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%bt JPifteentl) Centurp, 



&c. &c. &c. 









After the lapse of a twelvemonth, the fourth 
and last volume of this Work is presented to 
the Public, Whatever errors it may con- 
tain, there will still be found, I trust, a 
sufficient body of information and amusement 
to render it acceptable to the lovers of rare 
books, and to the skilful in Bibliography, 

In regard to variety and splendour, the 
volume now published may be considered 
superior to those which have preceded it. 
The Italian Books, although few in num- 
ber, are precious for their rarity and intrinsic 
worth ; while the account of the publications 
from the earliest presses of our own 
Country, will be found to contain many 
curious topics connected with the state of 


Ancient English Literature. In the Supple- 
MENT, many uncommon and interesting 
articles are introduced ; and the Embellish- 
ments throughout the volume^ whether upon 
Wood or Copper, have been selected and 
executed zuith equal attention to singularity 
andjidelity. Nor are the Indexes the least 
useful portions oj a work which contains such 
multifarious matter. 

Such then is the faithful and minute descrip- 
tion of what may probably be considered as the 
foundcdion only of the Spencer Library. 
To describe the remainder of the same Col- 
lection zvith equal minuteness ^ would by no 
means answer the like useful purpose; since 
the publications of the XVIth, and of the fol- 
lowing Centiiries are, comparatively, of less 
curiosity and rarity y and in general are 
familiar to the Bibliographer and Collector, 

I cannot however terminate my present 
labours, or shut the door of the Library in 
which I have passed so many hours with equal 
instruction and delight, withoid addressing its 


Owner and chief Ornament — in the language 
of a distinguished Bibliographer to a 
Nohleman^'' whose treasures were laid open 
to the grateful eulogist with the same 
readiness and liberality as those of Earl 
Spencer A<2zy^ beeii to myself . .*Tu primum 
fsays the author to his Patron] stimulos 
addidisti : in frequentibus quae tecum nun- 
quam habui, quin instructior abirem, collo- 
quiis saspius me submonuisti, unde lucu- 
brationibus meis plurimum momenti et 
lucis accederet: crebro tua, quod nescio an 
in ulla alia repererim, suggessit bibliotheca: 
ad Te et ad hanc facilis semper patuit 

* Maittaire, to the Earl of Pembroke ; in the 
Dedication of the 'Annales Typographici,' 1719, 4to. 



ii i w iii ii ii i uH i ii i iiii i! i ii iim i! ii i iiiiii i n ii!inn i i i i ii ii i i iii i ih ri iii ' iiiiiiiMhi i iii ii i i jii: iiii iiM 


Misttilmtons 9iut})(ivs* 

TJQ. Shirvodus (Johannes) Ludus Arithmo- 
MACHi^. Printed at Rome. 1482. Quarto. 

Editio Princeps. This is in every point of view an interesting little 
tract. The author of it, John Shirwood, Bishop of Durham, vvas 
among our most distinguished literary characters at the close of the 
fifteenth century ;* and the present seems to be the first impression 

* Upon the whole, Pits gives the best account of John Shirwood ; not however without 
incorporating (as Bale and Godwin have done) the brief biography of the same character 
by Leland. The words of Pits are these: ' Icannes Shirvvodus natione Anglus, vir 
omni bonarum litterarum genere instructissinaus, linguae turn Latinje tumGraecee peritissimus. 
Poeta, Rhetor, Philosophus, et Theologus insignis. Postquam Anglicas Academias multo 
tempore magno cum fructu frequentasset : in Galliam se contulit, Parisijs studuit, vbi Rocco 
Carthusiano viro pio et enidito propter morum et doctrinae simihtudinem, vsus est familia- 
rissime. Deinde in Italiam perrexit, vbi Graecarum litterarum studium in Anglia inchoatnm, 
in Gallia auctum, ad perfectum pcrduxit. Ibi etiam selectissimos auctores Graecos inda- 
gauit, inuenit, coemit, et secum in Angliam aduexit. Quern librorum thesaurum neglectuni 
diii, ferunt Archilandiae delituisse, donee longo post tempore Cuthbertus Tonstallus doc- 
tissmius ille, et omnium postremus Episcopus Dunelmensis, de codicibus illis repertis laetatus 
est, tanquam qui invenit spolia multa. Existimat, et merito, Lelandus Shirwodum hunc 
multas eximias lucubrationes edidisse, quarum tamen ne titulos quidem nunc inuenimus. 
Ipse quidem refert se aliquando versus quosdam elegantes in coenobio Fontanensi legisse, 
quorum hunc asserit fuisse fabricatorem.' De Rebus Anglicis ; p. 882. 

Pitts adds, that, from his virtue and erudition, he was promoted to the see of Durham, 
and flourished in the reign of Edward the IVth. Leland observes that he was particularly 
fond of Greek books; and Richardson,the editor of Godwin, informs us that he died at 

2 MISCELLANEOUS. [Ludus Arith. 

of a treatise, (sufficiently ingenious in itself,) which has not only 
escaped the knowledge of bibliographers, but thatof Leland, Bale, God- 
win, and Pits. ' Leland (says the latter) observes that Shirwood com- 
j)03ed or edited many excellent works ; of which even the very titles 
(adds Pits) are now lost.' Bishop Tanner is the first, who, in his very 
slight notice of tlie author, has mentioned the ' Ludus Arithmomachice;' 
Bibl. Britan. p. 669, note e. The edition under description is appa- 
rently ])rinted by Ulric Han and Simon de Luca ; in the same letter 
in which the epistle of Maffeus Benedictus, * De Laudibus Pacis,' is 
described to be executed — at page 442 of the third volume of this 
work. The prefix, by way of title, is on the recto of the first leaf, 
thus : 

Ad reuerendissinium religiosissimuq; 

in christo patrem ac amplissimum do/ 

niinu Marcii Cardinal e sancti Mar/ 

ci vulgariter nucupatu^. lolianis Shir 

uuod quod latle interptatur lipida silua 

sedis apostolice ^tonotarii anglici pfa/ 

tio in epitome de ludo arithmomachip 

feliciter incipil. 

The preface immediately follows ; from which we learn that, during 
his youth, Shirwood amused himself with the game called Arithmoma- 
chia, or the Battle of Numbers; but, whether the author of the treatise 
upon this game was grossly incorrect, or whether Shirwood had 
been in the habit of trusting entirely to his memory, the latter tells 
us that he had not procured any copy of the work. * Yet (continues 
he) I rather apprehend that I had so completely made myself master 
of the rules necessary for the game, both by dint of memory and 
subsequent practice, that I had no great necessity for the book itself. 
However, about six years afterwards, happening to be in the suite of 
my kind, noble, and liberal benefactor and patron, George Nevil, 

Rome, in the year 1493, in the 11th year of his episcopacy. Ilis monument is yet seen in 
the chapel of the Englisli College at Rome. De PrtisvUbvs Avglie; edit. 1743. p. 752-3, 
note u. It was hardly a venial error to have omitted the mention of Shirwood, among 
my Book-Worthies, in the last edition of the Bibliomania ; since I have lately seen, in the 
library of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, several of the rarer early-piinted books, in the 
Greek and Latin languages, with the autograph of Shirwood upon the first page of the print 


Rome; 1482.] SHIRWOOD. 3 

Archbishop of York, at Calais ; — his Grace, not having much business 
on his hands, and being rather indisposed, so that he could not apply 
to his severer studies — proposed to me to instruct him, and the com- 
pany present, in the rules of this Battle of Numbers. I, of course, readily 
complied with his request. But before we took leave of each other 
(he, on his return to England, and myself on m}' way to Rome — never, 
alas, in this world to meet again !) the Archbishop enjoined me to 
commit to writing those rules of which I principally approved, and 
which seemed to be chiefly necessary for the game — especially as no 
correct written treatise was hitherto extant.' Shirwood then informs 
us that he composed the present work during his leisure in Flanders ; 
and after a most elaborate eulogy upon the Cardinal, to whom he 
dedicates his work, — and reminding his patron that Achilles, Quint us 
Scaevola, Scipio, Lelius, and even Socrates, resorted to little amuse- 
ments by way of recreation from severer engagements — he informs 
us that Archita is considered to be the author of this game. He 
then describes the Board, on which the game is played, as follows : 

* In the first place, the table or board is equal in width to that on 
which the game of chess is played ; but it is double the length of it. 
Two chess tables, therefore, form only one of the present game : on 
which the two armies are respectively arranged towards the extremi- 
ties, leaving a sort of plain or field of battle between them. There are 
three sorts of figures used : eight of which are circular, eight trian- 
gulai-, and eight quadrangular. From the quadrangular figures, one, 
in a pyramidical shape, obtains on each side the name of leader. That, 
which is played on the even side (pars par) of the table, is a whole — 
that, on the odd side (pars impar), is a short pyramidical figure.' 
Although the limits of this work forbid the analysis of the treatise,* 
it may probably be expected that I should present the reader with 
a fac-simile of the Board or Table, just described — which will be 
found on the recto of the 9th leaf, thus : 

* Henry Stephens, the Elder, printed a similar treatise (exhibiting nearly a similar 
wood-cut of a playing board) at Paris, in 1514, folio, in the black letter : but from the 
dedication of the author, I. F. Stapulensis, it should seem that the game was taken almost 
entirely from Severinus Boetius ; or was rather an abridgment of two books, by the latter, 
upon the subject. The title of the work, as printed by Stephens, is thus ; ' Rithmimafhie 
ludus qui et pugua numerorum appellator.' 


MISCELLANEOUS [Ltidus. Arith. 











1 1 















































It remains only to extract the concluding section and colophon ; 
' Habes modo : quu sis protector angloru praestantissime atque 
amplissime pater : ab anglico quoda tuo certe obsequetissimo seruitore : 
ac filio pientissimo breue hoc de ludo arithmomachiae copedium. 
Quod cuiuscuquemodi ipsum sit: si benigne accipies : accipies aut 
beigne pro singulari ilia : ac propemodu incredibili huanitate boni- 
tateq; tua : efficies vtiq; ut opinor vt plurimi ad te fiducialiter libros 
scribat, Atque quii alii quidam : tu in primis doctissimi ipsi ac 
eloquetissimi viri italicae nationis : ])ostquam intellexerint te hue 
cometariolii non cotemnere hoixiinis quidem no solu vltranootani verii 
etia : vt sic loquar : extramudani : si tame no errat Meliboeus a])ud 
virgiliu qui esse ait penitus toto diuisos orbe britanos : certatiz 
deinceps sua opera tuo nomini dedicabunt posteritatiq; mandabunt 
litteris suis : tui memoriam sempiternam. Vale semper felix reli- 
giosissime atque piissime pater. 

Rome ipsis ka/ 
lendis apiilibus Anno doraini* . M . 
cccc . Ixxxii. pontificatus veio sanctissi/ 
mi domini nostri Sixti papp quarti. xi. 
Regniq; prpfati christianissimi regis 
Eduuardi quarti anno. xxii. 

In the whole, 14 leaves ; witliout numerals, signatures, or catch- 
words. The pi'eceding colophon is the only one in which I remem- 
ber to liave seen (in a volume printed abroad) the name of an English 
monarch introduced. This curious little tract was obtained through 
the liberal kindness of Mr. Freeling. It is in russia binding, 

777- SiDONius Apollinaris. (Printed hy Kete- 
laer?) Without Place or Date, Folio. 

Editio Princeps. Panzer informs us that the late Count Reviczky, 
in his letters to Morelli, mentions his recent acquisition of this very 
rare and almost unknown impression ; and of which no notice 
is taken in either of the catalogues of the Count's library, of the dates 
of 1784 and 1794. See the Jnnal. Typog. vol. iii. p. 546 ; where the 
edition is called * primaria, nondimi nota bibliographis.' That 
omission is however here supplied, by the possession of the Count's 
own ms. memoranda, describing laconically, but perspicuously, the 

6 MISCELLANEOUS. [TFithout Date. 

leading features of this impression. Yet it is rather amusing to read, 
in each of the printed catalogues just mentioned, the opposition 
shewn by the Count to the reception of any opinion which might 
militate against the precedency of the Milan edition — ' Plusieura 
bibliographes (says he) ont annonc^ differentes Editions, anttirieures k 
celle-ci de Milan — mais ces Editions paroissant trfes-apocryphes, on 
regarde celle (de Milan) dont il est ici question, corame la premiere 
de cet ouvrage.' p. 209, edit. 1794. In the Count's ms. description 
of the present impression, this position is entirely reversed, and 
Ketelaer's is called — ' pene ignota et perquam rara, et prae reliquia 
antiqua editio.' 

From the evidence adduced by Laire, of a copy of this edition being 
found in which there was a coeval ms. memorandum of " einptus et Uga~ 
tits 1477," there seems little doubt of Ketelaer's impression being con- 
siderably anterior to that of Milan (described as the next article); and 
that the conjecture of Panzer and Reviczky is not far short of the 
truth, when tlie date of 1473 is specified for that of its execution. Index 
Libror. vol. i. p. 184. Although no name of printer be subjoined, the 
types aie unquestionably those with which Ketelaer and De Leempt 
printed at Utrecht in the jears 147f . It remains to desci'ibe a few 
of the particulars of so interesting a volume. On the recto of the 
first leaf, we read this prefix : 

OBpi.stoIaruni liber primus Sncipit 

i§>it!cniu^ Constantino suo ^alutcm 

A full page has 33 lines. There are neither numerals, catchwords, 
nor signatures. On the reverse of fol. 90, at bottom : 

€jtrplicit cpistoIa2f libcr ncnusf. h, ft* ft. ft. €. jr. m, m.»i? 
Sncipit pfacio panigcricitJictiantemioauguiJtoli to^uM 

At top of the ensuing leaf: 

mn iimcnciii ^iv^ct astta ioucm natura Jocaret* 
c ^ii5cip rctq? nouu-Gf rcgna \jctUj6fta tm^* 
Ccrtaiierc iJim \)cncrati numina numcn* 
SDx.i^pariliUief niotii.i^ per cecinere sop^oj^ 


The remaining fiill pages contain 32 lines. On the recto of fol. 151, 
and last, at bottom, we read as follows : 

I Witt et gbitto^ et tcgni jSforte ^eciitojsf. 
<itxptt}ia. ^ttit0 quosf tenet impertj. 

The present is a fine clean copy ; in old green morocco binding. 

778. SiDONius Apollinaris. Printed by Scin- 
zenzeler. Milan. 1498. Folio. 

Editio Secunda. The recto of the first leaf presents us with the 
title, in large lower-case gothic type, in 6 lines. On the reverse, there 
is a privilege conceded to John Passiranus de Asula, the editor, who 
appears to have published the impression * at his own care and ex- 
pense :* and no one is to pirate the edition ' sub pena uiginti quinque 
aureorum camere nostre applicandorQ pro singulis uoluminibus.' This 
is dated Nov. 9, 1497. We observe, below, the names of the works, 
edited by Passiranus, to which this protection extends : 

Sidonius apollinaris cum comentariis. 

Nonius marcel lus integer. 

Varro de lingua latina emendatus cum ennarrationibus. 

Apicius de cibariis. 

Festus popeius cu appedicibus ; (signed) 

. B. Chalcus, 

An address of J. Baptista Pius, in 4 pages of prose — and 2 pages 
of an ' elegidion amatorium ' by the same author — follow. These 
pieces occupy signature A, in 4 leaves. The text of Sidonius ensues 
upon sign, a (i), and concludes on the recto of s 8. The colophon is 
thus : 

Impressum Mediolanni* per magistrumVldericum scizenze- 
ler. Impensis uenerabilium dominorumPresbyteri Hjeronimi 
de Asula necnon loannis de abbatibus placetini. Sub 
Anno domini. M.cccc.Lxxxxjiii. Quarto Nonas maias. 

* Sic. 

d MISCELLANEOUS. [Milan ; 1 479. 

From the register, below, we find that all the signatures are in eights, 
except a and b, which have each only six. A has 4, as above noticed. 
This is a very fair and desirable copy ; in red morocco binding. 


Francisci Sforti^. Printed by Zarotus. 
Milan. 1479. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. The Discourse, or Oration, of F. Puteolanus to 
Ludovicus Sphortia, in praise of these Commentaries concerning 
THE Sforza Family, begins on the recto of the first leaf, with this 
prefix : 


The preface of Simoneta follows on the reverse of the 2d leaf, and 
occupies 2 pages. The first book begins on the reverse of the ensuing 
leaf. The signatures embrace two alphabets : each in eights — with 
the exception of L only, in the second alphabet, which has but 6 
leaves. On the recto of O 8, we read the colophon in 15 lines, from 
which it is only necessary to extract the ensuing : 


See. &CC. 8cc 



IFithout Date.] SPECULUM HUM. SALV. 9 

On the reverse is a short epistle from Franciscus Philelphus to the 
author, with the following date at bottom : 

Mediolani ex aedibus nostris sixto Idus lunias^ M.cccc. 

The reader will do well to consult Saxius's His^. Liter. Typog. col. ecu, 
p. ccccLxxiv-v — DLXxi, where there is a good account of the labours 
of Simoneta, and where the above-mentioned preface of the author, 
and the epistle of Philelphus, are extracted. Saxius thinks the edition 
itself should bear date 1480. He observes, also, that the original MS. 
of the work is yet among the descendants of the author. The present 
may be called a fine and desirable copy : in russia binding. 

780. Speculum Humanje Salvationis ; Lat. et 
Germ. (Printed hy Gunther or lohn Zainer.^ 
Without Place, or Date. Folio. 

The noble Owner of this very curious and uncommon book has 
prefixed to it the following memorandum, in pencil, on the fly leaf. 
' Vid. Panzer Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 133 ; Ejiisd, Annul, chr altem 
Deutschen Litterat. p. 6 ; Heinecken, Id/e G^n^rale, &c. p. 464 ; 
Seemiller, Incunab. Typog. fasc. i. p. 125 ; Denis, Suppl. p. 489^ 
n°. 4185 ; and Braun, Notit. Hist. Lit., &c. pt. i. p. 37. The preceding 
authors (continues his Lordship) attribute this book to the press of 
Gunther Zainer, at Augsbourg. Its character resembles that of some 
of the books by this printer, but the same chaiacter was also used by 
John Zainer. [see fac-simile, p. 242, of vol. i.] at Ulm, and it there- 
fore remains doubtful to which of these two printers it belongs. If it 
could be supposed that the three last lines of the book [see post.] relate 
to the printer, rather than to the author of the Abridgement at the end 
of it, it would determine the question by ascertaining it to be John, 
and not Gunther, Zainer.'* As this point will perhaps ever remain 

* The earliest books which I have discovered, witli the name of JohnZaixer subjoined, 
are those of Boccaccio de Claris Mulieribiis, of the date of 1473, and an edition of what 
we call Patient Gri<el, without date, but executed in the same character. IMy friend JNIr. 
Douce possesses a fine copy of each of these very rare and curious volumes, and a copj' of 
the first work is in the library of the JMarquis of Exeter, at Burleigh House in Korthamp- 

10 MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Place, 

• subjudice,' we proceed to a minute, and, it is hoped, interesting, de- 
scription of this extraordinary publication : — among the most popular 
of those of the xiii, xiv, and xvth centuries. * Such was its ;-eputation 
among the Bencdictins (says Heinecken) that scarcely a library or 
monastery was without a MS. of it: sometimes ornamented with 
drawings in distemper, and sometimes without any ornament.' p. 468. 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with the proheme, and with 
the titles of the chapters. The reverse gives us a title, by which the 
book is called * Speculum Sanct^ Mari^ Vikginis.' The reverse of 
the ensuing leaf shews a proheme * of a new compilation, whose 
name and title are ' Speculum Humane Salvationis.' Hence the 
work seems to have received indifferently the title of either. Heads 
of the several chapters, and a variety of moral sentences, ensue. The 
latter terminate thus, on the reverse of the 8th leaf from the begin- 
ning of the volume inclusively ; 

<2D hone tti'u ha \yt ^ot apn^tvUmn tihi complaceat 
^tojchtioisf cbificet. a me gratum tiJii faciat. 


The recto of the ensuing leaf is blank. On the reverse begins the 
text of the work, preceded by a wood-cut (which Heinecken is pleased 

tonshire. The type is very different from tliat of the above work, and rather resembles 
the printing of Anthony Sorg. On the other hand, we know that Gunther Zainer 
printed the Speculum, &c. hi 1471, in a type similar to that of the above, containing the 
same number of lines in a full page, (35,) but without cuts. See Panzer, vol. i. p. 100. 
The type is also seen in the Ars Amandi of Ovid, of the same date: sec vol. ii. p, 201; and 
it appears to have been chosen by Gunther on his rejection of the characters which he 
used in Bonaventure's Life of Christ, A. D. 1468, and in the CathoUcon of Balbus, 1469 : 
see vol. ii'. pp. 38, 194. Sclnizler made use of this rejected character, which, it must be 
confessed, is more elegant than that of tlie Speculum and the Ars Amandi, 6ic. The name 
of John Zainer is also subjoined to this very character, in the ^sop, without date, which 
is described in vol. i. p. 312, &c. 

Next, as to the name in the subscription at the end of the volume : see above, post. All 
that we observe in the subscription itself, is ' lohannes, minimus monacluis.' Veith thought 
this name was designed for lohannes de Cai-niola ; and Krismer, for lohannes de Giltingen. 
Meerman seems to have mistaken the name for that of the compiler of the work itself j 
whereas, as Heinecken justly observes, it is only that of the author of the Abridgement, or 
Compendium. Heinecken's fac-simile of this subscription is very faithless. Id^e, &c. 
p. 467, note. The same bibliographer's argument about Gunther Zainer havmg probably 
printed an edition of the work, of about the date of 1471, is useless j since au impression, 
with tliis very date subjoined, is in existence, See Panzer, Ibid. 

or Date.-] SPECULUM HUM. SAJ.V. 1 1 

to call a vignette) of which the reader is presented with the ensuing 
fac-simile* — beneath the title, thus : 

%xm(tt ^ak^m <^cncf ' ptimo i pfaic ta.€, 
VDtt M aucifer^ itiit ^cpner gcfoifcijjafft. 

The Creation of Eve follows on the opposite page ; of which a feeble 
fac-siraUe is also given by Heinecken. The Unioti of Adam and Eve, 
and the Temptation of Eve follow — represented by wood-cuts of the 
same character. On the reverse commences the German version of 
the Latin text which has preceded it ; and this mode is adopted 
throughout the volume. To describe, or mention the names of, the 
great number of cuts in this entertaining book, would be both 
endless and useless. The first of the following ones, in the opinion of the 
artist, peremptorily decides a question which has long exercised the 
ingenuity and learning of Theologians. The second is unusually 
absurd and striking. 

* I had resolved upon giving a fac-simile of this cut (which is among the most absurd 
and grotesque throughout the volume) without a previous knowledge of its liavhig been 
published by Heinecken. The reader will judge of the comparative merits of the two 
copies : but I will be frank to confess that Heinecken's fac-simile (being cut upon copper, 
and the above upon wood) has not so much the character of the original, 

12 MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Place, 

5:Cpte pmolauit tiomino ffiiam jafuam. 
5Jqptc Ijat geopfcrt bcm fjcrreit ^efcin tocljter* 

5^(erna pfjaraomjef tJibit tjitein httarceratg; (^encf ' 
jfacl) cpncn UjcinrcBcn al^ cr gefangeix lag. 

w Date.] 



Few subjects have been more frequently exhibited, by the artists 
engaged in the embellishment of ancient books, than that of the 
Temptation of Our Saviour in the Wilderness. The reader shall pass his 
own judgment upon the following representation of it: 

€emptato rgi a bpaBolo in ticf to* ^&t^*' iiij* ta. 
€ti^tu^ ixjarb attgefocfite tJO tiem teuffel in ti' toufte. 

5Ita muntiu^ iiste. plenum eiSfttiemomBa^ €t itico ^i sHU 
qutin 5 teinptatonci^ cecitii$fiS?c Ijiticm'^. €t intimo cot 
tic jsfifii compati tieBemUjSf. |^on ^tatim tiebem^ efi con- 
bcmnatc bri puBlicarc, dS>cti p pofjsfc pcccatfi ci^. occult 
tare 1 cvcujefarc. <iSi aut no potcrhn'^ cjccujefarc facti pec 
pcttat05» J>5 crtujgfcniuief en put potcrim'? ipi^ intcntoj 

Sec. 8cc, 8cc. 

The trium.phant entry of our Saviour into Jerusalem is described in 
the following simple and rude manner : 


MISCELLANEOUS. [fVithout Place, 

f pusi \3ibcn0 ciuitatcni fjicmfalmi flmit ^efupct earn 
<Duia cogitouiCacaf. Mucc. w. i. niatl)'. xxh 
5fj^ ■sup piilhim asiuc ^cticn^ in bic palmaif, 

[77ifi German J olloics.'] 

The Punishments of Lamech and of Job are thus terribly delineated: 

aiamccl) amtjitur a tmoftJ broriB"^ ^c^ ^cHa 1 1Ctia 




^ ^ i 





1 /---^-^\ 







^— ^g 

*^ ^ 


;^'^ — % 


Tlie ensuing is a curious representation (repeated more than once) 
of the Crowning of our Saviour. 


MISCELLANEOUS. [fVifhout Place, 

Nor is the following representation, of ' Daniel in the Den of Lions 
fed by an Angel,' less curious and extraordinary : 

The last and not the least ridiculous specimen with which I shall gra- 
tify the reader, is the following : it being as complete an exemplification 
as can be produced of the absurdity of attempting, by means of the 
pencil, to give a literal representation of an allegorical expression. 
It will be immediately seen that it illustrates the following text : ' The 
Stone which the Builders refused became the Chief Corner Stone.' 

or Date.] SPECULUM HUM. SALV. 17 

It will be obvious, on turning over the leaves of this singular produc- 
tion, that it contains yet many very extraordinary and ridiculous em- 
bellishments ; but some limits must be assigned both to expense and 
illustration. Accordingly, it remains only to add, that the work 
concludes with the Seven Sorrows and Seven Joys of the Virgin : when 
we read, on the reverse of the 261st leaf, this subscription : 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf, are the following prefixes to a kind 
of supplemental work. 

C %\\\x^ \iSytt dg^aHuatomiaf jjumane metricujSf 
jjrxori^ lil&ri materia meice ac 3pentiiOiefe tractate 

il Compmtiia j)umaite faluatom^ nuntupat*?. 


i^oc tijmjsf incgoo* p itomte xpc mo. 

This compendium contains, in the whole, only 8 leaves. On the reverse 
of the 8th leaf, we read the following imprint, which has given rise to 
the remarks submitted in the first note of this article. 

«t oBji'^iicit Humanetj; jsfaluti^ ^umula plane 
a me ftratre %t^l^&mt tut pater ortitni^ alme 
ijjt Iintiicte puto x^v^^x minimo monacf)o. 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and the im- 
pression might have been executed as early as the year 1475, Although 
the present copy is occasionally wormed, it is large and clean, and, upoa 
the whole, in most desirable condition. Bound in black morocco. 

* Sic. 

18 MISCELLANEOUS. [Brescia; 147 S. 

781. Speculum Aureum, &c. TVithoiU Place or 
Date. Quarto. 

The title, above a cut of a sclioolmaster and two scholars, is as 
follows : 

pcccatrici^ inscritJitiir Sincipit fclicitcr 

The signatures, a to c, are in sixes : on the recto of c 6 : 

<;g>pccuhim aurcu anime pcccatricij^ a quotiam 
tamificiefe ctiitum finit fcficiter* 

The editions of this work, in the xvth and xvith centuries, are in- 
numerable. The present is a beautiful copy ; in dark red calf binding, 
with gilt leaves. 

782. Statuta Brixiensia; scuStatutaCommunis 
Brixi-e. Printed hy Ferrandus. Brescia. 1473. 

EuiTio Princeps. I have before had occasion to make mention of 
the rarity and value of this interesting volume ; and although the 
present is the place for a copious and faithful description of it, I am 
aware very little can be added to the satisfactory accounts of it by 
Audiffredi and Mauro Boni. The latter, although not always literally 
correct, has, in this article, made some amends for the brevity and 
carelessness of many of his descriptions. I shall endeavour to be 
equally full and accurate. This bulky volume may be divided into five 
or six parts. The first 2 leaves, having 35 lines in a full page, contain* 
a table. On the recto of the 3rd leaf we read 


TIS ET gloriosissime dei genetiicis 8c semper uirginis 
Marie Xc beatissimi euangeliste sancti marci 
necno 8c beatorum martie? Faustini 8c louite 
8c totius curie celestis statuta comunis brixie 

Brescia; 1473.] STATUTA BRIXIENSIA. 1^ 

On the recto of the 24th leaf we read this title : 


On the reverse, at bottom : 

FINIS Thoma ferrando auctore : m.cccc.lxxiii 

On the recto of the following leaf; 


This is a prefix to a table of 5 leaves. The reverse of the 5th leaf is 
blank, and the following leaf is entirely blank. Then the text, on the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, beginning thus ; 


On the recto of the 128th leaf, we read this patriotic and interesting 
address of the printer to his countrymen : 


Patrie post deu quonia debemus oia/ pecuia qui/ 
q corporis uiribus ualet ; pecunia ilia ilia corporis 
uiribus tueant Ego quoq; ho^ altero natura altero 
fortuna multis iferior : la eo quod mihi ptim na 
tura pti industria tribuit i illam no ingratus/ 
Quotquot hac forma ipressa statuta studiosissime 
lector legeris : Conciuiu raeoru comodo tribus mesibus 
feci Et reliqua uolumina breui patus absoluere 
si i his uededis liberale exptus eptore fuero 
no pcissimQ. M.cccc.lxxiii. 

The reverse is blank. Next, a table of 5 leaves ; ending mth DEO 
GRATIAS. The reverse is blank. An entire blank leaf ensues. On 
the recto of the following and 135th leaf, we read this title : 


On the reverse of fol. 203, is the following subscription : 


20 MISCELLANEOUS. [Brescia ; 1 473. 


NEC diim cxperta qua p fincm ciuilium statutoru 
dixi libcralitatc criniinalia quoq; copleui &: qiionia 
itcgTuni dcposcunt libiu adda Sc reliqua ne ego illis 
sed illi n)ihi iusto iure defuisse nisi emerint iudicent 

A blank leaf follows. Then a table of 5 leaves. Another blank succeeds. 
The text, on the recto of the next leaf, begins thus : ' VT POSSES- 
SIONES, &c.' This latter part has, in the whole, 70 leaves. The last 
sentence, on the recto of the 280th leaf, presents us with the following 
melancholy picture of the distressed circumstances of the printer. It 
has been also copied by Boni. 

Exquo iprimi p me Thoma ferradii statuta cepta sut 
lata sigate pecuie iactura fca e : ut uededi uolumis i 
quo lata opra ipesamq; imposui spes reliqua uel nulla 
uel exigua sit niihi Du ei p adulterina mo< modo p 
tosa nioneta : etia no adulterina no tonsa omis interdicit. 
tatu e detrimetu subsecutij ut no mo que ad ornatu sut 
emere negligat siguli uerii his et abstinet quibus magno 
sirie Icomodo carere no possut Ego uero i molestia 
solabor 8c cp malu hoc mihi e coe cu multis imo cQ 
omibus Sc (f uariaK reru usu neq; turbari mognoper 
aduersis neq; supra modii letari prosperis didici Ide et 
pccuiosus 8c (melior fortasse) pecunia indiguus ero : Ea 
eni bonas uti adiuuat metes : ita affligit malas Me- 
diocres ante quale me habere no inficior nequaq melores* 
efficere peiores facer facillime potest FINIS XII Kl* 

Then a table of 1 leaves. The text follows with this title : ' STATVTA 
CETERA. This latter part contains 28 leaves : which number, added 
to the preceding, gives us 310 leaves in the whole. On the recto of 

the last leaf, at bottom : 

• Sic. 

Cologne; 1478.] STATUTA ECCLES. COLON. 21 

Brix Thoma Ferrando auctore. M.cccclxxiii tertio 

Kl' lulii. 

AudifFredi appears to have omitted this latter part ; and says, upon 
the authority of Amoretti, that the volume contains only 306 leaves. 
Edit. Itpl. p. 136. See also Boni's Lihri a Stampa, «SfC. dell' Italia 
Siiperiore, 1794, folio, p. lxxxiv-viu. In all probability, says Panzer, 
Ferrandus never printed again at Brescia till the close of the xvth 
century. His poverty and the want of patronage seem to have 
crippled all further exertion, and to have caused his self-banishment 
from his native country. This may be inferred from what appears 
in the Annal. Typog. vol. iv. p. 255-6, and from the supposed nature 
of the case. It is in vain to look for an account of this precious and 
rare volume among the earlier bibliographers of the xviiith century. 
The present large and sound copy of it is bound in russia. 

783. StatutaEcclesi^ CoLONiENSis. Prititedhy 
Guldemchaiff. Cologne. 1478. Folio. 

Editio Pkinceps. I suspect that Panzer was not only unacquainted 
with this rare and curious production, but that he was unable to refer 
to any other authorities than those of Maittaire, and the Catalogue of 
the Royal Library at Paris, for an account of it: both of which authorities, 
in the present instance, are sufficiently meagre and uninstructive. To 
the antiquary, or historian, few books are more deserving of a careful 
perusal than those which contain the first printed promulgation of 
laws and customs ; and it is only by the possession of such volumes as 
the present, that the topographer can fully describe the earliest 
institutes or customs of the place which forms the subject of his pub- 
lication. Accordingly, the Noble Owner of this copy may treasure it 
among the more valuable acquisitions of his library : nor will the 
reader, from the specimens here adduced, be probably disposed to look 
upon the work with a less favourable eye. 

This edition is among the few books, in the xvth century, to which 
the name of GuldenschaiflF is subjoined as the printer. The type is 
of the Zel cast or character, and might be decidedly pronounced as 
having belonged to a Cologne printer ; but it is more elegant, and the 
press-work is better executed, than what we usually observe in the . 
performances of Ulric Zel. The text is uniformly printed in double 

22 MISCELLANEOUS. [Cologne; 1478. 

columns ; and the recto of the first leaf presents us with the following 
prefix to the first column : 

3[nripifit Capittiila ^atut02f 
ccclcsic €oim a Bone mcmoric 
bomino Conratio arcljiepo Co 
loiiicitiflfi ctiita* 

On the following column is a proheme. On the reverse the Statutes 
begin ; in which we read, with sensations of surprise and indignation, 
the following evils to be remedied by law : ' De manifesta cohabitatione 
Clericorum. De manifesta Clericorum negociatione. De InsuflRciencia 
que est illicteratura* Clericorum. De tonsura Clericorum. De Clericis 
Symoniacis. De Clericis irregular ibus. De Dormitorijs, &c. De 
Campanarijs et Custodibus simul. De Decanis Scolasticis cantoribus 
et Canonicis simul, &c. The first evil is thus described : 

€iim cnim itianife^tOjSf cofjafiitatoreise 0m tonmbimm^ 
tcn^camu^. noit ^olum co^ qui in leiui.i^ tiomttJU^ tcncnt 
connifihiaif, ticrum mnm^ generaiiter. co^ ctiam qui 
niuUcrciSf focariajef extiomo^ jfua^ inancntc.!^ jfuiiSf niani^ 
fc^tt proturant ?'uniptiBu^ et ^u^tcntant fcc. 

The Statutes, contained in this volume, are the ordinances of the fol- 
lowing characters : namely, of Conrad, of Engilbert, of Sifrid, of Wic- 
boldus, of Heniy Archbishop of Cologne, of the second Henry, Arch- 
bishop of Cologne, and of Walram, &c. The 4th prefix, or title of the 
latter, forbids the Clergy * to set up the business of a Tavern Keeper.' 
We continue with the Statutes of Wilhelmus, of Frederick, and of 
Theodoric ; all Archbishops of Cologne. Those of Cardinal Nicolaus 
de Cusa follow, and bear date 1452 : thus — 

€rpliciutit ftatuta feu tm^ti 
tucoc^ per reuerentiifisfimum in 
cri-sito patte ac tin^ Diim l^ico 
lau tc tufa pniite2f, carti\ etiita. 

Then follow the Statutes of Theodoric, relating to the court of Cologne j 
next, those of Ropertus, Archbishop of Cologne, relating to the same 

• Sic 

Without Date.] SUMMA COLLiVTIONUM. 23 

court. These latter are dated 1470. Beneath, and on the recto of 
the 123rd and last leaf, we have the ensuing colophon : 

^at ojm.9? d§tatut02f, fum 
mt mcef^atitt jra.i^toriBiiiSf eccle 
^iarum i rectorifiuj^. at ^uB ejc 
t0itiuntcacott. pena aB ijilje? Ijti 
p omne^ epo^ tolonicn. "^w^ 
t\xc 1 inantiat. er lifito prmd 
jratt ^tatuto2f tccic Colon, per 
%n^tm gultie^cgaiff bt0ili cix 
tura imprfii^* 5l!c anno bm. sr^. 
fccc^rr^iij* tjje ticchtiaoctauo 
^ ment ^Uprfi' co^ttmatu 5Cti lau 

tiem tcrcia tiie a mottuiif re^ut 

There are neither numerals, catchwords, nor signatures. The present 
may be called a very beautiful copy, and is in russia binding. 

784. SuMMA CoLLATioNUM (Printed hy Ulric 
Zel.^ Without Place or Date. Quarto. 

There are brief descriptions of this uncommon, but not very inte- 
resting, collection of Tracts, in the Cat. de la Valliere, vol. i. p. 397, 
n°. 1319, and in Laire's Index Libror. vol. i. p. 40. According to the 
latter authority, the work passes under the name of Summa Galendis 
in the MisceU. Lipsien. vol. xii. p. 80 ; and it is also called by another 
name — that of CENTiLoauiuM — by Denis, n°. 974. The Valliere Cata- 
logue observes that this impression is divided into 7 parts, of which each 
has several sections, and each section several chapters. The \'olume 
before us has six divisions or parts ; the first having 10, the second S, 
the third 5, the fourth 2, the fifth 7, and the sixth 3 chapters. On the 
recto of the first leaf is a table, having this prefix at top, 

<SaiJula ^mm pattiis? 

24 MISCELLANEOUS. [Naples; 1474. 

and occupying 9 leaves. It ends thus : 

i^cic coHconem sfi quisf tiignatuc inieipicete g 
Ij02f titiiloif jsiuc capitulo2f iiijgipcctionem po 
tcrit ^cqucntiu ticpljenticre orDine i pcef^um* 

The prologue begins on the reverse of this 9th leaf, occupying 5 
pages, and 4 lines of a 6th page. The text of the first part imme- 
diately follows. There are running titles throughout, and a full page 
has 27 lines. On the recto of the 260th and last leaf: 

J>uma conattonu ab one ge 
miiBf !|o!m <iExjrticit fclicitcr. 

The present is a sound, fair copy ; in old red morocco binding. 

785. Sylvaticus. Liber Pandectarum Medi- 
cine. Printed at Naples. 1474. Folio. 

Panzer calls this the Editio Princeps of the work ; although an 
edition by JVurster de Campidonia, of the same date, is placed before it in 
his Index, at vol. v, p. 419. The supposed edition by Azoguidi is 
considered by him to be very doubtful, if not whoUy fictitious. The 
name of Arnoldus de Bruxella is assigned by Panzer as that of the 
printer of this truly magnificent volume. It is indeed very rarely 
that we discover a nobler production of any press in the xvth centuiy ; 
and, at first sight, the type reminds us of the best printing of Ulric 
Han, in the Priscian and Tortellius, and is not very dissimilar to 
that of jVIoravus, in the Seneca and Maius, noticed in vol. ii. p. 338 ; 
vol. iii. pp. 89, J 07, 126. The work is uniformly executed in double 
columns, of which a full page contains 50 lines. On the recto of the 
first leaf, at top, begins a dedication to Ferdinand king of Sicily, 
having a prefix in 6 lines of capital letters. This dedication is by 
• Angelus Cato Supinas de Beneuento. Philosophus et Medicus.' The 
' attestation and adjuration' of the same is on the recto of the 3d leaf. 
On the recto of fol. 4, begins the text of Sylvaticus, with a prefix 
printed in red. The work is in the form of a Dictionary ; the words 
being alphabetically arranged. On the reverse of the last leaf but 6, 
we read tliis imprint : 

Without Date.] TAMBACO [JOHN DE.] 25 

EXPLICIT, liber Pandecta 
rum. Quern Angelus Cato Supinas 
de Beneueto Philosophus 8c medicus 
magna cu diligetia z emedate impri 
mendu curauit. in clarissiraa 8c nobi 
lissimaatq; pstantissiraa Dulcissimaq; 
ciuitate Neapoli. Reguni Ducum 
Procerumq; matre Prima Aprilis. 
Idcirco excelso deo gracias agamiis 

Six verses follow. Then a register, called ' tabula seu clavis folio- 
rum et quinternorum/ on the recto of the ensuing leaf. The reverse 
is blank. Next an alphabetical table of the Pandects, referred to by 
folios, as if the leaves were numbered in print. This table contains 
5 leaves. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. 
This copy is as large and clean as possible : in russia binding, with 
marble edges to the leaves. 

786. Tambaco (Ioannes De). De Consolatione 
Theologi^. Without Name of Printer, Place, 
or Date. Folio. 

The printer of this edition is supposed to be Michael Reyser, of Neii- 
stadt ; upon the authority of Braun — who, in his 5th plate of vol. i. n°'. V, 
and VI, gives fac-similes of types which are justly said, by Panzer, to 
resemble those in the present volume. The resemblance in the 
capital letters will appear the more striking ; since all the lower-case 
fount, or small letters, introduced by Braun, are too delicately and 
sharply executed. These capital letters bear also a strong resemblance 
to those of Cesaris and Stol, as may be seen in the fac-simile at vol. ii. 
page 344 of this work. In the Cat. de la Falliere, vol. i. p. 199, 
n°. 556, the date of ' about 1475 ' is gratuitously assigned to that of 
the present impression ; but this is mere conjecture. In regard, 
however, to the printer, it may be said that Panzer, at page 92, vol. i. 
seems wholly ignorant of his name, but justly censures those who 
consider him to have been Valdarfer : at p. 387 of the same volume 

26 MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Date. 

he inclines to the supposition of the work having been executed 'Typis 
Reyserianis, seu Eustadianis,' Denis conceives that these types resem- 
ble those of Anthony Sorg ; and the Abb6 Mercier, those of Cesaris 
and Stol. Siippl. p. 673, n°. 5988. It has been just observed that 
the capital letters are like those of the last mentioned printers — but 
the small ones are wholly dissimilar. Sorg's lower-case type is cer- 
tainly not very much unlike that of the present work — but the con- 
jecture resjjecting Reyser is probably the more accurate one. We 
proceed briefly to describe the volume itself. 

The head titles of the XV Books, contained in the impression, are 
specified on the recto of the first leaf — followed by a prologue, which 
concludes on the recto of the ensuing leaf, with this subscription : 


The first chapter ensues on the recto of the succeeding and 3rd leaf. 
A full page has 44 lines. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor 
catchwords : on the recto of fol. 281, we read this subscription — evi- 
dently denoting the date of the completion of the original composi- 

aBjcplicit KiBct be a^oktionc tljeologie p fratrein 5iO- 
Ijannein tie CamBaco orbiitii^ pretiicato^if* puiitcie tljeu 
tfjonie ^acce ^Ijeologie pfcftforem afummatu^. ^Hiino 

The reverse is blank. A table of .5 leaves concludes the volume, in the 
present copy ; but it should have another leaf to be perfect. This 
is, upon the whole, a sound and desirable copy ; in russia binding. 

1474.] THURECENSIS, &c. 27 

787. Thurecensis (Physici). Tractatus de 
CoMETis. T Tinted hy Hans Aurl. ]474. Quarto. 

"W^hether the present edition, or the one next described, be the 
earliest impression of the work, it is probably difficult to determine. 
Brunet places this as the second ; but he appears to have never seen 
a copy of it. Manuel du Libraire, vol. ii. p. 575. This is a volume of 
extreme rarity, and of no small importance to the bibliographical 
antiquary. There are, at present, only tw^o books known, to which 
the names of Leonhardus Aurl, and Hans Aurl, are subjoined — whe- 
ther as the editor, or printer, of these respective books, is a point 
which is yet doubtful: consult vol. i. p. 199-200, of this work. In 
regard to the impression before us, Maittaire (vol. i. p. 773, note 12) 
supposes it to have been printed at Rome: the authorities of Bibl. 
Menars. p. 209, and Bibl. Baluz. vol. i. p. 460, being adduced as cor- 
roborative of this conclusion. But on examining these authorities, it 
appears, in the former, (n°. 786,) that the word ^Romce' is gratuitously 
inserted ; and, in the latter, (n°, 5652,*) that both the words, Rovice and 
Aurl, are omitted. There is therefore nothing decisive, in respect to 
the place of the impression, in Maittaire, or his authorities. AudifFredi 
makes no mention whatever of this impression. ' De Hans Haurl (says 
Panzer) non habeo, quse dicam :' Annal. Typog. vol. ii. p. 452. 
Seemiller, however, has a satisfactory description of the volume before 
us ; but ' whether the name of Hans Aurl stand for that of the printer, 
corrector, bookseller, or editor, he has no accurate information.' He 
adds, ' I do not remember that any bibliographer has made mention 
of this impression.' Incunab. Typog. fasc. i. p. 63. La Serna Sant- 
ander has wholly omitted the name of Hans Aurl : Diet. Bibliogr. 
Choisi, vol. i. p. 184. 

U{)on the fullest consideration, afforded by these slender materials, 
I incline to think that Leonard and Hans Aurl were brothers and 
printers, residing at Venice ; and that the Prwparatio Evangelica, (see 
vol. i. p. 199,) and the present work, were each executed at that city, 
by these brothers, according to the respective designation of their 
names. t It has been before observed (vol. iii. p. 498) that Adamde 
Ambergau (of Venice) and Florentius de Argentina used similar 
characters ; but the latter of greatly superior elegance. ' Characteres 
(says Seemiller, very justly,) quibus impressum est hoc opus, sunt 

* It is above introduced among the Miscellaneous Pamphlets, and was sold in a parcel 
with other small tracts. 

t Braun, vol, i. p. 200, is unjustly censured by me for such a supposition. 

28 ' MISCELLANEOUS. [1474. 

rotundi, charta satis firma, et alba.' Ibid. The work itself is divided 
iuto two parts : the first treats of the generaliou, form, courses, &c. 
of comets ; and the second, chiefly of their appearances. To the 
second jiart, the date of m.cccc.lxxii is prefixed. ' The author (says 
Seeuiiller) was in the number of those who attributed much to the 
courses of the comets." The recto of the first leaf presents us with 
the opening, thus : 


Ixit Aiistotiles. Nemo eo:^ que ignorat 
bonus e iudex. Multa^ re:^ scieciaruq; 
peiiti phia ^bates. Euetus oes natu/ 
8cc. Sec. 8cc. 

On the recto of the third leaf, it begins thus : 


Niuersalis uero hoif, generatio. cotigit 
plurimu cu terra supcelesti jpprietate 
aliqua costngitur. ipsiusq; pori coartat 

A full page has only 24 lines ; and there are neither numerals, catch- 
words, nor signatures. On the recto of fol. 32 and last, we read the 
conclusion and imprint, thus : 

Hec ergo pro/ 

nunc de significatis huius comete dicta suffi/ 
ciant. quorum ueritatem non uerbalis cotencio 
sed rerum exitus inerrabili creatoris prouidecia 
ab eterno preordinatus arguet uel affirmabit. 


The present copy of this rare and very estimable little volume, ife 
sound and beautiful, and bound in yellow morocco. 

• Sic 

Without Date.] THURECENSIS, &c. 20 

788. Thurecensis(Physici). Idem Opus. {Printed 
hyHeliasHelice.) U^ithout Place or Date. Folio. 

The Cat. de la Valliere, vol. i. p. 527, n°. 1816, supposes this im- 
pression to have been executed ' about the year 1473 ;' since it 
resembles the printing of the Speculum Vitce Humance of Rod. Zamo- 
rensis, which has the year 1472 subjoined to it : see vol. iii. p. 493. That 
Helius Helice, or De Louffen, was the printer of the present volume, is 
indisputable ; from its exact conformity with the impression of the 
^ork here just referred to, and which has that printer's name incor- 
porated in the colophon. It may however have been executed sub- 
sequently to the edition last described. I believe no other impression 
of the work under consideration, in the xvth century, is known. 
Consult the brief notice in the Index Libror. vol. i. p. 157 : and correct 
the strange blunder of Denis, who says that the types of this impression 
resemble those of the Mammotrectus (by the same printer), of which a 
fac-simile is given at page 156, vol. i. of the present work. Suppl. 
p. 680, n°. 6050. 

This edition is barbarously and inelegantly executed. The page is 
disproportionately full. The first page, or recto of the first leaf, pre- 
sents us with this prefix : 

Thurecensis phisiti* Tractatus de. Cometis Incipit. 

The arrangement of the text is similar to that of Aurl's impression. 
The head-titles to the chapters are in capitals ; those to the sections 
are in lower-case. A full page has 44 lines. On the reverse of the 
12th and last leaf, we observe a head title 


Then, a separate sentence — beginning, as before, ' Hie Sermo gene- 
ralis, &c.' beneath which we read 

SIT : : LAVS : : DEO : 

There are neither numerals, catchwords, nor signatures. A sound copy : 

in russia binding. 

• Sic. 

so MISCELLANEOUS. [fFithout Date. 

789. Trapezuntius. Rhetorica. ( Supposed to 
have been printed hyVindelin de Spira.^ Without 
Date. FoJio. 

Editio Princeps. De Bure and Fossi seem to have too implicitly 
followed INIaittaiie in assigning the date of 1470 to the present im- 
pression. On the contrary, I apprehend, from the insertion of all the 
Greek passages, that the year 1472 must be the earliest date assign- 
able to this production of the Spira press ; since I have at present no 
recollection that either Jenson, or V, de Spira, used the Greek charac- 
ters previous to the last mentioned period. De Bure however may 
be right in observing, that this is the only edition, in the xvth cen- 
tury, held in estimation by booksellers. See Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iii. 
p. HS : Bibl. Magliabech. vol. ii. col. 715. It is, at any rate, a very 
beautiful production of early printing; yet we may be brief in the 
account of it. On the recto of the first leaf is this prefix : 


Beneath, are 37 lines; but a full page contains 41 lines. There are 
neither numeials, signatures, nor catchwords. On the recto of fol. 153 
and last — beneath 31 lines — of which the last line concludes with the 
word Ts.Xoo" — we read as follows : 

Qii^ superat reliquas artes est facta georgi 
Ars bene dicendi munere nostra tuo. 

Correxit ucneta rliptor benedictus in urbe. 
Hanc eniat orator qui bonus esse uelit. 

Si nescis ubi sit uenalis : qupre lemanum 
Spirara : qui precii codicis auctor erit. 

' Unless I am mistaken (says Maittaire) the word " Lemanum" is put 
for " Alemanum ;" and by " Spiram " we are to understand " Vinde- 

Without Date.'] TUNDAL'S VISION. 3] 

]inus de Spira Alemanus." Coradinus is the name of the poet who 
wrote the epigram ; and which was reprinted in the edition by Pachel 
of 1493. See Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 297, note 2. The present copy 
may be considered to be in desirable condition. It is bound in russia. 

790. TuNDALi Visio, &c. TVithout JVame of 
Printer, Place, or Date. Quarto. 

There is little doubt of this curious tract having been printed in 
the office of Ther Hoernen; as the types evidently resemble those to 
which that printer's name is subjoined. It is a small volume of only 
17 leaves ; every page of which is filled with such marvellous intelli- 
gence as was well suited to gratify the credulity of former times. 
As Panzer appears to have omitted it in his Index : vol. v. p. 432-3, 
the reader has a sort of claim to be made tolerably well acquainted 
with its contents. It is, however, most probable that the entire nar- 
rative is found in some ancient collection of Legendary Tales. The 
researches of Vincentius Bellovacensis, or of Jacobus de Voragine, were 
well calculated to lead those lovers of the marvellous to the discovery 
of the Vision of Tundal. The full title is at top of the recto of the 
first leaf, thus : 

Sndpit IrbtiW tic 3illaptu aie €utiali i do 
tJifioe €ractai0i tt pcni^ inferni i gautiijjgf 

The text commences by informing us that this vision took place in the 
year 1149, in the 4th year of the papacy of Eugenius — ' in which year 
that Pope returned from Gaul to Rome.' Tundal is then de- 
scribed as a native ' in hibernia septentrionalium Hibermencium 
australium Gaselensis : of a noble family, cruel in action, handsome in 
person, of a brave courage, and utterly regardless of the welfare of 
his soul. He sharply retorted upon those who even slightly men- 
tioned the subject of eternal salvation : he neglected his church ; and 
bestowed upon jesters and buffoons his superfluous wealth, without 
being solicitous of relie\'ing poor and deserving Christians. It chanced, 
among his promiscuous and lawless associates, that a certain soldier 
was indebted to him for monies advanced. Tundal waited upon him, - 
demanding his due : the man told him that it was out of his power to 

32 MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Place, 

satisfy him ; and, on his exhibiting symptoms of wrath, Tundal is ear- 
nestly entreated that, before he departs, he would sit down and take 
some refreshment with him. [' rogauit eQ ut priusqui recederet secum 
cibum sumerct T Tundal sits down ; and laying aside a hatchet, 
which he carried in his hand, he begins to eat with him. He is 
instantly and invisibly smitten; so that he is not able to convey his 
extended hand to his mouth. And he begins to cry out terribly, 
begging that his hatchet, or axe, may be conveyed to the wife of his 
Host: "Keep," says he, " this my hatchet, for I am about to die" 
—and instantly his body is deserted by his spirit : and all the signs of 
death aj)pear upon the corpse. The family run to the spot : the food 
is taken away : the attendants cry out : the guests bewail : the body is 
extended : a priest arrives : the people are astonished, and the whole 
city is suddenly alarmed at the death of this brave soldier.' 

The body continues apparently lifeless from the tenth hour ' in 
quarta feria,' to the same hour on the following sabbath. At length 
a gentle heat is perceptible in the left part of the breast ; so that they 
are unwilling to bury him. He then begins to breathe softly for the 
space of an hour. Being interrogated whether he wished to confess, 
he nodded, and indicated that he would take the sacrament. [' innuit 
sibi afferri corpus domini. '] When he had eaten the bread, and drank 
the wine, he began to pour forth praises to God.' Tundal, thus 
reformed, tells his attendants what he had seen, and what had been 
the ravishment of his soul, during this state of trance. From such 
an opening, the reader is prepared for the man'ellous in its most 
tremendous shape. The Jirst vision relates to the ' Appearance of 
Demons, and of the Angel who conducted him. The second vision de- 
scribes a Horrible Valley and a Narrow Bridge. The third, a Monstrous 
and Terrible Beast. The fourth, a Stagnant Lake. 

Over this lake is a very long and very narrow bridge : the foot-way 
of which is covered with innumerable sharp spikes, or nails, that could 
not fail to penetrate the feet of those who walked over it. All the 
beasts (described in a preceding vision) are compelled to go to this 
bridge for their food. Some of them are of immense magnitude ' like 
unto great towers.' From their mouths issues so strong a flame, that, 
to the beholders, the lake is made to bubble therefrom. Tundal sees 
a certain spirit, upon this bridge, bewailing and accusing himself in a 
most piteous manner : and this spirit is compelled to pass over the 
bridge. And although it feels the anguish of the nails running into 

or Date.] TUNDAL'S VISION. . 33 

its feet, it dreads more to tumble into the lake below, and to fall into 
the open mouths of the beasts. Tundal enquires of his attendant 
angel, what this might be ? '* That punishment (resumes his celestial 
guide) is especially deserving of your attention — and is connected with 
the thefts, great or small, which you yourself have committed. All 
thefts are not punished alike. There are greater and lesser sins of 
this kind : but sacrilege is among the greatest. He who steals any 
sacred thing, or any thing from a sacred place, is guilty of sacrilege : 
but those the more grossly offend in this particular, who are guilty of 
it under the garb of religion. It is necessary for you to pass over this 
bridge ; and to bring to me, at the other end of it, a fierce and un- 
tamed cow, unhurt : because you once stole one of your father's cows." 
To whom Tundal : " Have I not restored that cow ?" " You certainly 
restored it — (says the angel) but not until you knew you were incapa- 
ble of concealing it ; and therefore you shall not suflFer the full weight 
of punishment — for to be willing to commit evil is less criminal than 
to perform evil : although both are heinous before God." 

So saying, the angel shews Tundal this untamed cow. Tundal, half 
willing and half resolute, seizes it, and urges it over the bridge with 
many threats. Meanwhile the beasts, before described, approach the 
bridge, and expect their wonted food. Tundal now accelerates the 
passage of the cow, which is unwilling to accompany him. Whenever he 
urges it onward, or stands still, the cow falls ; and now falling, or 
creeping, or standing, they reach the middle of the bridge. The feet 
of Tundal stream with blood, from the incision of the nails. At length 
his celestial guide approaches him, and tells him he need no longer 
drive on the cow. Tundal shews his wounded feet, and urges the im- 
possibility of his advancing further. " Remember (says the angel) 
how swift were your feet to shed blood :" and touching him he cures 
him — and they proceed onward to the fifth vision : Of a flaming 
Furnace. The sixth is entitled Of the Beast, and of a frozen Lake. The 
seventh, Of the Valley of Iron Forgers or Smiths. This latter is a curious 
chapter. It relates to the tortures and pmiishments inflicted ujion 
the wicked by fire, and by instruments made from forges. * The 
sufferers desire death, but cannot find it. The tormentors speak to each 
other, saying, " It is never sufficient." And other tormentors, over 
other forges or furnaces, answer, " Cast them to us, and let us see if 
we can accomplish it." And they cast them ; and these tormentors 
seize them in their prongs, before they touch the earth — and fling 
them into the flames — until their skin, flesh, nerves, and bones are 

S4 MISCELLANEOUS. \ Without Place, 

reduced to ashes. One of these wretches discovers and recognises 
Tundal ; and thus addresses him : " How are you ? As nothing was 
ever so grateful to you as carnal pleasures, you ought, for such 
gratifications, to sustain a punishment due to your crimes." The 
penitent Timdal is unable to answer.' But we must take leave of 
such doleful representations, and hasten to close the description of this 
extraordinary tract. 

The remaining Visions are thus entitled : Of the Infernal Well : 
Of the Prince of Darkness, and of his Companions : Of the Middle State 
of the Evil and Good : Of the State of King Tormarcus (exceedingly 
curious) : Of the Visions of the Saints in Glory : Of the same : * Of the 
same : Of the Four Bishops whom Tundal recognised there : Of the return 
of the Spirit of Tundal to his Body. This is the last chapter, and begins 
thus . ' But when the Spirit of Tundal had been highly delighted with 
all these visions, the Angel approached, and gently addressed him, 
saying, " You have observed all these things ?" The Spirit answered, 
" I have seen them, Master. I beseech thee suffer me to remain here." 
To whom the Angel : " You must now return to your body, and 
retain the memory of these visions for the benefit of your Christian 
brethren." Having heard this, the Spirit becomes sad ; and weeping 
answers — ' Master, what great evil have I done, that, leaving this scene 
of bliss, I must return to my body ?" This parley is ineffectual, and 
the return of Tundal's Spirit to his body is thus described in the 
original : 

€t cum IJec tiijrifjefet an 
geluief* conuetisfa mma ^eftati ^cnjfit ^e mole corjji^ 
grauata ct^t. ^uHmti mtcnialimn mc tillum te 
pori^ intcrccfiSfit momenta, f^ ft t uno coticmqj t^i^ 
pucto in ceUjef lnqpai ati angelu. et in iri^ ^tn^it 
itiuc' corp9 ^uu. /^uc ipa bcbiU^ef. corj^ale^ apecuit 

• This chapter opens with the following resplendent scene : 

Vm autem Tudalus curiosius circuspi- 
ceret. vidit quasi castnim et papiliones. 
plurimas, purpura et bisso. et auro. et argento. 
et serico. njira varietate cofectas. in qui bus cordas 
et orgaiia et citheras cu organistris. et cymbalis 
canentes. cetera qj omniu luusicoruni genera suauis 
simis sonis cocinentes. &c. 

t Sic. 

1472.] TURRECREMATA [I. PE]. 35 

oculojBf. et ^jSpiranjef. mcjjiig^ tiicen^. tt^ptxtt tie/ 
vito^ circttftatttejef. tt ^ujrjsit corpuief tiomini en gra^ 
ttaif. acttone. et omnia que f^a&uit. tit^jp^^it tietitt 
paugitiujsf. et ja^igna ^atte cmcijef tje^ttmenttis? ^ui^ 
fl|UtB9 tjeje^tieBai jefug affigi iuf^t, €uncta q tjiberat 
8 retinere poterat. noBi^ef pojeftmotiu ftitauit. &:c. 

8cc. 8cc. kc. 

The tract concludes with an admonition by the author — contrary to 
the opinion of * the blessed St. Bernard' — that ' there is altogether 
no place, or no middle state of the soul, between that of purgatory 
and paradise/ Beneath, we read 

<Bxp\ittt iihtllu^ tie raptu anime 
€utiaft 1 et^ tjtftoe. ^ratta^ef tie 
ptni^ iferni i gautjijief patatiiiSfi ; 

There are neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords ; and a full 
page contains 27 lines. In the whole, 18 leaves. The present is a fine 
large copy, in red morocco binding. 


PLATioNES. Without Name of Printer, or Place j 
1472. Folio. 

Editio Secunda. The Noble Owner of this rare and curious spe- 
cimen of early printing, has to lament the want of the Editio 
Princeps of the work. This first edition was executed by Ulric Han, 
at Rome, in 1467, and is considered to be the earliest essay of his press. 
It has been described by AudifFredi (who never saw it) and by De 
Murr ; the latter of whom has given a fac-simile of the first cut of the 
Creation of the World ; which differs from that represented in the 
ensuing article, only in the size and rudeness of its composition : the 
objects introduced being precisely the same.* See the Edit. Rom. 

* De Murr tells us that his fac-simile of the first cut is ' most accurately delineated ;' 
but I wish it were in my power to present the public with another, executed from my own 
knowledge of the original. De Murr has given a list of the cuts — for which see the note iu 
the following impression. The type, with which the Editio Princeps is printed, is thnt of 
the large lower-case gothic : see vol. i. p. 332-3. 


pp. 8-10, and Memorab. Bibl. Nuremb. pt. i. p. ^61-5. It should seem 
from Heineckcn {Id^e, &c. p. 149-150,) that the same cuts, with which 
this first edition was executed, were introduced into the third im- 
pression, of the date of 1473. Heinecken saw a copy of the latter in 
the Pr(l'ond Collection. 

Laire has erred in observing that the types of this impression resem- 
ble those of the edition of the Quatuor Virtutes Cardinales of Uenricus 
Ariminensis, executed at Spire in 1472, and described at p. 1G5 of the 
preceding volume of this work. Index Libror. vol. i. p. 289, 290. On 
the contrary, they are precisely similar to those of the Gesta Christi, of 
which a fac-simile will be seen at p. 338 of the third volume. The name 
of the printer is not hitherto known. It is certainly not Peter Drach. 
' Concerning the printer and the place of the impression (says 
Seemiller) I am unable to observe any thing.' Incunab. Typog. fasc. i. 
p. 44-5. But this volume has one very peculiar claim to the notice of 
the curious in typography : it is probably Xhe first book which presents 
us with SIGNATURES. I say * probably,' because we learn from La 
Serna Santander, that a work of John Nider, entitled Preceptorium 
DivituE Legis, and executed by Koelhof, at Cologne, in 1472, has the 
same typographical distinction. Yet as no day of the month is specified 
by this bibliographer, as given in the colophon of the work of Nider, 
the present edition may ' possibly ' take chronological precedence. La 
Serna Santander was wholly ignorant of the volume under descrip- 
tion. See his ' M(jmoire sur I'origine et le premier usage des signa- 
tures et des chiffres dans I'art typographique,' p. 23-25. Suppl. au 
Cat. Sfc. de La Serna Santander, 1803, 8vo. We now proceed to the 
volume itself. 

It is printed in double coliunns, having 34 lines in a full page. At 
the top of the first column, on the recto of a. i. we read the title at 
full length, thus : 

Contemplaciones deuotis;s 
.sime per reuerendissirau dnrn 
dnm Joh'em de tune cremata 
cardinal e quond' sancti Sixti 
edite atq; in parietibus circu 
itus Marie minerue ne dum 
littera^ caracterib9 ye^ ecia 

1472.] TURRECREMATA [I. DE]. 37 

yraaginum figuris ornatissime 
descripte atq; deplete icipiut 
feliciter Anno salutis raillesi// 
mo quadringentesimoseptua// 
gesimo secundo die vero vige 
siraa qrta mesis decembris se 
dente Sixto quarto ponti// 
fice raaximo 

Contemplacio prima est de 
mudi creacione. 

As there are only two signatures, a and b, each having 8 leaves, it 
follows that the impression contains only 16 leaves. On the reverse 
of the last leaf we read this colophon : 

Contemplacoes deuotissei p 
reuendissimu dnm dnra lohe'ej 
de tre cremata cardinale quon 
da sci sixti edite atq; in parie// 
tib9 circuitus marie minerue 
nedQ lia;^ caracterib9 yeif. eci 
am jmaginu figuris ornatissie 
descripte atq; depicte felicil'r* 
finiut Anno salutis. M.cccc. 
Ixxii. die v'o vigesimaqrta me 
sis decembris sedente Sixto 
quarta pontifice magno «tc 

Hambergerus doubted whether this date did not specify the year of 
the composition of the work, rather than that of the printing of it ; 
inasmuch as the same day of the month, as well as the same year, 
denotes both the commencement and the conclusion of it — adding that 
these • sixteen leaves could not have been printed in one day.' That 

• Sic. 

38 MISCELLANEOUS. [Numeister; 1470. 

the work was composed before the year 147^, is evident from the exist- 
ence of an edition of it, five years before the present : and (as Seemiller 
remarks) the same apparent impossibility of executing the whole in 
one dav, would apply to the composition as well as to the jjrinting of 
it. Seemiller thinks, therefore, that this is an error of the printer. 
It remains only to observe, that there are neither catchwords nor 
numerals ; and that the present is a beautiful and most desirable copy. 
In blue morocco binding. 


TioNEs SEU Contemplationes. Printed hy 
Numeister. 14/9. Folio. 

Whatever may be the degree of regret in not possessing the first 
EDITION of this work, it is no very trifling consolation to be the 
owner of the present rare, curious, and splendid impression: an 
impression, which, if we except the comparatively brief notice of it 
that appears in the Cat. de Gaignat, vol. i. n*. 3/8, will be found to 
be nowhere else previously described. ' Nous observons (saysDe Bure) 
que cette rare Edition est demeur^e jusqii'k pr&ent inconnue k tons les 
bibliographes, puis-qu'il n'en est fait aucune mention dans leurs 
ouvrages.' Ibid. Both Denis and Panzer rely exclusively upon this 
description ; which, however, is rather incomplete and erroneous. De 
Bure, in his preceding article, begins by doubting the existence of the 
previous editions of 1467 and 1472. We have shewn that such doubts 
have no foundation : and in regard to the present impression, by 
Numeister, he observes that the types ' strongly resemble ' those of 
the Psalters of 1457 and 1450 — insomuch that, if the date of the 
execution were not found in the colophon, we might be tempted to 
assign to it a period of greater antiquity. 

As a fac-simile of this type appears beneath that of the first cut, in 
the ensuing page, the reader shall determine for himself; yet he may 
not object to be informed that such type is, in character, similar to 
that of the Mazarine Bible (see vol. i, p. 4.); but more slender, and 
inferior in height, to the smallest type introduced into either of the 
abovementioned editions of the Psalter. Every one will also observe 
in it a strong resemblance to the character of Pfister (see vol. i. p. 9); 
but it is, in fact, exactly the same type as that with which the Agenda 
Moguntina, noticed at p. 14G, of vol. iii. is executed : and I have little 

Numeister; 1479.] TURRECREMATA [I. DE]. 


doubt, as NumeiBter describes himself to be * clericus maguntinus,' 
that the present volume was printed at Mentz, and not at Foligno — 
the usual residence of the printer. We now proceed to a minute and 
faithful description of this exceedingly precious volume ; premising, 
that the copy of it here described may be said to he without a blemish, 
and in its original state of amplitude. So beautiful and estimable 
a volume is rarely seen in the libraries of the most curious collectors. 

On the recto of the first leaf is the ensuing cut of the Creation of 
the World, with the subjoined title of the work. 

0Hetiitati(me0 totrttfii^tm patrfe 
tKHnfm,5i5^ttifi Ue lEurretremata jba 
aofaurte i^otttaue eccle(Je£aiajinaU0po& 
te et tieptcte tie ipQm ttmtttmto in mM 
mnljttn Caittte \)tmt U DHmerua laome 

40 MISCELLANEOUS. [Numeister ; 1479, 

Six lines are below, A full page lias 26 lines. There are neither 
numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. AH the cuts are executed in 
the same singular manner ;* and, at first sight, have the appearance 
of being cut in metal — but as the present fac-similes are upon 
wood, there is no doubt of the originals having been executed 
on the same material. The order of the cuts seems to be much 
inverted from that of the Editio Princeps ; f and, in this copy, it is as 
follows. After the preceding, we have 2. The Annunciation (fol. ii, 
recto) : 3. The Nativity (fol. iii, rev.): 4. The Circumcision (fol. vj, rev.): 
5, Judas betraying Christ (fol. vij, rect.): 6. Christ's Descent into Hell 
(fol. viij, rev.) This cut, with that of John Baptising Christ, (cut 15, 
fol. 21, rev.) shall speak for themselves in the opposite fac-similes — 
premising that the cut of the Baptism (here placed in its chronological 
order) gives an exact notion of the peculiar touch of the engraver ; 
while that of the Descent serves to prove the gross and barbarous 
taste of the artist's design. 

After the Descent, comes 7- Christ with the Doctors in the Temple 
(fol. ix, rect.): 8. Presentation and Benediction by Simeon (fol. xi, rev.): 
9. Christ worshipped by the Magi (fol. xiv, rect.): 10. Flight into Egypt 
(fol. XV, rect): 11. Christ before Caiaphas (foL xvi, rev.): 12. Mary 
supported, or comforted by her friends (fol. xvii, rect.): 13. Christ washing 
the feet of his Disciples (fol. xix,rect.): 14. The last Supper (fol. xx, rect.) 
15. Baptism by John (fol. xxi, rev. see above); 16. Temptation in the 
Wilderness (fol. xxiii, rect.) : 17. The Creator discoursing with Adam 
(fol. xxiv, rev,): 18. Adam and Eve eating the forbidden fruit (fol. xxvi, 

• Tliis may be the proper place to remark, that the fac-similes of the cuts in this 
impression are executed wilh exti'aordinary fidelity and brilliancy by Mr. Ebenezeb 
Byfield. The difficulty of their execution is extreme. 

t I shall here give the order of the cuts in the Editio Princeps, upon the authority of 
JDe Murr. 1. Creation of the WorU. 2. The Creator discoursing with Adam. 3. Eatirtg 
«f the forbidden f'uit. 4. Tlie Annunciation. 5. The Nativity. 6. TVie Circitmcision. 
7 . Adoration of the Magi. 8- Simeon's Benedictio)}. 9. Flight into Egypt. 10. Christ among 
the Doctors. 11. Baptism of Christ. 12. Temptation iii the Wilderness. 13. The Keys 
delivered to St. Peter. 14. Ttie Transfigvration. 15. Washing of the Disciples Feet. 16. The 
last Supper. 17. Betrayal by Judas. 18. Christ before Caiaphas. 19. The Crucifixion. 
20. Mary comforted by her Associates. 21. The Descent into Hell. 22. The Reswrection, 
23. Christ discoursing with Peter and the Apostles. 24. The Asceiision. 25. Descent of the 
Holy Ghost. 26. Carrying of the Host. 27. Abrahani's Adoration of one of the Saints. 
88. The Genealogical Tree above desaibed. 29. Appearance of Christ to St. Sixtus. 
30.. Assumption of the Virgin. 31, Christ in a Choir of Angels. 32. Christ with the Virgin 
in Heaven. 33. Office of the Mass for the Dead, 34. Day of Judgment. 





^ - 






= : 




-^ » 









l' 1 
































Numeister;li72.]TURRECREMATA. [I. DE] 13 

rect.): 19. Crucifixion of our Saviour (fol. xxviii, rev.): 20. Delivery 
of the Keys to St. Peter (fol. xxx, rect.): 21. The Transfiguration (fol. 
xxxi, rev.): 22. The Ascension (fol. xxxii, rect.): 23. Descent of the 
Holy Ghost (fol. xxxiii, rev.): 24. Carrying of the Host (fol. xxxiv, rect.) 

25. Christ discoursing with St. Peter and the Apostles (fol. xxxv, rev.) 

26. Assumption of the Virgin (fol. xxxviii, rect.): 27. Christ seated on his 
throne surrounded by a choir of Angels Cfol. xxxix, rect.): 28. Appearance of 
Christ to St. Sixtus* (fol. xl. rev.) : 29. Christ sitting at the left hand of 
the Virgin (fol. xli, rect.) : 30. Resurrection of Christ (fol. xlii, rev.) 

31. Abraham worshipping three figures, or Saints (fol. xliii. rect.) 

32. A Genealogical Tree of eleven figures in the branches, and the Virgin 
beneath : a dog is at her feet (fol. xlv, rect. This cut is much larger 
than the rest, and is perpendicularly oblong): 33. Mass for the Dead: 
the surrounding figures (spirits of the dead) naked (fol. xlvi, rev.): 
34. Day of Judgment (fol. xlvii, rev.) The ensuing, and 48th leaf 
concludes the impression. In the whole, 34 cuts. Some of the 
pages contain scarcely more than 7 or 8 lines : in order that the cuts 
may be arranged with due effect. On the reverse of the 48th and last 
leaf we read the colophon, thus : 

Contemplacoeflf ^ujiratiicte ptt ttuttm 
tiif^imum patrem bominu 3Io4)anncm 
tie €ut:cectcmata Carbinale fancti ^ijcti 
ottiinisf jiretiicatorum ebite : imprcfee g 
ioganncin imincisitcr dcricum majun 
tinn %nm tiiii Si^nefimociuat>ringcn^ 
te^iitioj^ejrtuage^imonono bie terda me 
^i^ ^ejrtebn^ klitittt ^efunt consummate. 

It only remains to congratulate the Noble Owner upon the possession 
of this perfect and splendid copy of one of the most interesting speci- 
mens of printing in the xvth century. It is beautifully bound in blue 

* The appearance of our Saviour resembles rather that of a Pope ; as a liai-a is upon Lis 
head, A cross is in his left hand 


44 MISCELLANEOUS. [LofFerona; 1472, 

793. Valturius. De Re Militari. Printed hy 
John of Verona, 1472. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. This magnificent and interesting volume has 
been hitherto superficially described. The accounts of it by De Bure 
and Laire are equally unsatisfactory ; while the Gaignat and La 
Valliere catalogues exhibit still greater sterility of description. Mait- 
taire has been probably copied by Panzer. Fossi is comparatively full 
and particular. The reader may consult the Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. ii. 
p. 579, n°. 2132; Index Libror. vol, ii. p. 290-1 ; Cat. de Gaignat, 
vol. i. p. Mi, n°. 1312; Cat. de la Valliere, vol. i. p. 591, n". 2057; 
Annal. Typog. Maitt. vol. i. p. 312, note 5 ; Annal. Typog. Panzer, 
vol. iii. p. 501-2; and Bibl. MagUabech. vol. ii. col. 759. We shall 
have occasion to quote other authors in the course of the present 
description; but it may be further premised that this volume is the 
second book printed at Verona — and is the first book, with a date, executed 
in Italy, in which we observe wood-cuts. De Bure calls these cuts 
' assez bien ex^cut^es pour un ouvrage de cette antiquitd.' Ibid. But 
Maffei and Lanzi, and the evidence of the ensuing fac-similes, will 
authorise a more favourable mention of them. I shall endeavour to be 
copious and particular. At top of the first leaf, we read as follows : 


rum militarium qu^ singulis codicis liuius i 
uolumibus continet ut ipromptu sint uniuersa 
hoc est ne talium rerum curiosi perlegant : sed 
potius sine labore ac molestia cum quidpiam 
hinc uel inde intelligere uoluerint id tantura 
qupiant sciantq; quo in loco paratum inueniri 
qupat : exquibus qq; elegantissimis auctoribus 
sumptum comprobetur. 8cc. 

This * Elenchus ' occupies 7 pages, or 3 leaves and a half. The 
reverse of the 4 th leaf is blank ; and two entirely blank leaves ensue. 
On the recto of the 7 th leaf, the author's dedicatory address to 
Sigismund Paudulf commences thus : 

/. of Verona; 1472.] VALTURIUS. 45 

nescius Dux %i imp. incljte sigisraunde pa/ 
dulfe : Tanta est liuoris Xc inuidise nostri hu 
ius seculi raalignitatisq; puersitas Sec. 8cc. 

This address terminates* on the 4th leaf, inclusively from its com- 
mencement. The text immediately follows, but there are no prefixes 
to the several chapters ; and the impression is entirely destitute of 
numerals, catchwords, and signatures. A full page has 37 lines. The 
text continues without any embellishment, as far as fol. 25 ; when we 
observe, on the reverse, two cuts on the same page — representing 
the mode of measuring the altitude of a tower. One figure, in the 
upper cut, is discharging an arrow from a cross bow ; the other figure 
is lying down : with a line from the top of the tower to his left eye. 
The figure, in the lower cut, is measuring the altitude with an astrolabe. 
On the recto of the ensuing leaf the text follows thus, without prefix : 


gismunde Pandulfe profundissimam quan^ 
dam Matheseos : hoc est Astronomic^ rationis 
tradere disciplinam : 8cc. 8cc. 

On the recto of the 92 nd leaf there is a large wood-cut of a 
machine, in the shape of a tub or bucket, with a leathern vessel and 
weight dropping from a transverse beam — at the end of which seems 

* The following is the conclusion of this address : ' Sit itaque tuo tantum nomini dicatum : 
et quid de te mihi poUicear uideas obsecro : Nunquam eiiim huiusce libri exordio nomen 
ipsurn legetur tuum : quom passim et ubique gentiu sublime Magnificuque praedicetur : 
qui mihi spledoris et gratiae phirimum sit allaturum : Putabunt enim singuli ad quos liber 
iste peruenerit non parua nee inutilia se percepturcs Dum tam spledidum tarn prsecellens 
tam iliustre ipsis primis apicibus nomen tuu intuebutur et leget. Suscipe igitiu- cleemen- 
tissTe ac optie princeps Sigismunde pandulphe gratissis ulnis Munusculu hoc exiguii : licet ab 
animo ta tibi deditissimi toique amantissirai profectii : intetiusque leges quom aspirare tibi 
inter plurima strepentiu occupationu tuaru agmina licebit : iuuenies profecto plurijTia in 
hoc opere : quas tibi sint aut uoluptati maxime legisse : aut omamento uidisse : aut usui 
xneminisse; quippe quae praeceptis et exeplis suis oblectare : atque instruere bene institutu 
ftranium possint : De cuius causis nil attinet plvu-a nunc disserere : quom quidera singula 
partes eius destinatis aliquod noluminibus explicandae sint : quas ordine suo tunc demii 
persequar : quom prel'atus fuero pauca quaedam de ipsius rei origine ab aliis pene omnibus 
omissa scriptoribus ; quam reor ad uniuersae etia rei descriptioue ab aliis quoque pluribu* 
itacta maxie profuturam : 


MISCELLANEOUS. [/. of Verona ; 1 472. 

to be, according to the text, an horologium. On the reverse, this 
horoloe;o is enlarged, with two suns at the opjjosite extreme of the 
outer circle. M'e have next an interval of 60 leaves, without any em- 
bellishment ; when, on the recto of the 152nd leaf from the address to 
Sigismund, inclusively, there is a lai'ge cut, about 7 inches and a half 
in height, with the description below, commencing thus: 

Aleoli tela sunt in niiiliebris coli formam : kc. 

A cut of a ' missile spear ' is on the reverse. The recto of the ensuing 
leaf is blank : on the reverse is a large cut, occu{)ying nearly a full 
page, representing an insti-ument for the effectual discharge of these 
* missilia hastilia.' We have, next, an account of various species of 
cruiis bows, with cuts : spear-heads, at the top of fences ; succeeded l)y 
cars, drawn by oxen and horses ; of the latter of which the followhig 
is, in part, an excellently executed fac-simile : 

/. of Verona; 1472.] VALTURIUS. 


All sorts of defensive constructions, in the forms of turrets, &c. ensue. 
Then comes, on the 4th following leaf, a most terrific machine, in the 
form of a dragon with outstretched wings ; of which I shall only 
venture upon the upper part : 

Numerous implements and machines, for the transportation of 
water, are next seen ; and a little onward there is a machine for the 
conveyance of a man, according to the ensuing fac-simile, to the upper 
part of a tower. A man, below, catches hold of that part of the lever, 
which, by means of a swivel in the centre, nearly reaches the earth. 
A cord is fastened at this nether extremity. 


MISCELLANEOUS. [I.o/Ferona; 1472. 

Machines, for passing from one tower to another, are next exhibited ; 
and we presently behold a curious and effectual construction for a drop, 
or draw-bridge. A machine, in the shape of a platform, armed at the 
extreme end of the bottom, is next seen. It is floating upon the 
water ; a windlas is towards the centre of it, beneath which is a 
coiled rope. To the right, a man in armour is seated, holding the rope 
that it should not escape too rapidly. To the left, a man is pulling 
down, by means of a rope, (which runs below upon a cog wheel) a 
sharp projecting instrument of defence. Both these figures are well 
executed. A blank leaf ensues. We have, next, a great variety of 
scaling ropes and ladders, applied to towers. Of the last but one of 
these, I shall give a fac- simile of a part : 

/. of Verona ; 1472.] VALTURIUS. 


We now come to offensive weapons in the shape of cannon, mor- 
tars, and bombs ; but the whole is preceded by an elegantly designed 
figure sliooting at an aperture in a tower, with a cross bow, thus : 



MISCELLANEOUS. [/. of Verona; 1 1 72. 

The recto of the ensuing leaf is blank. Cannons of various forms, 
and applied in various ways, by means of elevations, immediately 
succeed. From these I shall give a specimen of what would be called, 
in modern warfare, a bomb : the text preceding it is as follows : 

[I]NVENTVM est quoq; alterum Machine huiusce tuuni 
sigisniondc pandulfe : Qua pilaj a2ncaetoimentarii pulueris 
plenp cum fungi aridi fomte * urientis emittuntur. 8cc. 

One of the modes of elevating cannon, represents eight heavy guna 
pointing various ways, upon a circular platform. A less formidable 
elevation is that which exhibits the following upon a cylindrical tower, 
of which the surface only is given : 

Sic: pro ' fomite,' 

I. de rerona ; 14/2.] VALTURIUS. 


Then follow various modes of casting stones in slings, by the aid of 
mechanical powers, or machines. The stone usually appears of con- 
siderable magnitude. We have next an armed galley, of the manner of 
arming the mast and shrouds of which, the following is a fac-simile : 

Battering rams are then displayed, of various constructions, and with 
various powers. A series of Standards next arrests the attention; when, 
after an interval of a dozen pages, we observe a large marine tower, 
with a fish-tailed figure, at top, blowing a conch. A great number of 
instruments for enabling persons to swim across rivers, and pass under 
water, now ensues : among these, is the following figiure, which 
reminds us of the modem diving-bell. 



MISCELLANEOUS. [ Ferona ; 1472. 

This is the last embellishment in the volume. There is text on the 
reverse of it ; and 44 ensuing leaves terminate the impression. On 
the recto of the last of these 44 leaves, beneath the verses as extracted 
below,* we read the colophon, thus : 

* Valturri nostras priiiceps cultissiine lingua 
Culque etiarn graias donat apollo fides, 
Te duce militiae munus regumque priorum 
Venere ia lucem fortita acta manu, 

LdeFerona; 1472.] VALTURIUS. 53 

lohannes ex uerona oriundiis : Nicolai cjiugip* medici 
filius : Artis impressorip raagister : hunc de re militari 
librum elegantissiraum : litteris k. figuratis signis sua 
in patria primus imprpssit . An . M.CCCCLXXII . 

The reverse is blank. As Panzer properly remarks, Laire is wrong in 
saying that this book was printed by loannes Cyrurgia. • John of 
Verona (says Panzer) was the son of Nicolaus, who, without doubt, 
exercised the medical profession.' 

Thus have we (it is presumed) made good the promise of giving a 
full and faithful account of the splendid volume under consideration. In 
regard to the wood-cuts — (which form so interesting and elegant a 
feature in it) as the printer has not thought fit, in his prefatory 
address, to disclose the name of the artist who designed, or executed 
them in wood — we are left almost entirely to conjecture who he may 

Ipse nouas belli leges preceptaque pugnte 

Scripsisti : ausonise censor honestset Ijrse. 
Et per te uiuit pugnandi i-egula moris 

Antiqui : et per te norma probata noui. 
Sub castra locat miles : metitur et idem 

Lignatur tutus: uincit et arma refert. 
Tela doces quibus omne ruat : quibus omne tueri 

Possit opus : duce te Mars fuerit usque ferox. 
Et modo falcatos currus : modo tecta uidemus 

Vmbone & peltis agmina Iseta uirum. 
Ipse genus uarium tormenti ; et rara notasti 

Ornamenta grauis plurima militiae, 
Ballistas : pluteosque simul : scalasque dedisti : 

Et pontis uarium perpetuumque genus. 
Nunc solers fossas imples subducitur unda 

Arte tua : et uictor moenia miles habet. 
Haec Sigismundo foelix sub principe scribis. 

Cuique operis causas dat tibi saepe tui. 
Dumque tharaconias etrusco ab littore gentes. 

Vertit habes unde haec ipse notare queas. 
Prisca haec Valturri se tempora nacta fuissent 

Militiae ferres premia magna tuae 
Teque Palatini coepissent cuhnina plebi 

Roberte aetatis gloria prima tuae, 
Aetemos igitur uiues cultissinius annos 

Militiae uerus rexqne paterque simul. 
Nos sub te pariter musis armisque uacamus 

Teque sequi o Scriptor nos iuuat usque grauis. 

* Sic t Sic. 

54 MISCELLANEOUS. [Without Place, 

be. But it should seem from MafFei, {Verona lUustrata, pt. iii. col. 
195-9), that Matteo Pasti was a celebrated painter at Verona, and 
friend of Valturius, at the time of the present publication ; and the 
evidence of the Miscellanea Baluz'd (quoted by Maffei) is very strong 
in confirmation of the talents of Pasti. Lanzi, in his Sloria Pittorica, 
vol. i. p. 77, edit. 179t. seems to acquiesce in the same opinion. A 
medal of Benedictus de Pasti, with his profile on the obverse and a man 
shooting arrows at a rock on the reverse, will be seen in pt. ii. col. 75-6, 
of MaflFei's work. Whoever may have been the artist, these cuts are un- 
questionably the production of a skilful and spirited hand ; and the 
adaptation of the various pieces of mechanism, or the machinery, is most 
distinctly and satisfactorily shewn. Although those are in error who say 
that this is the ^rst book with wood-cuts, it may yet be safely affirmed 
that this is the earliest book, having the text of metal type, which has 
the least merit in the graphic department. 

The type is rather loose and broken, but the page is well and 
elegantly set up ; and copies of it, like the one before us — with an 
amplitude of margin — are of excessive rarity and in very considerable 
request. Neither Geides, Engel, Bauer, Brunet, nor Panzer, notice any 
copies UPON vellum;* but I have seen an imperfect one of this 
description, which was sold by Mrs. Collins, the bookseller, to ]\Ir. 
James Edwards. The present copy, although upon paper, is in most 
desirable condition ; and bound in red morocco. 

794. Vegeus (Maffeus). Dialogus Inter Ali- 
THiAM ET Philaliten. TVitkout Place or 
Date. Quarto. 

As it is evident that the typographical arrangement of this edition is 
not conformable to the description of either of the two dateless editions, 
in quarto, mentioned by Panzer, vol. iv. p. 206, n°. 1260, 1261 — and as 
it is not less evident that the impression is an early production of the 
press of Ulric Zel (although no name of printer be subjoined) — we may 
conclude that it has escaped the notice of bibliographers ; and it may 

• Lord Spencer informs me that his Mother, when she was in Ital}', purchased a perfect 
copy of it, for him, upon vellvm ; but this precious volume, wiih several other books, wa» 
lost by the foundering of the vessel in her vojage homewards. 

Brescia; 1485.] VERGERIUS. 55 

therefore be added to the number of choice and rare specimens of the 
press of Ulric Zel, with which this Collection abounds. The present 
copy is large, clean, and every way desirable. On the recto of the 
first leaf we read this title : 

0^fei taegd tiialogujS? inter ^HHtifjiam 
rt ©fjMiten %nwi^it Midi, g^rologusf 

Below, there are 24 lines : a full page having 27 lines. In the whole, 
14 leaves ; without numerals, signatu)es, or catchwords. The reverse 
of the last leaf presents us with the following termination ; 

ercmptu^ ago . %n fja^ef ego nijefi forte fasftitiijBf . 
te accipia opeisf meaiaf . %, ^inime fa.stiDio . q^ 
jractoli etta t|areuij9? longe pluri^ facienDa^ 
puto . % <^amufi? iam ♦ l^am atiuejsfpera.^cit ♦ tat 
ht^ Mti ftimut tecta: |^on multum afi^umusf. 
tiicto tixixx^ xWxt conteticttiu.sf . %, %t^ ego te 
^equor Mm^. 

€rplicuit felidter !3t?afei tmegei t>i> 
alogu^^ ini ^Clitljta i ^^IJiialiten . 

Denis, p, 688, n°. 6121, refers to Caes. Goit. Weis. for a dateless edition 
in quarto ; but quaere if it be the one under description ? This fine 
copy is in red morocco binding. 

795. Vergerius (Petrus Paulus). De Ingenuis 
MoRiBUS, &c. Printed hy Britannicus. JBrescia. 
1485. Quarto. 

Although the present copy of this elegant little volume be defective 
in size and condition, it is nevertheless a rare book ; and the contents 
justly deserve that popularity, which previous and succeeding impres- 
sions warrant us in supposing was formerly attached to it. The type 
is round and legible, and is among the best specimens of the early 
Brescia press. Neither Quirini nor Boni have noticed the existence 
of this book : see the Libri Stamp. &c. in Ital. Superior, of the latter ; and 
the Specimen Varice Literaturos Brixiana of the former. Morelli has a 

5(5 MISCELLANEOUS. [Paris; 1475. 

mere entry of the title, in the Bibl. Pinell. vol. iii. p. 333. Maittaire 
is more full and explicit; justly noticing that the impression con- 
tains also treatises of St. Basil, the Plutarch, and St. Jerom upon 
a similar subject. That of Vergerius begins on the recto of a ii, and 
ends on the recto of e iiii: a and b in fours, the rest in eights. The 
treatise of St. Basil, \vhich is translated from the Greek into Latin by 
Leonard Arctin, begins on e iiii rect. and ends on the reverse of f v : 
e having eight leaves. The colophon is thus : 

Impressum Brixiae per lacobum Biitannicum 

Brixianum die. xxviiii. Nouembris. 



Then a blank leaf. The preface of Guarinus Veronensis, upon Plutarch's 
treatise * De Liberis Educandis,' follows, on sign. a. The treatise 
itself, translated by Guarino, succeeds on the reverse of the same leaf, 
and ends on the reverse of b 8 : when that of St. Jerom presents us 
with ' a brief admonition of the duties of Children towards their 
Parents.' This latter concludes on the reverse of the next leaf but 
one. Beneath the word ' Finis,' is the colophon : 

Impressum Brixiae per lacobum Britannicum 

Brixianum anno domini. M.cccc.lxxxv. 

die septimo Decembris. 

The signature a has 8, and b 9, leaves. In russia binding. 

f96. VoRAGiNE (Iacobus de). Historia Lom- 
BARDiCA, SEU Legenda Aurea. Printed hy 
Gering^ Crantz, and Frihurge7\ Paris. 1475. 

It is not improbable that the present may be the earliest impres- 
sion of this once much celebrated and yet amusing production. Denis, 
p. 42, n°. 266, mentions a previous edition, of the date of J 474, so 
slightly, (and Panzer on the same authority, exclusively,) that, till we 
are favoured with a more satisfactory description of it, we may give 
precedence to the volume before us. The Cat. de la Valliere, vol. iii. 

Paris; 1475.] VORAGINE [I. DE.] 57 

p. 84, n". 4698, is the only authority quoted by Panzer for the existence 
of the present impression ; and La Caille and Marchand have alike 
omitted to notice it : although Chevillier, in his second list of the pub- 
lications of the above printers, at page 69, mentions the present work 
and the Durandus, of the same date, both of which are printed in the 
gothic character.* We proceed to a brief, but sufficiently particular, 
account of this rare and interesting edition. 

A prologue, succeeded by a table, occupies the first 3 pages, and a 
portion of the first column of the 4th page. The Valliere copy wanted 
the first leaf of this table. The second column of the 4th page, on the 
reverse of the 2nd leaf, has this prefix to the work : 

5[ncijrmnt legentie i9?anctCH:u ♦ €t pti- 
mo tie tempore tenouationijef agitut/ 
quoti t0t atiuemu.flf tiomim . 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords; and a full 
page comprehends 45 lines. The legend of St. Thomas ^ Becket, on 
the 2'2d leaf, is, in this copy, most dreadfully mangled and defaced. 
A few other blemishes also mark the present copy. On the recto of 
the 281st leaf, beneath 5 lines of the text, on the first column, we read 
the ensuing colophon : 

finit aurea Eegentia aUajef Di^totia 
iongofiartiica bocitata' felicitec* 
Slmpref^a ^ per tmtialrictt 
gering . a^arttnu cranc^ ♦ et Si^icjia 
elem friBurger . 5Ilnno tiomhti 
flt^^tccc.tatJ. prima feptefiri^. 

The reverse is blank. Next follows an alphabetical table, preceded by 
a prologue ; in which the instructions for finding out the name or 
passage, referred to, shew the difficulties which are attached to old 
volumes, printed without numerals or signatures. This table, like 
the entire work, is executed in double columns, and terminates the 
volume at its 10th leaf. An indifferent copy ; in old red morocco 
binding. Formerly in the Alchorne Collection. 

• A fac-simile of this type may be seen in the account of the Bible, by the abore 
printers at vol. i. p. 29. A beautiful copy of the Durandus, in the same type, wai 
purchased by Messrs. J. and A. Arch, at the sale. of the Merly Librai-y, for 11/. 11*. BM. 
Merl. no. 894. 

58 MISCELLANEOUS. [Florence; 1497- 

797. Zenobius. Epitome Proverbiorum Tar- 
RHAEi, &c. Gr. Printed hy Philip Junta, 
Florence. 1497- Quarto. 

Editio Princeps. We at length reach the last article in the copious 
and perplexing department of Miscellaneous Authors. This first 
specimen of the Junta press enables us to make rather an interesting 
conclusion ; since it was unknown to Fabricius, and has been 
so briefly described by Maittaire, that we may doubt whether he 
ever saw it. Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 637. Panzer, m his 4th vol. 
p. 313, has, by the aid of Fossi, (Bibl, MagUabech. vol. ii. col. 841) 
given a much better description of it than in his first vol. p. 427. 
Bandini designates the edition as ' very rare ;' and observes that, as 
well as the copy in his own librarj'^, there are copies in the Magliabecchi, 
Bodleian, and Royal Society, Collections. Annal. Juntar. pt. ii. p. 1. 
He is tolerably particular in his description. Mr. Beloe, in his Anec- 
dotes of Literature, ^c.vol. iv.p. 351, has given some account of it; justly 
observing, that the prefatory epistle of Ricardinus, leads us to expect 
that the same editor contemplated an edition of Aristophanes (which 
he never published) and that the types of this impression * entirely 
resemble ' those of the Orpheus of 1500, noticed at vol. ii. p. 189 ante. 
They are, in fact, the same Greek characters with which the first 
^sop, and the first Homer are printed ; and it is extraordinary that 
the Juntae should have made no other use of them before the year 1500. 
At least we have, at present, no testimony of such intermediate use of 

Bandini tells us that this volume contains 65 leaves ; but there are 
66 leaves in the copy under description — as each of them is marked 
with a pen on the recto. It is evident that the prefatory epistle was 
printed subsequently to the body of the work — both because it has no 
signature, and because it contains a notice of errata. It is printed in 
a rude, and rather large Gothic character, having this prefix : 

€3lti ileuccrtiu i cfjri^to tiominu <^eorffiu SDa 
tlju canonicu florcntinu : at taitaritt epi arretini 
tii0iiifj5inui : 25crtctijctx ticactiini florcntini 

Florence; 1497 J ZENOBIUS. 59 

Bandini has reprinted all that is interesting in this preface, which bears 
date the 9th of October, 1497, and ends on the recto of the second leaf. 
Beneath, we read a notice of errata, beginning thus : 

EnravogQcoo'sig row 'aragovTOs ^'i§\lov . 
ev T«j ZTgcoTco TSTgadtco 

I shall give a short specimen of these Corrigenda — relating chiefly to 
an omission in the 5th leaf: 

Iv Tcu Tasjirloi* (p6>J^ Izyixgurloi/lixs szj'ixpuTlovTas 
Iv TOO aulcu I fine primac paginae uesunt ^aec ucrBa* 

s'STiTu^z Ifii yogyovog Iyjv KsfuXr^v xojxl^clv . 

The errata may be said to contain two full pages : ending on the recto 
of the 3rd leaf. The general title to the work is on the recto of the 
ensuing leaf, sign. « i' : 






The signatures, to 6 inclusively, run in eights. The proverbs are 
arranged in alphabetical order — as the prefixes of the respective 
capital letters evince. On the recto of 6 vij, the work concludes thus : 

Q.; Iyiv h apysi d<r7r/8« xccSbXmv (TS[ji,\/vvslcct. 6< [xlv 

ispoiv fa<r)v shai hv agysi «o"7r«8a xafleXoofienjv 0- 

^vpav xai 8y(rxa9«jp=rov. 

61 8g ><oyov ^ouriv elvai 

ev upysi TOiv Tffo.vv 

ux[/.a^ovlctiV vs 

avi(7X(uv ov 


Ts\os . ev 7^ (pKwpsvTla. . 

* Sic. t Sic. 


GO MISCELLANEOUS. [Florence; 1497. 

The reverse is blank ; and a following leaf should seem to form the 
Slh leaf of signature 6. The margins of the present copy of this exceed- 
ingly rare and estimable impression are much (but neatly) written upon. 
It is, however, perfectly clean and sound, and in most desirable condi- 
tion. In russia binding. 



3ftaltatt 55oofe0. 

798. Aretino. (Leonardo Bruno) Historia 
FioRENTiNA. Priiited by lacorno de RossL 
(or lacohus Rubeus). Venice. 1476. Folio. 

First Edition of the Italian Version of Aretino's History of Florence ; 
written originally in the Latin tongue. This elegantly executed 
volume was published very little more than three weeks before the 
printer of it put forth an Italian version of Poggio's Florentine 
History ;* and the copy under description is bound in the same volume 
with a copy of the latter work. Panzer is perhaps unnecessarily 
copious in his references, as this impression is by no means of rare 
occurrence. He properly corrects, however, the date of 1473 — assigned 
to the edition in the Pinelli Catalogue. f See the Annul. Tijpog. vol. iii. 
p. 117, n°. 241. The author of this version was Donato Acciaioli ; as 
we learn from the following prefix on sign, a [ii]. 


Lui In Vulgare AUiexcellentissimi Signori Priori Di Li- 
beria Et Gonfaloniere Di Giustitia Del Popolo Fioren 

* See article PoGGio, post. 

t The date of the completion of the version is mistaken for that of the printing. 

61 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Aic Todescho 

On the reverse begins the proheme of Aretin ; and on the recto of 
the following leaf, a. j., at bottom, we read the title to the first book, 
thus : 



The signatures, from a to x, run in tens ; except kk, (coming 
stran"-ely after k, and the only double signature in the volume) which 
has only 6, and q with 12, leaves. On the recto of x 10, the colophon 
is thus : 

FINE Delduodecimo 8c ultimo libro della historia del 
Popolo Fiorentino composta da Messer Leonardo aretino 
in latino : Et tradocta i lingua tosca da Donato Acci- 
aioli a di. xxvii. dagosto . Mcccclxxiii. Impresso a Vinegia 
perlo diligente huomo Maestro lacomo de Rossi 
di natione Gallo : Nellanno del Mcccclxxvi. a di 
xii. di Febraio: Regnante lo inclyto Principe Messer 
Piero Mozenico.* 


This is a sound and desirable copy, in old (foreign) red-morocco 

799. Berlinghieri (Francesco). Geografia. 
Printed hy Nicolo Todescho. Florence. TVithout 
Date. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. We are about to describe a volume of equal 
interest and rarity ; and such a magnificent copy of it as is the one 
under description is seldom seen in the most choice collections. Cle- 
ment may take the lead in our authorities. This bibliographer tells us 
that Raidelius, (who wrote an express commentary upon the edition of 
Ptolemy's Geography — noticed in vol. ii. pp. ^93-300) — knew nothing 

* It is curious to obsen-e how differently some of the above words are spelt in the colo- 
phon to Poggio'b version, publislied within so short a period aftei-wards. 

Without Date,] BERLINGHIERI. 65 

of the present work but from the brief mention of it by Maittaire in 
his Annul. Typog. vol. i. p. 757 : that he found it in no catalogue, and 
that he never could procure any printed copy of it : he was therefore 
obliged to content himself with a ms. copy in the library of Count 
Pertusati. A copy of it, however, is found in the Bibl. Barberin. vol. i. 
p. 138. Alphonsus Lazor a Varea (continues Clement) in his Univ, 
Terrar. Orb. Scriptor. calamo delineatus, vol. ii. p. 566, col. S, cites a 
Florentine edition of the date of 1470 ; but most probably upon mere 
conjecture. Crescimbeni mentions the author of this work, in his 
Comment. 8iC. dell, volgar. Poes. 1730, 4to. vol. iv. p. 46 ; and observes 
that the present impression of it was probably executed before the year 
1482, since the Duke d'Urbino, to whom it is dedicated, died in the 
course of that year.* Giulio Negri has noticed the author in his 
Scrittori Fiorentini, Ferrar. 1725, fol. p. 185 — observing that ' he 
vigorously applied himself to the study of poetry and geography, and 
rejoiced only in transmitting to posterity the abundant and pleasant 
fruits of his labour — by translating the geography of Ptolemy, into 
elegant Italian verse; in a measure, at once natural, easy, soft, and 
agreeable.' Father Coronelli speaks with commendation of the family 
of Berlinghieri, in his Bibl. Univ. vol. v. col. 1177, &c. Such is the 
interesting notice of Clement: Bibl. Curieuse, &c. vol. iii. p. 189. 

Fontanini, and his annotator, Apostolo Zeno, have each mentioned 
this uncommon book ; the former observing that it is executed ' con 
gran barbarie d'ortografia, e d'interpunzione :' but, adds the latter, 
' dicaci egli per grazia, qual libro in lingua Toscana fosse stampato in 
quel torno, che fu tra 1 1490 . e 1' 1500 . senza tali difetti e imper- 
fezioni.' Zeno informs us that Berlinghieri was both the disciple and 
friend of Marsilius Ficinus. Bibl. delV Eloquenz. Ital. vol. ii. p. 276, 
edit. 1753. 

Notwithstanding these particular notices, and that there was a copy 
of the present edition in the Mazarine Library (according to Heineken), 
De Bure has omitted to introduce so curious and rare a volume into 
his Bibliogr. Instruct. What is more extraordinary, it is omitted by La 
Serna Santander. Brunet, however, is concise and correct : Manuel 
du Libraire, vol. i. p. m. Heineken has paid particular attention to 

* Heiiieken properly remarks that the Dedication is no proof of the year of printing 
any work, but is applicable only to that of its composition. The Bologua Ptolemy is dedi- 
cated to Pope Alexander V. who died in 1410. Idte, <^c, p. 147". Heineken does not 
however oppose the above date of the printing. 

G6 ITiVLIAN BOOKS. [Nic. Todescho; 

this volume; which he pronounces to be printed in a manner ' sale 
et irr^i^uliere :' he thinks also that the plates are much inferior to 
those in the impression of Bucinck (vide Supplement),* and that 
the artist, who was a goldsmith, having little or no practice with 
the burin, has executed his work in a sufficiently careless manner. 
Idf'e G^mrale, &c. p. 146-8. 

This impression has also been frequently noticed in Catalogues; and if 
we begin with that of Capponi, p. 58, we shall see a particular account 
of it — in which the authorities of Negri and Crescimbeni are likewise 
referred to. Catal. della L'lbrer. Capponi, p. 58. In the Floncel Catalogue 
there is a judicious and instructive note upon this edition : the work 
is there called ' exceedingly rare and little known ;' and it is supposed 
that there is not another copy of it in such fine preservation as the 
one there described. ' Many bibliographers (it observes) have been igno- 
rant of the place where this book was printed, and of the name of the 
printer ; and especially the author of the description of it in the Capponi 
Catalogue.' It })roceeds to notice the value of the maps, gives a brief 
account of Berlinghieri, and quotes, in addition to the foregoing au- 
thorities, QuadrioandMazzuchelli. Librer. Floncel, Tp.2'23-9; n®. 3089. 
De Murr published an express treatise upon this impression, at Nurem- 
berg, 1790, 8vo. In the Crevenna, Pinelli, and La Valliere Catalogues 
(especially in the latter) it is faithfully described; but the supposed 
date of 1478, attributed to it in the Crevenna and La Valliere Cata- 
logues, seems to be incorrect; as the greater weight of authorities 
in(hiccs us to affix to it the year 1480, or 14S1, or 1482. See Bibl. 
Crevenn. vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 10; Bibl. Pinell. vol. iv. p. 272, n". 1863; 
and Cat. de la Valliere, vol. ii. p. 514. Each of these copies was fine 
and perfect ; but was sold at a very moderate price. The taste and 
better judgment of modern collectors would not suffer a copy of so rare 
and interesting a volume to part from them under a very considei-able 

Laire has been less copious, but equally faithful with the author of 
the description in the La Valliere Catalogue ; observing, very correctly, 
that the volume, to be perfect, should contain 123 leaves (including 
the last leaf of the register, which is sometimes wanting), and 31 
copper-plates ; namely, 1 plate of the World : 10 of Europe : 4 of 
Libya : 4 of Africa : and 12 of Asia. The order of the signatures is 
so confused, that it is better to designate the copy, as perfect, by the 

• The fac-similes in the present article, and tliose in tlie one above referred to, will best 
enable the reader to decide upon the comparative merits of tlie originals. 

Without Date.] BERLINGHIERI. 67 

number of the leaves. Index Libror. vol. i. p. 95-6. Laire adds : ' De 
hoc rarissimo libi'o multa disseruit Abbas Saint Leger, Lettres au Baron 
de Hesse, p. 13 ; sed uon omnia conveniimt cmn hac nostr^. descriptione.* 

It now remains to be as full and particular as our predecessors in 
the account of so valuable an impression. The title, printed in red, is 
on the recto of the first leaf, thus : 









ctione dele 

tauole di Ptolonieo. 

€mi sratia et ^tmilegio* 

On the reverse we read as follows, in black : 










• Sic. 

68 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Mc. Todescho ; 

A table occupies the recto of the following leaf ; on the reverse is a 
poetical address to the Duke D'Urbino. On the recto of the ensuing 
leaf the version of Ptolemy * begins thus : 


la lauriga di Titano 

adorno El sagiptario 

g urtaua orientale 

Difiame acceso 

correggiando il giorno 

Candida quasi tutta 

ogni mortale 

la casta arnica 

anchor dendimione 


CO raggi et collo strale : 

Quando nella diuina uisione 

mosse dum verde lauro el graue canto 

dogni terrestre et nota regione. 

Se2;ui dipoi o muse o sacrosancto 

diuino appollo nella cui balia 

e posto luniuerso immenso tanto : 

Sec. Sec. 8cc. 

On the conclusion of the Second Book there is a table of 4 leaves. 
A map of the world follows. As I have given specimens of two of 
the JVinds from Leonard Hoi's edition of Ptolemy, of the date of 1482, 
(see vol. ii. p. 301-4,) I shall, in the annexed plate, present the 
reader with two of the Winds in the upper part of this large copper- 
plate ; premising that they are evidently from the design of no rude 

• The lid chap, of Berlinghieri corresponds with the 1st of Ptolemy ; and so on, to 
the end. 




'-- ^-1-TILOCE 

--^J- /-^/JATTIOFI 

-I'--- - ~r^J-- V-J-- : i^^X QtlVSVNO 

AC RO P MOr"-! =^-_-:_ -;_-^-.- 

MARIA" -^^^'-'-Jr .'-^:~.'-.Z-'^~. - 

,IVCA- TAliliHO"' 


- --r ; i V?.p A 1 LO . P f^ C'^^m/MV C A 
-' __----- --^pj^ o C 

/ALBIANACW _ ^ _ _ 


^A>JOiPO-'-~- - --_-.t.: 

Jac-simUes of the IVinds in the firlt3Iap of the World : &• of a pCTticn of the 
TZf. TTUtp.ofJLurope.inthe trecqraUa ofJierlinahuri:iefacep.68. 

Without Date.-] BERLINGHIERI. fj9 

artist. The fac-simile, beneath the winds, is a representation of 
Corsica, taken from the vith map of Europe; as it is the best 
specimen (vvhich 1 could discover) that exhibits the peculiar manner 
in which the engraver executes both sea and land. I might have 
selected several other very singular specimens, but such copious 
illustration belongs rather to the history of Engraving ; and even in 
submitting the accompanying plate (as in the account of the edition of 
Ptolemy, of the supposed date of 1462) I have done more than what 
will be found in the labours of preceding bibliographers. 

The remaining features of description need not be numerous. Each 
of the VII Books is accompanied by a table. The plates, in this copy, 
do not run consecutively, from beginning to end — but are disposed, in 
numerical order, in their appropriate places, with intervening pages of 
text. The conclusion of the viith Book — at the top of the second 
column, just before the table to the same book, is as follows : 

Ne fini scripti in lapto alto k. sourano 
dellato deuropa k. libya aprica 
k secondo etractati equali habbiano 

De piu uetusti della etate antica. 

Then follow the table of 2 leaves, and the 3 last maps of Asia. The 
register occupies the recto of the last leaf, and shews the extreme 
irregularity of the order of the signatures. 

At the bottom of the register we read the colophon, thus : 
Impresso infirenze per Nicolo Todescho 
8c emendato con somma dili 
gentia dallo auctore. 

The reverse is blank. I should observe (in case of fragments of this 
impression coming into the hands of the curious) that a full page con- 
tains 51 lines. It is agreed among bibliographers, that, as the type of 
this impression exactly corresponds with the larger type of the Dante 
of 1481, and as the different modes of describing each printer (see 
post.) do not militate against their being the same person, each of these 
splendid volumes is considered to have been executed by the same 
individual, at the same press. The fine condition of this magnificent 
copy has been before mentioned. It is superbly bound by Mackinlay 
in russia leather. 

70 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Ger. d^ Flandria; 

800. BttUNETTO Latino. Il Tesoro. Printed hy 
Gerard de Flandria. Treviso, 1474. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. This is not only a very rare, but an exceedingly 
curious and desirable volume. The note below* may satisfy the reader 
of the justice of this remark. This impression has been described by 
De Bure and Crevenna with brevity and accuracy ; but no copy of it 

* Maittairc (as Panzer justly remarks) has erroneously described the work as if it were 
written in the Latin language ; l)ut Crevenna, and more particularly Mr, A'an Praet, have 
satisfactorily proved the contrary; and that its original tongue was ' Romais selonc le 
pattois de france.' The author was a Florentine, living in the xuith century; and he 
happened to be in France during the time of its composition. Bono Giamboni (as Crevenna 
and Tiraboschi remark) made the above Italian translation; ' which is much esteemed and 
sought after in Italy, on account of the purity of its style.' In the Cat. de la Valliere, 
vol. i. p. 435-7, there is a long and interesting article upon a MS. of this work, of the xivth 
centurj-. This article, which was written by Mons. Van Praet (the present very re- 
spectable and distinguished librarian of the Royal Collection at Paris) informs us that, at 
the end of the prologue, the scribe lias copied the author's own words, thus : 

Et si aucus demandoit porcoi cest liures est escript ptes En 
Romais selonc le pattois de france. puisque nos sommes 
ytaliens. je diroi que nos somes en franc lautre parceque 
la parlenre est plus delitahle et plus comune a tos 

' The work itself (says INIons. Van Praet) may be considered as the Encyclopaedia of the 
xmth century, since it treats of everj- tliitig.' It is pretended that Brunette Latino took the 
idea of it from the ' Thesaurus ' of a Troubadour of the name of Pierre Corbian ; but proofs 
are wanting to establish this opinion. This fine MS., which did not produce 60 livres at the 
sale of the Duke's library, came from the collection of the celebrated Claude d'Urfe. 

The elegant and instructive Ginguene has not only noticed the preceding particulars, but 
has given a brief account of the work itsolf; which, lie seems disposed to admit, might have 
funiislied Dante with a few ideas for his Divina Commedia. Ginguene tells us, also, (on 
the authority of Tiraboschi) that on his return to Florence, Brunetto composed his Tesoretto 
(or Small Treasury) in the Italian tongue ; which is not, as many have imagined, an 
abridgment of his Tesm-o, (or larger work,) but only a collection of moral precepts, in rhyming 
couplets of seven feet. The Teso7-o, on the other hand, is a sort of abridgment of a part of the 
Bible, of Pliny the Elder, of Solinus, and of other authors who have treated of various 
sciences. Ginguene further remarks tliat the Royal Library at Paris contains 12 copies of 
the original French 3IS. of this latter work ; and that a singularly beautiful one is in the 
Vatican library, with some nis. notes of Petrarch. This latter copy belonged in the xvth 
century, to Bernardo Bembo, who bought it in Gascony : — according to a memorandum, 
in the hand-writing of Bembo, upon the first leaf of it. Consult the Histoire Litteraire 
d'ltalie, vol. i. pp. 384-386 ; 490-491 : vol. ii, p. 27. A copy is also in the British Museum. 

Treviso; 1474.] BRUNETTO. 71 

will be found in the Capponi, Floncel, Crofts, or La Valliere Collec- 
tions, The copy of it in the Gaignat Catalogue, vol. i. p. 601, n°. 2515, 
is described as ' petit in fol.;' but the Crevenna copy is noticed to 
be * as perfect and fine as can be wished.' Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iv. p. 
249-250: edit, J775, Panzer, probably relying u{>on the faith of 
Crevenna, infornis us that, to be complete, the volume should contain 
125 leaves. Annul. Typog. vol. i. p. 32. See also the Bibliogr. Instruct. 
vol. iv. p. 291. We now proceed to a description of so scarce and desir- 
able an impression. 

The prefix or title to the table is as follows : 

(Bin CDitiintia la tauola . ncl tesfoto tie 
P ^tmttto latino hi ffoten^^^a : t\ ^al a to 
partito ei ^uo tolume in tre libri. 

This table occupies the first 5 leaves ; but, in the Crevenna copy, 
these leaves were transposed to the end of the impression. 

On the recto of the 6th leaf, we read the first prefix to the first book, 

<Bm incfjomincia el te.^oro tii f* 25runetto 
latino bi firen^e . <^ pada del na^ci rJto 
e tielJa natura tii tu:e ie to^t . tcofi^ pimo 

The work is uniformly printed in 2 columns, having 44 lines in a full 
page. The letter is rather elegant, and perfectly clear and legible : it 
is also a very early specimen of the Gothic type of Gerard de Lisa. 
Towards the bottom of the first column, and just before the prefix to 
the last table — on the reverse of the last leaf but one — we read 

<aui ffnifce e! te^eioto tii J>et 2S>runetto. 

The last line, on the recto of the last leaf, furnishes us with the date of 
the impression : 

311 €tiuijSfo ati. x^l tttthtio* ^, tttt, \xxm 

The name of the printer (as Panzer justly observes) is obtained from 


72 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Treviso; 1474. 

the following verfcs subjoined to those given in the note below,* 
which, it is hardly necessary to say, could not possibly be written by 

<Bimi m occorsfc <^irarbo f lantirino 
2>in3Cjjno ct arte ^emi non t)o liite 
a^a v'm c^rf gran Cfjootfj p tiio ♦ Hatino 

€m bogtia con ^ua arte tjol finire 

• Risposta di Date a Ser B; iinetto laiino 
ritrouado da lui nel quintodecinio canto 
del suo inferno. 
Di leticia e dolor tutto comosso 

partiami riniebrando o Ser Brunetto 
Lo antiquo inzegno a tal scolgio percosj* 
Andando oltra dicea tra me soletto 
Quato laspro voltar de duri cielli 
Puo far dolcnte lliuomo e puol far lieto 
O dio che ci formasti puri e belli 
Come e cocesso al alma santa e pura 
E piu : dotaia de costumi snelli 
G^ntaminar tal vesta, e farsi obscura ? 
Che se colpa condana tanto errore 
Biasman trope asuo ciel prona natura. 
Che quaiito ll)uom e con magior feruore 
Esplnto da ragion seguir lo drito : 
Tanto natura i.lioi'usca el valore. 
Cussi lassauo Rubel maledito 

Pesando ognor pur quel dolente chore 
Che ancor vezo co gKochi : e loco adito, 
E vezo et odo anchor dir tra colore 

Che ano sugieto ragion a sua voglia 
: ; Siati riromadato el mio Thesoro. 
Projita dunq^ al seiruir : che no mi nolgia 
Poscia chio ritornai done Minenia 
Phiesole adorna di Athene le spolgia : 
La qua) tristo las>iai perche proterua 
J\li pariie aiiqiiato : che tardo impai'ai 
Felice in dir chi molto in se riserua : : 
Dcue prartito. e pianzendo ne andai 
La doue Sile el bel paese acolta 
Empie Tauriso di olgie e grano assai 
Amadona del mar correndo inuolta 
Come suo funde da farina e vino 
Legname fi-uti et altra tarra molta. 
(Tlien the ver$cs at above.) 

Without Date.] BOCCACCIO. 73 

J>ic8c millc Tj^ct bit Cfjei^or jfi trout 
€(a\i fatti atjuicta d gtan tt^itt 
€alclje come fcnitc ti tinout 

II II • finija? . II II 

There are neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords. In the 
whole, 125 leaves. It is well known to bibliographers that Girardo 
Flandrino, Gerardus de Flandria, and Gerardus de Lisa, are one and the 
same person. The copy under description is perfect, large, and bound 
in green morocco. 

801. Boccaccio.* Il Decamerone. fVithout 
Name of Printer, Place, or Date, Folio. 

This is probably the third edition of the Decameron of Boc- 
caccio; and is known by the designation of the Deo Gratias impression 
— these words being printed on the recto of the last leaf, beneath the 
4th concluding line of the text. In the present copy such termination is 
wanting ; but it is supplied by MS.: beneath which we read the printed 
words — IL FINE — evidently of modern date, and dissimilar to the 
capital letters in the body of the work. In calling this edition the 
third, I would be understood to consider the impression of Valdakfer, 
of 1471, as the Jirst ; and that by Peter Adam de Michaelibus, of 1472, 
as the second; while the supposed Venice and Florence editions, of 
1470, must be treated as non-entities. The note below f will shew 

* The article ' Boccaccio ' should have preceded ' Brunetto Latino.' 

t It may, in the first place, not be immaterial to observe, that the above edition under 
description is the very one placed by bibliographers as anterior even to the supposed im- 
pressions of 1470. What Haym and Mazzuchelli, and others have inserted, seems to have 
been copied from Buonamici. The following is the substance of Haym and Mazzuchelli : 
• this edition is the first, or one of the first — in small folio, without notification of place, year, 
or printer — without title to the beginning, or to any of the novels — without numerals or 
registers- — and the verses which are at the end of each Day, are extended like prose. At 
the end of the volume there appears only ' Deo Gracias.' This edition (continues Haym) is 
much esteemed, and very rare ; being printed according to the MS. of Francesco Manelii, 
•which is the best and most ancient extant. Bibl. ltd. vol. iii. p. 5, no. 1. Scrittoid d'ltalia. 
vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 1341. In the Journal des Savans, vol. Ixxxii,^ p. 200, (Amst. 1727) it is 
thus observed : ' it was towards the year 1470, that the first edition of the Decameron 
appeared. It b in folio, without name of printer, place, or date. It dift'ers a little from the 
text of Manelii; and if the printer had been less careless and negligent, it might have been 
sonsidered as one of the best, and inferior only to the impressions of 1573 and 1582. The 

74 ITALIAN BOOKS. {JVithout Place, 

upon what data this conclusion is drawn. As to the exact period of 
the present inipressit)n, it will be difficult to speak with decision : but 
we may confidently affirm that there is evidence of the existence of the 

latter, bciiiq a very close copy of llie text of ]\Ianelli, is considered by Buonaniici as the best 
yet publislied. Buonaniici iu his Raccollo d'Ojmsadi scientyici, torn. i. p. 379, says, ' about 
the vear 1470, the Decanierou was first prhited in folio. It neither specifies the place, nor 
the printer's name : no copy of such first edition is found in which the time, place, or 
printer's, name can be discovered.' Fabricius, in his Bibl. Med. et Inf. jEtat. vol. i. p. 684, 
edit. 1734, quotes Buonamici, and the Journal des Savans, A. 1727. Juin. p. 198. Rolli, 
An. 1730, Septeinb. p. 49 — and Mtm, de Trevoui, A. 1727, p. 1611. Upon tlie whole, 
this FinsT (dateless) edition seems of most doubtful existence. 

In the second place, the supposed editions of 1470 — one at Venice, and the other at 
Florence— have no stronger claims to our belief. Tliey are inserted by Mazzuchelli and 
Ha^-m in a very brief and superficial manner, apparently upon the authority of the Catalogue 
of the MSS. and Printed Books of Bishop Mure — attached to the Catalog. Lihror. Mss, 
Angitce et Hibernia, 1697, fol. pt. ii. p. 381, no. 82 ; where it is thus briefly described : ' II 
Decamerone di jNI. Boccaccio. Venetia. 1470, ft>l. :' but Marchaiid, Clement, and Panzer, 
disbelieve the existence of such an edition. The present one is supposed to be anterior to 
Valdarfer's, and to have been executed at Florence, in the year 1470 ; — with what justice, 
will be presently shewn. 

