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(VI T. 

Presented in the name of the French Republic by his excellency M. 
Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France to the United States. 

November 19J2. 




Bi- Centenary 





OF JULY 24, 25, 26, J90J 

Issued under direction of the 



Edition Limited to 1000 Copies. 




It has been the desire of the Publishing Committee to 
make this volume a fairly complete record of the proceed- 
ings of the Bi-Centenary Celebration of the Founding of 
Detroit, and that reason is offered as justification for any 
apparent delay in publication. The work of the com- 
mittee has been chiefly that of arranging and printing 
the articles contributed, and therefore it will be under- 
stood that responsibility for style and matter included 
rests entirely with the various contributors. The com- 
mittee feel that the celebration and the subsequent com- 
pilation of this volume have been the means of bringing 
together a large amount of valuable and interesting data 
and hope that its distribution will bring increased pres- 
tige to our fair and far-famed city. 

Silas Farmer, 

C. L. Arnold, 

Mary Catharine Crowley, 

C M. Burton, 

A. H. Griffith, 




Introductory 9 

The Celebration 21 

The French Element in the Celebration . 46 

St. Anne's Church Celebration 54 

The Work of the Women's Bi-Centenary 

Committee — Mary Catherine Crowley. . 73 

The Bi-Centenary Box 86 

The Social Life of Early Detroit — Mary 

Catherine Crowley 91 

The French Regime — Richard R. Elliott. . . 114 

Detroit in the Revolution — C. M. Burton. 164 

Detroit in its Relation to the North- 
west — Hon. T. W. Palmer 220 

The Rule of the Governor and Judges — 

Silas Farmer 245 

The Preservation of Historic Landmarks 
and their Influence on History and 
Patriotism — James B. Angell, L. L. D . . 268 


Influences in the Development and Pro- 
gress of Michigan — Hon. Peter White. 272 

Historic Tablets and Memorials — 

Silas Farmer, City Historiographer 288 

Appendix: The Committees; Names of 

Members 297 


As the illustrations are all inserts they follow the page 
indicated in this list. 

Frontispiece Pictures presented by the Republic of 

Mayor W. C. Maybury. 

George W. Fowle. PAGE 

D. C. Dalameter 12 

Alex. McLeod 12 

A. H. Griffith 12 

Fred T. Moran 12 

F. A. Blades, City Controller 14 

Howard Beck, Assistant Controller 14 

Maurice J. Keating 16 

William Hillger , 16 

John Weibel 16 

Robt. Barrie 16 

Gus A. Schantz 18 

Jere C. Hutchings 18 

Jesse Saxton 18 


C. M. Hayes 18 

J. J. Haarer 18 

Clarence A. Cotton, Mayor's Secretary 20 

F. A. Wakefield, Secretary Executive Committee.. 20 

Rev. C. L. Arnold 22 

Silas Farmer 22 

Hon. T. W. Palmer 24 

Tames B. Angell 24 

Richard R. Elliott 24 

Hon. Peter White 24 

C. M. Burton 24 

Miss Mary Catherine Crowley 26 

The Cadillac Flotilla 28 

Col. Casper H. Schulte 30 

Chief Red Cloud 32 

Chief Conquering Bear . . 34 

Chas. M. Rousseau 36 

M. Pierre de Margerie , 36 

Pietro Cardiello 36 

Theophile Francois 36 

O. G. Howland 38 

E. G. Swift 38 

E. Girardot 38 

John Davis 38 

Joseph Belanger 40 

Charles Grebus 40 

John B. Gravier 40 

M. Hielman 40 

Les Voyageurs 42 

Chief Marshall and his Aids 44 

The Campus Martius, 1901 46 

Cadillac and his Court 48 

Daniel LaFerte 50 

Capt. H. F. Eberts 52 

Second Lieut. Gregoire Grimaldi 52 

First Lieut. J. A. Bedard 52 


Antonio Bedarcl 52 

Alfred Kleczkowski 54 

Monseigneur Martinelli 56 

Rev. Gabriel Richard 56 

Wm. Henry Elder, D. D., Archbishop 56 

Monseigneur Falconie 56 

Paul Bruchesi, D. D., Archbishop 56 

Rt. Rev. John S. Foley 58 

Rt. Rev. John L. Spaulding 58 

Rt. Rev. Thos. S. O. Gorman 58 

Most Rev. John Ireland 58 

Rev. Ernest Van Dyke 60 

Rev. Francis A. Mueller . . . 60 

Mrs. B. C. Whitney 72 

Miss Isabel Weir 74 

Miss Alice E. Chapoton 76 

Mrs. Jas. H. Donovan 78 

Mrs. F. F. Ingram 78 

Mrs. Marguerite Beaubien 78 

Miss Louise Burns 80 

The City Hall 82 

The Bi-centenary Box 86 

Evacuation Day Tablet 288 

Pontiac Conspiracy 288 

Cadillac Chair 290 

Fire of 1805 Tablet 292 

Old Council House Tablet 292 

Original University Tablet 294 

General Wayne Tablet 294 

Bloody Run Tablet 296 

Obituary of Silas Farmer 

Mayor of Detroit. 


The approach of the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
founding of the City of Detroit awakened an intense in- 
interest in the event, in the minds of our citizens. The 
question, how fittingly to celebrate the occasion and 
commemorate an event of so transcendent importance, 
was uppermost in the minds of all those who felt the 
impulse of civic pride and local patriotism. 

A prompt and encouraging response was given to the 
call of the Mayor, and numerous and representative gath- 
erings of our citizens were held. Out of these meetings 
came many plans and proposals, all of which had excel- 
lent claims for public approval. It, therefore, became 
necessary that a process of selection be adopted so that 
whatever was at once practicable and altogether worthy 
of so important an event, might ultimately be adopted 
and carried into effect. 

It will ever be matter of deep regret among those who 
cherish a love for Detroit, and a pride in her fair honor, 
that the plan for a permanent and splendid memorial, to 
be erected at the foot of Belle Isle, was not accomplished. 
The genius that conceived that glorious scheme, and the 
generosity of a few of our wealthy citizens deserved a 
worthier fate. 

Certainly, if any city on the American continent de- 
served an elaborate memorial on reaching its bi-centen- 
ary, Detroit is that city. 

Its history in many particulars is so unique and 
peculiar, its age for an American city so remarkable, and 


its natural and artificial attractions so numerous and 
universally pleasing, that as was well said, Detroit is 
worthy of the best. 

The story of its earlier life is as attractive as a 
French romance of medieval times, the courage and 
daring, the vivacity and energy of its first settlers, the 
womanly virtues of its earliest wives and mothers and 
maidens, together with the happy combination of thrift 
and courtesy, vigor and pertinacity, coupled with love 
of beauty and financial foresight possessed by later citi- 
zens, have given us a heritage of which every one may 
well be proud. 

The relation of the city to the early Indian life of the 
West and to the various wars between the tribes, and 
between the settlers as well, makes our records peculiarly 
thrilling. Its annals are crowded with tales of plots, 
sieges, battles, forays and all the concomitants of war. 

The conspicuous place occupied by Detroit during 
the War of the Revolution, and the active part taken by 
the Loyalists and Indians connected with this post in 
that long struggle, form a notable chapter in American 

Because of its connection with the New England 
States which sent thousands of emigrants to this region 
at the beginning of the second century of the city's life, 
its Bi-centenary interested citizens in all these States. 

Its past is also interwoven with that of all of the 
older Northwest, for in its beginnings it was not only 
one of the main trading posts, but also for many years 
the political center and seat of government of a large 
region which now includes several States and many of 
the great cities of the West. 

Chief Marshal. 

The celebration of the two hundredth birthday of our 
city, as described and recounted in the following pages, 
was in every respect and detail most worthy the great 
event commemorated, and as an object lesson, of inestim- 
able value, especially to the youth of our community. The 
universal interest and enthusiasm shown by the citizens 
of Detroit in the events of these days of commemoration 
reflected great credit upon them for intelligence and local 

Those days of celebration were crowded with the 
events of two centuries of the city's life. Like a panorama 
the two hundred years sped by, and all their varied his- 
tory was told again and most vividly reproduced. It is a 
privilege to claim citizenship in Detroit in this beginning 
of a new century of the world and of our city's life, and 
certainly this generation of our citizens has the highest 
inspiration to civic pride in the worthy celebration of the 
city's birthday, in the midst of her greatest glory of nat- 
ural beauty and civil prosperity and peace. 

The observance of the two hundredth anniversary of 
the founding of Detroit had been brought to the attention 
of the public by the press of the city, during the two years 
preceding 1901. 

The intelligent minds among our people were in accord 
as to the propriety of marking the occurrence of the 
birthday of the city in a manner becoming its great popu- 
lation, its wealth and its rank among the cities of the 
American Union. 

William C. Maybury, Mayor of Detroit, inaugurated 
the preliminary movements, by calling, by special invita- 
tion, a meeting of such of his fellow citizens as he be- 

lieved would co-operate with him in shaping the form 
the commemoration might take. This meeting convened 
on the evening of February 28, 1901, in the Mayor's office. 
The response was general, and the assemblage was called 
to order by Hon. Robert Barrie, chairman of the Bi-Cen- 
tenary Committee of the Common Council, which, in the 
meantime, had been formed. 

The Mayor opened the proceedings with an address, 
in which he outlined in general terms his suggestions for 
a public celebration to commemorate the Bi-centenary of 
the founding of Detroit; he then called successively upon 
the prominent citizens present for an exchange of views 
as to the manner in which the proposed celebration might 
be made a success. 

But, while the respective responses evinced a cheerful 
willingness to co-operate, no definite suggestion was 
made as to the form which the proposed celebration 
should take. 

Finally, Rev. C. L. Arnold moved: "That it is the 
sense of this meeting, that there should be an appropriate 
celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of the 
founding of Detroit, according to plans to be formulated 
by the committee to be appointed for this purpose." 

This was amended by Mr. James E. Scripps, author- 
izing the Mayor to appoint an executive committee, and 
from time to time, sub-committees, which motion as thus 
amended was adopted. 

The Mayor stated that in appointing these committees 
he would select those only who agreed to work. 

This ended the preliminary meeting. It was apparent 
that the form the celebration might take would depend, 




more or less, upon the suggestions the Mayor would 
make to the Executive Committee he should select. 

At the second meeting, held on the evening of March 
4, the Mayor announced the Executive Committee to 
consist of the following gentlemen : 

D. C. Delamater, G. W. Fowle, A. H. Griffith, C. M. 
Hayes, A. I. McLeod, J. C. Hutchins, F. T. Moran, J. E. 
Saxton, A. A. Schantz, A. M. Seymour, with Clarence A. 
Cotton, the Mayor's Secretary. 

To the active co-operation of these gentlemen in de- 
veloping the suggestions of Mayor Maybury, the citizens 
of Detroit are indebted for the success of its Bi-centennial 

The Executive Committee was called to meet in the 
Mayor's office on forty-two evenings, thirty-eight of 
which were presided over by the Mayor in person, the 
other four by Alderman Barrie. 

In all the preliminary work of the forming of the out- 
lines of the Bi-centenary celebration, and subsequently, 
in the selection of the respective sub-committees, Clar- 
ence A. Cotton, secretary of the Mayor, rendered effec- 
tive, valuable, and at the same time gratuitous service, re- 
lieving the Mayor as well as the members of the Execu- 
tive Committee, of much of the details which would 
otherwise have occupied their time. 

The correspondence itself was quite extensive, requir- 
ing much time and careful attention. It was an important 
feature in the preliminary work, and it was judiciously 
and satisfactorily performed by Mr. Cotton. Subse- 
quently, the Executive Committee was enlarged by the 

addition of J. J. Haarer, President of the Common Coun- 
cil, and F. A. Blades, Controller of the City. 

On March n, the Common Council appropriated 

On March 19 the Executive Committee reported as 
follows : 

To the Special Bi-Centenary Committee of the Common Council: 

Gentlemen — The undersigned, a committee designated to 
consider plans for the celebration of the Bi-centenary of Detroit 
would respectfully report that, after mature consideration, they 
are unanimously agreed that in some form the two hundredth 
anniversary of the founding of Detroit should be celebrated, and 
in a manner befitting the historic importance and dignity of 
the occasion. We first suggest that the celebration include 
Wednesday and Thursday, the 24th and 25th of July. 

We would recommend that Wednesday morning be given 
up to the reception of distinguished guests who may be invited 
to participate in the ceremonies. 

Among the guests whom we suggest for invitation are all 
the descendants that can be found of those who were the first 
settlers of Detroit. 

We believe the occasion to be of sufficient dignity to war- 
rant that it be graced by the presence of the President of the 
United States and his official cabinet. 

The close relation between the founding of Detroit and the 
growth and development of the great northwest, more especially 
the States of Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Minne- 
sota, Missouri, and Wisconsin, suggest that the Governors of 
these respective States should be invited guests; together with 
the Governor-General of Canada; the Mayors of Quebec and 
Montreal, those of other border cities, and such other persons 
as may be hereafter suggested. 

The historic exercises on the afternoon of July 24, to be 
held at some suitable place, of which notice will be given, will 

F. A. BLADES, city controller 

HOWARD BECK deputy controller 

be opened with a suitable oration, to be followed by a historical 
outline of the City of Detroit by historians, and by brief ad- 
dresses by invited guests. These exercises will be preceded by 
a prayer and closed with a benediction from the religious dig- 
nitaries selected. 

Immediately after the close of the exercises on the after- 
noon of the first day, a naval parade, representing as nearly as 
possible the original escort of Cadillac, to come down the river 
from above Belle Isle, land just before sundown at the foot of 
Shelby street, there to be received by a deputation representing 
the Indian tribes then resident in this neighborhood, and by the 
civic authorities. Cadillac and his followers will be escorted to 
the Campus Martius and there welcomed to the city. The 
evening of the first day will be given up to a magnificent parade 
upon the river, with brilliant illuminations upon the shore, with 
fireworks from the floats and other details to be developed. 

The revenue cutters of the United States Government upon 
the lakes should be in line on this occasion, and all the shipping 
interests on the lakes should be requested to add something to 
the display. 

At 10 o'clock in the forenoon of this day the formal dedica- 
tion of some memorial with proper ceremony, should the same 
be decided upon. 


A grand review of art, commerce and manufactures; past, 
present and prospective, in the City of Detroit. The first 
division and other divisions to be as hereinafter described. 

Escort of mounted police. Detachment of Indians. Repre- 
sentation of the early French settlers. Rangers, Hunters, 
French troops, British troops, Continentals, soldiers of 1812, 
veterans of the Mexican war, veterans of 1861, soldiers and 
sailors of the Spanish-American war, and the State troops, Inde- 
pendent Military Companies and the United States Regulars. 



At least 1,000 school children, selected by the proper 
authorities from the public, the parochial, and other schools of 
Detroit. This number might be increased if practicable. 


Representatives of the early guardian of the peace, watch- 
men, criers, constables, marshals; the division to close with a 
review of the present police department. 


The early fire brigade, with buckets and very early equip- 
ment. Several of the old division hand engines, drawn by men 
dressed in the red flannel shirts and helmets, with dark trou- 
sers, of early days. The division to close with a parade of our 
present up-to-date fire department. 


The development of the mail service is to be represented by 
horsemen with saddle-bags for letters, stage coaches carrying 
the mails in the early times. This division to close with the 
parade of the present carrier force. 


Civic and patriotic societies uniformed, of every character, 
followed by bodies not in uniform, fraternal societies, trades 
unions and all other societies of kindred character. 


Automobile and wheelmen's display. Merchants and man- 
ufacturers to have charge of the remainder of this division, 
showing the growth of every art and industry we have, espe- 
cially every industry and art at present flourishing in our city. 
The splendid displays made on one or more occasions by our 
manufacturers insures, as your Committee believes, a magnifi- 
cent display in this division of the arts and industries. 




Transportation feature, showing the early means of transit, 
from the Indian method to the stage coach, wagon or ox teams, 
up to the most complete and magnificent conveyances of mod- 
ern times. 


The evening of the 25th is to be given up to an allegorical 
review of stirring events in the history of the City of Detroit. 
The following groups are suggested: 

No. 1. Contingents of Indian tribes once resident in this 
neighborhood. Your Committee believe that it will be possible 
to get at least 100 Indians of different tribes to be present on 
tb.e occasion, as the Government has agreed to the transporta- 
tion of 600 Indians to Buffalo, where they will be encamped at 
this time. We believe no difficulty will be found in having a 
detachment here to take their part in this celebration. 

No. 2. Francois Dollier and De Galinee landing at Belle 
Isle, erecting a cross and attaching thereto the coat-of-arms of 
France, 1670. 

No. 3. White men breaking up the Indian idols and casting 
them into the river, 1610. [sic] 

No. 4. La Salle, passing up the strait in the "Griffon" in 
1679, the first boat built by Europeans, having Fathers Henne- 
pin, Membre, and Ribourd on board. 

No. 5. Cadillac's interview with the Count de Pontchar- 
train, in Paris in 1700, with a view to have Detroit made a per- 
manent post. 

No. 6. Cadillac's landing at Detroit in July, 1701, with SO 
soldiers and 50 artisans and settlers. 

No. 7. Death of Father De L'Halle in 1706, and the soldier 
La Riviers, outside the palisades of Fort Pontchartrain by hos- 
tile Indians. 

No. 8. Deputation of Ottawas appear before Cadillac to 
surrender the chief, Le Pesant, as a guarantee of peace. 

No. g. Detachment of volunteer French militia soldiers 
under command of the Chevalier Bellestre, going to Quebec in 
1755 to fight the English. 

No. 10. Surrender of Fort Pontchartrain by the Chevalier 
Bellestre, last of the French commandants, to the British under 

No. 11. Pontiac refuses to accept the terms of the treaty 
of Paris, between the French and English, surrendering Canada, 
following the fall of Montcalm. 

No. 12. Disclosure of Pontiac's plan to capture the British 
garrison at Detroit, by an Indian maiden. 

No. 13. Pontiac besieges the fort at Detroit. 
No. 14. Scene from the battle of Bloody Bridge. 

No. 15. Lieut.-Governor Hamilton, of Detroit, who, with 
a force of Indians and British regulars, had captured the fort 
at Vincennes, defeated by General George Rogers Clark, and 
sent with his staff in irons to Virginia. 

No. 16. Raising the Stars and Stripes in 1796, for the first 
time at Detroit. 

No. 17. First detachment of U. S. troops arrive at Detroit. 
No. 18. First printing press in the Western States, set up 
by Father Gabriel Richard at Detroit in 1809, on which he pub- 
lished Scriptural and other works. 

No. 19. The first steamboat, the "Walk in the Water," 
arrives at Detroit. 

This allegorical display may be greatly enriched with scenes 
of historic interest; but the success of this feature of the cele- 
bration will depend much on the extent of the interest mani- 
fested by patriotic citizens interested in history, and especially 
by the descendants of the early French settlers, who would feel 
a pride in commemorating the acts of their ancestors. 

Suggestions from any section of our citizens in this connec- 
tion will be cheerfully received and considered. 




Your Committee is not unmindful of the admirable results 
of the influence of women in the formation of the present City 
of Detroit, in its moral, social and religious life; and it is the 
purpose of this Committee, if their work be continued, to ask 
the ladies of the city to organize and designate what part or 
place in the program suggested, or what division may be re- 
served for them, in presenting the ensemble, which would be 
incomplete, did it not contain an outline of the record of hero- 
ism, fidelity and patriotism that has illustrated the life of 
womanhood in this city. 

Your Committee desires to urge the project heretofore dis- 
cussed of marking even temporarily, and for the future perhaps, 
old historical landmarks in Detroit; such, for instance, as the 
location of the old barracks, the fort and flag-staff, the first 
council house, the original home of General Cass, Joseph Cam- 
■pau's home, and the site of the battle of Bloody Bridge, the old 
navy yard, etc. 

Your Committee desires to express its very great thanks 
to the Special Committee of the Common Council for the great 
interest taken by them as a committee in the consideration of 
the plan formulated. And they are pleased to know, that on 
its submission, it was both individually, and as a Committee, 
approved. Respectfully submitted, 












Executive Committee. 


The Common Council Special Committee on the Bi- 
centennial celebration, referred to above, comprised: 
Robert Barrie, Chairman, and Aldermen W. H. Coots, 
M. J. Keating, J. Weibel and W. Hillger. To carry out 
the respective features of the commemorative ceremonies, 
as outlined by the Executive Committee, sub-committees 
were appointed and announced through the press. 

After the fourteenth meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee, Mr. Clarence A. Cotton, Secretary of the Mayor, 
resigned from this committee April 29. 

Mr. F. H. Wakefield was appointed to succeed Mr. 
Cotton as Secretary of the Executive Committee at a 
fixed salary. When he assumed the position, he found a 
well-arranged system which had been in a great measure 
perfected by his predecessor. For sub-committees see 
Appendix A. 

After many Executive Committee meetings, and after 
many meetings and conferences of the respective sub- 
committees, Mayor Maybury was finally enabled to an- 
nounce through the press the official program of the grand 
pageant, which was to celebrate the two hundredth anni- 
versary of the founding of Detroit, by the Chevalier An- 
toine de la Mothe Cadillac, in July, 1701. 

The ceremonial proposed was such as had never be- 
fore been promulgated in Detroit. It was grand and 
proper in its inception ; poetic in its allegorical features ; 
unbounded in its extent ; and most generous in all its ap- 

It was a deserved honor which the city of the present 
day proposed, after two centuries, to pay to its distin- 
guished and heroic founder. 

''<-[ v » ' 't^V^sSliJf-^ 




CLARENCE A. COTTON, mayor's secretary 

F. A. WAKEFIELD, sec. executive com. 



At sunrise a national salute of 21 guns was given by 
U. S. revenue cutters "Fessenden" and "Morell" and U. 
S. steamer "Michigan." 

At 6 a. m. two hundred strokes were tolled by the 
City Hall bell. 

The opening exercises of the Bi-centennial commem- 
oration on the first day, July 24, was the dedication at 10 
a. m. of the Chair of Justice, symbolic of the judicial and 
military rule of the founder of Detroit. 

The outline of the chair was the work of Messrs. Grills 
and Mills of Architect John Scott's office. It was cut 
from a solid block of Lake Superior red stone, quarried 
near Portage Lake ; it is about six feet high and rests on 
a foundation of two hundred cubic feet of solid masonry. 

Its location is opposite the east side of the Soldiers' 
Monument, at the head of Cadillac Park, about where, in 
former years, was the entrance to the old City Hall. 

At ten o'clock a. m. Mayor Maybury, accompanied by 
the Executive Committee, and Chief Justice Moore, of 
the Supreme Court, arrived. France was represented by 
M. de Margerie and the consuls-general of Montreal and 
Chicago, and the local French element by Messrs. Bel- 
anger, Rousseau and Tossy. 

The Metropolitan band furnished the music. The 
chair was draped with the Stars and Stripes. After the 
invocation of Rev. C. L. Arnold, Mayor Maybury ad- 
dressed the assemblage, saying that the chair was dedi- 
cated to justice and equality; that it stood also on the 
site of the old City Hall, in which was the court house 
in the early days of modern Detroit, and mentioned the 
names of several judges who sat on the bench, and of 
eminent lawyers who practiced in the court. 

Professor Griffith then spoke of "The Symbolism" of 
the coat of arms of Cadillac, cut on the head of the chair, 
which had no motto on its scroll. 

Silas Farmer, City Historiographer and Chairman of 
the Tablet Committee, told how the Chair came to be 
selected as a symbol of the first settlement by Cadillac 
and the founding of Detroit, and related facts connected 
with the historic site on which the Chair is located. (See 
article contained herein entitled "Historic Tablets and 

Senator T. W. Palmer had been invited to deliver the 
address of the day, but as he was not present, Clarence 
M. Burton was called upon to speak in the Senator's 

Although unprepared to deliver such an address, Mr. 
Burton gave an interesting sketch of the life of Cadillac, 
the result of his own researches: "Cadillac," he said, 
"was a Gascon, the son of a member of Parliament, or 
councilor, from Toulouse. France was exceedingly poor 
during the reign of Louis XIV, the Grand Monarch, who 
squandered money as never before had any previous king. 
Many people had to leave the country to seek a livelihood 




beyond the seas, and among these was Cadillac. On a 
house in Montreal is a metal plate with the inscription : 
"Here in 1694, lived Cadillac." This house was occupied 
at that date by a man named La Mothe, probably an uncle 
or relative of Cadillac. The founder of this city became 
acquainted with, and entered into the service of M. Fran- 
cois Guion, a ship owner; and for a time followed the sea; 
during one of his visits to Quebec he met a daughter of 
this gentleman, whom he subsequently married. In 1694, 
he was commandant at Michilimacinac, but subsequently 
induced the French Government to establish a post at 
Detroit as a barrier to the English, who were threatening 
to take possession of this locality." 

Mr. Burton then outlined Cadillac's career at Detroit ; 
the annoying persecution of his enemies at Quebec, where 
he was detained and placed on trial ; his triumph and re- 
turn to Detroit; his subsequent career as commandant; 
his promotion to the control of Louisiana; his return to 
France and death. The hymn "America" was then sung 
by the assemblage, who uncovered while Rev. Ernest Van 
Dyke pronounced the benediction. The band played the 
"Star Spangled Banner" and the dedication ceremonies 
were ended. 

At noon the flag which was the standard of France 
under Louis XIV. was hoisted on the City Hall tower 
and saluted by two hundred strokes of the bell, one for 
each year in the history of the city. 

In the afternoon of the same day the historical exer- 
cises were held in the Light Guard Armory, under the 
auspices of the Historical Committee at 2 o'clock. 

The great audience which assembled, and which rilled 
the large auditorium, evinced the keen interest taken by- 
citizens in the Bi-centennial celebration. 

The Mayor presided, and in opening the meeting 
called upon the Rev. George Elliott, D. D., to offer 
prayer, which he did in the following words : 

"Almighty and Eternal God, Who art the dwelling 
place of all the generations of earth, in whose shelter our 
fathers dwelt and were secure, we, their children, bring 
our weakness to the safe hiding place of Thy power and 
our human need to the sure refuge of Thy love. 

"We have heard with our ears and our fathers have 
told us the noble works that Thou didst in their days and 
in the old time before them. Accept, O bountiful God, 
our praise and thanksgiving for Thy guidance and good- 
ness shown to them and to us who are the unworthy in- 
heritors of the work they wrought in the love of Thee and 
the faith of Thy holy name. Enriched by noble memories 
of Thy kindness to them and their fidelity to Thee, grant 
us such a due sense of all Thy mercies that our hearts 
may be unfeignedly thankful, and that we may show forth 
Thy praise, not only with our lips, but in our lives, by 
giving ourselves up to Thy service and by walking before 
Thee in holiness and righteousness all our days. 

"Almighty God, Who in the former times didst lead 
our fathers forth into a wealthy place, give Thy grace, we 
beseech Thee, to us their children, that we may always 
approve ourselves a people mindful of Thy favor and glad 
to do Thy will. Bless our land with honorable industry, 
sound learning and pure manners. Defend our liberties, 
preserve our unity, save us from violence, discord, from 
pride and every evil way. 


Hon. T. W. PALMER 





"Fashion into one happy people the multitudes 
brought hither out of many kindreds and tongues. 

"In the time of prosperity, fill our hearts with thank- 
fulness, and in the time of trouble, suffer not our trust in 
Thee to fail. 

"O Thou King of Kings and Prince of all the rulers of 
the earth, give Thy grace and spirit to all Christian rulers, 
the spirit of wisdom and counsel, and the spirit of godly 
fear. May they be inspired by Thee to rule in righteous- 
ness, rejoice in peace, shine in piety, and labor for the 
well-being of the people committed to them. 

"Remember, we beseech Thee, Thy servants, the 
President of the United States, the Governor of the Com- 
monwealth of Michigan, the Mayor of this City of De- 
troit, with all legislators and magistrates joined with 
them in the Divine trust of public office, and so direct 
them that in all their thoughts, words and works, they 
may ever seek Thy honor and glory, and study to pre- 
serve Thy people in wealth, peace and godliness. 

"O God, we are especially bound this day to implore 
Thy continued blessings upon the President and people 
of the French Republic. Help them to preserve the lib- 
erty, equality and fraternity won through sacrifice and 
struggle, and to maintain among the nations of earth 
their leadership in the arts of life, in gracious manners 
and the gifts of civilization. 

"Let Thy sovereign blessing abide with the ruler and 
realm of Great Britain, the blessing of ordered liberty, 
religious freedom and beneficent dominion. 

"O, Thou gracious Father of mercy, Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, have mercy on Thy servants who bow 
our heads and hearts to Thee; pardon and forgive us all 
our sins ; give us the grace of holy repentance and strict 
obedience to Thy Holy Word ; strengthen us in the inner 
man with the power of the Holy Ghost, for all the parts 
and duties of our calling and holy living; preserve us 
forever in the unity of Thy Holy Catholic Church, in the 
love of God and our neighbors and in the hope of life 

"Direct us, O Lord, through these festival days in all 
our doings and further us with Thy continual help, that 
in all our works, begun, continued, and ended in Thee, 
we may glorify Thy Holy Name, and finally, by Thy 
mercy, obtain everlasting life through Jesus Christ our 

"Our Father, Who art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy 
name ; Thy kingdom come ; Thy will be done on earth as 
it is in Heaven ; give us this day our daily bread ; forgive 
us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass 
against us ; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver 
us from evil ; for Thine is the kingdom, the power and 
the glory, forever and ever. Amen." 

The Mayor then introduced Miss Mary Catherine Crow- 
ley, Detroit's noted authoress, the subject of whose ad- 
dress was : "The Social Life of Cadillac, Madam Cadillac 
and the people of 1701." Miss Crowley's address was 
followed by "The Political Life of Detroit Under the 
French Regime," by Richard R. Elliott, which was fol- 
lowed by "Detroit Under British Rule," by Clarence M. 




Burton. "God Save the King" was then rendered by 
Schremsers band. 

Silas Farmer, Historiographer of Detroit, and author 
of its History, then read a paper entitled "Detroit Under 
the Governor and Judges." A musical interlude fol- 
lowed, during which the "Star Spangled Banner" was 
rendered by Schremser's band. 

Hon. Thomas W. Palmer was then introduced and 
read a paper on "Detroit in the Revolution." President 
James B. Angell of the University of Michigan delivered 
an extemporaneous address, the subject of which was: 
""The Preservation of Historic Landmarks, and Their In- 
fluence on History and Patriotism." 

Hon. Peter White, of Marquette, was next introduced. 
The subject selected by this famous pioneer of the Lake 
Superior regions was "Relation of Detroit to Michigan." 
It was treated in an agreeable and humorous manner, 
peculiar to its author. An interlude of music followed. 

The Mayor then introduced M. Pierre de Margerie 
Charge d' Affaires of the Embassy of France at Washing- 
ton, and the official representative of the French Repub- 
lic to the Bi-Centennial of Detroit. 

M. de Margerie wore the brilliant court dress of 
French diplomats, and spoke in the language of his coun- 
try. He paid a tribute to Detroit and spoke of the breed- 
ing of sociability, comfort and refinement wherever 
women appeared, as evidenced by the arrival of Madam 
Cadillac in the settlement of Detroit, and the presence of 
so many ladies "this sultry afternoon to cool the air with 
their busy fans." He also paid a high tribute of respect 

to President AngeTT, whom he knew in Constantinople. 
Mayor Maybury and others were also included in the 
general eulogy. At the conclusion of his address in 
French the diplomat surprised the audience by breaking 
into English, which was greeted by applause. 

"Well, ladies and gentlemen," he said; "I desire, in 
the name of the French Government and also in my own 
to wish Detroit long life and prosperity." 

After the conclusion of the historical exercises, this 
benediction was given by the Rt. Rev. John D. Foley, 
D. D., Bishop of Detroit: 

"We pray Thee, O God of might, wisdom and justice, 
through Whom authority is rightly administered, laws 
are enacted and judgment decreed, assist with Thy holy 
spirit of counsel and fortitude, the President of the United 
States, that his administration may be conducted in right- 
eousness, and be eminently useful to Thy people, over 
whom he presides ; by encouraging due respect for virtue 
and religion ; by a faithful execution of the laws in justice 
and mercy ; and by restraining vice and immorality. 

"Let the light of Thy divine wisdom direct the delib- 
erations of Congress, and shine forth in all the proceed- 
ings and laws framed for our rule and government; so 
that they may tend to the preservation of peace, the pro- 
motion of national happiness, the increase of industry, 
sobriety and useful knowledge ; and may perpetuate to us 
the blessings of equal liberty. 

"We pray for His Excellency, the Governor of this 
State, for the members of Legislature, for all judges, 
magistrates and other officers who are appointed to guard 

our political welfare ; that they may be enabled, by Thy 
powerful protection, to discharge the duties of their re- 
spective stations with honesty and ability. 

"We recommend likewise to Thy unbounded mercy 
all our brethren and fellow citizens throughout the 
United States, that they may be blessed in the knowl- 
edge and sanctified in the observance of Thy most holy 
laws; that they may be preserved in union, and in that 
peace which the world cannot give; and, after enjoying 
the blessings of this life, be admitted to those which are 

"Through Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour. In the 
name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen !" 

The evening arrangements provided that at five 
o'clock p. m., the U. S. R. Cutter Fessenden, at the 
foot of Randolph street, should take on board the Cadillac 
party, Mayor Maybury and the distinguished guests of 
the city. 

As they stepped on board, the Tri-Color was hoisted 
on the Fessenden and a salute fired. The bark then pro- 
ceeded up stream to Peche Island, leaving at 5 o'clock, 
and at 6 o'clock fired the signal gun for the embarka- 
tion of Cadillac and his party. 

The canoes were towed by a launch down the 
American side of Belle Isle until the vicinity of the bridge 
was reached, when the lines were cast off and the re- 
mainder of the distance covered by good hard paddling. 

The intention was to have the fleet of canoes pass 
down the river as far as the foot of Third street, and then 
return to the foot of Randolph street, in imitation of 

Cadillac's trip, which, it is said, extended to Grassy Isl- 
and before he turned back and selected his landing place. 

At the dock there was a party of Indians, the re- 
mainder of the one hundred from the Pan-American Ex- 
position at Buffalo, guided by Messrs. L. E. Tossy and 
C. M. Rousseau, with their own interpreters. 

On the arrival of the Fessenden and the canoes, 
the two bodies of men marched via Atwater street and 
Woodward avenue to the intersection of Jefferson and 
Woodward avenues. There the soldiers formed in a 
hollow square about Cadillac, the priests, and some 
others, and a cross was erected. 

The throngs of people had jammed in so that it 
was no small task to recover the space necessary for 
the band of French and Indians. It was accomplished 
however, and the Indians came up forming a hollow 
square inside of which the soldiers and the voyageurs 
took their positions. 

In the midde of this open space Cadillac and his 
staff stood for a few minutes. 

Then the order was given to present arms. Father 
De L'Halle planted the cross ; and with drawn sword the 
Chevalier Cadillac announced : 

"Au nom du Roi de France, je prends possession de 
cette terre; et je plante le drapeau de Louis quatorze 
Roi de France !" As he thus spoke Cadillac flourished 
his sword in his right hand, and grounded the French 
standard with his left. Then the soldiers grounded their 
arms and all those in the center of the hollow square 
knelt upon the ground. 

Chief of Staff. 

With his hands upon the cross Father De L'Halle 
offered up a prayer, as the Recollet monk had done two 
hundred years before, that religion might spread through- 
out the land. While they still knelt, the Iroquoian Jesuit 
missionary, Father Valliant, thanked the Almighty for 
the success of the journey they had accomplished with- 
out accident, and for the territory which had been ac- 

The procession was then reformed, and preceded by 
a platoon of police and the Metropolitan band which 
played the inspiring notes of the "Marsellaise," moved 
up Woodward avenue surrounded by vast crowds of in- 
terested spectators, marched down West Fort street and 
from thence along Shelby street, Michigan avenue, and 
Washington avenue to Grand Circus Park, and finally 
down Woodward avenue to the grand stand built on the 
east side of the City Hall, where it rested. 

The Ma}'or then welcomed the Chevalier Cadillac and 
his followers in the following address : 

"Monsieur Chevalier de La Mothe Cadillac and Gentle- 

I greet you and welcome you, on behalf of this great 
multitude, back to the scenes of your labors of two cen- 
turies ago. 

The wisdom of your choice of this beautiful spot as 
the appropriate site of a great city, has been ever mani- 
fest, and we and those who have preceded us, have been 
benefited through your wise judgment. 

Health in all its relations to human happiness and 
human progress, has been our marked and inestimable 

That the countless blessings which we and our an- 
cestors have enjoyed were in a large measure assured by 
your early and fervent consecration of this land to re- 
ligion and to God, we firmly believe. 

The outward conditions are changed and the environ- 
ments of the present have little in common with the 
associations of long ago. 

Of all these outward evidences only the sun by day 
and the moon and the starry constellations of night, with 
the current of our majestic river, remain unchanged. 

These mute witnesses of your first landing have stood 
sentinel in all the years and lent their gracious aid and 
encouragement in the up-building of this one zion, whose 
foundation was the work of your hand. 

One other evidence remains to remind you of the 
past, in the presence of the children of the forest and 
plain who have come to salute you as their ancestor did 
of yore; but we grieve to say that they are but a sad 
remnant of the powerful race that first extended to you 
a friendly hand, who were then the sole and undisputed 
owners of the soil. 

They have followed the course of the sun westward, 
and as its rays of brightness fade at its decline, so are 
they fading from the land where once they ruled. 

Your first welcome was by comparatively few, but 
now you are welcomed by many. 


who took part in the parade. 

Your first welcome was by one race of people only, 
while those who welcome you to-day hail from every 
clime, and creed, and nation. 

We beg you to tarry with us as our honored guests, 
while we manifest in every way, in art, in music and in 
industry, the progress of two centuries, coupled with our 
dehght at your return. 

We would have you believe that we have not been 
unfaithful stewards of the trust committed to our care, 
and that our endeavor is to be patriotic, progressive and 

Again, I greet you and extend to you a cordial wel- 
come, and with this greeting, I deliver to you the keys to 
the city, as you already hold the keys to our hearts." 

Professor H. E. Racicot with ninety trained voices 
then rendered "La Marsellaise" and "O, Canada," as 
hymns, and "The Star Spangled Banner" on the grand 
stand with great effect. 

After receiving the keys, the Chevalier Cadillac re- 
sponded as follows : 

"Mr. Mayor, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

"Inspired with emotions aroused by your address of 
welcome, while handing me the keys of this city, I ac- 
cept the expression of the cordial hospitality manifested 
to myself and to my fellow adventurers, and the hearty 
greeting of the people of Detroit whom you represent. 

If the praise of an entire people is based on a com- 
mon truth, then this eulogy is well deserved. I have no- 
ticed Mr. Mayor, the changes which time has wrought, 
and it was not without wonderment that myself and my 

attendants did so, while we greeted them with exclama- 
tions of astonishment. For miles and miles along the 
shore, up an down stream, where erstwhile the deer and 
the wila animals of the forest roamed, may be seen gigan- 
tic structures towering high ; the tall steeples of churches, 
and the lofty smoke-stacks of great factories and of me- 
chanical works. 

While along the shores above and below this great 
city, as far up, and even above, Grosse Pointe on the Ste. 
Claire, and as far down as where the stream turns Sand- 
wich Point, sightly villas greeted our vision. 

This village of Detroit, Mr. Mayor, has undergone a 
marvelous transformation. Were it not for its natural 
surroundings on land and water, while time has not 
changed their original outlines — the stream through 
which flow the waters of the great lakes above on their 
way to Lake Erie and the Atlantic Ocean ; the shores 
and islands, rendered, perhaps, still more attractive dur- 
ing the progress of civilization, and the beautiful bay on 
whose western shore the modern city has been built — we 
should have had some doubts that we had reached the 
locality we sought. 

There have been political changes of great import- 
ance. France has lost her colonies in America. 

