
it is force that i here you in hande that it is her owne silf. for it semeth 
me not wel possyble that yf it were in som other place, hit sholde not 
haue come to her knowlege. how wel that here is one doubte that 
retardeth myne ymagynacyon. she sette neuere nought by amours, & 
loue But iapeth & playeth her self of theym that ben amerouse I wote 

EgUmHne; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON« 27& 

not allewayes yf the god of loue myght haue shewed hili Vertues in ber.> 
Alas we sholde wel desyre that it were so to thende she iDye:ht take a 
goode lord for to de£fende vs and her lande. After that the prouost had 
sayde to blanchardyn all that semed him good to be tolde, Blanchardyn: 
curtoysly wyth a smylyng contenaunce ansuered hym that god hatli 
well kept hym from so moche an hap and so hyghe as for to haue the 
grace of so noble and so grete prynces as was the proude pucelle ih 
amours, & also I byleue sayde blanchardyn that ye make your self these 
tydynges But I can not bythynke to what purpos ye haue seen enyt- 
token ne apparcnce for to coloure your gracyous suspecion I neuer 
spake wyth her nor neuer in my dayes I dyde see her, wherof sholde to 
me come suche a wylle. I wot not sayde the prouost. I telle you that, 
that I haue herde of my lady. Yf ought be there to your auauntage soo 
take hit, now pleased god that she were that woman thsit suffred so 
moche of sorowe and angwysshe at her herte for the loue of you. t 
thank you sayde Blanchardyn,' Sign. D iiij, v. 

Eglantine continues to shew unquestionable proofs of her attachment 
to her lover, as the following interesting extract abundantly proves : 

' After the gracyouse leue of the lady, Blanchardyn & the prouoste 
came ayen in the sayd place, and was dyner tyme. The prouost that wyth 
all his herte loued. Blanchardyn coniiured hym saying. It semed hym 
that he sholde be yet kynge and lorde of the londe of Tormaday, And 
that their lady had hym well in her grace, Thenne Blanchardyn that 
well beholden was to the prouost, and that knewe hym for a trusty man, 
and secret mystrusted not hym, but recounted & tolde hym al alonge the 
fayttes of his werkes in amours wherof the prouost was not less 
reioysshed than blanchardyn was. The dyner was redy. and made aa 
eode of theyr proces tyll another tyme. They sette hem self at the table. 
And had not be longe at their meet whan the lady sent to Blanchardyn 
a foyre whyte courser, and wyth it her right sleue which was of riche 
clothe of golde crymosyn to thende he sholde here hit vpon his helme 
whan he shold go vpon her enmyes by cause she myght the better 
knowe hym emonge other, This present was not to be reffused. and 
the messanger sayde to Blanchardyn, that well he ought to areyse his 
corage wha so gentyl a lady wolde sende him suche a present, Blan- 
chardyn thanked the messager and prayed hym curtoysly, that he wold 
haue hym for humbly recomended to the goode grace of the noble 
pucelle that so iayre a present had sent to hym, Bkmchardyn dydc^ 
putte his hand, in to his auknonere and drewe out of it a riche ouche of 

t74 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Btanchardma$id 

golde vpon whiche was sette a right riche nibj auyrouned wyth fyue 
grete peries. and gafie hit to y* messager whiche thanked moche 
humbly blanchardyn, of whom he toke his leue and departed and taryed 
noo where vnto the tyme that he had tolde and reherced to the lady 
the joye that blanchardyn had made at the recepcion of the present that 
she bad sent vnto hym. And syth recounted her of the riche gyfte that 
blanchardyn had don to hym wherof the proude mayden in amours was 
we\ payd, sayng in her self that suche largesse proceded to hym of 
wraye noblenes/ Sign. D viij. 

In this romance there is a double plot ; or a collateral history of the 
attachment of Beatrix, the daughter of King Alymodes, to Sadotnb» 
the son of the King of Maryeborugh. Sadoyne and Blanchardin are 
fellow soldiers and sworn friends. Alymodes takes Blanchardin 
prisoner, and threatens to put him to death ; Beatrix, from her attach- 
ment to Sadoyne, Blanchardin*s bosom friend, thus intercedes with her 
fiithcr, fi)r the liberation of Blanchardin : 

* Thus after as ye haue herde kynge Alymodes made his auowe and 
sware his goddes, that he sholde neyther ete nor diynke tyl that Blan- 
chardyn had lost his lyff. Wherof daryus the sone of the same kynge 
Alymodes and many other barons that were there preset had grete pyte 
for the right grete beaulte and worthynes that they sawe and knewe 
In Blanchardyn, 

'But the best of them all was not so hardy that he durste speke one 
worde nor praye for hym. by cause they drad and fered euer sore kynge 
Alymodes, And theune his doughter Beatryx that was there whiche 
had taken goode hede and well ouer loked the grete beaulte of 
Blanchardyn. and well had also consydered the grete and merueyllous 
fiiytes of armes that she had seen hym do that day prosteraed or casted 
her self doune byfore her Aiders feet on her knees humbly, requyryng 
wyth bothe handes heued vp faste to gydre. that pyte and compassyon 
be wolde haue of the yonge knyght and that his lyff myght be saued. 
Kynge Alymodes heryng the request and humble prayer of his doughter 
whiche he loued tenderly, ansuered to her and sayde. My ryght dfere 
& right well beloued doughter T wold for mekell goode that ye had not 
requyred me herof & tliat that ye had not ben here at this tyme. For 
the presence and syght of hym for whom ye haue caused your humble 
supplycacion reneweth alle my sorowes. But for to obtempre youre 
request. For this tyme 1 graunte hym his lyff, but shall wyte that I 
shall sende hym in to the royalme of Salmandry vnto the kynge of the 

^mUme; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 275 

gesumtis brother tint is to wyte Rubyon whiche he hath slayiie and tha 
wfakhe I loueil as myn owoe persone, For yf he had ben yet man alyue. 
I wolde haue gyuen you tyl his wyff/ Sign, £ ▼. yj. 

The battle before Tounnaday — in which King Aljrmodes was dis* 
comfited, and Sadojme taken prisoner (' wherof Rlanchardin right 
sorry, as reason was') — is among the most animated pieces of compo- 
sition in the romance : 

* Thus passed kynge Alymodes the nyght ouer tyl the fayre day came 
that the sonne bygune to ascende castyng his hemes a brode vpon the 
erthe & as he was musyng vpon y* werke. lokyng to & fm vpon the sec 
he perceyued a right myghty nauey wherof they that were ronie vpon 
lande. he sawe hem in grete nombre al redy renged in a fayr ordeynauce 
of batayll for to fyght nyghe by y* see shoris alytyl beyonde his ooste 
wherof he was not awar afore that & he was sore abashed & gretely 
merueylled how they were so soone landed wythout that he knewe 
therof. So fered he soone. of this that was true that it was Blanchardyn 
& his folke that were come there. The worthy knyght Blanchardyn 
had ordeyned his folke in thre battaylles wherof he led the formest, the 
seconde he be toke to Sadoyne his felawe. & the thirde he gaf to be 
conducted to his fader the kynge of<^fiTyse. Whan Biachardyu had al 
this thynges redy and all his ordeynaunces y made he made his trom- 
pettes, homes olyfaiuntes and busynes to be rongen & blowen. so highe 
that it was wonder to here them They of the cyte thenne that herde the 
sowne therof yssued anone out of their towne by comaundement of 
their lady the proude mayden in amours that sore admonested and 
prayed them to do wel, to thende that som goode tydynges might be 
reported by them, alimodes seeing his enmyes com alande and in so 
&yre ordonaimce y sette of that one part, & of that other syde he sawe 
them of the cyle that cam wyth a grete puyssaunce vpon hym and his 
folke. It is well ynough to be byleued. that he was not wel assured* 
But nought therfore as a sharp and hardy knyght as he was the best 
wyse that he myght or coude, he ordeyned his bataylles whiche he toke 
to be conducted and guyded to theym that semed hym worthy therof. 
The oostes beganne to approche eche other* the callyng and the crye 
arose so grete & hyghe betwyxthem what by the sowne of trompettes^ 
homes and bussynes, as of the stour dynnyng and noyse that their horses 
made treddyng and wallopyng hyghe and harde vpon the grounde. that 
it semed tliat all the foure elementes had fought there to gyder. The 
duste byganne to ryse so hyghe aboute them and so thykke that it toke 

«76 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Blanehardmmi 

«way the bryghtnes of the sonne, so that they that were wythm the 
cyte sawe nother frends nor enroyes. They went to the chirche in grete 
deuocyon makyng their prayers to our lord that he wolde helpe their 
frendes. And namely that noble lady the proude pucelle in amours alle 
liarefote went from one chirche to another prayng god that he wold 
grmute y* victorie to her true lou blcahardyn. & to them that were with 
him, & S3rth cam aye to her paleys, & mouted vp to a highe toure for 
to see & beholde y* batayl y^ was alredy bygone right grete murdre & 
slaughter was ther made at settyng vpon of bothe partyes» many a 
knyght ded & brouglit to the groude that ueuer syn had power to releue 
hemself, the horses of whom went rennyng vpon the playn & in to the 
medowes the raynnes of their brydels hagyng & drawyng vp on the 
groude/ Sign. I vij, viij. 

The single combat between Alymodes and Blanchardin exhibits all 
the true colouring of the chivalrous character. They had before met— 
when Blanchardin ' suche a sturdy stroke gaf him v^ion the helmet that 
he brought him doune from his hors.* 

' They two drewt them self out of the bataylle & byganne to bete & 
8m3rte one vpon other so ofte & so thyk that the fyre came out of 
their armures that were of fyn stele, but blanchardyn dyde seme hym 
wyth so peysaut & heuy strokes & so horryble. that alymodes sholde 
nfnier haue departed from the place quyk yf he had not be socoured of 
corboraut his brother The batayll of theym two dyde see playnly y 
proude pucell in amours that was vpon her highe toure where she 
praied god for the prosperyte of Blanchardyn, She called a yong 
kynght a seruaut of hers to whom she toke a sleue of whyt damaske 
& comauded hym to presente it hastely from her behalue vnto blan- 
chardyn, prayng hym that for her sake & loue to dye the whyt coloure 
in to red wyth the blode of her enmyes, The gentyl man sore desyryng 
to accomplysshe his maystres cdmaiidement toke of his lady the sleue 
of whyt colour, he departed & made suche diligece that a present was 
therof made to Blanchardyn rehersyng vnto hym that, that his lady 
the proude pucelle in amours had charged him to saye vnto blanchar- 
dyn, whiche was right glad of the saide present more than he sholde 
haue be yf the messenger had brought to hym a mylyon of fyn golde, 
and thanked mochehis lady the proude pucelle in amours thabbehylde 
hym from her tour as ferre as she myght chuse hym. And enforced his 
power for to parfumysshe her request, he smote vp5 his enmyes as it 
Imd be the thonder confoundyng and ouerthrawyng them ded to y' 

JB^UtUme; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 277 

grounde. For who that was that tyme jraught of hym hit dayes were 
fynyshed.* Sign, K ^, iij. 

A difierent scene b exhibited in the foHowiDg extract. Alymodes 
takes Sadoyne prisoner ; and * dresses up a gibbet * to hang him upon 
it, ' afore the eyen ' of Beatrix. The daughter thus expostulates with 
her father : 

' The fayre Beatryx heryng her fieuler speke that he some knewe 
ansuered vnto hym swetly and sayd by gprete humylyte full of sorowe 
and of compassyon and pyte for to refrene and brynge to swetnes the 
harde corage and cruel wylle of kynge Alymodes her fader. And 
namely for her goode husbande sake* trowyog to eschewe his deth 

* Ha ha My lorde my dere fader pardone your wrathe and euyll wylle 
to my lorde my good husbonde and to me your only doughter. & be 
you sure my lord my dere fader that whiche I haue don in this behalue. 
I haue don it for the best, and yf ye woU byleue me, ye shall leue your 
fblishe credence that ye geue vnto your felse goddes. and shall byleue 
the fader the sone & the holy goost, one onli god that shaUe make you 
to come to the blysse perdurable that neuer shall fayll. and ye sha^ 
accorde wyth blancbardyn & wyth sadoyn of whom ye shall be serued 
and dred of all your neyghbours, and shall lyue in grete worship & 
goode prosperyte alle your dayes. and I shall well doo wyth theym. 
that all that whiche I saye shall be made sure. Whan thenne kynge 
Alymodes herde thus speke his doughter. as a cruell man from his 
vryties sayd vnto her : Ha false and renyed strompet I were me leuer 
ded. than that I sholde byleue nor doo thi cursed couseyll. And that 
euer I sholde byleue in that same god of the crystens that thou now 
preyscst, I sholde me leuer so£fer to be drawen wyth horses, and jn 
despyte of hym & of the I shall doo to be executed in thy presence that. 
I haue sayd, and after I shall make hym to be brent and to deye an 
euyl deth : And whan she sawe that by no manere of meanes she 
myght not tome ne chauge tlie corage of her cruel fiader. And that 
she herde hym saye blame of her god her creatoure in whom she had 
sette her byleue and her herte, she by grete wrath sayd to hir &der. 
O fiill ryght fedse and olde tyraute that worshypste false and desceyH* 
able goddes and ydoles that canne not helpe the nor theym selfe what 
sekest thou here nor what moeueth the to come in to this marche : 
Thou haste noughte to doo here. For thou shalt not sette thy fbote 
wythin my towne^ goo ayen to Tormaday to see the noble lade of that 

278 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Bldnchardtm tmd 

kdy. she of whom thou arte amoitnise soo inoche that thoa arte a fok 
become therfbre, Olde vnilBunouse myschatit, how arte thou soo fblysiie 
and so ouerwenyng, as for to wene to haue her, thou haste that heide 
of thyne ouer whyt therto^ thy face is too mykel wome, and that okk 
akynne of thyn ys ouer mykel shronken to gyder. put thy self into 
some fayr hermytage And medel thou nomore wyth loue, leue thir 
thoughte and make no more th3me accomptes for to entre wythin my 
eyte : for yf ye haue taken and bounde my husbond that I see thet by 
the I shall haue hym ayene to the pleasure of our lorde my creatour 
some daye that shol be to your euyll aduenture. Whan Alymodes 
▼nderstode the reproches and the rygorouse wordes of his dou^hter, 
he wende to haue lost his wyttes and to £aue deyd for anger and 
sorowe, Incontynent wythoute delaye he made his trompettes to be 
blowe And comaunded that the towne sholde be wele assaylled of all 
partyes.* Sign. L ij iij. 

Beatrix, in the subsequent chapter, rescues Sadoyne from his peri- 
lous situation. Meanwhile Blanchardin marches to the succour of 
Sadoyne, and gives ' a great battle ' to Alymodes before the town of 
Cassydonye; in which Alymodes is defeated and taken prisoner. 
Sadoyne and his wife Beatrix are in consequence crowned in the fore- 
mentioned city. Blanchardin and Sadoyne then unite their forces, 
and defeat Subyon in a great battle. Subyon escapes, and the Con- 
querors pursue him, somewhat unguardedly; as the following very 
interesting extract proves : 

* He was well mounted vpon a goode horse; Wherfore they coude 
not ouertake hym by cause the nyght byganne to comen and myght 
no lenger see hym : he toke smd entred wythin a forest that was nyghe 
by the remenaunt of his folke were al take by blanchardynes men 
grete gayne they made there & a grete foyson of prysonners they had 
grete ioye and gladnesse they made of their victorye, But the erle of 
Castelforde and the barons merueylled them moche by cause they 
W3rste not where their lordes blanchardyn and Sadoyne were drawen. 
they soughte and serched them all aboute, but they fonde theym not : 
And for to recounte of their aduenture. they chased Subyon that was 
horsed at a vantage better than they were : he vealopped soo longe that 
he came in to a valey where theues were whiche were ten or twelue in 
nombre that were all grete murdrers. wherof the pryncypall and the 
mayster of them all was named syluayne, that knew well ynough 
aubyon whiche came vnto theym & sayd. that he had grete nede of 

t^hmfynei 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. ' 279 

the^rm : And that twoknyghtes chased hym for to slee him And tftat' 
yf it so happed that they myght catche and gete hem there wythin' 
theyr caues, they sholde haue of them so grete a butyne and so grete 
goodes that they all shall euer more be ryche, whan the theues vnder- 
stode Subyon, they were sore desirouse to lodge theym wythin their 
streyngthe preuely wythin a secrete chambre : whiche thyng they' 
ded. but they had not so sone doon so that blanchardyn & sadoyne 
came there and asked the theues yf they wyste not to speke of a man 
that was mounted on horsbacke and armed as they were: They' 
ansuered that they wyste no tidynges of hym. nor of none suche. but ' 
wel they said to blachardyn & to sadoyne that yf they wolde be lodged 
there wythin for the nyghte that was come, they sholde make theim 
gode chere of suche goodes as god had lent hem : By cause they semed 
to be knyghtes. And that it was sore late to ryde eny ferther & that 
noo housyng nor no retrayt was nyghe by sjk myles where they mygfat 
be lodged : The two barons heryng the theues speke. consented for to 
lodge hem selfe for that nyght wyth theym. They entred into their . 
strengthe. And whan they were comen in. And that they had seen the 
dysposicon of the place, they Judged in hem selfe. that al thys meyne 
where murderers and theues. Wherefor they concluded with in them 
selfe. that they sholde lye al nyghte in their hameys and that they 
sholde not be dysgarnyshed of their swerdes : Whan Sylueyn the chief 
mayster of the theeues see that they had not putte of their harnes, he 
came toward them & said that they were in peax & in a sure place, & 
that they myght wele putte of ther habilymetes of warre blachard3m 
the ansuerd vnto him & sayd, that it was the costome of theire 
land, not to putte of their armures for the fyrst nyght that 
they cam to a new lodgyng, the theues that sawe blanchardyn &' 
Sadoyne so fayr so grete and so wele armed, durste not assayle them, 
but Subyon that was hidde wythin a chabre and that wele had herd 
theym, lept oute of it & gaafif them corage And said that they were all 
wery of the batayl And that a grete shame were to them xiij in 
nombre, yf they durste not sette vpon two men : Thenne came 
Syluayn his felawes wyth hym And ascryed the two barons to dethe : 
Thenne said blanchardyn to sadoyne, we must defende oure self now, 
yf we thinke to scape quyk out of this place & euer see oure ladyes 
paramours. They lefte their wordes drewe their swerdes & set their 
sheildes afore theym so bigan they to smyte amonge their felon enmyes, 
they all to hewe & clewe them in so moche that eyght of theim fell don 
ded to therthe. the other foure trowed to haue fled in to sauete. but they 
were pursued so nyghe of blanchardyn & of sadoyne that they ouertoke & 

VOL. IV. o o 

S60 BOOKS PRINTED BY [The Doeirmal 

dewe thre of theim. the fourth that was maister of hem all fled wythin 
the place for to haue saited hymself into the chambre where subyoa 
was, but uf so nyghe he was folowed that Blanchardyn ouertoke hym. 
and smote hym suche a stroke wyth his swerde. that he made his hede 
to flee fro the sholdres of hym, and fel ded euyn atte the dore of the 
chambre, that he had opened all redy for to haue saued him there 
wythinne. wher subyo was in grete fere & drede. & not wythout cause 
For he well ynough byleued and knew that hb dayes were come atte 
an ende, syth that he was fallen in to Blanchardynes handes/ 5t^ 
M ui, luj. 

This iiassage brings us nearly to the conclusion of the last page in 
the present imperfect copy. The author goes on : * I shall here leue 
to speke of Blanchardyn of Sadoyne and of Subyon, that in grete fere 
was of his dethe. And shal retoume to speke of the proude pucelle in 
amours and of the barons that were wythin the castdl of Castelfbrde.' 
Then follows the prefix to the 54th and last chapter, as given at p. 271* 
ante : unluckily, only six lines of text remain in the copy before us. 
We learn, however, from this prefix, that Blanchardin ' wedded his loue 
the proud pucelle in amours :* and thus we may conclude the meritorioui 
pair were made happy in the end. 

Such is the account of this precious and truly valuable volume. In 
the fly leaf. Lord Spencer has written the following memorandum: 
' This book belonged to Mr. G. Mason ; at whose sale it was bought by 
John Duke of Roxburghe. The Duke and I had agreed not to oppose 
one another at the sale, but, after the book was bought, to toss up who 
should win it ; when I lost it. I bought it at the Roxburghe sale, on 
the 17th of June, 1812, for 215/. 5»/ In old red morocco binding. 

865. The Doctrinal of Sapyencb. Printed at 
IVestinester. 1489. Folio. 


The proheme or prologue occupies the first leaf, and is reprinted in 
the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. "166-7. The head of the first chapter ' Of 
the xy artycles the feyth ' is at the bottom of the reverse of this first 
leaf. The next leaf is omitted to be numbered A ij ; but on the recto 
of A iij we observe the table to terminate 

qfSi^ieiiee; 1489.] WILLIAM CAXTON.' «81 

The text of the work begioB on the reverse of thia third lea^ with 
» wood-cut preciselj the same u the one «rf which a fttc-simile appeus 
■t p. 970 ante. 

The aa\j remaining wood-ciit (unleu a third haa escaped me) b that 
on the recto of B j ; which shall speak for itself in the followiog &c- 
simile : 


Under the several heads, which bespeak the attentim of the reader 
to apparently very grave subjects of diacussioo, we have tome curious 
and amusing tales ; perfectly in the l^endary character of the times. 
The efficacy of the Sign of the Cross, is thus singularly set forth — in 
rather a scandalous story relating to St. Cyprian. 

' It is sayd in the vertu of the crome, that tofore that seint Cypryan' 
was Crysten, he was a mayster in arte magyke and in nygromancye. 
And he was a nuble mas and lyche and kmed so moche saynt lustyne 
virgine tliat he myght not slepe ne reste be came to salt iustine 
& promised to her many grete yeftes to thende that she shold consents 
to be his wyBe. Ciprian seing that he might haue not his entent & 
desire did« doo calle a deuil. & (.omanded him that he ehold goo to her 

282 BOOKS PRINTED BY [The DdeMnta 

fbr tenbrace her in the loue of him. the deuille wente thider in the 
•eblaunce of hir nounisse for to entreate h^r to doo the comaudemt of 
ciprian, but anone as she felt her self so enbraced she signed & bleasyd 
her with the signe of the crosse and anone the deuyl departed fro her. 
and retomed to Cypryen alle ashamed and sud to hym that he myght 
not haue her. & thenne Cypryan called another more foul & horrible 
deuyl and sent hym to her. but he dyde also lytyl as that other. This 
deny] was in the lyknes of her suster, Thirdly cyprian called an other 
deuyl & he wente in lyknes of her moder. & b^an strongly to wepe to 
fore her. & said to her. O fiEiyre doughter how cruelly shalt thou be 
tormented yf thou doo not the wyll. and desyre of thys noble man : and 
thys deuyl was the mayster of alle other, And fbr the more to moeue 
her. he shewed to her her brestes. of whyche she sayde she had gyuen 
her to souke. Thenne the mayde .almost consented, but anone she 
blyssyd with her the sygne of the holy crosse And the deuyl wente a 
waye alle confused to Cypryen & was constrayned to saye the trouthe 
and sayd to hym, that by the vertu of the holy crosse. the mayde had 
Taynquysshed hym whan Cypryan herde thys he sayd. I renounce the and 
alle thy werkes. And byleue in hym of whom the holy crosse hath so 
moche strengthe. Thenne the deuyl was angry, and wende to haue 
taken hym fbr to tormente. But he sygned hym with the sygpne of the 
holy crosse and so escaped fro hym And wente fbrthwyth and knelyd 
doun at the feet of lustyne the vii^yne, and cryed her mercy : And 
after he dyde doo baptyse hym. & ledde after soo holy a lyf. that by 
the crowne of martyrdoon he reyneth wyth our lord perdurably :* 
Sign. B vj, vij. 

It seems to have been the delight of the authors of the middle age, 
in their devotional treatises, to paint the horrors of hell, and the 
miseries of the damned, in colours the most glarhig and horrific. The 
following is only a brief specimen — from many similar passages — and 
is extracted from the Ixxxvth chapter, which is entitled * Of *^ Paynes 
of Helle: 

* Example, We rede in vitis patrum that seint Machayre fbnde in a 
way the hede of a dede man, he coniured by the name of god that it 
skold saye to hjm of whom it was And it sayd I am the hede of a 
preste of the paynems. & wold neuer byleue in the fayth of crist. 
Saynt macharye demamanded* of hym where art thou. I am in helle said 
he. what payne suffrest thou, I ansuere the that the fyre vpon my hede 
is aB moche as is fro hens to heuen, and as moche vnder. and as moche 

ofStfienee; 1489.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 28S 

on alle sydes of me. And vnder me ben the iewes whyche neuer wold 
bykue in ihesu crist. And vnder the iewes ben the euyl cristen men 
whyche haue byleued in the &yth of ihesu crist wyth theyr mouth, 
but they haue not doon the werkes & whan it sayd alle thys it fyll alle 
to pouldre. Item they that be dampned haue so grete stenche. that no 
mortal may sufifre it, they haue gret drede. honour, and derkenes 
palpable, they haue grete serpentes wfayche lyuen in fyre lyke as 
fysshes doon in the water, dragons horrible that deuoure them, thondre 
and tempestes whiche falle on them, hamers that all way smite on 
them as ypon an andlyylde wythout ceassyng or leuyng. deyllis whyche 
wyth glayues and spefes perce, hewe. &.detrenche them, they haue 
grete wormes & grete toodes whiche on them gnawe* &c. Sign, L. iiy. 


It should be observed that the embellbhments of this volume, and 
those of the Royal Book (see p. 268 ante) exhibit the same neatness of 
character ; and are much superior to the usual wood-cut decorations 
of Caxton's books. The type also, of these two works, is precisely the 
same. The signatures,. A to K, run in eights : but K and L have each 
10 leaves : the text terminating on the recto of L x. In the Tygog* 
Antiq, vol. i. p. 268, 1 have reprinted an entire chapter, belonging to that 
part of the work which is entitled : 'Of the N^ligence happening in 
the Mass and of the Remedies ; Cap. lxiig»' It is remarkable that the 
only known copy, in which this chapter occurs, is in that of his Msgesty, 
which is PRiNTiD UPON VELLUM. lu the copy before us, and in the 
lohe belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, the 64th chapter is only 
thus summarily noticed : 

tt 4^f tj^e mtlvetnttfi of t^t m&t^t anb of t^t ttm^iptf 
3[ paf& oti^ foe it o^ttttpntt^ to ptt^tttfi i not to ieat 

intn. C* IjCU^* Sign. I u. rev. 

It is rather singular that the copy under description has a duplicate 
of L iii. The colophon, on the recto of L x» is thus : 

tt€l^ eniieti^ t^e feottnnal of Cappetice t|e toj^c^ if 
tpgl^t \itSt ottti pcoufCptable to aOe ccp^tm men/ 1dM)< 
tit ttanjB(Iateti out of feenfl^e nt to eiQlpfl^e hp InpBpan 
€axtim at toejettme^t fgntpffpeti i^. tnr* tuip of map t^ 
pere of out iotH/ ii^ittalxj^tv: 

Cajcton me fim finit 

284 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Fait of Arwm ; 

On the reverse is the printer*! large cipher. This sound and uioit 
desirable copy was obtained from the purchase of the Akhome CoUec* 
tion, in the possession of Mr* Jotunes of Halbd. It is in russia binding* 

866. The Fayt of Armes and of Chtualryb. 
1489. Folio. 

The impression commences with a tab1e» which has this prefix : 

4tct &e0pimetl^ ttie taBIe of t^e tutepflQejf of t^ 
f^ boftt of t^t fiipt of acmejet anti of C^tiafeiie )»l^c|^ 
jTapti boftt M tiq^artpti in to foure partpeiSt/ 

The table ends on the recto of the second leaf, with the word 
* Cnittrit.* The reverse of this second leaf is blank. On the recto of 
the ensuing leaf, A j, we read the prologue, which constitutes the first 
chapter ; as the prefix announces : 

fl^ttt dtsintnetl^ i^t iKioft of Gsptttjf of acnitjl % of Cfipnaii/ 
tgtt ^nti t|)e ffcin cl^apptre itf ts^ pcologue/ in )»]^i(|^ 
jr^cpftpne of 9p^e ernifetl) |^tc je(df to l^ue ^ enterpcpfe 
to jBtpd^ ''f ^^ 1^ mattct 00 ijf contcpncd in tj^jf iB(apti 

Hie signatures run to S» in eights : S hating onlf 5 printed leaves, 
iAd a sixth blank. The epilogue of the printer occupies nearlj the whole 
of the last leaf, S v ; from which we learn that the work is chiefly a 
version from Vbgetius and the Arbre nss Battaillbs. This French 
version was delivered to Caxton by Henry VII. ' in his palace of West- 
minster, in January, in the 4th year of his reign to be reduced into his 
English & natural tongue, and to put it in imprint.* Caxton completed, 
the imprint in July following. The entire epilogue is reprinted in the 
Sfypog. Antiq. vol. i. p. ^th^6^ At the bottom of it, on the reverse of the 
Ittt leik( we observe the colophon^- 

I have been rather brief in the account of this work ; not so much 
because a very particular description of it has been before given by me 

1489.] WILLIAM CAXTON, 285 

to the public, as beeause it isy of all the works printad by Caxton« one 
of the commonest occurrence. Such a copy of it, however, as that 
here described— large, clean, and sound throughout — is no triding 
acquisition to the Caxtonian cabinet. It is bound in russia. A 
very extraordinary copy is in the library of his Grace the Duke of 

867. The Boke of Eneydos. 1490. Folio. 

The pre£su!e of this book is worth all the remaining contents of it. 
The version (as Oldys properly remarks) * is rather a reduction of the 
Mneid to an historical narrative in prose ;' and not a ^thful translation 
of two or three of the entire books. It may be necessary to add tluit 
Caxtoa*s version is from the French. The preface, of which the reader 
IS taught to ex|)ect so much, shall be again 'reprinted entire, in a 
modernised orthography ; that there may be no impediment to the 
perusal and understanding of it. 

' After divers works made, translated, and achieved, having no 
work in hand, I, sitting in my study, where as lay many divers pam- 
phlets and books, [it] happened that to my hand came a little book in 
French, which late was translated out of Latin by some noble clerk 
of France, which book is named Eneydos; made in Latin by that 
noble poet and great clerk, Virgil ; which book I saw over and read 
therein : how, after the general destruction of the great Troy, i£neas 
departed, bearing his old father, Anchises, upon his shoulders ; his 
little son, lolus, on his hand ; his wife with much other people follow* 
ing ; and how he shipped and departed ; with all the history of his 
adventures, that he had ere he came to the atchievement of his con- 
quest of Italy— as all along shall be showed in this present book. In 
which book I had great pleasure, by cause of the fair and honest terms 
and words in French, which I never saw to fore like, ne none so 
pleasant, ne so well ordered ; which book as me seemed should be 
much requisite to noble men to see, as well for the eloquence as the 
histories. How well that many hundred years passed was the said book 
of Eneydos, with other works made and learned daily in schools^ 
especially in Italy and other places: which history the said Virgil 
made in metre. And when I had advised me in this said book, I 
deliber[at]cd and concluded to translate it in to English, and forthwith 

2S6 BOOKS PRINTED BY [JEneid; 1490. 

took a pen and ink and wrote a leaf or twain, which I oversaw again 
to correct it. And when I saw the fair and strange terms therein, I 
doubted that it should not please some gentlemen which late blamed me, 
saying that, in my translations, 1 had over curious terms which could 
not be understood of common people ; and desired me to use old and 
homely terms in my translations. And fain would I satisfy every 
man ; and so to do, took an old book and read therein ; and certainly 
the English was so rude and broad that I could not well understand it. 
And also my Lord Abbot of Westminster did do shew to me late 
certain evidences written in old English for to reduce it into our 
English now used. And ceitainly it was written in such wise, that it 
was more like to Dutch than EngUsh. I could not reduce ne bring it 
to be understonden.' 

' And certainly oqr language now used varieth far ftt>m that which 
was used and spoken when I was bom. For we Englishmen ben bom 
under the domination of the moon, which is never stedfiast, but ever 
vmvering, waxing one season, and waneth and decreaseth another 
season ; and that common English that is spoken in one shire, varieth 
from another. Insomuch that in my days happened that certain mer- 
chants were in a ship in Thames for to have sailed over the sea into 
Zealand, and for lack of wind they tarried at Foreland, and went to 
land for to refresh them ; and one of them named Sheffislde, a mercer, 
came in to an house and axed for meat, and especially axed after egges; 
and the good wife answered, that she could speak no French ; and the 
merchant was angry, for he also could speak no French, but would 
have had eggs, and she understood him not. And then at last another 
said that he would have eyren ; then the good wife said that she under- 
stood him well. Lo what should a man in these days now write, 
egges or eyren ? certainly it is hard to please every man, by cause of 
diversity and change of language. For in these days, every man that is 
in any reputation in his country, will utter his communication and 
matters in such manners and terms that few men shall understand 
them. And some honest and great clerks have been with me, and 
desired me to write the most curious terms that I could find. And 
thus between plain, rude, and curious, I stand abashed : but in my 
judgment, the common terms that be daily used ben lighter to be 
understood than the old and ancient English. And forasmuch as this 
present book is not for a rude uplandish man to labour therin, ne read 
it, but only for a clerk and a noble gentlemen that feeleth and under- 
standeth in faits of arms, in love, and in noble chivalry : therefore, in 

JBneid; 14iK).] WILLIAM CAXTON. 287 

mean between both, I have reduced and translated this said book in to 
pur English, not over rude ne curious^ but in such terms as shall be 
understanden, by God*s grace, according to my copy. Andof any man 
will intermit in reading of it, and findeth such terms that he cannot 
understand, let him go read and learn Virgil, or the Epistles of Ovid ; 
and there he shall see and understand lightly all, if he have a good 
reader and informer. For this book is not for every rude and^ uncun* 
ning man to see, but to clerks and very gentlemen that understand 
gentleness and science.' 

% * Then I pray all them that shall read in this little treatise, -to 
hold me for excused for the tmiwlating of it; for 1 [ac]kuowledge 
myself ignorant of cunning to enprise on me so high and noble a 
work. But I pray Master John Skelton, late created poet laureat in 
the University of Oxenforde, to oVersee and correct this said book, 
and to address and expound where as shall be found foult to them 
that shall require it. For him I know for sufficient to expound and 
English every difficulty that is therein ; for he hath late translated the 
Epistles of TuUy, aud the book of Diodorus Siculus, and divers other 
works, out of Latin into English, not in rude aud old language, but in 
polished and ornate terms craftily, as he that hath read Virgil, Ovid, 
Tully, and all the other noble poets and orators, to me unknown : and 
also he hath read the ix muses, and understand their musical sciences, 
and to whom of them each science is appropr[iat]ed. I suppose he hath 
drunken of Helicon's well. Then I pray him, and such other, to 
correct, add, or [di]minish where as he or they shall find foult ; for I 
have but followed my copy in JbYench, as nigh as me is possible ; and 
if any word be said therein well, I am glad; and if otherwyse, I 
submit my said book to their correction. Which book I present unto 
the high bom my to-coming natural and sovereign Lord Arthur, by 
the grace of God, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of 
Chester, first begotten son and heir unto our most dread natural and 
sovereign lord and most christian King Henry vii, by the grace of God 
King of England and of France, and Lord of Ireland ; beseeching bis 
noble grace to receive it in thank of me his most humble subject and 
servant. And T shall pray unto Almighty .God for hb prosperous 
increasing in virtue, wisdom, and humanity, that he may be equal with 
the most renowned of all his noble progenitors % And so to live in this 
present life, that after this transitory life, he and we all may come to 
everlasting life in heaven. Amen.' 

* In orig. * dok/ 
VOL. IV. p p 

288 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbmy TtOei; 

Thif preface begins on sign. A j» and occupies two leaves. A table 
occupies the three following leaves. The reverse of the 3rd leaf of the 
table is blank. On sign. B j— after a proheme of 17 lines — ^we read 
the prefix to the first chapter, thus : 

^gtttt Cptt of CfDiic CdpfB ^ptimS 

The signatures to L, inclusively, run in eights : a blank leaf forming 
L viij. The colophon is on the recto of L vy, thus : 

1^^fi€ fpnpn^etfi tfie fuAt pf (^neptu^i comppieb &p tape 
Sjfit, \Dffic^ |)at|)e he ttanjSat^ oute of latpne in to 
fcen^ti %v6x oute of ften^e uinutHi in to ^higlp^e bp me 
topfim Cartott/ t^t t)c^. iiape of $[uptt« t^ pece of one 
lortie* a9.ttt| C IjCjncjc. €l^e fptfie pere of t^ Hegnt of 
fipt^ l^entp t^ jSTenentj^ 

The large device of the printer is on the reverse. For a specimen 
of the text, as well as an account of the original French version, see the 
Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. S87, 290. The present beautiful and sound copy 
was obtained of Mr. Stace, the bookseller, for 1052. It is in elegant 
russia binding. Copies are in the Devonshire and Blandford Collections. 

868. ^HE Tales op Canterbury. fVithout Place 
or Date. Folio. 

First Edition. The copy under description is unluckily imperfect, 
notwithstanding the very high price for which it was obtained. The 
defective leaves (only 5 in number) have however been perfected by 
the laborious skill pf Mr.Whitaker ; and it may be questioned whether 
a more complete specimen of successful fac-simile exists. The text 
of the poet, without any proheme of the printer, occupies the whole of 
the first page, on the recto of the first leaf; beginning thus : 

^dtiti ttie tiniU0||te of d^art^ ||at|^ joti pt rote 

oCC. oCC. oCC. 

First Edit.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 289 

See the TifjH^. Antiq» vol. i. p. 293 ; where the first 16 verses 
given. A perfect copy of this impression is of the very rarest occur* 
rence: and there are few books, from the press of Caxton, which 
exceed it in size ur beauty. However defective the MS. may have been 
from which this impression was executed,* the volume before us has 
every claim to the notice and veneration of the tasteful antiquary and 
collector : since it exhibits the earliest printed text of our immortal 
Chaucer. It is entirely destitute of signatures, numerals, and catch- 

The tale of the Prioressf terminates on the reverse of the leaf, pre- 
ceding the tale of Chaucer, thus : 

for t|^ jBtentente of t1g^^ trete lite 
SCftir t{|e tDJ^cj^ merp tale tW % )>n^te 
%vS^ tl^erefote j^ftenptj^ tDfiat % jsttial ^«^ 
%x^ Itte me telle mp tale % pou prap 

j^eqiuttui: €f^tgt^ tale 

* The MS., says Tyrwiiitt, * happened unluckily to be one of the worst in all respects 
that Caxton could possibly have met with.* The reader howeTer should consult Mr. Todd's 
interesting work of Illustratk>ns of Oower and Chaucer, 1810, 8va 

t I select, almost at random, the following specimen of this earliest printed text of 
Chaucer. On re-examination, it appears somewhat gross ; and would form an admirable 
subject for the pencil of a Callot. But it u so severe and tremendous a satire upon the 
supposed state of purity of the clei^gy, of that period, that the curious reader may approve 
its insertion : 

Here enditb the Freris tale 

And begynnyth the Sompnours prolog. 

t His Sompnour in hu stirop high stood 
Vp on this frere his herte was so wood 

That lik an aspin leef he quook for yre 

Lordingis quod he o thing I desire 

I you beseche of your curtesye 

Sithe ye haue herd this fids frere lye 

As sufirith me I may a(l) tale telle 

Thb frere bostith that he knoweth helle 

And god woot that u litil wonder 

Freris and fendis been but litil a sunder 

For parde ye haue oflft tyme herd telle 

How that a frere raaysahed waa to helle 

In spirit onys be a uyiioun 

And as an aungil ledde hym vp and doou 

290 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbury Tales; 

^ The opening of the poet's tale begins on the recto of the ensuing 
leaf, and may be seen extracted in the authority just refeiTed to. It 
occupies 28 leaves and a lialf : on the reverse of tlie 29th we read 

$e» 4Bnbet]^ C^ttwerjet tale of ^S^OUbt i 

The Manciple's Tale terminates the metrical portion, on the recto of 
the 6 1st leaf. It is followed by the prologue, in verse, of the Parson's 
tale; and the tale itself, of the same character, in prose, bas this prefix : 

To shewe hyra the preuytes (2) that were there 
In al the pk^e saw he not a finere 
Of othtr folk he saw ynowe in wo 
Voto thu aongil spak this inn tho 
Now sire quod he haoe fineris suche a grace 
That non of hem shal oome in this place 
Yes quod the aongel many a myllioun * 
And Tnto Sathanas he ladde hym adoiin 
And now hath Sathanas soch a tayi 
Bradder than of a Caiik b the my 1 
HoM yp thy tayl thou Sathanas quod he 
Shew forth thyn a** and let let the finere so 
Where is the nest of F^neris In this place 
And er that a furlong wey of space 
Right so as bees swarme out of an hyue 
Out of the deuelis a** they gon diyue 
Twenty thousand fineris on a Route 
And thorow out helle swarmed al aboute 
And cam ayeen as faste as they may goon 
And in to his a** they crepte in euerichon 
He clippid ayeen hb tayl and lay stylle 
Tlib frere when he loked had his wille 
Vp on the tormentis of thb sory pbce 
His spirit god restorid of his grace 
Vnto hb body ayeen and he awook 
But nathdes for feer yet he quok 
So was the deuyl(9) ay in his mynde 
Than b it hb heritage of verry kynde 
God saue you alle saue thb cursid finere 
My prolog wil I ende in thb manere 

On comparing thb passage with the same in the second edition, I find only the following 
Tariations deserving of notice : the rest being merely differences of spelling. For (1) * a,' we 
read * my.* (2) for * preuytcs/ b read * tonnentes:' (3) after « deuyP b inserted * ars'— -iii 
the second edition. 

I!hst Edit.] WILLIAM CAXTON. i»i 

^nti ]^e» fitejpnmtfy ^0 tale. 

This tale comprehends 11 leaves. On the recto of the 11th leaf of 
it, we observe, 

ejcptttst paxfM psxft ptntttnot. 

A little onwards (4 leaves) we read ' JDt tftpti peccatitf rnomiib^ JntipU U 
CupCet] bia.' This occupies 8 pages and a half: next,' ^qultur He J11VMM9' 
3 whole pages, and 2 half ones : again, ' Aevntut He 3Fni t' again, after 7 
leaves, ' ^quitui He StcctHla/ At the bottom of the 3rd following leaf» 
' €>equitut He 9uatida t' on the 3d following — ' €>eqtiituc He tfula :* 1 lea( 
' 4kqttitut He Hujcitcia t* on the reverse of the 6th following leaf: * 9Vtm 
fectuiHa par0 pettiteiide :* on the reverse of the 3rd leaf, ensuing, * JimifU 
terda ^aift penitende.* On the recto of the 3rd following leaf— being the 
37ist and last leaf of the volume, we read, at bottom, 

oBjr^itctt €ractatUjB( ^Miftptn C^mtcer tie 
f^emteitda tit tiiotut pm fidtoto Htctm^. 

The RetraciUm ofOutucer, a spurious composition,* fills the reverse 
of this leaf, and is the last page of the work. I shall give it here in its 
original spelling. 

* nOw pray I to hem alle that herkene this Htil tretyse or rede, that 
yf tber be ony thing that liketh hem, that therof they thanke our 
lord Jhesu Crist of whom procedeth al wit and goodnes. And yf ther 
be ony thing that displese hem I praye hem also that they arrette it 
to the defaute of mjm vnconnyng For our book saith, al that is 
writen, is writen for our doctrine And that is myn entent, wherfore I 
beseke you mekely for the mercy of god, that ye for me praye that 
crist haue mercy on me and foryeue me my giltis, and namely of 
my translacions of wordly vanytees, the whiche I reuoke in my 
retractions, as is the book of troylus, the book also of fame, the book 

* See Hearoe's Robert of Glocester, vol ii. p. 601-5 : and Peter Longtoft, vol. i. p. lvii- 
Lviii. TyrwhitVs Chaucer, vol. L p. 113, toI. ii p. 513, 514» 4to. edit Tyrwhitt supposes a 
part only to have been interpolated : namely, that ' the beginning of the passage and the end,' 
made together the genuine conclusion of the Parson's tale ; and that the middle part, from 
' and namely ' to < of my soul,' was an interpolstiOB. He afterwards however admits that 
these are ' very uncertain specoiatioDS.' 

292 BOOKS PRINTED BY [CatUerhwy 7\dei; 

of S5. ladies, the book of y* duch^ase, the book of seynt yalentyns day 
of the parlament of birdi8» the talis of Caunterbury tho that sownyn vnto 
synne, the book of the lyon, and many other bokis yf they -were in my 
remembrance and many a songe and many a lecherous Uye that crist 
of his grete mercy foryeue me the synne, But of the translacion of 
Boece de cosolacioe and other bookis as of legendis of saintis and 
omelies. moralite. and deuocion, that thanke I of our lord Jhesu crist 
& his blessid moder & alle the saintis of heuene Beseching hem 
that they from hensfbrth vnto my liuys ende sendeme grace to be- 
wayle my giltis that it may stande vnto the sauacion of my soule, & 
graunte me grace of verrey repentance, confession, & satis&ction to 
doo in this present lif, thurgh the benigne grace of hym that is 
kynge of kyngis and preest of alle preestis that bought ts with the 
precyous blood of his herte, so that I may be onb of hem at the day of 
dome that shal be sauid. Qui ca patre et spu sco viuit et regnat deus. 
Per omnia secula seciilorum Amen.' 

No copy of this work has yet been found with the name or device of 
the printer subjoined ; though I strongly indine to believe that some 
such distinction marked the volume on its first appearance. The 
paper of this work is of superior character : but the right side or margin 
of the press work, in the Parson's tale, is, like the earlier productions 
of Caxton's press, in very bad register (as printers term it). A full 
page has 29 lines ; and the character of the type is similar to the fee- 
simile at p. 23? ante. This copy, although not tall, is in very sound 
and beautiful condition. The copy in his Majesty's library, formerly in 
West's, is the only perfect and genuine one known : that in the library 
of Merton College, Oxford, wanting 3 leaves. The present is most 
tastefully bound, in olive-colour morocco» by C. Lewis. 

869. The Tales of Canterbury. fVithout Place 
or Date. Folio. 

Second Edition. The prologue of this edition, with which the 
work commences, on sign, a ij, is unluckily imperfect in the present 
copy ; but the reader will find the whole of it reprinted in the Typog. 
Antiq. vol. i. p. 295-6. It is a very interesting one ; and we learn 
from it that Caxton published the previous impression from a corrupt 
and ' incorrect text which had been brought to him 1 1 years past.' 


One of the * gentlemen ' who had purchased his former impression, 
* came to him and said that that book was not according in many places 
irnto the book that GeojOfrey Chaucer had made.' Caxtou replied^ that 
he had printed it faithfully according to his copy. The gentleman 
rejoined — that his father was in possession of a much more perfect copy 
of the original text of the poet — tliat he set a high value upon it — but 
that if Caxton ' would imprint it again» he would get the same book for 
a copy.* ' Howbeit (continues our printer) he wist well that his father 
would not gladly depart from it : to whom I said, in case that he could 
get me such a book true and correct, that I would once endeavour me 
to enprint it again, for to satisfy the author.* The gentleman pro- 
cured the book from his father, and Caxton printed it accordingly. 
Mr. Tyrwhitt has informed us of the superiority of this text to that of 
the previous impression. 

The copy under description is in many respects so imperfect, that a 
faithful account of it would be no guide to the collector in procuring 
a perfect one. I shall however describe the material portions of it, 
and endeavour to compensate for deficiences, by a representation of 
the Cuts or Figures of some of the psincipai;. CHAKACTaas, with the 
text of their description ^thfiilly subjoined. The reader has already 
had &c-similes of the Wife of Bath, and the Oxford Scholar in 
tlie Typog. Jntiq. vol.i.p. 300. As these are the first graphic embbl- 
LISHMENT8* of the tcxt of our first (and perhaps greatest) poet, they 
cannot fail to be interesting to the curious. 

The cut of the Kniobt, on sign, a iij, is here wanting. The Squire 
is thus represented by the Artist and the Poet. 

IThe arrangement of the text in this and other places depends upon the 
placing of the cuts,"] 

* The beautiful picture upoD the iubject of the proceasioQ er journey of the above 
Characters, towards Canterbury, executed by Mr. Stothard, and eusniTed by Mr. Bromley, 
is equally known and admired by the taitefui in the fine arts. 

BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canttrbuiy Talen 


Wjtb 117m th«r was hys Bone a yoDg tapcfv 

A loaer and a lusty bacbeler 

Wyth lockys crulle* as they wera leyd in prewe 

Of twenty yer of age he was I gesse 

Of hys stature he was of euene lengthe 

And wonderly deljiier and of greet strengthe 

And he had be eom tyme in chyuauchye 

In flaundrys In Artoyse And in Pycardye 

And born hym wel as of a lytyl space 

In hope to iitooden in hys ladyes gnuw 

Enbrowded was he as it were a mede 

AI ful of fresshe flourys wbyt« and rede 

Syngynge he was or Hoytynge al the day 

He was u ^eashe as is the mtmeth of Hay 



Short waa hys gowne wyth Bleu^s longe & wyde 
Wei couthe be ftitte on ban & thertu bjre ryde 
He couthe soDgys make and wel endyte 
Jouste and daunce portraye and eke wryte 
So hote he loued that by n^hter tale 
He slepte no toon than a nyglityngale 
Cnrteys he vraslcpwly and seniyiabyl 
He carf befim hys &dcr at the tabyl 



A yeman hadde he and seniantes nomo 
At that tyme for he lyst to ryde so 
And he was clad in cote & hood of grene 
A sheef of pecok arowes bryght and shene 
Vnde hys belt he bare fill thryftyly 
Wei coude he dresse hyi takyi yomanly 

BOOKS PRINTED BT [Omterteiy lUmt 

Hya arowM drouped not wyth fetheiyi lom 

Aod ia hys bond he bear a myg^tj bowe 
A not bed he had wyth a bnnin TjMge 
Of wodemannea cnft coode ha al tiie nags 
Vp on hys arme he bare a-^y braoar 
And by hys syde a award and a bokrier 
And on that other tyde a gay dag^;are 
Harneysed wel and iharpe aa poynt of ipen 
A Cristofir on hys brcst of ailuer ihene 
An horn he baar the bawdryk ma of great 
A forster wai he aothly aa I gcaae 


Tber was also a nonoe a pTyoresse 
That of hyr smylynge was v^pyl & koy 
Here grettest oth was be saynt loy 
And she was depp'd dame Eelentya 




Fill wel she Btxage leniyw dyuyae 
Entoyued in ber rays tal stm^j 
And frenah she tpak Ail fetmsly 
Aftir the soole of StraHord at the bowe 
For freosh of pari* was to hyr unknowe 
At mete wel taagbt was she wytb al 
She lete no morsel fn hyr lyppys fa] 
Ne wette hyre fyngna in hyr nuce depe 
Wel coude she cary a morsel of mete 


A frere ther was a wanton & a mery 
A lymytour aud a ful solemne man 
In alle the ordiys four in non that can 
So moc-he of daliaunce and fair langage 

* Tbe MoHi, whjdi Iblloio, u here ddee 

»8 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canierimy IVe$; 

He hadde made f ul many a fidr mariage 
Of yong wyromen at hys owen cost 
Vntil hys ordre he was a nobil post 
Ful welbeloued and fid ftunylier was he 
W3rth frankeleyns ouer al in hys contre 
And eke wyth worthy yemen of the toun 
For he had power of caoietnoa 
As sayd hym self more than aocurat 
And of hys ordre he was licenciat 
Ful swetly herd he confession 
And plesaunt was hys absolucion 
And an esy man to gyue penaunce 

The Mebchant follows ; whose portrait answers for those of the 
SoMPNoua and Fbankblbv. We shall therefore not consider it a 
Intimate one. Next follow the representation of the Clbbk op 
Oxford ; for which see the I\ffog. AnUq. toI. L p. dOO« 



A SerjeauDt of Uwe wnar and wise 

Was there that oft lindde be at the paruioe 

That was alao fiiUe riche of excellence 

DiBcrele he was and of grete reuerence * 

He semyd auche hys wordya were so' wyse 

lustyce be was ful ofte in assyse 

By patent and be playn (^mmyssian 

For hya science and hys hygh renoun 

Of fees and Robys hadde he many on 

So grete a. purchasoiir was there nowher noa 

Al was fei: symple to hym in cSecte 

Hys purchace myghte not be to hym suspecte 

• The above cut U borroired ft 
S. iu the preient copy. 

1 the btter part of the tat : the fint fbui line 

BOO BOOKS PRINTED BY [Gmlerfiwy Tak$; 

Nowhere so besjr a man aa he ther naa 
And yet he aemyd beayer than be wu 
In tcermct hadde he caas and domes alle 
That iro the tyme of kyiig wylUain were bile 
ThertQ he coude endyte and make a thyng 
Ther coude no wygtat pynche at hys wrytyng 
And euery statute coude he pleyn by rote 
Ue rood b<it homely in a medic cote 
A gyrt wyth a seynt of lilk wyth buris smale 
Of hys any telle I no lenger tale 
Kezt comes the Frankclin ; succeeded ^ 


An habyrdassher ther was and a carpeoter 
A weble a dyer and a tspyser 
And they were clothed alle in o lyuere 
Of a solempne and grete fraterayte 

Second Edit.) 


Ful fii^asli and newe her gter pjkad wu 
Here knyuys chapped were not wyth bras 
But al wfth sihier wrought All dene and wel 
Here gyrddis and hyr powchj* euerj del 
Wei semed eche of hem a ftyr boifSTi 
To Bitten in the yeld halle at the dej* 
Euerych for the wysdom that he can 
Was happely forto be an aldynnan 
For cateyll hadde they ynow and rent 
And here wynys wold it wel assent 
And ellis certayn they mn to blame 
Hyt ii ful fayr to be called madame 
And go to the Tygyllis al before 
And haue a mantel rially I bore 


A Cook they hadde wyth hem for the nonys 
To boylle the chykens & the mazj bonyi 


And powder m&rchatuit Urt and galyngale 
Wei knew he & draughte of lonikn ate 
He coude roete eetbe broyUe md frje 
Make Mortrewys and ifel bftke a pye 
But gttte harm was it as h thoughte m« 
For on hjB shynne a momiBl had be 
And blank manger made b6 wytb tbe beat 

The Shipman bUowa ; who is lucceeded by the Pbyaician. This 
portrait, however, answers for that of the Pjusoer. 


Wytb Ts tber was a doctour in physick 
In the world was tber none hym lyk 
To speke of physick and aurgerye 
For he was grounded in Astronomye 


He kepte hys paciente a greet deel 

In hourefi by magyk naturel 

Wei couthe he of fortune the assendent 

Of hys ymages for hys pacient 

He knewe the cause of emery maladye 

Were it of cold hete moyst or drye 

And were engendred of what humour 

He was a very parfight pradesour 

The cati9e y know and of hya harm the rote 

Anon he yaf to the sik man hys bote 

For redy alway be hys a potewaryes 

To sende hym drugges & his botecaryes 

For ec^e of them made other for to wynne x 

Her friendship was not newe to begynne 

Ful wel knewe he the okie Esculapius 

And dyscorydes and eke Rusus > 

Olde ypocras, haly and eke Caliene 

Serapion Rastis and eke Auicene 

Auerroys damascene and constantyn 

Bernard Catisden and Gylbertyn 

Of hys dycte mesurable was he 

For it was of no superfluyte 

But of gr^ nourisshynge and dygestyble 

Hys stody was but lytyl on the byble 

In sangweyn and in perce I clad wyth all 

Lyned wyth tafiata and wyth sandall 

And lytyl he was of hys dyspence 

He kepte that he whan in the pestdence 

For gold in physik is a cordyal 

Therfbr he loued gold in especyal 

The WiPB OF Bath, the Pakson,* and the Ploughman, follow. 