By the kuidness of my friend, Mr. Roger Wilbraham, (whose knowledge as well as love 
of every thing rare and ctirious connecte.l wiih Italian literature, will be readily admitted 
by those who know him,) I liave been favoured with a particular account of tliis copy in the 
collection of Bishop More — now iu the Public Library at Cambridge : which account I give 
in the words of Mr. Wilbraham. ' In the public Library at Cambridge, is that copy 
of the edition of the Decamerone of Boccaccio, mentioned by Manni in his Titoina del 
Decamerone. It is certain that Manni never saw it ; but that he takes his account of it 
from the Catalogue of the MSS. of England and Ireland, par. i, tom. 2- p. 381, No. 82. It 
is there noted as one of Bp. IMoore's books, and said to be printed at Venice in 1470. From 
what aulhority it is put down with that notice of place and year, I am wholly ignorant ; for 
it hiis no mention of either the one or the other. It is deficient in one leaf at the beginning ; 
containing what may be supposed the title on one side of the leaf, and a few lints of the 
proemio on the other side, and in tliree pages at the end : these are supplied by MS.; one leaf 
is wanting also near the end. It is printed in a round character, very old, in two columns, 
no catchwords or numbers to the pages, no number to each novel or each gioniata, but 
simply the title of it.' 

Mr. Wilbraham further remarks, that it seems to be the same as the dateless edition 
described by IVIazzuchelli, as ' the first, or one of the first.' But from his own further 
accoiuit, I ilifter from such conclusion : first, it is jjrinted in double columns — and no notice 
of this is taki n by bibliographe.s : secondly, it has the title before every novel, contrary to 
his description : thirdly, there are initial letters at the beginning of each novel, bvit they ait 
small ones, to bj enlarged by the illuminator; and fourthly, although the verses at the end 
of each novel are written in the form of prose, as Mazzuchelli and Haym denote, yet the 
' Deo Gratias' is not only not added in print, but is defective in ms. also. The three last 
pages in ms., seem to have been supplied (as Mr. Wilbraham observes) from some other 

or Date.] BOCCACCIO. n 

fount of letter, with which it is CKecuted, in the Hippolitus and Leonora, 
printed by Gerard de Lisa, in 1471, at Treviso — in the Dante, printed 
at Mantua in 1472 — and in the Virgil, printed at Brescia in 1473 : see 

Clement, Bibl. Curieuse, torn. iv. 348, note 92, quotes Bibl. des Romans du C. Gordon de 
Percel, t. ii. p. 286-7, and Marchand, Hist, de I'Imp p. 101, note viii ; but this latter, in- 
accurately ; as Marchand speaks only of the supposed Venice edition of 1470. Maittaire 
knew nothing of this Florence edition. Audiffredi, Edit, Ital. p. 257, gives us a curious 
piece of information. He says, that Manni, who edited an edition of the Decameron in 1742, 
thus observes upon a supposed edition of 1470, mentioned by Fabricius (p. 623) : ' in like 
manner, in the 3'ear 1470, an edition is supposed, by Fabricius, to have been executed at 
Florence in 1470 : it seems certain that an edition oi that year is found in several libraries 
without year and place ; which is thought to be the first.' This, it must be confessed, is rather 
a sti-ange mode of elucidation ! Panzer, Annal. Typog. vol. iv. p. 4, quotes Fossi, 1. c. t. 1. p. 
S75 (see above) ; in addition to Denis, Clement, and Audiffredi. 

We may again conclude, that the copy in the collection of Bishop More was not only not 
p-inted at Florence in 1470, but that, from its being printed in double columns, it is of a 
date at least two or three years more recent. The tasteful Ginguene has avoided all men- 
tion of the knotty subject of the first printed text of the Decameron. So much more inviting 
is a description of the subject, than of the impressions, of the Cent Nouvelles! Histoire 
Litteraire d'ludie, vol. iii. ch. xvi. To refute the existence of the supposititious Venetian 
edition of 1470, is wasting the time both of tlie reader and myself. I proceed therefore to 
a very particular and faithful description of what I conceive to be the legitimate first 
EDITION, printed byValdarfer in 1471 : premising that this description has already appeared 
among my friends, in a small tract, privately printed, to the number of 36 copies only, and 
entitled ' Book Rarities.' It was taken from an examination of the copy in the library 
of the late Duke of Roxburghe, and now in that of the Marquis of Blandford — and it has 
recently appeared in the privately printed Catalogue of the Marquis's own Books :— but I 
shall be justified in claimuig my own property, or availing myself of my former labours. The 
description stands thus, in the authorities just mentioned : 

Boccaccio. II Decamerone. Printed by Christopher Faldarfer. (Venetiis.) 
1471. Folio. 

First Edition. The reader will be pleased to examine what is said of the subsequent 
impression, before he questions the propriety of placing this edition in its present order : — 
he will observe from thence, that De Bure, although he had never seen a copy of it, was 
justified in giving precedence to the typographical labours of Valdarfer: Bibl. Instruct. 
vol. iv. no. 3654. Maittaire, Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 308, was the first who gave the colo- 
phon, or subscription, of the present edition ; which, it is probable, he took from this vei-y 
copy: as may be gathered from the note below. This subscription is not literally correct : 
nor are those of Clement, De Bure, Panzer, and La Sema Santanderj who probably all 
copied Maittaire. It is supposed that Marchand alludes to the present impression, when 
he speaks of some one having given ' a hundred guineas* for the Boccaccio of 1471 ;' 

* Mr. Beloe has told the following .anecdote, on the authority of JMr. G. Nicol: ' TJie 

76 ITALIAN BOOKS. [JFithout Place. 

a fac-simile of the latter in vol. ii. p. 473 of this work. It follows, 
therefore, that the impression before us might have been executed in 
1471, ;is \vell as in 1473 ; but the safer conclusion will be in favour of 
the latter year. 

Hist. (Ic I'lwprim. p. 102-3. Haym absurdly notices it as the fourth in his list, and as 
containing corrections and enlargements wliich Ixave been afterwards altered and omitted : 
he tells us too, that ' the tale of JNIasetto da Lamporecchio is in particular corrected ;' Bibl. 
ItaL vol. iii. p. 5-6, edit. 1803. 

The public are now presented, for the first time, with a correct and minute account of 
this edition • not less distinguished for its almost unparalleled rarity, than for its intrinsic 
worth and curiosity. 

There is no title prefixed : but the work begins on the recto of the first leaf, thus :— 
premising that every book in the list of chapters, has a head-title printed in a similar 
manner, in capital letters : 


Viui incomicia la prima giomata del 

dicaraerone nel quale doppo la demon- 

sti"alione facta del auctore perche cagione 

aduenisse didouersi quelle persone che 

appresso si dimostrano ragunate ad ragionare mf 

sieme : Sotto il regimento di Pampinea si ragiona 

di quella materia che piu agradiscie ad ciascuno 

C ome Pampinea conforta le conipagnie ad uscire 

dela terra 
C ome le donne udita pampinea alchuna diloro 

respuose & ultimamente si accordarono al dicto 

C ome le donne stando nella chiesa di tal ragi- 
onare uideno uenire linfrascripti tre giouani 
C ome udito il parlare di pampuiea di concordia 

elessono lei loro regina per la prima giomata 
C ome pampinea facta regina ordino li officii & 
; iiiche modo douessino uiuere 

C ome per comandamento della regina la brigata 

si soUaza et puoi uanno ad magnare & doppo 

ad dorraire 
C ome laregina fece leuar tutta la brigata 
C ome laregina comanda che ciaschuna dica 

una uouella 

above copy of the Decameron came into the hands of a London bookseller, who shewed it 
to Lord Oxford and Lord Sunderland, (the great colleciors ol books and competitors for 
rare publications in their time — ) and demanded a hundred guineas as the price of it. 
Whilst were deliberating, an ancestor of the Uuke ol Roxburghe saw and purchased 
the volmne,' 6cc. Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books; vol. ii. p. 234. 

Without Date.] BOCCACCIO. 77 

The recto of the first leaf of the present copy begins thus, at top : 

. PRIMA . 

Viui icomicia la prla giornata del decamerone nela 

qle doppo la demostratione facta del auclore pche 

cagione adueisse didouersi quelle psone che appresso 

si dimostrano raguanie*' ad ragionare insieme : Sotto il 

regimeto di Papinea si ragiona di quella materia che 

pill agradiscie ad ciascuno . 

These are the first niue heads of chapters, without any Roman numerals at the end of 
each : the tenth and every remaining chapter having them, 'ihe first book has xxii marked 
chapters ; the second book has chapter Ix at tlie termination ; but the numerals run thuS' — ■ 
xxiiii, xxvi, xxviii, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxviii, xliii, L, Ivi, Ix : there are, however, only eleven dis- 
tinct sections, or heads of chapters : the third book has Ixxxxii attached to the last head or 
section, the preceding being numbered in a like irregular manner: the fourth book has 
•cxvii: the _/i/i;/i .c.xliiii : the iirt/i : the seventh .c.lxx\m : the eighth the ninth 
.cc.xxvi : the tenth .ccMui. These heads of chaptei's occupy the first seven leaves.t On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, it begins thus : 



ecome che ad ciascuua persoa stia bene : 

ad coloro raassiamente e richesto : li- 

quali gia hanno dicouforto hauuto 

mistieri. & hanolo trouato inalcuno fra iquali 

se alcuno mai nhehbe : ogli fu caro o gia neri- 

ciuette piaciere : lo sono uno di quelli percio che 

daJa mia prima giouanezza in sino adquesto 

tempo : oltra modo essendo stato acceso da altis- 

simo & nobile amore furiose piu assai chelamia 

bassa coditione no parebbe narraudolo io siri* 

chiedesse : 


The following is the conclusion of the text, with the colophon 4 

• Sic. 

t Brunet says (describhig, I presume, the copy in the Royal Collection at Paris) that ' a 
blank leaf follows these seven introductory ones ; but there is no such leaf in thcRoxburghe 
copy. He also remarks that the work concludes on the reverse of the 257th folio ; but it 
will be seen, from the above accomit, that in this point too he differs from the above 
description. Consult his Mamiel du Libraire; torn. i. p. 141. 

t A friend lias supplied me with a translation of this conclusion. The colophon seems 
almost to defy intelligible translation, 

* And now, leaving every one to speak, believe, and think as he pleases, it is time to put 
an end to my discourse; iiumbly thankins him, who after so long a labour, hath by his 
assistance brought it to the wished for end. And ye, agreeable ladies, with his grace remain 
il peace ; and if perchance any of ye benefit by what ye have read, remember me.' 

78 ITALIAN BOOKS [Without Date. 

The heads of the chapters immediately follow : but like the preceding 
edition, the fiist eight heads of chapters :ire without Roman nuraei"als 
at the end; and the ninth is irregularly numbered viii. Seven leaves 
are devoted to these heads of chapters: the last chapter having 

Et lasciado omai adciasclieduna dire & cre- 
dere 6c pensare come lipare ; tepo e dapor fine 
alio parole : colui liuinilniete rlgratiado che dope 
siluga fatJca colsuo aiuto nha aldesiderato fine 
codocto. Et uoi piaceuoli done co lasua gratia 
i pace ulrimanete : dime ricordadoui seforse ad 
alcuna cosa gioua bauerle lecte : 

I O son Vn cerchio dor che circonscriue 

Cento giemme ligiadre ; inchui sisttla 

Le oriental perle ; chanoda e perfila 

Le tosche lingue pelegrine & diue. 
P Ero qual cercha lombre disuo Riue. 

JNIi cholga Inprcsso : che amor mi postila 

Au)stre dolceze : epar che anchor sfiiuila 

Gioco e miserie di qiialunche Vine. 
M Eser giouan bochacio el primo Autore 

Fu di niie prose e di quel bel paese 

Che marte uenero per degno honore. 
C Hrbtofal Valdarfer Indi minprcse 

Che naque in ratispona : il chui fulgore 

Dalciel per gratia infra mortal disese 

Se donque di mi amese ' 

V estir uoleti isuono ad ogni spirlo 

El mio Vulgar che orna diloro e mirto 

According to the ancient ink-numbered folios of the Roxburghe copy, this edition contain* 
two hundred and sixty leaves, exclusively of the seven leaves of heads of chapters. It is 
printed in long lines In the Roman letter, and has neither numerals, signatures, nor catch- 
words. A lull page contains 40 lines, and is a little more than eight inches and a half in 
length, and five and a quarter in width. The entii'e length of a leaf, including the top and 
bottom margin, is nearly eleven inches and a half; in width, nearly eight. The dots of the 
i's are frequently omitted ; and the uiitial letter of every chapter is supplied by an illumi- 
nated one. 

As Valdarfer was the printer of this volume, it was probably executed at Venice, among 
the earliest productions of his press. But considering the great credit of Carbona, who 
was his chief, if not only, corrector, it is somewhat surprismg that the preceding extracts 
were not more accurately printed. Consult Diet. Bibl. Choisi; vol. i. p. 180, 212. See 
also the Preface to the Catalogue of the Library of the Late John Duke (f Roiburghc, 1807, 
8vo. p. 10. 

When the preceding description was written, I little imagined that the book then under 
my eyes would cue day be disposed of at the enormous sum of 2260^.! but this, it is well 

Without Date.] BOCCACCIO. 79 

reference to folio . cc : 1 . This copy being imperfect. Lord Spencer 
has remarked that, after the heads of the chapters, a leaf is wanting : 
* the preface in the Aldine edition of 1522 — beginning " Humana cosa 
fe," and ending " a lor piaceri" — is here omitted.* The recto of the 
following leaf commences thus, at top : 

Vantuque uolte gia gratiosissime 8c nobi/ 

lissime donne mecho peiisando riguardo 

quanto uoi naturalmete tutte pietose siate 

tanto cognosco che lapsente opra aluostro 

giudicio hara graue k. noiosa principio : sicome 

ladolorosa ricordatione dela pestifera moitalita 

trapaffata uniuersalmete ad ciaschuo che quel la 

uiddeo altrimete cognobbe danosa 8c lagrimeuole 

molto : Laql essa porta nela sua frote. 8cc. 

Another deficiency of one leaf appears at fol. 31 : and the following 
leaves — folios 171, 189, 198, 239, and 249, are also wanting. * Also 
the peroration (says Lord Spencer) contained in the edition by Aldus, 
of 1522, — beginning " Nobilissime Giovani" — and ending " giova 
haverle lette" — is here wanting : namely, between the two last leaves. 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and a full 

known, was the sum at which its present possessor obtained it, at the sale of the Roxburghe 
Library. The Marquis was regularly and firmly opposed, in his biddings, by the Noble 
Owner of the copy above described. The charm, however, of its being unique has ceased 
to operate. Another copy, not perfect, is in the Blenheim Collection ; and a third, in fine 
condition, wanting only one leaf of the table, is in the Royal Library at Paris. It is under- 
stood that a fourth copy is in the possession of a well known Collector at Milan. 

It remains, in the last place, to notice the second edition, with a date, which was printed 
by Petrus Adam de Michaelibus, inl472 ; and of which the colophon is as follows accord- 
ing to the Catalogo delta Libreria Capponi, p. 66 : In fine : ' Jo: Boccaccii puetae lepidiss. 
decameron : opus facetum : Mantuae impressum : cum ejus florentiss. urbis principatum 
feliciss. ageret diuus Ludouicus gonzaga secundus. Aimo ab origine Christiana Mcccclxxii. 
Petrus adam de Michaelibus eiusdem urbis Civis imprimendi auctor.' A copy of this very 
uncommon edition is in the Blenheim Library. Both Mazzuchelli and Haym call it ' very 
rare,' and no other copy of it, I believe, exists in this country. It should seem from 
Panzer, vol. ii. p. 3, no. 1, that this edition of the Decameron was the first book executed at 


80 ITALIAN BOOKS. {TFithout Date. 

page contains 41 lines. Supposing the copy to be perfect, there should 
be 255 leaves, exclusively of those of the introductory chapters ; or, 
262 in the whole. The recto of the last leaf presents us only with the 
following : 

guida del discrcto re uerso fireze siritornarono 
Et itre giouani lasciate lesepte donne insanta 
maria nouella donde co loro partiti serano da 
esse acomiatatisi alloro altri piaceri attesero : 8c 
esse quado tepo lor parue senetornarono alle lor 

A ms. line ensues, thus : 

Deo Gratias. 

Beneath which, in print, we read 


But, for reasons before given, these cannot be received as genuine 
accompaniments of the edition ; and when Fossi tells us that the first 
two leaves of the genuine ' Deo Gratias ' edition contain the index — 
that on the 5th page the text begins — that such edition comprehends 
253 leaves, and that there are only 40 lines in a page — it is certainly 
erroneous to designate the present as such edition. See the Bibl. 
Magliabech. vol. i. p. 375. Upon the whole, I am compelled to leave 
the reader to his own unassisted conclusion. This copy is bound in 
blue morocco; and upon the fly leaf is the following observation 
written by its Noble Owner : ' This edition of the Decameron is 
supposed to be printed about the year 1470. It is very rare, and 
differs materially in the text from that printed in 1532, in the house 
of Aldus and Asulanus, at Venice.' 

Padua; 1472.] BOCCACCIO. 81 

802. Boccaccio. La Fiammetta. Printed hy 
Martinus de Septem Arhoribus Prutenius. 
(Padua.) 1472. Quarto. 

Prima Edizione. It is rather surprising that both Laire and Fossi 
should refer to De Bure {Bihliogr. Instruct, vol. iv. p. 110, n°. 3748) 
for a description of this exceedingly rare and elegant edition, when 
such description is not only brief and superficial, but it is evident that 
De Bure had never seen a copy of the impression. See the Index 
Libror. vol. i, p. 265-6. Fossi, however, is copious and particular : 
Bibl. MagUabech. vol. i. col. 380-1. Maittaire depends entirely upon 
the Catal. Seidel. p. 373, n". 772. Annul. Typog. vol. i. p^ 321, note 
10. Panzer notices the error in the Capponi Catalogue, p. 71, where 
this edition is designated as of the date of 1473. An ingenious and 
accurate note in tlie Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iv. p. 190-1, refutes the suppo- 
sition of De Bure, that a dateless edition (alleged to be of the year 
1470) is anterior to the present : ' Qu'il nous soit permis (says 
Crevenna) de lui dire que nous doutons tr^s fort que telle edition 
puisse ^tre la premiere' — ' et que celle, que nous annon9ons ici, soit 
v^ritablement la premiere de cet ouvrage,' Edit. 1775, 4to. A ' superb 
copy' of it was in the Pinelli Collection : Bibl. Pinell. vol. v. n". 3251. 
We now proceed to a particular description of this precious volume. 

On the recto of the first leaf we read as follows : 


Vole amiseri crescere di dolersi 
uageza qndo dise discernano 
o sentano conpasion i alcuna 
Adonche . clie a cio in me uo/ 
lutarosa piu che altra a dolei/ 
mi : dico che per longa usaza 
* Sic. ice. kc, 8cc. 

82 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua; 14/2. 

'ilie first chapter bej^ins on the recto of the following leaf. After a 
prefix of S lines, in capital letters, we read the opening of it thus : 

el tempo nel qlc la reuestita terra piu chc 

tiito laltro ano si mostra bella da pareti 

nobili ^creata ueni io nel mondo da benigna 

fortua habudeuole riceuiita. O nialedeto ql 

giornoame piu che niuno altro nel qle io nag^ 

See. 8cc. See. 

A full page, divested of capitals and spaces, contains 25 lines. There 
are neithei" numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. On the recto of the 
132nd and last leaf, we read the following text and colophon : 

soto quella cerchate . di sotrarce si siamonele 
aduersita antiquati che cum quelle spalle cum le 
quale le magiore cose habiamo sostenute e so.-, 
steniao sosteneremo li niinori . Et per cio entra 
doue la uole . uiue adoq; nullo ti puo di questo 
priuare exemplo eterno e ai miseri dimora dele 
angoscie dila tua donna . 







BAR . VAL . Patauus . F. F. 
Martinus de septe arboribus Prutenus . 

The first two words of the last line but one, are intended for ' BAR- 
THOLOMEO DE VAL DE ZOCHO ;' and there can be no doubt, as 
the Capponl Catalogue intimates, that the impression was executed at 
Padua. It is therefore the first book printed in that city. On the 
reverse, all that we read is as follows : 

Without Date.] BOCCACCIO. 83 















The present may be considered a sound and desirable copy ; and is in 
green morocco binding. 

803. Boccaccio. LaFiammetta. IVithout Name 
of Printer^ Place, or Date. Folio. 

This is probably the edition for an account of which Panzer refers 
to Maittaire exclusively. The latter describes it ' cum signaturis 
tantum ;' without any further designation. Annul. Typog. vol. i. p. 
768. It is of uncommon neatness ; the type being rather small, but 
clear and legible. A full page has 35 lines. The first page, on the 
recto of a i, commences thus : 

Incomincia il libro di madonna Fiammetta da lei 
alle innamorate mandate . 

VOLE Amiseri crescere di dolersi Va/ 

gheja : quando di se discerneno o senteno 

copassionein alcuno . Adunqueaccio che 

Sec. 8cc. Sec. 

84 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fcn-ara ; \475. 

Theie are neitlicr nunierals nor oatclnvords. The signatures, from a 
to k, are in ciglits ; but a lias 9, and k only 6, leaves. On the reverse 
of the last of which, beneath the 17th line of text, we read the 
colophon, thus : 

Finis Deo gratias : amen . 

I should conjecture this impression to be as early as 1474, or 1475. A 
small letter is jjrinted in the square spaces to be supplied by capital 
initials. Upon the whole, a sound and desirable copy : in blue morocco. 

804. Boccaccio. La Theseide. Printed hy Au' 
gustinus ( Camerius ) JBernm'di Filius. Ferrara. 
1475. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. This exceedingly scarce impression contains the 
Commentary of Andreas de Basis, a poet of Ferrara, and author of the 
work next described under the title of Fatiche di Ercole. The latter 
■work is sometimes bound with this edition of the Theseid of Boc- 
caccio, as it was printed by the same printer, in the same year, and 
with the same types. Maittaire saw a copy of the present edition 
without such accompanying work ; and while he describes the one 
under consideration very biiefly, he refers to Orlandi for the other. 
Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 354. AudifFredi notices this account of Mait- 
taire, and refers us to the satisfactory descriptions of both impressions 
in BarufFaldi. Edit. Ital. p. 233-4. BarufFaldi, although copious and 
interesting, is less particular than the reader will find the ensuing 
account to be. He properly chastises, however, the inaccuracies of 
Orlandi; and after making mention of Consul Smith's copy, he con- 
fines himself to the one ' preserved in the choice library of Signor 
Francesco Containi, at Ferrara.' Yet his description, like that of 
Maittaire, is confined chiefly to the colophon. Tipograf. Ferrur. 
p. 63 — 69. In the first Bibl. Crevenn. (1775, 4to.) vol. iv. p. 188, there 
is a somewhat particular description ; but De Bure, Panzer, La Serna 
Santander, and Brunet, are comparatively brief and unsatisfactory. 
Clement was ignorant of this impression, and Mazzuchelli and Haym 
are alike imperfect. According to Ginguen^, the Theseid of Boccaccio 
presents us with the first specimen of the octave stanza.* 

• ' IvC Trissino, dans sa Poelique, le Crescirabeni, dans son Hist, de la Poisie vulgaire, 
et prcsqiic tons les auteurs Italiens, attiibuent cctte invention a Boccace. Le Crescinibeni 
croit tepcndant, T, i. p, 199, que la premiere origine de ce rhjthme est due aux Siciliens. 

Ferrara 1475.] BOCCACCIO. 85 

On the recto of the first leaf begins the following proheme of the 
commentator, the top line being printed in red : 

Adsit principio uirgo beata nieo 

ER Che preclarissimo principe con ele- 

gantissima facudia li philosophanti ne di- 

mostra la iocudissima arte de poesia essere 

processa da una releuata nobilita de ani- 

mo la quale fu ne li principii de lalma natura : per 

la opera de la quale poesia occore : che le uirtu e 

releuati gesti de niemoia digni : de li illustrissimi 

signori : essendo li lor corpi de le anime orbati : 

per la resonate tuba e modulato scriuere de li 

poeti la loro gloriosa farna uerde e uiua : p lo 

uniuerso modo diuulgata : in eterno rimane. 

Sec. 8cc. 8cc. 

The whole of this introductory part is printed on four leaves : the 
first page having the words ' azzo priaio — aldrouadino — azzo secodo' 
— in the left margin, printed in red. Then follows, on the recto of the 
fifth leaf— 

ome che a memoria tornandonii le 
felicita trapassate ne la niiseria uedendomi 
douio sono mi sieno di graue dolore ma- 

Le Berabo, en adoptant cette opinion, observe que les anciens Siciliens ne couiposaient 
pourtant I'octave que sur deux rimes, et que Taddition d'une troisierae rime pour les deux 
demiers vers appartient aux Toscans. Prose, Flor. 1549, p. 70, En effet, dans le recueil de 
l'Allacci(Poefi Antichi raccolti da codici manoscr, etc., Napoli, 1661), on trouve une canzone 
de Giovanni de Buonandua, dont les quatre strophes sont de huit vers hendecasyllabes, 
sur deux seules rimes crois^es. M. Baldelli (p. 33, note), en citant d'autres auteurs qlii ont 
6te de la meme opinion que le Bembo, convient avec sa candeur accoutum^e, que I'octave 
avec trois rimes a ete employee en France avant Boccace, par Thibault, comte de Champagne, 
et il rapporte toute entlere vine de ces octaves citee par Fasquier (JRccherches de la France, 
Paris, 1617, p. 724, Amsterdam, 1723, T. i. col. 691,) &c. &c. mais il ne parait pas que ce 
rhythme agreable, que I'oreille delicate du comte de Champagne lui avait inspire, eut 6te 
adopte et fiit devenu commun en France. En Italic, les Toscans t'urent surement les premiers 
a en faire usage ; et Boccace, le preiuier de tons, soit qu'il connut la chanson de Thibault, 
soit qu'il ne la connut pas, employa, dans sa Thisiide, I'octave a trois rimes telle qu'elle est 
restee depuis.' Histoire Litt£raire d'ltalie, vol. iii. p. 45, note. 



8« ITALIAN BOOKS. [Ferrara; U75, 

nifcsta cagione. Non me e p tato discaro 
il rcduceic spesso ne la fatigata mente ecrudele 
dona la piaceuole imagine de la uostra intera bel- 
lezza. La qle piu possete die il mio ^ponimeto 
di sc e de amore giouane de anni edi sono mi 
fece subiecto. Equella quanta uolte mi uiene co 
itcro alnu) coteplando piu losto celestiale che 
humana figura essere co medio delibero. Edie 
assai quello chio cosidero sia il suo effecto ne 
porgic argomcnto diiarissimo 

This introduction occupies one leaf. The poein, on the recto of the 
following leaf, begins thus : 

Sorelle castalie che nel monte 

Elicona contente dimorate 

Dintorno alsacro gorgoneo fonte 

Sottesso lombra de le frode amate 

Da Phcbo : de lequal achor la frote 
S pero de ornarme sol die concediate 
L e sancte orechie amei priegi porzeti 
E quelle uditi como uui doueti 

^ E Ime uenuto uoglia cuin pietosa 

R ima descriuere una historia anticha 
T anto ne glianni riposta e nascosa 
C he latino auctore non par ne dicha 
P or quel chio senta in libro alcuna cosa 
D onque si fate che la mia faticha 
S ia gratiosa achi nefia lectore 
O in altia manera ascoltatore 

The commentary is on the right margin ; and continues almost 
entirely throughout the volume : the text being printed in the centre, 
and sometimes entirely surrounded by it. The word Compakation is 


Ferrara; 1475.] BOCCACCIO. 87 

frequently printed, letter under letter, between the text and the 
commentary : and sometimes without any commentary. 

On the recto of the last leaf : 

Sacre muse le quale io adoro 

Econ digiuni honoro e uigilando 

Di uuy la gratia in tal guisa cercado 

Quale aquistaro da palade costoro 

A i quai uuy desti il gratioso aloro 
I n sul fonte castalio poetando 
I uersi lor souente examinando 
C ol uostro canto sotile e sonoro 

I o ho ricolte de la uostra mensa 
A Icune miche da quella cadute 
E come seppi qui le ho corapilate 

L e qual ui priego che uuy le portiati 
L iete ala dona in cui la mia salute 
Vine : ma el la forsi non sel pensa 

E con lei in seme el nome date el canto 
E 1 corso ad esse sel uene cale tanto 

Ortati abian tuo uersi e bel lauoro ^ 

O caro alumno di theseo cantando 

De idue theba lu preso elaltro i bado 

C ombater per emilia dona loro « 

L a piu tua dona chessa di coloro 

G li altrui feruenti amori a se rechando ^ 

F ra se solletta disse sospirando 

H a quanta damor forze in costor foro .^ 

P oi di fiame de amor tutta accesa 

C i porse priego : che non fusser mute ^4p 

L e ben scripte prodezzce la beltade ^ Mt^ "^ 

)L. IV. ^#M^^ W -4^.. ^^ 

VOL. I\ 


1^ ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fenice ; 1481. 

On the reverse: ' 

T hescida de le nozze de emilia ouate 
N omar lor piaqiie e noi con note agiite 
D areali in ogni etade faina imniensa. 
C ussi li abiam rottati al fonte sancto 
L icentiati agire in ogni canto. 

Then follows the colophon, immediately beneath : 

H oc opus impressit theseida nomine dictu 
B ernaido genitus bibliopola puer : 

(A ugustinus ei nonien :) cQ dux bon9 urbera 
H erculeus princeps ferrariam regeret, 

The very fine copy of this edition, which was in the Crevenna 
collection, was purchased by the late Mr. Quin of Dublin ; but it 
contained only 160 leaves ; whereas, to be perfect, the edition should 
contain 164. It has neither numerals nor signatures; yet on the 
reverse of several leaves there is a catchword. A copy of it is also in 
His Majesty's collection ; which was purchased at the sale of Dr. 
Askew's books, together with the work next described. See Bibl. Smith, 
p. Lxni. In the Addenda, p. cxl, the whole of the introductoiy letter 
of Boccaccio, and the preface, in this first edition, are printed entire in 
modernised orthography. Paschali, the compiler of the Catalogue, 
Observes, that the former is not perfect in this edition ; but was 
published in a perfect form by Doni, in his Raccolta di prose antiche ^ 
Firenz. edit. 1547, p. 53. The present is a large and sound copy, in 
green morocco binding. 

*• * ^ - %i 

t % 

*^ * 

n, ^ m 


Ferrara; 1475.] BOCCACCIO. 41 

805. Fatiche di Ercole; (seu Labores Her- 
cuLis.) Printed by jdugustinus Carneriiis, 
Ferrara. 1475. Folio. 

This work, which is usually attributed to Boccaccio, is the perform- 
ance of Andreas de Bassis, and the present is the first edition 
of it. It is most probable that it was published with the preceding 
impression, as the type and mode of printing are precisely similar. On 
the recto of the first leaf we read as follows : 

Ome che a memoria tornandomi le felicita 

trapassate ne la miseria uedendomi douio 

sono mi sieno di graue dolore manifesta 

cagione. Non me e p tato discaro il re- 
ducere spesso ne la fatigata mente ecrudele dona 
la piaceuole imagine de la uostra intera bellezza 
Sec. fcc. 8cc. 

This first page, which is a full one, has 38 lines. On the recto of the 
second leaf — 

I antiquissimi excellenti passati co ornatis- 
sinia ebreue facudia p extollere le uirtu 
edeprimere le uitii soleuano exprimere co ^ 
succite oratione poderose pole le qle lore 
e poi nuy appellemo ^uerbii fra li qle me 
ricorda auere uisto e audito dire. 
lac. Sec. fcc. 

On the reverse of the 8th leaf : 


Every distinct Deed, or * Labour,' is preceded by a title in capital 
letters, in a similar manner. On the recto of the last leaf but 8, is the ^ % 

* Vltima Faticha,' &c. 



90 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fenicej 1481. 

At the bottom of the last paijc but one, we read the word 


forming a catchword to the top of the last page; which contains 20 
lines exclusively of the following colophon: 

Labores Herculis impress^ sunt ferrarip, quarto nonas 
lulii per me Augustinu carneriu magistri Bernard! biblyo^ 
polp filium diuo Hercule secundo regnante. 


The impression contains 65 leaves, and has neither numerals nor 
signatures ; but there are catchwords on the reverses of the leaves. 
Two or three words are sometimes printed at bottom, at a distance 
from the text. A copy of this work, with the Theseid, as was 
before remarked, was purchased at the sale of Dr. Askew's books, 
for his Majesty, for 85^. See Bibl. Askev. n°. 685. Warton, Hist. Engl. 
Poetry, vol. i. 352, refers to these editions so vaguely, that I question 
whether he ever saw either ; although he mentions the text being a 
corruption of the legitimate MS. The present edition is rather super- 
ficially described by Audiffrcdi, from Baruffaldi. Edit. Ital. p. 233. 
This copy is as large and desii'able as the preceding one ; and is in red 
morocco binding. 

806. Boccaccio. Il Philocolo. Printed hy 
PhiUpo de Piero, Venice. 1481. Folio. 

This is the sixth edition of the Philocolo, in the chronological order 
observed by Panzer ; and is therefore entitled to only a slight notice. 
It is printed in double columns ; the first of which, on a z recto, (a i 
being blank — as I conjecture) presents us with the following prefix : 


mo d* florio 8c di brazafiore chia 
mato philocolo che tanto e adire 
quato amorosa faticha Coposto p 
il clarissimo poeta miser lohanne 

• Sic. 

> fl^ 


Florence; 1494.1 BUCOLICHE. * } Ift 

boccacio da certaldo ad instacia di 
la il lustre : %:. generosa madona Ma 
ria. figluola naturale deliuclito Re 


A full page has 38 lines. The signatures, from a to z and &, are in 
eights, with the exception of f, which has 10 leaves. After &, we have 
A, B, and C, in sixes : and D and E in fours : the eighth of E being 
blank. On the recto of E 3 is the colophon : 

II libro del philocolo di misere io ♦ 

"* hane boccacio da certaldo poeta il 

lustre qui liniscie. Impresso per 
maestro Philipo de piero : in lalma 
patria Venetia nelli ani del signo 
re. M.cccc.lxxxi. a giorni. xviiii. de 

A register is on the reverse, 
russia binding. 

The present is a tolerably fair copy, in 

8O7. BucoLicHE, &c. Printed hy Miscommus. 
Florence. 1494. Quarto. 

This is an elegant volume of pastoral poetry, containing translations 
and original poems. The translations are from the Bucolics of Virgil, 
by Bernardo Pulci ; and the poems are by Francesco de Arsochi, 
Hieronymo Benivieni, and lacopo Fiorino de Boninsegni. The title 
page, which specifies these, with an ornamental wood-cut, will be 
found copied in the Bibliographical Decameron ; as an early specimen 
of an ornamental title-page composed in the modern fashion. It should 
however be noticed that there are two original elegies by Pulci, upon 
the deaths of Cosmo de Medici and Sumonetta. Consult Mr. Roscoe's 
Lor. de Medici, vol. i., p. 327-S, 8«o. ed. upon the subject of this desirable 
volume. Denis, p. 377, has been copious in the title ; apparently upon 
the authority of Bihl. Crevenn. vol. iv. p. 63, edit. 1775, 4to.; where a 
copy of it, ' in the finest preservation,' is mentioned. The signatures run 



92 ^ ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1494. 

to n : of which m contains six, and n four : the rest liavc eight leaves. 
The register is on tlie recto of n iv : on the reverse we observe the 
colophon thus elongated: 

€l Finite sono lequattro Buccoliche sopra decte 

Con una elegia della morte di Cosimo. 

Et iinaltra elegia della morte 

dcUa Diua Simonetta, Et 

risposta della decta 

Diua Simonetta 


elegia -^ 

j^ dinuo 





in Firenza 

per Maestro 





Beneath is the device — of which a fac-simile is given in vol. iii. p. 467- 
The present is a sound but cropt copy ; in russia binding. 



Without Date.] CAVALCA. 


808. Caorsin. Descriptione della Obsidione 
DELLA CiTADE Rhodiana. TVithout Name of 
Printer, Place, or Date. Quarto. 

/\ Both Denis and Panzer refer exclusively to the Capponi Catalogue 
for a description of this impression : but in the Libreria Capponi^ 
p. 98-9, the account relates rather to the author of the work, than to 
any distinctive marks of this edition. We shall therefore be more par- 
ticular, but brief. On the recto a a (i) the title, at top, is thus : 

Descriptione della obsidione della citade 
Rhodiana copillata per Gulielrao Caorsin 
uicecancilier de Rhodiani. 

There are 23 lines beneath ; and this, and every similar full i>age, 
contains 26 lines. In the whole, 22 leaves : upon signatures a 12, 
and b 10, leaves. On the reverse of b 10, at bottom, it is thus : 

: A 

laude de dio : exaltatione della regione christia-. 
na : 8c a gloria de Rhodiani. Finis. 

The type is large and round, and the h is turned inwards, at the 
bottom of the circular part. A neat copy ; in dark calf binding, gilt 

809. Cavalca. Specchio della Croce. TVith- 
out Name of Printer, Place, or Date. Quarto. 

In the B'lbl. Crevenn. vol. i. p. 178, n" 809, this singular impression 
is well described as being executed * in a handsome roman letter, with 
25 lines in each page. It was probably printed towards 1480, and has 
neither numerals nor catchwords — but signatures, in a very extraor- 
dinary manner: for, first, the first leaf, which ought to be sign, a, has 
none ; secondly, the signatures in each sheet are only twice designated, 
although there are 8 leaves to each signature ; and, thirdly, the first 
leaf in each signature is marked ; the second leaf is without any mark ; 


94^ ITALIAN BOOKS. [fFithout Date. 

and the third leaf has the mark z for ^ : the fourth leaf is also desti- 
tute of signature.' The preceding is from the Crevenna Catalogue; 
which is sufficiently correct. The first leaf contains the beginning of 
the prologue, with this prefix : 

Incomincia il prologo nel deuoto e morale 

libro intitulato Spechio de croce . v " 

The first chapter begins on the reverse of the second leaf. The sig- 
natures run to f in eights; but f has only 6 leaves. The last two^' 
leaves contain a table. The present is an indifferent copy : in russia 

810. Cecco D'Ascoli. (seu Francesco Stabili 
L'AcERBA.) Printed by Ferrandus. Brescia. 
Without Date. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. This exceedingly rare volume, of which another 
copy is not yet known to be in existence, is placed by Boni as the 
second work in the order of those executed by Ferrandus. Its rarity, 
therefore, must necessarily be of the very first class ; nor is its intrinsic 
curiosity less worthy of attention : since, according to Ginguene, ' it 
was one of the causes of the condemnation and death of the author.* 
Hist. Literar. d'ltalie, vol. ii. p. 291, note 3. Cecco was burnt alive 
at Florence, in the year 1327. and in the 70th of his age. He 
cultivated astrology ; and his principles being obnoxious to the Inqui- 
sition, he was arraigned and condemned accordingly. Both Boni and 
Ginguend refer to the enlarged and accurate account of the author 
to be found in Tiraboschi, vol. v. p. 1 — 204. Ginguend also refers to 
Quadriu, vol. vi. p. 39; whence we learn that ' a brother inquisitor, 
playing upon the word^ceria (the name of the poem) — which signifies 
immaturity, and something bitter and hard — observed, that he found 
this title vci-y significant ; for the book contained nothing that savoured 
of maturity or Cathohc gentleness — but, on the contraiy, much here- 
tical bitterness !' It seems doubtful whether Ginguend or Quadi'io 
knew of the existence of this early impression; but Boni has briefly, 
yet accurately, described it. Libri a Stampa, 8iC. dell' Ital. Super, p. 


Without Date.] CECCO D'ASCOLI. 95 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with the opening of the poem, 
without prefix, thus : 

VLTRA no seque piu la nostra luce * 
Fuor de la supficie de quel primo 
t In qual natuia p poter conduce 

^ La forma Itelligibele che diuide 

Noi da li animali p lo habito extremo 
Qual creatura mai no tutto uide 
Sopra onde cielo substatie nude 
Stando benigne p la dolce nota 
8cc. Sec. Sec. 

The first book contains 9 chapters. The second book opens thus, on the 
recto of the 11th leaf: 

Capitolo. I De Fortuna e soa Diffinitione 

Torno nel canto de le prime note 
Dico checcio che sotto il ciel creato 
Dipende p uertu de le sue rote 
Chi tuto moue sepre tuto regie 
Di fine e moto principio e stato 
In ciachun cielo pose la sua legie 
kc. 8cc. 8cc. 

The second book contains 19 chapters. The third book opens thus : 

D Al terzo cielo si rauoue tal uirtute 
Che fa doi corpi una cosa animata 
Sentendo pena de le dolce ferute 
Conformita de stelle muoue affecto 
Transforma lalma nella cosa amata 
Non uariando lesser del subiecto 
8cc. Sec Sec. 


96 ITALIAN BOOKS. [mthotit Date. 

This third book contains 56 chapters. The fourth book opens as 
follows : 

Qui comeza quarto libro di dube natumli C i 

lO VOGLio qui chel quare troui el quia 

Leuando lale dela cerba mete 

Seguendo del philosopho la uia 

Del dubitare querendo e gran uirtute 

Che lo niiraie de la prima gete 

Feci noi ceiti de lalte uedute 
Amor pur uasce de consimel stelle 
kc. See. 8cc. 

Thirteen chapters are contained in the fourth book. The Jifth book 
begins thus : 

Libro q^nto e prima remoue dubi cotra fede 

CONVIEN Chio Cati De La Sacta Fed 
Lassando le potetie sesetiue 
E dica cio che lalma mia ne crede 
Sopra loctaue spere che noi uedemo 
Ossaima che ternalmete uiue 
Formo doi cieli iquai noi chiamemo 
Sec. 8cc. Sec. 

This fifth and last book contains only 2 chapters ; the whole of the 
latter, and the colophon, are as follow : 

Capitulo Secondo De Ternitate 

BEL EL TACERE DE Cotanta Cosa 
Considerado el mio pocho itellecto 
Ma la gra fede mi moue e scossa 
Si chio jigo la uirtu di sopra 
Che alcum lalma del beato aspecto 
Che limaginare coseguischa lopra 

Foligno; 1472.] DANTE. 9/ 

Era el filiolo nati el moto el tempo 

El padie col filiolo Vna nala 

Eterna die no cade mai so tepo 

Questo era in prima psso al prirao agete 

El essere tuto p lei sinfigura 

E fato fato seza lui dico niente 

Cio clie fato era uita in lui 
Si como forma in ella mete eterna 
E questa uita in luce di noi 


In the whole, 7'2 leaves : without numerals, signatures, or catchwords. 
The paper is of stout manufacture, but the press work is irregular and 
the type inelegant. A most genuine and desirable copy : in green 
morocco binding. 

811. Dante. La Commedia. Printed hyNumeister, 
(Foligno), 1472. Folio. 

Pkima Edizione. ' Before the end of the xvith century (says 
Ginguen^) the public chairs at Bologna, Pisa, Venice, and Placenza 
were devoted to explanations of Dante. Copies of his poem were 
quickly deposited in all the public and private libraries ; and before 
even the invention of printing could contribute to the rapid multipli- 
cation of copies, the ' Commedia ' was eveiy where the theme of pane- 
gyric, study, disputation, and commentary. The art of printing, from 
its infancy, laid hold of it with such ardor, that in the single year of 
1472 three editions of it appeared ahnost at the same time,' &c. 
Histoire Litteraire d" Italic, vol. i. p. 486. From this observation we 
are led to express some surprise, that a poem so exceedingly popular, 
and written in the vernacular tongue of the country, should 7iot have 
been printed several years before the actual period of its impression : 
the more so, as Petrarch was printed in 1470, and Boccaccio in 1471 : 
authors, both of whom were subsequent to Dante, and admirers, if 
not pupils^ of their great master. The enterprise or good fortune of 

• Sic. 

98 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Mimeister, 

some future bibliographer may bring to light an edition, a year, or two 
earlier than the present : which, however, till such discovery take place, 
must maintain its rank as the first edition. 

This is a volume of extreme scarcity. De Bare tells us that * there 
are hardly any copies of it in existence, and that Paris could then only 
boast of three — of which the Gaignat copy was the only disposable 
one.' The other two copies were in the Royal and Mazarine Collec- 
tions. See the Bibl. Instruct, vol. iii. p. 613-G16. De Bure himself 
afterwards bought Dr. Askew's copy, and the Valliere Collectioa 
became enriched with the one in the library of Gaignat. Bibl. Askeu, 
n°. fi94 ; Cat. de Gaignat, vol. i. p. 490 ; Cat, de la Valliere, vol. ii. 
n*. 3558. It is a little remarkable that the Collections of Capponi, 
Honcel, Magliabechi, and the elder Crevenna, contained no impression 
earlier than that of the year 1477 — accompanied by the Commentary 
of Benvenuto r'a, Imola : see the Catalogo della Lihreria Capponi, p. 15; 
Cat. della Libr. Floncel, vol. i. p. 243, n°. 3297; Bibl. Magliabech. 
vol. i, col. r,88 ; and Cat. de Crevenn. (1775, 4to.) vol. iv, p. 3. A 
copy of this impression was, however, in the Crevenna Collection 
before the sale of it in 1789 : see Cat. de Crevenn. vol. iii. pt ii. p. 3, 
n°. 4544 : — which copy is the one under description. It is by no 
means in desirable condition — especially the first 10 leaves of it — but 
it is perfect, and therefore a valuable acquisition. 

On the recto of the first leaf we read the commencement, thus : 


dante alleghieri di fiorenze nella qle tracta 
delle pene et punitioni de uitii et demeriti 
et premii delle uirtii : Capitolo prime della 
pnia parte de questo libro loquale sechiania 
inferno : nel quale lautore fa prohemio ad 
tucto eltractato del libro : . 

El mczo delcamin dinra uita 
mi trouai puna seliia oscura 
die la diricta uia era smarrita 
Et quanto adir qlera cosa dura 

Foligno; 1472.] DANTE. 99 

esta selua seluagia aspra eforte 
che nel pensier renoua la paura 
Tante amara che pocho piu morte 
ma pertractar del ben chio uitrouai 
diro delaltre cose chi uo scorte 

De Bure has committed a strange error in supposing this impression 
to have been executed at Mentz. There can be no doubt of its having 
been printed at Foligno, a small town of Umbria in Italy, where 
Numeister exercised his art, and where a publication of Aretinus, (' de 
Bello Italico contra Gothos') was printed in 1470, by the same printer 
(see post: 'Supplement') with the town of Foligno specified in the 
colophon. I shall give a specimen of the type from the opening of 
the ixth canto of the Inferno : 

Vel color etc irilta difuor mipinfe 
aeggiedlo ilduca mio tomar luolta 
piu tofto detto ilfno nouo tiftrin£e 
Attcftto fifermo cotnebuom cafcolta 
cbe locdbio non potea menar alxinga 
perlacre ncro ct perlanctbia folta 

The same characters appear in the edition of Cicero's ' Epistolae ad 
Familiares,' executed by the same printer, about the same year : see 
vol. i. p. 327. In the recent edition of Haym's Bihlioteca Italiana, 
vol. ii. n". i. this impression is properly said to be ' senza luogo, ma 
fu Foligno.' 

On the recto of the 83rd leaf, the Second Part, or tiie Purgatorio, 
thus commences : 

dela conmedia* di dante alligbieri difirenze 
nellaqual parte sipurgano licomessi peccati 
et uitii dequali luomo e comfesso* et petuto 

* Sic. 

100 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Foligno; 1472. 

conanimo disatisfatione. Et contine. xxxiii. 
canti. Qui iiel piimo canto sono quelli che 
sperao diuenire quado chesia alebcati geti :. 

ER CORRER raeglior 
acque alzai le uele 
OMAI la nauicella del 
mio in gnegno 
CHE Lascia dietro asse 
mar si crudele 

Et catero diquel secodo regno 

doue luhiimano spirto sipurga 

et disalire alciel diuenta degno 

Ma qui la morta poesi risurga 

osate muse poi che uostro sono 

et qui caliope alquanto surga 
Sec. 8cc. Sec. 

The colophon, on the recto of the last leaf, is as follows — from which 
it may appear that La Serna Santander has been less exact than 
Maittaire. See Diet. Bibliogr. Choisi, vol. ii. n°. 524 ; and Annul. Typog. 
vol. i. p. 316. 

Nel mille quatro cento septe et due 
nel quarto mese adi cinque et sei 
questa opera gentile impressa fue 

lo maestro lohanni Nuraeister opera dei 
alia decta impressione et meco fue 
Elfulginato Euangelista mei : 

Thb impression, without signatures, catchwords, or numerals, con- 
tains "247 leaves ; which, with 2 blank leaves (according to Brunet) 
would make the number 249 — as mentioned in the Manuel du Libraire, 
vol. i. p. 3'21 : but such blank leaves (the 83rd and 166th) seem to be 
no requisite appendages. A full page contains 30 lines. It should be 
observed that Panzer (vol. i. p. 438, n°. 3) has properly omitted the 

Mantua; 1472.] DANTE. 101 

epithet of * divine ' to this, and to other early impressions of Dante's 
Commedia; which DeBure and Santander have inconsiderately attached 
to it. Haym tells us that this epithet did not appear in any title-page 
till the Venice edition of 1554, in I'imo. This copy is in red-morocco 

812. Dat^te. La Commedia. Printed hy Georgius 
and Paulns. Mantua. 1472. Folio. 

This is considered to be the second edition of the Commedia of 
Dante. The whole is printed in double columns ; and begins, on the 
recto of the first leaf, with a poetical epistle of Columbino Veronesi to 
Philipo Nuvoloni, thus : 

Capitulo di columbino Veronese al No/ 
bile e prestatissimo huorao pliilippo Nu/ 

e laticha tua patria alma risplede 
s del suo uirgilio tuba alta e jpfoda 

onde tanta uirtu se ode e cophede 
Non men ne stia lei lieta e ioconda 
se una altra seguitando ne uien drieto 
cogliendo le foglie e la sua fronda 
La qual se ascriue a te per bel decreto 
Sec. 8cc. kc. 

This epistle occupies the first leaf, filling entirely both the pages. 
On the recto of the ensuing leaf, the prefix is thus : 


The work begins about three inches below, thus :* 

* This space is supplied in the present copy by a very elegant illuminaiion of the head 
of Dante. 

102 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Mantua; 1472. 

El mezo del chamin di nostra uita 

miritrouai per una selua schura 

cliella diritta uia era smarita 
Ah quanto adir qual era echosa dura 

questo selua seluagia aspra e forte 

che nel pensier rinuoua la paura 
Tanto e amara che poco e piu morte 
Sec. Sec. Sec. 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; but each 
chapter has a numerical prefix. A full page contains 41 lines. The 
first chapter of ' Purgatory' has the following prefix : 


A similar space (here occupied by an appropriate illumination highly 
preserved) ensues before the commencement of the text. On the 
reverse of the 91st and last leaf, beneath the second column, is the 
ensuing colophon : 


Magister georgius k. magister paulus teu/ 
tonici hoc opus mantuae impresserunt ad 
iuuante Columbino ueronensi. 

Although De Bure's account be not so particular as the present, it is, 
nevertheless, much fuller than that of preceding bibliographers. Haym 
appears to have borrowed from Maittaire, whose description is both 
brief and undetermined. This impression exhibits the same type as 
that of which a fac-simile is given at p. 473, of vol. ii. The present is 
a large and desirable copy ; in blue morocco binding. 

^sii; 1472.] DANTE. 103 

813. Dante. La Commedia. Printed hy Federicus 
T^ei'onensis (^^sii or Jest). 1472. Quarto. 

The learned AudiflFredi is, I believe, the first who has given a correct 
account of this extremely rare impression. He tells us that * it is much 
scarcer than the Foligno and Mantua editions, and that neither Haym 
nor De Bure had been able to discover a copy of it. The Catalogues of 
the Duke de la Valliere, Boze, Smith, Lord Oxford, Capponi, Jackson, 
Floncel, and Rossi, are said not to contain it. The first who noticed it, 
says he, was Volpi, in his catalogue of the editions of this poet ; edit. 
Patav. 1727, vol. i. p. xxxiii et seq. ; but in calling it ' a small folio' * 
he has erred ; as the voluine is a quarto.' Audiffredi speaks from a 
personal examination of a copy. Edit. Ital. p. 3, 4. The first leaf of 
the copy before us is supplied by a most skilfully executed ms. fac- 
simile, and presents us with the following commencement : 

el mezo del camin di nostra uita 

mi ritrouai per una selua oscura 

chela diricta uia era smarrita 

Et quato adir qlera cosa dura 

esta selua seluagia aspra e forte 

che nel pensier renoua la paura 

Tante amara che poco piu morte 

The second canto has neither separation nor prefix ; but the third, on 
the recto of the 5th leaf, commences thus — without any space from the 
second : 


Er me si ua nel a citta dolente 
p me si ua nel aeterno dolore 
p me si ua tra la preduta gente 
8cc. 8cc. Sec. 

• Audiffredi remarks, that the Milan edition of Haym, 4to, 1771, torn. 1. p. 183, had 
repeated the error of Volpi, in calling it a small folio. It may be observed that the same 
error is continued in the octavo edition of Haym, 1803, vol. ii. p. 5 : ' in f. non niolto 
grande.' The water-marks, being horizontal, denote it to be a quarto ; but in point of 
longitudinal appearance the volume is clearly a folio. Quadrio relies upon Volpi. Bell, 
Storia, &c. vol, vi, p, 249, 


lOi ITALIAN BOOKS. [^sii; 1472. 

Two leaves of ms. are unluckily introduced into the Vtli Canto ; and 
another similar leaf is in the Xth Canto. The Xllth Canto has no 
prefix ; nor have the XVIIth, XVIlIth, XlXth, XXVIIth, XXVIIIth. 
XXXIst, XXXIInd, XXXIIlrd, Cantos any prefixes. The Purgatorio 
begins thus, without prefix: 

Er corer meglior aq alza leuel 

oniai la nauicella del mio igeg 

die lassa drieto ase mar si crudel 

8cc. kc. 8cc. 

Both the Purgatorio and Paradiso are entirely without prefixes to the 
cantos. On the reverse of the last, and 216th leaf, the subscription is 
as follows : 


Panzer has given a somewhat better account of this rare impression 
in his fourth volume, p. 291, than in his first volume; by availing 
himself of the labours of Audiffredi.f Laire, in his Index Librorum, SfC. 
vol. i. p. 353, speaks as if he had seen a copy of this edition ; but 
Fournier has the indiscretion to doubt of its existence : Diet. Port, de 
Bibliogr. edit, 1S09, p. 163. Brunet prudently avoids the repetition of 
Fournier's error : Manuel du Libraire, vol. i. p. 320. It remains only 
to add, that it is printed in a Roman letter of a lound and elegant form, 
without signatures, numerals, or catchvvords. A full page contains 33 
lines. With the foregoing exceptions, the present may be considered 
a sound and desirable copy : in green morocco binding. 

• Sic. 

t ' Federici Veronensis uotncu — desideratur in Annalibus Maettarii, & Originibus Oriandi, 
et ctiam in locupletissimo Supplemento Annal. Maett. cl Denis ; nee hucusque liber aliquis 
ab eodcm typograplio impressus, alteriusque loci, praeter quam ^sii, nomine notatus, a 
quoquani, quod sciani, in lucem prolatus est. Quamobrem donee monumenta typographies, 
non ALcs'ii modo, sed et alibi, Federicum imprcssisse, non produnt, et insignem quaradam 
DANTIS Comoediae editionem, in qua ejus nomen, nullo designate loco, inscriptum est, 
iiae tcmeritatis nota eidem civitati adscribi posse crediderim.' Edit. ltd. p. 3. 

Venice; 1477] DANTE. 105 

814. Dante. La Commedia. Col Commento 
Di Benvenuto da Imola. Printed hy Vindelin 
de Spira. (^Venice.^ 1477- Folio. 

Pkima Ed I zi one. Before we describe this impression, it may be as 
well to observe upon a supposed anterior one, exhibiting the same 
commentary, and considered to have been printed at Milan, by 
Zarotus, in 1473. There can be little or no ground, I submit, for 
entertaining any rational opinion that such previous impression exists. 
Orlandi is the first who notices it ; Orig. e Progr. p. 101, 320 ; but in 
a brief and superficial manner. Maittaire, without quoting Orlandi, 
has evidently copied his predecessor ; for his description is equally 
meagre and unsatisfactory. Annul. Typog. vol, i. p. 326. Saxius thus 
remarks upon these authorities : ' An edition of Dante was printed 
this year [mcccclxxiii] at Milan, by Zarotus, according to Maittaire 
and Orlandi ; but I have never seen it, and am therefore unable to say 
any thing about it.' Hist. Lit. Typog. Mediol. col. cxxxi. A doubtful 
notice of it is also inserted at p. dlx, in the same work. Panzer 
quotes the same authorities, without adding any information upon the 
subject; and Haym seems equally brief and sceptical. Upon the 
whole, we may return to the edition under description with some 
confidence of its being entitled to the distinction above mentioned. 

The Catalogues of Capponi and Floncel are less particular and in- 
structive than those of Crevenna (edit. 1775) and Magliabechi ; both of 
which latter the reader may consult with advantage ; but in the Librer. 
Floncel, p. 243, n°. 3297, the book is called ' rarissimo.' The entire 
impression is executed in double columns, in a close and barbarous 
gothic type ; which we may rather wish, with Crevenna, had been 
exchanged for the roman character, than assent, with Fossi, to calling 
it ' neat.' The typographical execution of it is utterly unworthy of 
the reputation of Vindelin de Spira. It commences on sign, a, with 
a Life of Dante, which has this prefix. 

<© 111 coimcia ia ^ita t coftumi bdlo tttdlitt 
^oeta tjulgari SDantc aligjjicti tii fncn$t 
gonore c gloria beiitJioma f iorcntino» M>tti 
jito e conipOiS^to per Jo fanio.sifjsiimo jjomo 

106 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fettke; 1477. 

mif^tcr giouani 23occJ)acio tia cmaltio. ^tti 
pto tic la origcncbita. ^^tutiii c toftumi tt\ 
clarifsimo tjuomo 2Dantc alicgljicti ^otta 
fiorcntino. <^ ticHopcre compostc pec iui in 
foniincia fcUcimcnte. €, in ([ue^to primo ca 
pitwio toclja k fcntcntia tic d^olonc. Jaqua 
\cc niai iBfcguita p gli f iorcntini. 

This Life and Summary of his Works comprehends 15 leaves : upon 
signatures a 7 and c 8. A blank leaf, forming signature a i, ensues. 
We have next a table, beginning upon the recto of a 2. The first 
canto of the Inferno opens thus, on the recto of a 3 : 

Canto prinio ticHa prima parte Jaqualc ^ 
cljiania ^nfcrno. li)clqualc lauctorc fa p- 
i)cniio a tucta opcrat 

(JBlmc550 tici caniin 
tji nojaftra Ijita. ^iti 
trouai per tjita fdua 
fcura, €Jc iatiricta 
t)ia era fniarrita. €t 
quato atiire ct come 
ra CO fa tiura. qfta fel 
ua friuaggia aftira i 

kc. 8cc. 8cc. 

The commentary regularly follows each canto. The signatures run 
thus : a to t in tens : t and v have each eight leaves : and x and y are 
each in tens. There is no ? ; and the index of chapters to the Paradiso 
commences on the recto of what should be aa — when the signatures 
run in tens, (except hh and ii, in eights) as far as IPIP ; but this latter 
has 12 leaves, including a blank one: — on the recto of the Uth of 
which are two sonnets — called ' mechant et pitoiable' by Crevenna— - 
thus concluding the impression : 

Pmicc; 1477.] DANTE. 107 

D anti alighieri son minerua oscura 

dintelligentia e darte nel cut ingegno 

lelegantia materna agionse alsegno 

che si tien che miracol de natura 
L alta mia fantasia prompta e sicura 

passo il tartareo e pot il celeste regno 

el nobil mio volume feci degno 

di temporale e spiritual lectura 
F iorenza magna terra hehhi per madre 

anzi matregna : l io piatoso figlio 

gratia di lingiie scelerate e ladre 
R auenafu mio albergho nel mio exiglio 

<l ella ha il corpo : lalma ha il sbmo padre 

presso acui inuidia non vince consiglio 


F inita e lopra delinclito *i diuo 

dante alhghierl Fiorentin poeta 

lacui anima sancta alberga lieta 

nel del seren oue sempre Ufa uiuo 
D imola henuenuto maifa uiuo 

Deternafama che sua mansueta 

lyra opero comentando il poeta 

per cut il texto a noi e itellectiuo 
C hristofal Berardi pisaurense detti 

opera e facto indegno corrector e 

per quanta intese di quella i subietti 
D e spier a vendelinfu il stampatore 

del mille quattrocento e settantasetti 

correuan glianni del nostra signore 


108 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nicolo di Loi-enzo, 

The rererse is blank. Both these sonnets are extracted by Fossi, 
but Crevenna has contented himself with the last ; observing upon the 
extremely inaccurate manner in which this latter is printed in the 
Bibliogr. Instruct, of De Burc, vol. iii. p. 61fi, 619. In the Cat. de 
Creienn. vol. iv. p. 3-6 (edit. 177^^) there is a correct account of this 
imjjression, and a very lively and smart attack upon Voltaire for his 
superficial knowledge and judgment of Italian poetry. Crevenna's 
copy, as well as the one in the Magliabechi collection, was large and 
illuminated. Fossi notices the curious mention of Mahomet, (and of his 
elevation to the cardinalship — according to De Bure) by the conniien- 
tator, as proofs of Benvenuto's warm attachment to the Roman Catholic 
religion : see the Bibl. Magliabech. vol. i. col. 588-591. The present 
may be called a fine and desirable copy ; in green morocco binding. 

814. Dante. La Commedia. Col Commento di 
Christophoro Landing. Printedhy Nicolo theSon 
of Lorenzo, of Germany. Florence. 148L Folio. 

We are about to describe a volume of very considerable interest 
among the collectors both of books and of prints. To begin, bibliogra- 
])hicaily, we may remark that this costly and magnificent work presents 
us with the first impression of the Commentary of Landing, upon 
the Divlna Commedia of Dante. The printer of it was Nicolo di Lorenzo 
della Magna, or Nicolo Todescho ; who published the Geography of 
Berlinghieri, as noticed at p. 04 ante. Whoever examines the larger 
type of this work with that of the one just mentioned, will find a 
perfect conformity between them : the printer having designated him- 
self by both of the foregoing names. Bibliographers have perhaps 
spoken a little too warmly in commendation of the typographical 
execution : the page is full, and the letter, of either form, is rather 
clumsily worked ; but where copies have an amplitude of margin, like 
the one before us, there is a better proportion and considerable elegance 
of effect. What may be the splendor of the copy of it upon vellum, 
so minutely described by Fossi (and somewhat strangely omitted to be 
noticed by Panzer and Brunet), it were perhaps difficult to conceive: 
or, rather, as most would imagine, what must have been the superior 
attractions of that copy which was enriched by the drawings and 
illuminations of Michel Angelo Buonakoti* — but which imfortu- 
nately perished at sea ? ! 

• See the note in Audiffredi's Edit. ltd. p. 288. 

Florence; 1481.] DANTE. 109 

The first leaf, on signature . i . presents us with the Pro heme of 
Landing. This is followed by an Apology, or Defence of Dante: 
the latter concluding on the reverse of signature . i . iii . We have, 
next, short disquisitions upon the excellence of the Florentines in 
Learning, Eloguence, Music, Sculpture, Civil Law, and Com- 
merce. These conclude on the reverse of the 6th leaf, from the 
beginning of the volume inclusively. Next follow three treatises upon 
the Life and Manners, and upon the general Excellence, of Dante : oc- 
cupying nearh' 7 pages. A brief eulogy of Dante, by Marsilius Ficinus, 
ensues ; which again appears in the Italian version of Landino. The 
last preliminary piece is thus entitled: 


These preliminary pieces occupy 12 leaves. On the recto of the 
13th (sign, a i .) the texts of the Poet and of the Commentator begin 
thus : 




EXi ^ abbiamo narrato non solamente lauita del 

ME poeta et eltitolo dellibro et che cosa sia poeta 

20* ^^^ etiam quato sia uetusta et anticha quato 

DEL riobile et uaria quanto utile et ioconda tal doc- 

C A trina. Quanto sia efficace a muouere Ihumane 

Tyrj meti : et quato dilecti ogni liberale igegno. Ne 

xro giudicammo da tacere quanto in si diuina disci- 

p. y plina sia stata la excellentia dello ingegno del 

nostro poeta. Inche sisono stato piu brieue 


che forse non si conuerebbe: consider! chi 


legge che lanumerosa et quasi infinita copia 
^^ dellecose delle quali e necessario tractare mi- 
VI sforza non uoledo chel uolume cresca sopra 
TA modo: &c. 

* Tlie Z in the original 'n reversed. 

] 10 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Mcolo di Lorenzo, 

The space, to the left, is to be tilled by an illuminated N ; here not 
ungracefuliy supplied. The Inferno concludes on the reverse of s 6 : 


The order of the signatures, in the Inferno, is thus : a 9 ; b 8 ; c, 
d, e, each 10 ; f 8 ; g 10 ; h, i, each 8 ; (k is omitted— there being no 
deficiency in the text or in the catchword) 1 10 ; m, n, each 8 ; o, p, 
q, r, each 10 ; s 6. On what should be aa i, the prologue to the 
Purgatorio begins. On aa ii (omitted to be so marked) the text and 
commentary begin — beneath a prefix of two lines in capital letters — 
the text is thus printed : 


A L Z A* 
homai lanauicella del mio ingegno 
che lascia drieto ase mar si crudele 
Et cantero diquel secondo regno 
doue Ihumano spirito sipurga 
et disalire alcielo diuenta degno 
8cc. kc. 8cc. 

The Purgatorio concludes on the reverse of oo vj, having the order 
of its sigrnatures thus : aa 9 ; (a blank forming the lOth as is con- 
jectured) bb, cc, dd, ee, ff, gg, each 10 leaves; hh 12; (i and k are 
omitted ; and 11 i, 11 iii, not marked : v 11 is also misprinted foi" 11 v) 
11 10 ; mm 10 ; (nn omitted) and lastly, oo with 6 leaves. As far as the 
XXVIth Canto, the running title of PVRGATORIO is printed on the 
reverse of each leaf; but, from the XXVIth Canto to the conclusion, 
inclusively, this word is printed on the right. 

The prologue to the Paradiso begins on the recto of aaa i. The 
reverse of this leaf is blank. On the recto of aaa ii, the text of this 
poem — surrounded above, as well as beneath, and on each side, with 
commentary — begins thus : 

• The Z iu the original is reversed. 

Florence; 148 1.] DANTE. Ill 


per luniuerso penetra et risplende 
in una parte piu et meno altroue 
Nel ciel che piu della sua luce prende 
fu io et uidi chose che ridire 
ne sa ne puo chi dilassu discende 
Sec. &c. Sec. 

The recto of the next leaf presents us with a change of the 
signature aaa (iii) into . A . iii . These signatures continue thus : A 
8 ; (A iiii not marked) B, C, D, E, F, and G, each with 10 leaves, 
(C iii is repeated, and sign. G, i, is omitted to be marked) H 10, I 6, 
and L 10 leaves. 

On the reverse of L 10, and the last leaf, we read the ensuing 
colophon : 





There are running titles and signatures throughout, but neither 
numerals nor catchwords. AndifFredi says that, upon twice counting 
the leaves, he found them to amount to 368 in number ; which enu- 
meration probably included a blank leaf for the 10th of signature aa of 
the Purgatorio. The former possessor of a copy, in the Casanatensian 
library, had made the same calculation. Edit. Ital. p. 288. Thus much 

* The Z in the original is reversed. 
VOL. IV. ■ p 

112 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Nicolo di Lorenzo, 

for a faithful bibliographical description of the magnificent, volume 
before us ; a description, which will not be deemed unnecessarily 
minute by those who know the worth, or covet the possession, of so 
estimable an edition. We are now to pay equal attention to another 
very interesting feature in this book ; namely, the Copper Plate 

Till the time of Heineken it was conceived that there were only two 
engravings belonging to the work ; which were attached to the first 
two cantos of the Inferno. There are some copies without a single 
engraving (although Audiffredi says he never saw such a copy), and the 
one which Maittaire saw was probably of that number ; since he makes 
no mention of any decoration. Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 419. De Bure 
speaks of only two engravings ; and the copies in the Flonpel and La 
Valliere Collections had only the same number. See the Bibliographie 
Instructive, vol. iii. p. 622-4; Bihlioteca di Floncel* vol. i. p. 243, 
n°. 3298, and Catalogue de la Valliere, vol. ii. p. 490. In this 
latter copy there were 17 drawings, or fac-similes, to make up the 
number of 19. The copy in the Crevenna Collection had 3 copper- 
plates ; Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iii, pt. ii. p. 3, n°. 4548. That in the Pinelli 
Library (described as ' Esemplare, di maravigliosa belleza, che ha 
larghissimi margini, e le tre lettere iniziali delle tre Cantiche del 
Poema vagamente miniate e dorate,' &c.) had only 2 copper-plates, with 
17 fac-similes. Bibl. Pinell. vol. iv, p. 280, n". 1913. Neither the 
Haym nor the Gouttard Collections contained a copy ; and the one in 
the Bibl. Bouiourlin, p. 297, n°. 988, is not described as containing a 
single plate. Heineken had seen 13 plates; but 11 of these (which 
were in the famous collection of Mariette) were detached, and not 
inserted in the Aolume. He adds, that he has seen only 2 plates struck 
olF upon the paper on which the text is printed. Id^e Generate, S;c. p. 
141-2. Haym is very superficial. He describes the volume to be in 
large or royal folio, with the cuts of Botticelli ; and that it is ' a very 
beautiful and rare edition.' Bibliot. Ital. vol, ii. p. 6, edit. 1803. 
Audiffredi mentions rather a singular circumstance relating to the first 
two vignettes. He says, that in one of the two copies in the Casana- 
tensian library, there were three cuts, but the second and third were 
the same. The first cut was not placed, as usual, at the bottom of the 
first page of the first canto of the Inferno, but at the bottom of the 15th 

* Tliis copy bears a colojihon as if the edition had been printed at Venice, by Petruu 
Cremonensis, in the same year. 

Florence; 1J81.] DANTE. US 

page of the same. The second cut was inserted in its proper place, but 
repeated at the beginning of the third canto. Edit. Ital. p. 288. Fossi 
appears to have seen this copy. Bill. Magliabech. vol. i. col. 597- 

We are next to mention, in the order of research, the remarkable 
copy of this edition which was preserved in the Lomenie Collection ; 
and which is described, by Laire, as containing 19 original copper- 
plates, or vignettes, with 16 drawings. The former were attached to 
the first 19 cantos of the Inferno; and the latter, or the drawings, 
were inserted in the Paradiso from the 15th to the 33rd cantos. 
Of the copper-plates, the first three only were printed upon the 
paper of the text ; the remaining 16 were struck off upon separate 
paper, and afterwards attached to the impression. La Serna Santander 
has availed himself of the particular description of Laire, and tells us 
that the copy was sold for 1030 livres. See the Index Lihror. vol. ii. 
p. 41-4 ; Diet. Bibliogr. Choisi, vol. ii. p. 363 ; and Manuel du Libraire, 
vol, i, p. 321. Audiffredi saw this very copy at the bookseller's 
(Barbiellini's) at Rome ; and observes that, ' in the estimation of the 
skilful, the cuts were executed with sufficient elegance.' He seems, 
however, very shy of sending his reader to Laire 's particular descrip- 
tion of it ; although he acknowledges that he had heard it had been 
purchased by Laire for the Cardinal Lomenie de Brienne, Edit. Ital. 
p. 287 -S. 

Mention has been made, in the early part of this description, of a 
copy UPON VELLUM in the Magliabeehi Collection. This copy, which 
is particularly and animatedly described by Fossi, is the identical one 
which Landino is reported to have carried to the Pope ; [S. P. Q. F. 
obtulisse fertur Landinus] and although it appears, from such descrip- 
tion, not to have contained a single copper-plate, or vignette,* yet the 
splendor of the Illuminated Ornaments and of the Binding almost seems 
to malie compensation for such deficiency. The small initial letters 
(serving as a guide to the illuminator) are enlarged and emblazoned 
with gold and other colours ; and the first page of the Prolegomena, as 
well as the pages of the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso, have their 
margins filled and decorated with genealogical illustrations of the 
Florentine People and Republic — * stemmatibus Populi et Communis 
Florentiae ad fabre coloribus et auro pictis, aureisque characteribus 
decorantur.' ' But (says Fossi,) the first page of the Inferno exhibits 
a more brilliant and interesting decoration than either of the others ; 

* ' nulla arrea tabula vol. insignitur.' 

114 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1481. 

as wc behold in it a portrait of Dante, and, at the lower part of the 
bottom margin, the genealogy and portrait of Landino — executed on 
a small scale.' The same bibliogra])her dwells with admiration upon 
the binding — ' Tegmen voluininis albo et rubro rasili serico involutum 
laminis argenteis cum auratis ornamentis decoratur, quae stemraata 
S. P. Q F. repraesentant eo artificio quod Niello vulgo dicebatur, 
quodque in sere caelandi invento lampadem prajtulit.' Bibl. Magliab. 
vol. i. col. 594-7. 

The Magliabechi Library (according to the same authority) contains 
two other copies ; both upon paper. One of these has ] 9 copper-plates, 
with the first two vignettes printed upon the paper of the text : the other 
has only the first two vignettes. It follows therefore, from the preceding 
account, that only two copies are known, abroad, containing 19 copper- 
plates ; namely, the Lomenie and Magliabechi copies. These copies are 
now probably in other collections upon the Continent. AsFossi justly 
observes, they are ' of the greatest rarity.' It is however the peculiar 
distinction and boast of the present copy, that it has not only xix 
copper-plates — but it contains an original duplicate vignette 
for the vth canto. As this may be called an unique distinction, I shall 
gratify (he reader by a fac-simile of the vignette as it usually appears, 
with a delicately executed outline of the duplicate plate : and in order 
to render the description of so magnificent a volume still more perfect 
and interesting, I shall add a third plate, being a fac-simile of the 
vignette which precedes the vith canto.* 

This is the proper place to say a few words (by way of conclusion) 
respecting the artists by whom these cuts are supposed to have been 
executed. According to the authorities of Vasari and Baldinucci, (as 
quoted by Heineken, Laire, and others) Boticelli has the credit of 
making the designs, if not of engraving them : although the mere 
generally received opinion is, that the engravings were executed by 
Baldini. By a ms. note of Mr. Roger Wilbraham (from whose 

• Heineken lias sii])p'ied two excellent fac-similes of the first two cuts of the Infenio. 

Copies of this edition of Dante, in our own country, are comparatively common : but 
they have generally only two cuts in each. Such is the case with the copies in the collections 
of Sir M. M. Sykes, Bart, and Rlr. Roscoe. The Duke of Dtvonsliire has however a very 
fine copy with 4 cuts ; and Mr. G. Ilibbert, in puichasing Lord Spencer's former copy, from 
Messrs. I. and A. Arch, is the fortunate iiossessur of 15 copper-plates a id two well executed 
fac-similes. Mr. Grenville is yet more fortunate — iu owning himself possessor of a copy 
with XIX vignettes. Hie Bodleian library contains one of tlie finest copies I ever behekl ; 
having only three plates — but the third plate (which is a duplicate of the second) has th« 
extraordinary distinction of being printed upside downward upon the paper of the text ! 






J^orence ; UgO.] DANTE. 115 

choice Collection of Italian Books this fine copy was obtained) it should 
seem that, in the year 1770, when he was at Florence, ' the common 
tradition among men of learning and artists there, was, that these en- 
gravings were executed upon silver : and jjossibly (adds Mr. Wilbraham) 
the abandonment of the original plan, of supplying cuts for the whole 
work, may afford some kind of colour to such tradition — as it is imagined 
that plates, of so soft a metal as silver, would soon wear out/ It only 
remains to add that this copy, which is most tastefully and skilfully 
bound by C. Lewis, in blue morocco, has the additional value of a 
large plate,* executed before the date of the book, representing a group 
of demons torturing the damned, and one large demon, in the centre, 
devouring them. 

816. Dante. Convivio. Printed hy Francesco 
BonaccorsL Florence. 1490. Quarto. 

Prima. Edizione. De Bure, Mittarelli, and Laire, are equally brief 
in their descriptions of this voluiue (which I do not consider to be 
particularly rare) ; but Audiflfredi is copious and satisfactory : see the 
Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iii. p. 629 ; ^pp. Libror. Sec. XF. col, 135 ; 
Index Libror. vol. ii. p. 155; and Edit. Ital. p. 318. The latter pro- 
perly informs Ms both of the nature of the work and of the method 
of its typographical execution ; but Ginguene, as might have been 
expected, is yet more particular upon the former subject. * C'est un 
ouvrage de critique dans lequel il [Dante] comptait donner un com- 
mentaire sur quatorze de ses canzoni ; mais il n'executa ce dessein que 
sur trois seulement. II voulut faire entendre par le titre que ce serait 
une nourriture pour I'ignorance. 11 semble en effet y Staler comme k 
plaisir I'etendue de ses connoissances en philosophic platonique, en 
astronomic et dans les autres sciences que Ton cultivait de son temps. 
Les formes en sont toutes scholastiques ; la lecture en est fatigante ; 
mais on le lit avec un interet de curiosity philosophique. On aime k 
reconnaitre I'efFet des m^thodes adoptees, dans le tour qu'elles donnent 
aux esprits les plus distingues; or, cet ouvrage prouve trfes ^videm- 
ment que I'auteur avait une force d'esprit et des connoissances au- 
dessus de son sifecle, et que les mdthodes suivies alors dans les Etudes 

* This plate is of course a gratuitous ornament ; but it seems an enlargement of the one 
introduced in the Monte Sancto de Bio : see post. 

116 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Pmice , 1471. 

^taient tl^testables.' Ilistoire Litt^raire d'ltalie, vol. i. p. 4GS-9. We 
now return to the volume itself. 

On the recto of a i it commences thus : 



pho nel principio della prima philosophia : 
Tutti gli huomini naturalmete desiderano 
di sapere. Laragione di che piio essere sie/ 

Sec. &:c. 8cc. 

The poetry is uniformly printed in a large, and the commentary in a 
small, roman type ; and the first canzone commences on the reverse of 
b iiii. The signatures, from a to 1, run in eights ; but 1 has 10 leaves. 
On the recto of 1 10, we read the following colophon : 

Impresso in Firenze per ser Francesco bonaccorsi Nelan 
no mille quattrocento nouanta Adi. xx. di septembre. 

In the whole, 90 leaves — not numbered. This is a tolerably fair copy ; 
in old French morocco binding. 

8I7. Decor Puellarum, seu Honore De Le 
DoNZELiE. Printed by Jenson. (Venice. 1461: 
or rather 1471) Quarto. 

This is the celebrated impression, concerning which, for upwards of 
half a century, bibliographers were engaged in discussions respec ting 
the genuineness of its date, and the consequent introduction of print- 
ing into Italy, by Nicholas Jenson, four years before its acknow- 
ledged establishment in the Monastery of Soubiaco ; where the 
Institutes of Lactantius were printed in the year 1465 : see vol. i. 
p. 204. These discussions, or controversies, now cease to engage the 
attention of the well-informed ; since it appears quite decisive, that 
instead of the date of 1461, we should read that of 1471 • Paitoni and 
the Abbe Boni * were among the most zealous defenders of the 

• Paitoni's work bears tliis title : ' Venezia, la prima Citta, J'uori della Germania, dove si 
tsercitu I' Arte delta Stampa, Dissirtaz'wne, i c. In Itms. 1756, 8vo. The Abbe Boui's 
dissertation is introduced at the eud of his Biblioteca PoHalile, vol. ii. xli. 

Fenke; 1471. J DECOR PUELLARUM. 117 

genuineness of the printed date, as below ; and Dr. Adam Clarke has 
taken the pains of presenting the English reader with a version of 
Boni's essay-— which is not divested of interest : see his Bibliographical 
Miscellany; vol. ii. p. 17-47. The most forcible objection against the 
legitimacy of the date of 1461, is, the comnlete inactivity of Jenson's 
press from that period to the year 1470 — when, after this latter period, 
it was constantly employed till the death of its director.* 

Whoever reads the accounts of this impression by Morelli and Sardini, 
— to which add Denis's disquisition upon the legitimate claim of John 
Spira to the parentage of the Venetian press — need not have recourse 
to sounder I'easoning upon the fallacy of considering the present 
volume as the first production of printing in Italy : see the Bibl. Plnell. 
vol. iv, p. 43-4G : Storia Critica di Nicolao Jenson ; lib. iii. p. 10; 
Suffrngium pro Johanne de Spira, 4'C- f'^ienn. 1794, 8vo, Panzer has 
collected, in his usually concise manner, almost all the authorities upon 
the subject : Annal. Typog. vol. iii. p. 7^- It remains now therefore 
only to subjoin a minute and faithful account of this rare and inte- 
resting volume. The whole of the first page, on the recto of the first 
leaf, is as follows : 


* Boni is both whimsical and feeble in conibaring this argument. ' To this specious 

ebjection (sa^'s he) of" What has Jenson done fi'om 1461 to 1470?" — it may be replied 

" The Doge Malipiero, who was perhaps his Maecenas, having died suddenly in the year 
1462, and left him without protection, he went elsewhere to better his circumstances.' 
But if (as Boni afterwards observes,) ' he became rich by teaching the art to the Italians, 
previous to 1470,' — what was to prevent his continuing to exercise his art after the death 
of liis supposed patron ? What could have more effectually ' bettered his circumstances ?' — 
And why was he to ' go elsewhere ' to teach this art ? Whoever is in the least conversant 
with the history of ancient printing, will find, that there is generally, if not always, a regular 
succession of dates in books authenticated to have been executed at certain places : and it is 
chiefly the hiatus between the year 1468 and 1478 that renders the book, supposed to have 
been executed at Oxlbrd, at the former period, a spurious production : that is, not printed 
at the University according to its date. I should add, that Boni, incorrectly, calls the above 
volume an octavo. 

lis ITALIAN BOOKS. [Fenke; 1471. 


Mosso da li accesi k calidi 

desiderii uoslri : 8c dagli 

solicit! priegi che humel/ 

metitc freqiientate die cum le mie 

debeluce oiatioe de priegi lo altissomo 

8c eterno signer dio che ue concedi 

bona uentura nel uostio maritate : o 

deliberato per nostra maior satisfacioe 

k. perpetua consolatione de notarui 

el niodo de aquistar dal signor dio ic 

da gli homini del mondo bona k. opti/ 

ma uentura : lo qual ordene se uui 

8cc. Xcc. 8cc. 

A full page contains 22 lines. There are neither numerals, signatures, 
nor catchwords. The first book begins on the reverse of the third leaf; 
and the whole work is much divided and subdivided into chapters and 
sections. On the reverse of the 10th leaf, begins a set of pious ejacu- 
lations to the Virgin, w hich occupy 6 pages. On the recto of the 59th 
leaf, mention is made of the treatise called ' Fior de Virtu' duxd ' Specchio 
della Croce :' thus — ' Aurora fior de uirtu : quelle libreto che si chiama 
palma uirtutum : & quello che se chiama gloria de la done : spechio 
della croce & simel altri utili & uirtuosi libri.' Again, at folios 96 rev. 
and 97 recto, we find the following noticeof the work entitled * Lucius 
Christianorum,'* 'uui porete esser satisfacte per una operetta chiamata 
luctus christianorum zoe pianto de christiani : &c.' f May not these 
notices refer to the works alreadij printed (probably by the same printer) 
under their respective denominations ? and if so, how can the present 
volume be the first production of an Italian press ? On the recto of the 
118th and last leaf, is the following extraordinary colophon : 

* See ante ; and post. 

t The above passages are siihmitted to the reader in consequence of slips of paper having 
been inserted, in the respective places where they occur, by the Noble Owner of the copj 
under description. 

Peruscia ; 1 48 1 .] FREZZI. 1 1 9 


The reverse is blank. De Bure, who has rather a particular account 
of this rare book, observes that there were only three copies of it 
known in Paris. Those of the President de Cotte, and Randon de 
Boisset were incomplete ; but the copy in the Gaignat Collection was 
equally perfect and beautiful. Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. ii. p. ^04-10. The 
present is a sound and desirable copy, in red morocco binding. 

818. Frezzi. Il Quadriregio. Printed hy 
Stephen Arns. Peruscia. 1481. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. * Editiones omnes huius operis rarse, sed hsee 
rarissima :' says Fossi in the Bibl. Magliabech. vol. i. col. 709-10. Fossi 
refers to a very good account of this edition by Freytag, in his Analect, 
Liter ar. p. 350-1 ; but Freytag is chiefly indebted to a still better 
description of the earlier impressions of the Quadriregio in Niceron's 
M6n. des Homines Illustres, vol. vii. p. 143-153. This 7th volume of 
Niceron bears the date of 1729; and the author of it does not scruple 
to say that, ' of the first six. early editions of Frezzi* — not only 
Maittaire, but many Italian authors, who have written upon the 
History of Printing, are entirely ignorant.' There are, however, brief 
but correct notices of it in Maittaire's 1st vol. (edit. 1733) p. 423, 
in Marchand's Hist, de I'lmprimerie, p. 70, and in the more recent 
authorities of the Cat. de la Valliere, vol. ii. p. 510, and Index Libror. 
vol. ii. p. 46. Fossi (m^ supr.) is more satisfactory than either. In the 
Bibl. Bigot. 1706, p. 43, n°. 1799, there is a copy of it described to be 

• The dates of these six editions are 1481, 1494, 1501, 1508 (twice at Florence in 
this year) and 1511. Niceron himself was therefore ignorant of the impressions of 1488, 
and of a dateless one in the XVth century. See Panzer, vol. ii. p. 56 ; vol. i. p. 434. 
VOL. IV. Q, 

J 20 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Peruscia; \4S\. 

with ms. notes. We proceed to a particular and faithful description of 
this exceedingly rare volume. 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with the following titles, 
printed in red ; above a large rude wood-cut of the letter L, with a 
border, in the same style of embellishment, on the left : 

2fn cominria cl Ubro intitiilato ^Cuatriregio 
hel bccursu tjclla uita Ijaaiia 'Ot incfscr ft 
hmco fvattt tjellortiinc tc sfamto Domi 
nico <J3iimio niacsitro in ^acra t^cologia: €t 
ia ucsfouo tJrila cicta tt f oligni : DiuiDci^e 
in quuctro Itbri partiali jsfccontio quactro rcg 
m. 0d pri:no ^e tracta bel regno bt Mo €u 
pitJO. 0cl i^econtio tid regno tie J>atljan : 
|5el tertio tie regno ticlli bitii. |>ei quarto i 
ultio tiei regno tic tiea St^inenia i tic iiirtu. 

<CapitoIo primo 2!n cfso ^cticscriuc cl tcinpo 
1 el ioco quatio i tiouc aflautorc luocantc ap 
paruc tiio Cupitio (Ct £fua iocontia fonna U 
manifceta promectctioli ati ^uo noto ferirc et 
aeeeticrc in amorc ^uo una ucnujsfta nlplja tie 
tica Diana bicta f ilcna Ct cobucelo in ori 
cntc 1 Ccrua la proiuefiera. 

The impression * is uniformly printed in double columns, in a neat 
Gothic character, having 40 lines in a full page. The signatures, from 
a to n, run in sixes : n has eight leaves, including a blank one for the 
eighth. On the recto of n vij, we read the colophon thus : 

• Niceron observes that there are ' some very instructive passages in the pMjem of the 
Quadrirogio; and that the greater number of those who have spoken of it, place it next in 
estimation to Dante's works, to which it is hardly inferior.' A recent authority remarks that 
the DettamonJo of Fazio degV Uberti, and the above work, are in many respects servile imi- 
tations of their illustrious model — the Divina Commedia. The Quadriregio has met with a 
better fortune than the Dettamondo, and has consequently been more read. But notwith- 
standing it also possesses a tolerable share of poetical merit, its mystical subject, encumbered 
with all the heavy dulness of the fashionable theology, appears to render it less worthy of 
preservation. Quarterlij Retkw, vol. xi. No. XXI, p. 25. 

Without Date.] GLORIA MULIERUM. 121 

f iniecic d liBro Decto cl aDuatrtrcgio M tic 
rur^ii ticlla iiita fjuaim tic nicf^cr jfrcticrico 
m tiCiBcouo bcfla ticta tic ftiJigini ^Bacatro tt 
iiiiio I jefacra tljcoKogta fratrc ticHortiic tic i^a 
cto SDominiro con ?unia tiiitigcntta cnicntia 
to. <fit imprcfj5o a J^cruie^cia per flr^ac^stto 
<iStcffano ani^ef almano ml ^xtcclxxxk 

This copy, which is rather a large and desirable one, although in 
some places much stained, was obtained at the sale of Mr. Wogan 
Browne's library, in Ireland, at a price proportioned to its rarity. It 
has been since elegantly bound in green morocco. 

819. Gloria MuLiERUM. (Printed hy Jenson ; 
without Place or Date.^ Quarto. 

De Dure (Bibliogr. h^slruct. vol. ii. p. 208-9) has given a very faithful 
description of this rare volume, to which Morelli is well content to 
refer his reader : Bibl. Pine.ll. vol. iv. p. 4G-7. The former says it was 
unknown till his own time ; and conceives it to be a sort of continua- 
tion of the * Decor Puellarum.' It is printed in the same form with this 
latter work, but a full page contains only 21 lines. There are neither 
numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. The prefix, on the recto of the 
first leaf, is thus : 


The present copy,which was in the Crevenna Collection, unluckily wants 
the 7th leaf. To be perfect, there should be 15 leaves. On the reverse 
of the 15th, we read the ensuing colophon : 


122 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua; 1473. 


pater nostri e cu codolerue de quello 
haueti facto subito ue e remesso e per/ 
donato . FINIS. 

This is rather an indifferent copy; in highly ornamented red morocco 

820. GuERiNO II Meschino. Printed hy Bartho- 
lomeus de Valde%ochio. Padua. 1473. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. This is without doubt one of the rarest volumes 
in existence. No copy of it will be found in the Collections of Capponi, 
Floncel, Crofts, Ci'cvenna, or Pinelli ; and although a copy of it is 
noticed in the Catalogue of the Royal Library, at Paris {Belles- Lettres, 
pt. ii. p. 40), yet the Catalogues of De Boze, Haym, Guyon, Pompadour, 
Gaignat, and La Valliere, will be searched in vain for any mention of 
it. On the other hand, with the exception of Maitt^ire, none of 
the older bibliographers * had a knowledge of it. The account 
in the Annul. Typog. vol. i. p. 325, note 2, is not quite so particular 

* The Capponi Catalogue refers us to the Eloquenza Italiana, p. 82, of Fontanini ; but in 
the edition of that work by Apostolo Zeno, vol. ii. p. 160, 199 — (being chapters vi and vii, 
devoted to Romances) I find no mention made of the above Romance. Crescimbeni, 
Comment, vol. i. p. 331, thought that the impression of 1480 (the only one in the Capponi 
Collection) was the first. The compiler of the Capponi Catalogue takes his description of 
the edition of 1473 from Maittaire. Ginguene is particular and iiistractive. He admits 
that, of all the prototypes or supposed originals of the Divina Commedia, the 27 chapters 
(namely, from ch. 160 to ch. 188) of the 6th book of Guerino the Unhappy may have 
the best claims to that preteiision. These chapters relate to the Episode of St. Patrick under- 
going the purgatory of the well. • Entre ce plan et celui du Dante (says Ginguene) ii y a 
certainement de grands rapports.' But it should seem, from the same authority, that the 
Romance of Guerino was of French original; and that, in such origmal, ]3aute might have 
had a glimpse of his plan — while the stronger features of resemblance, which now .ippear 
between the two works, are the performance of an Italian translator, of the name of 
Audreus, who chose to fashion this epsiode after the popular model of Dante's poem. The 
learned Bottari is of this opinion, to which Ginguene seems to subscribe ; especially as, in a 
still more ancient French Romance (Marie de France) tlie tale of St. Patrick is introduced, 
but in a shorter and simpler manner. Histoire Litt^raire d'ltnlie, vol. ii. p. 24-6. Mr. Dunlop, 
ill his amusing and instructive Histoiy of the Origin of Romantic Fiction in Europe, la* 
given an interesting analysis of the Romance itself. 

Padua ;147S.] GUERINO IL MESCHINO. 123 

as could be wished ; yet it is evident that the author of that work had 
either seen, or was favoured with a particular description of, the 
volume itself. Clement, Mittarelli, Braun, Seemiller, and Fossi, have 
alike omitted to notice it. Later bibliographers have however a brief 
memorandum of it ; and one rejoices to see the meagre sum of 60 
livres, affixed as the value of it by Fournier, corrected by the more 
judicious valuation of Brunet ; who tells us it is ' at least worth from 
400 to 600 francs.' See the Diet. Portatif. 8^c. p. 244 ; 1809 : Manuel 
du Libraire, vol. i, p. 501. La Serna Santander is not so satisfactory 
as Brunet: Diet. Bibliogr. Choisi, vol. ii. p. 473. It remains therefore 
to give a faithful description of this precious volume. 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with a brief outline of the 
chief particulars of the Romance, under the following title : 

In questo libro Vulgarmente setratta al una ystoria 
breue de re Karlo Imperatoie poi del nascimeto k opere 
di quello magnifico caualieri nominato Guerino. k. 
prenominato Meschio per lo qualle se uade la narratioe 
de le prouintie qsi di tiitto lo modo e dela diuersita 
de li homini e gete. de loro diuersi costumi. de molti 
diuersi animali e del habitatione d'la Sibilla che se 
troiia uiua in le montagne in niezo Italia k. ancora del 
inferno secondo dechiara la ystoria seguitando lo ex- 
ordio. Capitulo primo 

This and every full page contains 34 lines. There are neither numerals, 
signatures, nor catchwords. The chapters are numbered in the roman 
numerals ; and have a prefix, more or less, in capital letters. The last 
chapter, on the reverse of the last leaf but one, has this prefix : 

MO HEBEEL Meschino molti figlioli k como mori An 
tenisca 8c El Meschino. Capitulo. . CC.LIII. 

On the recto of the 203 d* and last leaf, we read the ensuing colophon : 

* Brunet says there are only 202 leaves ; but I count 203. 

124 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Without Date, 

Lo infelice Guerino dito Meschino fiolo de dio Marte 

dc sangue Reale de Franzia Magnifico &: 

ualleroso Capitanioqui felicemente 

lo libro suo fornito e in Padua 

adi xxi. de Aurille 

. M . CCCC. 


Bartholomeus de Valdezochio ciuis Patauus 
Martinus de septem arboribus Prutenus. F. F. 

The reverse is blank. This edition is executed in the usually elegant 
manner of its printer ; and the present copy of it, although slightly 
cropt and washed,* may be considered a great acquisition to the library 
of its Noble Owner. It is superbly and appropriately bound, in dark 
red morocco, by Mr. C. Lewis. 

821. HiERONYMo (La Vita, &c. ) Without Name 
of Printer^ Place, or Date. Quarto. 

We have here another specimen of that delicate and peculiarly 
formed letter with which some of the earliest Classics have been 
described to be executed : see the editions of Florus, Horace, and 
LucAN, at pages 30, 65, and 131) of the 2d volume of this work. It 
should seem that all the books, executed with this type, are of extreme 
rarity ; as Panzer appears to have seen few or none of them, and as 
the present impression will not be found in the Index of his 5th 
volume, at page 244, or p. 451. We proceed therefore to a faithful 
description of the edition ; which, being in the Italian language, was 
probably not executed before the year 1471. The first 2 leaves are 
occupied by a table of the Visions and Mirac]ei^, &c. recorded in the 
biography of the Saint. The last title in the table, marked C . XX ., 
corresponds with the description given just before the end of the 
work ; and therefore we may conclude the table to be perfect. The 
title has this prefix : 

* That is, having the staias takea out by washing. 

Without Bate.] HIERONYMO. 125 





On the recto of the 3d leaf is the prefix to the Life, thus : 




The impression is without signatures, numerals, or catchwords ; and a 
full page contains 28 lines. After the life and death of the Saint, there 
is a brief narrative of the Miracles performed by him. The commence- 
ment of the latter will be found on the reverse of the 104th leaf, ex- 
clusively of the 2 leaves of the table just mentioned. It has this prefix : 

Incominciano certi miracoli de sancto Hieronymo 
doctore excelentissimo de la chiesia de dio : quali 
fuorono facti in la cita de troia dopo la morte de 
sancto Hieronjmo. 

These Miracles occupy the 4 following leaves. I shall extract the last 
by way of a specimen : 

Miracolo duno caualiero. 
Nche fo un caualier fracesco il qle hauea un suo 
cauallo molto bello e de grade ualuta al qle ca 
uallo preso un di molto forte i dolori iacea i terra e 
no si potea adiutare ne miitare laql cosa il caualier 
uededo 8c essedo despato de la uita del cauallo p 
ultimo remedio si uoto a sacto Hieronjmo che se 
redesse sanita al cauallo offerirebbe uno fiorno do 
ro alpoa de la chiesia sua e facto il uoto : il cauallo 
si leuo tutto sanato Sc il caualier adipi il suo uoto. 


126 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1493. 

Four leaves and a half are then devoted to the testimonies of certain 
fathers in commendation of St. Jerom. On the reverse of the 5th of 
the*e leaves are some Italian verses, thus entitled :* 

Oratione deuotissia dedicata a sacto Hieronymo 

Those verses conclude on the recto of the ensuing leaf ; when we read 
as follows : 

. FINIS . 

Qui si contien del glorioso e degno 
Hieronymo : lauita el bel finire 
Chel fece a nostro exempio per salire 
Con uerde palraa nel beato regno. 

The reverse is blank. In the whole, inclusively of the 2 leaves of 
table, there are 116 leaves. The present may be called a sound and 
desirable copy : in red morocco binding. 

822. losEPHo. Della Historia Della Guerra 
Hebbono I GuDEi CON I RoMANi. Printed 
hy Bartholomeus. P. adi VI. di Luglio. Flo- 
rence. 1493. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. This is not only the first impression of an Italian 
version of J osephus, but it appears to be the only edition, in the Italian 
language, published during the XVth century. De Bure tells us that 
♦ several bibliographers have mentioned it, but have not entered into any 
details upon the subject,' De Bure himself being equally barren with 
his predecessors, it is probable the volume never came under his notice. 

• They begin thus : 

heronymo doctor graue & diserto 
lume di nostra chiesia : & gran splendore 
de la fade clirisliana per tuo merto : 
Tu sei presente aquel padre & signore 
che per bumana giente pati morte : 
et per la faccia uedi il creatore 
Gran parte tu sei quel che luacchonforte: 
6cc. 6cc. &c. 

re7iice;l47\.] LUCTUS CHRISTIANORUM. 127 

Bihliogr. Instruct, vol. v. p. 467- Laire refers to De Bure; adding 
little to his account of it. Index Libror. vol. ii, p. 1 86. It shall be our 
object to supply these deficiencies. 

The recto of the first leaf is blank : the reverse of it contains an 
epistle in commendation of history in general, and of that of Josephus 
in particular. The recto of the 2d leaf, sign, a i, has the following 
pi'efix : 




The first book commences on the recto of a 3. The signatures, a to z, 
&, 0, and IjP, run in eights, with the exception of ^ ; which has only 6 
leaves. On the recto of the 6th of this latter signature, we read the 
following colophon : > 

il Impresso in Firenze per Bartholomeo. P. adi. yi. di Luglio 

This edition is elegantly printed ; but the present copy of it is unluckily 
a very indifferent one. In vellum binding. 

823. LucTUS Christianorum. Printed hy Jenson. 
(^Venice?) 1471. Quarto. 

This is the identical copy which is described (in rather too flattering 
a manner) in the Crevenna Catalogue, vol. i. p. 184. It is defective in 
the 7th leaf* On the recto of the Ist leaf we read this prefix : 


* Tlie same defect is found in the Crevenna copy of the Gloria Mulierum ; gee p. 
121 ante. 

VOL. IV. » 

128 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1477. 

There are 14 lines below ; but a full page contains 22 lines. When per- 
fect, the copy should contain 64 leaves ; without numerals, signatures, 
or catchwords. The recto of the 40th leaf is blank. On the reverse 
of the last leaf is the colophon, thus : 


nonas apriles a praeclaiissinio libro?; 
exculptoie Nicolao gallico impressa 
est passio chiisti deuotissima. 
. FINIS . 

Bibliographers notice the exact similarity of the mode of printing 
between the Luctus Christlanorum, the Decor Puellarum, and the Gloria 
Muiierum ; and Sardini, who places this volume as the first in the year 
1471, arranges the Decor Puellarum as the 5th in the same period. 
Indeed, there seems hardly any reasonable doubt about their having 
been all consecutively printed within the last mentioned year. This 
copy is in red morocco binding, elaborately ornamented. 

824. Monte Sancto di Dio. Pri7ifed hy Nicolo 
di Lorenzo. Florence. 1477- Quarto. 

There is a particular account of this interesting and very uncommon 
work in Laire's Catalogue of the early printed books of Cardinal 
Lomenie de Brienne ; Index Libror, SfC. vol. i. p. 409-416. It was 
unknown to Maittaire, Haym, Mazzuchelli, the author of the Bih- 
liographie Instructive, and Heinecken ; and has escaped the researches of 
La Serna Santander. Denis briefly notices it from the Duke de la 
Valllere's Catalogue; in which latter publication, vol. i. p, 255, and par- 
ticularly in the ' Additions,' p. 30, it is described somewhat minutely. 
That copy, however, was not so complete as was the one in the 
Casanatensian library at Rome ; which furnished the Ahh6 St. Leger 
with the materials of his description of it. This minute description, 
with some curious remarks upon the first books ornimented with 
engravings, will be found in the Abbe's three Lettres addresse'es a M. le 
Baron 11-** (Hass) : 17S3, Svo. a brochuie, which has long escaped my 
researches ; and to which Laire, De Murr, and Fossi, seem to refer 

Florence; 1477-] MONTE SANCTO. 129 

with satisfaction. It must also be observed that the latter, in his Bibl. 
Magliabech. vol. i. col. 317-318, has well described this work; calling 
it * Editio rarioi'ibus bibliothecarum cimeliis adnuraeranda.' The 
Abbe Rive, in a note in his Chasse aux Bibliographes, p. 365, &c. has 
given some desultory account of it, in his tediously-systematic abuse 
of De Bure, He tells us that the Duke de la Valliere obtained it 
from the library of M. Jackson of Leghorn, who gave only 31 livres 
10 sous, for it ; and that it was sold at the Valliere sale for 610 livres : the 
original velvet binding having been taken off for a luorocco one. The 
author of the work itself, was Antonio da Siena, surnamed Bettini, 

This work is divided into three parts. The first part treats of The 
Mount of Chkist, and has 115 chapters: the second, of The Glory 
OP Paradise, and has 15 chapters: the third, of The Punishments 
OF Hell, and contains 7 chapters. An engraving precedes each of 
these parts. On the recto of the first leaf, we read thus : 

[S]Ommario et brieue dimostratione diquanto si con- 
tiene inquesto libro detto monte sancte didio : Compilato 
et composto daldeuoto docto seruo di yhesu Cristo, fiate 
Antonio dasiena pouero yhesuato Alpresente Reuerendis- 
simo ueschouo difulgino Nel quale si dichiara qualsia il 
fine pfecto 8c sommo delfidel cristiano ; 8cc. 

At the bottom of the following page, or reverse of the same leaf, 

: AMEN : 

Then a table of three leaves : on the recto of the third, at bottom — 


On the reverse of this third leaf, which is the fourth fi'om the 
beginning, is a large copper-plate, from a part of which the subjoined 
fac-simile is taken. At top, there is a fine whole length figure of our 
Saviour, three inches high, with elevated arms and hands : the drapery 
of this figure is extremely tasteful :* a glory surrounds his head, and 

* Mr. Ottley has made a fac-simile of it in his valuable work upon The History (f 

130 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1177. 

a number of flaming cherubim and seraphim encircle him. Beneath, 
are the figures engraved on the annexed plate. The ladder extends 
to the feet of our Saviour: a mountain, with Christ cnicified, is in the 
back ground. A label extends from the arm of the man, with a Latin 
inscription, ' Levavi ocvlos meos I motes vnde veniat avxiliam 
MicHi AvxiLivM MEVM A DOMINO.' Beneath is the fiend, as in the 
plate. The ladder is chained to the mountainous rock in the back 
ground. Many more inscriptions are to be seen upon the ladder — of 
which the accompanying fuc-simile, taken by myself, is presunaed to 
convey a tolerably just notion. 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf: 

' Inconmincia ellibro intitulato monte sancto didio Com- 
posto damesser Antonio da Siena Reiierendissimo ueschouo 
difuligno della congregatione de poueri lesuati. Capi- 
tulo. Piimo.' 

On the next leaf but one ensuing, or on the recto of the third from the 
copper-plate, is sign, a. i., which runs to eight; b, has the same 
number ; but is only marked b. i , b. ii. The signatures continue in 
eights, (except i, with nine*) but are irregularly printed, as far as 
r. iiii. : on the recto of which is the colophon : 

fFinito elmotesco didio prae Nicolo dilorezo dellamagna 

The reverse is blank. The fuller pages contain from 33 to 36 lines. 
We now proceed to describe the remaining copper-plates. On the 
reverse of sign. n. viii. is another fine engraving of a whole length of 
our Saviour, as in the second annexed plate ; surrounded, in the ori- 
ginal, by cherubim and seraphim. On the recto of p. vij. is a copper- 
plate of a tri-mouthed fiend eating men and women ; of which a 
fac-simile is given in the Cat. de la Falliere, vol. i. p. 255. This book 
is printed in a full size Roman t} pe, similar to the larger type of 
the Dante of 1481, and to that of the Berlinghieri : vide pp. 64, 108. 
There are neither numerals or catchwords. Laire advises the reader 

* Signature 1 v seems to have been designed for a copper-plate, as the text is curtailed 
of its usual length. 

To fita- p. ISO.U'^ls 

^jr-^iudld orpartofthriv-.^lplnlein the MOJ^'^E iZ'l^TT€> 31 BlO. l-i-77 

To face fo. 730. (^"2./ 

Far-.,n„l. ^ „ jjorhon of At Jccond. Copper-jiUiU in the MOJ^'TE &i.VCTO M BlO . 74.77. 


renice; 1470.] PETRARCH. 131 

not to trust to the signatures, which are ' faithlessly marked ;' but he 
says, correctly, that the vohime contains 131 leaves. 

It is observed by Laire, that these copper-plates are executed on 
separate leaves, and not incorporated with the text ; on the contrary, 
each of them has text on the reverse of the impression. They are 
undoubtedly very great curiosities ; and exhibit the earliest spe- 
JOINED, in a printed book. Whether they were executed by Baldini, 
or Boticelli, must perhaps remain a disputed point. They are 
precisely in the manner of those of the Dante of 1481 ; of which 
fac-similes have been given at page 114 ante. The present is a sound 
and perfect copy ; beautifully bound by Roger Payne, in olive-colour 
moiocco, and probably, for tasteful decoration, is exceeded by no 
effort of that distinguished artist. 

826. Petrarch A. Sonetti e Trionfi. Prhiied 
hy Vmdelin de Spira. Venice. 1470. 

Prima Edizione. This first edition of the Sonnets and Triumphs 
of Petrarch was so scarce in the time of De Bure, that it is said, in the 
Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iii. n°. 3341, that not a single copy of it could 
be found in Paris. Accordingly De Bure, instead of giving a descrip- 
tion of the present volume, has entered into a comparison of the Padua 
edition of 1472, with an ancient one of which he had an imperfect copy, 
and which he conceived, eri'oneously, to have been this first impression 
by Vindelin de Spira. He has also given three several ways of printing 
the colophon to this edition ; none of which is accurate. The ancient 
edition, as will also be presently proved, turns out to be the one printed 
by Leonard Achates, in 1474. We may now proceed to a description 
of this exceedingly precious volume : among the most beautiful, as well 
as the rarest, of those executed by Vindelin de Spira. 

On the recto of the first leaf the table begins, thus : 

Pie decoUi oue labella uesta 
Amor piangeua 8c io chonlui taluolta 
A polio sancor uiue el bel disio 
A mor chonsue proraesse lusingando 

132 IT.\LIAN BOOKS. [Fenice ; 1470. 

A i bella liberta come tu inai 

A ueuturoso piu chaltro terreno 

A mor fortuiia k. lamie niente schiua 

There are 30 lines to this page ; and the table occupies the first 
seven leaves, or fourteen pages. On the recto of tlie ensuing, and 
8th leaf, tlie first Sonnet begins thus : 


mc sparse ilsuono 

Diquei sospiri ondio niidriual core 

Insulmio primo giouenile errore 

quandera in parte altro huom da quel chi sono 

del uario slile iucliio piango 8c ragiono 

fra le uane speranze el uan dolore 

cue sia chi per proua intenda amore 

spero trouar pieta non che perdono 
Ma ben ueggio hor si come alpopol tutto 

fauola fui gran tempo onde souente 

dime medesmo meco miuergogno 

k. delmio uaneggiar uergogna el fructo 

el pentersi el conoscer chiaramente 

che quanto piace almondo e breue sogno 

This page has 29 lines. The Sonnets occupy 13G leaves. On tlie 
recto of the following, or 137th leaf, the Triumphs begin thus : 


imiei sospiri 

This page contains 25 lines ; a full page 30. The Triumphs extend 
to 37 leaves. In the whole, 179 leaves : without numerals, signatures, 
or catchwords. On the recto of the last leaf we read the following 
colophon : 


Qu^ fuerat multis quodam confusa tenebris 
Petrarcp laurp raetra sacrata sup 

Fenice; 1470.] PETRARCH. 133 

Christophori et feruens pariter cjllenia cura 

Transcripsit nitido lucidiora die. 
Vtq; superueniens nequeat corrumpere tepus 

En Vindelinus pnea plura dedit. 

This colophon is printed with tolerable accuracy in Laire's Index 
Libror. vol. i. p, 226-7; and in the Diet. Bibliogr. Choisi. vol. iii. p. 
245. A ' marvellously beautiful ' copy of it was in the Pinelli collec- 
tion, and was sold for 27/. 6s. : see Bibl. Pinell. vol. iv. p. 343, n° 2350. 
In the Crevenna copy about a dozen leaves required to be inlaid; 
otherwise it was a good one : Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iii. n°. 4676. The Duke 
de la Valliere's copy was sold for 1330 livres : Cat. de la ValUere, vol. ii. 
n**. 3579 : and that of Cardinal de Lomenie's, in Laire's Index, for 
664 livres. A copy was in Consul Smith's library : see the Bibl. Smith, 
p. cccLxir. The reader may consult the brief notice of Maittaire, 
vol. i. p. 296 (who erroneously thought there was an anterior edition 
by Valdarfer) and Haym, vol. ii. p. 61 ; which latter is copied from the 
edition of 1741, where the sum of 80 livres is affixed as the value of 
this impression. Haym notices a beautiful copy of it in the library of 
Signor Gagliardi of Brescia ; and seems to infer, from Tomasini, that 
there was a copy of it upon vellum in the library of St. Mark. This is 
not improbable ; as it is justly observed by him ' that it was the custom 
of the early printers to strike oflF a few copies of their books upon 
vellum ; by way of making them rarities.' The usual copy, ' adorned 
with a miniature at the beginning,' was in the Capponi Collection ; 
Cat. Capponi, p. 294 ; and an imperfect one, wanting only the table, 
was purchased by Mr. Roscoe, at the sale of the Marly Library, for 50 
guineas. The present copy, in red morocco binding, is a most desirable 
©ne, from the beauty and soundness of its condition. 

13 1 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua; 1472. 

827. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Trionfi. Printed 
hi/ Mari'mus de Septem Arhorihus, Padua. 14J2. 

Seconda Edizione : of extreme rarity and value. On the recto of 
the first leaf begins tlie table, thus : 

A piedi colli dela bella uesta a Ca iii. 

A qualuncha animal chalberga iterra yI. 

A mor piangeua 8c io co lui tal uolta x. 

A polio se ancor uiue el bel desio xv. 

A mor cum sue proraese lusengando xxxv. 

A i bella liberta come tu mai xli. 

A uenturoso piu chaltro terrene xlv. 

The table ends on the recto of the eighth leaf: * Explicit Tabvla.' 
On the reverse of the same leaf, we have an interesting memorandum 
of Petrarch, concerning Laura's life, &c. ; which, as it does not occur in 
the first edition, shall find a place in the note below.* 

On the recto of the following, and 9th leaf, the first sonnet is printed 
wholly in capital letters : thirty lines. The Sonnets occupy 138 leaves. 
On the recto of the 138th : 

t ' [L]avha propriis Virtutibus illustris & nieis logu celebrata carminibus primum 
oculis meis apparuit sub primum adolescetia: mese tempus Anno Domini .M,CCC.XX^^[I. 
die vi. aprilis in eclesia sactse clarae auinioni hora matutina. & in eade ciuitale code mese 
aprilis. code die sexto, eade hora. matutina Anno aut domi JM.CCC.XL\r[I. ab hac luce lux 
ilia subtracta. cu ego forte Verone essem heu fati mei nescius. Rumor aut ifelix per litteras 
Ludouici mei me repit anno eodemense maio die xviiii, mane. Corpus illud castissimum ac 
pulcherrimura in locum fratrum minorum repositum ipso die mortis aduesperam Anima quide 
eius ut de aftricano ait Senecca i caelum unde erat rediisse mihi persuadeo. H?ec iiute ad 
acerba rei memoria amara quadam dulcedine scribere uisu e. Hoc potissimu loco, qui sa;pe 
sub oculis meis rediit. ut cogitem nihil esse debere. quod amplius mihi placeat i hac uita, & 
eifracto maiori laqueo tempus esse de babilone fugiendi Crebra horum inspectione ac fugacis- 
simae aetatis extimatione cormnouear. quod prauia dei gratia : facile erit proi'teriti temporis 
curas supeniacuas : spes inanes. & inexpectatos exitus acriter ac uiriliter cogitanti.' 

We learn from the Venetian edition, supposed to have' been printed by Jensen, in 1473, 
that this memorandum of Petrarch was written by him in a MS. volume of Virgil in th« 
Pope's library : vide post. 

Padua; 1472.] PETRARCH. 155 







On the recto of the following leaf, begin the Triumphs : the first 
page being wholly in capital letters, and containing 26 lines, The 
Triumphs conclude on the reverse of the 37th folio, from the beginning, 
inclusively, thus : 


A full page has 30 lines. Then follows a life of Petrarch, written in 
Italian, in seven pages, ending thus : 

quando el Petrarcha mori era il bochazio 

diminor eta de lui de an 

ni. ix. Ic cosi per sue 

cessione andoro 

no lumuse 






On the reverse are two Italian sonnets in praise of the poet's memory. 
The colophon occupies the recto of the following leaf, thus — 

VOL. IV. g 

136 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Padua; 1472. 

Francisci petrarca; laurcati poetaj 
necnon secretarii apostolici 
benemeriti. Rerum 
uulgariu fragme/ 
ta ex originali 
libro extracta 
In urbe pa 
tauina li 
ber abso 
lutus est 
BAR. de Valde. patauus. F F. 
Martinus de septem arboribus Prutenus. 

The preceding description of this rare and beautiful volume will 
probably be found more accurate and satisfactory than those of De 
Bure and La Serna Santander ; see the Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iii. n°. 
3342 ; and Diet. Bibliogr. Choisi, vol. iii. n°. 1066. De Bure is prolix, 
without being particular. He notices copies in the collections of 
Gaignat, Lauraguais, and Paris de Meyzieu. The copies of La Valliere 
and of the Cardinal de Lomenie were not in desirable condition. The 
Crevenna copy was perfect, with a transposition of the last five leaves. 
See Cat. de la Valliere, vol. ii. n°. 3580 ; Index Libror. vol. i. p. 283 ; and 
Bihl. Crevenn. vol. iii. n°. 4677- It may be worth noticing that Panzer, 
vol. ii. p. 363, has made an hasty reference to Maittaire, vol, i. p. 416, 
instead of to p. 316 — the page here referred to being erroneously 
numbered 416. This impression was not in the Pinelli collection ; but 
a copy of it will be found in the Catalogue of Consul Smith's BookSf 
p. cccLxii : which copy is thus noticed by the editor of the Bibl. Ital. 

* Sic. 

Fenice ; U7S.] PETRARCH. 137 

p. 98, edit. 1741 : ' Vn esemplare di questa Edizione ritrovasi nell' 
inestimabile raccolta d'ottimi, antichissimi, e nobilissimi libri stampati, 
e manoscritti, fatta dal diligentissimo Signer Giuseppe Smith, Inglese 
abitante in Venezia.' Speaking of the volume itself, he adds — ' E in 
foglietto bis lungo, di carattere molto bello.' There are neither numerals, 
signatures, nor catchwords. In the whole, 196 leaves. The present is a 
fine copy, in red morocco binding. 

828. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Teionfi. (Supposed 
to have been jmnted hy Jcnson.^ f'enice, 1473. 

Bibliographers are agreed in assigning this edition to the press of 
Nicolas Jenson. Its elegance undoubtedly justifies this conclusion. 
Such was the estimation in which it was formerly held, that De Bure 
tells us, till the two preceding editions were discovered, the present 
was considered the first impression ' by w-ell informed men :' yet these 
' gens fort instruits' appear to have never consulted Haym, where it 
stands as the Jiflh edition in succession. It should seem, that the 
copy of it, in the Hoym Collection, there called the first, had misled 
the bibliographers of that time.* 

A table of 7 leaves, as in the former editions, precedes the text. A 
part of the fourt h Canzone is here selected : 

n El dolce tepo de la prima etade 

Che iiascer uide 8c ancor quasi i herba 
La fera uoglia che p mio mal crebbe 
Perche catando il duol si disacerba 
Cantero comio uissi in libertade 
Metre amor nel mio albergo asdegno sebbe 
Poi seguiro si come alui nencrebbe 
Troppo altamente . e che di cio mauene 

* Count Hoym's copy had been, formerly, Du Fay's ; and the note in the Bill. Hoym, 
no. 2463, is an exact tianscript of what appears in the Bibl. Fayana, no. 2060. This note 
informs us that Du Fay had, in liis own copy, written ' a curious and copious ' account of the 
differences of the edition from those whidi followed. This copy was sold for 240 livres, at the 
dispersion of Du Fay's iibraiy, 1725 ; but produced only 174 at the sale of Count Hoym's 

138 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Venice-, 1473. 

Di cio son facto a molta gente exempio 

Ben chel mio duro scempio. 

Sia scripto altroe . si clie mille penne 

Ne son gia stanche. k. quasi in ogni ualle 

Rlbombi il suon de miei graui sospiri {fol. xiii. rev.) 

At the end of the Sonnets, on the reverse of folio 144 — including 
the table — we read as follows : 





.-. FINIS . . 

At the end of the Triumphs, on fol, 37, reverse, from the beginning of 
them : 










.-. FINIS .-. 

Then follow the Memorabilia, and the Life of Petrarch : (the latter in 
the Italian language) comprehending 5 leaves * On the reverse of the 


However particular may be the accounts of De Bure, and of the La 

• On the reverse of the first of these 5 leaves, there is a fragment of a letter from 

Basil; 1473.] PETRARCH. 139 

Valliere, Crevenna, and Pinelli * Catalogues, it is presumed that the 
preceding is tlie most copious and careful description of this precious 
edition. Consult, however, the Manuel du Libraire, vol. ii. p. 268. 
Both La Serna Santander and Brunet mention the copy, printed upon 
VELLUM, which was in the library of Cardinal de Lomenie de Brienne, 
and which was sold for 1800 livres. Index Libror. vol. i. p. 309-10. 
Consul Smith had the usual paper copy : see Bibl. Smith, p. ccclxii. 
Maittaire and Haym are very brief; and Panzer refers only to the 
foregoing authorities. To be perfect, the volume should contain 186 
leaves. The present may be considered a desirable copy; in blue 
morocco binding. 

828. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Trionfi. Printed 
by Leonard Achates. JBusiL 1474. Folio. 

This edition is probably rarer than either of the preceding : at least, 
it is certain that no bibliographer has as yet given a complete account 
of it. Maittaire slightly notices it at p. 340, vol. i. ; referring to p. 

Petrarch to Jacobus ' de Coluna Lomboriensem epum,' — concluding with these elegant 
verses upon his favourite retreat of A'auduse : 

V alle locus clausa toto milii nullus in orbe 
Gratior : aut studiis aptior era meis. 

V alle puer clausa fuera : iuuenemq; reuersum 
Fouit in aprico vallis amoena sinu. 

V alle uir in clausa meliores dulcitcr annos 
Exegi : & uitas Candida fila meae. 

V alle senex clausa suppreemum ducere tempus 
Et clausa cupio te duce ualle ruori. 

* The copy in the Pinelli Collection (Bibl. Pinell. vol. iv. p. 344.) is now in the library 
of Mr. S. W. Singer. It is remarkable for containing an ancient (perhaps the original) MS. 
of the celebrated commentary of Antonio Da Tempo ; which Morelli, unaccountably, 
describes as ' the copious annotations of an anonymous author :' whereas the ' Proemio di 
M. Antonio da Tempo' is written in a very legible liand, on a blank leaf, immediately 
following the table ; and a further express testimony, in the same hand, unmediately 
ensues. Zeno says that the first edition of this commentary appeared in 1477, at ^^enice; 
Lettere di Apostolo Zeno, vol, 3. p. 318. But this copy of the impression of 1473, now in 
Mr. Singer's possession, exhibits a decided proof that the text was tirke set up, or printed, 
of at least a poilion of the volume : since Mr. Singer has found the following variations in 
4 lines only : 

Canzone iv. fol. 6. rev. 
Earl Spencer's copy. Mn. Singer's copy. 

line 1 tepo Tempo 

2 i in 

3 p per 

4 catando tantando 

140 / ITALIAN BOOKS. [Basilj 1473. 

98 of his anterior volume ; where, however, no mention of it is made. 
DeBure has contented himself with citing Maittaire's brief description 
of the colophon, but declares his total ignorance of the book itself. It 
was unknown to Fontanini, Haym, and Panzer ; nor will a copy of it 
be found in any of the catalogues before referred to. 