The Bourbons, whom we Frenchmen served faith- 
fully during their dominion over these regions, no longer 
govern France ; peace to their memory, for in the darkest 
hours during the struggle of the American colonies for 
independence, they sent to General Washington troops 
and money with Lafayette, and a fleet of war ships under 

who took part in the parade. 


Rochambeau. This timely aid enabled the American 
colonies to secure their freedom from British rule ; it de- 
serves the eternal gratitude of the people of America. 

France and America are perhaps the two greatest re- 
publics at the present time in the world. In some nations 
in Europe, emperors, kings and nobles are still paramont ; 
at present there is in some quarters of Europe, an auto- 
cratic control ; while in others, there is under monarchical 
control, a system of legislative government. In all Amer- 
ica, the government, although crude to some extent in 
the South American states, is essentially republican. In 
North America, the United States, with a preponderating 
population, and prestige, is republican in government, 
whether in the township, county, state or nation. In 
Canada the people are practically free, so are the systems 
of governments ; while submitting to the tutlage of Eng- 
land to a certain extent, the people enact their laws and 
•determine their taxation. In all America the happiness 
of the individual is determined by his own conduct. 

It is a wonderful change; the greatest of all trans- 
formations in political life is an established result. Di- 
vine Providence is manifest, for God still remains omni- 

But when I see this great assemblage, and when I 
hear your cheerful voice, Mr. Mayor, I sincerely believe 
that here especially, one may enjoy liberty in its highest 
and broadest form." 

Following Cadillac, Monsieur de Margerie paid this 
tribute to Cadillac and the citv he founded : 

"It is," said the Charge d' Affaires of France, accred- 
ited to the American Government, "a great honor to me 
as the representative of my country, to attend this cele- 
bration ; and I am particularly pleased to find myself in 
the presence of the Chevalier Antoine de la Mothe Cad- 
illac. I seem to be carried back to those old romantic 
times of two centuries ago. I see the banner of Louis 
XIV. studded with the fleur de lis, flying high above 
the government chateau. I hear the language of 
Fenelon, Racine, Moliere, Bossuet, and the other writers 
of Christian France's golden age. Yes ! in this commem- 
oration, a great honor has been conferred upon France, 
and as the representative of the French Republic, I thank 
you for it." 

After M. de Margerie's remarks, Mayor Maybury in- 
troduced Mr. Wiliam J. Dawson, who read a lengthy 
poem of a heroic tone in praise of Cadillac. 

An attractive feature of the day's celebration was the 
illumination of the Campus Martius at night. Immense 
white columns placed at intervals about the public square, 
and bearing standards and festoons of myriad electric 
lights, made the scene one of dazzling beauty and a 
pleasant reminder of the Court of Honor at the World's 
Columbian Exposition. 


At 10 a. m. there was given a boat ride on the U. S. 
revenue cutter Fessenden to Gov. Bliss and M. de Mar- 
gerie, charge d'affaires of the French embassy at Wash- 
ington and to a few, other invited guests. 


CHARLES M. ROUSSEAU (officer d'academie) 


THEOPHILE FRANCOIS (consul of Belgium) 

The principal public feature of the day was the parade 
of the afternoon. 

This was composed of the military, fraternal and labor 
organizations. In connection there were several score 
of floats representing in various unique ways the growth 
and present status of the industries of the city. 

In the evening at the Russell House a reception was 
tendered the Chevalier Cadillac, Madam Cadillac and the 
other celebrities. 

The dignitaries in line included the Chevalier and 
Madam Cadillac and other ladies ; Mayor Maybury, M. 
de Margerie; Mayor Davis, of Windsor; Alfred Klecz- 
kowski, Consul General for France at Montreal, and Con- 
sul Belanger of Detroit. Several hundred presentations 
took place. 

Later in the evening a reception and banquet was ten- 
dered the invited guests, and the ladies and gentlemen 
participating in the commemorative ceremonies of the 
allegorical series. 

This function was held in St. Joachim's hall. The 
Garde Cadillac escorted the Mayor and invited guests 
from the Russel House to the hall. A fine banquet had 
been prepared under the supervision of Louis E. Tossy, 
chairman. Seats were provided for 600 guests. 

At 10 o'clock, when the guests had been seated, Mr. 
Tossy arose and announced its opening, naming Charles 
M. Rousseau as toast-master; and invited the Mayor to 
address the assemblage. In a felicitous speech Mayor 
Maybury opened the function. 

The first toast, "France," was rapturously cheered, 
and the "Marseillaise" rendered by the band. In response 
to this toast, M. de Margerie, speaking in his own lan- 
guage, regretted the absence of the Marquis de Cambon, 
the Ambassador of the Republic of France to the United 
States. But he rejoiced that in his place, while attend- 
ing the ceremonies in Detroit, he had enjoyed the pleasure 
of meeting so many of the sons and daughters of his own 
race, the glorious French people. In reviewing the 
grandeur of this race he said it was quite natural that 
their previous history had been so brilliant, because they 
always had God for their guide. 

He spoke of the celebration in honor of Cadillac, and 
said it inspired his heart with a feeling of national pride. 

"Je suis fier," he continued, "d'etre Francais, quand 
je vois ce festin !" 

He then called for three cheers for France, which 
found a hearty response. 

"I have received," M. de Margerie said, "a cablegram 
from the President of the French Republic, conferring 
upon Mayor Maybury the title of Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor." 

With this he turned to the surprised and gratified 
chief magistrate of Detroit, and fastened the red ribbon, 
so much prized by all Frenchmen, upon the lapel of His 
Honor's coat. It was gracefully done and evoked the 
hearty applause of all present. "Vous etes maintenant 
le premier maire du monde," shouted the enthusiastic 

O. G. HOWLAND, mayor of tokonto 


E. GIRARDOT, mayor of sandwich 
J NO. DAVIS, mayor of Windsor 

M. de Margerie then announced that it gave him 
great pleasure to say that the President of France had 
appointed Joseph Belanger, Charles M. Rousseau and 
John B. Gravier* officers of the French Academy (which 
carries a decoration consisting of a purple ribbon to which 
a silver wreath is attached). 

These decorations were attached to the lapels of the 
coats of those thus honored, in a graceful manner by the 
representative of the French Republic. The Mayor then 

The following is the official notification by the Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs of France to Mayor Maybury : 

Paris, le 25 Juillet, 1901. 
Monsieur — II m'est bien agreable de vons faire connaitre 
que M. le President de la Republique, voulant vous donner un 
temoinage particulier de sa haute bienveillance, vient, sur ma 
proposition de vous conferer de Chevalier de l'Ordre National 
de la Legion d'Honneur. 

Je me felicited'avoir ete a meme de faire valoir les titres que 
vous vous etes acquis a cette marque de distinction, et je 
m'empresse de vous transmettre les insignes de l'Ordre. 

J'aurais soin de vous faire parvenir ulterieurement votre 

Recevez Monsieur, les assurances de ma consideration la 
plus distinguee. 

Le Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, 

Monsieur William Cotter Maybury, 
Maire de Detroit. 

The official notification to Messrs. Joseph Belanger, 
John B. Gravier and Charles M. Rousseau, of which each 
received a copy, reads : 

Republique Francaise, 
Ministre de L'Instruction, 
Publique et des Beaux-Arts. 
Monsieur — Le ministre de l'lnstruction publique et des 
Beaux-Arts, vu l'article 32 du decret organique du 17 Mars, 1808; 
1845, et 1 Novembre, 1846, vu les decrets des 9 Decembre, 1850, 
vu les ordonances royale de 14 Novembre, 1844, 9 Septembre, 
7 Avril, et le 27 Decembre, 1866, 24 Decembre, 1885, et le 4, 
Aout, 1898. ARRETE. 

Monsieur Charles M. Rousseau a Detroit, (Etats-Unis), est 

Pour Ampliation, 
Le Chef du Cabinet, 


Fait a Paris, 22 Juillet, 1901. 
Le Minister de L'Instruction publique et et des Beaux-Arts, 

A. Monsieur Charles M. Rousseau, 
Detroit, Michigan, Etats-Unis. 

After the conferring of the cross of the Legion of 
Honor upon the Mayor, and of the decoration of the 
French academy upon Messrs. Belanger, Gravier and 
Rousseau, the latter spoke as follows in assuming the 
function of toastmaster of the evening : 
RR. Peres, Mesdames et Messieurs: 

Pour completer la fete de la 20oieme anniversaire de la 
naissance de la ville de Detroit, nous sommes obliger de mettre 
en evidence la memoire de tres haut et tres illustre seigneur, 
Messire Antoine de La Mothe Cadillac, je voudrais avoid ete le 
bon Pere Recollet qui fut le compagnon, l'ami et le guide 
spirituel du hardi colonisateur. 

J'aurais alors entendus les reves de sa noble ambition, 
apprecie la loyaute de sa nature, admire les conceptions de son 









genie, recuilli meme ses sallies Gasconnees; de ces materiaux, il 
eut ete facile de composer un eloge. Par malheur je suis arrive 
150 ans trop tard, et je ne saurais louer Cadillac que d'apres 
son oeuvre. Mais son oeuvre c'est le Detroit; son oeuvre est 
un chef-d'oeuvre qui suffit pour donner a un homme la courounne 

Et quant je vis notre belle cite, ses larges avenues, ses 
residences gracieuses, sa riviere aux riots etincelants, son isle 
surtout, emerande splendide enchassee dans une bague de fin 
cristal, je ne pus retenir un cri d'admiration enthousiaste 
prolonge, et je me sentis fier d'etre Francais, puisqu'un Fran- 
cais, notre Cadillac, avait, de son coup d'officier et d'explorateur, 
saisi les avantages militaires et commerciaux de cette position 
et en meme temps, avec sa nature d'artiste, avait compris la 
beaute du site et les charmes qui aurait une ville assise en pareil 

Vous messieurs les membres du comite, par reconnaissance 
pour Cadillac qui, vous a legue ce beau coin du monde, vous avez 
voulu que sou mom fut donne a la fete civique du Detroit; que le 
drapeau de sa nation fut particulierement honore en cette circon- 
stance, que sa langue fut parle par des orateurs du jour; vous 
avez meme voulu que cet orateur fut le Charge d'Affaires, M. de 
Margerie le representant de la France." 

"Au nom des Francais du Detroit," he exclaimed, "au nom 
des Francais du Canada, et des Francais de France, je vous 
remercie, messieurs, de ces aimables attentions, et comme une 
politesse en appelle une autre, tout en saluant avec emotion les 
couleurs de ma patrie arborees dans cette salle, deployees sur 
toutes ces poitrines je m'incline profondement devant votre 
etendard, le glorieux etendard de la France notre mere patrie 

On account of the early hour of 2 o'clock, M. de 
Margerie responded to President Rousseau's remarks, 

The President then declared the function concluded. 


In the afternoon the Floral Parade arranged by the 
Women's Bi-Centennial Committee, proved amazingly 
attractive, its beauty and grace surpassing anything in 
the way of a street display ever before seen in Detroit. 

A large number of tandems and automobiles were 
brought into use and all of them, with horses and har- 
nesses as well, were artistically and extravagantly dec- 
orated with flowers of various hues and form. Tens of 
thousands of artificial flowers were used and the lady 
occupants of the carriages were themselves no mean part 
of a spectacle of grace and beauty. It is doubtful if even 
in California such a display was ever exceeded. 

In the evening the allegorical representation of his- 
toric events connected with the life of the city was car- 
ried out with great success. It undoubtedly rivaled any 
display of the kind ever before witnessed in any Amer- 
ican city. Twenty floats built on street car trucks, lighted 
by electricity, and moved over the car tracks in various 
parts of the city by electric force afforded a fitting illus- 
tration of the progress of events, and exhibited a contrast 
as between the possibilities existing when the city was 
founded, and the opportunities of to-day. 

The floats were run 200 feet apart, the names of each 
being announced by brilliantly illuminated signs hung in 

Some of the subjects represented differed from those 
originally contemplated, the correct list being as follows : 

The first, sixth, eleventh and sixteenth floats were 
band floats of the most elaborate description. 

Float No. 2 was particularly effective, representing the 
erection of a French cross on Belle Isle by a party 
of white explorers. The cross, seven feet in height and 
bearing the old French coat of arms, rises on an eminence 
at the rear. One of the group stands with bowed head in 
the rear at the head of a life-sized steed. 

Float No. 3 showed Cadillac, accompanied by his son, 
obtaining permission from Louis XIV. to take possession 
of this country in the name of France. The throne was 
beautifully hung with tapestries. 

In the next float Cadillac was shown landing on our 
shores. The prow of his boat rests in the sand, and an 
interpreter from his party is talking with two Indians on 
the shore. 

"The Fur Traders" followed — as might be expected a 
party of Indians, who have just landed, are exchanging 
skins for trinkets and tobacco before a rude hut. 

A band float came next, and following it a scene from 
Pontiac's Conspiracy. A party of Indians are holding a 
council of war around a camp fire in the center. Chief 
Pontiac is disclosing to his comrades his plan of attack. 
An Indian tepee looms up in the rear. 

Float No. 8 showed the interior of a log cabin, wherein 
Maj. Gladwin is sitting at a table by a brilliantly lighted 
fireplace, his faithful dog at his side, while an Indian maid 
is revealing Pontiac's plan to capture all the forts between 
Detroit and Pittsburg. 


In the next float Pontiac and his braves are before 
Maj. Gladwin at the entrance of old Fort Detroit. A chief 
is about to present a rattlesnake's skin. History tells us 
that he was about to sign to his comrades to rush in and 
capture the fort, but Gladwin had learned of his plans, and 
gave a signal to his men within, who, though few in num- 
bers, created such a clatter with their rifles that the Indi- 
ans were frightened away. 

Float No. 10 showed eight children dancing around a 
Maypole in front of the governor's log house in the city's 
early days. The governor and his wife are enjoying the 
merriment from the porch. 

The twelfth float illustrated the battle of Bloody Run. 
On one side of a little foot bridge, spanning the historic 
creek, a group of soldiers are defending themselves 
against a band of Indians hidden among the rocks on the 
other side. 

The thirteenth float showed the taking possession of 
Detroit by the Americans in 1796. The old fort, with its 
projecting cannon, is seen at one end, while in the center 
is the color staff, with an American officer near by holding 
the lowered Union Jack, and another engaged in hoisting 
the Stars and Stripes. 

None of the floats were more beautiful and effective 
in appearance than the fourteenth, which illustrated the 
great fire of 1805. At one end, in the midst of a halo of 
electric lights, appeared the seal of the city, seven feet in 
diameter. The remainder of the float shows the city in 
flames, with the Indian dwarf, which legend says ap- 
peared at this disaster for the last time, brandishing a 

burning brand in the center. Greek fire rendered the 
whole scene realistic. 

The fifteenth float showed Lewis Cass in 1812, then a 
subordinate officer under Hull, breaking his sword on a 
rock just outside the stockade to avoid the necessity of 
surrendering it. 

Beautiful band floats came next. 

Commodore Perry and Governor Shelby were the sub- 
jects of the next float. The governor, on horseback, is 
seen at the brink of the river, greeting the victorious com- 
modore, who is represented as standing at the prow of 
one of his little gunboats. 

The eighteenth float was symbolical of the three na- 
tions, whose flags have successively floated over the city. 
At the front stands France, with her fleur-de-lis banner ; 
in the center, Brittania, with the flag of England ; and in 
the rear, Columbia, waving Old Glory. 

The nineteenth float represented Neptune, ruler of 
the seas, driving his prancing water horses at the front of 
the float, while in the center, under full sail, appears the 
Griffin, the first ship to navigate this portion of the great 
lakes, and behind it the first steamer, the Walk-in-the 

As an appropriate ending to this magnificent parade 
the last float represented a beautiful triumphal arch, illus- 
trative of the industrial progress of the city. Statues 
representing Detroit, Art, Science, and Commerce were 
seen at one end, and one of Industry at the other. Be- 
neath the arch the city was pictured with a suspension 
bridge, spanning the river, the harbor full of vessels. 


Probably no other city of equal extent in the United 
States can claim such a distinct element in its indigenous 
population as can Detroit in that portion usually desig- 
nated as the Franco-American race; the greater number 
of whom are lineal descendants of the followers of Cadil- 
lac, and of those settlers who came from Canada subse- 
quently to the chevalier's decade, during the French 

This element has been recruited during modern times 
by men of business capacity and mechanical genius from 
the Province of Quebec; and by a less intelligent con- 
tingent of hardy-laboring men from the littorals of the 
St. Lawrence. 

A peculiarity of the descendants of the original pi- 
oneers is the number of families residing on territory 
originally acquired by their ancestors, by grants from 
Cadillac direct, or from the Governor-General of New 

The enormous increase in value of such estates has 
made certain of these families wealthy. The names of 
many of them have been made familiar by the names 
given to the streets and avenues opened through their 

domains. Aware of these existing conditions, Mayor 
Maybury paid a poetic tribute to this particular race, by 
assigning seventy-seven of their constituents to places 
on the respective committees designed to carry out the 
memorial ceremonies. 

He also suggested the organization of La Garde 
Cadillac, to represent the fifty soldiers in the retinue of 
the founder ; and a company of the same number, typical 
of the fifty artisans and farmers who came with him. 
These were uniformed in costumes corresponding with 
those worn by the original retinue. 

The principal roles in the allegorical ceremonies were 
assigned, appropriately, to gentlemen and ladies of the 
French race, who acted their parts in a becoming and 
dignified manner. This particular feature in the cere- 
monies was a decided success; while it excited much 
admiration on the part of those who understood and 
appreciated its signification. 

The Mayor appointed the following gentlemen to 
direct the work of the Franco-Americans in the cere- 
monies : Charles M. Rousseau, President ; John B. Gra- 
vier, Vice-President; Adolph N. Marion, Recording Sec- 
retary; A. J. Guimond, Corresponding Secretary. 

This Committee wisely selected for the allegorical 
roles : 

Cadillac — Dr. Daniel La Ferte. 

Chirurgien — Alexander Chapoton, Jr. 

De Tonty— Desire B. Willemin. 

Dugue — Andre P. Ducq. 

Chacornacle — Philip J. Beaubien. 

Father De L'Halle, Recollet— Alfred J. Guimond. 

Father Vaillant, Jesuit — Francois Beauvais. 

Cadillac Fils — Antoine Bedard. 

Another important feature in the allegorical cere- 
monies was the organization of La Garde Cadillac. 

The formation into a company of fifty, representing 
the artisans and proposed settlers, which was in the 
retinue of Cadillac, was due to the efforts of Charles 
Sanscrainte and Samuel Rioux. 


H. F. Eberts, Capitaine 

J. A. Bedard, Lieutenant 

G. Grimaldi, Sous-Lieutenant 


Beaupre, L. N., Ier. 
Renaud, Thomas, 3me. 

Faille, Geo. A., 2me. 
Bezaau, Remi, 4me. 

Chartier, Ed., 5me. 


Beauvais, Medard, Ier. Grimaldi, Jos., 2me. 

Cloutier, Ulric, 3me. Kiekens, A., ime. 

Marcel Trombley, Porte Drapeau 

Antaya, Joseph 
Aubry, Joseph 
Barribeau, L. 
Bidigare, Joseph 
Baudin, Achille 
Boutin, Rudolph 
Belleamie, Henri 
Cloutier, Joseph 
Cloutier, Stanislas 
Chevrette, Ed. 
Cecil, George 
Cecil, Michel 
Carrier, Alex. 
DeGuise, Joseph 
DesHayes, Odillon 

Devry, Honore 
Dubo, Arthur 
Desrochers, Joseph 
Gagnier, David 
Gladue, Paul 
Hammond, Louis 
Jarret, Francois 
Janis, Denis 
Jolicoeur, Joseph 
Jolicoeur, Thomas 
Ladouceur, Ed. 
Lemerise, F. 
Letourneau, Pierre 
Livernois, Daniel 
Martel, Henri 

Malo, Joseph 
Menard, Achille 
Marion, Chas. A. 
Nadeau, Pierre 
Nadeau, Ed. 
Poupard, Alex. 
Peters, J. B. 
Robert, Wm. H. 
Rivest, James 
Renaud, Eugene 
Rousseau, A. C. 
Sarrazin, Joseph 
Truchon, Daniel 

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Sanscrainte, Charles, Chef Rioux, Samuel, Capitaine de la Flotte 

Bernier, Frank, Contremaitre 

Antaya, Charles 
Blouin, F. X. 
Beauvais, Francois 
Beaulieu, J. B. 
Bedard, Henri 
Bezeau, Wm. 
Boucher, Arthur 
Couture, Alex. 
Cloutier, W. 
Cloutier, Emile 
Cloutier, Omer 
Chartier, Joseph 
Carbonneau, Henri 
DesHayes, Louis 
Dupart, S. 

Fancher, Joseph 
Fancher, Frank 
Gilbert, Louis 
Gagnon, Honore 
Lachance, F. X. 
Lafferty, Ed. 
Leblanc, Geo. 
Lepage, Octave 
LeBoeuf, Geo. 
LaFerte, Alfred 
Leparriere, Louis 
Mathieu, J. 
Martin, Frank 
Monfils, Amedee 
Norton, Edward 

Ouellette, Alex. 
Peltier, Pierre 
Peters, Samuel 
Peters, David 
Picard, J. B. 
Provost, Celestin 
Pepin, Napoleon 
Paradis, L. J. 
Rousseau, Paul 
Rousseau, A. C. 
Rousseau, A. J. 
Rousseau, Charles 
Rousseau, F. X. 
Roberge, Regis 
Troie, Achille 

D. Beaudry 
Andre Ducq 

John B. Peters 
Joseph DeGuise 


Peter J. Martelli Joseph Belanger 

Aloysius C. Rousseau 


Desire B. Willemin 
Samuel Rioux 

Marcel Trombley 
Ernest N. Rousseau 


Col. Charles Dupont 
Samuel Reaume 

Francis Beauvais 
Capt. H. F. Eberts 

Emil Connault 
Gregoire Grimaldi 

Captain of the Soldiers — H. F. Eberts Second Lieutenant — Gregoire Grimaldi 

First Lieutenant — Joseph A. Bedard Standard Bearer — Marcel Trombley 

Commander of the Flotilla — Capt. Samuel Rioux 

Chief of the Voyageurs— Capt. Charles F. Sanscrainte 

First Canoe containing Chevalier de la Mothe Cadillac with his escort, in 
charge of Commander Samuel Rioux 

Fifteen Bateaux containing the fifty Soldiers and the fifty Artisans 
and Farmers 

"The two hundredth anniversary of the founding of 
our beautiful city," writes Charles M. Rousseau, Presi- 
dent of the General French Committee, by an honored 
son of France was certainly well and enthusiastically 
celebrated by all citizens, but with greater interest by 
those of the French race, who still feel a national pride 
and a filial regard for "la Belle France." 

History relating to the founder and to the French col- 
ony was carefully studied by the French Americans, as I 
may be permitted to call them, who had become inter- 
ested in the success of the commemoration of this na- 
tional event in the history of French America during the 
reign of Louis XIV. 

After the general outline of the three days' cere- 
monies had been decided upon, in which so prominent a 
part was to be the French feature, as it was designated, 
a meeting was called and held in the Mayor's office of 
Franco-Americans for general consultation. Those 
present were inspired by the determination of the Mayor 
to make the Bi-centennial a success in all its distinctive 
features. The Mayor promised the hearty co-operation 
of himself, as well as of the Executive Committee. 

Notices were published in the press of a general 
meeting of the Franco-American citizens, to take action 
in the premises. Invitations were sent by mail to the 
clergy of the French churches to attend this meeting; 
and also to influence their parishioners in the same 
direction. This meeting was held on the evening of 
June ii, in the hall of the Society of St. Jean Baptiste. 

Chevalier Cadillac. 

The attendance was large ; six priests were present ; 
the French and Belgian consuls also. The Mayor was 
there and presided. He opened the proceedings with 
a felicitous and encouraging address, which was fol- 
lowed by short speeches from the clergy present and 
by the consuls named, and the meeting proceeded to 
materialize the work by electing officers to have general 
charge of the Franco-American share in the celebration. 
The following were chosen : 

President — Charles M. Rousseau. 

Vice-President — John B. Gravier. 

Secretary — Adolph N. Marion. 

The President was authorized to appoint four special 
committees, consisting of five members each, to have 
direction of the four divisional features of the French 
program and to select the representatives of the respec- 
tive dignitaries taking part in the ceremonies of the 
landing of Cadillac and his formal assumption of the 
right of domain in the name of Louis XIV. 

For this particular duty, Louis E. Tossy, Edward 
Lafferty, Paul J. Rousseau, Philip J. Beaubien and 
Joseph A. Bedard were named as this committee. 

To provide the canoes for the ceremony, and to have 
them arranged for the allegorical ceremonies in which 
the founder and his staff, fifty soldiers and fifty artisans, 
farmers and settlers were to take part, was a duty of 
importance which was placed in charge of John B. 
Peters, Ernest N. Rousseau, Joseph De Guise, Desire B. 
Willemin, Samuel Rioux and Marcel Trombley. As all 
the dramatic personae were to be costumed, stage effect 

being essential, this feature was placed in charge of D. 
Beaudry, A. Ducq, P. J. Martelli, A. C. Rousseau and 
Joseph Belanger. 

The drilling and marching instruction was assigned 
to Col. C. Dupont, Capt. F. M. Eberts, F. Beauvais, S. 
Reaume and Emil Connault. Much assiduous work was 
accomplished by the members named of the respective 
committees, which was apparent in the public demon- 

In the meantime the Executive Committee had al- 
lotted the French Committee $1,500 for general expenses ; 
with the promise of more if needed. 

The littorals of the strait from Lake St. Clair to 
the head waters of Lake Erie were searched for craft 
suitable ; when these were found, their prows had to be 
decked over with galvanized iron, conformable with the 
ancient custom. The result was the most picturesque, 
and at the same time historically accurate, flotillas that 
ever appeared in the waters of this vicinity. 

The Garde Cadillac organized by Captain Eberts was 
uniformed and drilled to perfection. The company of 
artisans and settlers costumed in keeping, was judiciously 
maneuvered by Captain Sanscrainte ; while it is an agree- 
able duty to accord the gentlemen who so admirably 
filled the more distinguished roles the highest apprecia- 
tion for their successful work. 

In the month of June, just prior to the commemora- 
tive celebration of the Bi-Centenary of Detroit, the Mar- 
quis de Cambon, the Ambassador of France, who was 
returning to Washington from Chicago, by way of the 


Capt. H. F. EBERTS 1st Lieut. J. A. BEDARD 


lakes, stopped over one day at Detroit, to confer with 
the French Consul, Hon. Joseph Belanger, in regard to 
the official recognition which the Republic of France 
should accord to the City of Detroit, and the part her 
representatives should take in the Bi-Centenary com- 
memoration of the founding of the French colony of 
Detroit by the Chevalier Cadillac. 

It was arranged at this conference, that the Ambas- 
sador of France to the American Republic, who was at 
the time on his way to Paris, would direct the Charge d' 
Affaires at Washington, to represent the Republic in his 
behalf at the Bi-Centenary ceremonies at Detroit, and 
that the Consul Generals at Montreal and at Chicago, 
together with the Consul at Detroit, would represent 
the commercial and social interests of the French Re- 
public at the approaching ceremonies. This combina- 
tion of diplomatic and commercial representation, was, 
in the opinion of the Marquis de Cambon, the most hon- 
orable tribute that his nation could offer to the City of 

There were then present during the three days on the 
part of the Republic of France : 

Pierre de Margerie, Charge d' Affaires of the embassy 
of France at Washington. 

M. Kleczkowski, Consul General at Montreal. 

The Consul General at Chicago. 

The Consul at Detroit, Hon. Joseph Belanger. 


Coincidental with the civic celebration of the Bi-Cen- 
tenary of the founding of Detroit by Cadillac, was the 
religious commemoration of the Bi-Centenary of the 
founding of the first church of Ste. Anne at Detroit, July 
26, 1701, when the Holy sacrifice was first offered on 
these shores in the primitive chapel built of logs and 
dedicated on her festival day to the mother of the 
Blessed Virgin, by the chaplain of the expedition, the 
Recollet Monk, Father Constantin De l'Halle, assisted 
by the ci-devant Jesuit missionary to the Mohawks, 
Father Francois Vaillant de Gueslis. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Foley, determined that the civil cele- 
bration should be accompanied by a religious celebration, 
to which should be gathered the representatives of the 
historic Sees from which we derived our Catholicity, and 
of those other Sees which owed their beginning to the 
fruitage of the seeds that were planted at Detroit. The 
religious celebration was to be held in the church of 
Ste. Anne, one of the finest and most spacious of the 
churches of the city; it is the sixth in its line of succes- 
sion, three of its predecessors having been destroyed by 
fire during the intervening centuries. 

The highest religious authority in the country, the 
delegate of Pope Leo XIII., His Eminence Cardinal Mar- 

Consul-General de France dans la Puissance du Canada. 

tinelli, lent his presence to the occasion. The repre- 
sentatives of the Pontiff in the Dominion of Canada, 
from which Catholicity came to these shores in the days 
of Louis Quatorze, the learned Archbishop Diomede Fal- 
conio of Larissa, were also present. The historic Sees of 
Quebec and Montreal from whose seats the earliest mis- 
sionaries set out to the then unknown regions of the 
west, was represented by the Most Reverend Arch- 
bishop Canon Paul Bruchesi, of Montreal. 

The American prelates present, were the venerable 
otogenarian Archbishop, William Henry Elder, of Cin- 
cinnati ; Archbishops Ireland, of St. Paul, and Katzer,,, 
of Milwaukee ; Bishops Foley, of Detroit ; Eis, of Mar- 
quette ; Richter, of Grand Rapids ; Spalding, of Peoria ; 
Cotter, of Winona; O'Gorman, of South Dakota; Mc~ 
Golric, of Duluth ; Conaty, president of the Catholic Uni- 
versity of Washington, and Gabriels, of Ogdensburg. 

There were also present Very Reverend and Reverend 
representatives of the churches of the city and of the in- 
terior cities. 

The invited guests present were : Governor Aaron T. 
Bliss ; Hon. William C. Maybury, Mayor of Detroit, ac- 
companied by the members of the Bi-Centenary Execu- 
tive Committee; M. P. de Margerie, Charge d' Affaires 
of the Republic of France at Washington ; Hon. Alfred 
Kleeckzkowski, French Consul General at Montreal ; the 
French Consul General at Chicago ; and the Hon. Joseph' 
Belanger, French Consul at Detroit. 

The religious ceremonies were opened under direc- 
tion of Rev. Father Grand, the Venerable Pastor of Ste. 

Anne's, with a grand procession. First came the cross 
bearer, leading the acolytes, and followed by the clergy, 
then the Bishops and Archbishops, the Apostolic dele- 
gates to the Dominion of Canada, and finally Cardinal 
Martinelli, proceeding up the main aisle of the sanctuary, 
where the dignitaries, prelates and clergy were assigned 
their respective places. Seldom, if ever, had such an 
august assemblage of the highest ecclesiastical digni- 
taries of the Catholic church in North America been in 
attendance at Detroit. 

Never before had a religious ceremony in this city 
been. honored by two Papal delegates from Rome. 

But the occasion, in the opinion of Bishop Foley, 
was so remarkable as to deserve the highest commemora- 
tion ; for no one church or parochial organization in the 
United States at the present time, can claim a continuous 
unbroken existence of two hundred years, as can the 
church of Ste. Anne of Detroit ; authenticated as it is by 
her remarkable parochial register, dating back to the 
first entry in the handwriting of Father De l'Halle in 
1704, and the continuous entries during two centuries, 
attested by the officiating pastor, or visiting prelate, 
with their signatures, now on file in the archives of the 
present church. 

It was wisely arranged by Bishop Foley, that the 
celebrant of the Holy Sacrifice at this historical com- 
memoration of the first religious ceremony at Detroit, 
when a Recollet Monk from Quebec, on the festival of 
the patroness saint of Canada, dedicated a chapel in her 
honor, two hundred years ago, should be Archbishop 





Falconio, delegate of the Church of Rome to the Domin- 
ion of Canada. 

It was also appropriate on the part of Bishop Foley, 
to designate the distinguished Archbishop of Montreal, 
to preach the memorial sermon. 

What a prolific theme, what a historic ensemble, was 
there to inspire this successor of the saintly Mont- 
morency de Laval, founder of the hierarchy of Canada, 
In such a discourse! 

At the conclusion of the Gospel of the day, the Arch- 
bishop of Montreal, Mgr. Bruchesi, proceeded from the 
sacristy to the pulpit and pronounced the allocution of 
the occasion. Mgr. Bruchesi's sermon was delivered in 
French and was attentively listened to by an immense 
congregation. The following is a translation of his ser- 
mon : 

Memor fui dierum antiquorum. I have remembered 
the olden days. — Ps. 142:5. 
Your Excellency, My Lords, and Brethren : 

A sacred canticle rather than an address, methinks, 
would better harmonize with the solemn circumstances 
of this day's assembly. How, indeed, can mere words 
express the feelings of jubilation and profound gratitude 
which thrill your magnificent city? Your city did I say? 
It is not Detroit alone that assumes a festive appearance, 
equally so is it the entire State of Michigan. The whole 
Republic of old France, and the Universal Church from 
all sides swell a vibrating chorus that awakens an echo in 
the very heavens above us. We can feel that it is a work 
of God as well as of men of God that is here recalled and 

acclaimed. Two centuries, in their passage, only touched 
to strengthen and improve it. 

I heard the deep-voiced cannons announcing the com- 
mencement of your civic festivities ; I beheld thousands 
of Star-Spangled Banners fluttering from the windows, 
and amongst them I saw the standard of another age, 
that lily flag, the same white banner that first floated 
over the waters of our own St. Lawrence ; I gazed upon 
an entire population throbbing with enthusiasm as they 
welcomed to their shore men who came to remind them 
of their founders and pioneers ; behold now in this place, 
resplendent in their brilliant uniforms the representa- 
tives of France ; prelates, priests, secular and regular, 
citizens of all classes, all assembled with one grand 
thought around the sacred altars, and all intoning that 
soul-inspiring Chant: "We remember the days of old."' 

It is not Detroit in all her present splendor that you 
celebrate ; it is not those superb structures, nor those ele- 
gant boulevards, nor those incomparable streets that you 
have invited us here to admire. No, not them ! Higher 
up the slope of time do you ascend, back to those earlier 
days, so full of poetry, so filled with faith ; the names 
that quiver upon every lip are those of Cadillac, of 
De l'Halle, of Vaillant, of those poor frieze-clad mission- 
aries, of Pere Richard ; it is the hazardous pathway traced 
by your fathers through the "primeval forest" that you 
contemplate, it is the tiny wooden chapel that their hands 
erected that your imagination rebuilds, it is their in- 
trepid courage and heroic virtues that you recall, in a 
word, it is around the cradle of your civilization and your 



Rt. Rev. THOS. S. O. GORMAN 

faith that your hearts have met and that they throb in 

All honor to the people whose hearts are not forget- 
ful ! Citizens of Detroit, of such are you. Let us, then 
join hands, for we Canadians, descendants like you of 
France, find our supreme happiness in the conservation 
•of the olden faith, our coat-of-arms proclaims it since 
thereon we have written the motto "I remember." 

What a great lesson you have just taught the entire 
world! To do honor to the memory of your city's 
founders, you have sought to restore them again, in a 
way, to earth, by reproducing, amidst the enthusiastic 
plaudits of the entire population, the deeds that they per- 
formed on the memorable 24th of July, 1701, on the 
banks of your beautiful river. It was grand, my brethren, 
it was beautiful ; gratitude could imagine nothing more 
touching, and as for myself, it will constitute a souvenir 
that will outlast all others that these days of national 
rejoicing must create. 

Cadillac is, then, again in our midst, with the mis- 
sionaries — a Recollect and a Jesuit — those ubiquitous and 
faithful servants of God and of France. In the name of 
Louis XIV. he took possession of these lands by plant- 
ing thereon the lily standard, but that flag called for the 
divine Laborum to which perpetual victory has been 
promised, and the priest in his turn, set up the banner of 
the cross, and in presence of that cross all heads were 
uncovered, and Cadillac, with his companions knelt in 
prayer. That is the spectacle beheld in Detroit, in this 
twentieth century, despite the conflicting creeds that un- 

fortunately divide the minds of men. Detroit has shown 
itself proud of its Christian and French origin, and loudly- 
proclaimed the same in thus recalling to mind the glori- 
ous events that marked its baptismal day. 

Are foundations laid in a like manner to-day? Is it 
thus, animated with the same patriotism and the same 
supernatural spirit, that the explorers of the present 
time would take possession of the regions that they might 
discover? The thirst for gold can certainly make men 
undertake long and painful journeys and undergo im- 
mense sacrifices, but in extending the limits of an em- 
pire, would there be a thought given to the cross that has 
saved the world — that is to say, to the Redeemer, to God, 
to the soul, or to eternity? But our forefathers were men 
of faith, they had faith in the genius of man, and still 
greater faith in the protection of Heaven ; that their dis- 
coveries redounded to their country's glory was a source 
of great joy for them, but, before and above all they 
recognized that those discoveries tended to the greater 
glory of the Eternal One. And well did they know, that 
whatsoever men attempted to construct, when relying 
solely upon their own strength, eventually turned to 
Babel towers that the hand of time soon levelled with the 
dust. They knew that no work can be immortal that 
rests only on mortal strength, and when they undertook 
the building of cities, they did so while murmuring in 
their hearts those sacred words, which the experience of 
the ages has ratified: "Nisi Dominus aedificaverit 
domum, in vanum laboraverunt qui aedificant earn." If 
the Lord Himself does not build the house, it is in vain 
to labor at its erection. 



Moreover, the gospel is here, upon which we must 
reckon, and while practicing the lessons it teaches, re- 
member its warnings. The world, for over nineteen hun- 
dred years has been Christian, a fact that cannot be for- 
gotten or ignored, without a misconception of our origin 
and destiny. What then does the gospel teach us? 
That Christ is Sovereign of the universe, that all 
creatures must adore Him, and that His reign must last 
unto the end of time. All men who seek to accomplish 
aught that is great here below, must do so for the glory 
of Christ and the triumph of His gospel. Wherefore is it, 
that, unless all sane philosophy be denied and the pages 
of history destroyed, there is no true civilization other 
than that which is Christian, and no real colonization 
other than that which is inspired by Christianity. All 
others are for this world, that alone tends towards eter- 
nity. And after all, for nations as for individuals, it is 
eternity that is paramount. We were not created for the 
tomb, nor is the coffin the last of our existence. 

Do you wish that I should name the first and most 
perfect civilizers of the world? They were the Apostles, 
who without arms, or money, or human protection of any 
kind, came amongst the peoples preaching the truths 
and inculcating the virtues which their Master had sent 
them to proclaim. To their lot fell neither rewards, nor 
honors, nor enjoyments, but rather poverty, suffering 
and finally the death of martyrdom. But, at the same 
time, men were baptized, the mystery of the Cross was 
accepted and adored, while from their time dates the in- 
disputable transformation of the universe. 

Well then, what the first disciples of Christ had done, 
France — one of their most glorious conquests — did 
through all time. Her discoveries always bore the seal 
of Christianity, down the centuries we behold her ad- 
vancing, over seas and along shores wherever the will 
of Providence guided, bearing aloft in one hand the na- 
tion's flag and in the other the cross of Christ. She 
wished as the eldest daughter of the Church, and as a 
Christian mother, to carry to the baptismal font herself, 
all the people that sprang from her bosom, and I do not 
hesitate to here declare that in the long course of Chris- 
tianity's history she has been the most apostolic nation 
on earth. At this hour — an hour of gloom — it is well 
that we should recall these things. The past is a guar- 
antee of the future. Dark clouds may at times obscure 
the sun, but the orb loses none of its brilliancy, wait a 
little moment only, the cloud passes away and the sun 
continues to bathe the world in rays of light and beams 
of heat. 