* The ' poor Parson* was prorerbial in Chaucer's time : the description of liim begins 
thus : A good man ther was of religyon 

And was a poore parsoo of a toun 
But riche he was of hol^ thought & werk 
He was also a lemed man and a clerk 
That crysten gospellis trewly wold preche 
Hys parishons deooutyly wolde he teche 
Bcnygne he was and wonder dylygent 
And in aduertite ful pacient 
&C. &C. dec 
TOL. IV. a R 



The Myllere was a rtoirt carle for the iioiqr» 

Ful byg he wu of bnuin and bonja 

That proued wel for oueral there be Gam 

At wrastljnge alwey he wolde haue the ram 

He was short shaUred brood a thycke quarre 

Ther was no dore that he nolde heue of the barra 

Or breke it at rennjmge wyth hys hed 

Hya berd as ony eowe or fox was reed 

And therto brood as it were a spade 

VpoD the cop right of hya nose he hade 

A werte and tber on stood a tufte of heris 

Rede as the briateles of a sowes eria 

Hys noetrellis blak were and wyde 

A awerd and a bokider baar he by hya syda 

SKond £dit.'\ 


Hys mouUi u gnet wu u a fameyB 
He was a Jangler and a goliaidjeB 
And that waa muet of oynne and harlotrfes 
Wei coude he stele gmh and telle thryeB 
And that be hadde a tboBobe of gold psrde 
A whyt cote and a Idew hood werfd he 
A bagge pype coude hebknnand sowite 
And therwyth he brought n out <rf towne 


A Geotyl Mancypyl was ther of the temple 
Of whyche a catour myghte take exemple 
Forto be wyse in byynge of ^ytayl 
For whethyr be payde or took by tay 
Algate he wnytyd so on hys achate 
That be was ay befbn and in good itat* 

BOOKS PRINTED BY [CanlerbMyliOet; 

Now 19 not that of Ood a fayr grace 

That Buche a lewd mannys wytt« shal pace 

The wysedom of an heep of lented men 

Of maystria hadde he moo than thryes ten 

That were of lawe expert and corious 

Of whyche there were a doaen ia that huiw 

Worthy to be stuardyes of rente and lolide 

Of ony lord that is in Englond 

To make hym lyue be hys owen good 

In honour defies bnt he were wood 

Othyr lyue scarBcly ai hym list desire 

And able for to belpe al the shyre 

Id ony cause that mygbte bile or happe 

And yet this Mancypjl set al her c^pi^ 


A Reue ther was a sledir colerik man 
Hie berd is shaue as nygb ai he can 

Second JEdU:] WILLIAM CAXTON. 307 

His heris were by his eris roud y shore 

His top was dockid lik a prest before 

Ful loDge were his l^gis and f ul lene 

Lyk a staf ther nya no calf y sene 

Wei coude he kepe a gamer and a bynne 

Ther was none auditoor coude of hym wynne 

Wei wyst he by the droughte and by the rayn 

The yeldynge of hys seed and of hys greyn 

Hys lordis sheep hys neet and hys deyrie 

Hys swyne his hors his stoor & his pultrye 

Was holly in thys reuys g^emyng 

And by hys couenaunt yaf the rekenjrnge 

Syth hys lord was twenty yere of age 

Ther coude noman brynge hym in arexage 

Ther nas baylly ne noon other hyne 

That he ne knewe his sleyghte or hys couyne 

They were of hym adrad as of the deth 

Hys wonynge was fill fayr vp on a heth 

Wyth grene treys shadowed was hjrs place 

He coude better than his lord purchace 

Fid riche he was astored pryuely 

Hys lord wel he coude please subtylly 

To yeue & kne to hym of hys owen good 

And haue thank & yet a cote and an hood 

In yougthe he hadde krned a good mystere 

He was a wel good wryght a Carpentere 

Thys reue sat vpon a wel good stot 

That was al pomel gray and hyghte scot 

A long surcote of Perce vp on hym he hadde 

And by hys side he baar a rusty bladde 

Of norfolk was thys reue of whyche I telle 

Beside a toun men calle Bladyswelle 

Tuckyd he was as is a frere aboute 

And euer he rood the hynderest of the route Sign, c j. 

The representations of the SoMPNOuit the Pabdoner, and the 
Host, conclude these short introductory pieces on the reverse of C iv. 
The Tales of the respective Characters, before briefly described, com- 
mence with that of the Knight ; and the following exhibits the order 
in which the characters are described, and the succession of the 

BOOKS PRINTED^ BY [Canterbury Thks; 

1. Knight. 
9. Squire. 

3. Yeoman. 

4. Prioress. 

5. Monk. 

6. Friar. 

7. Merchant. 

8. Clerk of Oxford. 

9. Seijeant of Law. 

10. Frankelen. 

11. Haberdasher. 

12. Cook. 

13. Shipman. 

14. Doctor in Physic. 

15. Wife of Bath. 

16. Parson. 

17. Ploughman. 

18. Miller. 
19* Manciple. 
SO. Reeve. 

21. Sompnour. 

22. Pardoner. 
83. Host. 

34. Knight's Tale. 
t5. Miller's ditto. 
86. Reeve's ditto. 
97. Cook's ditto. 
88. Man of Law's ditto. 
39. Merchant's ditto. 

30. Squire's ditto. 

31. Frankden's ditto.* 
33. Wife of Bath's ditto. 

33. Friar's ditto. 

34. Sompnour's ditto. 

36. Ckrk of Oxford's ditto. 

36. Nun's ditto. 

37. Chanons Yeman's ditto. 

38. Doctor of Physic's ditto. 

39. Pktfdoner's ditto. 
40 Shipman's ditto. 
41. Prioress's ditto. 

48. Rhyme of Sir Topas. 

43. Chancer's Tale. * 

44. Monk's ditto. 

45. Nun Priest's ditto. 

46. Mandj^'s ditto. 

47* PftrBon'9 ditto. 

Of the cuts, illustrative of the preceding characters^ those of the 
Knightt the Monk, the Clerk of Oxford, the Setjeant ai Law, and the 
Host, are wanting in the present copy ; but if I am not mistaken, these 
cuts were used, or copied, in Pynson's edition of Chaucer's works, of 
the date of 1536 ; (See Typog, Aniiq, vol. ii. p. 515,) and in that of 
Kingston, of the same works, of the date of 1561, Folio. 

It might be considered somewhat unpardonable to omit a foe-simile 
of tbe portrait of the author himself. Accordingly the ensuing one— 
which also represents Sir Topas — may be considered the earliest 
engraving extant of Chaucer : 

* The foUowiDg iiz lines are not in the previoos edition : 

Perancntare an heepe of yoa ywjs 

Wjrl holden hym a lewd man in thys 

That he wyl put hys wyf in jeopardye 

Herkeneth the tale or ye on hym aye 

She may haue better fortune than you semeth 

And whan that ye han herd the tale, demeth Sijgn. q iiij. v. 

^tnndEdit.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 

There are three sets of signatures ; each having 8 leares to the set— 
except aa follows. First, a to v in eights ; v haring only 6 ; next, aa to 
ii In eights, ii having but 6. Lastly, A to E in eights, indosirely. It 
has been before observed that the copy under description is imperfect. 
Indeed it is almost equally painful and difficult to enumerate its defi- 
ciencies. The proheme of Caxton, and the prologue of the poet, are 
wanting; as are signatures a vj ; b i; c iiij, v, riij, d i, ij, iij, iiij, 
T, TJ J ii vj ; and the whole of the last signature, K. This copy bad 
been in the collections of Ratclifie and Herbert ; and the latter informs 
us that the omissiooB, supplied in manuscript, are in the hand writing 
of Ratclifie. Imperfiect, however, as the copy appears — it is a very 
desirable acquisition ; since the rarity even of fragments of it ia 
extreme. The library of St. John's College, Oxford, contains a perfiect 
and beautiful copy. 

810 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Boet/dus. 


fVithout Place or l}ate. Folio. 

Beneath the aboye title, on the recto of the first leaf, at top, we 
read the fo lowing distich, in Caxton's largest lower*case tjFpe • 


Catmina ipA Qtuitftidni jftitino (lotnttc | 
fieftilijst tint mejB(to|t cosoe St ice nwHoil 

The English test follows immediately, thus : ' aLas I wep3mg am 
constrained to begynne vers of soroufuU matere,' &c. A fiiU page 
contains 99 lines. Each section, or chapter, has a Latin sentence 
prefixed, in large lower-case type; followed by the English version of 
the author's commentary, in the same type with which the Jason, Diets 
and Sayings^ and first edition of the 3Hrror rf the World are executed : 
and from the irregularity of the register, towards the right margin, I 
have no doubt that Ihis volume was executed before the year 1480. 
There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. The work 
begins, as above, without prologue or introduction, and concludes on 
the recto of the 90th leaf, thus : 

The epilogue of Caxton follows ; the whole of which Is reprinted in 
the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 304-5. From this, we understand that the 
version is Chaucbr's ; for whose soul the printer calls upon his readers 
to pray, thus : ' And furthermore I desire & require you that of your 
charite ye wold praye for the soule of the sayd worshipful man Gefirey 
Chaucer, first translatour of this sayde boke into englissh & enbehssher 
in making the sayd langage ornate & fieiyre. whiche shal endure per- 
petuelly. and therfore he ought etemelly to be remebrid. of whom the 
body and corps lieth buried in thabbay of westmestre beside london to 
fore the chapele of seynte benet. by whos sepulture is wreton on a table 
hongyng on a pylere his Epitaphye maad by a Poete laUreat. whereof 
the copye foloweth &c.' 

As the leaf (the last in the volume) cojitaining this epitaph, is often 
wanting, and as the matter itself is interesting, I subjoin it the more 


jMRtMIl llUlKitft jtofl^MlIl |IIII%SM 

p pcntiCjtf iBUitttflipBliiiinttinBBiM 

Qittji cdittt litu{}f . at l»i0 ttieiratt jtt^iiiiiitii 

RcmaniB lUflESto giaaa DtBtia mro 
4l&raittie ttcafi \uifA0. f Hacti muna manmtjC 

4hw tiitiicit tndiP litiiniA lotkui loinit 
4BnuUic wntft at ittt? €tuaKtt^ 6nn9(R tMnnt 

i^ot Qftntn fittiftt ^ijfta 6tit3na ttttnfi 
sSctiUtnt itutiBtum matenti]} lutsSbi. tit iatn 

Silutea tftilnttwitcat« Grasea fittta ochutf 

SOtrmji. egngitjEt que tttcocata motit^r 
i&oocati^ tnsentum. tid finite^ |?fMlfli^op|[|tt 

4^uttquH»* 1 arcj^ont bogmata jB^acta ftnitit 
€t qiftunq$ twU^ tcmttt ttgniljitmiijf amur ^ 

^ tiate^. 9U0 conHitii^ |^oc tumulo 
mi) lauHtjf sftum predara ftcitaiinia po^ 

Worn xagmt. tattta moc^ ofeto^a titnim 
Cnttieleit pane, ecutiflia 6Ia ^ocorejec 

^on tameit ejetiiitto eoq^oce. fiattia i^ent 
tOtuet in etenrnm. tiittSt inim jerteqpta poete 

^hiant etemo tot numimenta tiie 
Jbt qua lionoir tangit $ietajr. ^ cacmie tofgaP 

Caetnina quicecimt tot cumulata mnXn^ 
f^t ^i tnarmoreo $ren&uitur \u3iba jsrqguk^ 

1^ nianeat lauibi^ jtaitina ^unntia #tie 


VOL. IV. g s 

312 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chauca's Book 

H^ttemt, 1^ 0atxa ^m tunndatiuf j^unio 

|0d9itt lAitan €mtn tioiutt te biiten citra 

UNOdint. €^ttt dan poeta tuj 
00xa tita tunt jAribtm cotn^odjstit opM^ndd fonni^ 

In the whole, 93 leaves : as specified in the auth(»4ty before referred 
to. The paper of this work is of unusual substance, and the copy 
under description (from the Alchome Collection) is large and sound ; 
although occasionally soiled. There are various old ms. memoranda, 
at the beginning, in the margins, and at the end. ilimong them, are 
the names of Francw Howard^ .Ambrose NicUu^ and Nicholas Morgan* 
The memoranda are in the Latin, Spanish, and English languages ; but, 
as flEU* as they can be decyphered, they seem to be of no importance 
whatever. From the conclusion of one of them . [' God saue the Qeene'] 
it is provable that the earliest is of the time of Queen Elizabeth* There 
are also the dates 1633 and 1668. 

This copy is in old russia binding. 

871. The Book of Fame. fVithout Palace or Date. 

On the recto of the first leaf, a ij, (a j being blank) we observe the 
comtneucement of the poem in the following manner : 

€i)e ibooii of fame matie h^^j/OIStx^ Cptica 

4^ti tocm \i$ eittcp tnxthe to goob 
for it i0 ioonber tl^png &p tfsn tooH 

€0 mp tDpt/ i»|^t (aujrptl^ ^ttwuenpiei 
^n t^ movoiDei w on euotpit 
SInb to|^ t^efGett fbiotoetl^ of ^tmt 
3llnb of jAiiBe it jbtI^ neuei: come 
lei^p tl^ it iji tiiitpott 
^nti ittfip tfyf^i a teuelaciott 


^W ^Sf a tnemtt ittlip tl^at a jsrioetten 
%v3ii not to euerp matt/ ipcl^ euot 
H^^ tfipjf a Guttott/ itt^ t|)ep ot^adcjf 
3[ note/ &ut itt|^ |to of t|piste tnptacfeil 

Sec. Sec. Sec. 

A full page has SB lines cm* verses. As this is the original work 
from which Pope composed his celebrated Temple of Fame^ a few 
specimens may not be unacceptable ; especially as similar ones have 
been given at the foot of Pope's text : some of which may be com- 
pared with the following. The prelude to the vision is thus : 

For neeur syth I was bom 
Ne woman els me by fom 
Mette I trowe sted feistly 
So wonderful a dreme, as dide I 
t He tenthe day of decembre 

The whyche as I can remembre 
I wyl make inuocacion 
Wyth a deuoute specyal deuocion 
Vnto the god of slepe anone 
That dweUyth in a caue of stone 
Vpon a streme that cometh fro lete 
That is a flode ful vnswete 
Besyde a folke that men clepe cym^e 
Ther slepeth ay thys god vnmerye 
Wyth hys slepy thousand sones 
That allewey to slepe, her woon iB. a ij rev. 

The account of Dido and JEneas has great interest. I shall select 
only a small portion of it ; 

Ther sawe I graoe, how Eneas 
Told to Dido euery caas 
That hym was tyd vpon the see 
And efte grauen was how that she 
Made of hym shortly at a worde 
Her lyf, her loue, her lust, her lord 

For he to her a traytour was 
Wherfor she slowe her self alas 

8U BOOKS PRINTED BY [Ckimcer's Book. 

Lo how a womman doth amys 

To loue hym that vnknowen is 

For euery trust, lo thus it foryth 

It is not all gold that glaryth 

For also browke I myn hede 

Ther may be rnder goodly hede 

Couerd many a sherewd yyce 

Therfbre be no wyght so nyce 

To take a loue only for chere 

Or for speche or frendely manere 

For thus shal euery womman fynde 

And swere» how he is vnkynde 

Or fals prouyd, or double was 

Alle thys saye I by Eneas 

And dido, and her nece loste 

That louyd alto sone a ghoste 

Therfore I wyl saye o prouerbe 

That he that fuUy knoweth the herbe 

May saufly leye it to hys eye 

Wythouten drede that is no lye Sign, a v. 

Itom the Second Book we are presented with the following spirited 
passage : 

And I adoun gan to loke tho 

And behelde feldes and pleynes 

Now hyllesy and now mounteynet 

Now valeyes» and now forestes 

And now vnnethe gprete bestes 

Now ryuers, now grete cytees 

Now townes, now grete trees 

Now shyppes sayllyng in the see 

But thus sone, in a whyle he 

Was flowen fro the groimd so hye 

Eat alle the world as to myn eye 

Nomore scmed than a prykke 

Or els the eyer was so thykke 

That I myght it not deceme 

Wyth that he spack to me so yeme 

And seyde, seest thou ony token 

Or ought, that in the world is of spoken 

I sayd nay» no wonder is 

Quod he, for neuer half so hye as thys 


Nas Aljrsaunder of Macedo 

Kynge, ne of Rome dan Scipio 

That saw in dreme poynt deuyt ^ 

Heuen and helle and paradys 

Ne eke the wryght Dedalus 

Ne hys sone Nyse Icharus 

That flawe so hye, that the hete 

Hys wynges malte, and he fyl wete 

In myd the see, and there he dreynte 

For whome was made a grete compleynt 

Now tome vpward, quod he, thy face 

And beholde thys large space 

Thys eyer, but loke that thou ne be 

A drad of hem, that thou shalt see 

For in thys regyon certeyn 

Dwelleth many a cytezeyn 

Of whiche speketh dan plato 

These ben the eyrissh bestes lo 

And tho Kawe I alle the meyne 

Bothe goon and also flee 

Lo quod he, caste vp thyn eye 

See yonder lo the Galaxye 

The whyche men clepe the mylky weye 

For it is whyt. And some perfeye 

Callen it watljriig strete 

That ones was brente wyth the hete. 

A^an the sonnes sone the rede 

That hyte Phetou wold Icde 

Algate hys feiders carte and gye 

The cart hors gan wcl aspye 

That he coude, no gouemaimce 

And gan for to lepe and daunce 

And here hym vp and now doun 

Tyl he sawe the Scorpyoun 

Whyche that in heuen, a sigpue is yet 

And he for fere» lost hys wyt 

Of that, and lete the reynes gon 

Of these hors and they anon 

Can yp to raounte and doun descende 

Tyl bothe eyer and erthe brende 

Tyl Jubiter, lo at the laste 

Hym slowe, and fro the cart caste 

816 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chaucer's Book 

Lo is it not a grete myschaunce 

To lete a fole haue gouemaunce S^, b ▼• 

The description of the Castle upon the Hill, or the Palace </ Fame^ 
is in Chaucer's most rich and animated style : 

So that the grete beaute 
The cast crafte and curiosite 
Ne can I not to yow dcuyse 
My wytt may it not suflfyse 
But nctheless alle the substaunce 
I haue yet in my remembraunce 
For why, me thought by seynt gyle 
Alle was of stone of beryle 
Bothe the Castel and the tour 
And eke the haUe and euery hour 
Wythoute pe(^es or Joynynges 
But many subtyl compassynges 
As babeuwryes and pynnades 
Ymageryes and tabernacles 
1 sawe eke and ful of wyndowes 
As flakes fiBillen in grete snowys 
And eke in euery of eche pynades 
Were sondry habytacles 
In whiche stoden all they wythouten 
Ful the castel all abowten 
Of alle maner of mynstrallis 
And gestours that tellen talis 
Bothe of wepyng, and of game 
And of alle, that longeth Tnto fame 
There herd I pleye on an harpe 
That sowned wel and sharpe 
Hym Orpheus fid craftely 
And on hys syde &st by 
Sat the harper, Oryon 
And gacides Chyryon 
And other harpers many one 
And the bryton Glaskyryon 
And smale harpere, W3rth her gleys 
Sat vnder hem in d3ruerse seys 
And gon on hem upward to gape 
And counterfeted hem as an ape 

if Fame.] WILLIAM CAXTON. Sl7 

Or as crafte counterfete kynde 

Tho sawe I hem behynde 

A fer from hem, as by hem selue 

Many thousand tyme twelue 

That made lowde mynstraleyes 

In cornmuse or shalemeyes 

And many an other, pype 

That craftely began to pype 

Bothe in dowted and m rede 

That ben at festes wyth the brede 

And many a floyte and lytelyng hqny, 

And pypes made of siree of corn 

As haue thyse lytel herde gromes 

That kepen bestis in the bromes.. Sign, b viij, cL 

The genius of the poet seems to rejoice in the description of such 
resplendent scenery : 

Lo bow shold I telle alle thys 
Ne of the halle eke, what nede ia 
To tellen yow that euery wal 
Of it, and roof and flore wyth al 
Was plated half a fote thykke 
Of gold, and that was not wykke. 
But to proef in alle wyse 
As fyne as.doket of venyse 
Of whyche to lyte in my powche is 
And were sette as thyck as owchyt 
Ful of the fynest stones fiiyre 
That men reden in the lapydayre 
Or as grasses growen in a mede 
But it were al to longe to rede 
The names, And therefore I pace 
But in thys ryche lusty place 
That femes halle, called was 
Ful moche prees of folk, ther was 
No gronyng for so moche prees 
But al an bye vpon a dees 
Sat on a see Emperyal 
That was made of a Rubye Ryal 
Whyche a Carbuncle is y callyd 
I sawe perpetuelly y stalled 

318 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Book of Fitme. 

A fiemynyn Creature 

That neuer formed by nature 

Suche another thyng I say 

For altherfyrst soth to say Sign, c ig. 

But a limit must be assigned to these extracts. The signatures 
extend to d, in eights : d having only 5 printed leaves, and a blank 
one. On the recto of d v, the conclunon of the poem,* and the sub- 
joined colophon are thus : 

a^l^erfiir to mutipe aifb tetw altoap 
SI pacfti^ to boo tup iip tiap 
C^Ujf in tittiiipit0 0x61 in game 
<^et|i tj^ji iptpl doofi of fame 


S[Qn^no'moreofti|i^)tteritetofocejftiptiy f or ajEt fin; ait 
SI can tinlKCie^tie/ €^ noUe man ^Bcffinrep CEiauca; 
fpnpO^pti at t|e irapti conclui^on of t^ metpng of iefpng 
anb tat^taimi in'^ttt 00 pet tfiep fm cj^dtfttb anti mape 
not bepartei toj^pcj^e loedtt of me jsremetfi i^ ccaftplp 
meUti mH bpgne to fie ittteton 1 imoloen/ for lie 
totDcl^^ in it rpgl^ gcete topsrcHom n jmBtpH tintiei;> 
^tontipngei ^nh ^0 in aSe ^jc tneritp^r fie ejccenptfi in 
ti^ opypnpon eSit oti^ tttcptetiEt in out 4tttgi'pt^% foe 
|e torptetfi no bo^e ittoitiejt/ Init aOe l^ir mater ijer fu{ 
of l^e anb Qup^e ^mtmtti to itf^om oni^t to Be gpuen 
Ua6K anb prepfpns Gor '^fi noUe mafrpi^ anb tnrptpng/ 
for of i)pm alle otl^ l^aue iiorolDeb fptj^ attb teikm. in 
die tl^epr tod jTapeng anb tnrptpntr/ ^nb S l^umUp 
bei^ecl^e 1 prape potn« emonge pour praperjB^ to rememBre 
^0 fmk, on tnl^pcl^ anb on alle crp^ten ^w^ $[ 
ht^et^ almpgDtp 00b to l^aue merep ^men 

<^prpnt^ ftp iopHiam €axtm 

* At the top of the last page, opposite the third line, there is printed (whimsically ei.ough), 
by Caxtun himself, the word ^CftXtOtt»* 

Jiookfar TraoeUers.] WILLIAM CAXTON. dl9 

The reverse is blank. There are few of Caxton's colophons which 
contain more interesting observation than the preceding. The copy 
here described is of such large and genuine dimensions, that a dupli- 
cate of the last leaf, (d v, containing the colophon as above — at present 
in his Lordship's possession,) is shorter by full 3 inches, and about one 
inch smaller in width. Few volumes, among those from the press of 
Caxton, exhibit so desirable an aspect. It was formerly in Ratcli£Ee'8 
collection, and is in old red morocco bindings with a broad border of 
gold on the exterior. 

872. Troylus and Cresside. fFtthaut Place or 
Date. Folio. 

This copy, although clean and sound, is in a very imperfect state. 
The first page is complete ; but the second not so. The 4th page is 
also incomplete. Signatures e lij ; A j ; m iiij ; and m v are wanting ; 
as are the whole of the signatures p and q. This copy was formerly 
in the collection of West : and is in old red-morocco binding. 

873. A Book for Travellers. Printed at PVest^ 
mestre by London. fVithout Date. Folio. 

* In what collection a perfect copy of this work is to be found, I am 
unable to mention : such a book must be a great curiosity.' This 
observation was made ♦ upwards of five years ago ; without the hope 
or expectation of ever having it in my power to gratify the reader 
by a full and faithful description of a complete copy of this extraordinary 
production of the press of Caxton. The volume before us, fortunately 
for its Noble Owner, is not only perfect, but of very ample dimensions; 
and was obtained about four years ago, of Mr. Miller, the bookseller, 
for 105/. : it having been formerly in the curious collection of Mr. 
lister Parker. It is unquestionably among the very scarcest and most 
ciuious of the books printed by the Father of oui* Press. It has 
neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and is executed in the 
smallest of Caxton*8 types, like those of the Ckromde^ Polychraniam, 

• Typog.Antiqy^,lS15,3t7. 

i'lO BObKS PRINTED BY [jBoo*/or 5V»wter#i 

Confmio Amantis, Sfc, A full page has 42 lines. The entire Volume, 
dT only 95 leares, is executed iii double cblunans, id the form of a 
vobabularj ; the French being to the left, and the English to the right. 
l*he cdmraencement of it, At t6p of the tecto df the first l^, will aflbrd 
a rorrect idea : 

€p eommeme (a tsSAt ^ier Be^fptttUt]^ t!^ tiibU 

fiDe cejert ptouffptaUe boctrttte ^(t^ipMu^teMtUtufniet* 
l^t trouuet tout pat ortiene for to fpi^e all hp orbte 
Ce que on ttouitnra iqprenHre C^t to^j^e men lotJOe leme 

The table then goes on to describe the several heads or subjects, into 
which the work is divided. This wotIl may be considered a compen- 
dium of almost every known topic : theology : household matters ; 
birds: beasts: fishes: fruits: viands: drinks: merchandise: art^ 
&c. &c. It also embraces the several orders of society. I subjoin a 
^w interesting specimens— from much cvirious matter which is unr 
avoidably left untouched : 

Tondeurs pigneresses fileresses Sheremen kempster spynsters 

Des lormiers et armurers. Of bridelmakers and armorers 

Des tailliers & vieswariers. Of taylloiu*s and vpholdsten 

Des taincturiers & drappiers* Of dyers and drapers 

Bes boulengiers & cordewanierff. Of bakers and sboomak^rs 

Des escnpuains & arceniers Of skriueners and boumakers 

Des moulniers & bouchiers Of mylna^ and bochiers 

Des poissonners & tellers Of fysshmongers and of lynweuers 

Des chandeliers & libraries Of ketelmakers and librariers 

Des gauntiers & corbelliers Of glouers and of maundemakers 

Des painturers & vsuriers Of paintours and vsuriers. 

Des couureurs de tieuUes & destrain Of tylers and thatchers. 

Des charpentiers & feultriers Of carpenters and hatmakers. 

Des chauetiers et boursiers. Of cobelers and pursers. 

Des oousturiers et especiers Of shepsters and spycers 

Des coultiers et hostellers. Of brokers and hosteleers 

Des touriers et cuueliers Of kepars of prisons and coupers 

Des mesuriers et messagiers Of metars and messagiers 

Des chartons et changiers Of carters and chaungers 

Jfopi/prTravtfien.] WII44AI 

Des monoyen et pagtesieni. 
Des jougleurs & teoeurs. 
Des vairriers et serruriers 
Des gorliers et buchiers. 
Des parcenniers 

Nomine lea metaulx 

Qui sensieuent. 

Fer achier plomb estain 

Keuure & arain. 

Or argent choses dorees 

Choses dargentees 

Coroyes a claux dai^nt. 

Samture de soye. 

A bouche dargent. 

Boursses ouuries a leguille 

Cbe sont marcbandises 

Eguilles espengles 

Aloyeres tasses 

Cofiyns & escriptoires 

Abesnes grafifes 

Cornets a encre 

Contiaulx fbrches. 

Huuettes de soye 

Coyfes dhommes 

Pendoyrs de soye 

Lachets lannieres 

Soye yermejrlle 

Verde gaune 

noire soye 

De ces soyes 

Faitton bordures. 

Chi feray ie fin 

£t diray des grains. 

Bled fourment. 

Soille orge 

Auaynne vesches. 

Feues poys 

De ces choses suy ie lasses 

Si que ie men reposeray 

4 CAXTQN* 3^1 

Of myntemakers and pybakers 

Of pleyers and tawyers. 

Of makers of grey werke and loky^rs 

Of gorelmakers and joyners. 

Of parchemyn makers Fol. \» 

named the metals. 

Whiche folowe 

Yron steell leed tynne. 

Coppre and bras. 

Gold siluer thlnges gylt. 

Thinges siluerid. 

Gyrdellis with nayles of siluer 

Corse of silke 

With bocle of siluer 

Purses wrought with the nedle 

Thise ben marcbandises 

Nedles pynnes 

Pawteners tasses. 

Cofiyns and penners. 

Alles poyntels 

Enke homes 

Knyues sheres. 

Huuves of silke 

Coyfes for men. 

Pendants of silke. 

Laces poyntes 

Reed silke. 

Grene yelowe 

Black silke 

Of thise silkes 

Make me broythures 

Here I shall make an ende 

And shall saye of graynes. 

Corn whete 

Rye barlye 

Otes vessches. 

Benes pesen 

Of thise thinges J am wery 

So that I shall restc me 

FoL 10. rer- 



a Dam amaine cha. 

mon cheual tantost 
Se luy metz 
La selle et le frain. 
Je cheuaucheray 
La iay promyse a estre. 
A vng parlement 
Ou a vng annyuersaire. 
Regarde sil est ferres 
Des quatre piets 
Se il nelest 
Si le maine Ferrer 
Abraham cest faict 
Tenes monies 
Chausies vous housiaux 
Vous esperons. 
Puis Yous desiunes 
Amehois que vous departes. 
Adryan on en ales vous 
Se vous alles mon chemyn 
Je vous tenroye companye. 
Si en serroye moult joyeulx 
Alart or en alons 
Saus arrester 
Se nous voulons venir. 
Ainssi comme nous 
£t les aultres auous promts 
Abel ou vendt on. 
Le meinour vin de cest ville 
Dictes le nous 
Nous vous en prions 
Andrieu le meilloiu' venton 
A la rue des lombars. 
Car ie lay assaye 
Cest dung plein tonniel 
Du pris de viij. deniers. 
En le premier tauerne 
Que vous trouueres 
Andrieu va querre 
Vng quart et demy 

a Dam bryng hyther. 

My hors anone 
And sette on hym 
The sadel and brydle 
I shall ryde. 

There J haue promysed to be 
To a parlamente 
Or to a yeres mynde 
Beholde yf he be shoed 
On four feet 
Yf he be not 
So lede hym to be shoed. 
Abraham hit is done 
Holde sitte vp 
Do on your bootes 
Your spores 
Syth breke your fost 
£r ye hens departe 
Adryan where well ye goo. 
Yf ye goo my way 
I shall holde you companye 
So shall J be moche glad 
Alarde now goo we. 
Withoute tarieng 
If we wylle come 
Lyke as we 

And the othir haue promised 
Abel where scUe men 
The beste wyn of this toune. 
Saye it vs 
We pray you. 

Andrew the beste selleth me 
In the stretc of lombardis. 
For I haue assayed. 
Hit is of a fiill fieitte. 
At pris of viij. pens 
And the first tauerne 
That ye shall fynde 
Andrew goo fecche. 
A quart and an half. 

JffooA/(/r Travellers.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


£t te fsaa bien mesurer 

Si buuerons vug troit 

Nous desiunerous des trippes 

De la foye du poumon 

Vng piet du buef. 

Vng piet du porke 

Vng teste daux 

Se nous desiunerous 

£t buuerous becq a becq 

Aacel mets la table 

£t les estaulx 

Laue les voirs 

Respaulme la hanap 

Dresce a manger 

Taille du pain. 

Laue le mortier 

£t le pestiel 

Fay nous des aulx 

Nous en arons toute lour 

Plus chault en nous membres 

Amoul verses du vin 

£t nous donnes a boire. 

Non feray ie poyle des aulx. 

A lies amchois lauer 

Vons* beuuries bien a temps 

Aubin est a le porte 

Mais alhuys 

Va se le laisse ens. 

And doo the well to be meten 

So shall we drynke a draue^ht* 

We shall breke our fast with trippes 

Of the lyuer of the longhe 

A foot of an oxe 

A foot of a swyne 

An hede of garlyke 

So shall we breke our faste 

And shall drynke becke to beck 

Ancelme sette the table 

And the trestles 

Wasshe the glasses 

Spoylle the cuppe 

Dresse to etc 

Cutte brede 

Wasshe the mortier 

And the pestel 

Make vs somme gharlyk 

We shall haue all the day 

More hete in our membres 

Arnold gyue vs wyne 

And gyue vs to drynke 

I shall not I pylle the gharlyk. 

Goo erst wasshe 

Ye shall drynke well in tyme 

Aubin is at the gate 

But at the dore 

Goo late hym in. Fol. 19. 

The concluding section, terminating the volume at fol. 25, is thus: 

Si commencies ainsi. 
Comme est declare cy apres 
V Ng deux trois 

Quatre chincq six 
Sept huyt nenf f dix 
Vnze douze treze 
Quatourze quinze seze 
Dixsept dixhuyt 
Dixnenf J vingt. 
Trente quarante 

t Sic. 

So begynne all thus 
As is declared here after 
o Ne tweyne thre 
Foure fyue sixe 
Sffien eight nyne ten 
£nleuen twelue thirteue 
Fourtene fifteue sixtene 
Seucntene eyghtene 
Nynetene twenty 
Thietty fourty 

t Sic 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Book for TrweUm. 

Chincquante soizaAle. 

Septante huytante 

Ou quatre Tiagt 

Nonante cent 

Deux cents 

Mille cent mille. 

Vng million 

Ainsi toudis montant 

Une liure de strelins 

Une marcq que vault. 

Deux uobles dangleter 

Une liure de gros 

Monoye de flaundres 

Une soulde que vault 

Trois gros ou douze deniers 

Une gros vault quatre deniers 

Ung denier vnc maille 

Ung quadrant vne mite. 

Cy fine ceste doctrine 

A westmestre les loimdres. 

En formes impressee. 

En le quelle vng chescun 

Poun*a bnefment aprendre. 

Fransois et engloys 

La grace de sainct esperit 

Veul enluminer les cures 

De ceulx qui le aprendront 

Et nous doinst perseuerance. 

En bonnes operacions 

Et apres ceste vie transitorie 

La pardurable ioye & glorie 

Fyfty Syxty. 
Seuenty eyghty. 
Or four score. 
Nynty hondred 
Two hondred 

A thousand a hondred thousand. 
A myllyon 

Thus alle way mountyng. 
A poimd sterlings 
A marcke that is worth 
Two nobles of Englond 
A pound grete 
Moneye of flaundres 
A sheU3mg that is worth 
Thre grotis or twelue pens 
A grote is worth four pens 
A peny a halfyeny 
A ferdyng a myte 
Here endeth this doctrine 
At westmestre by london 
In fourmes enprinted. 
In the whiche one euerich 
May shortly leme. 
Frenssh and Englissh 
The grace of the holy ghoost 
Wylle enlyghte the hertes 
Of them that shall leme it 
And vs gyue perseueraunce 
Jn good werkes 
And after this lyf transitorie 
The euerlastyng ioye and glorie 

FqI 24-5. 

The last 7 lines are all that appear on the recto of fol. 25 and last. 
This precious and unique volmne is tastefully bound by Lewis in blue 
morocco. Another copy, with a few leaves supplied in ms. is in the 
collection of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire. 

Saiherin of Senis.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 825 

874. The Lyf op Saint Katherin or Senis. 
TVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

This bcx)k exhibits another of those puzzling peculiarities^ which it 
is difficult to account for satisfactorily. We have here the same type 
and mode of printing, which distinguish, not only the Golden Legend 
of 1493, (described at p. 269 ante) but, in part, the Trtaiue of Love^ 
described in a subsequent, page : that is to say, the large lower-case 
type, in each of these three publications, is precisely the same, and 
such as was used by W. de Worde | while the snnllef type^ forming 
the body of the text, in the work first referred tc^ and in the present 
one, are exactly similar, and partake more of the Caxtonian character. 
The first capita] initial of the text, in the volume b^lbre us, is an orna- 
mental one, and such as I have not discovered in any book with the 
name of Caxton subjoined. A fac-simile of it appears as the second 
letter [H], at page cxxiv of the 1st vol. of the Typog. Antiq. See also 
the present edition fully described at p. 317 of the same volume of 
the same work. 

The whole impression is executed in double columns, and a full 
page contains 44 lines. At top of the first column, on a j, we read 
the following prefix s 

tt l^ttt Besimnet]^ t|e Ipf of 
IbatDmn of itxd^ t1^t W^ti titi^tn 

The first signature, a, has 8 leaves : from h to p, inclusively, the 
signatures run in sixes ; and the last signature, 7, has only 4 leaves. 
The Life of St. Katherine of Senii, ends on the recto of p v ; and * The 
RevekUions of St. Elizabeth^ the King's Daughter of Hungary^* commence 
on the reverse of the same leaf. These latter terminate the volume, 
with the following concluding sentence, on the recto of q iiij : 

tt l^re eitHeit tl)e mieladonif of Gepnt 
^pteibtt^ t^ itpngejf tiougl^ of Jiiun^ 

♦ Sic. 

826 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Ufe of Jesus Christ. 

The printer's large device is beneath. The reverse is blank. This 
iH not only a scarce book, but, if space had allowed, the reader should 
have been convinced that it is among the most amusing Samtl^ 
Romances of its age. The present desirable copy is in russia binding. 

875, Lyp of Ihesu Cryste. tVithout Place or 
Date. Folio. 

On the recto of a ij (the first leaf a j being blank) we read at top : 

^ ti)e ti e gp m tp gt of tf^ ipalf^em of ^t fmAt tf^t i^ 
depeti t|^e mpctoun of tj^e iM$^ Ipf of S[liiejni Ctpjf te 
tf^t fptjett ^acte of ti^ moneluipe/ &:c. 


The first two leaves contain the summaries or heads of the work. 
At the end of them we read ' Expliciunt Capitula Sequitur prohemium.' 
The proheme follows on a iiij, and fills 4 leaves. At the commence- 
ment of it, we observe the following prefix : 

C^jSt Boofte tfie forjsratti €leribe SC^onmienture jecpeRpnge 
tsptl^t iDotDAtt fiotjsfditi in j^jst pco|^cnu Begpnnetl^ ttt 
tfj^^ maner jsretttettce € ^onatuitture %xuxffit 

Beneath is a wood-cut of the author, St. Bonaventure, presenting 
hb book to the ' forsaid woman.' 

On the recto of A viij, the text of the work begins, according to the 
copper-plate iac-simile in the Typog, Antiq. vol. i. p. 320 ; except that 
that representation of it is far from being faithful * as a specimen of 
the wood-cut and type. It is rather extraordinary that all the books, 
printed in the character of the present — namely. The Royal Book, 1484, 
and the Doctrinal of Sapience^ 1489 — exhibit embellishments of far 
greater delicacy and truth, than those usually discoverable in the pro- 
ductions of Caxton's press. The cuts of the Annunciation, the Salu- 
tation, and the Adoration of the Magi j taken from sign» b v, recto ^ 
c ij reverie ; d ij reverse : are corroborative of the foregoing remark. 

* The same defect is attaehed ti> the wood-cut fito-siiiiiles of the JDetecnt into HcU, and 
the Ascension ; in the above work. 

IFork of Sapimee.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 837 

There are ruoniog titles, specifications of the chapters, and marpiml 
annotations throughout : and the text ends on the reverse of t i\) (in 
eights) thus : 

€1 Sil^ejeru locH t^ Utt^ptt Ipf/ )ei^ atili tomfinrte mm 

tDmchib i{if . Oilmen, jsroo mote it be 
€jqplpdt feodum tnte €o^ complete/ 
tt Sln omm trt&ulactone, temptactone. ttecefjatitate i esig» 

ftpa. fuccum mW wtfiima Micgo mam %mm. 

The printer's larg^ device occupies the following and last leaf. The 
present is a fair sound copy, in russia binding. It was obtained at the 
Roxburgh sale, and perfected (in 2 leaves only) from a copy previously 
in bis Lordship's possession, and now in the library of Mr. Freeling. 
The Duke of Devonshire is also in possession of a fine copy. 

876. The Werkb of Sapience. Without Plape 
or Date. Folio. 

The work begins thus, on the recto of the first leaf, a ij— a i being 

^ lalieroo i p^ moirt menieplo? toeduf 

4^ ie^^tence i^pn Gc0tt regtidi nature 

t a^ pucjpoier ijs to ten a^ toriten derite^ 
$lltiti ji^ecpaQp tier tnooj(t notable am 

3[n mp fpriKt booii % W vretl^e i tie^re 
3[t M j^ plejG^aunt bnto ecl^ per^one 
€l^t it a booft 0^1 otaxffpe alone 

jhtm after tfit^c ^ 0^1 inpjE^etiom ttffttput 
f^ blefjEipti HotDjen^tdU/ anb bn^ inonnpi^ ^lace 
^nb tban retoume bnto l^et 6ttt0 bipue 

VOL. IV. u u 

328 BOOKS PRINTED BY [IFork of Se^utue. 

^I tfyi^ tnatet ^|e tattgl^ me of 1^ gcace 
$[ jtfpalt tottli {|er< aj^ pe nui|i 1^ anli tetie 
f0t in tnp ttwm 3(.mem ^ in a m^e 

OCC. oCCa oCC* 

As a very full account of this rare and interesting volume appears 
in the Tifpog, Anivq, vol. i. p. 325-330, it only remains to add, that it 
contains signatures, a to e, inclusively, in eights. On the reverse of 
e iiij, we read four stanzas, of which the following are the 1st, 3n1, 
and 4th : 

There was the lady clennesse wel arrayed 
Deuocyon and dame vyrgynyte 
Dame cont3mence and chastyte the mayde 
Dame loulynesse and dame stabylyte 
Enlumyned fresshe echone in theyr degre 
These semen feyth as they couthe deuyse 
With blysse they song, & sayd vpon this wyse 
If better is to trowe in god aboue 
Than in mankynd or in many other thyng 
Who troweth in hym, for he can kepe and loue 
Theyr lust fulfylle, & graat them theyr askyng 
And in his gospel eke a worthy kyng 
He sayd hym self in mCf who lust byleue 
Though he be dede ywys yet shal he leue 

O cursed folk with youre Idolatrye 

Whiche in fals goddes setten youre delyte 

Blynd dome : and deth is al youre mametrye 

Of stok and stone, men may suche karue & thwyte 

Leue theym for fals with sour and despyte 

In our one god cast anker and byleue 

Though ye were dede, he can make yow leue 

He is al lyf whan youre goddes be dede 
They haue a tyme, and he is sempyterne- 
They are but erthe, and bi*ought lowe as lede 

ehottfy Matters.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 929 

He r^neth god-aboue the beaen superne 
Blyssed be he. for he no grace wyl werne 
To them, that wyl in hym beset theyr byl6ue 
And though they dye ywya yet shal they lyue 

(£ri^tctt Ctactatu^ tie fi^e et ^Tattttt^ fomide 

The two remaining leaves are occupied by a table of moral duties, 
printed in double columns, and having this prefix in long lines : 

i^ttt i^iifttet0 UAt^atpm i^ ntevp €vpfitm man anfe 
tDomAi ^cXbe, attfi liouttbe to ittmi atrti to tonne to tiiepr 
potnet in toape of tfiept Ciduacpon 

The leaf forming e viij, is necessarily blank. The present may be 
considered a sound and beautiful copy, and is in blue morocco binding* 

877- DiuERs Fruytful Ghostly Maters, JEm^ 
prynted at fVestmynstre. fVithout Date. Quarto. 

This very rare and diminutive volume is divided into three treatises ; 
each treatise having a distinct set of signatures. With the exception 
of the copy of it, in the public library at Cambridge, I am unable to 
notice any other than the one here under description; which was 
obtained at the sale of the Merly Library, for not less a sum than 
1942. 5«. On the recto of the first leaf, A j, we read the title ; in 4 lines 
and a half, as given In the Typog. Aniiq. vol. i. p. 330 ; of which, in 
this copy, the first two lines are partly obliterated. From this title^ 
we learn that the first treatise is translated from a latin work entitled 
OaoLOGiuM Sapibncib. This first treatise occupies the signatures, 
A to M, inclusively, in eights. On the reverse of M vi\j : 

tt €(|UjB( etftntj^ tl^e tttatpstt of t^ )}t) 
poptttejSF of tnu lotu ^ etudajttpns tnpOjoiti/ 
btalDen of tl^t bofie tl^t M iDcpten in laten na . 
m^ <(^rolo0ta Captfcie 


€ Cmprpnteti at twjerttnpttjitn« 

fli <2&ttt \tsit txtitntitti ptttbttm non ttptt 
ft H^pIIdma Cajton* €vd ht9 aira trabat 

The second treatise, commencing also on A j recto, treats of 
Tribulation ; as the ensuing title announces. 

^tpiere tl^ tSk^ Ddtt tliien torn* tii^ 
tnapjB^ctjSt afjSFcmBI^ tcq^iict ompcj^cDttt a(^ 
iuti otiier iDj^at t^pnge t^ep m|i0|)te Beft jstpfte 
of tliat mpglit plejB^e 0Oti/ at^ Uiere mooje^t ^ro 
Stable to t|^e peoiilr* ^nti aH tliep Inen accoc^ 
beti to QieRe of tri{iuIac{ion. 

This second Treatise extends to D, inclusively, in eights. On th« 
recto of D Tiy : 

€ €|^Ujer eniietl^ tfitjf treatpft f^ctDimge tl^e 
jct). "tfoiXlAt^ of trti&ulacpon ^ * : ♦ 

Beneath, is a wood-cut in two compartments: the bottom one 
exhibits the mocking and crowning of our Saviour, similar to what 
appears at page 15 ante. On the reverse of this leaf, is Caxton'f 
large device. The third Treatise follows, on aa (j) recto, having a 
prefix in 10 lines, from which we learn that it relates to the Rule of 
St. Bennbt. It occupies only 20 leaves : namely, a and h in eights, 
and c with four leaves. On the recto of c iiij, at bottom, we read 


tt ^i fiouc tiiante prape fot tl^e tcanfla:^ 
tout of tl^jsr fapH treatpft/ 

On the reverse is a more extended imprint, followed by a recapitu- 
lation of the subject matter of the entire three treatises. At bottom, 
it is thus : 

atrial, ^.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 331 

of tertepn tootjCj^tpfiiO 9et(ime$( : * 

A full page of each of these treatises contains 24 or 25 lines. The 
present copy has been cleansed and perfected with success, and is 
most brilliantly bound in oliye-colour morocco, by C. Lewis. 

878. The Curial op Maystere Alain Charre- 
TiER. fVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

The first leaf of this singularly scarce and slender tract (of only 6 
leaves) is wanting in the copy imder description. The remaining 5 
leaves are entire, but almost destitute of margin from the unskilfulness 
of an ancient binder.* A fiill page contains 38 lines, and the whole 
impression is upon signature t, without numerals or catchwords. For 
an account of the first leaf, see Ty^g, AnHq. voL i. p. 338. I subjoin 
the whole of the three concluding pages. 

' And yf thou demandest, what is the lyf of them of the courte I 
answere the brother, that it is a poure rychesse, an habundance myse- 
rable, an hyenesse that falleth, an estate not stable, a sewrte tremblynge, 
and an euyl lyf. And also it may be called of them that ben amorouse 
a deserte lyberte, Flee ye men flee and holde and kepe you ferre fro 
suche an assemblee, yf ye wyll lyue wel and surely, and as peple wel 
assured vpon the Pyuage, beholde vs drowne by our owne agreement* 
and mespryse our blyndenes, that may ne wylle knowe oiu: propre 
meschyef, for lyke as the folysshe maronners, whyche somt3rme cause 
them self to be drowned, by theyr dyspourueyed aduysement, in lyke 
wyse the courte draweth to hym and deceyueth the symplc men, and 
maketh them to desire and coueyte it, lyke as a pybaulde or a comyn 
worn man wel arayed, by her lawhynge and by her kyssynge. The courte 
taketh meryly them that comen therto, in usynge to them fsalse pro- 
messes, the courte laweth atte begynnyng on them that entre, and after 
she grymmeth on them, and somtyme byteth them ryght aygrely. The 
courte reteyneth the caytyuys whiche can not absente and kepe them 

• The cause of this ' shorn ' state of the margin was, that the above copy, a copy of the 
Parvus Chato, and of the book for TrmeUen, were all cut down to the size of a small quarto 
▼olume; when pnrohased by Lord Spencer. His Grace the Duke of Devonshire obtaioail 
*lie latter a)py from hit Lordship. 


fro tbene, and alday adnewe auctoryse and lorehippe vp on auche as 
they surmounte, The courte also by errour forgeteth ofte them that 
beste seruen. And dyspende folyly her propre good for ten ryche them 
that ben not worthy, and that haue ryght euyl deseniyd it. And the 
man is vnhappy that is taken in, and had leuer to perysshe, than to- 
yssue and goo out. And ther to lose hys cours of nature, wythout euer 
to haue hys franchyse and lyberte vntyl hys deth, Beleue siu^y brother 
and doute nothynge that thou exccrsysest ryght good and ryght 
proufifytable ofifyce yf thou canst wel vse thy maystryse that thou hast 
in thy lytyl hous, and thou art and shal be puyssaunt as longe as thou 
hast and shal haue of thy self sufifysaunce. For who that hath a smal 
howshold and lytle meyne and gouerneth them wysdy & in peas, he is 
a lorde. And somoche more is he ewrous & happe as he more frely 
ma3mteneth it. As ther is nothyng so precious vnder heuen, as for to 
be of sufficient comynycacion wyth franchyse, O fortuned men, O 
blessyd fomyllye where as is honeste pouerte that is content with reson 
without etyng the fruytes of other mennes labour, O wel happy bowse 
in whyche is vertue wythout fraude ne barat, and whycbe is honestly 
gouemed in the drede of god and good moderadon of lyf, There entre 
no S3mnes, There is a true and ryghtful lyf, whereas is remorse of 
euery synne and where is no noyse, murmure ne enuye, of suche lyf 
enioyeth nature, and in smale eases lyueth she longe, and lytyl and 
lytyl she cometh to playssauut age and honeste ende, for as seyth 
Seneke in hys tragedys, Age cometh to late to peple of smale bowses, 
whyche Ijoie in suffysaunce. But emog vs coiulyours that be ser- 
uauntes to fortune, we lyue disordynatly, we waxen old more by force 
of charges than by the nombre of yeres. And by de&ulte of wel 
lyuyng we ben wery of the swetenes of our lyf, whyche so moche we 
desire and haste to goo to the deth the whyche we so moche dred and 
double, Suffyse the theiie broder to lyue in peas on thy partye, & lerne 
to content e the by our meschiefs, ne mesprise not thy self so moche, 
that thou take the deth, for the lyf, ne leue not the goodes that thou 
sbalt be constrayned to brynge. For to seche to gete them after wyth 
grete watyllynges and sorow, whych shal be to the horryble and harde 
to fynde, Fynally I praye the, counseylle and warne the, that yf thou 
hast taken ony holy and honeste lyf, that thou wyl not goo and lese it, 
and that thou take away that thought and despyse alle thy wyl for to 
come to court, and be content to wythdrawe the wythin thenclose of 
thy pryue hous. And yf thou haue not in tyme passed known that thou 
hast ben ewrous and happy, thenne lerne now to knowe it fro hens- 


forth, and to god I comande the by thys wrytynge which gyue the hys 
grace. Amen 

€|^ entietfi t^t Cutial mabe ftp tmpjsctre %]m €^ttetite 
€ran$!latcti tliujes in <£n0i{ifis(i) ip topniam Carton 

Ther ne is dangyer, but of a vaylayn 
Ne pride, but of a poure nian enryched 
Ne so sure a way, as is the playn 
Ne socour, but of a trewe frende 
Ne despajrr, but of Jalousye 
Ne hye corage, but of one Amorouse 
Ne pestilence, but in grete seygnorye 

Ne chyere, but of a man loyous 
Ne seruyse, lyke to the kyng souerayn 
Ne fowle name, but of a man shamed 
Ne mete, but whan a man hath hungre 
Ne entrepryse, but of a man hardy 
Ne pouerte, lyke vnto malady 
Ne to haunte, but the good and wy£e 
Ne howse, but yf it be wel gamysshed 

Ne chyere, but of a man loyous 
Ne ther is no rychesse, but in helthe 
Ne loue, so good as mercy 
Ne than the deth, nothyng more certayne 
Ne none better chastysed, than of hym self 
Ne tresour, lyke vnto wysedom 
Ne anguysshe, but of ay herte coueytous 
Ne puyssaunce, but ther men haue enuye 

Ne chyere, but of a man loyous 
What wylle ye that I saye 
Ther is no speche, but it be curtoys 
Ne preysyng of men, but after theyr lyf 

Ne chyer but of a man loyous 


This precious volume is now bound in elegant olive morocco, by 
C« Lewis. 

334 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Ufe of our Lady. 

879. The Lyp op our Lady. Without Place or 
Date. Folio. 

The copy under description, although soimd and in most desirable 
condition, is unluckily imperfect ; wanting the first two leaves, contain- 
ing the table, without signatures ; and the first and last leaf of signature 
d. It would appear that, although signature h be wholly omitted, there 
is no defect in signature i following g } 93 the concluding sentence, ou 
the reverse of g viij, is repeated on the recto of t j, thus :* 

% queftpon ofDapbti iDl^tcl^ tjst i»act|^eft 
of iipti0 topttt or toomatt capttulot i tu} 

* Chapter Ivij onaoooontably follow chapter xlix. 

t The following ' commcnditimi' of Chavcbb Is periiaps the most mteresting part of 

the volume : 

A comendaci^ of chauceres capitulo xxziiij 

a Nd eke my master diauoeris now is gnro^ 

The nuble rethor poete of bry tayne 
That worthy was the lawrer to hane 
Of poetrye and the palme attajniie 
That made first to dystylle and rayne 
The gold dewe drapys of speche & eloqiiaice 
In to our tungi* thmgh his exoellenoe 

And fonde the flouris first of rethoryke 
Our rude speche onely to enlumyne 
That in our tunge was neuer none hym Ijke 
For as the Sonne doth in henen shyne 
In mydday spere doun to vs by lyne 
In whos presence no sterre may appere 
Bight so his dytees withouten ony pere 

£uer makyng with his light distayne 

In sothfastnes who so takyth hede 

Wherfore no wonder though myn herte playne 

Vpon his deth and for sorow blede 

For want of hym now in my grete nede 

That shold alias conueye and dyrecte 

And with hb supporte amende and correcte 

The wrong traces of my rude penne 
There as I erre and goo not lyne right 
But tliat for bene may me not kenne 

Ufe tfaur Lady.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 335 

This is among the scarcer volumes of the press of Caxton. Herbert 
(see Typog. Antiq, vol. i. p. 336) has printed the heads of the chapters^ 
forming the table, as collected from the body of the work ; but the 
copy of this impression in the Bodleian Library has the table distinctly 
executed on the first two leaves. On sign, a i the text begins, as given 
in the authority just referred to, at page 339. The signatures, to m, 
run in eights ; but m has only 5 printed leaves : on the recto of tibe 
5th of which, the colophon k as follows : 

cnptpnnQ op ivpitpmii fMjrnnt 

This valuable ftcquisition to the Caxt<Hiian department of the Library 
under description, was obtained from the curious library of Mr. Octavhu 
Gilchrist ; for a consideration proportionate to its worth. It has been' 
since bound in blue morocco. 