De Bure had, in fact, obtained possession of an imperfect copy of it ; 
his description of which, comparing it with the Padua edition of 1472, 
exactly cori-esponds with the book itself ; as the present account will 
partly shew : 

The volume commences with the table ; which, as usual, occupies 
seven leaves : on the reverse of the seventh, is the memorandum 
relating to Laura. On the recto of the 8th leaf commences the first 
sonnet ; printed wholly in capitals, with the exception of the two last 
words in the tenth line — ' chi sono : ' which are in small Roman letters. 
On the reverse of the 12Sth leaf of the Sonnets, (exclusively of the 
table) we have 







Tlien the first Triumph, wholly in capitals. On the reverse of the 
163d leaf, from the beginning of the Sonnets : 





Next, the life of Petrarch in Italian : ' Vite . F. P.' at the end. Two 
laudatory sonnet?, as before, (see p. 135) follow : the whole of this 
supplementary part is in 4 leaves. On the reverse of the 4th : 

IFithout Date.] PETRARCH. Hi 

Francisci Petrarche lauieati poete 

necnon secretarii apostolici 

benemeriti. Rerum 

uulgariu fragmeta 

ex originali 

libro ex 


Vrbs Basilea mihi nome e Leoaidus achates : 

Anno christi humanati. M.cccc.lxxiiii. 

Venet. Duce. Nicol. Marcel. 

A full page of the Triumphs contauis 32 lines. La Serna Santauder 
has noticed this edition as if it contained only the Triumphs : see his 
Diet. Bibliogr.'Choisi. vol, iii. p. 250. It has neither numerals, signatures, 
nor catchwords ; and is of moderate typographical beauty. The present 
is a sound copy, in green morocco binding. 

829. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Trionfi. fVithout 
Name of Printer, Place, or Date. Folio. 

As far as I can discover, this barbarously printed edition has escaped 
the notice of bibliographers. The type is partly gothic and partly 
roman : at least the g's are always of the former character. I have 
designated it a folio, from the perpendicularity of the water mark ; but 
the copy under description (7t inches in height, by 5-|- in width) is of 
the dimensions of a small quarto. This copy is without a table, but 
it presents us with the commencement of the first sonnet thus : 



Insul mio primo giouenile errore 
Quado era i pte altro huo da ql chi sono 
Del uario stile ichio piango et ragiono 
Sec. Sec. Sec. 

142 ITALIAN BOOK§. [TVithont Date. 

There are 23 lines below : a full page contains 30 lines. The impres- 
sion is entirely destitute of catchwords, signatures, and numerals. The 
Sonnets terminate on the reverse of fol. 137, thus : 





. FINIS : 

The Triumphs commence thus : * 


Che fu principio a si lunghi martiri 
Scaldaua il sol gia lun et laltro corno 
kc. 8cc. Xcc. 

On the reverse of the second following leaf, 


Each series of Triumphs is designated in a similar manner. At the 
end of the Triumphs, on fol. 172, recto : 


Then the memorandum (as at p. 134 ante) respecting Petrarch's first 
sight of Laura, and the verses as at p. 139 ante. A brief biography 
of the poet, in 7 pages, and written in the Italian language, terminates 
the impression. At the bottom of the reverse of the last leaf : 


In the whole, 176 leaves. This copy affords a remarkable specimen 
both of the skill and elegance of Roger Payne's binding. Fi'ora the ms. 

Venice; 1476.] POGGIO. 143 

memorandum of Roger, it should seem that when the volume was put 
into his hands, it was in a most crazy and shattered state ; but he has 
almost restored it to its pristine condition and strength. The gilt 
ornaments are in the very purest style of that extraordinary artist. In 
oHve-colour moi'occo binding. 

830. Petrarcha. Sonetti e Canzone. Col. 
CoMMENTo Di Francesco Filelfo. Pi'inted 
hy Leonardus Wild de Hatishona, Venice. 1481. 

Although this impression seems to have escaped Panzer, it is not 
entitled to particular notice — as there were previous editions of the 
same commentary. The type is a close Gothic ; and a full page dis- 
plays an abundant portion of both text and commentary. The signatures 
run to K ; and, with the exceptions of I and K, are in eights : the latter 
have each 6 leaves. On the recto of K vj, we read the imprint thus : 

f mifisfe il commento tirit df>onetti et Cancone tiei 3^ettar> 
cja: composfto jret el pre^tatif^sfimo oratoce *i pocta 
^tUtt 5f rancejsfco ^Ijilripfjo 3li«jrtefi9fo ncfla inclpta Citta 
ta mctteria : per ilconartiu luilti be i^ti.s^fiona nefli aimi 

The register is below. A desirable copy ; ia russia binding. 

831. PoGGio. IsTORiA Fiorentina. Tvintedhy 
lacomo de Rossi (^lacobeus Huheus?) Venice. 
1476. Folio. 

This seems to be the earliest Italian version of the original Latin 
History of Florence by the celebrated Poggio. The translator was 
the son of Poggio. Panzer refers to various authorities, but a brief 
yet a circumstantial description of this impression seems only requisite. 
Consult the ^«naL Typog. vol! iii. p. 117, n°. 24'2. The type and 
press work bespeak the master-hand of the printer : — few offices 
having put forth more elegant productions than those which contain 


Ill ITALIAN BOOKS. [Florence; 1485. 

the name o? Jacobus Ruheus. The recto of the first leaf, sign. a. i, 
presents us with the title of the proheme, in 5 lines of capital letters. 
The proheme occupies 2 leaves. On the recto of a. iii, we read the 
prefix to the text of the History, thus : 


There are 37 lines beneath, but a full page contains 41 lines. The 
signatures, a to n, (with the exception of i and k, in sixes) are in 
tens ; but n has only 8 leaves, a blank leaf forming the 8th. The 
ensuing colopiion is on the recto of n vij — beneath 13 lines of text : 

Finito loctauo 8c ultimo libro della historia fiorentina 

di Messer Poggio tradocta di lingua latina in lingua 

toscana da lacopo suo figliuolo irapresso Auinegia 

per Ihuomo di optimo ingegnio Maestro lacopo de rossi 

di natione gallo neli anni di Cristo M.CCCCLXXVI 

a octo di marzo Rcgniante loinclito Principe Messer 

Andrea uendmmino. 

La us Deo 

This is a sound copy in olfl (foreign) red morocco binding. An 
Italian version of Aretin's Florentine History, by the same printer, is 
bound with it : see p. G3 ante. 

832. Poggio (Jacopo). Commento sopra El 
Triompho DELLA Fama DI Petrarcha. Printed 
hy Bonacco7'sL Florence. 1485. Quarto. 

Prima Edizione. There is, at first sight, a great resemblance 
between the types of this volume and those of Miscomino, who printed 
at the same place. Indeed, as there is scarcely any perceptible differ- 
ence between the types of these printeio, it is probable that they used 
the same fount of letter. On the recto of the first leaf, a. ii, is the 
following prefix : 

re?iice; 1499.] POLIPHILO. 145 






A full page has 25 lines. The signatures, fi'om a to q, run in eights ; 
q has only 5 leaves, on the recto of the 5th leaf of which, is the fol- 
lowing colophon : 

Impresso in Firenze per ser Francesco Bonaccorsi 

A petitione di Alexadro di Francesco Varrochi 

Cittadino Fiorentino. 

Nel anno. MCCCCLXXXV. adi. xxiiii. di gen 



The reverse contains the register. A blank leaf forms q vj, as well as 
a i. Maittaire, vol. i. p. 470, and Laire, Index Libror. vol. ii. p. 90, are 
sufficiently brief. The present is a sound and desirable copy ; in russia 

833. PoLiPHiLo. Hypnerotomachia. Printed 
hy Aldus. Venice. 1499. Folio. 

Prima Edizione. If the rarity and intrinsic worth of this volume 
were equal to its beauty, we might safely pronounce it to be one of 
the most desirable books in the library of a collector. It is however 
very far from becoming an object of indilFerence, while it presents us 
with the most perfect specimen of the press of Aldus, and of the taste- 
fulness of wood-engi'aving, in the XVth century. In these latter 
respects, there is no volume to be put in competition with it. I shall 
therefore take some pains, first, to present the reader with an 
account of the author and of the nature of the work, and, secondly, to 
submit such facsimiles of the original engravings as may serve to 
secure his assent to the truth of the foregoing remarks. 

* Sic. 

146 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hi/pnerofomachia, 

The name of Poliphilus* appears as that of the author of the 
work. This name is in the title-page ; but although the real name is 
supposed to have been Colonna, it is very doubtful whether posterity 
will ever be acquainted with the truth upon this point. The author is 
said to have been a priest, and to have assumed the name of Poliphilus, 
as well from his attachment to a lady, under the feigned name of 
PoLiA,t (who is the heroine of the rhapsody or romance) as from fear 

• ' Vossius, precede en cela, et suivi de plusieurs autres, a ^crit Poliphile, comme si ce 
noni venoit de OoXt/^iXo? : nam Iiistorico huic operi, (dit il dans I'endroit que j'ui deja c'ltf) 
ut ex eo (Baltasarc Bonifacio) cognosco, propositum est ostendere cuncta, quorum amore 
depereunt hommes, niliil aliud quam somnium videri, et propc suspicor eo etiam nomen 
7roAy^»^i; quod amicis abundantem signat, assumpsisse, quia omnes fere magis araant 
mundaua quam aeterna.' Son raisonnement, dont pourtant il se sait bou gre en nuirge, n'est 
point juste. Si cet Ecrivain en effeta eudessein de faire voir que ies choses d'ici-bas ne sont 
qu'un souge : il s'ensuivra que le nom de Polipliile, c'est-a-dire qui a beaucoup d'amis, ne 
lui conviendra point du tout, puisque contre son sentiment, toutes p^rissables que sont Ies 
choses de ce monde, la plupart ne laisseut pas de s'y attacher preferablenicnt a celles de 
I'etemite. II devoit dire, que cet Ecrivain ayant fait connoitre par sou histoire qu'il avoit aim6 
passionnement Ics choses de la terre, qui ne sont qu'un songe, s'etoit fort ii propos nomme 
Poliphile, pouvant se vanter d'avou" en cela beaucoup d'amis, puisque la plupart des hommes 
ont la memc inclination que lui, Vossius n'auroit cu garde de songer a cettc subtilit6, s'il 
cut lu ce seul endroit du livre 1. chap. 8. ou Poliphile introduit la nymphe Osphrasie lui 
parlant ainsi. Dimi, giovane, che e 11 nome tuo ? Et io rivereutemente li resposi ; Poliphile 
era. Piacemi assai, mi disse, si 1' etfecto al nome corresponde. Et scnza indusie subjunse : 
Et come chiama so la tua chara amorosa ? Io morigeratamente resposi : Polia. Et ella dixe : 
Ohe : io arbitrava che il tno nome indicasse molto amante, ma quello che al presente io 
sento : vole dire amico di Polia.' 

' De la ce gentilhomme de Vicence nomm6 Camiilo Scrofa, de qui nous avons des Sonnets 
en style pedantesque sous le nom de Fideniio Glotlochrysio, s'appelle Camilliphilo, parce 
qu'il amoit son Camiilo aussi ardemnient que Poliphilo sa Polia. Voici comme il s'eu 
cxplique . 

J/ lacteo coUo, i crimili, i dexttrrimi 

Membri, il bel corpo symmetriatissimo 

Del mio Camiilo, il lepor venustissimo, 

I costumi moJesti, dj- integeirimi 

D'hora in hora mi fan si Camilliphilo 

Ch'io non ho altro ben, altre letitie 

Che la soaie lor reminiscentia, 

Nonfu nel nostro lepide Poliphilo 

Di Polia sua tanta concitpiscentiu 

Quanta in me di si rare, alte divitie.' 

Menagiana, vol. iv. p. 252-4. 

t ' C'est ainsi qu'il lui a plu d'appcler ja niaitresse, soil d'un nom Romanesque fait a 
plaisir, soit que, comme Baillet, pag. 315 de ses Auteurs deguises le dcNnne, il y eut a Treviso 
une famille des Poll dont elle lut : soit plutot, que comme il etoit grand amateur de I'antiquite, 

renice; 1499.] POLIPHILO. I47 

of incurring the censure of the Church for the singularity and freedom 
of his descriptions. The names of Columna (or Colonna) and Polia 
are gathered from the initial capital letters to the respective chapters of 
the work : a discovery, which seems to have been made as early as the 
year 1512 — from a copy of the romance in the Dominican Library, alle 
Zattere, at ^'^enice. The enigma is thus solved : 

MDXii. XX Junii mdxxi. 

Nomen verum est Franciscus Columna* Venetus qui fuit Ordinis Prcedica- 
torum, et dum amore ardentissimo cujusdam Hippolitce teneretur Tarvisii, 
mutato nomine, Poliam earn autumat, cui opus dedicat ut patet. Librorum 
capita hoc ostendunt, ut pro unoquoque libro prima litera ita simul juncta 


et que nous doiinons volontiers aux personnes, que nous aituons et honorous, le uom des 
choses qui nous sont cheres, et en veneration, il ait par cette raison donne a sa maiti'esse/- 
quoique jeune, le nom Grec de woXva, en latin Canities, qui figurement signifie Antiquity. 
La conjecture de Baillet me paroit d'autant plus douteuse, que Polia elle-meme, chap. 1. 
du I. 2, declare que son nom de baterae etoit Lucrece, et qu'elle descendoit d'un Cato 
Mauro nomnie originairement Lelio Mam-o, de I'anclenne famille Lelia de Treviso " lo de 
gli superstiti lineali, & prisca familia Lelia alumna, & prognata fui. Et posto mi il prestante 
nomma della casta Romana, che per il filio del superbo Tarquinio se occise, nutrita Patri- 
ciamente, con molte delitie, perveni al fiore della etate mia nel anno della rederaptione 
humana, dopogli quatro cento & mille nel sesagesimo secondo." II n'ya rien dans .'es noms 
de Lelio Mauro, de Cato Mauro, ni de Lucrece, qui revienne a celui de Poll, ni de Polia, 
au lieu que mon explication est fondee sur ce que Poliphile dans son Roman n'est pas moius 
amoureux de I'antiquite que de sa maitresse meme, aussi semble-t-il qu'il y confoade I'une 
avec I'autre.' Menagiana, vol. iv. p. 250. 

* Adhuc (id est 1512 a 1522,) vivit Venetiis in S. Joanne et Paulo. See the Giornale 
<Jei Lettcrati d' Italia, vol. 36, p. 300: Fontanini Bibliot. dell Eioq, Ital. Edit. Zeiw, vol. ii, 
p. 170, note b ; and Temauza's VHe dei piu Celebri Architetti, <^c 1778, 4to. vol. i. p. 3. 
La Monnoye {Ulenagiana, vol. iv. p. 255) says he was not able to ascertain to whom we are 
indebted ' for the key of this acrostick.' From a copy of the Hypnerotomachia in the 
possession of Mr. J. Edwards, this discovery seems to have been known, through a different 
channel, in the year 1635. The inscription in Mr. Edwards's copy is as follows : 

Misterium paucissimis cognitum, et mihi 

forte detectum legiti : cum cuperem 

scire quisnam amavit Poliam ? 

Voluit itaque suos Am.ores Anctor publici iuris 

focere, arcano tamen artificio . 

Lector . Sume singulas literas, a quibus capita initium 

siununt, et invenies, singulas connectens, 



F. Pona, 1G35. M. Oct. 

l-JS ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hi/p7ierotomachia, 

The real name of the object of Colonna's passion was (according to 
the extract in the note at p. 147), in all probability, Lucretia; 
although the names of Hippolita and Lelia have been assigned to 
her. Whether the birth place of the autlior were Venice, or Treviso, is 
also a point of uncertainty. All that we gather from Menage, Zeno, 
and Tenianza, is, that the author was born between the years 
14|.§; and, like another Petrarch, was deeply smitten with his beloved 
from a first and transient view of her. ' He saw her one diy at a 
window, while her maid servant was braiding her hair, and he was 
instantly and indelibly enamoured of her.' This might be about the 
year 1462. Two years afterwards, the plague broke out at Treviso; 
when Hippolita, reduced to great extremity, and in danger of her life, 
made a vow that, on her recovery, she would devote the remainder of 
her days to celibacy and solitude.f In consequence, she proceeded to 

Mr. Singer lias pointed out to me a similar discovery from tlie advertisement to the first 
edition of the French version of it in 1546 — by Jan Martin: ' Tant y a, que pour vous faire 
coe;noistrc Ic nom de I'autheur, bieu dirai-je ce mot en passant, qu'il faut suyvrc depuis le 
commencement justjues ii la fin les lettres capitaies enrichies des feuilles arabesques, et 
celles la vous instruirront de ce que vous desirez.' This cu-cumstance is also mentioned by 
Tabourot in his Bigo-rures, which were published before the jear 1600. 

That it was cuiTcntly believed Francesco Colonna was the author at an early period 
of the XVIth century appears certain, for Bencdictus Curtius (Benoit le Court) in his 
curious comment on the Arresta Amorum of Martial d'Auvergne — first published at Lyons 
by Grvphius, in 1533 — in enumerating the Amatorum Autores, thus mentions him, * inter 
quos vero doctior frater Franciscus Colonna cognomento Poliphilo qui Poliam suam iilam 
omnium discii)linarum doctissimam interpretationem, ac omnium artium officinam instructis- 
siniam exornat.' 

t ' Universalimente, [cosi Polia parlando di se stessa, says Temanza,] in quelli di grande 
slrase di mortalitate degli humani &c di qualunque etate promusculi essendo per lo infecto 
acre coiTupto da contagioso,& internecivo morbo.pestilente.uua extrema multitudine moriteno. 
Et gia atroce terrore, & spavento Venuto sopra della morbata terra & gli huomini di terrifico 
mortale concuss! ritrovandose, ciascuno solicitamente fora delle sue citate fuga prehendendo 
agli suburbani, & rurali lochi fugivano. Di que per mia debile, e maligna sorte di glandula 
mi sentivi nel pudico inguino percossa. Per la quale cosa deserta da tutti & relicta fui. Si 
non dalla mia pietosa & optima altrice, che restata, & adveder era I'ultimo suspirio, & exito 
del spirito mio, Et gia sovente implicata dal grave morbo, incomposite parole, & sepiculi 
lameiiti, & gemiticuli variamente carivarendo, & vacilante io ritornava in me. Et quivi 
melio, che io poteva & sapcva sinceramente dalla divina Diana soccorso invocavi. II pcrche 
alhora a lui daltri numi non era notitia, ne cultura alcuna se non essa Dea. Et cum multi- 
pliciite prece, cum la tremula voce puramente exorante precava. Alia sue sancte 6c gelide 
castimonie, cruciantime di giave valitudine pollicita, supplice mi votai, & religiosamente di 
servu-e sempre agli sui sacri tcrapli cum tenace castimonia. Si ella me uiisera liberava dal 
raortale contagio, e morbo.' 

renicej 1499.] POLIPHILO. 149 

put her vow into execution, and was necessarily withdrawn from the 
sight of Cohimna for a considerable time. The lover sought long and 
anxiously for his mistress ; and having at length found her, and prevailed 
upon her to renounce her vows, he composed the romance in question, 
which he dedicates to his beloved. The date of its composition is 1467 : 
a date, which many (Pope, among the rest,) have mistaken for that 
of the impression. 

The title of the work is as follow : Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, ubi 
humana omnia non nisi somnium esse docet, atque obiter plurima scitu sane 
quam digna commemorat. It should seem, from the dedication, that it 
was the intention of the author to have written the romance ' in pure 
Italian undefiled ;' but at the instance of Polia, ' the high empress of 
his soul,' he both created and adopted a style, in which the Greek 
Latin, Lombardic, Hebraic, and Arabic, as well as the Italian, are 
said to prevail. In this work, Polia is considered the oracle who 
introduces, explains, and illustrates every thing. She developes the 
histories of antiquity, and conducts her lover into a temple, where he 
sees those curious inscriptions which are noticed in the 19th chapter of 
the 1st book ; and in which he is exhorted to gratify his passion for that 
species of intellectual entertainment.* In short, nothing more fre- 
quently occurs than architectural descriptions and designs ; the author 
(according to Temanza) having studied the works of Vitruvius and 
Leombatista Alberti, which were the sole and popular publications of 
the day. Temanza quotes a splendid passage from the 5th chapter of 
the 1st book :t but the whole work exhibits a singular species of 

* ' Poliphile, di tutti amautissimo, giamai non son ignara che le antiquiare opere ad te 
summamente piaceno di vedere. Adunche commodatnente potes tu in questo intervallo, 
che nui il signore Cupidbe aspettiamo, ire licemente queste sde deserte, &: dalla edace, & 
exoleta vetustate collapse, & per incendio assumpte, overo da annositate quassate, a tuo 
solatio mil-are, & gli fragmente nobile rimasti, di venerato dignissimi speculare.' 

t ' Ordinatamente da poscia seguiva la facinorosa coronice di tali lineamenti, quali ad 
tanta elegantla di opera decentemente concorreno, perche alti-imente cusi quale nel humano 
corpo una qualitate da altra discorde, la aegritudine accede, perche la couvenienta non se 
ritrova in amicitia del composito et gli accidenti al loco dovuto non essendo concuinamente 
dbtribuiti, seguita deformitate cusi ne piu ne meno, dissona e quella fabrica, & inferma, ove 
non si trova debita harmonia, & comodulato ordine. Impero ii sapientissimo maestro nostro 
(^'^itnivlo) al bene participatamente proportionato & decoramente vestito corpo humano 
assomiglia lo edificio.' E quanto a Leombatista e cosa degna d' osservazione che Polifilo 
accenna, e ripete colle sue stesse parole gli awertimenti di lui, cioe che conviene vedere, 
•onsiderare, misware, e diseguare le opere degli Antiche maestri, Leombastista dice : 

150 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hypnerotomachia, 

luxuriant and even voluptuous description, interspersed with incidents 
which are frequently not less horrible than strange. TN'hat has been 
humorously said of the Macaronica of Folengo, might with equal pro- 
priety be applied to this extraordinary production : ' dico che era pur 
cosa sconvenevole il perdere una opera cosi vaga cosi piacevole, e forse 
maggior danno fora suto, che se anticamente si fosse perduto Virgilio, 
nfe seguiva che la perduta di una buon poeta in una lingua, laquale 
rimaneva in molti altri, che ben la parlavano, e meglio vi scrivevano. 
Cos) dico di questi scrittori della lingua Toscana, laquale non fe per6 
alti o che una lingua sola, e da altri belle ingegni, come ogni di si vede, 
con loro scritture adornata e tersa. Ma perdersi questo (o Dio che 
danno incredibile) si perdeva un bellissimo et ingegniosissimo autore 
di molte lingua insieme.'* 

This brings us therefore to the work itself : of which, as it would 
be hardly possible to present the reader with a minute analysis, in a 
moderate compass, I shall content myself by mentioning the greater 
number of its decorations ; by submitting a few beautiful fac-similes 
of the more interesting of these decoi-ations ; and, with such descrip- 
tion, blending a correct bibliographical account of the impression under 
examination. The title of the work, on the recto of the first leaf, 
(which should be signature 1) is as follows : 







* * * 

(lib. 1. c. 6.) 'Ergo riinani omnia considerare, metiri, lineamenti picturae colligere nusquam 
intcnnJttebam :' e Polifilo inti'oduce la ninfa Logistica, che ricercata da esse dalla spiegazione 
di alcuni jeroglilici, gli dice : ' Poliphile te in questa parte commendo perche avido sei di 
taula disqiiisitioiie, iniperoche omni cosa rimane considerare e metire laudabile se presta.' 
Temanza, vol. i. p. 8. 

• I am indebted to Mr. Singer for this apposite citation. La Monnoye calls the H^'pnero- 
tomachia, ' the most wearisome and the most extravagant species of romance : the foundation 
•f the language being Lombardic Italian,' Menagiana, vol. iv. p. 248. 

Fenke; 1499.] POLIPHILO. 151 






From the first word, by which the book is usually designated, we 
gather the nature of the work : namely, that it represents the Combat 
OF Sleep and Love ; or, rather, the Combats of Love seen in a 
Dream. An address of Leonardus Crassus Veronensis, to Guido Duke 
of IJrbino, is on the reverse of this leaf ; from which we learn that 
Crassus was at the sole expense of the publication. ' Venit (says 
the editor) nuper in manus meas nouum quoddam et admirandum 
Poliphili opus (id enim nome libro inditu est), quod ne in tenebris 
diutius lateret, sed mortaUbus mature prodesset, sumptibus meis 
imprimendum et publicandura curaui. uerum, ne liber iste parente 
orbatus ueluti pupillus sine tutela, aut patrocinio aliquo esse uideretur 
te patronum presentem delegimus, in cuius nomen audaculus prodiret, 
quo, ut ego amoris nunc et obseruantiae in te meae ministro et nuncio, 
sic tu ad studia, et multiplicem doctrinam tuam socio ssepe utereris . 
tanta est enim in eo no modo scientia, sed copia, ut cum hunc uideris, 
non magis omnes ueterii libros, quam naturae ipsius occultas res 
uidisse viidearis . res una in eo miranda est, quod cum nostrati lingua 
loquatur, non minus ad eam cognoscendum opus sit graeca & romana, 
quam tusca et uernacvda' — ' Illud accedit, quod si quae res natura sua 
difficiles essent, amoenitate quadam tanquam reserato omnis generis 
florum uiridario oratione suaui declarentur, et proferuntur figurigque 
& imaginibus oculis subiectae patent et referuntur.' 

This address is followed by some verses, beginning thus : 

lo. Bap. Scythae carmen ad clarissimum 
Leonardum Crassum artium ac iuris Pon^ 
tificii consultum. 

Hie mirabilis & nouus libeUus 
Aequandus ueterum libris auorum, 
Quo, quicquid dat in orbe uita toto 
Rarum & nobile, fertur et refertur, 
Tantum fert tibi Crasse gratiarumi, 

VOL. IV. u 

152 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hi/pnerotomachia, 

Quantum Poliphilo tulit parenti 
Vitam Poliphilus dedit, dedisti 
Vitam tu quoque, sed necem repellis. 
&c. &c. &c. 

These verses occupy two pages. They are succeeded by an address 
of the printer to the reader, containing a summary of the contents of 
the work, and a poetical translation, in the Lombardic-language, of the 
preceding poem. These again are followed by the subjoined.* We 
have, next, (on what should be sign, a i) a second title — comprehend- 
ing the first six lines only, as given at page 150 ante. On the reverse 
of this leaf is the dedication of the author to his mistress, as below. t 
The work commences on the recto of the next leaf, a ii, with the 

* Andreas Maro Brixianus. 

Cuius opus die musa ? meum est, octoq; sororum. 

Vestrura? cur datus est Poliphilo titulus? 
Plus etiam a nobis meruit communis alumnus. 

Sed rogo quis uero est nomine Poliphilus ? 
Nolumus agnosci : cur ? certum est ante uidere 

An diuina etiam liuor edat rabidus. 
Si parcet, quid erit ? noscetur. sin minus ? haud uo» 

Dignamur uero nomine Poliphili. 

O quam de cunctis foelix mortalibus \ina ei 

Polia, qii<E uiuis mortua, sed melius. 
Te dum Poliphilus somno iacet obrutus alto, 

Peruigilare facit docta per era uirum. 


MotTE FiATE PoLiA CoGiTANDO che gli antichi Auctori ad gli principi & magnanimi 
homini, alcuni per pretio, altri per fauore, tali per laude, le opere suae aptameute dicauano. 
Dique per niuna di cosi facta cagione, se non per la media, questa mia Hypnerotoraachia, 
no trouado a chi piu digno pricipe, che ad te mia alta iraperatrice dicare la oifeiisco. La 
cm egregia condilione, & incredibile bellecia, & uenerande, & maxirae uirlute, & costumi 
prseclarissimi, Sopra qualuque Nynipha negli nostri srecoli piincipato tenendo, excessiua- 
mente nie hano dil tuo uisigne Amore infiamraato, arso, & consumpto. Ileceui dunque di 
bellecic diffuso splendore, & de ormii ueuustate decoromento, & di mclyto aspecto conspicua, 
qucsto munusculo. II quale tu industriosamente, nel amoroso core cum donate sagitte in 
quello depincto, & cum la tua angelica effigie insignito & fabricato hai, che singularmente 
Patrona il possedi. II quale dono sotto poscia al tuo solerte & igenioso iudicio (lasciando 
il principiato stilo, & inquesto ad tua instantia traducto) io il commetto. Onde si menda 
appare, & meno dilla tua elegante dignificatione in alcuna parte sterile & ieiuno trouerai, 
iucusata sarai tu optima operatrice, & unica clauigera dilla mente & dil core mio. II 
praemio dunque di raagiore taleto & pretio, non altro specialmenle aesUmo & opto, che U 
tuo amore gratioso, & ad qucsto il tuo benigno fauore. Vale.' 

Fenice; 1499.] POLIPHILUS. 153 

following description of the morning : beneath a title, in the Italian 
language, in seven lines of capital letters. 


"*• do, che la fronte di Matuta Leucothea candi- 
daua^ foragia dalle Oceane unde^ le uolubile 
rote sospese non dimonstraua^ Ma sedulo cum 
gli sui uolucri caballi. Pyroo primo, k. Eoo al/ 
quanto apparendoj ad dipingere le lycophe quadrige 
della figliola di uermigliante rose, uelocissimo 
insequentila, non dimoraua. Et coruscantegia sopra 
le cerulee &: inquiete undule, le sue irradiante 
come crispulauano. Sec.* 

It is impossible to describe the order of the contents of the book 
without immediately introducing the wood-cuts to the notice of the 
reader. Thus, on a iii, reverse, we have the first cut, representing 
Poliphilus walking in a wood. The beauty with which this cut is 

* The ' free version' of J. G. Legrand, 1804, 8vo. 2 vols, begins thus: ' Priiitemps, 
tu venais de rendre aux pres I'email des fleurs, et la verdure aux forets, tu renaissais pour 
parer la nature, et I'aube du matin semblait promettre un jour dellcieux : une douce langueur 
captivait tous mes sens : le court sommeil que je venais de gouter me faisait desirer de m'y 
livrer encore ; et cependant je combatais avec plaisir pour nourrir mon esprit de douces 

The ancient version of 1561 (now before me) seems to be equally unfaithful to the 
ori^nal : ' Par vn matin du moys d'Auril eniuron I'aube du iour, ie Poliphile estois en mo 
lict, sans autre compaignie que de ma loyale garde Argypriie, laquelle m'auoit entretenu toute 
celle nuict en plusieurs propos, & mis peine de me consoler : car ie luy auoie declare 
I'occasion de mes souspirs,' &c. As Brunet justly observes, these are rather abridgments, 
or imitations, than translations. 

The old English version, as given in the British Bibliographer, vol. iv. p. 287", is thus: 
* \\Tiat houre as Phoebus issuing foorth, did bewtifie with brightnesse the forhead of 
Leucothea, and appearing out of the Ocean wanes, not fully shewing his turning wheeles, 
that had beene hung vp, but speedily with his turning horses Pyrous and Ecus, hastning his 
course, and giving a tincture to the spiders webbes, among the green leaues and tender 
prickles of the vermilion roses, in the pursuite whereof he shewed himself most swift and 
glistering, now vpon the neuer resting and still mouing waves, he crysped vp his irradient 
he^Tes,' &c Edit. 1592, 4to, This version has the opposite character of literal fidelity. 


ITALIAN BOOKS. [^Hypnerotomachia, 

executed, may be conceived from a fac-simile of a portion of another 
cut, executed in the same style, and representing the same character 
emerging from the wood, by the side of a rivulet. 

Two other cuts, in which the same figure is introduced, intervene 
between the above cut and the first architectural engraving; when, 
on b i rev., we have a vast pyramidical temple, of the entire size of 
the page, with a figure holding a cornucopia at top. The language, 
describing this temple, is, as Temanza observes, sufficiently warm and 
animated. Altars, groups, grotesque and beautiful, begin to surprise 
the reader for a series of pages. The elephant (on b vij reverse) with 
an obelisk on his back, is not among the least of these ' singular* 
decorations ; but our research is rather connected with the graceful in 
the human form. On e i, recto, are a satyr and sleeping nymph, not 
unfrequently mutilated. The group of females, on e ii reverse, has 
great elegance ; and the fountain, on f i reverse, may vie with many of 
the more finished specimens of ancient Greece. The arabesque orna- 
ment, on f v recto, has not less beauty : an elegant screen is on the 
reverse. On the reverse of the ensuing leaf, f vi, is a splendid group 

Venice; 1499.] 



of females introducing the author to the throne of Venus. The 
prostrate figure of Poliphilus is full of grace. 

To describe, individually, the various arabesque and other ornaments, 
would be a tedious, as well as useless, task ; but the following specimen, 
from a group of females issuing from a wood, has great expression. 
It represents the embrace of Poliphilus and Polia : on i ii. reverse : 

The author, looking through a bocage, (on i iii reverse) while his 
mistress is approaching at a distance, is executed with much taste 
and a true knowledge of perspective. The same couple, retreating 
from the same recess, is beautifully described on i vij recto. The 
next 8 leaves have often 2 cuts in one page ; of smaller dimensions, 
and not executed with the same delicacy as the rest. On signatures k 
V and vj, we begin to be treated with some costly, and beautifully 
designed, Processions ; which continue for several pages, with a pleasing 
variety of small pieces. That the reader may form some notion of the 


ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hi/pnerotomacMa, 

beauty of these cuts, he is presented with the foUowiJig fac-simile taken 
from the Second Procession ; although it may be doubtful whether it is 
not exceeded in elegance by the one which appeals on the recto of 1 v. 

The cars are sometimes represented as being drawn by elephants, 
unicorns, or tigers. On the recto of m iiii, an elderly male figure, 
with a female holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a branch of fruit 
in the other, are seated upon a car, and drawn by satyrs : damsels are 
in the back-ground playing upon instnaments of music : two females, 
with branches of fruit, bring up the rear. It should seem, from the 
text, that the figures in the car are intended to represent Vertumnus 
and Amadnjas. The whole has a splendid and joyous appearance. A 
less turbulent, but equally interesting, spectacle is exhibited in the 

Venice; 1499.] 



following graceful figure of a female, attended by Cupid: on the reverse 
of the same leaf. The original has a larger architectural frame work 
around it, but the ensuing embraces the whole of the figures. 


On the opposite page are two figures, within an oval (single line) 
frame. The top one is designated * una Daniigella nel aspecto uirgineo' 
— and is crowned with ' the yellow harvest :' the one below is called 
* uno infante coronato de Botyri de uua, tutto de lasciuia ridibondo.' 

A large print, on ra vj recto,* occupies our attention for a few 
moments ; when we pass on to a series of processions of a character 
different from the foregoing ; and representing groups of females, 
with solemn and measured steps, approaching the altars of Love and 

* This print, which occupies the entire page, represents the Worship of Priapus ; and is 
Tisualiy torn, or disfigxired hy ink. 


1TALL\N BOOKS. [Hypnerotomachia, 

Friendship. Tliese are, in general, the most gracefully executed em- 
bellishments throughout the volume ; and I select a small, but most 
interesting, specimen of their beauty : 

A more complete specimen will be acknowledged in the succeed- 
ing : taken from the recto of o vij. It is given chiefly to shew the style 
of the draperies of the female figures ; the architectural frame-work 
being omitted. 

There are several similar compositions in this part of the work; 
and those on o viij, and p i, exhibit such a tasteful combination 
of figures and foliage, that the pencil of Flaxman might, without 

Fenice; 1499.] POLIPHILO. 159 

reproach to its director, be consideied as its parent.* We now 
approach temples, architectural fragments, and inscriptions ; when a 
magnificent portal presents itself to our admii'ation on the re< to of 
r ii ; followed by rather an elegant representation of the portraits of 
PoLiFHiLO and Polia, above an elaborate inscription. f A naked 
figure of a youth stands on each side, undrawing the curtain behind 
which these portraits are placed. Fragments (supposed relics) with 
various inscriptions next succeed ; and at u viij, we enter upon a 
series of Standards, exhibited with all the character and grace of 
antiquity. Vases, A' tars. Processions, Buildings, Gardens and Bowers (the 
last, on z ix reverse, very curious) follow in order, and conclude the 
first book on the recto of z x. The imprint is thus : 







On the recto of A (i) we commence the Second Book ; and, at the 
opening of it, we are struck with one of those tasteful specimens of 
capital initials with which this extraordinary volume abounds. t A 
new series of cuts now present themselves. Poliphilo is represented 
fainting, and prostrate, within two temples; that is to say, in one 
temple he is fainting, while Polia is kneeling and reading by his side : 
in the other, he is prostrate, and she is dragging him by his feet. 

• A fac-simile of this group will be given in my Bibliographical Decameron ; accompanied 
by other specimens of a few of the more curious and beautifiil ornaments. 

t This inscription begins thus : 


t It is the letter L ; but various specimens of the smaller letters will be found in Mr. 
Singer's beautiful httle volume, entitled Novelle Scelte Rarissime. 


ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hypnerotomachia, 

We are now struck with a new and terrific species of embellishment. 
Of the first of the cuts, illustrative of these embellishments, the reader 
shall judge for himself, by the following fac-simile of the greater 
portion of it. 

The other cut shews one of these female figures to be hewn, limb by 
limb, to pieces — while the remaining female, with her hands tied, and 
kneeling, is expecting a similar fate from Cupid; who brandishes a 
scymitar above her head. I'olia is standing behind some trees, view- 
ing this extraordinary scene ; as indeed she does in the preceding cut. 

On the recto of the succeding leaf, B iiii, Polia is earnestly contem- 
plating a lion, a dog, an harpy, or dragon, who are devouring the 
slaughtered limbs of both females. Above, Cupid appears with a naked 
scymitar, taking his triumphant flight in the air. Well might the 
author say beneath : " O spectaculo di icredible acerbitate, & di cru- 
delitate insigne, O inaudita et isolente calamitate, scena daspectare 
horrenda,' &c. We are again introduced, on the recto of C v, to the 

Venice; 1499. J 



swooning and prostrate Poliphilo, in a beautifully simple cut — of 
which the ensuing is a fac-simile of the Hero and his Beloved : 

The next cut represents Poliphilo recovering, in the lap of his 
mistress. There is great tenderness and warnnth of expression in the 
following extract — which precedes this cut : — ' Quale si laesione patito 
non hauesse, & alquantulo reassumete il contaminato uigore, como 
alhora ello ualeua, cum tremula uoce, & suspiritti, mansuetamente 
disse, Polia Signora mia dolce, perche cusi atorto me fai ? Di subito, 
Ome Nymphe celeberrime, me sentiui quasi de dolcecia amorosa & 
pietosa , & excessiuia alacritate il core per medio piu molto dilacerare, 
per che quel sangue che per dclore, & nimia formidine in se era con- 
stricto per troppo & inusitata Iseticia, laxare le uene il sentiua exhausto, 
& tuta absorta, & attonita ignoraua che medire, si non che io agli 
ancora pallidati labri, cum soluta audacia, gli ofFersi blandicula uno 
lasciuo & mustulento basio, Arabi dui serati, & constrecti in amorososi 
amplexi, Quali nel Hermetico Caduceo gli intrichatamente conuoluti 
serpi, & quale il baculo inuoluto del diuino Medico.' On the following 
page we find this faithful pair driven away by females, with clubs in 
their hands : a female, to the left, standing in an undisturbed attitude. 

We may pass rapidly over the remaining cuts ; as, although equally 
elegant, they exhibit little more than compositions similar, in part, to 
the foregoing. A beautiful bed-chamber arrests our attention, for a 
minute, on the reverse of E i ; where Polia, in the foreground, \i 

162 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hi/pnerotomachia, 

reading a letter, and a dog is sitting to the left of her. The enamoured 
Coij])le are next described, by cuts as well as by text, as being conveyed 
to the upper regions, before Venus ; and are happily united in the 
last embellishment to the volume. On the recto of F iii, is the date 
of the composition of the work, thus : 

Taiuisii cum decoiissimis Polife amore lorulis, distin- 
tineretur misellus Polipliilus. 

. M . CCCC . LXVII . Kalendis Maii. 

The reverse of this leaf pres nts us with the Epitaph of Polia, which 
I shall give in the note below.* On the recto of the ensuing and last 
leaf is a very full page of Errata j terminating with the following 
imprint : 

Venetiis Mense decembii. M.ID. in asdibus Aldi 

Manutiij accuratissime. 

In the whole, 4 leaves without signature : then a to z in eights : z ten ; 
A to F in eights : F four. 


F oelix Polia, quae sepulta uiuis 
C liaro niarli Polipbilus quiescens 
I am fecit uigilare te sopitam . 







Venice; 149.9.] POLIPHILO. 16S 

The reverse is blank. Thus have we travelled through a somewhat 
intricate, yet not unpleasing road, in the present copious descrip- 
tion of this extraordinary volume. Whatever be its defects, or the 
characteristic obscurity of the text, it must be remembered that Mira- 
beau tliought it worth while to make an extract from it ;* and that the 
credulous, and the lovers of mystery, have treasured it in their choicest 
arcana, as containing most curious and recondite matter. The lan- 
guage, however baibarous, is not undeserving of the attention of the 
philological antiquary ; as we find in it (so pointed out to me by an 
ingenious friend), among other singular words, the earliest specimen 
of that of Cameo. No bibliographer, or collector of books, has pro- 
bably yet summoned sufficient courage to peruse the whole of the text; 
but there are detached parts of equal beauty and interest — and de- 
scriptions of scenery, and of the human passions, by no means unde- 
serving of our applause. t What, however, may be denied to it on 
the score of intrinsic worth, will be readily granted on that of intrinsic 
beauty. Every thing in it conspires to charm the tasteful collector. 
Blooming, or ornamental capital initials— borders — arabesque orna- 
ments — classical compositions of figures, designed, and cut in wood, 
with equal elegance and felicity — a fine round roman letter, worked 
in the best manner of the Aldine press : — all these embellishments, 
executed upon paper of a beautiful tint, and fine substance, delight 
the eye and gratify the judgment of the Virtuoso. 

A question, perhaps of some little interest, is involved in the con- 
sideration of the ornaments. By whom were they designed and 
engraved ? The usually received opinion, of their having been exe- 
cuted after the designs of Andrea Mantegna, (an opinion in which 
Messrs. Renouard and Legrand have also coincided) is perhaps not 
very far from the truth : although my friend Mr. Ottley is inclined 
to think that the designs partake rather of the character of those of 
Benedetto Montagna. That Raphael was the author of them, is 

• ' Je ne dols cependant pas laisser ignorer que Mirabeau, excellent juge en litterature, 
eu a fait un tres court extrait dans ses Contes et Nouvelles, sous le merae titre de Songe 
de Poliphile.' Legrand, vol. i. p. 7, 8. 

t ' Au milieu de beaucoup d'incoherences que le titre de Songe pent rendre excusables, et 
d'un grand amas d'erudition, on ne peut nier qu'il n'y ait aassi beaucoup d'iinagiuation. De 
tres habiles artistes, des literateurs distingues, ne se sent fait aucune scrupule d'y puiser 
comnie dans une mine feconde : lorsque je nommerai Le Bemin, Perrault, Le Sueur, Le 
Poussin, et La Fontaine enfin, le bon La Fontaine, amateur passionne de la litterature 
italienne, on me dispeusera sans doute de m'etendre sur un plus grand nombre de citations.' 
Lbgrand, vol. i. p. 7. 

164 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Hj/pnerotomachia, 

wholly without foundation. The safer conclusion is, to coincide 
with Mr. Ottley's oinnion, that the author, both of the designs 
and of the engravings, is unknown.* Sufficient, it is presumed, has 
been shewn to prove that there is nothing in the fifteenth, and little in 
the earlier part of the sixteenth century, to be put in competition with 
them for beauty and truth : not, however, that they are faultless. 
The prevailing defect seems to be a disproportionate shortness of 
figure, and enlargement of head ; especially in the females. 

This work has been frequently translated into the French language : 
namely, in 1.546, 1554, 1561, folio ; and in 1600, quarto. Of the folio 
impressions, Legrand calls that of 1561 ' the most beautiful.' The 
quarto impression of 1600 was edited by Beroaldus de Verville, an 
hermetic philosopher. I have possessed the editions of 1561 and 1600; 
and am far from subscribing to the opinions of Messrs. Renouard and 
Legrand, that the wood-cuts, in these editions, copied after those in 
the Aldine, are executed in better taste. On the contrary, they appear 
to me to be considerably inferior ; having less simplicity and purity of 
outline, and exhibiting, what artists call, too much flutter and orna- 
ment : the figures in them, being, almost uniformly, too tall — a fault, 
the reverse of that which has been said to attach to those in the Aldine 
impression. Of the merit, or rather demerit, of these French versions, 
Legrand says that they are ' si gauloises, qu'il est aujourd'hui impos- 
sible de les lire,' This opinion probably induced the same writer to 
publish, in two beautifully-printed small octavo volumes, executed by 
the elder Didot, his ' Songe de Poliphile, Traduction libre de Vltalien,' 
1804 : but it may be fairly asked, of what utility is such a publication 
in giving us a correct notion of the original ? The English language 
has not been deficient in presenting us with a version of this curious 
rhapsody. The title of this translation, or rather of the 1st book of 
the original, is as follows : ' Hypnerotomachia The strife of Loue in 
a Dreame. At London, printed for Simon Waterson, and are to be 
sold at his shop, in S. Paule's Church- Yard, at Cheapegate.f 1592, 4to. 

• Consult the Enquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engraving, p. 258, 4to. 1815. 

If it were worth while to indulge in conjecture on this subject, one might naturally 
suppose that as the book was executed at Venice, the designs were made there also ; now 
the two younger Bellini, and Domeuico Ghirlandajo were living there at the end of the 15th 
century. Gior. Bellini too was a very skilful architect, and the master of Titian. 

t Mr. R. Triphook, bookseller, is in possession of a copy of this very rare volume, which 
Jias escaped the researches of Herbert My friend Mr. Douce also possesses a copy. 

Fenice; ]499.] POLIPHILO. 166 

104 leaves.' See the British Bibliographer, vol. iv. p. 2S5. This version 
contains wood-cuts ; but, compoiatively, of coarse execution. 

It remains to add, that of this first, and best Italian, impression, his 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire is the fortunate possessor of a perfect, 
and therefore unique, copy printed upon vellum: a similar copy, in 
the possession of Count Trivulcio, at Milan, being imperfect. The 
present copy, although upon paper, is perhaps unrivalled for its size 
and beauty. It was formerly in the library of Grolier, and is bound 
in the usually tasteful manner of the books of that distinguished 
Collector.* The frequent appearance of this edition has been noticed 
at the outset of these remarks. I believe not fewer than 20 copies 
have come under my inspection : of these, those in the collections of 
Earl Govver, Sir M. M. Sykes, Mr. Grenville, Mr. G. Hibbert (the latter, 
formerly in the Merly Collection, and in beautiful binding), Mr. Heber, 
Mr. J. Edwards, and especially of Mr. S. W. Singer, are of unusually 
fine condition. 

* On the fly leaf of this copy is the following ancient ms. memorandum : '^ 

Opera tutta Inamorata 
e un Libro degno et pien di molto omato 
che ibi chi non Lege hauera La menie Ingrata. 

In a copy of the French translation of the Poliphilo, now in the library of Mr. Beckford 
ofFonthill, and formerly belonging to Pope, there is the following, not very important, 
note in the poet's own hand writing : 

' Written at Trevisa in 1467. The designs might be of Francesco Francia (who engraved 
and taught Marc Antonio) or of Andrea del Mantegna, or possibly of Leonardo da Vinci. 
(A. Durer, M. Angelo, and Rafaelle were born afterwards). Vide book ii. ch. 1. where Folia 
relates her history. In 1462 she was in the flower of her age, when Poliphilo fell in love 
with her. The plague happened in 1463, when she professed herself a nun, ibid, chap, 2.; 
but soon after, followed by her lover, yielded to his solicitations. Book ii. usque ad chap. 5, 
qua? confer cum lib. i. chap. 17, in fine: and this book is written four years after. She 
was of Trevisa on the river Sile m the state of Venice, Lucretia Trevisana, he of the 
family of Colonna, a monk, as appears from the initial letters of the chapters, Poliam Frater 
Franciscus Colonna peramavit. 

166 ITALIAN BOOKS. [TFithoui Bate. 

834. PuLci. (LucA. ) II Ciriffo Calvaneo. TVith^ 
out Name of Printer, Place, or Date. Quarto. 

It is observed, in the fly leaf of this copy, by a skilful bibliographer 
in Italian literature, that 'this is the first edition, exceedingly rare, 
and not mentioned by any bibliographer.' That it is the earliest 
imj)ression, and of extreme rarity, is unquestionable ; but that no notice 
has been taken of it by any bibliographical writer, is not })erfcctly 
correct ; since a particular and rather interesting description of it will 
be found in the BM. MagUabech. vol. ii. col. 427 '• the only authority, 
however, to which Panzer refers the reader.* A ms. note, by Antonio 
Maria Biscionio — in the copy seen by Fossi — informs us that ' this im- 
pression was probably executed by Miscomino before the year 1490/ 
There seems to be truth in this memorandum : as the character, in 
the elegance of its form, and in the skilfulness of its arrangement, 
bears a strong resemblance to the works professedly printed by Mis- 
comino, or Bonaccorsi : see p. 144, ante. The recto of the first leaf, 
sign, a, presents us with the opening of the poem, thus : 



riftb caluaneo 

CjrifFo il quale per 

paesi diuersi 
Errando ando per farsi almondo iddeo 
Nuoui amori : nuoui casi : k. nuoui uersi 

• Mr. Eoscoe informs us that the poem, intitled II Ciriffo Calvaneo, is an epic romance, 
and was probably- the first that appeared in Italy ; it being certainly produced some years 
prior to the Morgante of Luigi Puici, and to tiie Orlando Innamorato of Bojardcj ; two pieces 
whicli liave generally been considered as tlie first examples of this species of poetry.' A 
short but satisfactory analysis of the poem is given by Mr. Roscoe, in a note, vol. i. p. 330, 
Lor, de Medici, 8vo. edit. We are further infor ed, by the same intelligent writer, that 

Modena; 1491.] REALI DI FRANZA. 167 

Porteran forse al gran Gioue tropheo 
Non pur gli assiri egiptii parthi o persi 
Et prestandomi il celo qui del suo aiuto 
Comincieremo al Pouero adueduto 
&:c. 8cc. 8cc. 

A full page has 24 lines. The signatures, from a to o, inclusively, 
run in eights. On the reverse of o viij, the following are the conclud- 
ing lines : 

T ibaldo cognoscea falcone apunto 
Et disse o falcon niio benche tu finga 
Tu sai cliio so die il capresto doro ucto 
Meritasti insino gia sendo aoringa 
Hor se il peccato ascalona ta giunto 
Non uo che piu lemaschere dipinga 
Per tanto io son disposto che tu muoia 
Et cosi decto fe chiamare ilboia 

No indication whatever of printer, place, or date, ensues. The 
present is a cropt, but sound and perfect copy, in old red morocco 

835. Reali Di Franz a. Printed hy Peter Maufer. 
Modena. 1491. Folio. 

This seems to be the earliest impression of any work under the 
above title : the ' Fatti ' of Charlemagne having been published at 
Venice in 1481, and the life of the same renowned monarch having 
been printed by Caxton in the year 1485. This impression is elegantly 
executed in the Gothic type, in double columns, and the first page of 

the poem was left unfinished ; but, at the instance of Lorenzo de Medici, was, after the 
death of Luca, completed by Bernardo Giambullari. In the note (6), ibid, Mr, Roscoe is 
properly persuaded that the poem had probably been printed before the year 1535 ; ' as it 
is dedicated to Lorenzo de Medici, the grandson of Lorenzo tlie Magnificent, who died in 
the year 1319.' It should seem, therefore, that of the above very scarce impression, the 
biograplier of " Lorenzo the Magnificent " had, at that time, no information. Let us hopt 
that a copy of it has, ere this, enriched the treasures of his Italian Collection. 


ITALIAN BOOKS. [Modeiia ; 1491. 

the first book is embellished with a tasteful border, containing portraits 
of CoxsTANTiNE, Fiovo, and Ricieri. 

For the j^ratification of the numerous class of Collectors of Romances, 
and in order tliat tliey may be enabled to illustrate their early copies 
of the present work, I subjoin fac-similes of the portraits : 

The capital initial of the first word of the text, presents us with 
a rude wood cut of the portrait of Pope Sylvester. Brunet, vol. ii. 
p. 375-6, has copied the description of this impression from the 
Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iii. j). 667; telling us, however, that a copy 
of it was sold at the first sale of the Duke de la Valliere's 
books, in 1767, {Cat. de la Valliere, vol. i. p. 551, n**. 3380,) for 168 
livres. The copy there described is said to be bound in red morocco ; 
and the present has the same (foreign) binding ; but there is a trans- 
position of two leaves in the table, which otherwise has its full com- 
plement of 7 leaves. On the recto of the Sth leaf is a general title to 
the six books, thus :* 

I shall here subjoin the title of each of the six books : 


^ Qui commenza el secondo libro de le hy- 
storie de gli reale de fi-aiiza nati de Constanti 
no imperadore : et chiamase el Fiorauate : et par- 
te de Rizieri prirao paladino et de altri baro- 
ni poi che fuorono xpiani. I^i in prima come 
el re Fiorello regnaua in fraza et lo re Fiore j 
dardea : et come el re fiorello aue vno fiolo cii 
el neielo fu la fpalla rita naque da vna donna 
de bauiera sua moglie chiamala lei Biacado 
ra : et lo nato fiolo hebbe nonie Fiorauante : et 
fij cl primo che naque cum quel signo , Ca . i . 

Modena; 1491.] REALI DI FRANZA. 1G9 

€ 4I^ut 0t cSmm^a la I)tii^tona t tica\ bt fran 
^a (omm3antio a Condtatino imi^atote 0tam 
iio molte Ic^entic clje io ^o attrouate c racol 
te tnjsricmc : 1 1 ^titn qucsto Dolinnc in ^ti libtu 
fLo primo tracta IJC f louo c t>i i^icricti prmii 
palatitui 2)t fcan5a. t. %l <e^c$on2ia Dc f ioraul 
ti t parte tic ittcticrt ptimo palatiino. € Ho 
trr^o tracta hi <Octauiano lie lionc come an< 
tio in cgipto. CEo quarto tratra be ^uouo 
be ^ntottna. € Ho ^nto tracta be la bcnbet 
ta bi 23uouo be ^Cntomia £acta per <6utDo e 
^mibalbo e per Io ^e ^tiilelnio be Slnslt/ 
terra ^uoi KoU. € So jBfejcto tracta bel naijcimi 
to bt Carlo inagim e be ia ^cura morte be pi 
ptno ba but ^uoi fidt ba^i^tarbi 


m. Qui commenza el terzo libro de la gesta 
de Costantino iraperadore di roma : et tracta 
se de Octauiano de lione come ando in egip 
to per raquistare la dota de la sua mogiie. 
Capitulo Primo . 


m. Qui commenza el quarto libro de gli rea- 
li de franza intitulato Buouo de antona. In 
prima tracta et narra de la sua natione et doue 
et come foe alleuato iiisino ala eta de anni no- 
ne et come il foe reduto al padre : et de Io odio 
che Bradoria prese contra a guidone suo ma 
rito per che elJo era vechio . Capitulo primo . 


m. Qui commenza el quinto libro de li desce 
denti de Constantino iraperadore: et in la pri 
ma parte se tracta come se diede ordine de fa- 
re la vendetta de Buouo datona per Guido 
re : per Siuibaldo : et per Io re Guielmo de in 
gliterra figlioli che fuorono de Buouo : et de 
wolti altri fignori et principi . Capitolo primo 

170 ITALIAN BOOKS. [Modena; 1491. 

The reverse of the la?t leaf presents iis with a register ; from which, 
however, we do not understand the exact order of the signatures. In 
the present copy they run thus — beginning with the text : a 8 ; b 6 ; 
c8; d6; eS; f6; gS; h6; iS; k6; 18; ra6; nS; oG; p8; 
q6; r8; f6; t8; u8. On the reverse of u 7 (a blank leaf forming 
the 8th,) beneath the register, the colophon is as follows : 

il 3r«ipi^cC9uni a^utinc anno ^alutisf ^cccdrrrxi. pribic 
itiu.sf (Octobri.fil per |f)obiicni niagi^trum pctru maufcr 
gaUicfi opera et inipen.M pre.3tanti.sf bin niaffififtri '^mxM 
munbatoriief niutinen^iiB? : SDiuo i^ercule eften^si regnante. 

A desirable copy ; in foreign red morocco binding. 

^^ Qui coninienza el sexto libro de reali anti 
qui de fi-aiiza : ma in specialta del nascimeto de 
Carlo magiio : et de la obscura rnorte del re pi 
pino et de dui soi liglioli bastardi : et come Car 
lo fugi in fpagiia chiamandose IMaynecto per 
paum : et pero questo libro se chiama el may- 
necto III Christi ihesu nomine. 

^ Come re Pipino regnaua : et come il fu in 
vecheza consigliato da baroni che il togliesse 
moglie per hauere herede. Capitolo prime . 


It may be necessary to 'premise a few words respecting the present 
department of the Work, tvhich contains an account q/" Books printed 
BY William Caxton. The reader ivill probably be aware that, in this 
department, much ground must be gone over ichich has been already 
explored in the recent edition of our Typograjjhical Antiquities. In order 
therefore to avoid unnecessary repetitions, and to exhibit equally valuable 
descriptions of such works, in this Library, as have been executed by tub 
Father of the British Press, it has been my object to compress the 
hibliosraphical part within a comparatively narrow compass ; and to substitute, 
where necessary, copious and interesting extracts : faithfully printed from the 
original text. In consequence, it is presumed that a lioDY of Caxtonian 
Literature f if such an expression may be usedj will be submitted to the 
attention of the curious, from which no unpleasing information may be 

I cannot however enter upon this department of the work, without 
expressing a considerable degree of gratification at the task which is thus 
pleasingly imposed upon me. The Collection of Volumes, printed by Caxton, 
of which an account is now presented to the public, has never blen 
EauALLED. The Noble Owner of the Harleian Library, in one of his 
letters to Heanie,* seems to have felt no ordinary satisfaction on possessing 
'forty two volumes printed by that good honest man' (Caxton). It will 
be seen that Lord Oxford is here eclipsed — in a department even in which 
he had good reason to boast of his strength and superiority. 

* Letters written by eminent Persons in the xviith and xvinth Centuries, <^c. and Lives 
of Eminent Men, by Jo/in Aubrey, Esq. 1813, 3 vols. See vol. ii. p. 85. This is a publica- 
tion well deserving of a place in the library of every scholar to whom the memories of 
the ILLUSTRIOUS English dead are dear. 


William Ca):ton. 

836. Le Recueil des Histoires de Troyes. 
Without Name of Printer, Place, or Date. 

There is good reason to consider this volume as having been exe- 
cuted by Caxton, and as the first production of his press. It is of 
excessive rarity ; and with the exception of the accounts of it pub- 
hshed by La Serna Santander, and Brunet, it will be in vain looked 
for in the works of foreign bibliographers. The particular de- 
scription of it which appears in the recent edition of our Typogra- 
phical Antiquities, vol. i. p. 2 — together with a fac-simile of the type — 
renders a very copious bibliographical account unnecessary in the 
present place : but it will be material to notice the leading features 
of the volume. The recto of the first leaf presents us with the title, 
as follows : 

Cp cotnmcttce \z bo!iime 3[ntitulc le tcciieH be^ l&i^oite^ 
tic ttopessf €onijiO]Bfe pat tjenoraWe j)omme raoul le feure 
prcftte tljapjjcftam tic mon trcjsf tctioufitc jefcigncut flt^oniefci- 
gncuc \t 2DUC l^iljclipjic tic Jiourgoingnc €n ian tic grace, 
mi!, ccfc Ijctiii, : . 

The text immediately follows, having 25 lines beneath. This 
opening part will be found reprinted in the authority just referred to. 
There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and a full 

171 WORKS PRINTED BY {fVithout Date. 

page contains 31 lines. The Avork is divided intof three Books. The 
First Book ends on the reverse of the 117th leaf, at the end of the 
bottom line, thus : 

. fin, !♦ liure 

The Second Book has the following prefix : 

c p comnicntc \c ^cconti liure bu tctiml bt^ Ijij^toice^ 
he trope qui parie tie^ prouef^Citf Du fort jjcrculej. 

and concludes on the recto of the 203rd leaf, thus : 

€miinie t^ 

The reverse is blank. The recto of the 204th leaf presents us with 
a proheme, of 20 lines, to the Third Book ; succeeded by this title— 

Comment \t rop l^tpant 61$ tiu top HEaomebon ttppa 
ra ia forte cite tie tropei^ tie ^on manage ala ropne Jecutia 
et ht0 n\^ quil eut tielle / €t comment %\ af^embla i^on con 
^eil pour enuoper en grece pour rauoir ejctonne jsfa ^ureur. 

The third book terminates on the reverse of the 283rd leaf, with 
the word 

♦ : . €i:plicit • : • 

In conformity with the plan suggested in the * Memorandum, ' pre- 
fixed to this department of the work, I proceed to gratify the reader 
with a copious extract from this rare volume — descriptive of the 
Combat of Hercules and Cacus ; as will be found on the reverse of 
the 180th leaf; and to which a translation, by the pen of Caxton,* will 
be considered no uninteresting companion : 

q Vant herculez vist le grant trou que la rachine de larbre auoit 

fait II en fut moult Joyeulx et dist. Vrayement cest Jcy q\ie le 

grant larron demeure II fault veoir sil y est et quelz marohans 

y habiteut/t En disant ces pai'oUes herculez sabaissa et regarda a vng 

• [w]Hai) bercules sawe the grete hoole that the root of the tree had made, he was ryglit 
loyous and glad, and said.Trewly hit is here that the grete theef dwellith, I must -see if he be 
here and what marchantes enhabite in this place, In saying these wordes herculcs bowed 

t Sic. 

Without Date.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 175 

bout de la caue ou II vist cacus/ Sitost quil vist le larron 11 le recogneut 
dont 11 fut plus Joyeux que deuant et lui escrya/ Cacus Je te voy Tu 
par cy deuant as trouble les regnes desperye par Ixmombrables delitz 
que faisoies publicquemeiit et en appert, Ce fut la cause de la perdicion 
de ta seignourie Maintenant tu troubles les ytalies par tyrannies mucees. 
couuertes et Incongneues Je congnois ta vie tu ne la peulz nyer ne 
ygnorer II fault que tu meures et que Je fache franches les ytalies de 
tes enormes larrecins. O. mal heureux homme cy ne te peuent se 
courii' tes couronnes, tes dyademes, tes ceptres, tes bruitz et tes 
lionneurs royaulx, Et pourquoy, Certes pour ce que tu es enueilly en 
tes pechiez et ne tes amende ne corrigie pour pugnicion ne pour peine 
que tu ayes endure ne souflFerte, Aincois en lieu de donner qui appar- 
tient a roys et a princes tu as este larron. En lieu de faire Justice tu 
as este murdrier et bouteur de feu et en lieu de garder et sauueur les 
femmes tu les as villonnees, Ochetif roy sans toy gehyner ne coniurer 
certes Je voy bien que tu es cil que les Itayles ne congnoissent et si les 
as persecutees Ton malice a este grant quant jusques ace jour nas este 
trouue ne accuse et as fait vne forte chose mais se plus fort ne fais tu 
en es en peril prouchain. car tu me rendras mes beufz et finablemet me 
mettras amort ou tu mourras par mes mains et ne le gaigneras par 
courir ne par faire tes feux subtilz : 

do^vn hys heed and beheld on the oonside of the caue wliere he sawe cacus. Assone ns he 
sawe the theef he knew hym anone, wlierof he was more loyous than he was to fore and 
escryed hym, Cacus I see thee, Thou haste to fore this tymc ti'oblyd the Royames of 
hesperye by mnumerable delyctes and grete synues that tliou madeste openly and apperte. 
This was the cause of the pardicion of the seignourye. Now thou troblest the ytaliens by 
tyrannyes hyd & unknowen, I knowe thy lyf, thou mayste not denye hit ne forsake hit, 
hit behoueth that thou dye therfore And that I make the ytalyens franke and free of thyn 
horrible &c odious theftes. O cursed man yf thy crownes. thy diademes. thy septres. thy 
bruytes, thy ryall men rayghte not socoure the, why than and wherfore arte thou wrapped 
in spines and amendest tlie not ne correcte the for the pugnycion that thou hast suffred. 
But yet in tlie stede and place that thou sholdest dispose the to that, that apperteyneth to 
a kynge & a prynce, thou haste ben a theef. In stede to do justice thou haste ben a mur- 
drer, and a putter in of fyre to hrenne \'illages and howses And where thou sholdest haue 
kept and sauyd woman, thou hast defowled them and don hem vilonnye. O kaj'tif kynge. 
withoute coniuryng or pyn^Tig of the. certes I see well that thou art he that the ytalyens 
knowe not that thou hast persecuted hem. thy malyce hath ben grete and thy subtylte, 
whan into thys day thou were neuer accused. And liast doon a grete thynge. But hit is 
not so grete, ner hast not so hidde the but thou arte right uyghe perill, ftbr thou shalt yelde 
to me agayn my oxen. And ffiuably thou shalt put me to deth, or thou shalt deye by my 
hand. And thou shalt not escape by rennyng ne by thy subtyll fyres, 

176 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histoires de Troye, 

qVant cacus entendit celle sentence II fut fort effraye Neantmoins 
II leua la teste, et voyant quil estoit trouue par herculcz lonime du 
monde quil amoit le nioins II lui dit, Ilellaz herculez homme tout 
corrompu de conuoitise quelle niaudditte fortune ta fait tirer larbre 
dont les parfondes racyncs ont descouuert le repos tail du roy cacus 
ladiz regnant Mais orendroit priue de regne et bany de toute mondaine 
prosperite Ne te suflit 11 rnoy auoir desherite de nics naturclz biens 
Quant tu mas tout toUu tant quil est force que Je vine de prove dont 
la coulpe doit redonder sur toy que ne me scufFres tu tirer le residu de 
ma pouie vie entre les pierres , ontre les chardons et entre les vers de 
la terre Considere maintenant ce que tu as fait ace roy et ne le quiers 
plus tu las assez greue,. Cacus respondit herculez se tu \e trouues en 
labisme des miseres tes demerits lont acquis et suis bien dollcnt de veoir 
vng roy en si honteux estat, mais quant tu ne sauroyes aorner tes jours 
passez ne les presens dun seul bien fait quel reine de Tu as journellement 
cxerce tyrannye tant en prosperite quen aduersite, Je scay bien que tu es 
le nouueau persecuteur des Ital)'es et que ta main est toute honnye de 
leur sang. Je ne te queroie pas ne les ytaliens ne sauoient a parler de toy 
Et pour ce quilz sc taisoient a leur preiudice cest arbe aperele pour eulx 
et par ses rachines adescouuart lembuche Si fault que tu eslises ou 

[w]Han Cacus vndersfode this sentence : he was strongly afFrayed. neuerthelesse he lyfte 
up liis hcde And secyng that he was found by hercules the man of the world that he raoste 
hated, he sayd to him, Alas hercules man all corrumped with couetyse. what cursid fortune 
halh made the to drawe oute the tree wherof the parfonde and depe rootes liath discouerid 
the reposayll of kynge Cacus late regnyng, But now pryued fro regnyng & banj'sshid fro 
all worldly prosperite Suffiseth not to the that I may haue the chierte of my natureli 
goodes. whan thou hast taken alle away fro me. And that hit is force that I syue of robberye 
and proyc, wherof the culpe and symie ought to redonde vpon the. Why suiTrcst thou 
not mc to sj-ue & drawe forth the residue of my poure lyf, amonge the stones amonge the 
rokkes. and amonge the wormes of the erthe. Considere now what thou haste to do this 
kynge. And seke hym no more, tliou haste hurted and greuyd hira ynowhe, Hercules 
answerd Cacus yf thou were in the abysmes of wrecchidnes and myseryes. th^' demerytcs 
wole accuse the. And I am lyght sory and dolant to see a kyng in so bounteous and 
shamefuU estate. But whan thou canste not Aourne thy dayes passid ne these presente with 
one only good dede what remedye, thou hast dayly exercysed tyraimye as well in prosperyte 
as in aduersite. I wote well that thou art the newe persecutour of the ytaliens And that 
thy hands is all fowl! of their blood. I seke the not, ne the ytaliens can saye noihyng of 
tlie. And for as moche as they complayne not of the to their preiudyce this tree hath 
spoken for them. And by hys rootes he hatli discouuerd thjTi embusshe : So behoueth hyt 
that thou chese. Wheder thou wilt come and fyght with me here in the ayer, at large, or 
ellis that I come and assaylle the their withlnne: ffor yf hit be to me possible I shall 
desyuere the worirl of thy tyrannyes 6cv. 

Without Date.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 177 

que tu viengnes combatre cy al aer et au large ou que Je tenuahisses 
la dedens car sil mest possible Je deliureray le monde de tes tyrannies : 

p Ar celle responce Cacus congneut quil ny auoit nul respit en son 
fait, Adont II se cuida sauuer comme 11 auoit fait autresfois Et fist par 
son art de magique vne si grand fumee quil sembloit du trou que larbre 
auoit fait que ce fust vng droit puys denfer et estoit celle fumee lardce 
de flambes si ardantes que merueilles,. Pour celle fumee oncques 
herculez ne habandonna cacus aincois sailly en la caue parmy flambes 
et fumee comme cellui que estoit maistre de ce mestier et fut tantost 
pourueu des remedes qui y appartenoient et sen alia plainement 
enuahir cacus ainsi comme sil ny eust fumee ne empeschemet Si lui 
donna si grant cop de sa machue sur le plus hault du heaume quil lui 
hurta la teste contre vng des murs de la caue, Cacus au recepuoir ce 
cop laissa a desgorgier sa fumee voyant que par ceste facon eschapper 
ne pouoit et prit vne tres grande hache quil auoit aupres de lui pour 
soy deffendre, Herculez lui soufFry prendre sa hache, Cacus rua sur lui 
car la caue estoit fort creuse, II z combatirent longuement la dedens, A 
la rescousse de cacus vindrent les . iii . seurs qui menerent grant dueil 
et jetterent pierres sur herculez en grande habondance plourans ame- 
remet . ces trois domoisell amoient moult cacus, Herculez et cacus se 
combatirent plus dune heure sans cesser tant que reposer les conuint 
par eschauffemet A dont cacus print en lui vne folle oultre cuidace et 
lui sembla en soy reposant que herculez nestoit pas si puissant quil 
auoit este autreffois et quil ne le pourroit jamaiz vaincre puis (|ue ala 

[b]y this answer cacus knewe that ther was no respite in his feet, Than he supposid to saue 
hym as lie had doon afore tyme And maad by his crafte so grete a smoke and fumee, that hit 
seraed come oute of the lioole that the tree had maad. that hit had ben a right pytte of 
belle. And this fumee was lardid with flames brennyng as meruayll. ifor this fumee hercules 
abandonned neuer cacus, but leep in to the caue in the myddell of the flames and fumee ai 
he that was maistre of this crafte, and was pourueyed of remedyes that therto ajiper- 
teyned, And wente hym playnly and assayled cacus in suche wyse as he felte no fumee ne 
enpesshement. And than he gaf hym so grete a strook vpon the helme with his clubbe that 
Le maad hym to hurtle his heed ayenst oon of the wallis of the caue. Cacus with the 
resseyuyng of this strooke. lete the fumee disgorge out of his stomack. Seyng that by that 
manyer he coulde not escape. And toke his ryght grete axe that stode l)y hym for to deftende 
hym with, Hercules suflVid hym to take his axe. Cacus smote vpon hym ifor the caue was 
not large, they fought longe therin. vnto the rescours of cacus cam the thre susters that made 
grete sorowe And casted stones vpon hercules in grete habondance And wept bitterly. These 
thre damoyselles louyd sore well cacus. Hercules & cacus fought more than a longe 
cure withoute cessing At the ende of the oure. they were bothe so sore chauflid that they 
muste reste them Than cacus toke in hym a grete pryde. flbr he was stronge of body And 
hym semed whan he restid that herculc! was not »o stronge as he had ben afore tymes. 

178 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histoires de Troye, 

premiere fois ne lauoit vaincu, Pour cello ])resimipcion II demanda a 
herculez sil vouUoit peracheuer la bataille hors dela caue, Hcrculez luy 
respondit quil en estoit content/ A celle responce cacus ])rint la pierre 
qui fernioit la caue et en yssit Et herculez allant apres choisit ses vaches 
qui estoient mortes en vng coing et ses beufz qui estoient au pres loyez 
par les niuseaulx a vne coulopne II eut grant dueil quant II veyt ses 
vaches en ce point, neatmoins II passa oultre et poursuiuit cacus qui 
cstcndoit ses bras et se nicttoit a point, et lui dit, Mauuaiz larron cei'tes 
tu mas fait vng grant desplaisir dauoir tuees mes vaches Larro mauuaiz 
toy niesmes res})ondit cacus encores mas tu fait plus grant desplaisir 
dauoir occis mes hommes et emble mes royanies, Tu es seul coulpable 
des niaulx que Jay fais et de la niort de ces vaches Pleust aux dieux 
que Je te tenisic aussi bien en ma mercy comme Je les ay tenues soyes 
eceur que Jamais royammes nembleroies, or acheuos nostrc bataille, A 
ces mots herculez et cacus reuerent lun sur lautre moult lourdement 
et par grant felonnie leurs cops retentirent sur leurs amies, Au reten- 
tissemet le roy enander* et les gregois vindrent veoir la bataille qui se 
faisoit deuat lentre de la caue la ou estoient les ti ois seurs moult desolees, 
Cacus scfforcoit de toute sa puissance car II veoit quil estoit heure ou 
jamaiz de monstrer et mettre auant ce que faire pouoit . II manyoit 
vertueusenient sa hache et bien lui auenoit a en ouurer II estoit dur et 
robuste et de gros couraige II donna inaint cop a lierculez et sembloit 
souuent que Jusques en abisme le deust confondre, Mais aussi heiculez 

And tliiit he in^'glit neuer vaynquysslie liym, for as moclie as he had not ouercome li^ym at 
the begynnyiig, By this prcsiiniplion he demanded of hercules, yf he wold achieue the 
Batayll wyth cute the caue. Hercules answerd that he was contente. With this answer 
cacus toke away the stone that shette the caue and wente oute. And in goyng cute after- 
hym, hercules espied liis kyen that were ded in a corner, And his oxen that were bounden 
by the mosels vnto apiler, he was sory wlian he sawe hys kyen in that poynt, Neuertheless 
he passid forth and poursiewcd cacus, that racchid oute his armes and niaad hym redy, and 
sayd to hym. thou cursid theef thou haste doon to lue grete displaysir to have slayn ray 
kyen, ye cursid tlieef thou thyself answerd cacus, yet haste thou doon to me more 
displaysir, to have slain my men and taken away my E-oyanies. thou art only culpable 
of the euyll that I haue doon and of the deth of thy kyen, I wold hit plesyd the 
goddes that I had the as well in my mercy . as 1 had them . be thou sewer that thou 
shoidest nciicr take away lloyanie fro no man And now late vs achieue oure batayll : At 
these wordes Hercules and Cacus smote eche other right sore and by grete felonnye, their 
sti'okes cleuyd to their harnoys . and sowned . At this sownyng tlie Kynge euander & the 
grekes cam to the bataill for to see hit . whiche they maad to fore tlientre of the Caue : 
Wiiere as were the thre susters passyng desolate : Cacus enforced hym wyth alle Iiis 
puyssance . ffor he sawe hit was tyme thoo or neuer to shewe and put forth all that he 
myght He handled liis axe right myghtly And well was hym nede so to doo. He was harde 
& boystous. he gaf many a strook to hercules. And hym semed other while that he sholde 

* Sic. 

fFithout Date.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 179 

de sa part ne si faindoit pas, Sil auoit forte partie Jl estoit fort a 
laduenant et plus certes quil ue* conuenoit pour la sante de cacus, II ne 
actaindoit oncques cacus quil ne lui fist tourner les yeulx en la teste ou 
quil ne le fist cliner puis dun lez puis dautre on desmarcher ruderaent, 
Ceste bataille par estente de duree ennuya aux regardans, Ilz sentre 
queroient atous costez et durement sentre tastoient,. Finablemet Ilz 
firent tant que bon mestier leur eust este de reposer et quilz fuoient par 
tous leurs corps, A dont Herculez voyant que encores nestoit pas le pris 
done et que la nuyt approuchoit II eut grant honte en lui et se com- 
menca atenner de si longue bataille, Lors se print aquerir cacus de pres 
et redoubla ses cops et sa vigueur en ruant de telle radeur sur cacus 
quil le porta fin de compte tout estonne par terre et lui fist perdre 
sa hache. puis lui osta son heaume, Les trois seurs senfuirent lors en 
vne forest nomee octa toutes plaines de larmes et de cris, Plusieurs 
gregois vouldrent aller apres mais herculez les fist retourner. Puis 
appella le roy euander et ses gens et dist au roy, Sire vecy cil qui 
soulloit les ytalies troubler par secretz murdres. couuers larrecins et 
mescongneuz viollemens des femmes, Nen souspeconnez plus les dieux, 
vecy le ministre et faiseur des delitz Jay Intencion de le pugnir non 
pas selon sa desserte, mais Jusques ala mort : 

The speech of King Evander, comprising 23 lines, has not been deemed of 
sufficient importance to extract. The narrative continues immediately as 

confounde hym vnto the depe abysme of the erthe, But hercules on his syde faylled not yf 
he had stronge partye ayenst him. He was also stronge at a venant and more stronge 
certayn than was good tor the helthc of cacus, he smote neuer cacus but he tomed the eyen 
in his heed . or made hym to stoupe or knele on that oon side or that other or goo aback 
shamefully, This bataj'U by longe during anoyed the beholders they sought eche other and 
tasted harde on bothe sides. Fynally they dide so raoche that hit was nede to reste them And 
that all their bodies swette all aboutes, than hercules sawe that yet was not the pryse gyuen 
And that the nyght approched he had grete shame in hymself . that he had hold so longe 
batayll. Than he began to seche cacus so nygh . and redowblid his strokes by suche vigour 
vpon cacus so fiercely . that at lastc he bare hym doun to the ground all astoyned And 
made hym to lese his axe And syn toke of his helme. The thre susters fleddc than in to a 
foreste named Octa all full of teeris and of cryes. Many grekes wold haue gone after. But 
hercules made hem to retorne. After he callid the kynge Euander and his folk and said to 
the kyng Syre lo here is he that was wonte to treble the ytalyens . by secrete murdres, 
couuerte theftes, & vnknowen defowlyng of women . gyue no more suspecion to thegoddes, 
Lo here is the menyster and doar of thise trespaces, I liaue entencion to punysshe hym. Not 
only after his deserte . but vnto the detb : . 

[The speech of Evander, which immediately follow s, is emitted ; in conformity with its omi.ision 
in the above text,'] * Sic, 

103 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histoires de Troye, 

e Ntre ces parollcs cacus se releua tout estourdy du cop quil auoit 
receu ct sfii cuida fuyr. Mais herculez courut aprcs et le rataindit 
si lembracha et le rapporta si serreemet quil ne le pouoit mouuoir 
dun coste ne dautre et le porta en vne fosse parfonde quil auoit faicte 
en la cane ou 11 gcttoit toutes ses ordures, quelzconques. Herculez venu 
acell fosse que les gregois auoient trouuee planta cacus dedans la teste 
dessoubz en le niant du hault en has, Adont les Italyens vidrent euiron 
la fosse et lettercnt tant de pierres sur cacus que tres miserablement 
II fina Illec sa vie.Telle fut la fin du poure roy cacus 11 mourut en vng 
trou plain dordurc et de puanteur : Fol. 180-183. 

The preceding aiFords a sufficiently copious specimen of the phraseo- 
logy and character of the work. The translation also exhibits Caxton 
in no very unfavourable point of view ; and there is throughout the 
whole, in the dialogue, and in the incidents, a na'ivate and spirit which 
cannot fail to be interesting to the curious. I believe I can fully 
pledge myself on the extreme accuracy of both the texts. The volume 
under consideration is vmluckily imperfect: wanting 31 leaves: that 
is to say, 30 leaves between fol. 29 and 59, and the 147th leaf. It was 
purchased in a deficient state, by the late John Duke of Roxburghe, 
of Mr. Payne, for 51. 5s.; and after it had been dejjrived of several 
other leaves, in order to render the copy in the Royal Library perfect, 
it was obtained at the sale of the Duke's Library, by the present 
Noble Owner of it, for no less a sum than 116Z. lis.! see Bibl. 
Roxburgh. n°. 6201. It is sound, very clean, of good dimensions, and 
is beautifully bound in olive-colour morocco by Charles Lewis. 

[d] \'ryng these wordes [of Evander] Cacus releuyd hj'in that was astonj'ed of tlie strook 
that he had receyued And wende to have fledd. But hercules ranne after & retayned hyra 
And embraced hym in his arms so harde y' he myght not meue And brought hym agayn 
And bare liym vnto a depe pytte that was in the caue where he had caste in all ordures and 
filthe, hercules cam \nito this fowie pytte that the grekes had founden And planted cacus there 
inne . his heed domiward from on hye vnto the ordure benethe, Than the ytaliens cam 
.iboute the pitte and caste so many stones vpou liym that he deyde there myserably. Suche 
vas the cndc of the poure Kynge Cacus.' & ■. Fol. 220—223. 

]yl71.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 181 

837- The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. 
Supposed to have been p7'inted in 1471. Folio. 

First English Impression of this work, and the first book 
PRINTED IN OUR LANGUAGE. It has claims therefore to be thoroughly 
described and well introduced to the notice of the curious : yet I know 
not that any thing material can be added to the copious description of 
it which appears in the first volume (p. 16 to 28) of the recent edition 
of our Typographical Antiquities. The prefix, on the recto of the first 
leaf, is lineally and literally as follows : 

€re Iiegpmtetf) t^t Ijolume intitukti anH itmncti 
D tge tetnptU of tfje ^i^tot^c0 of CropC/ compojsfeb 

attb bratDm out of tipuerce fioohejsf of iatpn in 
to ftcnltlje lip tJje rpgjt \jenctable jret^sfone antj tDot^ 
jeffjipfu!! man . Iflaoul It ffeure . pttt^t anti cKja^peiapn 
tjnto tljjc irpgljt mUt g!orpouj^ anb nipgljtp ^Jtrpncc in 
|)iisf tpnic ^Ddijr tiuc of ^outgopne of 25mt»anti it 
5[n t^t pere of tfje Slnt^t^tt^tion of out locb gob a tfjou/ 
iSfanti foute gontwreU ^ijctp anb foute- %nh ttan^latcJj 
anti bratden out of b^tn^^t in to engliir][je l&p U^illpam 
Caicton mercer of p^ cpte of Elontion/ at tlje comantiemet 
of tljc rigJjt fjpe mpgtitp anb Ijertuou^e ^rpncef^e jjp^ 
rebouBtpb iabp . jSt^argarete ftp t^t grace of 50b . SDu- 
cljefle of ^ourgopne of Hotrpft of 25rafianb iti // 
to8icl[je jafapb tranjSflacion anb tuerfte toai^ fiegonne in 
55ru0ij9f in tl^e Countec of f iaunbre^s? tlje fpr^t bap of 
mstt^t ttje pere of tlje 9[ncarnacion of our ^aib lorb 00b 
a tftou^anb faure fjonbcrb j^irtp anb epgjjte- ^nb enbeb 
anb fpnpfiTJjib intlje ijolp cpte of €olen tf^t . rir ♦ bap of 
jSejitembre tje pere of our ^apb !orb gob a tljousfanb;: 
foure l)onberb ^ijctp anb enleuen ic . 

^nb on tljat otfjer ^ibe of tW ^^^f folotuetlj tlje pologe. 

182 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histories of Troi/e, 

The preceding is printed in red. The prologue, to which Caxton 
refers, commences on the reverse of this leaf, and occupies about two 
pages, and a third part of a third page. It is reprinted entire in the 
new edition of Ames and Herbert (the work just referred to) in its 
ancient form ; but the conclusion of it, so descriptive of the simplicity 
of the translator, merits to be laid before the reader — even if it be in a 
modernised orthography : ' meekly beseeching the bounteous highness 
of my said Lady [the Lady Margaret] that of her benevolence list to 
accept and take in gre this simple and rude work here following . and 
if there be any thing written or said to her pleasure . I shall think my 
labour well employed and where as there is default . that she arette it 
to the simpleness of my cunning which is fidl small in this behalf and 
require and pray all them that shall read this said work to correct it 
and to hold me excused of the rude and simple translation And thus I 
end my prologue.' * 

The prologue of Caxton is immediately succeeded by a prologue of 
the author, having tliis prefix : 

€tt folotDrtl) pf pbgiic of tfjat toor.i^fiiirfui man 
iilaoul it feiire tafjicljc toa^ ^uctor of tJji.sf present 
booft in tJje fPren^fj tonge : 

The author is not less courteous, than his translator, in his conclu- 
sion ; which runs thus : ' And alle them that shall rede hyt for 

• A small space may be here allotted to a preceding part of this prologue, descriptive of 
the printer's education, and conduct of the version : ' And afterward when I remembered 
myself of my simpleness and unperfectness that I had, in both languages ; — that is to wit, 
in Fi-encli and in English — (for in France was I never, and was bom and learned mine 
English in Kent, in the weald, where I doubt not is spoken as broad and rude English as 
is in any place of England —and have continued by the space of xxx years for the most 
part in the countries of Brabant. Flanders, Holland, and Zealand) and thus when all these 
things came tofore me, after that I Imd made and \vritten five or six quires, I fell in despair 
of this work, and purposed no more to have continued therein, and the [the] quires laid 
apart, and in two year after labored no more in this work ; and was fully in will to have 
left it, till on a time it fortuned,' 6i.c. 

Caxton goes on to tell us that his patroness, Margaret Duchess of Burgundy, happened 
to discover his attempt at the version — corrected his language — and commanded him to 
finish the work. The printer obeyed her injunctions : for he acknowledges that he is a 
sei'vant of her Grace, and ' receives of her yearly fee and other many good and great 
beuefite.' He concludes bis prologue exactly as above. 



Ilk O <D P 

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V O fj . 

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2 .2 




1471.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 183 

teschewe ydlenes . that so rudely haue put my penne vnto the histories 
afore named . that hit plese them not onely haue regarde vnto my 
pour consayte . but also to y* obscure and derke abisme or sualowe 
where y haue gadryd them to gyder . by obeyssauce And vnder alle 
ryght humble correccions . .' On the reverse is the title to the First 
Book, printed in red; which, with the title to the Third Book, also 
printed in red, will be found in the accompanying fac-simile. 

As I may have led the reader to expect some further extracts from 
this curious volume, however abundantly I have before * gleaned from 
it, 1 shall present him with the following : illustrative of that extreme 
simplicity and naivete with which our venerable Printer thought it his 
duty to make a literal version of his original text. They describe events 
of very different complexions. Tlie first relates to the Battle of Titan 
AND Saturn. 

' [f ]Rom as ferre as the Tytanoys sawe the Saturnyens come . they 
were right glade and made them self the grettest chiere of the worlde . 
And meuyd them silf joieusly ayenst them and with a grete crye, they 
had grete sheldes of tree, maces and poUaxes and guysarraes of strange 
facions . and they were all on fote . reseruyd Tytan and his sones . 
whyche as Kynges had theyr Curres and Chares f in whiche they were 
brought and caried not by the force of hors but by the puyssance of 
men, they approched so nyghe that they cam to fightyng and began to 
werke, than the archers of kynge saturne began to drawe & shote And 
maad the tytannoys to arest and stande also longe as their shotte dured 
and slowe and hurte many of them whan the shotte fayled . the 
tytanuoys J that had grete sorowe for to be so seruid of the saturnyens, 
esmeuyd hem self agayn And swore that oon to that other that they 
wold be auengid And cam for to fight hand oon hand in whiche they 
employed them so aygrely that of the noise and deue that their axes 
and guisarmes smote vpon their sheldes hit semed as hit had ben thonder, 
At thencounteryng than the batayll was right ffell, Lychaon . Egeon . 
Creon . Typhon. and encheladus were in the first front, ther was many 
a shelde broken for the weight of the clubbes & polaxes & many heedes 
broken.' fol. 29. rev. 

The second describes the interview of Jupiter and Danae : 

• [t]He mayde danes toke grete playsir wyth all these thinges, whan 

• See the Typographical Antiquities, vol. i, p, 24-7 ; and p. 174, 180, ante, 
t A little above, Caston says : ' ffor in this tyme the kynges went to bataill in chare*.' 
t Sic. 
VOL. ry. A A 

184 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histories of Troy ; 

the damoyselles had partyd among hem her jewels of gold with grete 
Jove, tliey brought danes to bedde, And departyd from her chambre 
whiche they lefte open by forgetyng, as they had sette alle her mynde 
and entendementes on her ryehesses, And so wente to thyr beddes into 
theyr chambers, Juj)iterliyng in his bed at this hour fonde hym self so 
snrmountvd wyth covetyse of loue . That he was constraynd to aryse 
And to loke out at a wyndowe to beholde yf the day approched liftyng 
his eyen agayn tlie sterres of the heuene, And was rauysshed in his 
herte by the i"emembrance of fayr danes and sayd, O noble danes that 
hath more beaulte than the sterre shynyng, And that ye shyne by 
souerayn clerenes, Alas where be ye this houre, the payne that I endure 
for your cause, ye knewe not the grete Jeopardye and the paryllous 
paas that I haue put me in. to attayne your loue, vnkendenes . may she 
haue place in yow . with desdayn rj'gour and fiersnes, whiche ben mya 
enemyes enuenymed with mortall venym, O danes remembre your self 
of nie, And thou fortune that hast socouryd me in alle myn affayres, 
socoure me in this present nede.' 

• sifh this word his complaint cessed, and gaf his entendemet to 
many sharp thoughtes that percyd his herte ryght pensifly. This 
thoughte was grete and touchyng a right auenturous enterprise all 
accoutyd & abatid he determined in himself to assaye yf he mocht come 
vnto the ende of his thoughte, and arayde and clothid hymself and 
went out of his chambre vnto the tour, where he sawe the doi'e opene 
to his semyng And finding trouthe that hit was open he wente vp as 
softely as he cowde that he shold not be herd, and cam so ferre that he 
cam to the chambre of danes wherof the dore was open In whiche 
chambre was a lampe brennyng, Jupiter all full of gladnes put his hede 
into the chambre to beholde yf the damoyselles had ben wyth danes, 
and whan he had beholden that ther were none but that danes was 
allone in her bedde, he auenturyd hym to go vnto her where he fond 
her slepyng and awoke her by kyssynge,' &c. 

' d Anes was so sore abasshed whan she felt her self so kyste, that 
she crept ^vyth in the bedde. Jupiter nyghed neer so fer that he 
descourid her face for to speke to her, wherof she beyng a frayd 
opend her eyen and whan she wiste that hit was Jupiter, and was allone 
by her bedde side, she made a ryght grete shryche and crye, whan 
Jupiter herd this ciye he was not right well assured,' &c. {FoL 60-1.) 

The First Book contains 144 leaves, exclusively of the prologue of 
Caxton and of Raoul Le Fevre. On the reverse of the 144th : 

1471.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 185 

€ftUj6f enbctij tf^t fit^t 600ft of t^t recuepH or 
gabrpng to getiei: of tlje iji^totpe^ of €rope» 

On the recto of the following leaf, the Second Book has this prefix : 

^ittt iic0pnncti) tfyt feconbc liooftc of tge rtcucill of 
tlje giftorpcisf of ^ropc, tljat ^jreftetl) of tlje protoclTe^ 
of tje ^tronge ^txcuW anb of jjisf tietlj ic : : . 

From this book I have given a very copious extract, accompanying 
the French text at p. 174 ante. The conclusion of this book is on the 
recto of fol. 248, and will be found in the new edition of Ames and 
Herbert, at vol. i, p, 19. On the recto of folio 249, exclusively of the 
three preliminary leaves, the Third Book commences with this prefix : 

9[n tlje^e ttoo Boftc^ prcceticnte ♦ toe ijauc lip tfje l^clpe 
of gob tretpij of tf)e ttoo ftrsft be^truccpoitj? of Crope 
toitt) tl)e ixiMc faptc^ anti titbt^ of tlje j^tronge anti 
puifi^ant f$ttmW . tfjat niabe anb bpbc ^o manp met 
tjapHi.s? tjat tfje engpnc Ijumapn of allc men ougljtc to 
mcruapfle . 5ilnb aliS^o Jjoto Dc isleljue tljc hpnge laomc 
bon httt boun anb put Ijisf cptc of trope to rupne #oto 
in tp t||irbe anb ia^te liooft gob to fore . tue ^Iball jsfaie 
|)ota tlje ^apb cpte taaisf Bp 5^riamuj^ ^one of tlie laaib 
Itpngc laomebon recbiffieb anb repapreb more ^tronge 
anb more pupf^ante tjjan euer jjit taai^ Before . 5lnb 
aftertoarb IjotD for tge raupfjsjjement of bame Ijela- 
pne topf of hpnge ^enilausf of grece . tlje $fapb cpte 
toa^ totaHp be^tropeb ^^riamusf Ijector anb alle ^i^ 
jBionejSf jsiJapn ixjitfj noBkfsfe toptj) out nomBre . a^ Ijit 
jefJaU appere in tl^e proce^ef of tje cljapitre^ . ♦ 

The title, in red, immediately following, is given in the fac-simile 
facing p. 1S3. From this book the reader is below* presented with a 

* ' [w]Han parys knewe that the quene helayne that was wyf of kynge Meiielaus one of 
the moste uoble kynges of grece was cornea vnto this temple, He arayed hym in the moste 

186 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histories of Troy; 

very interesting extract, describing the first meeting of Paris and 
Helen, and the carrying off of the latter. The prophetic ravings of 
Cassandra, in contcquence, are thus described: 

gentilmanliest wyse that he roude and his companye And wente in to the temple. For he 
had longe tynie before herd speke of her grete beaulte. And than as lie was coraen and 
sawe her. He was gretly esprised with her loue And began stroniily to beholde her. And to 
desire to see the facion of her body That was so fayr and well shapen in all thingcs, and in 
suclie wise that hit seemed properly to thetu that sawe her. That nature had made her to be 
beholden & beseyn. For in her was no thing but that hit seruyd to encrece alle the beaulte 
y' niyglit be foundeii in a woman, wherefore parys might not forbere to beholde her, sayng in 
hym self that he had neuer seen ne hcrde speke of ony so fayre and so well foumied And as 
he heheldc her. In like wjse helayne behelde hym also many times and (jfte . and her semed 
that he was more fayrer a grete dele than liad ben reported to her. And well sayd in her 
self that she sawe neuer man of so grete beaulte, Ne that plesid her so well to beholde And 
so she leftc alle her deuocion and alle other thoughtes And gaf no fors ne ranght of no thing 
than, saue only for to beholde pai-ys. Whan parys knewe and sawe this he had grete joye, 
and behelde her swetly more and more and she hym. By whiche sighte they shewyd yiiowhe 
of theyr desires, that one to that other. And thoughte gretly by what occasion they myght 
speke to gyder. And so longe they behelde eche other that by sembiaunt, Helayne made a 
token or signe to parys that he approchid to her, And anone parys satte doiui beside her, 
■whilis that the peple played in the temple And spack to her wyth a softe voys ryght swetely 
and she to hym, And exposid eche to other how they were surprysid of the loue of that one 
and of that other, And how they myght come to the ende after her desire, And whan they 
had spoken ynowgh of theyr bote loue, Parys toke leue of her And yssued out of the temple. 
He and his felawshipp. And helayne sente after hym her eyen al so fer as she myghte.' 
\_Paris addi-esses his Companions, and plots the manner of carrying off Helen, '\ 

' [t^]Ow hit happend that the nyght was come, and the mone was nj-ghe goon doun 
The troians armed them the moste secrete wise that they cowde And lefte some of them 
for to kepe theyr shippys, And tlie other wente preuyly vnto the temple. And entryd 
Iherin so araied as they were And with lityll deftence toke alle them that they fonde 
in the temple and alle the rychesses that were therin. And parys with his owen hande 
toke helayne and them of theyr companye And broughte in to theyr shippes alle the 
beste and put hit in sure garde. And after retorned to the proye, Tho began the noyse 
passmg grete with in the temple of the prysonners, And of the some that had leuer suffre 
to be slayn than for to be take prysonners, the noyse was herd feiTe In suche wyse that they 
of the castell that stode therby hcrde hit, and incontynent they aroose and armed hem 
and cam to assaylle the troians as vayllyant as they were, Tho began the medle ryght fyers 
and niortalle. But the troians that were foure ayenst one slewe many of them And the 
other Hedde and recnti-yd in to theyr castell. And than the troians toke as moche as they 
coude lyiide of good. And bare hit vnto theyr shippis. And entryd in to them, And drew 
vp theyr sayllys And sayllyd so longe that on the seuenth day they cam and arryuyd at the 
porte of troye theyr shippes full of good prisonners and of good Rychesses And they abood 
at the porte of thenedon that was but thre myle fro Troye, And there were they receyuyd 
wyth grete joye, And than parys sente a propre messaiiger vnto his fader the kynge pryant 
to lete hym haue knowleche of his comynge and of alle that, that he had doon in grece of 
these tidynges the kynge was gretly reyoyssyd and commanded in alle the cyte to make 
fc&te solempuly fur these tidynges.' &c. Fol, 263-4. 

1471] WILLIAM CAXTON. 187 

' [w]Han Cassandra knewe for trouthe that parys her broder had 
wedded helayne, she began to make grete sorowe to cry & braye as a 
woman oute of lier witte, And sayde thus O vnhappy troians wherfore 
reioysse ye yow of the weddyng of parys. Wherof so many euylls shall 
come and foUowe. And wherfore see not ye the deth of yourself and 
of your sones that shall be slayn to fore your eyen And the husbondes 
to fore their wyuys with grete sorowe, Ha. A noble cyte of Troyes 
how thou shalt be destroyed and put to nought, Ha. a vnhappy moders, 
what sorowe shall ye see, whan ye shall see your lityll children taken 
and dismembryd to fore yow. Ha. a hecuba kaytyf and vnhappy where 
shalt thou take the water that thou shalt wepe for the deth of thy 
children Ha. a peple blind & folissh, why sende not ye Incontynent 
helayne home agayn. And yelde her vnto her righte husbond to fore 
that the swerdes of your enemyes come and slee yow with grete sorowe, 
wene ye that this prynce the husbonde of helayne wole dvvelle at home 
with oute greuous vengence, Certes that shall be your dolorouse fynand 
ende, ha. a vnhappy helayne, thou shalt do vs moche sorowe As cassandra 
said and cryed thus with hyghe voys and with grete sorowe The kynge 
pryant knewe hit And did her to be taken prysonner And sende to her 
and did do praye her that she shold cesse, but she wolde not, And than 
he comanded that she shold be fast shette in prison and in yrons, where 
she was kept many dayes O what pyte was hyt. That the Troyans 
beleuyd not this warnyng and amonycion, For yf they had beleuyd hyt. 
They had eschewid the right grete euyllis that cam after vnto tiiem. 
That shall be told in faybles to them that wole here hem vnto the ende 
of the world' &c. Fol. 265, recto. 

It remains only to subjoin that, what may be called, the Epilogue of 
the Printer terminates the volume on the last leaf but one. This 
concluding address to the reader has been before faithfully repiinted 
by me in the Typographical Antiquities of our country ; vol. i. p. 20-22. 
A part of it, however, is too interesting to be here withheld. The 
venerable translator begins by assuring us that * in writing of this 
book his pen was worn, his hand weary and not stedfast, his eye 
dimmed with over-much looking on the white paper, and his courage 
not so prone and ready to labour as it had been, and that age crept on 
him daily and feebled all his body * — ' therefore he had practised and 
learnt at his great charge and dispense to ordain this said book in print 
after the manner and form as we may there see.' He goes on with 
telling us that ' divers books which men have made in all points accord 
aiot as dictes. Dares. & Homer : for Dictes & Homer, as Greeks, say 

188 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histories of Troy. 

and write favorably for the Greeks, and give to tliem more woiship 
than to the Trojans :' and concludes by beseeching a blessing of peace 
love and chaiity from hiui that suffered for the same to be crucified 
on the rood tree : and say we all amen for charity.' 

The following and concluding leaf, being the 251bt from the begin- 
ning of the volume, inclusively, terminates the impression thus: 

^pergania Acre bolo . fata banaijBf tiata ^olo 

^olo capta bolo . capta rctiacta ^olo 

€au^a niali tali^ . nicrctnjc fait cxicialiiBf 

f tniina Jetali^ . fcmina plena maliflf 

^i fiicri^ Jota - ^i bita ^cqucn^ liona tota 

^i eri^ ignota . non txi^ afjfq5 nota 

3^af^a priu^ paritiein . pibisf molio tljc^ia priUem 

<e^ famira fiticni . iic retica^ in itJcnt 

lUimior tic tjetcri . facict bentiira timcci 

Crafif potcrunt fieri . turpia sicut Ijeri 

ig>eena quiti cuatii^ niorti qui cetera trotiirf 

Cut tu non t\^h\^ * concia clatic catiiiS^ 

fcmina tiigna niori . reamatut aniore priori 

^ctitiita tJictori. bciicit^ q5 tgori 

Of this very rare and interesting work there are scarcely fewer than 
twelve known copies ; but to obtain a perfect copy is a circumstance of 
singular good fortune. The libraries of His Majesty and the Marquis of 
Bath may however boast of such an acquisition ; while the two imperfect 
copies, in the Public Library of Oxford and of Cambridge, are inadequate 
even to supply a complete copy between them. His Grace the Duke of 
Devonshire was the purchaser of the copy which was in the library of the 
late John Duke of Roxburghe : a copy, not more distinguished for the 
extraodinary price at which it was obtained, than for the beauty and sin- 
gularity of the volume itself. It has been before observed* that there 
is every reason to imagine that this copy was originally a j)resentation 
one, by Caxton, to Elizabeth Grey, Queen of Edward IV^th, and sister- 
in-law to the Dutchess of Burgundy, the patroness of the printer. 
• See the recent edition of the Typog. Antiq. vol, i. p. 27. 

Chess Pluy; 1474] WILLIAM CAXTON. 189 

This copy contains also an ancient copper-plate engraving, illustrative 
of one of the subjects of the vv^ork. It is however deficient — in the 
last leaf only. The copy under description is also not exempt from 
imperfection ; wanting only the first leaf* — but being, in other 
respects, sound and desirable : and formerly in the collections of Mr. 
Tutet and Mr. Austin. It is lx)und by Roger Payne in russia leather. 

838. The Game and Pi>ArE of the Chesse. 
[Moralised.] 1474. Folio. 

First Edition of this work ; and, like all the earlier publications 
of Caxton, of extreme rarity. This impression has been before so 
copiously described by me,t that, in a bibliographical point of view, it 
may be only necessary to observe that the dedication, to the Duke of 
Clarence, by Caxton, occupies the first leaf ; the table of the chapters, 
tie second ; and on the recto of the 3rd leaf the text of the work 
begins thus :% 

€tfi0 fit^t ctjapiter of tfje firsft tractate fjjetoetlj bntier 

tuliat h^tiQt tfyt p\a^ of tfje t^zKt tDas^ fountim anti 

maab .: . 

a^onge aU tje eupfl tontiitionief anti figiieji 

tljat map ht in a man t{je firtt anti p gretteft 

i^ tol)an tie feetet^ not/ ne titetietlj to UifpleiSJe 

ai^ make teotlj gob hp ti^mt, anti tge 

peple hp Ipupng tiifortrpnatip/ tD^n ^t ret- 

Sec. 8cc. Sec. 

In pursuing the plan of giving extracts from the earlier and rarer 
books of Caxton's press, I shall present the reader with the following 

• Herbert, who saw this copy, said ' the title was supplied by a well-written IMS,' 
This obserratiou is true, as the copy now appears ; since the former ins. leaf, which had no 
membtance to t}te original, has been supplied by an admirablj'-executed fac-simile by Mr. 
Whitaker, the bookbinder, 

t Typographical Antiquitie$ ; vol. L p. 28-36. 

} A more copious extract from this opening, in modernised orthography, will be found in 
the work just above quoted. 

190 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Game of Chess, 

few specimens of this ' moralising ' work. Tliese shall be given in 
their original dress ; referring to the work below quoted for some 
copious extracts in a modernised form. 

* The thirde tractate of the offices of the comyn peple. The fyrst 
chapitre is of the office of the labourers and werkemen. 

[f ]Oi' as mochc as the Noble persone canne not rewle ne gouerne with 
oute y^ seruyce and werke of the peple, than hit behoueth to deuyse 
the oeuurages and the offices of the werkemen, than I shall begynne 
fyrst at the fyrst pawne, that is in the playe of the chesse. And sig- 
nefjeth a man of the comyn peple on fote. For they be all named 
pietous* that is as moche to saye as footeraen And than we wyll begynne 
at the pawne whiche standeth to fore the rooke on the ryght side of 
the kinge for as moche as this pawne apperteyneth to serue the vicaire 
or lieutenant of the kynge and other officers vnder hym of necessaryes 
of vitayll, And this maner a peple is figured and ought be maad in the 
forme and shappe of a man holdynge in his ryght hande a spade or 
shouell and a rodde in the lifte hand. The spade or shouell is for to 
delue & labour therwith the erthe. And the rodde is for to dryue & 
ponduyte wyth all the bestes vnto her pasture also he ought to haue on 
his gyrdell, a crokyd hachet for to cutte of the superfluytees of the 
vignes & trees, And we rede in the bible that the first labourer that 
euer was, was Caym the fyrste sone of Adam that was so euyll that he 
slewe his broder Abel, for as moche as the smoke of his tythes went 
strayt unto heuen. And the smoke . & fumee of the tythes of Caym 
wente dounward vpon the erthe And how well that this cause was 
trewe, yet was ther another cause of enuye that he had vnto his broder. 
For whan Adam their fader maried them for to multyplye ye erthe of 
hys lygnye, he wolde not maiye ner joyne to gyder the two that were 
born attones, but gaf unto caym her that was born wyth Abel, And to 
Abel her that was born with caym, And thus began thenuye that 
caym had ayenst abel. For his wyf was fayrer than cayms wyf And 
for this cause he slough abel with the chekebone of a beste, & at that 
tyme was neuer no maner of yron blody of mannes blood, And abel 
wase ye first martier in tholde testament, And this caym dide many 
other euyl thinges whiche I leue, for it apperteyneth not to my mater/ 
Fol. 2S. 

A little onwards (on the reverse of the ensuing leaf) a story or two is 
told, from Valerius Maximtis, of the fidelity and courage of the labouring 

• Sic. 

1474.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 191 

class, under the denomination of servants — the second story is thus : 
* And also telleth Valerius that ther was another labourer that was 
named penapiou, that seruyd a maister whos name was Theiues whiche 
was of meruayllous faith to his maystre. For hit befell that certain 
knyghtes cam to his maisters hows for to slee hym And anone as 
papiryon knewe hit, he wente in to his maisters chambrc And wold not 
be knowen. For he dide on his maisters gowne and his rynge on his 
fjnger, And laye in his bedde And thus put hym self in parill of deth 
for to respite his maisters lyf, But we see now a dayes many fooles 
that daigne not to vse groos metes of labourers. And flee the cours 
clothynge And maners of a seruant,' &c. 

The following story, from the f'itas Patrum, (on the reverse of the 
same leaf, 30,) has rather an epigrammatic or whimsical conclusion, 
thougli intended to be of a serious cast. ' And herof fynde we in Vitas 
patrum. that ther was an erle a riche & noble man that had a sone 
onely, and whan this sone was of age to haue knowlech of the lawe, 
he herde in a sermone that was prechid that deth spareth none, ne 
riche ne poure, and as well dyeth y yonge as tlie olde, and that the deth 
ought specially to be doubted for. iii. causes, one was, y* no man 
knoweth whan he cometh, and the seconde, ner in what state he taketh 
a man, And the thirde he wote neuer whither he shall goo. Therfore 
eche man shold despise and flee the world and lyue well and holde 
hym toward god And whan this yong man herde this thynge, he 
wente oute of his contrey and flede vnto a wyldernesse vnto an her- 
mytage, and whan his fader had loste hym he made grete sorowe, and 
dyde do enguere & seke hym so uaoche at last he was founden in the 
hermitage, and than his fader cam theder to hym and sayde, dere sone 
come from thens, thou shalt be after my deth erle and chyef of my 
lignage, I shall be lost yf thou come not out fi'om thens. And he than 
that wyste non otherwise to eschewe the yi'e of his fader bethought hym 
and sayde, dere fader ther is in your cnntre and lande a ryght euyll 
custome yf hit plese yow to put that away I shall gladly come out of this 
place and goo with yow The fader was glad and had grete loye And 
demanded of hym what hit was And yf he wold telle hym he promysid 
hym to take hit away and hit shold be left and sette a parte. Than he 
sayde dere fader ther dyen as well the yong folk in your contrey as the 
olde, do that away I pray you, whan his fader herde that he sayde 
Dere sone that may not be ner no man may put that away but god 
only. Than answerd the sone to the fader, than wylle I serue hym ancl 


192 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Game of Chess, 

dwelle here wyth hym that may do that. And so abode the childe in 
the hermytage & lyuyd there in good werkea.' 

Maxims, interspersed with supposed and real cases, historical cha- 
racters, sacred and profane, are constantly occuiTing in this ' tractate ' 
upon the game of chess. The story of Demosthenes and Lais is thus 
quaintly narrated : ' Heleniand reherceth that demostenes the philo- 
sopher lay ones by a right noble woman for his disportc, and playinge 
with her he demanded of her what he shold gyue to haue to do wjth 
her. And she answerd to hym, a thousand ])ens, and he sayd agayn to 
her I shold repente me to bye hit so dere. And whan he aduysed hym 
that he was so sore chauffid to speke to her for taccoplisr^h his flesshely 
desire, he dispoyled hym alle naked and wente and putte hym in the 
middes of the snowe And ouide reherceth that this thynge is the leste 
that maye helpe and moste greue the louers.' Fol. 40. recto. 

Recurring to the description of this volume, in a bibliographical 
point of view, we may remark that it is entirely divested of signatures, 
catchwords, and numerals ; and contains 72 leaves. A full page has 
31 lines. The recto of the last leaf presents us with only the fol- 
lowing piece of text, and the colophon :* 

5[n conquerpngc "^0 riglfjtfufi eitljeritauncc/ tljat bmrap 
pcajBf and cgaritc itiap cntiiirc in fiotjje ^i^ toyamc^i anb 
tfjat marcfjantiijafe map Ijaue Jiief cmit^ in ^nt^t \3iw t^at 
euerp man cfclfjctDe ^pnncy anti tnctttt in bcrtuoujef occii 
pacion^af/ ^rapinge pour gtiob grace to rcflcpue tlji^ litpU 
anti fpmpic fiooft matie tjnticr tf^t fiopc anti HjatiotDc of 
pour noBJc protection ftp Ijpm tfjat i^ pour moft Jjumblc 
fcruant/ in grcc aub tJjanhc ?Bnli 21 leftiafl j>rap almigljtp 
gob for pour longc Ipf i tDclfarc/ tofjicljc Ijc preacruc 
SCnti fentic poto tljaccompUinjemcnt of pour fjpc noBlc. 
3Iopou.^ anti bcrtuouief ticsir^ 51! men : | :♦ f pnpfljiti of tl^e 
la^t tiap of marcl^e tfje per of our lorb gob a. tljoufanti 
foure Ijonbreb anb Irriiii.: : ♦ : : . 

A question may here occur, respecting the meaning and foice of the 
word ' Fynysshid ' in the above coloj)hon. I have probably, with too 

1474.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 193 

much precipitation, observed that ' it is controvertible that the present 
vv'ork is the first book printed by Caxton, to which the date of the 
imprint is affixed.' If the expression ' finished/ in this instance, mean 
only the completivn of the ms. version — it must have the same meaning 
in the title prefixed to the Troy Book : see p. 182 ante. Yet bibliogra- 
phers have considered such word, in both instances, to express the date 
of the imprint : and to confirm this conclusion, Caxton, in his prologue 
to the Golden Legend of 1483, affirms these two works to be the earliest 
in the order of his labours. On the other hand, in the colophon of the 
Dictes and Sayings, 1477. our printer expressly uses the word enprynted, 
accompanied by the name of the place where the book was executed. 
Another consideration, however, seems to weigh in favour of the word 
• finished' implying the completion of the printing of the work. The 
type, with which this edition is executed, is precisely similar to that of 
the French and English editions of the Troy Book : and if Caxton in- 
forms us, in the epilogue of the latter work (or English Troy book) 
that he had then learnt the art of printing at a great expense — it 
should seem to infer that the word ' finished ' implied the date of the 
printing, and not that of the ms. translation, of it. No other book, 
with the exception below mentioned,* is known to exhibit these types. 
Upon the whole, as the present copy of this rare book is unusually 
sound and large, the Noble Owner of it may congratulate himself on 
possessing a most curious and early specimen of the press of our first 
printer. This copy is handsomely bound by C. Hering, in russia leather. 
A beautiful copy,wanting only 2 leaves, is in the possession of the Duke 
of Devonshire ; from the collection of Mr. Roger Wilbraham. The 
libraries of His Majesty, the Earl of Pembroke, and the Marquis of 
Blandford, contain perfect and fair copies. 

* This exception alludes to the ' History of Jason' in the French language; of 
which work, executed in the same types, and therefore probably printed by Caxton, there 
b a perfect copy in the Royal Library at Paris. Mons. Van Praet favoured me, by letter, 
with a particular description of it ; which was given by me to the public in the Gentleman's 
Magazine; vol, 82. pt. ii. p. 3-4. See also Brpnet's Manuel du Libraire, vol, i. Edit. 1814. 

191 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Game of Chess, 

839. The Game and Pi.aye of the Chesse. 
[Moralized.] TVithout Place or Date, Folio. 

Second Edition. Having fully described and illustrated this im- 
pression, iu the work so frequently before referred to, it remains only 
to be brief, yet sufficiently particular, in the present account of it. 
The prologue, and the heads of the chapters in the several treatises, 
occupy the first 3 pages of the work. The reverse of the second leaf 
is blank. In this prologue Caxton informs us ' an excellent doctor of 
divinity in France, had made a book of the Chess Moralized, which, at 
such tinie as he was resident in Bruges, came into his hands ; and 
•when he had read and overseen it, it seemed full necessary to be had 
in English.' He then set about the translation, and published the 
preceding edition, without cuts ; ' of which he printed a certain 
number, which anon were depesshed and sold.' He then resolved to 
pa'int it, • shewing therein the figures of such persons as belong to the 
play.' Accordingly, the impression appeared with a considerable 
number of rude wood-cuts ; of nearly the whole of which fac-similes 
are given in the Tijpog. Aiitujuities, edit. 1810, vol. i. pp. 36-52. A few 
however were omitted ; not of sufficient importance to be hei'e pre- 
sented to the reader. These cuts have probably rendered the edition 
much scarcer than the preceding one. 

On the recto of the third leaf is the prefix to the first chapter, con- 
cerning the origin of the game; beneath which is a rude wood cut, 
representing a man chopping to pieces a crowned human being, while 
the birds are carrying away portions of his limbs. The text imme- 
diately informs us that this is ' Enylmerodach a lolye man without 
lustyse and so cruel that he did do hewe his faders body in thre hondred 
pieces and gaf hit to ete and deuoure to thre hondred byrdes that 
men calle vouitres. And was of suche condicion as was Nero, And 
right wel resemblid and was lyke vnto his fader Nebugodonosor. 
whiche on a tyme wold do slee all the sage and wise men of babilone. 
For as moche as they coude not telle hym his dreme that he had 
dremyd on a nyght and had forgoten hit like as hit is wreton in the 
byb'.e in the book of danyel. Vnder this kyng thene Enylmei'odach was 
this game and playe of the chesss founden Trevve it is that s5me men 
weue, that this play was foiident in the tyme of the bataylles and siege 
of tioye. But that is not so, For this playe cam to the playes of the 

Jason; [1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 195 

Caldees as diomedes the greek saith and reherceth, that amongc the 
philosophres was the most renomed playe amonge all other playes. 
And after that cam this playe in the tyme of alixander the grete in to 
egypt and so vnto alle the parties toward the south. And the cause 
wherfore this playe was so renomed shal be sayd in the iij chapitre.' 

On the recto of the succeeding leaf the first chapter of the ' first 
tractate ' begins ; prefixed to which is a figure, before a chess board, as 
given at page 38 of the work above referred to. Another wood-cut, 
not introduced into this work, is on the recto of the 5th leaf : repre- 
senting the king and the philosopher playing the game of chess. All 
the remaining figures, with the exception only of one of two* — sitting 
together above the ' third chapter of the second treatise' — are repre- 
sented in the forementioned work. The impression contains signatures, 
a to k, in eights : a blank leaf forming a i, and k and 1 having each only 6 
leaves. On the recto of 1 vj, we read the concluding sentence (not to 
be found in the first edition) and the colophon, thus : 

€j)enne Jate tmt^ man of to^at 
fontipcion IJe Be tfjat cetiptfj or Ijeritij tf)t^ \xtt\ iiooft tcbbe » 
tafte tijerBp enfaumjrte to amentie t)pm ♦ 

€jcpliat pet Cajcton 

The present is a large and most desirable copy ; perfected and cleaned 
with considerable skill and success. It formerly belonged to the famous 
Laurence Sterne, and was purchased by him, at York, for a few shillings. 
It is in russia binding. 

840. The Historie of Jason. Supposed to have 
been printed in 1475. Folio. 

This volume is among the scarcest, and the most interesting of those 
which owe their first existence, in an English form, to the pen and 
press of Caxton, The immediate original of the work is a French 
version, by Raoul de Fevre, from the Latin texts of Dares Phrygius and 

* One of these two figures is only a representation of tlie Bishop, a» given at page 41 <rf 
tUe Typogs Antvm'itiei, edit, 1810, vol. i. 

19G BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jason; 

Guido de Colonna ; and the present performance may be considered a 
compilation of all the histories extant of the hero whose deeds it 
celel)ratcs. Comparatively with the Morte d' Arthur, there are few 
digressions and few wearisome episodes. The hero is generally kept 
in view ; while his uniform (and almost systematic) treachery towards 
the ladies who had surrendered to him their honour, is narrated in 
a manner softened down, and not studiously or obtrusively disgusting. 
The general sentiments of the romance are completely chivalrous ; 
and the hardy exploits and perilous escapes of the hero are varied by 
numerous little touches of domestic life and common-place adventure. 
Upon the whole, there is much natural and beautiful colouring in this 
performance ; as it shall be my endeavour to prove in the copious 
extracts which follow. 

The impression is entirely destitute of signatures, numerals, and 
catchwords, and a full page contains 29 lines. The prologue, which is 
a very interesting one, tills the first two pages and a half. As it has 
been before printed entire in my edition of our Typographical Antiqui- 
ties, (vol. i. p. 53-59) it shall be my present object to select only the 
most material part of it — which relates to the probable date of the im- 
pression. The conjecture, which has assigned to it the date of 1475, 
is formed fi'om the supposed age of the then Prince of Wales, after- 
wards Edward the Vth, on whose account the version appears to have 
been undertaken. Caxton, in this prologue, informs us, that the 
husband of his patroness, Philip Duke of Burgundy — was ' the first 
founder of the Order of the Golden Fleece : that he made a chamber 
in the castle of Hesdyn, wherein was craftily and curiously depainted 
the conquest of the Golden Fleece by the said Jason : in which chamber 
he [Caxton] had been, and seen the said History so depainted : and in 
remembrance of Medea, and of her cunning and science, he had do 
make in the said chamber, by subtil engine, that when he would, it 
should seem that it lightened, and after thunder, snow, and rain : and 
all within the said chamber as oft times and when it shoidd please him : 
which was all made for his singular pleasure.' Our printer, after 
telling us that he supposes his patron possesses the original French text, 
goes on and concludes his prologue strictly in the following order : 

51 cnte ntie fip 1^x^ iicencc i congpe i fip t!jc ^upjrortacon 
of our niOiBft rctiouBtcti licgc laDp . moo.sft ctdleitt prin- 
tti^t tlje qucne to jrte^ente t1^i^ i^aptie fiofte tjnto tf|e 

1475] WILLIAM CAXTON. ^ 197 

mo^t (aptt ♦ anti mp moo^t rctioub tcb pong lotb . 3i^ 
lotb ^rpnce of Wnlt^ our toconipng *fonapnc Jorbe . 
tdljoiii 21 ]prape gob ^aue anb eiicrea^e in bectue i firpng 
]^im tjnto a^mocjje iBor^ljiji antj goobe iJIcnomc a^ met 
liaJj onp of Iji^ noBJc progcnptour^ to tfjentent/ l^e map 
liegpnnc to lerne rcbc (iBngliflt) . not for cnp fieautc oc 
gooti (i^ntipting of our <!^glif(f) tonge tJiat i^ tljcrin ♦ 
But for t^t noueltc of tlje Ijii^toric^ ijDfticfje a^ g[ .sujrpo^e 
Jati) not fie Ijati biforc tfjc tran.i^iacion ficrcf moojeft 
Jumlilie fie.i^eftpng mp ^apb mo^t brab ^ouerapn n; 
naturd liege lorbc tide Jlipng anb ai^o t\^t <Bumt to 
gbon me ^o jireiSfimipng . 311nb mp $fapb to compng 
^ouerapne lorby ^ lorb tge 3^rpnce to rccepue it m 
gree i t^mht of me |)i.^ fjumble ^uBgiett i jferuaute . 
anb to parbone me of tlji^ mp pimple anb tobe trauj^- 
laciou/ anb an ottjcr tljat lui^te to rebe or jjere iti to 
forrecte to^ere a^ tfjep ^IJaHe ftnbe befaulte 

^ere enbetH tf)e prologue of tlJe tran^latour 

The prologue of the Author follows, on the reverse of the second 
leaf. This shall be extracted (as it has not been previously given) 
before we come to the question of the date of the impression. It is 
very curious, and is literally thus :* ' The galeye of myn engyn floting 
not long syn in the depnes of the sees of diuce aucient histories in suche 
wise as I wold haue brought myn esperite vnto the porte or hauen of 
rest . Sodaynly apperid by me a ship conduited by one man only . 
This man anon behelde my regarde and contenance . Which gaue me 
title and cause of thought and of abasshemente . for as moche as 1 saw 
his visage trist . heuy . & desolate, wherof smyton with a passion of 
his ennuye & greef Assone as he conceyuid that I so beheld him by 
grete desir he helde him still and sayde to me in this wise . Man of 
rude engyn What meruaillest thou . Ancre thy galeye here & take thy 
peiie for to write & put in memorie my faites & dedes . The Kyng 

* See the commencement of the Frencli version of tlie original edition (in the Royal 
Library at Paris) in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 82, pt. ii p. 3. 