I am not, however, straying from my subject. It is 
still the 24th of July, 1701. The standard of the cross 
and the standard of France have been planted upon this 
spot of earth which is destined to become the important 
city of Detroit. To your work then, Cadillac, to your 
work now, ye pious missionaries and hardy colonists ! 
Their first care is to erect a chapel to Almighty God. 
The forest trees are felled. Leader, priests, gentlemen, 
all become workmen, and, in raising that rough frame- 
work they exhibit the same faith and the same devotion, 
that characterized their ancestors, in France, as thev 

placed stone upon stone of their vast Cathedrals. Any- 
way, is it not the house of the Lord that they built? 
Will it not equally contain His altar and His tabernacle? 
Day and night the work goes ahead, and in forty-eight 
hours the chapel is constructed. It is the feast of Ste. 
Anne, of the good Ste. Anne, that Ste. Anne so dear to the 
Breton heart, that Ste. Anne so fervently invoked to-day 
in the olden church d'Auray. To her is the little chapel 
dedicated, she, therefore, becomes the patroness and pro- 
tectress of this new region. The Holy sacrifice of the 
Mass is celebrated for a first time ; the entire colony is 
in attendance, the hymns of the motherland are intoned,, 
the priest says to them "the Lord be with you," the 
blessings of heaven come down upon the humble faithful 
and upon the work they have commenced. 

As I recall that scene, so magnificent in its very 
simplicity, I naturally dream of the early days of Canada. 
I behold Jacques Cartier, also taking possession of the 
immense country that he had just discovered by planting 
thereon the banner of his king side by side with the 
Cross of his Redeemer ; I can see him reading the Gospel 
of St. John in presence of the poor Indians, as if to make 
them hear the voice of heaven ; I catch a glimpse, at 
Montreal, of Pere Vernint, celebrating the first Mass 
under the blue vault of the sky, and upon a little altar 
which the hands of Mademoiselle Mance had decorated 
with early flowers of the spring time. 

I can see De Marsonmenue, as he went with his com- 
panions to the mountain to carry back the first wood to 
be used in the foundation of the chapel about to be 

erected in honor of Our Lady of Good Help. "Memor 
fui dierum antiquorum." Yes, I remember, I recall, I 
understand how it is that everywhere France followed 
the promptings of the same inspiration ; in the hearts 
of her children two passions pulsate ; they wish to be- 
hold their country great and glorious, and they wish, 
in their love for God, to serve His cause in procuring 
souls for Him. 

My brethren, the history of Detroit is familiar to you. 
I need not here repeat any of it. As I have stated, it 
is the birth of your city that is celebrated to-day ; with 
that event alone did I wish to deal. 

Yesterday I held in my hands, and with deep emotion, 
the old registers that have been religiously conserved 
by the venerable priests, who succeeded to Fathers De 
l'Halle, De la Marche, Leonard, Richard, and many 
others, in the direction of this Church — the mother 
church of all others in the Western States. On these 
sear and yellow leaves do we read true titles to the no- 
bility of your ancestors. Should it not be styled the 
"Golden Book of Detroit"? No where else will be found 
any more precious. 

Cadillac has disappeared, De l'Halle has fallen by the 
murderous ball of an Indian, Pere Richard died a victim 
of his zeal in caring for the plague stricken. The other 
missionaries have died in the perpetuation of the devoted- 
ness of their brothers, the early apostles ; the little 
chapel, burned down several times, has arisen from its 
ashes, each time more beautiful and richer than ever, 
until it became the splendid temple that shelters us to- 
day. France lost her colony ; England, that had acquired 

it, lost it in turn; the American Union added it to her 
wealth of territory, yet the work of God went ever on. 
Flag succeeded flag, but the Cross ever retained its place 
of honor. Europe, America, all countries, and they of 
all creeds, solemnly recognized its beneficent influence 
and accorded it, in the heart of your city, the most splen- 
did of victories : "Stat Crux dum volvitur orbis." 

Three dioceses divide the State of Michigan and num- 
ber to-day three hundred and seventy priests with nearly 
four hundred thousand Catholics. 

My brethren, this sacred work is not yet completed. 
To you falls the duty of continuing and of crowning it. 
There is still labor to be done and triumphs to be gained. 
Remember the olden times ; imitate the courage and 
emulate the zeal of your forefathers. Remember to re- 
turn thanks, but, at the same time, to here renew the 
holy alliance, that two hundred years ago to-day was en- 
tered into between God and His people. Be ye also 
apostles. For you, children of the Church, this apostolate 
becomes a sacred duty in private as in public life, in so- 
ciety, as well as in the sanctuary. God, your Benefactor 
and celestial Father speaks unto you ; hearken to His 
voice. He, it is that, with an entire truth and in perfect 
justice, has the right to address you in the language once 
spoken by an earthly king to the children of Isarel : "I 
conjure you, remembering the graces you have received 
from me, to preserve the fidelity that you owe to Me 
and to My Son." That Son, my dear brethren, is Our 
Lord Jesus Christ. With His name will I close this 
address ; to Him be all honor and all glory forever and 
ever. Amen. 

On the second day of the religious celebration of the 
bi-centenary the church of Ste. Anne had put off its 
gorgeous garb of jubilation and taken on the more somber 
one of recollection of the dead. The altars were draped 
in funeral black and from among the folds of crepe the 
lights flickered and sparkled like silver stars. On this 
day there was a Solemn Pontifical Mass of Requiem for 
the dead of two hundred years. For all those who had 
come with Cadillac and gone to their reward ; for all 
those whose names are attached to the farms into which 
what is now Detroit was originally divided ; for all those 
who had helped build Ste. Anne's in its new spot on Ste. 
Anne's street where Ives' building now stands; for all 
those who had built up old Ste. Anne's in its still newer 
location on Larned street, by the banks of the Savoyard ; 
for all the dead that were laid away in its churchyard, 
and afterwards removed to the new graveyard on the 
Beaubien farm, and later still to Mt. Elliott; for all the 
dead of all the years since the eighteenth century began, 
those who, when quick with life, were the workers that 
established our parishes and built our churches. It was 
a magnificent thought to remember this grand army of 
the departed and right solemnly was their remembrance 
conducted. The church was suitably decorated for the 
occasion. A male chorus took the place of the immense 
choir of the previous day. The ecclesiastics present in- 
cluded the officers of the Mass and the Celebrant, the 
Most Rev. William Henry Elder, D. D., Archbishop of 

Among the ecclesiastics in the sanctuary were the 
Bishop of Detroit, Bishops McGoldrick, Cotter and Scan- 
nell, and Archbishop Katzer. At the conclusion of the 
Mass the Right Reverend Henry S. Gabriels, of Ogdens- 
burgh, N. Y., ascended the pulpit and delivered the 
memorial sermon in French. 

A cable from Rome was received as follows : "The 
Most Holy Father wishing you all joy with special affec- 
tion, imparts the Most Holy blessing for which you 
ask." — Leo. 

The third and last day of the religious celebration of 
the Bi-Centenary was given over to a grand Mass of 
Thanksgiving at the old Cathedral, now the Jesuit 
Church of SS. Peter and Paul. It was among the most 
magnificent ceremonies that have ever occurred in the 
Catholic Churches of Michigan. Never before had there 
been so distinguished a gathering of clergy within the 
limits of the State. What a contrast there was between 
it and the simple blessing of the first log church of Ste. 
Anne ! Pere De l'Halle and Pere Valliant were all that 
were then here. On this day there was the personal repre- 
sentative of the Pope, Cardinal Martinelli. There was 
his representative in Canada, Archbishop Falconio. 
There were the representatives of the Orders to which 
De l'Halle and Vaillant belonged. 

The spectacle in the church was magnificent. The 
flags of France and America hung from the choir loft. 
The papal colors were looped from the dome to the 
sanctuary. The striking sunflowers of the sanctuary 
decorations were toned with roses and carnations. 

Smilax and asters contributed to the floral effect, while 
among them the lines of electric fire made a glowing- 
spectacle of the altar. 

The clergy had assembled for robing in the spacious 
halls of Detroit College. At half-past ten the procession 
emerged from the college doors. 

First came the masters of ceremonies, Fathers Demp- 
sey and Kessler. Following them was Father Gruenen- 
wald, of St. Mary's, carrying the processional cross. 
Then came the acolytes with their swinging censers, the 
bearers of the robes of the officiants and the priests who 
were in attendance. Next came the bishops and the 
archbishops. As they entered the church the orchestra 
broke out into Weber's overture. The Cardinal cele- 
brant was the last of the imposing line which entered 
the church. He wore a black cape, indicative of his 
membership in the Augustinian Order. 

The archbishops took their places at thrones on the 
right of the main altar, opposite that of the Cardinal 
celebrant. Archbishop Falconio, Apostolic Delegate to 
the Dominion of Canada, was attended by his secretary, 
Very Rev. Father Solanus, O. F. M., and Very Rev. 
Father Grimmelsman, S. J., provincial of the Jesuits of 
the Missouri province, who came on from St. Louis to at- 
tend the services. Archbishop Bruchesi, of Montreal, 
was attended by Rev. James D. Foley, S. J., rector of 
Detroit College ; Archbishop Elder by Rev. M. Corbett, 
S. J., and Archbishop Katzer, of Milwaukee, by Mon- 
signor Rooker, secretary of the papal legation at Wash- 

The bishops occupied prie-dieux to the left of the 
Cardinal's throne. They were Bishop O'Gorman, of 
Sioux Falls, S. D. ; Bishop-elect Conaty, Rector of the 
Catholic University at Washington ; Bishop McQuaid, 
of Rochester ; Bishop Spalding, of Peoria ; Bishop Scan- 
nell, of Omaha; Bishop Richter, of Grand Rapids ; Bishop 
Eis, of Marquette; Bishop Cotter, of Winona; Bishop 
Gabriels, of Ogdensburg; Bishop McGoldrick, of Duluth ; 
Bishop Messmer, of Green Bay, and Bishop Foley. 

The priests sat in rows along the chancel rail. 

The choir and musical facilities of the church had 
been greatly augmented. An orchestra supplemented the 
organ, with a chorus of 65 voices under the direction 
of Prof. Gregory Freytag rendered Hummel's Grand 
Mass in E. The offertory was Mendelssohn's ''Lauda 
Deum," and the processional at the close of the services 
was Haydn's "The Heavens are Telling." 

The Celebrant of the Mass was His Eminence Car- 
dinal Sebastian Martinelli, D. D., Apostolic Delegate. 

The sermon of the day was preached by the Bishop 
of Sioux Falls, Dak., the Rt. Rev. Thomas O'Gorman. 
This eminent prelate's discourse was among the most 
masterful ever heard in this historic, old fane. The 
speaker reviewed the work and influence of the Catholic 
Church in the civilization of North and South America, 
from the discovery, down to the present. It was a grand 
resume of history, displayed with great ability. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Foley crowned the work of the 
Catholic Bi-Centennial celebration by a grand reception 
in the Light Infantry armory Sunday evening, July 28. 

The interior was beautifully decorated with flowers and 
flags, and despite the heat of the evening about 2,500 
persons attended. A distinguished gathering of leading 
Catholics led the way to the platform shortly after the 
arrival of His Grace the Most Reverend Archbishop 
Ireland, of St. Paul, the orator of the evening. 

The exercises were opened by an address from the 
Mayor of the City, Hon. William C. Maybury, who dwelt 
upon the important part which religion had played in 
the growth of the city during its two hundred years of 
life, and the fitting spirit in which the Catholics of the 
city were remembering that part. He gracefully intro- 
duced Archbishop Ireland, who paid a high tribute to 
Cadillac and his associates, founders of Detroit. In his 
concluding remarks, the Archbishop of St. Paul said : 

And, now, I bid my hearers return with me to early 
Fort Ponchartrain. Two days after Cadillac had landed 
on the shores of the "Detroit," he built a church, and 
ordered that sacrifice be there offered to Almighty God. 

The teaching I would have you take from this is, that 
without a moral conscience in the community a nation 
will not endure, and that without religion a moral con- 
science is not formed. 

Together we have admired America ; we have prof- 
fered to her our love and our loyalty ; we have prayed in 
our deep hearts that for our sake, for the sake of our 
children, for that of humanity she be perpetual. Then, 
let us heed the teaching coming to us from Cadillac. 

The lesson remains which I would impart, which the 
building of Ste. Anne's church by Cadillac suggests, 

that without morals no nation thrives, and that without 
religion there is for morals no stable basis. 

But withal, I am confident that Amreica is safe. Her 
people will care for America, they love her too well, 
they have too much good sense, not to avert from her 
in time evils that threaten her prosperity and her life. 
They need but to be warned of the presence of such evils. 
And since the peril to America is from unbelief, we 
have in her people a further reason for hope. Religion 
is so instinct in the soul-s of the American people, it has 
cast such deep roots into their national life and institu- 
tions, that not only it cannot be lost from them ; but that 
the dangers to which it may be at one time exposed will 
but challenge them to greater love of and greater earnest- 
ness in its defense. And God will care for America. 
America has been so visibly blest by Him, that we can 
well believe she is the object of His predilection ; America 
symbolizes so much that makes for the liberty and social 
happiness of all humanity that for humanity's sake we 
can well believe the God of nations will guard her. 

O God, the God of Cadillac, the God of America, unto 
Thy love we remit our country. 

The Mayor then introduced Bishop O'Gorman, who 
surpassed his previous eloquent tributes to Cadillac. 

At the conclusion of Bishop O'Gorman's address, 
which was received with great applause, the Mayor intro- 
duced Bishop Spalding, of Peoria. The Bishop had been 
heard in Detroit only a few days before in an address to 
the National Education Association, and he was most 
generously received. He confined his remarks to some 

playful reference to Archbishop Ireland and the Mayor, 
and to an eulogium of the part which women had taken in 
the development of the city. His remarks were brief, and 
as he sat down he was urged by the audience to continue, 
but to no purpose. The meeting was closed by the ren- 
dering of the national anthem by the entire audience. 

This ended the Catholic celebration of the Bi-Cen- 
tenary, so admirably conceived and carried to success 
by Rt. Rev. Bishop Foley. 

President of the Women's Bi-Centenary Committee. 


His Honor, Mayor Maybury, issued a call to the 
women of Detroit to meet at the Russell House on 
Saturday morning, June the eighth, at eleven o'clock, to 
take steps towards the organization of an auxiliary to the 
Council and Citizens' Committee, to forward the work 
of the Celebration. About fifty women responded and, as 
a result, the Woman's Bi-Centenary Committee was 
formed. Mrs. Bertram C. Whitney was unanimously 
chosen as the President and permanent Chairman, Mrs. 
Marguerite Beaubien, Treasurer, Mrs. James H. Dono- 
van, Recording Secretary, and Miss Isabel Weir, Corre- 
sponding Secretary; sub-committees were appointed and 
work was immediately begun. 

The Council and Citizens' Committee had refrained 
from making any plans for the evening of July 25th 
and a part of July 26th, in order to leave time for what- 
ever features might be proposed by the auxiliary. The 
ladies at first regarded with favor a project for a garden 
fete to be given in Grand Circus Park, but this 'was 
abandoned as not feasible, and they decided to hold a 
public reception in the parlors of the Russell House on 
Thursday evening, and to arrange a floral parade for 
Friday afternoon. 

It was resolved that the evening assembly should take 
the form of a "Madame Cadillac Reception," and that a 
representative woman of Detroit should be chosen to 
impersonate the brave and beautiful lady who came 
across three hundred leagues of wilderness to join her 
husband, and was the first white woman to set foot on 
the shore where now extend the great buildings and in- 
dustries of our rapidly growing metropolis. 

The members of the committee, in acknowledgment 
of the zeal and efficiency of their president and also be- 
cause they felt that their choice would lend an eminent 
dignity and grace to the occasion, named Mrs. Whitney 
for the role of Madame Cadillac. 

Mrs. Whitney, however, declined the honor, and pro- 
posed that the invitation be extended to Miss Isabel 
Weir. There was an especial fitness in this selection of 
a descendant of Jean Casse St. Aubin, one of the intrepid 
soldiers who followed the Chevalier de la Mothe from 
Montreal, and Miss Weir was thereupon chosen to repre- 
sent Madame Cadillac. 

Later, Miss Alice Chapoton, whose ancestor Major 
Chapoton was surgeon of old Fort Pontchartrain in its 
early days, accepted the invitation to assume the char- 
acter of Madame de Tonty, who was Madame Cadillac's 
friend and companion. Miss Weir proposed that a court 
of honor be chosen to assist these ladies in receiving, 
and about two hundred representative women were in- 
vited to act with the auxiliary as vice-presidents and 
patronesses. Of those who responded, sixty-one vice- 
presidents and a court of honor consisting of sixty-four 
were named. 




It was planned that in the impressiveness of the 
occasion, and the costumes of Mesdames Cadillac and 
De Tonty and of the court of honor, the scene should 
be a reproduction of a courtly festivity of the old regime 
in Canada. 

Yet, however, brilliant the reception, however fairy- 
like the floral parade, they would soon be but pleasant 
reminiscences of the Bi-Centenary celebration. To Mrs. 
Marguerite Beaubien belongs the distinction of having 
proposed a permanent memorial to the virtues of the 
veritable Madame Cadillac, this memorial to be a tablet 
or monument erected by the women of Detroit. 

The proposition was at once adopted by the auxiliary, 
and the Madame Cadillac Memorial Committee was 
formed with Mrs. Beaubien as chairman. 

His Honor, Mayor Maybury having, in the name of 
the Council and Citizens' Committee, placed at the dis- 
posal of the ladies twenty of the city's invitations to the 
Bi-Centenary, the latter were sent as follows : 

To Mesdames Wm. McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, 
W. I. Roebling, Benton McMillan, Fenald McClean, U. 
S. Grant, Grover Cleveland, Etta Lee Toby, Lillian 
Stevens, Potter Palmer, Philip Sheridan, Jefferson Davis, 
Margaret Bottoms, R. M. Berry, H. S. N. Sumner Fair- 
banks, G. A. Custer; and Misses Susan B. Anthony, Clara 
Barton, the Countess of Aberdeen, and Madame Loubet. 

The preparation for the floral parade progressed un- 
der the supervision of Mrs. F. F. Ingram, the chairman 
of the committee in charge of this feature of the cele- 
bration, with the assistance of experts in the art of ar- 

ranging similar pageants. Miss Louise Burns was 
chosen to be Floral Queen, and it was decided that the 
queen and the representatives of Mesdames Cadillac and 
De Tonty should ride in the parade. 

As a matter of fact, Madame Cadillac did not reach 
the shore of the Detroit until nearly a year after the 
coming of her gallant husband. Nevertheless, to the 
citizens who gathered in the parlors of the Russell 
House on the evening of July 26th, there seemed no in- 
congruity in thronging to greet her on the day after they 
had welcomed with boom of cannon and ringing cheers 
the little fleet of canoes that, in the late afternoon, 
floated down the broad, sunlit strait, bringing the repre- 
sentatives of the dauntless Gascon chevalier and his 
adventurous party of voyageurs, coureurs de bois, and 
sons of proud Canadian seigneurs. 

Monsieur de Cadillac, Captain de Tonty, Lieutenants 
Dugue and Charconacle, Frere Constantine Del Halle, 
and Father Vaillant were especially invited to take part 
in the reception, as were also the city's distinguished 
guests, Messieurs Pierre de Margerie, "Charge d' 
Affaires" of the French embassy at Washington, and 
Alfred Kleczkowski, French consul-general for Canada. 

The soft candle-light of the olden time, would have 
seemed pale indeed to the brightness of the spacious 
rooms ; an orchestra finer than any ever heard in the 
colonies in the eighteen century, discoursed gay music, 
and the gorgeous gold-laced uniforms of the representa- 
tives of France, the picturesque attire of the seigneurs, 
voyageurs, friars, and military of the time of Louis XIV 
lent an added color to the scene. 



A detail of French soldiers of old Fort Pontchartrain 
stood at either side of the doorway, and several hun- 
dred people were assembled in the parlors and halls, 
when at 8:30 o'clock the receiving party were announced. 

A few moments later, the soldiers saluted as Madame 
Cadillac entered the reception room escorted by Mon- 
sieur de Cadillac, the members of the committee follow- 
ing, and passing through the double file of military to 
their places. 

His Honor, Mayor Maybury, as host of the evening 
introduced the guests to Monsieur de Cadillac, who in 
turn presented them to Madame Cadillac, and so the 
presentations continued down the line. 

At Madame Cadillac's left stood the French "Charge 
d' Affaires," then Madame de Tonty, Airs. Bertram C. 
Whitney, members of the committee, vice-presidents, 
and the court of honor. 

Tall and stately, the Madame Cadillac of the hour 
(Miss Weir) was well qualified for the part assigned 
her, and received her guests with a graciousness and 
courtesy worthy of the dignified and courtly seigneuress 
of Le Detroit. 

She was ably seconded by the president of the 
Woman' Auxiliary, and by the attendant ladies, each of 
whom had been requested to constitute herself a hostess 
for the occasion. 

The rich costume of the period of Louis XIV, 
worn by Madame Cadillac was historically correct, even 
to the golden and jewel-studded fleurs de lis embroidered 
on the front of the white satin coat, and the small gold 

buttons ; which latter were, in fact once owned by a 
French monarch. 

During the evening more than a thousand people, 
prominent men of Michigan and the Northwest, repre- 
sentatives of foreign governments, private citizens, and 
enthusiastic American and Canadian ladies thronged to 
be presented to Madame Cadillac and her little seig- 
neurial court. 

A cordial courtesy was the spirit of the occasion; 
everyone was made welcome, and especially noticeable 
was the attention paid to the children who passed along 
the line, every little child being introduced to the dig- 
nitaries as punctilliously as were the Governor and his 
staff and the visitors from a distance. 

It was the general verdict of the citizens of Detroit, 
and also of the strangers present, that the Madame 
Cadillac reception was in every respect a success. 

Crowded with incident as were the days of the Bi- 
centenary celebration, and splendid as was the promise 
of the electrical pageant for the evening of July 26th, 
early in the afternoon the people thronged the streets 
with unabated interest to witness the first floral parade 
ever held in the City of the Straits. 

It was pre-eminently woman's day. The air was 
delightfully cool, the clouds of the morning had dis- 
appeared, and as early as 1 o'clock the crowds began to 
gather on the avenues and the steps of the churches, 
and to fill the windows of the buildings along the route 
of the parade. The sun shone gloriously upon the thou- 
sands of flags and decorations, the streets were literally 





lined with color. The usual tranquil seclusion of Cass 
Park was a scene of rainbow confusion for two hours 
before the starting of the procession. As each new 
addition to the assembled carriages arrived, the specta- 
tors closed in to obtain a nearer view. Automobiles, 
beautiful as fairy chariots glided silently by ; carriages 
drawn by prancing horses, and showing in their decora- 
tion nearly every color and hue in the flower kingdom^ 
were driven hither and thither. Shortly after 3 o'clock, 
the bugle of the military band sounded the advance, and 
to inspiriting martial music, the parade began. 

At the head rode Governor Bliss and Chief Marshal 
Latimer with their staffs and eminent army officers. 
The bands followed. Then came the victoria of Mes- 
dames Cadillac and De Toney, accompanied by out- 

The ladies were gowned in historic dress ; the car- 
riage seemed built of white roses varied with the green 
of smilax, so completely was the framework hidden. At 
the back gleamed the white banner of the fleur de lis and 
a shield bearing the arms of Cadillac; clusters of purple 
fleurs de lis, from which floated streamers of royal pur- 
ple, adorned the sides and front. The victoria was drawn 
by two snow-white horses, the harness being concealed 
by garlands of roses. 

This handsome equipage was followed by a long line 
of others, the occupants of the carriages being ladies of 
the first social position in the city, attired in exquisite 
summer costumes chosen to harmonize with the pre- 
vailing color designs. 

Among the turnouts which evoked the greatest ap- 
plause were Mrs. B. C. Whitney's English dog-cart decor- 
ated with yellow California poppies ; Mayor Maybury's 
carriage, an effective combination of yellow roses against 
a black background ; the Olds automobile, a mass of pur- 
ple and white crysanthemums ; and Mrs. Henry B. 
Lewis' automobile, which was covered with yellow asters 
that shone brightly in the sunlight and contrasted well 
with the soft green of the aster leaves, its artistic effect 
being greatly enhanced by two peacocks, one poised with 
outspread tail on the rear of the carriage, the other on 
the front. 

Also Mrs. Ingram's phaeton decked with white roses 
and purple chrysanthemums, and Miss Halloran's surrey 
adorned with morning-glories. 

The Floral Queen presented a charming picture of 
youth and grace in her royal robes of white, and her 
equipage was one which any sovereign might envy. The 
color scheme being white and gold, over six thousand 
white roses were used in the decoration of the body of 
the carriage and ten thousand white and gold mar- 
guerites. The horses were coal black; the trumpeters 
in white livery, rode ahead, and an escort mounted on 
black chargers accompanied the queen. 

Space is wanting to describe the parade in detail. 
Almost every carriage as it passed a given point seemed 
to out-rival in beauty those that had preceded it. So 
truly was this the case that the guests of the city, who 
had consented to act as judges for the prizes to be given, 
found it impossible to decide to which equipages they 
should be awarded. 



Madame Cadillac, the Floral Queen, and Mrs. Whit- 
ney, President of the Woman's Auxiliary, declined to 
allow their carriages to be considered in the competition. 

At Washington Park occurred the battle of the flow- 
ers between the two divisions of the parade. A brilliant 
kaleidoscopic effect of color and movement was produced 
by the showers of blossoms and confetti. Amid the mer- 
riment of the contest and the applause of the spectators, 
Madame Cadillac, Madame de Tonty and the Floral 
Queen entered the Cadillac Hotel and viewed the battle 
from the balcony. At its conclusion they held a recep- 

A few days later a committee of gentlemen, of which 
his Honor, Mayor Maybury, was chairman, after ample 
consultation, awarded prizes for taste and excellence as 
follows : 


To Mrs. Girardot, of Sandwitch, Ont, for her carriage 
studded with yellow chrysanthemums. 

To Mrs. John Davis, of Windsor, Ont., for her vic- 
toria decorated with pink roses. 

To Mrs. Swift, of Walkerville, Ont., for her carriage 
adorned with hollyhocks, poppies, wheat and oats. 

To Mrs. Henry B. Lewis for her automobile. 

To Mrs. F. J. Hecker, of Detroit, for her victoria 
formed of Marechal Neil roses. 

To Swartz Brothers, for their wagonette trimmed 
with violets of every tint from the palest to the deepest 


To W. E. Metzger, for his automobile decorated with 
yellow and red chrysanthemums and a profusion of 
natural flowers. 

To T. B. Finch, for his auto-trap with white roses 
and white doves. 

To Fred Sanders, for his automobile decked with 
natural flowers, waterlilies, morning glories and white 

To the L. C. B. A., for their carriage with water lilies 
and leaves. 

To the Ladies' Maccabees, for their float, the floral 

To Mrs. C. R. Dudley, for her Stanhope garlanded, 
with pink roses and smilax. 


To the Forresters, for their tally-ho coach of red and' 
white roses. 

To the A. O. H., for their carriage showing a beau- 
tiful design in green. 

To C. L. Delameter, for his superb car of progress. 

To Masters Pungs and Ingram, for their pony car- 
riages appropriately ornamented. 

To Mrs. George Beck, for her phaeton wreathed with, 
red poppies. 

The prizes were donated by the leading jewelers of. 
the city. 

During the weeks that preceded the celebration the 
Madame Cadillac Memorial Committee were active, and, 
owing in a great measure to the energy of the chair- 
man, Mrs. Marguerite Beaubien, as well as to the popular 
interest, the success of the project is now assured. 

In the social reception and the floral parade the 
Auxiliary strove to add to the splendor of the Bi-Cen- 
tenary celebration the touch of grace and beauty which 
it is woman's province to bestow. In the Madame Cadil- 
lac Memorial they feel that they are erecting a tribute 
not only to the noble lady whose influence for good left 
an impression upon our community, but to the pioneer 
spirit of the first women settlers of the Northwest, and 
-to woman's fairest ideals. 


The following are the lists of the committees and of 
the vice-presidents, patronesses, and court of honor of 
the Madame Cadillac reception: 

Mrs. Marguerite Beaubien Miss Mary C. Crowley 

Mrs. Catherine B. Weir 
Mrs. John Walker 
-Mrs. Isabel Weir 
Mrs. J. V. Moran 
Mrs. B. C. Whitney 

Mrs. W. R. Farrand 
Mrs. Lyman Baldwin 
Mrs. Jas. H. Donovan. 
Mrs. F. F. Choate, 
Miss Cornelia Roberts 

Miss Mary Ducey 
Mrs. E. T. Sibley 
Mrs. Geo. Carlyle 
Mrs. Gibbs 


Mrs. F. F. Ingram 
Mrs. D. O. Wood 
Mrs. F. D. Wakefield 

Mrs. S. M. Dudley 
Mrs. H. L. Obetz 
Mrs. Fred Hartz 

Miss Mary Stanley 
Miss Stoddard 



Mrs. B. C. Whitney 

Mrs. Fred Sibley 

Mrs. S. E. Pittman 

Mrs. Lyman Baldwin 

Miss Isabel Weir 

Mrs. Henry Starkey 

Mrs. John Walker 

Mrs. Leartes Connor 

Miss Mary Ducey 
Mrs. J. H. Donovan 

Mrs. W. R. Farrand 

Mrs. John Walker Mrs. J. H. Donovan, 


Mrs. B. C. Whitney 
Mrs. J. V. Moran 

Mrs. W. R. Farrand 
Mrs. Lyman Baldwin 

Miss Isabel Weir 


Mrs. Justin E. Emerson 

Mrs. Joseph Belanger 

Mrs. F. F. Palms 

Mrs. Ernest Girardot 

Mrs. Choate, 

Miss Whipple 

Mrs. Jeremiah Dwyer 

Mrs. F. E. Burns 

Mrs. J. Coleman Crowley 

Miss Mary Catherine CrowleyMrs 

Mrs. Emma D. Cook 

Mrs. John B. Lawrence 

Misses Lewis 

Mrs. A. Chapoton 

Mrs. Handbury 

Mrs. Cyrus E. Lothrop 

Mrs. Francis E. Dwyer 

Mrs. M. W. O'Brien 

Miss O'Brien 

Miss Louise O'Brien 

Mrs. J. C. Moran 

Mrs. La Ferte 

Miss Starkey 

Mrs. Walter Conner 

Mrs. McDonald 

Miss Katherine Flynn 

Miss Aileen McDonald 

Mrs. Wm. R. Farrand 

Mrs. Dodge 

Miss Elise Campau 

Mrs. Henry B. Lewis 

Mrs. A. Y. Ladue 

Mrs. Michael Brennan 

Mrs. Henry M. Wright 

Mrs. Jas. H. Donovan 

Miss Emma E. Bower 

Mrs. F. J. Sibley 

Miss Hayes 

Miss Elise Donovan 

yMrs. Lydecker 

Miss S. S. Graves 

Miss Lydecker 

Mrs. John V. Moran 

Miss Elbert 

Mrs. C. B. Weir 

Mrs. J. H. King 

Mrs. Henry D. Barnard 

Miss King 

Mrs. Plumb 

Mrs. Marguerite Beaubien 

Mrs. S. E. Pittman 

Mrs. Lyman Baldwin 

Mrs. L. L. Barbour 

Mrs. Eleanor J. Starkey 

Mrs. Weber 

Mrs. B. C. Whitney 

Mrs. J. B. Morris 

Miss Moran 

Dr. Florence Huson 

Mrs. Forbes 

Mrs. F. F. Ingram 

Miss Forbes 


Mrs. John V. Moran 
Mrs. M. W. O'Brien 
Mrs. W. D. Morton 
Mrs. Charles Noble 
Mrs. Thomas McGraw 
Mrs. W. H. Strong 
Mrs. James I. Sterling 
Mrs. Noel C. O'Brien 
Mrs. Dr. Anderson 
Mrs. Wm. T. Gage 
Mrs. E. H. McCurdy 
Mrs. M. Brennan 
Mrs. Sylvester Larned 
Mrs. Henry N. Walker 
Mrs. Francis F. Palms 
Mrs. W. J. Chittenden 
Mrs. J. S. Newberry 
Wrs. David Whitney 
Mrs. H. E. Spaulding 
Mrs. C. E. Dudley 
Mrs. John N. Bagley 


F. K. Stearns 

Mrs. J. F. Weber 


H. P. Davock 

Mrs. J. B. Morris 


R. P. Williams 

Miss Jennie Maybury 


J. McCarroll 

Mrs. John Davis 


T. P. Hall 

Mrs. Henry Russel 


La Ferte 

Mrs. H. Meredith 


C. Carpenter. 

Mrs. George Russel 


Philip Beaubien 

Mrs. H. Carhartt 


J. B. Ford 

Mrs. M. W. Field 


Daniel Scotten 

Mrs. George Hendrie 


Fred Bamford 

Mrs. Chas. Swift 


J. G. Craig 

Mrs. Luther S. Trowbridge 


W. H. Kessler 

Mrs. Henry Barnard 


H. T. Brush 

Mrs. F. Palmer Church 


Lou Burt 

Mrs. Josephine Lancashire 


L. C. Waldo 

Mrs. N. K. Riddle 


F. C. Andrews 

Miss Grace Moffat 


C. A. Dean 

Miss Anna Pitkin 


Henry Williams 

Miss Grace Stridiron 


Edward Telfer 

Mrs. J. Colman Crowley 


R. E. Olds 

Miss Mary Catherine Crowley 


The closing of the nineteenth century was celebrated 
in Detroit in a manner somewhat unusual. As the new 
century was ushered in bells of churches, school-houses 
and engine houses sounded forth their welcome. As the 
bell upon the tower of the city hall tolled the hour of 
midnight and the dawn of the new century was pro- 
claimed, a box was sealed up in the office of the mayor, 
the contents of which are to be disclosed only to those 
whose good fortune it will be to live in Detroit at the 
opening of the twenty-first century. The box, which 
was manufactured by the Detroit Copper and Brass Roll- 
ing Mills, is almost square in form, of rolled copper and 
bears a metal card pledging the passing century not to 
disturb the box in any way or open it under any circum- 
stance. It is an agreement that this box shall be kept 
safe and secure in the archives of the city until it is pre- 
sented to the chief executive of Detroit on the morning 
of the ist of January, 2001. Of the contents only this 
can be said, that the box contains sixty-four communica- 
tions obtained by the mayor from citizens active in the so- 
cial, commercial, religious, and political life of the city of 
Detroit at this time. The persons selected to write the 
respective communications contained in the box are those 
who are recognized as especially fitted to treat of the 



occupation, art, amusement, profession or calling in 
which their lives are chiefly employed. Just before 
sealing the box in the presence of a concourse filling the 
office of the Mayor, and while the Campus Martius was 
crowded with cheering people, the following letter was 
read, then sealed and placed in the box : 

Detroit, Mich., Dec. 31, 1900. 
To His Honor, the Mayor of Detroit in 2001 and the 

generation whose privilege and, I trust, pleasure, it 

will be to read the contents of this box, Health and 

Greeting : 

The papers herein contained now for the first time 
brought to light by you, after a retirement of one hundred 
years, were prepared at my request by men and women 
prominent in the activities of Detroit at the close of the 
nineteenth cntury. Our desire is to convey to you across 
the long span of the century as clear an insight as is pos- 
sible into the social, religious, moral, commercial and 
political affairs of Detroit. It will be to you a testimony 
from living witnesses of the events which they chronicle 
and conditions which they describe. From testimony 
sO transmitted you will be better able to discern what 
advancement you have made from the modest beginning 
to which we are witnesses. 

We are well aware that the century closing has been 
marvelous in its achievements and we might be fairly 
excused for believing that the limit of possibilities has 
been accomplished in many ways, but on the contrary 
we do not so believe because the past has taught us that 
what seemed to be impossible has been already accom- 


plished, and we would therefore not be greatly surprised 
at greater accomplishments in the future. 

We communicate by telegraph and telephone over 
distances that at the opening of the nineteenth century 
were insurmountable. We travel at a rate not dreamed 
of then. The powers of electricity have been applied 
marvelously, and compressed air and other agencies are 
now undergoing promising experiments. We travel by 
railroad and steam power from Detroit to Chicago in less 
than eight hours, and to New York City by several routes 
in less than twenty hours. How much faster are you trav- 
elling? How much farther have you annihilated time and 
space and what agencies are you employing to which we 
are strangers? We talk by long distance telephone to the 
remotest cities in our own country, and with a fair de- 
gree of practical success. Are you talking with foreign 
lands and to the islands of the sea by the same method? 

And so throughout all the various pathways of human 
progress the papers in this box will bring to your notice 
a knowledge of present conditions and possible works 
somewhat prophetic of the future. How correct our 
prophesies may be we know not, for we write them in 
doubt and yet in hopefulness. We write them in the 
fervent belief that you will stand upon a vantage ground 
of experience far higher and more resplendent than our 
own. We ask therefore for those who assume to 
prophecy your kindliest consideration and judgment, 
especially when we assure you that these prophets are 
not without honor, even in their own country and in 
their own time. 

If we may judge from the history of human life and 
all experience, very few, if any, of the three hundred thou- 
sand souls who are now inhabitants of Detroit will exist 
when you have opened this box which we have so sol- 
emnly closed, and yet it may be possible that much which 
we accept from faith may be to you then knowledge, and 
possibly that knowledge may come with conscious- 
ness that we may be witnesses and even listeners to the 
voices that will interpret the words we have written. 
Begging that you will accept for helpfulness all that tends 
to your information and good, and look most kindly upon 
that, which may seem at your time to be a fault, I close 
this tribute. 

May we be permitted to express one supreme hope 
that whatever failures the coming century may have in 
the progress of things material, you may be conscious 
when the century is over, that, as a nation, people and 
city, you have grown in righteousness, for it is this that 
exalts a nation. 

Respectfully and affectionately submitted, 



This box was subsequently transferred by the mayor 
to the common council, and by special order of that body 
was placed in the city archives, under the immediate con- 
trol of the commissioners of the sinking fund and the 
city controller. The box is to be carried among the 

assets of the city, appearing in the yearly report of the 
controller, until it is finally turned over to those who are 
authorized to open it and to reveal its contents. This 
will only be done when the silent pilgrimage of the box. 
through the century is ended. 


By Miss Mary Catherine Crowley. 


Xadies and Gentlemen: 

We are now to hear the best that can be gathered 
of the social life of early Detroit, and we are peculiarly 
favored in anticipating this pleasure from the thoughts 
of one who very lately gave to the reading world a de- 
lightful history of early Detroit, under the title of "A 
Daughter of New France." The book of the distin- 
guished author has been most timely and not only fur- 
nished in the splendid garb of romance a very accurate 
history of events in the founding of Detroit, but has 
caused research to be made by others whose interest 
could not have been otherwise excited. It is therefore 
with great pleasure that I introduce to this audience Miss 
Mary Catherine Crowley. 

Miss Crowley spoke as follows : 

At the beginning of these exercises the hall resounded 
to the martial notes of the "Marseillaise," the liberty song 
of the French Republic. Later in the program it will 
ring with the stirring strains of "God Save the King," 
a reminiscence of Detroit under British rule, and an air 
beloved among us, for we have renamed it "America." 

Upon first thought there would seem to be no close 
relation between "America," the hymn of a country gov- 
erned by its people, and the Chevalier de Cadillac, the 
representative of the Great Autocrat, Louis the Four- 
teenth ; yet, by a poetic coincidence, this noble melody 
links the early days of Detroit with our Detroit of to- 
day. In fact, it may be said to be the history of our 
city expressed in music. 

Strangely enough, the music of "America" was the first 
patriotic air that aroused the echoes of the wooded shores 
of our beautiful river; it was the air which the soldiers 
of Cadillac sang in glad triumph when they landed on 
the green bank of the Detroit two hundred years ago 
to-day ! For it was then the great national air of France, 
having been composed by the musician Lulli in honor 
of the victorious king, Louis the Fourteenth and sung 
before that monarch by the school-girls of Saint Cyr in 
1652, as it is sung, with other words, in the Schools of 
the Legion of Honor, near Paris, to-day. From France, 
it made its way into the patriotic music of Germany, 
and later, adapted by Handel, became the national an- 
them of Great Britain, whence it came back to us. 