I can DO more but with al my myght 
With al myn berte & myn inward sight 
Prayeth fur hym that now lyeth in cheite 
To gud aboue o gene his sowle good rests 

And as I can forthe I wyl prooede 

Sithen of his helpe tber may no aocour be 

And though my penne be quakyng ay for drede 

Nether to clyo ne to colyope 

Me lift not calle for to helpe me 

Ne to no muse my poymtel for to gye 

Bat Jfiue al this and say vnto marie 

O dere castel and the chaste toore 

Of the holy ghoost moder and virgyne 

Be thou my helpe counceyl and socoure 

And let the stremys of thy mercy shyue 

In to my breste this tbyrd book to fjne 

Tliat thorow thy supporte and benygne grace 

Hit to parforme I may haue lyf and space Supi. e vij, viij. 


336 BOOKS PRINTED BY iChasiuing of 

880. The Chastysing of Goddbs Chyldern. 
Without Place or Date. Folio. 

The title of this work is printed nearly in the centre of the recto of 
the first leaf: being the only printed passage in this page. It occi^^ies 
S lines, and nearly the whole of a 3rd, and is strictly thus : 

€ €i|e ptouffi^itaBIe ittfte fist xxiaOt^ ^wAti %nti ngl^ 
tomfortaBk to tt)e Itobp/ anH i^pecpaDp in atntetietite % 
trpbtdaciion/ iDMe boite ijr taHeii €i|e C^ajttp^tng of 

The entire impression, with the exception of the above lines, is 
executed in double columns, and on the reverse of the first leaf, is the 
prefoce or prologue, as follows : 

* In drede of almighty god Relygyous suiter a short pistle I sende 
you of the mater of temptacons, whiche pystle as me thynketh maye 
resonably be deped The Chasiising of Goddes childern. Of this mater 
ye haue desyred to knowe in comforte of your sowle. But nedeful it 
were to you pacyently & gladly to sufire suche goostly chastysing wyth 
fiill faythe & sadde hope, and abydc his ordenauce tyll he sende com- 
forte by grace & bi mercy. Somtyme it felleth by the Rightwysnes & 
wysdom of god, the more knoweng a man hathe. the stronger ben his 
temptacyons. And all his cunynge is hyd away, & stondeth hym in 
full lity] comfort, as for that time, in to that it plesye god for his grete 
pyte to comforte h3rm by grace, soo that in hym is oonly our knoweng. 
chastysing, & comfort. Also my suster I drede to vnyte of suche hyghe 
maters, for I neyther haue felyng ne knoweng openly to declare theym 
in englyssh tongue, for it passeth my wytte to shewe you in ony 
manere of comyn langage the termes of diuynite. Also I fele myself 
vnworthy to haue the goostly scycnce, whereby I shold knowe or haue 
an Inwarde feling what doctours wold meane in his holy writynge The 
causes considred. and many other skylfuly. I may drede to write of 
this chastysing But askyng helpe of god almyghty, by whoos might 
the asse had speche to the prophete Balaam after your desire as 
fcrforth as I dare or know of teptacons, I wyll shewe you in specyall & 
in general. & to hem remedies with some other maters that lightly 
wyll felle to pur|)ose, submytyng me euermore lowly to correcyou of 

Gad's CkUdren.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


wysemen & derkes. & men of ghostly knowyng. This pistle whiche I 
depe chastysig of goddes chyldem, I wyll begyn wyth y' same wordes 
whiche our lorde Jhesu cryst sayd to his apostles, wha he hadde hem 
wake & pray, before he went to his passion, thise wordes I wylle folowe. 
& wyth hem make an ende. as god wyll g3rae me grace.* 

The table, which immediately follows, occupies each side of the 
ensuing leaf. Neither of these 2 leaves contain a signature. The text 
of the work commences at top of the following leaf, A j ; and fhnn 
sign. A Yjt the reader is presented with no incurious specimen of the 
nature of this work : 

* Of Tj. generall temptacons & other in specyall, caplm vj. » 

' Noo man may. nombre teptacyons in specyall, but some temptacons 
I wyll shewe in generall. whiche falle generally to dyuers men in eche 
degre. & afterwarde I wylle bhewe some teptacons in specyall, wyth 
the whyche goostly liuers ben more specially traueylid than other men, 
vj. general teroptacyons there ben whiche traueylen a mines spirjrte^ 
thise temptacyons ben medlid after the settyng of a manis bodi, that 
is to saye, before & beh3mde, & aboue & beneth, on the right side & on 
the lifte side. The temptacyon that is beneth is repreuable. the temp- 
tacyon that is aboue is wonderful, the temptacion that is before is 
dredful, the teptacion that is behynde is vnsemely. the temptacion 
that is on the right side is mouable, the temptacion that is on the 
lifte side is greuous. The first y* is of beneth cometh of our owne 
flessh, whiche scometh vs alday with gloeig & fiatrig. bl cause we shold 
folow his lust & desires, & this teptacyon is repreuable, 

* The seconde temptacon that is cleped aboue, is of our reison, 
whiche is the ouer parte of our soule, as whan reison assenteth, & 
deliteth, & is drawen to serue the flesshe, whiche shold be subget to 
reason, and this temptacion is wonderful. 

* The thyrde temptacion that is cleped before, is wycked iUsions** & 
als suggestyons of the wycked deuylles. the whiche euer more whether 
we becom wakyng or slepyng they cast gynnes to catche vs that vneth 
we may scape, & this is fill dredefull. The fourth temptacyon that is 
beh3mde, is mynde & thoughte of sinnes before done wyth lykyng & 
plesauce of y* flesshe in vanytee, or ony thyng that noughte is. and 
this is vnsemely, The v. temptacyon that is on the right side, is of grete 
prosperite. as whan all fortune & ease fallen to a man euermore 
abidynge wythout ony losse or dysease. This is meuable. as a byrde that 


3S8 BOOKS PHINTED BY [CkaUimng ^e. 

fleeth. whiche somtyme is aoo meiy, that in his beste flighte fidkth 
downe & deyeth. and that is meuaUey the sixt teptac]r<Mai that is on 
the lift side, is grete aduersite. whiche somtyine btigeth the soul in to 
soo grete heuynes, y* eyther it makyth him sore gmtche afenst god, 
orels to thynke & saye amys ayenst god. & al is to brige him into 
to dispeyre, & this teptacion is greuous, of thise vj. teptacyons 
generally I clepe hem for bothe worldly man & ghostly men betra- 
ueylid wyth suche temptacions some men more, & some lesse. some 
wyth one. & some with an other, after dysposicion of kynde & orden- 
auce & suffrauee of god, so that enery man in eche degree is somewhat 
traueled that moost done his besinesse to come to perfight loue, for to 
hem the deuyll hath moost enuye.' Sign. A vj. 

The signatures, to H, run in sixes : H having only 4 leaves. On 
the recto of G iiij, we read the ensuing termination to the * Epistle,* 
mentioned in the opening of the prologue : 

C ^fya xvi )>n» 4U0J9E caittisaist 
C ^]Cfl&dt flic Ifbtt tasttisaamf 

A sort of homily occupies the remaining leaves ; when, on the recto 
of H iiij, and la^t, (second column) is the concluding sentence, thus : 

lolbe on t{|ije( tnanere of Hopng ht^ 
Mp* topt^mtm jeftpntpng* not oon 
Ip it jettiaii iofte on tfie/ hvt He jifiali 
htpnge from d0 numere tipje^eajefe in 
to ful 3[ope % hUt^ti a^tAo got! sra 
unt tt^at it mps^ 0a fie. t^ met 
i0 Ugtpns in €ttntite/ 

The reverse is blank. On consulting the J^pog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 
366, it will be seen that I have described the present and the ensuing 
article, as one publication from the press of Caxton ; but although these 
two articles are bound in the same volume, in the copy of thfefti which is 
in the Public Library at Cambridge^ and although each' work is printed 

IHatise of Lave.] WILLIAM CAXTON* SS9 

in the same manner, and with the same types, having the samenmnber 
of lines in each, (namely 36) yet, cm reconsideration, I conclude theia 
to be distinct works, published at two several times. This copy of 
the present work, which is a tall, sound, and most desirable one, waa 
obtained at the sale of the Roxburgh Library for 140i. It is in dark 
red morocco binding. 

881. Tbetyse op Loue. fVithout Place or Date. 

There are two considerations whidi induce me to arrange and 
describe this work as a separate article from the preceding one. Rrst^ 
there is a distinct title, with a date incorporated in it ; and secondly, 
there is a distinct set of signatures : the text beginning upon A j. 
The title involves rather a knotty point of discussion : as the work b 
said therein to have been ' translated from the French into English in 
the year 1493 :* — how then could it have been executed by Caxton, 
who died perhaps before the termination of the year 1491 ? Two sug* 
gestions present themselves in reply to this question. The first is, that 
an X too much may have been added in the date of the completion of the 
version ; the second, and the more probable one is, that the press-work 
was executed in the o£Bce of Caxton, by Wtkktk Db Wordb, wUh 
the types of our first Printer ; as the body of the work, as well as the 
small device at the end, are decidedly Caxtonian. We have here there** 
fore another instance of a seeming typographical incongruity. The 
Golden Legend, of the same date, (1493) has absolutely the name of 
Caxton subjoined, as the printer of it ! — see p. 269 ante. But we may 
be certain that no book, actually printed by W. de Worde, in his own 
office, is at present known to exist which exhibits either the type of the 
present work or of the Golden Legend just referred to. 

l^e text of this work commences on the recto of A j, in the Mkm^ 
ing manner : 

** C This tretyse is of loue and spekyth of iiij of the most specyall 
louys that ben in the worlde and shewyth veryly and perfitely bi gret 
resons and Causis, how the meruelous & bounteous loue that our knd 
Jhesu cryste had to mannys soule excedyth to ferre alle other loues as 
apperith well by the paynfiill passion and tormetis y^ be suffryd for the 
redempcyon ther of. so that alle kmis y^ euyr were or euyr shalbe ame^ 

• Si«. 


not to be lykenyd to the lest parte of y* loue that was in hym. whicbe 
tretyse was translatid out of frenshe Into englyshe, the yere of our lord 
M cccclxxxxiij, by a pereone that isvnperfight in suche werke wherfor 
he hqbly byseche the lemyd reders wyth paqrens to correcte it where 
they fynde nede. And they & alle other reders of their charyte to 
pray for the soule of the sayde translatour.* Then * % Canticu beate 
marie de dolore suo in passioue filii sui plenitudo legis est dilectio.* 

As this is a work of considerable curiosity and rarity, the reader 
may be gratified by some more generally-interesting specimen of it : 

* And whan they had all the nyght tormented him, and doon him all 
the faarme and shame they coude. On the morne they assembled theym 
all togyder. and luged hym to the most shamefiill deth that they cowde 
thynke, whyche was to be hanged ypon the crosse, vpon an hyghe 
mountayne betwene two theues, wherof this verse is sayd. 

' Dismas et gismas medio diuina potestas, £t cum iniquis deputatus est, 

' Dysmas the tone theef hynge on that one parte, and Gysmas y* other 
theef on the other parte, and betwene them henge the diuyne mageste, 
this was our lorde Ihesu criste. And whan he was luged, the cruel tour- 
mentours and hangme trussed the heuy wood of the crosse vpon his 
backe, as sayth saynt lohan the euangeliste, Aduxeriit eum et cetera. They 
ledde Ihesu oute of the cyte, and hymself beringe his harde crosse, soo 
feynt & wery, that vnneth myghte he here it, wherof he sayth by dauyd, 
Qni defecit in dolore vita mea, my lyff and my force f&yUeth me in sorow 
and payne. And whan they sawe he myght not goo so spedely as they 
wold, they toke wyth force a stronge man that passed by the waye, 
whiche was namyd simon, And made hym ayenst his wyUe to here the 
cros&e. the sooner to haast the dethe of our lorde Ihesu cryst, 

* And whan they took fro hym the crosse to delyuer to symon. they 
smote our lorde ful cruelly, Thene came there wymmen of galilee 
folowyng our lorde, and wepte fiill peteously. And made full grete 
sorowe to see hym sufire soo moche shame and payne withoute deserte 

' And whan he sawe thysc wymen were soo sore : he had fiill grete 
pyte. And sayd to theym, 

' Filie Iherusalem nolite flere super me, &c. 

' Doughters of Iherusalem wepe ye not for me, but for yourselfe, and 
your chylderne, For the dayes shall come wha ye shall sayc, blessed be 

9fLav€.] WILLIAM CAXTON. ' 341 

the barejne womaD, and the wombes that neuer bare chylde. and the 
breestes that neur gaaf souke. For thenne ahall ye begyne to sayc^ 
mountayns fall on vs, and the erthe couere ts, 

* The cniell Jewes ledde hym forth, and hynge hym on the erosse nakyd 
before all the peple in the same fowle place, where the stynkynge rotyn 
careyns were of the bodies of theues that they had put to deth in that 
same place afore, 

* Alas whan he was crusifyed thus sorowfiiUy, the cursyd traytours 
escryed hym soo shamfully, & sayd, Mouetes capita sua dlxerunt vath 
qui destruit templum dei, et in tribus diebus illud reedificat, salua 
teipsum. si filius dei es descende de cruce : They brandysshyd theyr 
hedes, and sayd in scorn, see him here that same that wyUe destroye the 
temple of god, and make it ayen wythin iij dayes, now saue thiself yf 
thou be the sone of god. Come downe of the erosse where tbou arte 
hanged. Thus crycd the felon lewes See that same that auauted hym* 
hymself to saue other folkes, and hymselfe he maye not saue. 

Sign. C» iig. v. 

A little onward, on the recto of C vj, we have the ensuing finishing 
stroke to the melancholy picture just described : 

* O homo considera filium virginis illusum, spictis linidum, plagis 
confixum clauis, A man beholde the sone of the virgyn marye soylid 
wyth fowle spittynges. all blody of his woundes, and percyd wyth 
nayles, Take hede of the kyug of angels beyng on the erosse, pale to 
the deth, fowle in flessh, passe bi this. And take kepe wha ye see the 
fygure how he is a man mekely bowynge. a man smyten wyth shamfull 
deth. A man lyke vuto a mesell, A man of all sorowes apperynge on 
his body and all wrapt in sorowe. And yet whan he was past all the 
anguyssh payn and shame that he myght suffre in his lyf for the loue 
of his loue f manes soule, they dyde hym after hys deth the grettest 
shame they cowde thynke. For they wold not bery hi amonge other 
lewes, but wythoute the towne, as a man that were acursed. And his 
blessid soule descended in to hello, for to destroye the mortall enmyes 
of his loue mannes soule. And to fetche theym oute that louge had 
abyden hym there* 

The following bibliographical memoranda, connected with this 
volume, have been supplied by a ms. notice of Herbert. 

On sign. F. iij rect. ' ^ Here endeth the lamentacon of our lady, whiche 
she had in y' passion of our sauyour, % Here begynneth a treatyse 

• Sic. t Sic 

542 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Treatise tfLave. 

tnoche prouffitabk for refbrmaoon of souka defoyled wyth ony of the 
▼y dedely synnes/ On sign. G iij rev. * % Here fbloweth a Treatise that 
spekyth of the vertu. & of the branches of the appultree. whiche is 
expouned morally : as foloweth here after,' On H j rev. * ^ HEre ben 
declared the signes wherby men may seke the loue of our lorde,' 
H ^ lev. * % How fieiyth exhorteth the persone to esschewe ^ haue in 
contempt all euyl thoughtes, & to reduse theself in al poyntes to good 
werkes vnder the hope of diuyne grace,' On H 4. rev. * Here begynneth 
a techynge by manure of predycacyon made to the people by mayster 
Alberte conteynyng ix. artycles. ^ Mayster Alberte Archebysshop of 
Coleyne sayd these wordes in the persone of Jhesu cryst,' ^ The 
iyrste is this. Gyue a peny for my loue in thy lyfe whyle thou hast 
power and helthe &c. The seconde is wepe one tere for my suflPraimce 
& passion &c. % The thirde is this, breke thy slepe, & thy owne wylle 
whan thou mayst doo it to worship & prayse me. &c. % The fourth 
is this, kepe the fro euyll sayeng of thyn neyghbour, & hurt no body 
wylfuUy, &c. % The v. is this suffre Joyfalli a hard worde wha men 
say to the for the loue of me. &c. % The vj. is herberow the poor, & 
doo good to theim that ben nedy. &c. % The vi^. is doo good to thy 
power in all y^ thou may, & put peas & loue amonge thy neyghbours, 
&c. % The viij is this, yf you desire oni thyng eyther for soule or for 
body, or for ony other thig, or caas, pray therfore hertly to myself, & 
it shall plese me more & better for the, than yf my moder & all the 
sayntes in heue praied me for the, so moche it pleseth me thyne owne 
prayer wyth tru hert. % The ix. is this, loue me souerainly ouer al 
creatures of good herte, of good loue & true, & this shall plese me more 
& be better for y* than yf there wer a pyller that retchid from erthe to 
heuen, & sharpe as rasours, & were possible that y* myghtest goo vpon 
this pyller. & come down ayen euery day & not dey Jt pleyseth me 
more that thou sholde loue me faythfuUy wyth all thy soule. and wyth 
all thy herte enteerly. 

("Herbert adds, but from what part I cannot discover) 

1. And this shall pleyse me better. & more shall auayle the, than yf 
me gaaf after thy dethe for the a hepe of siluer, that were as hye 
as fro erth to y* skye. 

8. that J haue sufiiid for the & for thy syxies, & it shall pleise me more, 
& be better for the, than yf y" weptc asmoche of teres as is water 
in y* see, for ony other thyng y' is vayn & chaugeable, 

3. & it shall pleyse me more. & be better for the than yf men sende 
xij. knyghtes in good quarell for the after thy deth 

S^eaOte^hf Lave.] WILUAM CAXTON. MS 

4. & this shall plese me more & be better for the than yf thou wentest 
barefbte so long y^ men mi^^t folow the bj the trackes of thj bkxMt 

5. & this shal pleise me more & better for the, than jf it myght be 
. that you sufiredst as many xoddes to be broken vpon thy body^ as 

myght lye on a grete fold ;» 

ft. & thou shalt pley§e me more & be better to the, than yf you fastyd 
xl. yere brede & water, 

7. & it shal pleyse me more & better to the^ than yf you were euery 
day rauyssht to heuen. 

On H 5. reet. % Here begynen djruene treatises & ensamples of saynt 
poul, & other doctours of diuynite. 

On H vj\ rcct. * % Thus endeth this present boke whiche treatetht 
lyrst of y* gloryous passion of our Sauyour, and of the compascyon that 
his blessyd moder had therof. And also sheweth in a nother treatyse 
folowyng wherfore we ought to loue oiu* sauyour more than ony other 
thynge, % Also sheweth another treatise moche proufiytable for refor* 
macyon of soules defoyled wyth ony of the vij. dedely synnes. * ^ Jtem 
a nother treatyse shew3mge the signes of goostly knie. * % Jtem treatisf 
of the vertues. k of the brauches of the appultree whiche b expowned 
morally as is before expressyd, % Also folowig is declared wherby men 
maye seke the loue of our lorde Jhesu cryst. % And the last treatyse 
of this forsayd boke speketh to exiwrte y* persone to eschewe, and 
haue in cotempe all euyll thonghtes. And to reduce theymself in 
all poyntes to good werkes, voder y* hope of dyuyne grace : 

IKB^^ fiaite toaist lat^ ttatuila^ ^ 
tth oute of ftnt^ in to wg^0^ 
ftp a misfit tDdl txp^fa^A ptt^tmti 
foe 1^ tm0t t^t ^agb petirone ti^oug^ 
te it neteiTjeratp to an tieuoute pqflt 
to ubti ttt to lieee it ntote/ %t6t aiif 
caujceti t^ irapb &ofte to he enptptt' 

The last sentence terminates the volume : the signatures running 
in sixes. Beneath it is Caxton's smallest device. 

The copy under description was obtained from the choice Collection 
-Bi Mr. Roger Wilbraham, for a sum proportionate to its intrinsic 
curiosity and rarity. It is in very sound condition, and has been 
recently bound in purple morocco by C. Lewis. 

VOL. IV. y y 

344 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Staiui^. 

882. Statutes. Without Place w Hate. Folio. 

This truly yalnable and unoominoii volume was obtained of Mr. 
Triphook, the bookseller, for a comparatively moderate sum.* In the 
QtsidlemiiaCt Magaxmet toI. Ixxxi, p*. i. the following fiill» and it Is 
deemed satis&ctory, account of it was given by me to the public. 

' It win be seen, in my first volume of Ames, p. 354, that <mfy a 
fragfnent of the Statutes printed by Caxton was then known. By 
great good fortune, a copy of a complete series of the acts, passed in 
Henry the Vllth's reign, up to the period of Caxton's decease, and 
printed by Caxton himself, is now deposited in the noble library of 
Earl Spencer. From this copy I proceed to submit the following 
account ; adhering to the ancient orthography only in the opening 

* The kynge our souereyn lorde henry the seuenth after the conquest 
by the grace of god kyng of Englonde and of Fraunce and lorde of 
Irlonde at his parlyamet holden at Westmynster the seuenth daye 
of Nouembre in the first yere of his reigne. To thonour of god and holy 
€liirche» and for the comen profyte of the royame, bi thassent of the 
lordes spirituell and temporell, and the comens in the sayd parliamet 
assebled, and by autorite of the sayd parlyamente, hath do to be made 
certein statutes & ordenaunces in maner & fourme folowyng :' Sign. 
a V, recto* 

In this Session of Parliament the following acts were passed : [The 
titles are here printed in modem orthography.] 

1. Fermedowne* 

2. Agaimt strangers made denizens to pay customs^ Ssc 

3. No protection [to"] be allowed in any court at Calais* 

4. Corrections of Priests for incontinence. 

5. Agaimt Tanners ^ Cordiners* 

6. Fetde [in bateylC]. 

7. Against Hunters. 

8. For Reparations of the Navy. 

* It was discovered to be a productioii of Caxton's press, in a volome of some tracts 
printed by W. de Worde. Mr. Triphook had made up his mind to dispose of this volume 
ibr about SL 3s.: but Lord Spencer, on its bemg ascertained to be a genuine production of 
Caxton's press, very readily presented him with 50 gumeas for the Statutss alone ; retnm- 
ing the other tracts. 

StahUes.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 845 

The opening of this chapter, or preamble of the act, maj cause an 
Wnglifibman now to smile. * Item in the sidd pariiament it was caDad 
to remembrance, of the great mmiMhmg and decay that hath be[en] now 
of late time of the navy within this realm* of England, and idleness of 
the mariners within the same ; by the which this noble realm, within 
short process of time, without reformation be had therein, shall not 
be of abiUty and power to defend itself' &c. Sign, a r^t nek 

9. SUk Work. 

10. ReoocaHtm of King RicharSs act against ItaUam. 

In the second parliament, were the following : 

I. Giving of Livery. 

8. Taking of Maidau^ fFidamt, and WtoeM^ against ihdr will, is mads 

3 LeHingtohaUof persons arrested for light suspicion. 

4. Deeds of Gifts of Goods to the use of the maker ofsuchgifts befxnd. 

5. Dry Exchange. 

6. Exchange and Rechange. 

7. Concerning Customers. 

8. Employment, 

9. Against the Ordinaunce of London of going to Fairs. 

10. Damage given in a Writ of Error. 

II. Clothes, to be carried over the sea, [to] he barbed rowed and skom 
''^'except, Ssc. 

19. Retainder. 

At the end of this chapter, mention is made of the Bow : and I 
conceive, from the commencement of the paragraph, that it is a fresh 
section or chapter, with the title omitted. It begins thus : ' Item, for 
as much as the great & ancient defence of this realm hath stood bf 
the Archers Sf Shooters m Umg bows, which is now left and fiedlen in decay 
for [from] the dearth and excessive price of long bows, it is therefore 
ordained, &c. that if any person, or persons, &c. sell any long bow orer 
the price three shillings ii^ [qu. four pence?] that then the seller 
or seUers of such bow forfeit, for every bow so sold, over the said prio^ 
X shillings to the king.' Sign, c iiij, rev. 

If Ritson had been aware of this statute, he would most probably 
have quoted it in his curious disquisition upon ancient archery : Robist 
Hood, vol. L p. xxxvij, &c. 

Id. Felony. 

14. Expiratur. 


, In the ensuing parliament, in the 4th jeex of Henry VIItli» were 
enacted the following : 

1. For CommMoru of Sewers. 
9, Fyien. 

3. Against Butchers. 

—This act sets forth, in the {nreambk^ that the King's subjects and 
parishioners of the parish of St. Faith and St. Gregory in London, 
nigh adjoinant unto the Cathedral Church of [St.] Paul's &c. ben 
greatly annoyed and envenemed [envenomed] by corrupt eires [aire] 
engendered in the said parishes by occasion of blood and other fouler 
things, by occasion of the slaughter of beasts and scalding of swine, had 
& done in the butchery of St. Nicholas Flesshamds, whose corruption, 
by violence of unclean and putrified waters, is borne down through the 
said parishes, and compasseth two parts of the palace where the King's 
most royal person is wont to abide, when he cometlwto the cathedral 
church for any act there to be done, to the Jubardouse [jeopardous] 
abiding of his most noble person, & to over great annoyance of the 
parishens there/ &c. Sign, c viij, rev. 

4. Protections for passers into Britany. 

5. Annulling of Letters Patent made to any spiritual person to be quit 
for payment of dysm& or gathering of the same. 

6. Annulling of Letters Patent of any office in the forest of Inglewood,, 

7. That all Letters Patents^ made to yeomen of the crown^ and grooms 
of the king's chamber, for lack of their attendance, be void. 

' , 8. Price of Hats and Bonnets. 


■^ «— ' Item, that where afbre this time it hath be d«uly used, and yet 
iSft that certain craftsmen named Hatmakers & Capmakers doon sell their 
hats & caps at such an outerageous price, that, where an hat standeth 
not them in xvj pence they will sell it for i^ shillings or xl pence ; and 
also a cap, that standeth not them in xvj pence, they will sell it for iiij 
shillings, or v shillings — and by cause they know well that every man 
^ust occupy them, they will sell them at none esear [easier] price, &c. 
it is ordained &c. that no Hatter nor Capper noi* other person shall not 
put to sale any hat to any of the king's subjects above the price of xx 
pence the best ; nor any cap above the price of ii sliillings [and] vii> 
pence the best at the most * &c. Sigh, d iiij. rect. 

9. Of Wine and Toulouse Wood. 

10. For keeping of Fry of Fish of the Sea in Orford Haven. . 

»4Mei.) > WILLIAM CAXTOMl^ 94f, 

•^* it 18 «o that, in late days ibr a singular eaveike [oyvetousnesf] & 
lucre in taking of a few great fishes, certain persons have used to se( 
and ordain certain bosEts, called stall boais^ fiutened with anchcurs, having 
with them such manner [of] unreasonable nets and engines, that att 
manner [of] fry and brood of fish, in the said haven multiplied i9 
taken and destroyed, as well great fishes unseasonable, as the said frjF 
& brood to number innun^rable. With the which fry & brood the said 
persons with part thereof feed their hogs, and the residue they put an4 
lay it in great pits into the ground, which else would turn to suq1| 
perilous infection of air, that no person, thither resorting, should i% 
abide or suffer &c. — and also causeth great scarcity of fish in thfit 
countries, where, afore this time, was wont to be great plenty' &c. 
(Then follows the enacting part.) Sign, d v, rev, 

19. J bill at the suit of Broudertrs. ; 

13* An act upon buying of Wools. 

14. Actus super proclamatione. 

15. De proclamatione facienda , 

16. Against Thieves, 

17. Annulling of the seal of the Earldom of March. 

18. For the Mayor of London. 

19. The Isle qf Wight . 

-^' the which is lately decayed of people, by reason that many towios 
and villages ben let down» and the fields diked and made pasture fiv 
beasts and cattle, and also many dweUing places ferms and farmholds 
have of late time be used to be taken into one man's hold & hands, tbilt 
of old time were wont to be in many several persons' holds & handsb 
and many several households kept in them, and thereby much people 
multiplied, and the same Isle thereby well inhabited — the which now, 
by th'occasion aforesaid, is desolate and not inhabited, but occupied 
with beasts and catties, so that if hasty remedy be not provided, that 
Isle can not be long kept & defended, but open & ready to the han<!b 
of the King's enemies; which God forbid !-»For remedy whereof 
(Here comes the enacting part.) Sign, e i, rev, 

20. Wards. 

?1. Forging ^ counterfeiting of goid 8f tlUier of other lands, suffered to 
run in this realm, is made treason, 

22. For keeping up of Houses for Husbandry, 

23. Actions popular. 

24. Carrying of Gold * silver over the *Sea» 

25. Nota definibus. 

348 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Siege of Mhadei. 


This latter ietct e<mclude8 the impre86ion» <m the rerene of signature 
e ?ij : d has 10, the rest have 8, leaves. With the ezoeption of the 
margins being stained, from damp or mildew, this vcdimie is in very 
desirable condition ; having but one slight ms. remarlc, (vFhich is at the 
bottom) on signature a ij, recto. The margin, in respect to size, is 
nearly in its original state. The type is the largest of the letters used 
by the printer. It may be questioned whether there are three perfect 
copies of this impression in existence. Neither Ames, Tutet, nor 
Herbert, had seen a copy ; and the second of these authorities expressly 
says that * the whole is very rare to meet vdth.* A fiill page has 31 
lines. In russia binding. 

^83. Siege of Rhodes Without Place or Date. 

It is rather in conformity with the arrangement made by Herbert, 
and foUowed by myself, tliat this book stands described in its present 
order ; since I have very little doubt of its having been executed by 
Lettou and Machlinia, or by the former of these printers, rather tlian 
by Caxton. The letters, however, great and small— especially the 
larger ones — and some of the compound smaller ones — bear a strong 
resemblance to the smallest types of our first printer : but, on a com- 
parison with those of the remiref of LUUeton^ and of the Jncient 
Mridgement of the Statutes^ printed by Lettou and Machlinia (vide post) 
the resemblance is quite complete. 

Having been before somewhat copious upon this curious and (as at 
present supposed) unique article,* it remains only to remark that the 
prologue,t by John Kay the poet-laureat, occupies each side of the 
first leaf: the text beginning thus, on the recto of the 8d leaf: 

9t|^ t$at SI l^ue asjk^ me to tiedaaanfe 
pitUfpO^e to aSe ccpiettett i^eopb tf^ jsttegeof 
tj^e nofile an^ itmptitp&ie cptee of ft^o^ejer: 

oCC. oCC. oCC. 

The Turkish cannon, brought to play against the walls of the city, 

* Typog.Antiq.yoX, i p. 356 ; where it is printed entire, Callingit imi^, is in reference 
only to another ptrfcft ooipy. 

Siege ofBhodes.] WILUABl CAXTON. 349 

18 thus powirfiilly deticribed s ' And in thees whjlt, the bombankt 
and grete gonnes of the turkes casted downe and destryed the wsOm of 
the cytee of Rhodes^ wyth so gretemyghte and strenghte and with soo 
grete wonder: that alle they that were in Rhodes, strangers and other 
olde and yong of all the countreyes of crystendom sayd, that they herde 
neuer strokes of bombardes so grete and so horryble as thylk were*. . • • 
* And the turkes with suche instrumentes of werre casted in to the eyere 
a pype full of grete stones the whyche fell vpon the houses of Rhodei 
and putted theym in a wrecched ruyne wyth grete murdre of theym 
that were within for that tyme:' FoL 10, redo, A little before (foL 7f 
recto) we are told that * the turk had the nombre of an honderd thou* 
sand fyghtyng men, and xvi. grete bombardes euerychon of. xxiL fote 
of lenght, of the whiche the lest casted stones euery stone of. iv spannes 
in compas aboute.' The impression is entirely destitute of numerals, 
signatures, and catchwords ; and a fiiU page contains 26 lines. The 
reverse of the S4th, and last leaf, contains only 15 lines : terminating 
the volume, at the 15th line, with the words 

fiDco otadail* 

Consult the note in the Typog. Antiq, vol. i. p. 353, for an account of 
the original text, and of the author, of this memorable narrative ; which 
was probably the most popular historical manual of the xvth century* 
An Italian version of the original Latin is described at p. 93 ante. 
The copy of the impression under description, large, clean, and perfect, 
was obtained at the sale of the Macartney Collection in 1789,* for the 
trifling sum of 52. 5<. It is in the first class of rare books, and is 
bound in red-morocco. There is an imperfect copy of this impressioa 
described in the Cat. of the Harleian MSS. 1808. voL ii. p. 165, n^ 1639. 
That copy appears to want the two last leaves. 

We may conclude this extensive and very interesting series of 
' Books Printid bt William Caxton,' with the insertion of the fol* 
lowing article, from the press of the same printer ;— of which a fee- 
simile (but executed in too heavy a manner) appears in the Typog, AnHq. 
vol. i. p. cii. This article is, in feet, an Advertuemeni for the pubUMng 
of Miuals * IN usumEcclbsia Sarisburibnsis ; in the pica letter $' and 

* See the Bibliomania, p. S4StS : noCWi 

saa BOOKS pbinted, &c. 

•; • 

^ puUk are reqoMted tlwrein, not to poll down tbe MdwrtiumBnt. 
TU>ooiiy«aBfonnedyintheooUection<rfDr.Fkmer;uid isasMie 
dip of paper, printed on one auK litoat S indm in width. Mr. Douce 
Imi anotlier G(^ of it. It isasfioUowa: 

Sff it pWe onp man Q^ittid oc trnq^oni to hpc mi 
jppor of tiDo onti t^ conumoraciSj^ of asisfffmxi tift 
etq^timttb after ^e fbcme of t^ jfct^ lettre lo$ic|e 
tet )tui anil tntip (otrett/ late fipm tome to l»eftmo« 


M^ttt in to t^ sixttwitfttsft ot t^witftSt Atrii fjt ^Ijti 

Sk^^^^h^fe ^JCb^^^^^ ^^H^te^^^^b ^MEk^^^^k^k A A 

pBK tpflll 000 tpCpC • t 

iSuindicD fittt tttnda 

Jioclbs ^^rinttb tn 

884. Exposmo Sc". Ibbonohi in Sihboluk 
Apostolorum. Printed at Oxford, with the 
date of 1466. Quarta 

FiBiT Book iupfosid to rat* iinr piimtii* at Oxiobd. Hy 

cqpinioD upon the geDUJoeneas of the date of thk impresaioD m^ be 
gathered from the note at p. 413 of tte Srd Tolnme of thia worib 
Another allusioD to the nme subject will bs fixisd at page 1 17, note. 
Upon the matureat reflection, and on repeated examination of tb* 
singular book under description, 1 adhere strongly to the t^nim 
before entcrtuned, * and condtide thii Yolnme to be mUdaUd x ytmn 
before its actual ctMnpletioD. Erron of a like nature are EuniUar tD 
those who have made the History of Earlj Printing a branch of their 
studies. Two points, however, are necessary to be adduced as the 
grounds of' such an ojdnion. ]PiiBt, this edition contahu tigTiahmM; 
and no other printed work is known, which exhibits the same typogntr 
phical distinction, before the year 1470, or rather 1473 : see p. 36 ants, 

* Hr. Singer— wbOK printefj-friDtad Ulde nlmuc opoD tbe nbject of tUt book Im 
beco bcfim awalioDed— aiid who, ia that toIodw, concoired io ■ former i^Niuon of dAm, 
thu tbe data »at goMme, and tbe wok the pndnctioa of a tbraign prinler employed bam 
— unow, withmjrKlCof a cootni^ opbioa: tbe appeannoB of tbe ii|MMi»> mdaing 
a diSerrot coodiuiiH] tbe more probable one— and that wa ihoold read 1478 tar 1468> 


Secondly; if this Tolome were actuaOj printed at QsfonI in 1468, how 
are we to account for the total oeasation of tiie Oxford Press during a 
space of ten years-^Tdien it seems to have been ratlier actively and 
constantly exercised after the year 1478? The answer to the latt^ 
question has been—' the breakinc^ out of the civil Wars :* but this 
answer is incomplete — since it is but foir to conclude that the same 
cause would have produced the same effect at Ltmdon ; and yet Caxtok 
continued his labours without interruption during that period !* 

A question however may be started upon the foregoing remarks — 
arising out of a consideration of the types— -used^ not only in tlusj but 
in the tubsequently-deienbed work, and in a third one, Egidius, de Peccato 
OriginaU, 1479. ^(tt present not ip. this Collection) Were these types 
ever used in England ? I incline to think tiiey were not. They are 
evidently of the character of those of the Low Countries or of Germany, 
and very dissimilar from such as were used by Rood and Hunt, at the 
same place, and within a fow years after. And it is difficult to con- 
ceive, why, if a fount of letter had been employed at Oxford for two 
SQCQessive years only, with which only ^Aree books are at present known 
to have been executed, a different fount should have been selected by 
subsequent printers at the same place— where, probably, only one press 
was worked ? We may observe, moreover, that in the books executed 
with the type of the present work, no name of prwUer is subjoined. 
On the other hand» sufficient instances may be adduced of books having 
been executed at om place, with the name of a d^erent place in the 
colophon. Reverting however to the present curious .volume, which 
has given rise to these observations, we may allow, with Mr. Singer, 
that/ it must be considered as no mean ornament to any typographical 
collection.* That gentleman believes it to have been actually printed 
at Oxford, but the point is yet, I submit, ' sub judice.' It only remains 
to be accurate in the description of it. 

This book is executed in types, of which the fec-simile of its colo- 
phon will afford a very accurate idea. £ach full page, containing 25 

* It was not till after the above inference was drawn, that, on oousolting Lswi8*s MSS, 
rdatmg to the Hi$tory ff PHnttn^, I found the following oorroborating passage—' It is not 
easy to account for a press bemg set up here [at Oxford] and only employed in printing a 
dngle book, and then standing still eleven yean.' p. 98. Again: ' And if it be objected 
that the press was stopped on aoooont of the Ctoil ffor bong renewed in 1469, yet all 
tilings were settled in 1471, and Caxton's press worlced at Westminster m the same period.' 
p. 100. 

Uhm, is nearly 4 indiit f in kngtl^ bf exactly S inches in wS^^ That 
part of the ngfster, whkl^ regards the setting up of the page tovfuds 
tha right niaigin» fa aloNiat wnlfenity hnegolar. Them are algnatore^ 
faut neither nomerals nor eatdiwords. The first page, which Is a fdU 
one, on the recto of a t, presents us with the commencement of the 
work, thus : 

rimlMlttin iq^oisttoiocu} ati papai lautftta 
m %t^ qvaHttm fiUdiljBtime 

laumiti an (icc£toilntm atttmtui 

attOlt ttt fH1?1^!<y OUS tttC JtUM 

oCC* sCC* eCC« 

The signatures o^ d, c^ 4 hare each 8 leaves ; but the last signature, 
^ contains 9 printed leaves, and one blank leaf: which latter ii also 
contained in the copy under description. On the reverse of e ix, 
beneath the 13th line of teact, we have the singular colophon, of which 
the ensuing ii a fiac-aimile : 

ruim Jtiij^M^ CttfmiUT^n 

110 homittt ^ AV # cccc f i^evvjj * jei^^i^ 

This copy is tall, although rather narrow; but is in sound and most 
desirable condition. It was obtained fbr the extraordinary sum of IMH. 
and is the eighth copy at present known : a coipj of it being in eadiof 
the following libraries : namely, in the Bodleian, in that of the PubHc 
Archives, and of All Souls College, at Oxford : in the Public IdlMrary 
at Cambridge (imperfect at the beginning): and in the libraries of the 
Earl of Pembroke^ the Manpiis of Blandfoid, and his Mi^^sty. The 
present copy is elegantly bound in olive-coknur morocco, by C. Lew&i« 

9M BOOKS FBDiTED IN THZ [AriiHtdn; Uf9. 

885. Abistoteles. Ethica. Latin^. Printed at 
Oaford. 1479. Quarto. 

This impression contains the Latin veinon of Lboharo Akbtis; 
and on sign, a y (a j being blank) we read the commencement of the 
preface, thus: 

^iKipit pmsoo ifomnn tutntit in 
U&tOjf et^tcontm 

^n tioii& tf c9|Kist iMa 
uijpuut ijtttcc 90 mti in 
ttt 0ti dtttiqui^ fictqucn 
ttfjsrime tijftfiatiini tot Qoi 
Iff dcum jftiitii)|t im^innant 
lomtnc^. icdiionim fiioni$* 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a iy, the teact of the work com- 
mences. A full page contains ^5 lines. The signatures, from a to y, 
run in eights t y haTiag only 6 leaves. On the recto €i y vjt is the 
ensuing colophon : 

gtt feonartitt atprtinft Inritiifitipit tcanirta 
SSnno W&.iS^.ttct. Ixidx • 

The rererse is blank. The observations made upon the preceding 
Tohime, preclude the necessity of further remark upon this present 
SBCOND PRODUCTION OP THB OxFORD Press : ouly we may cursorily 
observe that» the form of the capital letter Q, is here correctly 
attended to ; whUe» in the previous work, it seems to be uniformly 
printed to|^a%-— or the tail occupying an horizontal, instead of per- 
pendicular, direction. The copy under description may possibly be con- 
sidered matchless, for size and condition : having, almost throughout, 
rough edges at bottom and on the side margin. It was perfected from 
two copies : one in the Alchome Collection, and the other, obtained 

• Sic. 

hatUlmt. 1482.] UNIVERSITY OF OXBQRD. SS5 

with equal readiness aad liberality, from Mr. Freeling^^ 
containing many singnbu^pieces of early typography. It is bound in 
olire-oolour morocco, in the usually tasteful style of binding of C. 

886. loHANNBs Latteburius. In Threkos 
Ieremi^. WithofiU Name of Printer or Place. 
1482. Folio. 

It IS upwards of six years since I eximhied a copy of this work* 
in the Bodleian Library, with the ' Expositw AUxandri de Alexandria m 
Tres Libros Jrittotdis de Mma; * printed by Theodoric Rood of 
Cologne, [having his name subjoined] in the University of Oxford, in 
the year 1481 *— and finding the type» paper, and mode of setting up 
the page, in that woric^ exactly conformable with the same in the pre- 
sent volxmie— >the inference seemed to be correct, that Rood actually 
printed each of these works. The number of lines, however, in the 
first mentioned work, is only 38 to a fiill page: in the one under 
description, there are 40. 

If it be asked wheth«r elAer of thase wwka were oektally prmied 
at Oxford^ I am free to confess that they carry with them rather 
the appearance of foreign workmanth^^ and that they are, in all pro- 
bability, the production of a Cologne Fren* At least, while on the one 
hand I am not able to bring to my reooUecticm any Low-Couniry type^ 
exactly of the same form and mode of working with that of the present-* 
on the other hand, it is quite dear and conclusive, that the type and 
method of printing observable in the work here next described, and in 
the colophon of whidi Rood and Hunt seem to boast of the typogra- 
phical merit of the Snglish* ara wholly dissimilar from any thing we 
observe in the present, or in the preceding, production. 

We have here, in the first place, a wide, full-charged, and extremely 
ornamental border (composed of birds, flowers, and fhiits) which has 
neirer appeared in any other acknowledged production of the Oxfbrd 
press ; and, secondly, there are capital letters, occasionally introduced 
in the margins, which seem peculiar to the impression before us-— as 
an Oxford early printed book. But our description need not be very 
extended. The recto of a ij (a j being blank) exhibits the border jast 
mentioned, with the commencement of the text, thus : 

8(6 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [XoMcft. 1462. 



txie tt filti et 
sp^ttttts salt' 

There are two sets of signatures : first, a to f, inclusiyelj, in eights : 
then, A to I, kk, and L^ in eights. On L v^, rerene^ 

^SiTpitdt tjcpt^tit fit miffayifflifo 
ttccti cttpinttt ttnuKu j^jgtxittot ffn 

tnfi Ue menilitt 3[uiii 

Next, ablank leaf (forming L yiij). On M i, the table IfjbginB. M has 
8 leaves ; N 6, and O ▼ printed, leaves : O fj being Uank. On the 
rererse of O v is the ensuing eolophon : 

^Bmltctt tfi&idfi fiiii mnttf frf iiff r B 

fftttlTWifitfl lltt ^OufilUlflll SfittflEttt* 

tp ttnntttp tiuiiontnu 

There are neither numerals nor catchwords* The signatures are 
wretchedly worked ; and the tjrpe is of a thin, disproportionatCf and 
unpleasing aspect. The papef^ however is of an excellent texture. 
The present is a sound and desirable copy ; elegantly bound by Herring 
in dark calf, with gilt leaves. Herbert notices a copy, ' partly- on 
paper and partly on vellum,' in the library of the Dean and Chapter 
at Westminster. The book is neither rare nor dear* 

Pkdimifj 1485.] UNIVERSmr OF OXFOSD. SST 

887- Phalaris. Epistolje. Latin^. Printed 
by Rood and Hunt. Oxford. 1485. Quarto. 

This is in many respecti a very curious and desirable volume ; and 
was obtained, at a great pricey at the sale of the Merly library. The 
type, as the ensuing feie-aimile proves, is large and coarse, and the 
press-work almost uniformly irregular. Herbert, who has given 
somewhat brief and unflatisfiictory descriptions of the two previous 
works, has been comparatively full and particular (although not quite 
exact) in his account of the pment. Wa shall endeavour to be equally 
interesting. The recto of the first leaf is blank. The reverse con- 
tains the following verses : 

tt dti Itcttnstin Cstmot 
i^ttitt isttt. atq$ pcot iectoc jsttu 

t^nkge* qui pafjgtim gemmea tier 
fia tdtst. tttjt tsafi 

Ib\ nsM Iffsa ^^tipaKjtfjf oat 

all OKQt tSBt^ 

JU fiidfjf iiomiiiil qiti tdegatmt 

^mjy iuciiji ffflmitt 

ftawMoi^ Iff ||i( antitm^ ottt * 
amniflta quesi^ . iwtiim . in^ 

ijg ytmnqs * 

Sfmunie^ tnm ; 9|flMf Hie fitit 

4 ^ I I r* 1 i i^V ^ A] A\\* X 

M I I I V) 4 I 

868 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [PAofam; 1485. 

Neither the first nor the second leaf contains a signature ; but the 
third leaf exhibits a m. The recto of the second leaf presents us with 
the following commencement : 

fcattttistct %tttixA ^tatmf §> 
daetfjttmi in eloqnttljftmajl ^^eia 
sttnist tpcatitti t^gi^uAifi jftt ipjtf um 
t (COO to fottttft )itt0s^^ l^ci^fic^ 
imnm fipdttotte ittt^ 

etttm ^ta 

ttotf ffitutttttf « -ftittfrtin 
mi|ll tttcoibt wtuttsff 

A fiill page contains 33 lines, but the gfireat^ number of pages 21 
lines* The signatures extend to m, inclwlvttfy. Of these, a, b, c, d,/, 
hf k And ^ A^ ^ eights : and €^ g, i and m^ an in sixes : so that 
Herbeirt is wrong in describingthe signatures to be in eights. On the 
recto of m i);, we read a singular colophon,* of which the ensuing is 
a feus-simile : 

' l>oc 0|>9fMw Wttii iMttwttP^ 

Then follow some verses, given difikrently (as Herbert has remarked) 
by Dr. Middleton, but as the reputation of that distinguished writer is 
not built upon his bibliographical accuracy, we may presume that these 
* variations * areerraneootf. Tlla vortts are these :• 

* * Dr. Stack and others think, from the Qljmpiades, that diis most be in the year 1481» 
bdng the irst year of that Olympiad ; Sdt W. MkUUeton, tW, tbt hot year. The printers 
here take it for graatad, that thcro watt fti^ yem ftoia die oalefaration of one Olympic 
gme to another, or that an Olympiad ooiuuted of five iuU years ^ whereas it is generally 
allowed that it was only at the beginning diereof, irfter Hat ooo^etkm of four years.' 
Herbsst, Tol. iii p. 1395; 


£db. Fe$. 1486.] UNIVERSmT Ot OXF6KD. IM 

nia misit 
Hoc Taodeiiciis rood que ccUo^ 
Saguic gmaniis Dobile pasit opus 
Atqz iibi sodus thomas fiiit igli- 
cuB hunte. 

Dy det vt venetos ezuperare ^unt 
Qua ieson venetos decuit vir galli 

Ingenio dididt terra britana suo. 
Celatos veueti no^ trasmltte lib os.* 
Cedite nos aligs ▼edimus o veneti 
Que f^erat Tob ars pmfi nota latini 
Est ead£ nob ipa r^)erta pret. nos 
Quauis seotos toto canit orbe brita 
Virgilius. placz his ligua latia tame t 

The reverse is blank. The present is a large and clean copy of this 
exceedingly scarce volume ; el^antly bound in olive-colour morocco, 
by C. Lewis. 

888. Liber Festivaus. (Supposed to have been 
printed by Rood and Hunt, at Owford.^ 1486. 

I consider this vdlume to be among the most curious specimens 
extant of the early typography of our own country. It seems to be a 
re-impression of Caxton's edition of the Festival, printed in double 
columns, (see p. S66 ante) but it does not extend beyond q ^ rev. of 
that edition. On R j, in Caxton's, begins ' Scdo die lulii celebratur festu 
'\^taciois bte marie', &c. extending to s t : and having, in the whole, 
13 leaves of subject matter which is not in the preset impression. 
Perhaps the Quatuor Sbrmonxs were never added here. If we may 

• Sip, for « librot.' 

t « Which may be thus EngKuhfd ; ' Theodoric Bood, by birth a Genniw, firom Cologne^ 
printed this noble work ; and Tbomas Hunt, an Engliihman, was hu partner. God grant 
they may excell the Venetians. The art, which Jenson, a Frenchman* faoght the Venetians, 
Britain learnt by her own genius. Cease, ye Venetians, to send us printed books : we sett 
them to others. The art of printing Latin, which was imown to yon Venetians, u itself 
found out by us. Though Virgil sings the Britons separated finom the whole world, they 
are nevertheless pleased with the Latin^ tongue.^ fixBBimT, yoL liL p. 1395-6. 

VOL. IV. 3 A 

•60 ^OOKS PRINTED IN THE ' . illli^. 

judge from similarity of type and execution, the printers were, in all 
probability, Rood and Hunt ; who executed the work just described. 
For this conjecture I am indebted to the bibliographical acuteness of 
the Noble Owner of the copy under description— which copy was 
originally in the Alchome Collection, and will be found noticed at 
p. 168-9, of vol. ]. of the Typog. AnHq» The volume is unluckily 
imperfect ; having the text of the first 6 leares supplied in the hand- 
writing of Ratcliffe, and two leaves torn out. However, the printed 
text commences upon signature a i, descrilMng the transgression of our 
first parents, thus : (Thai adam syked sore & wept & said to] * 

1^ on aitpfj^ tponwti 
' 00b tudtic t^ of one of 
tnp tpuOpgp IOC (0 909^ 
tnc tttdi ttmUntt tnc* dttb 
ttoio fie tpGtig of t^ tat 
DC tgoit ttot to comote 
titt ttjftn fiut tj^pnitt liotD 
tnxct Btfitt fpnttt franritf 

afl otm tifptpng 0^eSiftt 
mftctt attfi l^aitt ttjfctut 
(ittie. &c. 

A full page contains 33 lines, and the text is uniformly executed in 
double columns. The signatures are somewhat capriciously regulated. 
Thus, a» and 6, have each 8 leaves : c,4; d,8; d,8;t ^6;/,8,gy4; A,8; 
h6; k and ^ each S; m,6i n and o, each 8 ; p, 6 ; 9, 8 ; r, 6; (r 5 
-rrelating to the translation of Thomas k Becket-^being wanting in 
this copy) f, 8 ; t, •, each 6 ; r, 8 ; y, 6 ; and j 4 ; the 4th being a 
Uank one, and f i, being defective in this copy. This curious volume 
exhibits embellishments, or cuts, as rudely executed as is the iextt 

* Hiis previous fine is in MS. here. f This signature is repeated. 

X I subjoin a few specimens of the precious infonnadon contained in this once popular 

' Also we fynde that in deuynchere be syde ezbrigge was a woman lay sike and was nye 
dede and sente aftyr a huoly person a bowte myduyghte to haue her lightb than this man 


A lac-simile of a pcntion of one cut (describing The Murdet of Thonuu 
id Beckei) has been given in the authority before referred to. We shall 
here extend such illustrations* On the reverse of / y we observe an 
embellishment, very common in the early impressions of religious 

in all the haste that he myghte be a rose and wente to churche £c toke goddis body in A 
box of yuery and patte hit in to hu bowme and wete forthe towarde this woman. And aa 
be wete thourghe a foreste in a &yre mede that was his nexte wey it happid thai Ids box 
fill oute of Ids bosome to the grounde and he wente ftitfae and woste hit not and come to 
this woman and heide her oonfewkm And than he aaldd her yf she wolde be hoselid and 
she seyde yr sere, than he potte his hoode hi fab boMme and sooghte the box and whan he 
fouide hit noughtehe was foil scry and sadde and seyde dame is woll go a%r goddys body 
and come anone a yeue to yow and so weole ftvtiie aoM wepyng for his simpulnesse and so 
as he come to a welow tree he made ther of a rodde and stiypyd hym selfe all nakyd and 
to bete hym selfe that the blode rane domie by his sydys abd seyde thus to hym selfe O 
thow simple man why hailB thow loste thy lord god thy maker thy former & thy creatour 
And whanne he hadde tlms heto hym selfe he dede on his clothis and wente forth. And 
than he was ware of pilour of fyre that laste firam erthe to heoeu and he was all astoyned 
there of yit he blessed and wente their to and there lay the saerament &llyn oute uf the boxe 
in to the grasse and the pibur schon as bryghte as any sonne and Usteyd from goddis body 
to heuyn and all the bestys of the foreste were come a boute gpddls body &c stode in compai 
rounde a boute bit & all knelid on fbore knees saue on blake horse that knelyd but on that 
on knee Tlian seyde he y f thow be any beste that may spekc I charge Uie in goddis namo 
here presente in forme brede tdl me why thon kneUste but on thy one knee. Thaune seyde 
he I am a fende of hell 6c woUe not knele fie y my^e bitt I am made a yense my wyli 
for hit is wreton that euay kndyng of heoen & of ertb shall be to the worshippe to the 
lord god. Why arte thow like a horse Ac he seyde to make the people to stele me Ac at 
soche a towne was one hongkl for me Ac at soche a towne a nothir Tha seyde this hooly 
person y ooounaiide the by goddis flesche Ac his biode that thow goo in to wildemesse Ac be 
ther as thow shalte neuer dissese cristen people more And a none he wente his wey he 
myghte no leger a byde yVnd thanne this man wente ibftfae to this woman Ac dede her 
rightes by the whiche she was saukl and wente to eueriastyng saluacio to the whiche bringe 
▼stohethatfor vsshedde his bJodevpoa the rode tret Amen.' S^gn. g iij, iv< 

See the same tale in the douUe-colmnned editkm of the Festival, by Caxton, at signatnie 
f v» vj. 