198 BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jason ; 

Jupiter of crete was myn olde bele fader, and he engendred Cacus 
Kyng of myrmidoue . This cacus engendred my fader Eson . 1 am 
Jason that conquerd the flees of gold in the yle of colchos. And that 
dayly hiboure in sorowe roted in tristresse for the dishoneur that some 
personcs hurte & empesshe uiy glorie . Inposing to me not to haue 
holden my promys anenst medea, wherof thou hast red the truth . 
Thene I pray the that thou do make a boke vnto them that dayly speke 
& impugne my glorie maye knowe their indiscrete jugement . And 
for taccomplisshe the same 1 haue chosen the to thende, that thou pre- 
scnte this present wiiting vnto the fader of writars of histories . 
Whiche ys vnto Philip lader & louer of all vertues in his time Due of 
Bougoygne and of Brabant &c. The whiche hath ben in all his time 
enclyned and of grete affeccion to here and see red the auncient 
histories , And to here tolde the faytes of the worthy and noble some- 
tyme flourisshing in vertues in valyance and prudence for his singular 
passetemps . Thyse vvordes accomplisshid the shippe & Jason vanisshid 
away and I abode there pensyf, But in thende desiring to shewe the 
honour and declare the vertues of the sayd Jason 1 ancred my galeye & 
put in wiytyng hys faytes as here after shall be declared playnly & a 
long, so than 1 presente my litil book vnto right hye and right redoubted 
I)uc of Bourgoyne not presuming myn Ineloquence, but presenting 
myn right humble & indigne seruice . Thus endeth myn Auctor his 
prologe, And how wel that hit is sayd afore this prologe that Eson 
was sone to Cacus . Yet bochace saith in the genealogy of goddes that 
he was sone to Erictheus the . xxix . sone of Jupiter, As ye may see 
more playnly in the . xiij . book of the Genelagye of goddes the . xxiiij . 

The prologue of Raoul le Fevre ends on the recto of the third leaf; 
the reverse is blank. The text begins at the top of the recto of the 
4th leaf: a full page comprehending 29 lines. In respect to the 
legitimate date of this impression, it may, I think, be fairly said that 
the year 1475. or 1476", is as late a period as can be assigned to it. 
The young prince was ' beginning to learn to read English' according 
to the prologue of Caxton ; and according to the printer's conclusion, 
or epilogue, he was then ' in his tender youth.' In the year 1483, 
according to Granger, the same prince, then Edward the Vth, and in 
his eleventh year, was murdered in the Tower. This fixes the year of 
his birth in 1472 ; and if we suppose him to be three or four years old, 
when he began to learn to read his native tongue, it follows that the 
date of 1475, or 1476, is that which we must assign to the edition. 


Moreover, Caxton, in his prologue to the Golden Legend of 1483, 
expressly tells us that this book was the third work of his press. 

I shall now present the reader with a variety of extracts from a 
volume of such curiosity and rarity ; beginning with a highly wrought 
description of the passion of Jason for his first-beloved, Myrrho : ' The 
fayr Myrro cam than to mete with lason garnisshed with a gracious 
maintene . And made to him the grettest honour and reuerence that 
was to her possible , leding him vnto her palays, where he entrid with 
grete payne . for the peple was assembled there on alle partes aboute 
him in a meruayllous nombre for to see him and cryed alle with an 
hyhe voys sayng . Nowe is retourned agayn victorious our defendour . 
our swerd, our helthe and all our esperaiice . whiche hath only in him- 
self more of vaisselage than is in all Esklauonye, and ought to be 
honoured & recomanded aboue alle other . Certes the noble lason was 
fested this night & recomended of suche and semblable loenges of 
them of Oliferne, whiche made in the stretes daunses & esbatemens 
thanking their goddes And alwaye lason was more and more in the 
grace of the ladyes, for the best born the most fayre the best accom- 
plisshed & the most speciall fyxed their loue in hym, Alle were jalouse 
of him, But lason neuer thought on none of them, but onely upon the 
seuUe & oultrepassed beaute of the vertuouse Myri'o, whiche alwaye was 
in his memorie And alle they had wondre & meruayle of the beaute 
graciousete wytte & parfecion of lason . And for to abregge this storie 
the vaillyaiit & oultrepreu lason was in this glorie & tryumphe vnto 
mydnight whiche than withdrewe hym . And whan he was withdrawen 
in his chambre he reentred into his reuerie of loue as he hadde ben to 
fore acustomed. 

* And sette alle in oublie and forgeting the poysaOt and dangerous 
strokes that he had that day receyued in the bataylle ayenst the 
Esklauons wherof his body was right sore, and concluded in himself 
that on the morn he wolde declare his corage vnto the lady . But 
whan the daye was come and whan he cam to fore her . he felte him- 
self so sore surprised with loue that he wiste not what to saye. And thus 
he drof forth longe and many a day that he for alle his hardines of 
Armes, his swete speche ne his strengthe coude not auaylle in gy uing him 
hardiesse, for to discouere his corage vnto his lady . Wherfore on a 
night he beyng in his bedde began to blame hymself . and saide softely 
to himself in this manere. 

' What may prouffiten the contynuell bewailinges that I make for my 

VOL. IV. c c 

200 BOOKS PRINTED BY [His fori/ of Jason, 

lady, I am not a ferde whan I finde me in a troublous bataille of an 
honderd thousand men, but whan I suppose to speke to my lady, I 
tremble for feere & drede & wote not what to saye . for tofore her I 
am as all rauisshed, in like wise as a poure and shamefast man that 
suffreth to dye for honger rather thene for shame he dar begge his 
breed, O what vergoigne p[ro]cedeth of such shamefastnes, I speke to 
my self allone & 1 answere, ofte tymes I amaduised that to morii I shal 
do meruayles & so I conclude right wel, but whan it cometh for to be 
don I haue no memorie ne remembrance of all my conclusions. Am I not 
theiie wel sim])le, whan vnto the most fayr . the moste sage . the most 
discrete & the most vertuo9 of all other . I haue no hardy nesse for to 
saye my desire & will, how wel my herte iugeth that I am somwhat in 
her grace, but now cometh -v^on me an other iugement, & lue semeth 
that she wil neii accorde to my requestes, O right noble & nonparaille 
Mirro. she is without peer, as the rose among thornes . Alas & what 
shal I do without you, I haue made a p[re]sente to you of my hert & my 
will, if I vnderstode that ye were born in a constellacion enpesshing 
you of thinfluence of loue, & that lone had no power tesproue vpon you 
his vertues I wolde not enpioye my tyme for to thenke on you . but 
whan me semeth that so grete habondance of thexcesse of beaute 
natvuell as youris is . it may not be but that it is entremedlid of loue 
of pits & of mercy, it must nedcs be that your humble frende be 
rauisshed in the contemplacon of your gloriouse value . desiring your 
good gee wisshing your aliance . & requiring the goddes and fortune 
that of yow & me they make oon hows & one bed where we mighte 
enbrace the soueraine playsirs of this worlde & plainly fynde amerouse 

' The preu Jason with thise wordes fyU a slepe, and after he awoke 
so alumyned with the fyre of loue that hit was to him impossible to 
take his rest, but to tourne and walowe & trauaille in his bedde. And 
there as loue thus assaylled him agayn . he determined vtterly that he 
wolde aduenturc him to speke to his lady, what that eu happen therof . 
And so he dide, for the same day he cam vnto her and sayde in this 
vryse . Madame I haue seruid yow as well as to me is possible for two 
causes. Principally that one for thacquite of cheualerye. And that other 
not for to disserue the richesses that ye haue vnder the power of 
fortune. But all only that singuler thing that nature hath made yow 
lady of and vpon whiche fortune hath puissaiice, Madame ye haue don 
to me plente of curtoysies, And ofFred grete yeftes of monoye . Wherof 
I thanke yow, how wel I holde them but of litil estime, for couetise of 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 201 

aurice haue not alumed me of their fyre, I demande not the grete 
tresours that ben in the abismes of the see . ner thein that ben enclosed 
in the montaignes, my desir restith in two singuler thinges, that one is 
for to conquere name in armes, whiche ought to be thappetite of the 
vocacion of alle noble hertes That other is to obeye vnto the com- 
aiidements & plaisauces of loue that bindeth, & obligeth me to be 
youris, for to thenke on yow, to attende & abide your beniuolence to 
doo thing that may playse your eyen and your herte.' Fol. 312. 

From the extract, in the subjoined note, * it should seem that the 
Young Men of former times were equally rude and undutiful with those 
of the present day. The dialogue concerning the Dream of Jason, 
between Jason and the Ancient Knight, has an air of great simplicity 
and frankness. The hero is first overcome by the prudent arguments 
of his venerable monitor : when the author continues thus : 

' lason with these wordes coude nomore replicque for he apperyceued 
that he coude not make his mater good ner mayntene it agaynst the 
olde knight, & thus endyng their parlament he slepte vnto the tyme hit 
was nyghe daye And thene lason awoke & began to make new sighes 
in so moche that thaiiciennt knight herde it agayn. how well that he 
was a slepe & was sodainly awaked. And thene whan lason knewe that 
he was awaked he salewed him & gaf him goode morow & sayd to him. 
Sir knight because of your grete age ye haue seen moche thing in your 
tyme, I demande you by your fayth yf ye haue knowleche in dremes 
Wherfore axe ye ansuerde the knight, For as moche sayd Jason as I 

* ' But in this present time hit goth all otherwise, the yong men presume to go & sitte 
aboue olde & auncient men. & mocque & skome them that ben come to grete aage 
Saying, that they be feble of their membres of their entendement and of nature. And ther 
be many children, that don their fader to vnderstande that they be fooUs. Wylling to haue 
in gouemauce the poure olde men. not poure but riche. For liit is grete Eychesse to a 
man whan that honorably may amasse and bringe his dayes vnto the degre of old aage. 
And yet ben ther children that don worse, for they desire and wisshe their fadeis and 
moders ded. and seme hem with thinges contrarye to their helih and lyf the whiche is the 
grettest tresour that a man may haue as to wordly goodes. Ha a howe many ben ther of 
them in these dayes I see al most non other, for the yong peple may not here the doctrine 
of the olde men. and wene that they ben so wyse. that men nede not to shewe them ony 
wisdome, & also they ben vnkinde and full of ingratitude, in so moche that yf they knewe 
ony thing wherwith they might dishonoure them they wolde do hit. ix they resemble vnto 
the sone of noe whiche by derision shewed the secrete membres of his fader Alas what 
cursid & blinde yongthe* was that,' Fol. 41. rect. 

• Sic. 

202 BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jason. 

haue not cessed this nyght to dreme. By my loyaulte fayr Sire ansuerde 
the good old knighte yf he haue dremed ony thing that haue nede of 
exposicion or ony interpretacon. there is noman in grece that shal 
better answere therto theiie myself, Andtherfore without ony doubte 
Tell me plainly your dreme, and I shal expowne to yow the substance. 
Certes sire knight saide Jason I had a meixiailous dreme this night. 
Whiche in maner of a passe temps I shal declare to yow for as moche 
as ye ar conning in the science of thexposicion therof. "Whiche dreme 
or vysion was this. jNIe thoughte that I sawe two swannes whiche were 
right fair in a medowe, of whom that one was a male and that other a 
female. The male cam vnto the female & made semblaut for to haue 
accompanyed with her. the female sette nought therby, but withdrewe 
her aback. And whan the male sawe that, he entrid vnto a Ryuer 
that was by and passid ouer & cam lye with me here in this bedde. and 
hit was not long after but me thoughte that the female passed the 
Ryuer in like wise, and cam vnto the chambre dore and made many 
pyetous cryes after her nature, that the male mighte not here, for he 
was a sleepe. And so hadde I moche grete pite for the sorrowful chere 
that she made in so moche that I awoke. And nomore I sawe. 
AVherfore I wote neuer what to thinke 

• Whan the auncient knight hadde wel vnderstande alonge the dreme 
of the preu lason he sayde to him in this manere. Sir kniglit what 
l^'ole ye saye if that noble lady for whom ye suflFre so moche sorow be 
as moche or more Amerous of yow as ye be of her. And by thys loue 
she becomen into this howse after yow. Ha, a sir knight answerde 
Jason. I haue no charge of that stroke, for my lady is so noble and so 
endowed of so hyghe beaute that she setteth nought by ony man in 
the worlde. AUeway fayr sir sayde than thaucient knight, your dreme 
signifieth by thise, ij, swannes, of whom wolde make the bataille or 
thenterprise that desireth conpanye of the female, that ye haue willed 
to be husbonde to your lady, the whiche wold not here you And neuer- 
theles whan she hath knowen that ye entred on the see, she entred 
after in scmblable wise & is comyn after you into this propre hous. 
"Where by auenture she is moche grete- payne for the loue of you. In 
this facon maye I prenostique and dyuyne this werk after the nature 
of your dreme. Fol. 44-5. 

There is something very natural and pleasing in the following— 
which may be considered a sequel to the dream : ' WTian the two 
noble knighfes were rysea and clad in poynt, lasan wente strayt into 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 203 

the stable to hys horse, whome he louyd well, but incontinent whan 
he had ben there a litil and that he hadde perceyuid the two palfroyes 
of the lady and of the damoiselle, him semed that he had seen them 
tofore tyme. Thene he callyd the seruaiit of the stable & demanded of 
him to whom the two horses belonged, Thene the seruaut ansuerde 
that they apperteyned to two damoiselles that were loggid there with 
inne Truly frende saide Jason what damoiselles that euer they be 
The two horses belonge to my lady best belouyd, & whan the good 
aucient knighte vnderstood lason. he sayd to him, lason Remember ye 
of your dreme I take hit on my life that your lady is in this hous, or 
ellis the damoiselles ben here for her, the whiche shal saye to you 
goode tydinges withoute ony other question or answere lason departed 
incontinent from the stable, and wente vnto the hostesse. and whan he 
had boden to her goode morowe he sayd to her. Fair hostesse. know 
ye the two Damoyselles that ben logged herein. Certes sir knight 
ansuerde the hostesse, I knowe hem none otherwise but as me semeth 
that they ben gentil women and comen of a good hows. Is hit possible 
that I maye see hem saide lason. I wote neuer saide thostesse but I first 
demande them. Fair hostesse said than lason I require yow that I may 
see them. And that ye w)'lle go saye that here ys a knight their 
seruaut, that hath grete desire to speke with them.' 

' The goode hostesse for to do plaisir vnto Jason, wente vnto the 
two Damoyselles and sayd to them. My fayr maystresses I come to yow 
in the name and at the request of a gentil knight he saying your 
seruaut, the whiche requireth yow, that of your grace hit wolde plese 
yow that he might speke with yow. And aduise yow what hit shal 
plese yow that I answere to him. But incontinet that the Quene 
Myrro had herd her hostesse speke of the requeste of the knight. 
Certes the colour began to chauge meruaillously and her thought, that 
alle her body was esprysed with fyre. But this notwithstanding she 
held her contenaunce the beste wyse she myghte. And howe wel that 
she doubted of the comyng of the preu Jason, and that she was then 
in a traunce what she shold saye to her. yet she answerd and sayd. 
Fair dame, who is that knight that hath sente yow hether, Certes sayd 
the hostesse I sawe him neuer to fore that I wote of. But to my seming 
he is the most gentil and the most well made of body and also most 
curtois that ony man may or can finde or speke of. Dame sayde thene 
the fayr JNIyrro, syn that he is so vertuous & so well accomplisshed as 
ye saye, do him to come hether, With these wordes tlie goode hostesse 
dide do Jason come vnto the chambre, And thenne assone as he cam 

204 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Histoiy of Jason ; 

in. he behelde the noble quene whiche was right shamefaste, and 
hauyng the herte shytte & rauisshid made vnto her the Reuerence & 
salewed her. And the fayr Myrro welcomed & salewed him agayn 
moche courtoisly. This don they entrid into deuises, And thenne 
after certayn vvordes Jason saide to the quene in this manor.' Fol. 46, 

The Soliloquy of Medea, acknowledging and yielding to, her passion 
for Jason, is not divested of dramatic effect. — ' Alas myn eyen in what 
labour haue ye putte me. Cortes ye be the cause and none other that 
I am not she that was wonte to be. For ye haue enuoloped myn hert 
with an ardant fyre of amerous desire. Ha, a what shall befalle or 
what shall I nowe doo beyng in this payne and sorowe. Certes I can 
saye no more but of veray necessite I yelde me all in the subycyon 
and seruitude of loue. in his seruitude shall I be subgette hit is force. 
And wherfore For as moche as 1 am smyten to the hcrte with the grete 
beaute of Jason the bruyt of alle the worlde. And to my Jugement 
the glorie of Grece. O meruayllous dart wherewith 1 fele me smyten 
to the herte. Certes myn eyen ye ben the cause whiche displeseth me. 
And for what reson. for as moche as ye be coulpable of this folye. how 
be it. hit is no folye, hit is. I beleue hit not. hit must be beleuid. for 
hyt is grete folye to desire thing that can not be goten, 1 know 
verayly that Jason is sore enamoured of a lady in hys coutrey. And fur- 
thermore his courage is gariiysshid of agrete and meruayllous constauce. 
Theiie may it be sayd that I maye not enioye him. And by consequent 
I maye conclude that myn eyen haue enclined & submised me vnto an 
ouer grete folye.' Fol. 87-8. 

We may now hasten to close these extracts by specimens of that 
part of the Romance which describes the Taking of the Golden Fleece by 
Jason ; and which hath this prefix : ' How the promesses betwene 
fason & Medea were rateffied, And howe medea deliuered to him all 
the mestier & crafte that he ought to haue to conqiiere the noble 
moton or flees of golde, & how he gate hit.' 

' At the poynt thene whan the sterres rendrid their clereness & 
clarte. and that the mone began to enlumyne the night, lason with- 
drew him into his chambre. & Medea slept not. she espyed and seeyng 
that he was withdrawen al allone as she had charged him, she opende 
the dore of the steyre by whiche descended doun from the chambre of 
lason into heeirs. And callid doun lason whiche was right pensi^ 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 205 

And whan lason sawe the dore open & Medea that callid him. he 
wente vnto her moche ioyously and salewed her. and after approched 
to her for to haue kyste & enbraced her, but Medea saide to him that 
he sholde cesse. & takyng him by the hande brought him into her 
charabre where they satte vpon a moche riche tapyte. The maistresse 
of medea cam thene bjrtwene them. And whan she was comen Medea 
began to speke & save. lason my loi'de & my frende ye knowe well 
the promesses that ben bytwene you & me, I will well that in the 
presence of my goode moder that here is, that we make recognycioii 
& ratefye them to thende that they be hole & permanent, and after 
that we shal entende to your conquest, And thene lason & Medea 
swore & creauced that they sholde take eche other by mariage. & there 
made solerapne promesses, wherof Medea was right ioyouse & so also 
was her maistresse, Theiie medea opende a coflre whiche she had made 
redy where out she drewe a sherte with the bille conteynyng thorde- 
naOces whiche were requise and propice for to go into the yle of colchos 
to make the conquest of the flees of golde,' (Fol. 97.) 

-__--____ With thise wordes she toke a vestyment whiche 
was riche and gaf it to him saying, My fayr loue ye be pourueyed of 
all that is behouefull for you so that ye haue this vestyment vpon 
your armes, see that ye werke frely & corageously with this that ye 
haue. ye must be pourueyed with hardynesse & valiance. kepe well 
your bille. and be diligent to do and accomplisshe al that it conteineth. 
and by the playsir of the goddes, I shall haue yow here at euene with 
more gretter consolacion. Theiie lason clad him aboue his harnoys 
with propre vestyment that appollo was cladd at the houre whan he 
receyuyd the bille afore said With that the day apperid fayr and clere, 
wherfore lason toke leue of Medea whiche was al Rauisshed with loue. 
At leue taking they kyssed eche other many tymes. Fynably Medea 
conueyed lason vnto his chambre dore, and their * began theref amo- 
rouse baisiers and kyssinges vnto the time that it was force that medea 
must withdrawe her, & theiie she recomanded lason in the garde of 
the goddes, and shette fast the dore. Fol. 99. rev. 

The departure of Jason from the town, and the first appearance of 
the brazen bulls, are thus described : " This morenyng was fayr and 
cleer, & clene from all clowdes . And the sonne casted his clere rayes 
and hemes vpon the erthe . The ladyes and Damoyselles moiited and 

Sic. t Sic. 

206 BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jason. 

wente vpon the hyghe stages of the palays . And the bourgeyses and 
marchants with the comyn people of the cite ran som to the creueaxilx 
and batillements of the walles, and other to the Ryuage of the see for 
to beholde the auenture of the noble knight of grece, lason that 
Joyously wente with Argos his maister maronner that broughte hioi 
mto a right good entree of the meruailous yle adressid him & sette fote 
a groud vpon the grauell . And toke his glewe and his asshes and entrid 
into the yle by grete desire and hardynesse. And he had not ferre goon 
whan he espyed the riche moton or shepe of gold whiche was so 
resplendisant that it reioyced all the yle, After he espyed the two buUes 
lepyng out of their holes . so grete . so drede full . so right fiers & 
hidouse, that only for to loke on them it was ynough for to lose witte 
and ^-nderstanding, and whan he had well beholden them . He kneled 
doun on the erth ayenst the eest where he sawe a temple al of gold of 
the gretnes of . xvj . foot in eyght squares foiided on . viij smale pylers, 
thretty foot of heyght . in the myddes where of was an auter vpon 
whiche was an ymage repsenting the god mars.' Fol. 99-100. 

We have next the Combat with the Bulls, and the Dragon, (who watched 
the fleece of gold) thus terribly described :— ' the two bulles whiche 
behelde him right fiersly and asprely with her eyen sparklyng and 
brennyng as fyre grekyssh . And they began to desgorge fyre and 
flambe out of their throtes ayenst the knight so desmesurably that alle 
the Regyon of the ayer and alle the coiitre semed brenne with wild and 
grekyssh fyre . But this notwithstanding they might neuer trauayle 
ne do harme vnto the noble preu lason . But he by grete hardines 
approched by the fyre the flambe & venym that they casted And dide 
so moche that enoynted the mosels of bothe two And caste into their 
throtes the glewe that was myxed and medlid with asshes which he 
brought with him as sayd is . But assone as thise bulles felte the glewe 
& cendres to gyder medlid certes they closed their throtes and mosels 
in such wise as they might neu open after ne caste more fyre . Wherof 
the noble knight was so loyous as he might be seeing thexperiment to 
be of so hygh recomendacon Thene he thought on Medea & saide wel 
in him self that she had deliurid to hym a goode and verray socours, & 
for certain he had lost his lyf in this auenture ne had she haue ben 

' After this consideracion Incontinent as the noble preu lason 
apperceyuyd that these two meruaillous bulles were oiicomen & 
adauted, theiie he behelde the contenu of his byll, and fonde that tlieiie 
him behoued anon to go fighte ayenst the meruaillous dragon & terrible 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 207 

withoute comparison, Thene he drew out his good swerde of the 
ehethe & wente vnto the temple where the dragon helde him, anon as 
the monstre had apperceyued lason he enfeloiied him self, & by grete 
Ire opend his throte right terrible in gretnes out of whom sprang 
out tlire tonges castyng fire flambe and venym in suche wyse that the 
goode knight had al his body aduironed ther with, how wel that the 
fire ne the venym had no power vpon him . but passed by lason like 
as hit had be the clerenes of the soiie . and he cam and gaf the monstre 
so grete a stroke with his swerde bytwene the two eyen that he made 
his heed hurtle ayenst his croupe right sore & durely. And whan the 
dragon felte this streok, he releuyd him self & syn opende agayn his 
throte & disgorged vpon lason a furaee so tliikke of venym that the 
noble knight sawe nothing aboute him . but this notwithstonding he 
hauced his swerde a discharged hit vpon the dragon where he thought 
his hede was, & smote so wel the monstre that he eutte of his thre 
tonges euen by the mosel as nigh as they might be . wherof the serpent 
felte so meruaillous payne & dolour that he began to frote & rubbe his 
hede . And tourned on that one side so sodainly . that with his taill 
he smote the valiaOt knight on the back that he fill doun on the sande.* 

• Whan lason felte him so smyten douii to the erthe he was so sore 
astonyed that he wist not what was befalle him. And with this he had 
grete shame, He Releued him & stode vp anofi . but at his releuyng 
the fumee of the dragori was vanisshed, & in seeyng aboute him he 
apperceyud the thre tonges of the serpent whiche he hadde smyten of 
& syn he behelde the dragon whiche froted his mosell on an herbe, and 
theiie he rari vpon him agayii & smote in the myddes of the taill . in 
exploiting the moste part of al his strength & also his trenchaiit swerde 
in such manere, that he cutte of a piece whiche was seuen foot long 
Theiie the dragoii by the grete payii that he felt hauced his heed and 
cam right fiersly and recoutred lason wyth all his pesaiiteur and 
might . in suche a facon that lason was beten douii to the grounde . 
And the dragon passed ouer him . But thene the preu Fason toke his 
swerd & roof into the paunche of the dragon vp to the crosse & smote 
him to the herte, & the dragon feling that he was smyten to the deth 
began to renne with the swerde of lason in his body wenyng to hyde 
him selfe in his cauerne . But his lyf departed out of the body euen as 
he shold haue entrid into the temple . And there he ouerthrewe alle to 
strached and fowlid of his blood and of hys humeurs full of venym In 
suche wise as hit semed that hit had ben a sourse or a sprynge rennyng 
oute of hys body lenger theiie a grete howe. 

▼ OL. IV. D D 

208 BOOKS PRINTED BY [History of Jason ; 

* Incontinent that lason was releued and that he apperceyued the 
dragon reversed and dede at thentre of the temple, with an herte 
reconiforted he wente tlieder and drew out his swerde of his body, and 
putte him agyn in his shethe or skabarde, and theiie he wente & seased 
the buUes by the homes, & yoked them in a plowe that ther was by 
And made them to ere foure niesures of londe . enclosing their eyen . 
And theiie whan he had so doii he retourned to the dragon and esrachd 
out of his hede . xij . teth, after that he sowed them in the erthe that 
he plowed , & that doii he dide the bulles do harowe bit . And theiie 
the bulles fyll doiin to the erthe and loste the spyrite of lyf, and out of 
the londe that lason had soweii with the teth of the dragoii grewe and 
sprang vp in an instant . xij . geants of a terrible maintene . the 
whiche were al armed after the maner at that time. And assone as 
they were comen out of the erthe drewe their swerdes & without 
delayng cam & supposed to haue smyten vpon lason, but lason toke 
the cendres or asshes pure that he had kept of his sacrifice . & cast it 
into the ayer . & theiie sodainly tho same . xij . Geants assailed that 
one that other by suche asprete & sharpenesse that in a litil while eche 
slew other . wherof lason was right ioyous and rendrid thankinges & 
louynges to the goddes. 

• Whan these . xij . geants had slayn eche other, as I haue reherced 
vnto you lason drewe out his swerd whiche was yet all bloody . and 
cam to the Ryche moton or shepe whom he foiide in the right noble 
medowe . & toke him by the homes and brought him into the temple 
tofore the awter of the god mars . And there he slew him with uioche 
grete payne . and syn flew him and toke the flees that had the wolle 
all of fyn gold and leyd hit a parte And the body he dispieced by 
membi'es . & bare it vp on an awter whiche stode without the temple . 
& put therto largely strawe & drye wode,' &c. Fol. 101, 102-3. 

We may conclude with the description of Jason's return with the 
fleece of gold : after sacrificing to Mars, for having obtained the 
victory. ' Wyth these wordes the goode shipman began to rowe with 
a franck corage. And the Grekes that were standyng vpon the 
Ryuage of the see began theiie a grete stryf. For some sayde that 
lason was re-entred into the barque, and that they had seen the res- 
plendis shour of the noble flees of golde, whiche was with grete payne 
creable for as moche as from this Ryuage vnto the yle of colchos was 
foure goode myles. And the other saide. that lason was long agoii 
dcde. and that he sholde neuer be seen, but thus as eche man was 

[1475.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 209 

susteyning his argument, therwith was the boote seen approchyng 
moche radely the Ryuage. And was aboute a myle nygh to the porte, 
Jason toke his flees & lyfte hit vp a lityl in the ayer. ye as hygh as he 
mighte And heldehit so hye, that they that were at the Ryuage and on 
the walles of the Cyte beheld hyt and apperceyued hit and shewed hit 
one to an other by grete admyracion & wondre.' 

' Many ther were that demened grete loye and thanked the goddes 
with good herte whan they had perceyuid the noble & riche flees, 
wherof the preu Jason made the mustre fro ferre, and som raii for to 
gadre of the grene herbes & verdure for to caste a long on the ways 
where as Jason sholde passe for to goo to the palais sayng to euery 
man that they were certayn of his retournyng, & that alle honour 
ought to be maad to him for one so noble & gloriouse conqueste, 
Medea among all other was so right Joyous whan she espyed the light 
and shining of the flees of golde that her seemed that she shold entre 
into a paradyse terrestre. And conianded that her ladies & Damoiselles 
shold put on the fayr fronte in entencion to make feste solempne for 
the honour of this right excellent victoire. & for to come to a con- 
clusion, trompes tabours. menestrels. homes sarasinois & busines 
began to blowe vp & sowne melodiously after that tyme vsed.' Fol. 104. 

Some apology may be due for the unusual length of these extracts ; 
but it is hoped that their intrinsic curiosity, and the extreme rarity of 
the volume from which they are taken, will plead their justification, 
Jt remains therefore only to subjoin the concluding passage, or rather 
the printer's epilogue, on the reverse of the 148th and last leaf, thus : 

anb mote gaue 3I not rcb of t|ie wMt ptm 9(a^ott/ But 
t^x0 ftaue 3[ foutien more tfjefi mpn auctor teljetcetl) in 
1^10 fmkti % tijctforeSi «iafte Ijetc an enbc of tfjijsf ^torie 
of Slajfony bjfjom biute men Manic Because tpt f)e kft 
1 repubicb ^thtui But in t|)i^ pttm^t Jiofte pe map 
^tt tl>e eupiient tm^t^j tnljjp ^t ^obpti. ^rapngmp 
(aiti lottt ^nixtt tacceirte i taftc pt in gtee of me fjijsf 
inijigne ^eruiteur* tujom g[ ht^tt^t goti almigljtp to 
jEfaue 1 encrece in tjertu notn in iji^ tcntite iongtlj* tlfjat 

• Sic. 

210 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sayings; 

Ije map come ^nto f)isf patfoit eagc to f^i0 Ijonour anH 
toorsfiip tljat '^i^ ^cmmt mape pcrpctucUp 6c rcnicin> 
liriU among tljc moj^t toortl^p. 3Cnti aftct tt)i^ present 
life culasting life in Ijcuen tDfjo grant Ijim i b^ tljat 
I)ou0l)te b^ef txjitl^ ijiisf filooDe Mcff^iti Sgusf Oilmen 

This may be considered a sound and most desirable copy ; and is in 
russia binding. The text of this edition was reprinted in a beautiful 
manner by Gerard de Leeu at Antwerp, in the year 149'2, in folio ;* 
and of this re-impression His Grace the Duke of Devonshire is in 
possession of the copy which was in the library of the late Duke of 

841. The Dictes and Sayengis ofPhilosophres. 
Printed at TVestmestre. 14JJ. Folio. 

There are probably at least three editions of this very interesting 
volume ; but I hesitate to which of them to attribute the priority. 
The Noble Owner of this Collection possesses two out of the three, 
which are here described : the third, seems to be the one which has 
Caxton's lai'ge mark on the recto of the first leaf, 3 1 lines in a full 
page, signatures throughout, and the words * Caxton me fieri fecit ' 
on the lecto of I, v, or last leaf. Of the latter description appear to 
be the copies in the Lambeth and Lee Prioiy Collections. See the 
Typog. Antiquities, vol, i, p. Tl-^, and British Bibliographer, vol. iv, 
p. 237, 241. 

Having before given a copious and particular account of this impres- 
sion, together with something of the literary histoiy of the Noble 
Translator of the work, I may here pass briefly over the introductory 
parts, by observing that the prologue of the translator occupies 2 pages 
and a half; f the reverse of the second leaf being blank. The text 
begins on the recto of the third leaf, having 29 lines in a full page: 
the first 5 pages of which may be found in the British Bibliographer, 
vol. iv. p. 238-40. From this extract I do not discover any variation 
in the substance of the text ; which is probably the same in all the 

* See Typngraphical Antiquities, edit. 1810, vol. i. p. 58. 

t See tile work first above referred to ; where the prologue is extracted entire. 

1477 •] WILLIAM CAXTON. 211 

copies. The reader, however, may be pleased with a few specimens 
of a work, rendered into English by one of our most distinguished 
Noble authors, of early repute, and in itself rather of an instructive and 
interesting character. Never was a string of moral sentences more 
elaborately put together, or more singularly extended. We shall first 
commence our extracts with an account of Aristotle — who cuts a 
conspicuous figui'e in the work, and from whose mouth many of these 
wise * Dictes and Sayinges ' proceed. 

* Aristotle by interptacion in grekes toge, is fulfilled or complete of 

goodnesse. And he was sone to Nichomacus the whiche has right 

connyng in fisike and a good fisicien, & was boren in the Towne of 

Slagre and he was of the kinred both by his fadirs syde, and by his 

moders syde of Esculapius of the whiche here byfor hath be made 

mencion for he was in his tyme the moost excellent And the best of 

all the grekes, and whan the sayde aristotle was. viij. yeres of age his 

fader putted him in the cite cf Athenes that than was called the Cyte 

of Wysdom. and there he lerned Gramare Retorike and other bookes 

of poetrie. And therin he studyed, the space of .iv. yeres prouffyting 

gretely therin, And in thoos dayes men sette moche store by the 

foresayde sciences and was their opynion that it was the laddre to go 

vp into alle other sciences, A nd certayn other wyse men at the same 

tyme as Pytagoras and pytoras and dyuers other reputed and held the 

sayd sciences for no sciences & did but moke and scorne theim that 

lerned them. Saying that suche scyence as Gramare Retorik and 

poetrye, were not couenable to come to any wysdom, And that Gramare 

is not ijut for to teche the childeren, Poetrye but for to tell fables 

and to make lesynges, Retorike for to speke faire and in termes. 

And whan Aristotle harde this wordes he had grete merueyle therof, 

and was gietely agreued with suche as helde the same opynyon. And 

strength him after his power to susteyne alle manere of Gramaryens 

the poetes and also the Retoriciens' I'ol. 38-9. 

We proceed in our account of the Stagirite, with the following 
rather singular extract : 

* and after he [Aristotle] deyde in the age of .Ixiij. yeris. they of 
Stagire tooke his bonys and right worshipfuUy put hem in a shryne 
wher they held their counscile for his grete witte, and also for the grete 
and feruent loue that they hadde to him. and as often tymes that they 
hadde ado eny grete matere for to haue the declaracion therof, the men 
whiche were of counscile wolde go and stande as nigh the saide shryne 

212 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sai/ings; 

wher the bonys were as they cowde for to haue knowlege of y' trouth 
of their matere. and thus they did for to worship him the raore. and 
their opinions and verry trust wer for onely beyng nygh the said shryne 
their Wittes shulde be the bettir and their vnderstandyng more pure 
and subtill. And the said Aristotill hadde in his tyme many kinges 
sones that wer his disciples, and he made in his dayes wele an .C. 
bookis of the whiche we haue nowe. xxviij. in logike. viij. in nature 
the book oF Ethik the book of politik the booke of Methafisike. that is 
named theologike and the bookis of the \vittes of geometrie, and platen 
rebuked him bicause that he wrotte his sciences in bookis, to whom 
he said in excusing him that it is a thing knowen and notified ynowe. 
that all the that loueth science ought to do nothing that shulde cause 
the losse of her. And therfore it is good to compose and make bookis 
by the whiche sciece shal be lerned, & whan our memorie shal fayle it 
ehal be recouered by meane of bookis for he that hateth science shal 
not proffite in hit though it be so that he se the bookis & beholde hem 
yet shal he sette not by it. but departe wors & lesse wyse than he was 
a fore. & I haue made and ordeigned my bookis in suche forme that 
the wyse men shal lightly & aisely vnderstande hem but the ignoraunt 
men shal haue but litil auayle by hem. Fol. 40, 

The advice of Aristotle to Alexander, concerning the government 
of his empire, is worth attention : 

' And said he that maketh his Royaume seruant to the lawe shall 
reigne, & he that taketh & put out the lawe from the royame shall 
not reigne And said. A king ought to be of goode & strong courage, 
to remebre wele the ende of the werkes, & to be courtoys & free. & to 
refrayn his wrath wher it apperteigneth and shewe hit where it nedeth, 
to kepe him from couetise, to be true to gouerne him as nygh as he 
may aftir his goode predecessours to geue to his men as they haue 
deserued. to defiFende and kepe the lawe & the faith. & euir to do wele 
after his might, & if the strength of his body faile him thenne to kepe 
the might of his corage, by the whiche he shal be the more assured in 
all his nedis And said the king that gouerneth him & his roaume 
wele by his ^vysdom Is worthy to be greetly praised and lauded And 
said to Alexandre, seche to wynne the richesses that be not trasitories. 
the lyf that is not moueable the kyngdo that can not be taken aweye 
from the. & the euer lasting Joye. & be pitefull but not so uioche that 
thou stade in daungier therby, do pugnicion & Justice to thaim that 
haue deserued it.' Fol. 42. 

14771 WILLIAM CAXTON. 213 

The reader had probably no very definite notions of the severe 
treatment of Aristotle toward his royal pupil. He will be here 
surprised to find the liberties taken by the tutor. 

* And saide A moche vvryseman is he that pronounseth not the 
thing'es into the tyme that he is present that wol vnderstande hem. 
And the best speker is he that speketh not til he is wele purueyed what 
he shal saye. & y' best werkeman is he that begineth not his werke into 
the tyme that he hath wele disputed & auised it. in his herte Nether is 
none that ought to haue somoche thought as the W3'seman. for it is 
necessarie to him to be purueyed and certain of his workis And saide 
men are more enclined to couetise than to reason, for couetise hath 
acompaigned them from their childehode. & reason cometh not to them 
til that they be of parfyte age And saide. the children hate their 
maistres whan they teche hem for they knowe not what good may 
befall them therby. but think onely the labour of the peyne of theire 
lernyng And the said Aristoteles callid Alexadre axing him questions 
vpon the gouernace of the lordis & of the peple. to whom alexandre 
gaue good answeres. But neuer the lesse Aristotiles beet him with a 
Rod, And It was axed of him why he had beet him without cause. 
And he ansuerd this childe is like & able to be a grete lord & a mighty 
king. And I haue bete him all onely for to holde him lowly, and in 
mekenesse for he shal be to soon prowde And said If thou canst direct 
another, directe him as thy self. And a yong man axed him why he 
was so pouer. To whom he ansuerd. My pouerte hath nothing offensed 
me, ne doth me no harme But thyn hath doon the and shall do harmes 
ynowhe.' Fol. 46. 

We shall now perceive the good effects of such a wholesome spirit of 
discipline : 

* And after this Alexander made grete conquestis, and whan he had 
conquered Inde he wente to acontre callid Bragman, the whyche whan 
they wiste his comyng, they sente many wyse men to him, whiche 
•alewed him & saide, sir alexader thou hast no cause to werre vpon vs, 
ne to be euil willig for we ben both poure & meke, & we haue nothing 
but only sapiece, the whiche if thou wolt haue pray to god that he wol 
yeue her to the for by batayll thou shalt not haue her And whan 
alexander herd hem saye so, he made al his Ooste to tarye & with fewe 
of his knyghtes wente within the said contre for tenquere further of 
the truthe And whan he entred within the same ground, he fond many 
poure folkes women & chyldren al naked gadring herbes in the feldes 

214 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sayings; 

And he axid of them many questions, to whiche they ansuerd right 
wysely, and tlian he had hem axe of liim somme thing that myght doo 
hem good & to alle their peplc, & he vvolde yeuen it hem gladly And 
thcnne they saide, Sir we axe the none other thing but y* thou wilt 
g^uc vs euerlasting lyf Thenne Alcxader ansuerd & said, hou might ama 
make other menes Hues euerlastig, wha he maye not lengthe his 
owen lyf an oure And that ye axe of me is in no mannes pouer that 
lyueth Than they said to him. Syth thou hast goode knowleche therof. 
Wherfore trauayllest thou thyself to destroys all the world, and to 
gadre alle the worldly tresours and wost not whan thou must leue hem 
Thenne Alexander said to hem. I do not alle these thinges that ye 
saye of myself, but god hath sente me thurgh alle the worlde for 
texalte and magnifye hys lawe and to destroye them that bileue not in 
hym. And somtyme Alexander wente dysguysed visyting his lordes and 
enqueryng of her dedes.' Fol. 47. 

The ' Diets and Sayings' of Ptolemy, shortly after, arrest our 
notice. From these the following is selected : 

* And sayde. It is bettir, a king to directe his peple, than to haue grete 
habondaunce of knyghtis And sayde Surete putteth aweye sorowe, and 
fere empescheth gladnes And sayde The wordis of god auayleth not 
to them that haue put al their best to the world And sayde It is to 
grete folic a man to thinke to moche on the thinges that passith his 
vnderstandyng And sayde men been of . ij . natures som woUe neuer 
be content howe be it that they finde ynough, & somother seke and 
finde nothing And sayde men cause tacquere & gete money. And 
money is the cause tacquere men And sayde. He of the which the 
Science excedith his witte may be likened to a feble shepherd that hath 
a grete keep of sheep in his keeping And saide he that hath put at his 
entent to his flessly delites, is more bonde than a keytif F'ol. 53. 

Again, of Legmon the Prophet: ' Sone enhabyte thy self with the 
wysemen continuelly, for god enlumind their hertes by wordes of 
sapience in suche wyse as the goodes vnder erthe ben moysted by rayne 
and with dewes And somme men say that legmon is buried in a toun 
called karaualle bitwene the mesquitte & the marche. And ther ben 
buried . Ixx . prophetes that deyde after legmon the whiche the children 
of ysrael kept so long in hostage that they deyde for hunger And whan 
Legmon was nygh his deth he wept sore. & his sone axid him why he 
wepte for fere of deth or sorow that he had leue the world. He ansuerd 

1477.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 215 

I wepe for none of the two thinges but I wepe bicause I haue away for 
to goo. from whiche I sawe neuer man come agayn,* and I bere but 
litill vytaill with me. & am charged with many grete charges. And I 
wote neuer whether I shal be aleged & discharged or none whan I shal 
come to thende of my waye' Fol. 58. 

A strange melange is afforded by the ensuing extract : * It was asked 
of one called protege, wherfore it was that one of his neyghbours made 
dye his here in blak, he ansuerd. by cause noo man shulde aske to 
lerne sapience of liim, and plures sayde, the more goode that a foole 
hath the more he is fowle, And it was axid of one Aristan, whan it 
was goode to lye with a woman, he ansuerd, at al tymes whan a man 
wyll liurt enpayre and feble his body, And it was asked of dymicrates 
wherby he knewe and perceyued best his witte. He ansuerd In that, 
that I thinke, I vnderstande and knowe but lityll And saide the wyse- 
man that replieth is bettir than the foole that accordeth to euery 
porpose, And ther was awyse man called azee, that was a prisoner to 
whom his mayster axed, of what kynrede he was, He ansuerd enquere 
not of my lynage, but axe of my prudence and connynge,' Fol. 63-4. 

Our author is ' bold and brave ' in his advice to princes : ' And 
Amenyus sayd, ther be. iij. thyngis that a prynce ought to eschewe. 
The fyrst is to moche drynking. The seconde is to moche delectacion 
in musyk. And the therde dotyng of women, for thyse. iij. thyngis put 
awey all his other good thoughtes.' Fol. 65. There is much quaint- 
ness and point in the following : ' Pyctagoras sayde. Science hath non 
enemyes, but ygnorant men And saide, clateringe of folies is displeysir 
to wysemen, Like as the stench e of a kareyn is to them that smell it, 
for the foole knoweth no more the fawte of his speche than the kareyn 
doth of his stench, And it was axed of another howe men might kepe 
him fi-om moche drynking. And he ansuerd in beholding wele the grete 
Inconuenientis that be fall the dronken men And Engene saide. Many 
persones hauyng reason and vnderstandyng axen candell, and light for 
to ete their mete, but fewe persones ther be that kyndell & sharpe their 
wittes in geting sciences for the proufFyte of their saules' Fol. 66. 

The following is deserving of notice : ' And one Rebuked a wiseman. 
To the whiche the wyseman saide. Thou rebukes me not of alle my 
vices. And It was axid of him, why he wolde haue no sone, he ansuerd 

* Might not this passage be introduced in a note, in some future Variorum Shahspeare, a« 
illustrative of Hamlet's ' bourne from which no traveller returns?' 
VOt. IV. E E 


216 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Diets and Sayiugs ; 

I had leiuT be withoute. for whan I beholde the greltc loue that a man 
hath to his chylde and tlie gretc peynes and t!oubles he hath to hi yng 
him vp, and atte last must lese him. that sorowe were more to me, 
than the loye, It was aduised one that was goyng in a fcrie vyage, 
that he sliulde not holde his Iiirney, lest lie dyed therin. And he 
ansuerd That deth is all one to me, be it in other Countrees or at home.' 
Fol. 68. 

The conclusion of the translation, by Earl Rivers, will be found at 
the bottom of the reverse of the 7'id leaf: — ' And sufHse you with the 
traslacion of Ihe sayingis t)f these jdiilosopheres .• .' On the top of the 
succeeding leaf, we have Caxton's colophon, thus : 

<Src riiUctlj tl)c 600ft immcti tfjc tiicte^ or ^apcngi^ 
fj of t()c pljiloj^opfjrc^ cnprpnteti, bp mc JDiiliam 

Carton at toc^tmc^trc tljc vttt of our lorti. ^, 
€€€€. Hrjctii. il^tjicljc fioafe i.^ iatc tranalatcti out of 
f rcnffjc into englpffj, lip tljc |i5oMc anti puif^ant iorti 
Horti ^Intone €rlc of iltpupcrjef lorti of ^cak^ &c. &u 

The whole of this conclusion ; or e[)ilogue, will be found in my edition 
of our Typographical Antiquities, vol, i. p. 67-71- The princi})al point 
contained in it is, that the noble translator was loth to introduce the 
'diets & sayings' of Socratfs, against the fair sex, into his work ; but 
which, on Caxton's emendation, were published by the jninter himself. 
There is much naivete in our printer's account of this mattei'. Caxton 
says, that he * supposes some fair lady had desiied him [Karl Rivers] 
to leave it out of his book ; or else he was amorous on some noble lady, 
for whose love he would not set it in his book ; or else for the very 
affection, love, and good will that he had unto all ladies & gentlewomen, 
he thought that Socrates spared the sothe, and wrote of women more 
than truth.' He then defends the women ' in these parts and regions 
of the world, as not being subject to the same reproaches as are 
bestowed by Socrates upon the women of Greece.' However, as the noble 
translator had told him ' to correct and amend where he should tind 
fault,' Caxton was disposed to exercise the office here deputed to him 
by considering such omission as a fault deserving of correction — and 
necessary to be supplied by the omitted part. He shews a very nice 
sense of courtesy in the execution of his task; by being uncertain 
' whether [the part omitted] was in his Lord's copy or not, or else 

1^77.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 217 

peradventure that the wind had blown over the leaf at the time of the 
translation of his book.' In consequence, he does not presume to in- 
corporate these Socratic sarcasms in the body of the work, but only to 
subjoin them by way of appendix. They occui)y scarcely two pages of 
the original impression, and may be seen extracted in the Avork before 
referred to. The printer concludes thus, on the 75th and last leaf of 
the volume. 

iuJicrcfore in ^ati^fpettg of all parties 
1 aJ^o for txtn^c of tgc ^aitic ^otrate^ 3J f^ant 0tttt 
t^c^c ^aiDc tipctcjsf 1 ^apcngisf a parte in tljcntic of ti^^ 
iiooft, to t^cwtn tljat pf nip sfapb lorti or onp otgcr ptt^ 
^onc ixjltjat ^cmciicr Ijc or ^Jje ht tljat ^^a\ rctic or l^cre 
it, tjat 3(f tf)ep 6e not tud plcjBfptJ tnptl) aH tfjat tljcp 
tuptf) a pcnnc rate it out or cWp:^ rente tf)e kef out of tlje 
boohe, i^unibip requjirpng anti lie^ecjpng mp ^apti iorb 
to tafic no tiispJapair on me ^o pre^^umpng 6ut to par^ 
tone tDljcrea^ Ije ^tjal fpntie faulte, anti ttjat it ple^e Ijpm 
to tahe tlje labour of tf^enprpntpng in gre i tganfte, 
UJljicbe glatJip jjauetion mp tipligence intlfjac compIplHipng 
of Jji^ tie^irc anti comnianbenient, 3i« tofjptlje 3i am 
bountien ^o to tio for tjje goob rctoarti tljat 9i iJt^iic 
reltcpupb of Iji^ ^apti Iorti^|)ip, l©||om % fie^eelje 311lmp" 
gljtp goti tenerece antJ to eontpnue in fji^ef tjertuous^ tii.^po 
^ieion in t^x^ tuorln, 3inli after tfjp^ ipf to Ipue tutv 
foi^timglp in Jeuen oilmen 

<et fie eft fini^ ♦ : * 

The present copy, although diminished in size, is exceedingly clean 
and sound ; and is decorated with a copy of the illumination of the 
supposed portraits of Caxton and Earl Rivers, from the Lambeth copy, 
by the pencil of the late Countess Lucan. It is splendidly bound 
in green morocco, by Roger Payne. My friend Mr. G. Hibbert has a 
large and noble coj)y of this impression, superbly and tastefully bound 
by Mr. C. Lewis. A fine copy is also in the library of his Grace the 
Duke of DevoHbhirc, 

218 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Moral Proverbs ; 

842. The Dictes and Sayinges of Philosophres. 
Printed at fVestmestre. 1477- Folio. 

This copy presents j-ather a variety, than proof of a distinct impres- 
sion, from tlie preceding one. The text is executed (as far as I have exa- 
mined) leaf for leaf, line for line, and word for word,* with the previous 
impression ; and is here entitled to a distinct notice, on account of 
its containing a colophon which is not in the one before described. 
Immediately beneath the words ' Et sic est finis ' as before, we read as 
follows : — on the reverse of the 75th and last leaf. 

€t fit eft Hniief . : * 
€||ii^ cntictf) t|)ij^ liooh of t^t tipctc^ anb notable top^afe 
fapengejB? of tlje jil[)iIo.sopl)cr^ late traiijflateti antitiraiuen 
out of frensfje into our engliffje tonge lip mp for^sfaide lorti 
^Ijede of i!lpuer.i^ anti lorti ^^haJe^. anb Ijp Jpsf toman:: 
bcnient ^ette in fontie anli emprpnteti in tjji^ niancre a^S 
pe mape l^ere in tljije? tioofee ^sfee IBJicfje toa^ fpniffjcti tl|e. 
X'biij. bap of tjje monetlj of H^oueniftrc. i t{)e ^cucntentlj 
i^tu of tlje regne of ftpng oBbtoarb tlje. fourtlj. 

This is a fine large copy of the impression, bound in russia ; but it is 
unluckily deficient in about two thirds only of the first leaf of the pro- 
logue of the translator. 

843. The Morale Prouerbes of Cristyne. 
Printed in February. 14JJ. Folio, 

We have here another specimen, but in a metrical form, of the 
powers of translation of the gallant and accomplished Earl Rivers. The 
original author of the work was Christink de Pisa ; who was born at 
Bologna in the year 136 i: and of whose multifarious productions a 
particular account will be found in the recent edition of our Typogra- 
phical Antiquities, vol. i. p. 74, 77. The object of the Noble translator, 
according to Lord Orford, was, to make almost every line of the 

* At the bottom of the first page of the text, we read, in both copies, ' to the lepeop ' 
instead of ' to the people.' 

1477] WILLIAM CAXTON. 219 

version end with an e — ' an instance of once at his Lordship's appli- 
cation, and of the bad taste of an age, whicli had witticism and whims 
to struggle with as well as ignorance.' This whimsical singularity 
will probably be thought, by the tasteful antiquary, to be its chief or 
only claim to notice. However, as the tract itself is both short and of 
extreme rarity, and as early specimens of our early poetry (especially 
when they owe their origin to so distinguished an author) are 
usually acceptable to the curious in ' ancient lore,' I shall present the 
reader with the entire tract as it appears in the original : premising, 
that it contains, in the whole, only 4 leaves, and a full page has 28 
lines. It is also without numerals, signatures, and catchwords. 

€j|0 morale jrtoucrBe^ of ^tiiSftpne. 

t He grete vertus of oure elders notable 
Ofte to remembre is thing profitable 

An happy hous is. where dwelleth prudence 

For where she is raison is in presence 

A temperat man cold from hast asseurd 

May not lightly long saison be miseured 

Constante coui'aigis in sapience formed 

Wole in noo wise to vicis be conformed 

Where nys justice, that lande nor that coutre 

May not long regne in gode prosperite 

Withouten faith may there no creature 

Be vnto gode plaisant. as saith Scripture 

Propre worldly and to god acceptable 

Can noman be. but he be charitable 

Hope kepeth not promys in eury wise 

Yet in this world hit guideth maiiy awise 

In greet estat iigth not the glorie 

But in vertu whiche worth is memorie 

A cruell piynce gronded in auarice 

Shulde his peiiple not truste. if he be wise 

Yiuyng in tyme and wisely to refreigne 

Maketh oon welthy & in estate to reigne 

Now now blame comunely by usance 

Sheweth folye and noo maniere Constance 

A prynce's court withoute a gouuerneur 

Beyng prudent can not leste in honneur 

220 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Moral Proverbs; 

Grcte diligence witli a good remembrance 

Dootli aman ofte to hygh honiieur anance 

A fool can preyse nought for lak of raison 

And the wi&e man hath noo prosumcion 

A mii;hty prynce that wole here his consaille 

I'aciently to pros]>ere can not faille 

He is prudent, that maktth pourueyance 

For thing to come before en falle the chance 

A man in pride fixed with hert and mynde 

Casteth noo drede, yet woo soone dooth him finde 

That lande hath hap. Wherof the loide or kyng 

Is sad & trewe, and vseth good lyuyna; 

Lightly to here & to loue flaterye 

Gendreth errour & werre dooth multiplye 

Wise is not he. that weneth to be sure 

Of his estate, though he haue hit in ure 

In souffisance of this worldis richesse 

Is surer reste than in the giete large^se 

To hante vertus and vicis to banysshe 

Maketh aman wise, & godly to finysshc 

A benigne piynce of gode condicions 

Drawcth many oon to his opinions 

He is happy that can example take 

Of his neighburgh seing him sorwes make 

Wisdom thay lakke, that fortune doo not drede 

For many awight to trouble dooth the lede 

Muche to enquire is noo thing profitable 

Nor for to be greetly entermettable 

To muche trustyng hath hindred many a man 

Soo hath wenyng, that wel deceyue oon can 

A railing man & for alier knawe 

Onneth hath tiuste. though he telle asooth sawe 

He is wise, that his Ire can restreigne 

And in angre his tongue also refieigne 

He. that is fed hath his hertis luste 

Wliat peigne the hungry hath, he wole not truste 

Falsehede is not to cautile soo applied 

But by some folkis somtyme hit is aspied 

This tenor shal be good & long lasting 

That hath the fame of trouthe in his deling 


Ful great peigne is to change condition 
After, that aige hath oon in hire bandon 
Whoo wole himself to greet estate enhance 
Muste byfore be acqueinted with sufFrance 
Faueur gileth, arid many a tynie hit tourneth 
The right to wrong, & wrong to right retourneth 
Oon aughte to werke. Whil he hath hberte 
For Saison lost can not recouuered be 
So muche to thinke or elles hauyng noo thought 
Maketh oon forgete suche thyng, as he ne ought 
An aiged man withouten wit or connyng 
Is a vessel, that vertu is lakkyng 
He. that setheth often other to blame 
Giueth right cause to here of hina the same 
Trewe gentilesse can be noon other thing 
But the palais where honneur is dwellyng 
Happy he is, that can dispose his lyff" 
Justly in trouthe without enuye or stryfF 
Lightly is borne ful many an heuy charge 
By pacience, and conquered at large 
In grete werkis wise conseil to beleue 
Thingis decked to light hit dooth releue 
A dissolute thing used for plaisance 
Thence therof torneth to displaisance 
A ful smal gronde causeth often debate 
And litle reyne doth a greet wynd abate 
He that is yong, and loueth Idelnesse 
Lightly dooth falle in hopeful heuynesse 
Worldly richesse for to wynne wrongfully 
Dooth in dangier bringue the soule & body 
Better honneur is to haue a good name 
Than tresor riche. and more shal dure the fame 
Taking aduys vpon a cause doubtable 
Remembreth oon of thinges profitable 
Worldly richesse is had in grete chierte 
Whenne deeth cometh. al that here left m\ist be 
Speche to apoynt with a sadde contenance 
Sheweth in man a prudent gouuernance 
Dronkennesse sleeth the wit soule and body 
And maketh oon falle in villain slugardy 

222 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Moral Proverbs ; 

A prudent man, that seeth wel his offense 

Taketh good hede after for the defense 

A yongly man of chastisyng content 

Is signe of grace & of a good entent 

A louyng drede is better to endure 

Than that . whiche is constreigned by rigure 

An hoost withouten a chief for capitaine 

Is selden seen to good effect attaine 

Fewe men there be of promys liberalle 

But some of hem thay wole breke, or elles alia 

Humylite is grete grace in noblesse 

The lower hert, the higher men him dresse 

Fool hardynesse and wenyng dooth deceyue 

Ful many aman. that can hit not perceyue 

Woman & man to guider muche townyng, 

May often cause suspecieuse slandryng 

Labour in yongthe is a greet auantaige 

For to defende in nede oon in his aige 

In vain hit is aman put him to lore 

But if he sette his wit & mynde therfore 

A cruel juge in auarice set depe 

Stroyeth peuple. as wolue doon the shepe 

Dangier hit is in malice to abide 

After that his ennemy hath hit aspide 

To speke in tyme & refreinge at a point 

Is signe of wit & setteth oon in good point 

Hit is greet wit to abandonne the place 

Where fureur is. if there by tyme & space 

Selden is seen eny faueur to be 

Bitwix oon riche. and oon in pouerte 

Little languaige is left for oon to vse 

For much talkyng dooth many amane confuse 

Blame & reprief to haue is he worthy 

That seeth the good and lugeth contraiy 

He. that may not euyl companye escheue 

Yet at the lest late him soone thens remeue 

Grete folye is in him. that taketh hede 

Vpon other, and not to his owen nede 

Necessite at somtyme to consente 

Causeth famyne greet trouble and tormente 

1477.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 223 

Repented hath many a creature 

Thyng doon away, whiche in his hand was sure 

Courtoise spekyug refreigneth ofte Tre 

For to tlie hert hit is a greet plaisire 

Often is seen a man in Indigence 

To hygh estat comen by his diligence 

Opinions wilh faueured sentence 

Guideth the world more than vraye scyence 

There aughte noman to be fiers ne cruelle 

For what may falle him self, he can not telle 

i Rather to bowe, than breke is profitable 

Humylite is a thing commendable 

He is a fool, tliat dooth his charge enhance 

Upon promys without other substance 

Hit sitteth* not a woman to diffame 

For vpon him self shal retorne the blame 

For to foryete a yifte or courtosy 

Sheweth ingratitude euydently 

Siu'ed maniere & fewe wordis wel sette 

In women dooth right wel, where thay be mette 

Seruice in court is noo seur heritaige 

Hit failleth ofte witli litle auantaige 

He. that spurneth an al with violence 

Vnto him self dooth moost grief & oflFence 

To torne to Jape an Iniury or a wroong 

Is greet wisdam to be vsed emoong 

Goodly raisons not wel taker^ ne construde 

Semeth floures caste emong bestis rude 

A wrettheful man or oon in geleusye 

Aughte haue noo truste. for often thay wole lye 

Cruell spekyng in amatiere hayneuse 

Axeth answer angry and despiteuse 

There can noo good endure saison ne space 

But oonly suche, as cam by goddis grace 

Idele plaisirs vsed coustumably 

Be harde to change, though thay be blame worthy 

He that loueth euyl tales to reporte 

To make debate semeth wel his disporte 

Necessite, pouert and Indigence 

Causeth many greet Inconuenience 

• Sic: for ' fittetb.' 

224 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Proverbs ; I477. 

A nieene estat is better to entende 

Than hygb cliinmyng lest that oon sone descende 

Right to relesse somtynie is no dotaige 

Soo that hit be for a more auantaige 

In wcl doyng hauyng a trewe Renon 

Bringueth a man to gode conclusion 

Foiyeting god for this worldis richesse 

Sheweth noo faith, but slauthe & grete latchesse 

There is noo thing so riche I you enseur 

As the seruice of god oure createur 

Litle vailleth good exemj)le to see 

For him. that wole not the contraire flee 

Though that the deeth to vs be lamentable 

Hit to remember is thing moost conuenable 

Thende dooth shewe euery werk, as hit is 

Woo may be he. that to god endeth mys 


Of these sayynges Cristyne was aucteuresse 
Whiche in makyng hadde suche Intelligence 
That therof she was mireur & maisti*esse 
Hire werkes testifie thexperience 
In ffenssh languaige was wi'iteii this sentence 
And thus Englished dooth hit rehers 
Antoin wideuylle therl Ryuers 

Go thou litil quayer, and recomaund me 
Vnto the good grace, of my special lorde 
Therle Ryueris. for I haue enprinted the 
At his coniandement. of folouyng eury worde 
His copye, as his secretaire can recorde 
At Westmestre. of feuerer the . xx . daye 
And of kyng Edward, the . xvij . yere vrave 

€ii^nteti ftp Carton 
%n fcucret tljc coitie d^cn^on 

This little volume is among the scarcest pieces of Caxton's press. 
The copy in the British Museum, that in His Majesty's Library,and those 
in the libraries of the Marquis of Blandford and Mr. Grenville, are 
the only ones, exclusively of the present, with which I am acquainted. 
This is a fair and sound copy ; beautifully bound in blue morocco. 

Cordial; 1480.] WILLIAM CAXTON. «25 

844. The Book named Cordyale. Supposed to 
have been printed in 1480. Folio. 

Earl Rivers was the author of this version of a celebrated Latin 
work, in the xvth century, under the better known title of Memokare 
NovissiMA, or The Four last Things ; namely, of Death, of the 
Last Judgment, of the Pains of Hell, and of the Joys of Heaven. See 
my edition of our Typographical Antiquities, vol. i. p. 77- The volume 
under consideration exhibits a fine specimen of Caxton's press, 
although it cannot be classed among the rarer productions of it. It 
commences in the following manner— on the recto of the first leaf, at 
top, which is a full page containing 29 lines : 

% Slnfftatitutie tttcrlp frttpng apart/ tDe otoc 

a to caHc to out mpntiejaiy tje nianpfoftie gpfte^ 

of gracc/ tJJitlj ttie Iienefaittijef* tfjat out iottie 

of Ijija? moo^t jrfentieuisfc l&onte IJatj) pmen* b^ 

Xcc. 8cc. Ice. 

This introduction concludes on the reverse of the first leaf. The 
second leaf contains a table of the * singuler parties ' in the * four 
principal parties.' This table is printed entire in the work just 
referred to. It occupies the whole leaf, and ends in the following 
manner, on the reverse of it : 

^ctc aftct foIotDcje? tfje jitologue of t||c fout la^t tfjingejg? 

This prologue occupies the third leaf; ending, on the reverse of it, 
thus : 

€8u^ entietl) tjje ptologue of tJjiiSf fiooft namcb. Cot^ 
bpal* Sec. 

The first chapter of the First Part begins on the recto of the succeed- 
ing, and fourth leaf. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor 
catchwords to this volume ; and a perfect copy of it should contain 
76 leaves. I select a brief specimen from the Third Part, describing 
the Pains of Hell, which will be found on the recto of fol. 48 : 

• Sic. 

226 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Cordial-, 1480. 

How thoes that descende into helle be cruelly punysshed 

The secunde chapitre of the thirde parte principal 

Owe to procede folowyngly by orch-e it resteth to 
n be expouned how there be many and diuerse afflic 

tions geuen by the soldeours of hello. Tlioes 
soldeours been to vnderstonde the deueles, whiche been 
tourmentours and hangemen full abhominable to beholde 
and cruell in their dedis, neuer wery to tourmente nor to geue 
paynes. I say first that thoes deueles be horrible to be holde 
And therefoi'e they be so paynted in the chirche with hideous 
and orrible figures. To this purpose it is redde that where som 
tyrae, a religio' man was lying m his dortor among his brethren, 
It happened in a nyght that he cryed orribly where thorow 
all the brethren of his couent resorted vnto hym, antl 
they founde hym staring and his eyea fixid vppon a wall 
firmely without moeuyng, and wolde answerr to no question 
that they demaunded hym. he was so meued with a meruelous 
fere, and in the morowe his prior came vnto hym and 
asked what hym ay led that nyght. and he answered 
He hadde seyn the deuell. And thene it was questioned 
hym, what shappe he was of. And he answered that 
his shappe ne mought lightly be descriued. and saide . 
If ther were here an ouon ful of fire and yondre the figure 
of the deuill, I hadde as leef entre into y^ ouon, as 
long to beholde on his moost horrible figure. &c. 

The text of this work is crowded with extracts from the Vitas 
Patrum, and from the writings of St. Bernard, St. Gregoiy, and the 
other fathers : which sometimes, perhaps to the disappointment of the 
reader, interrupt the progress of a singular anecdote — like the above. 
The date of the printing of this volume is gathered from two pas- 
sages: both taken from the Epilogue of Caxton (which is piinted 
entire in the work before referred to) on the last two leaves. The first 
passage is as follows — on the reverse of fol. 75 : 

iuljicl^ Iiooft toa.!^ bdiucrcti to nic iuilUam 
<Caj:ton Bp nip ^aitie nobic lottit iHputcr^ on tl)c bap of 
purificacioit of our hii(0iti iabp/ falling tjje tctoftiap 

Chronicles; 1480.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 227 

tlje fccuntre iiap of tl^e monetfj of feucrer. %\\ ti^e peer 
of our lorJ). a^.C€C€(jt:jt:b:ii fot to lie enpcinteti, anti ^o 
muJtipiieti to goo abrooti einonge ttjc pepk 

The second passage is on the reverse of the 76th and last leaf : taken 
from the same Epilogue. 

Jl^ljittic toerfte pre// 
imt % ficjait tje morn after tfje bailie ^iiriffcacion of our 
iilifiSiiti Satip. I©l[jief|c tuasf tlje bape of ^^eint 25Ia.sfc 25iirt)ojr 
anti ai^artin 3Cnti finilHjctr on tlje euen of tl^annunciacion 
of our faiti MiffitJ Satip faiipng on ttje toetmesbaji tfje 
xxnx] tiape of Si^arc^e. 31" tjje rir peer of Iting a2Dtoar&e 
tfte fourtjie 

As Edward the IVth was crowned in June 1461, it should follow 
that this book was printed in the year 1480 ; so that Caxton seems 
to have been two years occupied in the production of it : a space of 
time much beyond what might be conceived necessary for such a 
performance. Yet we have no other work, in the intervening period * 
from the volume last described and the present one, which is known to 
have issued from his press. This is a large, sound, and most desirable 
copy; ill russia binding. 

845. The Crontcles of Engi:^nd : with the 
Descripcion of Britayne. 1480. Folio. 

These two works are to be considered as forming only one publica- 
tion ; as they were unquestionably put forth in one volume when they 
were first given to the public. The copy under description, con- 
taining both these works, cannot perhaps be exceeded in the beauty 
and soundness of its condition ; since the greater number of copies are 
in a soiled and imperfect state. I shall be rather brief in the 

* I strongly suspect, howerer, that Caxton was much occupied, in this space of time, 
in the preparation of his Chronxcle of England and Description of Britain; as 
be published them in the same Dominical year, and at the commencement of the 20th 
year of Edward the Fourth's reign: calculating, as I conceive, from the death of Hen.^^I• 
in iMarch ; and not from the coronation of Edward, in June, 1461. 

228 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chronicles ; 1480, 

description of it ; as it is one of those productions of Caxton's press 
wliich is pretty generally known, and of which both a critical and 
biblioi^raphical account will be found in the recent edition of our 
Typogrophi'-al Antiquities ; vol. i. p. 85-100. The Chronicle begins on 
the recto of the second leaf, containing a table of the chapters (263 in 
number) on 7 leaves, or rather 13 pages. 

The date of the printing is taken from the opening of the short 
prohenie, prefixed to tlie table of chapters, on the second leaf, (the 
first being blank) sign. ij. It is thus : 

^ tl)c pcrc of ttjpncarnacpon of our iorb g[§u crisft m 

€€€€i \xxXi 3ilnt! m tl)e xx perc of tf)e Hcgitc of 

i ftpng <StitDartJ tljc fourtlj/ %m request of tipucr^e gen 

tplnicn 3i Ijauc cnUcuoprpb n\t to ciiprpntc tljc Cro' 

xi^tW of ^nglonb; a^ in tjjijaf fiooft ^Ijal tip tftc j5uffraunce 

of gob folotocy &c. 

The table contains 7 printed leaves. A blank leaf (forming signature 
a) follows ; and on a 2 the text of the Chronicle begins. The voli'vme 
terminates on the recto of y 6, in eights ; the reverse being blank. 

The Description of Britayne was finished in August, in the same 
year. A brief proheme, with a table of the chapters, 29 in number, 
occupies the reverse of the first leaf: the recto being blank. The entire 
volume contains only 29 leaves, and is without signatures, numerals, or 
catchwords. The colophon, on the recto of the last leaf, is thus : 

Jpcrc cntictf) tlje bi^rription of ^ritapne tfje/ toUicljefontcp^ 
nctlj cngionti toalc^ anti jejcotianti; i al^ao Bicnu^e SJrlontie 
i^ tjiitjcr tljc reule of cngionti *i of oltic tpitic* it Jjatti ^o 
fontimifti tljcrcfote gi \^mt ?cttc tjjc tic^cripcion of tje 
jefamc after tlje jfaiti firitupnc/ f iujjicl) % Ijaue tahen oute 
of ^oiicronicon/ 3Cnti fcicau^c it i^ ncccfjsjaric to afle 
cngiiff^mcn to fenotuc tljc jirojiretce^ ccmotiitcci^ i mer. 
\m\W of tfjeiti/ tl^ercfore 21 fiauc ?ctte tJjcni in cnprinte 
atcorbing to t%t tranjalacion of Crcui^a/ toljicljc atte 
request of tljc Jorb 23arhelep tran^Jatcti tlje lioofe 

• m reversed in original. t Sic. 

Chronicles J 1493.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 22D 

^^olitronicon in to mglifff)/ fpnpffjcb "bp me U^iHiam 
Carton tlje jctjii). tiap of ^Hugusft tt|c pcre of our lorti 
job a^. €<C<C€. ter. anti tfje xx- pttt of tfje rcgne of ftpng 
€btoarti tje fourtfje* 

The present veiy desirable copy is elegantly bound in russia. 

846. Cronycles of the Londe of Englod. 
Printed hy Gerard de Leew. Aiitwerp. 1493. 

In a note, at page 91 of the 1st vol, of the Typographical Antiquities 
of Great Britain, I had mentioned the extreme rarity of the present 
very beautiful reprint of the Chronicles of England, from the text of 
Caxton. At that tiaie I did not expect to have had the good fortune 
of describing so singular a publication. The copy under description 
was obtained from the choice libraiy of my friend Mr. Roger Wil- 
braham ; who presented it to the present Noble Owner, and who 
received, in return, a very fine copy (although somewhat imperfect) 
of Caxton's Golden Legend, of the date of 14S3. 

It seems to be the better arrangement to describe De Leeu's reprint 
of Caxton's Chronicle in the order in which it here stands. The title, 
or frontispiece, contains the words, above given, printed in a very 
large lower-case gothic character, over the royal arms of England, with 
a large angel, on each side, as a supporter. A broad wood-cut border 
is on each side, and at the bottom of it. The reverse is blank. A 
table of 6 leaves follows. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a j, at top 
of the first column, we read this prefix : 

J^oiu t|>e latie of oBnglobe tuaisf 
fprjait nameb Albion, ab ftp tX)Jjat 
encljejgfon it toa^ isfo nameb 

A large ornamental letter (T) precedes the text. There are similar 
capitals, but on a smaller scale, throughout the volume. The entire 
impression is executed in double columns, in a large square gothic 
type ; and both the paper and press work are of equal beauty. The 
signatures, to i, run in eights : i and k have each G only : 1 and m, 
each 8 ; n 6 ; o, p, and q, each 8 ; r, 6 ; s, t, v, in eights : x, y, each 6; 
J viij. On the reverse of the last leaf, we observe the following^ 
colophon, and device of the printer. 

230 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chronicles; 1493. 

€ ^ctc hen ciibpu tl)t €ronpriej6f of tlje iicaint of €nglonti 
tDitlj tfjcir appectciffuaunccjef . €nprctpti 5[n tJjc S:)ucljpc 
of 23raBmtD. m t^t totone of ^llnbctoarpc ^n tJje pete of 
out iorb . 09 . tea . jtrciij . 23p maij^ter <i5etarb be IcetD . 
a man of grete topjeteboni in all manet of hungng : tul)pcl) 
nottic i.ief come from Ipfe tonto tje tietf)/ tofjicli i.i^ grete 
liarme for manp a $oure itian. #n tDfjojgi ^otDle gob 
almplitp for l^pjBf Ijpgfi grace fjaue mcrcp 
311 09 € ^ 

1481.] WILLIAM GAXTON. 231 

This book may therefore be considered the last work from the press 
of Gerard de Leeu ; and, as such, will be accounted no small curiosity. 
The present is a clean and sound copy, in russia binding. 

847. The Mirrour of the World. Printed in 
the Ahbey of TVestmestre. 1481. Folio. 

First Edition. This impression commences, with a table, at top 
of the recto of the first leaf, on signature a 2 : a blank leaf forming 
the previous signature, a 1 . This page, and every similar full page, 
contains 2y lines. The table terminates on the recto of a 4, and is 
immediately succeeded by the 

5^rologue tieclatpng to tufjom tlji^ tioolft appertepnetfj. 

The conclusion of this prologue, on the recto of the ensuing leaf, is 

♦ hjljicfje iuajsf cngrof^eb anti inalle popntc^ or^ 

ticpitcti Bp cfjapitre^ anti ffgure^sf in ffreitjBfljc in tfjc toun 
of firuggi^ tljc pcre of tfjpncatnacion of our lorb. sr^* 
€€€€. Iriiii. vx tljc monetf) of 3upn/ %x^ einjrn^gfcti lip 
me tpg]j)t tjnaftic anti of !ptiJ connpng to translate % 
Ijtpnge it in to out maternal tongue p^ ^econti tiap of tje 
monetf) of janpuer tifje per of our i^aib lorti, 3r^*C€€€ 
Irrjcin tjjaliJiap ofiue^tme^trefiplontiony fjumfilp requp- 
rpng alle tfjem tJjat f Ijal fpntie faulte/ to torrecte anti 
amentie itJgere a^ x^t^ ^Ijal onp fpnbe/ ^nti of ^ucfje $fo 
foutien tfjat tfjep rejjute not t][je filame on mey fiut on mp 
cojrie/ tolhic^e j am cfjargeti to folotoe aif npglje a^ gotj 
toil gpue me grace/ toljom j mo^t IjumWp liefecjje to gpue 
me fcpente. connpng ant» Ipf tafcomplpfije anb toel to 
fpnpflje it; It 

This is succeeded by an admonition to those ' who so wylle comprise 
and vnderstande the substaunce of this present volume, for to lerne 




and knowe specially the creacion. of this world, the gretnes of the 
firmamet & lytilnes of therthe in regard of heuen, how the vij sciences 
were ffonnden and what they bee, &c.' This admonition concludes on 
the reverse of the same leaf. On the recto of the ensuing leaf (a 6) 
the text begins according to this fac-simile.* 

i^w Bcggwucf § t^e foc6 o^fffe (§e wgttout of <§c K«t^/ 
^tib? ftca*t$ ftp of t^^ p155^ m^ puiffaunce of gotj 

out ^b? 


The circular formation of the earth is thus illustrated — but the 
preceding explanatory part should not be omitted : ' And yf it were so 
that by adueture two men departed that one fro that other. And that 
one wente alleway toward the eest, and that other toward the weste, so 
that bolhe two wente egally, it behoued that they shold mete agayn in 
the opposite place fro where as they departed, & bothe two shold come 
agayn to the place, fro whens they meuyd first, fFor thenne had that 

• This fac-similc, on minute revision, gives us latlier tlie cliaracter and fonualion, than 
the exact size, of tlie 1 vi>e. It is Jiowevcr suflicieiitly illustrative of Caxton's largest aud 
more flowing tvpe — if such an C-xprcssion may be used. 

fTorld; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


one and that other goon roude aboute the erthe aboue and viider, lyke 
as rounde aboute a whele that were stylle on therthe in lyke wise 
shold they goo aboute therthe, as they that contynuelly drewe them 
right toward the myddle of therthe, ffor she fastneth alle heuy thyng 
toward her, And that most weyeth, moste draweth and most ner 
holdeth toward the myddle, fFor who* raoche depper one delueth in 
therthe, so mocha heuyer shal he fynde it, and for to vnderstonde this 
that 1 haue deuysed to you here to fore of the goynges of the flyes 
aboute thapple, & of the men aboute therthe. In lyke \vyse maye ye 
see alle the manere & facion by thyse two fygures the whiche ben 
here to you represented and shewde alle entieily.' Sign. d. 6, 7- 

The author, after a short intervention of similar matter, proceeds 
thus : ' aNd yf the erthe were perced thurgh in two places of whiche 
that on hole were cutte in to that other lyke a crosse, and foure men 
stoden right at the foure heedes of thise ij hooles, on aboue, and 
another bynethe, and in lyke wyse on bothe sides, and that eche of 
them threwe a stone in to the hoole, whether it were grete or lytyl, 
eche stone shold come in to [the] myddle of therthe, wythout euer 
to haue remeuid fro thens. But yf it were drawen away by force. And 
they sholden them one aboute another for to take place eueriche in the 

• Sic, for ' how.' 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Mirror of the 

myddle of therthe, And yf the stones were of like weight, they shold 
come thcrto alle at one tyme, assone that one as that otlicr, fFor nature 
wold sufFre it none other wise, And that one shold come ayenst another 
as ye may playnly see by this fygure, 

These may suffice, in the present instance, for specimens of the Style 
of Engraving with which this volume was intended to be adorned. In the 
Typog. Antiq. edit. 1810, vol. i. p. 1 10-1 12, various other fac-similes will 
be found; and as this impression is supposed to be the first book, 
executedin this country, which contains wood-cuts — these specimens 
(rude as they undoubtedly are) will not be considered wholly divested 
of interest. 

The volume under description contains signatures, a to n, in eights: 
n having only 4 leaves. The printer's epilogue (which is printed entire 
in the authority above referred to) informs us that the work was 
executed * at the request, and desire, cost and dispense of the honour- 
able and worshipful man. Hugh Eryce Citizen and Alderman of 
London, ;' who told the printer that he intended to present it * unto 
the puissant, noble, and virtuous Lord, his Lord Hastings ;' chamber- 
lain to the King, and Lieutenant of the town of Calais. The conclusion 
is, in part, thus : 

fTorld', 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 235 

3Cnti pftfjetfie 
feufte in me^gfurpng of tljc firmament, ^onnc, Sl^ne, or 
of tl^ertgc, or in onp otljer meruapllejBf fjerin contepncb, % 
fieiBfccge pou not tarctte tfje tiefauUe in me, liut in ()pm tftat 
matie mp coppe, tDl[)iclje Iiooh3i fiegan flr^t to tca^sflate tje 
jefeconti tiap of Slanpuer tlje pere of our lorb . 3r^. €€€€ ♦ 
. \XXX . 3llnti ^npftjpti tl)e biij tiap of Jiir^arcfie tfje ^ame 
pere, 3llnti tlje xx\ pere of tlje Ulegne of tf|e mo^eft <<rrpjsften 
fepnge, fepnge (J^toarti tfje fourtJje, unber tlje d^ljatioljue of 
tofjojafnoBIc protection 9! fjaue em jrrpj^eti a fpnpfrjeb tljiisf 
liapli JptiJtDerfte anti Iiofee, &c. 

The preceding is on the recto of the last leaf; n iiij : the reverse is 
blank. From this colophon, I have before presumed the work not to 
have been pr'mied and published till the year 1481 ; that is, after March 
the 25th ; when, according to the ancient ecclesiastical division of the 
year, the first day of the new dominical year commenced. The pre- 
sent may be classed with the more beautiful volumes of the press of 
Caxton. The paper is excellent, the press work comparatively good, 
and the margin ample. Those who have witnessed the very extra- 
ordinary copy of this impression, which was purchased by his Grace the 
Duke of Devonshire at the sale of the Roxburgh library, will admit the 
justice of this observation. The present is a very large and sound, but 
rather soUed copy : in russia binding. 

848. The Myrrour of the World. Printed in 
the Ahhey of IVestmestre, 1481. Folio. 

Second Edition. Before we enter upon the description of this 
hnpression, it may be necessary briefly to state the differences between 
it and the one previously described. These differences are purely 
typographical. This edition is called ' the myrrour of the world ;' the 
preceding one, ' the Mirrour of the world' — in the respective prefixes 
to the tables. There are 31 lines in a full page ; and the signatures, in 
consequence, extend only to 1, inclusively, in eights. On closer exami- 
nation, we find the li, a, and lu, materially different. In this impression, 
the h has a loop at top, the a is reversed from the position as seen in 
the first line of the fac-simile of the type, at p. 232 ante, and the w has 

286 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Mirror of the 

no circular flourish at top. The initial letter, to the various sections, 
are here capital one=, full bodied, and uniformly black : in the previous 
impression they are small ones, to be enlarged according to the fancy 
of tlic illuminator. The type, in consequence, has a fuller, closer, and 
blacker effect in the volume under consideration ; and the termination 
of it, in the manner hereafter described, confirms its distinction at one 

The table occupies 2 leaves. On the recto of a iij (the signature- 
numerals here being designated by letters, and in the preceding edition 
by arable numbers, very coai'sely executed) the text of the work begins 
similar to what has been given at p. 232 ante. To vary the descriptions 
of the several editions, and at the same time to give the reader some 
tolerably accurate notions of tlie intrinsic character of a work, which 
was formerly among the most popular extant, I shall present him with a 
variety of extracts which may excite his astonishment and pity at the 
ignorance and credulity of former times. The State of the Clergy is not 
incuriously delineated in the following passage : 

' Ther ben plente of poure clerkes that gladly wold lerne yf they 
had the power, But they may not entende therto. By cause they haue 
not wherof for to furnysshe them of their necessytees as wel for to haue 
bookes as mete drinke & clothes But ben costrayned for to gete their 
liuyng other wyse, for the riche haue now in thise dayes seased somoche, 
that the poure abyde naked & must suffre. Yet ben ther plente of riche 
clerkis that haue bookes wythout nombre of one & other richely 
adoubed and couerd to thende that they ben holden for wyse and goode 
clerkes. For they seche to haue no more. But only the loos and 
preysing of the people, And dooo* in like wyse as the Cock that shrapeth 
in the duste for to fynde pasture, he shrapeth so longe in the duste and 
mullet tyl he finde a gemme riche and precyous whiche shineth clere, 
thenne he be ginneth to loke theron and beholdeth it, and doth no 
more but late it lye, For he demandeth not after the ouche or gemme, 
but had leueyr haue somme corne to etc, In like wyse is it of many of 
these not wyse clerkys couetous that haue the precyous bookes richely 
lymned storyed & wel adoubed. that do nothynge but loke & beholde 
them wythout forth while they be newe by cause them seme that they 
ben fair, & so they beholde them gladly & passe therwyth, & after they 
tome on that other syde & thynke for to fylle their belyes. tSc to come 
to their folysshe desyres, and they myght lerne ynoughe yf they wold 
entende it. For they haue wel the power. & myght do as the wyse 

* Sic. t Sie. 

World; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 237 

men dyde hertofore, the whiche by their trauayl studye & dylygece 
fonde furst the clerges. But they haue their entendemete folyssh and 
out of the way, and therfore the sciences & artes perysshe in suche 
wyse that vnneth and wyth grete payne knowe they their partes of 
reson whiche is the furst booke of gramayre. The whiche is the fyrst 
of the seuen sciences, But put their artes in their males, and goo 
lerne anon the lawes or decretals, and become aduocates and iuristes 
for to araasse and gadre alway money wherin the deuyll conforteth hem, 
and yet do they not somoche for to lerne, as they do for to fylle their 
purses, In Parys, Oxenford and Cambrydge is there suche maner of 
clerkes that ben acustomed to vvylle haue the renomme and fame to be 
called maystres for to be the more preysed and honoured, And haue leuer 
to conne lytyll and to haue the name of maystre. than they shold be good 
clerkes wythout hauyng the degree and name of maystre. But they be 
called maystres wrongfully. For vanyte maystryeth them in suche wyse 
that they can but lytyl trouthe. bycause that they haue so sone the 
name of maystre they leue the clergye. And take them to the wynnyng, 
lyke as marchants do and brokers, And in this wyse ben many in the 
world that haue tlie name of maystre. that knowe right lytyl of good and 
reson. For they that now desyre this ben not maystres after right. 
For they ordeyne them otherwyse to the sciences than they dyde that 
fonde them first. They entered first into gramayre for to drawe reson 
in their ordynauce, and after logique for to preue & shewe the troutii 
fro the false. After they fonde rethorique for to speke fayr in iugcment 
& right whiche they moche loued. & after arAmetrique for to be expert 
in all thinges, after they foiide geometrye for to mesure & copasse all 
maistrye & after they foude they sciece of miisyque for to sette all 
thinges in cocordauce, after they had y*^ vnderstandyng of astronomye. 
for therby were they meuyd to haue science & vertue. Sign, h v. vj. 

A brief sketch of Chivalry, and the comparative state of learning in 
the several universities of Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge, are repre- 
sented to us in the ensuing passage : ' And sought a cite in the world, 
where they myght best be & dwelle for tenquere the state of the clergye. 
and thus the better for tadresse them, & to teche other they chees the 
cyte of athenes whiche was noble and somtyme one where they had 
their comyn resydence & assemble. And there reyned first chiualiye 
wyth clergye, & after fro thens it wente to Rome, whiche now is of 
grete renomme. And there cheua!r)'e contynued long. And frothens 
after it remeuyd into ifiaunce, where chyvialrye hath more power than 
ony other place in the world. And thus haboundeth there that one i\ 

238 BOOKS PRINTED BY [3Iirror of the 

that other. For chiualrye sieweth alway clergye where she goth, thene 
the kynge of Fraunce & of Eiiglonde may be ioyous that there is iu his 
Royames suche seignourye as is sciece of clergye where euery man 
may drawe out wytte & connyng humayn. & ther abydeth neuer the 
lasse. For it is as a fontayn that contynuelly sourdeth and springeth. 
And the more it renneth and the farther, the more it is holsom. & 
now more the sprynge of the fontayn renneth and ferther so muche is 
the more of the water. & the more may be take fro it for nede, In like 
wyse may I saye to yow, that parys Oxenford & Cambryge ben the 
fontayns where men may drawe out most science & more in parys than 
in other places, & syth it is soo that clergye is soo moche auaunced in 
fraunce. Thenne ought to knowe by reson in especyall yf the heyres 
of ffraunce daygne to conne it. For lyke as the sonne is most fayr of 
alle the sterres, & causeth moste good thynges to growe in the world 
by the bounte that haboudeth in him . so ought the kyng be of more 
valewe than ony other. & to haue more vnderstandyng & clergye, that 
so by his valyaunce & suffysaunce he myght shyne enioge other people, 
& by thexample of his wel doyng that they see in hym they myght by 
right conduyte drawe them to our Lord & in suche wyse shold he be 
kynge by right in this world, & in heuen, so thenne shold it be wel 
right & rayson that they do their dyligence to lerne suche clergye & 
sciece. that after this mortal lyf they lese not the seignorye of heuen. 
For by nature & lygnage ought they alle to loue clergye and alway to 
lerne it certes themperour of almaygne louyed wyth al his herte 
clergy, &c.' Sign, b vij. viij. 

The author's knowledge of Natural History (such as it is) is evinced 
in the singular extract which follows : 

* In this partye conuerseth and repayreth another beste whiche is of 
dyuerse colours by spottes whytte black, greene. blevve. and yelow 
lyke as it were paynted, and is moche propre and is called Panthei'e, 
and ther cometh out of his mouth so swete a sauour and breeth, that 
the beestes goo folowyng after it for the swetenes of his body, sauf 
the serpent, to whom the swete smelle greueth in suchewyse that ofte 
the serpent dyeth, and whan this beste is otherwhyle so fylled and full 
of venyson that he hath taken and eten. He slepeth iij dayes hool 
wythout a wakyng, And whan he awaketh. he gyueth out of his mouth 
so swete a sauour and smelle, that anon the bestes that fele it seche 
hym. This beest hath but ones yong fawnes, and when she shal fawne. 
she hath suche distresse and anguyssh that she breketh wyth her 

rrorld; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 239 

nayles and renteth her matryce in suche wyse that her fawnes come 
out. And neuer after whan the matryce is rente and broken they 
engendre ne brenge forth fawnes. Ther is a maner of mares that 
conceyue of the wynde, and ben in a contre that is named Capydoce, 
but they endure not but iij yere. In this contre ben the Olyphaunts 
whiche is a beest grete stronge and fyghtyng. And whan the see their 
bled shedde to fore them, they be most corageous & most stronge and 
fyghtin alle places andalle bataylles vpon this Olyphaunts were wonte 
to fyghte the people of Inde and of Perse, For an Olyphaunt bereth 
wel a tour of woode vpo his back fulle of men of amies whan it is wel 
sette on & fermely, And they haue to fore them in maner of boyell 
grete and large, whiche they ete. by whiche they renne on men, & haue 
anon deuoured them, king Alysandj-e which was a good clerke and 
prynce of grete recommendacion & that wente in to many contrees 
for to sere he and enquyre y* aduentures more than he dyde to con- 
quere thenne whan he shold fyght ayenst them that had taught and 
lemed tholyfauntes to fyght in playn londe, he dyde do make Vessels 
of copper in fourme of men, and dyde do fylle them wyth fyre bren- 
nyng, and sette them to fore hym to fyght ayenst them that were vpon 
tholyphauntes, And whan tholyphauntes caste their boyel by whiche 
they slewe the people vpon the men of copper, feelyng that they were 
so hoot that they brenned them, Thenne they that were so taught 
wolde nomore approche tho men for doubte of the fyre, For they 
thoughte, that all men had ben a shoot, as they were of copper. 
Avhiche were full of fyre. And thus kynge Alysander as a sage prynce 
eschewed the paryll and daunger of these olyphauntes. And con- 
querd this wylde people, & in suche wyse dompted tholyphauntes that 
they durst do no more harnie vnto the men. The olyphauntes goo 
moche symply & accordyngly to gydre. And whan they mete and en- 
countre eche other They bowe their hedes that one to that other lyke 
as they entresalewed eche other. Sign, e iii-iiij.* 

* We will just notice, at the foot of the text, some of the author's notions of minor 
animals and reptiles ; ' wythin the ryuer and flode of Inde named Ganges goon the eeles 
by grete rcnges whiche ben CCC feet long and ben good mete to ete at nede ' —A little 
onward of Serpents ; ' Ther is in this regyon another maner of serpents that haue homes 
lyke a shepe, Ther groweth a beest named aspis that may not be deceyuyd ne taken but 
by charmyng, for he Leryth gladly y« sowne, But assone as he heeryth the charme he 
putteth his tayll in his one eere, and that other Icyeth to the gronude [sic] doubtyng to he 
deceyuyd by y« charme. Other serpentes ther be named Tygrys whiche ben taken aJle 
qujck by force of engyns. And of them men make triatle, whyche deifeteth and takcth 
away other yenym, Other wormes ther growe there whiche haue two armes so longe and so 

240 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Mirror of the 

The account of the Amazons is sufficiently extraordinary : ' Another 
regyon thcr is y' whiche coiueth toward the north in whiche ther 
dwelleth nonian, but wymmen whiche br-n as fyers as lyons, And whan 
nede is they fyghte frcly ayenst the men They go armed as knyghtes 
in batiiylle, & brynge doun their enemyes wythout sparynge, they haue 
fair tresses of their heer whiche hange doun byhynde them, And they 
be garnysshed w^'th grete prouesses in all their werkc s & aflfayres. 
And ben called Amazones, But they haue men nyghe to their contre 
dvvellyng, \\''hom they euery yere fetche for to be in their companye 
viij or XV daycs longe and suffre them to knowe them carnelly so longe 
that they suppose that they haue conceyuyd, and thenne departe the 
men fro that contre And goon agayn thedyr that they came fro, and 
whan thyse wymmen haue childed. yf it be a doughter they reteyne 
her wyth them, And yf it be a sone they nouiysshe it fyue or syx yere, 
and after sende it out of the contree yet in other places ben many 
fayr ladyes whiche in bata) lies, & in estowrs vse alle their Armes of 
syluer for lacke of yron and of steell. of whiche they haue not. In the 
woodes of Inde ben other wymmen the whiche haue their berdes so 
longe that they coiue doun to their pappes. They lyue by wylde 
beestys, and clothe them wyth the skynnes of the same wyld beestis.' 
Sign, e vij. 

The following affords a singular melange ' And they entretiene & 
cleue to gydre wel an hondred in a clustre, & the leues that growe on 
this apple trees ben wel two fote longe, & a foot brode, Other apples 
ther growe moche grete, wherin ajipiereth the bytte of a man, wyth 
his teeth. And ben called thapples of Adam by cause of y' bytte that 
apiereth in them, ther ben other trees whiche here apples, that ben 
right fair wythout foith, And wythin it is as it were asshes. The 
vygnes here there grapes, of which wyn is maade. they ben so habon- 
daunt of fruyt. And y'= clustres of grapes ben so grete & so ful of 
muste. that two men ben gretly charged to here one of them only 
vpon acolstaf. Also ther growe lytyl smale trees that be remeuyd euery 
yere the whiche here cutoun. also ther growe in many places canes 

dyucrsc ttnit they bele and slee the Olyphaunts. This worme lyueth right longe, And 
whan he is olde and feletli hym feble, he consumeth hyin self by fastynge, And suffreth to 
be enfamyned so ouer moche that lytyl abydeth of his body, Thenne he gotli in to a lytyll 
hooU of somme stone whiche is wel strayt and thenne he puttcth hym self out wyth so 
ryght grete distresse, that liys shynne remayneth all liool. And ther groweth and cometh 
on hjni another skyuuc, And thus rcnewetb his age af> a wyse beeste that he is.' 
•Sign, e. iiij. v. 

JTorld; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 211 

grete and longe whiche ben wythin forth ful of sugi-e, so moche and 
especiall that ther growe none lyke in alle the worlde. At one of the 
heedes of the Royame of babylone groweth the bame whiche is moche 
dere, and rristen men that ben piysonners there delue and laboure the 
eithe, And sarasyns save that they haue ofte preuyd it, that whan they 
doo delue and laboure that erthe wyth people of other nacions than 
crysten men that it bereth no fi'uyt ne bame that yere. And vpon the 
felde where the bame groweth, some saye that there spryngeth a 
fontayne where the blessyd Vyrgine Marie bayned her sone Jhesus, 
And with the watre of this fontayne is the bame watred. and of this 
water may not be employed ne born in to other place, for in substaunce 
it doth no more than other water. Sign. fi. fij. 

But not the least amusing portion of this volume is contained in 
the description of the Purgatory of St. Patrick : * 

' Ther is also in Irlonde a place called Seynt Patrykes purgatorye, 
whiche place is perillous yf ony men goon therin & be not confessed 
and repentaut of their synnes, they be anou rauysshid andloste in suche 
Avyse that noman can telle where they be come. And yf they be con- 
fessed and repentaOt, & that they haue doon satisfaction and penaunce 
for their synnes wythout that all be clensed and ful satisfyed therafter 
shal they suffre payne and greef the tormentis in passyng this crymynel 
passage, And whan he is retorned agayn fro this purgatorye, Neuer 
shal no thing in this world plese hym that he shal see ner he shal 
neuer be joyous ne glad ne shal not be seen lawhe. but shal be 
contynuelly in wayllynges & wepynges for the synnes that he hath 
commysed. hit may wel be that of auncyent tyme it hath ben thus as 
afore is wreton as the storye of Tundale & other witnesse, but I haue 

• It is preceded by the following no very clumsy piece of ratiocination : ' And ther i» 
noman that knoweth all sauf onli god whiche all seeth and alle knoweth. The geauntes that 
ben in som place haue right grete meruaylle of this that we be so lytyl ayenst them, Lyke 
as we meruaylle of them that ben half lasse than we be, As it is to fore sayd, & they ben y* 
Pygmans whiche ben but iij foot longe. And in lyke wyse meruayle they of vs. of that we 
ben so grete, and repute vs also for geauntes, they that haue but one eye and one foot, 
haue grete meruayle that we haue tweyne, lyke as we doo of them that haue but one. And 
also as we deuyse their bestis & name them by their names in lyke wise deuyse they cures, 
by theirs, bothe of body & of membres, yf the centycore haue an foot of an hors, in lyke 
wyse hath the hors the foot of a centycore, also we may wel saye that y' hors hath the 
body of Monotheros. for they ben lyke corsayge. And thus their bestis resemble ruto oures 
whiche ben dyuerse of hedes of bodyes and of membres, as om'es beu contrayre to tbens.' 
ii^. fv. recto. 

242 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Mirror of the 

spoke with dyuersc men that haue ben theriu, and that one of them 
was an hye canon of A\aterfoid vvhichc told me that he had ben theria 
8 or 9 times & he sawc ne suffred no suche thynges he sayth that wyth 
processyon the relygyous men that ben there bi-ynge hym in to the hool 
and shctte the dorc after hym. & than he walketh groping in to it 
where as he said ben places & maner of cowches to reste on, And there 
he was all the nyght in cotcmplacion & prayer, and also slepte there, 
& on the morn he cam out agayn, other while in there slepe some 
men haue meruayllous dremes & other thynge sawe he not. And in lyke 
wyse toldc to me a worshipful knyght of brudgis named Sir John, de 
banste that he had ben therin in lyke wyse & see none other thyng but 
as afore is sayd.' Sign, f v, vj. 

There is something perhaps approaching the grand and sublime — in 
the following description of the pains of the damned, or the Miseries of 
Hell : 

' For this place is of suche nature that the more it brenneth the 
lenger it endureth. this place of helle hath wythin hym alle the tuylles 
of his partye, there deth holdeth his standard, whiche sendeth out 
thurgh all the world for to fetche them that ben his, who that hath 
joye of heuynesse thyder come all euylles and all the euyll aportcs, this 
place is called the erthe of deth. For the sowles that ben brought thyder, 
they ab} de and dwelle there wythout ende, certaynly they deye lyuyng, 
And alleway lyue deyeng, the deth is there their lyf and their vyande 
and mete the deth holdeth them there at his commandement, this is 
the right pytte of fjre that brenneth. And all in lyke wyse as the stone 
is drewned in the see whan it is thi'owen and sonken, and neuer shal 
be after seen right so ben the sowles sonken in to the bottom whiche 
contynuelly brenne and be drowned ther, but for al that they dymy- 
nysshe not ne haue ende. But in suche mysere abye their folyes nyght 
and day. and so shal endure perpetually and wythout ende. for what 
someuer thyng that is spyritual may neuer dye in suche wyse that it be 
alle deed, but the deth wold they haue and wee.sshe after it incessauntly, 
the sowle may neuer deye after that it is out of the body. But whan 
it is there, it shal alleway languysshe. And euer after that it is in helle 
it shal haue nothyng but euyl, this is the contre & the londe of 
oblyuyon and forgetyng. For alle tliey that ben there shal be forgoten, 
Lyke as they forgate in this world their Maker whiche is ful of pyte and 
of Mysericorde, And therefore he hath leyd them there in forgetyng 
where they shal neuer haue mercy ne pardon in this londe so tenebrous* 

World; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 245 

hydouse and full of all stenche, and of sorovves. anguyshes. heuynes, 
hungre. And thirste shal neuer creature haue gladnesse ne joye thise 
ben the terryble gehynes stynkynge, And there is fyre so ouer moche 
ardaunt hote and anguysshous that our fyre and the hete is nomore 
vnto the regard of that fyre of helle than a fyre paynted on a walle is 
in comparyson and to the regard of our fyre/ Sign, g i. g ii. 

One further extract (exhibiting the author's skill in Natural Philo- 
sophy), and we dismiss the volume : 

' Of lyghtnynges and of thondres, capitulo, xxviij, 
* In thayer liappen many thinges of whiche the people speke not gladly, 
for they retche not moche of suche thynges of whiche they can not wel 
come to the knowleche, this that maketh therthe to quaue. And this 
that maketh the clowdes to thondre, that whiche maketh the erthe to 
opene, And this that maketh the clowdes to sparkle and lyghtne whan 
the thondre is herde, for thondres and lyghtynges ben deboutemens and 
brekyn out of wyndes that mete aboue the clowdes so asperly and 
shdrply,* that in theyr comyng groweth ofte a grete fyre in thayer, 
And this thondre that falleth in many i)laces whiche the wyndes 
constrayne so terrybly that the clowdes cleue and breke and maketh to 
thondre, and lyghtyne, & falleth doun in so grete rage by the wynde that 
destrayneth it so asprely that it confoundeth alle that it atteyneth in 
euche wyse that nothyng endureth ayenst it, And it is of so heuy nature 
that somtyme it perseth therthe vnto the myddle. And somtyme it 
quencheth er it cometh to the grounde after that it is of poyse, and 
that is not of ouer stronge nature, for whan the clowde is moche derke, 
and thycke and that ther is grete plente of water, the fyre passeth not so 
scone, but it is quenchid in the clowde by the grete quatyte of the water 
that is therin byfore it may perse thurgh so that it may not approche 
therthe, but in the straynyng & brekyng that hit maketh thenne in the 
clowde. groweth a sowne so grete and stronge, that it is meruayllous 
to here I declare to you for certayn that this is the thondre, whiche is 
moche to be doubted & drad.' Sign, g viij. 

I have probably trespassed somewhat unconscionably upon the 
patience of the reader, by the length of the preceding extracts ; but 
their variety, singularity, and a consideration of the former popularity 
of the work, must be my principal excuse Nor is it wholly uninstruc- 
tive or unsatisfactory, to witness the progress and present improve- 
ment of knowledge in the several branches of which the work tjeats. 
* Sic : for ' sharplj.' 

244 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Reynard 

Our emotions of surprise and astonishment at the ignorance of former 
periods, is heightened or modified by the satisfaction we derive on a con- 
templation of the general improvement of the modern world. Divested 
of the charm of a poetic fancy, and of the spirit of romantic fiction, 
the grave recitals of monsters, giants, and praeternatural events, 
are only subjects of cold and momentary gratification ; but it is fit, in 
researches into the lore of * other times," that the antiquary should 
select what is likely to interest equally the feelings of the philologist 
and philosopher. 

It remains only to observe that the edition before us concludes on 
the reverse of the last leaf but one : (1 vij, in eights) having the same 
date in the colophon with that of the preceding impression. The 
following is the imprint : 

€ <Cajt:ton me fferi fecit. 

The large device of the printer is on the reverse of the following and 
last leaf. The present is a short but sound copy, obtained at the sale 
of the Merly Libraiy, and formerly in the collection of J. RatclifFe. It is 
in old red morocco binding, with a broad border of gilt on the exterior. 

849. The Historye of Reynard the Foxe. 
1481. Folio. 

First Edition. When an account of 'this curious and exceedingly 
scarce volume* was given to the public in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 
114, I was impressed with an idea that no copy of it, besides the one 
there described, (from His Majesty's Library) was known to be in this 
country. The existence of the present copy, formerly in the very 
curious collection of Dean Honeywood, [Temp. W. III.] proves that 
the Royal copy is not entitled to the distinction of being unique. It is 
however very questionable whether a third perfect copy be contained 
in any Library, however ancient or unsearched. The work itself, which 
is equally curious and interesting, must have been extremely popular 
upon its appearance ; as is proved from the scarcity of the reimpression 
of it, by Tynson ; no copy of this reprint being at present known to 
exist, except the one in the choice library of Mr. Douce ; and that, in 
an imperfect state. Hearne, in his Gull. Neubrig. vol. iii. p. 743-4, 
tolls us that this work is * an admirable thing ; and the design, being 
political, and to represent a wise government, is equally good.' But 
it alio appeal s to be a severe satire upon the Romish Church. In short. 

the Fox ,1481 .] WILLIAM CAXTON. 245 

it is equally a satire upon the Roman Catholic religion, upon the court, 
and upon courtiers ; containing- some very acute, yet useful, delinea- 
tions of the selfishness of the human character. The reflections and 
incidents are equally well conceived and expressed, if we may judge 
from the translation ; which latter is, unquestionably, among the 
happiest specimens extant of the version of the familiar colloquy of 
one tongue into that of another. 

The original is in Dutch ; and Mr, Douce * thinks that it was com- 
posed long before the twelfth century. The translation places Caxton 
in the first rank of our authors of the xvth century. There is no 
small dexterity in the manner in which he shelters himself from the 
imputation which might attach to him on account of the freedom of 
the work : — ' If any thing (says Caxton) be said or written herein that 
may grieve or displease man, blame not me, but the Fox ; for they be 
his woi'ds not mine '. After an introduction of so much promise, the 
reader has a i'ight to expect a few specimens of a work abounding in 
such curious information ; and that the specimens be both amusing 
and corroborative of the judgment here pronounced. 1 trust thei'efore 
that his expectations will be verified from whiit is laid before hiiu. 
We will commence with the bibliographical department. The first 
leaf, a 1, is blank. On the recto of the second leaf, a 2, the table of 
the chapters commences with this prefix : 

€ljiisf i^ tjjc xMt of x^t Iji^totpe of repnart t^t fore 

The table occupies 2 pages and a half; and will be found extracted 
entire, in the modern orthography, in the work before referred to. 
On the reverse of a 3, 

l^pct fic0ptmct]() tljp^totpe of tepnatti ttje fox*e 

The first sentence shews the moral object of the work, and is given 
entire in the forementioned work referred to. The first chapter of the 
Lion summoning the Beasts ' to come to his feast and court,' is also 
printed entire in the same work. The signatures extend from a to 1 
in eights ; 1 having only 6 leaves, including a blank leaf ; and a blank 
leaf (as before observed) forming a i. Before the colophon is given, 
various specimens of the work (as above promised) shall be submitted 
to the attention of the curious reader. The first is taken from the Xth 
chapter ; in which Tibert, the Cat, is prevailed upon to bring Reynard to 

* Illustratims of' Shaksjycare, vol. ii. p. 347. 

246 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Reynard 

court. After the usual salutations, and an ineffectual effort on the 
pait of tiie fox to keep the cat for the night, the text proceeds : 

' Tybert saide, it is beste that we now goo, for the mone shyneth 
also light as it were daye, I neuer sawe fayrer weder, nay dere cosyn, 
suche ni\ tiht jncte vs by daye tyme, that wold make vs good chiere, 
and by nyghtte parauenture myght doo vs harnie, it is suspccyous to 
[wjalke by nyglite. Therfore a byde this nyght here by me Tybert 
saydc, what sholde we ete, yf we abode here, reynart sayde, here is but 
Ivtel to etc ye uiaye wcl haue an hony combe good and swete, what 
saye ye, Tybert wyl ye ony therof, tybert answerd I sette nought therby 
haue ye nothyng ellis yf ye gaf me a good fatte mows, I shold be better 
plesyd, a fatte mows said reynard, dere cosyn what saye ye, here by 
dwellcth a preest and hath a barne by his hows ther in ben so many 
myse, that a man shoJd not lede them a way vpon a Avayne, I haue herd 
the preest many tymes complayne that they dyde hym moche harme O 
dere reyner lede me thyder for alle that I may doo for vow, ye tybert 
saye ye me trouthe, loue ye wel mycs, yf I loue hem wel said the catte, 
I loue myes better than ony thyng that men gyue me. knowe ye not 
that mycs sauoure better than veneson, ye than flawnes or pasteycs wil 
ye wel doo. so lede me theder where the myes ben. and tlienne shal ye 
Wynne my loue. ye al had ye slayn my fader nioder and alle my kyn. 

Reynart sayd ye moke and Jape therwyth. the catte saide so helpe 
me god I doo not. Tybert said the foxe wiste I that veryly I wolde 
yet this nyght make that ye shuld be ful of myes. reynart qd he. ful 
that were many, tyberte ye Jape, reynart qd he in trouth I doo not, 
yf I hadde a fatte mows, I wold not gyue it for a golden noble, late vs 
goo thenne, tybert qd the foxe I wyl brynge yow to the place, er I goo 
fro you, reyner qd the foxe, vpon your saufconduyt, I wolde wel goo 
wyth you to monpelier, late vs thenne goo said the foxe we tarye alto 
longe. Thus wente they forth withoute lettyng to the place, where as 
they wold be to the prestes barne whiche was faste wallid aboute with 
a mude wal and the nyght to fore the foxe had broken in, and had 
stolen fro the preest a good fatte henne, and the preest alle angry had 
sette a gryn to fore the hool to aueuge hym, for he wold fayn haue take 
the foxe, this kuewe wel the felle theef the foxe And said sir tybert 
Cdsyn cicpe in to this hool, and ye shal not longe tarye but that ye 
shal catche myes by grete heepis, herke how they pype. whan ye be 
ful, come agayn, I wil tarye here after you be fore this hole, we wil to 
morowe goo to gyder to the court, Tybert why tarye ye thus longe 
come of, and so maye we retorne sone to my wyf. whiche wayteth 

theFox; US\.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 247 

after vs, and shal make vs good chiere, Tybert saide, reynart cosyn is 
it thenne your counseyl that I goo in to this hole. Thise prestes ben 
so wyly & -shrewyssh, I drede to take harme, O ho tybert said the fox 
I savve you neuer so sore aferde, what eyleth yow, the catte was ashamed 
and sprange in to the hoole. And anon he was caught in the gryn by 
the necke er he wyste, thus deceyuyd reynard his ghest and cosyn. 
As tybert was wair of the grynne, he was a ferde and sprange forth, 
the grynne wente to, thenne began he to wrawen, for he was ahnost 
ystranglyd, he called he cryed & made a shrewd noyse, reynart stode to 
fore the hool and herde al, and was wel a payed and sayde, tybsrt loue 
ye wel myes, be they fatte and good, knewe the preeste herof or 
mertynet, they be so gentyl that they wolde brynge you sawce, Tybert 
ye synge and eten, is that the guyse of the court, lord god yf ysegryni 
ware there by yow in suche reste as ye now be thenne shold 1 be glad, 
for ofte he hath don me scathe and harme tybert coude not goo awaye, 
but he mawede, and galped so lowde, that martynet sprang vp, and cryde 
lowde, god be thanked my gryn hath taken the thief that hath stolen 
our hennes, aryse vp we wil rewarde hym. Sign. b. 6, 7. 

In his way to Court, from apprehension of condign punishment, 
Reynard makes his Confession. This ' Shriving ' shaU tell its own tale : 

•How reynard shroef hym Capitulo. xij. 

• Whan reynart and grymbert had goon a whyle to gydre, tho saide 
reynart, dere cosyn now am 1 in grete fere, for I goo in drede and 
ieopardye of my lyf, I haue so moche repentaunce for my synnes that 
I wil shiyue me dere cosyn to yow, here is none other preest to gete 
yf I were shryuen of iriy sinnes, my soule shold be the clerer, grymbert 
ansuerde, Eem wil ye shryue you, thenne rauste ye promyse first to 
leue your steelyng and rouynge reynart saide that wiste ye wel, now 
herke dere cosyn what I shal saye, Confiteor tibi pater of alle the 
mysdedes that I haue don. And gladly wil receyue penance for thera, 
Grymbert sayde what saye ye, wylle ye shryue yow, thenne saye it in 
englissh that I may vnderstande. you reynart sayde, I haue trespaced 
ayenst alle the bestis that lyue in especyal ayenst bruyn the here myne 
Eem whom I made his crowne al blody. And taughte tybert the catte 
to catche myes for I made her leepe in a grenne wher siie was al to 
beten, also 1 haue trespaced gretly ayenst chanteclere with his chil- 
dren, for 1 haue made hym quyte of a grete dele of hem. 

' The kynge is not goon al quyte, 1 haue sklandred hym and the 


218 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Reynard 

quene many tymcs, that tliey shal neuer be cler therof yet haue I 
begyled ysei^rem the wulf ofter than I can telle wel T called hym eme, 
but that was to deceyue hym, he is nothyng of my kyn, I made hym 
a nionkf, Eelmare, where I my self also becam one, And that was to his 
hurte and no proufFyte, I made bynde his feet to the belle rope, the 
ryngyng- of the belle thought hym so good that he wolde lerue to 
lynge wherof he had shame, ffor he range so sore that alle the folke 
in the strete were aferd therof and meruaylled what myghte be on the 
belle. And ranne thyder to fore he had comen to axe the religyon, 
wherfore he was beten almost to the deth, after this I taught hym to 
catche fyssh where he receyuid many a stroke, also I ledde hym to the 
richest prestes hows that was in Vermedos, this preest had a spynde 
wherin henge many a good flitche of bacon, wherin many a tyme I 
was wonte to fyl my bely, in this spynde I had made an hole, in whiche 
I made ysegrem to crepe, there fonde he tubbes wyth beef and many 
gocd flitches of bacon wherof he ate so moche withoute mesure, that 
he myght not come out at the hole where he wente in, his belly was 
so grete and ful of the mete, and whan he entred his bely was smal, 
I wente in to the village and made there a grete showte, and noyse 
yett herke what I dyde thenne I ranne to the preest where he satte 
at the table and etc, And hadde to fore hym as fatte capone as a man 
myght fynde, that capone caught I & ranne my weye therwith al tliat 
I myghte, the preest cryed out & said, take & slee the foxe, 1 trowe 
that neuer man sawe more wonder, the foxe cometh in my hows and 
taketh my capoone fro my table, where sawe euer man an hardyer 
theef, & as me thought he toke his table knyf & casted it at me, but 
he touched me not I ranne away, he shoof the table from hym, folewed 
me cryeng kylle & sice hym, I to goo and they after and many moo 
cam after whiche alle thought to hurte me, 

* I Ranne so longe that I cam where as isegiem was, and there I 
lete falle the capone, for it was to heuey for me, and ayenst my wille I 
lefte it there, and thenne I sprange thurgh an hole where as I wolde 
be, and as the preest toke vp the capone. he espyed isegrem and cryde 
smyte doun here frendes here is the theef the wulf, see wel to that he 
escape vs not. they ranne alle to gydre wyth stokkes and staues & made 
a grete noyse that alle the neyghbours camen owte. and gauen hym 
many a shrewde stroke, and threwe at hym grete stones, in suche wyse 
that he fyl doun as he had ben deed, they slepid hym and drewe hym 
Guer stones and ouer blockes wythout the village and threwe hym in 
to a dyche and there lie laye al the nyght, I wote neuer how he cam 

theFox; ]^S\.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 249 

Ihens syth I haue goten of hym, for as moche as I made hym to fylle 
his bely, that he sware that he wolde be myn helpe an hole yere, 

* Tho ledde I hym to a place where I tolde hym ther were vij hennes 
and a cocke whiche satte on a perche and were moche fatte, And ther 
stode a faldore by, and we clymined ther vp, I sayde to hym yf he 
wolde bileue me, & that he wolde crepe in to the dore, he sholde fynde 
many fatte hcnes, Isegrym vvente al lawhyng to the dore ward and 
crope a lityl in, & tasted hei'e & there, & at laste he sayde to me 
reynarde ye borde & iape with me, for what I seche I fynde not thene 
said I, eme yf ye wyl fynde crepe forther in, he that wil wynne, he 
muste laboure and auenture, they that were wonte to sytte there, I 
haue them a waye thus I made hym to seche erther in, & shoue hym 
forth so ferre, that he fylle doun vpon the floer for the perche was 
narow, and he fill so grete a falle, that they sprange vp alle that slepte, 
and they that laye nexet, the fyre cryden that the valdore was open and 
somthyng was falle and they wiste not wat it myght be,' 

* They roose vp and lyghte a candel, and whan they sawe hym they 
smeton beten and wounded hym to the deth, I haue brought hym thus 
in many a iejiardye.moo than I gan now rekene, I sholde fynde many moo, 
yf I me wel bethoughte, whiche I shal telle you here after. Also I haue 
bydryuen wyth dame erswynde his wyf, I wolde I had not don it, I am 
sory for it, hit is to her grete shame, And that me repenteth, grimbei t 
saide, Eme I vnderstande you not, he sayde I haue trespaced with his 
wyf, ye shryue you, as though ye helde somwhat behynde, I wote not 
what ye mene ne where ye haue lerned this langage, Ach dere eme it 
were grete shame yf I shold saye it oppenly as it happed, I haue leyen 
by myn aunte, I am your eme I shold angre you yf I spak ^7lanye of 
wymmen, neuer now haue I tolde you alle that I can thynke on, sette 
me penaunce, and assoylle me, ffor I haue grete repentaunce, grymbert 
was subtyl and wyse, he brake a rodde of a tree and saide, eme now 
shal ye smyte your self thryes with this rodde on your body. And thenne 
leye it doun vpon the grounde, & sprynge thre tymes ther ouer without 
bowyug of your legges and wythout stomblyng, and tlienne shal ye 
take it vp and kysse it frendly in token of mekenes and obedience of 
your penance that I gaf yow, herwith be ye quyte of alle synnes that 
ye haue don to this day for, I forgeue it now al, the foxe was glad, tho 
sayd grymbert to his eme, Eme see now forthon, that ye doo good 
werkis, rede your psalmes, goo to chirche faste and ke])e your halydayes, 
and giue your allmesse, and leue your synful and yl lyf, your thefte and 

250 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Heijnard 

your trcson and so maye you come to mercy, the foxe promysed that he 
wold so doo, and thenne wente they bothe to gydre to the court ward. 

• a Lytel beiyde the waye as they wente stode a cloyster of back 
nonnes. where many ghees, hennes and cajjones wente withoute the 
walles, and as they wente talkynge the foxe brought grymbert out of 
the right waye thyder and without the walles by the barne wente the 
polayle, The foxe espyed them and saw a fatte yong capone whiche 
wente allone fro his felawes, and leep & caught hym that the fethers 
flcwh aboute his eeris but the capone escaped, grimbert sayde what eme 
cursyd man what wil ye doo, will ye for one of thise poletes falle agayne 
in alle your synnes of whiche ye haue shiyen yow, ye ought sore repente 
you, reynart answerd, truly cosyn I had al forgoten, praye god that he 
fortieue it nie for 1 wil neuer do so more, thene torned they agayn ouer 
a lityl brydge, yet the foxe alway loked after the polaylle, he coulde not 
refrayne hym self, that whiche cleuid by the bone, myght not out of the 
flesshe, though he shold be hanged, he coulde not lete the lokyng after 
the polaylle as fer as he myght see them. Grymbert sawe his maner & 
sayde, ffowle false deceyour, how goo your eyen so after the pokyl, the 
foxe sayde, cosyn ye mysdoo to saye to me ony suche wordes, ye brynge 
me out of my deuocion and prayers, late me saye a pater noster ffor alle 
the sowles of polaylle and ghes that I haue betrayed, and ofte wyth 
falsheed stolen from theyse holly nonnes, Grymbert was not wel a payd 
but the foxe had euer his eyen toward the polayl, til atte laste they cam 
in the waye agayne. And thenne torned they to the court warde how sore 
quaked tho renard whan they aproched the court, ffor he wiste wel that 
he had for to answere to many a fowle feet and thefte that he had doon' 
Sign, c % 3, 4. 

Neither the confession of Reynard, nor his artful conduct during his 
trial, avails him any thing. He is condemned to be hung ; and the follow- 
ing is his ' last dying speech and confession ' under the gallows — after 
having, with great difRculty, obtained the privilege of speaking : 

' The foxe saide my lorde the kynge and noble lady the quene god 
rewarde yow, thys gj-ete worship that ye do to me, I shal thynke and 
also thanke you for hit, in suche wise that ye shal be the ric lest kynge 
of the world, fFor ther is none lyuyng vnther the sonne, that I vouche- 
sauf better my tresour on, than on yow bothe, thenne take the foxe vp 
a straw and profred it to the kyng and saide ray moste dere lord plese 
it yow to receyue hiere the ryche tresour whiche kynge ermerk hadde, 

the Fox; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 251 

for I gyue it vnto yow wyth a fre wylle, and knowleche it openly, 
the kynge receyuid the straw and threwe it meryly fro hym with a 
joyous visage, And thanked moche the foxe, the foxe laughed in hym 
self, the kynge thenne herkened after the counseyl of the foxe. And alle 
that ther were, were at his wylle. My lorde sade he, herkene and marke 
wel ray wordes, in the west side of flaundres ther standeth a wode and 
is named hulsterlo,.And a water that is called brekenpyt lyeth therby, 
this is so grete a wyldernesse, that ofte in an hole yere man ner wyf 
Cometh theriii, sauf they that wnl, and they that wille not eschewe it, 
there lyeth this tresour hydde, vnderstande wel, that the place is called 
brekenpit, for I aduyse you for the leste hurte, that ye and my lady goo 
bothe thyder. ffor I knowe none so trewe that I durste on your behalue 
truste wherfore goo your self. And whan ye come to brekenpyt ye shal 
fynde there two birchen trees standyng alther next the pytte, my loi'de 
to the byrchen trees shal ye goo, there lyeth the tresour vnther doluen, 
there muste ye scrape and dygge a way a lytyl the mosse on the one 
side, ther shalle ye fynde many a jewel of golde and syluer. and there 
shal ye fynde the crowne whiche kynge Ermerk ware in his dayes that 
sholde bruyn the here haue worn yf his wyl had gon forth ye shal see 
many a costly jewel with riche stones sette in golde werk whiche coste 
many a thousand marke. My lord the kynge whan ye now haue alle 
this good, how ofte shal ye saye in your herte and thynke, o how true 
art thou reynart the foxe. that with thy subtyl wytte daluyst and 
hyddcst here this grete tresour, god gyue the good happe and welfare 
where euer thou bee,' 

' The kynge sayde, Sir reynarte ye muste come and helpe vs to dygge 
vp this tresour, I knowe, not the way, I sholde neuer conne fynde it, I 
haue herde ofte named, parys, london akon and coleyn. As me thynketh 
this tresour lyeth, right as ye mocked and Japed, for ye name breken- 
pyt, that is afayned name, these wei-des were not good to the foxe, and 
he sayd wyth an angry mode, and dissymyled and saide, ye my lord 
the kynge, ye be also nyghe that as fro come to maye, wene ye that I 
wille lede yow to flomme iordayn. Nay I shal brynge you out of 
wenyng and shewe it you by good wytnes, he called lowde kywart the 
hare, come here, to fore the kynge. The bestes sawe alle thyder ward 
and wondred what the kynge wold, the foxe sayde to the hare, ky- 
wart ar ye a colde, how tremble ye and quake so, be not a ferd, and 
telle my lord the kynge here the trouthe. And that I charge you by 
the fayth and trouthe that ye owe hym and to my lady the queue of 
suche thynge. as I shal demaunde of you, kywart saide I shal saye the 

252 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Reynard 

trouthe though I shold lose my necke therefore, I shal not lye ye haue 
charged me so sore, yf I knowe it, Thenne saye, knowe ye not wliere 
kriekenpyt standeth, is tliat in your mynde, the hare saide, I knewe 
that wel. xij. yer a goon, wher that stondeth, why aske ye that. It 
stondcth in a woode named hulsterlo vpon a warande in the wyldcr- 
nes6o, I haue sufFrcd there raoche sorowe for hunger and for colde, ye 
more than I can telle,' &c. &c. Sign. d. 4, 5. 