Therefore, the air "America" represents the history 
of our city under the Fleur de lis, under the standard 
of St. George, and under the blessed "Star-Spangled Ban- 

It is my privilege to sketch for this Bi-Centenary 
celebration the social life of the brave, adventurous, and 
resolute men and women who laid the foundations of De- 
troit; to picture the days when the present area of the 

Metropolis of the Strait was as the heart of the wilder- 
ness, save for half a hundred thatched-roof stake-houses 
on the river margin, surrounded by a palisade built of 
young trees from the forest. 

The beginning of the social life of Detroit might per- 
haps best be portrayed by a series of "Tableaux Vi- 
vants," the first being a representation of the young La- 
Mothe Launay de Cadillac at St. Nicolas de la Grave. 
For as "the boy is father to the man," so the man will un- 
consciously impress upon his surroundings something 
of the character of his boyhood's home, even though this 
home may have been simple while his later station is 
exalted, or vice versa. 

The early environment of Cadillac must have been 
one of ease and refinement. He was the son of Jean 
Launay or Laumet de Cadillac, an advocate and a mem- 
ber of the parliament of Toulouse. A gently-bred mother 
(Jeanne Pechagut Launay de Cadillac), strove to curb 
his high temper and imperious disposition, and to soften 
his brusqueness. If in this task she was not very suc- 
cessful, still, on occasion he was distinguished for his 
courtesy ; and when he chose, his manner was character- 
ized by a dignity, courtliness, and grace which made him 
a picturesque and attractive personality among the che- 
valiers of New France. It has been surmised that he 
may have been educated by the Jesuits and afterwards 
dismissed by them as unpromising material whereof to 
make a missionary, and that herein may be found the 
root of his implacable hostility and bitterness toward 
their Order. 

Be this as it may, — gifted with a clever and even a 
brilliant mind, he was favored with more advantages 
of education than at the period fell to the lot of many 
young men of more aristocratic lineage and greater ma- 
terial possessions. His letters prove that he was re- 
markably ready with his pen in an age when few soldiers 
evinced literary taste or aptitude, that he possessed a 
fair knowledge of Latin, an ability to quote sagely from 
the Bible, and to hold his own in religious discussions. 
As a soldier of fortune, he developed the cool courage, 
decision, and readiness of resource which later led men to 
confidently follow him into the wilds. Nevertheless, 
when he appears upon the scene of Quebec, at the wine 
brawl in the cabaret of the Widow St. Armand (as often 
at other times), his boastfulness and combativeness sug- 
gest a comparison with that other brave and vain-glo- 
rious Gascon, the hero of Dumas' "Three Muskateers." 

The founder of Detroit was, indeed, a D'Artagnan 
with scarce a sou at the opening of his career, an un- 
known lieutenant of the famous regiment of Carnignan- 
Sallieres. Commissions, both military and marine, were 
soon bestowed upon him, however, and he was a seig- 
neur of Acadia when he visited the City of Champlain 
in 1687 and won for his bride Marie Therese Guyon, a 
niece of the partner of some of his enterprises, the re- 
doubtable Francois Guyon. 

In the light of French-Canadian history, this noted 
privateer appears as the bold sailor who performed prodi- 
gies of valor in the service of the Sun-King, and took his 
pay in the spoils of British ships and Spanish galleons ; 

as the patriot who helped to repel the invasion of Sir 
William Phipps, — rather than as the ruthless pirate 
painted by English writers. 

From Quebec to Acadia, from Acadia to Versailles, 
then to Michilimackinac ; again to the court, and back 
to the wilderness ; such was the life of La Mothe Cadillac 
before he landed on the northern bank of the Detroit 
River two hundred years ago today. 

The followers of the dashing chevalier were for the 
most part a rough and hardy throng. Yet, besides the 
officers, there were among them a few men not used 
to manual labor; younger sons from the seigneuries of 
the St. Lawrence and the Richelieu. 

From some sources, it is true, we have no pleasing, 
portrayal of the scions of the noblesse of New France. 
Scarce ten years had passed since the Intendant Cham- 
pigny declared pride and sloth to be the great faults 
of the nobles of Canada, who had fallen into misery 
because of their ambition to live without labor and as 
persons of quality. 

Not long before, he had written to ask aid of Louis 
the Fourteenth for "the king of Repentigny," with his 
thirteen children, and Tilly with his fifteen," urging, "we 
must give them some corn at once or they will starve." 
About the same time, Governor Denonville wrote of 
"Monsieur de St. Ours, a gentleman from Dauphiny, 
who asked leave to go back to France in search of bread, 
saying he would put his ten children in charge of anyone 
who would give them a living." The Governor adds 
that he had often seen two of this man's daughters reap- 


ing grain and holding the plow. Other women of noted 
families were also as greatly reduced in circumstances, 
but each one, upon opportunity, still played the fine 

Though Parkman, the fascinating historian of "The 
Old Regime in Canada," gives us this sombre sketch, 
he presents a companion picture as glowing with light 
and color as the former is grey and prosaic. The young 
noble of New France, he says, "Threw himself into the 
only field of action which in time of peace was open to 
him. It was trade, but trade seasoned by adventure and 
ennobled by danger; defiant of edict and ordinance, out- 
lawed, conducted in arms among forests and savages, — 
in short it was the Western Fur Trade. On the Great 
Lakes, in the wastes of the Northwest, on the Mississippi 
and the plains beyond, we find the roving gentilhomme 
chief of a gang of bush-rangers, often his own habi- 
tants ; sometimes proscribed by the government, some- 
times leagued in contraband traffic with its highest offi- 
cials ; a hardy vidette of civilization, tracing unknown 
streams, piercing unknown forests, trading, fighting, ne- 
gotiating, and building forts. Again we find him on the 
shores of Acadia or Maine, surrounded by Indian re- 
tainers, a menace and a terror to the neighboring English 
colonist. Saint-Castin, Du Lhut, La Durantaye, La 
Salle, La Mothe Cadillac, Iberville, Bienville, La Veren- 
drye, are names that stand conspicuous on the page of 
half-savage romance that refreshes the hard and prac- 
tical annals of American colonization. * * * It was 
they, and such as they, who discovered the Ohio and the 

Rocky Mountains, explored the Mississippi to its mouth, 
and founded Detroit, St. Louis and New Orleans. 

But, even in his earliest day, the gentilhomme was 
not invariably in the sad plight first described. There 
were exceptions to the general misery, and chief among 
these was the eminent Le Moyne de Longueil. Ere long, 
too, the cultivated lands of the seigneuries began to yield 
appreciable returns, the impoverished noble became a 
sturdy country gentleman, "hardy as the hardiest woods- 
man, yet never forgetting his quality of gentilhomme ; 
scrupulously wearing its badge, the sword, and copying 
as well as he could the fashions of the court which 
glowed on his vision across the sea in all the effulgence 
of Versailles, and beamed with reflected ray from the 
Chateau of Quebec." 

It was at the dawn of the eighteenth century that the 
sons of the proud Canadian nobles began to demand a 
better career than that of the outlawed coureur de bois. 
In Cadillac's plan for a colony some of these young men 
saw their opportunity. To us the claim of distinguished 
rank or ancestry is of secondary moment. What we 
want to know first is whether a man is "standard gold," 
whether he "rings true." Most to the credit of these 
young seigneurs was the fact that upon their arrival at 
Le Detroit they promptly went to work with their hands. 

Those who, in their eagerness to be of the party took 
service as bargemen, did the work of bargemen; those 
who took up land as farmers followed and sometimes 
drew the plow ; the few who engaged as artisans learned 
to work at the forge, or as hewers of wood and carpenters 

helped to build the palisade, the church, the houses. If 
a few years later there were to be found here folk of 
high sounding names which they had adopted to suit 
themselves, there were others, like the Sieurs Desrochers, 
De Muy, De Mersac, De Roquetaliade, De la Vallee 
Rene and De Navarre who had dropped their titles as 
too ostentatious for use in this work-a-day world of the 
wilderness, save on such great occasions as a wedding 
or a funeral. 

The foundation stones of the city were Industry and 
Religion. No sooner had Cadillac and his party landed 
from their canoes than, on the crest of the green bank, 
all the company fell upon their knees, while the mission- 
aries, Del Halle and Vaillant, with prayer and chant, set 
up the Cross, the symbol of Christianity. That same 
evening the settlers erected a rude altar, and the next 
morning "the sweet sound of Father Constantin's little 
bell summoned the garrison to early Mass, and told that 
the first chaplain of Detroit had begun his mission." 
Two days later, on the feast of "the good Ste. Anne," a 
chapel built of logs, young saplings, and forest boughs, 
was dedicated. 

Such were the men who formed the earliest social 
life of Detroit. 

Tennyson describes for us an Adamless Eden ; Detroit 
was once an Eveless Eden ; there were no women in the 
little town of Fort Pontchartrain for nearly a year after 
the coming of Cadillac on that sultry July day of 1701. 
It is sometimes premised that had Eve not been in 
paradise, Adam would never have eaten the forbidden 

apple, and thus brought tribulation upon the human 
race. Some mysoginists would even have us believe 
that were it not for "the woman," man might be in 
paradise to this day. And yet, when he was absolute 
lord of this region, which Dollier and De Galinee termed 
"the Terrestrial Paradise of Canada," man got into trou- 
ble for himself. 

Long before spring, Cadillac had quarreled with 
Father Vaillant and, by driving away the "Black Robe," 
had deprived himself of a powerful intermediary with 
the Indians and taken a step nearer his own ruin ; while 
several among his followers had practically deserted and 
adopted the savage life of the forest. 

During that first winter in the little stockade, how- 
ever, the social circle of the commandant formed, with 
one or two exceptions, a congenial company. There was 
Cadillac himself, brilliant in conversation when he was 
in the mood ; rich in recollections of days at court, in 
camp, and on the seas; of caustic wit, and ready of re- 
partee. There was De Tonty, suave, elegant, and still 
professing a devoted friendship for his chief. There 
were the Lieutenants Dugue and Charconacle, and the 
Recollet priest, Father Constantin Del Halle, a man of 
a distinguished family' of Florence who, having given all 
his possessions to the poor, had become a humble mis- 
sionary, and accompanied the expedition of the Sieur 
Cadillac to be cure of the first congregation of white men 
at Detroit, and to labor among the Indians. Father Con- 
stantin, learned, accomplished, courtly; whose very good- 
ness, and his zeal to promote amicable relations between 

the French and the redmen, cost him his life at the hands 
of the chief Le Pasant. 

For diversion the officers had sword practice; — when 
Cadillac left Fort Pontchartrain for Louisiana in 1712 
there were enumerated among his effects eighteen swords 
and rapiers. The other amusements of his military fam- 
ily were probably card-playing, dicing, canoeing, fishing, 
hunting, together with lacrosse and other sports upon the 
ice. Either then or later they had also "one hundred 
small trumpets" wherewith to impress the Indians and 
to arouse the enthusiasm of the soldiery. 

The stockade inclosed an arpent of land within the 
space now bounded by Jefferson aveue on the north, 
Griswold street on the east, and Shelby street on the 

As for the garrison, and the motley number of arti- 
sans, boatmen, and wood-rangers who made up the pop- 
ulation, — in summer they labored at building the town, 
fished and played at games of chance. When autumn 
came, they roughly prepared the ground for grain, taking 
turns at drawing the plow, for there were no horses in 
the settlement. Some time later, Cadillac had one sent 
down from Montreal to work his mill, but this old 
' Colin" was the only horse in Detroit for many years. 
It is recorded that when De la Mothe left this region he 
was forbidden to sell his possessions here, including this 
horse, the government alleging that the new command- 
ant, De la Forest, needed them for his own use, yet had 
no money wherewith to pay for them. 

The wheat, sown with so much toil during the first 
October spent by the French at the Strait, was reaped 
the following July. For meat the settlers hunted the 
forest. In the winter they strengthened their defences 
and continued their building. Whatever rude furniture 
they had was, of course, also made here. They had to 
rely entirely upon home industries. 

For recreation, some of the men were wont to gather 
around the open fireplaces in the great lodges of the 
red chiefs, smoking the Indian weed and telling stories. 
Others passed the long evenings in merriment, with danc- 
ing, singing, feasting, when the wherewith was to be had, 
and too often in carousing. 

But the first voyageurs who came through the river 
at the breaking up of the ice brought intelligence which 
caused the greatest excitement the town had known 
since the day of its foundation. This was the news that 
the women were coming ! Madame Cadillac, Madame De 
Tonty, and at least three or four women attendants, 
probably soldiers' wives, were on the way to join their 
husbands. At Quebec the parents of Madame Cadillac 
had been parishioners of the saintly prince-bishop, Mon- 
siegneur de Laval. From the pulpit of Notre Dame, the 
instruction of both Jesuit and Recollet, the teaching of 
the Ursuline Nuns and of her own good French-Cana- 
dian mother, pretty Marie Therese Guyon had learned 
the virtues that were to have so marked an influence 
upon the social life of early Detroit. 

The fair Therese had been trained to prudent, house- 
keeperly ways. The daughter and sister of prosperous 

merchants, early in her married life she began to show 
that she possessed a share of the business and executive 
ability which distinguished her family. She was uncon- 
sciously preparing to be the leader of the women of a 
pioneer colony. 

On the ioth of September, 1701, Madame Cadillac 
had, with her wonted energy, gone from Quebec to 
Three Rivers, and having, according to La Mothe's pre- 
vious instructions, bought up stores for the journey there 
and at Montreal, had with her party continued up the 
St. Lawrence to Fort Frontenac, now Kingston, Ontario, 
where they passed the inclement season. In the spring 
they came on, by way of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. 
Let us picture their arrival at Detroit. 

One day toward the end of May the sentry whose 
pleasant task it is to watch the river, beholds down to- 
ward the lake of the Eries a dark object just at the 
line where the blue-grey clouds and the silver waters 
meet; so far off that it might almost be mistaken 
for a wild duck which as it flies dips its wings to the sur- 
face of the stream, a fog stealing up from the lake, or the 
smoke of an Indian fire blown from the land. As it 
draws nearer, however, it is seen to be a canoe; another 
appears in its wake. The sentry calls the news in a loud 
voice and every civilian in the little town hurries to the 
strand ; the occupants of the skiffs may be a party of 
redskins returning from the lower lakes, or perhaps even 
a band of Iroquois come with treacherous offerings of 
peace belts, as they did at Michillimackinac. 

Monsieur de Cadillac orders the garrison under arms. 
The bateaux come nearer, now a white banner waves from 
the prow of the foremost canoe as it glides up the shin- 
ing path made by the sunlight, a sunbeam kisses the flag, 
and at the same moment the spectators on the shore 
catch sight of its golden fleurs de lis. A glad shout goes 
up from a hundred throats, "This is verily the convoy 
from Fort Frontenac." 

The cry re-echoes from the woods and the opposite 
shore ; a salute is fired from the little cannon of the fort, 
the soldiers line up to welcome the travellers with mili- 
tary formality. Cadillac and his officers, with Father Del 
Halle, go down to the water's edge, the small throng 
of settlers press forward likewise, and the savages has- 
ten from their villages, eager to kiss the hands of the 
valiant ladies, and declaring: "From this we know that 
the French mean to be friends with us ; — white women 
have come to dwell in our country." 

Now we distinguish the figures in the canoes ; the 
Indian rowers, the sturdy forms of the Canadians who 
form the escort of the women ; the happy wives of the 
soldiers. In the stern of the ladies' flagship we see Ma- 
dame de Tonty, buxom and comely, a charming picture 
of a young matron of New France; Madame Cadillac, 
handsome and graciously dignified as the wife of the 
seigneur should be, yet with a bright, glad smile. Against 
her knee leans little Jacques, her six-year-old son, who 
calls out cheerily at sight of his father and of his older 
brother Antoine, who came with Cadillac. 


"Vive les dames, vive les jolies Canadiennes," shout 
the people on the river margin. And their exuberantly 
happy greeting is answered by the boatmen; — 

"Vive, vive le Commandant du Roi." 

"Vive, vive les habitants du Detroit." 

Too much cannot be said in praise of the courage of 
these first women of Detroit in undertaking this long and 
arduous voyage. 

Madame Cadillac had seen far more of life and of 
the new world than most women of her time. As a bride 
she had voyaged to Acadia; she had lived at her hus- 
band's seigneury of Mont Desert; some historians say 
that after the seizure of Port Royal by Sir William 
Phipps, she was taken as a prisoner to Boston. She 
knew the dangers that would menace this present jour- 
ney, yet she was neither dismayed nor daunted. 

The other women had probably never before left 
their native towns, Quebec, Three Rivers, or some little 
village on the shore of the St. Lawrence. They could 
form no conception of the appalling distance they would 
have to traverse, the awful silence of the wilderness ; the 
hardships and peril of sleeping out under the stars or 
rain in open canoes drawn up on the strand of river or 
lake, the long journey afoot through the forest at the 
portage of the Niagara. 

It is told of Cadillac's company, which came by the 
upper route, that when they had travelled for a week or 
more, one of the officers and several civilians, disheart- 
ened by the weariness of the way, and the certain priva- 
tions that lay before them, abandoned the expedition. 

Neither history nor tradition offers evidence of any- 
such wavering in the party of Madame Cadillac ; as far 
as we know of this time or later, not a woman turned 

But, while we are lost in admiration of these intrepid 
women, there is another aspect of the case. 

It was clearly next to impossible for a man to get 
away from his wife in those days. The good woman was 
sure to follow him, even hundreds of leagues into the wil- 
derness, to see what he was doing there. 

The coming of the women to old Fort Pontchartrain 
gave to Cadillac's undertaking the element of stability 
that it needed. Up to this time, Detroit had been but a 
military post with a few resident traders and artisans. 
Thenceforth it became really a colony, since — 
"A man's first, best country ever is, at home." And 
If solid happiness we prize, 
From our own selves our joys must come, 
And that dear hut, our home." 

Madame Cadillac was the first white woman to step 
upon these shores, and it was she who founded here the 
first civilized home. 

In 1703 another band of wives journeyed the three 
hundred leagues from the St. Lawrence to the Strait. 

Marvellous was the change which the presence of 
the new colonists made in the little settlement. The 
cabins, hitherto but places of shelter or revelling, now 
became cheery and neat. The men, who had gone about 
unshaven and unshorn, began to pay more heed to their- 
appearance ; they wore their red caps with a jauntier air ; 

their red blouses showed no more rents, or patches put on 
by awkward sewers. The garrison grumbled no more at 
the daily drill, but were ever ready to go on parade. 
The narrow streets of Ste. Anne, St. Louis, St. Joachim, 
and St. Francois were livelier for the gay kirtles of the 
women ; and it was pleasant in the church on a Sunday 
to see the Normandy head-dresses of the settlers' wives, 
the elegant fontanges, or coiffures, and veils of the ladies. 
The whole town took on an air of thrift, prosperity, and 

The early homes of Fort Pontchartrain were, how- 
ever, primitive enough. The windows of the houses 
had no glass, but there were wooden shutters, or else 
deerskin curtains of Indian manufacture, tanned to 
a pale yellow and embroidered with dyed porcupine 
quills. The rafters were hung with a golden tapestry of 
seed corn, dried pumpkins, and the vegetable seeds saved 
from the previous summer; and, suspended near the fire 
in the open chimney might be seen shoulders of smoked 
ham and pieces of jerked venison. Mats of the river 
grasses, plaited by the hands of the panisses slaves, cov- 
ered the puncheon floors. 

The first manor of Detroit was a stake house. The 
second, built on the same site after the conflagration 
which in 1703 destroyed the best part of the town, was 
perhaps of squared logs. It was situated on Ste. Anne 
street, on part of the ground now occupied by the build- 
ings Nos. 133, 135 and 137 Jefferson avenue. 

But although his mansion was little better than the 
cabins of his followers, Cadillac from the beginning af- 

fected a pomp befitting the seigneur. To uphold his per- 
sonal dignity was to uphold the dignity of law and order. 
Here in the wilderness he might say as truly as the great 
Louis upon his throne, "I am the State." 
Like the seigneurs of the St. Lawrence, he aped the 
feudal lord, and the settlers were his censitaires or vas- 
sals. We may be sure that, as soon as might be, he had 
shipped to him from Montreal a carved chair or two of 
French manufacture, and odd pieces of silver plate, trifles 
which yet would magnify his importance as Lord of 
the Strait and help to define the difference between him 
and his followers. 

Whenever Cadillac appeared in public he wore either 
his uniform as commandant or his court dress, and a 
sword clanged at his side. We may infer that Madame 
Cadillac as punctilliously went attired in her silken gowns 
long after the fashion of them had passed, and graced the 
role of lady of the manor to the last day of her stay at 

Probably, also, she possessed and valued, as did the 
ladies of her time, a chain of gold, and bits of lace 
from France and Flanders, and it may be supposed that 
these fripperies played their part in the early society of 
the manor-house. 

During the first year of Madame Cadillac's residence 
here, her only woman friend and companion was prob- 
ably Madame de Tonty, but she was soon joined by the 
young girl, Genevieve le Tendre, who, in 1704, is men- 
tioned as the god-mother of her child Therese ; and after 
a while her little circle included the wives of the Sieurs 
de la Vallee Rene, de Mersac, and others. 

Up to 1708 there were, however, only thirty-nine 
houses within the fort, and Mr. Farmer tells us that the 
whole number of French settlers was sixty-three, of 
whom thirty-four were traders. The same year twenty- 
nine soldiers, whose term of service had expired, settled 
at the post, among them de Mersac, Desrocher, La Ferte, 
and St. Aubin. All of the garrison were lodged within 
the stockade, but Cadillac, in order to foster industry, 
gave them the use of half-arpent spaces outside the en- 
closure for vegetable gardens. Many of the early col- 
onists mingled freely with the Indians and, adopting their 
habits, became more like the aborigenes than civilized 
men ; for, as Cadillac says in one of his letters, ''With 
wolves one learns to howl." It was the imperiousness 
of his rule, the influence of the church, and of the Cana- 
dian women, which kept the manners of early Detroit 
from utterly deteriorating into the roughness of a back- 
woods settlement, and moulded the customs of the old 

In 1708 the settlers had begun to build houses out- 
side the fort. The first child born here was Therese 
de Tonty, who was named for Madame Cadillac. In 
1707 there were fourteen births; in 1708, fifteen. 

In 1707 we find the commandant granting land to 
his interpreter, Jean Favart, and receiving the acknowl- 
edgment of faith and homage, with five livres seigneu- 
rial dues or rentals, and ten livres additional for the right 
to trade. The censitaire of those days agreed to help to 
plant a Maypole before the manor each year. 

From Mr. Burton's invaluable brochure, ''Detroit 
Under Cadillac/' we learn that if the tenant did not wish 
to do this he was required to pay three livres in silver 
or an equivalent in peltries. He bound himself to have 
his grain ground at the public mill and to pay toll at eight 
livres for each minot. He could not sell or give his land 
in security without consent of Cadillac, and the seigneur 
had the first right of purchase. He had to furnish tim- 
ber for vessels and fortifications when it was called for, 
and must need promise not to work as a blacksmith, cut- 
ler, armorer or brewer without special permit. He might 
import goods from Montreal or elsewhere, but was not 
allowed to employ clerks unless they were already col- 
onists. In other words, he could not make contracts for 
foreign labor. He might hunt and fish, but was not to 
kill hares, rabbits, partridges or pheasants. Other con- 
ditions were that he should pay on St. Martin's day a 
tax of a certain number of fowl, dozens of eggs, or meas- 
ures of grain for each arpent of his land that fronted on 
the river. 

In addition to having their grain ground at Cadillac's 
mill, the habitants were required to have their bread baked 
by his baker. Dues and rents were paid in furs or in sil- 
ver coin, when there was any. The settler, in taking 
up a grant, agreed to build a house on his concession 
within a year. Many of these enactments appear 
strange in this day of equal rights and liberty. In fact, 
it was not long before the colonists began to complain 
of the charges levied upon them ; but "the prices derived 
by the commandant from his sales were really the prices 

which the purchasers were willing to pay for the protec- 
tion afforded by his government and by the palisades." 
The annual stipend paid by each tenant helped to keep 
the stockade in repair, to maintain the soldiery and to 
provide for De la Mothe and his family. The revenues 
thus derived were not sufficient to do all this, but he had 
another source of income in the trade of the post, and he 
was able to write with pride to Comte Pontchartrain, 
the colonial minister, that "in twelve months the col- 
onists had put themselves in a position to do without pro- 
visions from Canada forever, and, from its foundation, 
the colony had not cost the King so much as a 'sou.'" 

Warned by his troubles with the Jesuits of Michili- 
mackinac because he permitted the sale of fire-water to 
the Indians, De La Mothe now kept control of the trade 
in brandy, and it was sold only by the "petit verre." 
But the wild grapes which grew abundantly upon the 
prairie paid no tribute to the seigneur, and of them Jean 
Baptiste made a light wine. We may infer, too, that 
the commandant reaped a fair profit from his brewery, 
to judge from the traditions of the many habitants who 
encountered that terrific apparition, the Red Dwarf, on 
the way home from social festivities. 

While in public Madame Cadillac was lady of the 
manor, in domestic life she must have endured many pri- 
vations. From Detroit's first directory we learn that at 
different times servants for her were brought from Mon- 
treal, but she had no light task in the ordering of her 
household and the care of her children, even though she 
had left two little daughters at school with the Ursuline 
Nuns at Quebec. 

The French-Canadian is said to be by nature indolent. 
However this may be, the men and women of early 
Detroit were of necessity thrifty. Wild fruit, berries and 
nuts grew in the vicinity and the women busied them- 
selves in conserving these for the winter. Some of the 
fruit was dried; some perhaps made into sweetmeats by 
being boiled in sugar obtained from the maple trees. 

General Cass states in his memoirs that in his time 
the domestic loom was unknown at Detroit, but Mr. Bela 
Hubbard tells us that in the early days of the settlement 
the women made a coarse, homespun cotton cloth which 
they bartered to the Indians for pelts, venison and game. 

Accustomed from childhood to the good example of 
the ladies of Quebec and Montreal, Mesdames Cadillac 
and De Tonty assisted Father Constantin in his work 
of religion and charity both within the stockade and 
among the surrounding villages of the savages, and we 
have record that they were wont to present to the Indian 
women garments they had made for them. Doubtless 
they also strove to teach them to sew, and to instruct 
them in other feminine industries. 

The records of Ste. Anne's church are in themselves 
an epitome of the social life of old Detroit, with their 
story of births, marriages and deaths, and the glimpses of 
family joys, sorrows, and charities afforded by the mar- 
ginal notes set down by the early cures. How much 
more might we have known concerning the first years 
of the settlement, but for the loss of the opening pages of 
this register in the fire of the autumn of 1703. 

When Canadian women were few in the colony, Cad- 
illac and the cure would fain have had the unmarried 
soldiers take Indian wives before the altar of Ste. Anne's, 
but the records show only one such marriage, that of 
Pierre Roy. The thoughts of the young men wandered 
back to the girls they had known* in other days, and they 
returned to Montreal and Quebec for wives. 

As for the recreations of the women at that period, 
there was the pious joyousness of preparation for the 
feasts of the church, the tranquil gayety of family fetes, 
a pleasant intercourse with one another and, for Madame 
Cadillac, the role of queen of the festivities of the little 

Albeit tempestuous, restless, overbearing and bitter 
against his opponents, the Chevalier de la Mothe Cad- 
illac was not wanting in noble qualities. Ambitious for 
wealth and power, he held his honor as more precious 
than either, and was courageous, upright and loyal, a 
gallant figure in the annals of New France. To us it is 
given to see the realization of his dream — a great city 
upon the shore of the Detroit. 

Madame Cadillac was a beautiful character ; a woman 
strong in mind and heart ; resourceful, brave, patient, 
self-sacrificing; a model wife and the devoted mother of 
thirteen children, six of whom were born in Detroit. That 
she was moreover a woman of rare good sense and an 
excellent manager, is proved by her care of her husband's 
possessions in his absence, and the ability wherewith she 
executed his commissions to buy stores for him when he 
was at Michilimackinac. 

A fair and gracious example to the city's fair and 
.gracious daughters was this first woman of Detroit. 

Thus we see that in the first years of its existence, 
Detroit was a light-hearted little community which 
dearly loved a pageant of ceremony and a dance on the 
.green before the house of the commandant, was ever 
prepared for an outbreak of the Indians, and ever ready 
to brighten its tasks with a holiday. 

By Richard R, Elliott. 

It happens, perhaps appropriately that the selection of 
the writer, who is to outline the history of Detroit dur- 
ing the French Regime, as a part of the historical work 
of the Bi-Centary exercises, should fall to me, who 
first saw the light of day, more than seventy-five years 
ago, in the ancient city of Quebec ; from whence came the 
authority, the founder, the colonists in great part, and 
the civil and religious accompaniments, with the military 
support representing the power of far distant France, to 
establish the colony of Detroit 200 years ago. See note 6. 

The closing days of the month of July, 1901, remind 
that the banner of Catholic France was raised for the 
first time, on the north shore of the strait, upon which 
is now the City of Detroit, two hundred years ago. 

But before this event, the locality had been recog- 
nized as of strategic importance for the maintainance 
of French supremacy in the Northwest regions above. 

To the English, it had been the impassable gateway 
of water communication from the East, by way of Lake 
Erie, to the fur-trading regions of lake and forest from 
Lake Huron, to and beyond Lake Superior; which re- 
gions had been exploited and controlled by the French 
traders, but which for years had been eagerly coveted 
by the English traders. To the French, the control of 

the strait would secure a rear protection against hostile 
approach from the lower lakes, or from any attempt to 
enter Lake Huron by way of Lake Erie. A study of the 
map of the waterway between Lakes Erie and Huron 
will show the strategic importance of the strait between 
Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie. The French could reach 
Lake Huron from Canada by way of the Ottawa River, 
and by water and thirty portage communications, to the 
Georgian Bay ; and this was the route usually taken by 
military and trading expeditions to Canada for nearly 
a century. In 1679 La Salle, in the "Griffon," who crossed 
Lake Erie and sailed up the strait, had on board his 
vessel, Fathers Hennepin, Membre and Ribourd, and the 
Chevallier Henry de Tonty, who in their respective nar- 
ratives describe the natural beauty of the forest-lined 
shores, the beautiful birds and the abundance of game 
they saw, with much admiration. Charlevoix, in his sev- 
enteenth letter, written at Detroit forty-two years later, 
corroborates the descriptions of the scenery as given by 
La Salle and his passengers. 

In 1693, the French Government had under consid- 
eration the advisability of establishing a fort to command 
the strait. Among the officers called upon to report upon 
this project was the Chevalier Antoine de la Mothe Cadil- 
lac, who had been commandant of Michilimackinac and 
its dependencies. The memoir submitted by this young 
officer upon the status of the Western Lake Indian na- 
tions, and their political relations with the nations of the 
Iroquoian Confederacy of New York, whose extensive 
rule over the Indian nations between the Atlantic ocean 
.and the head of Lake Erie was thoroughly understood 

by the French Government, attracted attention in the 
cabinet of Louis XIV., and especially of the Count de 
Pontchartrain (the elder), Minister of the Marine and 
Colonies; not only for its comprehensiveness, but more 
particularly for the reasons assigned for constructing per- 
manent works of defence at this strategic locality. He 
also advocated the planting of a colony of Frenchmen on 
the strait and the concentration in the vicinity of the 
proposed military post of all the Indian nations inhabiting 
the shores and islands of Lake Huron and Michigan, for 
permanent settlement; whose warriors, allied with the 
French would make a combined force which the English 
and their Iroquoian allies could not overcome. Definite 
action at the time on the part of the Government of 
France was probably deferred by the adverse influence 
of the monopolist Campagnie du Canada, controlling the 
trade of New France. In 1700, the Chevalier Cadillac 
went to France and explained his plans to Count de Pont- 

He asked for a grant of land for his proposed colony, 
for one hundred soldiers and for as many more colonists, 
the necessary outfit for such an expedition and money 
for its support during the initial years of its establish- 
ment. In the meantime Louis Phelippeau, Count de 
Pontchartrain, who had for ten years been Minister of 
the Marine and Colonies in the cabinet of Louis XIV., 
in 1699, succeeded Boucherat as Chancellor. 

His son, Jerome Phelippeau, Count de Pontchartrain, 
succeeded his father the same year as minister of the 
Marine and Colonies, and continued to hold his office 
until the death of the "Grand Monarch." 

The Phelippeaus, father and son, were pious Catho- 
lics ; the elder nobleman in 1714 retired to his castle at 
Pontchartrain, and spent the remainder of his days in 
prayer and devotion. Count Jerome became the patron 
of the colony of Detroit, and under his powerful protec- 
tion it was saved from destruction by its greatest enemy, 
the Compagnie du Canada. 

The Chevalier Cadillac received from Count Jerome 
Pontchartrain his commission as Governor, the grant of 
lands and an order on the Governor-General of New 
France for the men, money and stores ; and, returning to 
Canada in 1701, commenced the organization of his initial 

But de Calieres, the Governor-General, was unable to 
furnish more than fifty soldiers and the same number of 
artisans and farmers for colonists — in all, about half the 
number authorized by the French Government. 

The expedition, which comprised twenty-five bark 
trading canoes, each with a capacity of four tons freight, 
left Trois Rivieres June 5, 1701, taking the route by the 
Ottawa River, and across, by rivers, lakes and portages, 
to the Georgian Bay. The portages were many, and to 
make them the freight was removed from the canoes, 
which were light enough to be carried on the shoulders 
of the voyageurs, while the freight was carried to the 
next navigable water on hand-sledges. 

The expedition comprised the commandant, Chevalier 
Cadillac ; Surgeon Henri Belisle, Captain Alphonse de 
Tonty, Lieutenants Dugue and Chaeornacle, the troops, 
colonists and the voyageurs. In the suite of the com- 
mandant were Father Le L'Halle, a Recollet, chaplain of 

the expedition, and Father Vaillant, a Jesuit missionary, 
for service among the Lake Indians expected to join the 
colony. There had been no hostile Indians seen during 
the journey to the Georgian Bay. Had the route by way 
of Lake Erie been taken, the chances were that the 
Senecas would have captured the whole command, while 
those who would have escaped death would have been led 
captives to the Iroquoian cantons.* 

The journey was accomplished without molestation 
by hostile Indians, or accident, in forty-four days. The 
banks on both sides of the river were high, a landing 
place was selected at the mouth of a small stream known 
in modern times as the Savoyard River, on both sides 

*At this epoch, the Iroquoian Confederacy was in the plenitude of 
its powers, after two centuries of existence. It was lord and master 
over all the Indian nations existing on American soil between the 
head of Lake Erie and the Atlantic coasts ; and between the St. Law- 
rence and the Gulf of Mexico. 

Its home territory, called "The Country of the Lakes," included 
the Seneca, the Onondaga, the Oneida, the Cayuga Lakes and the 
Mohawk River. Certainly the most picturesque region in what is 
now the State of New York. In the native language it was called 
the "Long House," the custodian of whose "Western door" was the 
'First Fire," or the Seneca Nation ; while the custody of its "East- 
ern door" was confided to the "Fifth Fire," or the Mohawk nation. 

The Seneca fort and chief canton was at Canandaguia ; while the 
home territory of the nation comprised all of Western New York, 
including the beautiful valley of the Genesee and the wild regions 
of Niagara. 

The Seneca was the most numerous of the Iroquoian nations; it 
was a vigilant guardian of the "Western Door"; no craft was al- 
lowed to pass unchallenged to or from the vicinity of Niagara. 

About 3,000 of this celebrated race of warriors are living on their 
reservation, about 10 miles from the City of Buffalo. If the reader 
is interested in American Indian affairs, as now existing, it will 
interest him to read "Report on the Indian Problem to the New 
York Assembly," 1889. 2 vols., pp. 1229 and 1242. There are about 
5,500 survivors of the Iroquoian nations living at the present day in 
the State of New York; nearly as many more in Ontario, Canada, 
and 600 Oneidas near Green Bay, Wis. 

of which the soil, level with the strait, was sandy. The 
whole party disembarked, the canoes having been hauled 
into the small stream, their freight removed, tents were 
pitched, and the expedition went into camp July 21, 1701. 
Cadillac had the standard of France unfurled from a mast 
and formally took possession of his domain. 

The successful termination of the first move in this 
bold enterprise was highly creditable to its commander. 
Canada had at the time a population of only 2,000 souls ; 
from its sparse settlements he had to select such men 
as his frontier experience seemed to indicate as reliable, 
who would share the dangers and chances of his expedi- 

According to Rameau, an authority in the colonial his- 
tory of Canada, it was a proof of his great personal in- 
fluence that he succeeded in inducing so many to leave 
their homes and friends and follow him to a far distant 
wilderness in a journey of 600 miles in bark canoes, ex- 
posed to hostile attack ; with the possibility that after 
its termination the whole command might be massacred 
before assistance from the nearest quarter in Canada 
might reach the scene.* 

The site of the new post was located at the narrowest 
pare of the river, on high ground. Four French acres 
were marked out for stockade enclosures, inside of which 
two hundred square feet were reserved for defensive 
works, and these were immediately commenced. 

*Rameau. Notes Historique sur la Colonic du Detroit, Montreal, 

The fort was built of heavy square timber, laid as in 
mason work, with bastions, affording ample protection, 
and from its position on the bluff, with a small swivel 
gun on each bastion, could command every approach. It 
was named in honor of the patron of the colony, Fort 
Pontchartrain. The chapel built within the stockade en- 
closure was named in honor of Ste. Anne, on whose fes- 
tival, July 26, 1701, it was commenced. 

The dwellings for temporary use were all alike, and 
built of upright timber, simply cabins roofed with bark, 
and made habitable by the methods customary in frontier 

"Here, then," says General Cass, "commences the his- 
tory of Detroit, and with it the history of Michigan. How 
numerous and diversified are the incidents compressed 
within the period of its existence. No place in the United 
States presents such a series of events, interesting in 
themselves and permanently affecting, as they occurred, 
its progress and prosperity. Five times its flag has 
changed, three different sovereignties have claimed its al- 
legiance, and since it has been held by the United States, 
its government has been thrice transferred; twice it has 
been besieged by the Indians, once captured in war, and 
once burned to the ground." 

In pursuance of his plan of concentrating at Detroit 
the Indian nations living on the littorals and islands of 
Lakes Huron and Michigan, Cadillac sent messengers 
with belts of wampum to these natives, inviting their re- 
spective tribes to leave their bleak homes and to come 
down and settle at Detroit, where the climate was mild, 

the soil fertile, game abundant, with an established post 
for trade and ample protection assured. 

Thus in the outset of his career at Detroit, Cadillac 
placed himself in opposition to the Jesuit missionaries. 
His influence with the tribes was such that considerable 
numbers of the Hurons, the Ottawas, the Miamis, and 
the Pottawotomies abandoned their homes and came to 
the vicinity of Fort Pontchartrain. 

In the meantime, after preliminary works for shelter 
and for protection had been completed, attention was 
given to the cultivation of the soil, as of primary import- 
ance. Cadillac and Father Constantin set the first exam- 
ple by having pieces of land outside the stockade cleared 
up and planted. To farmer colonists were assigned tracts 
of uniform size on the river front, and the married soldiers 
were encouraged to take land and clear it up for tillage. 
Advances of seed, implements and supplies were made 
from the allowance provided by the Government ; and 
shelter within the stockade provided for all. The Indian 
settlements were located below the fort and the French 
above, in the direction of Lake St. Clair. 

The difficulties attending farm work can hardly be 
imagined. There were no horses or cattle and the clear- 
ing of timber and preparation of the soil had to be done 
with the axe and spade — in other words, by hand-labor. 

The chase and fisheries became valuable auxiliaries 
in the supply of good and wholesome food. There were 
during these initial months no white women in the colony. 

Cadillac brought his oldest son and a nephew to De- 
troit, leaving his wife and three children at Quebec. 