' Hier was a criston man borowed a certeyn some of money of a iewe and the lewe neyd 
he wolde lene none but he hadde a borow. and this cristen man seyd he had none bat seitit 
Nicolas & he graunted to take seint Nicolas to borow Than this cristen man swore rp uq tiie 
auter tliat he wulde well and trewly pay this money ayeny Ac so departyd and wente her 
wey tyll day of payment come and whanne this day was passyd than the iewe asl^ Ids 
ihoney and this cristen man seyde that he hadde payde hym Ac the iewe seyde nay he 
hadde not. and that othir seyde he hadde and that he wold do his lawe and swere Tp oo a 
boke And so whanne the day oome Uiat they shnld go to the kwe the cristen man OHMla 
h^m an hulowc stafie and potte the goM ther in and so oome to the Uiwe. And whanoehe 
shuMe swere whyle he wente to the boke he loke the Iewe histtuffe therthe gold was ymie 
to holde. And by thu meoe swore he had payde the iewe and whan he hadde swone he 
toke hu stafie of the iewe ayene and wente homewardes And as he wente hy the wey be 


worio, and of which a comparatively higbljr finiafafd apecimen wiQ be 
produced in a. future prodnctioD.* Meaowhtle, the reader will not be 
idbpleased with a &c-Bimile of the me before m : 

A little onward, h v, reverse we notice a whofe^leogth portrait of 
St. NidmtoM .- having, to the left of him, two tnei hj way of back- 
gtoand-^>f which the foliage iiTepnMiitcdbjralniorthoriscntBl lines. 
Hie figure of the Saint, and a Ihc-vimile of the tn>^ beneath him, are 
here introduced to the reader's acquaintance : 

ni paujng lEcp; wMl be liTde bjm downe to ilqie In tha bygbe w(j« TbaiBa Ut lai^ienyd 
then come a wte reiiujBg tnd Biiita tmtt ttfi nut and ilewe hym rind brtlie hii sttSe 
that the pMt wu ^ne snd Ae gold ffUe ooie. Hianiie the foofh n«a that this ootue of 
pete Tengeaijce for the blihede 6at he bad daie And thej fette the iewe and bad hTm 
take Tp hii money. Tbamie «M the lean my and i^ be M>ld Mt bnt^ that tli^ wold 
prvj aeinte Ntcolaa to reie hym ajene thuii hr woEde be *Titfm. Bdeoault a deftmctit 

■ Thuiae thii dede man wai (e^ fium deth to ijSe bj the prcjaiir of i^t NicoUt 
Baptnattw aoriTiia iudeo* indicio llaoDe tbiiiewa tbat mw oute of the beleoe by the tight 
of thii mtncle be wai ciutened.' S^ga. h nj. 

There ia (ometlnng toj whhnikal in the bUowiag ecnceh ■ ■ towatdt the doH cf the 
•oconnt oTThomai ■ Beciet : ' Ain there waaa fcMe that wai taaghtalo ipeke & omde 
•ey Mtnte thomas a« ibe had heide othir pUgremei ipeke mocbe of idiil Ibomai & it b^^ 
caa tymetbiibirdde Mte^riHionie to cage Jt thaw tome ai imb aw fc e it wold bane tbyne 
him Sc anon the birdde cry ad oa icynte thomal belpe. Ic a nooe (hi* iparhaake fill dtxuie 
dede than iBnt tbomaa of hii grete gnice Sc goodnene herd the Uidde k woMe not what 
ihe mente moche more be mild bane herd h Bocha MDnar be wold ban a tziite man or 
eAttea woman yt eryrd bertdj to him Ibr beipe ti tasour.' Sign, n l^j, fwa 

' "Dit BMiignfik^ DKamthm. 



ciK ie mottii t>«tt!(He m 
fwote ^jfufi^ am. fix^ 

fwfb ^jrf» in(*t to" 


Let the typographical anticjfkiaiy minutely inspect this type (making 
allowance for the inevitable slips and deviations of the best executed 
fiEU^-8imile8) with that of the foregoing work (of which there is also a 
&e-simile) and I think the inferenoe he must draw will be in confor- 
mity with that of Lord Spencer; who considers the same printers to 
have executed the present and the preceding article.* To strengthen 
such inference, I subjoin a fiu>simile of the cdophon, on the recto of 
it;, the last kaf in the volume: 

Before, however, we dismiss the notice of this extraonBiiBry volume, 
and as exhibiting a fiirther specimen of the state of art in our own 
country, as well as of the taste of the cariy Oxford prinften, I submit 
a fiMS-simile of one of the laiger wood-cuts, f occaskxnally introduced 

* A Gomptnsxi of tbejN^per 19011 whkb ikn Pbalabis md tte Festival are printed, 
shewi us that the ptper of tlie ftnner Is bfowner lu tint sad coaner iu tnture. It also 
eihibitB a differaot water wark. The former has a hand, the latter a and if arms. There 
is nodiing, howerer, fiftan soch deriatioi^ to isflilBte agRiait the above oood^^ as there 
cannot be a more fidhdbns (yet more oonnnD) mods of asoartainfag woilan^ of typogra- 
phieal produclioQS, than that of 0GBBpaiin| dn mrtCMBHla of poper. The presses of 
Bamberg, Ments, and Cologne, exhibit the mine water-maric 

t Perhaps it may not be unaooeptsble to vpedfjf, brid|y, the order and character of the 
cots in this Tolume. On the reverie of d viy, a ^Moe is left at the top of the first column, 
as if a cut had been destined to fill it On the recto of e iij, at top of.die first column, is a 
small and crowded cut, representing the Descent of the Eahf SjpMt ow the day tf Pentecost, 
It is in character, as to execotion, fike tiie small one first above given. Hie same cot again 
appears on the following leaf but one. On f ij, reverse* is that of which the first foo-simile 
above appears. On h i, recto, are two small cuts of St. Andrew. On h v, reverse, is a cut 
of iSt, Nicholas ; above given. On i v, reverse, is one of the larger eot*-— descriptive of the 
wmrder of St. Thomas the Apostle, The surrounding frame work is much broken. On k vij, 
recto, is the murder rfSt. St^hen, above given. Thb b among the most perfect and best 
executed in the volume. On 1 ij, recto, is a veiy rode cut of St. John the Evangelist. He 
is drinking with his right hand, and holding a palm4>rancb in his left ; tD the right of him, 
a figure is falling prostrate, as if cast down firom an eminence; to the left is seen a portion 
of another figure, prostrate, having the shoulders and head severed—as if by the tenniuat- 
ing line of the firame .work. The three trees in the bac^ ground are executed in the 
horiaontal manner. On 1 vj, recto, is the murder of the Innocents, before Herod, who is 
seated on his throne. One man^ to the left, has run his sword throngh a child's body-«wbeii 

FetthaKa; 1486.] UNIVERSmT OF OXFORD. S<6 

into tbe work. The reader perfatpa may wUi to be pmiontlf infomnd 
that it describes the Afar^rnfom of St. Slephai, 

It only remains to add that this copy is bound in dark red morocco* 
by C. Lewis. 

b IheiDotlm^aniu: uiotlier, to the right, ImeeUngiexlubitiftcIuldntothnnigbapDadw 
ptnutof h'uapev. Three cfaildmi (appuentlj expecting k aDlhr bte) on h tbe tbregromiil. 
On I Tjij, rererae, U the murJer if Tliimat a Btrlot, denibed in tbe lothority ibore 
reTerred to. On m t, revent, ia a large cat of Ax CvcuMdrim. On n ^, recto, ii a large 
nide cut of the Carwcnun <f St. PuL The Samt onlj appear*, kneeUng ; nmnndcd by 
flame] of fire and Inil (tone*. Part ofa large nrord ii to the right oF hfan. Tbt Sabtatim 
i> on the reverie of o rij; very ntdetj io^nand. Thi* Meat to he the laat decontkn 
in the vdume. 

%i)t atbbe? of ^t 9HUru 

889. Laurentius Gujleluus de Saona. Rhb- 
TORICA Nova. Printed in the Abbey of St. 
Alban. 1480. Quarto. 

FiBST Book pbihted at St. Albkn's. Whoever wuhes to oee a 
choice and genuine spedmen of the early printing of the St. Aliax 
Pbbss, may behold, with no ordinary satis&ction, the beautifiil and 
rare TtriumeRon Bader desoiptton. Herbert does not appear to have 
erer seen this impression. He coutents himself with tlie account of it 
by Ames, and adds only the meagre autliority of Orkndi; Orig. e 
Progr. delid Siampoy p. IH. Ames baa given a fac-stmtle (upoa 
copper) of the coloptum. which is tolerably faithftil, and whkh is re- 
published by Herbert ; but when the former tcHs us the work * is 
divided into three parts, or chief heads, and printed in red and 
black ink'— be observes what is not strictly correct. The work Is 
divided into three bobks, but there is not a single line of printing in 
red ink, throu^tout Hie volamei — at least, no such distinction is to be 
found in the copy under t^acriptwn. See Amet' Hitl. of Printiitgt 
p. 463. 

The text of this impresrion commencea on the recto of signature 
a ^ (not matked), the previous leaf being blank. The proheme b^ins 

VOL. IV. 3 a 

308 BOOKS PRINira) IN THE [AMMr. 148ft 

xBucip lomnict} sitiioint^iK woton mnwiii* 
tnot02|r CKK tpcotmtt lUKOtnp pttQ^tMa in no 

0fptSti micfii ft punUflo t fit biBBi^ 
d^ totempimtti g^tum cSmoDitottjl 
QUitumqj Q^ientiottjt tt glocS afGnrc 

8cc. Sec. 8cc. 

A fiill page has 24 lines. The signatures^ from a to f, run in eights : 
I having only 5 printed leaves. These signatures have a peculiarity, in 
being printed in a fount of letter nearly three times as diminutive as 
that of the text. On the recto (tf | v, at bottom^ ive read as follows : 

giottS 1 ^onmf (ttmtnt vun i imoctal ties <aiii 
in tttnttote (fiuta uttttt i ttgaat 9 if&tita km 

On the reverse of this leaf is the following, which termioates the 

(Cxn/Stit WSm tcrtttijt : et opu0 <let||o 
(ice fitfitftflti^ pec ftatttm Sautendum iBuU 
. Idiaai He i^aoita ^ittttijst O^itiontm tactt i/a 
Sine pcoieu*oran t]r ot(tij» teuiinonitiq} wccstti 
(hnantm ftripturantm. tioctocitmqj i^roCiatifns 
rum compilatum et confirmatittn : ^vdSmfi tx 
t«a^^ ^enfittt a]n;idiaiitnim Gnpe d^arnanta 
eloqtietuie caft^^ote an doquertbum tnuina at 

4Conq?iIatum aittmi fiiit |^ opti}l in $111:: 
ma tndtiecj^tate ^Eantabdste* SItnto tiomtnt 
]4a8«« tiie <!. 6. $[tdti ^no to feftrnn M 
tt 9^sxt^ teeolitite: ^itb ptotecttoie Ibttt^ 
teX^am Kegi^ ^Unglonm) €bitatU qaastx. 

• St. 

GtrofiJcle/ 1483.] ABBEY OF ST. AIMk». 3«» 

3lHi9Kfl3ftuiii Mt jfn0H^ 090^ 

WittMiiltitf uMUutttu ^tWtll DmS 

imiicd rifirtiiift fUnw oiiiiiwit 

JDilany of the edges of the bottom margin of this sound and beautiful 
copy are unciit. It is bound in blue morocco by R. Payne. 

890. The Croniclis of Englode^ with the 
Frute of Timis. [1483.] Folio. 

The above title is gathered fix>m the account of this impression by 
Herbert; the copy under description being considered as imperfect 
at the beginning and end. And yet, according to Herbert, this copy 
should appear to possess the whole of the text ; since it contains K yiy * 
in the second alphabet of signatures : which, from the same authority, 
appears to be the termination of the volume* But both Ames and 
Herbert, although rather copious in their descriptions of this exceed- 
ingly rare book, have been wanting in bibliographical exactness, or 
minuteness: since they each say the work ' begins with a table, then 
on sign, a ij, a ' Prolog."— without specifying the number of leaves in 
such table. I consider, however, the first leaf to be wanting in the 
table before us ; as the first reference in it, is to sign, h vj. The first 
3 lines of the table are as Mkmi 

3l(itatttitjB( Irpng of italic 
j^uiujtf Iipti0 of ttaii. 

The table is printed in double columns ; the text of the work, in long 
lines. The first 3 leaves of the table are designated by signatures a 
(wanting here) 6, e ; the last three leaves have no signatures. How- 
ever, as the table here condudes with ' Richard the first kig of 
englod — henricus the v. emperour,' we may presiune another leaf or 
two to be wanting. The first lea( preceding the text, or the prologue 
of the work, appears to have been a blank one, and intended Cor sig- 
nature aj; asy on signature a y, the prologue begins thus : 

a70 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [CArtmicfe ; 1488. 

Jjl fo tnpcl^ t|^ It ifi ntuSSad t» ail cnatitd^ of 
cn^toit religpon. ot of Gdjt rrittgpon : oil gftpbjj atHt 
mac^ompteiet : to fiiMttai tl^eer pctee ot pcpnufi tj^t 
nstu ptn tl^ttn* flttii tj^ctm to t/btp* Jbo it itf conp 
modpujsi to iuialD iscc. 

This prologue may be said to be divided into Two ParU, The first part 
contains the authorities firom which the Cl^nicle is compiled, and the 
seven parts into which it is divided ; occupying very nearly the entire 
2 pages of a ij. As the whole of this first part has been extracted by 
Ames and Herbert, it need not occupy a space in the present work. The 
reader, however, may wish to be informed of the Authorities upon 
which the veracity, or falsehood, of this Chronicle rests. These are, 
we find, ' Gboffbst of Monmouth, monk, in his book of Brute. 
Sunt Bsde, in the acts of England: item, in his^Book of Times. 
GiLj>48, in the acts of Britain. William of Malmxsburt, monk, in 
the Acts of Kings of England and Bishops— -Cassiodorus, of the Acts 
of Emjieiors and Bishops.— tSaint Austin, de Civitate Dei. Titus 
Livius, de Gestis Romanorum.~MARTtN, Penitentiary to the Pope, in 
his Chronicles of Emperors and Bishops. — ^And, namely, " Thbobaldus 
Cartusiknsis, containing in his Book the Progress of all notable 
Fathers from the beginning of the World unto our time, with the 
notable acts of the same. In this new translation are contained many 
notable and marvellous things : and thoo been legged by auctor3rte of 
mony fieimous clerkys." 

The second part of the Prologue, containing a mere sketch of the 
state of the world, from the Creation to the Death of Christ, occupies 
the ensuing leaf, a iij. On the jpecto of a iiij, we observe, at top, the 
commencement of the text of the Chronicle, thus : 

i^ inttptt tcattufi tetn^onmi 

<i tmk ttipier huht i^ mati to td tofiat tpmt oitp 
tl^png itotaBun toOjET. ^^mfoott^thegfftxgngitf 
an tymt^ d^ottlp jslb^n he tot||tt. for tl^ topt]^ 

aftpr t>octoucji( it ij^ to Be itttfllDpn tliat. itii. tttpng 

toot nuUie fffC0U kc. 

Chramde; 148S0 ABBEY OP ST. ALBAN. 371 

Iliis brief extnct is aloKMt a suflkient specimeD of the extrem^ 
barbarous state of orthogEaphy, by which the present and subse^piettt 
works, printed at St. Alban's» are distinguished. The author of the 
translation, or composition. Is not yet satisfactorily known. There are 
many peculiarities to be noticed in this impression. The running 
titles are sufficiently whimsical. ' Pad IPnms * occupies each side of 
the leaves as for as b ^ ; when, on the recto of that signature, we 
observe the arabic numeral 1 ; and, on the rererae, only f&M. This 
kind of title continues till we come to b vy ; when the word ' SlhiiOt ' 
and the numeral 1 (for the first part) appear on the recto of it, and 
* f&M. 9Libim' on the reverse : again, on b vi^, recto, we read * 9sni 
IPtiau aihtsn, * and the same on the reverse — while on c i, recto, we 
observe * 9a Snife* and '.S.' as the running title. To eniunerate 
every similar peculiarity would be both endless and useless e but il may 
be necessary to remark that the Parts are, afterwards, designated by 
arabic numerals, on the recto, and by the contraction of IPa (for 9sni) 
on the reverse, of each leaf: these are sometimes accompanied by 
running titles, mentioning the subject matter* discoursed of, and some- 
times they are without such accompaniment. The signatures are 
printed on each of the 8 leaves to each letter ; a plan, which Machlinia 
adopted, but which is of very rare occurrence. Herbert remarks that 
the initial letters to each section or chapter, are, with the exceptions 
of those ' to the Prologue and the first of the Chronicle — printed in red : 
the first he had seen.' In the copy before us, even thete letters are in 
red ; but whether, like all the others, they be printed, or executed by 
means of a $tensU,f is probably a iioint of uncertainty. There can be 
no doubt, however, that the words, surrounding, and beneath, the wood- 
cut — at a vj, recto— a vy, reverse — c iiij, reverse— d vij, reverse — and 
in the centre of the cut, on c vj, reverse — are abeolutely printed in red. 
These cuts do not deserve the name of ornament. They are bare rude 
outlines : and a single house is made to represent London, or Rome. A 
coarse Cross strikes the eye on f viif, recto ; representing that upon 
which our Saviom* was executed. 

it may be necessary to observe that this Chronicle is more voluminous 
than the one printed by Caxtou, and afterwards imprinted by Ma^hlini^ 

* On d i to d ijj we have the aooount of * Ktno Lkie :* This account, collated with tlie 
•ame in Cazton*s Chronicle, was famished by me to the Britiih BibUographer ; vol. n. 
p. 578-582. 

t In the copy under description, the first letter to the prologiie aiid to the commeDcemcat 
of the text are onquestionably an afterfrod%ctim : inserted by the pendL 

372 BOOKS PRINTED) IN THE [Ckrtm. 148S. 

and Gerard de Leeu ; as, previous to the text, common to all these 
Chronicles,— and beginning with * in the noble land of Surrey*— -there 
are, here, eleven leaves of previous matter ; terminating thus, on the 
•reverse of b vj, just before the above ijuoted text : 

^nctpit tegmtm fwttante ttitttt tAA audita* 

% for r 31 toill itpefte of S^nite It jBf|^ Be jl|d»eti 

l^obi p^ W» of ett0{5ti too^ fpc^t ttamti al^ h 

dp tofiat fcj^jscs it tKijl jlo iKunit 

The conclusion of this Chronicle also varies from that of Caxton. 
The battle of Towton, on Palm-Sunday, and the coronation of 
Edward IV. in the year 1460, are somewhat more briefly detailed here. 
This subject forms the close of Caxton's Chronicle; see Typog. 
ArUiq. vol. i. p. 86 ; but, in the book under description, it is succeeded 
by more than 9 pages of text, relating to the Popes, Calixtus III., 
Pius II., Paul II., and Sixtus IV, Just before the mention of Pius II. 
A* D. 1458, we read this : 

' Nota. Printerys of bokis wer this tyme mightely multeplied in 
maguncie & thurgh out the world, and thai began frist* and ther 
held the craftis. And this time mony men began for to be more sotell 
in craftis and suyfter then euer they wer afore,' Sign. K viij, recto. 

It remains only to notice, that this impression contains two sets of 

signatures : the first, from a to z, *l, and 9, inclusively, in eights : the 

second, from A to K, inclusively, in eights. The copy before us appears 

to VTant the last leaf, containing the device of the printer : of which a 

fac*simile is given in the reprint of the work next described. This 

copy, which is upon the whole a large and desirable one, was in the 

Alchome Collection ; and has been recently bound in russia, by C. 

Lewis, after having been cleansed of a considerable quantity of stain. 

Miss Currer, whose spirit and taste in the collection of Book-Rarities, is 

well known to the curious, is in possession of a copy upon vellum, 

but of a coarse texture,— and wanting the last leaf. Perfect copies are 

of the rarest possible occurrence— but there is a fine and perfect one 

in the Royal Collection. 


BmMng^^l486.^ ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 373 

891. The Bokys of Haukyng and HunoCyng— 
AND ALSO OF CooTARMURis. Compyfyt at St. 
Alhons. 1486. ' Folio. 

First Edition. The books of this Library by no means diminish in 
vahie as we draw towards a conclusion of the description of them. We 
have here a volume of the most uncommon rarity, and held in prodigious 
estimation by the curious in ancient English lore. It has been recently 
rendered more familiar to this dass of readers, by the minute and 
curious researches, connected with it, which my friend Mr. Joseph 
Haslewood has laid before the public— in his reprint of the second im- 
pression of the work, by Wynlcyn de Wbrde, in 1496 ^ to which is 
prefixed a very interesting introduction, both biographical and biblio- 
graphical. The labour and . research evinced in this introduction 
hare much facilitated and shortened my own. Nor is it essential to 
dwell much upon collateral enquiries: our business being chiefly 
bibliographical. '.i.' 

The copy under. description' was obtained at the sale of the Fourih 
Part of Mr. G.Ms^n's library, in 1799, (see n^.I53) for 7Bl.i in 
competition with Mr. G« Nicol, who came to purchase it for his 
Majesty's Library. Such a price, at such a period, was justly con- 
sidered a most extraordinary sum ; but the public had then no pre-' 
sentiment of the sjnrit, if not insanity, which was to mark the sale of 
the RoxBURGHs .L(9RAiiT ! This copy, although not tall, is a very' 
sound and desirable dne ; while those in the Bodleian Library, (fbrmerly - 
Heame's) and in the Public Library at Cambridge, are each imperfect 
and mutilated. A very imperfect, but tall and fine copy, was purchased 
at the Roxburghe fiUe, fbr the Marquis of Blandfbrd, for 1472. The 
Luton Cjollection (the Marquis of Enters) has also an imperfect copy. 
A fine and perfect c^y is said to be in the ccdiection td the Earl of 
Pembroke : otherwise, the one before us might have been considered 
umque. It is, certainly, (if estimated by the prices givien- fbr other 
similar, but less rare and interesting, books), not extravagantly valued 
at the sum of 490L Our attention however begins to be diverted from 
the principal subject of discussion. 

* From an original copy ia the p oe i MMOBoftht Bight Hon. ThowiM 0/<pviilc ; rmiim» 



It is justly said in the BibL MaKm, pt. ir. n*. 163, that ' its beginning 
with signature a u >> no }aadi of contradiction to its being perfect.' 
Hie first leaf (so frequently observed and verified in the course of this 
vork) was, in all probability, a blank one.* On the recto of a g, at top, 
we read the following sentence— of which a fac-simile has been ^ven 
by Mr. Haslewood, in the work before mentioned : 

^p^n ntocti t^ gentifl nun anti gttiejit ^eritone^ 
|mie gttttt ^dtte in l^ultpng anti tt^t to ^aue 
t|^ nuna to tafcfJKnifcp^ : annal^o l^anb in txiaat 
tDpjere tj^ep ^l^e gplK tl^nt otHpnatdi : anti to Emato 
t|( gentin tmnpjf in communpt^ of tliepc ^auitpiec : 
. onli to tottfucieitimlie ti^ j^dtene^eit anti enficmtteeiBt : 
anti aiiAi to itnatne metnctnejst fine ti^epni accoctipng* 
aniti monp nota&iA termpif t|^ Ben ti jtdi f l^itftpng 
Botl^ of t^eic Dauiipjer anti of t})e fsMt^ tl^t tieie 
lialDftpjStier^aHj^. <Cl^n«fbre tj^ier {w^ fOtidoiiiptv 
in aiidD fbnne ^UrtDp^ttiect imatokge of ^ucl^ ^k^re 
to 00itiii nun anti iij^onpif tn^^eb to ^e itt. 

This may be considered the title to the first treatise. The Book or 
Hawkiiio. An extract of the two following sentences— with the above, 
and with what has been takm from the last article— will give the 
reader a pretty correct notion of th» state of orthogra{diy which marks 
all the English productions of the press of the Abbey of St. Alban. 
These sentences are as follow : 

FiCI ^^ ^ ^^ vcmst to &e0pnne to itepe |auftp^: Bot 
not eSi vxvmxc lattiftpist. Bott oonli (tBofl^atnErpii : 
anti Cenefltjf of <(3oC|ialtiftpje(. anb itpan ^atoiip^. anti tn 
Itiatt manec t|ap fl^aS Be taalte. 

[C] lit mana; to tgOu. pf ^atoitij^ fto an trg to tj^ei 
iie ti^tdf to &e taitote. 

* Herbert, in his interleaved copy, hai the following whimsical observation. * Or perhaps, 
it had cuts, and a little like those in Worde's edition ' ! 

HwUing, 4re. I486.} ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN- 375 

It will be noticed that the preliminary letter, to each of the preceding 
extracts, is enclosed in brackets. Tliis has been done Arom a per- 
suasion that the original letter, which b executed in red, was sub* 
sequently introduced either by means of a ttentH or by some instrument 
of impression, giving to the colour impressed a thick and determinate 
e£Fect. The outline is so decisive, and the body of the colour so opaque^ 
that it is quite clear the process of working could not have been- by the 
pencil. Nor would the opejation of a stensil produce such eflfect, 
generally speaking. A hard substance, either vrood or metal, charge^ 
with pruUmg- mk^ and firmly stamped upon the paper,* seems to have 
been the more probable cause of the effect produced in the original 
impression. In the trbatisb upon Hunting, we observe many words 
and Ums, intermixed with the text, alio executed in red; but such inter- 
mixture is peculiar only to that treatise — and there can be no doubt 
that these words and lines are the result of a second operation of the 
press — or produced from metal types. As we are upon this subject^ we 
may extend it by noticing the colours of the Coat-Armours^ in the third 
treatise. Upon the closest and most careful inspection of these singular^ 
embellishments (the earliest of their kind), I adhere to the opinion 
before entertained (and expressed in print) that these colours are 
impressed with printing ink^ upon the paper, in the respective situations 
in which they appear, by means of some instrument ; and not laid on 
by the aid of a stensil. The opaque and coarse grain of the several 
colours— 6^c/r, red, dark green^ and olioe — ^with the occasional breakings, 
in which the paper, beneath, is seen — appears to justify this conclu- 
sion : which is yet strengthened by the uniform tone of the yeZ2oii>— that 
colour being of a thin and transparent nature, and generally indetermi- 
nate in the outline. On the recto of e ot|;', in this last mentioned trea-. 
tise, there is an appearance of red, worked upon olive ; but on a close 
inspection, the red will be found to occupy only the space of the tr^^e^ 
left purposely for the reception of that colour, llie tone of the red 
itself shews it to have been laid on, in body colour, by the brush or 
pencil. In almost every instance, among these embellishments of 
coat-armour, the oil, worked up with the printing ink, has penetrated 
through the paper. But it is now time to return to the completion of 
the description of this very predous volume. 

The Treatise upon Hawking terminates on the recto of d tt|^' ; a, 6, 

* I have iu> doubt diat die oapitBl initiftb of thePaaher ofl457>iiiid 1459,were yro^uoed 
by toch meaps : see toL L p, 116. 

VOL. IV 3 c 


«nd Cp each having 8 leaves (indading a j, Uank). No two pages are 
printed alike, as to the number of lines ; and every page exhibits ona 
or more breaks or spaces, with a larger lower-case letter. The smaller 
letter resembles the smallest fount used by Cazton, in his Chromele, 
Polyckronicon, and Golden Legend^ &c. but it is less round, and not to 
akilfiiUy worked. The double U's, as in the Chronicle just described, 
are uniformly crossed by a stroke, towards the tops of them. The 
larger type will be found in many of the running titles and prefixes of 
Caxton ; but of a coarser execution. On the recto of d t|/, which k a 
short page, containing only 18 lines, we read the two last lines, thus : 

i^ entiptfi tl^ ptocet^ of latoftpng* ^nH wAn 
Mop0 ttfi wemp^ of aS maitee of ||atoftpj9( h to 
iofiom tf)tp {)doi9« 

' On the reverse are the respective ranks in society, with their appro- 
priate hawks: namely, hawks for an Emperor, a King, a Prince, a 
Duke, an Earl, a Baron, a Knight, a Squire, a Lady, a Young Man. 
The author concludes thus, on the recto of d iiy : 

€^ ijer a <M|atoitt. atdi tfiat |^aii&e if fat a ytmm 
€^iffa€ttaXi. ^nH tl^t its fin; a piitKre matt. 
€|in; i0 a Jbptatt j^ufte. atib fie ijj an fiaitftt foe a peGc 
€^tt i0 a £i^(ftpte. ^n^ ^ i^ fin a fioittoater decitt 
^nti tbdfi Be of an itfier manec hptdit. fat t^p ftte 
to #uet:ce anti to ftt S[uttp anti to %uttp fatp, 


The reverse is blank. On the recto of the following signatvire, e j, 
we read this introductory sentence to the Tbbatisb upon Hunting t 

mi ^ ^"^ ^ ^ ^^^ '^^^'^ ^^ l^tDltpnff afinreTaptj are 
'- -* lorttpn anti notetitl^termpjf of ]^te&ns Belonging to 
SenttH men liaupng tidtte tj^eetn* %n tl)efljerame manet; 
t^0 &oo6e fidotopng (|^etott|) : to ty^ genttii ptdimp^ 

Ornimg, ^e. I486.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN« 377 

t^ tnnntt of ^itntpim fim dfl tndito? of ftttfltpist* 1l0tt^u 
tfiap ht ISkettpf of liemcp* or of t^tt. or ^(icait. 
3ilnti alfo it fl^tottl^ aK t|)e tecmpif cSttettpent ajl todi 
to tfie l^tmibpjf aif to t|^ Beeftpif a fiacfapti* %t6i in 
ttctapn tiiec Cic iiiaitp ifj^vut^t of tj^aptn* ajf it ijl ticdacdi 
in tj^titoooiic * folotnptQ^ 

This treatise is throughout poetical, and opens thus: 

SSkjttp0 of \itMtp. 
^ ^l^tttUstuttt pt fistf bp ftptj^ oc bp ftQ 

a^ Here cl^e tafie j^^e |Mi) ^tiftcam f bot| pon tc8 
]^tD manp maner beeftpjt of tienerp tl^ toece 
Xpftpn to potDte name anti f|^ j$^ pou lete 
fotDte manet beeftp^r of tienerp t^ett ace 
€De firft of tj^epm iis? tttt.hert . ti)e bcuniie iiss t|^ ^are 
€|)e Boore ties oon of tl|o. t|^ woiff'avSn not oon moo 

The words, above printed in italics^ are, in the original, executed in 
red. One of the most amusing specimens of the whimsical poetry of 
this work is thrown into the subjoined note, t On the recto of / tty, 
we read the ensuing colophon : 

€ jcpltcit S>am 3[tdpanit 
S^atnejl in 1^ Bolte of |mitpn0« 


t See Air. Haalewood*i Introdnctioo, p. 68-71 • 

t Of the buDtyng of the haare 

Now to speke of the haare bow all shall be wroght 
When she shall with bounds be foundyn and soght 

The first worde to the houndis that the hunt shall owt pit 

Is at the kenell doore when he openys it 

That all may hym here : he shall say Arere^ 

For his howndes wolde com to hastely 

That is the first worde my sonne of Teneiy 

And when he hath oooplyd his houndes ychooo 

And is fiMTth with hem to the ielde gooo 

And when be has of cast his oowples at will 

Then shall he q)eke and say his howndes till 

878 BOOKS PRINTED IN TH£ [Sawkmg; 

• On the reverse, we have an account of ' Bestis of the ehace of the 
ftwete fewte & stinking, * followed by sundry other curious matter ; 
fome of which is of such a nature as to excite considerable doubt 

Hen de coupU mumni te awmnt, twis so 

And then So k§ at ho, thriei and no mo 

And thai say. Satacy outunt to how, I you pray 

And iff ye 86 yowre howndes haue goode will to renne 

And draw a waywarde fro yow say as I yew kemte 

There bon amy, agayne hem call so 

Then. Sweff'tnon amy mref, to make hem soft go 

And iff any fynde of the haare dier he hath bene 

And he bight Richer or Bemoonde thus to hym bedene 

Oyet a Bemounde le vaUlaU, and I shall you avowe 

O ipiida trou la cowarde on la court cowe 

Tbat Bemonde the worthe with out any iayle 

That wenyth to fynde the coward with the short tayle 

And iff ye se where the haare at pasture hath bene 
Iff hit be in the tyme of the come grene 
And iff yowre houndis ehace weell at yowre will 
Then. ig. motu shall ye blaw booth lowde and shill 
There oon and there an other there he pastuiyde has 
Then say. Ulofuei iUoquei in thessame place 
So say to hem in kynde: mto tyme that ye hir fynde 

And thea cast a aigne all the feld abowte 
To seat hir pasture where she hath be in or oate 
Oder at hir frnme for ghidli to be the is not lefe 
Ther she hath pastnrid in tyme of Relefe 
And any hoonde fynd or mnsyng of her mace 
Ther as she hath byiie and is goon oate of that place 
Ha we Una cy ettylLto shall ye say 
Venet ater mo how so, also lowde as he may 
Sacy ad esteto how, after that 
Sa taof auaunt, and therof be not lat 
And when ye se vnto the playne her at the last 
In felde or in erraball londe : or in to the wode past 
And yowre hoonde will fynde of her ther then 
Say. la douce amy laett a, and do as I yow ken 
That is to say swete frende: ther is he come low 
For to dry here: And ther with ye shall say so how 
Illoques cy douce cy vaylaunt to how to howL then twy 
Thus may ye now dere sonnys leme of renery 
And when ye come ther as ye trow he will dwell 
And 90 semeth to yow well then say as I yow tell 
La douce la est a venuz, for to dwell thoore 
And therwith. iij. sohow. say ye no moore 

Ihmiing.iUfc.USe.'] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. ^79 

whetiier a Prioress of a Nmmery, such as Juliana Barnes is supposed 
to hare been, could have been the author of it. The whole a£fords» 
however, a striking proof of the common manner, in former times, of 
mixing trivial and grave subjects together. The subjoined is a very 
whimsical medley.* On the reverse of the same signature we have 
the following truisms : 

[C|oo \npm0 in oon "fynmf, too cattpjf anti ooit moiuc 
€00 tioffi^aitfi ooit boon : t^ jefl^tttS atcoi:tie ! ooB« 

And iff it semes well yovr to fynde all in fere 

And wenen to to do then say. douce how here hew here 

How here douce how here how here be sittys 

So shall ye say my chyldre and for no thyng lettys 

All maner bestys that eoer chaaede wore 

Haae oon maner of worde. to how, and no more 

So fulfill or vnfill eche maner of chaas 

The hunt euermoore in his mowth that worde he aas 

And iff yowre houndys at a chaae renne ther ye hunt 

And the beest begynne to rome as herttis be wont 

Or for to hanglon as does the fox with his gyle 

Or for to crosse as the Boo dooth oder while 

Oder dwell so that yowre houndys cannot owte go 

Then shall ye say. hoo ta amy ta m 

A compUx ta arere to how. sich is the play 

And to how as moch is as m how to say 

Bot for. to how. is short in speche when it is brought 

Therfore say we. tohow bot ta how say we noght 

And iff yowre houndis chase at hert or at haare 

And thay renne at de&ute thus ye shall say thare 

S.ey tohow attayne attayne iton hoho 

Sa anayne arere tohow theis wordes and no moo 

And iff youre houndes renne weell at fox or at doo 

And so fiiyle at defaute say thus ferther or ye goo 

Ho bo ore twrf aluy douce a luy. that thay here 

Ho hoy astayne attayne ta arere 

So how to how vemu a couples, and do as I yow kenne 

The moore worshyp may ye haue amomge all menne 

Yowre aaftus let be mydde : and do as I yow mydde 

All my sonuys in same: and thus may ye konne of game Sign, e v, tj. 

The passages, printed in italics, ai« in red in the original. 

* The propretees of a goode hors. 

TAI ^^^^ ^^"^ shukie haue. xv. propretees and oondicions. 
yt is to wit. iij. of a man. iij of a woman, iij. of a fox 
iij. of an haare and. iij. of an asse. 


The three following pages contain an aooount of * The Compajpngfv 
of beestys and fowlys/ At the end of them * ^pjfikU/ On the reveiae 
iiSfvij, * Here folow the dew termys to speke of breekyng or dreHjng 
of dyuerse beestis and fowlis &c. And thessame is shewed of certayo 
^fsshes. ' On / vty, recto, the Shhres, Bishoprics, and Provinces of 
England : the latter thus : 

[i^]tmtpte0 of CnslatUn. 

[<]fiiintind6iia anti fsodte. ^StafCucD. ff>at6p. iMtnsHatn* 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the fbUowing leaf, at, -we 
read the introductory sentence to the tUrd and last treatise, upon 
Coat-Abmour, thus : 

.^<Bre in tj^jf doolte Mtftopng if ti ete r mpiitti t^ Ipnage 
'-^^of €bote annitrii? : attfi ||0tD gentilmen t^ fx fuurtopn 
ftotn tn^settttll niett. attfi '^ntn ibontKase Began fitjtt in 
ttotgen atUi after ^ruccdieti in man ftpnbe. 00 it ig 
^Idoebe in ^roeeC^e fiootj^ in tl^e t^tt of %tMm an^ 
albfo of j^oe. anti ^oto i^oe beu{iteli t{ie Inotlbe in . iii» 
Sartijf to ^. ii). jfonnp^. 3lIjro t^ 6e j^l^etD{ib t^ ir. 
coIotDti|( in aniiyi^ Q^teti ftp t^ « iir* ottieti^ of 
aitnsetij[« anii it i^ tf^iixi^ ftp t^ ftttgasilt 


Off s man boolde prowde and hardy. 

Off a woman fiijre brestid fidre of here & eiy to lip rppon. 

Off a fox a fiure tayle short erU with a goode trot 

Off an hare a grete eygh a dry hede. and well rennyng 

Off an aiae a bigge chyne a flatte lege, and goode hone. 

[W]ell trauelid women ner wdl traaelid hors wer neu goode 

Arise erly seme god denoutea and tiie woride bes9y doo 
thy werke wiselL yeue thyn ahnese secretly Go by the way 
sadly. Answere tlie peple demm^Iy. Go to thi mete appe- 
tideU. 8it ther at discretely. Of thi tonge be not to 
UberallL Anise tberfrom temperatly. Goo to thi toper 
soborly And to thy bedde merely. Be in thyn Inne 
locudely Flew thy lone duly. And slepe sorely. SgiLfw,r€cto 


JEbitUing 8^. I486.] ABBBY OF ST. ALBAN. 381 

itncl^e &en noble anti tDtcl^ Ben ejrdlent Slnti t|^ Sen 
^ete tl)e bectupjl of tl^pufiltp anti manp ot^ not^le 
anti fomotDiere tl^pngpist to t^ pkiAtte of noMe perjAmp0t 
jBtlldn Be jo^Iietni^ ail tHe tnerlipjl Coloittpng intttenelieif 
tDfio jBio euet Iift|it^ to jste tfiapm anti t6tt tj^pm tnpcl^ 
toere to ion^e notD to cel^eris(« Slnti afret tj^epjt notalUe 
t|r{in0 aforejB^apiie foiotoptl^ tue 52$Iajfpn0 of aH manee 
acmpist in lat^ feenefi anti ^CnsiijGtB* 

On the reverse of 6 r, in sixes,* • the Book of the Lynage of Coota 
armuris ' ends thus : ' ^i:fikit ptinui pwuiu* On the recto of the fal- 
lowing leaf, c J, we read at top, 

[l^Jere Begpnnpt^ t^e Blafpng of atmp jt 

This page, which appears the fullest in the volume, contains 30 
lines ; having the first ' blazed ' coat armour, towards the bottom, at 
the right, described as ' a sheld of asure and a cros fluri with. iiij. roals 
of golde.* These arms are said to be celestial, or sent from heaven ; 
and the author adds, * And I fbnde neuer that euer any armys waar 
sende from heuyn bot in theym was the sygne of the cros.' Every page^ 
within the four last of the work, is decorated with one, two^ or three 
blazonings of coat armour. Upon the mechanical process, by which 
these coloured coat-armours are produced, the reader has already had 
my opinion ; an opinion, yet open to much discussion, if not controversy. 
This treatise upon heraldry, the first probably which was printed in 
any language, is the longest of those contained in the volume ; as it 
extends to / x, in eights. On the reverse of / ix, after the word 
^jrplicit, is the following colophon : 

i^ere in t|rp<( i&olte afitre ac tontenpt t|e fioiip jf of 
|^atiitpn0 anti l^untpng init^ otl^ee ^lejAni^ tpgrntXt 
Bfi in tlie Bo&e apperMt anti aifo of CootamrnniBt a 
nolbuQ toecite. %vB^ Ig/eet note enHptl^ tf^ !iofte 
of iilafpn0 of annpjt tranflatpt aitfi c o inp p t pt to 
0tfipc at i&e{int aOGKUtjl t|^ pete fimm 
of otnre locHe Sl^ ^Ett^« ^^ €€€4L Inx tii 

* b vj, here waiitiug, b ouly a blaii^ leaf. 

*\>H\'^ 4 

S82 BOOKS PRINinD, &c. [Hawking; 14S6. 

. The following and conduding leaf contains, on the recto» the device 
of the printer (a coat-annour» within a circle, surmounted by a cross ; 
all in white) upon a red back ground, surrounded by a two-line 
frame work, in red. A Beus-simile of this device, as well as of the line 
at top and at bottom of it, has been published in the work referred to 
at the opening of this description. The top line is thus : 


The bottom is as follows : 

^Wtttf flffiWIWtf » 

The reverse is blank. Thus have we travelled, with no hurrying or 
incautious pace, through the typographical arrangement of this very 
rare and extraordinary volume. The author of the contents of it is 
supposed to have been Juliana Barnes, Bbrnbs, or Bernbrs : the 
prioress of Sopwell Nunnery— situated within the precincts of the 
Abbey of St. Alban, and founded about the year 1140. A good deal 
of doubt yet hangs upon the subject of the legitimate author. The name 
of * Dam lulyans Barnes ' is explicitly incorporated in the colophon 
of the treatise upon Hunting; and from this^ Mr. Haslewood is dis- 
posed to add the pretensions of the same character to *a small portion 
of the treatise upon Hawking ' — ' a short list of the Beasts of Chace '-~ 
* and another short one of Persons, Beasts, Fowls ;' see p. 16 of the 
IntfroductUm before referred to. Yet, on the same page, the author of 
this conclusion seems to take up the opposite side of the question, 
with equal decision. He asks, how ' the staid prioress could, while in 
the exercise of such an important station, devote her time, without 
impeachment, to the diversions of the field ?* and below— ' why should 
it be believed that our authoress passed her whole life immured in a 
cloister ?* Mr. Haslewood suggests that ' amidst the hours of listless 
solitude,* she might have sought * amusement by the translation of a 
treatise upon hunting, from the French language ♦ — or versifying the 
general rules of the sport from her own collections.* These conjec- 
tures, it must be confSessed, are rather ingenious than satisfactory. 

This very desirable copy is bound in old red morocco, and may be 
considered among the chief treasures of the Spbncbrian Collection. 

• I presume no prmted tre»tiie is here alluded ta 



M'^€J^^3 ^3 Qi, 

Boofce $nnt(ti tip 

~ 892. Tenobes Nouelli. Printed by Lettou and 
Macklinia. London, near All Saints Church. 
fFithout Date. Folio. 

F(H$T Edition of Litti.etok'i Tbkdrsi. HaTiDg befiire" partJ 
cularly deecribed this rare and very esthnable impreaaioQ of the 
Tenures of the celebrated Judge Uttleton, I need here be only brief, 
but sufficiently explicit and exact. The recto of the first leaf is blank. 
On (he reverse is a table, from which we observe that the work is 
divided into Three Books. The references to the first book extend to 
a vi : to the second book, to c v ; and to the third book, to I i, On 
the recto of the succeeding leaf, a i, we obeerve the text to begin at 
top [S] Cnsnt rn fee Gmplc. This, and every full page, conltdns 38 
lines. The first 8 leaves may be considered as belonging to signanire 
a ; although the second leaf is de«gnated a 1. On the reverse of a vi^ : 

tttfrplidt ttber primus 
C STncipit mtt GEOintnitf 

On the recto of c viij : 

(CrpUdt Itber .^Ntmiujt 

• Tjpeg. Atitiq. toL iL p. 5. 



On therevene^thetextof theSdbookb^ns. The reiniJiuiigdg- 
fiatures, d, e, f , g» and h, have each 8 leaves ; but the last signature, 
i, has only 6. On the reverse of i vj» vre read the ccdophon, thus : 

tt ^jc^^ficiat €ttmtfi nmteSi SfmptjSti p no jsr S[o|^ 
iettou a W&li He macpttta i Cftate Xontionia^^ 
ittxta etf a$ o&ti ttmf 

The present copy, which is bound with the following worky 
may be considered a genuine and desirable one. It was formerly in 
the Alchorne Collection ; and his Grace the Duke of Devonshire 
became the possessor of that, which had occupied its place, for 48Z* 
Mr. Grenville also possesses a copy of it, and the Inner Temple library 
and Public library at Cambridge, each contain it. 

893, ViEU Abregement des Statutes. Supposed 
to have been printed by JLettou and Machlinia. 
fVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

This clean, perfect, and most desirable copy, presents us with the 
first 4 leaves, without signatures, containing a table. The table is 
alphabetically arranged ; having the first word ' [a]biuracion,* and the 
last ' Vtlagarie.' The references to the respective places, where the 
subjects mentioned are discussed, are by specification of the signatures ; 
and we sometimes find as many as five references to one leaf; namely, 
to b viit. On the recto of A i, the statutable meaning of the word 
* Abiuracion ' is stated : the signatures runningVcgularly, to N, in- 
clusively, in eights. On the reverse of N viij, the text ends with 7 lines, 
descriptive of outlawry, or * Vtlagarie,* A full page (which is of rare 
occurrence) contains 40 lines : see M iiii, recto. The only blank page 
(without any ostensible reason) is on the reverse of D i. Both the 
present and the preceding work are only of the second degree of rarity. 
Three copies of the one under description are in the Public Library of 
Cambridge. The Duke of Devonshire purchased an indifferent copy of 
the duplicate, formerly in this Library, for 27^* 65. 

mm^^8tmtM.:\ LBTTOlf AMD J^^COUOaJL 985 

894. Tenores Nouelu. PrisUedhyW. de MmI^ 
Unia^ lAmdonf wsar Fleet Bridge^ Without 
Date. Folio. 

This ifl the sbcokd Eoitiow of the Tenures of Littleton ; and is an 
exact reprint of that described at page 383 ante. The contractions 
however are sometimes more or less frequent than those in the one 
just referred to. The number of signatures are the same ; and the 
second leaf, as before, is inaccurately designated a i, for a ii. A pecu- 
liarity in this work, and in the Chronicle printed at St. Alban's, is, that 
eeery leaf of each signature is marked at the bottom corner; and not 
the first four leaves only, as is usually the case. The reverse of the first 
leaf contains the table. The signatures running in eights, (with the 
exception of i, in sixes) we read the colophon on the reverse of i vj : 

C €]C9ltftunt ^Uxmt^ xmuSSx ^m^^fitt 
pec me totli^dma He tnorpitta in ojpnieii 
ttljBtiina ^Tiitttate Xottfioitta:^ tujrta iffanU 
qui tndgacitec tAtxtm flete ftassst 

A full page contains 40 lines. The type, with which this impression 
is executed, is in the tall and close character of Machlinia ; similar to 
that of the Nova Statuta, (next described) of which a &c-8imile is 
given in the second volume of the Typog. JnHquitiei^ feeing page 11. 
This edition of the Tenures of Littleton seems to be much rarer than 
the previous one. The copy under description is very sound ; and is 
bound in hog*s skin. 

895. Statuta, &c. Anno Primo Regis Ricardi 
TERcij. Without Name of Printer or Place. 

The possession of such ftigitive pieces of early printing as the pre- 
sent, is undoubtedly a circumstance of unusual good fortune ; but one 
leaf of this singularly rare tract, namely, b iii, is unluckily deficient. 
The first leaf, a i, appears to be blank. On the recto of a ii, at top, 
we read : 


JbtAtttta ofib toeCtmonaftmft etiita SBntttt pamn Hts 
gift ifttcattn tcrdi 

Sfcj^arb |^ la gee tie j^iot iSop jDengleteire i 
tie jh^atmee i fistioin; S>ttlanti tbox$ le cotul&e 

oCC. oCC* oCC« 

A full page has 33 lines. The runiiiog title, throughout, is 9iiiio 
pcimo i&icatUt tmij. The 14th and last leaf is occupied, on the recto^ hy 
mn exposition of the XVth chapter, and has only 24 lines. The first 
signature, a, has 7 printed leaves, and the first blank; the second 
signature, b, has 7 printed leaves, and the last blank. There can be 
no doubt of this tract having been executed by W. de Machlinia : see 
Typog, Antiq. vol. ii. p. 11* This copy is large, but in a soiled and 
tender state* In russia binding. 

896. NouA Statuta. (^Printed by Machlinia.^ 
Without Place or Date. Folio. ■ 

This is the most elaborate production of the press of Machlinia, and 
must be considered no mean acquisition to the library of the legal 
antiquary. The type is exactly similar to that of the Tenures^ described 
in the preceding page ; and leaves no doubt of the printer by whom 
the volume was executed. The ink and the paper merit more com- 
mendation than the type : indeed the paper is of no ordinary excellence. 
As this is far from being a very scarce book, we may be brief, but 
particulai*, in the account of it. 

The first 39 leaves are occupied by a table, commencing on A i, and 
ending on £ vij : in eights. Two blank leaves, in thb copy, follow the 
table. The Statutes commence on the succeeding leaf, a i, which 
signature has only 7 leaves : but every succeeding one, including z, % 
and 9, has 8 leaves. Next follows aa to pp, in eights ; pp having 
only 6 leaves * The text terminates on the reverse of qq v. Every 
leaf of each signature is marked, with the exception of those in the 
first set: which, as usual, have the first four leaves only mai*ked. 
Consult the Typog. Antiquities^ vol. ii. p. 12. The present desirable 
copy was obtained for his Lordship, from Messrs. Clarke and Son, 
booksellers, Lincoln's Inn. It is very handsomely bound in russia, by 
C. Herring. 

* fc^ t{/ is a blauk leaf. 

^Mc. Christ.] LETTOU AND MACHUMIA. 397 

897t Speculum Christians Printed by W. de 
Machlinia. fVithout Date. Quarto. 

• • • 

This volume has been lately mueh ooyeted by the cuiious, on account 
of the English poetry which it contains. Of the merit, or demerit of 
this poetry, the reader will be the best judge, not only from the copious 
specimens subjoined,* but from what appears at p. 13, of the second 

* ftcptissia ^Ubnta* \ 

Praye yoa all my freeodyt defsie 

Samwhat of the boke of wisdom here 

How be spekes to all maner of men 
That schukle other role teche and ken 
Outher bodily or gotdy 
To hem he speketh specially 

He calles eoery man a kyng 
That here has cure or gouemyng 
He biddes tliaim loue god in hys lawe 
And teche it other to kepe and knawe 
And ther aboute euer to be most besye 
And than schall they in heaene crooned bee 
And bane more Worschlp and hoiioure 
Thanne euer hadde kynge here or emperour 

But and they here seke dignitee 
Worschip welthe or welfare bodilye 
And goddes lawe fino thaym withdrawe 
Wham they scholde it do to kepe and knawe 
In grete peyne mone they bee 
For her staat or dignitee 
That they hadde thuigh goddys grace 
And sHh to hym unkynde was 

Some of god stande here none awe 
And that they schulde afterward knawe 
Whan they in belle itrouge pcynes fele 
Whan time of mercy it past eoeiy dele 

And sorame they be that yeue them mekyll 
To the world diat ys kytbe fids and fekyll 
On hit their lone most they sette 
And hit be loue of god must wille lette 
It scheweth to hem many a thyng 
That to the flesche it grete Itkyng 
Hit biddet hem wiriu and foiowe tut wiUe 
And alle hys WiUe he tchaO fulfill 

388 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Spemban 

▼oluine of the J)ffK)graphiettl AnHq ui t ie i i which, together, I believe, 
oonprehendi almoet the whole of its poetical contents. The text 
oomniencett thus, on the recto of the first leaf: 

Sfttttpit It&ec qui tmatuc 

^rontmtusi 9[tt ptincqpio tmut Met 
im^cnp jpiiucu DOtcatn oronn i iifuutu 
Cruets in ftoitte. S[n ttomtne pa 
ntiet n fSii et pgixituff Uauti %mm 

Many hym kHowe tnd dou fal III 
Therfore tbey ofte &Ile b grete perUl 
He ledeth them fiorth with trauntit & wiles 
Bat atte laite be hjrm begjles 
To the feende he b trewe aemaunt 
For he brynges his fireendys to hb bande 
He techet here freends many a thyng 
Ageyn goddes lawe U his biddyng 
Who to therfore his firende wille bte 
Enemy to god fol euen b bee 

9OoKC0 mtntlifatcg 

Thb worlde we may knowe and kenno 
By the manen of worldly men 
Some arn to besye bothe night and daye 
Aboate the worid that soue passed a waye 
For worschip 6c wehhe traoayle fiute 
But heoene to wynne they bane no baste 

To mayntone synne summe can grete skill 
And wrong preue right for gifte they will 
Therfore tins worlde holdeth hem fol wysc 
For moclie they knowe of hb qwcntite 

y- Samme make grete Joye In here folye 

In glotonye pride and lecberye 
And foluwe al her flessbely lust 
And there aboute doo ofte grete coste 
For so her flesch baue hb wel£uure 
For their soiiles baue they no care 

Sunmie ofte despisen goddes biddiges & lawe 
And all holy menms teching and sawe 
With bghig 6c skoming & froward doyug 
And thb wole baue a foole ecnd^rng 


The work may be coDtidered an expoBitkm of tlie popular theological 
topics at the period of its publication ; or a sort of CkrUtian*$ MamtaL 
There are neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords ; and a fbU 
page contains ^ lines. According to Herbert, there are, in the whole. 