The Fox gains his freedom ; but is compelled to do pennance at 
Rome, ' to make him clear of all sins.' He is whimsically shod on 
the occasion ; 

' How yse'^'iyni and his wyf ereswyn miiste sufFre her shois to be 
plucked of. And how reynard dyde on the shoys for to goo to rome 
wyth, capitulo xix. 

' Thus hath this false pylgrym goten fro Isegrym ij shooes fro his 
feet, whiche were haled of the clawes to the senewis ye sa\ve neuer 
foule that men rosted laye so stylle, as Tsegrim dyde, whan his shoes 
were haled of, he styred not, and yet his feet bledde, thenne whan 
Isegrim was vnshoed, tho muste dame eerswyn his wyf lye down in 
the grasse wyth an heuy chere. And she loste ther her hynder shoes, Tho 
was the foxe glad and saide to his aimte in scorne, my dere aunte how 
moche sorow haue ye suffred for my sake, whiche me sore repenteth, 
sauf this, herof I am glad ffor ye be the lyeuest of alle my kyn, ther- 
forc 1 w yl gladly were your shoen, ye shal be partener of my pylgre- 
mage, and dele of the pardon that I shal with your shoen feeche ouer 
the see, dame erswyne was so woo that she vnnethe myght speke, 
ncuerthelcss this she sayde, A reynart that ye now al thus haue your 
w)'l, I pray god to wcrke it, ysegrym & his felaw the here holden their 
pees and whcrin al stylle, they were euyl at ease, ffor they were 
boxmdcd and sore wounded had tybert the catte haue ben there, he 
shold also somewhat haue suffred, in suche wyse, as he sholde not 
escaped thens wythout hurte and shame.' 

' The next day whan the sonnc aroos reynard thenne dyde grece his 
shoes whiche he had of ysegrem and erswyn his wyf, and dyde hem on 
& bonde hem to his feet, and wente to the kynge & to the queue and 
said to hem w ith a glad chere, noble lord and lady god gyue you good 
morow and I desire of your grace that 1 may haue male and staff 
blessyd as belongeth to a pijgrym Thenne the kynge anone, sent for 
bellyn the ramme, and whan he cam he saide. Sir bellyn ye .-hal do 

the Fox; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 253 

masse to fore reynart, for he fehal goo on pylgreiiiage, and gyue to 
hym male and staf, the ram answerd agayn and said, my lord I dare 
not do that, tfor he hath said that he is in the popes curse, the kynge 
said, what therof, mayster gelys hath said to vs, yf a man had doo as 
many synnes as al the world, and he wold tho synnes forsake, shryUe 
hem & resseyue penance, and do by the prestes counseyl, god wil 
forgyuft them and be mercyfui vnto hym now wil reynard goo ouer the 
see into the holy lande & make hym clere of al his synnes,' &c. 
Sign, d 8. 

But the innate wickedness of Reynard is not to be subdued by 
contrition for the past, or by pious resolves for the future. He 
returns to his old practices, as we find in the following chapter. There 
is great archness in the conclusion : 

' How Kywart the hare was slayn by the foxe Cap°. xx.". 

* Whan the foxe was come to the yate of his hows he sayde to bellyn 
the ramme, cosyn ye shal abide here withoute, I and Kywart wille goo 
in fFor I wille praye kywart to helpe me to take my leue of ermelyn my 
wyf, and to conforte her and my children, bellyn sayde I praye hym to 
comforte them wel, wyth suche flateryng wordes brought he the hare 
in to his hole in an euyl hour, there fonde they dame ermelyn lyeng 
on the grounde with her yonglyngis, whiche had sorowed moche fFor 
drede of reynarts deth, but whan she sawe hym come she was glad, 
but whan she sawe his male and palster, and espyed his shoes, she 
meruailled and sayd dere reynar, how haue ye spedd, he sayd I was 
arestid in the court, But the kynge lete me gon, I muste goo a pilgri- 
mage, Bruyn the here aud ysegrym the wulf they be plegge for me, I 
thanke the kynge, he hath gyuen to vs kywart hier, ifor to do with 
hym what we wyl. The kynge saide hym self that kywart was the first 
that on vs complayned. And by the fayth that I owe yow I am right 
wroth on kywart, whan kywart iierde thise wordes he was sore aferde. 
He wold haue fledde, but he myght not, fFor the foxe stode bytwene 
hym and the yate. And he caught hym by the nccke, Tho cryed the 
hare helpe bellyn helpe, where be ye This pilgryme sleeth me, but that 
crye was sone doon, for the foxe had anon byten his throte a two, 
Tho sayd he late vs go ete this good fatte hare, the yonge whelpes 
cam also. Thus helde they a grete feste, flFor kywart had a good fatte 
body, ermelyn ete the fiessh and dranke the blood, she thanked ofte 
the kynge that he had made them so mery. The foxe said ete as raoche 
as ye maye, he wil pay for it, yf we wil feche it.' Sign, e 1, 3. 

254 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Beynard 

We may conclude these extracts by shewing how cunningly and 
successfully Reynard extricates himself from this ' most foul ' murder. 
After a good deal of ingenious and sophistical discussion, between the 
Fox and his Wife, in which the former tells the latter how he escaped 
from the power of the Lion, and the latter tells the former in what 
manner he is to shape his course in future, Bellin the Ram becomes 
impatient for the return of poor Kywart, the slaughtered Hare : 

' Now was bellyn the rame angry that kywart his felawe was so 
longe in the hole, and called lowde. come out kywarte in the deuels 
name, how longe shal reynart kepe you there, haste you and come late 
vs goo, whan reynard herde this, he wente out and saide softly to bellyn 
the ramnie. lief bellyn wherfore be ye angiy kywart speketh ^vyth his 
dere aunte. me thynketh ye ought not to be dysplesid therfore. he bad 
me saye to yow ye myght wel go to fore. And he shal come after, he is 
lighter of fote than ye. he muste tarye a whyle with his aunte and her 
chyldren. they wepe and crye by cause I shal goo fro them, bellyn sayde. 
what dyde kyward. me thoughte he cryed after helpe, the foxe answerd, 
what saye ye bellyne wene ye that he shold haue ony harme, now herke 
what he thene dyde, whan we were comen in to myn hows, and ermelyn 
my wyf vnderstode that I shold goo ouer see she fyl doun in a swoun, 
and whan kj'Avart sawe that, he cryed loude bellyn come helpe myn 
aunte to brynge her out of her swoun thenne sayde the rame In fayth 
I vnderstode that kywart had ben in grete daunger, the foxe sayde, nay 
truly, or kyward shold haue ony harme in my hows, I had leuer that 
my wyf and chyldren shold sufFre moche hurte.' Sign, e 3. 

The reader shall now draw his own conclusion respecting the quantum 
of entertainment to be derived from a pei'usal of this curious per- 
foi'mance. Hearne tells us (ibid) that ' it is strange to see the changes 
that have been made in this book from the present and the succeeding 
impressions of it.' It is better known to the public under the title of 
* The most delectable History of Reynard the Fox, and the shifts of 
Reynardine the Son of the Fox, 1684, 1701, 4to.' — ^a volume, of equally 
coarse execution, whether we consider the printing or the embellish- 
ments of it. Reverting to the highly valuable impression before us, it 
only remains to observe that it terminates on the reverse of 1 5, in 
eights, in the following manner, (after the sentence quoted at p. 245 

^[^rapcng afle tljem 
tfjat jefljaJ jfce t()tjef Iptpl tttati^, to cortccte anti amenbe/ 

TuUy,^c. 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 255 

tDldcre tiiep ^Ijal fpntie fautC/ for 31 Ijaue not abbeb nc 
inpnuffjcti tiut Ijauc foIotDcU ^$ npgl[)e a^ 3i can nip toppc 
iul^iclie tua^ in tiutclje/ anb Ijp nie H^iHrn Cajcton transf^ 
jatfti in to tlji^tutic i^pnijplc cnglpffg in t^abbcp of tucist' 
nic^tre. fpnpflS^ti tjje V)j Uapc of 9iupn tfjc pere of our 
locti. $It^. C€€C Errrt. i: tlje xxj pete of tlje regnc of 
ftpnge (J^btoarti tje iiijtf)/ 

^ere cntietg tlje fti^torpe of llepnarti tgc fore ic 

The present is a sound and most desirable copy ; in russia binding. 

850. The Boke of Tulle op Olde Age : Tullius 
HIS Book of Friendship : Declaracyon Shew- 


This is among the most elegant volumes from the press of Caxton. 
The copy before us is large, clean, and perfect; the only blemish in it 
consisting in several of the leaves being inlaid — but without the least 
injury to the text, which is fair and untouched. I shall be brief, but 
sufficiently particular, in the descri[»tion of this volume ; as a very 
ample account of it has been before submitted by me to the public. 
The proheme and the table occupy 10 leaves ; namely, sign. 1 2, to I 6; 
and a 1, to a .5 ; 11 and a 6, being blank leaves. The text of the ' Old 
Age ' commences on b i, recto, and concludes on the recto of i 3, in 
eights, with the following colophon : 

€]^uj9f cntJct!) tlje liofte of €iinc of oltie age tranalateti 
out of Jatpn in to frenfljc lip lautente tic jirimo facto at 
tl)e comaunbcnicnt of t^e nolile prpncc EoUip^ SDuc of 
23urficn/ anti enjirpnteb ftp me ^pmple jrcrsone J^illiam 
Carton in to (i^nglpffte at tlje jilapsir solace anb reue^ 
rence of men gtotopng in to oKbc age t(je rij bap of %\x^ 
0uft tijc pete of our lorb. si^. €C€€Jrrri : 


25fi BOOKS PRINTED BY {Godfrey of 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the ensuing- leaf, a i, the 
text of the ' Book oi Friendship' begins, and ends on the reverse of 
d 4 in eights. On the recto of d 5, we read this prefix to the third 
treatise : 

l^crc foIotDctlj tljc Argument of tgc ticdamacpoit/ tofjicj 
lafiourctlj CO jeffjclJDc. tuticrin ijjonourc ^jjollic rc^te : 

The Answer of ' Lucresse vnto her fader ' is on the recto of the 
following leaf, and on the reverse of it begins 

€Jjc (Drat ion of ^ubiiu^ Corneliuj^ d^cipio. 

On the iccto of e 4, at top, we read thus : 

€lju^ cntict]^ ttje <0ration of €onie!tUiSf d^^cipio 
5llnt! fjcrc foJotocti) tljc oration of (25apu.sf Jlamincuisf 

This latter oration terminates on the reverse of f 7; and the Eulogy 
of Caxton upon the noble translator, Tiptoft, Eakl of Worcester, 
(given entire in the Tijpog. Anllq. vol. i. p. 126-9) concludes the 
volume on the reverse of the ensuing leaf, thus : 

€rplitit per Carton 

The latter set of signatures, from the commencement of the Book of 
Friendship, to (he termination of the impression, a to f, runs in eights. 
A remarkably beautiful copy of this very estimable and interesting 
work, was purchased at the sale of the Merly library for llOl. fur the 
Marquis of Blandford. A fine copy is also in the Duke of Devonshire's 
collection. Tlie copy under description is in old russia binding. 

851. GoDEFREY OF BoLOYNE. Printed at West- 
mester. 1481. Folio. 

This is not among the most entertaining productions in the Class of 
Romances ; but a co})y of it, in a perfect state, is of excessive rarity. 
The present copy, and another which I have seen in the Baptist's Library 
at Bristol, are imperfect; but his Majesty's library, and the Public 
library of Cambridge, each contain a perfect copy. A perfect one was 
also in the possession of the late Mr. B. White, bookseller, in the year 

Boulogne; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 257 

17S0. The copy under description, which was formerly Herbert's, wants 
the whole of signature a, at the beginning ; the Avhole of signature 14, 
and the latter part of signatui'e 17. These defects have been supplied 
in ms. by the accurate hand of the same typographical antiquary ; and 
the copy is of large dimensions, although occasionally soiled. It appears 
that the preface* and table occupy the fiist six leaves, upon signature 
a : a continuance of the table fills signature b — ending thus : 

Ipfre entictf) t1^t taMe of tlje content anti cljapptce^ nomBrcti 
of tjt^ jurefrnt Iiooft cntitkti t^e ^iege anti conqucie^te 
of SlS^i^u.^iilcJti Bp tn^mx men 

The reverse is blank. This signature has only 4 leaves. On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, 1 2, (I 1 being blank) we read this title: 

l^ere Be0pnnet() tl>e fiofte S(ntituleti €rade^/ anti al^o 
of (jBotrefrep of ^^oiopney tfje tD^iclje ^peftetfj of tide 
€onqiiei0ft of tl|e iSjoIp iontie of Slljetusfaleni/ contepnpng 
tmtt^t tuarrc^ anti noble fapte.i^ of %imt^ matie in tlje 
^ame 0opame/ anb in tlje contreeisf atiiacent %\\\x al^efo 
manp metruapnou.^ merfte.j^ IJitppcli anti falKen asf tuel on 
tljji^^pbe/ ajsf in t^o jiartpe.ib' tl)i^ tpme tiurpng/ ^ntifjoto 
tge talpant tiuc (iBotiefrep of 25olopne tonquerti tuitlj 
tJje j9itoecb tJje ^apti ilopamme/ ^nti tua^ Iftpnge tljece/ 

To vary the extracts from those before given, I shall submit a spe- 
cimen or two of the text of this work ; and shall first extract a short 
chapter relating to Peter the Hermit : 

' How the said peter theremyte entreprjsed the more hardyly his 
vyage by thapparicon or vision that he sawe in his sleep, ca, xiij°. 

* Truly our lord god is swete, pyteous, and niercyful, ffor he ^\'ylle 
not suflFre to perysshe, ne to be loste, them that haue in hym ferme and 
stedfast hope. And whan the men lacke helpe, god sendeth to them his 
ayde. And this may clerely be seen in this werke, for fro whens cometh 
that this pour man, whiche was lytil & despysed persone wery and 
brused of so grcte journeje and waye, that d.irsto enterprise so grete 
a dede and werke, how myght he wene that our lord wolde accom- 

* See this preface, wliich is animated and interesting, in the Tijpog. Antiq. vol. i. 
p. 130, Sec, 

258 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Godfrey of 

plysshe so grete a werke by hym, as for to dylyure his peple fio the 
niyserye and caytyfnes that they had ben in nygh fyue C yere. But this 
hardy ncsse cam to hym of the grate chary te that he had in hym. And 
the fayth wrought in hym for the h)ue that lie had to his bretheren, 
In tliise dayes happed a thynge, that moche lyft vp his herte to 
jjoursue his enterprise, fFor this good man, whan he had taken this 
message and charge therof, he wente moche ofter than he was woonte 
to doo to the holy places in the cyte. and cam on an euentide to the 
chirche of the holy sepulchre, and made there his prayers deuoutly 
with e;rete plente of teeris. After this he sleepte vpon the pamente, & 
hvm semed that our saueour Jhesu Criste cam to fore hym and 
charged hym self to doo this message. And said to hym petre aryse vp 
hastily, and goo surely thedyr as thou hast enterpryscd, fFor I shal be 
with the, Jt is now tyme from hens forth, that my holy cyte be clensed, 
and that my peple be socoured, Petre awoke in this poynt and was 
fro than for thon more abandouned vnto the wayeand also sure as his 
journeye and message had be doon, he entermed and appoynted his 
departyng for to doo his erande, And had leue and benediction of the 
patriarke, he descended doun to the see, and fonde there a shyp of 
marclmuntcs that wolde passe in to puylle, he entred in to the ship, 
the which liad good wynde & in shorte tyme arryued at bar, peter 
yssued out & wente by londe to rome he fonde in the contre the pope 
vrban, and salewed hym in the name of the patriarke and of the 
ciisten peple of surye and delyuerd to hym theyr Icttres, & sayde to 
hym by niouthe moche truli & wysely the grete sorowcs the myseryes 
and vyletees that the cristen sutFied thenno in the holy londe, :is he that 
was expert therof, and coude wel saye to hym the trouthe. sign. 2 ?, 2 4. 

Of the number and maintenance of the Pilgrims, who sallied forth 
on this chivalrous occasion, the author thus relates : 

• How, C. C, ]M. cristen men a foote ami thre. M. a horsbak withoute 
captayn assembled in this i)ylgiimage, and of theyr mayntene, capitulo 

* In a litil tyme aftir this grete occisyon that I haue said to fore 
assembled moche grete peple a foote without capytayne neuertheles 
ther were emong them hye men and good knyghtes But the comune 
peple obeyed them not, ne byleuyd them of nothynge. There was 
emonge them Thomas de fere, clerembault of vendueyl, Guillem 
I Carpenter. And the counte herman. These peple that were a foote dyde 

many ylles and oultragcs by the waye, And ther aroose emong them a 
madnesse and a rage of whiche they coude not kepe them fro sleyiig 

Boulogne; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 25i) 

of alle the Jewes in alle the vvaj^es and townes by whiche they passed. 
They slewe merueyllo'' grete nombre at Coleyne at Magonce, and in 
other places. In thise partyes as they wente was an erle a right noble 
lord named Eniycon, whan he sawe this peple, he put hym self in theyr 
companye for to goo with them in this pylgretnage, he chastysed not 
ne blamed the mysruled peple, but entysed them to doo euyl tornes. 
They passed by francone and by bauyere so fcrre that they drevve in 
te* hongrye and cam in to a toun naemd mceszebors. wel supposed 
they to haue passed in to hongrye withoute ony gaynsaying, but whan 
they cam to the brygge, it was defFended them & closed. There was a 
fortresse whiche was closed on that one syde with the ryuer of the 
dunne, & on that other syde with the ryuer named lintans, The reme- 
naut was enuyronned with a depe niareys, within the fortresse was 
grete plente of peple wel armed wherfore it was not lyght for to passe 
that toun by force, fFor the. kynge of hongrye had wel vnderstande of 
the comyng of this peeple, whiche were withoute faylle wel, C, C, M, 
on fote. And on horsbak were nomoo but thre thousand, And doubted 
moche that they whan they were entred in to his londe. wolde auenge 
thoccision that was doon by falsehed and trayson vpon the peple of 
godechan. fFor the rumoure and speche was moche yet of that fovvle 
and vylanous fayte thurgh out al the londe, They that sawe that they 
myght not passe in to the londe. prayd them of the fortresse that they 
wold sufFre them to sende messagers to the kyng of hongrye for to 
requyre his grace that they myght passe in good peas, & they wold 
lodge them ther whylest in tho places that were ful of pastures to fore 
the paas.' Sign. 3 5 — 6". 

There is no small spirit displayed in the following description of a 
battle with the Turks. In a previous contest the Christians had been 

• Of a batayll where our men aueng' .j them of the turkes, and of a 
ttroke that due godeffroy gaf in this bataylle. cap°. Cv°, 

' It was not longe after, but whyles as they taryed there, and had 
theyr hertes desyryng to doo prowesse yf they had tyme and place, that 
theyr messagers arryued alle rennyng whiche told to them that the 
turkes were nygh. They began to recomande them self to owre lord 
and wente for ward in theyr bataylles like as they were ordeyned, whan 
they sawe tyme and place they smote theyr hors with theyr spores, and 
cam to so fiersly that the turkes were al abasshed, thenne they began 

260 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Godfrri/ of 

to smyte asprely on the right syde and lyft. and flewe in to the presse 
in suche wyse that eucry man wold be the best and nioost vulyaunt, in 
so nioche that they gaf to theyr enemyes no leyser to aduyse tlunn what 
they shold doo, They myght not endure the grete strengthe of oure 
men, but wold haue drawen toward the brydge, But tl)e due godefFroy, 
that moche knewe of suche thynges was pourueyed tlierof to fore, And 
had taken a lytil territoire whiche was ayenst the bridge, and there he 
heldc hym in his bataylle, Alle the turkes that they chaced to ward 
hym, he slewe them, or he made retorne ayenst them fro whens they 
cam. where they slewe them alle and hewe them, the erle of fflaundres 
dyde right wel this day as a good valyaiint and hardy man in armes, the 
Due of Normandye brak the presse that no turke durst approche hym, 
the Erie of tholouse hym self wold auenge this, that they had made 
hym to spoie his hors the day to fore, huon le mayne forgate not to 
shewe of what lygnage he was and of what contre, buf* semed that he 
dyde to his enemyes, that alle the werke and charge had ben his, thenne 
eustace brother of due godeffroy. Bawdwyn erle of henawd, hughe 
therle of seynt poul. And alle the other barons knightes and noble men 
in theyr countrees dyde meruaylles of armes. ther was neuer man 
lyuyng that sawe ony werk better enterprised and more valyauntly 
achyeuyd and that communely of alle, Ancean sawe this bataylle so 
grete. And sawe his peple yssue out for to gyue them herte and 
courage, and to put awaye the speraunce of theyr flyght. commaunded 
to shette the yates after them, they cam pryckyng ayenst oure men, & 
wold haue made theyres to retorne whiche were discomfyted. but the 
affiaye and the drede was so grete in them that they neuer made 
semblaunt therto, they them self that frely cam on whan they sawe the 
prowesse of our men and the grete strokes that they gaf torned theyr 
backes with the other, ne neuer made grete resistence, there was the 
fyghtyng grete and merueyllous betyng doun of -the turkes that men 
myght not but with grete payne passe, ther was so grete noyse. so grete 
crye. & so terryble neyhyng of horses oueral. that a ma shold not haue 
herd thondre. they that had made the yates to be shette after them 
were ofte this day in })eryl to lese theyr lyues. the wyues of the turkes 
the maydens and feble peple of the toun were vpon the walles and 
towrettes where they sawe theyr peple torne to meschyef and to 
desti-uction, ye may wel thynke that they had grete sorowe, wepynge 
and moche grete crye and noyse wel cursed they that tyrne that they 
so longe liad lyued that they shold see suche mischyef happen to theo), 
Ancean sawe that he loste alle his men and had none hope for to recoure 

* Sic. 

Boulogne; 1481.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 261 

them, coinmaunded that that yate shold be opened for to receyue in to 
the touu them that were Icfte, whan the turkes savve the yate opene, 
they had so grete wylle to entie in to the toun, that vpon the brydge 
they pressyd so euyl for haste, that they fylle in to the water of them 
grete plente. The Due GodefiProye that al that day had so wel don. 
And whan it cam for to departe to fore the brrdge,* he gaf a strook 
moche valyaunt, and suche one, that it shal perpetuelly and euermore 
be spoken of in wele and in honour, fFor I trowe ther happed neuer 
none suche to fore, ne neuer shal happen here after. There were this 
daye many heedcs smeton of. Amies and sholdres at one stroke, he wel 
apperceyued one of his enemyes whiche helde hym nygh to GodefFroy. 
And auaunced hym ofte and peyned to greue hym, The valyaunt Due 
smote hym with his swerde by suche myght and vertue that he smote 
hym in two pyeces in the myddle, in suche wyse that the ouerste part of 
hym fyl to the ground. And that other parte abode styll syttyng on the 
hors, whiche entred in to the cyte with the other. And knowe ye cer- 
taynly that this sayd Turke was armed with a good haaberk and moclie 
stronge, Alle they that sawe this merueylle, were gretely abasshed. 
And the turkes them self had grete fere and drede O mercyful god what 
myght and strengtlie gyiiest thou to thy seruauntes that haue their 
fayth and truste in the, suche a stroke hath not be herd of to fore this 
tyme, That same daye they of Anthyoche loste moo than two thousand 
men. And yf the nyght had not comen so sone on. they shold haue ben 
so cnfebled of men, that with payne shold they haue conne holden and 
kept the toun ayenst oure men. It semed wel that at the brydge were 
many Turkes slayn. fibr it was thycke there of deede bodyes. The ryuer 
that descended to the see, was alle blody vnto the See, Somme Cristen 
men of the londe yssued oute of the toun. And cam to our peple that 
told them that .xij, grete admyrals had the Turkes loste in the bataylle. 
For whom they were ouermoche sorouful ffor they were so endominaged, 
that neuer in theyr lyf shold they be therof restored.' Sign. 8 8. 9 1. 

The signatures, with the exception of the last (17)> run in eights: 
17 appears to have but 6 leaves. The colophon, upon 17 6, is thus : 

♦ ♦ lufjicjje fioofe % liegan in marcfje the rij 

bape anti fpnpfiSpti tljc tJii tiap of %\x^\\i tl)c pcrc of 
our lorb. 219. €€€€, \xtx\ 'x tl^e xx\ pcre of tf)e tejpte 
of our ^apb jgfaucrapn lorti Iftpng €titoarti tfjc fourtlj, 
1 in tl)iiS maner ^tttt in forme. 1 cnprpnteti tJje xx bap 

* Sic. 

262 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Pohjchron. H82 

ofnoucmftrc t(jc pcrc nforsfapti in tljatificp of tocjeftmc.sftct 
tip t()c snptJ tupHiani Carton 

This coloplion is copied from the IMS. of Herbert ; and therefore 
may not be quite accurate. The present copy is in russin binding-, 

852. The PoLiCRONYCON. 1482. Folio. 

After the year 1481, there are, comparatively, few books from the 
press of Caxton, with dates subjoined, which meiit very particular 
examination, on account of their scarcity; or with the hope of enter- 
taining the reader by extracts from them. Some striking exceptions 
however are to be made ; which will be noticed as they occur. In 
regaid to the bulky, yet most desirable, volume under description — 
having before given copious details concerning it — and copies of the 
greater portion of it being frequently before the public — it is only 
necessary, in the present place, to be biief yet faithfully particular ia 
the account of it : especially for the sake of those who may conceive 
themselves to be in possession of perfect copies — a circumstance by no 
means of common occurrence : since it is questionable, whether, for 
the last six years, three perfect copies have been sold. 

A jjroheme,* by Caxton, occupies the first two leaves, a 2, and a 3 : 
a I being blank. Towards the end of this proheme we read thus : 

5Cnti note at tljisf tpnie i^pmplp cmprpntcb i 
^tm in forme lip nic Jt^iUiam Carton anti a Iptcl cnific- 
Jpfffjcti fro tfjoItJC maftpng/ ant! ateo Ijaue atitieti ^\\t1^t 
jBftorpcsf a.£f S coutic fpntic fro tjcnbe tijat tfje ^aib 
ilanulpf) fpnpfljcti fji.i^ Iiosh topcl) toaj^ tfjc pcrc of our 
lorti. ai^.CCC M\ bnto tljc pcrc of t^t fame. S!^€€.€€ \Xi 
tDl)icl)c Ben an Jjontircti i tljrc pcrc; ic. 

A pretty coj)ious table ensues, comprehending signatiiies a 4 to S, 
b 8, and C 4. The leaves now coiumence to Le marked by roman 
numerals, and the signatures to be specified l.y arabic numbers. The first 

" Caxton's proheme was reprinted hy W. de Worde. See the Briliih Bibliographer, 
vol. iv. p. 330. 

Pilgnmage; 1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 2fl3 

leaf of signature 1 is blank ; but on 1 2, the text of the Polychronicon 
begins, and continues to signature 55, inclusively. Of these, each signa- 
ture has 8 leaves, with the exceptions of signatures 28, and 49 : the 
former having 9 leaves, and a blank one ; the latter having only 4 
leaves. On the recto of sign. 55 7, or fol. CCCCxxviij, we have the 
following colophon : 

(Cntieti t^t ^econb tiap of SluplK tjie xxn 
pere of tlje tegne of ftpnge <i5titoarti tljc fourtfj i of tlje 
5tntatnarion of ourc Wt a tljaujsfantj fout fjontiteti fouc 
jfcore anti ttoepnc/ 

J^pnprfScti jiec Cajcton 

The present large and beautiful copy is sumptuously bound in red 
morocco by C. Herring. Two imperfect copies are in the collection 
of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire ; and Sir M. M. Sykes has a 
copy, wanting only 3 leaves, which he obtained from Messrs. I. and 
A. Arch, for 150^. 

853. The Pylgremage of the Soule. Printed 
at TFestraestre. 1483. Folio. 

This very rare volume is a translation, ' with somewhat of additions,' 
of the well-known French work entitled Le Pelerinage de la Vie 
HuMAiNE. We may consider it the first in the list of those works which 
were printed by Caxton in the year 1483. The copy under descrip- 
tion, formerly Mr. Heber's,* is unluckily imperfect ; wanting the 
table, of 3 leaves, and folios lij, liij. Both the first leaf of the table 
and of ' Liber primus ' seems to be blank. On folio ij° of the first 
book we read 

l^ere fiegpnnetj) tljetiooft of tljepplgrcmage of tljie ^oMe 
late tran^lateti oute of jFrenffJe in to Cnglpffje 

The folios are now regularly numbered to the end of the volume ; 
namely to fol. Cx, inclusively ; on the reverse of which we read the 
ensuing colophon : 

• It was obtained io exchange for some very rare pieces of early-printed English poetry. 
VOL. ir. L L 

264 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Liber Festivalis; 

i^crc attietlj tX\t tircmc of pplgrcmngc of tjje ^oule 
trnnslatiU outc of frcnfffic in to ^itglpCflictDitf) ^onitoliat 
of ntibicionjef/ tijcpcrc of ourc lorb/ itH^^CCCC/ 1 tjjpttcni 
nnti cnlictt) in tl^c oaigplc of ^cpnt 25ait()olomctD 

(CinprpnteU at IBc^tiiiej^trc Bp fDiliiam <ffajt:ton/ 31lnb 
fpnpffficD tl^e ^irtlj tiap of Sfupn/ tljc pcre of our locli/ 
a^.CCCC.irxaiij 311nti tlje fitiBft pctc of tjje rcgne of 
fepngc <!BtiUiarli t^^t fpftljc/ 

The impression is divided into Five Books, and is interspersed with 
various pieces of poetry ; of which specimens have been given, as well 
as a copious account of the book itself, in the work so frequently 
referred to : see vol. i. p. 152-161. Although the poetry be of the 
dullest possible description, yet the singularity of the subject of the 
prose, (as before proved) together with the extreme rarity of the 
volume itself, cannot fail to rank this amongst the most desirable 
books which have issued from the press of Caxton. It is, I believe, 
the only one in which the name of Edward V. is inserted in the colo- 
phon. The present copy is in old russia binding. 

854. Liber Festivalis. 1483. Includina- the 

QuATuoR Sermones. Folio. 


The first leaf must be considered as blank. On the recto of a ij, 
without any prefix, we read at top ' tHis day is callyd the first sonday 
of aduent,' &c. The signatures, to o, run in eights : o and p having 
each only 6 leaves. On the reveise of p vj 

€nj»rpntcb at Jl^esftrnpn^tec tip tDpHpam Carton tgelaftc 
bap of g^upn 3lnno tiomini Sl^CCCC ffijrjrjciij 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a j, without any prefix, at top, it 
begins thus : ' THe mayster of sentence in the second book and the 
first distynction,' &c. This latter treatise is called the Quatuor 
Sermones ; of which, as well as of the Festival, a very full and par- 

1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 265 

ticular description will be found in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 161, 176. 
The signatures of the latter treatise extend to d, in eights ; d having 
only 4 leaves. On the reverse of d iiij, is the following imprint : 

<!Ettjrr|inteti fip l^pHiam Carton at tDe^sftmcieftrc/ 

There can be no doubt of both these treatises having been pi'inted 
and published at the same time ; but whether the present, or the next 
described, edition of them, be the anterior publication, is a point of 
some doubt ; upon which the reader shall presently judge for himself. 
The work itself is not less interesting than cui'ious ; and must be con- 
sidered a very valuable, and almost necessary, portion of any theologi- 
cal library which embraces the early history of our Liturgy, The 
copy under description was formerly Dr. Farmer's ; and is a large, 
sound, and desirable one : in russia binding. 

855. Liber Festia^alis ; to which are added the 
QuATUOR Sermones. TVithout Date. Folio. 

This edition is distinguished from the preceding one, by being printed 
in double columns, in a larger type, and by having 33 lines in a full 
page. The edition, previously described, is executed in Caxton's 
smallest type, with long lines, and has 38 lines in a full page. In point 
of rarity, as well as beauty of execution, the preference is entirely with 
the one under description. Upon the whole, I incline to consider it the 
SECOND EDITION of the FESTIVAL ; siucc the text is abridged, and 
the matter is set out with more attention to the gratification of the eye. 
There are also breaks in the text, and the word /fSattacio is constantly 
occurring, while in the edition just described it is wholly omitted. 

This impression commences on a ij, (a i being blank) with a short 
prologue of 2 1 lines, which is not to be found in the preceding edition. 
The first Sunday in Advent immediately follows, with a prefix, and 'Good 
Men & Wymen' — which latter is omitted in the above. In both of these 
copies, the part relating to St. Thomas a Becket has received no injury ; 
a circumstance of uimsual occurrence in the theological publications of 
this period. We are told here, (sign, i ij) that in the reparations of 
the King's palaces at London and Westminster, ' bytwene Ester and 
Wytsontyde, thomas made to repayre it ayen. For he had there soo 
many werke men of dyuerse craftes, that a man sholde vnneth here his 

<2GG BOOKS PRINTED BY [Confess, ^mantis; 1483. 

folowe speke. for donnyuge of strokes.' The Festival ends on the 
reverse of s v, with 

Carton mc fieri fecit 

The other signatures have each 8 leaves ; with the exception of q, 
which has only two. The conclusion is wholly different from that of 
the one previously described. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, A j, 
the QuATUOR Sermones begin as before, at top of the first column. 

This tract contains A, B, C, in eights, and D with ten leaves. There 
is no imprint, but the large device of the printer is on the recto of 
D 10. The present very desirable copy, having the fiist leaf of the 
Festival in ms., was obtained at the sale of the Roxbui'gh library for 

105/. It is in dark red morocco binding. 

856. CoNFESsio Amantis. Printed in 1483. Folio. 

On sign, ij (sign, i being blank) we read the following, what may be 
called, general title, or prefix to the table of the chapters : 

^i^ liooft i^ intitulcb tmit^i 
t ^io anianti^/ tl[)at i^ to ^ape 

in engipffSe tfjc confef^pon of 
tfic louct niaati anb comppleti lip 
SioJjan (Joiner ^efqupct fiorne in H^alp^ 
in tt)c tpnie of hpng ricljarti tije ^econb 
tDDicl) Iioofe trctetlj fjota !je tna^ confef 
fpti to (iBienpu.sf jrcc^t of benu^ef bjjon 
tfje cau^c^ of Joue in Xyx^ fpue ioptte^ 
anb jsfeuen bcbdp ^pnne^, a^ in tfjpiaf 
jfapb l&ooft a! abngc a|ippcret|)/ anb lip 
tm^t tfjcrc Iieen toniptp^eb tfjetin bp / 
uer^ Ijp^torpe^ anb fabkiSf toUjcfjpng 
eiietp niatere/ % Ijauc ocbcpneb a table 
l^erc fo!otDpn0 of al ^uclje gp^torpe.sf 
anb fafilcjef iugere anb in tn][iat booft 
anb Icef tljep ^tanbe in a.sf gcre after 

Knight of Toioer; 1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 267 

The table occupies 6 leaves. On the recto of the ensuing leaf (i 2) 
the text begins, with two Latui sentences, having the English metre 
to the right, or on the second column. It is entitled at top ' Prologus' 
and is numbered ' folio 2.* On the recto of b i, * Explicit Prologus.' The 
running titles are now printed according to the number of the books ; as 
* Liber primus,' &c. After an interval from fol 4, to fol. xvij, in which 
the leaves are not numbered, we observe, on the recto of c i, ' folio 
xvij ;' and so on, to the end, as far as folio CCxj ; on the reverse of 
which, (there being only one coluiim ; or rather half a one on this 
page) we jead the colophon, thus : 

(iEnprpnteti at Wt^tmt^ttt tip m* 
Jiailipam €aj:ton anU fpnpffjcb tljc 
bap of ^t^ttxwhtt tlje fpt^t pcrc of tf)* 
tt^nt of l^png iHiclfjarti tlje tgptti/ 1^* 
pete of our lord a t8ouj9?anti/ €€€€, 

For a full account of this first impression of the Works op 
GowER, consult the Typog. Antiquities, vol. i. p. 177 — 186. The pre- 
sent is a sound and desirable copy ; and was formerly in the collection 
of T. RatelifFe. It is in old red morocco binding. The Duke of 
Devonshire possesses a perfect copy; and a beautiful one, in the Merly 
Library, was purchased by the Marquis of Blandford for 3151. 

85/. The Knyght of the Toure. Planted at 
TVestmestre, 1483. Folio. 

The prologue of the printer, being one page and a half, occupies 
the first leaf: sign. j. This has been printed entire in the Typog. 
Jntiq. vol. i. p. ^02. The table occupies the 3 following leaves; sign, ij 
(iij and iiij). The prologue of the author begins on the recto of the 
following leaf, a j ; having this prefix : 

f$ttt fie gpnnetlj tlfjc booh tufjiclfje tlje ftnpgt)t of tge toure 
matie; 5lnti ^jtchetjj of manp fepre enjefample^ anti t^m^ 
fpjnememp^ anti tecJjpng of gi^af bougljteriS? 

* Sic- t Evidently misprinted for Ixxxiij. 

263 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Golden Legend ; 

This prologue (of which a considerable portion is extracted in the 
work just referred to) concludes on the recto of the following leaf, 
a ij. It is immediately followed, at bottom, by the prefix to the first 
chai)ter of the work ; which however does not begin till the recto of 
5i£jn. a iij ; the reverse of sign, ij being blank. The signatures, a to 
m, inclusively, run in eights : n has only 4 leaves : on the reverse of 
the 4th of which, we read the ensuing colophon : 

l^crcfpiipffSctitljcIiooftC; tDldicljc tJjc knpjfjt of tl)c€ourc 
nintic to t\)t cnacpgncment anli tccf)png of ^i^ tiougljttc^ 
tran^Iatcti oiite of f rcnflj hi to our matcrnali ^nglpffjc 
toiigiic ftp mc l©ifliam Cajcton/ tDjjicjjc booh itia^ entieli 
1 fpnpffftcti tlje fpr^^t tiap of Stupit/ tljc pere of oure !orb 

5tnti niprpntctj of tocfttiipnjSitre tl^e last bap of ^Tanpuet 
tje fptisft pcrc of tjjc rcgnc of fepnge npcfjarb tljc tJjprH 

From this colophon, it appears that the book was printed and pub- 
lished in 1483 ; as the commencement of the following year did not 
take place till March 55.'-' Having before given a copious description 
of this veiy rare and curious performance, it only remains to add that 
the present fine and sound copy of it, in russia binding, was obtained 
at the sale of Mr. Brand's library, in 1807, for \\\l. 6s. 

858. The Golden Legende. Printed at West' 
mestre. 1483. Folio. 

The copy under description unluckily wants all the introductory 
part : namely, the proheme or preface of Caxton ; the first table of the 
stories, in the order in which they stand in the book ; and the second 
table, which is an alphabetical one : also, a large wood-cut of the 
Saints in Glory, and the prologue of the printer ; in which we are 
informed that the Recueil of the Histories of Troy, the Book of the Chess, 
the History of Jason, the History of the Mirror of the World, the xv Books 
of the Metamorphoses, in which be contained the Fables of Ovid, and 

• There is, consequently, an en-or in the Typng. Antiq. whicli assigns the yeai- 1484 te 
i4iis impression. 

1483 and 1493.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 269 

the History of Godfrey of Boulogne, were the earliest efforts of Caxton's 
press. Such an imperfection affords too just cause of regret. 

The text of the work is however complete. It begins with the 
'Advent of our Lord, ' on the recto of a j, numbered ' folio j ' — and 
continues to k k v, third alphabet ; or to folio CCCC xliiii regularly 
numbered throughout from a j. On the recto of the last leaf, second 
column, we observe the colophon ; which, after a recapitulation of the 
contents of the volume, concludes thus : 

♦ iJJtjicjje toerlfte 

3[ fiaue accompUffJcti at tljc commaun'/ 
tiemcnte anb reque^te of tlje noble anb 
jiupffaunte eriC/ anb mp Ipecial gooti 
Jort! l^pHpam crie of arontiel/ i fjauc 
fpnp(T||cb it at toe^tmc^tre t^t ttoentp 
bap of noucmlire/ tlje pete of our lorb 
^ I €€€€ i \xxxn\i 1 t jie fpr^eft pere 
of tlje rcpjjne of iilpng i!!pc!iarli tfje 

28g mt togllgam ©axton 

With the foregoing exception, this may be considered a very desir- 
able copy, and is bound in russia. The Duke of Devonshire possesses 
a large but imperfect copy. 

859. The Golden Legende. 1493. Folio. 

I have before stated my reasons* for supposing the body, or text, of 
the present volume to have been printed by Caxton ; and the colophon 
to have been added by Wynkyn de Worde. Upon a reconsideration of 
that opinion, and a careful examination of the type of this impression, 
I own that I feel rather doubts upon the subject. In the first place, 
the large lower-case letter is clearly from the fount of W. de Worde ; 
but the body of the text, if we except the capital and the small A, is 

* ^ypog' Antiq. vol. i. p. 194-.5. 

270 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Golden Legend; 1493. 

as decidedly the character of Caxton ; and such as we observe in his 
Chronicles, Polychronicon, Second Edition of Chaucer, Book of Fame, and 
Troilus and Cressida, &c. There is, however, in this text-type, rather 
a sharpness or squareness which we do not find in that of the works 
just mentioned. The ornamental capital initials are also of the fount 
of Caxton ; and when we consider that no book, exhibiting the same 
fount of letter, is yet known to be extant, with the name of W. de 
Worde subjoined — and that the first book, executed by the latter 
printer, of the same date with the above, has a decidedly different cha- 
racter — the weight of argument may be in favor of the assumption 
that this edition of the Golden Legend was, with the exception of the 
colophon, the production of Caxton 's press. It is clear that our first 
printer could not have subjoined the colophon, since he died in 1491. 
We now proceed to a short but accurate description of the impression 

The recto of the first leaf presents us with a large wood-cut of the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, surrounded by cherubim, &c. above — 
and Apostolical, Papal, and Kingly Characters beneath. This is pre- 
cisely the same cut as is attached to the previous impression. Over it,* 
we read the following title ; in 2 lines and a half : 

f$tte liegpnnct^ tge iegentie namdi in latptt legenba 
aurcH/ tfjat ijef to ^ap in engipffje tije goJtren Icgentie : 
fot ipfec a^ pafjefetlj goitre in baktde al ottjet metaUpiSf/ 
jsfoo tljp^ Scgcntie txtthtt^ afl otljer hnkt^ : 

The text, or rather the proheme, preceding the table, begins on the 
reverse of the same leaf, with a large capital T prefixed : of which a 
fac-simile will be found in the Typog. Antiq. vol, i. p, cxxiv. The 
table occupies the three following leaves. On signature a i, numbered 
' Folio primo,' the text begins. The leaves are then numbered 
throughout, and on the reverse of folio CCCC xxix we read the 
colophon thus : the same capital T, as before, being prefixed — 

€|mi6f cntietD tlje Jcgelie nameb in ktpn Icgentia 
mem tijat iisf to ^ap in engli^^ije tjie golbf legebc for 
ipfee Q^ jrafj^ctl) goltie in baletoe al otgcr mctalll^/ 
jEfoo tljpiei Eegcntie ejccetietlj all ottiet Iiofte^/ toljerin 

• An ancient ms. meniorandum observes here — ' Magnum et horrendum.' 

Caton; 1483.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 263 

hm tonttpmtx alle t^t ijpgSe anti gretc fe^sftpj? of our 
lorlie €t)e fe^tp^ of out blefjafpb latjp/ €8e Ipuc^sf jrafjefio^ 
1 nipraclejf of mani otjec i^ainte^ Ijp^torpeief i acte^/ 
aj6f aU alonge fjere afore is? matie itiencpoiiy tDljicfic 
toerfte 91 ^ptie accompUf^cti at tlje commauntiemete 
anb veqat^tt of tjie nobk anti pupfjefaunte crle. i mp 
^pecpai gooti !orti tdpflpam cde of 2lrontid/ ^Cnti ttobj 
Jane * renetoeti i fpnpffjeti it at toesftmcieftre tfje xx t>ap 
of lOr^ap/ €|)e pere of our lorb ^€€€€\xxxxnh 3llnti 
in tfte tJiii pere of t^c repgne off hpnge i^enrp tlje tjti/ 

€L25p nie topHpam Carton/ 

Beneath, there is a wood-cut of the crucifixion ; which was again 
introduced by W. de Worde in his edition of the Golden Legend, of the 
date of 1498 ; and of which a fac-simile appears in the second volume 
of the Typog, Antiq. p. 79. It will be observed that the above colophon 
is the same as that to the foregoing impression. The present is a sound 
and desirable copy ; and was in the Alchorne Collection — purchased 
from the sale of West's Library. A copy is in the Library of his Grace 
the Duke of Devonshire. 

860. The Book callid Caton. Printed in thahhay 
of westmynstre. 1483. Folio. 

On signature ij begins ' the prologue or prohemye of the book callid 
Caton.' This prologue is among the most interesting pieces of Caxton's 
composition, and has been printed entire in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 
196-8. It is followed by two other introductory pieces which will be 
found in the British Bibliographer, vol. iv. p. 323-4. Two interesting 
specimens from the body of the work are also incorporated in the 
authority last referred to ; which renders a further specimen unneces- 
sary here, as the book is by no means of uncommon occurrence. On 
the reverse of sign, iij begins a table, which concludes on the reverse 
of the second following leaf, containing 5 pages. At the end of it, 
• Thus endeth the table and the Rubrishes of this present boke whiche 
is called caton in Englysshe ryght singuler and prouffy table,' &c. The 

* Sic. 

264 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Cato Parvus, 

ensuing leaf (a i) is blank. On a ij the text of the work begins ; 
having prefixes to the several sections printed in a larger type, similar 
to that of the Dkies and Sayinges ; while the text is executed in the 
smallest of Caxton's types, like that of the Chronicle, &c. and is desig- 
nated under N". 4, in the work first above referred to. The signatures, 
from a to i, run in eights ; i having ten leaves, of which the 10th is 
blank. On the recto of i ix, we read this colophon : 

1$ttc fpnpfffjctJ) tfji^ef ptt^mt fiooft tDfjiclftc ijsf jfapti 
or caWch €atl)on tran^latcti outc of frcnCfJe in to €n- 
0lpf(5c lip iiaintam €axton in tfjabtiap of tDc^tmpn^tre 
tljc pttt of ourc lorti ^ €€€€ Ixtxiiv ^nti tljc fpr^tpere 
of tfjc rcgne of ftpnge iUpcfjarH tjje tfjprti ttie xxiiy Hap 
of bcccnifire 

The present very neat and sound copy, in russia binding, was pur- 
chased by his Lordship of Mr. Payne, in the year 17^9, for lOl. 10s. 
A remarkably tall and beautiful copy, belonging to the author of this 
work, was sold by public auction in Febi-uaiy last, by Mr. Evans. His 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire als«) possesses a beautiful copy : obtained 
from Messrs. I. and A. Arch for 105/. 

861. Parvus Chato & Magnus Chato. TVithout 
Place or Date. Folio. 

This is a volume of unusual rarity. The copy under description is 
l)erfect and clean throughout ; although not of large dimensions. The 
first signature, a j, being blank, the text commences on the recto of 
a ij, with the following title : 

f$it intipit pamu^ef CJjato 

which is over a cut of ' Grammar,' as at vol. i. p. 110 of the Ttjj>og. 
Antiquities. For (he commencement of the text, see p. 200 of the same 
work. What is rather singular, the 'Parvus Cato ' appears to end on the 
recto of the next leaf, a iij, thus : 

^it nxti^ panri catgoniiaf 

^ Cato Magnus:] WILLIAM CAXTON. 265 

This line is over a wood-cut of ' Logick ;' of which there is a fac-simile 
at p. 1 10 of the work just referred to. On the reverse of the same leaf, 
at top, we read as follows : 

"S^it incipit magnum €jjato 

The entire work is poetical ; being in seven-line stanzas, and each 
stanza preceded by a Latin distich. The following, taken almost pro- 
miscuously, is a brief specimen : 

5Dili0e ftc aliojgf bt fit titix tmx^ amicuj^ 
^it fionuiSf cfto boni^ ne te mala tiampna ^equatuc 
Uouc otljcr men i ][jaiie tidem fo in cljere 
€l)at to tljp M^ tljp Joue mo^t cjctcntie 
Stofte no perfone Be to tl)e more tiere 
€l[)an tgpn eftate for ttjcnne tjjou ^|>alt offentie 
5Ilnb fjutrte t(|p ^clf anti ottjer folfte amentie 
25ut euer ttjeriffje ot^er anti loue |)em fo 
€l)at to t{)p i9felf tljou Be fount»en no foo 

Sign. A V. 

The Second Book begins on b ij, recto ; the Third Book on b viij, 
recto ; the Fourth Book, on c iiij, recto. On the recto of d iiij, and last 
leaf, we read the conclusion, thus : 

l^otD 31 i^au^ gatiereb flourejse to pour li^t 
€aftetf) tl^epm for tljep Be pre^eferuatpf 
l^oItietD tfjcpm faft *; Bere tljem in pour fi^t 
for tge peftplence etre toijicjje i^ infeetif 
31 councepl pou % 31 ieparlie mp Ipf 
€|jat pe j^t)ul IcBe pour iif in fifeernef^e 
5llnti efte atepne to mocjje toortl^pnefiefe 

€j)i^ mene 31 to pou bntier protection 
<©f pour good grace hj)[jat tpme pe retie 
#r dlij0f i^aue in tfji^ef mater inflection 
%^ it Biiitietl^ tl^at pe tuol tio in iietie 

26(i BOOKS PRINTED BY [Order of 

€l)an tjnr 31 affmiic toitljout tJtctic 

^c jil)ul ac^cuc anti 6c fiil tjcrtuoufif 

l^crc hunc 31 fonti tliat ?1)al pc guptic aiib ktic 

^trcp0!)t to gooti fomc 1 1cuc pou in Jjpr l^ou.i^ 

Cjrplictt €\)Uo. 

Tlu' reverse is blank. In the whole, 26 leaves : a 7, b 8, c 8, d 4 : 
and a full page containing' 29 lines. The Latin distichs are printed in 
a lart^ei- type than is the English verse. Although no name of printer 
be subjoined, there can be no question concerning this volume being a 
legitimate production of the press of Caxton. I know of no other copy 
of it except the one in the library of St. John's College, Oxford. The 
present copy is beautifully bound by C.Lewis, in olive-colour morocco. 

862. The Ordre of Chyualry or Knyghthode. 
Supposed to have been printed in 1484. Quarto. 

The appearance of this volume will diminish the value of the copy 
in the British Museum, on the ground of that copy being unique' — as 
1 had once imagined it to be. But a great superiority must yet be 
assigned to the Museum copy, when it is known that it is 'perfect, and 
that the one about to be described wants sixteen leaves; namely, the 
whole of signatures d and e. In other respects, this volume is a very 
material acquisition to the Caxtonian Department of the Library 
under descrijjtion. The first leaf being blank, we read, on the recto 
of a ij, the whole of what follows : 

■ ^txt beg^nnet!) t|)e Caile of 
tf)tsi present hoofee fntptleli tfje 
Boofe of t|)e orlire of ci)gualrp 
or knp5|)t|)olie 

^^^ |Jto tl^e jirapfpngc aiiti tipupne 

(H^ glorpe of goti/ tojjtcljc i^ iorti anti 

fouerapne fepngc aBouc anU oiicr 

aile tJjpnge^ cclcftpaly anti toodt»lp/ f©c 

Chivaby; 1484.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 267 

Iicgpnne t^i^ fiooft of tl)e orbte of cljpualrp 
for to ^Ijctoe tfiat to t^t fpnefpauncc of 
goti tfjc ptpncc a!mpgl[|tp tul^iclje ^cpgno^ 
tpetl) afioiic tlje ^cuen jrfancttc^/ tifjat nia^ 
he ttjc coui'jsf cckstpal/ anb fjaue potucr i 
fcpgnourpe in goiifrnpngc t orbepnpngc 
tfje fiotipc^ tecrcjsfttc anti crtfjcip/ tpt in 
Iphc ixjp>5c otoen ttje lipngc^ prpnce^ anti 
grctc iorticj^ to Ijauc pupffaiuicc anb ^cpg^ 
notpc tjjron tljc Jmpgl[)tc^/ ^Cnti tljc Jtnn^ 
tc^ ftp fpinplptiitie ougljtcn to tjauc po^; 
luct anti tiominacion ouet tlje mopen pcple 
3lnti t^i^ fioofte tontepnctl) biij cljapitre^ 

The heads of the eight chapters are specified on the next page, or on 
the reverse of this leaf: but these, as well as some copious and curious 
extracts, from the body of the work, will be found in the Typog. Antiq. 
vol. i. p. 221-238. The text begins, on a iij, with a large ornamental 
capital initial A. The signatures, to g, run in eights : g having only 
three leaves. On the recto of g iij is the following colophon : 

^nb tfjUjS^ tl^pjef !ptpl feooft % jnreisfentc to 
mp retioufttcti naturci anti moft bratitic fo> 
uerapne lorti ftpng i5pcf)arti i^png of <tn^ 
glonti anti of f raunre/ totljenbc/ tljat l)e 
commauntie tlji^ fcooft to 6c Jjab anti rebtie 
bnto otljcr poung lortic^ ftnpgjtc^ anti gen 
tplmcn tuitgin tljt^ ropamc/ tfjat tfje noble 
ortire of cljpualrpe Jie tjereafter Iicttet tjfeti i 
tjonouceti tJjan f)it fjatlj Ben in late tiape^ 
paffcti/ 311nti gcrin Ije ^IjjaHe bo a nofilc i 
bertiioufe t^ttxti ^nb % isfiane jrap aimp;- 
t^ gob for Iji^f long Ipf i pro^perou^ Wh 
fare/ i tljjat Ije map Ijaue tiittorp of al tjiiOf 

268 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Royal Booh; 

f nrmpcjB?/ anti after tfji^ef ^Ijort i tran^itorp 
Ipf to Ijauc nicrlaftpitg Ipf in tjciicii/ tolje^ 
re aa ii0f 3;ope aiiti £i!pffe tuorlD toitfjout 
entie 3£men/ 

The reverse is blank. There are neither numerals nor catchwords ; 
and a full page contains only 26 lines. This is among the smallest 
books wliich have issued from tlie press of Caxton ; and on exa- 
mining the pages, before referred to, it will be found to be not less 
interesting and curious than it is excessively rare. A third copy is at 
present unknown. The one here described is in old red morocco 
binding ; in the most desirable condition. In the fly-leaf there is a 
marked price of 1/. lis. 6d. of old date. 

863. The Ryal Book ; or a Book for a Kyng. 
1484. Folio. 

Although the jiresent copy of this very scarce volume be considerably 
imperfect, yet, as possessing the proheme or introduction of the printer, 
the imperfection is not quite so material as it might have been. 
After much admonitory matter, in this proheme, which commences on 
sign, a ij (a j being blank) we read thus on the reverse of the first 
printed leaf: 

iDi)icl) {tooh taa^e^ matie in frenffjie atte 
requejste of S^ljelip \t fiele hpng of ftauce in tlje pere of 
tljpncamacion of our Jorti ill^ CCljcrijc. i retiuceti in to en 
gliflje at tlje rellue^t i ^pecpal tie^efpre of a ^pnguler ftentie 
of nipn a mercer of lotion tfje pere of our iSfapti iorti/ a^. 
iiijCIrrriiii* tDljielj booft i^ entptleb i nameb in frenfffie. 
le Ipure ropal. tDljicljc i^ to ?ap in engli^^lje. tje rpal 
feoolt. or a booh for a ftpng, fcc. 

The table commences on the recto of the ensuing leaf, a iij, and 
terminates on the reverse of sign, a iiij . The text commences on what 
would be marked a v. The signatures, a to v, run in eights ; v having 
only 6 leaves. The copy under description wants the second leaf of 

1484.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 26^ 

the table ; 5 leaves in signature n, and 7 leaves at the end — after sig- 
nature t vij. The work is, throughout, scriptural and moral ;* but has 
occasionally (as the short specimen extracted from it in the Typog. 
Ant'iq. vol. i. p. 239, sufficiently proves) some very quaint and inte- 
resting passages. I extract here two short ones ; of a different, but 
equally singular, complexion : 

Of losengerye and of flaterye 

' Losengiers and myssayers ben of one scole. These ben the ij 
teraynes otherwyse callyd mermaydes. of vvhiche me fynde in the book 
of the nature of beestys whiche is a monsti'e of the see that is callyd 
serayns. whyche hath the body of a woman the taylle of a fysshe. & 
vngles or clawes of an egle, and they synge soo swetely that they make 
the maronners to slepe. and after they deuoui* them. These ben the 
losengyers & fiaterers whiche by theyr fayr speche make men to slepe 
in theyr synnes, There been somme serpentes whyche haue the name 
of serayns. that renne more swyftely than an hors. and somtyme they 
flee, and theyr venym is so stronge that tryacle may not auayle ayenst 
it,' &c. ^ign. f. V. 

The following passage, descriptive of the frailty and trans itoriness 
of human life, has a good deal in it which reminds us of the manner 
of Jeremy Taylor, in his Holy Living and Dying. 

* Now wepe they in helle. Crye and howle. cratchen and sayen alas/ 
what auaylled vs our power/ honour noblesse Joye beaultees and al 
rychessys. Sone is al thys departed & faylled as a shadowe or smoke. 
& moche faster fledde fro vs than byrdes fleyng. or quarrelles oute of 
a crosse bowe. Thus departeth a weye our lyf. Now we were^ and 
anone we ben deed, and alle our lyf was not a lytel moment. Now be 
we in perdurable tormentes Our Joye in wepyng Our carolles & feestea 
in sorowe. Roobes hoodes feestes dygnytees games Rychessys & al 
welthe ben faylled vs. Suche been the songes of helle lyke as holy 
wrytte recounteth,' Sign. g. ij. 

As the type of this volume is of rare occurrence, and differs some- 
what, in its closeness, squareness, and blackness of eflFect, from the 
usual types of Caxton — and as there are but very few embellishment* 
in it — the reader may be gratified by the following fac-simile of both : 
from ij recto. 

• From the Ixxvjth to the Ixxxvjth chapter there is an expoiition of the Lord's Prayer ; 
Wginning with the title as at the head of the wood-cut — in the following page. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Blanchardin and 

C. ^|» ^w\ iJetgcgott9 an D^qucfle^ tl)at \m (onfegneli m 
t^ Mg ji!>afet noBer c^itulo If )^\) j 



^ttmWe a^fead^te* 
jfD:jinitr0Oo8 ma^e2 

table anOt^ttioofl^ 

featf^/tojjj <i^at ^8$ 

Wim^ *elftno^e(|r.w»»{tontet^/anti iJ>el w([^eil[> ^t 

The present copy may boast of its marginal dimensions, and is clean 
throughout. It is in russia binding. 

864. Blanchardyn and Eglantyne. 1485. Folio. 

Although this uncommonly scarce and curious romance be arranged, 
in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 346", among the books printed by Caxton 
without dates, yet, in conformity with the date of 1485, upon the 
binding of it, in the time of RatclifFe, it is here described in its present 
order : and veiy possible it is, that, both the Morte d Arthur, and the 
Blanchardin and Eglantine, were given to the public in the same year. 
No volumes from the press of Caxton are of rarer occurrence; 

Eglantyne; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 271 

The copy under description is deficient in several leaves ; namely, 
one leaf in the table, another leaf in sign. A, a third in sign. B, and 
perhaps three or four leaves at the end. We shall describe it however 
with as much care as possible : premising, that a copious account has 
been already submitted to the public in the work just referred to. 

The address to the Dutchess of Somerset, mother of Henry Vllth, 
occupies nearly the whole of the first leaf. In this address the printer 
styles himself : ' I wyllyam caxton his * most Indygne humble subgette 
and lytil seruaQt.* The whole of this interesting address has been 
already given by me to the public. The table has this prefix ; 

ttt ficgpimetf) tl[jc table of tlje bictorpou^ ptptice 
^ 25lancJjarbpn/ fonc of tl)c noble fepng of f rpfe 
3Cnti of o^glantpnc OSuene of Comiatiap otljcrtDpjSfe 
callpii lorgoplleuae Daniour^, tDljielje i^ to ^ape tlje 
proube laDp in loue» 

The table has 3 leaves. In the whole, there appear to be fifty-four 
chapters ; as the following prefix to the last, on the reverse of M iiij, 

testifies : 

Cfje I iii) anti lasft cljapter contepnetlj Ijottj blantjarbpn 
tottitieb IjtjSf loue tge jnroutie piicell tn amours : 2Ilnti of 
tlje grcte Slope tljat iuaisf maUc tljete/ anti of pe fepnge of 
f rpfe tietl) 

On the recto of A j the text of the work begins. Of the nature of 
this text, the reader (in addition to what I have before extracted f) is 
presented with the following copious specimens ; which are presumed, 
upon the whole, to be well worth the trouble of perusal. The first 
salute of Eglantine, by her beloved Blanchardin, was of rather a 
singular nature : 

' Blanchardyn seeyng the oure and the poynt that he sholde furnysshe 
hys enterpryse that ful sore he desyred to fynys.she. smote hys courser 
wyth the spore for to kysse her as he furth by her went wherof happed 
by y® bruyt that his hors made that she loked bakward for to se what 
he was that so hastely rode after her. And so well it fortuned Blan- 
chardyn that bothe theyre mouthes recoiitred and kyst eche other fast, 
Yf blanchardyn was right glad of this aduenture, It is not to be axed. 

* King Henry's. t Tijpog. Antiq. vol. i. 


272 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Blajichardin and 

And of that other party the proude mayden in amours coude not kepe 
her hchaiinurre in this byhalue for the grete dyspleasyer that she toke 
therforo, But blancliardyn wyth a glad chare waloped his courser as 
bruyantly as he coude thurghe the thykkest of all the folke, lepyng 
alwave here and there as hors and man had fowgthen in the thayer. 
And tivdc so moche in a short while that he had passed ladyes & 
damoselles, knyghtes and squyers & all the grete companye of this 
proude pucelle in amours, gyuyng agracyouseand honourable salutacion 
to them all where he went forth by. It is not to be axed yf he was well 
loked vpon of all them of the rowte, And in espall of the ladyes and 
gentyl women that all in one sayde he was a knyght right goode and 
fayre. and that it semed wel by coutenance to be a man comen of highe 
extraction meruc\lling hcmself what he myght be and fro whens he 
came there thus alone wythout eny company.' Sign. B v, recto. 

Eglantine is well denominated the • proud pucelle ;' since she con- 
tinues inexorable for a long time. At length, however, like a proper 
lady ' in amours,' she relents ; and the intelligence of her kind dis- 
])osition towards her knight is thus pleasantly communicated to 
Blanchardin : 

* After the humble leue that the pioubst toke of the lady he went 
homward agayn tyl his place all penseful of the wordes that he had 
herde of the pucelle It was tyme to go to bed. so cam he toward blan- 
chardyn that was alredy goo in to his chambre, and gaff hym the 
goode nyght, & on the morowe after the njasse, the prouost sayde vnto 
Blandiardyn that he wold talke wyth him atte leyser. And blanchardyn 
ansuered fayre boost, in good oure be it, Thenne they two sette hem 
self vpon a benche, The prouost bygan hym to recounte and telle hou 
the proude mayden in amoures the euen last past had spoken wyth hym 
of many thyngcs & emonge other tolde hym that she was right well 
content of his seruyce and wolde reteyne hym in wages and gyue hym 
of her goudes. for he was worthy therof. Morouere sayde y* prouost 
sire she hath tolde me that ye be enamored of a hyghe and a riche 
pryncesse wherof I merueyll me not, for on my feyth ye be well the man 
that ought to chuse your specyall loue in a hyghe place But allewayes 
it is force that i here you in hande that it is her owne silf. for it semeth 
me not wel possyble that yf it were in som other place, hit sholde not 
haue come to her knowlege. how wel that here is one doubte that 
retardeth myne ymagynacyon. she sette neuere nought by amours, & 
loue But iapeth & playeth her self of theym that ben amerouse I wot« 

Eglantine; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 2/3 

not allewayes yf the god of loue myght haue shewed his vertues in her. 
Alas we sholde wel desyre that it were so to thende she myi^ht take a 
goode lord for to deflFende vs and her lande, After that the prouost had 
sayde to blanchardyn all that semed him good to be tolde, Blanchaidyn 
curtoysly wyth a smylyng contenaunce ansuered hym that god hath 
well kept hym from so moche an hap and so hyghe as for to haue the 
grace of so noble and so grete prynces as was the proude pucelle in 
amours, & also I byleue sayde blanchardyn that ye make your self these 
tydynges But I can not bythynke to what purpos ye haue seen eny 
token ne apparence for to coloure your gracyous suspecion I neuer 
spake wyth her nor neuer in my dayes I dyde see her, wherof sholde to 
me come suche a wylle. I wot not sayde the prouost. I telle you that, 
that 1 haue herde of my lady. Yf ought be there to your auauntage soo 
take hit, now pleased god that she were that woman that sufiFred so 
moche of sorowe and angwysshe at her herte for the loue of you. I 
thank you sayde Blanchardyn,' Sign. D iiij, v. 

Eglantine continues to shew unquestionable proofs of her attachment 
to her loA'er, as the following interesting extract abundantly proves : 

* After the gracyouse leue of the lady, Blanchardyn & the prouoste 
came ayen in the sayd place, and was dyner tyme, The prouost that wyth 
all his herte loued. Blanchardyn coniured hym saying. It semed hym 
that he sholde be yet kynge and lorde of the londe of Tormaday, And 
that their lady had hym well in her grace, Thenne Blanchardyn that 
well beholden was to the prouost, and that knewe hym for a trusty man 
and secret mystrusted not hym, but recounted & tolde hym al alonge the 
fayttes of his werkes in amours wherof the prouost was not less 
reioysshed than blanchardyn was. The dyner was redy. and made an 
ende of theyr proces tyll another tyme. They sette hem self at the table. 
And had not be longe at their meet whan the lady sent to Blanchardyn 
a fayre whyte courser, and wyth it her right sleue which was of riche 
clothe of golde crymosyn to thende he sholde here hit vpon his helme 
whan he shold go vpon her enmyes by cause she myght the better 
knowe hym emonge other, This present was not to be refiFused. and 
the messanger sayde to Blanchardyn, that well he ought to areyse his 
corage wha so gentyl a lady wolde sende him suche a present, Blan- 
chardyn thanked the messager and prayed hym curtoysly, that he wold 
haue hym for humbly recomended to the goode grace of the noble 
pucelle that so fayre a present had sent to hym, Blanchardyn dyde 
putte his hand, in to his aulmonere and drewe out of it a riche ouche of 

274 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Blanchardin and 

golde vpon whiche was sette a right jiche ruby auyrouned wyth fyue 
grete pcrles. and gaffe hit to y messager whiche thanked moche 
humbly blanchardyn, of whom he toke his leue and dep;irted and taiyed 
noo where vnto the tynie that he had toldc and reherced to the lady 
the joye that blanchardyn had made at the recepcion of the present that 
filie had sent vnto hym, And syth recounted her of the riche gyfte that 
blanchardyn had don to liyni wherof the ))roude mayden in amours was 
wel payd, sayng in her self that suche largesse proceded to hym of 
veraye noblenes.' Sign. D viij. 

lu this romance there is a double plot ; or a collateral historj' of the 
attachment of Beatkix, the daughter of King Alymodcs, to Sadoyne, 
the son of the King of Maryeborugh. Sadoyne and Blanchardin are 
fellow soldiers and sworn friends. Alymodes takes Blanchardin 
prisoner, and threatens to put him to death ; Beatrix, fiom her attach- 
ment to Sadoyne, Blanchardin's bosom friend, thus intercedes with her 
father, for the liberation of Blanchardin : 

' Thus after as ye haue herde kynge Alymodes made his auowe and 
eware his goddes, that he sholde neyther ete nor drynke tyl that Blan- 
chardyn had lost his lyff. WTierof daryus the sone of the same kynge 
Alymodes and many other barons that were there preset had grete pyte 
for the right grete beaulte and worthynes that they sawe and knewe 
in Blanchardyn, 

'But the l)est of them all was not so hardy that he durste speke one 
worde nor praye for hym. by cause they drad and fered euer sore kynge 
Alymodes, And thenne his doughter Beatiyx that was there whiche 
had taken goode hede and well ouer loked the grete beaulte of 
Blanchardyn. and well had also consydered the grete and merueyllous 
faytts of armes that she had seen hym do that day prosterned or casted 
her self doune byfore her faders feet on her knees humbly, requyryng 
wyth bothe handes heued vp faste to gydre. that pyte and compassyon 
he wolde haue of the yonge knyght and that his lyff myght be saued. 
Kynge Alymodes heryng the request and hiuiible prayer of his doughter 
whiche he loued tenderly, ansuered to her and sayde. INIy rjght dere 
& right well beloued doughter I wold for mekell goode that ye had not 
requyred me herof & that that ye had not ben here at this tyme. For 
the presence and syght of hym for whom ye haue caused your humble 
supplycacion reneweth alle my sorowes. But for to obtempre youre 
request. For this tyme 1 graunte hym his lyff, but shall wyte that I 
shall sende hym in to the royalme of Salmandry vnto the kynge of the 

Eglantme; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 275 

geauntis brother that is to wyte Rubyon whiche he hatli slayiie and the 
whiche I loued as myn owne persone, For yf he had ben yet manalyue. 
I wolde haue gyuen you tyl his wylF.' Sign. E v, vj, 

The battle befoi-e Tourmaday — in which King Alymodes was dis- 
comfited, and Sadoyne taken prisoner (' wherof Blanchardin was right 
sorry, as reason was') — is among the most animated pieces of compo- 
sition in the romance : 

' Thus passed kynge Alymodf s the nyght ouer tyl the fayre day came 
that the sonne bygane to ascende castyng his hemes a brode vpon the 
erthe & as he was musyng vpon y° werke. lokyng to & fi-o vpon the see 
he perceyued a right myghty nauey wherof they that were come vpon 
lande. he sawe hem in grete nombre al redy renged in a fayr ordeynauce 
of batayll for to fyght nyghe by y^ see shoris alytyl beyonde his ooste 
wherof he was not awar afore that & he was sore abashed & gretely 
merueylled how they were so soone landed wythout that he knewe 
therof, So fered he soone. of this that was true that it was Blanchardyn 
& his folke that were come there. The worthy knyght Blanchardyn 
had ordeyned his folke in thre battaylles wherof he led the formest, the 
seconde he be toke to Sadoyne his felawe. & the thirde he gaf to be 
conducted to his fader the kyngc of ffryse. Whan Blachardyn had al 
this thynges redy and all his ordeynaunces y made he made his trom- 
pettes, homes olyfauntes and busynes to be rongen & blowen. so highe 
that it was wonder to here them They of the cyte thenne that herde the 
sowne therof yssued anone out of their towne by comaundement of 
their lady the proude mayden in amours that sore admonested and 
prayed them to do wel, to thende that som goode tydynges might be 
reported by them, alimodes seeing his enmyes com alande and in so 
fayre ordonaunce y sette of that one part, & of that other syde he sawe 
them of the cyte that cam wyth a grete puyssaunce vpon hym and his 
folke. It is well ynough to be byleued. that he was not wel assured. 
But nought therfore as a sharp and hardy knyght as he was the best 
wyse that he myght or coude, he ordeyned his bataylles whiche he toke 
to be conducted and guyded to theym that semed hym worthy therof. 
The oostes beganne to approche eche other, the cailyng and the crye 
arose so grete & hyghe betwyx them what by the sowne of trompettes, 
homes and bussynes, as of the stour dynnyng and noyse that their horses 
made treddyng and wallopyng hyghe and harde vpon the grounde that 
it semed that all the foure elementes had fought there to gyder. The 
duste byganne to ryae so hyghe aboute them and so thykke that it toke 

276 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Blanchardin and 

away the bryghtnes of the sonne, so that they that were wythin the 
cytc sawe notlicr frends nor enrayes. They vvent to the chirche in grete 
(Icnocyon inakyng their prayers to our lord that he wolde helpe their 
frcndes. And namely that noble lady the proude pucelle in amours alle 
barcfote went from one chirche to another prayng god that he wold 
graute y* vietorie to her true lou blcahardyn. & to them that were with 
him, & syth cam aye to her paleys, & mouted vp to a highe toure for 
to see & bcholde y' batayl y^ was alredy bygone right grete murdre & 
slaughter was thei- made at settyng vpon of bothe partyes, many a 
knyght ded & brought to the groude that neuer syn had power to releue 
hcuiself, tlie hordes of whom went rentiyng vpon the playn & in to the 
medowes the raynnes of thjeir brydels hagyng & drawyng vp on the 
groude.' Sign. I vij, viij. 

Tlie single combat between Alymodes and Blanchardin exhibits all 
the true colouring of the chivalrous character. They had before met— 
when Blanchardin ' suche a sturdy stroke gaf him vpon the helmet that 
he brought him doune from his hois.' 

' They two drewe them self out of the bataylle & byganne to bete & 
smyte one vpon other so ofte & so thyk that the fyre came out of 
their armures that were of fyn stele, but blanchardyn dyde serue hym 
wyth so peysaiit & heuy strol^es & so horryble. that alymodes sholde 
neuer haue departed from the place quyk yf he had not be socoured of 
corboraut his brother The batayll of theym two dyde see playnly y« 
proude pucell in amours that was vpon her highe toure where she 
praied god for the prosperyte of Blanchardyn, She called a yong 
kynght a seruaut of hers to whom she toke a sleue of whyt damaske 
& comauded hym to presente it hastely from her behalue vnto blan- 
chardyn, prayng hym that for her sake & loue to dye the whyt coloure 
in to red wyth the blode of her enmyes, The gentyl man sore desyryng 
to accomplysshe his maystres comaiidement toke of his lady the sleue 
of whyt colour, he departed & made suche diligece that a present was 
therof made to Blanchardyn rehersyng vnto hym that, that his lady 
the proude pucelle in amours had charged him to saye vnto blanchar- 
dyn, whiche was right glad of the saide present more than he sholde 
haue be yf the messenger had brought to hym a mylyon of fyn golde, 
and thanked moche his lady the proude pucelle in amours that behylde 
hym from her tour as ferre as she myght chuse hym. And enforced his 
power for to parfurnysshe her request, he smote vpo his enmyes as it 
had be the thonder confoundyng and ouerthrawyng them ded to y* 

Eglantine; 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 277 

grounde. For who that was that tyme yraught of hym his dayes were 
fynyshed.' Sign. K ij, iij. 

A different scene is exhibited in the following extract. Alymodes 
takes Sadoyne prisoner ; and ' dresses up a gibbet ' to liang him upon 
it, ' afore the eyen ' of Beatrix. The daughter thus expostulates with 
her father : 

• The fayre Beatryx heryns: her fader speke that he sone knewe 
ansuered vnto hym swetly and sayd by grete humylyte full of sorowe 
and of compassyon and pyte for to refrene and brynge to swetnes the 
harde corage and cruel \vylle of kynge Alymodes her fader. And 
namely for her goode husbande sake, trowyng to eschewe his deth 

• Ha ha My lorde my dere fader pardone your wrathe and euyll wylle 
to my lorde my good husbonde and to me your only doughter. & be 
you sure my lord my dere fader that whiche I haue don in this behalue. 
I haue doii it for the best, and yf ye woll byleue me, ye shall leue your 
folishe credence that ye geue vnto your false goddes. and shall byleue 
the fader the sone & the holy goost, one onli god that shalle make you 
to come to the blysse perdurable that neuer shall fayll. and ye shall 
accorde wyth blanchardyn & wyth sadoyn of whom ye shall be serued 
and dred of all your neyghbours, and shall lyue in grete worship & 
goode prosperyte alle your dayes. and I shall well doo wyth theym. 
that all that whiche I saye shall be made sure. Whan thenne kynge 
Alymodes herde thus speke his doughter. as a cruell man from his 
wyttes sayd vnto her : Ha false and renyed strompet I were me leuer 
ded. than that I sholde byleue nor doo thi cursed coiiseyll. And that 
euer I sholde byleue in that same god of the crystens that thou now 
preysest, I sholde me leuer soffer to be drawen wyth horses, and in 
despyte of hym & of the I shall doo to be executed in thy presence that. 
I haue sayd, and after I shall make hym to be brent and to deye an 
euyl deth : And whan she sawe that by no raanere of meanes she 
myght not tome ne chaiige the corage of her cruel fader. And that 
she herde hym saye blame of her god her creatoure in whom she had 
sette her byleue and her herte, she by grete wrath sayd to hir fader. 
O full ryght false and olde tyraute that worshypste false and desceyu- 
able goddes and ydoles that canne not helpe the nor theym selfe what 
sekest thou here nor what moeueth the to come in to this marche : 
Thou haste noughte to doo here. For thou shalt not sette thy foote 
wythiu my towne, goo ayen to Tormaday to see the noble lade of that 

273 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Blanchardin and 

ladv. she of whom thou arte amorouse soo moche that thou arte a fole 
become therfore, Olde vnfamouse myschaiit, how arte tliou soo folyshe 
and so ouerwenyng, as for to wane to haue her, thou haste that herde 
of thvne ouer whyt therto, thy face is too mykel worne, and that olde 
skynne of thyn ys ouer mykel shrunken to gyder. put thy self into 
some fayr hejmytage And medel thou nomore ^\7th loue, leue this 
thouo-hte and make no more thyne accomptes for to entre wythin my 
cyte : for yf ye haue taken and bounde my husbond that I see ther by 
the I shall haue hym ayene to the jileasure of our lorde my creatour 
some daye that shal be to your euyll aduenture, Whan A ly modes 
vnderstode the reproches and the rygorouse wordes of his doughter, 
he wcnde to haue lost his ^vyttes and to haue deyd for anger and 
sorowe, Incontynent vvythoute delaye he made his trompettes to be 
blowe And coniaurided tliat the towne sholde be wele assaylled of all 
partyes.' Sign. L ij iij. 

Beatrix, in the subsequent chapter, rescues Sadoyne from his peri- 
lous situation. Meanwhile Blanchardin marches to the succour of 
Sadoyne, and gives ' a great battle' to Alymodes before the town of 
Cassydonye ; in which Alymodes is defeated and taken prisoner. 
Sadoyne and his wife Beatrix are in consequence crowned in the fore- 
mentioned city. Blanchardin and Sadoyne then unite their forces, 
and defeat Subyon in a great battle. Subyon escapes, and the Con- 
querors pursue him, somewhat unguardedly ; as the following very 
interesting extract proves : 

* He was well mounted vpon a goode horse. Wherfore they coude 
not ouertake hym by cause the nyght byganne to comen and myght 
no lenger see hym : he toke and entred wythin a forest that was nyghe 
by the remenaiint of his folke were al take by blanchardynes men 
grete gayne they made thei'e & a grete foyson of prysonners they had 
grete ioye and gladnesse they made of their victorye. But the erle of 
Castclforde and the barons merueylled them moche by cause they 
wystc not where their lordes blanchai-dyn and Sadoyne were drawen. 
they soughte and serched them all aboute, but they fonde theym not : 
And for to recounte of their aduenture. they chased Subyon that was 
horsed at a vantage better than they were : he walopped soo longe that 
he came in to a valey where theues were whiche were ten or twelue in 
norabre that were all grete murdrers. wherof the pryncypall and the 
mayster of them all was named syluayne, that knew well ynough 
subyon whiche came vnto theym & sayd. that he had grete nede of 

Eglantynei 1485.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 2^9 

theym : And that two knyghtes chased hym for to slee him And that 

yf it so happed that they myght catche and gete hem there wythin 

theyr caues, they sholde haue of them so grete a butyne and so grete 

goodes that they all shall euer more be ryche, whan the theues vnder- 

stode Subyon, they were sore desirouse to lodge theym wythin their 

sti'eyngthe preuely wythin a secrete chambre : whiche thyng they 

ded. but they had not so sone doon so that blanchardyn & sadoyne 

came there and asked the theues yf they wyste not to speke of a man 

that was mounted on horsbacke and armed as they were : They 

ansuered that they wyste no tidynges of hym. nor of none suche. but 

wel they said to blachardyn & to sadoyne that yf they wolde be lodged 

there wythin for the nyghte that was come, they sholde make theim 

gode chere of suche goodes as god had lent hem : By cause they semed 

to be knyghtes. And that it was i-ore late to ryde eny ferther & that 

noo housyng nor no retrayt was nyghe by syx myles where they myght 

be lodged: The two barons heryng the theues speke. consented for to 

lodge hem selfe for that nyght wyth theym, They entred into their 

strengthe, And whan they were comen in. And that they had seen the 

dysposicon of the place, tliey Judged in hem selfe. that al thys meyne 

where murderers and theues. Wherefor they concluded with in them 

selfe. that they sholde lye al nyghte in their barneys and that they 

sholde not be dysgarnyshed of their swerdes : Whan Sylueyn the chief 

inayster of the theeues see that they had not putte of their harnes, he 

came toward them & said that they were in peax & in a sure place, & 

that they myght wele putte of ther habilymetes of warre blachai'dyil 

the ansuerd vnto him & sayd, that it was the costome of theire 

land, not to putte of their armures for the fyrst nyght that 

they cam to a new lodgyng, the theues that sawe blanchardyn & 

Sadoyne so fayr so grete and so wele armed, durste not assayle them, 

but Subyon that was hidde wythin a chabre and that wele had herd 

theym, lept oute of it & gaaff them corage And said that they were all 

wery of the batayl And that a grete shame were to them xiij in 

nombre, yf they durste not sette vpon two men : Thenne came 

Syluayn his felavves wyth hym And ascryed the two barons to dethe : 

Thenne said blanchardyn to sadoyne, we must defende oure self now, 

yf we thinlie to scape quyk out of this place & euer see oure ladyes 

paramours. They lefte their wordes drewe their swerdes & set their 

sheildes afore theym so bigan they to smyte amonge their felon enmyes, 

they all to hewe & clewe them in so moche that eyght of theim fell don 

ded to therthe. the other foure trowed to haue fled in to sauete. but they 

were pursued so nyghe of blanchardyn & of sadoyne that they ouertoke & 

VOL. IV. o o 

2S0 BOOKS PRINTED BY {The Doctrinal 

slewe tlire of theim. the fourth that was maister of hem all fled wythin 
the place for to haue saticd hymself into the chambre where subyon 
was, l)ut of so nyghe he was fo lowed that Blanchardyn ouertoke hym. 
and smote hym suche a stroke wyth his swerde. that he made his hede 
to tlee fro the sholdrcs of hym, and fel ded euyn atte the dore of the 
chambre, that he had opened all redy for to haue saued him there 
•iv\tbinne. wher subyo was in grete fore & drede. & not wythout cause 
For he well ynough byleued and knew that his dayes were come atte 
an ende, syth that he was fallen in to Blanchardynes handes.' Sign. 
M iii, iiij. 

This passage brings us nearly to the conclusion of the last page in 
the present imperfect copy. The author goes on : ' I shall here leue 
to speke of Blanchardyn of Sadoyne and of Subyon, that in grete fere 
was of his dethe. And shal retourne to speke of the proude pucelle in 
amouis and of the barons that were wythin the castell of Castelforde.' 
Then follows the prefix to the 54th and last chapter, as given at p. 271. 
ante : unluckily, only six lines of text remain in the copy before us. 
We learn, however, from this prefix, that Blanchardin ' wedded his loue 
the proud pucelle in amours ;' and thus we may conclude the meritorious 
pair were made happy in the end. 

Such is the accoimt of this precious and truly valuable volume. In 
the fly leaf. Lord Spencer has written the following memorandum : 
* This book belonged to Mr. G. Mason ; at whose sale it was bought by 
•John Duke of Roxburghe. The Duke and I had agreed not to oppose 
one another at the sale, but, after the book was bought, to toss up who 
should win it ; when 1 lost it. I bought it at the Roxburghe sale, on 
the 17th of June, ISl^, for 215/. Ss.' In old red morocco binding. 

865. The Doctrinal of Sapyence. Printed at 
Westmestev. 1489. Folio. 

The proheme or prologue occupies the first leaf, and is reprinted in 
the Typog. Antiq. vol, i. p. 266-7. The head of the first chapter ' Of 
the xij artycles the feyth ' is at the bottom of the reverse of this first 
leaf. The next leaf is omitted to be numbered A ij ; but on the recto 
of A ii.i we observe the table to terminate 

€ <eji-p!icit tgc table. 

of Sapience; ] 489.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


The text of the work begins on the reverse of this third leaf, with 
a wood-cut precisely the same as the one of which a fac-simile appears 
at p. 270 ante. 

The only remaining wood-cut (unless a third has escaped me) is that 
on the recto of B j ; which shall speak for itself in the following fac- 
simile : 

Under the several heads, which bespeak the attention of the reader 
to apparently very grave subjects of discussion, we have some curious 
and amusing tales ; perfectly in the legendary character of the times. 
The efficacy of the Sign of the Cross, is thus singularly set forth — in 
rather a scandalous story relating to St. Cyprian. 

' It is sayd in the vertu of the crosse, that tofore that seint Cypryan 
was Crysten, he was a mayster in arte magyke and in nygromancye. 
And he was a noble man and ryche and loued so moche saynt lustyne 
virgine that he myght not slepe ne reste he came to salt iustine 
& promised to her many grete yeftes to thende that she shold consente 
to be his wyfFe, Ciprian seing that he might haue not his entent & 
desire dide doo calle a deuil, & comanded him that he shold goo to her 

282 BOOKS PRINTED BY [The Doctrinal 

for tcnbracc her in the louo of him. the deuille wente thider in the 
seblaiince of hir nourrii<se for to entreate her to doo the comauderat of 
ciprian. but annne as she felt her self so enbraced she sii^ned & blessyd 
hci- witli the signe of the crosse and anone the deuyl departed fro her. 
and retorncd to Cypryen alle ashamed and said to hyni that he niyght 
not haue her. 8c thenne Cypryan called another more foul & horrible 
deuyl and sent hyra to her. but he dyde also lytyl as that other. This 
deuvl was in the lyknes of her suster, Thirdly cyprian called an other 
deuvl & he wente in lyknes of her moder. & began strongly to wepe to 
fore her. & said to her. O fayre doughtcr how cruelly shalt thou be 
tormented yf thou doo not the wyll. and desyre of thys noble man : and 
thys deuyl was the mayster of alle other, And for the more to moeue 
her. he shewed to her her'brestes. of whyche she sayde she had gyuen 
lier to souke. Thenne the mayde almost consented, but anone she 
blyssyd with her the sygne of the holy crosse And the deuyl wente a 
waye alle confused to Cypryen & was constrayned to saye the trouthe 
and sayd to hym, that by the vertu of the holy crosse. the mayde had 
vaynquysshed hym whan Cypryan herde thys he sayd. I renounce the and 
alle thy werkcs. And byleue in hym of whom the holy crosse hath so 
nioche strengthe. Thenne the deuyl was angry, and wende to haue 
taken hym for to tormente. But he sygned hym with the sygne of the 
holy crosse and so escaped fro hym And wente forthwyth and knelyd 
doun at the feet of lustyne the virgyne, and cryed her mei'cy : And 
after he dyde doo baptyse hym. & ledde after soo holy a lyf. that by 
the crownc of martyrdoon he reyneth wyth our lord perdurably :' 
Sign. H vj, ^^j. 

It seems to have been the delight of the authors of the middle age, 
in their devotional treatises, to paint the horrors of hell, and the 
miseries of the damned, in colours the most glaring and horrific. The 
following is only a brief specimen—from many similar passages — and 
is extracted from the Ixxxvth chapter, which is entitled ' Of the Paynes 
of Helle: 

' F.xample, We rede in vitis patrum that seint Machayre fonde in a 
way the hede of a dede man, he coniured by the name of god that it 
shold saye to hym of whom it was And it sayd I am the hede of a 
prcstc of the payncms. & wold neuer byleue in the fayth of crist. 
Saynt machar\e demamanded* of hym where art thou. I am in helle said 
he. what payne suffrest thou, I ansuere the that the fyre vpon my hede 
IS as moche as is fro hens to heuen, and as moche vnder. and as moche 

• Sic. 

of Sapience; 1489.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 283 

on alle sydes of me. And vnder me ben the iewes whyche neuer wold 
byleue in ihesu crist. And vnder the iewes ben the euyl cristen men 
whyche haue byleued in the fayth of ihesu crist wyth theyr mouth, 
but they haue not doon the werkes & whan it sayd alle thys it fyll alle 
to pouldre. Item they that be dampned haue so grete stenche. that no 
mortal may suffre it, they haue gret drede. honour, and derkenes 
palpable, they haue grete serpentes whyche lyuen in fyre lyke as 
fysshes doon in the water, dragons horrible that deuoure them.thondre 
and tempestes whiche falle on them, hamers that all way smite on 
them as vpon an andlvylde wythout ceassyng or leuyng. deyllis whyche 
wyth glayues and speres perce, hewe. & detrenche them, they haue 
grete wormes & grete toodes whiche on them gnawe' &c. Sign. L. iiij. 

It should be observed that the embellishments of this volume, and 
those of the Royal Book (see p.26S ante) exhibit the same neatness of 
character ; and are much superior to the usual wood-cut decorations 
of Caxton's books. The type also, of these two works, is precisely the 
same. The signatui'es, A to K, run in eights : but K and L have each 
10 leaves : the text terminating on the recto of L x. In the Tygog. 
Antiq. vol. i. p. 268, 1 have reprinted an entire chapter, belonging to that 
part of the work which is entitled : ' Of the Negligence happening in 
the Mass and of the Remedies ; Cap. Ixiiij,' It is remarkable that the 
only known copy, in which this chapter occurs, is in that of his Majesty, 
which is PRINTED UPON VELLUM. lu the copy before us, and in the 
one belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, the 64th chapter is only 
thus summarily noticed : 

C <©f tlje neclpgencc^ of tfje maf^e anti of tfjc temetipe^ 
% jialTc ouet for it appmcpiictj) to pre^sftejef i not to iaic 
men. €. Ijciiij. sign, i a. rev. 

It is rather singular that the copy under description has a duplicate 
of L iii. The colophon, on the recto of L x, is thus : 

•ICguisf entietfi tfjc tioctdnal of fappence t^e M^pt^t i0 
rpgtjt tjtiJe anti proufFptaWe to aHe ctp^ten men/ iDl)pcl)e 
i^ tran^eflatcti out of ftenf ge in to ettglpffSe Bp topHpam 
<ira:i:ton at W^m^ttt fpnpffSeti t|)c. tjij, Dap of map tlje 
pere of out iorti/ ^i tttt ixxx it 

€^Xton me fieci fecit 

i>84 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Fait of Jrmes ; 

On the reverse is the printer's large cipher. This sound and most 
desiiable copy was obtained from the purchase of the Alchorne Collec- 
tion, in the possession of Mr. Johnes of Hafod. It is in russia binding. 

866. The Fayt of Aroies and of Chyualrye. 
1489. Folio. 

The impression commences with a table, which has this prefix : 

(^tc ficgpnnetJj tl^t taW of tljc rubrpffjcsi of tljc 
3^ fioftc of t(jc fapt of armciBf anb of Cljpuakpc tti^itfyt 
lefapb hoht i^ ticpartpti in to fouce pactpeisf/ 

The table ends on the recto of the second leaf, with the word 
' ®;:plictt.' The reverse of this second leaf is blank. On the recto of 
the ensuing leaf, A j, we read the prologue, which constitutes the first 
chapter ; as the prefix announces : 

f$cte ficgpnnctfi tjje Iioofe of fapitc^ of arme^sf i of Cfipual/ 
tpci ^Cnt! tf^c fit^t cfjapptre i^ tfjc prologue/ in toljicge 
xprpCtpne of pps^c ejCcuCetf) ijir ^elf to fjaue bar enterprpft 
to ^pthc of ^0 Ijpe niaterc a^ i.i^ contepneb in tlji^ef ^apb 

The signatures run to S, in eights : S having only 5 printed leaves, 
and a sixth blank. The epilogue of the printer occupies nearly the whole 
of the last leaf, S v ; from which we learn that the work is chiefly a 
version from Vegetius and the Arbre des Battailles. This French 
version was delivered to Caxton by Henry VII. ' in his palace of West- 
minster, in Januarj', in the 4th year of his reign to be reduced into his 
English & natural tongue, and to put it in imprint.' Caxton completed 
the imprint in July following. The entire epilogue is reprinted in the 
Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 2/5-6. At the bottom of it, on the reverse of the 
last leaf, we observe the colophon — i 

^ct Cajcton 

1 have been rather brief in the account of this work ; not so n)uch 
because a very particular description of it has been before given by me 

]489.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 285 

to the public, as because it is, of all the works printed by Caxtoa, one 
of the commonest occurrence. Such a copy of it, however, as that 
here described — large, clean, and sound throughout — is no trilling 
acquisition to the Caxtonian cabinet. It is bound in lussia. A 
very extraordinary copy is in the library of his Grace the Duke of 

867. The Boke of Eneydos. 1490. Folio. 

The preface of this book is worth all the remaining contents of it. 
The version (as Oldys properly remarks) * is rather a reduction of the 
^neid to an historical narrative in prose ;' and not a faithful translation 
of two or three of the entire books. It may be necessary to add that 
Caxton's version is from the French. The preface, of which the reader 
is taught to expect so much, shall be again reprinted entire, in a 
modernised orthography ; that there may be no impediment to the 
perusal and understanding of it. 

' After divers works made, translated, and achieved, having no 
work in hand, I, sitting in my study, where as lay many divers pam- 
phlets and books, [it] happened that to my hand came a little book in 
French, which late was translated out of Latin by some noble clerk 
of France, which book is named Eneydos; made in Latin by that 
noble poet and great clerk, Virgil ; which book I saw over and read 
therein : how, after the general destruction of the great Troy, ^neas 
departed, bearing his old father, Anchises, upon his shoulders ; his 
little son, lolus, on his hand ; his wife with much other people follow- 
ing ; and how he shipped and departed ; with all the history of his 
adventures, that he had ere he came to the atchievement of his con- 
quest of Italy — as all along shall be showed in this present book. la 
which book I had great pleasure, by cause of the fair and honest terms 
and words in French, which I never saw to fore like, ne none so 
pleasant, ne so well ordered ; which book as me seemed should be 
much requisite to noble men to see, as well for the eloquence as the 
histories. How well that many hundred years passed was the said book 
of Eneydos, with other works made and learned daily in schools, 
especially in Italy and other places : which history the said Vij-gil 
made in metre. And when I had advised me in this said book, I 
dehber[at]ed and concluded to translate it in to English, and forthwith 

236 BOOKS PRINTED BY [^}ieid; 1490. 

took a pen and ink and wrote a leaf or twain, which I oversaw again 
to correct it. And when I saw the fair and strange terms therein, I 
doubted that it sliould not please some gentlemen which late blamed me, 
saying that, in my translations, 1 had over curious terms which could 
not be understood of common people ; and desired me to use old and 
homely terms in my translations. And fain would I satisfy every 
man ; and so to do, took an old book and read therein ; and certainly 
the English was so rude and broad that I could not well understand it. 
And also my Lord Abbot of Westminster did do shew to me late 
certain evidences written in old English for to reduce it into our 
English now used. And certainly it was written in such wise, that it 
was more like to Dutch than English. I could not reduce ne bring it 
to be understonden.' 

' And certainly our language now used varieth far from that which 
was used and spoken when I was born. For we Englishmen ben born 
under the domination of the moon, which is never stedfast, but ever 
wavering, waxing one season, and waneth and decreaseth another 
season ; and that common English that is spoken in one shire, varietb 
from another. Insomuch that in my days happened that certain mer- 
chants were in a ship in Thames for to have sailed over the sea into 
Zealand, and for lack of wind they tarried at Foreland, and went to 
land for to refresh them ; and one of them named Sheflfelde, a mercer, 
came in to an house and axed for meat, and especially axed after egges; 
and tiie good wife answered, that she could speak no Fiench ; and the 
merchant was angry, for he also could speak no French, but would 
have had eggs, and she understood him not. And then at last another 
said that he would have eyren ; then the good wife said that she under- 
stood him well. Lo what should a man in these days now write, 
egges or eyren ? certainly it is hard to please every man, by cause of 
diversity and change of language. For in these days, every man that is 
in any reputation in his country, will utter his communication and 
matters in such manners and terms that few men shall understand 
them. And some honest and great clerks have been with me, and 
desired me to write the most curious terms that I couid find. And 
thus bet^vcen plain, rude, and curious, I stand abashed : but in my 
judgment, the common terms that be daily used bsn lighter to be 
understood than the old and ancient English. And forasmuch as this 
presientbook is not for a rude uplandish man to labour therin, ne read 
it, but only for a clerk and a noble gentlemen that feeleth and under- 
standeth in faits of arms, in love, and in noble chivalry : therefore, in 

Mneid; 1490] WILLIAM CAXTON. 2^ 

mean between both, I have reduced and translated this said book in to 
our English, not over rude ne curious, but in such terms as shall be 
understanden, by God's grace, according to my copy. And if any man 
will intermit in reading of it, and findeth such terms that he cannot 
understand, let him go read and learn Virgil, or the Epistles of Ovid ; 
and there he shall see and understand lightly all, if he have a good 
i-eader and informer. For this book is not for every rude and* uncun- 
ning man to see, but to clerks and very gentlemen that understand 
gentleness and science.' 

1[ ' Then I pray all them that shall read in this little treatise, to 
hold me for excused for the translating of it ; for I [ac] knowledge 
myself ignorant of cunning to enprise on me so high and noble a 
work. But I pray Master John Skelton, late created poet laureat in 
the University of Oxenforde, to oversee and correct this said book, 
and to address and expound where as shall be found fault to them 
that shall require it. For him I know for sufficient to expound and 
English every difficulty that is therein ; for he hath late translated the 
Epistles of Tully, aud the book of Diodorus Siculus, and divers other 
works, out of Latin into English, not in rude and old language, but in 
polished and ornate terms craftily, as he that hath read Virgil, Ovid, 
Tully, and all the other noble poets and orators, to me unknown : and 
also he hath read the ix muses, and understand their musical sciences, 
and to whom of them each science is appropr[iat]ed. I suppose he hath 
drunken of Helicon's well. Then I pray him, and such other, to 
correct, add, or [di]minish where as he or they shall find fault; for I 
have but followed my copy in French, as nigh as me is possible ; and 
if any word be said therein well, I am glad ; and if otherwyse, I 
submit my said book to their correction. Which book I present unto 
the high born my to-coming natural and sovereign Lord Arthur, by 
the grace of God, Prince of Wales, Duke of CornwaU, and Earl of 
Chester, first begotten son and heir unto our most dread natural and 
sovereign lord and most christian King Henry vii, by the grace of God 
King of England and of France, and Lord of Ireland ; beseeching his 
noble grace to receive it in thank of me his most humble subject and 
servant. And I shall pray unto Almighty God for his prosperous 
increasing in virtue, wisdom, and humanity, that he may be equal with 
the most renowned of all his noble progenitors^ And so to live in this 
present life, that after this transitory life, he and we all may come to 
everlasting life in heaven. Amen.' 

* In orig. ' dna.' 
VOL. IV. p p 

288 - BOOKS FRllSiTED BY [Canterbttr J/ Tales; 

Thie preface begins on sign. A j, and occupies two leaves. A table 
occupies the three following leaves. The reverse of the 3rd leaf of the 
table is blank. On sign. H j— aft.?r a proheme of 17 lines — we read 
the prefix to the first chapter, thus : 

€1 i^oto tlie rp0l)t jmpffont fipnge prpainui^ ctipfpcb tljc 
jjrctc €^tc of ^rope €apm pchnu 

The signatures to L, inclusively, run in eights : a blank leaf forming 
L viij. The colophon is on the recto of L vij, thus : 

l^eii€ fpnpffjctt) tfjc fiofte pf €iicpti0.£f/ comjjplcb fip ^pt 
g^ilc/ ttj^icljc ^at^t he ttan^iattti oute of latpnc in to 
frcnfjc/ ^nti outc of frcnf^e rctiuceti in to ^nglpfftc Bp me 
tDpfliti Carton/ tf)c xxih ^^P^ of 3iupn. tlje pttt of our 
lortic. iSr^.iiii € ixKn> €j)e fptgc pere of tj)e iHegne of 
hpngc I^cnrp t^t ^cucntl) 

The large device of the printer is on the reverse. For a specimen 
of the text, as well as an account of the original French version, see the 
Typoff. Antiq. vol. i. p. 287, 290. The present beautiful and sound copy 
was obtained of Mr. Stace, the bookseller, for 105i, It is in elegant 
russia binding. Copies are in the Devonshire and Blandford Collections. 

868. The Tales of Canterbury. Without Place 
or Date. Folio. 

First Edition. The copy under description is unluckily imperfect, 
notwithstanding the very high price for which it was obtained. The 
defective leaves (only 5 in number) have however been perfected by 
the laborious skill of Mr.Whitaker ; and it may be questioned whether 
a more complete specimen of successful fac-simile exists. The text 
of the poet, without any proheme of the printer, occupies the whole of 
the first page, on the recto of the first leaf; beginning thus : 

l©iian t^at ^Cjiprin toitld W ^IJouriiSf ^ote 
5Cnti tlje brougljtc of a^arclie l[)atl) jiciti p^ rote 

Sec. kc. Sec. 

First Edit.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 289 

See the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 292 ; where the first 18 verses are 
given. A perfect copy of this impression is of the veiy rarest occur- 
rence : and there are few books, froni the press of Caxton, which 
exceed it in size or beauty. However defective the MS. may have been 
from which this impression was executed,* the volume before us has 
every claim to the notice and veneration of the tasteful antiquary and 
collector : since it exhibits the earliest printed text of our immortal 
Chaucer. It is entirely destitute of signatures, numerals, and catch- 

The tale of the Prioressf terminates on the reverse of the leaf, pre- 
ceding the tale of Chaucer, thus : 

ftit tge -sfcntencc of tfii^ trete \\tt 
%itk tlfje tdgicifjc niecp talc tW 9l toite 
5Cnt! tfierefore l[jatftenpt][) iul[)at % ^ijai ^ap 
5Citti \m me telle nip talc % pou prap 

J>equitiir: CljatDccr^ talc 

* The MS., says Tyrvvhitt, ' liappened unluckily to be one of the worst in all respects 
that Caxton could possibly have met with.' The reader however should consult Mr. Todd's 
interesting work of Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer, 1810, 8vo. 

t I select, almost at random, the following specimen of this earliest printed text of 
Chaucer, On re-examination, it appears somewhat gross ; and wouhl form an admirable 
subject for the pencil of a Callot. But it is so severe and tremendous a satire upon the 
supposed state of purity of the clergy, of that period, that the curious reader may approve 
its insertion : 

Here endith the Freris tale 

And begynnyth the Sompnours prolog. 

t His Sompnour in his stirop high stood 
Vp on this frere his herte was so wood 

That lik an aspin leef he quook for yre 

Lordingis quod he o thing I desire 

I you beseche of your curtesye 

Sithe ye haue herd this fals frere lye 

As suffrith me I may a (l) tale telle 

This frere bostith that he knoweth helle 

And god woot that is litil wonder 

Freris and fendis been but litil a sunder 

For parde ye haue ofte tynie herd telle 

How that a frere rauysshed was to helle 

In spirit onys be a uysioun 

And as an aungil ledde hym vp and douii 

290 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbury Tales; 

The ojienin^ of the poet's tale begins on the recto of the ensuing 
leaf, and may be seen extracted in the authority just referred to. It 
occuiiies '28 leaves and a lialf : on the reverse of the 29th we read 

I^crc €ntictfj Cljatacci:^ tak of Hl^dlebc % 
IDrulicnce tji.i^ tDif % fojiljic Iji^ tiougtjtcr. 
3Cnti Bcgpnnptl) tljc at^onhi.^ 3^rdog. 

The Manciple's Tale terminates the metrical portion, on the recto of 
the Gist leaf. It is followed by the prologue, in verse, of the Parson's 
tale; and the tale itself, of the same character, in prose, has this prefix: 

To shewe hym the preuytes (2) that were there 

In al the place saw he not a frere 

Of otliir folk he saw ynowe in wo 

Vnto this aungil spak this frere tho 

Now sire quod he haue freris suche a grace 

That non of hem shal come in this place 

Yes quod the aungel many a myllioun 

And vnto Sathanas he ladde hym adoun 

And now hath Sathanas such a tayl 

Bradder than of a Carik is the sayl 

Hold vp thy tayl thou Sathanas quod he 

Shew forth thyn a** and let let the frere se 

Where is the nest of Freris in this place 

And er that a furlong wey of space 

Right so as bees swarme out of an hyue 

Out of the deuelis a** they gon di^yue 

Twenty thousand frerb on a Route 

Aiid thorow out helle swaiined al aboute 

And cam ayeen as faste as they may goon 

And in to his a** they crepte in euerichon 

He ciippid ayeen his tayl and lay stylle 

This frere when he loked had his wille 

Vp on the tormentis of this sory place 

His spirit god restorid of his grace 

Vnto liis body ajecn and he awook 

But natheles for feer yet he quok 

So was the deuyl(3) ay in his mynde 

Than is it his heritage of verry kynde 

God saue you alle saue tliis cursid frere 

My prolog wil I ende in this manere 

On comparing this passage with the same in the second edition, I find only the following 
variations deserving of notice ; the rest being merely differences of spelling, for (1) ' a.' we 
read ' my.' (2) for ' preuytes,' is read ' tormentes:' (3) after ' deuyl' is inserted ' ars'—in 
the second edition. 

First Edit.] WILLIAM CAXTON. U91 

%vl\x Jjetre fic^pnnetg fjtjsi tale* 

This tale comprehends 11 leaves. On the recto of the Ilth leaf of 
it, we observe, 

Cjcplicit prhna pat^ penitcncie. 
Sincipit fccuntia pat^e?* 

A little onwards (4 leaves) we read ' De 0epte peccati© mortalib?* 3(ncipit tje 
fup[er] bia.' This occupies 8 pages and a half: next,' SequiturUe InuiUia,' 
3 whole pages, and 2 half ones : again, ' Sequitur tie 3fra :' again, after 7 
leaves, ' Scquitur tJe acciHia.' At the bottom of the 3rd following leaf, 
• Sequitur te auaiicia :' on the 3d following — * Sequitur He <SuIa :' 1 leaf, 
' ©equitut Be ILujcuria :* on the reverse of the 6th following leaf: ' 9[til?uc 
gecunUa pare penitencie ;' on the reverse of the 3rd leaf, ensuing, ' Jncipit 
tertia pats penitencie.' On the recto of the 3rd follow ing leaf — being the 
571st and last leaf of the volume, we read, at bottom, 

Ocjtrjilitit €ractatiijS^ <25alftptii Ctiauceir be 
^cnitcncia \\t liicitur pro febula iflectori^. 

The Retraction of Chaucer, a spurious composition,* fills the reverse 
of this leaf, and is the last page of the work, I shall give it here in its 
original spelling. 

' nOw pray I to hem alle that herkene this litil tretyse or rede, that 
yf ther be ony thing that liketh hem, that therof they thanke our 
lord Jhesu Crist of whom procedeth al wit and goodnes. And yf ther 
be ony thing that displese hem I praye hem also that they arrette it 
to the defaute of myn vnconnyng For our book saith, al that is 
writen, is writen for our doctrine And that is myn entent, wherfore I 
beseke you mekely for the mercy of god, that ye for me praye that 
crist haue mercy on me and foryeue me my giltis, and namely of 
my translacions of wordly vanytees, the whiche I reuoke in my 
retractions, as is the book of troylus, the book also of fame, the book 

* See Hearne's Bobert of Glocester, vol. ii. p. 601-5 ; and Petei' Langtoft, vol. i. p. lvii- 
Lviii. Tyrichitfs Chaucer, \oL i. p. 113, vol. ii. p. 513, 514, 4to. edit. Tyrwhitt supposes a 
part only to have been interpolated : namely, that ' the beginning of the passage and the end,' 
made together the genuine conclusion of the Parson's tale ; and that the middle part, from 
' and namely ' to ' of my soul,' was an interpolation. He afterwards however admits that 
these are ' very micertain speculations.' 

292 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbnrj/ Tales ; 

of 25. ladies, the book of y* duchesse, the book of seynt valentyns day 
of the parlamf-nt of birdis, the talis of Caunterbury tho that sownyn vnto 
synnc, Ihe book of the lyon, and many other bokis yf they were in my 
remembraiice and many a songe and many a lecherous laye that crist 
of his grete mercy foryeue me the synne, But of the translacion of 
IJoece de cosolxcioe and other bookis as of legendis of snintis and 
omelies. moralite. and deuocion, that thanke 1 of our lord Jhesu crist 
8i his blessid modcr & alle the saintis of heucne Beseching hem 
that they fiom hensforth vnto my liuys ende sendeme grace to be- 
wayle my giltis that it may stande vnto the sauacion of my soule, & 
graunte me grace of verrey repentance, confession, & satisfaction to 
doo in this present lif, thurgh the benigne grace of hym that is 
kynge of kyngis and preest of alle preestis that bought vs with the 
precyous blood of his heile, so that I may be one of hem at the day of 
dome that shal be sauid. Qui cii patre et spu sco viuit et regnat deus. 
Per omnia secula seculorum Amen.' 

No copy of this work has yet been found with the name or device of 
the printer subjoined ; though I strongly incline to believe that some 
such distinction marked the volume on its fii'st appearance. The 
paper of this work is of superior character : but the right side or margin 
of the press work, in the Parson's tale, is, like the earlier productions 
of Caxton's press, in very bad register (as printeis term it). A full 
page has 29 lines ; and the character of the type is similar to the fac- 
simile at p. 232 ante. This copy, although not tall, is in very sound 
and beautiful condition. The copy in his Majesty's library, formerly in 
West's, is the only perfect and genuine one known : that in the library 
of Merton College, Oxford, wanting 3 leaves. The present is most 
tastefully bound, in olive-colour morocco, by C. Lewis. 

869. The Tales of Canterbury. IVithout Place 
or Date. Folio. 

Second Edition, The prologue of this edition, with which the 
work commences, on sign, a ij, is unluckily imperfect in the present 
copy ; but the reader will find the whole of it reprinted in the Typog. 
Antiq. vol. i. p. 295-6. It is a very interesting one ; and we learn 
from it that Caxton published the previous impression from a corrupt 
and ' incorrect text which had been brought to him 11 years past.' 

Second Edit:] WILLIAM CAXTON. 293 

One of the ' gentlemen ' who had purchased his former impression, 
* came to him and said that that book was not according in many places 
unto the book that Geoffi-ey Chaucer had made.' Caxton replied, that 
he had printed it faithfully according to his copy. The gentleman 
rejoined — that his father was in possession of a much more perfect copy 
of the original text of the poet — that he set a high value upon it — but 
that if Caxton ' would imprint it again, he would get the same book for 
a copy.' ' Howbeit (continues our printer) he wist well that his father 
would not gladly depart from it : to whom I said, in case that he could 
get me such a book true and correct, that I would once endeavour me 
to enprint it again, for to satisfy the author.' The gentleman pro- 
cured the book from his father, and Caxton printed it accordingly. 
Mr. Tyrwhitt has informed us of the superiority of this text to that of 
the previous impression. 

The copy under description is in many respects so imperfect, that a 
faithful account of it would be no guide to the collector in procuring 
a perfect one. I shall however describe the material portions of it, 
and endeavour to compensate for deficiences, by a representation of 
the Cuts or Figures of some of the principal characters, with the 
text of their description faithfully subjoined. The reader has ali'eady 
had fac-similes of the Wife of Bath, and the Oxford Scholar in 
the Tijpog. Antiq, vol.i. p. 300. As these are the first graphic embel- 
lishments* of the text of our first (and perhaps greatest) poet, they 
cannot fail to be interesting to the curious. 

The cut of the Knight, on sign, a iij, is here wanting. The Squire 
is thus represented by the Artist and the Poet. 

[The arrangement of the text in this and other places depends upon the 
placing of the cuts.] 

* The beautiful picture upon the subject of the procession or journey of the above 
Characters, towards Canterbury, executed by Mr. Stothard, and engraved by Mr Bromley, 
is equally known and admired by the tasteful in the fln« ai'ts. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterhury Tales; 


Wyth hym ther was hys sone a yong squyer 

A louer and a lusty bacheler 

Wyth lockys cruUe* as they were leyd in presse 

Of twenty yer of age he was I gesse 

Of hys stature he was of euene lengthe 

And wonderly delyuer and of greet strengthe 

And he had be som tyme in chyuauchye 

In flavindrys In Artoyse And in Pycardye 

And born hym wel as of a lytyl space 

In hope to stonden in hys ladyes grace 

Enbrowded was he as it were a mede 

Al ful of fresshe flouiys whyte and rede 

Syngynge he was or floytynge al the day 

He was as fresshe as is the moneth of May 

Second Edit.] 



Short was hys gowne wyth sleuys longe & wyde 
Wei couthe he sitte on hors & therto fayre ryde 
He couthe songys make and wel endyte 
Jouste and daunce portraye and eke wryte 
So hote he loued that by nyghter tale 
He slepte no more than a nyghtyngale 
Curteys he was lowly and seruysabyl 
He carf beforn hys fader at the tabyl 


A yeman hadde he and seruantes nomo 
At that tyme for he lyst to ryde so 
And he was clad in cote & hood of grene 
A sheef of pecok arowes bryght and shene 
Vnde hy<s belt he bare ful thryftyly 
Wel coude he dresse hys takyl yomanly 

VOL. lY. 

29G BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterburi/ Tales; 

Hy^ arowes dronped not wyth fetherys lowe 
And in hys bond he baar a myghty bowe 
A not bed lie had wytb a broun vysage 
Of wodemannes craft coude he al the vsage 
Vp on hys arme he bare a gay bracer 
And by hys syde a swerd and a bokeler 
And on that other syde a gay daggare 
Harneysed wel and sharpe as poynt of spere 
A Cristofir on hys brcst of siluer shene 
An horn he baar the bawdryk was of grene 
A forster was he sothly as I gesse 


Ther was also a nonne a pryoresse 
That of hyr smylynge was sympyl & koy 
Here grettest oth was be saynt loy 
And she was cle])p'd dame Eglentyn 

Second EditJ] 


Ful wel she songe seruyse dyuyne 
Entoyued in her voys ful semely 
And frensh she spak ful fetously 
Aftir the scole of Stratford at the bowe 
For frensh of paris was to hyr unknowe 
At mete wel taught was she wyth al 
She lete no morsel fro hyr lyppys fal 
Ne wette hyre fyngres in hyr sauce depe 
Wel coude she cary a morsel of mete 




A frere ther was a wanton & a mery 
A lymytour and a ful solemne man 
In aUe the ordrys four is non that can 
So moche of daliaunce and fair langage 

* The Monk, which follows, is here defective. 

298 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbury Tales; 

He hadde made ful many a fair mariage 
Of yong wynimen at hys owen cost 
Vntil hys ordre he was a nobil post 
Ful welbeloued and ful famylier was he 
Wyth frankeleyns ouer al in hys contie 
And eke wyth worthy yemen of the toun 
For he had power of confession 
As sayd hym self more than accurat 
And of hys ordre he was licenciat 
Ful swetly herd he confession 
And plesaunt was hys absolucion 
And an esy man to gyue penaunce 

The Merchant follows ; whose portrait answers for those of the 
SoMPNOUR and Frankelen. We shall therefore not consider it a 
legitimate one. Next follow the representation of the Clerk ot 
Oxford ; for which see the Typog. Antiq. vol. i, p. 300. 

Second Edit.-] WILLIAM CAXTON. 



A Serjeaunt of lawe waar and wise 

Was there that oft hadde be at the paruise 

That was also fulle riche of excellence 

Discrete he was and of grete reuerence * 

He semyd suche hys wordys were so wyse 

lustyce he was ful ofte in assyse 

By patent and be playn commyssion 

For hys science and hys hygh renoun 

Of fees and Robys hadde he many on 

So grete a purchasour was there nowher non 

Al was fee symple to hym in efFecte 

Hys purchace myghte not be to hym suspecte 

• The above cut is borrowed from the latter part of the text : the first four lines are 
MS. in the present copy. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbury Tales; 

Nowhere so besy a man as he ther nas 
And yet he seniyd besyer than he was 
In tcermcs hadde he caas and domes alle 
That fro the tyme of kyng wylliani were falle 
Therto he coude endyte and make a thyng 
Ther coude no wyght pynche at hys wrytyng 
And euery statute coude he pleyn by rote 
He rood but homely in a medle cote 
A gyrt wyth a seynt of silk wyth barris smale 
Of hys aray telle 1 no lenger tale 
Next comes the Frankelin ; succeeded by 


An habyrdassher ther was and a carpenter 
A weble a dyer and a tapj'ser 
And they were clothed alle in o lyuere 
Of a solempne and grete fraternyte 

Second Edit.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 

Ful fiessh and newe lier geer pyked was 

Here knyuys chapped were not wyth bras 

But al wyth siluer wrought ful clene and wel 

Here gyrdelis and hyr powchys euery del 

Wel semed eche of hem a fayr burgeys 

To sitten in the yeld halle at the deys 

Euerych for the wysdom that he can 

Was happely forto be an aldyrman 

For cateyll hadde they ynow and rent 

And here wynys wold it wel assent 

And ellis certayn they were to blame 

Hyt is ful fayr to be called madame . 

And go to the vygyllis al before 

And haue a mantel rially I bore 




A Cook they hadde wyth hem for the nonys 
To boylle the chykens & the mary bonys 

S02 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbury Tales; 

And powder marchaunt tart and galyngale 
Wei knew he a draughte of london ale 
He coude roste sethe broylle and frye 
Make Mortrewys and wel bake a pye 
But grete harm was it as it thoughte me 
For on hys shynne a mormal had he 
And blank manger made he wyth the best 

The Shipm AN follows; who is succeeded by the Physician. This 
portrait, however, answers for that of the Parson. 


Wyth V3 ther was a doctour in physick 
In the world was ther none hym lyk 
To speke of physick and surgerye 
For he was grounded in Astronomye 

Second Edit.'] WILLIAM CAXTON. 303 

He kepte hys paciente a greet deel 

In houres by magyk naturel 

Wei couthe he of fortune the assendent 

Of hys ymages for hys pacient 

He knewe the cause of euery maladye 

Were it of cold hete moyst or drye 

And were engendred of what humour 

He was a very parfight practesour 

The cause y know and of hys harm the rote 

Anon he yaf to the sik man hys bote 

For redy alway be hys a potewaryes 

To sende hym dnigges & his botecaryes 

For eche of them made other for to wynne 

Her friendship was not newe to begynne 

Ful wel knewe he the olde Esculapius 

And dyscorydes and eke Rusus 

Olde ypocras, haly and eke Caliene 

Serapion Rastis and eke Auicene 

Auerroys damascene and constantyn 

Bernard Catisden and Gylbertyn 

Of hys dycte mesurable was he 

For it was of no superfluyte 

But of grete nourisshynge and dygestyble 

Hys stody was but lytyl on the byble 

In sangweyn and in perce I clad wyth all 

Lyned wyth taflfata and wj'th sandall 

And lytyl he was of hys dyspence 

He kepte that he whan in the pestelence 

For gold in physik is a cordyal 

Therfor he loued gold in especyal 

The Wife of Bath, the Parson,* and the Ploughman, follow. 

* The 'poor Parson' was proverbial in Chaucer's time: the description of hiiu begin* 
thus : A good man ther was of religyon 

And was a poure parson of a toun 
But riche he was of holy thought & werk 
He was also a lemed man and a clerk 
That crysten gospellis trewly wold preche 
Hjs parishons deuoutyly wolde he teche 
Benygne he was and wonder dylygenl 
And in aduersite ful pacient 
&c. &c &c. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbunj Tales; 


The Myllere was a stout carle for the nonys 

Ful byg he was of braun and bonys 

That proued wel for oueral there he cam 

At vvrastlynge alwey he wolde haue the ram 

He was short shuldred brood a thycke quarre 

Ther was no dore that he nolde heue of the barre 

Or breke it at rennynge wyth hys hed 

Hys herd as ony sovve or fox was reed 

And therto brood as it were a spade 

Vpon the cop right of hys nose he hade 

A werte and ther on stood a tufte of heris 

Rede as the bristeles of a sowes eris 

Hys nostrellis blak were and wyde 

A swerd and a bokeler baar he by hys syde 

Second Edit.'] 