While still in camp an unexpected event occurred 
which seriously disturbed the equanimity of the Com- 
mandant. This was the sudden and unceremonious de- 
parture by the returning trading canoes, of Father Vail- 
lant, in obedience to the express orders of the Father 
Superior of the Jesuits at Quebec ; sent it is presumed to 
the missionary by an Indian runner soon after the depar- 
ture of the expedition from Trois Rivieres, who had 
reached the vicinity of the colony about the time of the 
landing of the expedition. The causes leading to this 
event will be explained later. Before resuming the nar- 
rative of the young colony, I desire to say that the Rev- 
Francis Vaillant de Gueslis was one of the most eminent 
of the Jesuit missionaries who had placed their lives in 
jeopardy in evangelizing the people of the tribes of the 
Iroquoian Confederacy. The summary of the status of 
this distinguished French priest is briefly given by me in 
note 3.* 

*Rev. Francois Vaillant de Gueslis, S. J., or, as he was familiarly 
called, Father Vaillant, was, according to Tangay: "Repertoire- 
General du Clerge Canadien, par ordre chronologique, depuis la 
fondation de la Colonie," etc., ordained at Quebec, 1675. 

Four years later he entered the Mohawk cantons as a missionary 
and remained with this warlike nation during four years, when, on 
account of British intrigues, the mission had to be abandoned and 
he was recalled to Quebec. 

In 1687, he was appointed chaplain to Governor De Nonville's 
celebrated expedition, which marched through the Seneca country 
and laid it waste, in retribution for the Seneca raids against the 
French settlements on the St. Lawrence. 

In 1688, he was appointed by the Governor General, special 
envoy to Governor Dongan at New York. 

In 1 701, he was appointed Indian missionary to accompany the 
expedition of Cadillac to found Fort Pontchartrain at Detroit, but 
was recalled to Quebec the same year. In 1703, he was sent as a 
missionary to the Seneca nation and served in their extensive country 


Madam Cadillac placed her two daughters to be edu- 
cated in the convent of Quebec. Madam de Tonty had 
also remained at Quebec; both ladies were determined 
to join their husbands. Madam Cadillac, taking her 
young son and Madam de Tonty with her, courageously 
left Quebec September i, and joined a trading expedi- 
tion, comprising two large canoes, destined for Detroit 
by way of Lake Erie. 

A short stay was made at Fort Frontenac ; there 
Father Vaillant, the Jesuit missionary, was met while on 
his way to Quebec; from this missionary was received 
the first intelligence of the safe arrival of the expedition 
under the command of Cadillac at its destination ; both 
ladies soon after reached Detroit, having accomplished 
their fatiguing and hazardous journey without interrup- 
tion or accident. Before winter the stockade was com- 
pleted; the fort, chapel, storehouse and dwellings were 
surrounded by a circular road which was patrolled day 
and night by a guard. The strong gates of the stockade 
were closed at sunset, and strict military vigilance and 
discipline maintained. 

The first winter in the new colony passed without any 
untoward event ; the season's hunt with the Indians had 
been good; no hostiles had menaced the settlement, while 
the prospects for crops on the pieces of land under culti- 
vation were favorable. Had Cadillac received that sup- 

four years, when the Iroquoian missionary work was suspended on 
account of the machinations of its English opponents, aided by a 
liberal suppiy of rum. 

These deails are given by Dr. O'Callaghan, in his note on page 
762, N. Y. Documentary History, vol. ix. 

port from the colonial government which had been au- 
thorized by the crown, the success of his enterprise would 
never have been doubtful. But his project was secretly 
opposed from its start by a combination as incongruous 
as it was powerful, wielding such influence in New 
France that all outside of its sphere was of small account. 
The directors of the Compagnie du Canada in France and 
in Canada were decidely opposed to the policy of the 
crown in founding a settlement on the strait, while the 
Superior of the Jesuits at Quebec did not look favorably 
on the project of concentrating there the Indian tribes of 
the Western lakes for permanent settlement. This would 
probably result in the depopulation of the missionary 
fields centering at Michilimackinac ; but, apparently, the 
success of the colony generally would seriously interfere 
with the working of the monopoly, and tend to decrease 
the enormous profits realized from the control of the fur 
trade in the lake regions. 

In reference to the missions in the western regions, 
the glorious record of which can never be fully known,, 
the Jesuit Fathers were the explorers and afterward the 
pioneers of civilization in these regions ; while the subse- 
quent evangelization of the wild tribes was effected by 
the martyrdom of some of the most illustrious of their 

No organization of men in New France at that period 
had a more thorough knowledge of the nature as well as 
of the instincts of the American Indian than had the 
Jesuits. There is no question of this fact ! Nor can it 
be denied either, that a jealous feeling had existed during 

all the French regime in Canada in the minds of many- 
brave and distinguished French officers and dignitaries, 
toward the Jesuit missionaries, excited by the fact that 
the military power of France had repeatedly failed to 
subdue the colony's worst enemies, the Iroquoians ; while 
these saintly priests, with no other weapon than the 
crucifix, had penetrated the strongholds of the nations 
on the Mohawk and the sylvan regions of the inner lakes ; 
had secured terms of peace by diplomacy ; had made con- 
verts of their wise sachems and their fiercest warriors ; 
had built chapels in their chief cantons, and had lived 
among this fierce race like brothers, loved, admired and 
respected by the wise sachems who governed this power- 
ful confederacy, around their ancient council-fire at On- 
ondaga, until their Christian fabric had been destroyed, 
and their harmonizing influence overthrown, by the devil- 
ish machinations and rum of their English enemies. 

In their long experiences in the conversion of abor- 
iginal communities in different parts of America, it had 
become evident that the near presence of a superior rac* 
to any community of Indians, whether Christian or pagan, 
became demoralizing to the latter race ; while the closer 
such contact became, the more fatal the results which 
generally followed ! 

The motive of the opposition of the Jesuits to the dis- 
placement and removal of the lake tribes to the new 
colony on the Detroit for the purposes contemplated can 
be readily understood by any unprejudiced reader. Hence 
the recall of Father Vaillant. 

The second power opposed to the plan of colonization 
directed by Cadillac, but not for humanitarian reasons, 

nor for propagating the influence of Christianity among 
the Indians of the West and Northwest, was la Com- 
pagnie du Canada, or, as I shall call it for brevity, The 
Canada Company, which controlled the commerce of 
all New France. It was the custom of the court of 
France to farm out imposts and privileges ; the exclu- 
sive right to trade with all the French colonies had been 
obtained by purchase or favoritism in 1637, an d under 
its franchise was formed the Cent Associes, which com- 
pany held the monopoly for 27 years, ceding its privileges 
in 1664 to the Compagnie des Indes, possessing still 
greater monopolistic, or, as we would say in our own 
times, "trust" privileges, with a large capital, and con- 
trolling in its maritime operations more than 100 vessels. 
This company of infamous memory leased its rights to 
trade with Canada in 1674, first to M. Oudiette, then to 
M. Rodez, and finally to Mr. Jean Pacaud ; the latter was 
to pay 70,000 francs per year, and to estabish a company 
for the working of its privileges, the stock of which was 
to be held in France, while a few shares, for form's sake, 
were to be owned in Canada. Under this arrangement 
Jean Pacaud organized the Canada Company, managed 
in Quebec by seven directors, residing in Quebec, Mon- 
treal and Trois Rivieres. So great were its legal privi- 
leges that not a pound of castor could be sold within 
certain defined districts in Canada, except to its factors 
at a fixed rate, to be paid for in goods by the factor at 
such prices as he might exact. 

Under such a "trust," protected by severe penal regu- 
lations, the Colony of Canada languished, while illicit 
fur-trading grew to such proportions that an army of 


Coureurs de Bois in the West successfully defied the 
efforts of company or crown. At the close of the seven- 
teenth century the fur trade probably yielded the greatest 
profits of any one kind of commercial enterprise in North 
America; but between the "trust" and the illicit traffic 
the officials of Canada, from the highest to the lowest, 
were said to have profited by ventures of one kind or 
another; while it is said that even the robes of the judici- 
ary had been smirched by the corrupting contact of one 
or of both interests. This was the status of Canada at 
the time Cadillac founded the colony of Detroit. If the 
success of this enterprise was likely to break up the 
missions in the lake regions of the Lower Peninsula, of 
what now constitutes the State of Michigan, the Jesuit 
Fathers, in the light of Christianity and of humanity, 
cannot be blamed either in America or in Europe, for 
looking unfavorably upon the project. 

If the success of the plans outlined by Cadillac, would, 
by their realization, and this seemed probable, interfere 
with the monopoly controlled by the "trust" in the traffic 
with the Indian tribes, who were to be removed to the 
vicinity of the new colony, the directors of the "trust" in 
Canada and the shareholders in France would probably 
endeavor to starve out the colony and to crush its 

Such, indeed, was the policy decided upon by the con- 
trolling interests of the "trust" in France. 

No time was lost in showing their hands. In October, 
1701, four months after Cadillac's departure from Trois 
Rivieres, Governor-General de Calieres, at Quebec, was 
notified that it was the king's command that the posts 

at Detroit and Frontenac were to be placed in charge of 
the Canada Company, who, for the monopoly of the fur 
trade granted, were to indemnify the government for 
the outlay already made in establishing the posts, and 
to assume and pay all the allowances granted for their 
future maintenance during the term of their control. The 
Governor was further instructed to convene a council of 
the notables of Canada, and of the directors of the com- 
pany, to arrange the details of the transfer. This council 
was held at the Chateau of St. Louis in Quebec October 
31, 1701. 

By the terms arranged and certined by the Royal No- 
tary, while the military tenure of the Crown remained 
vested in the commander of the post at Detroit, he was 
forbidden, under severe penalties, to take any part in its 
trade or commerce, which was to be under the exclusive 
control of the company's factors, virtually leaving him 
only the command of a small garrison, and making the 
company lord of the whole domain. It is doubtful if this 
was intended by the King, or if the treaty, as it was 
called, received the royal sanction. 

This is the opinion of Judge Campbell, author of "Out- 
lines of the Political History of Michigan." 

All important as the council which thus decided was 
to Cadillac, and to the future of his colony at Detroit, he 
was neither present nor was he represented by counsel. 

It was adroitly intended to destroy the influence of 
Cadillac with the Indian tribes, who would soon see that 
he was no longer lord and master over all. Of what con- 
sequence in their eyes would be the governor of the post, 


and the commander of a guard of soldiers, when he no 
longer controlled the treasures of the storehouse which 
were all-important to them? 

On July 18, 1702, the first convoy of the season from 
Canada reached Detroit with official despatches from 
the Governor-General, by which Cadillac was first noti- 
fied of the "treaty" of Quebec, and the conditions under 
which the post had been ceded to the "trust," whose 
three factors, or commissioners, had been sent to assume 
control. He was further instructed to make such ar- 
rangement with the factors as would conform to the 
terms of the "treaty" and his own rights as military com- 
mander, and to turn over to the new power the property 
of the government then under his charge. Here com- 
menced the rule of the "trust" at Detroit, a source of 
great annoyance to its founder and a serious menace to 
the existence of the colony itself. Cadillac arranged the 
transfer of control in conformity with his instructions ; 
and, convinced that a serious combination had been 
formed to thwart the realization of his plans, returned 
with the convoy to Quebec, where, with the aid and 
counsel of his friends, he succeeded in having modified 
to some extent the iron-clad regulations by which his 
personal interest had been bound, and returned to his 
colony in October determined to foil, in some way, the 
designs of his opponents. 

The result of his influence with the Lake tribes had 
brought to the vicinity of the post an aggregate Indian 
population of about 2,000 souls. The control of so large 
a number of Indians of different tribes, with barbaric 
instincts so easily excited for revenge and carnage, be- 


came a task of much difficulty to Cadillac, and required,, 
at times, great tact and firmness to quell the discord 
arising from tribe jealousies ; besides, there was no mis- 
sionary laboring as such at the post. In the meantime 
the relations between Cadillac and the missionaries at 
Michilimackinac had become unfriendly. (See the let- 
ters of the Jesuit Fathers Marest and de Carheil, in. 
Margry, Vol. V., 205-215.) Although the harvest of 1703, 
was good, the year did not pass without a serious disas- 
ter; an unknown enemy succeeded in setting fire to the 
well-stocked granary, which, with the church, the little 
presbytery, the houses of Cadillac and of de Tonty, were 
consumed. The Huron and other Indians, however, gen- 
erously presented Cadillac with 300 bushels of grain, and 
continued to supply all the corn and provisions required 
for the use of the post at current prices. 

Another serious danger was averted during the fol- 
lowing year. A hostile tribe, probably incited by Eng- 
lish emissaries, attacked the Indians in the vicinity and; 
killed several in one of their raids. A general outbreak 
of Indian war was the intended object, and this would 
have followed had not Cadillac forced the marauding 
tribe to recompense the families of the slain and to return 
to their homes. So far, under the new regime, the little 
colony had progressed; more land had been cultivated,, 
the crops had been good, and no serious illness or deaths 
had occurred among the French population. 

The same year Cadillac renewed his request to the* 
Governor-General for colonists and soldiers, and offered 
to provide for the transportation of horses and horned 
cattle for farming purposes. 

"Receiving no encouragement from the Colonial Gov- 
ernment, he wrote to Count de Pontchartrain, explain- 
ing his situation, asking to be relieved of the incubus of 
the "trust," and for greater jurisdiction. 

About this time Canada suffered the loss of Governor- 
General de Callieres, whose untimely death deprived 
France of a just and faithful representative, and the 
colonists of Canada of an impartial ruler. His successor 
was the Marquis de Vaudreuil ; this clever nobleman 
was related to the wealthy directors of the "trust" in 
Quebec, and was probably more or less under their in- 
fluence. Before Cadillac became aware of these import- 
ant changes he had detected two of the factors of the 
"trust" in illicit ventures and in dishonest operations to 
the prejudice of their principals. 

Procuring certified evidence of their guilt, he preferred 
charges to the Intendant-General at Quebec. The de- 
linquents were closely related to Lotbiniere and Delino, 
two of the richest directors of the trust ; de Vaudreuil, 
Governor-General, was a nephew of Lotbiniere, and 
closely related to the accused. Cadillac was aware of 
this relationship on all sides. His temerity, under the 
circumstances, in exposing such a scandal in the circles 
of the most wealthy and influential families in Quebec, is 
difficult to understand. It cost him dearly, however! 
His ruin was determined upon for the disgrace brought 
upon the distinguished families. Serious charges were 
filed against him in the highest court in Canada, and 
copies of these charges, highly colored, were sent to 

Upon their reception, de Pontchartrain induced Louis 
XIV. to instruct de Vaudreuil to convene a council at 
Quebec for inquiry into the condition of the colony at 
Detroit, before which Cadillac was to be asked to appear, 
to explain his own conduct and the state of affairs at his 
post. This did not suit the "trust." 

The council was convened, but Cadillac was not noti- 
fied ; its sessions were secret, while his friends were 
rigidly excluded. 

Its conclusions as sent to France were so adroitly 
worded as to compromise the accused commandant, 
whose contempt of the royal command might be implied 
by his non-attendance. 

This was a bold and an unscrupulous design to ruin 
him at the French court. 

Meanwhile, preparations for his complete destruction 
were in progress at Quebec. 

Unaware of these proceedings, and anxious, to provide 
for the pressing needs of his colony, Cadillac started for 
Quebec by the returning convoy in the fall of 1704. On 
ftis way he was informed of the death of de Calieres and 
the accession of de Vaudreuil. On his arrival he was ar- 
rested on charges preferred by the directors of the "trust," 
officially, as referred to above. He secured the appoint- 
ment of Captain Bourgmont as his deputy at Detroit, and' 
sent him to the post with necessary supplies. The litiga- 
tion against Cadillac which ensued was prolonged and 
expensive. His acquittal resulted in June, 1705, but he 
was not allowed to return to Detroit; he was again ar- 
rested at the personal suits of Lotbiniere and Delino. In 
the meantime he had appealed to the King against the 

entire proceedings at Quebec as illegal, on the part of 
&. court in Canada, against the governor of a post under 
regal commission. 

The appeal was sustained. The Count de Pontchar- 
train had, in the meantime, been advised of the plot to 
ruin Cadillac, and took prompt measures to punish his 

Governor-General de Vaudreuil narrowly escaped 
disgrace and removal, but he was severely reprimanded. 
The "trust" was removed from the post and colony of 

To Cadillac was granted the seigneurie of the colony 
with additional territorial domain and exclusive jurisdic- 
tion, while the colonial authorities were instructed to 
give him 200 soldiers and as many colonists as he might 
need. (See New York Colonial Documents, Vol. IV., 
p. 77 7 ; and de Pontchartrain's letter in Margry, Vol. V., 

Thanks to the influence of Count de Pontchartrain, 
the founder of the colony of Detroit was once more cov- 
ered with royal protection and master of the situation; 
Before his return he secured additional soldiers for his 
garrison and induced a number of artisans and colonists 
to accompany him to Detroit. A small number of much- 
needed cattle were sent forward in batteaux. French 
wheat for seed to the extent of two tons, and the machin- 
ery for a large grist-mill, were purchased and shipped at 
considerable personal outlay. His efforts, however, to 
procure Sisters of Charity, for the care of the sick and for 
the education of the youth of the French and Indian pop- 
ulation, did not meet with success. 

Upon his return to Detroit he found Captain Bourg- 
mont in temporary command ; but the establishment was 
so badly demoralized that his worst enemies would have 
been satisfied with the situation. The garrison had been 
reduced, while the soldiers had received neither pay nor 
clothing for three years from the "trust." Some of the 
colonists had become discouraged and had left the post. 

A war party of Indians from Lake Michigan came 
down ostensibly to attack the friendly Miamas, but with 
the expectation of plundering the French. They en- 
camped in the vicinity, menaced the fort, raided the In- 
dian villages, damaged the crops, killed several of the 
Miamis, and marauded for some time before they were 
finally driven off by the combined forces of the French 
and Indians. 

The coup de grace of all this misery was the cowardly 
murder of the chaplain, Father Constantin, while walking 
in his garden, by a lurking Indian assassin.* 

*Father Bernardin Constantin De L'Halle. Recollet. 

I have seen no authentic account of the nativity, the education, 
or of the date of the ordination of this venerable monk. 

His name indicates that he was of French lineage, and like others 
of his order at the time, of gentle blood. 

He had probably, like other young Frenchmen of his time, been 
inspired with a vocation for the sacerdotal state; and after his the- 
ological course, and his ordination to the priesthood he had joined 
the Recollet order with the intention of serving as a missionary 
among the Indians in Canada. 

He came to Quebec in 1696, but his age at the time is not stated. 

He officiated at Longueil in 1698, and at the Church of St. Fran- 
cis de Sales Laval Co., when he was selected by the Father 
Superior of the Recollets at Quebec, to act as chaplain to the 
expedition of Cadillac. 

The parochial records of St. Anne's church of Detroit contains 
the written testimony of two of his successors, who, when placing on 
record the ceremony of the translation of the remains of this ven- 
erable missionary from an old to a new church, on two occasions, 


The prestige of the French over the Indians had been 
weakened ; among the chiefs a state of sullen dissatisfac- 
tion prevailed. The tribes who had suffered most from 
the late aggressions, clamored for vengeance and recom- 
pense, and seemed determined to obtain both in the cus- 
tomary manner of their race. 

This would bring on a general Indian war, which 
might seriously affect the future of the colony and the 
plan of Indian centralization. 

The situation in this respect was critical. Cadillac's 
influence, however, was sufficiently strong with the disaf- 
fected chiefs to induce them to rely upon the Governor- 
General of Canada for redress, and to await his action- 
Governor de Vaudreuil ordered the chiefs of the ma- 
rauding tribes to appear before him at Quebec, and these 
crafty diplomats were finally made to promise to meet 
Cadillac at Detroit and settle the mode of atonement. 

Upon their arrival at the post several councils were 
held, and a formal agreement was made to surrender the 
chief, Le Pesant, who was the leader of the raid, for ex- 
ecution, to make reparation to the families of the slain, 
and payment for damages to both colonists and Indians. 

refer to the miracles known to have been wrought through his inter- 
cession. On the occasion of the first of these translations, the 
remains of Father De L'Halle were indentified by the penitential 
hair shirt which he had worn next his person, and by his calotte, 
which was in a good state of preservation. 

I am indebted to Tanguay for the dates prior to his departure 
with the expedition of Cadillac. It will be seen that the Bishop of 
Quebec selected for the religious interests of the new colony distin- 
guished members of two of the most eminent religious orders in 
Canada at that period. 


Le Pesant was brought to Detroit and placed in 
irons, preparatory to his execution. The Miamas and 
Hurons were placated and the danger seemingly averted. 
High influence, however, was brought to bear on the 
Governor-General in behalf of the doomed chief, and 
despite the protests of Cadillac, after some months' delay 
he was permitted to escape. This was the result of no 
friendly interference, and the consequences were serious. 
The Miami chiefs were furious ; they accused the Gov- 
ernor-General of insincerity, and Cadillac of cowardice. 
According to the Indian code, no debt was held more 
sacred than vengeance for kindred slain by an enemy in 
peace or in war, and he who would not risk his life in its 
acquittal could have no standing in the tribe. 

Hostilities ensued. Several Frenchmen were wound- 
ed, and their holdings outside the stockade depredated. 
The offending Miamis were promptly punished by Cad- 
illac and made to sue for peace. 

The conditions agreed upon were soon after violated, 
and the offenders were again more severely punished, 
and peace once more restored. But the fact was but too 
apparent that the situation was not assuring; the French 
-were surrounded by a population of Indians largely pre- 
ponderating in numbers, who were once reliable friends, 
but many of whom had, for the time being, forgotten 
their better instincts, and had become sullen, if not 
treacherous neighbors. 

Thus was the progress of the colony more or less 
retarded by events arising from opposing influences and 
growing out of the forced detention of its founder dur- 
ing the two years of his litigation in Quebec. About 

this time the Jesuit Fathers abandoned their missionary 
work at Michilimackinac and returned to their headquar- 
ters at Quebec. Much correspondence resulted from this 
event which will be found by the reader interested, as 
also the King's instructions, in re to Governor-General 
de Vaudreuil, in Margry, Vol. V. 

Much time was consumed in councils, the details of 
which are tedious to readers at the present day, before 
a peaceful status with the Indians was secured. The 
Indian settlements comprised the Ottawas, whose fort 
and village had been located by Cadillac on the south 
side of the strait, on the high bluff, opposite the west- 
ern end of the island subsequently called by the French 
Isle aux Cochons, but known in modern times as Belle 
Isle. The Hurons, Miamis and Potawotomies had 
their respective villages and strongholds located on the 
shore below the fort, extending as far down the stream 
as the present city of Wyandotte. 

The women of the respective nations cultivated the 
fertile soil, and generally raised abundant crops of grain 
and vegetables, the surplus of which was either stored 
in the granaries adjoining their forts, or sold at current 
prices for barter at the post. The warriors, each autumn 
and winter, went upon their hunting expeditions to dis- 
tant localities, and returned at the end of the season 
with the spoils of the chase, which were bartered at the 
end of the season with the spoils of the chase, which were 
bartered at the post. The sale of "eau de vie" to the Indi- 
ans, as regulated by Cadillac, was conned to the store- 
house, and limited to a gill, at a fixed price, at a certain 
hour each morning and evening. The purchasers were 

formed in line on these occasions, which at times included 
hundreds. A drunken Indian was rarely seen while the 
salutary regulation prevailed. 

It was part of Cadillac's plan to have the Indian 
children taught the French language and the useful arts ; 
this, however, was frustrated by his failure to procure 
Sisters of Charity as teachers. He had also intended en- 
rolling the warriors of the respective tribes into compan- 
ies, having them ^fficered, drilled and regularly paid as 
French auxiliary soldiers ; although approved in France, 
the plan was opposed in Canada and never carried into 

Military discipline seemed incompatible with the 
instincts, the freedom, as well as the habits of an Indian 
hunter; Cadillac himself may have found the plan 
impracticable. Every effort was now made to encourage 
settlement and the tillage of the soil. Cadillac made 
frequent visits to Canada to recruit and returned with 
more or less permanent settlers who brought their fam- 
ilies. It has been stated, on the authority of his oldest 
son, that during the latter years of his time as Governor 
of Detroit, he expended from his personal fortune up- 
wards of 150,000 livres in purchases and transportation 
for his colony. No longer hampered by the "trust" he 
opened the post to general traffic, collcting a moderate fee 
for each license for two trade canoes, whose capacity as 
formerly stated, was about four tons of freight each. 
His regulations prohibiting the sale of "eau de vie" to 
the Indians by traders was strictly enforced. I have al- 
ready described the manner in which "fire water" was 
dispensed to the Indians at the storehouse. With the 

"machinery purchased in Canada a mill was built outside 
the stockade, a new church, presbytery, storehouse and 
more comfortable dwellings had already replaced the 
original buildngs within. Under his seignorial rights 
he made grants of land to bona fide settlers, subject to 
reasonable rent and conditions ; 29 farms had bee located 
and partly cultivated, and on some of these comfortable 

* dwellings had been built. Thus far the harvests had 
proved profitable, and some surplus grain had been 
sold. In the meantime the regular soldiers had been 
withdrawn, while the expense of and maintenance of the 
•post and colony had been assumed by Cadillac. 

Such was the status of affairs about the close of the 
first decade in the existence of the colony. In spite of 

'the opposition to it, ostensibly directed against its 
founder, and which at times had been most dishearten- 
ing, after it had been solidly established; while its pros- 
perity seemed assured. The history of North American 
colonization offers few, if any, parallels to the adven- 
tures of the Chevalier de La Mothe Cadillac in establish- 
ing a colony in a region so exposed, and in a locality so 
far distant from parental support. It may be claimed, and 
justly, that the success of its founder dwarfs any 
achievement of its kind in colonial history. Certainly 
no record exists where intrigue and opposition were car- 
ried so far, or continued so persistently, as was the effort 
to ruin both colony and founder. It was a proof of the 
ability and sagacity of Cadillac that he succeeded in re- 
taining the friendship and the support of the Count de 
Pontchartrain, in spite of so much calumny and misrep- 
resentation, and it may be added, notwithstanding the 

imprudent nature of his own communications and the- 
unfounded accusations he was accustomed to make 
against some of the most venerable of the missionary 
Fathers of the Society of Jesus, whom he accused of all 
kinds of evil designs against himself and the colony of. 
Detroit. Fortunately there was generally present iip 
the cabinet councils of Louis XIV., the father confessor 
of this monarch, the Jesuit, Pere La Chaise, whose advice 
counteracted the venomous effusions of the Chevalier. 
The fact, too, that Cadillac was a Gascon, a plausible 
pleader, not over-scrupulous in truthfulness, while re- 
gardless of the patience of the King and of the ministers 
of his cabinet, is evident by the number and great length 
of his communications to the Government of France, 
now on file in the archives of the Marine and Colonies at 
Paris. The sessions of this cabinet of Louis XIV. 
were laborious, while the notations on the margins of 
all the "Cadillac papers" show they had been read, dis- 
cussed and judged; while frequently the marginal com- 
ments are by no means creditable to the general status, 
of the estimation in which the founder of the colony of 
Detroit was held in the minds of Louis le Grand, and of 
some of his ministers. 

But in these memorable sessions the Chevalier had 
for support the young patron of the colony of Detroit, 
the Count Jerome de Pontchartrain. It had been offi- 
cially reported to the King that the soil of Detroit was 
not fertile, while the climate was such that no French- 
man could endure. These were lies formulated at the 
time in the intrests of the "trust." The Frenchmen who 

came with Cadillac, and many others who came during 
his time to Detroit, tilled the fertile soil under such dis- 
advantages as would discourage farmer settlers at the 
present day. 

But notwithstanding their primitive implements, and 
of the absence of horses' as well as of horned cattle, 
their hand labor was, as a rule, rewarded with compen- 
sating harvests. 

Their wants were simple, while they were a God- 
fearing, a courageous as well as a moral race of men. In 
time they built comfortable homes, they reared large fam- 
ilies, and lived to a patriarchal age. Many of their 
descendants still occupy the holdings originally culti- 
vated by their ancestral sires. The reader may consult 
the original sources of information in this connection 
in N. Y. Col. Doc, Vol. VIII., p. 827; Judge Campbell's 
"Historical Outlines," page 68, and Margry — 5, page 

But the founder of the colony of Detroit was not des- 
tined to enjoy the well-earned results of his heroic fight 
and of his victory over the wealthy and influential oppo- 
nents of himself and of the colony he had planted ; nor 
to enjoy the honors as well as the emoluments of his 
seignory ; nor, when he had reached the close of a patri- 
archal career, to transmit his titles and succession to 
his posterity. Toward the close of the first decennary 
period, when the colony had become satisfactory to the 
Chevalier Cadillac, his King honored him with a position 
offering a broader field for the display of his ability and 
of his experience, and apparently of greater political 

importance, while requiring greater executive ability than 
did the custodianship of the lower gateway of the waters 
of the Western lakes.* 

*In many respects, Quebec remains unchanged from colonial 
times. Its topographical outlines seem fixed. Its steep and narrow 
streets in some quarters are still a familiar feature ; its rocky fort- 
ress dominates the ensemble, while its lower town, which 60 years 
ago swarmed with seamen from every commercial nation, reminds 
of the time when this old city on the St. Lawrence was the chief 
commercial port of North America. 

In many respects its social features have changed but little. The 
majority of its people speak the same language, retain the same cus- 
toms and adhere to the same religion their ancestors did 140 years 
ago, when Canada fell under the dominion of England. There is 
still the same preponderance of handsome women, and the same 
large proportion of families who live in comfort upon adequate for- 
tunes ; which has made the society of this ancient city exceptionally 
refined; while other cities in America in this respect were in a 
formative state. There is still the same preponderance of convents 
and cloisters of churches and devotees, which gives it the semblance 
of a Catholic city. 

Can you recall any city in North America where in winter the 
snow falls in such quantity as to hide the doors and windows of the 
res de chausee of dwellings, requiring carts and laborers to remove 
it, to give ingress and egress? 

Can yon mention any town or city of importance, comparatively 
speaking, where the baker making his daily rounds in his cariole of 
wagon, to deliver his loaves, and no family bakes their bread, charges 
his customers, according to the number delivered, by cutting notches 
on the straight edges of a stick two feet long and an inch square, 
on which is the name of the family, and which he tallies up at the 
end of each month; and in like manner, the "milk man;" when leav- 
ing his pints or quarts, or his measure of cream, keeps his tally as 
does the baker? Can you tell me if the custom prevails outside of 
this old-fashioned city, where buying from a butcher a roast, a steak 
or a leg-of-mutton, the latter throws onto the scales a piece of bone 
for which you have to pay proportionate to the extent of your pur- 

But for all these reminders of Colonial times, Quebec before the 
conquest was a great literary center in North America ; while it is 
perhaps the focus of literature in French America at the present day. 

It is the seat of a great university — Laval. Rome honored its 
Archbishop, Taschereau, with a Cardinal's hat its hierarchy is and 
has been learned and eminent ; while some of Canada's most cele- 
brated literateurs, some of her most distinguished statesmen and 
financiers compose the circles of its literary life at the present day. 


That portion of New France, known as Louisiana, 
was to be opened more generally to settlement and to 
civilization. This territory was almost boundless. 
Extending from what is now New Orleans — and from the 
shores of the Gulf of Mexico — embracing the Mississippi 
valley, it ranged over prairies and mountains, rivers and 
forests to the shores of the Pacific ocean. It was per- 
haps considered at the time a great promotion for the 
Commandant of Detroit. But I have long considered 
this appointment to have been the result of adverse influ- 
ence covering a desire to get him removed from Detroit. 
This opinion is strengthened by the fact that Governor-- 
General de Vaudreuil communicated to the Chevalier 
the news of his appointment, but made his departure per- 
emptory and inhibited him from coming to Quebec, 
indicating the route he was to take. He was appointed 
in 1710 Governor of Louisiana; the same year he bade 
adieu to his little colony on the Detroit, which he was 
destined never to see again, and departed with his family 
for the scene of his future career. 

With the exit of Cadillac, it is proper to refer to the 
two great interests which, from the outset, were opposed 
to the colonization of Detroit — each of which, it must 
be understood by the reader, were actuated by entirely 

Its social system is unique on American soil ; for nowhere else can 
be found so many distinguished families who can trace their ancestry 
back to the Crusaders. In the history of collegiate education, Que- 
bec claims the honor of having founded the first collegiate institu- 
tion in North America— the College of Quebec, whose establishment 
antedates that of Harvard by some years. From the portals of this 
renowned institution during a century or more, went forth the great 
missionaries and explorers, including Marquette, to whom this coun- 
try is so much indebted. 

different motives; the one sordid, the other humanitar- 
ian. We have become familiar in our own days with 
the operations of "trusts." 

But words cannot describe the evils resulting from 
the sway of La Compagnie du Canada. The chartered 
monopolists of the fur trade were apparently the most 
unprincipled leeches which could have been fastened 
upon the vitals of a young country. 

The paralyzing effects of their control over the com- 
merce and trade, affecting at the same time the agricul- 
tural interests and the moral status of the colonists of 
Canada, may be traced all through the history of the 
administration of the Marquis de Vadreuil, and can be 
easiest studied in the reports of the annual census which 
were sent to France. These reports will be found trans- 
lated in "Paris Documents," Vol. 9 of the "Documentary 
History of New York." 

It is due to the memory of the people of Canada, of 
that epoch, to say that they opposed this monopoly, and 
finally induced the Government of France to depose the 
•colossal incubus, which was slowly crushing out the life 
of its empire in the new world ; after this Canada gradu- 
ally improved in population, in morality, in agriculture, 
.and in commerce. 

How different was the motive which had prompted 
the opposition of the Jesuits to the plans of Cadillac? 
As has been stated, a colony of Frenchmen was to be 
established at Detroit, around which were to be gath- 
ered for permanent habitation the tribes of Indians dwell- 
ing on the littorals and islands of the lakes at the time 
under the spiritual care of the Jesuit missionaries, whose 

headquarters were at Michilimackinac, one of the oldest 
missionary centers in the Northwest. 

The Government of France favored the plan in the 
hope that a barrier might be raised against the inroads 
of the Iroquoian warriors of New York, or of other ene- 
mies seeking to control the western regions ; it was 
intended that the missionaries should accompany the 
tribes in their hegira, and continue their pastoral relations 
in their new homes. However promising in results, 
from the standpoint in France, the project was looked 
upon unfavorably by the missionaries in spiritual charge, 
and by their superior in Canada. The success of the 
plan would break up and possibly destroy the matured 
system of missionary work which had required so many 
years to perfect; transfer the theatre of its operations to 
a post whose commander, in previous years, had been 
unfriendly ; with the prospect that the Indians could not 
be controlled in the near vicinity of the French colony, 
while the lapse to debauchery and paganism of many 
Christian families would probably ensue. The removal 
of the tribes in the vicinity of Michilimackinac to Detroit 
was, as stated, followed by the temporary breaking up 
of that missionary center and the return of the fathers 
to Quebec. 

But what of the Indian colony? Instead of serving 
its intended purpose, it became a danger and a menace 
to the French colonists ; with the changes of dynasty 
which affected Canada, the unfortunate tribes shared the 
common destiny which befell their race and disappeared 
from the soil, which has since been occupied by races of 
white men. 

It occurs to me to complete the social history of the 
Cadillac decennial period, with the aid of the results 
obtained by Clarence M. Burton. In order to trace thor- 
oughly the history of the ownership of every recorded 
piece or parcel of property in the County of Wayne, 
this gentleman has found it necessary to connect his 
researches with the genealogy of the colonial families 
holding original grants or titles. This he has been ena- 
bled to accomplish to a great extent, by the parochial 
records of the Catholic parish of Ste. Anne of Detroit, 
and of the parish of the Assumption, at Sandwich, Onta- 
rio. Collateral evidence he also obtained by aid of the 
notarial records of colonial times, on file, in Quebec, 
Montreal, and Trois Rivieres. The old French code 
required each church to have a register in which the offi- 
ciating priest recorded the acts or civil part of the cere- 
monies of baptism, marriages and of funeral rites which 
must contain the name of the recipient of the sacrament ; 
of the parents, with their condition, title, and residence ; 
of the witnesses, who subscribe to the acts, which then 
received the attestation of the officiating priest. Mar- 
riages are similarly recorded, while an act also goes on 
record with the administration of burial rites. 

To obtain accurate data, Mr. Burton employed copy- 
ists and had the registers of Ste. Anne at Detroit, and 
of the Assumption at Sandwich copied verbatim et litera- 
tim. That of Ste. Anne, covering two centuries of 
Catholic parochial administration, is probably the most 
remarkable local history of Detroit in a religious point of 
view extant. While in American Catholic history there 

is no such continuous record in any existing Catholic 
parish under the hierarchical control of Baltimore. 

To furnish collateral information regarding the col- 
onists and settlers at Detroit during the French regime, 
Mr. Burton went to the expense of having the notarial 
archives of Quebec, Montreal, and of Trois Rivieres 
examined; and all copies of contracts in which Detroit 
or its dependencies are mentioned, on file in such depos- 
itaries, he has had copied verbatim et literatim and he 
had the sheets sent to him at Detroit. These transcripts, 
local as well as Canadian, have been arranged in series, 
bound, labelled, numbered and indexed. But in addition 
he has had transcripts made of all documents in the 
archives of the Marine and Colonies in Paris, which have 
recently been classified and indexed, and are now accessi- 
ble, relating to Detroit, while a colony of France, cop- 
ied, attested and sent to him at Detroit. He has also 
had the catalogues of the British Museum examined and 
any document found, in which Detroit is interested, he 
has had copied. These transcripts have been bound. 
Mr. Burton's library of manuscripts is most extensive, 
it is probably unsurpassed by any manuscript collection 
in the United States, while it has been so arranged as to 
be available for reference. Its collection has cost its 
owner over $50,000; but this is only one feature in Mr. 
Burton's library, which is one of the most unique and 
extensive collections of historical Americana, but more 
particularly in printed works in any way connected with 
the history of Detroit, of Michigan, and of the North- 
west Territory. 

While General Cass was minister at the Court of 
Louis Philippe, Pierre Margry was employed by John 
Romeyn Brodhead, on behalf of the State of New York, 
to copy such documents in the archives of the Marine 
and Colonies as related to the colonial history of New 

Mr. Margry offered his services, and was employed by 
the general, to transcribe documents relating to the 
French regime at Detroit. Those which he furnished 
related principally to Cadillac, and were generally unim- 
portant. It is the opinion of some who were interested 
in the colonial history of Detroit, that Margry purposely 
withheld several important documents, which he sub- 
sequently published under his own name, under the title 
of "Decouvertes," etc., 7 octavo volumes, for which he 
was partially compensated at Washington. This work, 
however, made for Pierre Margry a prominent place as 
a historian of French America, while his work is freely 

When General Cass returned to Detroit, he placed 
Margry's transcripts at the service of historical stu- 
dents, among whom were Bela Hubbard, Mrs. Sheldon, 
and Judge James V. Campbell, each of whom have con- 
tributed works on local history. The first in this connec- 
tion was Mrs. Sheldon, whose "Early History of Michi- 
gan" is not very creditable to the literary reputation of 
its fair author. The "Cadillac Papers," as they were 
called, which had been brought to Detroit, as stated, by 
General Cass, were poorly translated, and with the brief 
text of the author formed the ensemble of the work. 
One of the longest chapters, comprising 34 pages, is a 

translation of Cadillac's account of his vindication before 
the Count de Pontchartrain at the Chateau of St. Louis 
at Quebec. 

According to Cadillac, the Count had come to Que- 
bec to investigate the charges made against the founder 
of the colony at Detroit, by the directors of the "trust." 
The Count recited the accusations in detail and called 
upon the Chevalier to defend himself. 

The latter then recited the history of the colony and 
aired his complaints against the Jesuit Fathers, in scur- 
rilous language. 

But these were personal accusations, unsupported by 
corroborative evidence. 

His accusations against the agents of the "trust" were 
supported by positive evidence. 