Leae hit wel« whhoateii lye 

God hath swomeye schall abye 

For soche men wille not be rented after ikQl 

A while god sntfereth hem to hane aUe her wille 

Bat after he wille oo hem lende 

Stronge TeiigeauDce but they amende 

He may be called bothe witty and wys 
That worldly maners can wmI despyae 
And fblowe hym not in no diyng 
That is goddes Uwe and hys biddyng 
But oner to god hadi hys eye 
And after his biddyng wille mled be 

** ^ — ^ ^ ^ ^ .m. ^ 

Worldly wisdam is hot Terray fdye 
Before god and his semantes holy 

His riches riche and worschip grete 
Nys it bat &ntaro and diioeile 
Wberwith he hath many man defyled 
And atte laste hem begyled 

In the woride what ellys see 
But wretchidncsse and ▼anitee 
A pbM» it is of grete gylre 
Of treason discorde and tyrauntrie 
Of traoauyle tene and ryhaye 
Of peyne and synne and of folye 
Of newe guyses Tphringyng 
Of eoill ensamples full grete plenty 
Of scorning & sklaundring wickedlye 
Of chidyng of moche fighting folystye 
Of banning and bacbiting priody 
Of tlatering and fals feyning sotely 

Ipcccata capitaiii 

Of pride enuye and lecherye 
Of slouthe of wrathe and glotoDye 
Offals concitise and wynnyng synfhlly 
Of okyr Eresye Sacrilege and Symooy 

390 . BOOKS PRINTED BY [Spembm 

* oonnted over» 116 leaTes;' the oolophon, on the reverse of the 117th 
lea£, 18 thus : 

itttate Xontioma^^ 9 me ioflleima tie ^tfyU 
ma all tnftaticiam itecnon txiftntafi ^aaid 
mvanhmbecgj^ mercatodil 

^ontta Hei inrcceiita 

Of fals goddes worsbepyng vnwiadj 
Of veyn sweryng fids ofte and hidously 
Of balidayes miapendyng in sjnne ic vanite 
Of father & modir dithoooring bodili flc gorteii 
Of hyndring & nunsleing bothe i soole flc body 
Of foule lust & lecherye preuily and apertely 
Of thefte raueyn & Extordon pleynly 
Of fals witnes beiyng wetingly & wilfully 
Other menis tlug deairig thurgh sine & trechery 
Of goddes biddig ofte breking bolddye 

In this worlde what see we 

But wretcliidnesse & vanitee 

A place it b of temptinge ic of grete oppreasion 

Of stinke of filthe & moche oomipckm 

A grete foole thinkcth b he 

That maketh lib heuen hi snche a coontree 

For all the ridies & welthe of this lande 

Schall tnme to erthe and nrak rtmk a nd 

The Wiseman farsothe wil nat sett hb herte 
On thing that may not longe stande i qwerte 
But on the eende he hath mynde 
And nothig settes before thut schnld be behide 
Lest he for flessbly lust vanite & synne 
Lose heuen blisse & helle pyne wynne 

Ensarople we may see and here 
Of Jherusalem that was so riche a dtee 
Of it openly spekys Jeremye 
And also dauid in hys prophccye 
How it was destroyed withouten wene 
And the walles beten doon all be dene 

Wallid it was with wallys thre 
A semely sight on to see 
The temple brent fnl dulfiilly 
And beten down hit was holly 

Ckrisiumi.^ LETTOU AND MACHLINIA. 391 

Tht t[fpe of this vohime ifl more fUming, mud rather more elegant^ 
than that which is used in the two preceding works; and resem-' 
bias somewhat the fount of letter ui the Chronklet Polychnmotmp 

So riche a temple hit was one 
In this worlde was founden none 
With walles and pylers here onlyght 
Tyled with golde tliat schone fill bright 
SoToany lampes ther in brent ay 
Hit made the night bright as the daye 
Their oyle vras medled with swete oynement 
Out of whiche swete saoour sprent 

Thair sence was wonderly wrought 
With riche spices that they dere bought 
Ther of oome swete smellyng 
Sweter felt neuer man here lynyng 
Ther is now nether £mp[er]our ne kyng 
That might mayntene suche sensyng 

Ther were thre hondred there in syngand 

Suche songe herde neuer man in this loode 

With harpe and pipe and sautrie 

And all other maner of mynstral^e 

And thb vras all their syn^ng 

The psahnes that made Dauid the kyng 

And why this Cite destroied was 

Fals and ooueitous men grete chesoo was 

That euer brent in coueitise more and more 

Yf we doo so aught to drede full sore 

Last Ys befiUle as them befelle 

Al wise derkys tfays tale can telle 

And yet^this fyre brennes so hate 
That no man may it slewke and bate 
And ther of comes so grete a smoke 
That men may not rp to heuen loke 

For ther may we now many fynde 

That they nor other bleereyed or all Uynde 

Or elljs a perle in their eye 

Thof they in state or ordre be right heye 

Who so might oounert blynde and bleryeye 

And make the to goddys byddig obediet be 

God wold forgyf him al his synne 

And graunt hym blisse that neu schal bfine 

But I am nought so grete a derke 

VOL. IV. 3 B 

392 BOOKS PANTED BY yUbertus Magmu. 

ai|d Cor^essio Amands of Caxtoa.. The JDuke of Devonshire purchased a 
d^plicate of thb work» at the sale of the Alchom books, for 34/. 1S«. 
Ifessra. I. and A. Arch valued the copy of it, obtained at the sale of the 
Towneley Library, at 42L The present copy was formerly in the Col^ 
lections of Lord Oxford and Mr. West, and is in sound and desirable 
condition. It \s bound in old red morocco. 

898. Albertus Magnus. Liber Aggregationis^ 
&c. Printed by TV. de Meehlifda. Londorij 
near Fleet Bridge. JVithaut Date. Quarto. 

This curious and uncommon little volume having been rather parti- 
cularly described in the work ao often referred to^ it remains here to 
observe that, on the recto of a ii (a i being blank) we read the fiill title 
to the work, thus : 

ttXtBer affi^c^iatumiist Cot Mtt fan 
tmt, %Vbtxti magm tie tnrtitt£toje( Qeiftasf 
iapiiium i ammdtum quonimti ' CL St 
to i^nmitjBt tie titcttnift qiiantmti' Igiabea^ 

The second book, ' De nrtutUnu lapidum quorumd^,* begins on the 
reverse of a vij . The third book, * De Fvrtutibus AnimaUum quorumd\' 
commences on the recto of b vj. On tlie Reverse of c j, we read : 

€1 ^jqpiinunt (ecteta aBgua %VbteA nagnx tie Colonta 
ftqpet tmtunjse t)trtuttltoj( 'I efficat^ 
ntmalmm quocumtiam 

Some extracts, from * Isidorus,' seem to follow. On the reverse of 
c iij, we observe, 

t[€iu(ti' ^i&ertt tnagm tie mMtIi&9 mS^ Mictf 

For to do so strong a werke 
Therfore me and all mankynde 
Into the ni*cy of god 1 recommende 

The foregoing extracts occupy the 4l8t, 42nd, 43d, 44th, 45th, 46th, and 47th leaves- 
having occasionally some intervening moral sentences. The poetry extracted in the Typog, 
Antiq, vol. ii. p. 13, 14, commences on the reverse of the 48th leaf. 


To the singular passage, extracted in the Tfpog. Antiq, vol. ii. p. 
15-16, from d ▼, recto^ might be added another, of a diflferent but' 
equally whimsical nature, from e i, recto, banning : ' Si qua mulier 
te ligauit maleficijs ad amorem suum et vis illud dissoluere :* &c. The 
signatures, from a to e, run in eights : e has 6, and/ only 4 leaves. On 
the reverse off t/, is the following colophon : 

tidtntc vjcputxt jpttnott ptt mt 
tttfliidtmtm be iSl^l^ttma 9[m 
pcetjtttfi 9[n optdentifjimia €i^ 
ttttate Xottfrntttaca Slujta 
pmtem qui t)u]^B«rttn: tiicttur 

The two remaining leaves, or rather three pages, consist of directions- 
to find the changes of the moon and the regulation of Easter, &c. At 
the conclusion of this supplementary matter, we read ' CEt ait t$t ftnia/ 
The type of this work is, in character, like that of the Tenures, and 
Nova Statuta ; but it is smaller. A full page (c iiy, recto) contains 
S7 lines. The present is a beautiful copy, bound in russia, by Roger 
Payne. The Marquis of Blandford has also a fine copy of it. 

899. Chronicle of £ngland. Without Name 
of Printer (but eccecuted with the types of TV. de 
Machlinia) Place or Date. Folio. 

This is probably the only perfect copy in existence of the volume 
under description : which has been literally rescued from perdition by 
the uncommon care and skill of Mr. Mortlock and Mr. C. Lewis. It 
is replete, from beginning to end, vnth purple spots, from exposure to 
dampness ; but the leaves have been med, and the margins preserved 
in a tolerable state of amplitude— so as to render the copy quite 
sound and desirable. The text is a mere reprint of that of Caxton. 
The first 10 leaves, on signature a, are occupied by a table ; which 
concludes on the recto of the 10th lea^ vnth the contents of the 
cclxiijrd chapter, relating to the « DepoHHon of Henry the VTih, the 

394 BOOKS PRINTED^ &c. [Chrmu of England. 

Accession of Edward the IVth, and the Battle an Palm Sunday: The 
reverse of the 1 0th leaf is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a t, 
(omitted to be marked) the text begins thus : 

i^ tDe latttie of Cn^Iotitie tDaist fpriert namti ^I 
him 3llnti hi tol^t entl^efon it tDaist jeto namti* 

$^ tfyt noble lantie of Jbmtt t^t ioa^ a no^ 
hit ttgng 3ti tniw'^^ '^ A ttiM of gtttt tmoitu 
tl^t me talleti ffttodtGan t|^t todi ati toot/ 

oCC» oCC« oCC. 

A full page (on the following leaf) contains 33 lines. There are 
two sets of signatures, exclusively of the table, each having 8 leaves to 
a signature. The first set extends from a to f and 1 ; the second, com- 
mencing with aa i, extends to ee; but this latter signature, which 
concludes the impression, has only 4 leaves — all the preceding ones, 
with the exception of the first a, forming the table, having 8 leaves. 
On the recto of ee iiy, at bottom^ the text ends with the same prayer 
for the prosperity of Edward I Vth^ and for the destruction of the ' turks 
and heathen men,' as distinguishes the text of the Chronicle by Caxton : 
see Typog, Antiq. vol. i. p. 86. The reverse of this last leaf is blank. 

The type of this edition is precisely similar to that of the Spbgulum 
Christiami ; and therefore warrants us in conduding that the book was 
printed by W. de Machlinia. The copy before us, however, is full of 
blotches, from the unskilfulness of the press-work. This singular volume 
was obtained (in exchange for some specimen of Caxton*s press) from 
my friend Mr. Douce ; and has been recently bound in blue morocco, 
by C. Lewis. Imperfect copies of it are not very uncommon. 





Boofos $rinteti h^ 
IKpnbpn tie liiottie. 

900. ScALA Perpectionis. Printed ml^4. Folio. 

This is probably the iscomd book executed by W. de Worde; the 
Patival of 1493 being considered the fint. There is an extended account 
of this impression in the Typog, Antiq.* vol. ii. p. 36, 40; but that 
account having been taken from an imperfect copy, it cannot be con- 
sidered as bibliogiaphicittly complete. , Herbert had never seen a perfect 
copy of it. The present, which has been recently perftcted from one in 
the possession of Mr. J. M. Gutch, presents ua, on tbe recto of the flrat 
leaf, with a most barbarously-executed wood-cut of the Virgin (repeated 
in the DioeM md Pauper of 1496, post) suckling the infant Jesns in 
her lap : a man to the left, intended for Joeepb, is kneeling. There are 
four lines of inscription beneath — cut upon the same block upon which 
the embellishment was executed; but they are too barbarous for 
transcription. The whole is enclosed in an ornamental frame-work of 
better taste. Beneath, we read, 


The reverse is blank. A table of the chapters occupies the next 
3 leaves. Oa b i, recto, the text begins. The signatures, to q, indu- 

* Tim BGCOuot u confined diiefljr to ipMhnen* of th« tcil; wluch we txrUkij r^ 

396 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Scab Perfie.U94. 

shre^, nin in eights: r and j* have each only 4 leaves; but a fifth, and 
the last leaf in the volume^ sniif be considered as forming s v. The 
whole of the contents, on the recto of this last- leaC are as follow: and 
very necessary to be noticed— 

Infynite laude wyth thankynges many felde 
1 yelde to god me socoUlyng wyth his grace 
This boke to finysshe whiche that ye beholde 
Scale of perfeccion calde in euery place 
Wherof thanctor waiter Hilton was 
And W3nQkyn de worde this hath sett in prynt 
In willyam Caxstons hows so fyll the case 
God rest'his souk. In fey the? mot it slynt 

This heuenly boke more precyous than golde 
Was late direct wyth great humyltye 
For godly plesur. theron to beholde 
Vnto the right noble Margaret as ye see 
The kyngis moder of excellent bounte 
Herry the seuenth that Ihu hym preserue 
This myghty pryncesse hath c5maunded me 
Temprynt this boke her grace for to deserue 

jfitiit fdk& Vbtt intttidatiul -. ra.«#4-# ao ^^^ Y, n r.r»»;; 

Beneath, is the small device of Caxton. The reverse is blank. This 
very rare volume is the only one, which I just now remember to have 
seen, executed, throughout, with the large lower-case type of W. de 
Worde, in long lines. The e£fect of it is exceedingly handsome. The 
present copy, although occasionally slightly soiled, and with a few 
leaves inlaid, may be considered a very valuable acquisition. It is 
handsomely bound in russia, by Herring. 

* 8 ii, is incorrectly marked t ij. 

nt. Pat. l4d5.j\WYNKYN DE WORDR S97 

901. Vitas Patrvm. JEmprynted m the tawn^of 
fVesmynstre. 1495. Folio. 

The title, in large white letters upon a blackground, is over a rude 
wood-cut of St. Jerom, preaching to the Virgin and Bibhups, &c.' tho 
same cut as is prefixed to the Polychronicon. On the reverse ia 
Caxton's large device. The prologue, which is extracted in the Typog^ 
Antiq, vol. ii. p. 43, with the commencement of the table, occupies the 
next leaf. The table ends on the recto of Aa vi\], from the beginning 
of the volume : on the reverse, is a cut as just described. The text 
begins on the recto of a i, or folio I : and the leaves continue to be 
numbered to the end of the volume, or to fol. CCC xlvii inclusively. 
On the reverse of fol. CCC xlvi we read this colophon : 

€1 €I)UjS( oUipt]^ tj^e mo0j9(t tiertuoufe 
tipftotpc of tj^c tintoiitt 1 xxffyt tenom 
meti Ipwiet of fidp fobetj^ Ipui^ in de 
jsrerte/ toottDp of remem&tmtnce to sSi 
toeH DprpojStcti petjS^onesC/ iDl^tcl^ ^1^ Be 
trattjtiateti out of ftmW^t m to ((^ 
Slpfl^l^ fip ]&piipam C^jtrton of Wt^u 
mpnjBStre late tieeb/ anti fpnpr$eb it ax 
tfie lajatte tiape of irtjot ipfP* ^tqirpitteb in 
tl^ j9fa{d totone of I^eftntpmertte &p mp 
WjgxSxpa tie ll^ortie tl^ pere of our lor^ 
lK« a^ « €<€€. \xvn^* anil t|e tent|^ 
pere of out jBtouecapne loctie Ibpus |ien^ 
tp tj^e (intently. 

The recto of the following 9nd last leal ia occupied by the large 
device of Caxtou, and the reverse by the sas^ wood-cut and title as at 
the commencement of the volume. If the last leaf be excepted, the 
present copy may be considered as a clean, sound, and most desirable 
one. It is in old russia binding. From the Alchorne Collection. 

398 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Pofyckrm. 1495. 

902. P01.TCHRONTCON. EnpryrUed at JVesttnestre. 
1495. Folio. 

Second Edition. The title of this work (wanting in the present copy) 
consists of a rude wood-cut exactly similar to the one which precedes 
and terminates the text of the Vitas Patbum, described as the pre- 
vious article. The word * Polychronicon/ in large lower case type, and 
cut in woody is over this rude print. On the reverse of the leaf are five 
stanzas of very indifferent poetry, as may be seen in the Typog, Antiq» 
vol. ii. p. 50. From these we learn that * Roger Thorney, Mercer ' 
exhorted the printer to correct the text, and to make and set it in 
print. The ' Prohemye, ' as in Caxton's impression of the work (for 
an account of which see p. 262 ante) follows on the recto of aa ii, ter- 
minating on the reverse of aa iii. In this proheme, however, W. de 
Worde promises' to bring down the events of history as low as the 
xth year of Henry the VII th, or to the year of our Lord 1495, but he 
has not kept his promise ; since the text is only a reprint of that by 
Caxton. The table follows, on the recto of aa iiij, concluding on the 
recto of hh V : of these signatures, aa has 8 leaves, but the rest only 
6 leaves each. A blank leaf forms hh vj. As the leaves now begin to 
be numbered regularly, to the end of the volume, we may only remark 
that the text comprehends CCCxlvi leaves ; executed, like almost all 
the earlier productions of W. de Worde*s press, in double columns. 
On the reverse of the 346th leaf — iafter the imprint, as in Caxton*s 
edition (see p. 262 ante) — we read as follows : 

Heti t^t t|^rtent|^ ttape of SUprpQ tl^ 
tenti) pere of i^t ttgat of ftpng l^atrp 
t^t^auntf^. aUnti of tDe S[mantacpon 

ofourlorti: Si^ .€€€€AxXKXii* 


t[ (^Enprpnt^ at Wt^tmt^tu 
ftp Wytikpn Cl^etDoctie/ 

The large device of Caxton occupies one side of the following leaf. 
Perfect copies of this beautiful volume are in the libraries of the Duke 
of Devonshire and Mr. Phelps. The present is a short but sound 
copy ; in russia binding. 

Dha, i^ 1496.] WTNKYN JOE WORDK. 399 

903. DiuEs ET Pauper. Emprentyd at West^ 
meiistre. 1496. Folio. 

Second Edition ; that by Pjmson, of 1493, being the first. On the 
recto of the first leaf, A i, we have a large wood cut of the Rich Mtm 
and the Poor Man, (under the above title) of which a fac-simUe is given 
in the Typog Antiq, vol. ii. p. 67* On the reverse, is a large wood-cut of 
St. Jerom« seated at a desk, with the Virgin and Child, and a group of 
Bishops before him. The table follows, on A ij, recto, and concludes 
on the recto of B iiij ; A having 6, and B only 4, leaves. On the reverse 
of B iiij, the first wood-cut is repeated. On the recto of the next leaf, 
a i, the work begins under the running title * Of holy Pouerte.* There 
are running titles throughout. . The work is printed in double columns, 
having 40 lines in a full page, and concludes on the reverse of ^ v, 
preceded by f : each signature, except the last, having 8 leaves. The 
colophon is thus : 

€[ l^ttt tsSitff^ a comjptntipotib xxtA* 
tp& {ipalogue of Wiaz^ and f^auiiee 
€t|ati|( to jBTape/ t^rpc^i t||e poote 
fttictuoii.(tI|i tnatpitge ti^oit t|^ x> c6' 
tnafUicraemejet, fpttpf^^ tfie. tif. tiape 
of SDecemftn* <C|^ pete of one loctie 
90ti. ^ , €€€€ . Ixici^i' €m;iftm> 
ti^ &p tne S^plten* be tootbeat aMb 

The recto of the ensuing and last leaf contains the same wood-cut as 
is prefixed to the recto of the first leaf of the * Scala Perfectumis :' see 
p. 395 ante. On the reverse, the fint wood-cut of the poor man and 
the rich man, is again repeated. This copy, which is a sound and 
desirable one, was formerly in the library of Mr. Wodhul ; and is in 

old russia binding. 

• Sic 

VOL. IV. 3 P 

400 BOOKS PRINTED BY [JM. Fett. 1406i 

904. Liber Festivalis et Quatuor Sermones. 
Printed at Westminster 1496. Quarto. 

This is the second edition of this publication by W. de Worde ; 
the first having been executed in 1493 — and both of them being reprints 
of the same work put forth by Caxton : see p. 264 ante. In the pre- 
sent copy the ' Quatuor Sermones ' stand first, and be^n on thie 
recto of signature A, numbered i. The signatures extend to G y, iii 
eights, or to the numbered folio xlix (folio xlv being wanting in this 
copy). On the reverse of folio xlix, at the bottom of the second 
column, is the following colophon ; 

€E fittimm tneftmmtafte 
no. SUnno iL IxxTiM. 

The prologue to the Festival immediately follows, on fol. i. so 
numbered : at the end of the prologue we read : 

The leaves are regularly numbered to fbl. CC : and firom the reverse 
of this 200th and last lea^ we learn, from the register, that the 
signatures run in eights ; but the last signature has only 6 leaves. 
The colophon and register are thus : 

€ finttum tt cotn^ietft 
in VBc^tntWB^ttQO 


Both works are executed in double columns. The present clean and 
very desirable copy is beautifully bound by C. Lewis, in blue morocco. 

Ckranick^ 14970 WYNKYN D£ WORDE. 401 

905. Cronycle of Englonde, wyth the Fbutb 
OF Tymes. Enpryntid at fVedmestre 1497- 

Second Edition. This impression comprehends two reprints : the 
first, of the Description of Enolandi Wales, Scotland, and Ire- 
land ; from the printed text of the same work by Caxton, which 
ligain is confessed by the latter printer, in his Chronicles of 1480 
(vide p. 298 ante), to have been * taken out of Polichronicon.* In the 
copy before us, this Description of Britain commences on the recto of 
the first leaf, A i, with a title over a wood-cut exactly the same as the 
cut which precedes the XVth Book of W. de Worde's edition of 
* Bartholomftus de Proprietatibus Rerum.' This copy is unluckily so 
imperfect as to want, in this first treatise, all the leaves after D iij, or 
perhaps 4 leaves. The signatures run in sixes. In the second place* 
the Fruit of the Times is a complete reprint of what is called the St. 
Alban*8 Chronicle ; but the copy under description wants the com- 
mencement of it, as well as the two latter leaves of the first signature 
a, the two latter leaves of b, a part of f 9» g i,-»but there are too 
many deficiencies to be noticed with the hope of having them supplied 
by the discovery of another defective cbpy— yet containing the leaves 
here wanted. We shall therefbre condude the article by observ- 
ing that the signatures, in sixes, extend to y, z, 9; and, afterwards» 
from A to I. These signatures have a peculiarity of being designated 
only by the letter beneath— -as a, b, or c ; and the numbers, i« y, iy* 
ii\i, V, and vi, are impressed nearly in the centre of the right side 
margin, above them. On the recto of 1 iiij> vire read the colophon, 
thus : 

t\t of CngloHbe topti^ tf^t ftute of tp' 
m^ : compfl^ tn a fiooftt/ lalj^ett^ 
9tpnttti &p one fimitpme Ccole tnapftec 
of Gapttt SHItonjSt* on tofioojsf jsfoide gitfi 
Dauemercp^ €r3Sntin(ttKlptnt||e{iflE 
of ouc lorti goD* a^ * €€€€ . Ixxxx'^^. 
enptimttti at lOH^vxmtu &p it^pnftpn 

402 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Gold. Leg. 

On the reverse is Caxton*8 large device. This copy, from the 
Aldunne CoUection, is not only imperfect, but soiled, and much cut! 
in the binding. For a further description of this very scarce book, 
<Son8ult the Typog, Antiq, vol. ii. p. 69-71 • It is proper to add, that 
the embellishments, although executed on the plan of those in the St. 
Alban*s edition, are much superior. 

906. The Golden Legends. Accomply shed and 
Fynyshed at fVestmynster. 1498. Folio. 

We shall describe this edition in the order in which the present copy 
of it presents itself. On the recto of the first leaf, is a cut, in two 
parts ; the upper part of which presents the Anmmciatum, the lower 
part, the Cruc^ixion, On the reverse, is a short table, of 13 lines, 
referring to the leaves ' conteyuynge the Ijrues and hystoryes shortly 
taken out of the Byble.' The following leaf, folio i, is here wanting : 
on the reverse of folio lij, the last of these * hystoryes* (' of Judyth*) 
terminates. The succeeding leaf presents us with Caxton*s large device 
on the recto, and the cut, just described, on the reverse. The recto of 
the ensuing leaf gives us the general title of the Legend, above a very 
lai^ge and rude cut (probably the identical one used by Caxton) of the 
Apostles and Saints in glory before the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, 
seated on a throne, surrounded by Cherubim. The title is the same in 
substance, although not in the spelling of the words, as is that of the 
edition of 1493 : see p. 270 ante. A prologue, table, and 4 leaves follow. 
The ' Aduente of our Lorde * begins on the next leaf, numbered ' folio 
primo ;' and the leaves continue to be numbered to folio CCCbcxxxviii ; 
on the reverse of which leaf the text ends. On the recto of the 
following and last leaf is the colophon, above two wood-cuts ; the first 
presentiiig the genealogy of the Virgin, the second, the crucifixion. A 
£eu:-simile of the latter (by no means divested of spirit) is given in the 
Typog, Antiq, vol. ii. p. 79 ; to which work the reader is referred for 
some ciuious extracts from the text. 

The colophon is the same as the one given at page 270 ; except as 
follows : 

n^M ^^ SI ^^^ 

dtthur; 1498.] WYNKYN D£ WOR0E. 403 

tiitt. tiape of $[aiieuer ^e pere of mtte lortie Cl^oitfiitte 
*€CC€Jrn:ttitt. SUttfi in tfie. riti pere of tl^ ceptQC 
of fipt^ l^entp tl^e tnt* 5£^ me toptiittm tie toottie 

The present is a sound, but cropt copy ; in russia binding. 

907. The Booke op Kynge Akthur, and op 
HIS Noble Knyztes op the rounde Table. 
Printed at fVestmestre. 1498. Folio. 

Second Edition. It is not a little extraordinary that, of this im- 
pression, and of the previous one executed by Caxton in 1485, only 
one copy of each is known to exist. The present copy is, however, 
unfortunately very imperfect. The copy of the impression by Caxton, 
now preserved in the Library of Osterley Ftok, and belonging to the 
Earl of Jersey, is not only perfect, but, upon the whole, one of the 
finest specimens of Caxton's press that is known. The copy under 
description is undoubtedly a very great acquisition, and presents us 
with the first attempt to ilhistrate the text by Engravings. These 
wood-cut engravings, as the ensuing fac-similes evince, are of 
extremely coarse execution ; and very little superior to the clumsiest 
embellishments which distinguish the volumes printed by the Two 
CopLANDs. Yet, to the curious antiquary, they have a certain degree 
of value ; and to the bibliographer, such a volume as the one nof^ 
before us (remarkable for the beauty of its execution, as well as for 
the rarity of its appearance) cannot fail to be held in very consider- 
able estimation. 

On consulting the Typ<^. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 81, it will be observed that 
a very partial description of this impression is there given ; as, at that 
time, no copy of it had t>een seen by me. Even Herbert, who was 
formerly in possession of this very copy, and from whose collection it 
came into the library of the Duke of Roxburghe, (it having been bought* 
at the sale of this latter collection) has been superficial in the extreme. 
It shall be my endeavour to supply these deficiencies; although the 
necessity of a very elaborate description is done away, ftx>m the prospect 

* It was pan:lMfed.for 31/. XOu 


lidd out to the public of a RSPaiiiT op thb emtibb tbxt, under tiie 
editorial care of Mr. John Lewis Goldsmid.* 

. A taUe of 8 leaves precedes the prologue of Caxton : of these leaves^ 
in the present copy, the first, upon sign, i, is wanting. We observe, 
from this table, that the work contains XXI. Books. The following, 
or 9th leaf, is upon signature ij — as in Caxton*s impression— and this 
leaf, as well as a small portion of the ensuing one, sign, iij, contains 
the prologue of Caxton, predsely similar to the one in the previous 
edition, and of which the reader will find the whole reprinted in the 
first volume of the Typog. AnHq, p. 343-248. This prologue is suc- 
ceeded by a summary of the contents of each of the XXI. Books. On 
the ensuing leaf, a i, the text of the 1st Book commences, with this 
prefix in large lower-case letter : 

itt of t|e ttolkie itpti0* Itpng 
%ti^. Umaymt hpngt of 
^iQlontie aUi of 1^ tioBIe 
attest anti katt^ of armejf of 

te^is ta&btoOte. anb l^taip 
bcti itt to^ xxi*lMiu0* 

To this, as to every Book, a large-wood cut is prefixed ; and the 
present is as curious as any of them. Fnm the prefix to the 1st 
chapter we read ' How Vtherpendragon sends for the Duke of Cornwall 
and Igrayne his wife, and of their departing suddenly again/' What 
subject in this chapter, or in the first book itself, this embellishment is 
intended to designate, is perhaps difficult of solution. There are three 
distinct groups ; each group consisting of only two figures. In the 
foreground, with a castle behind, stands a crowned male figure, with 
ermined robes, embracing a female. To the left, a sort of tender parley 
between a lady and her knight seems to be going on. In the background, 
on an eminence, a man and woman are riding upon one horse, the for- 
mer turning his head back towards the latter. The 1st Book contains 
XXVIII Chapters, and ends on the recto of c ij. Each book is also 

• Of thi» edition only '250 copies will be printed — with great attention to typographical 
accuracy and beauty. 

iPjhi/tur; U98.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 4M 

deslgnted by a nuudng title. The Snd Bodt omtaiDS XIX Cba^tMn, 
ami ends on the reverK of diij. The Srd Book contaiiu XVCh^iten, 
and enda oa the recto of e r. The nuptiali of Arthur and Guenewr 
grace the commencemeDt of the third Book, in a wood-cut not direat^ 
of interest. The 4th Book oMitMDs XXIX Chapters, and ends on the 
reverse of g vj. The 6th Book containii XU Chi4)tera, and ends on 
the rererae of j i. The fith Book ctmtaina XVIII Ch^ters, and eodi 
on the Kverse of k iiij. The Tth Book contains XXXVI ChaptM^ 
end ends on the reoto of n wij. A Tcry whimsical wood-cut preeed t 
this book. Beaumayns is throwing his aims round the necki of tw* 
females, preferring ■ three petitions to King Arthur.' The 8th BocA 
contains XLI Chapters, and ends on the recto of r ijj. The 9th Book. 
GoatainflXLIIIIChaptm,and ends on tberectoof r viu- Tbeenouing 
isafitc-simileoftheoombatof 'Arthur and the Lion.' in the centre of ■ 
the cut wUch precedes it : 

The loth Book contuos I^XXXVIU Chapters; beginning on the 
recto of A i, and ending on the recto of T i. The wood-cat to tliia book 
is divided into two compartments, and is of very coktm execution. Hhe 
loth is of ' Syr Tristism ; and fbloweth the XI. bt^whydwbqfSyr 
Launcelot.' To this book is prefixed a wood-cut also, lUvided into 


two compartnienU i and evidently by the aame hand which product 
the previous embellishmeiit. The 1 1th Book couUiiu XIIII Chapter^ 
and ends on the recto of K iij. The 13th Book, which ia preceded bj 
one of the most barbarouB cuts io the volume, contains XIIII Chapten, 
and end£ on the reverse of L iiy. Tbe 13th Book contains XX Chapters, 
and ends on the recto of N iiij. The 14th Book contains only X 
Chiqtten, ending on the reverse of O iij. It is preceded by a cut, of 
which the ensuing is a ftc-simile of all the^^^urei .• omitting a portkxi 
of the back^rouod. and the lerj heavy and dark frame work by which 
almost all these cots (with tlK exception of the fint) are surrounded. 

The 15th Book contains only VI Chapters, ending on the reverse of 
O vj. The prefixed wood-cut is singularly grotesque ; being, I pre- 
annte, an illustration of the subject of the first chapter, which treats 
' How Syr Launcek>t came in to a chapel where he founde deed in a 
whyte sherte a man of Rdygyou* of an hundred wynter oldc.' The 16th 

d^j^Jmrj I498.J WYNKYN DE WCHtllE. 407 

Bo(4c commeocea on P i, containing XVII Ch^iters, and ending aa the 
radio of Q iiy. A portion of the cut, by which the 17th Book ii pre- 
ceded, ia presented to the reader in the foUowing fac-simile : haviiig, 
in the background, a vessel at anchor. 

This 17th Book has XXIII Chapten, tad ends on the reverse of S t. 
The 18th Book has XXV Chapters, ending on the reverse of X ii^. 
The 19th Book has XIll Chapters, and ends on the recto of A iiy (the 
third alphabet of signatiires.) The SOth Book contains XXII Ctiapten; 
of which the latter two are wanting in the copy under description. It 
terminates on the reverse of D i. The Slat and last Book is preceded 
bjr the same wood-cut which is prefixed to the SOth Book, and of the 
wAoIe of which the ensuing is a lac-sinule 1 

VOL. IV. 3 o 

BOOKS PRINTED BY [jtrtiwrtWi^ 

Ttaa last book cont^ns ■ aeeoad wood-cut on the merae of D iijj, and 
bu Xin Cbi^ten; endii^ od the recto ttf B ▼. After aa addreat to 
tbe reader,* (as in tbe fbnner impreaaion,] ts pray for the soul of the 
translatour, the colopboo, on tbe same page, is predaely aimilar to that 
fcr CutoQt— u £ur «■ ft portion of 4lte lOtk Uob— when we lOKi Ihrnt 

ta)9pc^ fiobe tooji rebuab 

in to ^nglpd^e &p t^ todOl tjp^ofpb 
itnpg^ afinx nampb. %nt bnipbeti 
in to. n:i. flofte^ c^ttfb. t enpt^b 

* TbeiddTBHlx^b^csUiDgibewcric, uintbctitle,^TCaatp.W3aiitt,'Uwboalt 
bookaef kjaga Artli[ii]r, & <]niu ooble bijrta of the ronndi table.' 

* S*" ^VpV- 'l^- VOL L p. tSS. IVoalopfaonbcfiMtlint: 'nmendytbtbiiDobh 
k Jojma bokc entydetl Le Morte il«tlnir,t Jkc 


• ♦ 

• • • 

QMUea^tiat, 1499.] WYNKYN D£ WQRDE. 409 

fgtft if l^pQkun €ftytBii< on iHilfi90t 
isnnttt B^ 9Sw twccp* siid noixi • • 
ptpiittti* attfi c||dpttm( of t|^ |(fl]n • • 
fnot^di dt n^jBititicjettct lip ]9pidi 
leoctie p^ pete of our IocIk. 98^«C« «« • • 
Jjonrjrtitt)^ anti entuti t|^ xt^ •««♦•• 
Ai^atcDc. t|e jiaiiw pore 

The above dotted lines denote the defective ppurta of the eolopbon in 
the copy beforeue. On the reverseof thia leaf Is the larg^ device of Gas* 
ton. The signatures, as before observed, run in three sets, exclusively of 
thetbbleont. The table has 8 leaves. Then, a too, in eights andsixes, 
alternately: v has 8 leaves N^t» A, B^ C, in sixes; D eight; E six; F, 
G, H, in eigMs ; I to V, inclusively, in sixes ; X fbur ; T ffve. As tte 
third set. A, B, C, D, £, in sixes; E vj being blank. The painful task 
remains of mentioning the deficiencies of the present copy. The first 
leafof the table; signatures, a tt>'; rj; rot;; Big ; Eiuj » T v; Y ig ; 
B j ; C vj ; D j ; and B g— in the whole, 12 leaves are wanting. About 
10 leaves also are injured by having portions, greater or less, of the 
text torn away. In spite however of such imperfections, this volume 
may be considered a treasure of no ordinary value. It has been lately 
bcmnd, in a very elegit aianner«, in. dark red morocco^ by C. Lewis. 

908. The Contemplag yon of Syknebs. Evfiprentyd 
atJVestmynster. 1499. Quarto. 

This is, upon t}ie whole; s Very eiiricms%tle>'V«il!lme: allftougfal 
do nol^ensiteit sQ^acarceM^i.'WBftftaQetlyled to imagine.^ Thefikist 
leaf ia ofmxj g c^ aa each sidbk fay «t woodrcut of thn authfocu prasanting 
his book to a Bishop, seated. On the second leaf, signature A ij».the 
prologue begins^as extracted ai p.. 83 of tKe ^Vp^^. AfiJfy{, vol. ii. 
From this prologue, we gatbertbat tte work wa y u n dertaken at the 
request of Richard [Fox] Bishop of Durham. It is not improbable that 
the work was revised by the Bishop^iiimaal^ aait came irom the presS; 
ofW.deWorde^ This unpcesskMLis pretty accuiately described in.the 
KkL HarUum vol. iii. n^ 69i&s bat •wa mgg here i^mark thatev^iX; 
' Contemplation ' (there being seven — for the seven days i.i the wad^) 

410 BOOKS PRniTED BY [Gmtef^to. 1499. 

it accompamed with poeti7» ftnd luM a wood-cut prefijMd to ^^^ These 
cats, howeTer, are ooaraely executed, and of rather oonnraoii occurrence. 
The fint piece of poetry* on the recto of 9 i, it as fidlowi : 

This breuyd boke of sobre quantyte 
Of sjmuers called the Contemplacyon 
Accordeth well for all state and d^;ree 
Gydjmge by grace and due dyreccyon 
Our soule to sease in sure saluacyon 
Therefore this poesy profoundly vnderstande 
Whiche of thy conscyence may cause correocyon 
In herte en p ry n tynge thyse fygures folowande 

Perhaps the reader will not censure me if I adduce only one more 
specimen of such prosaic metre : which is printed on D iig, recto^ 
o^Kisite a wood-cut of our first parents, eating the forbidden fhut;— 
similar to the same cut in Caxton*s Life of Christ : 

This leef sheweth a pleasaunt portrature 

For to oetende the state of Innocence 

The whiche in grace ay standeth sadde & sure 

For why, it is a state of excellence 

Whiche men sholde kepe with dewly dylygence 

And teche theyr children in to theyr tender age 

Of god and man escuwynge aU oCfence 

Theyr Innocencye obserue ay but outrage 

' On the reverse of F i^ , in sizes, we read the conclusion of the con- 
templation for Sunday. On the recto of F iig, and last leaf, is the 
colophon, thus : 

cpon of fpntier^/ fat meep iiapt of t^ lodte a fpit^ 
gidee tnetiptacpon* tf nipgent ti b at ISeftrnpttfter 
ffpWjfalkmt»i»ttt!iK^ t^tl^ 

te of one loite. A9 « <€M. incjc^ 

Four hexameter and four pentameter verses are beneath; subjoined 
to which is W. de Worde's device, no. IV. The same wood-cut, as 
before^ of the author presenting bis book— is on the reverse of the leaf. 
Tlie present is a very sound and desirable copy, in old red moroooo 

/ '- \t ]'. 


Banhobmugus.] WYNCYN DE WORD9E. 411 

909. BARTHoLOBfEus. Db Propribtatibus Rerum* 
TVithout Place or Date.- Folio. 

Of an the books printed in this country, in the xvth century, the 
present is one of the most curious and elaborate ; and probably the 
most beautiful for its typographical execution. The paper, press-work, 
and embellishments (although the latter are, for the greater part, xecf 
coarsely executed) are perhaps unrivalled by the efibrts of any other 
artist in our own country, within the period above mentioned. The 
present copy of this magnificent performanoe is indeed well cdcukted to 
£all forth the admiration ofthehibliG^pf«pher and collector: for although 
a few leaves, at the beginning and end, are in a tender condition, and 
inlaid — from a copy subsequentiy acquired — ^yet the moment we pass 
the First Book, and the table of the second, and enter upon the Second 
Book, on the recto of signature b i — continuing our examination till 
within the 7 last leaves of the impression — we are perfectly delighted 
with the size, condition, and general appearance of the volume. Refer- 
ring the reader to a very copious and particular account of this chef- 
d'oeuvre of W. de Worde's press, in the 1)fpog. Jntiq. vol. ii. p. 310-322, 
the description here may be comparatively brief. Our object will be 
solely to mention the leading features of the impression. 

The tiUe, as above gtten, (and of which a Ao-simile appears in the 
work just referred to) consists of large lower-case white letters, upon 
a black ground, executed upon a block of wood. Thb occupies the recto 
of the first leaf: on the reverse, are 24 verses in commendation of the 
youthful lesson called * God spede me.* These are extracted in the 
fbrementiotued authority. The prologue of the translator occupies the 
recto of the second leaf; having only 2 lines and a third of one on the 
reverse. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, A iij, the First Book begins ; 
preceded by an impression df the most magnifieent wobd-cut in the 
volume : and of which the orrosiTB BMiBLUSHif bht is a f aosimilb : 

The chapters of the second book begin on the recto of Bis the pre- 
vk)us signature having only 6 printed leaves. On the reverse of B vi^, 
above another elaborate wood-cut, we read 

umt m tQQF ytClRItt IMIIIIIC 
ttmtjgngfi IK 0ugOUp* 

412 BOOKS PRINT£D BY [BartioUmmm 

Thfb enstting signature is b^ but with only six leaves. We continue 
with 8 leaves to a signature, and observe, on the recto of m ii, a large ; 
wood-cut divided into three compartments— of part of one of which, 
(a youth holding a hawk on his left fist) a fiu;-simile appears at p. 313 
of the authority just referred to. But the embellishments of every 
book are particularly specified in the same pages ; and we may here 
therefore only attend to the order of the signatures. Each signature, 
hoax b to ), *l, and 9» inclusively, has 8 leaves. On the recto of 9 viy, 
above Caxton's large device, we read as follows : 

Sifter tl^tft focCop^ fuf&tf t^ tceateH* toe ^l)aS ptoaHu hjf 
t|e M< of SPM^in tl^ ttoelft^ fniit. onti ^oo tj^e ot^ 

This seems a sort of colophon to about one half of the work. The 
reverse of this leaf is blank. The signature of the next leaf, A j, is 
omitted to be marked. From A to X, there are 8 leaves to each sig- 
nature ; but X, Y, and Z have each only 6 leaves. Next come aa^ 
hbp and cc in eights : dd, ee^ ff^ gg^ in sixes : hh^ II, kk^ II, mm, in eights : 
fm four ; and, lastly, oo with 6 leaves. The Nmeteenth and last book 
terminates on the reverse of oo lij; presenting us with a copy of the 
colophon in the original MS. thus : 

fptQ tntto out loctie sod ^nttii^otetit 
ftt 0pitett 1^ iul^iHtfi dptie aitti j^d^ t^ 
tratiflaeSit twt tOtjp at VMbOepe t^ 
tpxtt tiape of feuerec. t^ pere of one lor 

tit. iS^.4i:€4LlnxiMih ^ V^n of p^ rep 
tK of ftpnge ^cj^artie t|e iiecoitfie after 
tDe €owsiu^ of ^nglotttie. nnf; €9e 
pere of mp lotbeil acge fpre Cj^otnajsc lor 
tK of SE^eiMepe t^ tnatie me to maiie 
t^ €ranflac$n. jA\^. 

Then follows, on oo it^, recto, a list of the authors from whom the 
work viras composed : succeeded by 

JRIilli; Nmn,^ wVnBTN DB WOKDK. 413 

^X^Wttt tcttto0 qui 1)0(8' 
tut SEtotfiidinnciui ttt |^C09^ 
ttssSnvt nmin» 

The poetical proheme of the author* which follows in English metres 
18 copied entirely in the Typog. JnHq. vol. ii. p. 315^18 : but the ooo- 
duding stanza, or I/£nvoy, may find a place here : 

Ye that be nobly groundid all in grace » 

Experte in wysdom and phylosophy 
To you this processe comyth a*myghty pace 
Whyche I dyrect to you that perfytlye 
Ye may refbrme to voyde all vylenye 
Of eueiy thyng yf ought be here amysse 
Excusyug theym whiche ment ryght well in this 

The recto of the ensuing and last leaf contains the large device of 
Caxton in the centre, and the title of the work, as before, is on the 
reverse. Tlie extraordinar}' condition of this copy has been befbx^ 
mentioned. It is very handsomely bound in russia by Walther. 

910. Memorare Nouissima. Enprynted atte west'- 
mystre. Anno vts. Quarto. 

This beautiful little vohune presents us with a reprint of the Cordial 
of Caxton ; see p. 225 ante. On consulting the Typof • Aniiq^ vol. iL 
p. 329, it will be seen that it was unknown to Herbert ; who had con- 
jectured that the enigmatical letters-** vts '— designative of the date— 
(whatever that date might be) were intended for ' vt supra ;* referring 
to the previous date of Caxton (1460) : but this inference is wholly 
untenable. So complete is this reprint^ that Caxton's own date is 
repeated. That the impression was published in the XVth oentury, 
appears to be extremely probable from the character of the type ; 
which resembles that of the Pohfchtimiomt Fitat PaJtnm^ Barihohnugui, 
and Golden Legend. From the authority above referred to, it should 
seem that Oldys was of opinion that the book wan printed in 1496» or 
1496: and it might also fcurther appear that he had inq^ectecltlibveiy 
copy-^which answers completely to his description— bdng *a] 

VOL. XV. 3 H 

414 BOOKS PRINTED BY [JfeM. .Aftvte. 

one, bound in ntoroccoi and findy, gilt' It tcinidiu to deicribe it 

briefly, but minutely. 

The first leaf, Bignature a i, contains a wood-cttt on each side of it. 
On the recto, ia that of the three Kings, on horseback, frightoied 
ai the approach of three skeletoni in winding aheeta — as given in a &c- 
rimile at p. Io3, vol. ii. of the abore work. Beneath we read 

dj^RnotoK nouitifiitia sC 

The rererse contains a similar sulMcription, beneath a very uncommtMl 
cot, of which the reader i« here presAited with a bc-^mOe. Thenib- 
ject, as is evident, relates to JDinn md Latana. 

Siahetes.] WYNKYN DE WOHDR 115 

On the recto of signature a U, the prologue begins, as in Caxtoff;' 
see p. 295 ante. The signatures, to m, run regularly in eights: m 
having only 6 leaves. The entire work is executed in double columns ; 
and on signature a iui, the leaves begin to be numbered, and so con«' 
tinue as far as folio Ixxxviii, within one leaf of the last. On the reverse 
of fbl. Ixxxviii. or m o, we read at top the ensuing colophon : 

il itEn^rpnt^ atte Wfit^ 
tnpftre %tma \itfi. 

.Aft tttts^ihlm. 

Beneath, is Caxton's small device. The ensuing and last leaf is 
occupied by the same cuts as are on the first leaf « This fedr and desirable 
copy was obtained from the choice collection of Mr. R. Wilbraham. 

911. Statuta. ff^itkaut Place or Date. Folio. 

This estimable and uncommon volume has been briefly, but accu- 
rately, described in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p, 390-39 1 ^ There is no 
necessity to add much to that description ; but we may here observe 
that, on the recto of the first leaf, without signature, and beneath a 
running title of * 9itii0 xl^ feeniici. UIJ.' we read the following title — 
in the centre of the page : 

^€attita iumum publicum 
cotittfiirada ctiita in ^adisaintttto tnt 
to apvBn tDeftmanaCtenutn. jettift tde 
4^ctoBtijet %vm tcffnt SPOiUjettnfjetttni 
a>Bt tioftn «f0tjf totnct HogtxaA . xt^ . 

On the reverse is the elaborate ornament, of the royal arms, sur- 
mounted by an angel, of which a £Bu:-simile appears in the volume just 
referred to. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, A ij, is a table of the 
chapters or acts, passed in the session above mentioned. These acts are 
XXVII. in number. One of the most curious of them, b that which relates 
to the unlawful making of Feather Beds^ PiUows, and Matrasses, cap. xix. 
This illegality relates to beds made ' of scalded feders, and drye pulled 
feders togyder and of lokkis. and feders togyder whyche is cdtagyous for 
mannys body to lye on. And also in quiltes materes & cusshons stufied 

416 BOOKS PRINTED, &c. [Psalimri 1499. 

with hors heere, fenne downe neetes heere derts heere and gotes heere 
whyche is wrought in lyme fktti8» and by the heete of mannys body the 
savour and taste is so abhominable and contagious y* many of the 
Igmges subgettes therby ben destroyed,* &c. Lawful feather beds are 
then described as made with ' drye pulled fethers or ellis wyth dene 
downe allone.' The act however does not threaten punishment for 
those who choose to make these * dampned ' goat-skin beds ' for their 
own proper use in their houses '— >* so they be not offered to be sold in 
fiurs & markets.' 

This impression contdns only the signatures A to £, inclusi^ly, in 
sixes ; concluding at the bottom of £ vj, recto ; without any imprint. 
The large device of Caxton is on the reverse. A fiill page (C i, recto,) 
contains 59 lines. The present is a large and desirable copy, but stained 
in the upper margin. It is handsomely bound in russia by Herring. 

912. PsALTERiuM. Printed at tVestminster. 1499. 

lliis impression of the Li^in Ftalter (as baa been before observed*) 
18 the first which was published in our own country. It has been 
inaccurately described, in the work below referred to, as a folio; 
whereas it is a. small octavo, having only SI lines in a full page. The 
typographical execution of it is in die best style of W. de Worde's press* 
There is no title to the present copy ; which b^^s, on the recto of A, 
with a table. The table occupies 12 leaves: A with -8, and B with 
4, leaves. The following leaf exhibits the commencement of the text 
of the Psalter on A. The signatures extend ta S, inclusively, in eights: 
R wanting 2 leaves i^i.the copy before us. Each signature is designated 
only on the first leaf. On the recto of S viy, is the colophon : 

il SltDpcftTum dputi toe jnitm»^mtt$ 
}fst tm iDpnanbft it loottie. ^mm ftSt 
^. €€€€. Ixi^wx^ U tne a^« 

On the reverse is Caxton*s small device, surrounded by 4 pieces of 
wood-cut border. This is a very neat copy; in dark blue morocco 

* T\/pog. Antiq, toI. il p. 82. 

t This hock is inieited htre, instoul of at p. 411 ante, on aooovnt of its having been 


Hodks pttttti bg 

913. Dives AND Paupeb. Mmprynied at the temple 
barre of London. 1493. Folio. 

FiBST Edition; tmdthefintBookpniiedbsPynton,wiihadatt. The 
copy under descriptkm is perfect, but neither a very &ir new » very 
genolne one. The book however is of ito ordinary oocurrence, and 
exhibits a rare spedmen of that peculiar type of the printer* which 
resembles the lai^r character of Verard ; it being a tall secretary- 
gothic type. The capital initial, D, is occasionally much ornamented; 
but no other initial letter has the same distinctiop. The table ia 
executed in long lines, the text in double columns. An extended 
description is here uoneceasary, as it is preaumed a satisbctory one has. 
ahready appeared pi the Typog. Jnliq. vol. it. p. 401-3. The table 
begins <hi a ti (ai being blank) and extends to by, inclusively, in sixes. 
Anotlier blank leaf is intended for i a; and on it a (erroneously so, 
printed for a ii) the text begins—' Of holy pouertie'— which forms tk 
running title as for as 6 i ; when we read ' The finte precepte.' Tbo 
work is divided into ' ten precepts ;' which, in W. de Worde's reprint, 
are more properly designated ■ commandments '-^ince, in the VUth 

* Abc-rimileoftUstjpe, iiotquitentu&ctarityetecatad, ^^Msnin tbtTjpiig. iatjf. 
Trt. a. p. 40*. 



chapter of the tenth precept (^gn. I ii, reo.) i«e reed as Mlofwt : "^Nowe 
leue freode I haue i partie declared thou the X c5fnaiindftineatie/ ♦ 


On the reverae of I v^ (second set of signatutes) we rwd the 
colophon, thus : 

l^tst tt^tl^ d coiii{Ktttiiou& tttt 
ttft tipalf^itt. of U>iat0 i vmg. 
ttfat iff to j(a|9. tl^e titH^ n t^t poce 
(ni tt u oM jflp ttetpns isptm tfyt jc. 
cSmafUimentc^/ Qonttfl^^ t|e M. 
Hap of $[tqil. tj^e pete of oure iotH 
gf^ , ^ , €€€€ .IXKXXin . ^m 

* I subjoin a few mlaceUaDecms specidiens cif the text of this atngnlar work ; biit one of the 
most carious extracts will be found in the authority just referred to. On the recto of £ i, it is 
truly said— ' In presece of his fredes they speke a nwn gode, though they wole hhnno gooda 
and in presence of his enemyes they speke him enyl And as the fime.of the steple. tnmedi 
after the wynde. so tume Caterers and hacbiters their speche, as cupany spekith that th^ ben 
in The moaei and the face, of the camelion is lyke a swyne. and an ape. For euery flaterer is 
a bacbiter And as a swyne bay rooore lykynge to lye in a foole slough thanne in a fiure grene» 
& with wrotynge of his snoute defouleth the place ther he goothe. so hath the bacbiter. 
more liking tu speke of other mennys defautes and of their vnhonesties and synne> thane to 
fpeke of thdr godcnesse, and honestie, and wysly speche/ &c. It is probable that the reader 
may recollect a parallel passage with the following ; except the termmation of it— whkh must 
be considered peculiar to this work. Pauper says— ^ If thou bane rooche yeoe thoo mooehe. 
9iitt and if thou bane but lytel studye thou to yeoe litel with good wylle fiir tha Hioa 
tresourest to the a greteyift in the day of nede For almesse delhieretfa soules from euery synne 
and from dethe, and siiffreth nat the soule to go into derknes/ O viij, recto. The origin of 
the episcopal mitre, croner, and gloves, is thus detailed. ' The bu^op passynge other 
prestys hath a mytre and a crosse. The mytre on his hede betokneth the crowne of thomes. 
y* crist bare on his hede for mannes sake. And therefore the mytre bathe two sharpe 
homes, intooken of the sharpe thomes. The two timges y* hange downe on ye mytre betoke 
the stremys of bluod y* ranne downe firo cristes hede by pryckyng of the crowne of thomes. 
The crose that the busshop berith in his honde betokneth ye rede spere that the knyghtes 
turmetours put in the honde of crist in scome for a ceptre And the archebusshops crosse 
beCoknethe the crosse that crist died vpon fc>r vs alle The busshoppes gloues. at messe in 
his bodes, betoken ye nayles in cristes hondes, and the sandalies on his feet at messe 
betoken the nayles in cristen feet' £ iiL 

The author of this nngular work was Henry Parker» a Carmelite of Doncaster ia 
Yorkshire ; in the time of £dward IVth. Anthony a Wood thought the first edition of it 
was by W. de Worde, in 1496. Mr. Bliss observes that Parker wrote * A Dialogue between 
a rich and a jxwr roan ;* but can this be any other than the work under description-* and 
wliat Wood calls ' Dives and Pauper.^ &c. Athen. Oxon, vol, I col. 115. 

Soekoii 14M0 RICHARD PYNSON. 419 

9cetit|^ 1^ inc. ftic||cncltt f^pQ^ni 
At t$< ttttuffit tenet* tf inttHBi* 
jBDeo graciajst* 

The signatures run in eights ; but the first alphabet extends only to 
0. As before observed, c i is omitted to be marked ; but the first four 
leaves of c, are c it, ciiif c itiiy c v. The second set of tfignatures, A i, 
b^ns at the second chapter of ' the seuenth Precepte.* Copies of this 
curious and rare volume are in the libraries of the Duke of Devonshire 
and Mr. Heber. The present was Mr. O. Mason's copy, and is in old 
russia binding. 


914. The Boke calledde John Bochas, &c. 
Emprentyd withofuUe the TeinpleBarre of London. 
1494. Folio. 

First Impression. This is a volume well deserving a place in a 
Collection like the present. The text of it was frequently reprinted, 
and such re-impressions are by no means of rare occurrence ; but a 
fine and perfect copy of this earliest edition is an acquisition of no 
trifling importance. The copy under description is somewhat aoUed, 
but sound. The general title of the work, printed in a large lower- 
case type, in 9 lines, and prefixed to the prologue, is thus : * Here 
begynnethe the boke calledde lohn bochas descriuinge the fiiUe of 
princis princessis & other nobles traslated ito englissh by John ludgate 
m5ke of the monastery of seint edmudes Bury at the comaudemet of 
the worthy prynce humfrey duke of gloucestre beginnynge at adam & 
endinge with kinge iohn take prisoner in fraunce by prince Edwalrde/ 
The prologue occupies 3 leaves, ending on the reverse of a im i ai 
being blank. In the whole, there are Nvne Books; having, prefixed to 
each, a prologue and a wood-cut. The text of this work is so well 
known to the curious, from the subsequent editions of it, that, in the 
present instance^ I shall dweU chiefly upon the graphic embelUshments 
which the volume contains ; as this is the first book, with a date, 
executed by Pynson, in which such embellishmients ap|)ear. 