Hys mouth as greet was as a furneys 
He was a Jangler and a goliardyes 
And that was most of synne and harlotryes 
Wei coude he stele corn and telle thryes 
And that he hadde a thombe of gold parde 
A whyt cote and a blew hood weryd he 
A bagge pype coude he blowe and sowne 
And therwyth he brought vs out of towne 


A Gentyl Mancypyl was ther of the temple 
Of whyche a catour myghte take exemple 
Forto be wyse in byynge of vytayl 
For whethyr he payde or took by tay 
Algate he waytyd so on hys achate 
That he was ay before and in good state 

306 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbuiy Tales ; 

Now i3 not that of God a fajT grace 

That suche a lewd mannys wytte shal pace 

The wysedom of an heep of lerned men 

Of maystris hadde he moo than thryes ten 

Tliat were of lawe expert and corious 

Of whyche there were a dosen in that hous 

"Worthy to be stuardyes of rente and londo 

Of ony lord that is in Englond 

To make hym lyue be hys owen good 

In honour detles but he were wood 

Othyr lyue scarsely as hym list desire 

And able for to helpe al the shyre 

In ony cause that myghte falle or happe 

And yet this Mancypyl set al her cappe 


A Reue ther was a sledir colerik man 
His berd is shaue as nygh as he can 

Second JEdii.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 307 

His heris weie by his eris roud y shore 

His top was dockid lik a prest before 

Ful longe were his leggis and ful lene 

Lyk a staf ther nys no calf y sene 

Wei coude he kepe a garner and a bynne 

Ther was none auditour coude of hym wynne 

Wei wyst he by the droughte and by the rayn 

The yeldynge of hys seed and of hys greyn 

Hys lordis sheep hys neet and hys deyrie 

Hys swyne his hors his stoor & his pultrye 

Was holly in thys reuys gouernyng 

And by hys couenaunt yaf the rekenynge 

Sjrth hys lord was twenty yere of age 

Ther coude noman brynge hym in arerage 

Ther nas baylly ne noon other hyne 

That he ne knewe his sleyghte or hys couyne 

They were of hym adrad as of the deth 

Hys wonynge was ful fayr vp on a heth 

Wyth grene treys shadowed was hys place 

He coude better than his lord purchace 

Ful riche he was astored pryuely 

Hys lord wel he coude please subtylly 

To yeue & lene to hym of hys owen good 

And haue thank & yet a cote and an hood 

In yougthe he hadde lerned a good mystere 

He was a wel good wryght a Carpentere 

Thys reue sat vpon a wel good stot 

That was al pomel gray and hyghte scot 

A long surcote of Perce vp on hym he hadde 

And by hys side he baar a rusty bladde 

Of norfolk was thys reue of whyche I telle 

Beside a toun men calle Bladyswelle 

Tuckyd he was as is a frere aboute 

And euer he rood the hynderest of the route Sign, c j. 

The representations of the Sompnour, the Pardoner, and the 
Host, conclude these short introductory pieces on the reverse of C iv. 
The Tales of the respective Characters, before briefly described, com- 
mence with that of the Knight ; and the following exhibits the order 
in which the characters are described, and the succession of the 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Ca7iterburi/ Tales; 

1. Knight. 
5. Squire. 

3. Yeoman. 

4. Prioress. 

5. Monk. 

6. Fi-iar. 

7. Merchant. 

8. Clerk of Oxford. 

9. Serjeant of Law. 

10. Frankelen. 

11. Haberdasher. 

12. Cook. 

13. Shipman. 

14. Doctor in Physic. 

15. Wife of Bath. 

16. Parson. 

17. Ploughman. 

18. Miller. 

19. Manciple. 

20. Reeve. 

21. Sompnour. 

22. Pardoner. 

23. Host. 

24. Knight's Tale. 

25. Miller's ditto. 

26. Reeve's ditto. 

27. Cook's ditto. 

28. Man of Law's ditto. 

29. Merchant's ditto. 

30. Squire's ditto. 

31. Frankelen's ditto.* 

32. Wife of Bath's ditto. 

33. Friar's ditto. 

34. Sompnour's ditto. 

35. Clerk of Oxford's ditto. 

36. Nun's ditto. 

37- Chanons Yenian's ditto. 

38. Doctor of Physic's ditto. 

39. Pardoner's ditto. 
40 Shipman's ditto. 

41. Prioress's ditto. 

42. Rhyme of Sir Topas. 

43. Chaucer's Tale. 

44. Monk's ditto. 

45. Nun Priest's ditto. 

46. Manciple's ditto. 

47- Parson's ditto. 

Of the cuts, illustrative of the preceding characters, those of the 
Knight, the Monk, the Clerk of Oxford, the Serjeant at Law, and the 
Host, are wanting in the present copy ; but if I am not mistaken, these 
cuts were used, or copied, in Pynson's edition of Chaucer's works, of 
the date of 1526 ; (See Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 515,) and in that of 
Kingston, of the same works, of the date of 1561, Folio. 

It might be considered somewhat unpardonable to omit a fac-simile 
of the portrait of the author himself. Accordingly the ensuing one — 
which also represents Sir Topas — may be considered the earliest 
engraving extant of Chaucer : 

• The folJowiDg six lines are not in the previous edition : 
Perauenture an heepe of you y wj-s 
Wyl holden hym a lewd man in thys 
That he wyl put hys wjf in jeopardye 
Herkeneth the lale or ye on hym crye 
She may haue better fortune than you semeth 
And whan that ye han herd the tale, deraeth Sign, q liij. v. 


Second Edit,] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


There are three seta of signatures ; each having 8 leaves to the set— 
except as follows. First, a to v in eights ; v having only 6 : next, aa to 
ii in eights, ii having but 6. Lastly, A to K in eights, inclusively. It 
has been before observed that the copy under description is imperfect. 
Indeed it is almost equally painful and difficult to enumerate its defi- 
ciencies. The proheme of Caxton, and the prologue of the poet, are 
wanting; as are signatures a vj; b i; c iiij, v, viij, d i, ij, iij, iiij, 
V, vj ; ii vj ; and the whole of the last signature, K. This copy had 
been in the collections of Ratcliffe and Herbert ; and the latter informs 
us that the omissions, supplied in manuscript, are in the hand writing 
of RatcUffe. Imperfect, however, as the copy appears— it is a very 
desirable acquisition; since the rarity even of fragments of it is 
extreme. The library of St. John's College, Oxford, contains a perfect 
and beautiful copy. 

310 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Boethius. 


JFithout Place or Date. Folio. 

Beneath the above title, on the recto of the first leaf, at top, we 
read the fo lowing distich, in Caxton's largest lower- case type : 

Camiina qui quontiam ^eftutiio flornttc jicrcgi 
f Ictiili.sf l)cu mc^gttOjE? cogor in ire motion 

The English text follows immediately, thus : ' aLas I wepyng am 
constrained to begynne vers of soroufull matere,' &c. A full page 
contains 29 lines. Each section, or chapter, has a Latin sentence 
prefixed, in large lower-case type ; followed by the English version of 
the author's commentary, in the same type with which the Jason, Diets 
and Sayings, and first edition of the Mirror of the World are executed : 
and from the irregularity of the register, towards the right margin, I 
have no doubt that this volume was executed before the year 1480. 
There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. The work 
begins, as above, Avithout prologue or introduction, and concludes on 
tlie recto of the 90th leaf, thus : 

€xpiitit fioeciujsf be 
cottja^olacione pf^iio^cpW 

The epilogue of Caxton follows ; the whole of which is reprinted in 
the Typog. Antiq. vol. i, p. 304-5. From this, we understand that the 
version is Chaucer's ; for whose soul the printer calls upon his readers 
to pray, thus : ' And furthermore I desire & require you that of your 
charite ye wold praye for the soule of the sayd worshipful man Geffrey 
Chaucer, first translatour of this sayde boke into englissh & enbelissher 
in making the sayd langage ornate & fayre. whiche shal endure per- 
petuelly. and therfore he ought eternelly to be remebrid. of whom the 
body and corps lieth buried in thabbay of westmestre beside london to 
fore the chapele of seynte benet. by whos sepulture is wTeton on a table 
hongyng on a pylere his Epitaphye maad by a Poete laureat. whereof 
the copye foloweth &c.' 

As the leaf (the last in the volume) containing this epitaph, is often 
wanting, and as the matter itself is interesting, I subjoin it the more 
readilv : 

Boethms.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 311 

d^itapf^m (Balftxhi €|jaucer» pec 
portam kuteatu dS^tcpS^tiu ^urigontt 
a^ctiiolanert^e in tiectetijef licenciatu 

p ^ttitxt^ mu^t ^i potont numina flet^ 

jf uticire. tiiuinajSf atqj tigace genas? 
(«5aJfntij tjattj0f cfjaucer crubclia fata 

3^langtte. ^it latcimisf atj^tinuif^c ntp^a^ 
mo^ tolmt tjiue^sf. at bo^ celebrate ^cpultum 

iiletitiatut metito gtracia tiigna biro 
(i^rantic tiecujef bobi^ef. e tiocti mu^fa itiaroni^ 

OSua tijtiicit mrii'^ Imgua Jatina loqui 
<Drantie noiui q^ tiec^ Cljaucer, feniaq$ pauit 

i^eu q'tum fuerat pti^ca iititana trubijai 
JHebbitiit in^igncm matetni^ bccjSiBj. tjt tarn 

5llutea ^plcntic^cat, fectca facta ptiu^ 
J^unc latiiifj^e btcu nil. ^i tot opujsfcula bectesr 

IDircri^* egrcgiisf que tiecotata motit^ 
iS^octati^ ingenium. bd fontci^ pfjiioaopljic 

<©uitquiti* 1 atcl)am bogmata ^acta fccunt 
€t q^cunq^ \yt\t^ tcnuit tiignifieiimu.!^ arte^ef 

l^jc batcjef. puo contiitujgf Jjoc tumulo 
3111) lauliijS q'tum preciara fintanuia pcttiisf 

SDum rapuit tantii mor^^ obio^a birum 
Ctutiele.sf parte* crutietia ffia jeforore^ 

l^on tamen ertiucto corpore, fama perit 
miuet in cternum. biuet bum ^cripta poete 

tmiuant etcmo tot nionimenta bie 
^i qua Iionoj^ tangit pieta^. ^i carime bign*^ 

Carmina quxcecinit tot cumulata mobij^ 
!pec ^ifii maruioreo ^criliantur tjerBa ^cpalcOro 

^tt mancat imhi^ Martina ^umma i0?uc 

* Sic. 

312 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chaucer-' s Book 

a^atcrnc. l|ac ^atta ^uin timuilatufif Ijunio 

poi5t obitimi €axfon boluit te tjiucrc cura 

JDiHclmi. Cljauccr dare jjocta tuj 
l^am tua iion ^olum compref^it opusfciila formic 

1$a^ quoqj f? iautiejsf. iui^it fjic ef^^c tua^ 

In the whole, 93 leaves : as specified in the authority before referred 
to. The paper of this work is of unusual substance, and the copy 
under description (from the Alchorne Collection) is large and sound; 
although occasionally soiled. There are various old ms. memoranda, 
at the beginning, in the margins, and at the end. Among them, are 
the names of Francis Howard, Ambrose Niclas, and Nicholas Morgan. 
The memoranda are in the Latin, Spanish, and English languages ; but, 
as far as they can be decyphered, they seem to be of no importance 
whatever. From the conclusion of one of them [' God saue the Qeene'] 
it is probable that the earliest is of the time of Queen Elizabeth. There 
are also the dates 1633 and 1662. 

This copy is in old russia binding. 

871. The Book of Fame. JVithout Place or Date. 

On the recto of the first leaf, a ij, (a j being blank) we observe the 
commencement of the puem in the following manner : 

'Cfjc fioofe of fame niabc 6p (iSefep €i)auca: 

#li tome \\^ euerp tireme to goob 
g f ot it 10 hjonber tJjpng 6p tl|e rooti 

€0 mp topt/ luljat caujBsptl) ^toeuenpjSf 
€>n tfje niorotoe/ or on euenp.i^ 
3Ciiti tuljp tljeftect foiotoetl) of ^oine 
%x(tx of jefome it ^Ijai ncuet come 
IBljp tJjat it i^ bi^pott 
%\^'i^ ttjljp ttjp.i^/ a reuelacioti 

n/Fame,] WILLIAM CAXTON. 819 

Wl^p tJipjef a htemt, is)f^ tiftat a iBftoeum 
%i\ti not to cucrp matt/ Ipcfic cucit 
^W ^^P^ ^ fattton. toljp tljcp oradc^ 
31 itote/ Iiut toi)o ^0 of tljp^e mpraclc^ 

Sec. 8cc. 8cc. 

A full page has 38 lines or verses. As this is the original work 
from which Po])e composed his celebrated Temple of Fame, a few 
specimens may not be unacceptable ; especially as similar ones have 
been given at the foot of Pope's text : some of which may be com- 
pared with the following. The prehide to the vision is thus : 

For neeur syth I was born 
Ne woman els me by forn 
Mette I trowe sted fastly 
So wonderful a dreme, as dide I 
t He tenthe day of decembre 

The whyche as I can remembre 
I wyl make inuocacion 
Wyth a deuoute specyal deuocion 
Vnto the god of slepe anone 
That dwellyth in a caue of stone 
Vpon a streme that cometh fro lete 
That is a flode ful vnswete 
Besyde a folke that men clepe cymerye 
Ther slepeth ay thys god vnmerye 
, Wyth hys slepy thousand sones 

That allewey to slepe, her woon is, a ij rev. 

The account of Dido and JEneas has great interest. I shall select- 
only a small portion of it ; 

Ther sawe I graue, how Eneas 
Told to Dido euery caas 
That hyni was tyd vpon the see 
And efte grauen was how that she 
Made of hym shortly at a worde 
Her lyf, her loue, her lust, her lord 

For he to her a traytour was 
Wherfor she slowe her self alas 

814 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chaucer's Book, 

Lo how a worn man doth aniys 

To loue hyiii that vnknovven is 

For euery trust, lo thus it faryth 

It is not all i^old that glaryth 

For also browke I niyn hede 

Ther may be vnder goodly hede 

Coucrd many a sherevvd vyce 

Therfore be no wyght so nyce 

To take a loue only for chere 

Or for speche or frendely manere 

For thus shal euery womman fynde 

And swere, how he is vnkynde 

Or fals prouyd, or double was 

Alle thys saye I by Eneas 

And dido, and her nece loste 

That louyd alto sone a ghoste 

Therfore I wyl saye o prouerbe 

That he that fully knoweth the herbe 

May saufly leye it to hys eye 

Wythouten drede that is uo lye Sign, a v. 

From the Second Book we are presented with the following spirited 
passage : 

And I adoun gan to loke tho 

And behelde feldes and pleynes 

Now hylles, and now mounteynes 

Now valeyes, and now forestes 

And now vnnethe grete bestes 

Now ryuers, now grete cytees 

Now townes, now grete trees 

Now shyppes sayllyng in the see 

But thus sone, in a whyle he 

Was flowen fro the ground so hye 

Eat alle the world as to rayn eye 

Noniore semed than a prykke 

Or els the eyer was so thykke 

That I myght it not decerne 

Wyth that he spack to me so yerne 

And seyde, seest thou ony token 

Or ought, that in the world is of spoken 

I sayd nay, no wonder is 

Quod he, for neuer half so hye as thys 

ofFame.-\ WILLIAM CAXTON. 31. 5 

Nas Alysaunder of Macedo 

Kynge, ne of Rome dan Scipio 

That saw in dreme poynt deuys 

Heuen and helle and paradys 

Ne eke the wryght Dedalus 

Ne hys sone Nyse Icharus 

That flawe so hye, that the hete 

Hys wynges malte, and he fyl wete 

In myd tlie see, and there he dreynte 

For whome was made a grete compleynt 

Now torne vpward, quod he, thy face 

And beholde thys large space 

Thys eyer, but loke that thou ne be 

A drad of hem, that thou shalt see 

For in thys regyon certeyn 

Dwelleth many a cytezeyn 

Of whiche speketh dan plato 

These ben the eyrissh bestes lo 

And tho sawe I alle the meyne 

Bothe goon and also flee 

Lo quod he, caste vp thyn eye 

See yonder lo the Galaxye 

The whyche men clepe the mylky weye 

For it is whyt, And some perfeye 

Callen it watlyng strete 

That ones was brente wyth the hete 

Whan the sonnes sone the rede 

That hyte Pheton wold lede 

Algate hys faders carte and gye 

The cart hors gan wel aspye 

That he coude, no gouernaunce 

And gan for to lepe and daunce 

And bare hym vp and now doun 

Tyl he sawe the Scorpyoun 

Whyche that in heuen, a signe is yet 

And he for fere, lost hys wyt 

Of that, and lete the reynes gon 

Of these hors and they anon 

Can vp to mounte and doun descende 

Tyl bothe eyer and erthe brende 

Tyl Jubiter, lo at the laste 

Hym slowe, and fro the cart caste 

3jg BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chaucer's Book 

Lo is it not a grete niyschaunce 

To Icte a fole haue goueruaunce Sign, b v. 

The description of the Castle upon the HiU, or the Palace of Fame, 
h in Chaucer's most rich and animated style : 
So that the grete bcaute 
The cast crafte and curiosite 
Ne can I not to yow dcuyse 
My wytt may it not suflFyse 
But nctheless alle the substaunce 
I haue yet in my remembraunce 
For why, me thought by seynt gyle 
Alle was of stone of beryle 
Bothe the Castel and the tour 
And eke the halle and euery bour 
Wythoute peces or Joynynges 
But many subtyl compassynges 
As babeuwryes and pynnacles 
Ymageryes and tabernacles 
1 sawe eke and ful of wyndowea 
As tiakes fallen in grete snowys 
And eke in euery of eche pynacles 
Were sondry habytacles 
In whiche stoden all they wythouten 
Ful the castel all abowten 
Of alle maner of mynstrallis 
And gestours that tellen talis 

Bothe of wepyng, and of game 
And of alle, that longeth vnto fame 
There herd I pleye on an harpe 

That sowned wel and sharpe 

Hym Orpheus ful craftely 

And on hys syde fast by 

Sat the harper, Oryon 

And gacides Chyryon 

And other harpers many one 

And the l)ryton Glaskyryon 

And smale harpere, wyth her gleys 

Sat vnder hem in dyuerse seys 

And gon on hem vpward to gape 

And counterfeted hem as an ape 

of Fame.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 317 

Or as crafte counterfete kynde 

Tho sawe I hem behynde 

A fer from hem, as by hem selue 

Many thousand tyme twelue 

That made lowde mynstraleyes 

In cornmuse or shalemeyes 

And many an other, pype 

That craftely began to pype 

Bothe in dowted and in rede 

That ben at festes wyth the brede 

And many a floyte and lytelyng horn 

And pypes made of siree of corn 

As haue thyse lytel herde gromes 

That kepen bestis in the bromes. Sign, b viij, ci. 

The genius of the poet seems to rejoice in the description of sucli 
resplendent scenery : 

Lo how shold I telle alle thys 
Ne of the halle eke, what nede is 
To tellen yovv that euery wal 
Of it, and roof and flore wyth al 
Was plated half a fote thykke 
Of gold, and that was not wykke 
But to proef in alle wyse 
As fyne as doket of venyse 
Of whyche to lyte in my powche is 
And were sette as thyck as ovvchys 
Ful of the fynest stones fayre 
That men reden in the lapydayre 
Or as grasses growen in a mede 
But it were al to longe to rede 
The names, And therefore I pace 
But in thys ryche lusty place 
That fames halle, called was 
Ful moche piees of folk, ther was 
No gronyng for so moche prees 
But al an hye vpon a dees 
Sat on a see Emperyal 
That was made of a Rubye Ryal 
Whyche a Carbuncle is y caliyd 
I sawe perpetuelly y stalled 

31 a BOOKS PRINTED BY [Book of Fame » 

A ferny nyn Creature 

That ncuer formed by nature 

Suche another thyng I say 

For altherfyrst soth to say Sign, c iij. 

But a limit must be assigned to these extracts. The signatures 
extend to d, in eights : d having only 5 printed leaves, and a blank 
one. On the recto of d v, the conclusion of the poem,* and the sub- 
joined colophon are thus : 

H^l^crfor to ^tutipc anb tcbe altuap 
51 purpojefe to tioo bap hp bap 
€\^n^ ill brciii|inff anb in game 
<gnbetl) tjip^ef Jptpl hooh of fame 

51 fpnbe nomore of tiji.sf toethe to fore ^apb/ for a0 fer a^ 
5 tan bnbcrsftobe/ €t)ijef noWe man (©efferep Cfiaucer 
fpnpf(f)pb at tJjc ^apb conclusion of tJje metpng of lefpng 
anb fottjfatDC/ tDlJere as pet tgep tien cl[jefefteb anb mape 
not beparte/ tDl[)pcl)e taerfee aS me Semetl) is craftpip 
mabC/ anb bpgne to he tDreton i ftnotoeny for ge 
tolucl^ptl) in it rpgl^t grete topSebom i SufitpU tjnber^ 
Stonbpngc/ 3Cnb So in aWe IjpS bJerftpS fie crceHptfi in 
nipn opppnpon aile otfier turpters in our (SBngJpffJjj, for 
fie torptetfi no bopbe tDorbeS/ fiut alle fipS mater i^ M 
of fipe anb qupcftc sentatcc/ to tufiom ongfit to Be gpuen 
laube anb prepfpng for fipS noMe maftpng anb turptpng/ 
for of fipm aile otfier fiaue tjorotoeb fptfi anb tafeen- in 
alle tfiepr tod Sapeng anb torptpng/ %ntx 51 fiumblp 
fiesecfie i prape poto/ emonge pour praperS to remeniBre 
Dps foulc/ on ttjfipcfie anb on aHe crpSten SouliS 9! 
fieSecfie almpgfitp gob to fiaue mercp oilmen 

<Smprpnteb ijp topHiam Cajcton 

* At the top of the last page, opposite the third line, there is printed (wbirasically enough^ 
l>v Caxluii tiiinself, the word 'SajCtOtt.* 

Book for Travellers.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 819 

The reverse is blank. There are few of Caxton's colophons which 
contain more interesting observation than the preceding. The copy 
here described is of such large and genuine dimensions, that a dupli- 
cate of the last leaf, (d v, containing the colophon as above — at present 
in his Lordship's possession,) is shorter by full 3 inches, and about one 
inch smaller in width. Few volumes, among those from the press of 
Caxton, exhibit so desirable an aspect. It was formerly in RatclifFe's 
collection, and is in old red morocco binding, with a broad border of 
gold on the exterior. 

872. Troylus and Cresside. Without Place or 
Date. Folio. 

This copy, although clean and sound, is in a very imperfect state. 
The first page is complete ; but the second not so. The 4th page is 
also incomplete. Signatures e iij ; hy, m iiij ; and m v are wanting ; 
as are the whole of the signatures p and q. This copy was formerly 
in the collection of West : and is in old red-morocco binding. 

873. A Book for Travellers. Printed at TVesf' 
mestre hy Loyidon. Without Date. Folio. 

' In what collection a perfect copy of this work is to be found, I am 
unable to mention : such a boolc must be a great curiosity.' This 
observation was made * upwards of five years ago ; without the hope 
or expectation of ever having it in my power to gratify the reader 
by a full and faithful description of a complete copy of this extraordinary 
production of the press of Caxton. The volume before us, fortunately 
for its Noble Owner, is not only perfect, but of very ample dimensions ; 
and was obtained about four years ago, of Mr. Miller, the bookseller, 
for 105/. : it having been formerly in the curious collection of Mr. 
Lister Parker. It is unquestionably among the very scarcest and most 
curious of the books printed by the Father of our Press. It has 
neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and is executed in the 
smallest of Caxton's types, like those of the Chronicle^ Polychronicon, 

* Typog. Antiq vol. i. 315, 317. 

3 JO 

BOOKS PRINTED BY [Book for Travellers. 

Coufessio Amantls, &,c. A full i)age has 42 lines, llie entire volume, 
of only '25 leaves, is executed in double columns, in the form of a 
vocabulaiy ; the French being to the left, and the English to the right. 
Ihe tonimcnconicnt of it, at top of the recto of the first leaf, will afford 
a correct idea : 

frcnfffic oBitgliffJ 

€if\ conuiicncc ia tnfilc ^icir Begpiinctif) tlje tMt 

£?c cf jeft prouf^im&ie boctrinc <Zi)f tJji.iSf prouffptalilclcrnpngc. 
^Ipoiir tcouuct tout par orbcne for to fpntie all bp orbrc 
Cc que on boultira aprcntirc €i)at tufjicJjc mm iupHc krnc 

The table then goes on to describe the several heads or subjects, into 
\\luch the work is divided. This work may be considered a compen- 
dium of almost every known topic : theology : household matters : 
birds : beasts : fishes : fruits : viands : drinks : merchandise : arts, 
&c. &c. It also embraces the several orders of society. I subjoin a 
few interesting specimens — from much curious matter which is un- 
avoidably left untouched : 

Tondeurs pigneresses filercsses 
Des lormiers et armurers, 
Des tailliers & vieswariers. 
Des taincturiers & drappiers. 
Des boulengiers & cordewaniers. 
Des escripuains & arceniers 
Des moulniers & bouchifcrs 
Des poissonners & tellers 
Des chandeliers & libraries 
Des gauntiers & corbelliers 
Des painturers & vsuriers 
Des couureurs de tieulles & destrain 
Des charpen tiers & feultriers 
Des chaue tiers et boursiers. 
Des cousturiers et especiers 
Des coultiers et hosteliers. 
Dts touriers et cuueliers 
Des mesuriers et mcssagiers 
Des chartons et changiers 

Sheremen kempster spynsters 

Of bridelmakers and armorers 

Of tayllours and vpholdsters 

Of dyers and drapers 

Of bakers and shoemakers 

Of skriueners and boumakers 

Of mylnars and bochiers 

Of fysshmongers and of lynweuers 

Of ketelmakers and librariers 

Of glouers and of maundemakers 

Of paintours and vsuriers. 

Of tylers and t Catchers . 

Of carpenters and hatmakers. 

Of cobelers and pursers. 

Of shepsters and spycers 

Of brokers and hosteleers 

Of kepars of prisons and coupers 

Of metars and messagiers 

Of carters and chauneei s 

Book for Travellers.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


Des monoyers et pastesiers. 
Des jougleurs & teneurs. 
Des vairriers et serruriers 
Des goiiiers et huchiers. 
Des parcenniers 

Nomme les metaulx 

Qui sensieuent, 

Fer achier plomb estain 

Keuure & arain. 

Or argent choses dorees 

Choses dargentees 

Coroyes a claux dargent, 

Samture de soye. 

A bouche dargent. 

Boursses ouuries a leguille 

Che sont marchandises 

Eguilles espengles 

Aloyeres tasses 

Coflfyns & escriptoires 

Abesnes graffes 

Coruets a encre 

Contiaulx forches. 

Huuettes de soye 

Coyfes dhommes 

Pendoyrs de soye 

Lachets lannieres 

Soye vermeylle 

Verde gaune 

noire soye 

De ces soyes 

Faitton bordures. 

Chi feray ie fin 

Et diray des grains. 

Bled fourment. 

Soille orge 

Auaynne vesches. 

Feues poys 

De ces choses suy ie lasses 

Si que ie men reposeray 

Of myntemakers and pybakers 

Of pleyers and tawyers. 

Of makers of grey werke and lokyers 

Of gorelmakers and joyners. 

Of parchemyn makers Fol. 1. 

named the metals. 

Whiche folowe 

Yron steel! leed tynne. 

Coppre and bras. 

Gold siluer thinges gylt. 

Thinges siluerid. 

Gyrdellis with nayles of siluer 

Corse of silke 

With bocle of siluer 

Purses wrought with the nedle 

Thise ben marchandises 

Nedles pynnes 

Pawteners tasses, 

Coffyns and pennei's. 

AUes poyntels 

Enke homes 

Knyues sheres. 

Huuves of silke 

Coyfes for men. 

Pendants of silke. 

Laces poyntes 

Reed silke. 

Grene yelowe 

Black silke 

Of thise silkes 

Make me broythures 

Here I shall make an ende 

And shall saye of graynes. 

Corn whete 

Rye barlye 

Otes vessches. 

Benes pesen 

Of thise thinges J atn wery 

So that I shall reste me 

Fol. 10. rcti. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Book for Travellers. 

a Dam amaine cha. 

nion cheuul tantost 
Se luy metz 
La scUe ft le frain. 
Je cbeuaucheiay 
La iay promyse a estre. 
A vng parlement 
Ou a vj)g annjTiersaire. 
Regarde sil est ferres 
Des quatre piets 
Se il nelest 
Si le maine ferrer 
Abraham cost faict 
Tenes niontes 
Chausies vous housiaux 
Vous esperons. 
Puis vous desiunes 
Amchois que vous departes. 
Adryan on en ales vous 
Se vous alles mon cherayn 
Je vous tenroye companye. 
Si en serroye moult joyeulx 
Alart or en alons 
Saus arrester 
Se nous voulons venir. 
Ainssi comme nous 
Et les aultres auous promis 
Abel ou vendt on. 
Le meillour vin de cest ville 
Dictes le nous 
Nous vous en prions 
Andrieu le meillour venton 
A la rue des lonibars. 
Car ie lay assaye 
Cest dung plein tonniel 
Du pris de viij. dcniers. 
En le premier tauerne 
Que vous trouueres 
Andrieu va querre 
Vng quart et demy 

a Dam bryng hyther. 

My hors a none 
And sette on hym 
The sadel and biydle 
I shall ryde. 

There J haue promysed to be 
To a parlamente 
Or to a yeres mynde 
Beholde yf he be shoed 
On four feet 
Yf he be not 
So lede hym to be shoed. 
Abraham hit is done 
Holde sitte vp 
Do on your bootes 
Your spores 
Syth breke your fast 
Er ye hens departe 
Adryan where well ye goo. 
Yf ye goo my way 
I shall holde you companye 
So shall J be mocht glad 
Alarde now goo we. 
Withoute tarieng 
If we wylle come 
Lyke as we 

And the othir haue promised 
Abel where selle men 
The beste wyn of this toune. 
Saye it vs 
We pray you. 

Andrew the beste selleth me 
In the strete of lombardis. 
For I haue assayed. 
Hit is of a full fatte. 
At pris of viij. pens 
And the first tauerne 
That ye shall fynde 
Andrew goo fecche. 
A quart and an half. 

Book fur Travellers.'] WILLIAM CAXTON. 


Et te fais bien mesurer 

Si buuerons vug troit 

Nous desiunerous des trippes 

De la foye du pouaion 

Vne: piet du buef. 

Vng piet du porke 

Vng teste daux 

Se nous desiunerous 

Et buuerous becq a becq 

Ancel mets la table 

Et les estaulx 

Laue les voirs 

Respaulrae la hanap 

Dresce a manger 

Taille du pain. 

Laue le mortier 

Et le pestiel 

Fay nous des aulx 

Nous en arons toute lour 

Plus chault en nous membres 

Arnoul verses du vin 

Et nous donnes a boire. 

Non feray ie poyle des aulx. 

Alles amchois lauer 

Vons* beuuries bien a temps 

Aubin est a le porta 

Mais alhuys 

Va se le laisse ens. 

And doo the well to be meten 

So shall we drynke a draught. 

We shall breke our fast with trippes 

Of the lyuer of the longhe 

A foot of an oxe 

A foot of a swyne 

An hede of garlyke 

So shall we breke our faste 

And shall drynke becke to beck 

Ancelme sette the table 

And the trestles 

Wasshe the glasses 

Spoylle the cuppe 

Dresse to eta 

Cutte brede 

Wasshe the mortier 

And the pestel 

Make vs somme gharlyk 

We shall haue all the day 

More hete in our membres 

Arnold gpie vs wyne 

And gyue vs to drynke 

I shall not I pylle the gharlyk. 

Goo erst wasshe 

Ye shall drynke well in tyme 

Aubin is at the gate 

But at tha dore 

Goo late hym in. Fol. 12. 

The concluding section, terminating the volume at fol. 25, is thus: 

Si commencies ainsi. 
Comme est declare cy apres 
v Ng deux trois 

Quatre chincq sLx 
Sept huyt nenf t dix 
Vnze douze treze 
Quatourze quinze seze 
Dixsept dix huyt 
Dixnenf t vingt. 
Trente quaranta 

t Sic. 

So begynne all thus 
As is declared here after 
o Ne tweyne thre 
Foure fyue sixe 
Seuen eight nyne ten 
Enleuen twelue thirtene 
Fourtene fifteue sixtene 
Seuentene eyghtene 
Nynetene twenty 
Thretty fourty 

X Sic. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Book for Travellers. 

Chincquante soixante, 

Septantc huytante 

Ou qiiatre vingt 

Nonante cent 

Deux cents 

Milk- cent niille. 

Vng million 

Ainsi toudis montant 

Une liuic de strelins 

Une niarcq que vault. 

Deux uobles dangleter 

Une liure de gros 

Monoye de flaundres 

Une soiilde que vault 

Trois gros ou douze deniers 

Une gros vault quatre deniers 

Ung denier vne maille 

Ung quadrant vne mite. 

Cy fine ceste doctrine 

A westmestre les loundres. 

En formes impressee. 

En le quelle vng chescun 

Pourra briefmeut aprendre. 

Fransois et engloys 

La grace de sainct esperit 

Veul enluminer les cures 

De ceulx qui le aprendront 

Et nous doinst perseuerance. 

En bonnes operacions 

Et apres ceste vie transitorie 

La pardurable ioye & glorie 

Fyfty Syxty. 
Seuenty eyghty. 
Or four score. 
Nynty hondred 
Two hondred 

A thousand a hondred thousand. 
A myllyon 

Thus alle way mountyng. 
A pound sterlings 
A marcke that is worth 
Two nobles of Englond 
A pound grete 
Moneye of flaundres 
A shellyng that is worth 
Thre grotis or twelue pens 
A grote is worth four pens 
A peny a halfpeny 
A ferdyng a myte 
Here endeth this doctrine 
At westmestre by london 
In fourmes enprinted. 
Tn the whiche one euerich 
May shortly lerne. 
Frenssh and Englissh 
The grace of the holy ghoost 
Wylle enlyghte the hertes 
Of them that shall lerne it 
And vs gyue perseueraunce . 
Jn good werkes 
And after this lyf transitorie 
The euerlastyng ioye and glorie 
Fol. 24-5. 

The last 7 lines are all that appear on the recto of fol. 25 and last. 
This precious and unique volume is tastefully bound by Lewis in blue 
morocco. Another copy, with a few leaves supplied in ms. is in the 
collection of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire. 

Katherin of Senis.-] WILLIAM CAXTON. 325 

874. The Lyf of Saint Katherin of Senis. 
TVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

This book exhibits another of those puzzling peculiarities, which it 
is difficult to account for satisfactorily. We have here the same type 
and mode of printing, which distinguish, not only the Golden Legend 
of 1493, (described at p. 26"9 ante) but, in part, the Treatise of Love, 
described in a subsequent page : that is to say, the large lower-case 
type, in each of these three publications, is precisely the same, and 
such as was used by W. de Worde ; while the smaller type, forming 
the body of the text, in the work first referred to, and in the present 
one, are exactly similar, and partake more of the Caxtonian character. 
The first capital initial of the text, in the volume before us, is an orna- 
mental one, and such as I have not discovered in any book >vith the 
name of Caxton subjoined. A fac-simile of it appears as the second 
letter [H], at page cxxiv of the 1st vol. of the Typog. Antiq. See also 
the present edition fully described at p. 317 of the same volume of 
the same work. 

The whole impression is executed in double columns, and a fuU 
page contains 44 lines. At top of the first column, on a j, we read 
the following prefix : 

il ^crc fiegpnnetfj tfjc Ipf of faint 
l^atljcrin of fcnis? t1^t Blcf^sfiti birgin 

The first signature, a, has 8 leaves : from h to p, inclusively, the 
signatures run in sixes ; and the last signature, q, has only 4 leaves. 
The Life of St. Katherine of Senis, e'iids on the recto of p v ; and ' The 
Revelations of St. Elizabeth, the King''s Daughter of Hungart/,' commence 
on the reverse of the same leaf. These latter terminate the volume, 
with the following concluding sentence, on the recto of q iiij : 

•T ^ett tnhm tljc rcuekcion.isf of fcpnt 
(jBlpfabctij tgc fepngei^ tiougljtct of Uun^ 

* Sic. 

326 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Life of Jesus Christ. 

The printer's Luge device is beneath. The reverse is blank. This 
is not only a scarce book, but, if space had allowed, the reader should 
have been convinced that it is among the most amusing Saintly 
Romances of its age. The present desirable copy is in russia binding. 

8/5. Lyf of Ihesu Cryste. TViihout Place or 
Date. Folio. 


On the recto of a ij (the first leaf a j being blank) we read at top : 

€ 5[nctpit speculum \jitc €ri-tfti 
€ tljc ficgpnnpgc of tfjc proljcnip of tljc Boofte t1^^t x^ 
clcpcti tljc mprroure of tgc Mcf^pti Ipf of 3[l|c^u Crp^te 
tjjc fpr^t parte of tl^e monctiape/ Sec. 

The first two leaves contain the summaries or heads of the work. 
At the end of them we read ' Expliciunt Capitula Sequitur prohcmium." 
The proheme follows on a iiij, and fills 4 leaves. At the commence- 
ment of it, we observe the following prefix : 

€i[)P^ Booftc t!)e fot^aib Ckthe 25oiiauenturc j^pcltpnge 
to tlje tDoman for^aiti in Jjp.isf profjcinc tjcgpnnctjj in 
t^p^ niancr jfcntencc C 25onaucnture %nt\Ts^it 

Beneath is a wood-cut of the author, St. Bonaventure, presenting 
hb book to the ' forsaid woman.' 

On the recto of A viij, the text of the work begins, according to the 
copper-plate fac-simile in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p, 320 ; except that 
that representation of it is far from being faithful* as a specimen of 
the wood-cut and type. It is rather extraordinary that all the books, 
printed in the character of the present — namely. The Royal Book, 1484, 
and the Doctrinal of Sapience, 1489 — exhibit embellishments of far 
greater delicacy and truth, than those usually discoverable in the pro- 
ductions of Caxton's press. The cuts of the Annunciation, the Salu- 
tation, and the Adoration of the Magi; taken from sign, b v, recto; 
c ij reverse ; d ij reverse : are corroborative of the foregoing remark. 

• The same defect is attached to the wood-cut fac-shnlles of the Deicent into Hull, and 
the Atcension ; in the above work. 

Work of Sapience.'] WILLIAM CAXTON. 32/ 

There are running titles, specifications of the chapters, and marginal 
annotations throughout : and the text ends on the reverse of t iij (in 
eights) thus : 

€ %^t^\x Wt tljp Mef^pti Ipf/ liclje aiiti comfotte oure 

tumchiti Jpf. Oilmen, ^oo mote it fie 
(i^jcplpcit fjreculiim bite €ri^ti complete/ 
€1 %n omni trifiulacione/ temptacione. ncccf^itate % angu 

ftpa. fuccucre nobij^ pijf^ima birgo macia ^meit. 

The printer's large device occupies the following and last leaf. The 
present is a fair sound copy, in russia binding. It was obtained at the 
Roxburgh sale, and perfected (in 2 leaves only) from a copy previously 
in his Lordship's possession, and now in the library of Mr. Freeling. 
The Duke of Devonshire is also in possession of a fine copy. 

876. The Werke of Sapience. Without Place 
or Date. Folio. 

The work begins thus, on the recto of the first leaf, a ij — a i being 

f$t laiiero^ i pe nio^t memepKo^ toetfee^ 
<^i Sapience ^pn fit^tt regneti nature 

t a^p P«tpOi9f iiSf to ten ajsf totiten tleclfte^ 

3llnti jfpecpallp Jjer moojSt notable cuire 

%n mp fprjBft booft 31 ^pl pceclje % bepure 

%t i^ ^0 plc^aunt bnto ccje per^one 

€jjat it a booft ^J)al occiippe alone 

^mt aftet tfji^e? 31 isffial bjp^ebom bejefctpue 
!pet bIcfjBfpb l)ob3^|)o!b/ anb |)cr bjonnpng place 
3ilnb tlian tetourne bnto Ijet actc.^ blpue 


328 BOOKS PRINTED BY [TTork of Sapience. 

311 t!)i^ mater $^c taugljt me of fjer graee 
gi -spaft tDitfj Ijec/ a^ pe map Jjere anti retif 
for in mp Dreme 3j mette ^tt in a metic 

&c, 8cc. 8cc. 

As a very full account of this rare and interesting volume appears 
in tiie Tijpog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 325-330, it only remains to add, that it 
contains signatures, a to e, inclusively, in eights. On the reverse of 
e iiij, we read four stanzas, of which the following are the 1st, 3nl, 
stud 4 th : 

There was the lady clennesse wel arrayed 
Deuocyon and dame vyrgynyte 
Dame contynence and chastyte the mayde 
Dame loulynesse and dame stabylyte 
Enlumyned fresshe echone in theyr degre 
These seinien fayth as they couthe deuyse 
With blysse they song, & sayd vpon this wyse 
If better is to trowe in god aboue 
Than in mankynd or in many other thyng 
Who troweth in hym, for he can kepe ai^d loue 
Theyr lust fulfylle, & graut them theyr askyng 
And in his gospel eke a worthy kyng 
He sayd hym self in me, who lust byleue 
Though he be dede ywys yet shal he leue 

O cursed folk with youre Idolatrye 

Whiche in fals goddes setten youre delyte 

Blynd dome : and deth is al youre mametrye 

Of stok and stone, men may suche karue & thwyte 

Leue theym for fals with sour and despyte 

In our one god cast anker and byleue 

Though ye were dede, he can make yow leue 

He is al lyf whan youre goddes be dede 
They haue a tyme, and he is sempyterne 
They are but erthe, and brought lowe as led© 

Ghastly Matters.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 329 

He legneth god aboue the heuen superne 
Blyssed be he, for he no grace wyl werne 
To them, that wyl in hytn beset theyr byleue 
And though they dye y\vys yet shal they lyue 

(SrpUcit €ractatui^ tie f itie tt CantUiSf famule 

The two remaining leaves are occupied by a table of moral duties, 
printed in double columns, and having this prefix in long lines : 

€f)cfe tf|pnge,£f folotupn^ is? cuetp Crpatcn man anti 
tomnan fjolDc^ anb Iiountie to \w^t, aniJ to tonne to tJjepc 
potoer in tuape of t^ept (aluacpon 

The leaf forming e viij, is necessarily blank. The present may be 
considered a sound and beautiful copy, and is in blue morocco binding. 

877- DiUERs Fruytful Ghostly Maters. Em- 
prynted at Westmynstre. Without Bate. Quarto. 

This very rare and diminutive volume is divided into three treatises; 
each treatise having a distinct set of signatures. With the exception 
of the copy of it, in the public library at Cambridge, I am unable to 
notice any other than the one here under description; which was 
obtained at the sale of the Merly Library, for not less a sum than 
1941. 5s. On the recto of the first leaf, A j, we read the title ; in 4 lines 
and a half, as given in the Typog. Ant'iq. vol. i. p. 330 ; of which, in 
this copy, the first two lines are partly obliterated. From this title, 
we learn that the first treatise is translated from a latin work entitled 
Orologium Sapiencie. This first treatise occupies the signatures, 
A to M, inclusively, in eights. On the reverse of M viij : 

il €SujSf enbitl^ tfje treatp^e of tje tjij 
3?opnte^ of true ioue i eueda^tpng tDpfbom- 
bratden of tlje fiohe t j)at \^ ijdrpten in Wtw na 
met! <0rdogiu fapiecie 

330 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Ghostly Matters. 

C ODiii Icgit cniciibct/ jircfforeiii non rcprc 

€ ll^pncliiui barton. Cut tie'> alta trntrat 

The second treatise, commencing also on A j recto, treats of 
Tribulation ; as the ensuing title announces. 

<ett ficgpnnetf) a IptiJl Hiortc ttea^ 
tpjefc tlfjat tcHptt) ijoto tDcrc tocrc. DtJ 
niatt^fcri^ af^cmlJlcti togpbre aicrpclftcoHc aU 
hth otljcr tDfjat tljpttgc tljcp mpgljtc ficft ^pcftc 
of tljat itipgljt jrfc*?c gob/ ajib toere nioojSft pro 
fitaBle to tlie people. %rib eSi tftcp tocrc accor^ 
bfti to fpcRc of trifiulacpon. 

This second Treatise extends to D, inclusively, in eights. On the 
recto of D viij : 

C €f)u^ cntictlj t|)i^ trcatpfc (Jcbjpnge tfje 
j:ii. proffitc^ of ttifiulacpon ♦♦ : ♦ 

Beneath, is a wood-cut in two compartments : the bottom one 
exhibits the mocking and crowning of our Saviour, similar to what 
appears at page 15 ante. On the reverse of this leaf, is Caxton's 
large device. The third Treatise follows, on aa (j) recto, having a 
prefix in 10 lines, from which we learn that it relates to the Rule of 
St. Bennet. It occupies only 20 leaves : namely, a and b in eights, 
and c with four leaves. On the recto of c iiij, at bottom, we read 

C <Df pour ctiaritc prapc for t|)c tranfla^ 
tour of ttjpjBf fapti trcatpfc/ 

On the reverse is a more extended inii)rint, followed by a recapitu- 
lation of the subject matter of the entire three treatises. At bottom, 
it is thus : 

Curial, Sfc] WILLIAM CAXTON. 331 

C (j^mjnrpnteti at toeftrnpnisftre hp tiefitpng 
of certepn toori5l)ijifufl pztimt^ : ♦ 

A full page of each of these treatises contains 24 or 25 lines. The 
present copy has been cleansed and perfected v/ith success, and is 
most brilliantly bound in olive-colour morocco, by C. Lewis. 

878. The Curial of Maystere Alain Charre- 
TiER. fVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

The first leaf of this singularly scarce and slender tract (of only 6 
leaves) is wanting in the copy under description. The remaining 5 
leaves are entire, but almost destitute of margin fi'om the unskilfulness 
of an ancient binder.* A full page contains 38 lines, and the whole 
impression is upon signature i, without numerals or catchwords. For 
an account of the first leaf, see Tijpog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 338. I subjoin 
the whole of the thiee concluding pages. 

' And yf thou demandest, what is the lyf of them of the co\irte I 
answere the brother, that it is a poure rychesse, an habundance myse- 
rable, an hyenesse that falleth, an estate not stable, a sewrte tremblynge, 
and an euyl lyf. And also it may be called of them that ben amorouse 
a deserte lyberte, Flee ye men flee and holde and kepe you ferre fro 
suche an assemblee, yf ye wyll lyue wel and surely, and as peple wel 
assured vpon the Pyuage, beholde vs drovvne by our owne agreement, 
and mespiyse our blyndenes, that may ne wylle knowe o\vc propre 
meschyef, for lyke as the folysshe maronners, whyche somtyme cause 
them self to be drowned, by theyr dyspourueyed aduysement, in lyke 
wyse the courte draweth to hym and deceyueth the symple men, and 
maketh them to desire and coueyte it, lyke as a pybaulde or a comyn 
womman wel arayed, by her lawhynge and by her kyssynge. The courte 
taketh meryly them that comen therto, in usynge to them false pro- 
messes, the courte laweth atte begynnyng on them that entre, and after 
she grj'mmeth on them, and somtyme byteth them ryght aygrely. The 
courte reteyneth the caytyuys whiche can not absente and kepe them 

The cause of tliis ' shorn ' state of the margin was, that the above copy, a copy of the 
Pm-vus Chato, and of the Book for Travellers, were all cut down to the size of a small quarto 
volume; when purchased by Lord Spencer. His Grace the Duke of Devonshire obtained 
tlie latter copy from his Lordship. 

332 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Curial of 

fro thene, and altlay adnewe auctoryse and lorshippe vpon suche as 
they surniounte. The courte also by errour forget eth ofte them that 
bestc seruen, And dyspende folyly her propre good for ten ryche them 
that ben not worthy, and that haue ryght euyl deseruyd it. And the 
man is vnhappy that is taken in, and had leuer to perysshe, than to 
yssue and goo out, And ther to lose hys cours of nature, wythout euer 
to haue hys franchyse and lyberte vntyl hys deth, Beleue surely brother 
and doute nothynge that thou excersysest lyght good and ryght 
prouffytable offyce yf thou canst wel vse thy maystiyse that thou hast 
in thy lytyl hous, and thou art and shal be puyssaunt as longe as thou 
hast and shal haue of thy self sufiysaunce. For who that hath a smal 
howshold and lytle meyne and gouerneth them wysely & in peas, he is 
a lorde, And somoche more is he ewrous & happe as he more frely 
maynteneth it. As ther is nothyng so precious vnder heuen, as for to 
be of sufficient comynycacion wyth franchyse, O fortuned men, O 
blessyd famyllye where as is honeste pouerte that is content \\'ith reson 
without etyng the fruytes of other mennes labour, O wel ha))py howse 
in whyche is vertue wythout fraude ne barat, and whyche is honestly 
gouerned in the drede of god and good moderacion of lyf. There entre 
no synnes, There is a true and ryghtful lyf, whereas is remorse of 
euery synne and where is no noyse, murmure ne enuye, of suche lyf 
enioyeth nature, and in smale eases lyueth she longe, and lytyl and 
lytyl she cometh to playssauut age and honeste ende, for as seyth 
Seneke in hys tragedys. Age cometh to late to peple of smale bowses, 
whyche lyvie in suflFysaunce, But emog vs court yours that be ser- 
uauntes to fortune, we lyue disordynatly, we waxen old more by force 
of charges than by the nombre of yeres. And by defaulte of wel 
lyuyng we ben weiy of the swetenes of our lyf, whyche so moche we 
desire and haste to goo to the deth the whyche we so moche dred and 
doubte, Sufifyse the thene broder to lyue in peas on thy partye, & lerne 
to contente the by our meschiefs, ne mesprise not thy self so moche, 
that thou take the deth, for the lyf, ne leue not the goodes that thou 
shalt be constrayned to brynge. For to seche to gete them after wyth 
grete wayllynges and sorow, whych shal be to the horryble and harde 
to fyndc, Fynally I praye the, counseylle and warne the, that yf thou 
hast taken ony holy and honeste lyf, that thou wyl not goo and lese it, 
and that thou take away that thought and despyse alle thy ^vyl for to 
come to court, and be content to wythdrawe the wythin thenclose of 
thy pryuc hous, And yf thou haue not in tyme passed known that thou 
ha-Tt ben ewrous and happy, thenne lerne now to knowe it fro hens- 

Alain Chartier.-] WILLIAM CAXTON. 333 

forth, and to god I comande the by thys wrytynge which gyue the hys 
grace, Amen 

^jlUj0? entictf) tgc (Cutial matie Iipmapieftre ^lain Cljartetict 
KranijJatet! tjjui^ in a^ngipfsl) bp tapIUam Cajcton 

Ther ne is dangyer, but of a vaylayn 
Ne pride, but of a poure nian enryched 
Ne so sure a way, as is the playn 
Ne socour, but of a trewe frende 
Ne despayr, but of lalousye 
Ne hye corage, but of one Amorouse 
Ne pestilence, but in grete seygnorye 

Ne chyere, but of a man loyous 
Ne seruyse, lyke to the kyng souerayn 
Ne fowle name, but of a man shamed 
Ne mete, but whan a man hath hungre 
Ne entrepryse, but of a man hardy 
Ne pouerte, lyke vnto malady 
Ne to haunte, but the good and wyse 
Ne howse, but yf it be wel garnysshed 

Ne chyere, but of a man loyous 
Ne ther is no rychesse, but in helthe 
Ne loue, so good as mercy 
Ne than the deth, nothyng more certayne 
Ne none better chastysed, than of hym self 
Ne tresour, lyke vnto wysedom 
Ne anguysshe, but of ay herte coueytous 
Ne puyssaunce, but ther men haue enuye 

Ne chyere, but of a man loyous 
What wylle ye that I saye 
Ther is no speche, but it be curtoys 
Ne preysyng of men, but after theyr lyf 

Ne chyer but of a man loyous 


This precious volume is now bound in elegant olive morocco, by 
C. Lewis. 

331 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Life of our Lady. 

8/9. The Lyf of our Lady. TVithout Place or 
Date. FoJio. 

The copy under description, although sound and in most desirable 
condition, is unluckily imperfect ; wanting the first two leaves, contain- 
ing the table, without signatures ; and the first and last leaf of signature 
d. It would appear that, although signature h be wholly omitted, there 
is no defect in signature i following g ; as the concluding sentence, on 
the reverse of g viij, is repeated on the recto of i j, thus :* 

% qucrtpon altopKeti toljicljc i^ t»ort(|pcft 
of fepng Uipnc or tooman capitulof ! tji; 

• Chapter Ivij unaccountably follow cliapter xlix. 

t The following ' commendation' of Chaucer is perhaps the most interesting part of 

the volume : 

A comendaciou of chauceres capitulo xxxiiij 

a Nd eke my master chauceris now is graue 

The noble rethor poete of brytayne 
That worthy was the lawrer to haue 
Of poetrye and the palme attayne 
That made first to dystylle and rayne 
The gold dewe dropys of speche & eloquence 
In to our tunge thrugh liis excellence 

And fonde llie flouris first of rethorykc 
Our rude speche onely to enlumyne 
That in our tunge was neuer none hyra lykc 
For as the sonne doth in heuen shyne 
In mydday spere doun to vs by Jyne 
In whos presence no sterre may appere 
Right so his dytees withouten ony pere 

Euer makyng with his light distayne 

In sothfastnes who so takyth hede 

Wherfore no wonder tliough myn herte playne 

Vpon his deth and for sorow blede 

For want of hyni now in my grete nede 

That shold alias conucye and dyrecte 

And with his supporle amende and correcte 

The wrong traces of ray rude penne 
There as I erre and goo not lyne right 
But that for bene may me not kenne 

Life of our Lady.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 335 

This is among the scarcer volumes of the press of Caxton. Herbert 
(see Tijpog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 336) has printed the heads of the chapters, 
forming the table, as collected from the body of the work ; but the 
copy of this impression in the Bodleian Library has the table distinctly 
executed on the first two leaves. On sign, a i the text begins, as given 
in the authority just referred to, at page 339. The signatures, to m, 
run in eights ; but m has only 5 printed leaves : on the recto of the 
5th of which, the colophon is as follows : 

€njitpiiteti hp il^pHpam Carton 

This valuable acquisition to the Caxtonian department of the Library 
under description, was obtained from the curious library of Mr. Octaviua 
Gilchrist ; for a consideration proportionate to its worth. It has been 
since bound in blue morocco. 

I can no more but with al my myght 
With al myn herte & niyn inward sight 
Prayeth for hym that now lyeth in cheste 
To god aboue o geue liis sowle good reste 

And as I can fortlie I wyl procede 

Sithen of his heipe ther may no socour be 

And though my penne be quakyng ay for drede 

Nether to clyo ne to calyope 

Me list not calle for to helpe me 

Ne to no muse my poyntel for to gye 

But leue al this and say vnto marie 

O clere castel and the chaste toure 
Of the lioly ghoost moder and virgyiie 
Be thou my helpe counceyl and socoure 
And let the stremys of thy mercy shyue 
• In to ray breste this thyrd book to fyne 

That thorow thy supporte and benygne grace 

Hit to parforme I may haue lyf and space Sign, e vij, vnj. 


336 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chastising of 

880. The Chastysing of Goddes Chyldern. 
TVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

The title of this work is printed nearly in the centre of the recto of 
the first leaf: being the only printed passage in this page. It occupies 
2 lines, and nearly the whole of a 3rd, and is strictly thus : 

C Z^t prmiffptalilc fioftc for mnrtcsf lefoulc/ 5llnti rigfit 
coinfortablc to tljc 6otjp antJ ^pccpanp in atiucrsite i 
trplniiacpon toljictie Iiofte i^ calicti €ljc €f)a,0tp,3ing of 
goDtifiS Cljpltimt 

The entire impression, with the exception of the above lines, is 
executed in double columns, and on the reverse of the first leaf, is the 
preface or jirolognie, as follows : 

• In drede of almighty god Relygyous suster a short pistle I sende 
you of the mater of temptacons, whiche pystle as me thynketh maye 
resonably be cleped The Chastising of Goddes childern. Of this mater 
ye haue desyred to knowe in comforte of your sowle. But nedeful it 
were to you pacyently & gladly to sufFre suche goostly chastysing wyth 
full faythe & sadde hope, and abyde his ordnnauce tyll he sende com- 
forte by grace & bi mercy. Somtyme it falleth by the Rightwysnes & 
wysdom of god, the more knoweng a man hathe. the stronger ben his 
temptacyons. And all his ciinynge is hyd away, & stondeth hym in 
full lityl comfort, as for that time, in to that it plesye god for his grete 
pyte to comforte hym by gi-aco, soo that in hym is oonly our knoweng. 
chastysing, & comfort, Also my suster I drede to wryte of suche hyghe 
maters, for I neyther haue felyng ne knoweng openly to declare theym 
in englyssh tongue, for it passeth my wytte to shewe you in ony 
manere of comyn langage the termes of diuynite. Also I fele myself 
vnworthy to haue the goostly scyence, whereby 1 shold knowe or haue 
an Inwarde feling what doctoui-s wold meane in his holy writynge The 
causes considred. and many other skylfuly. I may drede to write of 
this chastysing But askyng helpe of god almyghty, by whoos might 
the asse had speche to the prophete Balaam after your desire as 
ferforth as I dare or know of teptacons, I wyll shewe you in specyall & 
ill general. & to hem remedies with some other maters that lightly 
wyll falle to purpose, submytyng me euermore lowly to correcyon of 

God's Children.-] WILLIAM CAXTON. 337 

wysemen & clerkes. & men of ghostly knowyng. This pistle whiche I 
clepe chastysig of goddes chyldern, I wyll begyn Nvyth y' same wordes 
whiche our lorde Jhesu cryst sayd to his apostles, wha he hadde hem 
wake & pray, before he went to his passion, thise wordes I wylle folowe. 
& wyth hem make an ende. as god wyll gyne me grace.' 

The table, which immediately follows, occupies each side of the 
ensuing leaf. Neither of these 2 leaves contain a signature. The text 
of the work commences at top of the following leaf, A j ; and from 
sign. A vj, the reader is presented with no incuiious specimen of the 
nature of this work : 

' Of vj. generall temptacons & other in specyall, caplm vj. 

• Noo man may. nombre teptacyons in specyall, but some temptacons 
I wyll shewe in generall. whiche falle generally to dyuers men in eche 
degre. & afterwarde I wylle shewe some teptacons in specyall, wyth 
the whyche goostly liuers ben moi-e specially traueylid than other men, 
vj. general temptacyons there ben whiche traueylen a manes spiryte, 
thise temptacyons ben medlid after the settyng of a manis bodi, that 
is to saye, before & behynde, & aboue & beneth, on the right side & on. 
the lifte side. The temptacyon that is beneth is repreuable. the temp- 
tacyon that is aboue is wonderful, the temptacion that is before is 
dredful, the teptacion that is behynde is vnsemely. the temptacion 
that is on the right side is mouable, the temptacion that is on the 
lifte side is greuous. The first y' is of beneth cometh of our owne 
flessh, whiche scorneth vs alday with glosig & flatrig. bi cause we shold 
folow his lust & desires, & this teptacyon is repreuable, 

' The seconde temptacon that is cleped aboue, is of our reison, 
whiche is the ouer parte of our soule, as whan reison assenteth, & 
deliteth, & is drawen to serue the flesshe, whiche shold be subget to 
reason, and this temptacion is wonderful. 

' The thyrde temptacion that is cleped before, is wycked illsions.* & 
ials suggestyons of the wycked deuylles. the whiche euer more whether 
we becom wakyng or slepyng they cast gynnes to catche vs that vneth 
we may scape, & this is ful dredefull. The fourth temptacyon that is 
behynde, is mynde & thoughte of sinnes before done wyth lykyng & 
plesauce of y' flesshe in vanytee, or ony thyng that noughte is. and 
this is vnsemely. The v. temptacyon that is on the right side, is of grete 
prosperite. as whan all fortune & ease fallen to a man euermore 
abidynge wythout ony losse or dysease, This is meuable. as a byrde that 


338 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Chastising 8fc. 

fleeth. whiche somtyme is soo mery, that in liis besle flighte falleth 
downe & deyeth. and that is meuable, the sixt teptacyon that is on 
the lift side, is grete aduersite. whiche somtyme biigeth the soul in to 
soo grete heuynes, y' eyther it makyth him sore grutche ayenst god, 
orels to thynke & saye aniys ayenst god. & al is to bilge him into 
to dispeyre, & this teptacion is greuous, of thise vj. teptacyons 
generally I clepe hem for bothe worldly man & ghostly men betra- 
ueylid Avyth suche temptacions some men more, & some lesse. some 
wyth one. & some with an other, after dysposicion of kynde & orden- 
aOce & sufFrauce of god, so that euery man in eche degree is somewhat 
traueled that moost done his besinesse to come to perfight loue, for to 
hem the deuyll hath moost enuye.' Sign. A vj. 

The signatures, to H, run in sixes : H having only 4 leaves. On 
the recto of G iiij, we read the ensuing termination to the ' Epistle,' 
mentioned in the opening of the prologue : 

C €jcjrticit flic libtt ca.sftigatonxjsf 
jmcro2f tti. 

A sort of homily occupies the remaining leaves ; when, on the recto 
of H iiij, and last, (second column) is the concluding sentence, thus : 

%nh 31 ^ape tljc ^urclp tfjat pf tgou 
Ijoltic on tfji^ inancrc of bopng ht^ 
39fdp, ttjptfjoutcn ^tpntpng. not oon 
Ip J)c ^fjaJl lofec on tt^ti l>ut Ijc j^ljaU 
Iirpnge from afl xnanttt tipseai^e in 
to M 3[opc 1 ma^ti ^otp 0oti gra 
unt tfjat it mpgljtc ^o 6c, tjjat tutt 
i0 laiBftpng in CrinptC/ 

The reverse is blank. On consulting the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 
35G, it will be seen that I have described the present and the ensuing 
article, as one publication from the press of Caxton ; but although these 
two articles are bound in the same volume, in the copy of them which is 
in the Public Library at Cambridge, and although each work is printed 

Treatise of Love.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 339 

in the same manner, and with the same types, having the same number 
of lines in each, (namely 36) yet, on reconsideration, I conclude them 
to be distinct works, published at two several times. This copy of 
the present work, which is a tall, sound, and most desirable one, was 
obtained at the sale of the Roxburgh Library for 1401. It is in dark 
red morocco binding. 

881. Tretyse of Loue. Without Place or Date, 

There are two considerations which induce me to arrange and 
describe this work as a separate article from the preceding one. First, 
there is a distinct title, with a date incorporated in it ; and secondly, 
there is a distinct set of signatures : the text beginning upon A j. 
The title involves rather a knotty point of discussion : as the work is 
said therein to have been ' translated from the French into English in 
the year 1493 :' — how then could it have been executed by Caxton, 
who died perhaps before the termination of the year 1491 ? Two sug- 
gestions present themselves in reply to this question. The first is, that 
an X too much may have been added in the date of the completion of the 
version; the second, and the more probable one is, that the press-work 
was executed in the office of Caxton, by Wynkyn De Worde, with 
the types of our first Printer; as the body of the work, as well as the 
small device at the end, are decidedly Caxtonian. We have here there- 
fore another instance of a seeming typographical incongruity. The 
Golden Legend, of the same date, (1493) has absolutely the name of 
Caxton subjoined, as the printer of it ! — see p. 269 ante. But we may 
be certain that no book, actually printed by W-. de Worde, in his own 
office, is at present known to exist which exhibits either the type of the 
present work or of the Golden Legend just referred to. 

The text of this work commences on the recto of A j, in the follow- 
ing manner : 

" ^ This tretyse is of loue and spekyth of iiij of the most specyall 
louys that ben in the worlde and shewyth veryly and perfitely bi gret 
resons and Causis, how the meruelous & bounteous loue that our lord 
Jhesu cryste had to mannys soule excedyth to ferre alle other loues as 
apperith well by the paynfull passion and tormetis y* be suffryd for the 
redempcyon ther of. so that alle louis y* euyr were or euyr shalbe arne* 

• Sic. 

3^0 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Treatise 

not to be lykenyd to the lest parte of y* loue that was in hym. whiche 
tretyse was translatid out of frenshe Into englyshe, the yere of our lord 
Mcccclxxxxiij, by a persone that isvnperfight in suche werke wherfor 
he hubly byseche the lernyd reders wyth pacyens to correcte it where 
they tynde nede. And they & alio other reders of their chary te to 
pray for the soule of the sayde translatour.' 1'hen ' % Canticu beate 
marie de dolore suo in passione filii sui plenitudo legis est dilectio.' 

As this is a work of considerable curiosity and rarity, the reader 
may be gratified by some more generally-interesting specimen of it : 

' And whan they had all the nyght tormented him, and doon him all 
the harme and shame they coude. On the morne they assembled theym 
all togyder. and luged hym to the most shamefuU deth that they cowde 
thynke, whyche was to be hanged vpon the crosse, vpon an hyghe 
raountayne betwene two theues, wherof this verse is sayd. 

♦ Dismas et gismas medio diuina potestas, Et cum iniquis deputatus est, 

* Dysmas the tone theef hynge on that one parte, and Gysmas y^ other 
theef on the other parte, and betwene them henge the diuyne mageste, 
this was our lorde Ihesu criste, And whan he was luged, the ciuel tour- 
mentours and hangme trussed the lieuy wood of the crosse vpon his 
backe, as sayth saynt lohan the euangeliste, Aduxerut eum et cetera, They 
ledde Ihesu oute of the cyte, and hymself beringehis harde crosse, soo 
feynt & weiy, that vnneth myghte he here it, wherof he sayth by dauyd. 
Qiri defecit in dolore vita mea, my lyfF and my force faylleth me in sorow 
and payiie. And whan they sawe he myght not goo so spedely as they 
wold, they toke wyth force a stronge man that passed by the waye, 
whiche was namyd simon, And made hym ayenst his wylle to here the 
crosse. the sooner to haast the dethe of our lorde Ihesu csyst, 

' And whan they took fro hym the crosse to delyuer to symon. they 
smote our lorde ful ouelly, Theiie came there wymmen of galilee 
folowyng our lorde, and wepte full peteously. And made full grete 
sorowe to see hym suflxe soo moche shame and payne withoute deserte 

' And whan he sawe thyse wymen were soo sore : he had full grete 
pyte. And sayd to theym, 

• Filie Iherusalem nolite flere super me, &c. 

* Doughters of Iherusalem wepe ye not for me, but for yourselfe, and 
your chylderne, For the dayes shall come wha ye shall saye, blessed be 

of Love.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 541 

the bareyne woman, and the wombes that neuer bare chylde. and the 
breestes that neur gaaf souke, For thenne shall ye begyne to saye, 
mountayns fall on vs, and the erthe couere vs, 

♦ The cruell Jewes ledde hym forth, and hynge hym on the crosse nakyd 
before all the peple in the same fowle place, where the stynkyng-e rotyii 
careyns were of the bodies of theues that they had put to deth in that 
same place afore, 

'Alas whan he was crusifyed thus sorowfuUy, the cursyd traytours 
escryed hym soo shamfully, & sayd, Mouetes capita sua dixerunt vath 
qui destruit templum del, et in tribus diebus illud reediticat, salua 
teipsum. si filius dei es descende de cruce : They brandysshyd theyr 
hedes, and sayd in scorn, see him here that same that wylle destroye the 
temple of god, and make it ayen wythin iij dayes, now saue thiself yf 
thou be the sone of god, C'ome downe of the crosse where thou arte 
hanged, Thus cryed the felon lewes See that same that auauted hym* 
hymself to saue other folkes, and hymselfe he maye not saue. 

Sign. C. iiij. v. 

A little onward, on the recto of C vj, we have the ensuing finishing 
stroke to the melancholy picture just described : 

* O homo considera filium virginis illusum, spictis linidum, plagis 
confixum clauis, A man beholde the sone of the virgyn marye soylid 
wyth fowle spittynges. all blody of his woundes, and percyd wyth 
nayles. Take hede of the kyiig of angels beyng on the crosse, pale to 
the deth, fowle in flessh, passe bi this. And take kepe wha ye see the 
fygure how he is a man mekely bowynge. a man smyten wyth shamfuU 
deth. A man lyke vnto a mesell, A man of all sorowes apperynge on 
his body and all wrapt in sorowe, And yet whan he was past all the 
anguyssh payn and shame that he myght suffre in his lyf for the loue 
of his loue f manes soule, they dyde hym after hys deth the grettest 
shame they cowde thynke. For they wold not bery hi amonge other 
lewes, but wythoute the towne, as a man that were acursed, And his 
blessid soule descended in to belle, for to destroye the mortall enmyes 
of his loue mannes soule. And to fetche theym oute that longe had 
abyden hym there' 

The following bibliographical memoranda, connected with this 
volume, have been supplied by a ms. notice of Herbert. 

On sign. F. iij rect. ' ^ Here endeth the lamentac5n of our lady, whiche 
she had in y^ passion of our sauyour, ^ Here begynneth a treatyse 
• Sic. t Sie. 

H42 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Treatise of Love. 

moche prouffitable for reformacSn of soules defoyled wyth ony of the 
vij dedely synues,' On sign G iij rev. ' ^ Here foloweth a Treatise that 
spekyth of the vertu. & of the Lrauches of the appultree. whiche is 
exuouned morally : as foloweth here after,' On H j rev. ' 5[ HEre ben 
declared the signes wherby men may seke the loue of our lorde,' 
H ij rev. ' % How fayth exhorteth the persone to esschewe & haue in 
contempt all euyl thoughtes, & to reduse theself in al poyntes to good 
werkes vnder the hope of diuyne giace,' On H 4. rev. ' Here begynneth 
a techynge by manere of predycacyon made to the people by mayster 
Alberte conteynyng ix. artycles. % Mayster Alberte Archebysshop of 
Coleyne sayd these wordes in the persone of Jhesu cryst,' % The 
fyrste is this. Gyue a peny for my loue in thy lyfe whyle thou hast 
power and helthe &c. The seconde is wepe one tere for my suffraunce 
& passion &c. 51 The thirde is this, breke thy slepe, & thy owne wylle 
whan thou mayst doo it to worship & prayse rae. &c. % The fourth 
is this, kepe the fro euyll sayeng of thyn neyghbour, & hurt no body 
wylfully, &c. % The v. is this sufFre Joyfulli a hard worde wha men 
say to the for the loue of me. &c. % The vj. is herberow the poor, & 
doo good to theim that ben nedy. &c. ^ The vij. is doo good to thy 
power in all y' thou may, & put peas & loue amonge thy neyghbours, 
&c. % The vlij is this, yf you desire oni thyng eyther for soule or for 
body, or for ony other thig, or caas, pray therfore hertly to myself, & 
it shall plese me more & better for the, than yf my moder & all the 
sayntes in heue praied me for the, so moche it pleseth me thyne owne 
prayer wyth tru hert. % The ix. is this, loue me souerainly ouer al 
creatures of good herte, of good loue & true, & this shall plese me more 
& be better for y* than yf there wer a pyller that retchid from erthe to 
heuen, & sharpe as rasours, & were possible that y" myghtest goo vpon 
this pyller. & come down ayen euery day & not dey Jt pleyseth me 
more tliat thou sholde loue me faythfully wyth all thy soule. and wyth 
all thy herte enteerly. 

(^Herbert adds, but from what part I cannot discover) 

1. And this shall pleyse me better. & more shall auayle the* than yf 
me gaaf after thy dethe for the a hepe of siluer, that were as hye 
as fro erth to y* skye. 

2. that J haue suflFrid for the & for thy syncs, & it shall pleise me more, 
& be better for the, than yf y wepte asmoche of teres as is water 
in y* see, for ony other thyng y' is vayn & chaugeable, 

3. & it shall pleyse me more. & be better for the than yf men sende 
xij. knyghtes in good quarell for the after thy deth 

Treatise of Love.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 343 

4. & this shall plese me more & be better for the than yf thou wentest 
barefote so long y^ men might folow the by the trackes of thy blood. 

5. & this shal pleise me more & better for the, than yf it myght be 
that you suffredst as many roddes to be broken vpon thy body as 
myght lye on a grete feld 

6. & thou shalt pleyse me more & be better to the, than yf you fastyd 
xl. yere brede & water, 

7. & it shal pleyse me more & better to the, than yf you were euery 
day rauyssht to heuen, 

On H 5. rect. ^ Here begj iien dyuerse treatises & ensamples of saynt 
poul, & other doctours of diu5'nite. 

On H vj, rect. ' ^ Thus endeth this present boke whiche treateth 
fyrst of y* gloryous passion of our Sauyour, and of the compascyon that 
his blessyd moder had therof, And also sheweth in a nother treatyse 
folowyng wherfore we ought to loue our sauyour more than ony other 
thynge, % Also sheweth another treatise moche proufFytable for refor- 
macyon of soules defoyled wyth ony of the vij. dedely synnes, ' % Jtem 
another treatyse shewynge the signes of goostly loue. ' ^ Jtem treatise 
of the vertues. & of the braOches of the appultree whiche is expowned 
morally as is before expressyd, ^Also folowig is declared wherby men 
maye seke the loue of our lorde Jhesu cryst. % And the last treatyse 
of this forsayd boke speketh to exhorte y= persone to eschewe, and 
haue in cotempe all euyll thoughtes, And to reduce theymself in 
all poyntes to good Averkes, vnder y= hope of dyuyne grace : 

Wf^kfit toUt toa^ Jatdp tran^ia^ 
tell oute of ftcn^fj in to cngli^^Je 
hp a m^^t tocJl lipiBfpOiGfeti jrer^one/ 
for hp tau0t tjje ^apti pctisonc tjjougl) 
te it ttccejsfjsfatp to ail beuoiite pejik 
to tthti or to f^ttt it rebtic/ ^nti al^o 
cau^cti tijc ^apti Bofte to lie enjirpn* 

The last sentence terminates the volume : the signatures running 
in sixes. Beneath it is Caxton's smallest device. 

The copy under description was obtained from the choice Collection 
of Mr. Roger Wilbraham, for a sum proportionate to its intrinsic 
curiosity and rarity. It is in very sound condition, and has been 
recently bound in purple morocco by C. Lewis. 

VOJL. IV, y y 

344 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Statutes. 

882. Statutes. TFithout Place or Date. Folio. 

This truly valuable and uncommon volume was obtained of Mr. 
Tiii)hook, the bookseller, for a comparatively moderate sum.* In the 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxxi, p'. i. the following full, and it is 
deemed satisfactory, account of it was given by me to the public. 

' It will be seen, in my first volume of Ames, p. 354, that only a 
fragment of the Statutes printed by Caxton was then known. By 
great good fortune, a copy of a complete series of the acts, passed in 
Henry the Vllth's reign, up to the period of Caxton's decease, and 
printed by Caxton himself, is now deposited in the noble library of 
Earl Spencer. From this copy I proceed to submit the following 
account ; adhering to the ancient orthography only in the opening 

* The kynge our souereyn lorde henry the seuenth after the conquest 
by the grace of god kyng oP Englonde and of Fraunce and lorde of 
Irlonde at his parlyamet holden at Westmynster the seuenth daye 
of Nouembre in the first yere of his reigne, To thonour of god and holy 
chuche, and for the comen profyte of the royame, bi thassent of the 
lordes spirituell and temporell, and the comens in the sayd parliamet 
assebled, and by autorite of the sayd parlyamente, hath do to be made 
certein statutes & ordenaunces in maner & fourme folowyng :' Sign. 
a ij, recto. 

In this Session of Parliament the following acts were passed : [The 
titles are here printed in modern orthography.] 

1. Fermedowne. 

2. Against strangers made denizens to paij customs, SfC 

3. No protection [<o] be allowed in any court at Calais. 

4. Corrections of Priests for incontinence. 

5. Against Tanners &; Cordiners. 

6. Felde [in bateyll]. 
7- Against Hunters. 

8. For Reparations of the Navy. 

* It was discovered to be a production of Caxton's press, in a volume of some trat-ts 
printed by W. de Worde. IMr. Triphook had made up his mind to dispose of this volume 
for about 3/. 3s.: but Lord Spencer, on its being ascertamcd to be a genuine production oi 
Caxton's press, very readily presented him with SOgmneas for the Statutis alone; return- 
ing the other tracts. 

Statutes.] WILLIAM CAXTON. 345 

The opening of this chapter, oi" preamble of the act, may cause an 
Englishman now to smile. ' Item in the said parliament it was called 
to remembrance, of the great minishing and decay that hath be [en] now 
of late time of the navy within this realm of England, and idleness of 
the mariners within the same ; by the which this noble realm, within 
short process of time, without reformation be had therein, shall not 
be of ability and power to defend itself,' &c. Sign, a vij, red. 

9. Silk Work. 

10. Revocation of King Richard's act against Italians. 

In the second parliament, weie the following : 

1, Giving of Livery. 

2. Taking of Maidens, Widows, and Wives, against their will, is made 

3 Letting to bail of persons arrested for light suspicion. 

4. Deeds of Gifts of Goods to the use of the maker of such gifts be void. 

5. Dry Exchange. 

6. Exchange and Rechange. 

7. Concerning Customers. 

8. Employment. 

9. Against the Ordinaunce of London of going to Fairs. 

10. Damage given in a Writ of Error. 

11. Clothes, to be carried over the sea, [to'] be barbed rowed and shorn 
— except, 8ic. 

12. Retainder. 

At the end of this chapter, mention is made of the Bow : and I 
conceive, from the commencement of the paragraph, that it is a fresh 
section or chapter, with the title omitted. It begins thus : * Item, for 
as much as the great & ancient defence of this realm hath stood by 
the Archers Sr Shooters in long bows, which is now left and fallen in decay 
for [from] the dearth and excessive price of long bows, it is therefore 
ordained, &c. that if any person, or persons, &c. sell any long bow over 
the price three shillings iiij [qu. four pence?] that then the seller 
or sellers of such bow forfeit, for every bow so sold, over the said price, 
X shillings to the king.' Sign, c iiij, rev. 

If Ritson had been aware of this statute, he would most probably 
have quoted it in his curious disquisition upon ancient archery : Robin 
Hood, vol. i. p. xxxvij, &c, 

13. Felony. 

14. Expiratur. 



In the ensuing parliuuicnt, in the 4th year of Henry Vllth, were 
enacted tlie foUowinjj,- : 

1 . For Commitsions of Sewers. 

2. Fillers. 

3. Against Butchers. 

— This act sets forth, in the preamble, that the King's subjects and 
parisliioners of the parish of St. Faith and St. Gregory in London, 
nigh adjoinant unto the Cathedral Church of [St.] Paul's &c. ben 
greatly annoyed and envenemed [envenomed] by corrupt eires [airs] 
engendered in tlie said j)arishes by occasion of blood and other fouler 
things, by occasion of the slaughter of beasts and scalding of swine, had 
& done in the butchery of St. Nicholas Flesshamels, whose corruption, 
by violence of unclean and putrified waters, is borne down through the 
said parishes, and compasseth two parts of the palace where the King's 
most royal person is wont to abide, when he cometh to the cathedral 
church for any act there to be done, to the Jubardouse [jeopardous] 
abiding of his most noble person, & to over great annoyance of the 
p(iri:ihe)is there.' &c. Sign, c viij, rev. 

4. Protections for passers into Britamj. 

.■"). Annulling of Letters Patent made to any spiritual person to be quit 
for paijment of dysmes or gathering of the same. 

G. Annulling of Letters Patent of any office in the forest of Ingletvood. 

7. That all Letters Patents, made to yeomen of the crown, and grooms 
of the king's chamber, for lack of their attendance, be void. 

8. Price of Hats and Bonnets. 

— ' Item, that where afore this time it hath be daily used, and yet 
is, that certain craftsmen named Hatmakers & Capmakers doon sell their 
hats & caps at such an outerageous price, that, \vhere an hat standeth 
not them in xvj pence they will sell it for iij shillings or xl pence ; and 
also a cap, that standeth not them in xvj pence, they will sell it for iiij , 
shillings, or v shillings— and by cause they know well that eveiy man 
must occupy them, they will sell them at none csear [easier] price, &c. , 
it is ordained &c, that no Hatter nor Capper nor other person shall not 
put to sale any hat to any of the king's subjects above the price of xx 
pence the best ; nor any caji above the price of ii shillings [and] viij 
pence the best at the most ' &c. Sign, d iiij. red. 

9. Of Wine and Toulouse Wood. 

10. For keeping of Fry of Fish of the Sea in Orford Haven. 

statutes.-] WILLIAM CAXTON. 3-47 

— ■* it is so that, in late days for a singular covetise [covetousness] & 
lucre in taking of a few great fishes, certain persons have used to set 
and ordain certain boats, called stall boats, fastened with anchors, having 
with them such manner [of] unreasonable nets and engines, that all 
manner [of] fry and brood of fish, in the said haven multiplied, is 
taken and destroyed, as well great fishes unseasonable, as the said fry 
& brood to number innumerable. With the which fry & brood the said 
persons with part thereof feed their hogs, and the residue they put and 
lay it in great pits into the ground, which else would turn to such 
perilous infection of air, that no person, thither resorting, should it 
abide or suffer &c. — and also causeth great scarcity of fish in that 
countries, where, afore this time, was wont to be great plenty' &c. 
(Then follows the enacting part.) Sign, d v, rev. 

12. A bill at the suit of Brouderers. 

13. An act upon buying of Wools. 

14. Actus super proclamatione. 

15. De proclamatione facienda. 

16. Against Thieves. 

17. Annulling of the seal of the Earldom of March. 

18. For the Mayor of London, 

19. The Isle of Wight. 

— ' the which is lately decayed of people, by reason that many towns 
and villages ben let down, and the fields diked and made pasture for 
beasts and cattle, and also many dwelling places farms and farmholds 
have of late time be used to be taken into one man's hold & hands, that 
of old time were wont to be in many several persons' holds & hands, 
and many several households kept in them, and thereby much people 
multiplied, and the same Isle thereby well inhabited — the which now, 
by th'occasion aforesaid, is desolate and not inhabited, but occupied 
with beasts and catties, so that if hasty remedy be not provided, that 
Isle can not be long kept & defended, but open & ready to the hands 
of the King's enemies ; which God forbid ! — For remedy whereof ' 
(Here comes the enacting part.) Sign, e i, rev, 

20. Wards. 

21. Forging Sj- counterfeiting of gold Sf silver of other lands, suffered to 
run in this realm, is made treason. 

22. For keeping up of Houses for Husbandry. 

23. Actions popular. 

24. Carrying of Gold Sf silver over the Sea. 

25. Nota defnibus. 

348 BOOKS PRINTED BY {Siege of Rhodes. 

Tliis latter act concludes the impression, on the reverse of signature 
e vij : (1 has 10, tiie rest have 8, leaves. With the exception of the 
margins being stained, from damp or mildew, this volume is in very 
desirable condition ; having but one slight ms. remark, (which is at the 
bottom) on signature a ij, recto. The margin, in respect to size, is 
nearly in its original state. The type is the largest of the letters used 
by the printer. It may be questioned whether there are three perfect 
copies of this impression in existence. Neither Ames, Tutet, nor 
Herbert, had seen a copy ; and the second of these authorities expressly 
says that ' the whole is very rare to meet with.' A full page has 31 
lines. In russia binding:. 

883. Siege of Rhodes Without Place or Date. 

It is rather in conformity with the arrangement made by Herbert, 
and followed by myself, that this book stands described in its present 
order ; since I have very little doubt of its having been executed by 
Lettou and Machlinia, or by the former of these printers, rather than 
by Caxton. The letters, however, great and small— especially the 
larger ones — and some of the compound smaller ones — bear a strong 
resemblance to the smallest types of our first printer : but, on a com- 
pai'ison with those of the Tenures of Littleton, and of the Ancient 
Abridgement of the Statutes, printed by Lettou and Machlinia (vide post) 
the resemblance is quite complete. 

Having been before somewhat copious upon this curious and (as at 
present supposed) unique article,* it remains only to remark that the 
prologue,t by John Kay the poet-laureat, occupies each side of the 
first leaf: the text beginning thus, on the recto of the 2d leaf: 

it jj tjat ^ Ijauc aplpeb me to ticclare anb 
pubipfff)c to afle ttpmn people ttje lefiegeof 
tljc mhit anti ittupncplile cptee of Hlgotie^ : 

Xcc. 8cc. 8cc. 
The Turkish cannon, brought to play against the vv^alls of the city, 

• T,,{H,g, Autiq. vol. i. p. 350 ; where it is printed entire. Calling it unique, is in reference 
tmlv to anutbcr ptrfht copy. 

Siege of Rhodes.'] WILLIAM CAXTON. 349 

is thus powerfully described : * And in thees whyle, the bombardes 
and grete gozines of the turkes casted downe and destryed the walks of 
the cytee of Rhodes, wyth so grete myghte and strenghte and with soo 
grete wonder: that alle they that were in Rhodes, strangers and other 
olde and yong of all the countreyes of crystendom sayd, that they herde 
neuer strokes of bombardes so grete and so liorryble as thylk were'. . , . 
* And the turkes with suche instrumentes of weire casted in to the eyere 
a pype full of grete stones the whyche fell vpon the houses of Rhodes 
and putted theym in a wrecched ruyne wyth grete murdre of theym 
that were within for that tyme:' Fol. 10, recto. A little before (fol. 7, 
recto) we are told that • the turk had the nombre of an honderd thou- 
sand fyghtyng men, and xvi. grete bombardes euerychon of. xxii. fote 
of lenght, of the whiche the lest casted stones euery stone of. iv spannes 
in coinpas aboute.' The impression is entirely destitute of numerals, 
signatures, and catchwords ; and a full page contains 26 lines. The 
reverse of the 24th, and last leaf, contains only 15 lines: terminating 
the volume, at the 15th line, with the words 

Consult the note in the Tijpog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 353, for an account of 
the original text, and of the author, of this memorable narrative ; which 
was probably the most popular historical manual of the xvth century. 
An Italian version of the original Latin is described at p. 93 ante. 
The copy of the impression under description, large, clean, and perfect, 
was obtained at the sale of the Macartney Collection in 17S9,* for the 
trifling sum of 5Z. 5s. It is in the first class of rare books, and is 
bound in I'ed-morocco. There is an imperfect copy of this impression 
described in the Cat. of the Harleian MSS. 1808. vol. ii. p. 165, n". 1632. 
That copy appears to want the two last leaves. 

We may conclude this extensive and veiy interesting series of 
'Books Printed by William Caxton,' with the insertion of the fol- 
lowing article, from the press of the same printer ;— of which a fac- 
simile (but executed in too heavy a manner) appears in the Typog. Antiq. 
vol. i. p. cii. This article is, in fact, an Advertisement for the publishing 
of Missals ' IN usumEcclesi^ Sarisbukirnsis ; in the pica letter ;' and 

* See the Bibl'winania, p. 542-3 : note. 


the public are requested therein, not to pull down the advertisement. 
This copy was formerly in the collection of Dr. Farmer ; and is a mere 
slip of paper, printed on one side, about 3 inches in width. Mr. Douce 
has another copy of it. It is as follows : 

gif it p\m onp man fpirituel or tetnporel to hpc onp 
ppc^ of ttuo nnti t^tt conicmorado^ of ^ali^Buri bfe 
ciiprpntitJ after t|)c forme of tljijgf pvtBit Icttre tdljicFic 
Ijni tucl anti trulp torrcct/ iatc l^pm come to tueftmo^ 
neater in to tl^e almone^trpe at tJje reeti pale anti tie ^Ijal 
l^ie tjjan gooti cjjepe . : * 

dSupplico ftet cetiula 


884. ExposiTio Sc". Ieronomi in Simbolum 
Apostolorum. Printed at Oxford, with the 
date of 1468. Quarto. 

First Book supposed to have been printed at Oxford. My 
opinion upon the genuineness of the date of this impression may be 
gathered from the note at p. 412 of the 3rd volume of this work. 
Another allusion to the same subject will be found at page 117, note. 
Upon the maturest reflection, and on repeated examination of the 
singular book under description, I adhere strongly to the opinion 
before entertained, * and conclude this volume to be antedated x years 
before its actual completion. Errors of a like nature are familiar to 
those who have made the History of Early Printing a branch of their 
studies. Two points, however, are necessary to be adduced as the 
grounds of such an opinion. First, this edition contains signatures; 
and no other printed work is known, which exhibits the same typogra- 
phical distinction, before the year 1470, or rather 1472 : see p. 36 ante. 

* Mr. Singer— whose privately-printed little volume upon the subject of this book has 
been before mentioned — and vyho, in that volume, concurred in a former opinion of mine, 
that the date was genuine, and the work the production of a foreign printer employed here 
— is now, with myself, of a contrary ophiion : the appearance of the signatures rendering 
a different conclusion the more probable one — and that we should read 1478 for 1468. 

852 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Expositio 

Secondly, if this volume were actually printed at Oxford in 14fi8, how 
are we to account for the total cessation of the Oxford Press during a 
space of ten years — when it seems to have been rather actively and 
constantly exercised after the year 1478? The answer to the latter 
question has been — ' the bieakine^ out of the civil Wars :' but this 
answer is incomplete — since it is but fair to conclude that the same 
cause would have produced the same effect at London ; and yet Caxtox 
continued his labours without interruption during that period!* 

A question however may be started upon the foregoing remarks — 
arising out of a consideration of the types — used, not only in this, but 
in the subsequently -described work, and in a third one, Egidius, de Peccato 
Originally 1479. (at present not in this Collection) Were these types 
ever used in England? I incline to think they were not. They are 
evidently of the character of those of the Low Countries or of Germany, 
and very dissimilar from such as were used by Rood and Hunt, at the 
same place, and within a few years after. And it is difficult to con- 
ceive, why, if a fount of letter had been employed at Oxford for two 
successive years only, with which only threehooks are at present known 
to have been executed, a different fount should have been selected by 
subsequent printers at the same place — where, probably, only one press 
was worked ? We may observe, moreover, that in the books executed 
with the type of the present work, no name of printer is subjoined. 
On the other hand, sufficient instances may be adduced of books having 
been executed at one place, with the name of a different place in the 
colophon. Reverting however to the present curious volume, which 
has given rise to these observations, we may allow, with Mr. Singer, 
that ' it must be considei'ed as no mean ornament to any typographical 
collection.' That gentleman believes it to have been actually printed 
at Oxford, but the point is yet, I s\ibmit, ' sub judice.' It only remains 
to be accurate in the description of it. 

Tliis book is executed in types, of which the fac-simile of its colo- 
phon will afford a very accurate idea. Each full page, containing 25 

• It was not (ill after the above inference was drawn, that, on consulting Lewis's MSS. 
relatins to the History of Printing, I found the following corroborating passage — ' It is not 
easj^ to account for a press being set up here [at Oxford] and only employed in printing a 
single book, and then standing still eleven years.' p. 98. Again: ' ./ind if it be objected 
that the press was stopped on account of the Civil War beuig renewed in 1469, yet all 
things were settled in 1471, and Caxton's press worked at Westminster in the same period.' 
p. 100. 

leron. [1468.] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 353 

lines, is nearly 4 inches % in length, by exactly 3 inches in width. That 
part of the register, which regards the setting up of the page towards 
the right margin, is almost uniformly irregular. There are signatui'es, 
but neither numerals nor catchwords. The first page, which is a full 
one, on the recto of a i, presents us with the commencement of the 
work, thus : 

3[ntipit cjcpo^icio fancti 31ftoiiitm in 
fimfioium ajio^toloruj ati papa^ Jauretia 
m 3(c|Ji quitiein fiiDelifjeiime 

iaurenti ati fccii^ietibum animuje^ 
ta not! eft cupitiujef qua nee ibo;: 

8cc. Sec. &;c. 

The signatures a, b, c, d, liave each 8 leaves ; but the last signature, 
e, contains 9 printed leaves, and one blank leaf: which latter is also 
contained in the copy under description. On the reverse of e ix, 
beneath the 13th line of text, we have the singular colophon, of which 
the ensuing is a fac-simile : 

0>5pUcit ej^oMo {nncti JcvomtM m 
ftmboio apoflolotum at) papam laure 
muiti Jmphjflfa <t>p>n\t (5t fftiita An 
110 homthi * AV ♦ cccc ♦ Ifvvf^ ♦ pp'f^tne 
t)ecembtis • . j ij J I' 

This copy is tall, although rather narrow ; but is in sound and most 
desirable condition. It was obtained for the extraordinary sum of 1 50Z. 
and is the eighth copy at present known : a copy of it being in each of 
the following libraries : namely, in the Bodleian, in that of the Public 
Archives, and of All Souls College, at Oxford : in the Public Library 
at Cambridge (imperfect at the beginning) : and in the libraj'ies of the 
Earl of Pembroke, the Marquis of Blandfoid, and his Majesty. The 
present copy is elegantly bound in olive-colour morocco, by C. Lewis, 

354 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Aristoteles ; 1479. 

885. Aristoteles. Ethica. Latine. Printed at 
Oaford. 1479. Quarto. 

This impression contains the Latin version of Leonard Aretin; 
and on sign, a ij (a j being blank) we read the commencement of the 
preface, thus : 

3fiicipit prefacio Iconatbi atetini in 
lilirojtf ettjicomm 

<9n noun tt to^tat 6ea 
tifitfime pater jfcti iani in 
ht atJ antiqui^ef ftrcqucn 
tif^imc b^itatum bt qui 
ifarum ^tutiij^ inisfxniiant 
jjomine^. laliorum fuotuj* 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a iij, the text of the work com- 
mences, A full page contains 25 lines. The signatures, from a to y, 
run in eights : y having only 6 leaves. On the recto of y vj, is the 
ensuing colophon : 

Explicit ttxtu^ rtljicotum ^Uri^totcliiS 
pet leonartifi arretinti lueitiifjefime tranjefla 
tUjS correctiCsfimeqa;. 3[mpref^u^ (9xom^ 
311nno tjm . Sl^ , tttt . IxxiX . 

The reverse is blank. The observations made upon the preceding 
volume, preclude the necessity of further remark upon this present 
SECOND PRODUCTION OF THE OxFORD Press : ouly wc may cursorily 
observe that, the form of the capital letter Q, is here correctly 
attended to ; while, in the previous work, it seems to be uniformly 
printed laterally — or the tail occupying an horizontal, instead of per- 
pendicular, direction. The copy under description may possibly be con- 
sidered matchless, for size and condition : having, almost throughout, 
rough edges at bottom and on the side margin. It was perfected from 
two copies : one in the Alchorne Collection, and the other, obtained 

• Sic. 

Lattebur. 1482.] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 355 

with equal readiness and liberality, from Mr. Freeling — out of a volume 
containing many singular pieces of early typography. It is bound in 
olive-colour morocco, in the usually tasteful style of binding of C. 

886. loHANNEs Latteburius. In Threnos 
Ieremi^. Without Naine of Printer or Place, 
1482. Folio. 

It is upwards of six years since I examined a copy of this work, 
in the Bodleian Library, with the ' Expositio Alexandri de Alexandria in 
Tres Libros Jristotelis de Anima; ' printed by Theodoric Rood of 
Cologne, [having his name subjoined] in the University of Oxford, in 
the year 1481 ' — and finding the type, paper, and mode of setting up 
the page, in that work, exactly conformable with the same in the pre- 
sent volume — the inference seemed to be correct, that Rood actually 
printed each of these works. The number of lines, howevei-, in the 
first mentioned work, is only 38 to a full page : in the one under 
description, there are 40. 

If it be asked whether either of these works were actually printed 
at Oxford, I am free to confess that they carry with them rather 
the appearance of foreign workmanship ; and that they are, in all pro- 
bability, the production of a Cologne Press. At least, while on the one 
hand I am not able to bring to my recollection any Low-Country type, 
exactly of the same form and mode of working with that of the present — 
on the other hand, it is quite clear and conclusive, that the type and 
method of printing observable in the work here next described, and in 
the colophon of which Rood and Hunt seem to boast of the typogra- 
phical merit of the English, are wholly dissimilar from any thing we 
observe in the present, or in the preceding, production. 

We have here, in the first place, a wide, full-charged, and extremely 
ornamental border (composed of birds, flowers, and fruits) which has 
never appeared in any other acknowledged production of the Oxford 
press ; and, secondly, there are capital letters, occasionally introduced 
in the margins, which seem peculiar to the impression before us — as 
an Oxford early printed book. But our description need not be very 
extended. The recto of a ij (a j being blank) exhibits the border just 
mentioned, with the commencement of the text, thus : 

356 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Latteb. 1482. 




ttis et filti et 
spiritus san- 

tti amen^iri 

There are two sets of signatures : first, a to j, inclusively, in eights : 
then, A to I, kk, and L, in eights. On L vij, reverse, 

€xviitit crpojsicio at nioralifacio 
tcrcii capituU trcnoru 9i()crcmic pro 
jjljete, 5llnno bm SSi^xtttSxxxth ^W/ 
ma tie men^i^ l^ulij 

Next, a blank leaf (forming L viij). On M i, the table begins. M has 
8 leaves ; N 6, and O v printed, leaves : O vj being blank. On the 
reverse of O v is the ensuing colophon : 

oBrpJicit taBitila fug opusf tttnom 
cmtipilatu ptt Sioljatincin Sattcfiu. 
rp ortimiiBe minorum* 

There are neither numerals nor catchwords. The signatui'es arc 
\vi*etchedly worked ; and the type is of a thin, disproportionate, and 
unpleasing aspect. The paper however is of an excellent texture. 
The present is a sound and desirable copy ; elegantly bound by Herring 
in dark calf, with gilt leaves. Herbert notices a copy, ' partly on 
paper and partly on vellum,' in the library of the Dean and Chapter 
at Westminster. The book is neither rare nor dear. 

Phalarisi H85.] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 357 

887- Phalaris. Epistol^. Latine. Printed 
hy Rood and Hunt. Oxford. 1485. Quarto. 

This is in many respects a very curious and desirable volume ; and 
was obtained, at a great price, at the sale of the Merly Library. The 
type, as the ensuing fac-simile proves, is large and coarse, and the 
press-work almost uniformly irregular. Herbert, who has given 
somewhat brief and unsatisfactory descriptions of the two previous 
works, has been comparatively full and particular (although not quite 
exact) in his account of the present. We shall endeavour to be equally 
interesting. The recto of the first leaf is blank. The reverse con- 
tains the following verses : 

€armclkm ^txxwx^x^ ^oe^/ 

te ati iectorem Carmen 
i^uitc pcot. atq; pcoc lector jsftu 
liio^e Ufienum 

3^eriege» x^va. jiaf^im gemmea ber 
£ia refert. tu^ orijst 

©jjalari^ ^vit srcripjSfit cretei^ etit? 
^i jratria qraje? %^iiii^Qit^x^ erat 
St^ifigfttie? iu ejcHiu ^imW peruenit 
all oraj^ erat ♦ 

dg>e facifiEf bominfi qui relegatujaf 
5^rotinuiS^ 8a$e jsrcripiSiit ♦ celefire^ 
itiiDi cretie tafieJlaja? 
^n^tSm^ * ac pojmli^ . morigeris? 
qj lesimul ♦ 

<aua^ iiecu^ eioquit grata^ fa^ 
tit efiefe latina^ 

f ranci^tui^ nr Jit aretinuis^ erat . 
fll^uniattt querist . tiottum . iuisstu 
qj piumqj . 
Slnuenie^ tjnu ; p!|darii6f iHe fuit 

353 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Phalaris ; 1485. 

Neither the first nor the second leaf contains a signature ; but the 
third leaf exhibits a Hi. The recto of the second leaf presents us with 
the following commencement : 

f rancijBfci ^tmn\ <©ratorijef p> 
clariCsmii in clonntifaima^ j^Jjala 
rUiiief tpranni cpi^aitoiaj^ per ipiefum 
t grcco in latinu tjcrjefas?, ©roSc^ 
wiium fotlkmt incipit 

eilm M^ 

Ute^ta nomik }?tm^ 
ttp^ iflUiSfttiiBf. tantam 
mt||t titcctttii facultate 

A full page contains 23 lines, but the greater number of pages 21 
lines. The signatures extend to m, inclusively. Of these, a, b, c, d,f, 
h, k, and I, are in eights : and e, g, i, and m, are in sixes : so that 
Herbert is wrong in describing the signatures to be in eights. On the 
recto of m vj, we read a singular colophon,* of which the ensuing is 
a fac-simile : 

^Dc opofc^liTitt alm^ ©muetfi^ 
feie €>)come. (^ 0^ii ^j^tiftmo 

<I)limpiabe footicifet impteffntne^ 

Then follow some verses, given differently (as Herbert has remarked) 
by Dr. Middleton, but as the reputation of that distinguished writer is 
not built upon his bibliographical accuracy, we may presume that these 
• variations ' are erroneous. The verses are these : 

* ' Dr. Stack and others think, from the Olyropiades, that this must be in the year 1481, 
being the first year of tliat Olympiad ; but Dr. Middleton, 1485, the last yeai". The printers 
here take it for granted, that there were five years from the celebration of one Olympic 
game to another, or that an Olympiad consisted of five full years ; whereas it is generally 
allowed that it was only at the beginning thereof, after the completion of four years.' 
HERBtRT, vol. iji. p. 1395. 

Lib. Fes, 1486.'] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 35<) 

nia misit 
Hoc Teodericus rood que collo* 
Saguie gmanus nobile pssit opus 
Atqz sibi socius thomas fuit agli- 
cus hunte. 

Dij det vt venetos exuperare qant 
Qua ieson venetos decuit vir galli 
cus artem 

Ingenio didicit terra britana sue. 
Celatos veneti nob trasmitte lib os.* 
Cedite nos alijs vedimus o veneti 
Que fueiat vob ars pmu nota latini 
Est eade nob ipa reperta pres. nos 
Quauis seotos toto canit orbe brita 
Virgilius. placz his ligua latia tame f 

The reverse is blank. The present is a large and clean copy of this 
exceedingly scarce volume ; elegantly bound in olive-colour morocco, 
by C. Lewis. 

888. Liber Festivalis. (^Supposed to have been 
printed hy Rood and Hunt, at Oxford?) 1486. 

I consider this volume to be among the most curious specimens 
extant of the early typography of our own country. It seems to be a 
re-impression of Caxton's edition of the Festival, printed in double 
columns, (see p. 265 ante) but it does not extend beyond q 2 rev. of 
that edition. On R j, in Caxton's, begins ♦ Scdo die lulii celebratur festu 
Visitaciois bte marie ' &c. extending to s v : and having, in the whole, 
13 leaves of subject matter which is not in the present impression. 
Perhaps the Quatuor Sermones were never added here. ]f we may 

• Sic, for ' libros.' 

t * Which may be thus Englished ; ' Theodoric Rood, by birth a German, from Cologne, 
printed this noble work ; and Thomas Hunt, an Englishmtin, was his partner. God grant 
they may excell the Venetians. The art, which Jenson, a Frenchman, taught the Venetians, 
Britain learnt by her own genius. Cease, ye Venetians, to send us printed books : we sell 
them to others. The art of printing Latin, which was known to you Venetians, is itself 
found out by us. Though Virgil suigs the Britons separated from the whole world, they 
are nevertheless pleased with the Latui tongue.' Herbert, vol. iii. p. 1395-6. 
VOL. IV. 3 A 


judge from similarity of type and execution, the printers were, in all 
probability, Rood and Hunt ; who executed the work just described. 
For this conjecture 1 am indebted to the bibliographical acuteness of 
the Noble Owner of the copy under description — which copy was 
originally in the Alchorne Collection, and will be found noticed at 
p. lOS-9, of vol. i. of the Typog. Antiq. The volume is unluckily 
imperfect ; having the text of the first 6 leaves supjdied in the hand- 
writing of Katcliffc, and two leaves torn out. However, the printed 
text commences upon signature a i, describing the transgression of our 
first parents, thus : [Then adam syked sore & wept & said to] * 

t^tt on aupf^b tjDoman 
0Oti matie t^t of one of 
mp rp6i)pjSf fot to tjdjie 
mt anb coitiforte mt, anti 
noiJj fie tpfin0 of tfje fen 
tie tljou atte to comBre 
me apen but tlipnfee l^oto 
oure Hx^tt fpnne ftanc&e 
in tlje ^igDte of gob tljat 
ad oure oljirpng ^^aU fie 
enfecte anti Ijaue rejrreue 
tger of in to tJje toorlb i^ 
entie. ^c- 

A full page contains 33 lines, and the text is uniformly executed ip 
double columns. The signatures are somewhat capriciously regulated. 
Thus, a, and b, have each 8 leaves : c, 4 ; d, 8 ; rf, S;t e, 6 ; /, S, g, 4 ; A, 8; 
i, 6; k and /, each 8 ; m, 6 ; n and o, each 8 ; p, 6 ; q, S ; r, 6 ; {r b 
— relating to the translation of Thomas a Becket — being wanting in 
this copy) «, 8 ; t, v, each 6 ; x, 8 ; rj, 6 ; and j 4 ; the 4th being a 
blank one, and | i, being defective in this copy. This curious volume 
exhibits embellishments, or cuts, as rudely executed as is the text.} 

• This previous line is in ]\IS. here. t This signature is repeated. 

% I subjoin a few specimens of the precious information contained in this once popular 
' text :• 

' Also we fynde that in deuynchere be syde exbrigge was a woman lay sike and was nye 
dede and sente aft^T a Looly person a bowte mydnyghte to haue her rightib than this man 

Festivalis; I486.] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 361 

A fac-simile of a portion of one cut (describing The Murder of Thomas 
a Becket) has been given in the authority before referred to. We shall 
here extend such illustrations. On the reverse of / ij we observe an 
embellishment, very common in the early impressions of religious 

in all the haste that he myghte be a rose and wente to churche & toke goddis body in A 
box of j'uery and putte hit in to his bosome and wete forthe towarde this woman. And as 
he wete thourghe a foreste in a fayre mede that was his nexte wey it happid that his box 
fill oute of his bosome to the grounde and he wente forthe and woste hit not and come to 
this woman and herde her confession And than he askid her yf she wdlde be hoselid and 
she seyde yr sere, than he putte his honde in his bosome and soughte the box and whan he 
founde hit noughte he was full sory and sadde and seyde dame in woll go aftyr goddys body 
and come anone a yeue to yow and so wente forthe sore wepyng for his simpulnesse and so 
as he come to a welow tree he made ther of a rodde and strypyd hym selfe all nakyd and 
to bete hym selfe that the blode rane doune by his sydys and seyde thus to hym selfe O 
thow simple man why haste tliow loste thy lord god thy maker thy former & thy creatour 
And whanne he hadde thus bete hym selfe he dede on his cloth is and wente forth. And 
than he was ware of pilour of fyre that laste from erthe to heueu and he was all astoyned 
thereof y it he blessed and wente ther to and there lay the sacrament fallyn oute of the boxe 
iu to the grasse and the pilour schon as bryghte as any sonne and lasteyd from goddis body 
to heuyn and all the bestys of the foreste were come a boute goddis body & stode in compas 
rounde a boute hit & all knelid on foure knees saue on biake horse that knelyd but on that 
on knee Than seyde he yf thow be any besle that may speke I charge the in goddis name 
here presente in forme brede teH me why thou kneliste but on thy one knee. Thanne seyde 
he I am a feude of hell & wolle not knele & y myghte but I am made a yense my wyll 
for hit is wreton that euery knelyng of heuen & of erth shall be to the worshippe to the 
lord god. Why arte thow like a horse & he seyde to make the people to stele me & at 
soche a towne was one hongid for me & at soche a towue a nothir Tha seyde this hooly 
person y commaude the hy goddis flesche & his blode that thow goo hi to wildemesse & be 
ther as thow shalte neuer dissese cristen people more And a none he wente his wey be 
myghte no leger a hjAe And thanne this man wente forthe to this woman & dede her 
rightes by the whiche she was sauid and wente to euerlastyng saluacio to the whiche bringe 
vs to he that for vs shedde his blode vp<m the rode tree Amen.' Sign, g iij, iv. 

See the same tale in the double-colmnned edition of the Festival, by Caxton, at signature 
fv, vj. 

' Tlier was a criston man borowed a certeyn some of money of a iewe and the lewe seyd 
he wolde lene none but he hadde a borow. and this cristen man seyd he had none but seint 
Nicolas & he graunted to take seint Nicolas to borow Than this cristen man swore vp on the 
auter that he wolde well and ti'ewly pay this money ayeny & so departyd and wente her 
wey tyll day of payment come and whanne this day was passyd than the iewe askyd his 
money and this cristen man seyde that he hadde payde hym & the iewe seyde nay he 
hadde not. and that othir seyde he hadde and that he wold do his lawe and swere vp on a 
boke And so whanne the day come that they shuld go to the lawe the cristen man made 
hym an holowe staffe and putte the gold ther in and so come to the lawe. And whanne he 
shulde swere whyle he wente to the boke he toke the Iewe his staffe ther the gold was ynne 
to holde. And by thb meue swore he had payde the iewe and whan he hadde swome he 
lok«,his staffe of the iewe ayene and wente homewardes And as he wente by the wey be 




works, and of which a comparatively highly finished specimen will be 
produced in a future production * Meanwhile, the reader will not be 
displeased with a fac-simile of the one before us : 

A little onward, h v, reverse, we notice a whole-length portrait of 
St. Nicholas : having, to the left of him, two trees by way of back- 
ground—of which the foliage is represented by almost horizontal lines. 
The figure of the Saint, and a fac-simile of the type, beneath him, are 
here introduced to the reader's acquaintance : 

was passyng slepy and he leyde hym downe to slepe in the Lyghe weye Tlianne hit liappenyd 
there come a carte rennyug and wente ouer tUs man and slewe hym and brake his staflfe 
tiiat the golde was ynne and the gold fylle oute. Thanne the peo])le sawe tliat thi-s come of 
grete vengeauce for the falshede that he had done And ihey fette the iewe and bad hym 
take vp his money. Thanne was the iewe sory and seyd he wold not but yf that they wold 
prey seinte Nicolas to rese hym ayene th;m he wolde be cristen. Releuauit a defunctb 

• Thanne this dede man was rcsyd from deth to lyfFe by the preyour of seint Nicolas 
Baptisator auri viso iudeus iudicio Thanne this iewe that was oute of the beleue by the sight 
of tiiis miracle he was cristened.' Sigti. h vij. 

There is something very whimsical in the following conceit — towards the close of the 
account of Thomas a Becket ; ' Also there was a birde that was taughte to speke & cowde 
sey seinte thomas as she had herde othir pilgremes speke moche of seint thomas & it happid 
on a tyme this birdde sate with oute his cage ^ tliere come a sparhawke 6c wold haue slayne 
liim & anon the birdde cryed on seynte thomas helpe. & a none this sparhauke fill doune 
dede than seint thomas of his grete grace &: goodnesse herd the birdde & woste not what 
she niente mochc more he wold haue herd £c moche sonner he wold here a criste man or 
cristen woman yt cryed hertely to him for helpe & socour.' Sigtu m iiij, rev, 

• Ttie Bibliographical Decameron. 

Festivalis; I486.] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 



fehtt tncofao oag t^ (of^i 
eiallg ifit a^xt caufio ♦ t|» 

futfte io^ t;t0 mekt Ic^ 
f;i0 ^uenlg tec^tt!0 '3[|* 


Let the typographical antiquary minutely inspect this type (making 
allowance for tlic inevitable slips and deviations of the best executed 
fac-similes) with that of the foregoing work (of which there is also a 
fac-simile) and I think the inference he must draw will be in confor- 
mity with that of Lord Spencer ; who considers the same printers to 
have executed the present and the preceding article * To strengthen 
such inference, I subjoin a fac-simile of the colophon, on the recto of 
J iij, the last leaf in the volume : 

i^uti^ callio: fefciuait 
i^egete of oute iotXfi f^ 
cccc* ini^x>v^t bag apit? 

Before, however, we dismiss the notice of this extraordinary volume, 
and as exhibiting a further specimen of the state of art in our own 
country, as well as of the taste of the early Oxford printers, I submit 
a fac-simile of one of the larger wood-cuts, t occasionally introduced 

• A comparison of thepa/)er upon which the Phalaris and the Festival are printed, 
shews us that the paper of the former is browner in tint and coarser in texture. It also 
exhibits a dilTerent water wark. The former has a hand, the latter a coat of arms. There 
is notliing, however, from such de\'iation, to militate against the above conclusion : as there 
cannot be a more fallacious (yet more common) mode of ascertaining similarity of typogra- 
phical productions, than that of comparmg the water-marks of paper. The presses of 
Bamberg, Mentz, and Cologne, exhibit the same water-mark. 

t Perhaps it may not be unacceptable to specify, briefly, the order and cliaracter of the 
cuts in tliis volume. On the reverse of d viij, a space is left at the top of the first column, 
as if a cut had been destined to fill it On the recto of e iij, at top of the first column, is a 
small and crowded cut, representing the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. 
It is in character, as to execution, like the small one first above given. The same cut again 
appears on tlie following leaf but one. On f ij, reverse, is that of which the first fac-simile 
above appears. On h i, recto, are two small cuts of St. Andrew. On h v, reverse, is a cut 
of St. Kicholas ; above given. Ou i v, reverse, is one of the larger cuts— descriptive of the 
murder of St. Thomas the Apostle. The surrounding frame work is much broken. On k vij, 
recto, is the murder of St. Stephen, above given. This is among the most perfect and best 
executed in the volume. On 1 ij, recto, is a very rude cut of St. John the Evangelist. He 
is drinking with bis right liand, and holding a palm-branch in his left ; to the right of him, 
a figure is failing prostrate, as if cast down from an eminence ; to the left is seen a portion 
of another figure, prostrate, having the shoulders and liead severed — as if by the terminat- 
ing line of the frame work. The three trees in the back ground are executed in the 
horizontal manner. On 1 vj, recto, is the murder of the Innocents, before Herod, who is 
seated on his throne. One man, to the left, has run his sword through a child's body— when 

Festivalis; I486.] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. 


into the work. The reader perhaps may wish to be previously informed 
that it describes the Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 

It only remains to add that this copy is bound in dark red morocco, 
by C. Lewis, 

in the mother's arms : another, to the right, kneeling, exliibits a child run through upon the 
point of his spear. Three children (apparently expecting a similar fate) are ui the foreground. 
On 1 viij, reverse, is the murder of Thomas a Becket, described in the authority above 
referred to. On m v, reverse, is a large cut of the Circumcision, On n vj, recto, is a large 
rude cut of the Conversion of St. Paul. The Saint only appears, kneeling; surrounded by 
flames of fire and hail stones. Part of a large sword is to the right of him. The Salutatiivi 
is on the reverse of o vij : very rudely impressed. This seems to be the last decoration 
in the volume. 

'€. atisa^ 


Mooks ^nnteli in 

%\ft Mhtp of ^t. Mhm. 

889. Laurentius Guilelmus de Saona. Rhe- 
TORicA Nova. Printed in the Ahhey of St. 
Alhan. 1480. Quarto. 

First Book printed at St. Alba.n's. Whoever wishes to see a 
choice and genuine specimen of the early printing of the St. Alban 
Press, may behold, with no ordinary satisfaction, the beautiful and 
rare volume now under description. Herbert does not appear to have 
ever seen this impression. He contents himself with the account of it 
by Ames, and adds only the meagre authority of Orlandi ; Orig. e 
Progr. della Stampa, p. 192. Ames has given a fac-simile (upon 
copper) of the colophon, which is tolerably faithful, and which is re- 
published by Herbert ; but when the former tells us the work ' is 
divided into three parts, or chief heads, and printed in red and 
black ink' — he observes what is not strictly correct. 'J'he work is 
divided into three books, but there is not a single line of printing in 
red ink, throughout the volume : — at least, no such distinction is to be 
found in the copy under description. See Ames' Hist, of Printing, 
p. 463. 

The text of this impression commences on the recto of signature 
a ij (not marked), the previous leaf being blank. The proheme begins 
thus : 

VOL. IV. 3 B 

368 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Rhetor. 1480. 

f ratris? laurcncij 01"^^^"^^ ^^ ^^^^^ xM^xni^ * 
min' 2f farrc tljcologic tioctori^ jjcojjcmiu in no 
uani rct()oricam. 

(Dgitati niiclji fc pcnumo : ac tiilige 
cjy cotcmplanti (ytimi comoliitatijBf 
quatumq^ ftikntioti.s^ et jjiore affttre 

8.C kc, 8cc. 

A full page has 24 lines. The signatures, from a to j, run in eights : 
? having only 5 printed leaves. These signatures have a peculiarity, in 
being printed in a fount of letter nearly three times as diminutive as 
that of the text. On the recto of j v, at bottom, we read as follows : 

<£im ofa trift^ iiftriisf gftrmnm^ ab laulicm % 
gloria i Ijonore fumnii ucri i imottai tei <B\x\ 
in trinitatc gfccta uiuit i regnat 35 iftnita fecu 
IafccuJo2f ^ 319 € 1^ 

On the reverse of this leaf is the following, which terminates the 

<txv^it\t %ihtt tttixvi^ : ct opuisf i^etljo 
rice facultati^ per ftatrem Itaurentium oBui^ 
ieimt be <if)aona <©rtiini^ Sl^inorum Caere pa 
gine profcfjsorem tx tiictijBi teftimoniifci5 facratif 
fimarum feriptiirarum. t!OCtoruniq3 proliatiffio 
nun compilatum et confirmatum : aSuiBujef ejc 
eaujsiiS ^enfuit appellantium fore a^argarita 
e!oqucncie eaftigate ati eloquentium biuina ac 

Cmnpilatum autetn fuit fjoe opujei in %h 
ma tjniberjsiitate Cantaftrigie. 3llnno nomini 
14a8% tie t. 6. %\x\i\ <auo bie feftum far 
te !3l9artl)e recolitur: d§>iiti protectione ^tct^ 
nifisfimi i^egiief ^Unglorum €buartii quarti. 

• Sic. 

Chromclej 1483.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 369 

3fmprefjsfum fuit prc^nt.sf tijmjef 
JHetfjorice facuitari^ apiili biila 
(ancti ^Itiant* 3Cnno bornini* 

a?". €€€€: %ixx''- 

Many of the edges of the bottom margin of this sound and beautiful 
copy are unait. It is bound in blue morocco by R. Payne. 

890. The Croniclis of Engjlode, with the 
Frute of Timis. [1483.] Folio. 

The above title is gathered from the account of this impression by 
Herbert ; the copy under description being considered as imperfect 
at the beginning and end. And yet, according to Herbert, this copy 
should appear to possess the whole of the text ; since it contains K viij, 
in the second alphabet of signatures : which, from the same authority, 
appears to be the termination of the volume. But both Ames and 
Herbert, although rather copious in their descriptions of this exceed- 
ingly rare book, have been wanting in bibliographical exactness, or 
minuteness: since they each say the viork ' begins with a table, then 
on sign, a ij, a * Prolog." — without specifying the number of leaves in 
such table. I consider, however, the first leaf to be wanting in the 
table before us ; as the first reference in it, is to sign, b vj. The first 
3 lines of the table are as follow : 

3llfcamu.s? ftpng of itali. 
^pliiiu^ ftpng of itaJi* 
<©ffbenpief anti fjomew 

The table is printed in double columns ; the text of the work, in long 
lines. The first 3 leaves of the table are designated by signatures a 
(wanting here) b, c ; the last three leaves have no signatures. How- 
ever, as the table here concludes with ' Richard the first kig of 
englod — henricus the v. emperour,' we may presume another leaf or 
two to be wanting. The first leaf, preceding the text, or the prologue 
of the work, appears to have been a blank one, and intended for sig- 
nature a j ; as, on signature a ij, the prologue begins thus : 

370 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Chronicle s 1483. 

fo nipcljc tfjat it i^ef ncccffari to ali crcaturijef of 
miiton rcligpon. or of fal? rdigpon : o^ gctpicief ant! 
miict)onniti 55 : to finato tljccc prince or prpnce^ tljat 
rcgnc a pon tljcm. anO tljeem to otjcp. d&o it ijef com- 
nioDpuja to linatD ^c. 

This prologue may be said to be divided into Two Parts. The first part 
contains the authorities from which the Chronicle is compiled, and the 
seven parts into which it is divided ; occupying very nearly the entire 
2 pages of a ij. As the whole of this first part has been extracted by 
Ames and Herbert, it need not occupy a space in the present work. The 
readei', however, may wish to be informed of the Authorities upon 
which the veracity, or falsehood, of this Chronicle rests. These are, 
we find, ' Geoffrey of Monmouth, monk, in his book of Brute. 
Saint Beue, in the acts of England : item, in his Book of Times. 
GiLDAS, in the acts of Britain. William of Malmesbuky, monk, in 
the Acts of Kings of England and Bishops — Cassiodorus, of the Acta 
of Empeiors and Bishops. — Saint Austin, de Civitate Dei. Titus 
Livius, de Gestis Ilonianorum. — Martin, Penitentiaiy to the Pope, in 
his Chi onicks of Emperors and Bishops. — And, namely, " Theobaldus 
Cartusiensis, containing in his Book the Progress of all notable 
Fathers from the beginning of the World unto our time, with the 
notable acts of the same. In this new translation are contained many 
notable and marvellous things : and ihoo been legged by auctoryte of 
mony famous clerkys." 

The second part of the Prologue, containing a mere sketch of the 
state of the world, from the Creation to the Death of Christ, occupies 
the ensumg leaf, a iij. On the recto of a iiij, we observe, at top, the 
commencement of the text of the Chronicle, thus : 

^tiBf ©rhiia 

^ic incipit fructusf tcmporum 

<e caufc tl)p.sf fiohc isf mati to tt\ toljat tpmc onp 
tljpng notabuH bjo^. €I)ccrfoor tge ficgpnpng of 
ali tyrnc^ cfjortlp ^IjaH fie tocgit. for tgcc UjpcF) 

aftpr Doctourja? it i^ to ht ftnaUjpn tljat. iiij. tjipng 

toar made fprst. kc. 

Chronicle; 1-183.] ABBEY OF ST. ALB AN. 371 

This brief extract is almost a sufficient specimen of the extremely 
barbarous state of oithography, by which the present and subsequent 
works, printed at St. Alban's, are distinguished. The author of the 
translation, or composition, is not yet satisfactorily known. There are 
many peculiarities to be noticed in this impression. The running 
titles are sufficiently whimsical. ' Pars UDttma ' occupies each side of 
the leaves as far as b ij ; when, on the recto of that signature, we 
observe the arable numeral I ; and, on the reverse, only IPa. This 
kind of title continues till we come to b vij ; when the word ' Slbion, ' 
and the numeral 1 (for the first part) appear on the recto of it, and 
♦ IPs. aifiion' on the reverse : again, on b viij, recto, we read ' lPar0 
©rima :^Ibion, ' and the same on the reverse — while on c i, recto, we 
observe ' 1P0 IBrute' and *.2.' as the running title. To enumerate 
every similar peculiarity would be both endless and useless : but it may 
be necessary to remark that the Parts are, afterwards, designated by 
arabic numerals, on the recto, and by the contraction of ©0 • for JPat©) 
on the reverse, of each leaf: these are sometimes accompanied by 
running titles, mentioning the subject matter* discoursed of, and some- 
times they are without such accompaniment. The signatures are 
printed on each of the 8 leaves to each letter ; a plan, which INIachlinia 
adopted, but which is of very rare occurrence. Herbert remarks that 
the initial letters to each section or chapter, are, with the exceptions 
of those ' to the Prologue and the first of the Chronicle — printed in red : 
the first he had seen.' In the copy before us, even these letters are in 
red ; but whether, like all the others, they be printed, or executed by 
means of a stensil,\ is probably a point of imcertainty. There can be 
no doubt, however, that the words, surrounding, and beneath, the wood- 
cut — at a vj, recto — a vij, reverse — c iiij, reverse — d vij, reverse — and 
in the centre of the cut, on c vj, reverse — are absolutely printed in red. 
These cuts do not deserve the name of ornament. They are bare rude 
outlines : and a single house is made to represent London, or Rome. A 
coarse Cross strikes the eye on f vii/, recto : representing that upon 
which our Saviour was executed. 