His defense, he claims, was so satisfactory to the 
Count de Pontchartrain, that he exonerated the Chev- 
alier from the charges, and restored him to the control 
of the colony of Detroit. 

This is the showing made by Cadillac in this 
lengthy document, which implied that his accusations 
against the Jesuit Fathers had been accepted as true by 
the Count de Pontchartrain, who, after the interview, 
had returned to France. 

Sheldon's work was generally accepted at the time 
as authentic ; and the visit of the Count de Pontchartrain, 
as stated, accepted as a historical fact by many writers, 
including Judge James V. Campbell, of this city, author 
of that charming work, "Outlines of the Political History 
of Michigan," in which work this amiable and Christian 
gentleman scores Cadillac for his slanderous remarks 


against the saintly Jesuit Fathers, de Carbell and Marest, 
missionaries at Michilimackinac. In the interest of 
authentic history I consulted with Dr. John Gilmary 
Shea, in regard to the coming to America of the Count 
de Pontchartrain, minister of the Marine and Colonies 
of France. Dr. Shea assured me that the story was fic- 
titious, and he advised me not to accept any of the Cad- 
illac papers as reliable history, unless supported by col- 
lateral evidence. 

At this time, my friend and collaborator, Bela Hub- 
bard, author of "Memorials of Half a Century," was in 
Italy. I wrote to him, explaining the situation, and 
asked him to propose the question to Margry, who had. 
in the meantime, become an authority on French Amer- 
ican colonial history: did the Count de Pontchartrain, 
as asserted by Cadillac, ever come to Quebec?" Margry 
replied that the Count had never gone to America. This 
reply settled the question ; but it established the fact, 
that if Cadillac could "lie like a Gascon," in such a case, 
he could not be relied upon in questions of history. 

It will be remembered that Father Vaillant had been 
recalled to Quebec, while Cadillac's expedition was still 
in camp. Cadillac, in his defense, at the pretended inter- 
view with the Count de Pontchartrain, speaks of Father 
Vaillant in a scurrilous manner; accuses him of having 
been detected in plotting a mutiny among his retinue, 
and of his having been expelled from the camp; of his 
taking refuge in the forest, and of his surreptitious 
escape on a homeward-bound canoe. It is needless to 
state that this, as well as other calumnious assertions 
made by Cadillac against the Jesuit missionary Fathers 

in this document, are gross fabrications ; although con- 
sidered as such in the cabinet of Louis XIV., they have 
been received as gospel truth by credulous people in 
Detroit; even such well-informed men as Clarence M. 
Burton have in our own times reiterated Cadillac's vitu- 
perative assertions against such distinguished mission- 
aries as Fathers de Carbell, Marest, Vaillant, and others 
connected with the evangelization of the American 
Indian race. 

Mrs. Sheldon's production and so-called "early his- 
tory" was exposed in my brochure entitled "Genesis of 
the French History of Detroit," written in 1890. 

All the transcripts obtained by Margry, of which ref- 
erence has been made above, were subsequently presented 
to me by General Cass, through his private secretary, 
the late Colonel Richard F. O'Biorne, U. S. A. 

Some of them were cleverly translated by Miss M. A. 
Brennan, subsequently Mrs. James O'Brien, and pub- 
lished in the Catholic Vindicator in 1855. For this lit- 
erary work the fair translator received a complimentary 
letter of thanks from the historian, Dr. John Gilmary 

After these essential discussions in explanation of the 
reliable sources from which the history of the first decen- 
nial period in the existence of Detroit may be drawn, I 
shall now attempt an outline of the social composition of 
the colony, when its founder was made Governor of 

The garrison of Fort Pontchartrain, taking as an 
average period in the first decade of the existence of the 

colony of Detroit, say, 1708, comprised the commandant, 
the Chevalier Cadillac; Major, Louis Rene de Figuier; 
Surgeon, Dr. Henri Belisle; Captains, Francois de La 
Forest and Alphonse de Tonty ; Lieutenants, Julien D'er- 
visseau and Francois Le Gautier: four sergeants, two 
corporals and twenty-five or! more privates, most of 
whom had taken land and had become permanent resi- 
dents of the colony. No account is taken of the officers 
and soldiers who had come with the original expedition 
and who had been transferred elsewhere. 

The families of the commandant, of the officers men- 
tioned, besides Mile. Le Tendre and other young ladies, 
comprised the social circle of the elite of Detroit at the 
time. All were of the French race except Captain de 
Tonty, who was an Italian. The religious head of the 
colony was the Recollet pastor of Ste. Anne's who had 
succeeded his predecessor, the martyred Recollet, Father 
•Constantin De L'Halle, who had been killed by a hostile 
Indian's bullet in 1706. 

Omitting the transient population comprising 
Coureurs de Bois, voyageurs, trappers, slaves and other 
servants, and not including the commandant, the offi- 
cers and soldiers of the garrison, the male population 
comprised: Aquet-Laporte, Guillaume, Beauregard, 
Antoine, ; Bienvenue-de Lisle, Francois ; Bombardier, 
Andre ; Bonne, Francois ; Bouche, Francois ; Bouette- 
Delliarde, Guillaume ; Bousseron, Francois ; Boutron, 
Major, Etienne; Brunet, Francois; Campeau, Jacques; 
Campeau, Michel ; Cardinal, Jacques ; Carriere, Antoine ; 
Casse-St. Aubin, Jean; Chantelon, Pierre; Charbonneau, 
Joseph ; Charbonneau, Michel ; Chesne, Pierre ; Chevalir, 

Jean; Chornie, Jean Baptiste; Chorret-Camerand, Andre; 
Compian-L'Esperance, Bonaventure ; Coutant, Jean ; 
D'Argenteuil, Louis ; Dardennes, Toussaint ; De Lorme, 
Francois ; De Marsac-des Rochers, Jacob ; De Ranee, 
Michel ; Despre, Joseph ; Des Ruisseau, Julien ; Destor- 
ins„ Louis ; Dizier, Michel ; Du Figuier, Charles ; Du 
Fresne, Antoine ; Du Moulin, Jacques ; Dupuis-Beaure- 
gard, Antoine ; Durant, Jean ; Du Roy, Pierre ; Du Ves- 
tin, Solomon Joseph; Esteve, Pierre; Fafard-de Lorme, 
Francois; Ferron, Antoine; Germain, Robert; Gorion, 
Baptiste ; Guillet, Paul ; Gustineau, Louis ; Hemard, 
Pierre (according to Fr. Dennisen, this should be 
Aymard) ; Hubert, Jacques ; Jardis, Francois ; Labatier- 
Champagne, Jean; La Fleur, Pierre; Laloire, Jean; La 
Montagne-Mouet, Pierre; Langlois, Jacques; Langlois, 
Paul ; Larrame, Louis ; La Plante, Zacaerie ; Leger- 
Parissien, Louis ; Le Moyne, Alexis ; Le Moyne, 
Jacques; Le Moyne, Rene; Le Soeure, Jean; Magnant, 
Antoine; Maillet, Pierre; Marliarde, Jerome; Margne, 
Francois ; Masse, Francois ; Masse, Michel ; Normand, 
Louis; Paquet, Jean; Parent, Joseph; Peltier, Jean 
Francois; Porrier, Pierre; Reinard, Joseph; Rencontre, 
Louis ; Richard, Jean ; Rivard, Claude ; Rivard, Francois ; 
Rivard, Joseph; Rivard, Maturin; Rivard, Robert; Rob- 
ert, Pierre; Robert, Prudent; Roy, Pierre; Saint Onge, 
Louis; Serond, Jean; Serrier, Martin; Surgere, Blaize; 
Tacet, Pierre; Tavereau-la Grandeur, Pierre; Texier, 
Antoine; Thannary-Dufresne, Antoine; Tisse, Francois; 
Trudeau, Baptiste; Trudeau, Joseph; Trottier-Beau- 
bien, Michel; Trottier-Desruisseau, Antoine; Trottier, 
Jean Baptiste; Trottier, Paul; Truteau, Jean Baptiste. 

This list of names as given by Mr. Burton has been 
made by me to correspond with the changes suggested 
by Rev. Christian Dennisen,' Pastor of St. Charles 
Church, Detroit. All are apparently of French nativ- 
ity or descent, with the exception of Bombardier, Andre, 
who, as Fr. Dennisen states, was born in the city of 
Lisle, Belgium. 

Of the 96 persons comprising the actual landholders 
and permanent residents of Detroit prior to the close of 
the first decennial period in its history, 89 had married in 
Canada and had brought their wives to Detroit. 

The baptismal names of the mothers of the succeed- 
ing generations of the French race in Detroit, deserve 
special notice. I find the record to show the greatest 
reverence for the Virgin Mary. There are 36 Maries, 
including Magdeline, etc.; 11 Magdelines, 10 Mar- 
guerites, 9 Angeliques, 5 Jeannes, 5 Thereses, 3 
Annes, 2 each of Louise, Francoise, and Genevieve, and 
1 each of Catherine, Cecille, Claire, Isabelle and Marthe. 

In fact the nomenclature of both the men and the 
women as given in baptism show them to have been of 
Christian families of Catholic France. 

During succeeding generations some of these names 
have been changed by dropping the first and retaining 
the second, thus: Aquet, has become Laporte; Bien- 
venue, De Lisle; Bouette, Delliarde; Boutron, Major; 
Casse, St. Aubin ; Chouet, Camerand ; Compian, L'Esper- 
ance ; De Marsac, Marsac ; Dupuis, Beauregard ; Fafard, 
De Lorme ; Labatier, Champagne ; La Montagne, Mouet ;. 

Leger, Parissien Paris ; Tavereau, Lagrandeur ; Than- 
nary, Dufrene; Trottier, Beaubien ; and Trottier, Des- 
ruisseau, are among those in this list. Otherwise, Com- 
peau has been changed to Campau ; Chesne to Chene ; 
Des Ruisseau to Rousseau ; Duflguier to Figuier ; Du 
Fresne to Dufrene ; Du Moulin to Doumoulin ; Du Roy 
to Roy ; Du Vestin to Vestin, etc. 

According to Mr. Burton the principal street of the 
village was Ste. Anne, running about parallel to the pres- 
ent Jefferson avenue, and occupying nearly the north- 
erly line of that thoroughfare, so that the southern tier of 
lots and St. Louis street fell entirely in that street. 

The westerly line was not far from the present line of 
Shelby street, and the easterly line was a short distance 
west of Griswold street. 

At the easterly end and at first without the palisades 
was the Church of Ste. Anne. 

I have before me the text of an interesting lecture 
delivered before the Historical Society of Michigan, at 
Detroit, in 1829, by General Lewis Cass. Its subject is 
an outline of the history of the city during the French 
and English regimes. 

I know of no more impartial nor reliable authority 
to offer to my readers, and I shall make use of it, in con- 
tinuation of the preliminary chapters given above. 

If the enemies of the colony of Detroit in Canada and 
in Europe had planned its decadence and abandonment, 
as a result of the promotion of its founder to the govern- 
orship of Louisiana, they were doomed to bitter disap- 

The social and the spiritual welfare of the Christian 
men and women, whose names comprise the real found- 
ers of the colony, and who were destined to plant the 
Catholic faith upon the littorals of this beautiful strait, 
was not overlooked by Divine Providence, as the sequel 
will show. 

General Cass states : We have nowhere a connected 
account of the progress of this colony; occasional no- 
tices are interspersed through the French historians, and 
detailed descriptions are given of a few of the more 
important events; but the whole subject is involved in 
much obscurity. 

Attention is directed to this remark of the general, 
with the suggestion, that what he did not know of the 
subject of his lecture was of little account. 

The statistical facts, he continues, are altogether neg- 
lected. We have no comparative estimates of popula- 
tion or production ; none of those severe investigations 
into the character and condition of the country which 
render modern history so valuable and satisfactory. 

A small stockaded fort was erected extending from 
First street to Griswold street, and enclosing the houses 
occupied by the persons attached to the post and the 
traders. The whole establishment was slight and rude, 
intended rather to overawe than seriously resist the Indi- 
ans. Only the third year after the establishment of the 
post, the Indians who had settled in its near vicinity at 
the suggestion of Cadillac, were invited to Albany, and 
many of the chiefs of the Ottawas actually visited that 


They returned disaffected to the French interest and 
persuaded that the post was established here to restrain 
and eventually to subdue them. 

At that time the Indian villages in the vicinity of the 
fort, comprised the Huron, the site of which was on the 
farm now owned by Col. De Garmo Jones (next below the 
Cass farm). Another was a Pottawotomie village, upon 
the farm of Mr. Navarre; a third was a Miami village a 
few miles below the latter, while the Ottawa castle and 
village had been located on the southeast shore on the 
opposite side of the strait opposite the lower end of Hog 
Island. These villages were permanently occupied; but 
great numbers of roving tribes occasionally resorted 
here; and it was evident from many circumstances that 
the people were well supplied. Game was abundant and 
herds of buffalo were then ranging upon the prairies 
about the River Raisin. The first serious calamity 
which threatened the infant colony with destruction 
arose from an unexpected quarter. 

Until this time the Ottagamies, or Foxes, were little 
known, and no striking event had directed the attention 
of the French to them. We are therefore unable to trace 
the causes which induced them to take up arms, or the 
means they had provided for their daring enterprise. 
They appear to have been connected with the Iroquois 
and with them to have embraced the English interest. 
Their history for 50 years succeeding this period is a 
history of desperate efforts, directed against the French 
and many of the tribes around them, evincing a firmness 
of purpose, a reckless valor, and a patient endurance of 
misfortune worthy of a better cause and a better fate. 

In May, 1712, they determined to destroy Detroit, 
and in conformity with Indian tactics to make their 
arrangements secretely and to execute them suddenly. 
Under various pretenses they collected in the vicinity in 
great numbers. The Sieur Du Buisson had succeeded 
to the command of the post. He was a good officer, but 
his available force consisted of only 20 soldiers. The 
Hurons, the Ottawas, and the Pottawotomies, upon 
whose friendship and assistance in the hour of need he 
could rely, were absent on their hunting expeditions. An 
Ottagami, who was a Christian convert, disclosed the plot 
to Du Buisson before it was ripe for execution and he 
took immediate measures to counteract it. 

Swift runners were sent to call his allies to his assist- 
ance and preparations were made for a vigorous defense. 

The Ottagamies, finding their object discovered, com- 
menced the attack, but on the 13th of May the French 
were greeted with the sight of a powerful body of their 
friends, naked, painted, and prepared for battle. 

The gates of the fort were immediately opened to 
them and they entered the council house, where in a con- 
sultation with Du Buisson, they professed their attach- 
ment to the French and their determination to defend 
them. They were received and answered as their pro- 
fessions and services well merited. 

In the meantime the Ottagamies had retired to an 
entrenched camp they had previously formed where 
Jefferson avenue intersects the present line of Brush 
street. Here they were invested by the allied forces and 
a blockhouse was erected overlooking the defenses of the 
Ottagamies, from which so severe a fire was kept up that 


they could not procure water. Their provisions were 
soon consumed and hunger and thirst reduced them to 
extremity. Despair, however, invigorated them ; and 
becoming the assailants, they succeeded in gaining poses- 
sion of a house adjoining the fort. They strengthened 
this new position and annoyed their adversaries. They 
were at length dislodged by the cannon, and driven back 
to their entrenchments. At this time they made a pacific 
effort to terminate hostilities, and with this view a dep- 
utation was sent to Du Buisson. No confidence, how- 
ever, being placed in their declarations, either by the 
French or their Indian allies, their offer was rejected. 
When the Ottagami deputation reported the result to> 
their chiefs and warriors, their indignation excited them 
to renewed and desperate efforts, and not less than 300 
arrows with lighted matches attached to them were 
discharged at the fort. The houses were generally 
thatched with straw and several of them were burned. 
The others of them were preserved by covering them 
with wet skins. 

This determined resistence almost discouraged the 
French commander. He seriously contemplated evacu- 
ating his post and retiring to Michilimackinac. He con- 
vened his Indian allies in council and disclosed his inten- 

They remonstrated against this measure, and prom- 
ised to redouble their efforts. The war-song was again 
sung and the parties repaired to their posts. The attack 
was so vigorous that the Ottagamis were reduced to 
extremity. Many of their bravest chiefs were killed, 
and their fort was filled with the dying and the dead. 

They again demanded a parley and the negotiations were 
renewed. While these were pending on the nineteenth 
day of the siege, a tremendous storm arose, and during 
the night they abandoned their fort without discovery 
and with their women and children fled to the peninsula 
which advances into Lake St. Clair (Grosse Pointe). 
Here they were pursued, and being incautiously at- 
tacked, the allies were repulsed with considerable loss. 
Four days were occupied in efforts to carry this new 
position, and on the fifth day succeeded by means of a 
field battery erected by the French. The assailants 
entered the works in arms, and put to death almost all 
who had been opposed to them. The women and child- 
ren were spared, and divided as slaves among the con- 
federated tribes. The Ottagamies lost more than a thou- 
sand warriors in this disastrous expedition. 

The subsequent fate of this nation is not unworthy 
of notice. They collected their scattered bands and 
established their homes on Fox River. But the same 
restless and reckless disposition accompanied them. 
Like the son of Hagar, their hand was against every man 
and every man's hand was against them. They com- 
manded the communication between the Lakes and the 
Mississippi, so that it could only be traversed by large 
bodies of armed men. 

Their war parties were sent out in all directions and 
they kept the whole region in a continuous state of 
alarm and danger. Their hostile attitudes so seriously 
menaced the French interest in that quarter, that an 
expedition was organized and detached to subdue them. 
It was accompanied by the warriors of all the other 


nations, who had been provoked to take signal vengeance 
by their fierce and troubled spirit. 

The Ottagamies had selected a strong position on the 
Fox River, since called Butte des Morts, or the hill of the 
dead, which they had fortified by three rows of pallisades 
and a ditch. They here secured their women and children, 
and prepared for a vigorous defense. Their entrench- 
ments were so formidable that De Louvigney, the French 
commander, declined an assault, and invested the place 
in form. 

By regular approaches, he gained a proper distance 
for mining their works, and was preparing to blow up 
one of the curtains when they proposed a capitulation. 
Terms were eventually offered and accepted; and those 
who survived the siege were spared and liberated. But 
the power of the Ottagami nation was broken and their 
pride humbled. And since this period no remarkable 
incident has occurred in their history. 

From 1720 to 1760 solitary facts in the history of 
Detroit may be here and there gleaned, but no continuous 
account can be given of its condition and progress. 
The materials are too scanty for unbroken narrative. It 
struggled with all the difficulties incident to a remote 
and exposed position. The Indians in the vicinity, 
although not in open hostility, were vindictive and 
treacherous ; and no one could tell when or how they 
might attack it. 

In 1749 considerable additions were made to the set- 
tlements upon the river, and emigrants were sent to the 
colony at the expense of the colonial government, sup- 
plied with farming utensils, provisions and other means 

of support. The continuous wars between France and 
England, which filled so large a portion of the eighteenth 
century, extended their influence to this quarter, and a 
company of militia detailed from the inhabitants, and 
commanded by an ancestor of one of our most respect- 
able families, that of Campau, fought in the great battle 
where Braddock was defeated and killed. 

But it was under the walls of Quebec that the polit- 
ical fate of this country was decided. Upon the plains 
of Abraham the victor and the vanquished poured out 
their blood together, displaying in death, as they had dis- 
played in life, traits of magnanimity and heroism worthy 
of the best days of chivalry. "Who flies?" said the 
expiring Wolfe to an exclamation of one of the mourn- 
ing group around him. He was answered, "the enemy !" 
Then said he, "I die happy," and he died. His fate, so 
picturesque and glorious, recalls the memory of Epamin- 
ondas and Gustavus on the plains of Mantinea and Lut- 
zen — Victory crowned their standards and death sealed 
their career. His rival in fame, and in all but fortune, 
Montcalm, nobly supported the honor of France and fell 
too soon for his country, though too late for himself. 

But a few years afterwards and another noble and 
gallant leader attempted to plant the standard of free- 
dom upon the rocky battlements of Quebec. He fell, 
where Wolfe and Montcalm had fallen before him, but 
the memory of Montgomery will be cherished as long 
as the sacred cause for which he fought. In 1760, the 
British under the capitulation of Montreal took posses- 
sion of Detroit and the upper posts, and in 1763 these 
were finally ceded to France. 

At this period the French had establishments at St. 
Joseph, at Green Bay, at Michilimackinac, at Detroit, at 
the Maumee and Sandusky. As fortified places most of 
these were unimportant, intended more as depots of trade 
than as military establishments. The positions were 
selected with much judgment and knowledge of the 
country, and they yet (in 1829) commanded the great 
avenues of communication to the world of woods and 
waters beyond us. 

By C. M. Burton. 

It needed no formal act of parliament, no declaration 
of the American people, to proclaim to the world the ex- 
istence of a state of war between the British colonies of 
North America and the mother country. Aggressive 
and conquering England, not contented with the posses- 
sions she already held in America, had, by the treaty of 
Paris in 1763, obtained the relinquishment to herself 
from France of that vast tract of country then known 
as Canada, including all the possessions that are now 
known by that name, as well as the more valuable por- 
tion north of the Ohio river and west of New York, 
Pennsylvania and Virginia. Greedy and ill-advised in 
her attempt at conquest, she grasped too much, and in 
order to retain possession of her new acquisition, she 
was compelled to loose her hold upon what she had 
originally claimed and the colonies slipped away from 
her forever. Scarcely ten years elapsed from the sign- 
ing of the treaty of Paris, before there were mutterings of 
discontent in the colonies, and when the year 1775 came, 
England's old possessions were in a state of rebellion 
which terminated in their independence. 


By the provisional treaty of Paris in 1782 the inde- 
pendence of the colonies was recognized, and a few 
months later the final treaty was signed, which forever 
divested England of all claims to her first possessions 
as well as to a large part of the territory acquired from 
France in 1763. 

It was in this tract — in this land which England ob- 
tained from France, and which England, in turn, relin- 
quished to the United States, that Detroit was situated, 
the most important post in this vast territory. 

The histories of the United States or of the revolu- 
tionary war do not contain much that applies to our lo- 
cal history, the reason probably being that the important 
events transpired near the seacoast, and but very little 
was known of Detroit or of the vast and rich country 
of which it was the center. Our history of this period is 
to be found in the numerous local histories of Ohio, 
Illinois, Canada and Michigan ; the memoirs of residents, 
travels, and published letters, the transactions of histor- 
ical societies, some few acts of Congress, and military 
letters of Washington, Jefferson and others, and above 
all in that great accumulation of letters and reports 
which are in manuscript in the British Museum, and 
have been transcribed for the Dominion of Canada under 
the direction of the archivist, Mr. Douglas Brymner, 
and are called, from their collector, Gen. Frederick 
Haldemand, the "Haldemand Collections." Many of the 
manuscripts in this collection, which particularly relate 
to Michigan, have been printed in Michigan Pioneer 
Collection, but many more, of quite as great local interest, 
are still in manuscript. 

The Ohio and Illinois country comprised all the land 
to the south of us as far as the Ohio river, and west of 
New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia. The entrance 
into this country from Canada was either by way of 
Niagara or Detroit, and these two posts, as the bases of 
supplies and headquarters of British soldiers for the dis- 
trict, became posts of importance. The lands along the 
Ohio valley were very fertile, and when the war had ac- 
tually commenced in the east, people began to crowd 
westward and take up these rich lands, clear them of 
their timber, and settle upon them. This country was 
also the best hunting ground of the Indians, and they 
resented the intrusion of the Virginians, and when they 
were unable to stem the increasing tide, they asked the 
aid of the British at Detroit. Thus, while Detroit was 
never actually engaged in any battle of the new republic, 
it was the important place for carrying on the war in the 
west. It was the depot for the distribution of presents, 
supplies and ammunition to the Indians, and the Indians 
were paid for their services solely by these presents and 
supplies. It was the headquarters of the Indian depart- 
ment in the west, and the Indian agents made their re- 
ports to the Detroit commandant and he forwarded them 
to the government at Quebec. It was, likewise, the 
headquarters of the Rangers, who were generally the 
leaders in the Indian incursions. They brought their 
prisoners to Detroit to be retained to work on the forti- 
fications or to be sent down to Montreal and Quebec. 
Here also was the navy yard for the repairing of old 
vessels and the building of new ones, to be used for 
transportation purposes on Lake Erie and Lake Huron. 

Thus Detroit became a place of importance from the 
very outbreak of the revolution. When the war was 
ended, and it was agreed that the territory should be- 
come a part of the United States, Great Britain hesitated 
about giving up the possessions and put one obstacle 
after another in the way of fulfilling her part of the 
treaty, and it was not until 1796 that the United States 
troops finally entered the village, and the British troops 


The village of Detroit, as it existed in 1775, may be 
described somewhat as follows : 

The King's commons was a cleared space of ground 
extending from the Brush Farm on the east to the Cass 
Farm on the west, and stretching back from the river 
as far as the Grand Circus Park. Along the front, about 
the foot of Woodward avenue, was the shipyard. Just 
above this, and forming a part of what is now called the 
Brush Farm, were several lots occupied by persons in 
the employ o£ the British government and not owned 
by the occupants. On the southerly or westerly side, 
at the water's edge, was built the post proper. 

The commons had originally been cleared of wood 
and underbrush, to prevent the congregating of Indians 
under cover, and with a like design, the lands on the 
west of the village had been cleared and a few small 
houses were erected outside of the fortifications on the 
Cass Farm. The commons was the property of the en- 
tire settlement, and no one was permitted to enclose or 
cultivate any portion of it, and when one of the officers 


of the garrison attempted to fence in a small yard in 
which to keep his horse, the inhabitants remonstrated at 
once and the fence was removed. 

The fort occupied the ground between Griswold 
street on the east, the Cass farm line on the west, and 
extended from the river bank, where Woodbridge street 
now runs, to Larned street, thus occupying about four 
blocks of the present city. The streets were very nar- 
row, and the lots very shallow. It has, at various times, 
been attempted to locate some portion of the village as 
a fort, which should be separated from the village itself 
and should bear the name of Pontchartrain, but it is 
doubtful if there ever was a separate building or build- 
ings to which that name could properly be applied. In 
general terms it might be said that the civil or commer- 
cial name of the place was Detroit, and its military name 
Pontchartrain. On the map which was used by the 
powers in negotiating the treaty of 1783, the name of 
Pontchartrain alone appears, and Detroit does not exist. 

In a letter written by Donald Campbell in 1761 the 
place is thus described : "The fort is very large and in 
good repair; there are two bastions towards the water 
and a large fast bastion towards the inland. The point 
of the bastion is a cavalier of wood, on which there are 
mounted the three pounders and three small morters or 
cohorns. The palisades are in good repair. There is a 
scaffolding round the whole, which is only floored to- 
wards the land for want of plank ; it is by way of a ban- 
quette. There are seventy or eighty houses in the fort, 
laid out in regular streets. The country is inhabited 
ten miles on each side of the river and is a most beauti- 

ful country. The river is here about 900 yards over and 
very deep. Around the whole village, just within the 
palisades, was a road which was called the "Chemin de 
Ronde." All the other streets in the village bore names 
indicating the fact that Detroit had been a missionary 
post. There were Ste. Anne, St. Joseph, St. Louis, St. 
Honore, St. James (or St. Jaques) and Sacrament streets. 
Ste. Anne street occupied the same position that Jeffer- 
son avenue now occupies, but did not run exactly parallel 
with it. This street was probably twenty feet wide, ex- 
cept at its eastern extremity where was situated the 
Church of Ste. Anne, and as the church was set 
back some twenty feet, the street was here about 
forty feet wide. The other streets were not more than 
twelve feet in width. The northern line of pickets ran 
through the present Larned street, and there was a street 
between this picket line and Ste. Anne street called St. 
James street. Ste. Anne's church lot, the northwestern 
corner of the present Jefferson avenue and Griswold 
street, extended from Ste. Anne street to the Chemin 
de Ronde on the north and completely blocked St. 
James street at this point. On St. James street, sixty 
feet west of the church, was a lot owned by the church 
which is termed in the conveyances "La fabrique," and 
on it was possibly the dwelling of the priest. There is 
no evidence that there were any instructors. The priest 
could not speak English and there were very few French 
within the inclosure. St. Honore street occupied nearly 
the same position that Shelby street now occupies, and 
some 200 feet south of Ste. Anne street and nearly at 
the water's edge, was a building used for holding Indian 

councils, and lodging such of the Indians as were per- 
mitted to remain over night in the inclosure. Ste. Anne 
street, with the exception of the church, was devoted to 
the business houses of the town; that is, the traders 
lived on the street and used a portion of each dwelling 
for the purpose of trade. Some of the larger dealers, 
as Macomb, Edgar and Macomb, and Graverat and Vis- 
gar, had several places and doubtless occupied dwell- 
ings apart from their places of business. Immediately 
outside the pickets on the west, on Ste. Anne street, 
were the barracks or building occupied by the soldiers, 
a small parade ground and a stone dwelling occupied 
by the commandant. These buildings and grounds con- 
stituted the "citadel" and were inclosed by another pal- 
isade still further to the west the easterly side being 
the westerly picket line of the village proper. A few 
years later, but within the period of the war, there were 
several small lots sold on the Cass farm, still further to 
the west, indicating that houses were built outside the 
pickets in that direction. With the exception of the 
stone building referred to, all of the buildings in the in- 
closure were of wood, small, one-story in hight, built 
up close together and numbering more than eighty. 
After the fire which destroyed Detroit in 1805 sufficient 
stone was found to erect a building which in after years 
was known as the Mansion House, and this house was 
nearly on the site of the stone building referred to; it 
is probable that the materials of this building were used 
for the Mansion House. In the rear of the pickets, to 
the north, a small stream flowed in a westerly direction. 
When the brook bore any name at all it still retained 

the old French appellation of Ruisseau de Rurtus, and 
was known only by that name until modern antiquarians 
have attempted to fasten upon it the name of Savoy op 


The post of Detroit was already considered old, the 
wooden buildings and the eleven block houses and 
batteries were rotting to pieces. The village limits 
had been several times enlarged and at present 
the town was surrounded by a nearly new stockade of 
cedar pickets, fifteen feet high and 1200 paces in extent. 
The fort was in a tolerable state of defence against sav- 
ages, but as they had no cannon or earthworks, it would 
stand no show against soldiers properly armed. The 
settlement immediately dependent upon the fort ex- 
tended some eight miles down the river and thirteen 
miles up the river and along the margin of Lake St. 
Clair. There had been a census taken two years earlier 
which showed that there were, in this district, 1,357 
people exclusive of the garrison (and also exclusive of 
Indians) divided as follows : South of the fort, 475 ; 
north of the fort, 655 ; in the stockade, 222 ; Hog Island, 5. 

The French inhabitants, or Canadians as they are al- 
most universally called, were an indolent, but happy 
and contented people. By the savages they were ac- 
cepted as brothers, and it not infrequently happened that 
a Frenchman was adopted into and made a chief of some 
Indian tribe. The races sometimes intermarried and 
they became, in many respects, one nation. The new 
comers were mostly English, and at once took almost 

exclusive charge of the navigation of the lakes, the fur 
trade and farming. In regard to the latter occupation, 
while the French still retained the land they had long 
occupied, it was not properly tilled, and they could 
scarcely support themselves. They did not raise suffi- 
cient wheat or corn for their own subsistence, but traded 
the furs and game obtained on their hunting expedi- 
tions, for bread at the bake houses in the fort. Their 
farms were narrow strips of land, each with a frontage 
on the river and extending in depth forty arpents, or 
French acres. There were, at the time we speak of, only 
three farms that extended to a greater depth, two being 
sixty arpents and the other eighty arpents in depth. 
Their houses were all of log or frame work, built nearly 
at the waters edge and were within hailing distance of 
each other. Each house had an orchard adjoining of 
fine fruits, and apples, pears, peaches, plums, were in 
abundance. A road ran along the shore line of the river 
but, except in the dry season of the year, or when snow 
was on the round, traveling was by canoes. 

The French were all strict attendants at church 
service, and very jealous of any seeming reflec- 
tion on their religion. They were a conquered nation 
and could never look upon the English as their friends, 
and in turn, while the English tried hard to obtain their 
assistance and used them always with consideration and 
paid them well, they never trusted them, and we find 
letter after letter and reports without number contain- 
ing caution against trusting the Canadians and warnings 
to beware of treachery. So, also, the Indians were a 
constant source of annoyance to the British. While 

great quantities of rum, trinkets and presents of all kinds 
were annually given to the various Indian tribes, they 
could not be kept constant to the British cause, nor 
could they even, by all this vast waste of money be 
kept from occasionally joining the American or rebel 
forces. Indian councils were being called at short in- 
tervals at which the British officers made promises of 
future assistance, accompanied with donations of such 
things as the Indians seemed to need, but after the 
breaking up of the council the officers, in their reports, 
always expressed their want of reliance on the Indian 

The entire Dominion of Canada had been commanded 
by a single governor at Quebec, with military command- 
ants at each of the most important posts in the country ; 
but shortly after the outbreak of the war the Earl of 
Dartmouth created the new office of Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor and appointed Henry Hamilton Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Detroit, Patrick Sinclair Lieutenant-Governor of 
Michillimackinac, and Edward Abbott Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Vincennes. Henry Hamilton arrived in De- 
troit on the 9th day of November, 1775, and at once set 
to work to repair the fort and block-houses, which were 
in a dilapidated condition. There were only two com- 
panies of the King's (or Eighth) regiment in the garri- 
son, but these, as well as the inhabitants, were set at 
work on the fortifications. A ditch was dug around the 
citadel and new block-houses and batteries were con- 
structed. Hamilton's first official report to the Earl of 
Dartmouth is dated September 2, 1776,, and contains a 
well-drawn picture of the manners of the inhabitants. 

"The enterprising spirit of the trader is likely to crowd 
out the Canadians," he says, "and the latter in a few 
years will be dependant on or bought out by the traders. 
The navigation of the lakes, in the larger vessels, is al- 
ready in the hands of the new comers. The new settlers 
manage their farms to the best advantage." 

"The Backwardness in the improvement of farming 
has probably been owing to easy and lazy method of 
procuring bare necessities in this settlement; wood was 
at hand and the inhabitants therefore neglected to raise 
stone and burn lime which is to be had at their doors. 
The river is plentifully stocked with fish, and yet not 
one French family has a seine. Hunting and fowling 
afforded food to numbers who are nearly as lazy as the 
savages, who are rarely prompted to the chase until hun- 
ger pinches them. The soil is so good that the most ignor- 
ant farmers raise good crops. There is no limit to the 
number of traders permitted here, and the unworthy 
and dishonest ones impose on the savages and cheat 
them." Hamilton was busily engaged during the years 
1775 and 1776 in preparing the fort for defence; in get- 
ting acquainted with his new surroundings and in see- 
ing the Indians and attending their councils. The Vir- 
ginians — and the American or rebel forces in the west 
were generally so designated — were sending emissaries 
throughout the west, among all the Indian tribes, striv- 
ing to gain their good will and, if not their assistance, 
at least their neutrality. The Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Wyandottes, Shawanese, Senecas, Delawares, Chero- 
kees, and Pottowatomies are all mentioned as holding 
councils at or near Detroit during these years, and the 

governor took it upon himself to say that on several 
specified occasions, in their councils, he destroyed the 
letters and belts sent as invitations from the Virginian 

It appears from charges afterwards made against 
Hamilton that he urged the Indians to bring scalps 
rather than prisoners, and although no such statements 
directly appear in his official reports, it is not improb- 
able that he did so instruct the Indians, but omitted to 
make his report show his disposition in this respect. 
In his letter to the Earl of Dartmouth he said: "The 
Indians all appear to be satisfied, but I am not to rely 
on their assurances, for as soon as the council breaks up, 
I expect to hear of several small parties falling on the 
scattered settlers on the Ohio and rivers which fall into 
it, a deplorable sort of war, but which the arrogance, dis- 
loyalty and impudence of the Virginians has justly 
drawn down upon them." The office of lieutenant-gov- 
ernor did not confer any military authority, and although 
Hamilton had general charge over all affairs here, he 
sometimes quarreled with the military commandant, and 
was not able to control him to his liking. He is accused 
of using undue severity on several occasions and of being 
aided and assisted in his tyranny by Philippe Dejean, 
the notary and justice of the peace. 

On one occasion in 1777, one Jonas Schindler had been 
accused of selling base metal mixed with silver, and upon 
trial before a jury of twelve persons he had been ac- 
quitted ; thereupon Hamilton, resenting the acquittal, or- 
dered Schindler to be drummed out of the town, but 
Capt. Lord, then in command of the garrison, "silenced 

the drum when it entered the citadel in order to pass 
out at the west gate with the prisoner, and said that 
Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton might exercise what acts of cruelty 
and oppression he pleased in the town but that he would 
suffer none in the citadel." 

Early in 1777 Hamilton was invited by Carleton to 
come to Quebec in order to put his settlement in some 
sort of order. He said the legislative council had met, 
"but the times will not at present admit of any regula- 
tions being made for more distant or remote situations 
while the commotions continue ; the power of the sword 
is chiefly and indeed only to be trusted to. The keep- 
ing of the Indians firm to the king's interest ought to 
be your first and great object." Hamilton was included 
in a commission of the peace for the province at large, 
and in that capacity could issue commitments to send 
down any persons guilty of criminal offences in Detroit, 
"but these must be signed by you, and not by Dejean, 
whose authority is unknown here." 

As the winter approached it was necessary that suit- 
able preparations should be made for carrying informa- 
tion between the various military posts. Letters and 
dispatches must be constantly sent between Michilli- 
mackinac, Detroit, Post Vincennes, Niagara, Montreal 
and Quebec. During the warm weather this was not so 
great a task, as communication by runners through the 
woods or the birch canoe gliding over the waters of the 
lake and the rivers was speedy and certain, but in the 
winter the carrying of information must be confided to 
more trustworthy persons. These messengers were then 
to be sent out in parties, to consist of an Indian, a Can- 

adian and two or three soldiers. Through the snow 
or along the margin of the lake on the ice, they carried 
their dispatches from one post to another, and kept 
each commandant, as completely as possible, informed 
of all transactions in the outer world. Every letter was 
written in duplicate or triplicate, and it is no uncommon 
matter now to find that two or three copies of the same 
letter had reached the person to whom it was sent, by 
as many different routes. The affairs of Vincennes, of 
Michillimackinac and of Niagara, were much better 
known to the people of Detroit in 1777, than they are 
to-day. If the winter was severe, the river at Detroit 
was frozen, and the inhabitants were "snow bound." 
Intercourse with the outside world was cut off, except 
on the arrival of the occasional dispatch parties. Most 
of the inhabitants of the posts were traders who bought 
furs from the Indians and Canadian hunters, and sold 
them such articles as they needed in return. One of the 
articles which they deemed a necessity was rum, and a 
wonderful quantity of it was disposed of. To anticipate 
for an instant; Governor Haldimand complained in 1779 
that there were consumed in Detroit 17,520 gallons of 
rum per year, while at Niagara only 10,000 gallons were 
disposed of. This seemingly vast amount is only what 
the government gave away to its Indian wards; how 
much more was sold by the traders it is impossible to 

Detroit was known to the British as a stronghold, 
as the key to the entrance to the southern department, 
but by the Americans it was watched as carefully as cir- 
cumstances would permit, and its capture or destruc- 

tion desired and prepared for. We have a letter from 
Washington to General Schuyler in 1778, in which he 
suggests plans for invading Canada and for the reduc- 
tion of Niagara, but admitting the impracticability of 
reducing Niagara. He writes that "an expedition against 
Detroit, which congress meditated last fall, and still have 
in contemplation, will keep the Indians in that quarter 
employed and prevent them from affording succor to 
the garrison at Niagara;" and in his report to congress 
in January, 1779, he says he thinks General Mcintosh 
(then at Fort Pitt) should at once decide whether, with 
his present force, provisions, stores, prospect of supplies 
and means of transportation, he can advance to Detroit, 
and whether the advantages or disadvantages of a winter 
expedition predominate. If these should be determined 
in the affirmative, his plan should be prosecuted with 

Hamilton's overbearing disposition had caused a 
quarrel between himself and the commanding officers of 
the garrison, and Capt. Lernoult was sent up from Ni- 
agara to take the military command and settle the mat- 
ter in dispute, and arrived some time in December, 1777. 
As Hamilton expected to make a descent on Fort Pitt as 
soon as possible in the spring of 1778, the winter was 
occupied with preparations for the event, holding Indian 
councils and getting vessels in readiness for transporta- 
tion, and in all this he was assisted by Capt. Lernoult, 
■who. although physically weak, was mentally strong 
and active. 