The first wood-cut, to the flnt bode, it auneHof^ coane ; aa wQl 
Bppear from the &(^-siIIlile of it in the l)/fiog.Autit. *aL i. p. xl i tee 
also p. 405. The remaiDing cut; represent the human figure on a 
amaller scale ; and in the Snd and 3rd cuts we immediatelj recogniM 
the same style of art. The 3rd cut, being rather curious, shall spealt 
fbr itself in the ensuing fecrimile ; 

On examining the contents however of this third book, it is not easy 
to discover to what subject this embelliahment relates. The 4th cut 
represents Marcus Manlius, with his hands tied belund him, ' caste into 

Jhekatt I4M0 RECHAKD FTNSOlff. 4»l 

the Tibre aad thcta drowned.' The KUi aU repKHats m. naked Ouui, 
■ttctdied out and tied dows a^on a ba«rd of inn apikes ; guards an 
BDROundtBg; him. The 6th aU'mtoo coriou* to be withheld from lieiiig. 
ito own iaSerpitUT. It is thui explaioed hi the prefix to the book t» 
«4>ich it hekngs : 'Bert B» c hM mttimge m lot ttudga atone: wtiteA t 
greaU pnctue : kowe J^brfwi* b/ke a moHatrMoa Image, Bmmge e« fuutdn/i 
koMdn* uppergd tnto hym and tpake i tmd Bodua vnto Ur .■ vwkinge iy> 
mmt^tembolkmaKf pmUAgummiys; trndrmonioffortimetchauitefif 

^ -' 



5f 0% PM 










Wj h^ M $ 



^3jf ^ S ^ 

— r 

• /-^Sk 

"-^ w jir^r 

cp *^-^^^,^ 



^* ^ . 

41% BOOKS PRINTED BY [Bocliasj UM: 

, The 7th aU deacribes a battle, with flew fibres, in which the hoW 
and sword are the chief implements of destmction. The 8th cut shews 
•OB, in the foreground, a figure, with a tiara on its head, kneeling and- 
hand-cufiRed : a warrior is stepping on his back, to mount his horse, 
which latter is held by a page without his hat. A group of armed 
horsemen is in the back-ground. The 9th and Uat cut represents a 
woman, drawn in quarters by the hair of her head, her left hand, and 
right foot — by three horses. A crowned leader, with horse-men, 
attends the execution of this barbarous punishment. 

On the recto of U iii (second set of signatures) the colophon is thus : 

tt l^ere eitbttl^ a cotn]pttttitmije( trettb/ attfi tipalasue 
of 0[o|^ ^t^i &itctiiou]9tIp trettn^e tt^on t^ fan 
of !^nntpia(/ ^j^mutttp^t anb ot|^ mfAtfi. ftnpfl^ti 
t||e jcjtbtt tutfi of 3[attitpete. 3[n t^t pece of ouce iotb 
0oti ^ €€€€ Inxjam * ^mprentptl bp lltri[|arti 
l^iijFoii : titDdlpnge iDttj^oute t|^ 4>an^ fuxtt of 
Xontiott* %aijt SDeo* 

On the reverse are four stanzas of poetry, by an author, firom friuna 
no other poetical efiiision is at present known : see Ritson*^ Bibliogra' ' 
phica PoetUxL; p. 50. 

Greneacres a Lenuoye ^'pon 
lohn Bochos. 

Lak be thy hondes and thy wede also 
B Thou sorowfull boke of mater disespeyred 

In tokne of thyn inwarde mortall wo 
Which is so bad it may nat be enpeyred 
Thou owest nat outwarde to be feired 
That inwarde haste so many a rufull clause 
Such be thyn habyte of coloure as thy cause 

^ No cloth of Tyssewe ne ueluet cremesyne 

But lyke thy monke mournynge vndre his hode 
Go we) le and wepe with wofull proserpyne 
*And late thy terys multiplye the flode 
Of blak Lythey vnder the bareyn wode 
Where as goddesse hath hir hermytage 
Helpe hir to wepe and she wyll gyue the wage. 

'Direct. Saeer. 1498.] RICHARD PYNSON^ 423 

Noblesse of loje sith thou inayst nat approch 
This blak goddesse I counoeyle the to obeye 
Coinpleyne with hir mdre the craggj roche 
With wepynge soiiles ypon the seide L^they 
Sith thou of sorowe art Instrament and keye 
So harpe and singe there as thou may be herde 
For euer ioye is of thy name aferde 

Pryncesse of wo and wepyne proserpyne 

Which harborowest sorowe euyn at thyn herte rote 

Admytte this Bochas for a man of thyne 

And though his habyte blaker be than sote 

Yit was it made of thy monkes hode 

That he translatyd in Inglyssh of latyn 

Therefore nowe take him for a man of thyne 

This impression is executed in double columns, in the small secretary- 
gothic type of the printer, of which a lac-simile appears at page 544 ifl 
the 2d vol. of the Typog. Antiq. There are two sets of signatures, each 
running in eights : but the first, as in the volume just described* does 
not extend beyond v. The second, in eights, extends to H ; which latter 
has only 3 printed leaves to H. This is a desirable copy, in old russia 

915. DiRECTORiUM Sacerdotum, &c. 1498. 

This was formerly a work in great use and estimation among the 
Clergy ; and the present is, in all probability, a reprint of the text of 
it by Caxton. The note below,* respecting the correction of this 
edition, may afford the reader some amusement. All that it may be 
necessary here to state, in a bibliographical point of view, will not 
occupy a great portion of our time or attention. The recto of the first 


* ' For greater satiaftctioo we most refer the inquisitive to the Dibsctorium Sacib- 
DOTUM qDem (libram) pica Samm rulgo rodtat denis ; a book oontainiiig all these nioedci ; 
and more than once printed by our English printers, as by Caxton, without a date ; by 
Pynson, in 1498 ; and again 1508. Of Bfr. Caxton's edhioo, we may always say. as 
Buxtorf, or Reland, or somebody ebe, sayi of the MacUOum book of the Jews, vrorded in 
Dutch, but printed m Biasket—^ legat qui Tult aut qd potest' We mean no more than to 

4S4 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Direct. S^er, 149$. 

leaf is occupied by aa advertisemeiit [' AnimaidiMtrfanitam *] the whole 
of which is reprinted in the lypt^.Aniiq. toL iL p. 414-5. We chiefly 
karn from it, that tUs ' Sacerdotal Directory' was composed for the 
Cathedral at Si^isbury : that it was deUvered to one ' Master Gierke to 
amend and correct;' who in turn committed it to the press of Pynson: 

SlnCiii^ ^otteitto jfttcacho ^pttKon 
txttA hsxti wnA tfpB bndKntta^ tnoiattti/ db imptP 
tmtttift t»Mt atqj (intn iuOsttt. Sltmo stahttiff ta^txt 


This advertisement occupies only one page of the leaf, and is printed 
in a square, proportionate, and beautiful letter : occupying 23 lines. 
The reverse is blank. The next 6 leaves, on signature a (at blank) 
are occupied by an almanack or table. This executed in the small 
secretary-gothic type of the printer. Another leaf fbUows ; the recto 
•f which is blank, but the reverse contains a kalendar from the year 1496 
to 1M5. The * prologoe' to the Directory succeeds ; on a i, recto: 
dkUng, with a rubric, ott the reverse of a ii. The Dirbctort terminates 
on the reverse of ^ ii, in eights : 


• ^Hlfll 

Next comes the *Dkfbnsoriuk Diuctorii '— on 1[ iii: ending on 
the recto of ^ v j : 

I I I M ;« M 1 1 1 M I 


4tpfiiat SDotftnfottitm tn 

The reverse is blank. The third and last tract, commencing on A i» 

intiiiiate that it abounds with abbreviations peculiar to the subject ; and that if we remember 
i%htly, it requires some skill in pica to read it with fluency. This book was compiled, 
tiiough not origmally, by Clem, be A&ydestDD, a briggitine friar, but a brother, as Bhbop 
Tanner says, (BiiL Brit. p. 500) of the house at Houndestow, which was a house of IVini- 
tarians ; and this seeming contradiction we cannot immediately reconcile. The book was 
intrusted by the Church of Sanim, to Wm. Clerk, precentor in the King*s College, Cam* 
bridge, to be corrected and made conformable to the tme original of that Church ; and this 
correction was occasioned by a dispute, warm at that time, whether the festival of Corpus 
Christi, with an octave, should be celebrated ctim T^;imme chert or tine regimme; th# 
ibrmer of which was the practice of the Church of Sarum.' Rowe Mores's DitterL uptnk 
EmgUak Typtif. Foundert and Founderia, p. 24-5» note. 

Gal. 4le9cif U08.] RICHARIX PYNSON. 42^ 

fecto, is entitled ' Cbbdb miki.* I socrpect that 9 or 3 leaves aie here 
wanting at the end; since it terminates abruptly* en the revetse-of 
the next leaf after C u : the two previous signatures, A and B, eack 
having 8 leaves. All the signatures in the first treatise, a to f, inelu^ 
sively, have 8 leaves ; but ^ has only 6 leaves. The {Minter's device 
[N^ v.] terminates the impression. The work is printed in long lines* 
and has running titles throughout. This clean and desirable copy waa 
deposited, as a gift, in the Library, by Mr. R. Triphook, bookseller. 
It has been since bound in dark blue morocco, by C. Lewis. 

916. Gallic ANTUs Alcock. 1498. Quarto. 

This is an exceedingly scarce little volume ; but the description of it 
in the Typog. Antiq, toI. ii. p. 40SM11, being sufficiently fiill and par- 
ticular, there is no necessity to be elaborate in the present instanoe* 
The copy there described (from the Alchome CoUectk>n) is now the 
property of the Noble Owner of this Library. The recto of the first 
leaf is occupied by a wood-cut ol Bishc^ Alcoek in his pulpit, having 
a cock on each side of him : a £Eic-siBiik of this curious embellisbmenft 
appears in the pages just referred to. Beneath this cut we read the 
following title : 

<BiaIItcatttit]St $[o|^atitti^ ^llcocft ^tt 4Siimgi0 
cib aftattt^ jBitwjK cuKatoii in |ttttol» aputi SS^endMS 
neb* tiie ntttijEtiiSt JttfttttiSftifi ^tmo Al^ffifjifnur 
tttt. itotmgejertmo ottoiio 

The reverse of this first leaf exhibits another impression from the 
same wood-cut. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, the text begins— 
as reprinted (with its ornamental prefix of a black cock) at p. 410 of 
the work referred to. The third leaf is marked A instead of A iil : 
but the 4th leaf is properly designated A iiii. The sermon concludes 
on the reverse of D iiii. Then follows 

^attctoi^ infica ^esiffon^ in tiiocofi ^osl tddicS 

Sec. ice. Sec. 

* See the ccincliwinn in the T^p^gf Jmti^ vol i. p. SS5-4. 

426 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canierbury TiOeg. 

' This occupies only 3 pages. On the reverse of the last leaf, D y}, 
we observe Pynson's device ; forming N*. V. of the fac-similes given 
in the work so often quoted. The signatures A B and C have each 8 
leaves. A question may be asked— whether the above date refers to 
that of the preaching, or the printing of Uie sermon ? and if to the 
former, whether it might not have been published very shortly after 
its delivery ? This estimable volume is in dark blue morocco binding, 
by C. Lewis. 

917. The Tales of Canterburie. fVithout 
Place or Date. Folio. 

' Third Edition of this work, and probably the first book printed by 
Pynson. We have here what may be called an extraordinarily-fine copy 
of one of the rarest and most estimable volumes of early English poetry. 
This copy was successively in the collections of Thomas RawUiison and 
Dr. Chauncy ; and was purchased, at the sale of the library of the 
latter, for a comparatively moderate sum. It is considered to be per- 
fectly complete ; and, as such, is likely to be unique : as the copy of it 
in the Library of the Royal Society, has been reported to me, by a 
competent judge, to be defective in a few leaves, though Tyrwhitt says 
it is perfect. A fine but imperfect copy (which was in the Roxburgh 
Library) is in Mr. Heber's collection ; to which another copy, also 
incomplete, has been recently added. Mr. Utteraon has a copy, but 
still more defective. The vforih of the one under description will be 
estimated accordingly. 

Having before been somewhat particular in the account of this very 
rare volume,* the task to be performed at present is both easy and 
brief. A few circumstantial details, however, are requisite. In the 
first place, this book is the only one, to my recollection, which exhibits 
that peculiar type — of which a fac-simile is found at page 430, post. 
Another fac-simile of it, but a little too heavily executed, appears at 
p. 523 of the work below referred to. The comparatively barbarous 
appearance of these types, lead to a supposition that the present may 
be the earliest performance of Pynson's press. Yet it' is proper to 
observe that there is a mixture of letter-press ; namely, The Tale of 

* r^/pcj^. Antiq, vol. il p. 5f 1-625. 

CkMerbury Tales.] RICHARD PYNSON. • 427 

Chaucer, beginning on A !» in the third set of signatures — and the 
Par8on*s Tale, beginning<m Q i» in the same set— exhibit the small nM 
secretary gothic letter of which a ficus-simile appears at p. 544» vol. iL of 
the Typog: Antiq, This variety appears to have been bnt slightly noticed 
by Herbert : and as the signatures C, D, £, and F— titterventn^ between 
the A and G — are occupied by the larger or rude type, such parts, 
as contain the smaller character, could not have been subsequently 
applied, as an addition to what had been before executed. The whole 
impression was therefore, what may be termed, a simultaneous dpera- 
tion of the press. Herbert remarks that ' several of the types are the 
same with those used in D'wes and Pauper,* yet, ' that the book is 
printed with somewhat laiger types than those of the same work.' The 
truth is, that, at first \iew, there appears to be a general resemblance ; 
and the peculiar formation of the h, is the same in both : but the n 
and the a differ ver^^ essentially. Other similarities, and other difSttr 
ences, luight be mentioned ; but no important deduction can be made 
from them. 

In the second place, it has been supposed by Dr. Chauncy— in a ms. 
prefix to this copy— that there is a passage in the proheme, or intro- 
duction of Pynson, which warrants the inference of CaxtorCs having been 
alive when the impression was published. The passage is this v 

1dM< &oftt titltgentlii outrjlen i 

tiuelp eramtneti ftp t^t jfoXiittbt reajsron atiti wm^Q^t. of 
mp tDotjilrtpfuI tm0ttt 1aaWiam€axtm accortunge to t|^ 
entent atiH ef&cte of t^ jsikitk ^StfSup Chaucer* anti hpa 
ttffp of tt|c jetettimajttn: Carton purpOjB^ to sminxnt* Bp pe 
grace e^t anti fiufpmtt of altnt^l^tp isoti* iDfiom 0[ j^ttm^ 
hip ht^tt^t. tiiat l^e of 1^ ffrete anb l^l^untiant srace toil 
fo btiipOjB^c tiiat 31 imp it {{im^ 
glorpe. Sec. 

' The inference of Caxlon's being alive or dead, from the above extract, 
is extremely equivocal. Dr. Chauncy thinks, if Caxton had been deady 
Pynson would have called him his ' late vrorshipfiil master :* but the 
entire sentence, as may be suKmitted, seems to mean nothing more 
than that this present edition was purposed to be imprinted according 
to the copy or text of Ghaucer'-as that had been—' diligently ovc^- 

428 - BOOKS PRINTED BY [Qmierlmrg TMn. 

seen and duly examined by the politic reason and overaight of his 
iHPfihi|ilU inaaiqr. ' iraiiMi Cftitoii :'^— io dStmt wordst 9jmoia mltfi 
puipoflcs to reprint Caxton's text of our first poet. Yet, h ib unfile*- 
tionable, from numerous comparisonfl with each of Caxton's t^^ir^ 
that the present impression varieijram both. No essential variation haa 
however yet been discovered. Upon the whole» aa this may be ooBr 
aidered an obscure or knotty point, and raither bibliographical thaa. 
critical, the reader is left to his own condubion.* We return to a. 
description of so singular a volume. 

The proheme, which occupies the first leaf, on sign, a t. has been 
extracted entire in the work before referred to. It ends with the 

Beneatht in the present copy, are these lines in ma ; 

Who soo euj/r on thj/s boke do rede 
Remenibyr Salem fnyst of bury town 
Wtche mild executor Jhu do hgfm mede 
Hys gQodys to spende jn^^gogd dwocyon 


Robert Stylt/ard f{fr]«(wi of Fynynham 

Weche gc^ thys boke to Ele sie to py 

For the seyd Salifn. mnUym^ whan she may 

The ' Prologue * of Chauoer follows on a ti; the first lU lines «f 
which are given in the work so often referred to. The descriptions Cff 
the difierent characters, having the running title * Prologue,'— and 
-accompanied by their respective delineati<His, in wood-cuts, ft^low, as 
fur as the recto of c tiit, in eights. On the reverse of c ii, ipse have an 
engraved representation of the PUrty at Supper. As this c^t i^ wanting 
in the copy of the second edition of Chaucer by Caxton, described a,t 
p. S99 ante, and as the deficiency is there erroneously supposed to have 
been supplied by a cut of the Host only — the reader will probably be 
gratified by a fac-simile of so social and joyous a circle — as that which 
is represented in the impression under description : 

* Tyrwhitt layi that it is evident, on the slighteft oomparisoo of the three books, tint 
the copy which Pjnson alludes to, in the above dted passage, and in that of his second 
edition, is no other than Caxton's second edition of the Canterbury Tales. He seems also 
to g^ve in to the supposition, that the edidon now under consideration was printed not long 
after 1491 ; the year of Caxton*s death. See (kaUerhury Tola, ed. 1798. vol. i. p. vi. 

■CamteriHry Tbles.} RICHARD PTNSON. 

Rete chere made tmre dat to va euirechone 

And to the soupere sette he ts anone 

He seruyd vs with vitayUe at the bat 
Stronge wu the wyne Mid wele driake n lyrt 
A semelj man oure oat was with alle 
For to be a manhalle in a lordea haUe 
A largiB man he was with ctbd itepe 
A JFeyrer brumes ia ther none ia chepe 
Bolde of hia Ipeche and wele was y taught 
And of maobode htcked he right naught 
Eke thnto waa he right a mery man 
And after sonpir to pleyen he began 

On the reverse of c uii, we have the cut of thk kkioht repeatoi 
above the coromencement of hia tale, and preceded by thia prefix I 
' f^txt btttmtt^ 4t InlAtM Hit.' The following ia a very foithfkil 
representation of the originaL 



nt qTQm nxteabnltt fmt S^ttid 


ftttte man? a rit^e conf «?ft6l«^t»otme 

This cut is also wanting io the copy described in the page last 
referred to. The first' set of aigaaturea extends to «, in eights ; the 
aecoDd, includes kk in eights ; then IJ,with only 6 leaves. The third set 
follows, with A to K in eights : K having only 6 leaves, the 6th leaf 
being blank. The leaves from A to C (third set) are printed in 
Pynson's smallest type, in double columns ; and so are the leaves from 
G to the end of the volume. The remaining part of the impressioD is 
executed in long lines, like the above lac-simile. On the rererae of 
£ V is Fynson's sinaU device ; designated as N°. II. in the 7Vp°<- 


Jatiq. No ekber impriiit k ittlijoiiied* Hie paper of thia impraekm 
is eiceediD^y stout snd wdl n»tmfcrtnred> ' WfOk tbe eicoepMif' laf 

some stains, towards ttue end of the Tolume, this copy may be taoA* 
dered in most desirable condition.* It is in 0I4 cal^ binding, with gilt 

917- Year Books : or Reports of Cases in the 
Illrd, IVth, Vth, Vlth, Vllth, Vlllth, IXth, 
and Xlth Years of the reign of Edward IV. 
fVithdiU Place or Date. Folio. 

The editions of these ' Cases ' by Pfnson, are exceedingly numeroos.^ 
The greater number of them are witboiit dates ; as may be seen on- 
hispecting the Typog, AnHq, vol. ii. p. 473-476 : and the earliest of 
them known; with n date; is the one printed in 1517* I may however 
be justified in introducing these impressions in their present placet 
from their being printed in the small secretary-gothtc character. The 
volume under description contains Bioht Teacts-. The fatt^ on a i, 
recto^ is 

jBDe €emiiiio frf €riB if tii nsiii € uit 


It extends to e .<• a, 5; c, with 8 leaves ; d 6 ; and e 5, printed leaves— 
and comprehends the cases in TViin^ and Miidi0idmai Temu : the last 
3 pages include a pOTtion of Htlory Tsrai. It is without name of printer. 
The 9econd Traei bq^ on a i, recto;, with this title: 

SDe termbio wCcte 3l\ itti tf « iiti« 

terminating on g vt^', recto, in eights ; and comprehending the BmUr- 
and Michaelmas Temit. The third Tract l>egins on a i, recto, having 
%t top 

Wt tuniiuo pB0tl^ %\ %4 ^* iiiL 

The recto of a « is blank : on the reverse. Trinity Term begins. This 


* There are salrjoined, to tiiis oopj, % Tellam lcsv«s of ms. of the endiog of tbe MSkr^ 
prologue* and of the cwnmen o em en t of his tale. The portrait of the MOIcf, executed in 
biitre, and sammnded bj an d^gwt border, by way of ilhmrinatirm, fcrms no muntereflting 
embeffiflfamenttotfabfticpDMnt: wUefaappeantobeoftlielBtter partof tbe ZTtfaoeatmy. 

I ihonld add that aU tbe coti of the abofebapreMOoare dIftieDtfinoB tiiote in Gax^ 


tract ends apparently on the rerene of b iuL A blank kaf follow t« 
then h nj, with the recto blank: on the rererse^ * De termino HillariL 
anno E. iiii quinto.* The fourth Tract cotmnences on a i* recto: 

comprehending a 8, and b 6, leaves : exclusively confined to Michaekmu 
Term. At the bottom of g vj, recto — 

The Jifth Tract begins on a ii, recto, thus : 

Wt termino pAf^t a«^ W. €trttMttt ittt. 

including Easter^ TVmify, and MkhadmoM Temu^ on signatures a^h e^ 
and d^ in eights. On the recto of d viiij : 

The nxlh Tract has this prefix, on a t recto : 

&)e tenn!o ^oGcle 31° tmt* ^. iitt 

comprehending Easter^ Mkhaelmatt and Hilary Termi» on signatures «, 
6y c, d, in eights; and e in six. On the recto of e ij^': 

<£]C|^ii(tt annitjf flrtainui ^Brtna tW Quotti* 

The tevetUh Tract begins on the recto of a 1 1 

a>e temmto l^Gd^ SBtmo tr tflittt^ 

and comprehends reports of cases adjudged in Eoiter, Trinit^^ Mkhaelnua, 
BndHUary Terms: on a, &, c, in eights ; d, e,/, in sixes ; and g and h^ 
in eights. On the reverse of g vij : 

^ee me fitcactmm* f^pttjiott. 

The device, N^. II. is beneath. The following leaf (g viij) is blank. 
The eighth Tract has this prefix, on a ii, recto (a i being blank) : 

SDe termino Guicte €rtnitattjei Stnno ^xi"" <Biiioarta iiit. 

On the reverse of b vj, the cases in Hilary Term begin, and conclude 


Kar Books.] BICHABD PYNSON. ' : 4SS 

the hi^itwtkai on the recto of c tnt, in suus : this latter page heiniig^ 
onlT^r lines. The preceding is presumed to be a Mthful account of a» 
volume of no mean bieauty, rarity, or utility. The margins of these: 
tracto are ample, and those of the last tract are uncut. The paper is of 
a fine quality. This copy contains a profusion of ms. notes, written in 
the law hand of the time. It is beautifully bound in pale russia, by 

918. NouA-^ Statuta*. Without Place or Date. 

This magnificent volume openc vith a table on signatures a, 6, c^ in 
eights (a i being blank) and d with only 6 leaves. The table exhibits 
a list of Acts passed from the Ist of £dw. III. to the Xllth of Henry VII. 
inclusively ; arranged alphabetically according to the subject matter 
treated of. The first Act begins on a i (immediately fs^wing d vi) 
with the title, thus : 

There are running titles, according to the chronological order, 
throughout the volume. The first set of signatures^ to }, \t and % in- 
clusively, runs in eights. Next, A,* C, in eights ; D^ E^ F, in sixes %[ 
G, 4 leaves. D, 8 ; E and F, each with 6 leaves : F vj, being blank—, 
and the text terminating on the reverse of F t. See the T^i^. Aniiq,^ 
vol. ii. p. 670. The date of this edition is presumed fh)m the time of 
the last act, in 1497 ; as, if another, or more acts, had been passed, such 
act or acts, in all probability, would have been incorporated in the 
volume. This is a very large copy (having numerous rough leaves) but 
soiled towards the end. In dark calf binding. 

919. Lyndwode. Super Constitutiones Pro- 
viNciALEs. Without Date. Octavo. 

This elegant little volume was, in all probability, printed in the 
xvth century. The address of the editor, in Pynson's lai^gest lower- 
case type, begins thus : * Reuerendissimo in christo patri ac domino 
domino I dei gratia cantuariensi archiepiscopo tocius anglie primati 

* B hat 10 leaves : 1 leaf bdag wanting in tha above copy. 

3S4 BOOKS VBJDftED, ftt. 

r V. 

& tfoMBem sedb legito mt dot vmam oetelt pKsens eontUtoolMiiBii 
opui iaipectalriB RichttdMi PyniQii ciica Tie pwminrhBt ooMliftado- 
mm veraa atque omatKn tepreflsunuai debitmn olnequiiim loco 
fltlutis,* &c. This address occupies tiie wliole of the recto of a 0). 
Only the first leaf of each gathering* or set of signatures, is marked 
by the respective letter. On the reverse of a i, begins the text of the 
first book : — * Ignorancia sacerdotu,* &c. The first set of signatures 
extends to v, in eights : then A with 8, and B with 4, leaves. The 
Constitutions end on the recto of A 7 : 

Qdniiicit gp i i ff Iukbiicci HfiinriMfi 
SptttrtD0tit fittjftt C0ii&itit(ionQ( p 

On the reverse begins a table of the Rules of the Ptouincial Con- 
stitutions ; ending on the reverse of B ii^ ; 


The recto of the following leaf is blank, but the reverse contains 
Fynson's device N**. II. within a border. This impression^ which was 
unknown to Herbert,* is very elegantly executed ; and the present 
hit copy of it (deposited in this library by the In^dn*^ of Bir. 6. 
lited) is bound in blue morocco^ by C. Lewis. 

* Herbert notioeB ooHj a fimgnnent of the * De statn regalarinm f beglnmng on ^gna- 
ture i; which fingment, Herberfi own copy, b botmd widi the tJbote book. The impre*- 
aoD is executed m the type of the BochM of 1494; cbndndaigoiithei«yeneof«eiy,in 
eigfatSfWith the printer*! de^oe, No. Ill: beneath his imprint, thus: 

ImpreOimi pec Kicj^nHu jJPniQnu 


920. MsoTVS. Lat. eC Ital. Printed by Maestro 
Manfred^ de BomIIo de Sireuo da Mo/era. 
Venice. 1497- Quarto. 

We commence theSupn.KHBNTAL>ccoiint— of ancb volumes as were 
omitted to be noticed, or have been acqiiind since this work was 
tint committed to press — with an article of no (vdinaiy interest It 
presents us, in the first place, with n rt^nlnt of the I^ttn and Italian 
version of jS8op*s Pablii, by Zoccsi, as published atVeroaainl479; 
and of which an extended account, accompaiUed by Cac-slmile embellish- 
ments of the cuts contiuned in it, ^ipeara in our fint volume, at pages 
229-^8. In the second place, the cuts, althougfa formed iqxm those 
of the Verona edition, are, in fact, copies of what we obserre in the 
impreeaion which appeared at Venice, in 1490 : and of which the pre- 
sent may be considered aa the direct reprint. But the condition of 
this copy'^when we consider its di^ant emt)eUishments *— ia sodl as 
to render it an object well deserving the attention of the tssteftil 

llie title, ' Gsqn DHnsitatU.* is at the top of a wood-cut of Bsop deli- 
vering his febles, or apothegms; the cut is within arabesque framework. 
A scribe, below, is committing the moralist's sayings to writing. Two 

* Hanng drroted a great portani ti &o pigH of thii wori^ to fiic-nmiki of tbe vood- 
cnt9 in wrenl editinu at Xaop, a eooddcfMlan of rhotc in titer 
will be memd for the iMUkgnpiUail S 

4»,-r . ->; SUPPLEMENT. 

uaftton are on eKb M». A dpg li in tte ittiddlft. The hunMn 
figures are shaded; whkdi distinction docs notagain occur throughout 
ihb vohime; and it is probabk that the artist wlio executed this 
fronti^iece was not the author of the other designs. All the remain- 
ing wood engravings are in outline. On the reverse of the first leaf 
(a i) we read at top the following sentence ; 

€[ Accii zuchi summa campanee Yeronensis 
uiri eruditissimi in Aesopi Fabulas interptatio 
prhjthmas inlibellii Zucharioum inscriptum 
cootexta foeficiter incipiit. ' Prohemio. 

Two Italian sonnets are below. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, 
a % the first fable, or rather the proheme of £sop begins ; followed, as 
before, by a ' Sonetto materiale ' and * Sonetto morale.' The signatures, 
to i, run in eights ; t having only 6 leaves. To every fiable a wood- 
cut is prefixed. On the reverse of 1 11^, we read a * Cancionetta,* 
(given in voL i. p. 237) followed by a ' Canzon morale.' On the revq;|ie 
of t fj^, is a table : at the end of which is the imprint, thus : 

tt Stampado in Yenetia per Mae 
stro Manfredo de Bonello de Stare 
uo da Mofera. nel anno del signor 
M. cccc. Ixxxxvii. adi. xxyiu zuguo. 

This desirable copy was obtained of Mr, Singer, at a price propor- 
tionate to its value. It has been since elegantly bound by G. Smith, 
in dark green morocco. 

921. -flEsopus. FabuljeXXX. Latin^. Printed C.deTridim. Venice. 1399 [/or 1499]. 

The translator of these Fables is Laurbntius Valla. A prefeitory 
prefix, by Fonaleda, dated 1438, dedicates them to Renaldus. This 
begins on e it, recto, forming part of an impression of some original 
&bles, ' lately composed in Latin by LaurentLus Abstemius * — and which 
occupy the preceding signatures, in fours, except signature a— which 

s ttpviriar^^^. - 1*7 

infouB: whttiiivereKdiflHtapn:: ' 

- ' • « . . . 

' Esopi fabuknun. xxz. tfadatioU Fiois. 

Impressum Venetiis per loanoem de Cereto de Tri 
dino: Anno domiiii;MtGCC.* XCIX. die. i lunii. 

The device of the prioter, as at vol. i. p. 276, is beneath. This very 
desirable copy of an interedting little volume was obtained along with 
the edition of iBsop jost des^bed. It Is el^antly bound in olive 
colour calf, by G. Smith* 

923. Algokismus Nouus. Without Name of 
Printer y PlacewDate. Quarto. 

This curious little tract presents us with the following prefix, by way 
of general title to the work : 

ott0mu0 nouu0 tiel 

tegnjET compenbiojfe jECtne fiipininim (more STtalOy 
turn) Udettotte conqptbtu^. tattm mtmetatfbt omncmq$ 
tiiam calcitlantit otutleatim Btnitfieitme (tioeeit^. 
Ima aim %isoiifind0 he tnimtdjjf tndsanbtt^ tittid 
im et ^i^ksXSmg. ^W^tA regtda ppocttonum tarn 
te mteeditfii firactt^ que Indgo maxaunf. ngula Htcttuc. 
^mdSmg put}, ifjidff mtMca abi^tl&ita fttligeittta 
mmifin cabttlflnU nuimtii fttiQime Ofipifi^ i^tt^ 

The work is aceoin|Mnied by figures and tables. In the whole, 10 
leaves. A 6 and B 4. On the recto of B iy : 

The reverse is blank. The present copy is bound with another 
similar work, thus entitled : 

• Sic. 

VOL. IV. 3 L 



3( l«) 

tic j^utigacia 3[tt^'^* Mirittt ^ 

This tract has atao but 10 kavest printed in a broader 
character ; and ending on the reTcrse of b tt?, thus : 

ftttim t|oc 09itfcidS« Slttno Ult 1499 $^mtt ]^ 

^uiti tntc^ p tnttiti^ p 1^ bt I^Gum Gidittetn. 
3ft^tKt. in et|^a»a q jsKtttt atce tKiijl« 

Both copies are clean and uncut ; and elegantly bound in olive-colour 
calf, by C. Lewis. 

924. Andreas (Ioannes). Arbor Coksanguini* 
TATis. Printed by Creumer. fVithovi Date. 

Seemiller (to whom Panzer refers hb reader) has been unnecessarily 
copious in his description of this tract of 10 leaves. Tlie author was 
a celebrated lawyer of the xivth century ; and the present work, by the 
assistance of two large embellishments, cut in wood, illustrates the 
subject of which he treats. The first cut, on the reverse of the 4th 
leaf, shews the * tree of consanguinity ;' the second cut, being the ' tree 
of affinity,' occupies the 8th leaf. There is no prefix, running title, 
signatures, numerals, or catchwords. On the reverse of the 10th and 
last leaf, we read as follows : 

€t (it eft fitttjl Igoiafi tractate. J3Dco j^ \aafi. 

A full page has 34 lines. Consult the Incunab, Typog. pt. L p. 145; 
where Hamberger is properly corrected for attaching great antiquity 
to an impression — had it been divested of the date of 1 483. ' The same 
marks of antiquity distinguish the volume before us, (says Seemiller) 
and yet I dare not affirm that it has any pretensions to antiquity** This 
book was probably printed between the years 1476 and 1480. The 
present is a beautiful copy, in elegant calf binding, with gilt leaves. 


925. Apocalypsis Sc". Ioannis Evangelistjb/ 
Printed from TVoaden Blocks. Folio. 

Second Edition. This very cleaa and desirable copy of the secondj 
impression of the work, so copiously described at pages vii-xv, in our 
first volumey exactly corresponds with the detailed description of it, 
by Heineken, at pages 350-3M» of his IdSs O^nirakj 4*^.* There is 
howerer a slight variation ; arising only from a transposition of those 
leaves, which he designates as the 43rd and 44th, to the 37th and 38th. 
In every other respect the resemblance is complete. The reader there- 
fore has only to inspect the pages of Heineken, with which I may 
presume him to be acquainted. In the whole, there are 48 leaves, or 
large cuts, generally divided into two horizontal compartments. One 
of these leaves, usually that to the left (for the cuts face each other) 
has a letter of the alphabet impressed in the centre, or on one side^ of 
the upper compartment. The other leaf is destitute of a signature. 
There being, therefore, the whole of the alphabet, or 24 letters, im* 
pressed on one leaf or the other, if we double that number, it will 
give us 48 leaves. 

The copy under description, lilce the greater number of those of 
this singular work, is coloured in the rude style of the times ; and has 
been recently bound in dark blue morocco^ by C. Lewis. 

[117*]. Appianus. Latin^. Printed by Pictar^ 
Ratdoltj and Loslein. 1477 r Folio. 2 Vol. 

The description of this beautiful, but by no means rare impression— 
which occurs at p. 954 of the first volume of this work— being im- 
perfect, in as much as it notices only ihefini volmne of it — ^the reader 
is presented with the ensuing. 

The first volume presents us, on signature a i, reeto, with the pre- 
fatory address of P. Candiuus, the translator, to * Fbpe Nicolas V.* 

* Hetncken procured F^pillon to make a fiM^dnile of the fint cot, in wood. The 
ParUian artift did not ezecate bii talk with that strict fidelity which hibliqgn^hical 
accuracy reqairet. The ftc-dmile which iq>pean in Heineken*! hook, p. 350, b rather a 
general reaemblanoe^ than a lineal repmentatkm, of the original. 


Xlieproheoieof the author Minself, follows on a 3, nclD. OnthereeCo 
of a 7, the first book of the history be^pns. There are^ uniformly, 
marginal printed memoranda, relatmg to the subjects of the text. Thie 
signatures to t, inclusively, run in teii^ t k^l^m^ add ft, hate eadi only 
8 leaves ; but o has 10— on the recto of the lOih of which we read 
tile following imprint : 

Impressum est hoc opus Venetijs per Beroardu picto/ 
rem k Erhardum ratdolt de Augusta una cuni Petro 
loalein de Langencen correctore ac socio. Lails Deo. 


The reverse is blank. The second volume begins, on the recto of 
a €| with the prefatory address of Candidus to Alfonsus, King of 
Arragon and Sicily. This address terminates on the reverse of the same 
leaf. On signature a 3, redo, the heads of the chapters are stated. 
On a 4, recto, the first book of the history begins. The signatures are 
thus arranged: a, b, c, have each 10 leaves: d, 13 : the remainder, to 
f, inclusively, have 10 leaves each. On the recto of x 10, is the 
imprint : verbally and lineally the same as is the above to the first 
volume. The reverse is blank. We may however just remark, that the 
border, to the first page of the first volume* is printed in red — ^while 
the same, to the first page of the second volume (varying, in occupying 
only 3 sides of the page) is executed in UacA»— with great elegance and 
effect It is hardly possible to possess a finer copy of these beautifiil 
volumes, than the one under description. Bound by the late C. 
Herring, in russia. 

926. Aquinas (Thomas). De Periculis circa 
Sacramentum Euc ARisTiiBy &c. fVitkout Name 
of Printer^ Place, or Date. Folio. 

A prefix in ms., by the Noble Owner of this copy, informs us that 
this little tract is not ' described by Panzer.* The character of its type 
is certainly that of Gunther Zeinbr — in his edition * De Claris 
Mulieribus * of 1473, and described in the ensuing pages. There are, 
in the whole, but 7 leaves : the first 7 pages of which relate to the 
accidents or errors that occur in administering the sacramental eucha- 
ristp— and of their remedies— as the ensuing title announces : 


C€eadatii#^^ H^ttOhf Jritijjtifitftn^ ctaa fittmrnnita 
tiuanittt* t uc tttncD^ (onuuwni* qc otcttp lonctt 190^ 
tttt ht cKpttM fdirftfg nicipit* 

These * dangers ' are xiii in number. On the recto of the 4th kaf, 
at bottom, we read the prefix to the second treatise, thus : 

ttonem tomitiljle BavUm ffSxattc inctptt. 

On the recto of the 7th lesl, at bottom, the imprint is thus : 

tt^'a Gamti ^^oautu iufoi^ ab 
conittififoin flatitotc jfdkiUif fiitit* 

The reverse is blank. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor 
catchwords ; and a full page lias 34 lines, llie present is a clean and 
ahnost uncut copy, elegantly bound in calf| with gilt leaves. 

927. Aretinus (Leonarrus). D£ BeljLo Itaugo 
ADVERSus GoTHos. Printed by Numeister. 
Foligno. 1470. Folia 

Editio Princbps. This is a beautifiil copy of the^ni prodiic^tofi qf 
Nummiefi Press. The character of the type may be oisily asoeltaineH 
from a view of the Ikc-simile of the Dante of 1479, at p. 99 ante: 
except that, in the impression before us, the letters have a sharpness 
and neatness of execution, not discernible in the work referred to. 
This necessarily arises from the newness of the fount of letter in the 
present performance. The volume under description is without si^. 
natures, numerals, and caU^ords^.aDd a fiijl pagt contains ^ lines. 
On the recto of ike firit tea^T^^ to^mi lebd the codiitakikieiiehlVif the 
work, with the prefix, in the.foUowing manner : 



THih M>mB - lOeVNPIYS 

milufoiUyKt Jtali^.felkitite l{ clades 
referre : tn quiatenpom sic tnkroot 
sequemur ic nos fortune mutabilitB/ 

oCC* flCCa oCC« 

The IVth and last Book e^da on the recto of the 7M and last leaf ; 
the subjoined colophon : 

, <*4 - 

HuDC libellum Emilianus de Orfinis Eulginas 
klohannes Nameister tbeutunicus :* eiafq; aotiif 
feliciter impresserunt Fulginei in domo eiusde 
Emiliani anno domini . Millesimoquadringete/ 
aimoseptuagesimo feliciter. 

Tbe reverse is blank. Iliere appear to have been two copies of tlus 
rare book in the Crevenna Collection. One of them» like the present, 
having the above peculiarities in the colophon : the other» in tbe last 
line of the colophon but one, being thus distinguished : 

moseptuagesimo. . 

See the BibL Creoenn. vol. iv*. p. 102-3. The copy in the Valliere 
Collection was sold for 158 livres. The present clean and large copy 
is bound in red morocco. 

928. Abistoteles. Pboblemata. DeVitaAbis- 
TOTELis. fVithout Name of Printer y Place y or 
Date. Quarto. 

On the recto of the first lea^ we read the following title to both 

^roblemata 9lre0tote^ 

• Sic t Sic 



uOOp nuHic^* tmn aunKiu 9fQSio» vmii tnont 
iiutKicc iMjf (ci^tis t jAdfiittictist inctto'zp cum itttts 
Itittait 0iOjBtti Gattmtialtbtijet ti^jtojaiitioiiiliUiBt. ^ 

On the recto of a if, the Problem begin, and end on the recto of 
/ it;, in sixes. On the reverse of the same leaf — accompanied by an 
interlineal interpretation, and occasional annotations — begins Hie 
monkish-metrical I^tofihe Author, thus: • 

3&tttn cau(a mum mtoc jftttepaujAi 
€imsi foctuca totuc qimu^ ^enttuta 
4^mitta lutucaitjl. quijet yec jsremla tmratt^ 
a^im mi|^ tnuam cdt ht gi^^ttj^m 
Heenantem tttum. jertt in iitta tnupon mecum 
ai^e htnt tonfottsxi^. «imul atq$ luuamina poctatur 

oCC* oCC* oCC* 

This latter ends on the recto of ^ vj, in sixes. The edition, which is 
printed in a handsome gothic character, seems to have been executed 
about the year 1486 or 1490. The copy is clean and almost uncut. 
Elegantly bound in dark calf, by C. 

929. Art£ BELr BEN MoRiRK 1490. Quarto. 

This elegant little impression of an Italian version of a work beibfe 
copiously described (see vol. i. p. xv — xxiv) seems to have escaped 
Panzer ; since he notices no edition, in the same language, between the 
years 1488 and 1491. On the recto of the first leaf, at top, we read 
the following title : 

4^ttta (q^eretta tcacta hdiaett l»i 
btn monte tuK in scfltis ti liio« 

On the reverse, we observe an elegant wood-cut— evidently the com- 
position of an Italian artiat*- within a border of equal merit* The 
picture of the Virgin and child is upon an altars before which, a 
man and woman are, separately, in thi^ act of confession. On the 
recto of the ensuing lea( a y, we read a title of some importance-* 


at it ialbnn* ui of the date of the^eoinpotition of *:the work; namely^ 
in 145$: so that the.antiquity of thf; imprea0ioii8.of it is not^so semote 
as the rude appearance of the earlier ones might justify us ip concluding. 
The title is thus : 

€touticta d vauai tieOarte lid hm mottce : cioe 
In 0CAtta in tin : Conq^flato tt nmipOjBKo pit tntttntto 
(Aim iSt^ott 0iQtuKt ^esMxuit tA ficniio* ^ItinotiBt* 

The signatures, a«iid 6b run in eights: chasiokafvs. Ontherecto 
of c X, at bottom, is^this colophon : 

^fttampafeo faipittfiia tpeatttitfiBamttd hm muotice 
c9 1i fiirnve accmnotiati per S[o||atmf debt e |Mero t|tmd 
tie oiItnania« l^ejli anai tid fiigmte. ^9* tttcJxvxx* 

The reverse is blank. The wood-cuts in the body of the work 
(resembling those of which fieu^-similes are giren by Heineken) must be 
understood to be the productions of Clun and Himbl — ^which partake 
of the coarseness of their German origin— and not the frantitpiece 
above described. Heineken has noticed an impression of this work 
in the Italian language ; although he might have mentioned (had he 
seen it) the superior elegance of the edition put forth by IMQscomin, at 
Florence; in quarto^ without date; which contains designs of no 
ordinary merit.* The copy under description is a clean and very 
deinrable one : in blue morocco binding. 

930. Athanasii Commentarii in EpistojLas 
Paum. Latin^. Printed by Ulric Han. Rome. 
1477. Folio. 

The present is the first work, described by Audiffredi, in the year 
-1477 ; wlio notices eight copies of it— exclusively of two other copies 
mentioned by Laire. Thfe volume can -therefore have no pretensions 

^ Fao-rimiles of some of the cuti in tUi interotiDg impressiou will be seen in the 


to great rarity. Laire who, in his first performance,* rarely de- 
scribes any work without a blunder, is sharply chastised by Audiffiredi 
for even indulging the supposition of an impression of this work, of 
the present date, having been put forth by Sachsel and GoUch. Audiffiredi, 
almost as usual, is completely successful in his refutation. See the 
Edit. Rom, p. 217. We need only be brief in our description of this 
vohime. The recto of the first leaf is blank. On the reverse is an 
epistle to Pope Sixtus IV. by Psasovii ; who is the translator of the 
Greek original. On the recto of the following leaf, we read this 

lo prima pauli ad Romanos epistola Athaoasii prologus. 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; but* in the 
whole, 278 leaves. On the recto of fol. 277, we read the colophon, 

F. Cristoforus de persona Romaaus Prior saocte Balbin^ 
deVrbe: TraduxitAnao domini M.cccc.lxix. Pootifica- 
tu P^uli pootificis maximi. Aono quinto. Et per 
ingeniosuni uirum magistrum Ydalricum Galium 
alias Haa Alamanuoi ex logelstat ciue wienea 
sem : non calamo ereoue stilo : Sed noue artis ac 
solerti industrie genere Rome impressum Anno 
incarnationis dominice M. cccc. Ixxvii. die uero xxv. 
mensis lanuarii. Sedente Sixto diuina prouidentia 
papa. iiii. 

The remaining leaf is occupied by a continuation of the arguments 
of the Epistles, and by a register on the reverse of it. The present is 
a very indifferent copy : half bound in russia. 

* Specimen, Typog. Rom. 1778, 4to. 

VOL. IV. 3 M 



fVithout Place or Date; but printed in the 
Office of Fast and Schoeffer. Quarto. 

This appears to be the earliest impression extant, separately executed, 
of the above work. Schwarz (to whom Panzer refers his readers) is 
well worth consultation. The type is the smallest of the founts of 
letter used by the above printers ; and similar to that of the Dwrandm 
and the Offices of Cicero: but whether, from hence, (as Schwarz would 
seem to infer) this tract were of equal, or remoter, antiquity than either 
of these latter works, is extremely questionable ; for, from a similar 
mode of reasoning, it might have been published in 1473 ; since it 
contains the same water-mark {the grape) which we observe in the De 
Cmtate Dei of St. Austin, of this latter date. Consult the Friin. Doc. 
pt. ii. p. 2 1 . From this authority, it iqipears to be doubtful whether 
St. Austin, or Honorius AuousTonuiiBNSis, be the author of the 

The description of this tract need be only brief and explicit. The 
recto of the first leaf is blaiik. The table begins on the reverse of it, 
and ends on the reverse of the second leaf. On the recto of the 3rd 
leaf, we read at top, 

S[nc^ pl^emtfl li&dit* 

The proheme occupies *l pages : and the entire work comprehends 
xliii chapters, or 34 leaves, including the table and proheme. A full 
page (fol. 8) contains 28 lines. There are neither numerals, signatures, 
nor catchwords. On the recto of the 34th and last leaf, we read the 
concluding line, thus : 

3llti0Uj^ttm tie tore tjtte )0mc9e ItMIUjBt tq^. 

The device of Fust and Schoeffer (the shields, printed in red) is 
beneath. This is a sound and clean copy; bound in olive-colour 
morocco, by C. Lewis. 


932. AuGUSTiNUS. Db CiviTATE Dei. Printed by 
Vindelin de Spira. Venice. 14/0. Folio. 

On examining vol.*ii. p. 2549 it will be seen that, although ther 
colophon of this work be there given, no copy of it was, at the time 
of introducing such colophon, in the possession of the Noble Owner of 
this Library. The present was obtained from the Alchorne collection. 
This book is indispensable to the collector of early typography, since it 
is considered to be the first volume printed at Venice in the year 1470. 
In the colophon, the printer notices the previous labours of his 
brother John — and of his having commenced the printing of the 
present work — but was ' carried off by sudden death/ Consult, in 
addition to Panzer and Lichtenberger, the Suffragium pro Joanne de 
Spira, by Denis, 1794, 8vo. Clement, (BibL Curveuse, vol. u. p. 362) as 
might be expected, is glowing in his description of this fine volume. 
There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and the pre- 
fixes to the chapters are uniformly omitted. The work commences 
with an index of 14 leaves^ to which the following is the title : 

Aurelii Augustini de ciuitate dei 
primi libri incipiunt Rubricae 

' This index,' says Laire, ' has a peculiarity in it — ^inasmuch as, by 
giving the first word in each chapter, it answers the purpose of a 
register.* Index Libror. voL i. p. 217. The imprint, before extracted, 
is as follows : 

Qui docuit Venetos excribi posse loannes 
Mense fere trino Centena uolumina plini 
£t totidem Magni Ciceronis Spira libellos: 
Cpperat Aureli : subita sed morte perentus 
Non potuit Ceptum Venetis finire uolumen 
Vindelinus adest eiusdem frater : Sc arte 
Non minor : hadriacaq; morabitur urbe ; 

M . CCCC . LXX . 


The fine copy of this beautiful book in the Roxburgh library was 
noticed at vol. i. p. 173, note. The Duke of Devonshire parted with a 
fine duplicate copy, reserving one priktbd upon vellum;* which is of 
the utmost rarity. The present is an indifierent copy, in russia binding. 

933. L'Abuze en CouRT.f Printed by Scherwk. 
Vienne (in Dauphiny.J 1484. Folio. 

This is a very rare, whimsical, and amusing piece of old French 
prose and poetry. It is embellished with various wood-cuts, not quite 
of the rudest execution. The volume is also a typographical specimen 
of some curiosity, since there are few books executed at Vienne, in 
Dauphiny, and bibliographers appear to have had but an indefinite 
knowledge of it. La Caille, p. 44, had entitled it * Labuz^ de Cour ;' 
for which he is corrected by Maittaire, on the authority of Du Verdier, 
p. 102. The note, in the AimaL Typog, vol. i. p. 453, oliserves that 
' only one edition of it was known, printed at Lyons, in 4to. without 
date/ The BibL Baluziana, vol. i. n**. 5288, is there referred to ; but. 
In that catalogue, the impression is entered as ' Vetus editio,' and is 
called * L'abus^ de Cour.' Panzer, vol. iii. p. 527, n°. 4, refers to the 
Cat, de la VaUiere^ vol. ii. p. 278 ; where there is only a brief entry of 
the title, and the book was sold for a mere trifle. De Bure, in his 
BibUogr. Instruct, vol. iv. p. 240'1, seems to think this edition much 
posterior to one of the supposed date of 1476. He does not, however, 
mention whether this ancient dateless impression contains cuts. 

The impression commences (on the recto of what may be considered 
aj) with a title, at top, in gothic capitals, thus : 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf the text 
commences. The impression is executed in double columns, in a large 
gothic, and somewhat coarse, character. The work is conducted in 
the form of dialogue ; in which the actors are entitled Labuze, Abus, 
Folcuider, Folleboubance, or La Court. I select a short specimen of 
the poetry on the recto of c vij : 

* Laire meotions a vellum copy of an edition by V. de Spira, without date. Ibid, 

t This Article sliould have been described as the first in th^ Supplxment ; but it was 


AlSus sert du cdduire en court. 
Abu8 lea abuzes pour mene* 
Abus promet & ne se court 
Abua prent du seruat la paine. 
Abus tire lung lautre maine. 
Abus les promesses depart. 
Abus labeure en euure vaine. 
Abus iarnais d' court ne depart 

Si lug ne ma lautre me sent. 
Si lung me sent lautre me suit. 
Si lung mote lautre descent. 
Si lung descent lautre bruict. 
Si lung est bien lautre lung nuit 
Si lung sen va lautre sen vient. 
Si lilg est seur lautre est d'struit 
Par moy aous ainsi aduient. 

On the recto of d v, and last leaf, we observe a wood-cut with this 
prefix : 

Comment laEnije fitt mene a 

The wood-cut describes him hobbling with a staff, a woman blinding 
him, and a man bufietting him with a hat. On the reverse we read 
thus : ' Or as tu ouye & bien veue toute ma vie & la verite de mo 
fait. & comme ie fiiz mene a lospital pour le guerdd de ind seruice & 
la recompence de mon temps perdu. Et vueillez toy & les aultres qui 
a lire vous esbatres mieulx penser & de meilleure heure a vostre fait 
que Je nay fait au mien & a ceste dagereuse actente ne vous asserues 
de la quelle sont peu de saiges personne au dangler & pour ce garde qui 
se aymera. AMEN.* 

Beneath, about the space of two lines, we read the following 
imprint : 

€p ftm tt ptt^mt Ituce appeHe XaSiu$e en unxet. 
Slmpnmeatitennei^atmatOccel^tens Xan 

mH. ^€tf » I j g j c j cU t| > 

The present sound copy was obtained of Mr. R. Triphook, and has 
been recently bound in French calf binding, with gilt leaveSy by 
C. Lewis. 


934. BiBLiA Sacra. Germanic^. Without Name 
of Printer J Placey or Date. Folio. 

I take this to be the edition which Panzer describes at page 13 of 
bifl Annalen der altem Deutschen LUtercUur 17&8» 4to ; and of which he 
assigns the execution to the press of Conrad Fyner of Esslingen. 
Clement, to whom Mercier (Suppl, au Marchand^ p. 25» edit 1775,) 
refers his reader for a particular account of early German Bibles* 
appears to have omitted to notice this impression : or, if he have 
described it, there is no small difficulty in discovering such description, 
in the elaborate and desultory notes which accompany this part of his 
work in particular.* BibL Curieuse, &c. vol. iii. p. 305, &c. 

As to the probable date of this impression, we may conclude, from 
the wood-cuts introduced into it, that it is not earlier than 1474 : 
perhaps full as late as 1477* The type is small and barbarous, 
and has certainly a general resemblance to the form of Fyner*s charac- 
ters. The edition is executed in double columns, and a fiill page 
contiuns 54 lines. There are running titles as fiair as the xxvth 
chapter of Genesis; but afterwards they cease to be introduced. 
Neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords, distinguish this impres- 
sion. On the recto of the first leaf, over a wood-cut of St. Jerom, 
sitting, we read 

^^tt l^t ftt!^ an trie tyoQxIi itM trie t^sitttA tK|t 
jgoustn pttt0ttt9 itoxt ^eeoiuini ^ ^^ntunttni M0n 
al en gotitcl^en Ijtittonen ti' fttnhtt 1n6ttt im ftiibli 
SDajEt tttt ta^ttei : 

Each chapter is designated by its particular number. As £aur as the 
Proverbs of Solomon, the wood-cuts in this impression exactly resem- 
ble those in Sorg's edition, printed at Augsbourg in 1477» and 
described at p. 50-52 of the first volume of this work. The reverse 
of the leaf, where the Psalter terminates, is blank. The cut of Solomon, 
prefixed to the Proverbs, is the same as that which we see prefixed to 
Ecdesiastes. The Ilnd Book of Machabees ends with this imprint — 
ovCT a wood-cut : 

* If Clement had mentioned the number of lines in s fall pa^e, in the particular edition 
which he describes, much Ubour might be saved. 


ii^€ i|^€ e3i0 CiRS) aiU^ ^1^^ 

Immediately, on the recto of tlie ensuing leaf» begins the prologue 
of St. Jerom to St. Afatthew*s Grospel : on the reverse, the Gospel 
itself begins — preceded by the same cut as the one of which a £sic- 
simile is given at p. 52 of the volume just referred to. The xxiind 
and last chapter of the Apocalypse ends over a wood-cut of the 
Crucifixion. A table, of the number of chapters in the Books of the 
Old and New Testament, is on the reverse of this leaf. No imprint 
whatever is subjoined. This is a sound and desirable copy, in old 
vellum binding. 