It may be necessary to observe, that this Chronicle is more voluminous 
than the one printed by Caxton, and afterwards reprinted b}' Machlinia 

* On d i to d ijj we have the account of ' Kyng Leir :' This account, collated with the 
iame in Caxton's Chronicle, was furnished by me to the British Bibliographer ; vol. ii. 
p. 578-5.S2. 

+ In the copy under description, the first letter to the prologue and to the commencemeut 
of the text are unquestionably an <^er-jrroduction : inserted by the pencil. 

372 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Chron. 1483. 

and Gerard de Leeu ; as, previous to the text, common to all these 
Chronicles — and beginning with 'in the noble land of Surrey' — there 
are, here, eleven leaves oi' previous matter ; terminating thus, on the 
reverse of b vj, just before the above (luoted text : 

3[ncipit rcffnum Btitanie nunc tiicf anglia. 

51 for pt 'J ujill ^pcfte of 25tute it ^Dall fie ^J^tdeb 
Ijotu pf iotie of cnglob tuo^ fpt^t namti alfiio % 
tip iD^at ccljc^o it t30i^ ^0 namit 

The conclusion of this Chronicle also varies from that of Caxton. 
The battle of Tovvton, on Palm-Sunday, and the coronation of 
Edward IV. in the year 14G0, are somewhat more briefly detailed here. 
This subject forms the close of Caxton's Chronicle ; see Typog. 
Antiq. vol. i. p. 86 ; but, in the book under description, it is succeeded 
by more than 2 pages of text, relating to the Popes, Calixtus III., 
Pius II., Paul II., and Sixtus IV. Just before the mention of Pius II. 
A. D. 1458, we read this : 

• Nota. Printerys of bokis wer this tyme mightely multeplied in 
maguncie & thurgh out the world, and thei began frist * and ther 
held the craftis. And this time mony men began for to be more sotell 
in craftis and suyfter then euer they wer afore,' Sign. K viij, redo. 

It remains only to notice, that this impression contains two sets of 
signatures : tlie first, from a to z, 1, and 9, inclusively, in eights : the 
second, from A to K, inclusively, in eights. The copy before us appears 
to want the last leaf, containing the device of the printer : of which a 
fac-simile is given in the reprint of the work next described. This 
copy, which is upon the whole a large and desirable one, was in the 
Alchorne Collection ; and has been recently bound in russia, by C. 
Lewis, after having been cleansed of a considerable quantity of stain. 
Miss Currer, whose spirit and taste in the collection of Book-Rarities, is 
well known to the curious, is in possession of a copy upon vellum, 
but of a coarse texture, — and wanting the last leaf. Perfect copies are 
of the rarest possible occurrence — but there is a fine and perfect one 
in the Royal Collection. 

• Sic. 

Hawking, Sfc 1486.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 373 

891. The Bokys of Haukyng and Huntyng — 
AND ALSO OF CooTARMURis. Compylyt at St. 
Alhons. 1486. Folio. 

First Edition. The books of this Library by no means diminish in 
value as we draw towards a conclusion of the description of them. We 
have here a volume of the most uncommon rarity, and held in prodigious 
estimation by the curious in ancient English lore. It has been recently 
rendered more familiar to this class of readers, by the minute and 
curious researches, connected with it, which my friend Mr. Joseph 
Haslewood has laid before the public — in his reprint of the second im- 
pression of the work, by Wynkyn de Worde, in 1496 ;* to which is 
prefixed a very interesting introduction, both biographical and biblio- 
graphical. The labour and research evinced in this introduction 
have much facilitated and shortened my own. Nor is it essential to 
dwell much upon collateral enquiries : our business being chiefly 

The copy under description was obtained at the sale of the Fourth 
Part of Mr. G. Mason's library, in 1799, (see n°. 153) for 75Z.: hi 
competition with Mr. G. Nicol, who came to purchase it for his 
Majesty's Library. Such a price, at such a period, was justly con- 
sidered a most extraordinary sum ; but the public had then no pre- 
sentiment of the spirit, if not insanity, which was to mark the sale of 
the RoxBURGHE Library ! This copy, although not tall, is a very 
sound and desirable one ; while those in the Bodleian Library, (formerly 
Hearne's) and in the Public Library at Cambridge, are each imperfect 
and mutilated. A very imperfect, but tall and fine copy, was purchased 
at the Roxburghe sale, for the Marquis of Blandford, for 147^. The 
Luton Collection (the Marquis of Bute's) has also an imperfect copy. 
A fine and perfect copy is said to be in the collection of the Earl of 
Pembroke : otherwise, the one before us might have been considered 
unique. It is, certainly, (if estimated by the prices given for other 
similar, but less rare and interesting, books), not extravagantly valued 
at the sum of 420Z. Our attention however begins to be diverted from 
the principal subject of discussion. 

• From an ori^al copy in the possession of the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville ; printed 



It is justly said in the Bibl. Mason, pt. iv. n°. 153, that ' its beginning 
with sio-nature a ij is no kind of contradiction to its being perfect.' 
The first leaf (so frequently observed and verified in the course of this 
work) was, in all probability, a blank one.* On the recto of a ij, at top, 
we read the following sentence — of which a fac-simile has been given 
by JMr. Haslewood, in the work before mentioned : 

^ ^ isfo mocl) tijat gcntiU mm anb l)oncjtft pccaonejgi 
fjauc Qittit ticlitc in tjauRpng anti tcsire to Ijaiie 
t\^t manct to tafte Ijauhp^ : and also ^M aiiD in toaat 
tupjBfc i)^t^ ^Ijullic gptie tljcpm orDpnatdi : anti to hnatu 
tf)c gcntiU tccmps? in tomnninpng of tijcpr IjauftpjBi : 
anti to \jnbcriSitontJe tljcpc ^t)xtxit^t^ anti cnatmitccief : 
anti also to hnatuc metJicine^sf for tfiepin accortjpng* 
anti monp notabufl ternipsf tijat Ben tJ^scti i tjuuftpng 
bott) of tt)crr fjauRpsf anti of t^ic fotoJc^ tl^at tfjeit 
jjatuftp^ ?l)all ^Icp. C^crcforc tfjp.i^ fiooft fotolotDpng 
in a beta forme sljctopfif beri fenatDlege of ^cje pleieure 
to gcntill men anb ^^onp,£f bijsfpojsfeb to jsfe itt. 

This may be considered the title to the first treatise. The Book of 
Hawking. An extract of the two following sentences — with the above, 
and with what has been taken from the last article — will give the 
reader a pretty correct notion of the state of orthography which marks 
aU the English productions of the press of the Abbey of St. Alban. 
These sentences are as follow : 

r^l ^'' ^^ ^^^ leaner to iiegpnne to ftepe JauftpiSf : fiot 
not an mancr fjatoftp^* liott oonii ^BonjattjftpiBf : 
anb CercelUi^ of oBofijatoftpjef. anb^pare Ijatoitpie?. anbin 
toatt maner ttjap ffjall Be taafee, 

[€] (je maner to Cpefee pf )^Mki^ fro an eeg to tjei 
fie Ijaljun to lie taftene, 

• Herbert, in his interleaved copy, has the foliowbg whimsical observation. ' Or perhaps 
il iiad cuts, aud a little like those in \V. de Wurde's edition'! 

Hunting, Sfc. I486.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 3/5 

It will be noticed that the preliminary letter, to each of the preceding 
extracts, is enclosed in bi'ackets. This has been done from a per- 
suasion that the original letter, which is executed in red, was sub- 
sequently introduced either by means of a stensil, or by some instrument 
of impression, giving to the colour impressed a thick and determinate 
effect. The outline is so decisive, and the body of the colour so opaque, 
that it is quite clear the process of working could not have been by the 
pencil. Nor would the operation of a stensil produce such effect, 
generally speaking. A hard substance, either wood or metal, charged 
with printing ink, and firmly stamped upon the paper,* seems to have 
been the more probable cause of the effect produced in the original 
impression. In the treatise upon Huntintg, we observe many words 
and lines, intermixed with the text, also executed in red ; but such inter- 
mixture is peculiar only to that treatise — and there can be no doubt 
that these words and lines are the result of a second operation of the 
press — or produced from metal types. As we are upon this subject, we 
may extend it by noticing the colours of the Coat-Armours, in the third 
treatise. Upon the closest and most careful inspection of these singular 
embellishments (the earliest of their kind), I adhere to the opinion 
before entertained (and expressed in print) that these colours are 
impressed with printing ink, upon the paper, in the respective situations 
in which they appear, by means of some instrument ; and not laid on 
by the aid of a stensil. The opaque and coarse grain of the several 
colours — black, red, dark green, and olive — with the occasional breakings, 
in which the paper, beneath, is seen — appears to justify this conclu- 
sion : which is yet strengthened by the uniform tone of the yellow — that 
colour being of a thin and transparent nature, and generally indetermi- 
nate in the outline. On the recto of e viij, in this last mentioned trea- 
tise, there is an appearance of red, worked upon olive ; but on a close 
inspection, the red will be found to occupy only the space of the white, 
left purposely for the reception of that colour. The tone of the red 
itself shews it to have been laid on, in body colour, by the brush or 
pencil. In almost every instance, among these embellishments of 
coat-armour, the oil, worked up with the printing ink, has penetrated 
through the paper. But it is now time to return to the completion of 
the description of this very precious volume. 

The Treatise upon Hawking terminates on the recto of d iiij ; a, b, 

* I have no doubt that the capital initials of the Psalter of 1457, and 1459, were produced 
by such means : see vol. i. p, 116. 

VOL. IV 3 c 


and c, each having 8 leaves (including a j, blank). No two pages are 
printed alike, as to the number of lines ; and every page exhibits one 
or more breaks or spaces, with a larger lower-case letter. The smaller 
letter resembles the smallest fount used by Caxton, in his Chronicle, 
Polyc/ironicon, and Golden Legend, &c. but it is less round, and not so 
skilfully worked. The double It's, as in the Chronicle just described, 
are uniformly crossed by a stroke, towards the tops of thera. The 
larger type will be found in many of the running titles and prefixes of 
Caxton ; but of a coarser execution. On the recto of d iij, which is a 
short page, containing only I S lines, we read the two last lines, thus : 

^crc cntiptf) tfit jrrom^ of jjatD&pnj. %nh noto 
folopsf tt|c nnampjsf of all maner of jjattjftpjsf ^ to 
toljom tficp fidong. 

On the reverse are the respective ranks in society, with their appro- 
priate hawks : namely, hawks for an Emperor, a King, a Prince, a 
Duke, an Earl, a Baron, a Knight, a Squire, a Lady, a Yoimg Man. 
The author concludes thus, on the recto of d iiij : 

anlr ^it ti)tx ht moo fejuDts of f)atofees. 

€l)ci: i^ a <i5ofi)atDhe. anti tfiat IjauRc xsf for a pcimit 
€^ct ijBf a CcrccH. 3l!nti tfjat isf for a jrohJccc man. 
€f|n: ij6f a ^^jpare fjauftc. anb f^t i^ an fjauftc for a prctt 
Cljcr j^ a SC^ufftptc. %nh Dc i^ for a fjoiitxjater rierfte 
5Cnti tftei^ he of an obcr mancr Itpntie. for t|)ap flic 
to <0ucrrc anti to fcr Sjuttp anti to 3juttp ftrrp. 


The reverse is blank. On the recto of the following signature, e j, 
we read this introductory sentence to the Treatise upon Huntikg : 

-,phe toife a.i^ t tl^c tioofee of fjatohpng aforcfapti are 

toritpn anb noteli tije tcrmp^ of pMmt Iiclongpng to 

gcntiU men fjaupng Mitt tfjerin. %n ttjcff^amc mancr 

tl)p^ Ijoolie foIotDpng f^ctoitlj : to fpctj gentiii ptttonp^ 

Hunting, 8fc. 1486.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 377 

t^t manor of Ijutitpnj for all mattctr of ficcftp^sf. IBctljet 
tgap fie 25eeftpjSf of \jeiierp. or of cljace. or ilafcall. 
SCnti alfo it ftjeluitl) all tl|e tcrnip^sf couenpent a^ WW 
to tl|0 Ijotuntip^ ajGf to tlje tieeftp^ a forfapti, 311nti in 
certapn tljer tie manp tipuerj^c of tl^apm. a^ef it ijSf tietlareti 
in tljeBoooftc * folotupng* 

This treatise is' throughout poetical, and opens thus : 

%t^t^^ of tjenerp* 
^ ^ercfoeuere ^t fare ftp frptl) or ftp fell 

2l9p bcrc tljpltie tahe Ijetie l|otu Criftram f tiotlj pou tell 
JJoto manp maner fieeftp^ of tjcnerp tjer tuere 
Slpftpn to poiore tiame anti flje ^Ijall pou lere 
f otore maner Iieeftp^ of tjenerp tljere are 
€lje iirft of tl)epm ijGf tlje ♦ hert . tlje fecuntie i^ tlje hare 
€j)e Boore i^ oon of tljo. tlje woiffoxitx not oon moo 

The words, above printed in italics, are, in the original, executed in 
red. One of the most amusing specimens of the whimsical poetry of 
this work is thrown into the subjoined note. % ^^ the recto of / iiij, 
we read the ensuing colophon : 

(JBxplieit SDam Slwlpan^ef 
25arne^ in Dcr fiofte of Ijuntpng. 


t See Mr. Haslewood's Introduction, p. 68-71. 

X Of the liuntyng of the haare 

Now to speke of the haare how all shall be wroght 
When she shall with hounds be foundyn and soght 

The first worde to the houndis that the hunt shall owt pit 

Is at the kenell doore when he openys it 

That all may hym here : he shall say Arere. 

For his howndes wolde cum to hastely 

That is the first worde my sonne of venery 

And when he hath couplyd his houndes ychoon 

And is forth with hem to the felde goon 

And when he has of cast his cowples at will 

Then shall he speke and say his howndes till 


On the reverse, we have an account of ' Bestis of the chace of the 
swete fewte & stinking,' followed by sundry other curious matter; 
some of which is of such a nature as to excite considerable doubt 

Hors de caiiple aitaunt se auaunt. twis so 

And then So ho so ho. thries and no mo 

And then Si»y. Sa sa cy auaunt so hoic. I j-ou praj' 

And iff ye se yowre howndes liaue goode will to renne 

And draw a waywarde fro yow say as I yow kenue 

There bmi amy. agayne hem call so 

Then. Sweff man amy sveff'. to make hem soft go 

And itf any fynde of the haare tlier he hath bene 

And he higlit Richer or Bemounde thus to hym bedene 

Oyes a Bemounde le vaillant. and I shall you avowe 

quida trou la cowarde on la court cowe 

That Benionde the worthe with out any fayle 

That wenyth to fynde the coward with the short tayle 

And iff ye se where the haare at pasture hath bene 
Iff hit be in the tj-me of the come grene 
And iff yowre houndis chace weell at yowre will 
Then. iij. metis shall ye blaw booth lowde and sliill 
There oon and there an other there he pasturyde has 
Then say, illoques Uloques in thessame place 
So say to hem in kynde : vnto tyme that ye hir fjTide 

And then cast a signe all the feld abowte 
To se at hir pasture where she hath be in or oute 
Oder at hir forme for gladli to be she is not lefe 
Ther she hath pasturid in tynie of Relefe 
And any hounde fynd or musyng of her mace 
Ther as she hath byne and is goon oute of that place 
Ha se touz cy est yll. so shall ye say 
Fencs aser so how sa. also lowde as he may 
Sa cy ad este so how. after that 
Sa sa cy auatmt. and therof be not lat 
And when ye se vnto the playne her at the last 
In felde or in errabuU londe : or in to the wode past 
And yowre hounde will fynde of her ther then 
Say. la douce amy la est a, and do as I yow ken 
That is to say swete frende : ther is he come low 
For to dry here; And ther with ye shall say so how 
Illoques cy douce cy vaylmmt so hoiv so how. then twy 
Thus may ye now dere sonnys lerne of venery 
And when ye come ther as ye trow he will dwell 
And so semeth to yow well then say as I yow tell 
La douce la est a venuz. for to dwell tlioore 
And therwith. iij. sohow. say ye no moore 

Hunting, &,'c. I486.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 379 

whether a Prioress of a Nunnery, such as Juliana Barnes is supposed 
to have been, could have been the author of it. The whole affords, 
however, a striking proof of the common manner, in former times, of 
mixing trivial and grave subjects together. The subjoined is a very 
whimsical medley.* On the reverse of the same signature we have 
the following truisms : 

[€]oo topue.fl? in oon Ijou.ief* too cattpjef anb oon mousf : 
€00 tiO0gej^anti oon Iboon : tl)ci$r ^{)aUnea accortie I ooS. 

And iiF it semes well yow to fynde all in fere 
And wenen so to do then say. douce how here how here 
How liere douce how here how here he sittys 
» So shall ye say my chyldre and for no thyng lettys 
All maner bestys that euer chasede wore 
Haue oon maner of worde. so how. and no more 
So fulfill or vnfiU eche maner of chaas 
The hunt euermoore in his mowth that worde he aas 
And iff yowre houndys at a chase renne ther ye hunt 
And the beest begynne to renne as herttis be wont 
Or for to hanglon as does the fox with his gyle 
Or for to crosse as the Roo dooth oder while 
Oder dwell so that yowre houndys cannot owte go 
Then shall ye say. hoo sa amy sa sa 
A complex sa arere so how. sich is the play 
And so how as moch is as sa how to say 
Bot for. so how. is short in speche wheii it is brought 
Therfore say we. sohow bot sa how say we noght 
And iff yowre houndis chase at hert or at haare 
And thay renne at defaute thus ye shall say thare 
S ey sohow assayne assayne ston hoho 
Sa assayne arere sohow theis wordes and no moo 
And iff youre houndes renne weell at fox or at doo 
And so fayle at defaute say thus ferther or ye goo 
Ho bo ore swef aluy douce a lay. that thay here 
Ho boy assayne assayne sa arere 

So how so how venuz a couplez. and do as I yow kenne 
The moore worshyp may ye haue amonge all menne 
Yowre ciaftus let be mydde : and do as I yow mydde 
All my soniiys in same: and thus may ye konne of game Si<rn. e v, vj. 

The passages, printed in italics, are in red in the original. 

* Tlie propretees of a goode hors. 

r A-i Goode hors shulde haue. xv. propretees and condicions. 
yt is to wit. iij. of a man. iij of a woman, iij. of a fox 
iij. of an haare and. iij. of an asse. 

380 BOOKS PRINTED IN THE [Hawhi7tg, 

The three following pages contain an account of ' The Compaynys 
of becsty? and fowlys.' At the emi of them * ffijcplicit.' On the reverse 
otfvij, ' Here folow the dew termys to speke of breekyng or dressyng 
of dyuerse beestis and fowlis &c. And thessame is shewed of certayn 
fysshes. ' On / riij, recto, the Shires, Bishoprics, and Provinces of 
England : the latter thus : 

HMioupncefii of Cnglanli. 

[(C]nimturl>uri anti \mi\e. Jbta^th, ^arbp. I^otingljam. 
l^orttjumlJcriontie. ^T^urljam. It^eftmcrianti. Cenlialc* 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the following leaf, a i, we 
read the introductory sentence to the third and last treatise, upon 
Coat-Armour, thus : 

<grc intljpiGf fiooftc folotopng i^ Uctcrmpncti tfjc Ipnage 
•-^Jof Cootc anmirijef : anti JotD gentilmcn f fjaH ht fenotopn 
from tJiigcntin men. ant IjotD fionticagc ticgan ffr^t in 
aungcU anb aftct ^uccctifti in man hpwtc. as? it i^ 
^ijetDctic in proccfjefe fiootJjc in tgc cljilticr of 3Jbam anli 
a!^o of l^oe. anb jioto |^oc tJcupbcli tjje ixjoritie in . iij» 
partis to ^i^. iij» jfonnp^sf. 3tli50 tljcr Be ^ijjctopb tfje, ijc. 
colohjirijef in atmp^ figurcti lip tlje . ix* txhtti^ of 
aungcU^. anti it i^ ^Jjctupti lip tfjc for^apti colotorijef 

Off a man boolde prowde and hardy. 

Off a woman fayre brestid faire of here & esy to lip vppon. 

Off a fox a faire tayle short eris with a goode trot. 

Off an hare a grete eygh a dry hede. and well rennyng 

Off an asse a bigge chyne a flalte lege, and goode houe. 

[W]ell trauelid women ner well trauelid hors wer neu goode 
Arise erly serue god deuouteli. and the worlde besily doo 
thy werke wiseli. yeue thyn almese secretly Go by the way 
sadly. Answere the peple demurely. Go to thi mete appe- 
tideli. Sit ther at discretely. Of thi tonge be not to 
Uberalli. Arrise therfrom temi)eratly. Goo to thi soper 
soborly And to thy bedde merely. Be in thyu Inne 
locudely Plese thy loue duly. And slepe surely. Sign. { v. recto 

Huntmg 8fc. 148G.] ABBEY OF ST. ALBAN. 381 

topcf) Ben toottlOp anti tdpclj hm JJopali. anti of rigaliteij^ 
toic^e 6m noble anb tDicJ) lien excellent. 3Ilnb tfjer Iicn 
Ijete tlje bertupisf of cljpualrp anb manp otljcr notable 
anb famoto^e tljpngpjsf to tlje ple^efure of noble per^onpj^ 
^Ijall be ^Ijeiupb a^ tlje tDerftpsi folotDpn0 toittenefe^ 
tDljo ^0 euec liftptl) to ^e tljapm anb tcbe tfjapm Ujpclj 
toerc to longc noto to rcfjerjSf* 3llnb aftet tliepjsf notable 
tljpng aforesfapbe folotoptlj tlje 25la.^pn0 of all manec 
acmp^ in latpn frenc^ anb •^ngli^lj. 

On the reverse of b v, in sixes,* ' the Book of the Lynage of Coote 
armuris ' ends thus : * QSjcplkit prima pare*' On the recto of the fol- 
lowing leaf, cj, we read at top, 

[ipjerebegpnnptli tlje blafpng of atrnp^^ 

This page, which appears the fullest in the volume, contains 30 
lines ; having the first ' blazed ' coat armour, towards the bottom, at 
the right, described as ' a sheld of asure and a cros fluri with. iiij. rosis 
of golde.' These arms are said to be celestial, or sent from heaven ; 
and the author adds, ' And I fonde neuer that euer any armys waar 
sende from heuyn bot in theym was the sygne of the cros.' Every page, 
within the four last of the work, is decorated with one, two, or three 
blazonings of coat armour. Upon the mechanical process, by which 
these coloured coat-armours are produced, the reader has already had 
my opinion ; an opinion, yet open to much discussion, if not controversy. 
This treatise upon heraldry, the first probably which was printed in 
any language, is the longest of those contained in the volume ; as it 
extends to / x, in eights. On the reverse of f ix, after the word 
ffijcplicit, is the following colophon : 

i^ere in tljpisf bofee afore at contenpt tfje bohpjJ of 
fjauftpng anb Ijuntpng toitlj otljcr jple^utisf bpuerfe 
a^ in tlie bofee aj>.petiiBf anb alfo of Cootarniutij^ a 
nobull tocrfte, ^itb Ijece noU) enbptli tlje bofte 
of blafpng of atmp^ tranflatpt anb compplpt to 
gebpr at ^tpnt albon^ tlje pere from tljincarnacion 
of otore lorbe 3|lju €n^u ^. €€€€. Ixxx tJi. 

* b vj, here wanting, is only a blank leal. 

382 BOOKS PRINTED, &c. [Hawking; U8C,, 

The following and concluding leaf contains, on the recto, the device 
of the printer (a coat-armour, within a circle, surmounted by a cross ; 
all in white) upon a red back ground, surrounded by a two-line 
frame work, in red. A fac-simile of this device, as well as of the line 
at top and at bottom of it, has been published in the work referred to 
at the opening of this description. The top line is thus : 

f^ic ffnijGf tiififozf genofijef baltie btiliu bt ituetiftj 

The bottom is as follows : 

The reverse is blank. Thus have we travelled, with no hurrying or 
incautious pace, through the typographical arrangement of this very 
rare and extraordinary volume. The author of the contents of it is 
supposed to have been Juliana Barnes, Bernes, or Behners : the 
prioress of Sopwell Nunnery — situated within the precincts of the 
Abbey of St. Alban, and founded about the year 1140. A good deal 
of doubt yet hangs upon the subject of the legitimate author. The name 
of ' Dam lulyans Barnes ' is explicitly incorporated in the colophon 
of the treatise upon Hunting ; and from this, Mr. Haslewood is dis- 
posed to add the pretensions of the same character to ' a small portion 
of the treatise upon Hawking ' — * a short list of the Beasts of Chace '— 
• and another short one of Persons, Beasts, Fowls;' see p. 16 of the 
Introduction before referred to. Yet, on the same page, the author of 
this conclusion seems to take up the opposite side of the question, 
with equal decision. He asks, how ' the staid prioress could, while in 
the exercise of such an important station, devote her time, without 
impeachment, to the diversions of the field ?' and below — ' why should 
it be believed that our authoress passed her whole life immured in a 
cloister ? ' Mr. Haslewood suggests that ' amidst the hours of listless 
soUtude,' she might have sought * amusement by the translation of a 
treatise upon hunting, from the French language * — or versifying the 
general rules of the sport from her own collections.' These conjec- 
tures, it must be confessed, are rather ingenious than satisfactory. 

This very desirable copy is bound in old red morocco, and may be 
considered among the chief treasures of the Spencerian Collection. 

• I prciume no printed treatise is here alluded to. 

Settou ant iEacfjlmia, 

892. Tenores Nouelli. Printed hy Lettou and 
Machlinia. London, near All Saints Church. 
Without Date. Folio. 

First Edition of Littleton's Tenures. Having before* parti- 
cularly described this rare and very estimable impression of the 
Tenures of the celebrated Judge Littleton, I need here be only brief, 
but sufficiently explicit and exact. The recto of the first leaf is blank. 
On the reverse is a table, from which we observe that the work is 
divided into Three Books. The references to the first book extend to 
a vi : to the second book, to c v ; and to the third book, to I i. On 
the recto of the succeeding leaf, a i, we observe the text to begin at 
top {%] ([Hnant en fee fimple. This, and every full page, contains 38 
lines. The first 8 leaves may be considered as belonging to signature 
a ; although the second leaf is designated a i. On the reverse of a viij : 

C %JMV^rt lificc fecuntiu^ 

On the recto of c viij : 


* Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 5. 
3 D 

384 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Statutes. 

On the reverse, the text of the 3d book begins. The remaining sig- 
natures, d, c, f, g, and h, have each 8 leaves ; but the last signature, 
i, has only 6. On the reverse of i vj, we read the colophon, thus : 

Ifttou 1 HDift? De macpnta 1 Citatc SontJoniaif, 
hijtrta ccca5 oliu ff 02f, 

The present copy, which is bound with the following work, 
may be considered a genuine and desirable one. It was formerly in 
the Alchorne Collection ; and his Grace the Duke of Devonshire 
became the possessor of that, which had occupied its place, for 4'il. 
Mr. Grenville also possesses a copy of it, and the Inner Temple library 
and Public library at Cambridge, each contain it. 

893. ViEU Abregement des Statutes. Supposed 
to have been printed hy Lettou and Machlinia. 
Without Place or Date. Folio. 

This clean, perfect, and most desirable copy, presents us with the 

first 4 leaves, without signatures, containing a table. The table is 

alphabetically arranged ; having the first word ' [ajbiuracion,' and the 

last ' Vtlagarie.' The references to the respective places, where the 

subjects mentioned are discussed, are by specification of the signatures ; 

and we sometimes find as many as five references to one leaf; namely, 

to b viii. On the recto of A i, the statutable meaning of the word 

Abiuracion ' is stated : the signatures running regularly, to N, in- 

asively, in eights. On the reverse of N viij, the text ends with 7 fines, 

descriptive of outlawry, or ' Vtlagarie,' A full page (which is of rare 

occurrence) contains 40 lines : see M iiii, recto. The only blank page 

(without any ostensible reason) is on the reverse of D i, Both the 

present and the preceding work are only of the second degree of rarity. 

Three copies of the one under description are in the Public Library of 

Cambridge. The Duke of Devonshire purchased an indifferent copy of 

the duplicate, formerly in this Library, for 171. 6s. 

Tenures.. Stats.] LETTOU AND MACHLINIA. 385 

894. Tenores Nouelli. Printed hy W. de Mach- 
linia. Zjondon, near Fleet Bridge. Without 
Date. Folio. 

This is the second Edition of the Tenures of Littleton ; and is an 
exact reprint of that described at page 383 ante. The contractions 
however are sometimes more or less frequent than those in the one 
just referred to. The number of signatures are the same ; and the 
second leaf, as before, is inaccurately designated a i, for a ii. A pecu- 
liarity in this work, and in the Chronicle printed at St. Alban's, is, that 
every leaf of each signature is marked at the bottom corner ; and not 
the first four leaves only, as is usually the case. The reverse of the first 
leaf contains the table. The signatures running in eights, (with the 
exception of i, in sixes) we read the colophon on the reverse of i vj : 

C <!Bjcpltcmnt Ccntrrc^ noucIli Slmptefjefi 
per me tDiiljrimu tie macfjlmia in opulen 
tif^ma <Ctuitate floittionia:^ iurta ponte 
qui tulgatiter bicitut jflete \m^^t 

A full page contains 40 lines. The type, with which this impression 
is executed, is in the tall and close character of Machlinia ; similar to 
that of the Nova Statuta, (next described) of which a fac-simile is 
given in the second volume of the Typog. Antiquities, facing page 11. 
This edition of the Tenures of Littleton seems to be much rarer than 
the previous one. The copy under description is very sound ; and is 
bound in hog's skin. 

895. Statuta, &c. Anno Primo Regis Ricardi 
tercij. Without Name of Printer or Place. 

The possession of such fugitive pieces of early printing as the pre- 
sent, is undoubtedly a circumstance of unusual good fortune ; but one 
leaf of this singularly rare tract, namely, b iii, is unluckily deficient. 
The first leaf, a i, appears to be blank. On the recto of a ii, at top, 
we read : 

336 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Statutes. 

^ttitutn apb tocftnionaftcriu etiita 3llnno jitiino iHe^ 

0i.fii ntCiirtJi tcrcii 

5;cljnrD J^ct la gee tJC SDim lliop SDcngktecre i 
DC f rauncc i fignout 2Dirlanb puisf It tonqftc 

kc. kc. 8cc. 

A full page has 33 lines. The running titlp, throughout, is anno 
primo KicarHi tcrcij. The 14th and last leaf is occupied, on the recto, by 
an exposition of the XVth chapter, and has only 24 lines. The first 
signature, a, has 7 printed leaves, and the first blank ; the second 
signature, b, has 7 printed leaves, and the last blank. There can be 
no doubt of this tract having been executed by W. de Machlinia : see 
Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 11. This copy is large, but in a soiled and 
tender state. In russia binding. 

896. NouA Statuta. (Printed hy Machlinia.) 
TVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

This is the most elaborate production of the press of Machlinia, and 
must be considered no mean acquisition to the library of the legal 
antiquary. The type is exactly similar to that of the Tenures, described 
in the preceding page ; and leaves no doubt of the printer by whom 
the volume was executed. The ink and the paper merit more com- 
mendation than the type : indeed the paper is of no ordinary excellence. 
As this is far fi'om being a very scarce book, we may be brief, but 
particular, in the account of it. 

The first 39 leaves are occupied by a table, commencing on A i, and 
ending on E vij : in eights. Two blank leaves, in this copy, follow the 
table. The Statutes commence on the succeeding leaf, a i, which 
signature has only 7 leaves : but every succeeding one, including z, 1, 
and 9, has 8 leaves. Next follows aa to pp, in eights; pp having 
only 6 leaves.* The text terminates on the reverse of qq v. Every 
leaf of each signature is marked, with the exception of those in the 
first set: which, as usual, have the first four leaves only marked. 
Consult the Typog. Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 12. The present desirable 
copy was obtained for his Lordship, from Messrs. Clarke and Son, 
booksellers, Lincoln's Inn. It is very handsomely bound in russia, by 
C. Herring. 

* kk iij is a blank leaf. 

Spec. Christ.'] LETTOU AND MACHLINIA. 337 

897. Speculum Christiani. Printed hy IV, de 
Machlinia. TVithout Date. Quarto. 

This volume has been lately much coveted by the curious, on account 
of the English poetry which it contains. Of the merit, or demerit of 
this poetry, the reader will be the best judge, not only from the copious 
specimens subjoined,* but from what appears at p. 13, of the second 

* fteptitna "^Tabula* 

Praye you all my freendys deere 

Sumwhat of the boke of wisdom here 

How he spekes to all maner of men 
That schulde other rule teche and ken 
Outher bodily or gostly 
To hem he speketh specially 

He calles euery man a kyng 
That here has cure or gouernyng 
He biddes thaim loue god in hys lawe 
And teche it other to kepe and knawe 
And ther aboute euer to be most besye 
And than schali they in heuene crouned bee 
And haue more Worscliip and hououre 
Thanne euer hadde kynge here or eraperour 

But and they here sake dignitee 
Worschip welthe or welfare bodilye 
And goddes lawe fro thaym withdrawe 
Wham the}' schulde it do to kepe and knawe 
In grete peyne mone they bee 
For her staat or dignitee 
That they hadde thurgh goddj's grace 
And sith to hym unkynde was 

Some of god stande here none awe 
And that they schulde afterward knawe 
Whan they in helle strouge peynes fele 
Whan time of mercy is past euery dele 

And somme they be that yeue them mekyll 
To the world that ys lothe fals and fekyll 
On hit their loue most they sette 
And hit be loue of god most wille lette 
It scheweth to hem many a thyng 
That to the flesche is grete likyng 
Hit biddes hem wirke and folowe his wille 
And alle hys WiUe he sehall fiilfiU 

388 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Speculum 

volume of the Typographical Antiquities ; which, together, I believe, 
comprehends almost the whole of its poetical contents. The text 
commences thus, on the recto of the first leaf: 

2;napit Whtt qui bocatur 
^pmilum f pri^tiani 

(gronimu^ %n ptincipio cuiu^ef Uftct 
opcri]0? pniitte tiiiicam of oem i fignum 
€xviti^ in fronte, %n nomine pa 
tri^ef 1 filij et ftriritu^ef fancti ^men 

Many lijm folowe and doo ful 111 
Therfore they ofte falle in grete perill 
He ledcth tliem forth with trauntis & wiles 
But atte laste he hym begyles 
To the feende he is trewe seruaunt 
For he brynges his freendys to his hande 
He teches here freends many a thyng 
Ageyn goddes lawe & his biddyng 
Who so therfore his frende wUle bee 
Enemy to god ful eueu is hee 

Scores muntJialee 

This worlde we may knowe and kenne 
By the maners of worldly men 
Some am to besye bothe night and daye 
Aboute the world that sone passed a waye 
For worschip & wellhe trauayle faste 
But heuene to wyinie they haue no haste 

To mayntone synne somme can grete skill 
And wrong preue right for gifte they will 
Therfore this worlde holdeth hem ful wyse 
For moche they knowe of his qwentise 

Summe make grete Joye in here folye 
In glotonye pride and lecherye 
And folowe al her flesshely lust 
And there aboute doo ofte grete coste 
For so her flesch haue his welfaare 
For their soules haue they no care 

Summe ofte despisen goddes biddiges & lawe 
And all holy menms teching and sawe 
With laghig & skoming & froward doyng 
And thb wole haue a foule eendyng 

Christiani.] LEITOU AND MACHLINIA. 389 

The work may be considered an exposition of the popular theological 
topics at the period of its publication ; or a sort of Christian's Manual. 
There are neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords ; and a full 
page contains '23 lines. Accordmg to Herbert, there are, in the whole, 

Leue hit wele withoaten lye 

God hath swomeye schall abye 

For suche men wille not be reuled after skill 

A while god bnffereth hem to haue alle her wille 

But after he wille on hem sende 

Stronge vengeaimce but they amende 

He may be called bothe witty and wys 
That worldly maners can weel despyse 
And folowe hym not in no thyng 
That is goddes lawe and hys biddyng 
But ouer to god hath hys eye 
And after his biddyng wUle ruled be 

Worldly wisdam is but verray folye 
Before god and his seruantes holy 

His riches riche and worschip grete 
Nys it but fantani and disceite 
Wherwith he hath many man defyled 
And atte laste hem begyled 

In the worlde what ellys see we 

But wretchidnesse and vanitee 

A place it is of grete gylre 

Of treason discorde and tyrauntrie 

Of trauauyle tene and vylauye 

Of peyne and synne and of folye 

Of newe guyses vpbringyng 

Of euill ensamples full grete plenty 

Of scorning & sklaundring wickedlye 

Of chidyng of moche fighting folystye 

Of banning and bacbiting priuely 

Of Hatering and fals feyning solely 

IPeccata capitalia 

Of pride enuye and lecherye 
Of slouthe of wrathe and glotonye 
Of fals coueitise and wynnyng synfully 
Of okjT Eresye Sacrilege and Symony 


* counted over, 116 leaves;' the colophon, on the reverse of the 117th 
leaf, is thus : 

"jJlm %ibc\in^ impffU30f eft i opulcntif^ima €i^ 
uitatc 3£ontionia2f g mc tDinclma be fll^acjjli 
nin ati inftaiiciam nccnon ejcpenfajof ^mtki 
tmranftcnlietgli mercatorijef 

Contra Hei precepta 

Of fals goddes worshepjTig vnwisely 
Of vejni sweryng fals ofte and liidously 
Of halidaycs niispendjTig in synno & vanite 
Of father & modir dishonoring bodili & gosteli 
Of hyndring & mansleing bothe i soule & body 
Of foule lust & lecherye preuily and apertely 
Of tliefte raueyn & E.xtorcion pleynly 
Of fals witnes beryng -wetingly & wilfully 
Other menis thig desirig thurgh sine & trechery 
Of goddes biddig ofte breking boldelye 

In this worlde what see we 

But wretcliidnesse & vanitee 

A place it is of templinge & of grete oppression 

Of stinke of filthe & moche corrupcion 

A grete foole thinketh is he 

That maketh his heuen in suche a countree 

For all the riches & welthe of this lande 

Schall turne to erthe and muk stinkand 

The Wiseman forsothe wil nat sett his herte 
On thing that may not longe stande i qwerte 
But on the eende he hath mynde 
And nothig setles before that schuld be behide 
Lest he for flesshly lust vanite & synne 
Lose heuen blisse ik hello pyne wynne 

Ensample we may see and here 

Of JheiTisalem that was so riche a citee 

Of it openly spekys Jeremye 

And also dauid in hys prophecye 

How it was destroyed withouten wene 

And the walles beten doun all be dene 

Wallid it was with wallys thre 
A semely sight on to see 
The temple brent fill dulfully 
And beten down hit was holly 

Christiani.} LETTOU AND MACHLINIA. 391 

The type of this volume is more flowing-, and rather more elegant, 
than that which is used in the two preceding works ; and resem- 
bles somewhat the fount of letter in the Chronicle, Polychronkon, 

So riche a temple hit was one 
In this worlde was founden none 
With walles and pylers here onlyght 
Tyled with golde that schone ful bright 
So many lampes ther in brent ay 
Hit made the night bright as the daye 
Their oyle was medled with swete oyuement 
Out of whiche swete sauour sprent 

Thair sence was wonderly wrought 
With riche spices that they dere bought 
Ther of come swete smellyug 
Sweter felt neuer man here lyuyng 
Ther is now nether Emp[er]()ur ne kyng 
That might mayntene suche sensyng 

Ther were thre hondred there in syngand 

Suche songe herde neuer man in this londe 

With harpe and pipe and sautrie 

And all other maner of mynstralcye 

And this was all their synging 

The psalmes that made Dauid the kyng 

And why this Cite destroied was 

Fals and coueitous men grete cheson was 

That euer brent in coueitise more and more 

Yf we doo so aught to drede full sore 

Last vs befalle as them befelle 

Al wise clerkys thys tale can telle 

And yet this fyre brennes so hate 
That no man may it slewke and bate 
And ther of comes so grete a smoke 
That men may not vp to heuen loke 

For ther may we now many fynde 

That they nor other bleereyed or all blynde 

Or ellys a perle in their eye 

Thof they in state or ordre be right heye 

Who so might couuert blynde and bleryeye 

And make the to goddys byddig obediet be 

God wold forgyf him al his synne 

And graunt liym blisse that neu schal bline 

But I am nought so grete a clerke 

VOL. IV. 3 E 

392 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Albertus Magnus. 

and Confessio Jmantis of Caxton. The Duke of Devonshire purchased a 
duplicate of this work, at the sale of the Alchorn books, for 34/. ISs. 
Messrs. I. and A. Arch valued the copy of it, obtained at the sale of the 
Towneley Library, at 42Z. The present copy was formerly in the Col- 
lections of Lord Oxford and Mr. West, and is in sound and desirable 
condition. It is bound in old red morocco. 

898. Albertus Magnus. Liber Aggregationis, 
&c. Printed by IV. de Mechlinia. London, 
near Fleet Bridge. Without Date. Quarto. 

This cuiious and uncommon little volume having been rather parti- 
cularly described in the work so often referred to, it remains here to 
observe that, on the recto of a ii (a i being blank) we read the full title 
to the work, thus : 

CSltticr aggregationiiBf feu Mhtt fccrc 
t02f 5CI6crti niagiii tic tjirtutiiiuj^ tjcrBaif, 
lapibum 1 animalium quotumti ' C %i 
6cr primujBf tic tjirifiu^ quammti' |)crfta2f, 

The second book, * De Virtutihus lapidum quorumd',' begins on the 
reverse of a vij . The third book, * De Virtutibus Animalium quorumd',' 
commences on the recto of b vj. On the reverse of c j, we read : 

C Cr pliciunt fccrcta aliqua 3il!6ccti itiagni be €oIoraa 
fupct iiaturiiEf tjirtutibu^ i cfficatia jjctbajf l^tium i a 
nimalium quorumtiam 

Some extracts, from ' Isidorus,' seem to follow. On the reverse of 
c iij, we observe, 

C(jJiufti' %lhtvti niagni tie niirabili£i9 miitii felicii 

For to do so strong a werke 
Therfore me and all maiikynde 
Into the ni'cy of god I recommende 

Tlie foregoing extracts occupy the 41st, 42nd, 43d, 44th, 45th, 46tb, and 4rth leaves — 
having occasionally some intervening moral sentences. The poeti-y extracted in the Ti/pog. 
Antiq. vol. iJ. p. 13, 14, commences on the reverse of the 48th leaf. 


To the singular passage, extracted in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 
15-16, from d v, recto, might be added another, of a different but 
equally whimsical nature, from e i, recto, beginning : ' Si qua mulier 
te ligauit maleficijs ad amorem suum et vis illud dissoluere :' &c. The 
signatures, from a to e, run in eights : e has 6, and/ only 4 leaves. On 
the reverse of/ ij, is the following colophon : 

C %\httxvi^ a^agnu^ tie ^ttxt^^ 
nature Explicit l^ecnon per me 
M^eimum t\t Sr^rcpnia 3Im 
prefjSfu^ 3[n opulentifjsjtma Ci^ 
lutate Eontioniaru 3[ujcta 
pontcin qui tjulgariter bicitur 
f lete lirigge 

The two remaining leaves, or rather three pages, consist of directions 
to find the changes of the moon and the regulation of Easter, &c. At 
the conclusion of this supplementary matter, we read ' <Bt 0ic tat fifnis.' 
The type of this work is, i« character, like that of the Tenures, and 
Nova Statuta.; but it is smaller. A full page (c iiij, recto) contains 
27 lines. The present is a lieautiful copy, bound in russia, by Roger 
Payne. The Marquis of Blandford has also a fine copy of it. 

899. Chronicle of England. TVithout Name 
of Printer (but executed with the types of TV. de 
Machlinid) Place or Date. Folio. 

This is pi'obably the only perfect copy in existence of the volume 
under description : which has been literally rescued from perdition by 
the uncommon care and skill of Mr. Mortlock and Mr. C. Lewis. It 
is replete, from beginning to end, with purple spots, from exposure to 
dampness ; but the leaves have been sized, and the margins preserved 
in a tolerable state of amplitude — so as to render the copy quite 
sound and desirable. The text is a mere reprint of that of Caxton. 
The first 10 leaves, on signature a, are occupied by a table ; which 
concludes on the recto of the 10th leaf, with the contents of the 
ccjxiijrd chapter, relating to the ' Deposition of Henry the Vlth, the 

394 BOOKS PRINTED, &c. [Chron. of England. 

Accession of Edward the IVth, and the Battle on Palm Sundojj: The 
reverse of the 10th leaf is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a i, 
(omitted to be marked) the text begins thus : 

^o\D tljc lantic of <!3nglonbe toai^ fpc^t namti 3111 
bion 3Cnt> hi tnljat cncljcfon it toaief lefo namb. 

Tf) tljc noble iantic of <^HYtt tJjcr tuasf a no- 
Ilk hpng ab nipgjjtp i a man of grctc rcnome 
tljat me taWch SDiodifian tljat iucll ati t)or/ 

8cc. 8cc. See. 

A full page (on the following leaf) contains 33 lines. There are 
two sets of signatures, exclusively of the table, each having 8 leaves to 
a signature. The first set extends from a to j and 1 : the second, com- 
mencing with aa i, extends to ee; but this latter signature, which 
concludes the impression, has only 4 leaves — all the preceding ones, 
with the exception of the Jirst a, forming the table, having S leaves. 
On the recto of ee iiij, at bottom, the text ends with the same prayer 
for the prosperity of Edward IVth, and for the destruction of the ' turks 
and heathen men,' as distinguishes the text of the Chronicle by Caxton : 
see Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 86. The reverse of this last leaf is blank. 

The type of this edition is precisely similar to that of the Speculum 
Christiani ; and therefore wan'ants us in concluding that the book was 
printed by W. de Machlinia. The copy before us, however, is full of 
blotches, from the unskilfulness of the press-work. This singular volume 
was obtained (in exchange for some specimen of Caxton's press) from 
my friend Mr. Douce ; and has been recently bound in blue morocco, 
by C. Lewis. Imperfect copies of it are not very uncommon. 


Books ^rintelr ftp 

Wlpnhpn tie Worlie. 

900. ScALA Perfectionis. Printed in 1494. Folio. 

This is probably the second book executed by W. de Worde ; the 
Festival of 1493 being considered the first. There is an extended account 
of this impression in the Typog. Antiq.* vol. ii. p. 36, 40; but that 
account having been taken from an imperfect copy, it cannot be con- 
sidered as bibliographically complete. Herbert had never seen a perfect 
copy of it. The present, which has been recently perfected from one in 
the possession of Mr. J. M. Gutch, presents us, on the recto of the first 
leaf, with a most barbarously-executed wood-cut of the Virgin (repeated 
in the Dives and Pauper of 1496, post) suckling the infant Jesus in 
her lap : a man to the left, intended for Joseph, is kneeling. There are 
four lines of inscription beneath — cut upon the same block upon which 
the embellishment was executed; but they are too barbarous for 
transcription. The whole is enclosed in an ornamental frame-work of 
better taste. Beneath, we read. 

The reverse is blank. A table of the chapters occupies the next 
3 leaves. On h i, recto, the text begins. The signatures, to q, inclu- 

• This account is confined chiefly to specimens of the textj which are certainly very 

396 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Scala Perfec.U94. 

sively, nin in eights : r and s * have each only 4 leaves ; but a fifth, and 
the last leaf in the volume, may be considered as forming s v. The 
whole of the contents, on the recto of this last leaf, are as follow: and 
very necessary to be noticed — 

Infynite laude wyth thankynges many folde 
1 yelde to god me socouryng wyth his grace 
This boke to finysshe whiche that ye beholde 
Scale of perfeccion calde in euery place 
Wherof thauctor waiter Hilton was 
And wynkyn de worde this hath sett in prynt 
In willyam Caxstons hows so fyll the case 
God rest his soule. In loy ther mot it stynt 

This heuenly boke more precyous than golde 
Was late direct wyth great humyltye 
For godly plesur. theron to beholde 
Vnto the right noble Margaret as ye see 
The kyngis moder of excellent bounte 
Herry the seuenth that Ihu hyra preserue 
This myghty pryncesse hath comaunded me 
Temprynt this boke her grace for to deserue 

firat fclici! lifter hititulatuje^ - r^^^^ » 

Beneath, is the small device of Caxton. The reverse is blank. This 
very rare volume is the only one, which I just now remember to have 
seen, executed, throughout, with the large lower-case type of W. de 
Worde, in long lines. The effect of it is exceedingly handsome. The 
present copy, although occasionally slightly soiled, and with a few 
leaves inlaid, may be considered a very valuable acquisition. It is 
handsomely bound hi russia, by Herring. 

* 9 ij, b incorrectly marked t ij. 

Fit. Pat. 1495.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 397 

901. Vitas Patrum. Emprynted in the towne of 
Wesmynstre. 1495. Folio. 

The title, in large white letters upon a blackground, is over a rude 
wood-cut of St. Jerom, preaching to the Virgin and Bishops, &c.' the 
same cut as is prefixed to the Polychronicon. On the reverse is 
Caxton's large device. The prologue, which is extracted in the Typog. 
Antiq. vol. ii. p. 43, with the commencement of the table, occupies the 
next leaf. The table ends on the recto of Aa viij, from the beginning 
of the volume : on the reverse, is a cut as just described. The text 
begins on the recto of a i, or folio I : and the leaves continue to be 
numbered to the end of the volume, or to fol. CCC xlvii inclusively. 
On the reverse of fol. CCC xlvi we read this colophon : 

€1 €l)u^ cntiptfj tlje moojsft tjettuoufc 
Dpftorpc of tlje ticuoute i rigljt renom 
met! Ipucsf of l^olp fatiersf Ipungc in tjt 
^tttti tDortljp of remcmbraunce to ail 
tDcH Dpfpoj^cti ptt^mt^i tojjicfje Ijatl^ fie 
translatcb out of f renfffje in to (Jcn^ 
glpffj jjc ftp H^pHpam Cajcton of Wtet^ 
mpns^tre Utt titctii anti fpnpf(f)cti it at 
tge lastc bapc of tji^ IpfP. €nprpnteti in 
tf^t ^apti totune of WtUmpn^ttt hp mp 
l^pnftpn tie H^ottie tge pere of our !or- 
tie. ^ ♦ €€€€. ixxxx^* anti tfte tentjj 
pete of our ^ouerapne lortic ftpng fjen* 
rp t^t feuent][j. 

The recto of the following and last leaf is occupied by the large 
device of Caxton, and the reverse by the same wood-cut and title as at 
the commencement of the volume. If the last leaf be excepted, the 
present copy may be considered as a clean, sound, and most desirable 
one. It is in old russia binding. From the Alchorne Collection. 

398 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Polychron. HUS. 

902. PoLYCHRONYCON. JEuprijnted at fVestmestre. 
1495. Folio. 

Second Edition. The title of this work (wanting in the present copy) 
consists of a rude wood-cut exactly similar to the one which precedes 
and tcnninatts th<; text of the Vitas Patrum, described as the pre- 
vious article. The word ' Polychronicon,' in large lower case type, and 
cut in wood, is over this rude print. On the reverse of the leaf are five 
stanzas of very indifferent jjoetry, as may be seen in the Typog. Antiq. 
vol. ii. p. 50. From these we learn that ' Roger Tiiorney, Mercer ' 
exhorted the printer to correct the text, and to make and set it in 
print. The ' I'rohemye, ' as in Caxton's impression of the work (for 
an account of which see p. 262 ante) follows on the recto of aa ii, ter- 
minating on the reverse of aa iii. In this proheme, however, W. de 
VV^orde promises to bring down the events of history as low as the 
xth year of Henry the Vllth, or to the year of our Lord 1495, but he 
has not kept his promise ; since the text is only a reprint of that by 
Caxton. The table follows, on the recto of aa iiij, concluding on the 
recto of hh V : of these signatures, aa has 8 leaves, but the rest only 
G leaves each. A blank leaf forms hh vj. As the leaves now begin to 
be numbered regularly, to the end of the volume, we may only remark 
that the text comprehends CCCxlvi leaves ; executed, like almost aU 
the earlier productions of W. de Worde's press, in double columns. 
On the reverse of the 346th leaf — after the imprint, as in Caxton's 
edition (see p. 262 ante) — we read as follows : 

tieti tljc tljpctcntiS) tiape of ^UptpII tlje 
tcntlj pcrc of tlje rcgnc of ftpng ipanrp 
tl^e ^cucntlj. 5tnti of tljc 3[ncantacpott 
of our lorti : ^ . €€€€, tojCjctJ. 

€1 (jBnprpntcli at Wt^wt^m 
f)p JJ^pnfepn €l)etuortiC/ 

The laige device of Caxton occupies one side of the following leaf. 
Perfect copies of this beautiful volume are in the libraries of the Duke 
of Devonshire and Mr. Phelps. The present is a short but sound 
copy ; in russia binding. 

Dives, 8fc. 1496.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 399 

903. DiuES ET Pauper. Emprentyd at West' 
menstre. 1496. Folio. 

Second Edition ; that by Pynson, of 1493, being the first. On the 
recto of the first leaf, A i, we have a large wood cut of the Rich Man 
and the Poor Man, (under the above title) of which a fac-simile is given 
in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 67- On the reverse, is a large wood-cut of 
St. Jerom, seated at a desk, with the Virgin and Child, and a e;roup of 
Bishops before him. The table follows, on A ij, recto, and concludes 
on the recto of B iiij ; A having 6, and B only 4, leaves. On the reverse 
of B iiij, the first wood-cut is repeated. On the recto of the next leaf, 
a i, the work begins under the running title ' Of holy Pouerte.' There 
are running titles throughout. The work is printed in double columns, 
having 40 lines in a full page, and concludes on the reverse of <t v, 
preceded by j : each signature, except the last, having 8 leaves. The 
colophon is thus : 

tl ^ere entietfj a compcntipoufe trea* 

tpfc tipalogue of HDiuc^ anti pauper 

/^Ijatij^ to iefapc/ tJje rpclje i tfic poore 

fructuousip treatpnge tjpon tjie* jr. to* 

mauticmentejS/ fpnpffjeti tJje* iij, tiape 

of SDccemBrc* €l)e pcre of out iortie 

gob. ^ ♦ €€€€ . XxtXt^i* €mpren^ 

tpti lip nic Hyphen* tie ioortie at Wtit 


C^Dco gtacia^ 

The recto of the ensuing and last leaf contains the same wood-cut as 

is prefixed to the recto of the first leaf of the * Scala Perfectionis :' see 

p. 395 ante. On the reverse, the first wood-cut of the poor man and 

the rich man, is again repeated. This copy, which is a sound and 

desirable one, was formerly in the library of Mr. Wodhul ; and is in 

old russia binding. 

* Sic. 

VOL. IV. 3 F 

400 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Lib. Fest. 1496. 

904. Liber Festivalis et Quatuor Sermones. 
Printed at Tf^est minster 1496. Quarto. 

This is the second edition of this publication by W. de Worde ; 
the first having been executed in 1493 — and both of them being reprints 
of the same work put forth by Caxton : see p, '26'4 ante. In the pre- 
sent copy the * Quatuor Sermones ' stand first, and begin on the 
recto of signature A, numbered i. The signatures extend to G v, in 
eights, or to the numbered folio xlix (folio xlv being wanting in this 
copy). On the reverse of folio xlix, at the bottom of the second 
column, is the follo%ving colophon : 

C finitum tDcftmottafte 
rio. 3llnno it, torj:tJi. 

!!lc0ijStnim quatcrno2fO 

The prologue to the Festival immediately follows, on fol. i. so 
numbered : at the end of the prologue we read : 

€[ 3imi|m: UBcr 
tjui f e^aftialisi appdlatur. 

The leaves are regularly numbered to fol. CC : and fi*om the reverse 
of this 200th and last leaf, we learn, from the register, that the 
signatures run in eights ; but the last signature has only 6 leaves. 
The colophon and register are thus : 

Cfinitum et comjrtctu 
in JBcsftmona^tedo 
Sllnno tini. ^xttt* 
l^onagc^imo fcjcto 

•I il5cgijeftrum ^uatertt02f 


Both works are executed in double columns. The present clean and 
very desirable copy is beautifully bound by C. Lewis, in blue morocco. 

Chronicle; 1197.] WYNKYN DE WOKDE. 401 

905. Cronycle of Englonde, wyth the Frute 
OF Tymes. Enpryntid at IVeatmestre 1497- 

Second Edition. This impression comprehends two reprints : the 
first, of the Description of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ire- 
land ; fi'om the printed text of the same work by Caxton, which 
again is confessed by the latter printer, in his Chronicles of 1480 
(vide p. 228 ante), to have been ' taken out of Polichronicon.' In the 
copy before us, this Description of Britain commences on the recto of 
the first leaf, A i, with a title over a wood-cut exactly the same as the 
cut which precedes the XVth Book of W. de Worde's edition of 
* Bartholomaius de Proprietatibus Rerum.' This copy is unluckily so 
imperfect as to want, in this first treatise, all the leaves after D iij, or 
perhaps 4 leaves. The signatures run in sixes. In the second place, 
the Fruit of the Times is a complete reprint of what is called the St. 
Alban's Chronicle ; but the copy under description wants the com- 
mencement of it, as well as the two latter leaves of the first signature 
a, the two latter leaves of b, a part of f 2, g i, — but there are too 
many deficiencies to be noticed with the hope of having them supplied 
by the discovery of another defective copy — yet containing the leaves 
here wanted. We shall therefore conclude the article by observ- 
ing that the signatures, in sixes, extend to y, z, 9 ; and, afterwards, 
from A to I. These signatures have a peculiarity of being designated 
only by the letter beneath — as a, b, or c ; and the numbers, i, ij, iij, 
iiij, Vj and vi, are impressed nearly in the centre of the right side 
margin, above them. On the recto of I iiij, we read the colophon, 
thus : 

C J^cre mbptj) tfji.ief present cronp^ 
tic of oBngJontic iuptid tJjc ftute of tp* 
me^e? : compikti in a IiooftC/ % ali^o en* 
jirpnteb fip one fomtpme fcolc mapftcr 
of fapnt ^Ifion^. on tujjoo^ ^oule gob 
Ijaue mercp/ C 3(!nti nctuelp in tfje pec 
of out lorti goti, ^ . €€€<t ♦ tejCjctJij. 
enptpntiti at ^t^imt^Xtt ftp IBpnftpn 
tie Jt^orOe» 

402 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Gold. Leg. 1498. 

On the reverse is Caxton's large device. This copy, from the 
Alchorne Collection, is not only imperfect, but soiled, and much cut 
in the binding. For a further descrij)tion of this very scarce book, 
consult the Ti/pog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 69-71. It is proper to add, that 
the embellishments, although executed on the plan of those in the St. 
Alban'3 edition, are much superior. 

906. The Golden Legende. Accomplyshed and 
Fynijshed at Westmynster. 1498. Folio. 

We shall describe this edition in the order in which the present copy 
of it presents itself. On the recto of the first leaf, is a cut, in two 
parts ; the upper part of which presents the Annunciation, the lower 
part, the Crucifixion. On the reverse, is a short table, of 13 lines, 
referring to the leaves ' conteynynge the lyues and hystoryes shortly 
taken out of the Byble.' The following leaf, folio i, is here wanting : 
on the reverse of folio lij, the last of these ' hystoryes' (' of Judyth') 
terminates. The succeeding leaf presents us with Caxton's large device 
on the recto, and the cut, just described, on the reverse. The recto of 
the ensuing leaf gives us the general title of the Legend, above a very 
large and rude cut (probably the identical one used by Caxton) of the 
Apostles and Saints in glory before the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, 
seated on a throne, surrounded by Cherubim. The title is the same in 
substance, although not in the spelling of the words, as is that of the 
edition of 1493 : sec p. 270 ante. A prologue, table, and 4 leaves follow. 
The ' Aduente of our Lorde ' begins on the next leaf, numbered ' folio 
primo ;' and the leaves continue to be numbered to folio CCClxxxxviii ; 
on the reverse of which leaf the text ends. On the recto of the 
following and last leaf is the colophon, above two wood-cuts ; the first 
presenting the genealogy of the Virgin, the second, the crucifixion. A 
fac-simile of the latter (by no means divested of spirit) is given in the 
Tijpog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 79 ; to which work the reader is referred for 
some curious extracts from the text. 

The colophon is the same as the one given at page 270 ; except as 
follows : 

mW^ tuerhe % tipDe 
accomplpffSc ant> fpnpff^e att tueftrnpn^ettct tje. 

Arthur ; 1498.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 403 

tjjii. bape of Slaneuer €^c pete of oute lortie Cfioufanbe 
.€€€€.lnTrt)in. 3llnti in tfje. xiii pttt of tf^t repnge 
of hpnge ipenrp tlfte tJir. 25p nie tupnfepn He tuorbe 

The present is a sound, but cropt copy ; in russia binding. 

907. The Booke of Kynge Arthur, and of 
HIS Noble Knyztes of the rounde Table. 
Printed at Westmestre. 1498. Folio. 

Second Edition. It is not a little extraordinary that, of this im- 
pression, and of the previous one executed by Caxton in 1485, only 
one copy of each is known to exist. The present copy is, however, 
unfortunately very imperfect. The copy of Ihe impression by Caxton, 
now preserved in the Library of Osterley Park, and belonging to the 
Earl of Jersey, is not only perfect, but, upon the whole, one of the 
finest specimens of Caxton's press that is known. The copy under 
description is undoubtedly a very great acquisition, and presents us 
with the first attempt to illustrate the text by Engravings. These 
wood-cut engravings, as the ensuing fac-similes evince, are of 
extremely coarse execution ; and very little superior to the clumsiest 
embellishments which distinguish the volumes printed by the Two 
CopLANDS. Yet, to the curious antiquary, they have a certain degree 
of value ; and to the bibliographer, such a volume as the one now 
before us (remarkable for the beauty of its execution, as well as for 
the rarity of its appearance) cannot fail to be held in very consider- 
able estimation. 

On consulting the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 81, it will be observed that 
a very partial description of this impression is there given ; as, at that 
time, no copy of it had been seen by me. Even Herbert, who was 
formerly in possession of this very copy, and from whose collection it 
came into the library of the Duke of Roxburghe, (it having been bought* 
at the sale of this latter collection) has been superficial in the extreme. 
It shall be my endeavour to supply these deficiencies : although the 
necessity of a very elaborate description is done away, from the prospect 

* It was purchased for 31?. 10s. 


held out to the public of a reprint of the entire text, under the 
editorial care of Mr. John Lewis Goldsmid* 

A table of 8 leaves precedes the prologue of Caxton : of these leaves, 
in the present copy, the first, upon sign, i, is wanting. We observe, 
from this table, that the work contains XXI. Books. The following, 
or 9th leaf, is upon signature ij — as in Caxton's impression — and this 
leaf, as well as a small portion of the ensuing one, sign, iij, contains 
the prologue of Caxton, ])iecisely similar to the one in the previous 
edition, and of which the reader will find the whole reprinted in the 
fust volume of the Typog. Antiq. p. 243-248. This prologue is suc- 
ceeded by a summai-y of the contents of each of the XXI. Books. On 
the ensuing leaf, a i, the text of the 1st Book commences, with this 
prefix in large lower-case letter : 

ipcrc Begpnncti) tfjc fpt.sft fio* 
fee of tjje noWc hpng. I^png 
^rtjur. fomtpmc fepngc of 
(Snglontic attti of fjijef notiJe 
actc^ anb fcate^ of arnie^ of 
fljpuairpe i W ^^^^^ ftnpgj 
te^ *; talikroutic anti jii^tieup 
licbinto* jcjci.liooto. 

To this, as to every Book, a large-wood cut is prefixed; and the 
present is as cuiious as any of them. From the prefix to the 1st 
chapter we read ' How Vtherpendragon sends for the Duke of Cornwall 
and Igrayne his wife, and of their departing suddenly again." What 
subject in this chapter, or in the first book itself, this embellishment is 
intended to designate, is perhaps difficult of solution. There are three 
distinct groups ; each group consisting of only two figures. In the 
foreground, with a castle behind, stands a crowned male figure, with 
ermined robes, embracing a female. To the left, a sort of tender parley 
between a lady and her knight seems to be going on. In the background, 
on an eminence, a man and woman are riding upon one horse, the for- 
mer turning his head back towards the latter. The ] st Book contains 
XXVIII Chapters, and ends on the recto of c ij. Each book is also 

• Of this edition only 250 c;ipies will be printed — with great attention to typographical 
accuracy and beauty. 

d' Arthur; 1498.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 


designated by a ninning title. The 2nd Book contains XIX Chapters, 
and ends on the reverse of d iij. The 3rd Book contains XV Chapters, 
and ends on the recto of e v. The nuptials of Arthur and Guenever 
grace the commencement of the third Book, in a wood-cut not divested 
of interest. The 4th Book contains XXIX Chapters, and ends on the 
reverse of g vj. The 5th Book contains XII Chapters, and ends on 
the reverse of j i. The 6th Book contains XVIII Chapters, and ends 
on the reverse of k iiij. The 7th Book contains XXXVI Chapters, 
and ends on the recto of n vij. A very whimsical wood-cut precedes 
this book. Beaumayns is throwing his arms round the necks of two 
females, preferring ' three petitions to King Arthur.' The 8th Book 
contains XLI Chapters, and ends on the recto of r iij . The 9th Book 
contains XLIII I Chapters, and ends on the recto of v viij. The ensuing 
is a fac-simile of the combat of ' Arthur and the Lion,' in the centre of 
the cut which precedes it : 

The 10th Book contains LXXXVIII Chapters; beginning on the 
recto of A i, and ending on the recto of I i. The wood-cut to this book 
is divided into two compartments, and is of very coarse execution. The 
loth is of ' Syr Tristram ; and foloweth the XI, boke, whyche is of Syr 
Launcelot.' To this book is prefixed a wood-cut also, divided into 




two compartments ; and evidently by the same hand which produced 
the ])rovious embellishment. The 1 1th Book contains XIIII Chapters, 
and ends on the recto of K iij. The 12th Book, which is preceded by 
one of the most barbarous cuts in the volume, contains XIIII Chapters, 
and ends on the reverse of L iiij. The 13th Book contains XX Chapters, 
and ends on the recto of N iiij. The 14th Book contains only X 
Chapters, ending on the reverse of O iij. It is preceded by a cut, of 
which the ensuing is a fac-simile of all the Jigures : omitting a poi-tion 
of the back-ground, and the very heavy and dark frame work by which 
almost all these cuts (with the exception of the tirst) are surrounded. 

The 15th Book contains only VI Chapters, ending on the reverse of 
O vj. The prefixed wood-cut is singularly grotesque ; being, I pre- 
sume, an illustration of the subject of the first chapter, which treats 
' How Syr Launcelot came in to a chapel where he founde deed in a 
whyte sherte a man of Relygyou* of an hundred wynter olde." The 16th 

• Sic. 

d' Arthurs 1498.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 


iBook commences on P i, containing XVII Chapters, and ending on the 
recto of Q iiij. A portion of the cut, by which the I7th Book is pre- 
ceded, is presented to the reader in the following fac-simile : having, 
in the background, a vessel at anchor. 

This 17th Book has XXIII Chapters, and ends on the reverse of S v. 
The 18th Book has XXV Chapters, ending on the reverse of X iiij. 
The 19th Book has XIII Chapters, and ends on the recto of A iiij (the 
third alphabet of signatures.) The 20th Book contains XXII Chapters; 
of which the latter two are wanting in the copy under description. It 
terminates on the reverse of D i. The 21st and last Book is preceded 
by the same wood-cut which is prefixed to the 20th Book, and of the 
whole of which the ensuing is a fac-simile : 

VOL. IV. 3 G 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Arthur; 1498 

This last book contains a second wood-cut on the reverse of D iiij, and 
has XIII Chapters; ending on the recto of E v. After an address to 
the reader,* (as in the former impression,) to pray for the soul of the 
translatour, the colophon, on the same page, is precisely similar to that 
by Caxtonf — as far as a portion of the 1 0th line — when we read thus : 

tdljpcifje hoht toasf rebuccti 

in to (Snglpffjc hp tf^t tocH tjpflpofpb 
fenpgjjtc afore nampb. %ntx timptieti 
in to» xxi. hokt^ t^apitt^. i cnprpntcti 

• The address begins by calling the work, as in the title, given at p. 403 ante, ' the hoole 
booke of kynge Arth[u]r, & of his noble knyztes of the rounde table.' 

i See Typog. Antiq. vol. i, p. 253. The ralophon begins thus : ' Thus endyth this noble 
& Joyous boke entj'tled Le Morte dathur.'t &c. 

t Sic, 

Contemplat. 1499.] WYNKYN DE VVORDE. 409 

fprjBft Bp Wiilmn Caxtoity on toljo^c 
^m\t 00b fjaue mercp. 311nb netori . . 

prpntcli. anb cfjajiitreiBf of tlje mx\ 

Jirifrjeb at IBe^BftniCj^tre 6p J^pnh . . . 

IBortic p^ pcre of our locb. a^^C 

.toxTbiil* anti enticb tJje. jcjctJ 

flt^arclje. tge ^amc perc 

The above dotted lines denote the defective parts of the colophon in 
the copy before us. On the reverse of this leaf is the large device of Cax- 
ton. The signatures, as before observed, run in three sets, exclusively of 
the table on i. The table has 8 leaves. Then, a to v, in eights and sixes, 
alternately: v has 8 leaves Next, A, B, C, in sixes; D eight; E six; F, 
G, H, in eights ; 1 to V, inclusively, in sixes ; X four ; Y five. As the 
third set, A, B, C, D, E, in sixes ; E vj being blank. The painful task 
remains of mentioning the deficiencies of the present copy. The first 
leaf of the table ; signatures, a ij; ; rj; rvij; E iij ; E iiij ; Tv; Y iij ; 
B j ; C vj ; D j ; and E ij — in the vrhole, 12 leaves are wanting. About 
10 leaves also are injured by having portions, greater or less, of the 
text torn away. In spite however of such imperfections, this volume 
may be considered a treasure of no ordinary value. It has been lately 
bound, in a very elegant manner, in dark red morocco, by C. Lewis. 

908. TheContemplacyon of Synners. Emprentyd 
at TVestmynster . 1499. Quarto. 

This is, upon the whole, a very curious little volume : although I 
do not consider it so scarce as I was formerly led to imagine. The first 
leaf is occupied, on each side, by a wood-cut of the author, presenting 
his book to a Bishop, seated. On the second leaf, signature A ij, the 
prologue begins — as extracted at p. 83 of the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. 
From this prologue, we gather that the work was undertaken at the 
request of Richard [Fox] Bishop of Durham. It is not improljable that 
the work was revised by the Bishop himself, as it came from the press 
of W. de Worde. This impression is pretty accurately described in the 
Bihl. Harleian vol. iii. n°. GUIS; but we may here remark that every 
' Contemplation ' (there being seven — for the seven days in the week) 

410 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Co7itemplat. U99. 

is accompanied with poetry, and has a wood-cut prefixed to it. These 
cuts, however, are coarsely executed, and of rather common occurrence. 
The first piece of poetry, on the recto of B i, is as follows : 

This breuyd boke of sobre quantyte 
Of synners called the Contemplacyon 
Accordeth well for all state and degree 
Gydynge by grace and due dyreccyon 
Our soule to sease in sure saluacyon 
Therefore this poesy profoundly vnderstande 
Whiche of thy conscyence may cause correcoyon 
In herte enpryntynge thyse fygures folowande 

Perhaps the reader will not censure me if I adduce only one more 
specimen of such prosaic metre : which is printed on D iiij, recto, 
opposite a wood-cut of our first parents, eating the forbidden fniit ;— 
similar to the same cut in Caxton's Life of Christ : 

This leef sheweth a pleasaunt portrature 

For to ostende the state of Innocence 

The whiche in grace ay standeth sadde & sure 

For why, it is a state of excellence 

Whiche men sholde kepe with dewly dylygence 

And teche theyr children in to theyr tender age 

Of god and man escuwynge all oflFence 

Theyr Innocencye obserue ay but outrage 

On the reverse of P iij, in sixes, we read the conclusion of the con- 
templation for Sunday. On the recto of P iiij, and last leaf, is tlie 
colophon, thus : 

•I ^ttt tnhttf^ tije matpfe taHcti tljc Conmnpla^ 
cpon of i^ntt^i for euetp bape of tlje iucfte a ipn^ 
fitikr metiptacpon. <!5mprcntpti at Wttunpntm 
hp IBpnfecn tie tootbe tl^e ♦ x- tape of Siulp/ tlje pe^ 
re of our lortie, ^ . €€€€ ♦ tajcjcijr. 

Four hexameter and four pentameter verses are beneath ; subjoined 
to which is W. de Worde's device, no. IV. The same wood-cut, as 
before, of the author presenting his book — is on the reverse of the leaf. 
The present is a very sound and desirable copy, in old red morocco 

.■iVi^>M^M^; » i 'V 


Smpit te liji4^tmt « te.(apCfe m^mtfi^ ftqtttta 

Bartholomceus.'] WYNKYN DE WORDE. 411 

909. Bartholomeus. De Proprietatibus Rerum. 
Without Place or Date. Folio. 

Of all the books printed in this country, in the xvth century, the 
present is one of the most curious and elaborate ; and probably the 
most beautiful for its typographical execution. The paper, press-work, 
and embellishments (although the latter are, for the greater part, very 
coarsely executed) are perhaps unrivalled by the efforts of any other 
artist in our own country, within the period above mentioned. The 
present copy of this magnificent performance is indeed well calculated to 
call forth the admiration of the bibliographer and collector: for although 
a few leaves, at the beginning and end, are in a tender condition, and 
inlaid — from a copy subsequently acquired — yet the moment we pass 
the First Book, and the table of the second, and enter upon the Second 
Book, on the recto of signature b i — continuing our examination till 
within the 7 last leaves of the impression — we are perfectly delighted 
with the size, condition, and general appearance of the volume. Refer- 
ring the reader to a very copious and particular account of this chef- 
d'cEUvre of W. de Worde's press, in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 310-3'22, 
the description here may be comparatively brief. Our object will be 
solely to mention the leading features of the impression. 

The title, as above given, (and of which a fac-simile appears in the 
work just referred to) consists of large lower-case white letters, upon 
a black ground, executed upon a block of wood. This occupies the recto 
of the first leaf: on tlie reverse, are 24 verses in commendation of the 
youthful lesson called ' God spede me.' These are extracted in the 
forementioned authority. The prologue of the translator occupies the 
recto of the second leaf ; having only 2 lines and a third of one on the. 
reverse. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, A iij, the First Book begins ; 
preceded by an impression of the most magnificent wood-cut in the 
volume : and of which the opposite embellishment is a fac-simile: 

The chapters of the second book begin on the recto of B i : the pre- 
vious signature having only 5 printed leaves. On the reverse of B viij, 
above another elaborate wood-cut, we read 

J^ere folotoctl) tlje fecontic 
I hokt of tl)tj9f ptt^tnt tolume 

I ircatpngcofangeilei^?. 

412 .BOOKS PRINTED BY [BartkolonuEus 

The ensuing signature is b, but with only six leaves. We continue 
with 8 leaves to a signature, and observe, on the recto of m ii, a large 
wood-cut divided into three compartments— of part of one of which, 
(a youth holdini; a hawk on his left fist) a fac-simile appears at p. 313 
of the authority just referred to. But the embellishments of every 
book are particularly specified in tlie same pages ; and we may here 
therefore only attend to the order of the signatures. Each signature, 
from b lo }, 1, and 9, inclusively, has 8 leaves. On the recto of 9 viij, 
above Caxton's large device, we read as follows : 

%tttt tI)tfcfocftipti boftcfif tfjuiEf tceatctj. toe ^tjall pcoccbc bp 
tJjc f^tlpc of 3[ljefu in t^t ttuelftlj fiohc. atili ^tjn tjie otljcr 

This seems a sort of colophon to about one half of the work. The 
reverse of this leaf is blank. The signature of the next leaf, A j, is 
omitted to be marked. From A to X, there are 8 leaves to each sig- 
nature ; but X, Y, and Z have each only 0" leaves. Next come aa, 
bb, and cc in eights : dd, ee, ff, gg, in sixes : hli, II, Ick, II, mm, in eights : 
nn four ; and, lastly, oo with 6 leaves. The Nineteenth and last book 
terminates on the reverse of oo iij ; presenting us with a copy of the 
colophon in the original MS. thus : 

oEntilefigfe grace, hlpi^t. tfjanftpng *; prap 
fpng bnto our iorHc goli #mmjiotcnt 
ht gpntn h^ tDi}oo^ apht anti Igeipe tl^i^ 
tranflacon toas? entipti at 23erftclepe tl)e 
fpjctc tiape of f merer, tlje pere of our lor 
tie. ^.€€€,\xxxx^ini, tje pere of p^rep 
ne of hpnge iUpcfiartie tfje i^econtie after 
tlje Contjuc.i^te of Cnglontic. rjcij. Cl|e 
pere of mp IntUt^ aege fpre €fjoma^ lor 
tie of 25erfeclepe tjjat matie me to mafee 
tJiiB? CranfJaton. xVoih 

Then follows, on oo iiij, recto, a list of the authors from whom the 
work was composed : succeeded by 

Mem. Noviss.] WYNKYN DE WORDE. ;4f3 

€rp!icit tractujBf qui tjoca* 
tur 25artijolonieujei tic jjro^pri 
etatiliujgf return. 

The poetical proheme oF the author, which follows in English metre, 
is copied entirely in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 315-318 : but the con- 
cluding stanza, or L'Envoy, may find a place here : 

Ye that be nobly groundid all in grace 
Experte in wysdom and phylosophy 
To you this processe comyth a myghty pace 
Whyche I dyrect to you that perfytlye 
Ye may reforme to voyde all vylenye 
Of euery thyng yf ought be here amysse 
Excusyng theym whiche ment ryght well in this 

The recto of the ensuing and last leaf contains the large device of 
Caxton in the centre, and the title of the work, as before, is on the 
reverse. The extraordinary condition of this copy has been before 
mentioned. It is very handsomely bound in russia by Walther. 

910. Memorare Nouissima. Enprynted atte west- 
mystre. Anno vts. Quarto. 

This beautiful little volume presents us with a reprint of the Cordial 
of Caxton ; see p. 225 ante. On consulting the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. 
p. 329, it will be seen that it was unknown to Herbert ; who had con- 
jectured that the enigmatical letters — ' vts ' — designative of the date— 
(whatever that date might be) were intended for ' vt supra ;' referring 
to the previous date of Caxton (1480) : but this inference is wholly 
untenable. So complete is this reprint, that Caxton's own date is 
repeated. That the impression was published in the XVth century, 
appears to be extremely probable from the character of the type; 
which resembles that of the Polychronicon, Vitas Patrum, BartholomauSt 
and Golden Legend. From the authority above referred to, it should 
seem that Oldys was of opinion that the book was printed in 1495, or 
1496 : and it might also further appear that he had inspected this very 
copy — which answers completely to his description — being ' a beautiful 

VOL. IV. 3 H 



one, bound in morocco, and finely gilt.' It remains to describe it 
briefly, but minutely. 

The first leaf, signature a i, contains a wood-cut on each side of it. 
On the recto, is that of the three Kings, on horseback, frightened 
at the approach of three skeletons in winding sheets — as given in a fac- 
simile at p. 10*2, vol. ii. of the above work. Beneath we read 

flr^cmorare nouif^ima (jc 

The reverse contains a similar subscription, beneath a very uncommon 
cut, of which the reader is here presented with a fac-simile. The sub- 
ject, as is evident, relates to Dives and Lazarus. 

statutes.] ^^TNKYN DE WORDE. 415 

On the recto of signature a ii, the prologue begins, as in Caxton ; 
see p. 225 ante. The signatures, to m, run regularly in eights: m 
having only 6 leaves. The entire work is executed in double columns ; 
and on signature a iiii, the leaves begin to be numbered, and so con- 
tinue as for as folio Ixxxviii, within one leaf of the last. On the reverse 
of fol. Ixxxviii. or m v, we read at top the ensuing colophon : 

€ €nprpnteti atte tDc^t^: 
mpftre %nm bt^. 
€ llcgii0ftru quatcrno^f. 
♦ all ctief gfjifelm. 

Beneath, is Caxton's small device. The ensuing and last leaf is 
occupied by the same cuts as are on the first leaf. This fair and desirable 
copy was obtained from the choice collection of Mr. R. Wilbraham. 

911. Statuta. IV it hout Place or Date. Folio. 

This estimable and uncommon volume has been briefly, but accu- 
rately, described in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p, 390-391. There is no 
necessity to add nnich to that description ; but we may here observe 
that, on the recto of the first leaf, without signature, and beneath a 
running title of * anno xi°. l^enrici. bij.' we read the following title — 
in 'the centre of the page : 

^Catuta hmvm puBIicum 
concernencia etitta in pariiamento tm 
to ayub tDeftmonaftcrium* j:mf ♦ tiie 
(©ttobtijsf 3llmto rcgni ^lilustrifj^imi 
SDfii noftti iUcgijgf i^mrici fejrtiini. xi\ 

On the reverse is the elaborate ornament, of the royal arms, sur- 
mounted by an angel, of which a fac-simile appears in the volume just 
referred to. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, A ij, is a table of the 
chapters or acts, passed in the session above mentioned. These acts are number. One of the most curious of them, is that which relates 
to the unlawful making of Feather Beds, Pillows, and Matrasses, cap. xix. 
This illegality relates to beds made ' of scalded feders, and drye pulled 
feders togyder and of lokkis. and feders togyder whyche is cotagyous for 
mannys l»dy to lye on. And also in quiltes materes & cusshons stuffed 

416 BOOKS PRINTED, &c. [Psaltei-j 14'J9. 

with hors heere, fenne downe neetes heere deres heere and gotes heere 
whyche is wrought in lyme fattis, and by the heete of mannys body the 
savour and taste is so abhoininable and contagious y« many of the 
kynges subirettes therby ben destroyed,' &c. Lawful feather beds are 
then described as made with ' drye pulled fethers or ellis wyth dene 
downe allone.' The act however does not threaten punishment for 
those who choose to make these ' dampned ' goat-skin beds ' for their 
own propter use in their houses ' — ' so they be not ofiFered to be sold in 
feirs & markets.' 

This impression contains only the signatures A to E, inclusively, in 
sixes ; concluding at the bottom oF E vj, recto ; without any imprint. 
The large device of Caxton is on the reverse A full page (C i, recto,) 
contains 39 lines. The present is a large and desirable copy, but stained 
in the upper margin. It is handsomely bound in russia by Herring. 

912. PsALTERiuM. Printed at Westminster. 1499. 

This impression of the Latin Psalter (as has been before observed*) 
is the first which was published in our own country. It has been 
inaccurately described, in the work below referred to, as a folio; 
whereas it is a small octavo, having only 21 lines in a full page. The 
typographical execution of it is in the best style of W. de Woide's press. 
There is no litle to the present copy ; which begins, on the recto of A, 
with a table The table occupies 12 leaves: A with 8, and B with 
4, leaves. The following leaf exhibits the commencement of the text 
of the Psalter on A. The signatures extend to S, inclusively, in eights: 
R wanting 2 leaves in the cojiy before us. Each signature is designated 
only on the first leaf. On the recto of S viij, is the colophon: 

ti Sniprf frum aputi tDe^tmona^tenu^ 
per me topnantiu tie toortic. 3l!imo tiiii 
2t^. CCCC. hxxxix* XX tiie flr^aii. 

On the re\ else is Caxton's small device, surrounded by 4 pieces of 
wood-cut border. This is a very neat copy; in dark blue morocco 

• Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 82. 

t Tliis book is inserted here, instead of at p. 411 ante, on account of its having been 




ib i < t i J i i 

913. Dives and Pauper. Emprynted at the temple 
barre of London. 1493. Folio. 

First Edition; and the first Book printed hy Pynson, with a date. The 
copy under description is perfect, but neither a very fair nor a very 
genuine one The book however is of no ordinary occurrence, and 
exhibits a rare specimen of that peculiar type of the printer* which 
resembles the larger character of Verard ; it being a tall secretary- 
gothic tyi)e. The capital initial, D, is occasionally much ornamented ; 
but no other initial letter has the same distinction. The table is 
executed ni long lines, the text in double columns. An extended 
description is here unnecessary, as it is presumed a satisfactory one has 
already appeared in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 401-3. The table 
begins on a ii ,a i being blank) and extends to h vj, inclusively, in sixes. 
Another blank leaf is intended for i a; and on ii a (erroneously so 
printed for a ii) the text begins — ' Of holy pouertie ' — which forms a 
running title as far as 6 i ; when we read ' The firste precepte.' The 
work is divided into ' ten precepts ;' which, in W. de Worde's reprint, 
are more properly designated ' commandments '—since, in the Vllth 

• A fac-simile of this type, not quite satisfactorily executed, appears in the Typog. Antiq. 
^I. ii. p. 402. 

418 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Dives, Sfc, 1 49S. 

chapter of the teuth precept {sign. I ii, rev.) we read as follows : * Nowe 
leue frende I haue I partie declared thou the X comaundementes.' * 

On the reverse of I vij (second set of signatures) we. read the 
colophon, thus : 

f$ttt entiitlft a compcnbioufc tree 
tife tipalogue. of jaDiue^ i paup. 
tljat i^ to ^ap. tlje riclje i tl|e pore 
fcuctuoufifip tretpng tjpon tlje jtr. 
coniautinientejef/ fpmffjcti tf^t \j. 
Dap of 'fjuv^' tJ)c pere of oure lortr 
goiJ ♦ ^ . €€€€ , Irxjcjciii . oBm 

* I subjoin a few miscellaneous specimens of the text of this singular work ; but one of the 
most curious extracts will be found in the authority just referred to. On tiie recto of E i,it is 
truly said— ' In presece of his fredes they speke a man gode, though they wole him no goode 
and in presence of his enemyes they speke him euyl And as the fane of the steple. turneth 
after the w\ ude. so turne flaterers and bacbiters their speche, as aipany spekith that they ben 
in The mosel and the face, of the canielion is lyke a swyne. and an ape. For c-uery fiatercr is 
a bacbiter And as a swyne hay moore lykynge to lye in a foule slough ihanne in a faire grene, 
& with wrotynge of his snoute defouleth the place ther he goothe. so hath the bacbiter. 
more liking to speke of other raennys defautes and of their vnhonesties and synne, thane to 
speke of tlieu- godenesse, and honestie, and wysly speche,' &c. It is probable that the reader 
may recollect a parallel passage with the following ; except the termination of it — which roust 
be considered peculiar to this work. Pauper says—' If thou haue moche yeue thou mooche. 
Butt and if thou haue but lytel studye thou to yeue litel with good wylle for tha thou 
tresourest to the a greteyift in the day of nede For almesse deliuereth soules from euery synne 
and from dethe, and sufFreth nat the soule to go into derknes,' G viij, recti). The origin of 
the episcopal mitre, crosier, and gloves, is thus detailed. ' The busshop passynge other 
prestys hath a mytre and a crosse. The mytre on his liede betokneth the crowne of thomes. 
y' crist bare on his hede for niannes sake. And therefore the mytre hathe two sharpe 
honiee. intookenof the sharpe thomes. The two timges y' hange downe on ye mytre betoke 
the stremys of blood y' ranne downe fro cristcs hede by pryckyng of the crowne of thomes. 
The crose that the busshop berith in his honde betokneth ye rede spere that the knyghtes 
ttmnetours put in the honde of crist in scorne for a ceptre And the archebussbops crosse 
betoknethe the crosse that crist died vpon for vs alle The busshoppes gloues. at messe in 
his hodes. betoken ye nayles in cristes hondes, and the sandalies on his feet at messe 
betoken the nayles in cristen feet.' E iii. 

The author of this singular work was Henry Parkeb, a Carmelite of Doncaster in 
Yorkshire ; in the time of Edward lA'^lh. Anthony a Wood thought the first edition of it 
was by W. de Worde, in 1496. Mr. Bliss observes that Parker wrote ' A Dialogue between 
a rich and a }!Oor man ;' but can this be any other than the work under descriptioa— and 
wliat Wood calls ' Dives and Pauper?' &c. Athen. Oxon. vol. i. col. 115. 

Bochas; 1494.] RICHARD PYNSON. 4iy 

pcentpti fip me tofiatUe ^pn^eron 
at tfjc temple Iiarte, of lonHon. 
jBDeo fftaeiajtf. 

The signatures run in eights ; but the first alphabet extends only to 
t. As before observed, c i is omitted to be marked ; but the first four 
leaves of c, are c ii, c Hi, c iiii, c v. The second set of signatures, A i, 
begins at the second chapter of ' the seuenth Precepte.' Copies of this 
curious and rare volume are in the libraries of the Duke of Devonshire 
and Mr. Heber. The present was Mr. G. Mason's copy, and is in old 
russia binding. 

914. The Boke calledde John Bochas, &c. 
Emprentyd without e the TeinpleBarre of London. 
1494. Folio. 

FiKST Impression. This is a volume well deserving a place in a 
Collection like the present. The text of it was frequently reprinted, 
and such re-impressions are by no means of rare occurrence ; but a 
fine and perfect copy of this earliest edition is an acquisition of no 
trifling importance. The copy under description is somewhat soiled, 
but sound. The general title of the work, })rinted in a large lower- 
case type, in 9 lines, and prefixed to the prologue, is thus : • Here 
begynnethe the boke calledde lohn bochas descriuinge the falle of 
princis princessis & other nobles traslated ito englissh by lohn ludgate 
moke of the monastery of seint edmiides Bury at the comaiidemet of 
the worthy prynce humfrey duke of gloucestre beginnynge at adam & 
endinge with kinge iohn take prisoner in fraunce by prince Edwarde.' 
The prologue occupies 3 leaves, ending on the reverse of a iiii ; a i 
being blank. In the whole, there are Nine Books ; having, prefixed to 
each, a prologue and a wood-cut. The text of this woik is so well 
known to the curious, from the subsequent editions of it, that, in the 
present instance, I shall dwell chiefly upon the graphic embellishmtnts 
which the volume contains ; as this is the first book, with a date, 
executed by Pynson, in which such embellishments appear. 


BOOKS PRINTED BY [Bochas; 1494. 

The first wood-cut, to the first book, is exceedingly coarse ; as will 
appear from tlie fac-simile of it in the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. xi : see 
also p. 405. The remaining cuts represent the human figure on a 
smaller scale; and in ihe 2nd and 3rd cuts we immediately recognise 
the same style of art. The 3rd cut, being rather curious, shall speak 
for itself in the ensuing facsimile : 

On examining the contents however of this third book, it is not easy 
to discover to what subject this embellishment relates. The 4th cut 
represents Marcus Manlius, with his hands tied behind him, ' caste into 

Bochas; 1494.] RICHARD PYNSON. 


the Tibre and there drowned.' The 5th cut represents a naked man, 
stretched out and tied down upon a board of iron spikes : guards are 
surrounding him. The 6th cut is too curious to be withheld from being 
its own interpreter. It is thus explained in the prefix to the book to 
which it belongs : 'Here Bochas sittinge in his studye alone: writeth a 
greate processe : hotoe Fortune lyke a monstruous Image, Hainnge an hundryd 
handys apperyd vnto hym and spake : and Bochas vuto hir : makinge by- 
twene them both many greate Argumentys : and resorts of fortunes chauncys.' 


422 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Bochas; 1494. 

The 7th cut describes a battle, with few figures, in which the bow 
and sword are the chief implements of destruction. The 8th cut shews 
us, in the foreground, a figure, with a tiara on its head, kneeling and 
hand-cuffed : a warrior is stepping on his back, to mount his horse, 
which latter is held by a page without his hat. A group of armed 
horsemen is in the back-ground. The 9th and last cut represents a 
woman, drawn in quarters by the hair of her head, her left hand, and 
right foot — by three horses. A crowned leader, with horse-men, 
attends the execution of this barbarous punishment. 

On the recto of H iii (second set of signatures) the colophon is thus t 

C ^evt cntiitlj a comjientiioujef ttttik, anb tipalogue 
of 9!ofjn 25oclja^: fnictuoujeflp tretingc bpon ttjc fan 
of Ptiiicp^/ ^intti^p^i anti atf^tt mh\t0, f inpfljeu 
tjje xx^ii tiap of 5[anupere, 3[n tfje pete of ouce lorlj 
goti ^ €€€€ Ixxxxiiii . €mprentpti ftp itofjatU 
^ni9fon: titocHpnge iuitjjoute t||e €ettijrte fiarre of 
Hlonlion. Hausf SDeo. 

On the reverse are four stanzas of poetry, by an author, from whom 
no other poetical effusion is at present known : see Ritson'^ Bibliogra- 
phica Poetica; p. 56. 

Greneacres a Lenuoye vpon 
lohn Bochos. 

Lak be thy hondes and thy wede also 
B Thou sorowfull boke of mater disespeyred 

In tokne of thyn inwarde mortall wo 
Which is so bad it may nat be enpeyred 
Thou owest nat outwarde to be feired 
That inwarde haste so many a rufull clause 
Such be thyn habyte of coloure as thy cause 

No cloth of Tyssewe ne ueluet cremesyne 
But lyke thy monke mournynge vndre his hode 
Go weyle and wepe with wofull proserpyne 
And late thy terys multiplye the flode 
Of blak Lythey vnder the bareyn wode 
Where as goddesse hath hir hermytage 
Helpe hir to wepe and she wyll gyue the wage. 

Direct. Sacer, 1498.] RICHARD PYNSON. 423 

Noblesse of ioye sith thou mayst nat approch 
This blak goddesse I counceyle the to obeye 
Compleyne with hir vndre the craggy roche 
With wepynge soiiles vpon the seide Lythey 
Sith thou of sorowe art Insti-ument and keye 
So harpe and singe there as thou may be herde 
For euer ioye is of thy name aferde 

Pryncesse of avo and wepyne proserpyne 

Which harborovvest sorowe euyn at thyn herte rote 

Admytte this Bochas for a man of thyne 

And though his habyte blaker be than sote 

Yit was it made of tliy monkes hode 

That he translatj d in Inglyssh of latyn 

Therefore nowe take hiin for a man of thyne 

This impression is executed in double columns, in the small secretary- 
gothic type of the printer, of whicli a fac-simile appears at page 544 of 
the 2d vol. of the Typog. Antiq. There are two sets of signatures, each ' 
running in eights : but the first, as in the volume just described, does 
not extend beyond v. The second, in eights, extends to H ; which latter 
has only 3 printed leaves to H. This is a desirable copy, in old russia 

915. DiRECTORiuM Sacerdotum, &c. 1498. 

This was formerly a work in great use and estimation among the 
Clergy ; and the present is, in all probability, a reprint of the text of 
it by Caxton. The note below,* respecting the correction of this 
edition, may afford the i-eader some amusement. All that it may be 
necessary here to state, in a bibliographical point of view, will not 
occupy a great portion of our time or attention. The recto of the first 

• ' For greater satisfaction we must refer the inquisitive to the Directohium Sacer- 
dotum quern (librum) pica Sarum vulgo vocitat clerus ; a book containing all these niceties; 
and more than once printed by our English printers, as by Caxton, without a date ; by 
Pynsou, in 1498 ; and again 1508. Of Mr. Caxton's edition, we may always say, as 
Buxtorf, or Reland, or somebody else, says of the Mactation book of the Jews, worded m 
Dutch, but printer! in Masket— ' legat qui vuit aut qui potest.' We mean no more than to 

424 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Direct. Sacer. 1498. 

leaf is occupied by an advertisement [' Animaduertendum '] the whole 
of which is reprinted in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 414-5. We chiefly 
learn from it, that this * Sacerdotal Directory ' was com|)Osed for the 
Cathedral at Salisbury : that it was delivered to one * Master Gierke to 
amend and correct ;' who in turn committed it to the press of Pynson : 

SItifiig tjoncisfto illicarbo ppnisfon 
ejctra Batca noiii tepli Jontiouiaif moranti/ ati impri^ 
incntifi tJclitt atq5 fiiiiri iufefit. %nm ^eXntx^ no^tre 
flr^illcfimo . utt . rctJiii . 

This advertisement occupies only one page of the leaf, and is printed 
in a square, proportionate, and beautiful letter : occupying ^3 lines. 
The reveise is blank. The next C leaves, on signature a {a i blank) 
are occupied by an almanack or table. This executed in the small 
secretary-gothic type of the ])rinter. Another leaf follows ; the recto 
of which is blank, but the reverse contains a kalendar from the year 1496 
to 1515. The * prologue' to the Directory succeeds; on a i, recto: 
ending, with a rubric, on the reverse of a ii. The Directory terminates 
on the reverse of *l ii, in eights : 

oBrpUdt lilJdlujBf quob E>itectormm 
faccrUotuni ajipcfiatur. feliciter. 

Next comes the ' Defensokium Directorii '— on 1 iii: ending on 
the recto of 1 vj : 

€jCpUcit SDcnfenforium tiitmorii. 

The reverse is blank. The third and last tract, commencing on A i, 

intimate that it abounds with abbreviations peculiar to the subject ; and that if we reraeraber 
rightly, it requires some skill in pica to read it with fluency. This book was compiled, 
though not originally, by Clem, be Maydeston, a briggitine friar, but a brother, as Bishop 
Tanner says, {Bibl. Brit. p. 500) of the liouse at Houndeslow, which was a house of Trini- 
tarians ; and this seeming contradiction we cannot immediately reconcile. The book was 
intrusted by the Church of Sarum, to Wm. Clerk, precentor in the King's College, Cam- 
bridge, to be corrected and made conformable to the true original of that Church ; and this 
correction was occasioned by a dispute, warm at that time, whether the festival of Corpus 
Christi, with an octave, should be celebrated cum regimine chori or sine regimine; the 
former of which was tlie practice of the Church of Sarum.' Rowe Mores's Disiert. upon 
English Typog. F&utidtrs und Founderies, p. 24-5, note. 


recto, is entitled ' Crede mihi.' I suspect that 2 or 3 leaves are here 
wanting at the end ; since it terminates abruptly * on the reverse of 
the next leaf after C ii : the two previous signatures, A and B, each 
having 8 leaves. All the signatures in the first treatise, a to j, inclu- 
sively, have 8 leaves ; but *X has only 6 leaves. The printer's device 
[N°. v.] terminates the impression. The work is printed in long lines, 
and has running titles throughout. This clean and desirable copy was 
deposited, as a gift, in the Libiary, by Mr. 11. Ti iphook, bookseller. 
It has been since bound iu dark blue morocco, by C. Lewis. 

916. Gallic ANTUS Alcock. 1498. Quarto. 

This is an exceedingly scarce little volume ; but the description of it 
in the Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 409-411, being sufficiently full and par- 
ticular, there is no necessity to be elaborate in the present instance. 
The copy there described (from the Akhorne Collection) is now the 
property of the Noble Owner of this Library. The recto of the first 
leaf is occupied by a wood-cut of Bishop Alcock in his pulpit, hanng 
a cock on each side of him : a fac-simile of this curious embellishment 
appears in the pages just referred to. Beneath this cut we read the 
following title : 

ati cofrattejsf Aio^ cucato.i^ in ^iitotio ajmti %m\W\\ 
tttu nonagc^iiTio octauo 

The reverse of this first leaf exhibits another impression from the 
same wood-cut. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, the text begins — 
as reprinted (with its ornamental prefix of a black cock) at p. 410 of 
the work referred to. The third leaf is marked A instead of A iii : 
but the 4th leaf is properly designated A iiii. The sermon concludes 
on the reverse of D iiii. Then follows 

€onftitutio Sl^lJ^ttiiSf <t\im cpi jrro it^ii^ 
^ancto2f infra 3efcnpt02f in biote^i ^^a tt\thm 

8cc. Sec. 8cc. 

* See the conclusion iu the Typog. Antiq. vol. i. p. 323-4. 

4JG BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterburi/ Tales. 

This occupies only 3 pages. On the reverse of the last leaf, D vj, 
we observe Pynson's device ; forming N". V. of the fac-similes given 
iu the work so often quoted. The signatures A B and C have each 8 
leaves. A question may be asked — whether the above date refers to 
that of the preaching, or the printing of the sermon ? and if to the 
former, whether it might not have been published very shortly after 
its delivery ? This estimable volume is in dark blue morocco binding, 
by C. Lewis. 

917. The Tales of Canterburi e. IVithout 
Place or Date. Folio. 

Third Edition of this work, and ■probably the first book printed by 
Fynson. We have here what may be called an extraordinarily-fine copy 
of one of the rarest and most estimable volumes of early English poetry. 
This copy was successively in the collections of Thomas Rawlinson and 
Dr. Chauncy ; and was purchased, at the sale of the library of the 
latter, for a comparatively moderate sum. It is considered to be per- 
fectly complete ; and, as such, is likely to be unique : as the copy of it 
in the Library of the Royal Society, has been reported to me, by a 
competent judge, to be defective in a few leaves, though Tyrwhitt says 
it is perfect. A fine but imperfect copy (which was in the Roxburgh 
Library) is in Mr. Heber's collection ; to which another copy, also 
incomplete, has been recently added. Mr. Utterson has a copy, but 
still more defective. The worth of the one under description will be 
estimated accordingly. 

Having before been somewhat particular in the account of this vei^ 
rare volume,* the task to be performed at present is both easy and 
brief. A few circumstantial details, however, are requisite. In the 
first place, this book is the only one, to my recollection, which exhibits 
that peculiar type — of which a fac-simile is found at page 430, post. 
Another fac-simile of it, but a little too heavily executed, appears at 
p. 523 of the work below referred to. The comparatively barbarous 
appearance of these types, lead to a supposition that the present may 
be the earliest performance of Pynson's press. Yet it is proper to 
observe that there is a mixture of letter-press ; namely, The Tale of 

• Typog, Antiq, vol. ii. p. 521-525. 

Canterbury Tales.] RICHARD PYNSON. 427 

Chaucer, beginning on A i, in the third set of signatures— and the 
Parson's Tale, beginning on G i, in the same set— exhibit the small neat 
secretary gothic letter of which a fac-simile appears at p. 544, vol. ii. of 
the Typog. Antiq. This variety appears to have been but slightly noticed 
by Herbert : and as the signatures C, D, E, and -P-^intervening between 
the A and G— are occupied by the larger or rude type, such parts, 
as contain the smaller character, could not have been subsequently 
applied, as an addition to what had been before executed. The whole 
impression was therefore, what may be termed, a simultaneous opera- 
tion of the press, Herbert remarks that ' several of the types are the 
same with those used in Dives and Pauper,' yet, ' that the book is 
printed with somewhat larger types than those of the same work.' The 
truth is, that, at first view, there appears to be a general resemblance ; 
and the peculiar formation of the h, is the same in both : but the n 
and the a differ very essentially. Other similarities, and other differ- 
ences, might be mentioned ; but no important deduction can be made 
from them. 

In the second place, it has been supposed by Dr. Chauncy in a ms. 

prefix to this copy — that there is a passage in the proheme, or intro- 
duction of Pynson, which warrants the inference of Caxton's having been 
alive when the impression was published. The passage is this : 

tDljictje fiofte tiiligcntlp ouiri^cn a 

liuelp eramincti fip tljc jionitcfec rea^efon anti ouir^igfit. of 
mp tDotjBiJipfuI masfter toiJIiam Carton accortiingc to tljc 
entent anti tWtttt of t^t ^eid <i5cffrcp Ci^aucec. anli Bp a 
copp of tlje jefriti xna^ut Carton purpojsf to iinprcnt. fip pe 
grace aptic anti ?upjiorte of almigljtp gob. tDijom 3j !)um- 
Jilp ht^tc^t, tfiat fje of Iji^ grctc anti fiaBunbant grace M 
fo tiijBJpoisfe tl^at 91 map it fpmffje to ^^ ple^sfure Jautic anti 
giorpc. 8cc. 

The inference of Caxton's being alive or dead, from the above extract, 
is extremely equivocal. Dr. Chauncy thinks, if Caxton had been dead, 
Pynson would have called him his ' late worshipful master :' but the 
entire sentence, as may be submitted, seems to mean nothing more 
than that this present edition was purposed to be imprinted according 
to the copy or text of Chaucer — as that had been — ' diligently over- 

428 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Canterbury/ Tales, 

seen and duly examined by the politic reason and oversight of his 
worshipful master William Caxton :' — in other words, I'ynson only 
purposes to reprint Caxton's text of our first poet. Yet, it is unques- 
tionable, from numerous comparisons with each of Caxton's editions, 
that the present impression varies from both. No essential variation has 
however yet been discovered. U})on the whole, as this may be con- 
sidered an obscure or knotty point, and rather bibliographical than 
critical, the reader is left to his own conclusion.* We return to a 
description of so singular a volume. 

The proheme, which occupies the first leaf, on sign, a i, has been 
extracted entire in the work before referred to. It ends with the 

Beneath, in the present copy, are these lines in nis ; 

J^ho soo euyr on thj/s boke do rede 
Remembi/r Salem yryst of bury town 
Weche mad executor Jhii do hym mede 
Hys goody s to spende w^^good deuocyon 
Robert Stylyard plerlson of Fynynham 
Weche gajf thys boke to Ele sie to py 
For the seyd Salim. sumtyme whan she may 

The ' Prologue ' of Chaucer follows on a ii ; the first 18 lines of 
which are given in the work so often referred to. The descriptions of 
the different characters, having the running title * Prologue,' — and 
accompanied by their respective delineations, in wood-cuts, follow, as 
far as the recto of c iiii, in eights. On the reverse of c ii, we have axk 
engraved representation of the Party at Supper. As this cut is wanting 
in the copy of the second edition of Chaucer by Caxton, described at 
p. 292 ante, and as the deficiency is there erroneously supposed to have 
been supplied by a cut of the Host only — the reader will probably be 
gratified by afac-simile of so social and joyous a circle — as that which 
is represented in the impression under description : 

• Tyrwhitt says that it is evident, on the slightest comparison of the three books, that 
the copy which Pynson alludes to, in the above cited passage, and in that of his second 
edition, is no other than Caxton's second edition of the Canterbury Tales. He seems also 
to give in to the supposition, that the edition now under consideration was printed not long 
after 1491 ; the year of Caxton's death. See Canterbury Tales, ed. 1798. vol. i. p. yi. 

Canterbury Tales.-] RICHARD PYNSON. 


Rete chere inade oure ost to vs euirechone 

And to the soupere sette he vs anone 

He seruyd vs with vitaylle at the best 
Sti'onge vv^as the wyne and wele drinke vs lyst 
A semely man oure ost was with alle 
For to be a marshalle in a lordes halle 
A large man he was with eyen stepe 
A feyrer brugges is ther none in chepe 
Bolde of his speche and wele was y taught 
And of manhode lacked he right naught 
Eke therto was he right a mery man 
And after soupir to pleyen he began 

On the reverse of c iiii, we have the cut of the knight repeated, 
above the commencement of his tale, and preceded by this prefix : 
' I^cre fiesEnnetlj tije Snigijtee talc' The following is a very faithful 
representation of the origuial. 


3 K 



[Ca7it. Tales. 

Miifort) 46 of be flo2i»e«feeeitl!S$ 
ia> ^^n ibaea bulte Wt 2:fiiefeti« 

fl) f a;?e6c« 5e ICbasfoibc ant goucrttom 
Stib tij gfe tj^mt fttcgc a conqucrouz 
^(Jaf gtefM TDaaigfittOttc Snbrc <5£ fotttie 
;f ttf^e man? a xU^e cotittelJabbc^eiPoottne 

This cut is also wanting in the copy described in the page last 
referred to. The first set of signatures extends to v, in eights : the 
second, includes kk in eights ; then Z/, with only 6 leaves. The third set 
follows, with A to K in eights : K having only 6 leaves, the 6th leaf 
being blank. The leaves from A to C (third set) are printed in 
Pynson's smallest type, in double columns ; and so are the leaves from 
G to the end of the volume. The remaining part of the impression is . 
executed in long lines, like the above fac-simile. On the reverse of 
E v is Pynson's small device ; designated as N°. II. in the Typog. 

Year Books.] RICHARD PYNSON. 431 

Antiq. No other imprint is subjoined. The paper of this impression 
is exceedingly stout and well manufactured. With the exception of 
some stains, towards the end of the volume, this copy may be consi- 
dered in most desirable condition.* It is in old calf binding, with gilt 

917. Year Books : or Reports of Cases in the 
Ilird, IVth, Vth, Vlth, Vllth, Vlllth, IXth, 
and Xlth Years of the reign of Edward IV. 
Without Place or Date. Folio. 

The editions of these * Cases ' by Pynson, are exceedingly numerous. 
The greater number of them are without dates ; as may be seen on 
inspecting tlie Typog. Antiq. vol. ii. p. 473-476: and the earliest of 
them known, with a date, is the one printed in 1517. I may however 
be justified in introducing these impressions in their present place, 
from their being printed in the small secretary-gothic character. The 
volume under description contains Eight Tracts. The first, on a i, 
recto, is intitled 

2De €ermtno fee €ritt a° iii rcgni <t iiii 

It extends to e : a, b, c, with 8 leaves ; d C ; and e 5, printed leaves — 
and comprehends the cases in Trinity and Michaelmas Terms : the last 
3 pages include a portion of Hilary Term. It is without name of printer. 
The second Tract begins on a i, recto, with this title : 

2DC termino pafclje %\ tin, €. iiii. 

terminating on g viij, recto, in eights ; and comprehending the Easter 
and Michaelmas Terms. The third Tract begins on a i, recto, having 
at top 

SDe tetmino pa^tf^t %\ tj» €. iiix. 

The recto of a v is blank : on the reverse, Trinity Term begins. This 

* There are subjoined, to this copy, 2 vellum leaves of ms. of the ending of the fliiller's 
prologue, and of the commencement of his tale. The portrait of the Miller, executed in 
bistre, and surrounded by an elegant border, by vpay of illumination, forms no uninteresting 
embellishment to this fragment : which appears to be of the latter part of the x vth century. 

I should add that all the cuts of the above impression are diflferent from those in Caxton's. 

432 BOOKS PRINTED BY [Year Books'. 

tract ends apparently on the reverse of b iiii. A blank leaf follows : 
then b vj, with the recto blank : on the reverse, * De termino Hillarii. 
anno E. iiii quinto.' The fourth Tract commences on a i, recto: 

m ttt\ mt^' 31% bi. e, iiii. 

comprehending a 8, and b 6, leaves : exclusively confined to Michaelmas 
Term. At the bottom of g vj, recto — 

<iEjt:plicit annusf Jttxtu^ oBtoartii quatti. 

The Jifth Tract begins on a ii, recto, thus : 

SDe tcmiino pafcfje a,° tjii. <i5titDarlii iiii. 

including Easter, Trinity, and Michaelmas Terms, on signatures a, b, e, 
and d, in eights. On the recto of d viij : 

<tEjcj)licit annu^ d^eptimujBf <J5titDarbi quarti. 

The sixth Tract has this prefix, on a i recto : 

SDe termfo pafcfje %° tiii. €. iiii* 

comprehending Easter, Michaelmas, and Hilary Terms, on signatures a, 
b, c, d, in eights ; and e in six. On the recto of e vj : 

oBjcpIicit annu^ octauuj^ (iSiitoartii quatti. 

The seventh Tract begins on the recto of a i : 

E>e teirmino pafcf)e ^nm ix <tE2itdatbi iii| 

and comprehends reports of cases adjudged in Easier, Trinity, Michaelmat, 
and Hilary Terms : on a, b, c, in eights ; d, e,f, in sixes ; and g and A, 
in eights. On the reverse of g vij : 

<gjt:plicit 3Cnnnu$f.* l^onujSf. <iBbtoartii. quarti. 
^tx me iUicarbum. ^^pn^efon. 

The device, N°. II. is beneath. The following leaf (g viij) is blank. 
The eighth Tract has this prefix, on a ii, recto (a i being blank) : 

2De termino fancte €rinitatii0f %jxm "xi^oBtoarbi iiii. 

On the reverse of b vj, the cases in Hilary Term begin, and conclude 

• Sic. 

Year Books.] RICHARD PYNSON. 433 

the impression on the recto of c iiii, in sixes : this latter page having 
only 7 lines. The preceding is presumed to be a faithful account of a 
volume of no mean beauty, rarity, or utility. The margins of these 
tracts are ample, and those of the last tract are uncut. The paper is of 
a fine quality. This copy contains a profusion of ras. notes, written in 
the law hand of the time. It is beautifully bound in pale russia, by 

918. NouA Statuta. Without Place or Date, 

This magnificent volume opens with a table on signatures a, b, c, in 
eights (a i being blank) and d with only 6 leaves. The table exhibits 
a list of Acts passed from the 1st of Edw. III. to the Xllth of Henry VII. 
inclusively ; arranged alphabetically according to the subject matter 
treated of. The first Act begins on a i (immediately following d vi) 
with the title, thus : 

lE^oua iStatuta. 

There are running titles, according to the chronological order, 
throughout the volume. The first set of signatures, to j, }, and % in- 
clusively, runs in eights. Next, A,* C, in eights ; D, E, F, in sixes ; 
G, 4 leaves. D, 8 ; E and F, each with 6 leaves : F vj, being blank — 
and the text terminating on the reverse of F v. See the Typog. Antiq. 
vol. ii. p. 570. The date of this edition is presumed fiom the time of 
the last act, in 1497 ; as, if another, or more acts, had been passed, such 
act or acts, in all probability, would have been incorporated in the 
volume. This is a very large copy (having numerous rough leaves) but 
soiled towards the end. In dark calf binding. 

919. Lyndwode. Super Constitutiones Pro- 
viNCiALEs. Without Date, Octavo. 

This elegant little volume was, in all probability, printed in the 
xvth century. The address of the editor, in Pynson's largest lower- 
case type, begins thus : ' Reuerendissimo in christo patri ac domino 
domino I dei gratia cantuariensi archiepiscopo tociiis anglie primati 
• B has 10 leaves ; 1 leaf being wanting in the above copy , 


& apostolicse sedis legato ac eius venia ceteris presens constitucionum 
opus inspecturis Richardus Pynson circa vte prouincialis constitucio- 
num veram atque ornatam impressuram debitum obsequium loco 
salutis,' &c. This address occupies the whole of the recto of a (i). 
Only the first leaf of each gathering, or set of signatures, is marked 
by the respective letter. On the reverse of a i, begins the text of the 
first book : — ' Ignorancia sacerdotii,' &c. The first set of signatures 
extends to v, in eights : then A with 8, and B with 4, leaves. The 
Constitutions end on the recto of A 7 : 

€xpiitit ojiUjBf iTiagiftri tDiljjdmi 
Hpntitootie ?upcr conftitucioneiBf p 
mnciaie^: lau^eetieo* 

On the reverse begins a table of the Rules of the Prouincial Con- 
stitutions ; ending on the reverse of B iiij : 

oErplicit taBuIa conftitucionum 


(Sjinprjntcti ftp dicjjarti 5^nj^on. 

The recto of the following leaf is blank, but the reverse contains 
Pynson's device N°. II. within a border. This impression, which was 
unknown to Herbert,* is very elegantly executed ; and the present 
fair copy of it (deposited in this library by the kindness of Mr. G. 
Isted) is bound in blue morocco, by C. Lewis. 

• Herbert notices only a fragment of the ' De statu regularium ;' beginning on signa- 
ture i ; which fragment, Herbert's own copy, is bound with the above book. The impres- 
sion is executed in the type of the Bochas of 1494 ; concluding on the reverse.of t wt/, in 
eights, with the printer's device, No. Ill : beneath his imprint, thus : 

3linpreffum pet EicljaiUu IPgnfon* 


920. iEsoPUS. Lat. et Ital. Printed hy Maestro 
Manfredo de Bonello de Streuo da Mofera. 
Venice, 1497- Quarto. 

We commence the Supplemental account — of such volumes as were 
omitted to be noticed, or have been acquired since tliis work was 
first committed to press — with an article of no ordinary interest. It 
presents us, in the first place, with a reprint of the Latin and Italian 
version of -^sop's Fables, by Zucchi, as published at Verona in 1479 ; 
and of which an extended account, accompanied by fac-simile embellish- 
ments of the cuts contained in it, appears in our first volume, at pages 
229-238. In the second place, the cuts, although formed upon those 
of the Verona edition, are, in fact, copies of what we observe in the 
impression which appeared at Venice, in 1490 : and of which the pre- 
sent may be considered as the direct reprint. But the condition of 
this copy — when we consider its elegant embellishments * — is such as 
to render it an object well deserving the attention of the tasteful 

The title, * ®0opo I^i0torialio,* is at the top of a wood-cut of Esop deli- 
vering his fables, or apothegms ; the cut is within arabesque frame work. 
A scribe, below, is committing the moralist's sayings to writing. Two 

* Having devoted a great portion of tbe pages of this work, to fac-similes of the wood- 
cuts in several editions of jEsop, a consideration of those in the present impression 
will be reserved for the Bibliographical Decameron, 


auditors are on each side. A dog is in the middle. The human 
figures are shaded ; which distinction does not again occur throuchout 
the volume; and it is probable that the artiat who executed this 
frontispiece was not the author of the other designs. All the remain- 
ing wood engravings are in outline. On the reverse of the first leaf 
(a i) we read at top the following sentence ; 

€[ Accii zuchi sumraa campanee Veronensis 
uiri eruditissimi in Aesopi Fabulas interptatio 
prhythmas in libellii Zucharinuni inscriptum 
contexta foeliciter incipit. Piohemio. 

Two Italian sonnets are below. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, 
a ?, the first fable, or rather the proheme of Esop begins ; followed, as 
before, by a ' Sonetto niateriale ' and ' Sonetto morale.' The signatures, 
to i, run in eights ; i having only 6 leaves. To every fable a wood- 
cut is prefixed. On the reverse of i iiij, we read a ' Cancionetta,' 
(given in vol. i. p. 237) followed by a ' Canzon morale.' On the reverse 
of i vj, is a. table : at the end of which is the imprint, thus : 

€[ Stampado in Venetia per Mae 
stro Man f redo de Bonello de Stre 
uo da Mofera. nel anno del signor 
M, cccc. Ixxxxvii. adi. xxvii. zugno. 

This desirable copy was obtained of Mr. Singer, at a price propor- 
tionate to its value. It has been since elegantly bound by G. Smith, 
in dark green morocco. 

921. iEsopus. FabuljeXXX. Latin^. Printed 
hyJ de C. de Tridino. Vejiice. 1399 [for 1499]. 

The translator of these Fables is Laurentius Valla. A prefatory 
prefix, by Fonaleda, dated 1438, dedicates them to Renaldus. This 
begins on e ii, recto, forming part of an impression of some original 
fables, * lately composed in Latin by Laurentius Abstemius ' — and which 
occupy the preceding signatures, in fours, except signature a — which 



has S leaves. The translation of Valla terminates on the reverse of/ iU; 
in fours : when we read as follows : 

Esopi fabularum. xxx. tradutinis Finis. 
Irapressura Venetiis per loannem de Cereto de Tri 
dino: Anno domini. M.CCC.*XCIX. die. i lunii. 

The device of the printer, as at vol. i. p. 276, is beneath. Tins very 
desirable copy of an interesting little volume was obtained along with 
the edition of iEsop just described. It is elegantly bound in olive 
colour calf, by G. Smith. 

923. Algorismus Nouus. Without Name of 
Printer , Place or Date. Quarto. 

This curious little tract presents us with the following prefix, by way 
of general title to the work : 

^Ifiorismus! nouus Uel 

tcgri-sf compcnbioj^c ?inc figurarum (more gtalo/ 
rum) beletione compilatu)^. artcm nmiicranbi onincmq^ 
biam cakulantii cnudcatim fircuifaimc ctiocen.!^. 
tina cum ^Clgorii^mi^ be mmucij^ Ijulgaribufif tjitiei 
i«t et pl^ijsicalifiu^. ^titiita rcgula pportionum tam 
tie httegri^ q^ ftracti^ que bu!go meccatoif regula Hicitur. 
<lSuiIiUjSf gabit?- quiui,i^ motiica atifjibita tiligentia 
cmnem caleulantii motium facillime atJipiiefct potest 

The work is accompanied by figures and tables. In the whole, 10 
leaves, A 6 and B 4. On the recto of B iv: 

f iniisf triu 3lllg0nfmo2f ♦ cu pportionu I mcrcato2f 

The reverse is blank. The present copy is bound with another 
similar work, thus entitled : 

• Sic. 

VOL. IV, 3 L 


^Uritl^mcticc fumnia tripartita ^a^imt ccorgii 
tie l^ungaria Sjntijiit* fdititcr. 

This tract has also but 10 leaves: printed in a broader gothic 
character ; and ending on the reverse of b iv, thus : 

finitfi l)oc opufculn, 3Ilnno tini 1499 i^onc 5 
fe 9CpriIi^ 

ODuiti miclji p mcriti^ V ^ ^^ More falutem. 
ilebbet. in etijerea q ?etiet arte tieu^. 

Both copies are clean and uncut ; and elegantly bound in olive-colour 
calf, by C. Lewis. 

924. Andreas (Ioannes). Arbor Consanguini- 
TATis. Printed by Creusner. IVithout Date, 

Seemiller (to vphom Panzer refers his reader) has been unnecessarily 
copious in his description of this tract of 10 leaves. The author was 
a celebrated lawyer of the xivth century ; and the present work, by the 
assistance of two large embellishnients, cut in wood, illustrates the 
subject of which he treats. The first cut, on the reverse of the 4th 
leaf, shews the ' tree of consanguinity ;' the second cut, being the 'tree 
of affinity,' occupies the 8th leaf. There is no prefix, running title, 
signatures, numerals, or catchwords. On the reverse of the 10th and 
last leaf, we read as follows : 

<et fie eft finiieE ijuiu^ef traetat^. STeo jait laiyf. 
3[itiprefj5um per ^pi^itjerieu Creuf^ner tie l^urintierga. 

A full page has 34 lines. Consult the Incunab. Typog. pt. i. p. 145; 
where Hamberger is properly corrected for attaching great antiquity 
to an impression — had it been divested of the date of 1483. ' The same 
marks of antiquity distinguish the volume before us, (says Seemiller) 
and yet I dare not affirm that it has any pretensions to antiquity.' This 
book was probably printed between the years 1476 and 1480. The 
present is a beautiful copy, in elegant calf binding, with gilt leaves. 

• Sic. 