At the opening of 1778 Hamilton continually sent re- 
ports to show the necessity of a descent upon Fort Pitt,. 

and to show that the fort was incapable of resisting any 
force that might be sent against it; he reported that the 
garrison of Port Pitt was only 120 men, and they were 
undisciplined and ill-affected; the cannon were out of 
condition for service and the garrison did not under- 
stand the serving of them; the alarm on the Ohio was 
very general and something ought to be done to en- 
courage loyalists there and to keep the Indians em- 
ployed; "the militia and light company (at Detroit) 
would furnish 150 picket men, this garrison might spare 
an officer and thirty or forty men. Should your excel- 
lency think it advantageous for the protection of those 
persons living amongst the rebels who are friends of 
the government, or for the purpose of distressing the 
enemy to attempt Fort Pitt, I beg leave to make an 
humble offer of my service, whether to act with a body 
of militia and Indians, according to circumstances, and 
the information I can produce, or under the directions 
of a regular officer appointed by your excellency to con- 
duct an enterprise. We are entirely agreed as to the 
practicability of distressing the enemy somewhere on the 
frontier next spring." 

Hamilton, himself, had felt the need of a properly ap- 
pointed judiciary and in this respect he represented the 
entire community. It was then with a feeling of relief 
that it was made known that a Mr. Owen had arrived 
in Quebec bearing a commission as judge of Detroit. 
There had been no previous intimation of his coming 
and Detroit had not been set off or been organized as a 
judicial district; nor were there other officers appointed 
such as would be required for properly carrying on the 

court business, but a judge had been chosen and that 
was one step in the right direction. Imagine the feelings 
of the citizens when, a few days latter, they received in- 
formation of a letter from Lord Germain to Sir Guy 
Carleton containing the following: "A mistake appear- 
ing to have been made in Mr. Owen's warrant by ap- 
pointing him a judge of the district of Detroit, instead 
of Montreal, a new warrant has been made out which 
rectifies that mistake and the receiver-general will have 
orders from the treasury to pay him the salary for the 
past year according to his present appointment." So 
Detroit lost its first judge without ever seeing him. 
Hamilton was disappointed; he was greatly in fear of 
the result of the investigation of the grand jury of Mon- 
treal into the affairs of Dejean and himself. He sought 
to smooth over the anticipated action of the grand jury, 
and immediately upon learning that Halidmand had ar- 
rived at Quebec he wrote to him that "a very able and 
amiable person (Mr. Owen) was destined for the place 
of judge of this place, his absence, which I have suffi- 
cient cause to lament, has occasioned me to act at the 
risque of being reprehensible on many occasions. The 
loss of so estimable a man as Mr. Owen must be doubly 
felt, while I am obliged to act as judge, and in several 
cases executor of justice, there is no executioner or 
gaoler, nor is a gaol yet built, tho' greatly wanted. Mr. 
Dejean, who has been justice of the peace here a long 
time, is indefatigable, but he, as well as myself, requires 
to be better informed and better supported. I show 
him all the countenance I am able, but till my own au- 

thority is on a proper foundation, it can serve him but 
little." * 

Both Hamilton and Dejean were presented by the 
grand jury, September 7, 1778; Dejean for having acted 
and transacted divers unjust and illegal, tyranical, and 
felonious acts and things contrary to good government 
and the safety of his majesty's liege subjects," and "that 
the said Hamilton hath not only remained at Detroit 
aforesaid and been witness to the several illegal acts and 
doings of him, the said Philip Dejean, but has tolerated, 
suffered and permitted the same under his government 
guidance and direction." The presentment was for- 
warded to Lord George Germain on the 25th of October 
and a warrant was issued for the arrest of Hamilton and 
Dejean. Dejean was twice indicted; Hamilton once. 
One of the indictments was published some years since 
in the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collection, but 
the other seems never to have reached the printers hands. 
Feeling assured, from investigation, that the other pre- 
sentment existed, I looked carefully through all of Mr, 
Brymner's reports, and was rewarded after more than 
a year of diligent search in finding the lost paper, and 
at once obtained a copy of it. It is dated September 8, 
1778, and is a long document, reciting that Dejean, on 
December 9, 1775, illegally acting as magistrate at De- 
troit, caused one Eller (Hecker) to be tried before him 
on the charge of murdering one Charles Morin (Moran) 

*The tone of this letter led Cambell, Buel, and perhaps some 
others to suppose that Owen died. The fact is that William Owen 
served as judge for some time in Montreal, and finally returned to 
England in poor health. 

and upon his conviction, sentenced said Eller to death, 
and that the convict was executed ; and that in February 
■or March, 1776, Dejean likewise had John Constantinau 
and Nancy, a negro woman, apprehended and tried be- 
fore him for attempting to burn the dwelling house of 
Messrs. Abbott and Finchley, and also for having stolen 
•some money and peltries, and Constantinau was con- 
demned and executed ; that the woman, Nancy, was like- 
wise sentenced to death, and was imprisoned for a time., 
but was pardoned by Dejean upon condition that she act 
as executioner in putting to death the said Constantinau, 
and that said Nancy put to death said Constantinau by 
hanging him; that in June, 1776, said Dejean caused one 
Jonas Schindler, a Montreal silversmith, to be imprisoned 
and tried for issuing base metal as pure silver, but that 
Schindler was acquitted on the trial. Dejean would not 
let Schindler go with the acquittal, but kept him impris- 
oned six days and then, attended by a drum and guards, 
had him drummed out of the garrison. Judge Campbell, 
in his history of Michigan, says, concerning this episode: 
"It is evident there is much of its unwritten history yet 
•unknown." I believe the publication of this second pre- 
sentment taken in connection with the matter already 
published by Campbell, and the account in Lannan's his- 
tory (page 133), and the reports from the war depart- 
ment on these indictments, hereinafter referred to, make 
this matter as clear as it ever can be. We have an un- 
broken narrative — nothing is wanting. Hamilton and 
Dejean acted with the consent of the jury they had 
called, and within what they deemed to be their author- 
ity, but their execution was murder, because they had no 

legal authority to condemn to death. In consequence of 
the unsettled state of affairs during the war England 
thought best to overlook the irregular conviction and 
execution and the parties were permitted to go free. 

Edward Abbott, of Detroit, had been appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Vincennes, and had remained there 
till February, 1778, and then returned to Detroit, where 
he arrived on the 7th of March. The only excuse he 
gave for returning was that he was without means to 
supply the Indians with sufficient to keep them from> 
joining the rebels, and preferred to return rather than 
make promises he could not carry out, and he accord- 
ingly left before the Indians returned from their hunt. 
Early in January of this year Virginia had authorized 
Lieut.-Gov. George Rogers Clark to proceed to the west 
and attack the British posts in the Illinois country. The 
instructions to Clark are signed by Patrick Henry, and. 
direct him to raise seven companies of fifty men each, 
officered in the usual manner, "and with his force attack 
the British post at Kaskasky." Kaskaskia was taken on 
the fourth of July, and a few days afterwards Clark took 
Vincennes, or rather it was delivered up to him, as the 
only persons left there seem to have been Frenchmen well 
affected to the American cause. Clark returned to his 
troops at Kaskaskia, leaving Vincennes with a small gar- 
rison. Here was Hamilton's chance to get away from De- 
troit, and the warrant for his arrest. He had not suc- 
ceeded in getting a permit to attack Fort Pitt, but this 
time he would not give Haldiman an opportunity to for- 
bid his going. On the 14th and 29th days of June he 
had prolonged councils with the Indians and knew that. 

for a time at least, they would be faithful to his interests. 
On the 8th of August he wrote to Carlton that Roche- 
blave, the commandant at Kaskaskia, had been taken 
prisoner by the rebels and he had no doubt that Vin- 
cennes had fallen into their hands also. On, the nth of 
August he again wrote to Carleton that a party of 
marauders, consisting of 300 men, that left Fort Pitt the 
preceding January, had taken Kaskasia, imprisoned the 
commandant, and were on their way to Vincennes. On 
the 5th of September he informed Gov. Haldimand, who 
had taken Carleton's place, that "a prisoner brought 
here by the Shawnese lately, who was taken near one of 
the forts on the river Kentucke, tells me the rebels were 
lately reinforced with three companies, each of seventy 
men," and he will not be surprised to hear that the re- 
bels are driven away, nor will he be surprised to hear 
that they are well received at Vincennes.* 

When Col. Clarke received news of the surrender of 
Vincennes, he started for that place to retake it from 
Hamilton, and arrived a short distance from it on the 
23rd of February, 1779, when he sent off a note to the in- 
habitants in which he notified those who were true citi- 
zens and willing to enjoy true liberty "to remain in their 
houses, and those, if any there are, that are friends to 
the king, will instantly repair to the fort, and join the 
Hair Buyer General and fight like men." After ex- 

*The capture of Vincennes, as here related, forms the basis of 
the story of the late Maurice Thompson, "Alice of Old Vin- 

Accompanying this letter is a statement about Detroit, that 
on April the 26th, 1778, there were 2,144 people, including 127 


changing some shots, by which several soldiers were 
wounded but none killed, Hamilton surrendered at dis- 
cretion on the 24th of February. Dejean who had been 
left behind in Detroit was as anxious to avoid service of 
the warrant as was Hamilton, and at the earliest oppor- 
tunity set off for Vincennes and was captured by a party 
sent out by Clarke, on March 5. Dejean had obtained 
leave of Lernoult (who was then in charge of Detroit), 
to pass to Vincennes to carry letters to Hamilton and at 
the time of his capture was with one Adhemar, whom 
Hamilton had sent to the Miamis after provisions. As 
we look back upon these skirmishes, battles and captures, 
where only a very few soldiers were engaged on either 
side, and where there was very little blood shed, and 
possibly no serious wounds, it seems as though they were 
only "playing war," and yet we know now that this cap- 
ture of Vincennes was one of the most important events 
of the revolution. It, for a time, put an end to con- 
certed Indian war in the west, and gave congress the 
right to claim all of that vast country called the north- 
west territory, as their land by right of conquest when 
the treaty of 1783 was executed. 

Alexander McKee, one of the most enterprising roy- 
alists in the west, informed Haldimand that there was a 
prospect "at this time of uniting the western and south- 
ern Indians and engaging them in his majesty's service, 
which would have been undoubtedly effected had not his 
(Hamilton's) unfortunate fate prevented it. This un- 
lucky event has not only discouraged many tribes well 
disposed, but inclined others who were wavering, to 
stand neuter." 

As Col. Clark was commissioned by Virginia, Hamil- 
ton and the others with hirn, were considered the prison- 
ers of that state. The Virginia legislature considered 
that Americans who had been captured by the British, 
were unfairly treated as prisoners of war, and had 
threatened, unless better treatment was granted, to re- 
taliate upon British soldiers taken by the Virginians. 
Thus it happened that Hamilton and Dejean and Will- 
ian Lamothe, a captain of volunteers from Detroit, who 
had been taken prisoner with them, were chosen as the. 
proper persons on whom to begin the process of retalia- 
tion. It was not alone that they were prisoners of war 
that they were thus chosen, but because of the infamous 
character of the men themselves. The council of Vir- 
ginia on June 18, 1779, determined that Hamilton ex- 
cited the Indians to perpetrate cruelties on citizens of 
the United States ; that he gave standing rewards for 
scalps, but none for prisoners, and that Dejean was, "on 
all occasions, the willing and cordial instrument of Gov. 
Hamilton, acting both as judge and keeper of the jails, 
and instigating and urging him by malicious insinuations 
and untruths, to increase, rather than relax, his severi- 
ties, hightening the cruelty of his orders by his manner 
of executing them, offering, at one time, a reward for 
one man to be hangman of another, threatening his life 
on refusal, and taking from his prisoners the little prop- 
erty their opportunities enabled them to acquire," and 
"that the prisoner Lamothe, was a captain of volunteer 
scalping parties of Indians and whites who went from 
time to time, under general orders to spare neither men. 
women or children." They therefore advise the gover- 

nor that Henry Hamilton and Phillip Dejean and Will- 
iam Lamothe were fit subjects on whom to begin the 
work of retaliation, and that they be "put in irons, con- 
fined in a dungeon of the public jail, debarred the use of 
pen, ink and paper, and excluded all converse, except 
with their keeper." While at Detroit Dejean had held 
all the civil offices worth holding, recorder, notary, jus- 
tice, auctioneer, receiver of public moneys and judge, 
and Judge Campbell says the man must have been very 
virtuous or very subservient to get control of all these 
offices. It seems very probable that it was subserviency 
and not virtue that kept Dejean in office, for even Ham- 
ilton, who was mixed up with him in so many question- 
able transactions, despised him, and in one of his official 
reports says that Dejean was on his way to Vincennes 
with letters and papers for him (Hamilton) when he was 
captured by Col. Clarke, and that Mr. "Dejean heard that 
he had fallen into the hands of the rebels, but he had not 
sufficient presence of mind to destroy the papers." The 
prisoners were kept in close confinement tor some 
months, when a form of oath was submitted to them, 
on the taking of which they were to be released on 
parole. Dejean and Lamothe took the oath and were set 
at liberty, but Hamilton refused and was kept a close 
prisoner until Gen. Washington wrote a letter to Thomas 
Jefferson suggesting that it was not a proper mode of 
warfare to manacle and confine prisoners of war. Ham- 
ilton was exchanged in 1781 and went to New York. 
Meanwhile copies of the indictment of the grand jury 
of Montreal had been forwarded by Gen. Haldimand to 
Lord George Germain in October, 1778, with the ex- 

planation that although Hamilton has been irregular in 
some of the proceedings alluded to in the presentments, 
still "I am well convinced he acted with the best inten- 
tions for the king's service, and the security of that part 
of the province committed to his immediate charge." 
This explanation seemed sufficient for Lord George; all 
he could ask was that officials should look out for the 
interests of the government, and a little thing like the 
hanging of two or three parties without any warrant 
was of no great consequence, so he wrote back to Haldi- 
mand, April 16, 1779, "the presentments of the grand 
jury at Montreal against Lieut.-Gen. Hamilton and Mr. 
Dejean are expressive of a greater degree of jealousy 
than the transaction complained of, in the then circum- 
stances of the province, appear to warrant; such 
stretches of authority are, however, only to be excused 
by unavoidable necessity and the justness and fitness of 
the occasion." Hamilton and Dejean were so unpopular 
that the news of their capture was received with great 
rejoicing at Detroit, and Col. Clarke desired to push on 
and capture the place, and probably would have taken 
it if he had had more troops. He wrote, April 29, 1779, 
that if he had 300 good men he would attempt to take 
Detroit, as he had learned that there "could have been 
no doubt of success, as by some gentlemen, lately from 
that post, we are informed that the town and country 
kept three days in feasting and diversions on hearing of 
my success against Mr. Hamilton." The news of Hamil- 
ton's disaster spread rapidly through the province and 
was as disheartening to the British as it was encourag- 
ing to the Americans. Haldimand accused him of going 

off without receiving either his orders or permission, 
and termed his expedition a second "tour de Burgoyne," 
which had the most vexatious consequences. "There 
seems to be a fatality accompanying the enterprise." 
From all the Canadian posts and from London came let- 
ters of complaint and regret, filled with expressions of 
fear as to the ultimate result of the disaster. The Indians 
were disheartened and were seeking to make peace with 
the Americans, and it was even published as an item 
of news in London that Col. Crockett reported "that Col. 
Clarke had taken Fort Detroit, made 250 prisoners, and 
reduced that country. His informant saw some of the 
prisoners." The anxiety of the garrison at Detroit was 
not diminished by a very cordial message received by 
Capt. Lernoult from Col. Clarke, which Clarke sent up 
by some of the paroled prisoners, in which he desired 
Lernoult to present the compliments of his officers to 
those in the Detroit garrison, and expressed himself well 
satisfied with the new works going on at the new fort, 
"as it will save the Americans some expenses in build- 


Hamilton still remained governor of Detroit, not- 
withstanding his absence, and so continued until Jehu 
Hay was appointed his successor after the close of the 
war. The military command remained in Capt. Ler- 
noult, who seems to have been an efficient and able com- 
mandant. Heldimand directed Bolton, who was in com- 
mand of Niagara, to send reinforcements to Detroit, and 
in April, 1779, he dispatched 100 men for that purpose. 

There were then in the garrison 120 persons, including 
officers. Fears were entertained for the safety of the 
post, and as the Indians could not be depended on, small 
parties were sent out from all the Canadian forts to 
harass the Americans and prevent concerted action on 
their part if possible. The defenses at Detroit had long 
been considered inadequate, and when it was found that 
the Americans were coming westward ; when Clarke had 
taken Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and Hamilton had gone 
down to meet him, Lernoult concluded it was about time 
some preparations were being made to protect the post. 
We will let Capt. Henry Bird tell the story of the new 
fort, in his own language, merely mentioning that the 
new fort, called Lernoult after the commandant, was 
situated on the site of Detroit's new postoffice. "Late 
in the fall of 1778 we were alarmed by the approach of 
the enemy under Broadhead, who with, 2,000 or 3,000 
men, had actually advanced as far as Tuscarawas, about 
ninety miles from the lake at lower Sandusky, and 
were employed in building a large picketed fort. Maj. 
Lernoult at a conversation with the officers at Detroit, 
on the above alarm, concluded Detroit incapable of mak- 
ing a defense that might reflect honor on the defendants, 
it being of great extent only picketed, and in a manner 
under a hill. By his orders on the same evening I 
traced a redoubt on the hill ; the plan was left to me. I 
at first intended only a square (our time as we imag- 
ined being but short for fortifying ourselves), but when 
the square was marked out it appeared to me so naked 
and insufficient that I added the half bastions, imagining 
if the enemy approached before the curtains were com- 

pleted we might make tolerable defense by closing the 
bastions at the gorge. So perfect a work as one with 
entire bastions for so small a number of defendants, four 
or five six-pounders very ill furnished, and no artillery 
officers, and an attack expected in a few weeks, was 
what I never would have engaged to have undertaken: 
We began, I think, early in November, and worked with- 
out intermission until February, at which time the In- 
dians declared an intention of attacking Col. Broadhead's 
posts of 400, then at Tuscarawas. I joined them. In the 
meantime Lieut. Duvernett returned from Post Vincent 
and was appointed engineer." The enterprise and ac- 
tivity of Lernoult was appreciated by Haldimand, who 
wrote in April, that he is happy that so important a post 
as Detroit has been intrusted to so careful and diligent 
an officer and that he would send his aide-de-camp, Capt. 
Brehm, on a tour of inspection to all the posts of the 
upper country. Bird had started off southward, as he 
says in his reports, but poor success attended him. He 
had collected about 200 savages at Mingo Town, mostly 
Shawanese, when a runner arrived with information that 
the rebels had attacked and beaten back another band of 
Shawanese, and thereupon news flew "that all the towns 
were to be attacked, and our little body separated in an 
instant, past reassembling; confusion still prevails; much 
counseling ; no resolves ; many are for moving, more for 
peace. The Indians are always cooking or counselling." 
Bird's reports were only the experience of every other 
man of the time. Detroit was capable of supplying the 
garrison with provisions in times of peace, but Hamilton 
had carried off so much with him on his expedition that 

everything in the line of provisions was very scarce and 
very high; a pair of oxen were worth 1,000 livres, and 
flour was 60 livres a hundred. 


We have seen that Capt. Brehm had been sent to the 
upper posts to make reports of their condition. From 
his various letters we find that 200 new reinforcements 
had come to Detroit before May 28, 1779, and their ar- 
rival had a good effect on the Indians, who were getting 
insolent and almost daring in their behavior because Ler- 
noult could not carry out with them the promises made 
by Hamilton. The French could not be depended on 
and needed watching as much as the Indians. Thd 
French, Spaniards, Germans and Americans had all 
joined together and were sending messages among the 
Indians asking them to join them and drive the English 
out of the country. The new fort was much advanced 
towards completion, and for it Capt. Lernoult wanted an 
iron 18-pounder for a long range, as the new fort com- 
manded the ground about it for a great distance. "Affairs 
are very critical and the place may be attacked at any 
time. Capt. Bird, of the Eighth Regiment, is at Upper 
Sandusky, and 200 Chanees have gone to join him. 
Capt. Lernoult is engaged in building a covered way 
iround the works, has finished a bomb proof magazine 
and store house, and is now making barracks for officers 
and men. The daily consumption of rum has been forty 
gallons per day, but the number of Indians has increased, 
so that it is necessary to have sixty gallons per day." 
The last of these reports is dated July 27, 1779, and is 

written from Niagara, where Capt. Brehm had arrived on 
his return trip. He says: "Lernoult wishes ioo more 
men and with them he will undertake to defend the town, 
or old fort, and not abandon and burn it in case of an at- 
tack." The rumor of disaffection among the French at 
Detroit had so excited Haldimand that he directed Ler- 
noult to arrest all the guilty parties, and send them 
down to Niagara at once. Acting under this warrant, 
depositions were collected concerning several of those 
living in the vicinity of Detroit, but we have no evidence 
that any were sent down to Niagara ; probably the depo- 
sitions taken by Lernoult had the effect to persuade 
them to remain true to the British government, or at 
least to keep quiet. 

On the 28th of August, 1779, Lernoult was informed 
that he was promoted to the rank of Major, and on the 
same day was directed to surrender up to De Peyster 
the command of the post and repair at once to Niagara 
upon DePeyster's arrival. DePeyster, in turn, was di- 
rected to give to Gov. Sinclair all information he could 
respecting Michillimackinac, and then to leave that post 
in his charge and take command of Detroit. On the 
nth of November following, Lernoult was again pro- 
moted, this time to the rank of adjutant-general." Ac- 
companying the letter to DePeyster, notifying him of his 
removal to Detroit, is another letter from Haldimand, 
which gives us some idea of what the powers of a Lieu- 
tenant-governor really were. Patrick Sinclair held the 
rank of Captain in the army, and had been appointed 
lieutenant-governor and superintendent of the post of 
Michillimackinac, Haldimand writes: "From a letter of 

Lord George Germain to Capt. Sinclair, wherein he styles 
him commandant of the post, he conceives he is entitled 
to military command, which is not expressed in his com- 
mission, it being exactly similar to that of Lieut.-Gov. 
Hamilton; he therefore goes to his government vested 
with the same powers." 

We know that Hamilton exercised the power of 
marrying Dr. Anthon and perhaps others, but we also 
know that DePeyster, while military commandant at De- 
troit, without any claim to civil command, exercised the 
same powers by marrying Thomas Williams to Cecile 
Campau (sister of the late Joseph Campau), according 
to the forms of the established church. We know, also, 
that Haldimand was not permitted to do as he pleased 
in the citadel of Detroit, though at the time, it was un- 
der command of a lieutenant, and we have seen on his ex- 
pedition to Vinennes he was willing to serve under any 
officer that might be selected to head the expedition, 
showing that he did not claim the right of leadership 
by virtue of his office. Sinclair complained that the 
commission limited his charge to the civil business of 
the post and supervision of the Indian department, but 
Haldimand remarked that the commission was similar to 
Hamilton's, and did not savor in the least of a military 
appointment, and he could not enlarge its terms. 


Arent Schuyler DePeyser, who came to take com- 
mand of Detroit in October, 1779, was born in New York 
in 1736 and was now 43 years of age. He had entered 
the army when 19 years of age, and when transferred 

to Detroit, bore the rank of colonel. He found the new 
fort in good condition, though not completed. The first 
dispatch which DePeyster made, and which he sent down 
with the departing Lernoult, gave Haldimand the en- 
couraging information that Simon Girty and his Indians 
had defeated Col. Rogers on the Ohio. The second 
official dispatch of DePeyster was to Capt. McKee, of 
Shawanese Towns, requesting him to procure from the 
Indians a woman, Peggy West,, and her daughter Nancy, 
a girl of 12, who had been for some time captives of the 
Monsey Indians. The instance shows that while he was 
a rough soldier, accustomed to rough treatment, in con- 
stant association with the Indians and frontier soldiers 
of a similar disposition, he had a heart, and it was found 
to be in its proper situation. "If, sir," he writes to Mc- 
Kee, "it is possible to find the mother and the other 
sister, I will not spare expense. Please, therefore, to 
employ some active people to go in search of them, as- 
suring the Indians of a good price, and my grateful ac- 
knowledgment." Thomas Williams had been acting as 
justice of peace under the appointment from Lernoult, 
and had awaited a proper commission from Haldimand; 
the commission arrived a few days after DePeyster came, 
but no one was here authorized to qualify the new officer 
as the dedimus had been directed to Lernoult, and he had 
gone down to Montreal, and both Williams and De- 
Peyster were compelled to act in an informal way till the 
proper papers came. Early in the spring of 1779 Wash- 
ington had directed Col. Daniel Brodhead to detach 100 
men and proceed northward from Fort Pitt through the 
Indian country, but in April he changed the plans and 

directed Broadhead to chastise the western Indians by 
an expedition into their country, and directed him to 
"ascertain the most favorable season for enterprise 
against Detroit. The frozen season, in the opinion of 
most persons, is the only one in which any capital stroke 
can be given, as the enemy can derive no benefit from 
their shipping, which must either be destroyed or fall 
into our hands." Either the last mentioned order did 
not reach Brodhead or else the original order was again 
given to him, as he marched northward and chastised 
the Mingo and Monsey tribes on the Alleghany and did 
not come near Detroit. The situation of affairs at the 
west was discouraging to Haldimand, who had spent a 
vast quantity of money in Indian presents and given the 
affairs of this post unusual attention on account of its 
importance, and of the Canadian defection already spoken 
of. On September 23, 1779, the situation, as it appeared 
to him, is expressed in a letter to Lord Germain, as fol- 
lows : "It is much to be apprehended that our Indian 
allies have it in contemplation to desert us, those of the 
western nations in the neighborhood of Detroit particu- 
larly, their former attachment to the French, the pains 
that have been taken by their emissaries to reclaim them, 
together with the unfortunate miscarriage of Lieut.-Gov. 
Hamilton, have strongly seemed to alienate their affec- 
tions, and although they continue to profess their at- 
tachment to the king, they frame excuses for not going 
to war, and discover upon all occasions an indifference 
which indicates their intention to forsake us. Detroit is 
likewise menaced by the Virginians ; they have made 
great advances and have established posts of communi- 


cation in that country. From every information that has 
been received it would appear that an expedition against 
Detroit is certainly intended under the command of a 
Col. Clarke, who retook Vincennes." Count D'Estaing 
had in October, 1778, issued a proclamation in the name 
of France, to "all the ancient French of North America," 
calling upon them to assist the United States in its con- 
test with Great Britain, and promising, in the name of 
his king, "who has authorized and so commanded me," 
that all his former subjects in North America, who will 
not acknowledge any longer, the supremacy of Great 
Britain, may depend upon his protection and support." 
This proclamation was printed, and copies of it in great 
numbers were scattered everywhere among the Canadi- 
ans in the west; one of the copies fell into the hands of 
Lernoult and was by him sent to Haldimand in the fall 
of 1779, and by Haldimand was forwarded to Germain 
with the remark that it had "had a very marked effect 
among the French Indians there." A few days later Hal- 
dimand urged upon Germain the necessity of employing 
1,000 to 1,500 more men for the preservation of the up- 
per country and fur trade, and regretted that some step 
had not been taken to make Detroit self-sustaining, by 
raising its own stock and provisions. He aux Cochons, 
the present Belle Island park of the city of Detroit, had 
for some years been in possession of Capt. McDougall 
under a claim of ownership, partly by grant from the 
Indians and partly by confirmation of the privy council 
of Great Britain, and this suggestion of Haldimand that 
Detroit raise its own provisions, had direct reference to 
the island. The village claimed that the island was a 

commons, and that neither McDougall nor any other pri- 
vate individual could obtain a personal right to it. Mc- 
Dougall had recently died, leaving a widow and two sons. 
Efforts were made on the part of the family to retain the 
property, but they were not, for the present, successful, 
and although ultimately the complete title to the prop- 
erty became vested in McDougall's descendants, and so 
remained until the sale in recent years to the city for a 
park, its possession was now taken in the name of the 
government and the buildings and improvements were 
appraised and their value offered to the family of Capt. 
McDougall, but the tender was refused. 

The winter of 1779 was a very severe one of unexam- 
pled rigor over all North America, and it seems nothing 
was done at Detroit in the way of warlike preparation. 


At Detroit, affairs had not been entirely at a stand- 
still during the year. The inability of the British gov- 
ernment to supply all the requirements of the Indians 
and the persistence of the Americans in refusing to ac- 
cept terms of peace unless their independence was recog- 
nized, had alike disheartened the British soldiers and 
the Indians. It is possible that the inhabitants, soldiers 
and civilians, saw the coming peace and resolved to make 
the most of their opportunities. The British govern- 
ment had never recognized a general right, either on the 
part of individuals or the government itself, to purchase 
lands from the Indians, and we find very few transfers 
made by the Indians before the year 1780. In some in- 
stances, as in the case mentioned of the purchase of Hog 


Island, a special permit had been granted by the British 
authorities either at Quebec or Whitehall. When the 
Indians gave the Jones farm to Isidore Chene as a mark 
of friendship to him who had so long been a chief among 
them, the consent of the commandant of the post was 
deemed necessary to the validity of the transaction, and 
many other cases of like nature can be found on record; 
but this year the commandant, DePeyster, permitted the 
Indians to trade their lands off to settlers and specula- 
tors in large tracts; not only permitted it, but took a 
decided interest in it, and obtained for himself a grant 
of 5,000 acres. Great numbers of Indians claiming lands 
in the neighborhood would come about the post to at- 
tend the councils or to receive the trinkets and rum given 
to them, and their chiefs would make deeds to applicants 
of farms of from 150 to 200 acres, all situated near De- 
troit, and all now of great value. All of these deeds 
were drawn up by Thomas Williams, notary and 
justice, and were witnessed by his clerk, John 
Cassety. As the signing and witnessing was all that 
was necessary to make the deed valid, Mr. Williams 
wrote them out at full length in the books kept by him, 
which we now have. Detroit was without laws, or, 
rather was a law unto itself. It was a civil settlement, 
at present under military rule, but engaged in commer- 
cial transactions. At some period earlier than this in 
its history, Dejean had been appointed justice of the 
peace, but his authority as justice was not clearly de- 
fined. In case of disagreements between traders, or 
others of a commercial nature, he could not issue sum- 
mons to commence suit before himself, nor could he 

award judgments, as he had no power to enforce his 
findings, but the very nature of the situation created a 
new form of procedure, which was unknown elsewhere. 
Where controversies arose the parties jointly called upon 
the justice and requested him to take charge of the mat- 
ter, and each contestant and the judge chose an arbi- 
trator, and the contestants entered into bonds to abide 
by the result of the arbitration. When the award was 
made it was submitted to the commandant for his ap- 
proval, and if he approved of it, it was made effectual, 
and was enforced by his military authority, if necessary. 
The person who would not abide by the decision of the 
arbitrators was not permitted to trade with the Indians ; 
his furs could not be disposed of ; he was an outlaw, and 
we have at least one case (Gerrit Graverat) where the 
party gave up nearly all of his possessions, amounting to 
a large sum of several thousand pounds, under the im- 
mediate direction of the commandant, and under the 
threat of DePeyster that if he did not give up his prop- 
erty he would be expelled from the country. In this 
year, 1780, it had, for the first time, been ascertained that 
this manner of proceeding by arbitrators, with the as- 
sistance of the justice and commandant, was not legal 
and was not looked upon with favor by the courts at 
Montreal and Quebec. The consternation of the traders 
and citizens was great; it seemed impossible to carry on 
the business without some manner of courts in which 
to settle their difficulties. They stood the matter as 
long as they could, and in March, 1781, they petitioned 
DePeyster for some plan for the administration of jus- 
tice. "We beg," they say, "to lay before you the un-» 

happy situation of ourselves and others residing at this 
place, for want of some mode, to oblige those who are 
able and yet unwilling to pay their lawful debts." De- 
Peyster forwarded the petition to Haldimand with an 
earnest request "that some method might be fallen upon 
to make them pay their just debts." The question was 
agitated both at Quebec and in England, but nothing 
definite was done for several years, not until 1788 in fact, 
and meantime all the larger and more important cases 
were taken to Montreal for trial before the courts there, 
and the smaller cases were let drop. 

There was no bank at Detroit, and indeed, banking 
as a modern institution was unknown, but the firm of 
Macomb, Edgar and Macomb took such drafts as were 
payable in Montreal and Quebec, and paid for them in 
cash or trade^ much after the form of modern banks, 
and transmitted the drafts eastward for collection, where 
another supply of goods and rum, mostly rum, was sent 
in return. This firm had become so wealthy and their 
dealings so large that in 1780 they proposed to furnish 
all the goods for the Indian department at Detroit at a 
uniform advance of 25 per cent, on merchandise, and rum 
at 1 8s, New York currency, and they agreed that they 
would "advance money as usual for the payment of the 
other departments." This was no small undertaking 
for one firm.* 

*Some firms issued paper money of their own. The reputation 
of the firm being the only criterion of value. There is no recorded 
instance of any of this paper money being repudiated or that any 
firm failed to redeem its pledges. 


The problem of providing means to purchase other 
goods for the Indians was a constantly recurring one. 
difficult to solve. The Indians could not be kept in any 
sort of good humor without making them presents all 
the time. The presents were not of an expensive kind — 
cheap blankets with bright colors, fancy knives, scarlet 
cloth, ruffled shirts, laced hats and other things of like 
nature, to take the eye of the natives. But the demand 
was so great that the expense startled alike DePeyster 
and Haldimand. Whenever the Indians came to the 
councils, the squaws would strip the entire clothing from 
the Indians that they might appear in destitute condition 
so as to be able to demand new outfits. To show the 
enormous amount of money squandered each year on these 
worthless Indians, we find the account of drafts drawn 
by De Peyster in one year as follows : September 8, 
1780, £42,714 7s 1 id; January 8, 1781, £44,562 6s i>4d; 
September 12, 1781, £55,225 13s 6%d, making a total of 
£123,902 7s 6^d, to which is to be added the vast quan- 
tity of goods sent up from Montreal, probably as much 
more in value. Haldimand said, "the frequency of these 
amazing demands is a matter of serious concern to me, 
knowing how ill they are received at home and how very 
trifling the service can be urged in support of them." 
And De Peyster, with his last draft, says, "the goods 
in the store at Detroit cannot last longer than till Decem- 
ber." There was one thing the Indians demanded as a 
necessity. They could do without food, clothing or trink- 
ets, but they must have rum. The immense quantities 
distributed by the government we have already spoken 

of, but of the quantities sold by traders it is impossible to 
judge. About the time of the breaking out of the war 
the leading merchants of Detroit had formed what might 
be termed a "rum trust." They agreed to place all of 
their rum in one store and employ one or more clerks to 
see that it was properly disposed of, and the avails divided 
pro rata among the members of the trust. If any other 
person should undertake to sell rum in any place in the 
district, they would at once ship sufficient quantities to 
that place and undersell the intruder until he was com- 
pelled to leave. How long the agreement lasted I do 
not know, nor do I know what the result of the agree- 
ment was. It was not long, however, before complaints 
were made of the sad effects of the use upon the Indian 
wards. Both in England and America the curse of rum 
was the frequent topic of discussion in official and pri- 
vate correspondence, but the demand grew ; it could only 
die with the death of the Indians. "I have dried up 
their tears with a barrel of rum and six fathoms of to- 
bacco," writes a messenger who came from a meeting of 
discontented Indians. "I hope you will pardon the incor- 
rectness of my letters, as I wrote with Indians on every 
hand, and whispering in each ear 'rum or bread,' " writes 
Patt. Sinclair, governor of Michillimackinac. 

McKee thought the Moravians were friends to the 
rebels, and he urged DePeyster to remove them, and 
DePeyster sent word to the Hurons to bring to Detroit 
the six teachers and a few of the principal chiefs of the 
Moravians. He did not want the Moravian Indians to 
come to Detroit to settle as he would be compelled to 
sustain them. 

McKee reported on October ioth that his scouts 
brought him information that Clark would not under- 
take an expedition to the north of the Kentucky and 
Salt Creek, in order to cover the small forts in that 
neighborhood. A contingent from the six nations had 
aided the western Indians throughout the summer, and 
when they were on the point of leaving, a council was 
called at the upper Shawanese and the western Indians 
thanked them publicly for the assistance rendered and 
at the same time told them that "nothing would be more 
satisfactory than to see the six nations turn their atten- 
ion towards Fort Pitt as the source of all the enemy's 
capability to distress their country and that while the 
enemy are in possession of this door into it they live in 
neither ease nor safety." 

Captains Pipe and Wingineum (both Indians) were 
sent by McKee to take the Moravian teachers to Detroit. 

Notwithstanding the desires and orders of DePeyster 
that the Indians should remain at Sandusky and not 
crowd around Detroit, numbers of them came up, and a 
conference with them was held here on the 21st of Oc- 
tober. Half King, an Indian chief of the Hurons, stated 
that he had taken the Moravian Delawares from their 
villages, as he found they were inclined to assist the 
rebels, and had settled them in his village, where they 
were under his eyes. 

The Moravian teachers were brought to Detroit in 
the early part of November by the Delaware and Mo- 
hawk Indians, and interrogated by DePeyster in the 
presence of the chiefs of those nations. There were six 
teachers, sent by their bishop from Bethlehem, in Penn- 

sylvania, to each Indian town. There were 350 Indians 
in their mission. The teachers denied taking any part 
in the war or carrying on any correspondence with either 
side. DePeyster had contemplated keeping the teach- 
ers in Detroit, but at the request of the Delawares he 
permitted them to return with that tribe. DePeyster 
promised these Indians to give to them such things as 
they might need during the coming winter, but said that 
Haldimand would provide for them as long' as they were 
engaged in the war, but he would not give them liquor 
except under proper restraints. 

In spite of the horrors of an Indian warfare, with its 
base of operations here, Detroit continued to grow rap- 
idly. A census of the district had been taken in 1773, 
a short time before the breaking out of the war, which 
showed an aggregate population of 1,357 people; white 
and black. Five years later, in 1778, there were 2,144 
persons in the district. A census taken the following 
year showed a population of 2,653 (including garrison 
and prisoners). In 1780 there were 2,207 exclusive of 
prisoners and soldiers, and after peace was declared in 
1783, there were 2,291 civilians, showing a net increase 
during the decade of 70 per cent. The Indians needed 
the assistance of the British at all times, and, if they 
could have been informed of the situation would have 
been urgent that peace should not be declared. The 
whole theory of British occupation was to keep the In- 
dians in their proper places as hunters, and to preserve 
the continent for its furs. Only such parcels of land 
were disposed of by the government as were within or 
contiguous to the fortified enclosures. When the war 


broke out the people in the thirteen colonies began to 
leave them, and proceeded westward into Kentucky, Ohio 
and Illinois; they took possession of the Indian's hunt- 
ing grounds, and it was only by the aid of the British 
soldiers that they could even hope to be successful in 
driving them back. Unfortunately for their cause the 
Indians did not, possibly could not, understand the situa- 
tion. They could not be kept constant to their only 
friends, the British. 

The news of the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown 
did not reach Detroit until April, and the report was 
not at first credited. The Indians under McKee at San- 
dusky were preparing for an incursion into the lands 
along the Ohio. DePeyster notified McKee of the rumor, 
and added : "If the accounts from Fort Pitt concerning 
Lord Cornwallis be true, it may make them (the Indians) 
alter their plans. You will be the best judge whether 
to communicate the resolutions to the Shawanese or' not. 
I have thought best to say nothing to the Indians here 
till I hear further, lest we give the alarm to the enemy." 