935. BiBLiA Sacra. Crermanic^. fVithout Name 
of Printer y Place, or Date. Folio. 

This is the edition described by Panzer as the xith in order of those 
early German Bibles which were printed without dates: see his 
Deutschen Litteratur, p. 13. We need only b$ brief, but particular, in 
the account of it. The Old Testament has CCCC viij leaves, numbered 
on each side of the leaf; which is of unusual occurrence. The New 
Testament has C ii^ leaves, numbered in like manner. There are 
neither numerals nor catchwords. The impression is executed in doable 
columns ; a full page containing 57 lines. The t3rpe is taller, and has a 
broader face than that of the precedii^ impression ; and the vrood^cutoy 
with which the book was intended to be adorned, are uniformly 
included within capkal initials. These cuts are sufficiently gross; 
but evidently of a date not much earlier than 1480. The first two 
leaves of the impression contain a table of the chapters. There are 
running titles throughout. On the reverse of folio CCCC vi\j, the 
imprint to the Ilnd book of llachabeet is thus : 

■ «III4 

tiajt man ttcnntt jn iatitt ftl^ftc||cdtonint* 

The prologue to St. Matthew's Gospel follows. The first 3 leaves 
of the New Testament are not numbered, but the 4th is regularly 
numbered. On the recto of the C ii^ih leaf of the New Testament, at 
the bottom of the first and only column, we read : 


4Uti cttftt ||0tt tULft Bd^ btt l^cini^ 
{tcj^ ofBntfiantttg jftmt 3(0]^^^ 
tu0 $tkidf{1iotat tnib dnonsdiisnf * 

The present is a sound copy ; in old yellum binding. 

936. BiBLiA Sacra. Latin^. Printed by Coburger^ 
Nuremberg. 1480. Folio. 

Few presses, in the xvth century, put forth so many magnificent 
impressions of the Sacred Text, as that of Koburoxr ; whose name, 
on every accouut, entitles him to rank among the most distinguished 
printers of his age. The impression before us is executed in the usual 
large and handsome type of the early Nuremberg press; and, ac- 
cording to Panzer, is only a reprint of the previous one of i479» by the 
same printer. Seemiller says it is a paginary, and even, for the greater 
part, a lineal reprint of the previous edition of 1478*^3130 executed by 
Koburger — * so that, at first sight, both the editions might be taken 
for one and the same.* Incunab, Tifpog, pt. ii. p. 59. Seemiller notices, 
however, a few slight variations in the disposition of the text. 

The recto of the first leaf is blank : the reverse contains a table 
referring to the leaves where the books will be found. On the recto 
of the following leaf, numbered FoL j., the prefotory epistle of St. 
Jerom begins. The leaves, to the end of the New Testament, are 
regularly numbered — as far as folio cccdxj — on the reverse of which is 
the ensuing colophon : 

$llnno tncamationiit tifiice* H^SU^imti qua 
tiringattejerimooctua0tje^o. 0^ Htxa W 
octauotiedmo. 4g'iiustistte lieteeM tumtq) te 
Qanutttt ifffa0. turn texamibt mmg^ta 
mttvn amtoctKDtttjjif. ^n lautioti a glortam 
teatcte at ittfnuttnte tnnttat^. Sintemeta' 
tetnrsmiCgj a^ane impretjlum. ^n iqmpttio 
j^imilbergR. ptt ^ntotiit^ €obiicgn pfiatt 
tiffB^i tncdiam ittfitusttna ctmtjec § tul^sfttf 
Gme fafoxfiactum. Gvit UMtxttt : 


The 6 feUowing letcfo^ inthontflmnMnK contain the epiille ol 
Menander, and the OiBM of the ETBDgelist ; as in theeditionof 1478* 

The epfaOe of Menaoder ia dedicated to lacobna de Ytanaco. TUa 
impression has neither sfgnatures^ nor catchwords. The present is a 
copy, in russia bindii^ : htan the Akhome collection. 

937. BiBLiA Sacra. Germanic^. Printed hy 
Koburger. Nuremberg. 1483. Folio. 

This impression has some pretension to the eulogy bestowed upon it 
by Clement. It is finely printed, in a fiiU flowing character, upon 
paper of an excdlent ^naUty-^* giving (says Clement) an agreeable 
idea of the degree of perfectite to wiiich the art of printing had attained 
about thirty years after the f^vte^on of moveable types.* The wood- 
cuts, which the same bibliographer derignates as * exceedingly well 
engraved,' are in outline, upon wood, and rather above the ordinary 
degree of merit of embellbhments of this period. They are here 
coloured throughout the volume. Hie prefix to the prologue of St. 
Jerom is thus : 

i^ l^eBet an trie ^?i«(ttl ^ ^ep^^ 

The leaves of the Old and New Testaments are numbered, conseeu- 
tjvely,* to fbUo CCCCCLXXXTII : on the reverse of which is the 
colophon, in 19 lines — the 10 last and most material lines being thus : 


tntnj^ Attti[)oiititin liJlmygflf in tec Iji&lt^flt ittp 

^^^^^Jf^h^m^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^a^^a^u^^^L ^^^^^w^A^^^^V^^^^^^^ ^^B^^^^X^ ^^^^^a ^^^a^ 

jKntcgett npcQyisc Jinimiim0* ffeo^ mt tsp 
ittttt tttitti ttt$ fttftts^ tec gnisteti* itutp!fftn 
l^utitect tittfi in tem tncptnlMK^Qiffieiti iac» eon 
tnontaa natb ^muuauit* tUD lodl'icb tyoUnSc 

• There b s tbak lenf, in fiib copy, inoDQedii^ fiJ. T.—iipOB wMcb tfae fint diapter of 
Geneot begins. 

VOL. IV. 3 N 


tifllttsittit* VfH tpnitftn tocGnt* tuni iMttt ^ iiQ 
fint tmtiti don ^(pligctt gcpOi* Iw te Uto Inndi 

lliere are running titles throughout, hut neither sigiiatures nor 
catchwords. Clement has devoted not fewer than 6 pages of notes to 
a disquisitifin upon this impression — - the. most material part of wfaidi 
consists in informing us that, according to Reimman,NicoLAS Sybee was 
the author of the German version : — ^that Michaelis affirms the translator 
to have occasionally introduced certain words (by way of paraphrase) 
into his version, in order to throw more light upon the text ; and that, 
the text 18 purer, in many respects, than that of preceding versions — 
yet not without a repetition of a great number of previous errors :— 
that Mayer, (in his Hist. Fen. Germ. BiUiar. D. M. LiUherU p. 184), 
supported by Eccius, has freely remarked that Syber has not fbUowed 
the ancient texts printed at Nuremberg and Augsbourg, because he 
tried to make too literal a version (word for word) of the original Latin* 
and frequently misunderstood his original ^r-hence his translation is 
often unintelligible or false. Serpilius made a difierent discovery. He 
found out that the divisions of the CXlXth psalm were preserved by the 
letters of the Hebrew alphabet; but expressed in a manner to make 
us believe that some personal allusion was intended. Sincerus made 
the same remark ; to whom Weislinger repUed— in his Armamentarium 
CaikoUcum, p. 859 — ' qu'il auroit dd dire que cek se trouve dans le 
PiMaume cxviii. ou dans le Ps. cxix. comme les Luth£riens les comptent 
avec les Juifs.* Cette remarque subtile (adds Clement) y est suivie 
d*une r^rimi nation lard^ de cinquante injures dignes de leur auteur/ 

There is a singular transposition of the celebrated passage in 
1 John, V. 7, 8;* and the wood-cut, at the head the xxth chapter 
of the Apocalypse, has been noticed by Michaelis, Sincerus, and 
Weislinger. It should seem, ftt>m the two former, that the Pope, 
in this cut, was intended to be satirised as the fallen angel ; but the 
latter is anxious to repel this attack — adding, that * the blow is not 

* The passage mm tlios— in the present iBpresflion : * Wan ^ney sind. dy da gebcn 
geiewgkuuss auff der erde. der geyst. dx waiser. rod das hint vnd dise drey sind eins. Vnd 
drey sind die da geben geiewglmiiss im HymeL Der titer, das wort vn der heylig geyst. 
vn disc drey sind eins.' fof.cccccLxzin.fw. 


oflered to the Pope, who Is already dead : and extended on the px>und.* 
* Hie punishing angels (remarks Clement) begin ni^turally with the 
Head, and continue the destruction ujpon his followers.' Consult the 
BibL CurieuUf vol. iii. p. 397-3S9. Upon the whole, this is an extraor- 
dinary and valuable impression; well meriting the beautiful bhie 
morocco binding into which it has been recently and tastefully put by 

938. BoccAcius. De Casibus Virorum Illus- 
TRiUM. (^Supposed to have been printed by 
Uusner.^ fVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

EoiTio Prikcxps. This may be considered the earliest impression 
of the above work. The printer of it has been supposed to be Humer; 
from the resemblance of the tjrpes to those in the * Preceptorium 
4 ^ Nideri/ of the date oi 1476 ; with the name of the latter expressly sub- 

joined. De Bure is in all probability erroneous in assigning to this 
work the date of ' about 147S.' Cat. ie la VaUiere, vol. iii. p 368. De 
Murr, as Panzer justly remarks, has most inaccurately conceived the 
volume to have been executed by Gunther Zainer : see the AtmaL Typog. 
vol. i. p. 86, n^ 455. On consulting, however, the Memorab, BiU, 
Nuremb, pt. i. p. SIAJthe notioe of tbe.ptesQnt edition appears to be 
vague in the extreme. The capital tetters in this impression somewhat 
resemble those of Csesaris and ^tol': see voL'ii. p. 344: particularly 
in the A and C. Hie following is'a liM!-simJle of the first line of the 
prefix to the prc^bgue; here dhrided into two. 

The lower-case type is broad bi the &ce, but the lines are not com- 
paratively thick. The prologue terminates on the recto of the 8d leaf: 
and on the reverse of it begins the first chapter— 

On the reverse of the 151st, and last leaf but 3, we read as follows : 

f tittt it&er i^tumtf a tdtfamur S[ol^atmtjB( S3oceact| 
ht cmattio* te cajfi&iuf tunnim tliii^tdiinu 


An alpluOietical table (^ the ' lUiiftiiooB Chancten* daBcribed» 
cpeoffiBB the 3 foDowing and last kavef . There aie neither nnmendi^ 
dgnntiues, nor catchwords. A fiill jpaigb has 35 lines. Hie present 
large and besutiftil wpy is bound b]r.Bo8evain» in red morocco. 

939. BocACE. Ds la Rutns dbs Noblss Hommes 
BT Femmes. Prmted hy Hum and Schabeler. 
I^ans. U83. Folio. 

We have here a very elegant specimen of the earfy Lyons press. 
This impression is eswented in a round and large gothic type, in doable 
ookimns, having a woodkmt prefiied to eack of the nine books of the 
work. These cut% upon the vdioleb are infarior to those in Pynson*s 
impresskm; (see p. 490 ante) althoqgh they are much better woriced off 
stthepress. The pre&ce and table oociqpy the first 6 leaves^ upon sig- 
nature o. The remaining signatures to ^ % o, fbUoved by A, B^ and 
C; are in eights X then D, with 6 leawi. On the recto of D yi» is the 
ensuing imprint: 

% Ia uMtt tt ftntngt te 
iiiQt (t a Bnittnictiini tK toitisi 

Sitfftt tuftOMiituuttvt jifyim 

tLtLm^2^* ^* -''^'- - *■' *^-^- - ■*'' *^ -^ ■■ ttHm^ • - 

Mwttraww.t mw nil iiipji. "'» iiPw iimiiip» 

noiinnfrf tt uttmiKtfi imffi'iiBtf 
Wtt Son fl9a.€€0C qiM« 

lttll0^(C tCOpp* 

Hie reverse is blank. The present is a most desirable copy, in 
I^nch red morocco binding. 

• Ib tfaethle it ii calkd • Ds xjl Bonni bm Noblss Hokkbs,' acc.a) iUiove. 


940. BocASSE. De La Louekge et Vertu dbs 
Nobles et gleres Dames. Printed by Verard. 
Paris. 1496. Folio. 

On the recto of the first ka( at tom we read the tide thus : 

Se ihtrete $[e^itoai^ te ia loiunge et tieetu 
^ tiobleif et dereif temejf teSj^Iate a ipim^ 
iieflemit a ^aciir* 

On the reverse is the prologue of the translator ;* preceded by a 
wood-cut— occupying, as do the whole in this impression — a square 
space, usually filled by a capital iniliaL On the reverse of a ttt» the 
prologue of Boccaccio begins ; preceded by a wood-cut, in two com- 
partments. The entire impression is fiUed by cuts ; coloured, in the 
present copy, at the time of the publication. The signatures, to o, run 
in eights : o and p have each 6 leaves : q and r, 8 : and s and ^ 6. On 
the reverse of t v, we read the ensuing colophon : 

€p Stitjtt 50ocace tuAvaSAtH et deteK Cemmejee im^ 

l^cttne a i^anjl ce jC]Ctiiit* imittMitcil mfl Qttatce ceiuf 
gtiatce t)itt0t3 a tte^ yac Sbitj^oitie tieeaeft It&rat 
It a)einmttam a pod^ Itue le pant im^ 
mage jBtatnt j^rNi y>n<yg<!iifte/ mi an igtM au pee^ 
tntet piOtee iskmkliij^^^ on int cj^ate lameK 
if e St>e inefjftisneinil leit^ ]^^ 

On the recto of the following and last leaf, is the printer's device. 
The impression is executed in long lines, in the largest character of 
Verard. The present copy, which was formerly in the library of my 
friend Mr. Utterson, is pauiTaD opov vslujh* and bound in blue 

* It begini thus : ' ALonnedr ft wyertce Pt^wii trrtawiuttiint & tm dottbttc princcssc 
ma Dtme ine ro^ne de fince.' 



U41. BoNAVENTUBA. DisTA Salutis^ &c. Printed 
by A. G. de Brocario. Pamphma. 1497. 

It 18 very rarely that we iee a man genuine specimen of early and 
elegant printing than in tbe yolume under description. It has also an 
additional claim upon the attention of the curious, inasmuch as it is 
one of the very few books printed at hmpluna in thexvth century ; 
and is the production of a printer, who afterwards secured immor- 
tality by his labours in the execution of the Complutbnsiam Polt- 
OLOT : see toL i. p. 73-6. The copy before us is almost even without 
the semblance of a blemish. It should seem that neither Maittaire nor 
Panzer had any knowledge of this impression ; as the latter merely 
refers to the former— and the former, after an imperfect description 
of it in the text, adds, in a note^ a conjecture that * the work waa 
rather printed, than composed, by Arnddus de Brocaric' It should 
also seem, from the same authority, that an edition of this work was 
printed both at Venice and at Paris in the same year with that of the 
present. AmiaL ZVpcy, voL i p. 648 1 note 1» 5L It remains to be 
concise, yet particular, in the description of this estimable little 

« • 

On the recto of the first lea^ beneath a neat wood-cut of the cruci- 
fixion, we read the title of the work; thus : 

jBDteta fidttti^ a ficato hiamSt 
tuca (tiita : nouiter ^^tetRuf ac 

\ A\\4\l 4 

On the reverse, beneath a wood-cut of the "^urgin and Infant Jesus 
(of coarser execution) we read as follows : 

SDiBitatt tstt lautian tt \At 
00 ittKcata* SDa miclit yAxtm 
ttiQ cotitBa 1jfiStt$ txui$* 

The prologue commences on the recto of the ensuing leaf, num- 
bered < fo. iL' and designated by a y. The leaves are regularly num- 
bered as far as fo. cJxiiij., on x ii^, recto— when they cease to be 



so distinguished <— without any apparent reason. The signatures 
continue in eights ; when, on the reverse of ) v^, we read 

Sundry tables begin to fbilow, on the recto of f viy — continuing 
through % 3, and 2^. On the recto of ^ iij, commences * A Contem- 
plation or Meditarion by St. Bonaventuie on the Nativity of our Lord.* 
On the reveise of 2^ iiij, begins a tract of St. Bouaventure * de resur- - 
rectione a peccato ad gratiam.' This terminates on the reverse of 9 iL 
Then a table, one leaf. On the recto of the ensuing and last leaf are 
the colophon and printer's device, The former is thus — a fac-simile 
of the device having been given in the pages just reforred to. 

tt^Samti fiotMuetttnr^ totoctjt tximii te 
tittta Cdiiittjet Ima citin ttactatit tit tdiittf cti^ 
one 1^mmi0 a peccato n pparattone ati gra 
tiam tractatUjer emenHatu j( mti^ct at retognt 
tujst: rum tabula q$ accuratif jitime con&cta felt 
tttet fintr. ^Imptetisujat paitipilone ptt tjeneta 
Meiu tinim magiftrum SCnudttiuni guffltet^ 
mum tie brocarto. ^tmo Homtttt 0^. ccct. 
)tbi|. Wit tectta menittit ttolmiiM^ 

The reverse is blanl^. Thb beautiful volume is splendidly bound in 
blue morocco, by C. Lewis. 

942. Breydenbach. Peregkinatio In Montem 
Syon. Printed by Drach. Spire. 1490. Folio. 

The copy under description appears to be considerably imperfect. It 
has however the elaborate wood-cut lirontispiece, wanting in the copy of 
the first edition of 1485, described in the previous volume of this work. 
This impression, by Drach, is not only a mere reprint of the first edition, 
but it has the very same embellishmeiits ; which were» without doubt» 
taken from the identical blocks that served for the previous (Menta) 
edition. The prints of ' Modon, Parous, Jherusalem, and Candia,' are 
the only topographical decorations of this copy. On the recto of the 


fint of tliese cuta» we observe the sigiMiture e i{^--oii the ieeoodL o--Hm 
the reverse of the last, d u Then Mlows the dedicatioii» as in the first 
edition, on the recto of signature a v. The signatures, h, c^ and dp 
appear to be wanting. All the signatures run in eights, except the last, 
p; wliich lias 10 leaves. On the recto of p 4^ is the imprint : 

jl^ntcttnctttnpeni^dtifttiotAiitinoit^^ tenttanlkft 

tlpctftt CEpitlcj^nnn in l^fmiGdciti. otiqg in monton JtpotA 
ati liiudin tt mactpef ilatficcinciin opwftlffB |^ ^ttutu 
nam pet ^j^ettvm taacfKiuan Mttabm impd&mi 9lnno 

This edition is executed in a sniall neatr^gothic diaracter, resembling 
that ofRatdolt, and with a Terjr^fUl page. The present is a dean and 
sound (but imperfect) copy; cluinsiiy bound in russi^. 

943. Bulla Pap£ Pu II. Giermaoic^ Prints 
in the Office of Ikiat anSt Schakff^, JDa(edl4S3. 

As for as Tarn able to discover, the present volume or brdduire has 
escaped the notice of i|very bibttographer. It is tbereibre, in aU pro- 
bability, unique. Ptoser, AimdL Tffpog* voL ii. p. 138, notices an 
impression of this Bull, in the Latin kmguage, of the same date with 
the present, upon the authorities of the Valliere Catalogue and Denis:* 
both of which, however, in substance^ are only repetitions of the 
description that appears in the Gsi. de GatgnaU voL i. n^ 685. The 
Duke delaVallierepurchasedthecopy of the Latin Bull in the Gaignat 
CdUection ; and we find, from the catalogue of the latter, that this Bull 
coiitained, on the recto of the first lea^ the title in 9 lines of lower-case 
type, precisely similar (as are those in the title to the present Bull) to 
the characters in the first' Psalters of 1457» and 1469 : and that the Bull* 
induding the title, consisted only of 6 leaves ; having, at the end, the 
following date : * Datik rome apud scm petru. anno incamacois dnice. 
M. cocc. bu\j« xj kL nouembris* pontificatus iiri. anno sexto.* 

• Cai.d4laVaUiere,y6Lliio.t06$: SufpLp,S4fr,w.4ti$5. 


The impression under description is printed in the German language ; 
and, including the title, consists of 8 leaves. The recto of the first leaf 
contains only the title, at top, thus : 

tft tne bid $u tattftj^ tite )m^ 
fstsSkt^a^gfin Hattet tttthabft 
puir l^enifj gefiutt Hatt Mtttiet 
ttit fiiotot Imgieu&tgett titrcfttn. 

This title is printed, as before observed, in a large lower-case type, 
exactly the same as we see in the first Ftalter of Fust and Schoefier; 
and of which a foe-simile faces the 107th page of the 1st volume of 
this work. The reverse of the first leaf is blank. On the recto of the 
second leaf, without any prefix, the text of the Bull begins thus : 

[t^]3[Ujer BtCcIrofF tgn fam^t tet ittteciit sottejer. %fim tm^ 
pthm tttTtett 8lepBt0f 1^ tafb 6e&fdtc^e getetiebiog* 
^^itt^iOi^ ht0 srotTjen p^M lutA ijtt* &:c. 

The above forms the first two lines. Each page, with the exception 
of the last, is a full one ; containing 45 lines. The type of the body or 
text of the Bull (as is the case with that of the Latin impression) is 
executed in the smallest faunt of letter used by Fust and Schoefier ; 
and is similar to that of the Durandus of 1459, and the Cicero's Offices 
of 1465-6. The last page, on the reverse of the 8th and last U^f,: 
contains only 96 lines; presenting us with the following conclusion: 

• ;•••• 4Mtai$u come ftp tantpetn tuit^Mtfi 
Ha motft^tiKttatngt \miet0 |eceat. fS^xta. tafb {jnif. 
tu^ tjfifSttu tagtfi tut heittiun tttfi vnoxK^ tun 
men nettnet $u latttt ifloimuBer. tmfinjet babftttmist 
tKfi (i^&eti Slanjsi. 

The date in both impressions is therefore precisely the same : and 
the question follows — as properly observed in the Gaignat Catalogue,— 
* is this date designative of the year of prmtingf as well as of issuing 
the Bull ?' The answer is there left to the solution of the * Gens de 
Letti*es plus instruit k cet €gard.' The answer, however, is simple and 

VOL. IV. 3 o 



obvious. How could a Bull operate without cfarcnlation? and where 
is the sense or utility of printing a Bull two or three years after it fa 
destined to take effect? But, in the present instance, this document 
could not have been published later than six months after its having 
been completed in the P^pal Court, as Pope Pius II. died in 1464 — 
just on the verge of opening a campaign against the Turks— and the 
object in issuing this Bull, was, to excite a powerful feeling against 
these heathen adversaries. Could the printers have inserted the name 
of Pius IT. in such a document, when a subsequent pontiff (Paul II.) 
was reigning? There seems therefore very sufficient reason for con- 
cluding this document to have been printed in the year of its bearing 
date, or very early in the following year. 

Neither Zapf nor Panzer, in their publications connected with early 
German books, notice this brochure ; and Wurdtwein passes over all 
mention of either of these Bulls in his Bibl. Mogunt, p. 84 : supposing 
that, owing to the ravages committed at the siege of Mentz from 1462 
to 1465, all the labours of Fust and Schoefier were suspended. Upon 
the whole, this is a very curious and uncommon specimen of the .early 
Mentz press ; and may be numbered among the chief treasures of this 
extraordinary collection. It was obtained through the kind interference 
of the Count d'Elci, at a price proportionate to its rarity. It has been 
since bound in purple morocco, by C. Lewis. 

944. Calderinus. Tabula Auctoritatum et 
Sententiarum BiBLiJE. Printed by Drach. 
Spires. 1481. 

This impression is chiefly estimable as an early specimen of Drach's 
press : the type being very different from that which we observe in 
the Breydenbach of 1490 : see page 459 ante. The first leaf is blank. 
On the recto of a ij, without any prefix, begins the preface of * Thomas 
Domiberg of Meningen, a doctor of Laws and Arts, and Consul of 
the famous city of Spires. At the end of it, on the reverse of the 
same leaf, we read 

3[ncipit tsttuc Caltinnt * €a]^ula 



The UUe Is an alphabetical one» and the impression is executed in 
long lines. On the reverse of k m^, in eights, is the following colo- 

fS^Ue mtctontatS % tm&daat q in tuiont tt 
^ecmalia ^^tlatstiib) jttSit intmct tabula 9 3[a 
bSni CidKictttt tutifcatioititi b oct o t tt fotnattCiBii^ 
ma fffHata tt 9 €||0in3 WaaaSbtts tie xxum^ 
imngQi niiiDr taotiiaay ooctocr tmnitu tone^^ 
eta (t §^etcft )Dnid[| jfcjpicijston Stn^tCncf impflb 

1 4 n K I 

The device <rf the printer (consisting of a dragon or griffin on one 
shield, and atree between two stan on the other) is beneath, very bar- 
barously executed. Fossi, as usual, is copious and exact. Bibl. MagUabe^ 
vol. L col. 449. See also Panzer, vd. iiL p. 21, n^ 15. The present 
copy is in very uncommon condition, for sixe, colour, and soundness : 
it having the appearance as if it had just issued from the press. It is 
bound, out of the original cover, in dark calf, by C. Lewis. 

945. Calendarium Ioannis Regiomontani^ seu 
DE Regio M0NTE9 Lat Germ. Printed in 1^5. 

It is not without reason that Fuizer refers us to the Prim. Quad. 
Doe. de Orig. Typog. of Schwan» pt. iiL p. 63, fbr an account of this 
very rare and curious volume ; and it is equally evident, from such 
account, that Panzer had never seen the latter part of it— -which is 
printed in the German language^ and is a version of the first par^ 
printed in Latin. Schwarz is copious and instructive; observing^ 
properly, that this is a Calendar <fit>m the years 1475 to 1513.' Pfemzer 
intimates the same. * As the Calendar was wriUem at Nurembei^, so 
(as Schwarz remarks) was it printed there.' The quotation from the 
chapter ' De conjuncdonibus ac oppositionibus Luminarium ' (ad- 
duced by Schwarz) is clearly confirmative of this inference. ' That 
both parts,' adds the same authority, ' were printed in the same office, 
b sufficiently evident: in the latter part (or German version) is intro- 

■W^^WW— fWHW— MW— —— — i— I ■ lll l ^W^^— ^WW^W^^^B^iWWP—^^^i^^WI^^^W^W^^I^'^^W^^^I 


duced, for the first time, a fount of letter which strongly resembles 
what, in the present day, we call Chancery Hand.* Recommending the 
reader to examine the pages of Schwarz, for some collateral, but 
interesting, information connected with this impression, we proceed to 
a description of the copy of it before us. 

At the first glance this little volume assumes *an interesting aspect, 
from the skill and variety of its typographical execution. Throughout 
the Calendar of the Months, in each part, on the recto of each lea^ 
we observe the same ornamental KL, by way of a running title, and 
the introduction of certain words, printed in red, with no ordinary 
skill. The figures throughout are the rude Arabic ; but those which 
we observe on the reverse of each leaf, are introduced in red ink, by 
the pen. The recto of the first leaf b blank. On the reverse com- 
mences the Calendar, or rather Almanack, with the years 1475, 
1494, 1513, at top. On the recto of the opposite leaf, the month 
of January, with the Saints Days, and Solar and Lunar motions therein, 
are introduced. This calendar necessarily occupies 1^ leaves : on the 
reverse of the 12th, is 'Tabvla Rboionvm/ Next follow the Eclipses 
OF TRfe Moon, with the running dates of 1475 to45dO: in the whole, 
5 leaves. The subject is illustrated by wood-cuts, shewing the degrees 
of eclipse. The next leaf, being a very thick one, has a wood-cut on 
each side of it: that on the recto is entitled * Jnstrvmbntvm 
HoRABVM iNAEavALivM *-* ou the revcrsc, ' Instrvmbntvm Veux 
MoTvs LuMAB. MiNVB.' The latter has two circular pieces of paper 
in the cctptre, which move as the reader pleases : beneath, we observe 
the word '. Addb.' The remaining 12 leaves treat of the following 
subjects : De Aureo Numero : De Cyclo Solari et Littera Dominicali • 
De Intervallo et Festis MobtlUms: Tabula Festorum Mobilium:* I>e 
ConjunctionUms ac Oppositionibus Luminarium: De Eclipsibus Luminarium: 
De Loco Solis Veto: Tabula Soils: De Loco Lunae vero: Tabula 
Radicum Lums: De Magnitudine Diet: Tabula QuantUatis Dierum .- X>e 
Horologio Horizontali : De Noticia Horarum Aequmoctialium : De Horu 
Temporalibus: concluding with a table entitled ' Dies Pascalis' from 
the year 1477 to 1531. At the bottom we read 


The following and last leaf contains two other cuts, printed on paper 

• Prefixed to this table, is a piece of paper, printed in the same type as that of the 
work, and pasted on : containing ' a caution in case of leap year.' 


' of aa equal thickness with the last. One of them is entitled * Qvk- 


Gbnbralb.* In the whole, this impression contains 32 leaves. It is 
• followed, as has been before observed, by a German version of the 
preceding : containing 30 leaves, and having the same cuts. On the 
reverse of the last leaf of the text, at bottom, we read 

. M. lohan von koiigsperg. 


The date of this impression is either 1475, or 1477 : the former of 
these occurs in the first table, the latter in that of the Easter Table. 
Yet it might be even later than 1477 ; since we find the first date in 
the table of the last year of the * Directorium Sacerdotum' (see p. 434 
ante) to be 1496, but the book itself could not have been published 
till 1498. The copy under description is in the most desirable con- 
dition : in blue morocco binding. 

946. Campanus. Opera Omnia. Printed by 
Bernardtis Vercellensis. Venice (1495). Folio. 

It is not a little singular that there should be three editions of the 
works of Campanus in the same year : the date of the present impres- 
sion being gathered (according to Panzer) from the privilege to the 
editor, Femus, which is dated xxvi. March, 1495 : but this privilege, 
which is dated at Milan, seems rather to belong to the Milan impression, 
of the same year : a previous edition, however, having been printed at 
Rome, also in 1495. The address to Femus, by Jacobus Antiquarius, is 
dated Milan, iiird June, 1494. This is on a ii, recto.* The present copy, 
which appears to have successively belonged to Archbishop Cranmer 
and Lord Lumley, is in fine preservation ; presenting us with an in- 
teresting edition of the works of one of the most celebrated scholars of 
the XVth century. On the reverse of the last leaf, we gather the order 
of the signatures, thus ; a to p in eights : except c, with 4 leaves : p has 
10 leaves. Then A, with 6 leaves ; and B to K in eights ; K and L 
in sixes; M,8; Aa, 2 ; Bb to Uh in eights; Hh, 10; aa^ 4; bb and 
cc in eights : dd and ee in sixes. On the reverse of ee v (ee vj being 
blank) is the following colophon : 

* A IL»t of the conteots of the ▼oiame is on a i redo. 


Impressum Venetiis per Bernardinum VarcelleDsem iussu 
domini Andreae Tonesano de Assula^ . 

Panzer is sofficiently oopidus in his references : vol. iii. p. 379, 380. 
This copy is in beaatiful condition, and has been recently bound m 
russia, by C. Lewis. 

947. Caoursin (Guillelmus). Descriptio Obsi- 
pioNis Rhopije. Printed by Reger. Ulm. 1496. 

The reader has already been made acquainted with two editions of 
this work ; one in the Italian^ and the other in the EngUth^ language : 
see pages 93, 348, ante. The present is a late edition in the Laim 
language, but it is distinguished by numeious engravings in wood, 
executed on a large scale, and in a coarse manner. There is however 
a good deal of spirit in one or two of the designs, as the ensuing fee* 
similes evince. In fact, the style of the engravings, both in the 
landscape, shipping, and smaller figures, is rather similar to that which 
we observe in the embellishments to the Breydenbach of 1486 ; and of 
which various fac-similes have been given in the preceding volume of 
this work. The type of this impression is a neat, fiill-feced gothic ; 
not very dissimilar to that of Ratdolt. The capital initials are large 
and coarse, but have a rich efiect. On the reverse of the first leaf, we 
observe a cut of the * Master of Rhodes,' and the author presenting his 
work. On the recto of a ij, the text of the History of the Siege com- 
mences. The second cut, of * The Fleet putting to sea/ is on the 
reverse of a iij. The third cut represents the * Assault upon the Mole 
and the Tower of St. Nicholas— and the battle by sea and land :' very 
spirited. Still more animated is the 4 th cut, on the reverse of a v :— > 
but to describe each individual embellishment would extend this article 
to an unnecessary length : although ' the Battle of the Turks with the 
Soldiers and Citizens of Rhodes' — with the cross seen in glory above- 
on the reverse of b ii'ij — is deserving of particular notice. The shipping, 
on the reverse of 6 v, is corroborative of what has been before observed 
of the similarity of the style of art to that of the Breydenbach. The 
two fac-similes which ensue are described by their respective titles at 
top. The first, on the reverse of c iiij, is repeated on the reverse of d jf. 
The second cut is on the recto of c v\j. 

Zpfprnuff mm HmmiiBtf tSntcij* tqiiitaiig. 

Zpffmu^ tquitaw mm qiiiliiifnam gliurritf mort fiiitimtitf. 

. i ^ kf f 

V ao 


Tbe cut, an the recto of e iy^ represents Zyzymus, the leader of the 
Turks, ' sitting at the same table with the Commandant of Rhodes.* 
The Turkish General (it appears) was mute and sulky7 till a musician 
(represented in the cut) struck up his lute or guitar— when the severity 
of the Mussulman relaxed. * At barbarus suauiori cantu insuetua: 
^udium pre se tulit nullum, donee thurcus coquinariam exercens: 
barbarico instrumento melodia edidit tunc enim erectus: pariiper 
subrisit/ It should be noticed, that this impression contains both the 
text of the siege, and the conditions of raising it ^- the corres- 
pondence between Zyzymus and the ' Master of the City * — the saib 
custody of Zyzymus in Gaul — the correspondence with Bajazet, and 
the Oration of Caorsin, the author, before Pope Innocent VIII : repre- 
sented by a large cut of the orator before the Pope.* Also the account 
of bringing * Zyzymus, brother to the Sultan, to Rome/ On the recto 
aikvj, beneath a rude cut of the author writing his history, we read 
the colophon, thus : 

9fm9re(&tm Ubiu 9 iomtni Hesev* 9mio V&t nf. a^cccc 

The reverse is blank. The signatures are in eights, with the excep- 
tion of g and h ; each of which have only 6 leaves. The present is a 
very desirable copy ; in French green morocco binding. ' 

948. Capellutus (Rojlandus) De Curatione 
Pestiferorum. Printed hy Ulric Han. Rome. 
Without Date. Quarto. 

This is rather an interesting tract. We will first state the title, 

Rolandi capelluti Chrysopolitani Philosophi. parme 
sis : ad Magistrii Petru de gnaladris de parm : Cj 
rugicuj optimum: Tractatus de curatoe pestiferoruj 
apostematum. Incipit feliciter. 

• See an impressioD of this ipeecb, of tbe date of 1485, in foL iiL p. 45r. 


A little below, the author says : ' It was in the year 1468, when I 
was at Parma, that a great and horrible plague prevailed : such as I 
verUy believe was never before seen, or likely again to occur. Neither 
love nor charity was observed even among relatives, but a sort of 
brutality and cruelty prevailed. The neighbour refused his neigh- 
bourly aid : brother deserted brother, husband wife, wife husband, 
parent child, and child parent. Men died rather from absolute help- 
lessness, or necessity, tlian from the plague. ^Vhat was worse, the 
parish priests refused receiving confession, administering the sacra- 
ment and extreme unction to the diseased. The Mendicant rViars 
and priests forbade the dead bodies to be buried in their respective 

gfaves and the sacred ground of St. Leonard was converted 

into a market place: where all manner of uproar, dissipation, and 
wickedness prevailed. Within the city itself such aUocities were 
committed as are neither to be mentioned by the tongue, nor written 
by the pen.' &c. 

The author then proceeds to define the malady, and to discourse 
upon the remedies. His treatise is very short, as the tract contains 
but a leaves. On the reverse of the 6th, it concludes thus, with the 
subjoined colophon : 

- . Mul 

ta 8c multa alia medicamia ^bus uulg9.utebaf ibi ad 
dere potuissej. que &: mihi scribeli : ktibi legeti: cete^ 
rUq; intuetibus : tediu no inferat ilia ptermittere decre 
ui. Bn Tale : &: tuu Rolandu Capellutu chry. philoso 
phu ad tua uota respirante intellige. Sed iteru te rogo 
ut omniu} rem j tuarum exituni coDsideres : 

Rome impressum p logeniosuj viru Ma 
gistru Vdalricu gallu de Almania. 

This tract is printed in the usual letter of Ulric Han ; but I have 
great doubts of its having been published ' about the year 1468, * as 
Panzer intimates. Seemiller refers to Audifiredi, and Audi£fredi 
hazards no conjecture flpon thj^ period of its execution. Edii. Rom, 
p. 380. Laire places it between the years 1480 and 1490. The 
present copy, which is in tender condition, is elegantly bound in olive- 
colour morocco by C. Lewis. 


949. Casus Papalbs, &c. Printed by Godfrey 
Back. Antwerp. Without Date. Quarto. 

This iuipreuion consists of four leaves ; the whole of which, in the 
copy before us, are aa if they had just issued from the piess ; bdng 
clean and uncut. The following is a foc-eimile of the title and fron- ' 
tispiece ; the latter tteing rather of common occurrence in the zvth 
century. It may Bcrre to shew wliat kind of title-pages were in vogoe 
at that period. 



The type is a small, close, and square Gothic. On the recto of the 
4th and last leaf is the imprint, thus : 

> On the reverse is the very singular device of the printer — ^the castle 
.of Antwerp suspended from a bird's cage— of which a fiK-simile will 
appear in the BU^Uogrcq^hical Ihctunenm, The impression has no sig* 
nature. This beautiful copy is brilliantly bound in blue morocoQ^ by 
C. Lewis. 

950. Cato. Disticha. fVithmt Name of Printer ^ 
Plac€y or Date. Octavo. 

I consider this little tract, of only 4 leaves, to be one of Htm. most 
curious specimens of ancient typography in eaistence*. The readtt will 
judge of Its rarity, when he is informed that, not only no other copy 
of it is known, but the very mentioD or knowledge of it will ia vain 
be looked for in any bibliographieal publication. This precious 
relic (for such it is properly ooosadered by its present Noble Owner) 
was discovered within the wooden coven of an ancient volume (con- 
taining several curious tracts *) in the possession of Mr. Freeling, of 
the Post Office. That gentkoMD^ with equal prompitude and libe- 
rality, made an oflfer of the contents of these * wooden covers* to 
Earl Spencer. The ofier was acceded to, upon terms perfectly satis- 
foctory to both parties. It now remains to describe a treasure of 
such singularity. 

We have here, in short, the same types with which the Spiculum 
HuMANJB Salvationis (amoug the earliest and most interesting of the 
Block Books) was executed. The public have been before put in 
possession of this fact, fhnn the slight mention of this tract in my 
friend Mr. Ottley*8 work ;t from which it seems to follow that, if the 

* Among them, were the lihkt afAriHotie, sapposed to have been printed at Oxford in 
1479 : see p. S54 ante. The * Catut PapaUi^* • Algorimmu ntmtt/ and 'Arittotelu ProMe- 
mots/ (tee pages 437, 442> 475, ante,) were abo in the number. 

t AnEitquiryintotUOri^audEgri^BgtgryrflsigrmH^ 
1815, 4to. p. S47. 


' Speculum' be of the antiquity tflsigHed to it by the eii|dite author of 
the publication below referred to, the tract before us— which may 
truly be called a mere School Book,'* — not only takes chronological 
precedence of all impressions of it extant, but, from the acknowledged 
early use of the Distichs of Cato, in the education of youth, may 
possibly be of a date anterior to that of the first Mentz Bible, of the 
supposed date of 1455 ? Such a document, therefore, throws a kind 
of reflected light upon the hypothesis of Mr. Ottley ; and goes to 
establish, not very indirectly, his conclusion respecting the period of 
the execution of the * SpscuLyii.' This singular little volume is 
printed upon thick vbllum ; and, although not in a tender, is in an 
injured state : the recto of the Snd, and the reverse of the Sd leaf, 
being soiled and dehced. This has arisen from their exposure within 
the wooden covers ; as» like, many specimens of ancient printing which 
I have seen in similar situations, these parts happened to be stufifed in 
to add to the consistency, or durability, of the binding. Each of the 
4 leaves is cockled at the top, and marked with a dark brown stain on 
the right margin. The copy has been evidently much cropt: the 
height of the page being 4 inches and {^ and the width exactly 3 
inches ; while, with the margin, it is only 5 inches and a half in height, 
by 4 and | in width. 

On the recto of the first leaf, without any prefix or titie, the prosaic 
prefietee, or prologue, begins : 

tBtn otiitnati&ttci §^ i^bttiinojf 

l^otf j9t ffuitcc tttett I lua tiunA 

fittotrftm 1 cSMSbfl q^iniotti 

eaif fore enltitnaiit majat ut gISrtoGH' 

tmietft 1 j^onotf angait jfMic te filt 

scc. see* sec 

Each page, with the exception of the last, has 21 lines. On the 
reverse of the first leaf, forming the 7th line of the text, the poetry 
begins thus : 

* See the editioD of these ' Disticha Catonis,' printed in 1475, deacribed at voL iii. 
p. S45-6 ; where, in a note, it is observed that the work under description was ' famUiar to 
yooth, and established in the schoob, since the tine of Charlcaiagnc' 

f Sc 


$[ tt» f Ottfl ttOSi' Ut tastOA tttOit 

1^ r ^difut fit vttta vOtt tiiObP 
^ V> trigtla jfen$ ne G^o twHtts efto 
1^ S ^tucS q'cif )na)j( altfBta nfiftrat 

8cc. 8cc. 8cc. 

The 8th and last page, or the reverse of the 4th and ]ast leaf, con- 
tains the 17 last lines of the moral poem, and the imprint. Of thes^ 
the reader is presented with a &c-simile of the terminating part, thus : 

The above is cut in wood, with as much fidelity, I believe, as the art 
is capable of. That the original, however, are roetal types, I have no 
hesitation in believing. After a description of such a curious specimen 
of typographical antiquity, it seems almost needless to add that there 
are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. This singular 
treasure is now preserved in dark blue morocco binding, by C. Lewis. 


951. Cavalca. Tractata contra il Peccato 
DELL A Lingua. Printed by Nicola of Florence. 
JVithmt Date. Folio. 

This impression appears to have escaped Panzer. From the imprint,' 
it should seem to have been executed by Nicolo della magna, or 
Nicolo de Todescho; who printed, at Florence, the Dante of 1481; 
the Monte Sancto di Dio of 1477; and the Berlinghieri^tSLch work 
described in the previous pages of this volume. It is executed in the 
largest type of the printer, and Hke pages are elegantly formed. On 
the recto of the first leaf, we read this prefix : 

tus sancti amen. Incoraincia il bellissimo et 
utile tractato contra il peccato della lingua Prologo 
8opra decta opera compilata et facta per frate domen- 
ico cbaualcha dauico pisano fratre predicatore. 

The work is executed with signatures, but with neither numerals 
nor catchwords. The former are very barbarously and carelessly 
executed. They extend to ^ : a having 10, but the rest 8, leaves : q 
has only 4 leaves, including a blank one. On the reverse of q 3, 
beneath the 8th line of text, we read the following imprint : 


The present is a sound, but soiled copy^<— and wormed towards the 
latter part. Elegantly bound in russia. 

VOL. IV. 3 a 


952, Cecco b'Ascoli. Printed by Philipo de 
Piero. Venice. 1476. Quarto. 

Second Edition ; and first with a Date. Although this impression 
be of less rarity than the previous Brescia edition, described at page 
SM-7 ante, yet it is sufficiently scarce to have been pronounced stqopo- 
ntUkui ; if we credit the description of it in the Bibl. Crevetm. vol. iii« 
pt. ii. D^ 4574. Brunet, in his Manuel du Ltbrakre^ vol. i. p. 885, 
edit. 1814, pronounces it to be the first; but that skilful bibliogra- 
pher is s^parently unacquidnted witk the Brescia impression. Panzer 
refers only to Denis and to the Crevenna catalogue ; so that this 
seems to have been unknown to Haym, Flonoel, Capponi, MazzucheUi, 
Pinelli, Maittaire, and De Bure. Quadrio conceived the Venice edition 
of 1478, by the same printer, to have been the first: Siona dx Poena^ 
vol. vi. p. 39. 

The copy under description is unfortunately cut down to the form 
of an octavo volume ;* and has the first 3 leaves, containing the table, 
supplied (in a beautiful manner) by a £BM!*simile ms. The table con- 
cludes on the recto of the 3d leaf; the reverse of which leaf is blank. 
On the recto of the succeeding lea^ signature a (i), the poem begins 

Incomentia il primo libro del clarissimo 
philosofo Ciecho Esculaoo dicto lacerba. 

Ltra non segue piu la no 

stra luce 

Fuor de la superficie de 

quel primo 
In qual natura per poder conduce 
La forma intelligibele che deuide 
Nui da li aninmli per labito estrimo 
Qual creatura mai no tucto uide. 

kc. kc. 8cc. 

* It is, ID this respect, a companion to the Isocrates, described in vol. iL p. 97, 98. 


On the recto of b viy we read the opening of the Second Book, 

Incomeatia * el secondo libro : de la natura 
di la fortuna : Ic come reprende dante 

Capitulo prime 

Orao nel canto de le prime 
t note 

Dico che cio che sotol ciel 

Depende per uirtu de le soe rote 
Che tuto moue sempre tuto regge 

oCC* oCCf oCC« 

On comparing these extracts with those ftt>m the first edition (see 
p. 95 ante) it will be seen that the variations relate almost entirely to 
orthography. The signatures, to n, run in eights : n has 10 leaves* on 
the reverse of the 10th of which we read the ensuing colophon : 

Finise il libro de Ciecho Esculano dicto 
Lacerba. Impresso ne lalma patria de 
uenesia p maistro philipo de piero ne 
gli ani del. M CCCC . LXXVI . 

A full page has 34 lines. Upon the whole, this volume, however 
diminished in size, is a considerable acquisition to the department of 
books in this library relating to Italian Litbraturb. It has been 
very recently obtained fh>m Fkuris, and is in old French calf binding, 
with gilt leaves. 


953. Chronicarum Supplementum. Printed by 
Boninus de Boninis de Ragusia. Brescia. 1485. 

This is a closely printed Chronicle, in long lines, in the Gothic letter, 
from the beginning of the world to the year 1485. A general table 
occupies the first 18 leaves. Then a blank leaf. On aa begins a table 
of celebrated women mentioned in the text : 2 leaves. On the reverse 
of the next leaf, are some verses of Barillus Bergoma. On a it the 
prologue begins : on the reverse of a 3, the text of the history. The 
colophon is on the reverse of the last leaf but one : 

Sftnpreflltm 29ttne pee 50ottimtm tie 5!3oitim]9i 

tie l!asulfa Sltmo VBi. O^^cccc Jnntb 

tat ^tmo JDttSbtif. 

From the register, on the recto of the ensuing and last leaf, w« 
gather the order of the signatures, thus : a and b 10 leaves : c to f, % 
a, and If,, inclusively, in eights : A to E, inclusively, in eights : F, 6 : 
G to O, inclusively, in eights : P, 6 : Q to T, inclusively, in eights. 
The register is on the recto of T viij. This is a sound and desirable 
copy ; in old vellum binding. 

954. Chronicon Regum HungarijE. Printed 
by Ratdolt. Augshcurg. 1488. Quarto. 

Editio Pkinceps ; the impression of 1483 being considered suppo- / 
sititious. This beautiful and interesting volume has not escaped the 
notice of bibliographers. Engel begins by calling it (in his usual 
manner) * Liber inter rarissimos rarior ;* and refers to Menckcnius's 
Catalogue of Du Fresne's books;* adding, that it was unknown to 
Maittaiic, and will be in vain looked for in the catalogues of UfiPenbach 
and Bunneman. B'lblioth. Select, p. 42-3. Zapf has been copious in his 
description, and has availed himself of the authority of Engel. /tugs- 

• Does he mean the oiie printed at Paris, in 1662, 4to. with the portrait of Raphael 
Trichetus du Fresnc ? — the pages of this catalogue are not numbered. 



buTg'» Bttehdruekergadikhte, vol. i. p. 84-5. Braun hu been suffidently 
particular, referring to Zapf ; Notit. Hilt, Lit. pt. i. p. 161-S. Panzer 
has quoted Znpfand Braun: Jrmal, Typog. vol. i. p. 114> a'. 79* We 
return ii> the book itaelf. 

The recto of the firit leaf is blank. On the reTerse are the r^al 
arms of Hungary, encircled by eitrht shields of coat-armour. On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, is a wood-cut, occupying the entire page, re- 
presenting the ' Hutory of Holy Ladislaus.' It is sufficiently curious. 
On the-rererse, is the epistle of Theobald Fegher (at whose expense the 
volume was printed) to ' Mathias King of Hungary and Bohemia.' On 
the recto of the succeeding leaf, signature a (1), begins the iirefatorj 
epistle of Josv db Trubocz, the author, to Thomas de Drag, Chan- 
cellor of his Hungarian M^*esly. A ' soliloquy,' by the author, follows 
on the reverse. The ' exordium ' of the history begins on a S, recto ; 
and on a 3, recto, we read the preRx to the chapter—' De generationis 
hunoru sine hiigarorum origine.' The signatures run in eights ; and 
on the recto of b iij, we observe the first of those cuts (amounting to 
66 in number, according to Panzer) with which the text of this 
Chronicle abounds. The reader has a ^presentation of it in the 
following fac-simile: 

This cut, as well as another of a similar subject (Skirmith ofCavaiq/) 
is frequently repeated.* We shall contrast it by a fac-simile of a Qmbat 

* Tlie iithcr cut represents a doxr cliarge, with > greater Dumber of asailaDU. One 
half of them have ermiDed cspa, by way of beloict], and the beater only U a protectioD to 
the face. The ullier half bavc hetmeU, aud use chiefly the kng ipear : in the oudaE ol' tliciu 


OM fo^i premising, that these rats serve, throughout the volunte, for 
eTCi7 representatioD of horse and foot actions.* The following occurs 
on the reverse of the same leaf: 

On the recto of b iiij, occurs tlie first of those PoktbaitI or thb 
Kivos OF UuiTOAKT, with which this iiApresaion is so plentifully 
embellished. The originals of these cuts were only to be found in the 
imagination of the artist who desigaed them. The reader will judge of 
the style of their execution by the following foc-iimiles. Few of them 
have so much grace of expression as that which nprearatsKiMoBiTsi, 
on the reverse of g ny.t and of which a foc^imile is on the ensuing 
page. A small portion of the back ground only u omitted : conaisthig 
of horizontal short strokes. 

i* Keu A crowned fignic, for tb« tnaDsrch of the pai^. Id tbe bsckgninnil, upon > hill, ii 
B tawa or atj. Thii cat u not ofteD distinctly worked. 

* The first 4ppearaiice of the other wood'Cut, nf ■ ikinnuh of in&ati;, ii Tea od the 
rerene of dvg. It if aicircled by m border, which U not the tmie with that abore repre- 
MOMd. No abieldi are tued in the action, and the apcar and sword are the only offcD- 
me wnqwos. It ii leu mteresting than the abuve. 

t The portrait however, of Kino SrErHEX I. (e i rect.) merits a slight mention in this 
place. The noDarch, with a long beard, is seated in his chair of stale : his right band 
hoMliiga sceptre, his left rntiiig on a ball. Two anj^ls, abore. are about to put a crowD 
opon his head. To the right of him uts a stDoll fignre, holding a sceptre ui bis right hand, 
and his head encircled by ■ glory. Abore him, is (he word < emericus.' This print bos 
perhaps the boldest effect of any ; bat as a spedmen of art, it is iulcriiM' to that of King 


We shall endeavour to afford a suitable contraat to his M^eitjr,* by 
a fac-simile of the only portrait of a Quern, throughout the volume. 
It occurs OD the rererse of m v^, and we team, from the preceding 
text, that it is intended to be a portrait of Qubbk MtST. 

* Od (he recto oi g t^ m DtMem > whole length portnit, on bonelwck, of Kiii| 
L:tD[(Lii>a I. He lakncei hii battle ue orer hit right fhonlder, and hit bead ii endr- 
cinl t>y a tjlury. His coat of amu appean oa the flank of hi* bone. 


As a variety to the preceding, the reader shall be gratiiied hj a fac- 
gimile of a character, represented in a diflerent costume, and whom we 
find, from the prefix, to be Johakmes Waywodi.* It occurs on the 
reverse of r p; : 

■ It ii ihui entitlcil : ' Dc ticctione dUi iolnnia wiyiiade b guUmatorc : ct it Utinuc 
pCT runde a dmkul wajuodk ciacla.' 


On the reTeree of t vy, the Chronicle ia brought down to the time 
of Mathias, the rdgning monarch at the period of its publication. The 
verges below * were composed on account of the electkm of that cele- 
brated character. The conchuion of the Chrontde relates 'the defecttoa 

* Maxiiaa cultn rcmnida cmq; 
egimui xxxA m^J iocimde 
festa Tictridi crndi ct beat* 
Uigiia repcDte 
VOL. tV. 3 R 


of some of the noblemen of Hungary, and their subjection by the 
King :' this closes the history on v ij, recto— all the preceding signatures 
having 8 leaves, and v only two. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, x 3, 
(x i being blank) we read an epistle of Rogerius, thus entitled : 

<Bptj$toIa nui0Mtct togett) in tnMna&tle camutt fiaj^ 
tie^tmcttSe rcgttt I^Qgane pec €attacojS( Guta etntiim 
all ^cuetettbfi tiBtn ^ti^eaiM ve^^mm^ odesfte tfu 
Ittopa fAititet im^.* 

CoDgredi gentes patrie bdieme : 

presules vere fidei: baronet : 

vrlna sanas licait cohortes 

CoUe constructu prominente templu 

olomncense : laidsq; cleris 

perstrepit roris domuDO repletom 

Creditur sacra predbus Tocatum 

pnenma: tot rectis animis dedisse : 

publioe cUunant : placet eligatur 

eoce mathia.s. 
Clara delectus ctto vota sumtt : 

oelkis iossis predbnsq; terre : 

mente discussns pie christe pro te 

flexus obedit. 
Landibus dignus placido mathias 

addit assensu diadema regni 

prepotent : regno & Citula bohemi 

Xenijs ihesti referamus omnes 

gloriam cantus : ttrepat & tubaru 

clangor : vt nobis vcniat vir equus 

terror in hostes. 
Istc rex nostras animos fideles 

alleuet pressos : reprimatq; mactct 

cum sub sectis herescs iuiquas 

q; vehementer. 
Xantus humcntem odus liquorem 

Ibquet : arcurus iadet & axem : 

qua dei causam populosq; princeps 

deserat ob te. 
We may regret the omission of a portrait of this monarch, who was not only Uring at the 
time of the appearance of the Chronicle, but who, in the cultivation of literature, and in the 
FINE LIBRARY wlilcli he left bchuid hhn, shewed what claims he had upon the gratitude of 
his countrjraen and upon the admiration of posterity- 
• This epistle is printed entire by Zapf. 


The remaining images are devotee! to this account of * the irruption 
of the Tartars into Hungary, in the time of King Bela IVth.' The 
account terminates, with some hexameter and pentameter verses, on the 
recto of y ir. On the reverse, we read this imprint^ above the device 
of the printer and the patron of the impression :* 

j^ttttitfj^tmocil l^utQattt ttffii cfitontca ht 
w tcut$td At fflttit jftitttto munbflta ffntt &« 
Itciter %x(qfcd^ erj^tn rattiolt bin ^tiitt^ 
tKjB^tmt tfAvm inUUjttna tt mtra ttniictmentit 
arte : qua mtper betietijje; ttflc %\xsa$U tt^ 
tenet nomtnatifjaiiimtisr^ 3[mptiijeti$t jectquttiem 
€i|eofiaItit feget tonthtiiet SEHttienjSttjSt 9n^ 
no jstaiuttfere tntantatieijGr tn£Deie(imo IQtittn^ 
sente$?tmo ottogeie^imo ottauo tertio xmm^ 

The register is below the device. A blank leaf appears to form the 
10th leaf of signature y. Every other signature, except v, has 8 leaves. 
This volume is executed in the best manner of Ratdolt*s press ; and the 
present copy of it is as clean and sound as if it had just issued from 
the press. It has been recently bound in russia» by C. Lewis. 