925. Apocalypsis Sc". Ioannis Evangelistve. 
Printed from TVooden Blocks. Folio. 

Second Edition. This vei-y clean and desirable copy of the second 
impression of the work, so copiously described at pages vii-xv, in our 
first volume, exactly corresponds with the detailed description of it 
by Heineken, at pages 350-356, of his Idee GMrale^ <^c * There is 
however a slight variation ; arising only from a transposition of those 
leaves, which he designates as the 43rd and 44th, to the 37th and 38th. 
In every other respect the resemblance is complete. The reader there- 
fore has only to inspect the pages of Heineken, with which I may 
presume him to be acquainted. In the whole, there are 48 leaves, or 
large cuts, generally divided into two horizontal compartments. One 
of these leaves, usually that to the left (for the cuts face each other) 
has a letter of the alphabet impressed in the centre, or on one side, of 
the upper compartment. The other leaf is destitute of a signature. 
There being, therefore, the whole of the alphabet, or 24 letters, im- 
pressed on one leaf or the other, if we double that number, it will 
give us 48 leaves. 

The copy under description, like the greater number of those of 
this singular work, is coloured in the rude style of the times ; and has 
been recently bound in dark blue morocco, by C. Lewis. 

[117*]. Appianus. Latine. Printed hy Pictor, 
Ratdolt, and Loslein. 1477- Folio. 2 Vol. 

The description of this beautiful, but by no means rare impression — 
which occurs at p. 254 of the first volume of this work — being im- 
perfect, in as much as it notices only tlie first volume of it — the reader 
is presented with the ensuing. 

The first volume presents us, on signature a i, recto, with the pre- 
fatory address of P. Candimus, the translator, to ' Pope Nicolas V.' 

* Heineken procured Papillon to make a fac-simile of the first cut, in wood. The 
Parisian aitist did not execute his task with tliat strict fidelity which bibliographical 
accuracy requires. The facsimile which appears in Heineken's book, p. S.SO, )» rather a 
geaeral resemblance, than a lineal representation, of the original. 


The proheme of the author himself, follows on a 3, recto. On the recto 
of a 7, the first book of the history begins. There are, uniformly, 
marginal |)rinte<i memoranda, relating to the subjects of the text. The 
signatures to i, inclusively, run in tens : k, I, m, and n, have each only 
8 leaves ; but o has 10 — on the recto of the 10th of which we read 
the following imprint : 

Impressura est hoc opus Venetijs per Bernardu picto; 
rem 8c Erhardum ratdolt de Augusta una cum Petro 
loslein de Langencen coriectore ac socio. Laus Deo. 

The reverse is blank. The second volume begins, on the recto of 
a 2, with the prefatory address of Candidus to Alfonsus, King of 
Arragon and Sicily. This address terminates on the reverse of the same 
leaf. On signature a 3, recto, the heads of the chapters are stated. 
On a 4, recto, the first book of the history begins. The signatures are 
thus arranged: a, b, c, have each 10 leaves: d, 12: the remainder, to 
X, inclusively, have 10 leaves each. On the recto of x 10, is the 
imprint : verbally and lineally the same as is the above to the first 
volume. The reverse is blank. We may however just remark, that the 
border, to the first page of the first volume, is printed in red — while 
the same, to the first page of the second volume (varying, in occupying 
only 3 sides of the page) is executed in black — with great elegance and 
efiFect. It is hardly possible to possess a finer copy of these beautiful 
volumes, than the one under description. Bound by the late C. 
Herring, in russia. 

926. Aquinas (Thomas). De Periculis circa 
Sacramentum Eucaristi^,&c. IVithout Name 
of Printer, Place, or Date, Folio. 

A prefix in ms., by the Noble Owner of this copy, informs us that 
this little tract is not ' described by Panzer.' The character of its type 
is certLvinly that of Gunther Zeiner — in his edition * De Claris 
Mulieribus ' of 1473, and described in the ensuing pages. There are, 
in the whole, but 7 leaves : the first 7 pages of which relate to the 
accidents or errors that occur in administering the sacramental eucha- 
rist — and of their remedies — as the ensuing title announces : 


C €ractatu^ tie jiculi^ JtingcntitiUjer circa faccamentu 
eucanftie. i tic rcinctiijsf comnUem. cjc bicti^ fancti tljo 
mc tic aquino Micitci: incipit. 

These ' dangers ' are xiii in number. On the recto of the 4th leaf, 
at bottom, we read the prefix to the second treatise, thus : 

€ €pijeftola fancti tljome tic iuticijef ab pctt 
tioncin comitif^c flanticic f clicitcc jncijiit. 

On the recto of the 7th leaf, at bottom, the imprint is thus : 

€ (JBpI'a fancti Cfjome tic luticiiBf ati 
toniitiffam flanticic fclicitcc ffnit. 

The reverse is blank. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor 
catchwords ; and a full page has 34 lines. The present is a clean and 
almost uncut copy, elegantly bound in calf, with gilt leaves. 

927. Aretinus (Leonardus). De Bello Itajlico 
AD VERS us GoTHOs. Printed hy Numeister. 
Foligno. 1470. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. This is a beautiful copy oi \hR first production of 
Numeister's Press. The character of the type may be easily ascertained 
from a view of the fac-simile of the Dante of 1472, at p. 99 ante: 
except that, in the impression before us, the letters have a sharpness 
and neatness of execution, not discernible in the work referred to. 
This necessarily arises from the newness of the fount of letter in the 
present performance. The volume under description is without sig- 
natures, numerals, and catchwords, and a full page contains 29 lines. 
On the recto of the first leaf, at top, we read the commencement of the 
work, with the prefix, in the following manner : 




mihi fuisset Italic felicitate (| clades 

referre: tfi quiatempora sic tulerunt 

sequemur k. nos fortune mutabilita/ 

Sec. kc. See. 

The IVth and last Book ends on the recto of the fist and last leaf ; 
having the subjoined colophon : 

Hunc libellum Emilianus de Orfinis Eulginas 
Sclohannes Numeister theutiiuicus :* eiufq; sotiif 
feliciter impresserunt Fulginei in domo eiusde 
Emiliani anno domini Millesimoquadringete/ 
simoseptuagesimo feliciter. 

The reverse is blank. There appear to have been two copies of this 
rare book in the Crevenna Collection. One of them, like the present, 
having the above peculiarities in the colophon : the other, in the last 
line of the coloplion but one, being thus distinguished : 


See the Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iv. p. 102-3. The copy in the Valliere 
Collection was sold for 158 livres. The present clean and large copy 
is bound in red morocco. 

928. Aristoteles. Problem ata. DeVitaAris- 
TOTELis. Without Name of Printer, Place, or 
Date. Quarto. 

On the recto of the first leaf, we read the following title to both 
tracts : 

iijBf tictcrminantia muitajS? quejeftioneiSf tie ^^m\^ 
corpora ijumanoru tijjefpo^tiomB) taltie auOien 

• Sic. t Sic. 


tibu^ fuaue^ef* cum chifbcm 3lIre$to. Wtai morte 
metrif c bc^cri^ta : lefubiunctisf mctroif cum inter 
ImoM glo^a fentcntialifiu^ cjcpositiotiibu^. 

On the recto of a ij, the Problems begin, and end on the recto of 
/ iij, in sixes. On the reverse of the same leaf — accompanied by an 
interlineal interpretation, and occasional annotations — begins the 
monkish-metrical Life of the Author, thus : 

suture caufa rcnim recto t ^ne pm^a 
Cuhisf factura fcrtur qucuijef genitura 
<0mma naturaiijaf. quisi pet ^ttuia Huran.isf 
Sr^itte mifji niuam ccli be jsebe ^opljiam 
iflegnantcm tecum, ^it in ijBfto tempore mecum 
sr^e tiene confortan^. ^himl atqj iuuaminaportanisf 
8cc. 8cc. 8cc. 

This latter ends on the recto of ^ vj, in sixes. The edition, which is 
printed in a handsome gothic character, seems to have been executed 
about the year 1486 or 1490. The copy is clean and almost uncut. 
Elegantly bound in dark calf, by C. Lewis. 

929. Arte del ben Morire. 1490. Quarto. 

This elegant little impression of an Italian version of a work before 
copiously described (see vol. i. p. xv — xxiv) seems to have escaped 
Panzer ; since he notices no edition, in the same language, between the 
years 1488 and 1491. On the recto of the first leaf, at top, we read 
the following title : 

OBuefta operetta tracta tiellarte tie! 
fien morire cioe in gratia bi bio. 

On the reverse, we observe an elegant wood-cut — evidently the com- 
position of an ItaPan artist — within a border of equal merit. The 
picture of the Virgin and chUd is upon an altar ; before which, a 
man and woman are, separately, in the act of confession. On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, a ij, we read a title of some importance — 


as it informs us of the date of the composition of the work ; namely, 
in 1452: so that the antiquity of the impressions of it is not so remote 
as the rude appearance of the earlier ones might justify us in concluding. 
The title is thus : 

Ctnnincia d procmi ticflartc tid Ben morirc: cioe 
in gratia tii bio : Compilato ct compoato per reuerenlio 
patirc Sr^on ^ignore Cartiinale iii fermo. 3Cnno tiiii. 

The signatures, a and b, run in eights i c has 10 leaves. On the recto 
of c X, at bottom, is this colophon : 

d^tanipabo fo questa operetta tidlartc tiel Ben nmorirc 
CO a figure accomobnti per SM^xmt dein e piero Ijimd 
tie ainiania. |)egli anni tid isignore. Sr^. cctc.lcrrr. 

The reverse is blank. The wood-cuts in the body of the work 
(resembling those of which fac-similes are given by Heineken) must be 
understood to be the productions of Cleinj and Himel — which partake 
of the coarseness of their German origin — and not the frontispiece 
above described. Heineken has noticed an impression of this work 
in the Italian language; although he might have mentioned (had he 
seen it) the superior elegance of the edition put forth by Miscomin, at 
Florence, in quarto, without date ; which contains designs of no 
ordinary merit.* The copy under description is a clean and very 
desirable one : in blue morocco binding. 

930. Athanasii Commentarii in Epistolas 
Pauli. Latine. Prhited hy Ulric Han. Rome. 
1477. Folio. 

The present is the tirst work, described by AudifFredi, in the year 
1477; who notices eight copies of it — exclusively of two other copies 
mentioned by Laire. The volume can therefore have no pretensions 

• Fac-similes of some of the cuts in this interesting impression will be seen in the 
Bibliographical Decameron, 


to great rarity. Laire who, in his first performance,* rarely de- 
scribes any work without a blunder, is sharply chastised by AudifiFredi 
for even indulging the supposition of an impression of this work, of 
the present date, having been put forth by Sachsel and Golsch. Auditfredi, 
almost as usual, is completely successful in his refutation. See the 
Edit. Rom. p. 217. We need only be brief in our description of this 
volume. The recto of the first leaf is blank. On the reverse is an 
epistle to Pope Sixtus IV. by Persona ; who is the translator of the 
Greek oiiginal. On the recto of the following leaf, we read this 

In prima pauli ad Romanos epistola Athanasii prologus. 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; but, in the 
whole, 278 leaves. On the recto of fol. 277, we read the colophon, 

F. Cristoforus de persona Roinanus Prior sancte Balbi^^ 
de Vrbe: TraduxitAnno domini M.cccc.lxix. Pontifica- 
tu Pauli pontificis maximi. Anno quinto. Et per 
ingeniosum uirum magistruni Vdalricum Galium 
alias Han Alamanum ex Ingelstat ciue wienen 
sera : non calamo creoue stilo : Sed noue artis ac 
solerti industrie genera Rome impressum Anno 
incarnationis dominice M. cccc. Ixxvii. die uero xxv. 
mensis lanuarii. Sedente Sixto diuina prouidentia 
papa. iiii. 

The remaining leaf is occupied by a continuation of the arguments 
of the Epistles, and by a register on the reverse of it. The present is 
a very indifferent copy : half bound in russia. 

* Specimen. Typog. Rom. 1778, 4to. 

VOL. IV. 3 M 



IFithout Place or Date; hut printed in the 
Office of Fust and Schoeffer. Quarto. 

This aj)|)ear9 to he the earliest impression extant, separately executed, 
of the above work. Schwarz (to whom Panzer refers his readers) is 
well worth consultation. The type is the smallest of the founts of 
letter used by the above printers ; and similar to that of the Durandm 
and the OJices of Cicero: but whether, from hence, (as Schwarz would 
seem to infer) this tract were of equal, or remoter, antiquity than either 
of these latter works, is extremely questionable ; for, from a similar 
mode of reasoning, it might have been published in 1473 ; since it 
contains the same water-mark {the grape) which we observe in the De 
Civitate Dei of St. Austin, of this latter date. Consult the Prim. Doc. 
pt. ii. p. 21. From this authority, it appears to be doubtful whether 
St. Austin, or Honorius Augustodunensis, be the author of the 

The description of this tract need be only brief and explicit. The 
recto of the first leaf is blank. The table begins on the reverse of it, 
and ends on the reverse of the second leaf. On the recto of the 3rd 
leaf, we read at top, 

g[ncipit pfjemitt iibefii. 

The proheme occupies 2 pages : and the entire work comprehends 
xliii chapters, or 34 leaves, including the table and proheme. A full 
page (fol. 8) contains 28 lines. There are neither numerals, signatures, 
nor catchwords. On the recto of the 34th and last leaf, we read the 
concluding line, thus : 

^lugu^ttni tie tjere Wt agnicoe lifteliu^ cjcplit. 

The device of Fust and Schoeffer (the shields, printed in red) is 
beneath. This is a sound and clean copy; bound in olive-colour 
morocco, by C. Lewis. 


932. AuGUSTiNUS. De CiviTATE Dei. Printed hy 
Vindelin de Spira. Venice. I47O. Folio. 

On examining vol. ii. p. 254, it will be seen that, although the 
colophon of this work be there given, no copy of it was, at the time 
of introducing such colophon, in the possession of the Noble Owner of 
this Library. The present was obtained from the Alchorne collection. 
This book is indispensable to the collector of early typography, since it 
is considered to be the first volume printed at Venice in the year 1470. 
In the colophon, the printer notices the previous labours of his 
brother John — and of his having commenced the printing of the 
present work — but was * carried off by sudden death.' Consult, la 
addition to Panzer and Lichtenberger, the Suffragium pro Joanne de 
Spira, by Denis, 1794, 8vo, Clement, {Bibl. Curieuse, vol. ii. p. 262) as 
might be expected, is glowing in his description of this fine volume. 
There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords ; and the pre- 
fixes to the chapters are uniformly omitted. The work commences 
with an index of 14 leaves, to which the follovsang is the title : 

Aurelii Augustini de ciuitate dei 
primi libri incipiunt Rubricae 

* This index,' says Laire, ' has a peculiarity in it — inasmuch as, by 
giving the first word in each chapter, it answers the purpose of a 
register,' Index Libror. vol. i. p. 217. The imprint, before extracted, 
is as follows : 

Qui docuit Venetos excribi posse loannes 
Mense fere trino Centena uolumina plini 
Et totidem Magni Ciceronis Spira libellos: 
Cpperat Aureli : subita sed morte perentus 
Non potuit Ceptum Venetis finire uolumen 
Vindelinus adest eiusdem frater : Sc arte 
Non minor: hadriacaq; morabitur urbe; 
M . CCCC . LXX . 


The fine copy of this beautiful book in the Roxburgh library was 
noticed at vol. i. p. 173, note. The Duke of Devonshire parted with a 
fine duplicate copy, reserving one printed upon vellum;* which is of 
the utmost rarity. The present is an indiflFerent copy, in russia binding. 

933. L'Abuze en CouRT.f Printed hy Schenck. 
Vienne (in Dauphiny.^ 1484. Folio. 

This is a very rare, whimsical, and amusing piece of old French 
prose and poetry. It is embellished with various wood-cuts, not quite 
of the rudest execution. The volume is also a typographical specimen 
of some curiosity, since there are few books executed at Vienne, in 
Dauphiny, and bibliographers appear to have had but an indefinite 
knowledge of it. La Caille, p. 44, had entitled it ' Labuz^ de Cour;' 
for which he is corrected by Maittaire, on the authority of Du Verdier, . 
p. 102. The note, in the Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 453, observes that 
* only one edition of it was known, printed at Lyons, in 4to. without 
date.' The Bibl. Baluziana, vol. i. n". 5288, is there referred to; but, 
in that catalogue, the impression is entered as ' Vet us editio,' and is 
called * L'abusd de Cour.^ Panzer, vol. iii. p. 527, n°. 4, refers to the 
Cat. de la Vdlliere, vol. ii. p. 278 ; where there is only a brief entry of 
the title, and the book was sold for a mere trifle. De Bure, in his 
Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. iv. p. 240-1, seems to think this edition much 
posterior to one of the supposed date of 1476. He does not, however, 
mention whether this ancient dateless impression contains cuts. 

The impression commences (on the recto of what may be considered 
a j) with a title, at top, in gothic capitals, thus : 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf the text 
commences. The impression is executed in double columns, in a large 
gothic, and somewhat coarse, character. The work is conducted in 
the form of dialogue ; in which the actors are entitled Labuze, Abus, 
Folcuider, FoUeboubance, or La Court. I select a short specimen of 
the poetry on the recto of c vij : 

• Laire mentions a vellum copy of an edition by V. de Spira, without date. Ibid. 
t This Article should hare been described as the first in the Supplement ; but it was 


Abus sert du coduire en court. 
Abus les abuzes pour meue. 
Abus promet & ne se court 
Abus prent du seruat la paine. 
Abus tire lung lautre maine. 
Abus les promesses depart. 
Abus labeure en euure vaine. 
• Abus iamais d' court ne depart 

Si lug ne ma lautre me sent. 
Si lung me sent lautre me suit. 
Si lung m5te lautre descent. 
Si lung descent lautre bruict. 
Si lung est bien lautre lung nuit 
Si lung sen va lautre sen vient. 
Si lug est seur lautre est d'struit 
Par moy aous ainsi aduient. 

On the recto of d v, and last leaf, we observe a wood-cut with this 
prefix : 

Comment JaBusc fut mem a 

The wood-cut describes him hobbling with a staff, a woman blinding 
hira, and a man buffetting him with a hat. On the reverse we read 
thus : * Or as tu ouye & bien veue toute ma vie & la verite de mo 
fait. & comme ie fuz mene a lospital pour le guerdo de mo seruice & 
la recompence de raon temps perdu. Et vueillez toy & les aultres qui 
a lire vous esbatres mieulx penser & de meilleure heure a vostre fait 
que Je nay fait au mien & a ceste dagereuse actente ne vous asserues 
de la quelle sont peu de saiges personne au dangler & pour ce garde qui 
ge aymera. AMEN.' 

Beneath, about the space of two lines, we read the following 
imprint : 

€p fitnie ce present Imre appelle Hatiuje en court. 
Sjmprime a bienne par maiftre Pierre fcJiencft* % an 
mi!. €€€€. teriii}. 

The present sound copy was obtained of Mr. R. Triphook, and has 
been recently bound in French calf binding, with gilt leaves, by 
C. Lewis. 


934. BiBLiA Sacra. Germanice. TVithout Name 
of Printer, Place, or Date. Folio. 

I take this to be the edition which Panzer describes at page 13 of 
his Annalen der altern Deutschen Litteratur 1 7&8, 4to ; and of which he 
assigns the execution to the press of Conrad Fyner of EssUngen. 
Clement, to whom Mercier (Suppl. au Marchand, p. 25, edit. 1775,) 
refers his reader for a particular account of early German Bibles, 
appears to have omitted to notice this impression : or, if he have 
described it, there is no small difficulty in discovering such description, 
in the elaborate and desultory notes which accompany this part of his 
work in particular.* Bibl. Cur lease, &c. vol iii. p. 305, &c. 

As to the probable date of this impression, we may conclude, from 
the wood-cuts introduced into it, that it is not earlier than 1474: 
perhaps full as late as 1477. The type is small and barbarous, 
and has certainly a general resemblance to the form of Fyner's charac- 
ters. The edition is executed in double columns, and a full page 
contains 54 lines. There are running titles as far as the xxvth 
chapter of Genesis ; but afterwards they cease to be introduced. 
Neither signatures, numerals, nor catchwords, distinguish this impres- 
sion. On the recto of the first leaf, over a wood-cut of St. Jerom, 
sitting, we read 

i^ie |)ept ficl^ an tiie toereti otio* tiie tpi^tti ht^ 
Ijdigcn pric^eftcTies fant 9[cronimt $& j^aulinum tjon 
al en gotlicJjen ljl£ftorien b' htntitt trntiet tiu hMt 
jSDas? erft tajritd : 

Each chapter is designated by its particular number. As far as the 
Proverbs of Solomon, the wood-cuts in this impression exactly resem- 
ble those in Sorg's edition, printed at Augsbourg in 1477. and 
described at p. 50-52 of the first volume of this work. The reverse 
of the leaf, where the Psalter terminates, is blank. The cut of Solomon, 
prefixed to the Proverbs, is the same as that which we see prefixed to 
Ecclesiastes. The Ilnd Book of Machabees ends with this imprint — 
over a wood-cut : 

* If Clement had mentioned the number of lines in a full page, in the particular edition 
which he describes, much labour might be saved. 


m<^ t^fic e^^ e^m m%^ %^. 

Immediately, on the recto of the ensuing leaf, begins the prologue 
of St. Jerom to St. Matthew's Gospel : on the reverse, tlie Gospel 
itself begins — preceded by the same cut as the one of which a fac- 
simile is given at p. 52 of the volume just referred to. The xxiind 
and last chapter of the Apocalypse ends over a wood-cut of the 
Crucifixion. A table, of the numbei- of chapters in the Books of the 
Old and New Testament, is on the reverse of this leaf. No imprint 
whatever is subjoined. This is a sound and desirable copy, in old 
vellum binding. 

935. BxBLiA Sacra. Germanice. TVithout Name 
of Printer, Place, or Date. Folio. 

This is the edition described by Panzer as the xith in order of those 
early German Bibles which Avere printed without dates : see his 
Deutschen Litteratur, p. 13. We need only be brief, but particular, in 
the account of it. The Old Testament has CCCC viij leaves, numbered 
on each side of the leaf; which is of unusual occurrence. The New 
Testament has C iiij leaves, numbered in like manner. There are 
neither numerals nor catchwords. The impression is executed in double 
columns ; a full page containing 57 lines. The type is taller, and has a 
broader face than that of the preceding impression ; and the wood-cuts, 
with which the book was intended to be adorned, are uniformly 
included within capital initials. These cuts are sufficiently gross ; 
but evidently of a date not much earlier than 1480. The first two 
leaves of the impression contain a table of the chapters. There are 
running titles throughout. On the reverse of folio CCCC viij, the 
imprint to the Ilnd book of Machabees is thus : 

€m entie gat Da^ anbet: fiuclfj bet jeftritter 
tia^ man itennet ju Jatiit 0^acljalieorum» 

The prologue to St. Matthew's Gospel follows. The first 3 leaves 
of the New Testament are not numbered, but the 4th is regularly 
numbered. On the recto of the C iiijth leaf of the New Testament, at 
the bottom of the first and only column, we read : 


OBht tttbt fiatt tJasf iiucl) bet tjeim:; 
licljen officnbarung ^ant 3!oljan.a"«i 
tiejsf 3tDelfF&otcn tnti etoangeUiSfte, 

The present is a sound copy ; in old vellum binding. 

936. BiBLiA Sacra. Latine. Printed hy Cohurger. 
Nuremberg. 1480. Folio. 

Few presses, in the xvth century, put forth so many magnificent 
impressions of the Sacred Text, as that of Koburger; whose name, 
on every account, entitles him to rank among the most distinguished 
printers of his age. The impression before us is executed in the usual 
large and handsome type of the early Nuremberg press ; and, ac- 
cording to Panzer, is only a repi'int of the previous one of J 479, by the 
same printer. Seemiller says it is a paginary, and even, for the greater 
part, a lineal reprint of the previous edition of 147^ — also executed by 
Koburger — ' so that, at first sight, both the editions might be taken 
for one and the same.' Incunab. Typog. pt. ii. p. 59. Seemiller notices, 
however, a few slight variations in the disposition of the text. 

The recto of the first leaf is blank : the reverse contains a table 
referring to tlie leaves where the books will be found. On the recto 
of the following leaf, numbered Fol. j., the prefatory epistle of St. 
Jerom begins. The leaves, to the end of the New Testament, are 
regularly numbered — as far as folio cccclxj — on the reverse of which is 
the ensuing colophon : 

3Cmto incamatiom^ hnitt. ^^iHeiSJimo qua 
tiringente^imoottuagc^imo. ^ax bero hV 
octauotiecimo* OS'in^gnc bctcrijSf nouiqj te 
ftamcnti opujef. cum canottifij cuangellsfta 
rumq^ concortiajitiiisf. ^n lauticiti i gioriam 
(anctc at jntiiuibuc trinttatjjef. %ntt\r\tta^ 
tcteginifq5 a^arie imjircfisfum. 9[n oppibo 
l^umficrgn. per 3tntomu5 Cofiurgcr pfati 
oppitii incolam intiu^tria cutu^ef J tiiligetit 
ftme fabrefattum. Jinit Ulidttt : 


The 6 following leaves, without numerals, contain the epistle of 
Menander, and the Canons of the Evan-elist ; as in the edition of 147s. 

The epistle of Menander is dedicated to lacobus de Ysenaco. This 
impression has neither signatures, nor catchwords. The present is a 
fair copy, in russia binding : from the Alchorne collection. 

937. BiBLiA Sacra. Germanice. Printed hy 
Koburger. Nuremberg. 1483. Folio. 

This impression has some pretension to the eulogy bestowed upon it 
by Clement. It is finely printed, in a full flowing character, upon 
paper of an excellent quality—' giving (says Clement) an agreeable 
idea of the degree of perfection to which the art of printing had attained 
about thirty years after the invention of moveable types.' The wood- 
cuts, which the same bibliographer designates as * exceedingly well 
engraved,' are in outline, upon wood, and rather above the ordinary 
degree of merit of embellishments of this period. They are here 
coloured throughout the volume. The prefix to the prologue of St. 
Jerom is thus : 

"S^it IjcBet an tiic €jji^tci tie^ llcpUjcn jrric> 
^ttt^ sant Sticrommi 5U f aulinii bo alien got* 
licljen liucljcrn tier tipstoci. 

The leaves of the Old and New Testaments are numbered, consecu- 
tively,* to folio CCCCCLXXXIII : on the reverse of which is the 
colophon, in 19 lines — the 10 last and most material lines being thus : 


burcD anttjonium KoBurgo: in t\tt loBlicljcn Ficp 
jEferlicljcn tcpclj^tat i^urcnficrg* |5acl) tier ge^ 
Iiurt crijfiiti tJcjsf gc^et^^ tier genaticn. tjicrjeljen 
tjunticrt bnij in bcm tircptjntiac^t^igsfte iar» am 
montag nacl) SIttuocauit* mm tocll iclj bolting 

• There is a blank leaf, Id this copy, succeeding fol. v. — upon which the first chapter of 
Genesis begins. 

VOL. IV. 3 N 


utig tep lob. glort» bnb ere. tier l^oljen ^cpUge hvp 
ualtigfteit. tin epnigcm tucfcn. ticiti tjatcr tjn bej 
fun tiiinti ban Ijcpligcn gepft. bcr ba lebt tinnb 
rigtret gott cluigMiclj amen. 

There are running titles throughout, but neither signatures nor 
catchwoi ds. Clement has devoted not fewer than 6 pages of notes to 
a disquisition upon this impression — the most material part of which 
consists in informing us that, according to Reimman, Nicolas Syber was 
the author of the German version : — that Michaelis affirms the translator 
to have occasionally introduced certain words (by way of paraphrase) 
into his version, in order to throw more light upon the text ; and that 
the text is purer, in many respects, than that of preceding versions — 
yet not without a repetition of a great number of previous errors :— 
that Mayer, (in his Hist. Vers. Germ. Biblior. D. M. Lutheri, p. 184), 
suppoited by Eccius, has freely remarked that Syber has not followed 
the ancient texts printed at Nuremberg and Augsbourg, because he 
tried to make too literal a version (word for word) of the original Latin, 
and frequently misunderstood his original : — hence his translation is 
often unintelligible or false. Seriiilius made a different discoveiy. He 
found out that the divisions of the CXlXth psalm were pt esei ved by the 
letters of the Hebrew alphabet; but expressed in a manner to make 
us believe that some personal allusion was intended. Sincerus made 
the same remark ; to whom Weislinger replied — in his Armamentarium 
Catholicum, p. 25'2 — ' qu'il auroit dd dire que cela se trouve dans le 
Pseaume cxviii. ou dans le Ps. cxix. comme les Lutheriens les comptent 
avec les Juifs.' Cette remarque subtile (adds Clement) y est suivie 
d'une recrimination lardee de cinquante injures dignes de leur auteur.* 

There is a singular transposition of the celebrated passage in 
1 John, V. 7, 8;* and the wood-cut, at the head the ixth chapter 
of the Apocalypse, has been noticed by Michaelis, Sincerus, and 
Weislinger. It should seem, from the two former, that the Pope, 
in this cut, was intended to be satirised as the fallen angel ; but the 
latter is anxious to repel this attack — adding, that * the blow is not 

• The passage runs thus — in tlie present impression : ' Wan drey smd. dy da geben 
gezewgkuuss aulf der erde, der geyst. dz wasser. vnd das blut. vnd disc drey sind eins. Vnd 
drey sind die da geben gezewgknuss im Hymel. Der vater. das wort, vii der heylig geyst. 
•vn dise di-ey sind eins.' Fol. ccccclxxiii. rev. 


offered to the Pope, who is already dead : and extended on the ground.' 
' The punishing angels (remarks Clement) begin naturally with the 
Head, and continue the destruction upon his followers.' Consult the 
Bibl. Curieuse, vol. iii. p. 327-332. Upon the whole, this is an extraor- 
dinary and valuable impression; well meriting the beautiful blue 
morocco binding into which it has been recently and tastefully put by 
C. licwis. 

938. BoccAcius. De Casibus Virorum Illus- 
TRIUM. (^Supposed to have been printed hy 
Husner?) IVithout Place or Date. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. This may be considered the eai'liest impression 
of the above work. The printer of it has been supposed to be Husner ; 
from the resemblance of the types to those in the ' Preceptoriura 
Nideri,' of the date of 1476 ; with the name of the latter expressly sub- 
joined. De Bure is in all probability erroneous in assigning to this 
work the date of ' about 1473.' Cat. de la Valliere, vol. iii. p. 368. De 
Murr, as Panzer justly remarks, has most inaccurately conceived the 
volume to have been executed by Gunther Zainer : see the Annal. Typog. 
vol. i. p. 86, n". 455. On consulting, however, the Memorab. Bibl. 
Nuremb pt. i. p. 312, the notice of the present edition appears to be 
vague in the extreme. The capital letters in this impression somewhat 
resemble those of Csesaris and Stol : see vol. ii, p. 344 : particularly 
in the A and C. The following is a fac-simile of the first line of the 
prefix to the prologue, here divided into two. 

iOXKHyas &OCXCH "oa 

The lower-case type is broad in the face, but the lines are not com- 
paratively thick. The prologue terminates on the recto of the 2d leaf: 
and on the reverse of it begins the first chapter — 

E)e atiam $ eua ptinn^ patmihu^ no^tri^. 

On the reverse of the 1 5 1st, and last leaf but 3, we read as follows: 

ipimt liBer l^onu.i^ 1 Wimu^ giotjattnisf 25occaci| 
tie certaitio. tic ca^ibu^ tjirorum iilu^trhim. 


An alphabetical table of the ' Illustrious Characters' described, 
occupies the 3 following and last leaves. There are neither numerals, 
signatures, nor catchwords. A full page has 35 lines. The present 
large and beautiful copy is bound by Bozerain, in red naorocco. 

939. BocACE. De la Ruyne des Nobles Hommes 
ET Femmes. Printed hy Husz aiid Schabeler. 
Lyons. 1483. Folio. 

We have here a very elegant specimen of the early Lyons press. 
This impression is executed in a round and large gothic type, in double 
columns, having a wood-cut prefixed to each of the nine books of the 
work. These cuts, upon the whole, are inferior to those in Pynson's 
impression ; (see p. 420 ante) although they are much better worked off 
at the press. The preface and table occupy the first 5 leaves, upon sig- 
nature a. The remaining signatures to j, 1, o, followed by A, B, and 
C, are in eights : then D, with 6 leaves. On the recto of D vj, is the 
ensuing imprint: 

% la gloirc et louengc be 
bicu et a iinsftructiou be tou^ 
ae^te tt^in^ ocuure tie 3;eljan 
Jocacey tiu tjccfjiet* tt^ nobler 
l^omme^ et femmes?/ imptime 
a Jpon ^ur le iflo^ne/ pat l[jono 
rable^ maiieftreisf mai^tte ^Si 
tfiijef l)u^5 1 maisf tre Sl^fta ^cl)a 
6det %m a^l. €€€€. qua^ 
tte iJingt^ et trop^. 

The reverse is blank. The present is a most desirable copy, in 
French red morocco binding. 

* In the title it is called ' De la Ruyne des Nobles Hommes,' &c, as above. 


940. BocASSE. De La Louenge et Vertu des 
Nobles et cleres Dames. Printed hy Verard. 
Paris. 1496. Folio. 

On the recto of the first leaf, at top, we read the title thus : 

%t liure tie gicljan fiocafi^e tie la loucnge ct bemi 
tiejtf noBlc^ et clere^ tiame^ttaslate i iprimeneu^ 
ueflemet a pari^. 

On the reverse is the prologue of the translator ;* preceded by a 
wood-cut— occupying, as do the whole in this impression— a square 
space, usually filled by a capital initial. On the reverse of a in, the 
prologue of Boccaccio begins ; preceded by a wood-cut, in two com- 
partments The entire impression is filled by cuts ; coloured, in the 
present copy, at the time of the publication. The signatures, to 0, run 
in eights : and p have each 6 leaves : q and r, 8 : and s and t, 6. On 
the reverse of t v, we read the ensuing colophon : 

<Cp ffnijEft 25ocaee De^ noMeia? et clere^s? femme.^ im* 
prime a pad^ ce rjctJiii. iour tiauril mil quatre cen^^ 
quatce tJtngt^ i treije par ^ilntljome ^erarb lil&rai* 
re SDemourant a partial isfur ie pont nojGftre bame a Ip 
mage j9?aint iefjan leuangeliisfte/ ou au palai^ au pre* 
mier pifiier SDeuant la cljappeUe ou on tpte lameief 
jefe 2De mefisfeigneurigf W prejaiibeit^* 

On the recto of the following and last leaf, is the printer's device. 
The impression is executed in long lines, in the largest character of 
Verard, The present copy, which was formerly in the library of my 
friend Mr. Utterson, is printed upon vellum, and bound in blue 

* It begins thus : ' A Lonneur & reuerece De vous ti'essouueraine & tres doubtee princesit 
ma Danie aae royne de frace.' 


941. BoNAVENTURA. DiETA Salutis, &c. Printed 
by A.. G. de Brocario. Pampluna. 1497. 

It is very rarely that we see a more genuine specimen of early and 
elegant printing than in the volume under description. It has also an 
additional claim upon the attention of the curious, inasmuch as it is 
one of the very few books printed at Pampluna in the xvth century; 
and is the production of a printer, who afterwards secured injraor- 
tality by his labours in the execution of the Complutknsian Poly- 
glot : see vol. i. p. 72-5. The copy before us is almost even without 
the semblance of a blemish. It should seem that neither Maittaire nor 
Panzer had any knowledge of this impression ; as the latter merely 
refers to the former — and the former, after an imperfect description 
of it in the text, adds, in a note, a conjecture that ' the work was 
rather printed, than composed, by Arnoldus de Brocario,' It should 
also seem, from the same authority, that an edition of this work was 
printed both at Venice and at Paris in the same year with that of the 
present. Annal. Typog. vol. i. p. 648 j note 1, 2. It remains to be 
concise, yet particular, in the description of this estimable little 

On the recto of the first leaf, beneath a neat wood-cut of the cruci- 
fixion, we read the title of the work, thus : 

SDieta faluti^ a fieato fionaut 
tuta etiita : nouttet tpreftu^ ac 
eitientiat9 3[ndpit felicitcc. 

On the reverse, beneath a wood-cut of the Virgin and Infant Jesus 
(of coarser execution) we read as follows : 

SDiffnare me Jautiate te tjir 
00 ^aetata. E>a micgi \nttVL 
tern contra DofteiBf tm^* 

The prologue commences on the recto of the ensuing leaf, niun- 
bered * fo. ii,' and designated by a ij. The leaves are regularly num- 
bered as far as fo. clxiiij., on x iiij, recto — when they cease to be 


so distinguished — without any apparent reason. The sia:natures 
continue in eights; when, on the reverse of j vij, we read 

CjCplicit tiieta faluti^. 

Sundry tables begin to follow, on the recto of j viij— continuing 
through 1, 3, and 2f . On the recto of 2f iij, commences ' A Contem- 
plation or Meditarion by St. Bonaventure on the Nativity of our Lord." 
On the revel se of 2f iiij, begins a tract of St. Bonaventure ' de resur- 
rectione a peccato ad gratiam.' This teiminates on the reverse of 9 ii. 
Then a table, one leaf. On the recto of the ensuing and last leaf are 
the colophon and printer's device. The former is thus — a fac-simile 
of the device having been given in the pages just referred to. 

€ ^anctj iionaucnture tioctori^ crimij tic 
tiicta faJutisf bna cum tractatu tic rcfurrccti* 
one tjominiaf a peccato 1 ppatationc ati gra 
tiam ttractatujsf cnicntiatu^ nupcr ac rccogni 
tu^: cum tabula t[$ accuratifjsimc confccta feli 
tita: ffnir. gfmprcfjsu^ jiampilonc per bcncra 
iiilem tjirum magtftrum ^Unialtium gutllicr* 
mum tic firocatio, ^imo tiommi 0?il. cccc. 
rcbij. SDic tcctia men^ijef uoljcmlirijai 

The reverse is blank. This beautiful volume is splendidly bound in 
blue morocco, by C. Lewis. 

942. Breydenbach. Peregrinatio In Montem 
Syon. Printed hy Drach. Spire. 1490. Folio. 

The copy under description appears to be considerably imperfect. It 
has however the elaborate wood-cut frontispiece, wanting in the copy of 
the first edition of 1486, described in the previous volume of this work. 
This impression, by Drach, is not only a mere reprint of the fiist edition, 
but it has the very same embellishments ; which were, witiiout doubt, 
taken from the identical blocks that served for the previous (Mentz) 
edition. The prints of ' Modon, Parcus, Jherusalem, and Candia,' are 
the only topographical decorations of this copy. On the recto of the 


first of these cuts, we observe the signature c iij — on the second, c — on 
the reverse of the last, d i. Then follows the dedication, as in the first 
edition, on the recto of signature a ij. The signatures, b, c, and d, 
appear to be wanting. All the signatures run in eights, except the last, 
p; which has 10 leaves. On the recto of p x, is the imprint: 

d&ancrarunipcregrjnatioim inmontcnid^ponati bnicranbu 
ffjrifti fcjrulc^riim in J^icrufalcm. atcij in niontcm ^pnai 
ati tiiuani tt inartprc itiatljccinani opufculu fjoc cotcnti- 
uuni pec ^ctrum bracl) ciunn ^^pircnfcm imprclTum 3lInno 
(alutifif noftrc ^ . act . xt . t>tc. xxix- 3|ulij. finit fclicitec. 

This edition is executed in a small neat golhic character, resembling 
that of Ratdolt, and with a very full page. The present is a clean and 
sound (but imperfect) copy ; clumsily bound in russia. 

943. Bulla Pap^ Pii II. Germanice. Printed 
in the Office of Fust and Schoeffer. Dated 1463. 

As far as I am able to discover, the present volume or brochure has 
escaped the notice of every bibliogiapher. It is therefore, in all pro- 
bability, unique. Panzer, Annal. Typog. vol. ii. p. 13S, notices an 
impression of this Bull, in the Latin language, of the same date with 
the present, upon the authorities of the Valliere Catalogue and Denis:* 
both of which, however, in substance, are only repetitions of the 
description that appears in the Cat. de Gaignat. vol. i. n**. 685. The 
Duke de la \'alliere purchased the copy of the Latin Bull in the Gaignat 
Collection ; and we find, from the catalogue of the latter, that this Bull 
contained, on the recto of the first leaf, the title in 2 lines of lower-case 
type, precisely similar (as are those in the title to the present Bull) to 
the characters in the first Psalters of 1457, and 1459 : and that the Bull, 
including the title, consisted only of 6 leaves ; having, at the end, the 
following date : ' Datu rome apud scfn petru. anno incarnacois diiice. 
M. cccc. Ixiij. xj kl. nouembris. pontificatus nri. anno sexto.' 

• Cat. de la Valliere, vol. i. no. 1063 : Su]rpl. p. 547, no. 4525. 


The impression under description is printed in the German language ; 
and, including the title, consists of 8 leaves. The recto of the first leaf 
contains only the title, at top, thus : 

SDif ift tJic Jiul 5U tiutfcl) tie bn^ 
ftr aHcrfjciJigftct batter ter fiabft 
^hi^ Ijcruf? gefant tjait iuitilicc 
tie fnoten bnglcubigen turcftcn. 

This title is printed, as before observed, in a large lower-case type, 
exactly the same as we see in the first Psalter of Fust and SchoefFer ; 
and of which a facsimile faces the 107th page of the 1st volume of 
this work. The reverse of the first leaf is blank. On the recto of the 
second leaf, without any prefix, the text of the Bull begins thus : 

[^]5[Ui^ fiiftljofFepn hneclit tet ftncclfjt gotteief. %\\tn tint 
petcn criften gleplnge t)ei! bnt fiefiftliclje gefjenetitig. 
€5ect)ieli,0 te^sf 0rofr3en pfiete octel i^u kc. 

The above forms the first two lines. Each page, with the exception 
of the last, is a full one ; containing 45 lines. The type of the body or 
text of the Bull (as is the case with that of the Latin imj)ression) is 
executed in the smallest fount of letter used by Fust and SchoefFer ; 
and is similar to that of the Durandus of 1459, and the Cicero's Offices 
of 1466-6. The last page, on the reverse of the 8th and last leaf, 
contains only 26 lines ; presenting us with the following conclusion : 

...... <^t^m 5U tome lip fant peter te^ '^att^ 

ter menfclitoertunge tnCer^af fjetcen. flr^.cccc. biit Ijciij. 
tt^ eplfften tage^. tet ftalenten ht^ mant^ ten 
imn nennet 5U Jatin l^ouemfier. Unfetiaf fiaijftumjsf 
W fefjften 3[are^. 

The date in both impressions is therefore precisely the same : and 
the question follows — as properly observed in the Gaignat Catalogue, — 
' is this date designative of the year of printing, as well as of issuing, 
the Bull?' The answer is there left to the solution of the ' Gens de 
Lettres plus instruit k cet ^gard.' The answer, however, is simple and 

VOL. IV. 3 o 


obvious. How could a Bull operate without circulation? and where 
is the sense or utility of printing a Bull two or three years after it is 
destined to take effect? But, in the present instance, this document 
could not have been published later than six months after its having 
been completed in the Papal Court, as Pope Pius II. died in 1464 — 
just on the verge o/ opening a campaign against the Turks — and the 
object in issuing this Bull, was, to excite a powerful feeling against 
these heathen adversaries. Could the printers have inserted the name 
of Pius II. in such a document, when a subsequent pontiff (Paul II.) 
was reigning ? There seems therefore very sufficient reason for con- 
cluding this document to have been printed in the year of its bearing 
date, or very early in the following year. 

Neither Zapf nor Panzer, in their publications connected with early 
German books, notice this brochure ; and Wurdtwein passes over all 
mention of either of these Bulls in his Bibl. Mogunt. p. 84 : supposing 
that, owing to the ravages committed at the siege of Mentz from 1462 
to 1465, all the labours of Fust and Schoeffer were suspended. Upon 
the whole, this is a very curious and uncommon specimen of the early 
Mentz press ; and may be numbered among the chief treasures of this 
extraordinary collection. It was obtained through the kind interference 
of the Cotmt d'Elci, at a price proportionate to its rarity. It has been 
since bound in purple morocco, by C. Lewis. 

944. Calderinus. Tabula Auctoritatum et 
Sententiarum Bibli^. Printed hy JDrach. 
Spires. 1 48 1 . 

This impression is chiefly estimable as an early specimen of Drach's 
press : the type being very different from that which we observe in 
the Breydenbach of 1 490 : see page 459 ante. The first leaf is blank. 
On the recto of a ij, without any prefix, begins the preface of ' Thomas 
Dorniberg of Meningen, a doctor of Laws and Arts, and Consul of 
the famous city of Spires. At the end of it, on the reverse of the 
same leaf, we read 

9!«cipit i^ixm Caltirini * €atmla 



The table is an alphabetical one, and the impression is executed in 
long lines. On the reverse of k viij, in eights, is the following colo- 
phon : 

SS^mit mmtitam i tcntmaif, q in tiectoz^ ct 
bccretalitt J^ilatonifij ^oJet intiuci tabula » -Jo 
Jane Camnni iurifcaiionici boctorcj faniatifirt^' 
mu Jjrilata et jj €f)mna SDoniiBcrg tic mcnv 
mingen ctufDc facultati^ boctore cjeiniiu com* 
fta tt ^etru SDrac!) .v^jrire^em fmpffore imgffa 
cractifftme ^nno tint. si^,cccc,liTrt. expUcit mtti 

The device of the printer (consisting of a dragon or griffin on one 
shield, and a tree between two stars on the other) is beneath, very bar- 
barously executed. Fossi, as usual, is copious and exact. Bibl. Magliabech. 
vol. i. col. 449. See also Panzer, vol. iii. p. 21, n°. 15. The present 
copy is in very uncommon condition, for size, colour, and soundness : 
it having the appearance as if it had just issued from the press. It is 
bound, out of the original cover, in dark calf, by C, Lewis. 

945. Calendarium Ioannis Regiomontani, seu 
DE Regio Monte, Lat. Germ. Printed in 1475, 

It is not without reason that Panzer refers us to the Prim. Quaed. 
Doc. de Orig. Typog. of Schwarz, pt. iii. p. 63, for an account of this 
very rare and curious volume : and it is equally evident, from such 
account, that Panzer had never seen the latter part of it — which is 
printed in the German language, and is a version of the first part, 
printed in Latin. Schwarz is copious and instructive ; observing, 
properly, that this is a Calendar ' from the years 1475 to 1513.' Panzer 
intimates the same. ' As the Calendar was written at Nuremberg, so 
(as Schwarz remarks) was it printed there.' The quotation from the 
chapter ' De conjunctionibus ac oppositionibus Luminarium' (ad- 
duced by Schwarz) is clearly confirmative of this inference. ' That 
both parts,' adds the same authority, * were printed in the same office, 
is sufficiently evident : in the latter part (or German version) is intro- 


duced, for the first time, a fount of letter which strongly resembles 
what, in the present day, we call Chancery Hand.' Recommending the 
reader to examine the pages of Schwarz, for some collateral, but 
interesting, information connected with this impression, we proceed to 
a descrij)tion of the copy of it before us. 

At the first glance this little volume assumes an interesting aspect, 
from the skill and variety of its typographical execution. Throuehout 
the Calendar of the Months, in each part, on the recto of each leaf, 
we observe the same ornamental KL, by way of a running title, and 
the introduction of certain words, printed in red, with no ordinary 
skill. The figures throughout are the rude Arabic ; but those which 
we observe on the reverse of each leaf, are introduced in red ink, bij 
the pen. The recto of the first leaf is blank. On the reverse com- 
mences the Calendar, or rather Almanack, with the years 1475, 
1494, 1513, at top. On the recto of the opposite leaf, the month 
of January, with the Saints Days, and Solar and Lunar niotions therein, 
are introduced. This calendar necessarily occupies I'i leaves : on the 
reverse of the 12th, is 'Tabvla Regionvm.' Next follow the Eclipses 
OF THE Moon, with the running dates of 1475 to 1530: in the whole, 
5 leaves. The subject is illustrated by wood-cuts, shewing the degrees 
of eclipse. The next leaf, being a very thick one, has a wood-cut on 
each side of it : that on the recto is entitled ' Instrvmentv*!' 
HoRAKVM iNAEavALivM* — OH the rcversc, ' Jnstrvmentvm Vebi 
MoTvs LuNAE. MiNVE.' The latter has two circular pieces of paper 
in the centre, which move as the reader pleases : beneath, we observe 
the word '. Adde.' The remaining 12 leaves treat of the following 
subjects : De Aureo Numero : De Cyclo Solari et Littera Dominicali : 
De Inttrvalio et Festis Molilihus : Tabula Festorum Mobilium:* De 
Conjunctionibus ac Oppositionibus Luminarium : De EcUpsibiis Luminarium: 
De Loco Soils Vero : Tabula Soils : De Loco Lunae vero : Tabula 
Radlcum Lunce : De Magnitudine Dlei: Tabula Quantitatls Dierum : De 
Horolugio Horlzontali : De Notlcia Horarum Aequinoctlallum : De Horls 
Temporalibus : concluding with a table entitled ' Dies Pascalis' from 
the year 1477 to 1531. At the bottom we read 


The following and last leaf contains two other cuts, printed on paper 

* Prefixed to tliis table, is a piece of paper, printed in tlie same type as that of the 
Morkj and pasted on : contahiing ' a caution in case of lotip year.' 


of aa equal thickness with the last. One of them is entitled ' Qu,v- 


Generale.* In the whole, this impression contains 32 leaves. It is 
followed, as has been before observed, by a German version of the 
preceding : containing 30 leaves, and having the same cuts. On the 
reverse of the last leaf of the text, at bottom, we read 

. M. lohan von koiigsperg. 

The date of this impression is either 1475, or 1477 : the former of 
these occurs in the first table, the latter in that of the Easter Table. 
Yet it might be even later than 1477 ; since we find the first date in 
the table of the last year of tlie ' Directorium Sacerdotum' (see p. 434 
ante) to be 1496, but the book itself could not have been published 
till 1498. The copy under description is in the most desirable con- 
dition : in blue morocco binding. 

946. Campanus. Opera Omnia. Printed hy 
Bernardus Vercellensis. Venice (1495). Folio. 

Jt is not a little singular that there should be three editions of the 
works of Campanus in the same year : the date of the present impres- 
sion being gathered (according to Panzer) from the privilege to the 
editor, Fernus, which is dated xxvi, March, 1495 : but this privilege, 
which is dated at Milan, seems rather to belong to the Milan impression, 
of the same year : a previous edition, however, having been printed at 
Rome, also in 1495. The address to Fernus, by Jacobus Antiquarius, is 
dated Milan, iiird June, 1494. This is on a ii, recto.* The piesent copy, 
which appears to have successively belonged to Archbishop Cranmer 
and Lord Lumley, is in fine preservation ; presenting us with an in- 
teresting edition of the works of one of the most celebrated scliolars of 
the XVth century. On the reverse of the last leaf, we gather the order 
of the signatures, thus : a to p in eights : except c, with 4 leaves : p has 
10 leaves. Then A, with 6 leaves ; and B to K in eights ; K and L 
in sixes; M, S ; Aa, 2; Bb to Hh in eights; Hh, 10; aa, 4; 66 and 
cc in eights : dd and ee in sixes. On the reverse of ee v (ee vj being 
blank) is the following colophon : 

* A list of the contents of the volume is on a i recto. 


Impressum Venetiis per Bernardinum Vaicelleiisem iussu 
domini Andrese Tonesano de Assula. 

Panzer is sufficiently copious in his references: vol. iii. p 379, 380. 
This copy is in beautiful condition, and has been recently bound in 
russia, by C. Lewis. 

947. Caoursin (Guillelmus). Descriptio Obsi- 
DiONis RhodijE. Printed hy Reger. Ulm. 1496. 

The reader has already been made acquainted with two editions of 
this work ; one in the Italian, and the other in the English, language : 
see pages 93, 348, ante. The present is a late edition in the Latin 
language, but it is distinguished by numerous engravings in wood, 
executed on a large scale, and in a coarse manner. There is however 
a good deal of spirit in one or two of the designs, as the ensuing fac- 
eimiles evince. In fact, the style of the engravings, both in the 
landscape, shipping, and smaller figures, is rather similar to that which 
we observe in the embellishments to the Breydenbach of 1486 ; and of 
which various fac-similes have been given in the preceding volume of 
this work. The type of this impression is a neat, full-faced gothic ; 
not very dissimilar to that of Ratdolt. The capital initials are large 
and coarse, but have a rich effect. On the reverse of the first leaf, we 
observe a cut of the 'Master of Rhodes,' and the author presenting his 
work. On the recto of a ij, the text of the History of the Siege com- 
mences. The second cut, of ' The Fleet putting to sea,' is on the 
reverse of a iij. The third cut represents the ' Assault upon the Mole 
and the Tower of St. Nicholas — and the battle by sea and land :' very 
spirited. Still more animated is the 4th cut, on the reverse of a v ; — 
but to describe each individual embellishment would extend this article 
to an unnecessary length : although ' the Battle of the Turks with the 
Soldiers and Citizens of Rhodes' — with the cross seen in glory above — 
on the reverse of b iiij — is deserving of particular notice. The shipping, 
on the reverse of b v, is corroborative of what has been before observed 
of the similarity of the style of art to that of the Breydenbach. The 
two fac-similes which ensue are described by their respective titles at 
top. The first, on the reverse of c iiij, is repeated on the reverse of dj. 
The second cut is on the recto of c vij. 

tp^ymu^ cum itonitunijS? t^mci^ tqmtan^. 


The cut, on the recto of e iij, represents Zyzymus, the leader of the 
Turks, * sitting at the same table with the Commandant of Rhodes.' 
The Turkish General (it appears) was mute and sulky, till a musician 
(represented in the cut) struck up his lute or guitar — when the severity 
of the Mussulman relaxed. * At barbarus suauiori cantu insuetus : 
gaudium pre se tulit nullum, donee thurcus coquinariam exercens : 
barbarico instrumento melodia edidit. tunc enim erectus : paiuper 
subrisit.' It should be noticed, that this impression contains both the 
text of the siege, and the conditions of raising it — the corres- 
pondence between Zyzymus and the 'Master of the City'— the safe 
custody of Zyzymus in Gaul— the correspondence with Bajazet, and 
the Oration of Caorsin,the author, before Pope Innocent VIII: repre- 
sented by a large cut of the orator before the Pope.* Also the account 
of bringing ' Zyzymus, brother to the Sultan, to Rome.' On the recto 
of h vj, beneath a rude cut of the author writing his history, we read 
the colophon, thus : 

^mpttttvm Wmc g mmt ilcffOf- ^irno tini. ic. a^cc 

The reverse is blank. The signatures are in eights, with the excep- 
tion of g and h ; each of which have only 6 leaves. The present is a 
very desirable copy ; in French green morocco binding. 

948. Capellutus (Rolandus) De Curatione 
Pestiferorum. Printed by Ulric Han, Rome. 
TVithout Date. Quarto. 

This is rather an interesting tract. We will first state the title, 

Rolandi capelluti Chrysopolitani Philosophi. parme 
sis : ad Magistru Petru de gnaladris de parm : Cy 
rugicuj optimum: Tractatus de curatoe pestiferoruj 
apostematum. Incipit feliciter. 

* See an impression of this speech, of the date of 1485, in vol. iii. p. 437. 


A little below, the author says : * It was in the year 1468, when.I 
was at Parma, that a great and horrible plague prevailed : such as I 
verily believe was never before seen, or likely again to occur. Neither 
love nor charity was observed even among relatives, but a sort of 
brutality and cruelty prevailed. The neighbour refused his neigh- 
bourly aid : brother deserted brother, husband wife, wife husband, 
parent child, and child parent. Men died rather from absolute help- 
lessness, or necessity, than from the plague. ^\ hat was worse, the 
parish priests refused receiving confession, administering the sacra- 
ment and extreme unction to the diseased. The Mendicant Friars 
and priests forbade the dead bodies to be buried in their respective 

graves - and the sacred ground of St. Leonard was converted 

into a market place: where aU manner of uproar, dissipation, and 
vrickedness prevailed. Within the city itself, such atrocities were 
committed as are neither to be mentioned by the tongue, nor written 
by the pen.' &c. 

The author then proceeds to define the malady, and to discourse 
upon the remedies. His treatise is very short, as the tract contains 
but 6 leaves. On the reverse of the 6th, it concludes thus, with the 
subjoined colophon : 


ta 8c raulta alia medicamia g^bus uulg9 utebat ibi ad 
dere potuissej. que 8c mihi sciibeti : 8c tibi legeti: cete* 
risq; intuetibus: tediu no inferat ilia ptermittere decre 
ui. Bii vale : k tuQ Rolandu Capellutu chry. philoso 
phu ad tua uota respirante intellige. Sed iteiu te rogo 
ut omniuj reru^ tuarum exitum consideres : 

Rome impressum p Ingeniosuj viru Ma 
gistrii Vdalricii gallii de Almania. 

This tract is printed in the usual letter of Ulric Han ; but I have 
great doubts of its having been published ' about the year 1468, ' aa 
Panzer intimates. Seemiller refers to Audiflredi, and Audiffredi 
hazards no conjecture upon the period of its execution. Edit. Rom. 
p. 380. Laire places it between the years 14S0 and 1490. The 
present copy, which is in tender condition, is elegantly bound in oHve- 
colour morocco by C. Lewis. 



949. Casus Papales, &c. Printed hy Godfrey 
Back. Antwerp. Without Date. Quarto. 

This impression consists of four leaves ; the whole of which, in the 
copy before us, are as if they had just issued from the press : being 
clean and uncut. The following is a fac-simile of the title and fron- 
tispiece ; the latter being rather of common occurrence in the xvth 
century. It may serve to shew what kind of title-pages were in vogue 
■at that period. 




The type is a small, close, and square Gothic, On the recto of the 
4th and last leaf is the imprint, thus : 

f inhmt cafu^ef ^apaXt^ <!Epi^cojialti9i et 
3fititiatm!c^. Si^pref^mn anttDctpie per 
me (iBotifritium 25aclt, 

On the reverse is the very singular device of the printer — the castle 
of Antwerp suspended from a bird's cage — of w^hich a fac-simile will 
appear in the Bibliographical Decameron. The impression has no sig- 
nature. This beautiful copy is brilliantly bound in blue morocco, by 
C. Lewis. 

950. Cato. Disticha. TVithout Name of Printer, 
Place, or Date. Octavo. 

I consider this little tract, of only 4 leaves, to be one of the most 
curious specimens of ancient typography in existence. The reader will 
judge of its rarity, when he is informed that, not only no other copy 
of it is known, but the very mention or knowledge of it will in vain 
be looked for in any bibliographical publication. This precious 
relic (for such it is properly considered by its present Noble Owner) 
was discovered within the wooden covers of an ancient volume (con- 
taining several curious tracts *) in the possession of Mr. Freeling, of 
the Post Office. That gentleman, with equal prompitude and libe- 
rality, made an offer of the contents of these * wooden covers ' to 
Earl Spencer. The offer was acceded to, upon terms perfectly satis- 
factory to both parties. It now remains to describe a treasure of 
such singularity. 

We have here, in short, the same types with which the Speculum 
HumanjE Salvationis (among the earliest and most interesting of the 
Block Books) was executed. The public have been before put in 
possession of this fact, from the slight mention of this tract in my 
friend Mr. Ottley's work ;t from which it seems to follow that, if the 

* Among them, were the Ethics of Aristotle, supposed to have been printed at Oxford in 
1479 : see p. 354 ante. The ' Casus Papales,' ' Algorismus novus,' and 'Aristotelis Pruble- 
mata' (see pages 437, 442, 473, ante,) were also in the number. 

t An Enquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engramng upon Copper atid in Wood; 
1815, 4to. p. 247. 


* Speculum ' be of the antiquity assigned to it by the erudite author of 
the publication below referred to, the tract before us — which may 
truly be called a mere School Book* — not only takes chronological 
precedence of all impressions of it extant, but, from the acknowledged 
early use of the Distichs of Cato, in the education of youth, may 
possibly be of a date anterior to that of the first Mentz Bible, of the 
supposed date of 1455 ? Such a document, therefore, throws a kind 
of reflected light upon the hypothesis of Mr. Ottley ; and goes to 
establish, not very- indirectly, his conclusion respecting the period of 
the execution of the ' Speculum.' This singular little volume is 
printed upon thick vellum ; and, althoiigh not in a tender, is in an 
injured state : the recto of the 2nd, and the reverse of the 3d leaf, 
being soiled and defaced. This has arisen from their exposure within 
the wooden covers ; as, like many specimens of ancient printing which 
I have seen in similar situations, these parts happened to be stuflFed in 
to add to the consistency, or durability, of the binding. Each of the 
4 leaves is cockled at the top, and marked with a dark brown stain on 
the right margin. The copy has been evidently much cropt: the 
height of the page being 4 inches and -|, and the width exactly 3 
inches ; while, with the margin, it is only 5 inches and a half in height, 
by 4 and | in width. 

On the recto of the first leaf, without any prefix or title, the prosaic 
preface, or prologue, begins : 

Mm animatiutete ^ jrlurimo^? 

jjoif^ giiitcr crtarc i tjia mora 

fuccuretitt 1 cofulebu opiniom 

t07f> fott enfttitiaui itiajcie ut glHrioftt 

tjiuetet a fionore cotigetet ^nt te fili 

gcc. 8cc. Sec. 

Each page, with the exception of the last, has 21 lines. On the 
reverse of the first leaf, forming the 7th line of the text, the poetry 
begins thus : 

• See the edition of these ' Disticha Catonis,' printed in 1475, described at vol. iii. 
p. 245-6 : where, in a note, it is observed that the work under description was ' fajuiiiar to 
youth, and established in the schools, since the Ume of Charlemagne.' 

t Sic. 


31 tt9 t ainff noB' ut catmta bicut 

^k t pcipue fit jrura mttt tolttx"* 

^ l^ tjiffila ^tm^ nc fopno debits cfto 

jp a tihituta q'cief bitijief aliffita niiftrat 

8cc. 8cc. 8cc. 

The 8th and last page, or the reverse of the 4th and last leaf, con- 
tains the 17 last lines of the moral poem, and the imprint. Of these, 
the reader is presented with a fac-simile of the terminating part, thus : 

ftk cm txtfum noli siinuxi^ mm^ 
f tWm obelffi ©tog f ji vAmt rm f 
€ li (0tSg i (i9 Iter Kci ^ mx^ l^boS^ 
3a jtmt^g^tim« fftmic ttom^ amw 

f w^i(i^5? mfm pmot f nil J^iJi^ tj^Be 
fHimrid t Wcf itttiii^ ntt iiribere *f? 

«^liae 1^^ mto m (^aOid^mf^ lt(it$ 

The above is cut in wood, with as much fidelity, I believe, as the art 
is capable of. That the original, however, are metal types, I have no 
hesitation in believing. After a description of such a curious specimen 
of typographical antiquity, it seems almost needless to add that there 
are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. This singular 
treasure is now preserved in dark blue morocco binding, by C. Lewis. 


951. Cavalca. Tractata contra il Peccato 
DELLA Lingua. Printed hy Nicolo of Florence. 
Without Date. Folio. 

This impression appears to have escaped Panzer. From tlie imprint, 
it should seem to have been executed by Nicolo della magna, or 
Nicolo de Todescho; vt^ho printed, at Florence, the Dante of 1481 ; 
the Monte Sancto di Dio of 1477; and the Berlinghieri — each work 
described in the previous pages of this volume. It is executed in the 
largest type of the printer, and the pages are elegantly formed. On 
the recto of the first leaf, we read this prefix : 


tus sancti amen. Incomincia il bellissimo et 
utile tractate contra il peccato della lingua Prologo 
sopradecta opera compilataet facta per frate domen- 
ico chaualcha dauico pisano fratre predicatore. 

The work is executed with signatures, but with neither numerals 
nor catchwords. The former are very barbarously and carelessly 
executed. They extend to ^ ; a having 10, but the rest 8, leaves : q 
has only 4 leaves, including a blank one. On the reverse of q 3, 
beneath the 8th line of text, we read the following imprint : 


The present is a sound, but soiled copy — and wormed towards the 
latter part. Elegantly bound in mssia. 

VOL. IV. 3 a 


952. Cecco d' Ascolt. Printed hy Philipo de 
Piero. Venice. 1476. Quarto. 

Second Edition ; and first with a Date. Although this impression 
be of less rarity than the previous Brescia edition, described at page 
94-7 ante, yet it is sufficiently scarce to have been pronounced suppo- 
sititious ; if we credit the description of it in the Bibl. Crevenn. vol. iii. 
pt. ii. n". 4574. Brunct, in his Manuel du Libraire, vol. i. p. 285, 
edit. 1814, pronounces it to be the first; but that skilful bibliogra- 
pher is apparently unacquainted with the Brescia impression. Panzer 
refers" only to Denis and to the Crevenna catalogue ; so that this 
seems to have been unknown to Haym, Floncel, Capponi, Mazzuchelli, 
Pinelli, Maittaire, and De Bure. Quadrio conceived the Venice edition 
of 1478, by the same printer, to have been the first: Storia di Poesia, 
vol. vi. p. 39 . 

The copy under description is unfortunately cut down to the form 
of an octavo volume ;* and has the first 3 leaves, containing the table, 
supplied (in a beautiful manner) by a fac-simile ms. The table con- 
cludes on the recto of the 3d leaf; the reverse of which leaf is blank. 
On the recto of the succeeding leaf, signature a (i), the poem begins 
thus : 

Incomentia il primo libro del clarissirao 
philosofo Ciecho Esculano dicto lacerba. 

Ltra non segue piu la no 

stra luce 

Fuor de la superficie de 

quel primo 
In qual natura per poder conduce 
La forma intelligibele che deuide 
Nui da li animali per labito estrimo 
Qual creatura mai no tucto uide. 

8cc. kc. kc. 

* It is, in this respect, a companion to tlie Isocrates, described in vol. ii. p. 97, 98. 


On the recto of b viij we read the opening of the Second Book, 
thus : 

Incomeatia* el secondo libro : de la natura 
di la fortuna ; k. come reprende dante 

Capitulo primo 

Orno nel canto de le prime 
t note 

Dico die cio che sotol ciel 

Depende per uirtu de le soe rote 
Che tuto moue serapre tuto regge 
8cc. ice. 8cc. 

On comparing these extracts with those from the first edition (see 
p. 95 ante) it will be seen that the variations relate almost entirely to 
orthography. The signatures, to n, run in eights : n has 10 leaves, on 
the reverse of the lOth of which we read the ensuing colophon : 

Finise il libro de Ciecho Esculano dicto 
Lacerba. Impresso ne lalma patria de 
uenesia p maistro pliilipo de piero ne 
gli ani del. M CCCC . LXXVI . 

A full page has 24 lines. Upon the whole, this volume, however 

diminished in size, is a considerable acquisition to the depai«tment of 

books in this library relating to Italian Literature. It has been 

very recently obtained from Paris, and is in old French calf binding, 

with gilt leaves. 

• Sic. 


953. Chronicarum Supplementum. Printed hy 
Boninus de Boninis de Ragusia. Brescia. 1485. 

This is a closely printed Chronicle, in long lines, in the Gothic letter, 
from the beginning of the world to the year 1485. A general table 
occupies the first 18 leaves. Then a blank leaf. On aa begins a table 
of celebrated women mentioned in the text : 2 leaves. On the reverse 
of the next leaf, are some verses of Barillas Bergoma. On a ii the 
prologue begins : on the reverse of a 3, the text of the history. The 
colophon is on the reverse of the last leaf but one : 

Simpreltum 25nrie per 25oranum tie ^^oninijai 

be ilagufia 5llmio tini. '2!^xttt\xxt(^ 

bic 3^rimo SDeceBri^. 

From the register, on the recto of the ensuing and last leaf, we 
gather the order of the signatures, thus : a and b 10 leaves : c to 5, *t, 
0, and 2f», inclusively, in eights : A to E, inclusively, in eigiits : F, 6 : 
G to O, inclusively, in eights : P, 6 : Q to T, inclusively, in eights. 
The register is on the recto of T viij. This is a soimd and desirable 
copy ; in old vellum binding. 

954. Chronjcon Regum Hungarije. Printed 
hy Ratdolt. Augshourg, 1488. Quarto. 

Editio Pkinceps ; the impression of 1483 being considered suppo- 
sititious. This beautiful and interesting volume has not escaped the 
notice of bibliographers. Engel begins by calling it (in his usual 
manner) ' Liber inter rarissimos rarior ;' and refers to Menckcnius's 
Catalogue of Du Fresne's books;* adding, that it was unknown to 
Maittaire, and will be in vain looked for in the catalogues of UfFenbach 
and Bunneman. Biblioth. Select, p. 42-3. Zapf has been copious in his 
description, and has availed himself of the authority of Engel. Jugs- 

* Does he mean the one printed at Paris, in 1662, 4to. with the porti-ait of Raphael 
Trichetus du Fresnc? — the pages oftliis catalogue are not uurubered. 


burg's Buchdruckergeschichte, vol. i. p. 84-5. Braun has been sufBciently 
particular, referring to Zapf ; Notit. Hist. Lit. pt. i. p. 161-2. Panzer 
has quoted Zapf and Braun : Annul. Typog. vol. i. p. 114, n°. 79. We 
return to the book itself. 

The recto of the first leaf is blank. On the reverse are the regal 
arms of Hungary, encircled by eight shields of coat-armour. On the 
recto of the ensuing leaf, is a wood-cut, occupying the entire page, re- 
presenting the ' History of Holy Ladislaus.' It is sufficiently curious. 
On the reverse, is the epistle of Theobald Fegher (at whose expense the 
volume was printed) to 'Mathias King of Hungary and Bohemia.' On 
the recto of the succeeding leaf, signature a (1), begins the rtrefatory 
epistle of John de Thurocz, the author, to Thomas de Drag, Chan- 
cellor of his Hungarian Majesty. A ' soliloquy,' by the author, follows 
on the reverse. The ' exordium' of the history begins on a 2, recto- 
and on a 3, recto, we read the prefix to the chapter — 'De generationis 
hunoru siue hugarorum origine.' The signatures run in eights ; and 
on the recto of b iij, we observe the first of those cuts (amounting to 
66 in number, according to Panzer) with which the text of this 
Chronicle abounds. The reader has a representation of it in the 
following fac-sitnile: 

This cut, as well as another of a similar subject (Skirmish of Cavalry) 
is frequently repeated.* We shall contrast it by a fac-simile of a Combat 

* The other cut represents a closer charge, witli a gi'eater number of assailants, One 
half of tliein have ermined caps, by way of helmets, and the beaver only is a protection to 
the face. The other half have helmets, and use chiefly the long spear : m the midst of them 



on Foot ; premising, that these cuts serve, throughout the volume, for 
every representation of horse and foot actions.* The following occurs 

on the reverse of the sanae leaf ; 

On the recto of h iiij, occurs the first of those Portraits of the 
Kings of Hungary, with which this impression is so plentifully 
embellished. The originals of these cuts were only to be found in the 
imagination of the artist who designed them. The reader will judge of 
the style of their execution by the following fac-similes. Few of them 
have so much grace of expression as that which represents King Beysa, 
on the reverse of g iuj,f and of which a fac-simile is on the ensuing 
page. A small portion of the back ground only is omitted : consisting 
of horizontal short strokes. 

is seen a crowned figure, for the monarch of the party. In the backgronnd, upou a bill, is 
a town or city. This cut is not often distinctly worked. 

• The first appearance of the other wood-cut, of a skirmish of infantry, is seen on the 
reverse of d vij. It is encircled by a border, which is not the case with that above repre- 
sented. No shields ^re used in the action, and the spear and sword are tlie only ofien- 
sive weapons. It is less interesting than the above. 

t The portrait however, of King Stephen I. (e i red.') merits a slight mention in this 
place. The monarch, with a long beard, is seated in his chair of state: liis right hand 
liolding a sceptre, his left resting on a ball. Two angels, above, are about to put a crown 
upon his head. To the right of him sits a small figure, holding a sceptre in his right hand, 
and his head encircled by a glory. Above liim, is the word ' emericus.' This print has 
perhaps the boldest effect of any ; but as a specimen of art, it is inferior to that of King 



We shall endeavour to afFord a suitable contrast to his Majesty,* by 
a fac-simile of the only portrait of a Queen, throughout the volume. 
It occuis on the reverse of m vii/, and we learn, fiom the preceding 
text, that it is intended to be a portrait of Queen Mauy. 

* On tlie recto of g vij we observe a whole length portrait, on horseback, of King 
Ladislaus I. He balances his battle axe over his right shoulder, and his head is encir- 
cled by a glory. His coat of arms appears on the flank of his horse. 



As a variety to the preceding, the reader shall be gratified by a fac- 
simile of a character, represented in a different costume, and whom we 
find, from the prefix, to be Johannes Waywode.* It occurs on the 
reverse of r vj: 

• It is thus entitled : ' De electione dili iohanis wayuode ui gubeiaatore : et dt talione 
per cunde a drakul wayuoda exacta.' 



On the reverse of t vij, the Chronicle is brought down to the time 
of Mathias, the reigning monarch at the period of its publication. The 
verses below * were composed on account of the election of that cele- 
brated character. The conclusion of the Chronicle relates * the defection 


• Maximo cultu venerida cuiqj 
egimus nouis maij iocunde 
festa victricis cnicis et beatfc 
digna repente 

3 R 


of some of the noblemen of Hungary, and their subjection by the 
King :' tins closes the history on v ij, recto— all the preceding signatures 
having 8 leaves, and v only two. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, x 2, 
(x i being blank) we read an epistle of Rogerius, thus entitled : 

(gpistola magij^tri rogcrii in miiefcratJile tatmcn ^up 
ticjeitructioc rcgiti l^ugatic pet €artatOjEJ fiacta etiitum 
ati Heuerentiu tJum 3|o|)anne pe^jtliemcn^i^ tttWit epi> 
iBfcoptt fdicitcr intipit.* 

Congredi gentes patrie boheme : 

presules vere fidei : barones : 

vrbiu sanas licuit cohortes 

Colle constructu prominente templu 

olomucense : laicisq; cleris 

pcrstrepit votis domiiio repletum 

Creditur sacrii precibus vocatum 

pncuma : tot rectis animis dedisse : 

publice clamant ; placet eligatur 

ecce mathias. 
Clara delectus cito vota siunit : 

celicis iussis precibusq; terre : 

mente discussus pie christe pro te 

flexus obedit. 
Laudibus dignus placido mathias 

addit assensu diadema regiii 

prepotens : regno & titulu bohemi 

panoniarum « 

Xenijs ihesii referamus omnes 

gloriam cantiis : strepat & tubam 

clangor : vt nobis veniat vir equus 

terror in hostes, 
Iste rex nostros animos fideles 

alleuet pressos : reprimatq; mactet 

cum suis sectis hereses iniquas 

q; vehementer. 
Xantus humentem ocius liquorem 

linquet : arcurus iaciet & axem : 

qua dei causam populosqj princeps 

deserat ob te. 
We may regret the omission of a portrait of this monarch, who was not only living at the 
time of the appearance of the Chronicle, but who, in the cultivation of literature, and in the 
FINE LIBRARY which he left behind him, shewed what claims he had upon the gratitude of 
his counti-ymen and upon the admii-ation of posterity, 
• This epistle is printed entire by Zapf. 


The remaining pages are devoted to tliis account of « the irruption 
of the Tartars into Hungary, in the time of King Bela IVth.' The 
account terminates, with some hexameter and pentameter verses, on the 
recto of y ix. On the reverse, we read this imprint, above the' device 
of the printer and the patron of the impression :* 

e^erenif^imotu fjungarie tt^vi cfjronica ht 
ne reuijefa at fibeli ^tubio emmljata finit ft^ 
ixtittt 3!mj>t0fi9fa erfjartit rattioltbiri ^olcr^ 
tif^imi ejcimia inbu^tria ct miraimprimcnbi 
arte : qua nupcr bctietiisf mt ^Cugu^tc cjc- 
ccHet nomittatif^iniu^. Smpen^i^ ^i quibrni 
'^geoMtii fegcr conciutj^ 23ulJen.siief 51In- 
no j9faJutifere incarnatioi^ miflc^imo qtirin> 
gente^tmo ottoge^imo octauo tertio nona^ 

The register is below the device. A blank leaf appears to form the 
10th leaf of signature y. Every other signature, except v, has 8 leaves. 
This volume is executed in the best manner of Ratdolt's press ; and the 
present copy of it is as clean and sound as if it had just issued from 
the press. It has been recently bound in russia, by C. Lewis. 

955. Cicero. Catho Major, alias DeSenectute. 
Printed with the types of Ulric Zel. Without 
Place or Date. Quarto. 

This edition appears to have escaped Panzer : see vol. v. p. 154-156. 
Its rarity will therefore be estimated accordingly. It may be the 
EDiTio PRiNCEPS of the work ; but it must be remembered that an 
impression of it appeared in 1469, along with the Offices, &c. by 
Sweynheym and Pannartz : consult vol. i. p. 311. The edition before 
us consists of only 24 leaves ; without numerals, signatures, or catch- 
words. A full page has 26 lines. On the recto of the first leaf, the 
prefix and commencement of the text are thus : 

* A fac-simile of this device will appear in tlie Bibliographical Decameron, 


09. Ciillij (Ciccronief ab ^itn %ctitn Catljo 
abator. %\m^ tie dg>cncctutc 9[ndpit; 

€itt $i quib ego abhito. cutam t)e iettais 
^0, <Bm te nunc coqitit. et uet^at {lectoce 
fira. <J5t qua beprhneri^ et quiti ct'n pre 
f ij. Eicet enim initlji tjer^iii^ jjij^ affari 
Xcc. 8cc. 8cc. 

On the recto of the *24th and last leaf, beneath the concluding 6 lines 
of text, we read the imprint, thus : 

€xpiitxt €ulttUiSf tie fenectute 

The present is a clean and most desirable copy ; in blue morocco 

956. Cicero. De Proprietatibus Terminorum. 
Printed in the character of Ulric Zel. Without 
Place or Date. Quarto. 

This scarce little impression, of a work fiedsely attributed to Cicero, 
answers exactly to the description of it by Panzer. The copy under 
description is unluckily imperfect in the first leaf: having part of the 
title, and the commencement of the text, torn away. Panzer however 
has supplied the title. There are, in the whole, only 32 leaves ; a full 
page having 27 lines. It is entirely destitute of numerals, signatures, 
and catchwords. On the recto of the 9th leaf, we see the prefix • De. 
a :' on the reverse of the last leaf but one, we observe ' De. 31 ' — the 
intermediate letters being presented in the same order. The recto of 
the last leaf has only 21 lines, exclusively of the colophon, which is 

iliftet tie pprietatiBuiSf temiino2f 
CiceroniiSf f init felieitet* 

The reverse is blank. Panzer remarks that the type is the same as 
that which Zel used for the De Vita Christiana of St. Austin, in the 
year 1467; but no correct inference, as to the time of tlie publication 


of this tract, can be drawn from such remark : as we see the same type 
in almost all the productions of Zel's press ; and the number of lines 
in a page (27) denote it to be among the later works of that printer. 
This clean and sound copy is bound in blue morocco. 

957. Cicero. Epistol^ ad Familiares. Printed 
by Jenson. 1471. Quarto. 

The rival presses of Jenson and Vindelin de Spira put forth impres- 
sions of this work in the same year. Both editions * are elegantly 
executed, and contain the Greek passages in print. The present is 
described in glowing terms by Crevenna, in the Bihl. Crevenn. vol. iii. 
p. 77. De Bure and Laire (to whom Panzer also refers his readers) are 
less particular than Crevenna. Maittaire is sufficiently brief. See the 
Annal. Typog. vol. iii. p. 76, n". 47, of Panzer : from whom the ensu- 
ing colophon is borrowed; as the copy, here introduced, being on 
its passage from the continent, cannot be described from actual 
examination : 


Opus prxclarissimum. M. T. Ciceronis Epistolarum 
Familiarium a Nicolao lenson Gallico Viventi- 
bus necnon et Posteris impressum feliciter finit. 

There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. Sardini is 
comparatively superficial: pt. iii. p. 19. Brunet says the work is in 
* large quarto,' and contains 203 leaves : see his Manuel du Libmire, 
vol. i. p. 324, edit. 1814. 

* The Duke of Devonshire possesses the Spira impression, but not the one executed by 
Jenson. If I recollect rightly, these books contain some of the earliest specunens extant of 
Greek Printing at Venice. 



ScRiPTURiE, &c. Printed hy Koelhoff. Cologne. 
1481. Folio. 

The ])resent is the only volume in this Library to which the name of 
KoelhofF is subjoined as the printer. Impressions with such distinction 
are veiy rare; and are imjjortant, inasmuch as the evidence of Koel- 
hofFs having printed certain books, is, in general, purely conjectural. 
Such is the scarcity of the volume before us, that Panzer refers only to 
Maittaire, whose words he literally copies. Vogt, Freytag, and Bauer 
have been searched in vain for an account of it. It is executed, like 
a similar work of Calderinus, (see p. 462 ante) in an alphabetical 
manner — but in double columns; and in a character which reminds 
us, at first sight, of that of John dc Westphalia of Louvain. The prefix, 
at top of the first column, on the recto of a z (a 2) is thus : 

Cocortiatie auctortta 

turn ^acre ^efcripture teta ortihteni 
Itbt02f fiifilic. in quib'^ loci^ iuri^ 
canonici repeciani g cgregiu tjim 
tinm SJoganne ticcret02f tioctore 
bignif^imu |5iuiccnen. abliate ^tU' 
bio^c coflecte iditiitt incipiunt. 

On the recto of m viij, in eights, beneath the first and only column, 
is the following colophon : 

Concortiantie ^iWt ab ticcreta 
ejcattif^ime cmcnbatc. pa: me 3[o^ 
Ijantte l^odljoff tic Eubecfe Colo^ 
nie chiciti ^tubiojse imprcf^e. 9Cnno 
gratie* ^att\xxxi\' tcrtia X\it po.sft 
flt^auricij martpri^ fe^tu ffniunt. 

Nothing can exceed the genuine condition of the copy under descrip- 
tion. It is large, clean, and uncut : having been bound in dark calf 
with gilt leaves, from the original binding. 


959. DicTYs Cretensis et Dares Phrygius. 
Priiitedhy Schonherger. Messana.lAm. Quarto. 

This impression (the second with a date) is but of little value ; there 
having been several earlier ones published without dates : see vol. ii. 
p. 8-14. We shall therefore be brief in the account of it. The recto of 
the first leaf (a j) contains the title of the first author ; the text of 
whom terminates on the reverse of h vj. On i j, the text of Dares 
Phrygius begins; terminating on the reverse of k xj : where we read the 
following imprint : 

Finit historia antiquissima Dictjs Cretensis atq; 
Daretis Phrjgij de bello Troianorura ac Graecorum : 
innobili vrbe Messan^e cu eximia diligentia impressa 
perGuillielmum Schonberger de Franckfordia Ala- 
manum tertiodecimo calendas lunij. M.cccc.xcviij. 

The register below informs us that the signatures a, h, c, d, e, and/, 
nm in eights : h and i in sixes : i in 8 : and k in 12 leaves : the 12th 
being blank. Beneath is the printer's device : sufficiently rude. This 
is an indifferent copy ; in calf binding. 

960. Die Erwelung, &c. (^Printed in 1494.) 
TVithout Name of Printer. Folio. 

The very curious tract under description, printed in the German 
language, contains a letter of the Emperor Maximilian I, written in 
the 9th year of his reign as Emperor of Rome, and in the 5th year as 
King of Hungary. The subject upon which it was issued, as well as 
the tract itself, is best explained in the account of it transmitted to 
Lord Spencer, by the librarian of Sir Joseph Banks. 

* The letter first laments the sufferings and cruelties that have been 
inflicted on the Christians, by the incursions of the Turks ; that he 
(Maximilian), and his Father before him, have in vain attempted to 
resist the power of these infidels with the help of the sovereigns of 


Christendom. " But (continues he) that henceforth God may not any 
more be dishonoured, and Christendom delivered from this calamity, 
our Holy Father, the Pope, and Ourselves, have proposed, with the 
assistance of all Noblemen, and Knights, to repel them ; and for this 


been formed by the Reverend Prince, our dear and religious Johansen, 
Grand Master of the said order of St. George, and his colleagues, 
has been confirmed, and some temporal and spiritual privileges have 
been conferred on it, as the papal and our royal letters, therefore 
issued, prove. Into this order, We, in our own person, enter ; and we 
intend to undertake a mighty expedition against these enemies of 
Christianity, which expedition is at least to last the next two years, 
and faithfully to sacrifice for it our life and fortune." 

The letter then exhorts all persons of noble and knightly families to 
enter into this Ord£R of St. George, to whom is promised aU the 
land that should be taken from the infidels to indetnnify them for 
their expences. They are to appear in harness, and in a white coat, 
with a red cross, having their arms painted on the breast and shoul- 
ders, before the Archbishops and Bishops, in church ; who are to tie 
to their right arm the insignia of the order, consisting of a Golden 
Cross, with a crown in a golden ring ; pronouncing the words given in 
the end of this letter. These insignia the knight may adorn with 
gold, pearls, or precious stones ; and wear on his hat, or wherever he 
pleases, before all kings, princes, and every body. These knights are 
to enjoy peculiar privileges, and rank higher than all knights that may 
hereafter be created, either at Jerusalem, or on the bridge of the 
Tiber, or anywhere else. " And as we doubt not but they will receive 
the crown of heaven for their labours, we give unto them the name of 
Crowned Knights ; and ordain that, in eternal remembrance of their 
christian intention, they shall wear the cross and crown on their 
shields, jewels, arms, in tournaments, on seals, and other ornaments. 
This privilege belongs only to their person. Their descendants of the 
same name are to have a crown in their helmet." Those knights that 
perform great achievements, are to have more crowns in their ring. 
The Grand Master of the Order is to confer on persons, that are not 
of noble family, and yet serve like the Knights a year against the 
Turks, a cross in a ring half golden, and half white, if they served on 
horseback ; and a cross in a white ring, if on foot. In order to know 
how many Knights have been created, and to be able to summon them 
in case of need, the Archbishops and Bishops are to send returns of 


them every three months. The golden seal is affixed to this letter, 
given in the town of Antwerp on the day of St. Simon and Jude.' 

Thus much for the subject matter* of this curious brochure ; for it 
consists but of 8 leaves. It remains to be particular in the biblio- 
graphical account of it. On the recto of the first" leaf, (a i) in the 
centre, we read the title, thus : 

SDie <Sttoclung bnti f repl[jait 
tcity tier geferbntcn JUitter* 

The reverse is blank. On the recto of the ensuing leaf, a ii, 
without prefix, the letter of the Emperor Maximilian begins thus : 

'^t iSr^ajrimilianusf bon jotief gttabe ^omifctjcc 
MiiniQ 5u alien ^eitten mener tie^ Utit^^ 5tt If u 

A full page contains 4.5 lines. There are no running titles, nume- 
rals, nor catchwords ; and on the recto of a vj, the three last lines of 
the Emperor's letter, are as follow : 

Ii5acf) Crifti tinfer^ Mthtn fjerren gepurt 

taicrt^efjenl^unbert bnnti im tjiemnbnctont^igiften 
mnfetcr ^tit^t tie^ l^omifcjen im l^etDntiteit; tjnb tt0 
Dungrifcfjen in ftinfFten 3!aren. 

On the reverse, about the centre, we read this title : 

SDet ^tQtn titt hthtmtcn tiitttt 
tjnnti ^um erften tie^ ^^cljiDertj 

On the recto of the ensuing leaf we read 

<^tt\\m^ Jl^it: liitten 

* ' Alexander the Sixth, anno Dom. 1498, instituted the Knights of St. George ; who 
wore a cross of gold, entowred with a circle of the same, made in the form of a crown. 
Mennen. apud Luceburgiiun, in lib. de Armorum militar. Mysteriis. &c. But Mecheli saitJi, 
that the Order of St. George, which had the foresaid cross for ensign assigned to it, was 
instituted by Pope Paul the Third, at whose death it became extinct, and that the Knights 
of this order dwelt at Ravenna, and were obliged to secure the confines of the Adriatic sea 
from Pyrats. But that the order, wliich Pope Alexander the Sixth erected, had for ensign 
the Figure of St. George hanging at a collar.' Ashmole's Order of the Garter, p. 89. 
VOL. IV. 3 s 


Various detached sentences follow : when, on the recto of the ensuing 
and last leaf, is the concluding sentence, thus : 

mnb oh met tooltcn ^ittct toerticn* dS>o mag man 
tit fcgcn Mntx tctt in ttt t)il ntmtixi %\io txa^ 
^p alle rmttf^ ain ijantilutig> mit Mttttlitf^tn 
jaicfjcn gc^icrt tucrticn. 

The reverse is blank. This copy is in very uncommon condition ; 
being perfectly clean and uncut. It belonged to the late Dowager 
Lady Spencer ; and from a ms. memorandum, in her hand writing, it 
appears to have been 'Given bij Mons. Gassier, the Emperor's Antiquarian^ 
at Insprnck.' It is elegantly bound in olive-colour calf, by C. Lewis. 

961. EusEBius. Pr^paratio Evangelic A. Latine. 
Printed hy Jenson. Venice. 1470. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. This beautiful volume is among the earliest 
specimens of the press of Jenson. The copy before us has the first 
page encircled by a printed, and afterwards coloured, border ; in such 
a manner as to excite a doubt, at first view, whether it be not a con- 
temporaneous production with the impression : but on close examination 
we find it to be inlaid, I have no doubt, however, of this border having 
been executed in the XVth century. The prefatory epistle of the 
translator, Trapezuntius, to Pope Nicholas V., is without prefix: 
beginning thus — 

VSEBIVM Pamphili de euangelica praeparatione 
latinum ex graeco beatissime pater iussu tuo effeci. 

and ending, on the reverse of the same leaf, in the following manner : 

Quare sentibus 

tuo iussu aputatis rosas solumodo latinis hominibus 
hac traductione optulimus. 

The impression is destitute of numerals, signatures, and catchwords; 
and on the recto of the 143rd and last leaf, we observe the following 
verses and imprint : 


Antonii Cornazani in laudem 
Artificis Epigiamnia. 
Artis hie : k fidei splendet mirabile numen : 
Quod fama auctores : auget honore deos. 
Hoc lenson ueneta Nicolaus in urbe uolumen 

Pronipsit : cui foelix gallica terra parens. 
Scire placet tempus ? Mauro christophorus vrbi 

Dux erat. aequa animo musa retecta suo est. 
Quid magis artificem peteret Dux : clirislus : et auctor ? 
Tres facit aeternos ingeniosa manus. 
. M. CCCC. LXX . 

It may be questioned whether, from this epigram, the present volume 
be not the first book printeo by Jenson? Sardini so arranges it; 
and there is no other book, with a legitimate date, which disputes its 
precedency. It exhibits every beauty of typographical execution. 
Neither Maittaire, De Bure, nor Laire, are particularly interesting ; 
but Sardini has many observations upon the supposed variations in this 
impression, noticed by preceding bibliographers. See Annal. Typog. 
vol. i. p. 2Sr>, note 4; Bibliogr. Instruct, vol. i. p. 231, n°. 296; Index 
Libror.\o\. i. p. 220-1 ; Stor. Crit. de Nic. Jenson, pt. iii. p. 2. The pre- 
sent is a tall copy ; but not free from stain. It is beautifully bound in 
blue morocco, by C. Herring. 

962. EusEBius. HiSTORiA EccLESiASTicA. (^Printed 
by Ketelaer and Le Leempt.^ Utrecht. 1474. 

Editio Princeps. This Latin version is from the pen of Rufinus ; 
whose prologue occupies the whole of the first leaf, with the exception 
of a short passage from St. Jerom — in commendation of the work. 
Then follows, on the recto of the 2nd leaf, a commendation of Rufinus, 
the translator, by Gennadius Massiliensis. A table of the chapters, in 
the XI Books of the History, immediately follows : concludmg on the 
reverse of the 9th leaf from the commencement of the volume, inclu- 
sively. Then succeeds the preface of Eusebius. The volume contains, 


in the whole, 204 leaves ; without numerals, signatures, or catchwords. 
On the reverse of the 204th and last leaf, we read the following 
colophon : 

oBufeBxj cefaricnfiie^ cpifcopi ccckfiajBftica j)pftoria jitc 
ruffnu bhru rioquctiffimu tic greco in latinu trabucta. 
explicit fclifif . 

I know not why Panzer should say that Clement (Bibl. Curieuse, 
vol. viii. p. 181-4) attributes this edition to the press of I. P. de Ligaa- 
mine ; since there is no mention made of such an edition by Clement 
himself; who, upon the whole, is rather interesting. This maybe 
among the earlier productions of the above printers, and is, on several 
accounts, an estimable volume. The present fair and sound copy is 
bound in russia. 

963. Festivalis (Liber). Printed by IVynkyn 
de TVorde. 1496. Quarto. 

This volume having been overlooked in the account of books 
' printed by W. de Worde,' it occupies its present place. The copy is 
unluckily very imperfect ; wanting the first 8 leaves, and the re- 
maining part being in a soiled condition. It is also deficient in the 
whole of the ' Quatuor Sermones ' — since, on consulting the Typog. 
Antiq. vol. ii. p. 33, this latter tract appears to follow the ' Liber 
Festivalis/ Notwithstanding however such defects, it is the second 
edition of the work by Wynkyn de Worde, and of rare occurrence. 
It contains only one print, as far as I can discover — which represents 
St. Andrew. As this cut is executed in a style superior to those which 
we see in the volumes of the XVth century, from the presses of 
Caxton, W. de Worde, and Pynson, the reader may not be displeased 
at being made acquainted with the following fac-simile of it :* 

* For want of room, this fac-simile is placed at the top of the ensuing page. 



This impression is executed in double columns, and contains .cc. 
leaves, the numerals being printed. On the reverse of the 200th and 
last leaf, we read the colophon, thus : 

finittt ct completfi 

m U^eftinonaftcrio 

%nm hm* ^. act. 


^flegifttum quatentozf. 


The small device of Caxton is below. In blue morocco binding. 

964. Gerson. Collectorium Super Magni- 
ficat. (^Printed hy Fyner?) 1473. Folio. 

Hsec editio (says Braun) bibliothecarum cimeliis admunerari meretur, 
dum nullus, quod sciam, Bibliographorum de ea notitiam habuit.' 
JVo^ Hist. Lit. pt. i. p. 159-160. The account of this singular vohmie, 
by Braun, is copious and interesting : and to the preceding pages the 
reader is referred for a satisfactory description — which is not necessary 
to be here repeated at length. Braun is however to be corrected (as 


Panzer properly intimates) for attributing this edition to the press of 
Eggesteyn : it being decidedly the production of Fyner of Esslingen. 
Laire has described it, but rather in a strange manner : observing that 
the pages arc divided into columns — whereas the text is printed in 
long lines — and that it is the first book, with a date, exhibiting musical 
notes. Index Lihror. vol. i. p. 301-2. What he calls musical notes, are 
5 square spots, on the recto of the 4th leaf, obliquely descending, thus : 

which are intended to denote the five following passions or affections of 
the mind : Joy, Hope, Compassion, Fear, and Grief. Braun has added 
horizontal lines — giving the whole a completely musical appearance. 
But Laire is perhaps wrong in his inference ; for the squares, being 
taken from the musical books of the choir, can only be considered as 
mere detached embellishments : if the lines had been added, we should 
then have witnessed the earliest attempt at what may be more correctly 
called printed music. On the recto of the 40th leaf we observe another 
whimsical adoption of the above words, thus : 


51 € (iBautiium . <B, 



According to Braun, the first form is intended to represent a cross, 
and the second, a wheel : as the author immediately adds 

3^ar2f rcfett orbo tal'a ttuti^ M rote fifguracoe 
d^ufficit tit mW ati timne canticum ^pneUt taitja^ 

The entire work is executed in the manner of a dialogue between a 
master and his pupil. The first page has no prefix, but the text begins 
with the words as before given in the title. A full page has 38 lines. 


There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catchwords. On the recto 
of the 167th and last leaf, we read the ensuing imprint : 

€t 0k terminal tjec apilatio ticuota egregii 
1 famo^i ingf i iofjani^ ^tt^on facte pagine 
tioctor tximii cancellarij pari^ien^iief %nm 
tint. ^\ cccc\ toiii. 

The reverse is blank. This sound and desiiable copy, in old French 
morocco bhiding, was obtained from the library of Mr. Wodhul, as a 

965. GouDA. ExposiTio Mysteriorum Miss^, 
&c. Printed hy Jacohus de Breda. Deventer. 
TVithout Date. Quarto. 

On the recto of the first leaf, above a wood-cut of the celebration of 
the mass — with the blood of Christ represented as flowing into the 
chalice — we read the ensuing title : 

^jcjrojsitio nipjafteriorum 
mif^e ct Ijeru^ mobu^ 
rite celclirantii 

The tract contains IS leaves, or A, B, and C, in sixes. On the recto 
of the 18th leaf: 

€ractaculuj8f fratrijaf <!Buill[)flnu tie oBoutia orbiniief mi 
no2f tie oti^gferuatia. tie ejepoi^itioe mif^sfe et be mo celeBrantit 
finit felicitcr* 3[wpref^u^ SDauentrie 5 me 3iaco6u 
tie 25reba ^acertiotitiJ beuote celeBrare boJentitiJ DtiJ' 
et necefi^ariu^ 

The present copy, which may be considered as uncut, is elegantly 
bound in olive colour calf, bv C. Lewis. 


966. Grammatica Rhythmica. Printed hy Fust 
and Schoeffer. Mentz. 1466. Folio. 

Editio Princeps. It is not without reason that Wurdtwein pro- 
nounces this book to be ' cinielium summae raritatis ;' since it is 
questionable whether any volume from the office of the first Mentz 
printers — including even the Psalter of 1457 — exceed it on the score 
of mere rarity. The copy under description was obtained from a 
quarter * from which Wurdtwein received his account of the impres- 
sion ; and the only other known copy is that which was purchased at 
the sale of the Lomenie library, for 3300 livres, for the Royal Libi"ary 
at Paris, Accordingly, it is only in the Bill. Mogiint. p. 86-7, and Lidex 
Libror, vol. i. p. 62, that any satisfactory account of it will be found : 
as Zapf and Denis are only copyists of their predecessors : Suppl. 
Maitt. p. I ; Aelteste Buchdruckergeschichte von Mainz, p. 38. Referring 
the reader to a description of the second impression of 1468, (also of 
excessive rarity) in vol. iii. p. 69, we proceed to make him acquainted 
with the one before us. 

This edition is a thin volume, or tract, of only 1 1 leaves ;t executed in 
the smallest foimt of letter of the printers. The first page, which is a full 
one, contains 51 lines. It has no prefix, but the first line is as follows: 

<£> pf i-^ ct'nijsf fon^ef tioriuatc iSffatebri^* fontiiB? ab int'miS 
mt rutila tcncbrijef. 

On the reverse of the 1 1th and last leaf, beneath the 13th line of 
text, we read the ensuing colophon, from which the date of the impres- 
sion is obtained : 

^cti^ tcrticm iuBiHamini^ octo hi^ anni^ 
a^oguncia rem me tontiit i impritnit mini^ 
l^ine na^ateiti ^onet otia p ota ioijanntie^ 
|^a(i5 ^ereni iuminije? e^t ^eaturigo pennijef. 

The year, the place, and the printer (says Laire) are comprehended 
in these verses. A jubilee is .50 years : twenty-nine times 50 years 
gives us the year 1450 ; to which, add twice eight, or sixteen years, and 

* From the Library of the College of St. Barlliolomew, Franckfort 

t It has no second part — beginning ' Supcriorlbus nuper diebus' — as in the edition of 1 168. 


you have the dominical year 1466. The other points need not be 
dilated upon. Beneath the colophon, are 23 lines of prose—' so obscure 
(continues Laire) that nothing can be collected from them, unless we 
are to learn that the author and printer were natives of Mentz, and that 
the work was the composition of a monk, for the use of the monastic 
order.' The reader shall have a specimen only of its commencement : 
' Idibus nuper septembris, qii inter cetera nostra que si elaborata 
adprime forent opuscula. perspecta plurimum et fratribus non minime 
profutura censisti. compendiosam satis & banc ut aiebas gramatice 
methadu.* longo iam annonim interuallo puta decennio praetermissam. 
otius perfici oportere. opido satque suadere pernisus es,' &c. This pre- 
cious volume was obtained at a price proportionate to its extraordinary 
rarity. It has been lately bound in blue morocco. 


Hebraice. Without Place or Date. Folio. 

The learned De Rossi, in his valuable Annalea Hebrceo.Tijpogra- 
phici, pt. ii. p. 114-120, has given a copious and interesting account of 
this impression ; which, in opposition to the received opinions of 
preceding bibliographers, he considei's to have been executed at 
Mantua, before the year 1480 — probably in 1476. Tiie copy under 
description corresponds exactly with the one noticed by De Rossi : 
that is to say, it has 136 leaves,*including the last blank onef — 30 lines 
in a full page — and the impression is executed in double columns, (in 
the Rabbinical characters) without numerals, signatures, or catchwords. 
It is a volume, therefore, of no trifling valued both in a typographical 
and critical point of view; since it presents us with a veiy early speci- 
men of Hebrew printing, and contains a text which was frequently re- 
printed in various translations. I shall present the reader with only 
the commencement and termination of the text in the impression before 
us. On the recto of the first leaf, leaving a space at top, and another 
for the introduction of the first word [m«], we read as follows : 

• Sic. 

t Within 6 leaves of the commencement, 2 leaves are cut out in the present copy. 
VOL. IV. 3 T 


n^^ i-h'in pv 'i^v n« T'7in 

8cc. 8cc. Xcc. 

On the reverse of the 135th and last leaf but one (the 13Gth being 
blank) the conclusion is thus — at the bottom of the second column : 

>^-n: \rb^ '^n^o "|i-i2 

"iDDn r\f2bti;n airiD'? 
m^£!D'7u^mxt n)!iL*r\ uv 

Although De Rossi had seen three copies of this impression, he does 
not appear to have been acquainted with any upon vellum : which is 
the case with the one under description.* This copy was formerly in 
the Harleian Collection, but it has been most seriously injured by the 
mice. In old red morocco binding. 

968. Gregorius. Papa. Omeli^. Printed hy 
Gering, Crantz, and Frihurger. Paris. 1475. 

This impression is printed in double columns, and in the largest 
gothic type of the above printers. One page only is executed in the 
smaller character. There are neither numerals, signatures, nor catch- 
words. A full i)age contains 33 lines. It commences with a prologue, 
which is succeeded by a table. This latter ends on the reverse of the 
2nd leaf, when the work begins with this prefix : 

Sincipit iiiier omeIia2f l&cati 
gtejorii pajre 

Slcctio famti euangeJij fe 
amtin Uica. €a. to. 

* Perhaps, however, all the copies may have beeu executed iipou vclluin — which is 
soiuetimes the case with early printed Hebrew books. 


On the reverse of the 140th leaf, at bottom, we read the imprint, 
thus : 

Slmprefjsfe ^mtm^ ptt micfja 
elf/ bbalticu/ et mattina. 511n- 
no tint. ^ . tat ♦ ijcx^j. tiie pti 
ttia mettjSfi^ ODctoBrisf jfuB re- 
0e Sutiouico. 

The recto of the ensuing leaf is occupied by a table of the * Sundays,' 
printed in the smallest character. The reverse of it is blank. Then 
an alphabetical table, with this prefix : 

iJepertonum fiuc tabula pec aljil[jafietum ah facili 
ttt tt^mmha^ matecias? in ptt^tnti libro tiicto ^pe 
culum Ijumane \iitt incipit. 

This table occupies only 4 leaves, printed in the largest character, 
and ending on ihe recto of the 4th leaf. The reverse is blank. The 
present is an indifferent copy ; in old calf binding, with gilt leaves. 

969. Herbarius. Germanice. Printed by 
Schoeffer. Mentz. 1485. Folio. 

This work is described by Wurdtwein and Panzer under the title of 
' HoRTUs Sanitatis ; and is the only volume which issued from the 
press of Schoeffer in the year 1485.* It is probably a German version 
of the Latin text of the same work, which was published by the same 
printer in the preceding year. For this latter consult particularly the 
Bxhl. Crevenn. vol. ii. p. 139, edit. 1775 : for the present work, see 
Wurdtwein's Bihl. Mogunt. p. 123 ; and Panzer's AnnaUn der altern 
Deutschen Litteratur, p. 156. It is on several accounts desei-ving a place 
in the libraiy of the curious collector ; as it is among the earliest bota- 
nical publications which present us with plates, or rather wood-cuts, 

• WurdtweiD asks ' how it came to pass that so few publications issued from the office 
of Schoeffer about this time (1480 to I486)?' He supposes that it must have been in 
consequence of that pruiter's journey to Palestine. Ibid. 


of the plants described.* It is also a very early specimen of that 
secretary-gothic character with which SchoefFer generally printed his 
German works ; and which his son, John Schoeffer, used in his German 
translations of Caesar (1532) and Livy (1538). This character was 
imitated by the eaily Leipsic printers ; and especially by Thanner and 

It is not a little extraordinary that in this same year the Passauf 
and Augsbourg presses put forth impressions of a similar work : each 
with wood-cuts. Consult Panzer, vol. ii. p. 361. The former is in 
Latin, and is a reprint of the previous Mentz edition of 1484 : the 
latter is in German. See also Zapf, vol. i. p. 76. But we return to 
the edition under description, of which the present is a large, sound, 
and desirable copy ; having, almost as usual, the cuts coloured in the 
rude manner of the time. The recto of the first leaf is blank. The 
reverse of it presents us with a large, and not badly executed, wood- 
cut — occupying the entire page — representing a group of philosophers, 
or learned men, discoursing upon the subject of the work : one of the 
prominent figures holding a plant in his right hand. On the recto of 
the ensuing leaf, begins the proheme — concluding on the recto of the 
3rd leaf. The reverse of the 3rd leaf is blank. The recto of the 4th 
leaf presents us with the beginning of the text, beneath a wood-cut of 
a flower thus entitled : 

5llrtl)citiifia fjcpffet fipfufj. 

Before we present the reader with a specimen of the style of art in 
these cuts, it may be as well to remark that spaces ai-e left, at chapters 
xxxix, xlix, and 1, for the insertion of the engravings, which appear not 
to have been finished when the edition went to press. There may be 
other similar omissions. There is little or no attempt at shadow t in 

• Mr. Dryander, in his Catalogue of the Books of Natural History in the Library of Sir 
Joseph Bunks, vol. ill, p. 654-5, notices an edition of an Herbal from the press of I. P. de 
lignaminc, with wood-cuts; which, from the dedicatory epistle to Cardmal de Rovere, 
he thinks could not have been published later than 1471 ; as, in that year, the Cardinal was 
elected Pope— Sixtus IV. 

t ' Not Padua, as at first might be inferred,' says Panzer. Sir Joseph Banks possesses 
a copy of this Passau edition : which has German translations of the characters of the plants 
described—' quod a typographico Italico (adds Panzer) vix ac ne vix quidem expectandum 

t Tlie fruit of the Juniper Tree, at chapter ocxviij, is the largest sui^face of printing ink 
which I discover in the volume. 



these engravings; and the following, of the Lettuce, is. upon the 
whole, as neat a specimen as can be adduced. It precedes the ccxxiijrd 
chapter, and is entitled as below : 

Eamim lattk!) 

At chapter cclvij. the Mandragora is represented as sprouting out of 
the head of a male figure ; and prefixed to the ensuing chapter, we 
observe it thus : with the subjoined explanation — commencing at the 
ccxlviijth (instead of cclviijth) chapter. 




3llnbra0om miifter latine, 
2Dk mtimt fjjrccficn gcmep 
licften ba^ tiif^ allrun Jjafie tiie 
mU tiogcnt mitticc ccftcn ijitb tiar 
tmli IiefcljntJe ici) nit mtm bar boit 
toan al^ tiu gegoret Daift in bem ta^ 
pitel fut tiilTcm. 

A few Jnimals, are also represented in this impression ; executed in 
pretty much the same style as the plants. The edition is destitute of 
numerals, signatures, and catchwords; but it contains ccccxxxv 
chapters, successively marked. The text is followed by a table, in 
double columns, in 2 leaves. Then commences an address, or dis- 
quisition; having, on the recto of the lirst leaf, the following wood- 
cut and subscription : 


get bnjBf tjon aUcn farbcn hei$ f^atn^ 

This address has, in the whole, only 4 leaves. Then an alphabetical 
table, in double columns, of the contents of the work; in 15 leaves. 
On the reverse of the 15th, at bottom, is the colophon: 

SDiftei: ^erBariUier ift cju 
mmt$ gctirutht tjnti gccn^ 
bet ufF tiem XK^ni liage tiejss 

This, with the device of the shields, below, is printed in red. The 
present desirable copy is handsomely bound in russia. 

970. Herbipolensis Sinodus. Without Name of 
Printer, Place, or Date, Folio. 

The nature of this work is described in the opening sentence of it, 

^ nomine bni. ^Cinen Sntipit ortJO ob^eruatUjB? 

in ^acta cpaii ^inotio tjecBipoIen^ tie anno a nati 

[3I] uitate eiu^tie a^iHe^siimo quabringeteisfimo qulqua 

gej5ittio ^c5o bie lefeptinia men^iief marcij que fuit fe 

kc. &c. 8cc. 

This and every full page contains 32 lines. Consult Panzer, vol. i. 
p. 461, n". 9 — where the error of the Solger Catalogue, (pt. i. p. 69, 
n"*. 729) and of Paciaudus, in mistaking the above date for that of the 
printing of the volume, is properly noticed. Panzer thinks the impres- 
sion was executed by Reyser, after the year 1495. The text abounds 
with passages printed in red ; as is the whole of the above, with the 
exception of the first four AA'ords. There are neither signatures, 
numerals, nor catchwords. On the reverse of the 113th leaf, the last 
sentence is thus : 

€jc: cottjgftitutoniBujBf ^inotialitiu^ 23otartii epi ttjocmatieli. 
li. tj, ca, #me. et ca. qui non Bene. fo. \xxix* 

This copy contains, in addition, the treatise of Thomas Aquinas ' de 
periculis contingentibus circa sacramentu Eucaristie ' — 4 leaves : and 


the decree of ' Geoffrey Bishop of Wurtzburg' — in 18 leaves. The 
latter only, which is executed in the German tongue, is noticed by 
Panzer. The present fine and sound copy, recently bound in blue 
morocco, was presented to Lord Spencer by Francis Freeling, Esq. 
Secretary to the Post Office 

971. HiERocLEs. In AuREos Versus Pythagor^. 
Printed hy Pannartz. Rome. 1475. Quarto. 

According to Audiffredi, this edition seems to be both a reprint and 
imitation of the Padua impression of 1474 : see vol. ii. p. 46-8. The 
preface of Aurispa, to Pope Nicholas V. occupies the first two leaves. 
The woik begins on the recto of the 3rd leaf; without prefix. It is 
executed without signatures, numerals, or catchwords ; having, in the 
whole, 92 leaves. The imprint, on the reverse of the 91st leaf, occupies 
22 lines — in capital letters— which may be seen in Audiffredi ; Edit. 
Rom. p. 187-8. The most material part only need find a place here : 













SIXTO . nil . 




The register occupies the recto of the follovdng and last leaf. This 
is a very sound copy, in russia binding. 

VOL, IV. 3 V 


972. HoR^. Ad Usum Parisiensem. Latine. 
Printed hy Pigouchet. 1491. Octavo. 

Under the title of ' Hor^,' I shall introduce the several copies of 
what are called ' Heures,' or Devotional Manuals, which are con- 
tained in this Library ; the Noble Owner not having made it a parti- 
cular object to collect volumes of this description. Such volumes, 
however, are of a very pleasing character, when copies of them — like the 
one about to be described — are in fine condition. See vol. i. p. 150-1 
ante. We begin with the edition above specified ; and of which the 
present copy is in a very beautiful state of preservation. The printer's 
device is on the recto of the first A . i : beneath, we read 

%tx tjfum 5^atifxenfem. 

On the reverse, is an ' Almanack for twenty years ;' beginning with 
the year 1488, and ending with that of 1.50S. The impression is 
executed in double columns, surrounded with borders of the usual 
ornaments introduced into publications of this character. The type and 
press work are equally elegant and skilful ; but the ornaments are, 
upon the whole, of a secondary degree of merit. They are entirely of 
a grave character. The signatures, as far as M, run in eights. On the 
recto of M iiij, we read the colophon, thus : 

€t^ Tj^tt^tntt^ |)cureisf a Ju^age tie ^m^ fti 
rent acljeuee^ \t premier iour tie tiecemBre mil 
quatre centj quatre bingt^ et tn^e per pJjiUp 
jie^sf pigoucljet imprimeur tiemeurant en la rue 
tie la Ijarpe tieuant ^aint eo^me en lojeftel tiu col 
liege tie tiinuille* <itm en boultira auoir il en 
trouuera autiit lieu et tieuant i^aint pue^ a len 
?eigne tiu pellican en la rue ^m\t iague^. 

What is singular, the device of Marnef * is on the reverse. This 
copy is executed upon vellum of a stout quality, and may be con- 
sidered without a blemish. It is also veiy large, and beautifully bound 
in blue morocco, by C. Herring. 

* The devices of Pigouchet and of Marnef will be found in the Bibliographical 


973. HoRiE. Belgice. Printed hy Adrian Van 
lAesvelt. Antwerp, 1494. Octavo. 

This little volume of Prayers, printed in the Dutch or Low German 
language, is not only a production of a very uncommon printer, but is 
executed in a style of equal neatness and singularity. Above a wood- 
cut of the annunciation, (repeated twice or thrice) on the recto of the 
first leaf, and just under the border which encircles the cut, we read 
the title, thus : 

SDuptfclje gtjetitien 

The reverse is blank. The Calendar begins on the recto of the 
ensuing leaf, and occupies 12 leaves. The recto of the ensuing and 
14th leaf is blank ; but on the reverse we read as follows : 

E>at fiegDin be^af Ijcpliglien 
etDangelijisf. fie^cfjrpuct on^ 
^intc iolianne^ 

<^Joric ^"p tien fjecre 

The Gospel of St. John follows on the recto of the succeeding leaf, 
and is succeeded by sentences fi'om the Psalms. On the reverse of 
h, iij, we observe a singular cut of death piercing a young man with a 
spear : beneath it is the following line : ' i^ier fiegfjint tJie toigilie.' Scrip- 
tural passages. Prayers, Collects, &c. follow. On the reverse of s iiij, 
in eights, we read the colophon, thus : 

3[ntien name m0 f^tttm iftc 
^u tti^ti jfoe iSfijn ijier tiolepnt 
titc ggetitien ban on^c lieutt 
tJtouUjen tot ^aJicfjept allm 
htt0ttn mcniefcijen. oBntic jgfijn 
0l(|0ptiitt €anttucrpe hii tiie 
mttt poorte* SJm jacr onjaf Ije 


ten ^ tea en jrctJtiij op ^mtt 
Blautocrcp^ auont. ^iy niij 
3£tiriaen ban EiejEfbcIt 

A wood-cut, with the letters ifj0, and an appropriate surrounding 
description, is beneath. Only the first leaf of each signature is 
designated by the letter. Panzer properly remarks that this book is 
printed in the types of Gerard de Lceu. It is the smallest character of 
that printer. Jnnal. Typog. vol. i. p. 12. The ornaments of this little 
volume consist of small wood-cuts of figures, very neatly executed, and 
borders of fruit and flowers. This copy is elegantly bound in red 
morocco, by C. Lewis. 

974. H0R.E. Secundum Usum Sarum. Printed 
by Kerver. 1497- Octavo. 

The Missals of Kerver upon paper (as is the copy before us) are 
probably rarer than those upon vellum : but the profusion of wood-cuts 
with which they are generally adorned, renders their appearance upon 
the latter material more beautiful and interesting. The title of this 
Missal is thus — above the device of the printer : * 

jfccuntiu tj^um dg>arum. 

The almanack, for xx years, is on the reverse : beginning with 1494 
and ending with 1520. The calendar follows, with embellishments 
appropriate to the respective months. On the reverse of a viij, is the 
first of the larger cuts — representing St. John in the boiling caldron. 
The 1st chapter of his Gospel commences beneath. The earlier impres- 
sions of The Salisbury Missal, executed abroad, are curious in pre- 
senting us with the style of English orthography at that period. Thus, 
on the reverse of i iij, is the first prayer in it which appears to be 
printed in our own language : [O] Glorious iesu O mekest iesu O most 
swettest iesu I pray the that I may haue trew confessiS cotrictio ad 

* Tlie device of Kerver, wilh those of all the early French printers of JMissals, wilJ be 
found in the Biblwgraphkal Decameron : accompanied wilh nuiuerous fac-sirailes of the 
eiDbellislinients in those splendid publications. 


satisfaction or I dye And that I may see et receyue thy holy body god 
et man.' The second, on the following leaf, which is entitled ' I haue 
had to the,' begins in the following manner : [O] The most swetest 
spouse of mi sowle crist iesu desiring hertly euermore for to be wyth 
the in mynde et wylle et to lete no erthely thyng be soo nygh myn hert 
as thou crist iesu et that I drede not for to deie for to hoo to the crist 
iesu et that I may euermore saye to te ♦ wyth a gladde chere : my 
lord : my god : &c.' ' These prayers (observes the next paragraph in 
Latin) are only to be said in the agony of death.' 

On the recto of k i, another English prayer begins, thus : ' o Blessyd 
trinyte Fader : sone : ad holy ghoost : thre persones : iid one god I 
byleue wyth my hert : and confesse with my mouth al that holy chyrche 
bileueth and holdeth of the et as moche as a good catholyke and cristen 
ma ought to fele ad byleue of the ad I proteste here tofore thy maieste: 
that I wyl lyue et deye T thys faith & otinue al my lyf,' &c. The next 
prayer has this commencement : ' o Lord god almyghty alle seeTg al 
thynges knowyng : wysedon and sapiece of al : I poure synner make 
thys day in despite of the fende of helle protestation that yf of 
aduenture bi ony teptation : deception : or variation coming by sorowe : 
peyne or sekenesse or by ony feblenes of body : or bi ony other occasio 
what someuer it be i falle or decline in peril of my soule or preiudyce 
of my helthe or in errour of the holy fayth catholike,' &c. On the 
reverse of r iiij, is the ensuing colophon : 

i^ot ptt^en^ officium ticate marie tu 
imriti^ tieuoti^ jefufftagiiief ab bfum ^a^ 
ru5 Hntta ^unt. 3Cnno tiomira mine^imo 
quatinngentejsfimo nonageiSfimo ^cpthiio 
3^to Jogamte ricartio mcrcatore iifitario 
totDomaiji tommoranti hixta niagna^ 
ecdciSfiam ficatc marie. 

The device of Ricardo is beneath. The remaining 8 leaves, upon 
signature *l, are devoted to prayers for persons in perilous situations ; 
beginning with an invocation to the Trinity. The prayers are short, 
and in the Latin tongue ; b\it the titles of those towards the end are in 

* Sic : the w's are all represented by vv's. 


English. The ornaments are entirely of a graver character ; and the 
type is the smallest of the printer. The signatures run in eights, except 
r, which has but 4 leaves ; and only the first leaf of each signature is 
designated by a letter. This is a very sound and clean copy ; but cropt, 
and bound in 2 volumes, in old red morocco. 

975. HoR^. Secundum usum Romanum. Printed 
hy Kerver. Paris. 1498. Octavo. 

This beautiful impression, executed in the smallest type of the 
printer, presents us on the first leaf with Kerver's device, and the 
subjoined title : 

ijotc fieate tJirgfjei marie ftb m bfum 
iHoanu fine reqne : cii pgatoe miffe i jctJ. 
p^aimijsf i officio feciali tiicentiiief. 

The Almanack, on the reverse, begins with the year 1497. and 
extends to the year 1520. The signatures, of which only the first leaf 
is marked by a letter, extend to u, inclusively, in eights. On the 
reverse of o viij we read only this colophon : 

€t^ prefenteiei fjeure^ a iufeige tie lHo 
me furent acjeuee^ ie. jrrbi. iour be ^t 
ptelJte Han Sr^il €€€€ . iiiijCjC . x*biii . 
^Qt €jipelma Mttntt 3litiraicc tiemou 
rant a ^ari^ fUjEf ie pont faintt micljel a 
lenfeigne tie la Eicorne. 

As usual, there is a profusion of large and small cuts ; the latter 
forming the borders, and all of them of a serious character. This 
copy, printed upon vellum, is elegantly bound by C. Lewis, in blue 
morocco, but has many leaves which are unluckily soiled. 


976. HoR^. Secundum Usum Romanum. Printed 
hy Kerver. (Paris. 1498). Octavo. 

We have here a most interesting specimen of Kerver's large charac- 
ter, surrounded by cuts, occasionally of a droll and diverting nature, 
as will be seen from numerous representations of similar embellish- 
ments in the Bibliographical Decameron. The recto of the first leaf 
upon signature a, (accompanied, as in the preceding one, by the letter 
R, serving as a direction for the register) shews us the device of the 
printer above the following title : 

JJure intemerate iieate marie birginiia? 
^ecuntium tjfum JHomanum, 

As the Almanack extends from the year 1497 to 1520, I conceive 
this impression to have been executed in the same year with the pre- 
ceding one, (namely in 1498) as varieties of the same text. The cut 
of <S^ John in the Caldron, on the reverse of a viij, being interesting 
in its composition, and rather distinctly and brilliantly struck off, a 
fac-simile of it is reserved for the above work. The signatures include 
p, in eights. On the reverse of p viij, beneath a cut of equal interest 
and brilliancy, representing the Virgin in glory, we read the ensuing 
imprint — which terminates the impression : 

%ti ttiatutttid$^ tie conce{ittone Beatidtme 
tiet genetticiiss t^itgmtie^ matte* 

This elegant little volume, printed upon vellum, is bound by 
C. Herring in russia. 


977. Immanuelis (R) Filii Salomonis Liber 
Mechabberoth, seu Poeticarum Compositi- 
ONUM. Hebraice. Printed hy Gerson of Soncino. 
JBrescia. 1491. Quarto. 

' Gerson of Soncino (says De Rossi) carried the art of printing [with 
Hebrew types] from his own country — where he had exercised his 
business the preceding year — to Brescia ; and there published various 
works in this and the three following years. Of these works, the 
present is the first in order ; which, according to Buxtorf, is composed 
with admirable skill, eloquence, elegance, and learning — so as to 
cause the author of it with justice to be styled the Prince of Poets : 
Annales Hebraeo-Typograpkici ; pt. i. p. S4-6. The reader has only to 
consult this excellent work for a description, at once copious, interest- 
ing, and exact, of the rare and curious volume under consideration: 
and he will find the mistakes of all preceding bibliographers, including 
Panzer and AudifFredi, corrected. The date is 149 J, and not 1492 — as 
all the later bibliographers have concluded. The volume contains 159 
leaves ; presenting us, on the recto of the first leaf, with the following 
title to the author's preface ; 

The colophon, in 5 lines, is on the revers