955. Cicero. Catho Major, alias DeSenectute. 
Printed with the types of Ulric Zel. Without 
Place or Date. Quarto. 

This edition appears to have escaped Panzer: see vol. v. p. 1 54-156. 
Its rarity will therefore be estimated accordingly. It may be the 
BDiTio PRiNCEPs of the work ; but it must be remembered that an 
impression of it appeared in 1469, along with the Offices, &c. by 
Sweynheym and Pannartz : consult vol. i. p. 311. The edition before 
us consists of only 24 leaves ; without numerals, signatures, or catch- 
words. A full page has 26 lines. On the recto of the first leaf, the 
prefix and commencement of the text are thus : 

* A fao-simile of this device will appear in the Bibliograpkical Dccumcnm. 


€iu 0i qntti tgfi atmto. tw^m te Itaa^ 
fin. ^tiettitunccoqutt.etuajsratpctoce 
Sjra. €t qua iiqpntiuciiet et qu^ ecit 9n 
ct|* xmt tntm tntcpt vajno^ yitfst anistt 

8cc. ScG. Sec. 

On the recto of the ^4th and last leaf, beneath the concluding 6 lines 
of text, we read the imprint, thus : 

The present is a clean and most desirable copy ; in blue morocoo 

956. Cicero. De Proprietatibus Tbrminorum. 
Printed in the character of Ulric Zel. fVithout 
Place or Date. Quarto. 

This scarce little impression, of a work fialscly attributed to Cicero, 
answers exactly to the description of it by Fknzer, The copy under 
description b unluckily imperfect in the first leaf: having part of the 
title, and the commencement of the text, torn away. Panzer however 
has supplied the title. Tliere are, in the whole, only 32 leaves ; a full 
j)age having ^7 lines. It is entirely destitute of numerals, signatures, 
and catchwords. On the recto of the 9th leaf, we see the prefix * De. 
a :' on the reverse of the last leaf but one, we observe * Dc. 31 ' — the 
intermediate letters being presented in the same order. The recto of 
the last leaf has only ^1 lines, exclusively of the colophon, which is 

WSitt ht pjpastsx&VLii tenntnozf. 
CtcenmtjBt jf tnit Mtcttec. 

The reverse is blank. Panzer remarks that the type is the same as 
that which Zel used for the De Vita Christiana of St Austin, in the 
year 1467 ; but no correct inference, as to the time of the publication 


of this tract, can be drawn from such remark : as we see the same type 
in ahnost all the productions of ZeVs press ; and the number of lines 
in a page (27) denote it to be among the later works of that printer. 
This clean and sound copy is bound in blue morocco. 

957- Cicero. Epistoue ad Familiabes. Printed 
by Jenson. 1471. Quarto. 

The rival presses of Jenson and Vindelin de Spira put £Drth impres- 
sions of this work in the same year. Both editions * are elegantly 
executed, and contain the Greek passages in print. The present is 
described in glowing terms by Crevenna, in the Bibl, Crevenn, vol. iii. 
p. 77* De Bure and Loire (to whom Panzer also refers his readers) are 
less particular than Crevenna. Maittaire is sufficiently brief. See the 
Annal, Typog. vol. iiL p. 76, n*^. 47, of Panzer : from whom the ensu- 
ing colophon is borrowed: as the copy, here introduced, being on 
its passage from the continent, cannot be described from actual 
examination : 


Opus praeclarissimum. M . T. Ciceronis Epistolarum 
Familiarium a Nicolao lenson Gallico Viventi- 
bus necuon et Posteris impressum feliciter finit. 

There arc neither numerals, sigEiatures, nor catchwords. Sardini is 
comparatively superficial : pt. iii. p. 19. Brunet says the work is in 
* large quarto,* and contains 203 leaves : see his Manuel du Libraire, 
vol. i. p. 3'i4, edit. 1814. 

* Tlie Duke of Devonshire possesses the Spire impressioo, but not the one executed by 
JenMn. If I recollect rightly, these books contain some of the earliest specimens extant of 
Greek Printing at Venice. 



ScRiPTUEiE, &c. Printed by Kmlhoff. Cologne. 
1481. Folio. 

The present is the only volume in this Library to which the name of 
Koelhoff is subjoined as the printer. Impressions with such distinction 
are very rare ; and are im])ortant, inasmuch as the evidence of Koel- 
hofiTs having printed certain books, is, in general, purely conjectural. 
Such is the scarcity of the volume before us, that Panzer refers only to 
Biaittaire, whose words he literally copies. Vogt, Freytag, and Bauer 
have been searched in vain far an account of it. It is executed, like 
a similar work of Calderiuus, (see p. 462 ante) in an alphabetical 
manner — but in double columns; and in a character which reminds 
us, at first sight, of that of John de Westphalia of Louvain. The prefix, 
at top of the first column, on the recto of a s (a 3) is thus : 

Cocortatie auctorita 

turn ^Qsxt j^mpture iXLVta ottiimm 
liIiro2p BtfiUe. in qutCi^ loci^ huctjst 
cdttonict t^ptnant ]| estcgiu Dtta 
tifiin ^oj^annf XnttsUm^ doctoci 

tAta^t ttSitttz fidictttc indptunt* 

On the recto of m viij, in eights, beneath the first and only column, 
is the tollowing colophon : 

Contot^antte l^tBlte ati liecreta 
ejcacttfiBEtme ementiate* ptt mt ^a^ 
j^nnf ibodj^off lie flvibuh €oIo^ 
tue ctuon jettutnoiere imimfjere* %tmt^ 
0tatte. ^tttdxxx^. tertta liie pa^t 
lai^aunct) maitpctjet fiejet m filmunt. 

Nothing can exceed the genuine condition of the copy under descrip- 
tion. It is large, clean, and uncut : having been bound in dark calf 
with gilt leaves, from the original binding. 


959. DicTYS Cretensis et Dares Phrtgius. 
Printed by Schonberger. Messana.\4QS. Quarto. 

This impression (the second with a date) is but of little value ; there 
having been several earlier ones published without dates : see vol. ii. 
p. 8-14. We shall therefore he brief in the account of it. The recto of 
the first leaf (a j) contains the title of the first author ; the text of 
whom terminates on the reverse of h vj. On i j, the text of Dares 
Phrygius begms; terminating on the reverse of kxj: where we read the 
following imprint : 

Finit historia antiquissima Dictys Cretensis atq; 
Daretis Phrjgij de bello Troiaaorum ac Grxcorum : 
in nobili vrbe Messans cu eximia diligentia impressa 
perGuillielmum Schonberger de Franckfordia Ala.- 
manum tertiodecimo calendas lunij. M.cccc.xcviij. 

The register below informs us that the signatures a, 6, c, e^ e, and^ 
run in eights : h and i in sixes : i in 6 : and /r in 19 leaves : the 12th 
being blank. Beneath is the printer*s device : sufficiently rude. This 
is an indifferent copy ; in calf binding. 

960. Die Erwelung, Sec. (^Printed in 1494.) 
Without Name of Printer. Folio. 

The very curious tract under description, printed in the German 
language, contains a letter of the Emperor Maximilian I, written in 
the 9th year of his reign as Emperor of Rome, and in the 5th year as 
King of Hungary. The subject upon which it was issued, as well as 
the tract itself, is best explained in the account of it transmitted to 
Lord Spencer, by the librarian of Sir Joseph Banks. 

' The letter first laments the sufferings and cruelties that have been 
inflicted on the Christians, by the incursions of the Turks ; that he 
(Maximilian), and his Father before him, have in vain attempted to 
resist the power of these infidels with the help of the sovereigns of 


Christendom. " But (continues he) that henceforth God may not any 
more be dishonoured, and Christendom delivered from this calamity, 
our Holy Father, the Pope, and Ourselves, have proposed, with the 
assistance of all Noblemen, and Knights, to repel them ; and for this 


been formed by the Reverend Prince, our dear and religious Johansen, 
Grand Master of the said order of St. Georob, and his colleagues, 
has been confirmed, and some temporal and spiritual privileges have 
been conferred on it, as the papal and our royal letters, therefore 
issued, prove. Into this order, We, in our o\ym person, enter ; and we 
intend to undertake a mighty expedition against these enemies of 
Christianity, which expedition is at least to last the next two years, 
and ^thfully to sacrifice for it our life and fortune." 

The letter then exhorts all persons of noble and knightly families to 
enter into this Ordbb op St. George, to whom is promised aU the 
land that should be taken from the infidels to indemnify them for 
their expcnces. They are to appear in harness, and in a white coat, 
with a red cross, having their arms painted on the breast and shoul- 
ders, before the Archbishops and Bishops, in church ; who are to tie 
to their right arm the insignia of the order, consisting of a Golden 
Cross, with a crown in a golden ring ; pronouncing the vrords given in 
the end of this letter. These insignia the knight may adorn with 
gold, pearls, or precious stones ; and wear on his hat, or wherever he 
pleases, before all kings, princes, and every body. Hiese knights are 
to enjoy peculiar privileges, and rank higher than all knights that may 
hereafter be created, either at Jerusalem, or on the bridge of the 
Tiber, or anywhere else. " And as we doubt not but they will receive 
the crown of heaven for their labours, we give unto them the name of 
Crowned Knights ; and ordain that, in eternal remembrance of their 
christian intention, they shall wear the cross and crovm on their 
shields, jewels, arms, in tournaments, on seals, and other ornaments. 
This privilege belongs only to their person. Their descendants of the 
same name are to have a crown in their helmet." Those knights that 
perform great achievements, are to have more crowns in their ring. 
The Grand Master of the Order is to confer on persons, that are not 
of noble family, and yet serve like the Knights a year against the 
Turks, a cross in a ring half golden, and half white, if they served on 
horseback ; and a cross in a white ring, if on foot. In order to know 
how many Knights have been created, and to be able to summon them 
in case of need, the Archbishops and Bishops are to send returns of 


them every three months. The golden seal is affixed to this letter* 
given in the town of Antwerp on the daj of St. Simon and Jude/ 

Thus much for the suhject matter* of this curious brochure ; for it 
consists but of 8 leaves. It remains to be particular in the biblio- 
graphical account of it On the recto of the first leaf, (a t) in the 
centre, we read the title, thus : 

tot^ tttc gdttontett fitter. 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a ts, 
without pre6x, the letter of the Emperor Maximilian begins thus : 

Mntg $6 a0en gotten mam tt^ Kleitfust jft 1^ 

A full page contains 45 lines. There are no running titles, nume« 
rals, nor catchwords ; and on the recto of a vj, the three last lines of 
tlie Emperor's letter, are as follow : 

; 0At^ Crifti lunkt^ litlbtn j^ecrm gepuct 

mkttii^m^miibttt tmtib im t)ienintotttmtt$t0iften 
Mnktet ISetcj^e tuff HiaASt^ im l^ettmbtett/ Imti tif 
^itngci&lien in futtffitot %atm. 

On the reverse, about the centre, we read this title : 

Wet 4!itsm tut Mamtm Ititut 
tuufb $nni tttten ttt^ JbtJfiiKtti 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf we read 

^cnnii]f WBit fAtten 

* ' AJezander the Sixth, tniio Dom. 1498, imthuted die Knights of St George; who 
wore a cross of gold, entowrcd with a circle of the same, ma^e m the form of a crown. 
Mennen. apnd Luceborg^om, m lib. de Armorom mifitar. Mjsteriis. &c. But Mecheli saith, 
that the Order of St. George, which had the foresaid cross for ensign assigned to it, was 
instituted by Pope Ptol the Third, at whose death it became extmct, and that the Knights 
of this order dwelt at Ravenna, and were obliged to secure the conSnes of the Adriatic sea 
from Pyrats. But that the order, which Pope Alexander the Sixth erected, had for ensipi 
the Figure of St. George hangbg at a collar.' Ashmole's Order of the Garter, p. 89. 
VOL. IV. 3 s 


Various detached sentences follow : when, on the recto of the ensuing^ 
and last leaf, is the concluding sentence, thus : 

tBtiH tb mee iooltett jftttta totntna, Jta mag man 
tttt (c0nt tmb ittt in tut 1M vtxotUi SHCii twt 
Jbp sMt tnxtt!^ atn j^attfibntg^ mit mtteSit^fu 
jaicl^ai 0Qtart itttttiot 

The reverse is blank. This copy is in yery uncommon condition ; 
being perfectly clean and tmcut. It belonged to the late Dowager 
Lady Spencer ; and from a ms. memorandum, in her hand writing, it 
appears to have been *Owett by Mons. Oamler^ the Emperar't Jntiquaritm, 
at Inspruck.* It is elegantly bound in olive-colour calf, by C. Lewis. 

961. EusEBius. PRiBPABATio Evangelic A. Latin^. 
Printed hy Jenson. Venice. 1470. Folio. 

Editio Primgbps. This beautiful volume is among the earliest 
^ecimens of the press of Jenson. The copy before us has the first 
page encircled by a printed, and afterwards coloured, border ; in such 
a manner as to excite a doubt, at first view, whether it be not a con- 
temporaneous production with the impression: but on dose examination 
we find it to be inlaid. I have no doubt^ however, of this border having 
been executed in the XVth century. The pre&tory epistle of the 
translator, Trapezuntius, to Pope Nicholas V., is without prefix: 
beginning thus— 

VSEBIVM P^mpbili de euymgelica praeparatione 
latinuai ex graeco beatissinie pater iussu tuo effeci. 

and ending, on the reverse of the same lea^ in the fallowing manner : 

Quare sentibus 

tuo iussu aputatis rosas solumodo latinis hominibus 
bac traductione optulimus. 

The impression is destitute of numerals, signatures, and catchwords ; 
and on the recto of the 143rd and last leaf, we observe the following 
verses and imprint : 


Antonii Cornazani in laudem 
Artificis Epigramma. 
Artis hie : 8c fidei splendet mirabile numen : 

Quod fama auctores : auget honore deos. 
Hoc lenson ueneta Nicolaus in urbe uolumen 

Prompsit : cui fcelix gallica terra parens. 
Scire placet tempus ? Mauro christophorus vrbi 

Dux erat xqua animo musa retecta suo est. 
Quid magis artificem peteret Dux : christus : et auctor ? 

Tres facit aeternos ingeniosa noianus. 

. M. CCCC. LXX . 

It maj be questioDed whether, from this epigram, the present vohmie 
be not the first book printed bt Jbnson ? Sardini so arranges it ; 
and there is no other book, with a legitimate date, which disputes its 
precedency. It exhibits every beauty of typographical execution. 
Neither Maittaire, De Bare, nor Laire^ are particularly interesting s 
but Sardini has many observations upon the supposed variations in this 
impression, noticed by preceding bibliographers. See Jnnal, Ty^g. 
vol. i. p. 965, note 4 ; BibUogr. Instruct vol. i. p. 231, n*". 296 ; Index 
Libror. vol. i. p. 820-1 ; Star. CrU. de Nk. Jauon, pt. iiL p. 2. The pre- 
sent is atall copy; but not free from stain. It is beautifully bound in 
blue morocco, by C. Herring. 

962. EusEBius. HisTORiA EccLESiASTicA. (Printed 
by Ketelaer and Le Leempt.^ Utrecht. 1474. 

Editio Princeps. This Latin version is from the pen of Rufinus ; 
whose prologue occupies the whole of the first leaf, with the exception 
of a short passage from St. Jerom— in commendation of the work. 
Then follows, on the recto of the 2nd leaf, a commendation of Rufinus, 
the translator, by Gennadius Massiliensis. A table of the chapters, in 
the XI Books of the History, immediately follows : concluding on the 
reverse of the 9th leaf from the commencement of the volume, inclu- 
sively. Then succeeds the preface of Eusebius. The volume contains. 


in the whole, 204 leaves ; without numenls, 8igii9tiireat or catchwordB. 
On the reverse of the 904th and last leaf, we read the foUowin^ 
colophon : 

fnStfi t)irS doqttfti(Qmfl to gnco in IflCiiia tratnicta. 

tjCfitat UmU, 


I know not why Padzer sbould say that Clement (Bibl* Curieuit, 
YoLTiii. p. 181-4) attrihutes this edition to the press of LP. deLigoa- 
mine ; since there is no mention made of such an edition by Clement 
himself; who, upon the wfaoie. Is rather interesting. This may be 
among the earlier productions of the above piinters, and is, on several 
accounts, an estimable volume. The present fiedr and sound copy is 
bound in russia. 

963. Festivaus (Liber). Printed by tVynkyn 
defVarde. 1496. Quarto. 

This volume having been overlooked in the account of books 
* printed by W. de Worde,' it occupies its present place. The copy Is 
unluckily very imperfect; wanting the font 8 leaves, and the re. 
maining part being in a soiled condition. It is also deficient in the 
whole of the ' Quatuor Sbrmonbs '— -«ince, on consulting the Typog. 
AnHq. vol. ii. p. S3, this latter tract appears to follow the ' Liber 
Festivalis/ NotwithstandiDg however such defects, it is the second 
edition of the work by Wynkyn de Worde, and of rare occurrence. 
It contains only one print, as fiar as I can discover — ^which represents 
St. Andrew. As this cut is executed in a style superior to those which 
we see in the volumes of the XVth century, from the presses of 
Caxton, W. de Worde, and Pynson, the reader may not be displeased 
at being made acquainted with the following fee-simile of it :* 

* For want of room, this fac-simile Is placed at the top of the ensuing page. 


This impmsion is executed in double Gohunns, and coDtains xc. 
learefl, the nunenls being printed. On the rerene of the 900th ajid 
laat leaf, we read tbe colophon, thus i 

finitft tt tomifittfi 
in IBcfiiuonAftcno 
3lnno bfB. a?* tm* 

fi cgi Ow im QnatatnK^ 

The sniall derice of Caxtoa is below. In blue morocco binding. 

964. Geeson. Collzctobiuh Super Magni- 
ficat. (^Printed by ^Fyner.') 1473. Folio. 

Htec editio (says Braon) UbUothecarnm diadiis adDtimeraii meretur, 
dnm nullus, quod uiam, Bibliographomm de ea notitiam habuit.' 
Not. Hut. Lit. pt. i. p. 169'160. The account of this singular volume, 
bj Bratin, is copiotis and intereating : and to the preceding pages the 
reader is referred for a satisbctorj descriptioDi — which is not necessary 
to be here repeated at length. Biaun is however to be corrected (as 


Ptozer properly intimates) for attributing this edition to the press of 
EggeUeyn: it being decidedly the production of Fifner of EuUngen, 
Loire has described it, but rather in a strange manner : observing that 
the pages are divided into eolumkUi-i-vrliapeas the text is printed in 
long lines— and that it is the first book, trith a date, exhibiting musical 
notes. Index Libror, vol. i. p. 301-^» What he calls musioal notes, are 
5 square spots, on the recto of the 4tl»leaf, obliquely descencUng, thus : 

which are intended to denote the five following passions or affections of 
the mind: Joyf Hape^ Comptudonp Fear, and Qrirf, Braun has added 
horizontal lines — giving the whole a completely musical ^pearance. 
But Laire is perhaps vrrong in his inference ; for the squares, being 
taken from the musical books of the choir, can only be considered as 
mere detached embeUishments : if the lines had been added, we should 
then have vntnessed the earliest attempt at what may be more correctly 
called printed music. On the recto of the 40th leaf we observe another 
whimsical adoption of the above words, thus : 









According to Braun, the first form is intended to represent a crou, 
and the second, a wheel : as the author immediately adds 

t^ar^ tdest oito tal'a tmd^ td rote f^ptratSe 
JhufBsxt m nobitf ab omtte cantimtn js^pMe tdM 

The entire work is executed in the manner of a dialogue between a 
master and his pupil. The first page has no prefix, but the text begins 
with the words as before given in the title. A foil page has 38 lines. 


There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. On the recto 
of the 167th and last leaf, we r^ the ensuing imprint : 

€t sfk tmami 1^ inaSetm tettota tgxeg^ 
a fomoitt niffft ioi^Sxaf tttfim taut ^aghte 
ttmtttc mmn canceflaril ^art^toij^ %vm 

The reverse is blank. This sound and dedrable copy, in old French ' 
morocco binding, was obtained from the library of Mr. Wodhul, as a 

965. GouDA. ExposiTio Mystebiorum Missjs^ 
&c. Printed by Jaeohus de JBreda. Deventer. 
IVithaut Date. Quarto. 

On the recto of the first leaf, above a wood-cut of the celebration of 
the mass — with the blood of Christ represented as flowing into the 
chalice— we read the ensuing title : 

tiiiiiriiniiiiBiiii rii^c4i<: 

The tract contains 18 leaves, or A, B, and C, in sixes. On the recto 
of the 18th leaf: 

€ractatitluiee fcatti^ <5uil|^ebnt De ^^oulia ortnnjit mt 
no2p tie o&trenisttd. toe]C9«^itt9eintOfeetDe mil celedtantii 
fintt ftttcttec. SinitfteOM# SMnrtum a me %9xtm. 
tie S5cetia i tfl f f i l F fl ril l i iKitoie frifiHWff H dff wHfri ittfl' 

The present copy, which may be considered as uncut, is el^antly 
bound in olive colour calf, by C. Lewis. 


966. Gbammatica Rhtthmica. Printed by JFii^t 
andSchoeffer. Mefitz. 1466. Folio. 

Editio Princeps, It 18 not without reason that Wurdtwein pro- 
nounces this book to be * cimelium summie raritatis;' since it is 
questionable whether any volume from the office of the 'first Mentz 
printers — ^including even the Psalter of 1457— exceed it on the soore 
of mere rarity. The copy under description was obtained fh)m a 
quarter * from which Wurdtwein received his account of the impres- 
sion ; and the only other known copy is that which was purchased at 
the sale of the Lomenie library, for 3300 livres, fyr the Royal Library 
at Paris. Accordingly, it is only in the BM. Mogunt p. 86-7> and Index 
Libror, vol. i. p. 62, that any satisfactory account of it will be found : 
as Zapf and Denis are only copyists of their predecessors: SuppU 
MaUt p. 1 ; JeUesie BuchdmckergeKhkhU van Mamz, p. 36. Referring 
the reader to a description of the second imprbssxon of 1468, (also of 
excessive rarity) in vol. iii. p. 69, we proceed to make him acquainted 
with the one before us. 

This edition is a thin volume, or tract, of only 1 1 leaves ;t executed in 
the smallest fount of letter of the printers. The first page, which is a Ml 
one, contains 5 1 lines. It has no prefix, but the first lini is as follows : 

<& VH^ tt'm^ ftm tttimtt ^tata^^. fotttiiB( aii itifnvr 
itac rutila ttmSnig. 

On the reverse of the 1 1th and last leaf, beneath the 13th line of 
text, we i*ead the ensuing colophon, from which the date of the impres- 
sion is obtained : 

$0ctt3e( tetticttt tubilamm 
Oi^gimda rent nu coniiit a impimit mnntjBt 
i^ na^arem if otiet otia 9 oca toj^atmtjf 
0iqi ^tttai lumhttjer ejft jfcamt^ ^enn^* 

The year, the place, and the printer (says Laire) are comprehended 
in these verses. A jubilee is 50 years : twenty-nine times 50 years 
gives us the year 1450 : to which, add twice eight, or sixteen years, and 

* From the Library of the College of St. Bartholomew, Franckfort 

t It has no teamd part— beginning < Superioribus nuper diebus'— as in the edition of 1468. 


you have the dominical year 1466, The other points need not be 
dilated upon. Beneath the colophon, are 23 lines of prose—* so obscure 
(continues Laire) that nothing can be collected from them» unless we 
are to learn that the author and printer were natives of Mentz» and that 
the work was the composition of a monk, for the use of the monastic 
order/ The reader shall have a specimen only of its commencement : 
' Idibus nuper septembris. qn inter cetera nostra que si elaborata 
adprime forent opuscula. perspecta plurimum et fratribus non minime 
profiitura censisti. compendiosam satb & banc ut aiebas gramatice 
methadu.^ longo iam annorum interuallo puta decennio pr&termissam. 
otius perfici oportere. opido satque suadere pemisus es,* &c. This pre- 
cious volume was obtained at a price proportionate to its extraordinary 
rarity. It has been lately bound in blue morocco. 


Hebraic^. TVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

The learned De Rossi, in his valuable Annak* HebraOmiypogra" 
phici^ pt. ii. p. 114-120, has given a copious and interesting account of 
this impression; which, in opposition to the received opinions of 
preceding bibliographers, he considers to have been executed at 
Mantua, before the year 1480— probably in 1476. The copy under 
description corresponds exactly with the one noticed by De Rossi: 
that is to say, it has 136 leaves, including the last blank onef — ^30 lines 
in a full page — and the impression is executed in double columns, (in 
the Rabbinical characters) without numerals, signatures, or catchwords. 
It is a volume, therefore, of no trifling value, both in a typographical 
and critical point of view; since it presents us with a very early speci- 
men of Hebrew printing and contains a text which was frequently re- 
printed in various translations. I shall present the reader with only 
the commencement and termination of the text in the impression before 
us. On the recto of the first leaf, leaving a space at top, and another 
for the introduction of the first word [dim]» we read as follows : 

• sic. 

t Within 6 leavc!i of the conunencement, 2 leftves are cut out in the present copy. 

VOL. IV. 3 T 


oCC* oCC* oCC* 

On the reverse of the ISSth and last leaf but one (the 136th being 
blank) the conclusion is thus — at the bottom of the second column : 

vrm ]T^ tito Tn3 
rrrsch'jmtx) ronton dt> 

Although De Rossi had seen three copies of this impression, he does 
not appear to have been acquainted with any upon tbllum : which is 
the case with the one luider description.* This copy was formerly in 
the Harleian Collection, but it has been most seriously ii^ured by the 
mice. In old red morocco binding. 

968. Gbegorius. Papa. Omelijb. Printed by 
Geringy CrantZy and FHburger. Paris. 1475. 

This impression is printed in double columns, and in the largest 
gothic type of the above printers. One page only is executed in the 
smaller character. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catch- 
words. A full page contains S3 lines. It commences with a prologue, 
which is succeeded by a table. This latter ends on the reverse of the 
9nd leaf, when the work begins with this prefix : 


%ttxj0 fomtt euangelii (e 

oinba iuca. Ca* xxi. 

* Perhaps, however, all the copies may have been executed upoo vellum— which is 
sometimes the case with early printed Hebrew books> 


On the revene of the 140ih leaf, at bottom, we read the imprint, 

3ititptn|K jpamtiQp ptt natya 
df / trtubnA/ tt voeastitA. 9hx^ 
mtHBi. 9^.mcAxx!b. i^pd 
ma mtns6st ^ttttSttifi fob tt- 
0e Eti^0Utco« 

The recto of the ensuing leaf is occupied by a table of the ' Sundays,' 
printed in the smallest character. The reverse of it is blank. Then 
an alphabetical table, with this prefix : 

ftcpmonum Cbu tsSwiiA yet al^^l^etiim ati taoSi 
m tq^emtt^ materia^ in 9cej9^ 
cubim HutnatK Wtt inc^l^. 

This table occupies only 4 leaves, printed in the largest character, 
and ending on the recto of the 4th leaf. The reverse la blank* The 
present is an indifferent copy ; in old calf binding, with gilt leaves. 

969. Herbabxus. Germanic^. Printed hy 
Schoeffer. Mentz. 1485. Folio. 

This work is described by Wurdtwein and Panzer under the title of 
* HoRTUs Sanitatis ; and is the only voluoie which issued from the 
press of Schoefier in the year 1485.* It is probably a German version 
of the Latin text of the same work, which was published by the same 
printer in the preceding year. For this latter consult particularly the 
BM. Crevem. vol. iL p. 139, edit, 1775 : Ibr the present work, see 
Wurdtwdn's BibL Mogunt. p. 123 ; and Panzer's AnnaUn der aUem 
Deutschen Litteraiur, p. 156. It is on several accounts deserving a plao^ 
in the library of the curious collector ; as it is among the earliest bota« 
nical publications which present U9 with plates, or rather wood-cut^ 

* Wurdtwein aaks * bow it cune to pass that so few pobKcalions issued from the offee 
of Schoeffer about this time (1480 to 1486)?* He supposes that it must hav^ been in 
consequeoce of that printer's journey to Fdestine. Urid, 


of the plants described.^ It is also a Tery early spedmen of that 
secretary-gothic character with which Schoefier generally printed his 
German works ; and which his son, John Schoefifier, used in his German 
translations of Csesar (1532) and Livy (1538). This character was 
imitated by the early Leipsic printers ; and especially by Thanner and 

It is not a little extraordinary that in this same year the Pkissauf 
and Augsbourg presses put forth impressions of a similar work : each 
with wood-cuts. Ckmsult Ptozer, vol. ii. p. 361. The former is in 
Latin, and is a reprint of the previous Mentz edition of 1484 : the 
latter is in German. See also Zaptp vol. i. p. 76. But we return to 
the edition imder description, of which the present is a large, sound, 
and desirable copy ; having, almost as usual, the cuts coloured in the 
rude manner of the time. The recto of the first leaf is blank. The 
reverse of it presents us with a large, and not badly executed, wood- 
cut—occupying the entire page— representing a group of philosophers, 
or learned men, discoursing upon the subject of the work : one of the 
prominent figures holding a plant in his right hand. On the recto of 
the ensuing leaf, begins the proheme— concluding on the recto of the 
3rd leaf. The reverse of the 3ni leaf is blank. The recto of the 4th 
leaf presents us with the beginning of the text, beneath a wood-cut of 
a flower thus entitled : 

Before we present the reader with a specimen of the style of art in 
these cuts, it may be as well to remark that spaces are left, at chapters 
xxxix, xlix, and 1, for the insertion of the engravings, which appear not 
to have been finished when the edition went to press. There may be 
other similar omissions. There is little or no attempt at shadow t in 

* Mr. Dryander, in hb Catalogue ef the Booh of Natural History m the Library if Skr 
Joseph Banks, vol. iii, p. 654-5, notices an edition of an Herbal from the press of I. P. de 
lignaniine, with wood-cuts; which, frmn the dedicatory epistle to Cardmal de RoTere» 
he thinks could not have been published later than 1471 ; as, m that year, the Cardinal was 
elected Pope — Sixtus IV, 

t * Not Padua, as at first might be mferred,' says Panzer. Sir Joseph Banks possesses 
a copy of this Passau edition : which has German translations of the characters of the plants 
descnbed — ' quod a typographicu Italico (addsPanxer) vix ac ne viz quidem expectsndum 

t The fruit of the Jvn^ Tree, at chapter ocfviij, is the largest surface of printiDg ink 
which I discover m the volume. 


these eng^vings ; and the following, of the Lettuce, is, upon the 
whole, as neat a specimen Bs can be adduced. It precedes the Gczxiijrd 
chapter, and is entitled as below : 

At chapter ccItjj. the Mattdragora is represented as sprouting out of 
the head of a tnaU figure; and prefixed to the ensuing chapter, we 
observe it thui: with the subjwned explanation— cominencing at (he 
cc&lviijth (instead of cclviijth) chapter. 



lid^ ba$ lii% fdlnm ^t tnc 
CAbc tio0nit mitbct ctftcn 1Mb bac 
)nnli beCt^r^ ic^ nit mecti bac bmi 
\Dnti sAfi bn 0c|[tocrt Q^f't iu teiti ca^ 
pitti fuc biftin. 

A few Animal*, ure also repreacated in this inqireasioii ; executed in 
pretty much the same style as the pUots. The edition is destitute of 
numerals, signatures, and catchwords; but it contiuna cccgxxxt 
chapters, succeBairdy marked. The text is ibUawed by a table, ia 
double columna, in 3 leaves. Then commences an address, or dis- 
quisition ; having, on the recto of the first kaf, the fbUowing woo4- . 
cut and subscription : 


ISDif} ift te^ titttbe tejfi tot% Irnt^ tmti fit 
0ct tnqiF \utti sStn Uubtn tK% |^nt|( 

This address has, in the whole, only 4 leaves. Then an alphabetical 
table, in double colamns, of the contents of the work ; in 15 leaves. 
On the reverse of the 15th, at bottom, is the colophon: 

WiXStt l^aibam^ ift qu 
mett^ 9^tutht tnrti sem^ 
httvS! htmxtii^ttast tttjf 

This, with the device of the shields* below, is printed in red. The 
present desirable copy is handsomely bound in russia. 

970. Herbipolensis Sinodus. fVUtumt Name of 
Printer, Place, or Date. Folio. 

The nature of this work is described in the opening sentence of it, 

tit ]9teittd tpidit jf nu^o ^diiiiolotfi tit attno a tiatt 
[$[] ttttate mxfiA 099{ejsto)o gtta being t ttj y iiu d qtiiqitia 
geiBiimo jftSo tiie jTepttma tittti^ tii^^ 

Sec. Sec, Sec. 

This and every full page contains 32 lines. Consult Panzer, vol. i. 
p. 461, n^. 9 — ^where the error of the Solger Catalogue^ (pt. i. p. 69, 
n®. 729) and of Paciaudus, in mistaking the above date for that of the 
printing of the volume, is properly noticed. Panzer thinks the impres- 
sion was executed by Reyser, after the year 1495. The text abounds 
with passages printed in red ; as is the whole of the above, with the 
exception of the first four words. There are neither signatures, 
numerals, nor catchwords. On the reverse of the 113th leaf, the last 
sentence is thus : 

€x conjetttutSntbtusr jf htt^ait&ttjsr 23ocartit ept toocmatteB* 
&« t. ta. 4^t. et ca. ()ttt turn Bene. fo« Ixm^ 

This copy contains, in addition, the treatise of Thomas Aquinas * de 
periculis contingentibus circa sacramentu Bucaristie '-^4 leaves : and 


the decree of ' Geoffrey Bishop of Wurtzburg;' — ^in 18 leaves. The 
latter only, which is executed in the German tongue, is noticed by 
Bmxer. The present fine and sound copy, recently bound in blue 
morocco, was presented to Lord Spencer by Francis Freeling, Esq. 
Secretary to the FMt Office 

971> HiERocLEs. In AuBEos Vebsus Pythagosjb. 
Printed by Pannartz. Rome. 14/5. Quarto. 

According to Audifiredi, this edition seema to be both a reprint and 
imitation of the Padua impression of 1474 : see vol. iL p. 46-8. The 
prefiice of Aurispa, to Fbpe Nicholas V. occupies the first two leaves. 
The work begins on the recto of the Srd leaf; without prefix. It b 
executed without signatures, numerals, or catchwords ; having, in the 
whole, 92 leaves. The imprint, on the reverse of the 9l8t leaf, occupies 
99 lines — in capital letters— wliich may be seen in Audifiredi; Edit. 
Rom. p. 187-8. The most material part only need find a place here ; 
















llie r^^ter occupies the recto of the foUowing and lait leaf. Thia 
is a very sound copy, in rassia binding. 

TOU IT* 3 u 


972. HoRiE. Ad Usum Parisiensbm. Latin^. 
Printed by Pigauchet 1491. Octavo. 

Under the title of ' Horjb/ I shall introduce the seyeral co[HeB of 
what are called * Hbvrbs,' or Dbtotional Manuals, which are con- 
tained in this Library ; the Noble Owner not having made it a parti- 
adar object to collect tolumes of this description. Such volam^ 
however, ane of a vei^ )>leasing character, when copies of theoi^-like the 
one about to be described — are in fine condition. See vol. i. p. 150-1 
ante. We begin with the edition above specified ; and of which the 
present copy is in a very beautiful state of preservatioil. The piinter's 
device is on the recto of the first A » i': beneath, yfe read 

On the reverse, is an * Almanack for tvrenty years ;* beginning vrith 
the year 1488, and ending with that of 1508. The impi*ession is 
executed in double columns, surround^ veith borders of the usual 
ornaments introduced into publications of this character. The type and 
press work are equally elegant and skilful ; but the ornaments are, 
upon the whole, of a secondary degree of merit. They are entirely of 
a grave character. The signatures, as &r as M, run in eights. On the 
recto of M iiij, we read the colophon, thus : 

tent ac|^nm|( \t piuiiicc fame tit tKctmBte tntf 
quatre cen^ quatn ^vnsti tt tni^e igst ^Wfi 
pt^ ptgoucDet im^dmnte tiemettcattt at la rue 
tie la Datpe teuam jerahtt cojBtme en Wtd tm col 
Ue0e tie titnuflle. ^ni en bmdtita avuAt U en 
trouuera autnt lieu tt tieuant ]fatnt puejf a len 
jereigne bu ^elltcan en la me ^asnt iaguejS?* 

What is singular, the device oi Mmmef^ is on the reverse. This 
copy is executed upon vellum of a stout quality, and may be con- 
sidered without a blemish. It is also very large, and beautifully bound 
in blue morocco, by C. Herring. 

* The devices of Pioouchet and of Markbf will be ibaod io the Bibtiographicml 


973. HoRiE. Belgic^. Printed by Adrian Van 
Liesvelt. Antwerp. 1494. Octavo. 

T^ little Tolume of PrayeiSi printed in the Dutch or Low Germaii 
language, k not only a production of a rery uncommon printer, but is 
executed in a style of equal neatncas and singularity. Above a wood- 
cut of the annunciation, (repeated twice or thrice) on the recto of the 
first lea£ and just under tlie boidisr which encircles the cut, we read 
th« title, thus : 

jraptuQC gi|(UKit 

The reverse is blank. The Calmdar begins on the recto of the 
ensuing lea^ and occupies 12 leaves. The recto of the ensuing and 
14th leaf is blank; but on the reverse we read as follows: 

icinte iolatOKti 

The Gospel of St. JohA follows on the recto of the succeeding leaf, 
and is succeeded by sentences lirom the Ptalms. On the reverse of 
h t^', we observe a singular cut of death piereing a young man with a 
spear : beneath it is the foUowing line :< VHff teilPtet Mc tiioilie.' Scrip* 
tural passages. Prayers, Ck>lkcts, &c. follow. On the reverse of « tiy, 
in eights, we read the colophon, thus : 

jfti'ceiiiti iftn tfilfn |^ tudtptit 
liit sfictUKU tNBt otijstt iinttc 
tmntttKtt tot ]lidttt|^t idiot 
iut^ttn tnnijBitl^. Otitic letiiti 
Hl^ciiit ^SMiOMaiff iit) tnt 
taut Xfoostt^ 3[tit yut itm$ ^ 

tm^mm^^mmm^m^mmt^m^^^^^^i^^'^^m^^m^i^m^^^'^^^n ,i ■ • . . i ■ t*.\ i iii^m 


ten 09 cm tti rtbiiii op #ittte 
ftauiiienpjr oitottt. 2H) mi) 
Stoiaett ten XttjBibdt 

A wood-cut, with the letters i(0, and an appropriate surrouiu 
description, is beneath. Only the first leaf of each signature is 
designated by the letter. Panzer properly remarks that this book is 
printed in the types of Gerard de Leeu. It is the smallest character of 
that printer. Jmud. Typog. vol. i. p. IS. The ornaments of this little 
Tolume consist of small wood-cuts of figures, very neatly executed, and 
borders of fruit and flowers. This copy is elegantly bound in red 
morocco, by C. Lewis. 

974. HoRJE. Secundum Usum Sarum. Printed 
by Kerver. 1497- Octavo. 

The Missals of Kerver upon paper (as is the copy before us) are 
probably rarer than those upon vellum : but the profusion of wood-cuts 
with which they are generally adorned, renders their appearance upon 
the latter material more beautiful and interesting. The title of this 
Missal is thus — above the device of the printer : ^ 

l^on Beate a^atte i^ 
iFttunMl bjSFum j^nnn* 

The almanack, for xx years, is on the reverse : beginning with 1494 
and ending with 15^0. The calendar follows, with embellishments 
appropriate to the respective months. On the reverse of a viij, is the 
first of the larger cuts— representing St. John in the boiling caldron. 
The Ist chapter of his Crospel commences beneath. The earlier impres- 
sions of Tub Salisbury Missal, executed abroad, are curious in pre- 
senting us with the style of English orthography at that period. Thus, 
on the reverse of i i(;, is the first prayer in it which appears to be 
printed in our own language : [O] Glorious iesu O mekest iesu O most 
swettest iesu I pray the that I may haue trew confessio cotrictio ad 

* Tbe device of Kcfrer* with those of all the early French printers of Missals, will be 
iaaoA in the Biblugrophkal Dtceanercn: aooompanied with numerous ftu>siniiles of the 
erobelUshroents in those splendid pnbllcatlons. 


satisfoction or I dye Aj^d that I may see et receyue thy holy body god 
et man/ The second, on the following leaf, which is entitled * 1 haue 
had to the,' begins in the following manner: [O] The most swetest 
spouse of mi sowle crist iesu destring hertly euermore for to be wyth 
the in mynde et wylle et to lete no erthely thyng be soo nygh myn hert 
as thou crist iesu et that I drede not for to deie for to boo to the crist 
iesu et that I may euermore saye to te* wyth a gladde chere: my 
lord ! my god : &c.* * These prayers (observes the next paragraph in 
Latin) are only to be said in the agony of death/ 

On the recto ofkU another English prayer begins, thus : ' o Blessyd 
trinyte Fader: sone: ad holy ghoost: thre persones: ad one god I 
byleue wyth my hert : and confesse with my mouth al that holy chyrche 
bileueth and holdeth of the et as moche as a good catholyke and cristen 
ma ought to fele ad byleue of the ad I proteste here tofore thy maieste: 
that I wyl lyue et deye i thys fiuth & otinue al my lyf,' &c. The next 
prayer has this conunencement : * o Lord god almyghty alle seelg al 
thynges knowyng : wysedon and sapiece of al : I poure S3mner make 
thys day in despite of the fende of belle protestation that yf of 
aduenture bi ony teptation : deception : or variation coming by sorowe : 
peyne or sekenesse or by ony feblenes of body : or bi ony other occasio 
what someuer it be i h\\e or decline in peril of my soule or preiudyce 
of my helthe or in errour of the holy feyth catholike,' &c. On the 
reverse of r tti;, is the ensuing colophon : 

i^ pttfitnfi nffictttiti iudtc tnactt tSL 
tmdttjl ttmtifi jdtfftivtiit ati brum ^a^ 
nt$ fitttta jfitnt* ^tttto tiotntttt ttiflfejectmo 
Quatinit0QtttjBthnii itoita0eje(ttiio jf epttmo 
3^0 iol^aiittt ncattio imrcatoce i^Eitatto 
tot^omasi comtiunBatiti iujcta magna) 
ndtjEttam Bcatt mane* 

The device of Ricardo is beneath. The remaining 8 leaves, upon 
signature X are devoted to prayers for persons in perilous situations ; 
beginning with an invocation to the Trinity. The prayers are short, 
and in the Latin tongue ; but the titles of those towards the end are in 

* Sic : the w's are all represented bj w^i. 


English. The ornaments are entirely of a graver character; and the 
type is the smallest of the printer. The signatures nm in eights, except 
f, which has but 4 leaves ; and only the first leaf of each signature is 
designated by a letter* This is a very sound and clean copy; butcn^t* 
and bound in ^ Yolumes, in old red morocco. 

975. HoRJE. Secundum usumRomanum. Printed 
by Kerver. Paris. 1498. Octavo. 

Hiis beautiful impression, executed in the smallest type of the 
printer, presents us on the first kaf with Kerver's device, and the 
subjoined title : 

l^ott fftstt \iitffi0 mfitic Ccti'in tiCuin 
fiSattft Qmt^nti cS p^atSe ndtdtitb. 

The Ahnanackt on the reverse, begins with the year 1497, and 
extends to the year 1590. The signatures, of which only the first .leaf 
is marked by a letter, extend to o, inchislTcly, in eights. On the 
reverse of o tH; we read only this colophon : 

CejSt pnCntttif j^einxjst a hsMet tie WSi 
tM fiteoit 9/1^101(0 it. xxM* itnt tit Jbt 

1^ Cj^eltnS Iftcnttc XiEitaitt temou 
tant a |N^ fiuf It yont Csinct mtcj^el a 
ItnCdsttt ttt la Xtconie* 

As usual, there is a profusion of large and small cuts ; the latter 
forming the borders, and all of them of a serious character. This 
copy, printed upon txllum, is elegantly bound by C« Lewis, in blue 
morocco, but has many leaves which are unluckily soiled. 


976. HoRiE. Secundum Usum Romanum. Printed 
by Kerver. (Paris. 1498). Octavo. 

We have here a most interesting specimen of Kerver's large charac- 
ter, surrounded by cuts, occasionally of a droll and diverting nature, 
as will be seen from numerous representations of similar embellish- 
ments in the Bibliographical Decameron. The recto of the first leaf, 
upon signature a, (accompanied, as in the preceding one, by the letter 
R, serving as a direction for the register) shews us the device of the 
printer above the foUowing title : 

l^ore intemetate iicate mane tnrgttti^ 
<j&ecitntnttn b&tm iSmnaimm. 

As the Almanack extends firom the year 1497 to 15S0, 1 conceive 
this impression to have been executed in the same year with the pre- 
ceding one, (namely in 1498) as varieties of the same text. The cut 
of St. John in the Caldron, on the reverse of a oi^', being interesting 
in its composition, and rather distinctly and brilliantly struck ofi^ a 
fac-simile of it is reserved for the above work. The signatures include 
p, in eights. On the reverse of p viij, beneath a cut of equal interest 
and brilliancy, representing the Virgin in glory, we read the ensuing 
imprint — which terminates the impression : 

%t tnatitttnajBt tt contepttotte tottiflime 
tut geiietcittjt \AtffM0 tmodt. 

This elegant little volume, printed upon vbllum, is bound by 
C. Herring in russia. 


977. Immanuejlis (R*) Filix Salomonis Libbr 
Mechabbbroth^ sea Poetic arum Compositj- 
ONUM. Hebraic^. Printed by Gersofi of Soncino. 
Brescia. 1491. Quarto. 

* Gerson of Soncino (saya^ De Roesi) carried the art of printing [with 
Hebrew types] from his own country — where he had exercised his 
bosiness the preceding year — to Brescia ; and there published Tarioua 
works in this and the three following years. Of these works, the 
present is the first in order ; which, according to Buxtor^ is composed 
with admirable skill, eloqu^iice^ elegance, and learning --so as to 
cause the author of it with justice to be styled the Prince of Poets : 
jhmales Hebraeo'Typographid ; pt. i. p. 84-6. The reader has only to 
consult this excellent work for a description, at cmce copious* interest- 
ing, and exact, of the rare and curious volume under consideration; 
and he will find the mistakes of all preceding bibliographers, including 
Panzer and Audiffiedi, corrected. The date is 1491» and not 1498— as 
all the later bibliographers hare concluded. The mlume contains 159 
leares ; presenting us, on the recto of the first lea( with the following 
title to th^ author^s prefoce: 

n rht bwsDif "nd? rvrarvsn nao 

The colophon, in 5 lines, is on the mfene of the last leaf. The 
translation of it, by De Rossi, is thus : * Absdutum est autem omne 
artificium hujus libri, dicti Mechabber^th Immanuel, per m an um 
minimi typographonim Grersom typographi filii si^pientis R. Mosis 
(memoiia justi sit in benedictione } ex semine Israel, viri Soncinatb. 
Fuit porro complementum ejus hie Brixise quae est sub ditione sere- 
nissimee Reipublics Venetse, cujus gloria extoUatur, hodie feria ii 
hebdomadae die xxvi mensis marchesvan anno quinque millesimo ac 
ccLii conditi urbis. Dominus misericordiis suis dignos nos foctat 
inchoare et perficere reliquos libros sanctos absconditos saphiros in lege 
Dei, et propagare legem in Israel juxta desiderium anims nostras, 
Isetificetque nos sdificatione arielis cum omni IsraeL Amen.' Neither 
Quirini nor Boni notice this work ; which perhaps did not come within 
the scope of their design. See the former : De LUteratura Brixiania .- 
and the latter ; Lt^rt Stcrnip. m lial. Super. The present is a sound 
copy ; in russia binding. 


978. iNNoCBimus VIII. Papa. RsGULiB Bf Ob- 
DIN ATioNBs. JVtthout Name of Printer or Plate. 
(1484). Quarto. 

I oonstder this little tract, of oxitf IS leaves, to be rather a typo- 
graphical cariosity. It presents ns with the same character, or general 
appearance of type, as that which Caxton and Machlinia occasionally 
used ; the former, in his Cknmcle and PoUfchromcon^ &c. the latter, in 
his Speculum CkrisHani* Some of the capitals, as well as the greater 
number of the smaller fetters, are precisely similar ; the difference 
arising chiefly from the superior workmanship observed in the pages 
before us, which present a thinner or sharper &ce of letter. It is 
not clear that Ptoizer has noticed this impression. He describes an 
edition with the same conclusion as the one under consideration ; but 
observes that the chairacter is that of Planck^ and that the impression 
contains only 10 leaves, having the proheme of Roderick Borgia pre- 
fixed. Annal.Typog, vol. ii. p. 484, n^ 365. No such distinctions attend 
the present book : but whether it were printed in 1484, the reader is 
left to his own determination. It is thus entitled : 

Gtni tifii ml Mi S[imocfti| ^'im intibetitia pape* )nti 
Gertpte tt ttmmtt in €gfrifari« apBca 

A full page has 26 lines. There are neither numerals, signature!, 
nor catchwords. At the bottom of the reverse of the Idth and last 
leaf we read as follows : 

-.....-- Jiff i^nft 

litate fueft fi^Cec^te Ht. ^- in €3* a^o. tm m&fi* 
Xjaxi fST' JbtQ, 3to^ to* fl?. tut . Ijcn^iiii* 9S« ffati. jb 
tuS. ttti UU 3[nno* ti'ina puitiftia* pspt titii* 9no pmo' 

Panzer considers such a subscription as indicative of the date of the 
printing as well as of the ' reading and publishing.' The present copy 
is in tKe most desirable condition : being scarcely cut, and without • 
blemish. Elegantly bound in rusala by C. Lewis. 

* It if not much unlike the 9t Albui's type— an the Rhetorica Nova of G. de Stuaom: 
•ee p. 367 ante. 

VOL. IV. 3 X 


&J9. JuvENALis, Cum Commentabio Geobqii 
VAI.LJB. Printed by A. de Strata, Venice. 1486. 

This seems to be the first, and only impression of the Commbhtakt 
of Gkoroius Valla upon Jurenal in the XVth century. It is noticed, 
by Mittarelli and Seemilier ; the latter observing that, although omitted 
by Harwood, it was mentioned by Maittaire. See Panzer, voL. iiL p. 
2^, n^ 913 : Incunab. Typog, pt. iii. p. 46. We need not be elaborate- 
in the account of it. A letter by Valla to I. Tucdus P^mnonicus, with 
a proheme by the same, occupy the first two leaves, a ti, a in. On the 
recto of a ttit, the text and commentary begin. The signatures are thus 
arlBnged : a, 6, 8 ; c to Ae in sixes and eights, altemately ; Ar, 2^ m, in 
eights : a blank leaf forming m oty . On the the reverse of m v^» at 
bottom, is the imprint, thus : 

Finis in Decio lunio luuenale Aquioate ^ometarii 
dni Georgii Vallae Placentini Impressi Venetiis 
per magistruin Antoniu de StrataCremonensem anno 
dni. M.cccclxxxTi. die. yiii. Nouebris. Aiigustino 
Barbarico imperante. 

This is a clean and very desirable copy ; elegantly bound in dark 
calf, with gilt leaves, by C. 

980. Kaetspele. Belgicfe. Printed by lohn de 
JVestphalia. Louvain. 1477- Folio. 

This very singular and ra^e volume has been described by Lambinet 
so fully and satisfactorily,* from the communication of a friend, that I 
apprehend the reader cannot be better satisfied than by a translation of 
his account : premising that, as Lambinet himself had never seen the 
book, some few literal errors have unavoidably crept in. * In 1797 
(says Lambinet) Mr. Santander communicated to me, for my first 
edition, the existence of this work ; which had escaped the researches of 
all the bibliographers. The copy which he ^aw went afterwards into 

• Or^^tnc d4i Vlmprmerie ', vol, il p. 25-30. 


the library of M. d* Arconnati at Brussels, and from thence into the Royal 
Library at Paris. A short, but unsatisfactory, description of it appeared 
in his Catalogue, d?. 1498. It is printed in long lines, without nume* 
rals or catchwords; having signatiires to about one half* of the 
volume. I begged the Abb^ Thirion, who is thoroughly conversant in 
the old Flemish idiom, to examine well this book called Kaetspele : and 
here follows his account of it, written both in French aod Flemish** 
and of which Mr. Santander might at least have taken some notice in 
his copiousf Bibliographical Dictionary.' 

" The work called Kaetspele (says the Abb^Thirion) is a treatise of 
the Game of Ball moralised ; made in imiution of the Game of Chess 
moralised: the first containing lessons for the adminiBtration of justice. 
The author's name is concealed in rather an epigrammatical manner, in 
the verses at the end— entitled • Die Superscripcie .' (see post) according 
to which verses we should call him Jan Van Den Bbrohb. He com- 
posed the work at Bruges, finishing it on the 23d of December, 1431, 
at the request of a French knight, living at Ghent. The author also 
gives the name of the knight, enigmatically : thus, says he-— put an r 
between two *«'<— [Kerke] and you possess it." On the reverse of the 
first leaf, are the following verses : 

SV^ tttxtotitf tptt^ t)(dicl^tiii0|^ 
iBect, mtm^ tinmt motit^ 0^eiftn 

St^wAliaam, 9co$e, oft tucfiting^ 
Tl^^ott ^aiicl^^eiit, Imt comt, g^^^m 
€ntie ht ttjttn, hnetk toert fMSau^m 
fB^Btf ti0t ttt^ttt0 iitl^orty oft ttitt 
ipi0ttttectttfi0^ tttt^tf f^fytptt^m 

Jbf^t tXttnfUtttf AO^OOt glHV^ 9^111 tut 

9L>ttt^ macctt om tupf jpconut opcnunic 

* The first signatiure marked, b e 4 ; for c 4; and the ieooiid,/(i). From/Uiey run in 
eights to the end of the volume. 

t 'gros.' 

% A free version of these first nine verses has been thus attempted by the Abb6 Thirioii : 


€cottcqit bmt Innt, ^toct tnted^ sMtm 

WBant )um. titit. ^ftttt^ c^ tenftal 

2&P todftm ^ticghsmtt stoat 00^ dttm 

.tniii. tieelen, ittt tafit* tntduti jftil 

a^t tuitftide, putsatt ei 

€o» tien &al, t^A ben t(iittner^> tDiitneii» boet 

Wost^tttttf tie poentetty stmt en Ik fivnA 

Cf $? oiDetcR^ aMtnun mtccpt op iwiiuiiiiflit moa 

Xetjtt tooict tiotaiidt> ltipj(t» jitmoi tmct* 

a>S[t eiG( toantien iiaeti^peit^ gDemttct nfittntngl^mtuii 
fun ain : sj^fij^emt ettfe' toegfieuoeclt tai sedate eft 
ten tcc^ttt^ xMt \idt tUKtH^^uu tat tHU tttffitt^ oiti* 
ttta pts^dihm mmiBrcl^ tw ittj^oorenlK ittiti. met tub 
not^tlen erempler enttde erincl^i txaee toe tiienetibe* 
ente titt iioet ^eeft tttt g|^e|^eele« i^. captttileti. 

The poetical impriat, oni tli^ reverse of the last leaf, as Lambinet 
properly observes, is the coiqpositiQa of Jolm of Westptialia, or John 
of Louvain — that printer having exerc