DePeyster at the same time undertook to persuade 
the Indians to a different mode of warfare, and at coun- 
cil held in Detroit, on the 226. of April, he told them to 
take as many prisoners as possible and avoid spilling blood 
of women and children. When warriors meet you and 
they fall in action it is what they must expect. But the 
Indians were thoroughly exasperated and filled with a 
desire for revenge ; on June the 8th they met the enemy 
at Sandusky and repulsed them with a heavy loss. A 
few prisoners were only taken, but 250 were killed and 
wounded. Among the prisoners was Col. Crawford, who 


had been the leader of the Virginians. The burning of 
Crawford, which immediately followed his capture, was 
one of the most horrible events of this Indian war and 
cannot help being considered as the sequel of the bloody 
massacre of the Christian Indians. 

Hamilton, who had not ceased to be titular lieutenant- 
governor of Detroit, though in fact an absentee, in prison 
or in England, was on April 27 appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Quebec, to supercede Oremache, and Jehu 
Hay was appointed lieutenant-governor of Detroit. 

We have seen that the Moravian teachers were at 
Detroit, and that the remaining Indians were directed to 
come here also. The Chippewa Indians had granted 
them a tract of land on the Huron (now Clinton) river, 
and thither they removed, built for themselves a little 
village, and lived by fishing, hunting, making wooden- 
ware, picking cranberries and making maple sugar. 
They took no part in the war. Whatever things they got 
or produced found a ready market in Detroit. The steps 
taken by De Peyster in behalf of the Moravians met with 
the hearty approval of Haldimand. It must also have 
had a great effect on the other Indian tribes. De Pey- 
ster was constantly, through these years of trouble, urg- 
ing the Indians to be merciful in their warfare; to kill 
in battle, but to spare the lives of the prisoners. At 
nearly every council held with the Indians we find 
these injunctions issued by him. His letters to McKee, 
Elliott, Caldwell and others all breathe the same princi- 
ple. The massacre of the Christian Indians by Will- 
iamson and his company was so horribly inhuman that 
even the Indians were startled. De Peyster thought 

that he would not longer be capable of controlling them. 
He wrote to McKee on the 19th. of August :"You are sen- 
sible that I have lost no opportunity to request that you 
would recommend humanity to the Indians. It has ever 
been the principle that I have acted upon, and I am con- 
vinced that no task is more agreeable to my wishes. 
Upon my arrival here I found the Indians greatly civil- 
ized from the good advice they received from you and 
my predecessors, in which disposition, by my earnest 
endeavors, we continued them till the imprudent step of 
the enemy at Muskingun called up their savage ferocity. 
I see they still hold their prisoners formerly taken in 
mild captivity, while their resentment only shows it- 
self to those newly taken, looking upon them as a part 
of the people who imprudently declared by words and 
signs that they had come to exterminate the Wyandotte 

He requests McKee to convince the Indians that the 
cruelty committed by them upon Col. Crawford and the 
two captains was the sole ground for the late invasion of 
their country by the whites. 

De Peyster's task in undertaking to keep the Indians 
in proper bounds was a difficult one. Not only were the 
Indians cowardly, treacherous, ungrateful, not to be de- 
pended on in case of emergency, not to be depended on 
even when alone and apparently their own masters, but 
they were, upon occasions when they thought they could 
be with safety to themselves, haughty, overbearing and 
almost rebellious in their actions with the commandant. 
This spirit De Peyster was continually forced to meet, 
and he stemmed the current or turned it aside with con- 
siderable skill. Toward the end of 1782, when there were 


had been the leader of the Virginians. The burning of 
Crawford, which immediately followed his capture, was 
one of the most horrible events of this Indian war and 
cannot help being considered as the sequel of the bloody- 
massacre of the Christian Indians. 

Hamilton, who had not ceased to be titular lieutenant- 
governor of Detroit, though in fact an absentee, in prison 
or in England, was on April 27 appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Quebec, to supercede Oremache, and Jehu 
Hay was appointed lieutenant-governor of Detroit. 

We have seen that the Moravian teachers were at 
Detroit, and that the remaining Indians were directed to 
come here also. The Chippewa Indians had granted 
them a tract of land on the Huron (now Clinton) river, 
and thither they removed, built for themselves a little 
village, and lived by fishing, hunting, making wooden- 
ware, picking cranberries and making maple sugar. 
They took no part in the war. Whatever things they got 
or produced found a ready market in Detroit. The steps 
taken by De Peyster in behalf of the Moravians met with 
the hearty approval of Haldimand. It must also have 
had a great effect on the other Indian tribes. De Pey- 
ster was constantly, through these years of trouble, urg- 
ing the Indians to be merciful in their warfare; to kill 
in battle, but to spare the lives of the prisoners. At 
nearly every council held with the Indians we find 
these injunctions issued by him. His letters to McKee, 
Elliott, Caldwell and others all breathe the same princi- 
ple. The massacre of the Christian Indians by Will- 
iamson and his company was so horribly inhuman that 
even the Indians were startled. De Peyster thought 

that he would not longer be capable of controlling them. 
He wrote to McKee on the 19th. of August :"You are sen- 
sible that I have lost no opportunity to request that you 
would recommend humanity to the Indians. It has ever 
been the principle that I have acted upon, and I am con- 
vinced that no task is more agreeable to my wishes. 
Upon my arrival here I found the Indians greatly civil- 
ized from the good advice they received from you and 
my predecessors, in which disposition, by my earnest 
endeavors, we continued them till the imprudent step of 
the enemy at Muskingun called up their savage ferocity. 
I see they still hold their prisoners formerly taken in 
mild captivity, while their resentment only shows it- 
self to those newly taken, looking upon them as a part 
of the people who imprudently declared by words and 
signs that they had come to exterminate the Wyandotte 

He requests McKee to convince the Indians that the 
cruelty committed by them upon Col. Crawford and the 
two captains was the sole ground for the late invasion of 
their country by the whites. 

De Peyster's task in undertaking to keep the Indians 
in proper bounds was a difficult one. Not only were the 
Indians cowardly, treacherous, ungrateful, not to be de- 
pended on in case of emergency, not to be depended on 
-even when alone and apparently their own masters, but 
they were, upon occasions when they thought they could 
be with safety to themselves, haughty, overbearing and 
almost rebellious in their actions with the commandant. 
This spirit De Peyster was continually forced to meet, 
and he stemmed the current or turned it aside with con- 
siderable skill. Toward the end of 1782, when there were 


sylvania, to each Indian town. There were 350 Indians 
in their mission. The teachers denied taking any part 
in the war or carrying on any correspondence with either 
side. DePeyster had contemplated keeping the teach- 
ers in Detroit, but at the request of the D'elawares he 
permitted them to return with that tribe. DePeyster 
promised these Indians to give to them such things as 
they might need during the coming winter, but said that 
Haldimand would provide for them as long' as they were 
engaged in the war, but he would not give them liquor 
except under proper restraints. 

In spite of the horrors of an Indian warfare, with its 
base of operations here, Detroit continued to grow rap- 
idly. A census of the district had been taken in 1773, 
a short time before the breaking out of the war, which 
showed an aggregate population of 1,357 people; white 
and black. Five years later, in 1778, there were 2,144 
persons in the district. A census taken the following 
year showed a population of 2,653 (including garrison 
and prisoners). In 1780 there were 2,207 exclusive of 
prisoners and soldiers, and after peace was declared in 
1783, there were 2,291 civilians, showing a net increase 
during the decade of 70 per cent. The Indians needed 
the assistance of the British at all times, and, if they 
could have been informed of the situation would have 
been urgent that peace should not be declared. The 
whole theory of British occupation was to keep the In- 
dians in their proper places as hunters, and to preserve 
the continent for its furs. Only such parcels of land 
were disposed of by the government as were within or 
contiguous to the fortified enclosures. When the war 

broke out the people in the thirteen colonies began to 
leave them, and proceeded westward into Kentucky, Ohio 
and Illinois ; they took possession of the Indian's hunt- 
ing grounds, and it was only by the aid of the British 
soldiers that they could even hope to be successful in 
driving them back. Unfortunately for their cause the 
Indians did not, possibly could not, understand the situa- 
tion. They could not be kept constant to their only 
friends, the British. 

The news of the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown 
did net reach Detroit until April, and the report was 
not at first credited. The Indians under McKee at San- 
dusky were preparing for an incursion into the lands 
along the Ohio. DePeyster notified McKee of the rumor, 
and added: "If the accounts from Fort Pitt concerning 
Lord Cornwallis be true, it may make them" (the Indians) 
alter their plans. You will be the best judge whether 
to communicate the resolutions to the Shawanese of not. 
I have thought best to say nothing to the Indians here 
till I hear further, lest we give the alarm to the enemy." 

DePeyster at the same time undertook to persuade 
the Indians to a different mode of warfare, and at coun- 
cil held in Detroit, on the 226. of April, he told them to 
take as many prisoners as possible and avoid spilling blood 
of women and children. When warriors meet you and 
they fall in action it is what they must expect. But the 
Indians were thoroughly exasperated and filled with a 
desire for revenge ; on June the 8th they met the enemy 
at Sandusky and repulsed them with a heavy loss. A 
few prisoners were only taken, but 250 were killed and 
wounded. Among the prisoners was Col. Crawford, who 

of, but of the quantities sold by traders it is impossible to 
judge. About the time of the breaking out of the war 
the leading merchants of Detroit had formed what might 
be termed a "rum trust." They agreed to place all of 
their rum in one store and employ one or more clerks to 
see that it was properly disposed of, and the avails divided 
pro rata among the members of the trust. If any other 
person should undertake to sell rum in any place in the 
district, they would at once ship sufficient quantities to 
that place and undersell the intruder until he was com- 
pelled to leave. How long the agreement lasted I do 
not know, nor do I know what the result of the agree- 
ment was. It was not long, however, before complaints 
were made of the sad effects of the use upon the Indian 
wards. Both in England and America the curse of rum 
was the frequent topic of discussion in official and pri- 
vate correspondence, but the demand grew ; it could only 
die with the death of the Indians. "I have dried up 
their tears with a barrel of rum and six fathoms of to- 
bacco," writes a messenger who came from a meeting of 
discontented Indians. "I hope you will pardon the incor- 
rectness of my letters, as I wrote with Indians on every 
hand, and whispering in each ear 'rum or bread,' " writes 
Patt. Sinclair, governor of Michillimackinac. 

McKee thought the Moravians were friends to the 
rebels, and he urged DePeyster to remove them, and 
DePeyster sent word to the Hurons to bring to Detroit 
the six teachers and a few of the principal chiefs of the 
Moravians. He did not want the Moravian Indians to 
come to Detroit to settle as he would be compelled to 
sustain them. 

McKee reported on October ioth that his scouts 
brought him information that Clark would not under- 
take an expedition to the north of the Kentucky and 
Salt Creek, in order to cover the small forts in that 
neighborhood. A contingent from the six nations had 
aided the western Indians throughout the summer, and 
when they were on the point of leaving, a council was 
called at the upper Shawanese and the western Indians 
thanked them publicly for the assistance rendered and 
at the same time told them that "nothing would be more 
satisfactory than to see the six nations turn their atten- 
ion towards Fort Pitt as the source of all the enemy's 
capability to distress their country and that while the 
enemy are in possession of this door into it they live in 
neither ease nor safety." 

Captains Pipe and Wingineum (both Indians) were 
sent by McKee to take the Moravian teachers to Detroit. 

Notwithstanding the desires and orders of DePeyster 
that the Indians should remain at Sandusky and not 
crowd around Detroit, numbers of them came up, and a 
conference with them was held here on the 21st of Oc- 
tober. Half King, an Indian chief of the Hurons, stated 
that he Had taken the Moravian Delawares from their 
villages, as he found they were inclined to assist the 
rebels, and had settled them in his village, where they 
were under his eyes. 

The Moravian teachers were brought to Detroit in 
the early part of November by the Delaware and Mo- 
hawk Indians, and interrogated by DePeyster in the 
presence of the chiefs of those nations. There were six 
teachers, sent by their bishop from Bethlehem, in Penn- 


happy situation of ourselves and others residing at this 
place, for want of some mode, to oblige those who are 
able and yet unwilling to pay their lawful debts." De- 
Peyster forwarded the petition to Haldimand with an 
earnest request "that some method might be fallen upon 
to make them pay their just debts." The question was 
agitated both at Quebec and in England, but nothing 
definite was done for several years, not until 1788 in fact, 
and meantime all the larger and more important cases 
were taken to Montreal for trial before the courts there, 
and the smaller cases were let drop. 

There was no bank at Detroit, and indeed, banking 
as a modern institution was unknown, but the firm of 
Macomb, Edgar and Macomb took such drafts as were 
payable in Montreal and Quebec, and paid for them in 
cash or trade 4 much after the form of modern banks, 
and transmitted the drafts eastward for collection, where 
another supply of goods and rum, mostly rum, was sent 
in return. This firm had become so wealthy and their 
dealings so large that in 1780 they proposed to furnish 
all the goods for the Indian department at Detroit at a 
uniform advance of 25 per cent, on merchandise, and rum 
at 1 8s, New York currency, and they agreed that they 
would "advance money as usual for the payment of the 
other departments." This was no small undertaking 
for one firm.* 

*Some firms issued paper money of their own. The reputation 
of the firm being the only criterion of value. There is no recorded 
instance of any of this paper money being repudiated or that any 
firm failed to redeem its pledges. 



The problem of providing means to purchase other 
goods for the Indians was a constantly recurring one ; 
difficult to solve. The Indians could not be kept in any 
sort of good humor without making them presents all 
the time. The presents were not of an expensive kind — 
cheap blankets with bright colors, fancy knives, scarlet 
cloth, ruffled shirts, laced hats and other things of like 
nature, to take the eye of the natives. But the demand 
was so great that the expense startled alike DePeyster 
and Haldimand. Whenever the Indians came to the 
councils, the squaws would strip the entire clothing from 
the Indians that they might appear in destitute condition 
so as to be able to demand new outfits. To show the 
enormous amount of money squandered each year on these 
worthless Indians, we find the account of drafts drawn 
by De Peyster in one year as follows : September 8, 
1780, £42,714 7s 1 id; January 8, 1781, £44,562 6s i>^d; 
September 12, 1781, £55,225 13s 6^d, making a total of 
£123,902 7s 6%d, to which is to be added the vast quan- 
tity of goods sent up from Montreal, probably as much 
more in value. Haldimand said, "the frequency of these 
amazing demands is a matter of serious concern to me, 
knowing how ill they are received at home and how very 
trifling the service can be urged in support of them." 
And De Peyster, with his last draft, says, "the goods 
in the store at Detroit cannot last longer than till Decem- 
ber." There was one thing the Indians demanded as a 
necessity. They could do without food, clothing or trink- 
ets, but they must have rum. The immense quantities 
distributed by the government we have already spoken 

request him to supply the wants of their women and chil- 
dren, who were almost naked ; but the supplies had not 
come at the last of June. "Heavens !" De Peyster writes, 
"if goods do not arrive soon, what will become of me? I 
have lost several stoneweight of flesh within these 
twenty days." The Indians complained that they were 
always ready to fight for the English, and now, they said, 
"we are informed that, instead of prosecuting the war, 
we are to give our lands to the enemy, which gives us 
great uneasiness ; in endeavoring to assist you it seems 
we have brought our own ruin." De Peyster could only 
thank them for their past services, inform them that peace 
had been declared, but that he did not know on what 
terms, and promised to give them whatever goods came 
up from below. The commandant wrote on the last of 
June that the Indians came in from all quarters. "To 
avoid a too numerous council I have invited four of each 
nation to meet me about the beginning of July, but it 
seems that whole villages had set out on their journey 
for that purpose before my strings could reach them ; 
impatient to know what is to become of them and their 
lands and to request a supply of goods so long promised 
them." The Wabash Indians, he said, were very imper- 
tinent, "using expressions not proper to be committed to 
paper." On the first day of May, 1783, Congress 
requested the Secretary of War to take the most effective 
measures to inform the Indians that preliminary articles 
of peace had been agreed upon and hostilities had ceased 
with Great Britain, and the Secretary sent Maj. Ephraim 
Douglass to carry out the instructions of Congress. It 
was generally understood that as soon as peace was 

declared, the posts of Detroit and Niagara would at once 
be surrendered to the United States, and consequently 
that any delegate from Congress might properly, at this 
time, go among the Indians for any peaceful purpose, 
but the English did not propose to surrender the posts at 
all, if they could help it, and certainly not now. British 
interests were not favorable to treaties of peace between 
the Americans and the Indians. Douglass proceeded west- 
ward as far as Sandusky without meeting the Indians in 
general council. At the invitation of Captain Pipe, an 
Indian chief, he accompanied him to Detroit, expecting 
there to meet several tribes of Indians in council, to 
whom he could explain his errand. A further invita- 
tion was extended to him by De Peyster, but De Pey- 
ster requested him not to enter into any negotiations with 
the Indians until after his arrival in Detroit. 

On the 4th. day of July, 1783, the first representative 
of the United States government, in the person of Maj. 
Ephraim Douglass, entered Detroit. He was cordially 
received by Maj. De Peyster, but while the latter pro- 
fessed the strongest desire to bring about terms of peace 
between the new government and the Indians, he would 
not permit Douglass to address them nor to inform them 
that the boundary lines of the United States would in- 
clude this district. 

At the Indian council held at Detroit on the 6th. day 
of July, there were present chiefs of eleven nations, 
extending as far south as the Wabash, the Chippewas, 
Ottawas, Wyandottes or Hurons, Shawnees, Delawares, 
Kickapoos, Oweochtanoos, Miamis, Pottowottamies, 
Pienkishas and Senecas. 


The Indians knew of the presence of Douglass and 
his errand. They were greatly pleased that peace was 
declared, and surrounded his lodging all day when he was 
at home and lined the streets to attend him on his going 
abroad, "that they might have," he writes, "an oppor- 
tunity of seeing and saluting me, which they did not fail 
to do in their best manner, with every demonstration of 
joy." In the absence of instructions from higher author- 
ity, De Peyster refused to permit Douglass to negotiate 
with the Indians, and on the 7th., at the request of De 
Peyster, Douglass set out for Niagara, where he was 
accorded the same treatment as at Detroit, and was com- 
pelled to return home without having accomplished any- 
thing of importance. Thus the Indians were left in 
almost total ignorance of the intention of the new govern- 
ment to them. They could not know whether they were 
recognized in the treaty or whether they might consider 
the United States as a friend or foe. 

The summer passed away without further matters of 
interest on the frontier, other than the dissatisfaction of 
the Indians regarding the treaty. They agreed, at the 
urgent and repeated requests of McKee, who was at San- 
dusky, to abstain from further incursions and to set their 
prisoners at liberty. They claimed that it was under- 
stood they were to keep their prisoners "to strengthen 
their nation." They were apprehensive of the designs 
of the Americans on their lands north of the Ohio, but 
McKee was able to keep them in pretty good humor, and 
the summer wore away and the fall came. On the 3rd of 
September, 1783, the final treaty of peace was signed; 
the United States was a nation in the eyes of all the 
world : the revolution was at an end. 

By Hon. T. W. Palmer. 

Memorial days are dear to the heart of mankind. Orig- 
inating, possibly, in some day, annually recurring, when 
the sky, the air, and the soil joined in a promise of 
plenty to be almost always fulfilled, it became an 
anniversary to be anticipated with delight, to be cele- 
brated with rejoicing, to be regarded with affection. As 
man's spiritual and sentimental nature developed, events 
which enlarged his mental horizon were honored, and 
incidents which were regarded as of exceptional import- 
ance in his moral advance commemorated. They have 
become part of our civilization, the monuments by which 
we consciously or unconsciously measure and classify 

They may be annual, biennial, or even at longer 
stated periods. They may be social, secular, religious 
or political, but, in any case, they enrich our lives by 
giving to memories a local habitation and a name, and as 
long as gratitude dwells in the heart of man and rever- 
ence is a part of his nature, he will always accept the 
pious task of garnishing these memorial days with tra- 
ditions and fond recollections. They have a practical 
as well as a sentimental value. They stand as focal 

points around which recollections cluster and where men 
and women, by sympathetic celebration, come to have 
a common reverence for things which would otherwise 
be vague and be regarded but carelessly. 

Infused with such sentiments, our people have fixed 
upon the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of 
our city as a time when we should halt in our eager strife 
towards the future, and from the happy vantage ground 
of today look back upon the generations which have come 
and gone since the white man made the banks of the De- 
troit river his home. 

There are no ties among people more binding than 
common traditions, common memories, and common rev- 
erence for the past. Some may say that these are not 
our traditions, that they belong to the decendants of those 
to whom they relate, but to me they are the traditions 
of every citizen of this town. The Umbrian or the Gaul 
on becoming citizens of Rome, cherished the story of 
Horatious at the Bridge and Virginius in the Market 
Place as dearly as though he and they had been of com- 
mon blood, and that his ancestors had been actors in 
those soul-stirring dramas. 

These legends had been interwoven in the life of a 
city. The heroism and the self-sacrifice of the deeds re- 
cited made them the common property of all who loved 
Rome. And so in our case all the work done ; all the 
valor displayed ; all the suffering endured and steadfast- 
ness called forth ; all the self sacrifice shown, to which 
many men have contributed, some to live in history, 
others to pass into oblivion, were done for us. Myriads 
of heroes are not gazetted, but they are none the less 

heroes. Comparatively few who have striven for this 
empire will be remembered in name. While the waves 
of the ocean are doing their work unceasingly and bene- 
ficently, it is only a tidal wave, at remote intervals, carry- 
ing destruction in its path, calling for the highest vir- 
tues among men to prevent or remedy its ravages, which 
evokes the interest of the historian or rivets the atten- 
tion of posterity. Yea, more than this, this winning of 
an empire calls for the celebration of the devotion 
and heroism of those men whose acts antedated the 
foundation of our city, but who contributed to it and 
were a part of the story of the building of the great 

The dream that inspired Magellan to follow every 
river to the west, until its waters became fresh, with the 
hope of finding a passage to Cathay, was the dream that 
for one hundred years nerved the arm of every French 
explorer as he measured mile after mile with the stroke of 
his paddle. 

Why was the founding of Detroit so long delayed? 
Two-thirds of a century before Cadillac built his stock- 
ade, the Missions of St. Ignace, Mackinaw, and Sault Ste. 
Marie had been established. Marquette and LaSalle 
had finished their work and passed into history. The 
situation of the future town was delightful. The climate 
was more attractive than that of the missions at the 
Straits, and yet there were no settlements on the Detroit 
River, save those of the red men. 

The answer seems to me plain. The leading men 
among the French in America were not colonizers, but 
traders and hunters. The missionary came first. He 


knew that his work for the salvation and education of 
the Indian brought its richest harvest when undisturbed 
by the presence of an alien race, so he did nothing to 
encourage settlers. After the missionary, came the 
trader, and he, too, desired no competition in his dealings 
with the Indians, and no settlements to dispute and en- 
croach on his domain of the forest. The one came to save 
souls, the other to barter in furs. The mission served to 
blaze the way for the trading post. 

The first explorers came up the Ottawa River, crossed 
over to Georgian Bay, thence to Lake Huron and up 
to the north and west, ever seeking the new route to 
China. Thus were founded the missions at Sault Ste. 
Marie, Point St. Ignace, and Mackinaw, and later on 
those on Lake Superior and in Illinois. Cut off from 
Lakes Ontario and Erie by the hostility of the Iroquois 
Indians, the earliest missionaries took their route to 
Lake Huron and Lake Superior through the Ottawa 
River and portages. 

In 1700, De Callieres made a treaty between the 
French and their allies on the one side and the Iroquois 
on the other, by which the French secured peace and 
permission to trade with all the tribes from the English 
border to the Mississippi, and also the possession of the 
line of lakes. Just what the English borders were, was 
not, and from the nature of the case, could not be 
clearly defined, for the Saxon was slowly but surely push- 
ing to the west. All this was 70 years before any English 
speaking white man had made his home west of the Ohio 


There are several routes from the great lakes to the 
Mississippi marked out by LaSalle, Marquette and oth- 
ers, but the one for which the French and English were 
to contend was the one, which, bounded on the south 
and east, the North West Territory. It ran from Presque 
Isle, now the City of Erie, over a portage of fifteen miles 
to the head of French Creek, at Waterford in Pennsyl- 
vania, and thence down this stream to the Alleghany 
and Ohio Rivers. Forts, posts or trading stations, built 
for the protection of the traders and to secure ascen- 
dancy over the Indians, were established all along the 

All this vast stretch of territory, which the French 
were anxious to control, called for a base of supplies, and 
Detroit came into being. Cadillac, with a missionary, 
soldiers and colonists, was sent out in 1701 to found a 
post on the Detroit River. The French instinct and pur- 
pose was for trade. The farmer had little or no place 
in their scheme. The terms of one of Cadillac's land 
grants will prove this most conclusively. "The grantee 
was to pay a rent of 15 livres a year to the Crown for- 
ever; to improve the grant within three months of the 
date of contract ; to suspend a May Pole on May Day of 
each year in front of the manor house; to make fences 
for his grant in a prescribed manner and to assist in mak- 
ing his neighbors' fences. He was forbidden to buy or 
sell merchandise carried to and from Montreal through 
servants, clerks, or foreigners, or to work directly_ or 
indirectly for ten years at the business of blacksmith, 
locksmith, armourer or brewer, or to sell brandy to the 
Indians." The Crown reserved the property of all min- 

erals and of timber for military purposes. The grantor 
reserved the rights of hunting rabbits, hares, partridges, 
and pheasants and the right to grind all the grain raised 
on the land, receiving a toll therefor. On any sale of 
land, a tax was levied and the grantor reserved the 
right to purchase the land at the price offered by the 
prospective purchaser." 

Under such circumstances agriculture could not flour- 
ish and the citizens around Detroit, as well as most 
of the French posts, were driven to trading, hunting and 
fishing. The English, on the contrary, were a race of 
farmers and when the crucial test came, the man fighting 
for his home won. The French had the greater influence 
with the Indians. Their polite, suave ways and the 
deference they paid the individual savage, gave them a 
power with the Indians which the English never ac- 
quired. Again, the French, influenced by their priests, 
had more conscience in selling rum to the Indians, and 
this had a tendency to affect the chiefs in their 
favor. Notwithstanding all the drawbacks, however, a 
colony sprang up around the fort and flourished. The 
garrison became a conning tower over the vast territory 
now included in the limits of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, particularly over that part be- 
tween Lake Erie and the Ohio River upon which the 
English pioneers were advancing, through Pennsylvania 
and Virginia. The settlers around the post became trad- 
ers, hunters, couriers du bois, and voyageurs. The trad- 
ers were thrifty, the other three were not. The latter 
lived lives of alternate luxury and privation. They were 
brave, hardy, enduring, resourceful, long-suffering and 


unrepining. For one hundred and fifty years they were a 
part of our civilization and part of the prosperity of the 
Northwest. They threaded every part of the forest ; they 
ascended every stream. They crossed every portage ; they 
befriended and were befriended by the Indians. Their 
pirogues and batteaux were the best means of travel 
and transportation, and as agents of communication 
between the different posts, they were swift, faithful and 

It is a curious fact that the first meeting of the 
French and English on the Mississippi was at the mouth 
of that river, at a point known to this day as "The Eng- 
lish Turn," from the fact that an English vessel, unpre- 
pared for conflict, was here met by the French and told 
to turn back, which it accordingly did. After that, the 
English began to pass over the mountains from Carolina 
and Virginia and to stir up the Indians against the 
French. The post at Detroit was designed to oversee 
and counteract all this, and in addition to encourage 
kindly feelings among the Indians and thereby secure the 
territory to France. 

It was said that in 1678, several persons went from 
New England as far as New Mexico, and rendered an 
account of their trip to the Government in Boston. In 
1742, John Howard crossed the mountains of Virginia, 
descended the Ohio in a canoe and was taken prisoner 
by the French on the Mississippi. From that on, Eng- 
English traders plied their vocation on the Ohio. 

Fearing a further advance of the British on the Ohio 
River line, the Governor in Canada, Gallisonniere, in 
1749 sent Louis Celeron with a party of soldiers to place 


plates of lead at the mouths of the rivers, entering into 
the Ohio from the northwest. On the plates were in- 
scribed the claim of the French to the land. They built 
and garrisoned forts from Presque Isle down to the forks 
of the Ohio, now Pittsburg. They collected stores and 
cannon on the shores of Lake Erie. 

In 1753, George Washington was sent to spy out 
the land, and found the French flag flying on the Ohio. 
He built a rude fort at Pittsburg, but on the 17th. day of 
April, 1754, it was surrendered to a much superior French 
force. About the 27th of May, 1754, Washington, with 
a small force, attacked Jumonville, about six miles from 
Great Meadows in Pennsylvania, killing that leader and 
ten of his men. The balance dispersed. This was the 
beginning of the Seven Years' War, so famous in Euro- 
pean history, and it began at the Forks of the Ohio. 

Pontiac, the Indian Chief, and Langlade with Indians 
from Detroit, participated in the defeat of Braddock in 
1755, and Pontiac is said to have led the attack. (War 
was not declared between France and England until 
1756.) In 1758, the French burned Fort Duquesne and 
retired. To show how thoroughly the French under- 
stood the geography of the Northwest territory, one has 
only to follow up their route from Kaskaskia to the foot 
of Lake Erie, when the capture of Fort Pitt, formerly 
Fort Duquesne, was contemplated. Cut off from the 
Ohio by the English, they paddled down the Mississippi 
from Kaskaskia, up the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, 
up the Wabash to the Portage of Fort Wayne; carried 
the stores over to the Maumee post, down that river to 
what is now Toledo, thence along Lake Erie to Presque 

Isle, thence over the portage to Fort LeBoeuf, thence 
down French Creek to Venango on the Alleghany River 
just above Fort Pitt. 

Daubry was chosen to lead this expedition. He 
started with 1,700 French and Indians from Detroit, Illi- 
nois and the Alleghany River, but on account of the peril 
in which Niagara was placed by threatened attacks 
of the English, his force was countermarched to relieve 
that post and on route was attacked, routed and dis- 
persed. On this expedition, the French had brought four 
hundred men and two hundred thousand pounds of flour 
in their canoes and batteaux from Kaskaskia, fully one 
thousand miles. 

With the fall of Quebec, Montreal, and Niagara, the 
French rule ended in America, and in the fall of 1760, 
Detroit became a British possession and its domination 
was over the French and the Indians. 

The French rule had been kindly and its influence 
over the Indians had been beneficent. They had secured 
the confidence of the Tribes, who looked upon them in 
a very different light from their successors. They rec- 
ognized the fact that the French did not want their 
lands, but merely an opportunity to trade with them. 
They also knew that the English colonists were advancing 
in phalanxes ; that they would remain, and that the result 
would be the extirpation of the Indian. 

With that facility of adaptation which has always 
characterized them, the French accepted the situation, 
and in most part took the oath of allegiance, but it was 
not to be expected that their tastes, habits of thought, 
and loyalty to their flag could be changed in the twinkling 

of an eye. The wonder to me is that they were as loyal 
to the British flag as they were. It can only be ac- 
counted for on the ground that the wiser of them knew 
the hopelessness of revolt and again, they desired no more 

And now traders from New England and other 
eastern points began to flock in. They drew their goods 
from Hartford to Albany, thence up the Mohawk River 
in flat boats, then by tributary streams and portages to 
Lake Ontario. Coasting along the shores of that lake, 
they came to the Falls, and dragging their batteaux and 
goods around Niagara, they launched themselves on 
Lake Erie, and thence to Detroit. 

This was kept up for two years, until rumors of 
another Indian war became rife. These rumors were the 
forerunners of Pontiac's Conspiracy, an event which 
involved many tribes, the capture of many posts and con- 
sequent massacres. 

My subject does not demand a description of the 
siege of Detroit nor of its defense. It is or may be 
familiar to us all. It remained for our townsman, Mr. 
Chas. Moore, to follow up the subsequent career of Maj. 
Gladwyn, the defender of Detroit, a figure who was pro- 
jected on the public eye, by his defense of this post, for 
a few short months, and who then passed out of one of 
the great dramas of history and melted away, like a dis- 
solving view. He was a resolute and resourceful man. 

Pontiac, an Ottawa Indian, was born on the Ottawa 
River in Canada. He must have had great traits of 
character to have inspired and controlled the jealousies of 
so many different tribes of savages, who can be gov- 


erned only by personal traits. Had it not been for 
treachery, he would undoubtedly have captured Detroit. 
How such a conspiracy could have been kept secret 
so long, is a mystery. The story of Catherine, the Indian 
girl, revealing it to Gladwyn, is being discredited, and 
is taking its place among the myths of history. But 
the story of the successful defense of this post, the Eng- 
lish defeat at Bloody Run, the chivalrous sacrifice of Dal- 
zell, who lost his life to save a comrade, the many inci- 
dents of the siege, have made Detroit the most interest- 
ing point, historically, west of the Alleghanies. 

Detroit, during the War of the Revolution, was a 
depot of supplies for savage warfare. It was the mar- 
ket for scalps. From it went forth marauding parties to 
wage war on the settlements on the Ohio, who returning 
brought in prisoners, scalps of men, women and children 
and such booty as would bear transportation. Every- 
thing was done to conciliate the Indians and hold them 
in readiness for forays on the Ohio River settlements. 
Every tribe that could be enlisted to take up the toma- 
hawk, received favors from Detroit, goods, gew gaws, 
rum and money and when visiting here, were entertained 
in the most lavish manner. The town was a freebooters' 
lair under government auspices, with this difference, that 
at D'etroit, every murder committed upon the Americans 
was paid for on evidence of the fact, the golden hair of a 
child, the long tresses of a woman, or the scalp of a man. 
When paid for, the scalps were thrown into cellar of the 
Council House, and when this cellar was opened up, over 
two thousand were found therein. 

In Mr. Silas Farmer's admirable work, The History of 
Detroit, to which I am indebted for many facts, I find 
in an inventory made for supplies at Detroit for Indian 
presents for the last year of the Revolutionary war 
sixty gross of scalping knives. Think of it ! Eight 
thousand six hundred and forty scalping knives just 
for one year, in addition to all that had been supplied 
before. There were also five hundred tomahawks 
on the list. Prisoners from young girls to old men were 
compelled to run amuck, enduring blows and wounds, 
happy, if at last, they reached the end of the line alive. 
Col. Byrd of the Eighth regiment, with a part of his reg- 
iment and the Indians placed under him, took part in the 
foray and massacre at Wyoming. Since the infamous 
Hamilton would pay for scalps but give them nothing for 
prisoners, the Indians would make the latter carry all 
the booty to within a short distance of the fort, and would 
then murder and scalp them" to get the bounty. The 
practice was continued under De Peyster, not, I believe, 
with his encouragement, but because he could not help it. 
It was estimated that not less than three thousand per- 
sons were scalped and made prisoners from 1783 to 1790 
by bands from Detroit, and that, too, in a time of pro- 
fessed peace. We may imagine how many were brought 
in in time of war, preceding 1783. In 1778, Governor 
Hamilton writes : Indians have brought in twenty-three 
prisoners alive, twenty of which they have presented to 
me." What became of the other three? Were they tor- 
tured to death? At that same time, they presented the 
Governor with one hundred and twenty-nine scalps. In 
a letter of Sept. 17th, 1778, he states that "since May 

last the Indians in this district have taken thirty-six pris- 
oners, seventeen of whom they have delivered up, to- 
gether with eighty-one scalps." How many of the nine- 
teen prisoners were tortured? 

Before starting out on their forays, the tomahawks 
of the Indians were passed through the Governor's hands 
as a dedication to their murderous work. The employ- 
ment of the Indians and the encouragement of their bar- 
baric methods is a dark stain upon the British Govern- 
ment, and is another instance of the Cabinet of that Gov- 
ernment not representing the British people. The num- 
ber sacrificed in this inhuman warfare can only be 
guessed at, but it must have been very large, and all to 
no purpose. It was manifest destiny that the race, pour- 
ing through the gorges of the Alleghanies, was bound 
to possess the valley of the Ohio. 

There were two agencies, however, that contributed 
to this consummation to such a degree that together they 
may be called decisive. They were George Rogers Clark, 
a Virginian, who wielded the arm of the flesh, and Zeis- 
berger, a poor Moravian missionary, who wielded the arm 
of the spirit. 

Gov. Hamilton, whom Clark designated as the "Hair 
Buyer," for his bounty to the Indians for scalps, became 
ambitious for military fame, and he marched from De- 
troit to Vincennes, an old French post in the hands of the 
Americans, about three hundred miles south of Detroit, 
in the present State of Indiana. He arrived there Dec. 
17th., 1778. There were but two men in the fort, but 
Capt. Helm, one of the occupants, put a cannon at its 
gate and, standing with a lighted fuse, assured Gov. Ham- 

ilton that no one should enter until he knew the terms. 
Helm demanded that his force should march out with the 
honors of war. This Hamilton conceded, and out marched 
Helm and his lone comrade in single file, with all their 
colors flying. This was the end of Hamilton's military 

George Rogers Clark, one of those great men, who 
without a military education become great commanders, 
while a surveyer in Kentucky had recognized the impor- 
tance of the North West in its relation to the Colonies. 
He had successfully defended the Kentucky settlements 
and his scheme for taking possession of the Illinois coun- 
try, ceded to the British by the French, being approved 
by the Governor of Virginia, Clark was appointed Lieu- 
tenant Colonel and authorized to raise troops. With 
little or no money, part of the time without food, he 
marched from the falls of the Ohio near Louisville and 
took Kaskaskia by surprise. The other French villages 
also surrendered without a struggle. On February 7, 
1779, Clark with a little company of one hundred and 
seventy men, started to capture Vincennes, then held by 
Hamilton and the British. Two companies of the men 
were recruited from the Frenchmen of Kaskaskia and 
Cohokia. After great hardship, the army reached the 
little Wabash on the 13th. From here to Vincennes, 
which they reached on the 18th, the march was made, part 
of the time through water from two to four feet deep, 
and in some places the water reached to their necks. 
Clark demanded the surrender of the Fort at discretion 
which, after some parley, was conceded. Hamilton and 
his secretary were sent to Virginia and kept there in 

irons for over a year, when the irons were taken off, at 
the intercession of Washington. 

Some have tried to palliate the crimes of Hamilton, 
but his character was summed up by the Moravian mis- 
sionary, Heckerwelder, a man of calm, judicial mind, who 
characterized him as a ruffian. His crimes would have 
justified his execution on the ground that he incited the 
Indians to the murder of innocent women and children in 
violation of all rules of civilized warfare. His name is 

George Rogers Clark was one of the most remarkable 
men that this country ever produced. His conception 
of the situation and the relative importance of different 
points, their strategic significance and their accessibility ; 
his audacity in undertaking; his influence over men; his 
exercise of the dramatic by which he demoralized the 
enemy and inspired his followers ; his ability to meet 
emergencies, his fortitude, his mental and physical en- 
durance all stamp him as an untaught forest statesman, 
tactician and warrior, an essentially wise man and an un- 
selfish patriot. To him more than to any other was due 
the incorporation of the Northwest into the territory of 
the United States. He lies in an obscure grave. 'Tis said 
"that not more than five persons know his place of sepul- 
ture," and but few among our countrymen know of his 
services to our country. A monument should be reared 
to his memory. 

Another man, unknown to the majority of our people, 
was Zeisberger, a Moravian missionary who, with his co- 
adjutor, Heckerwelder, had led his flock to Ohio, and in 
the Tuscarawas Valley, had built the Christian Indian vil- 

lages of Schoenbrunn, Gnaddenhutten and Salem. Zeis- 
berger had been adopted into the Tribe of the Delawares. 
Through his influence and that of Heckerwelder's, that 
tribe had been prevented from joining the British in their 
war on the Americans. Had they joined them, ten 
thousand warriors would have been let loose on the bor- 
der settlements, and the Patriot Army would have lost 
many a strong arm, for men would have been compelled 
to stay at home to defend the frontier. As it was, when 
the Delawares did finally succumb to British influence, 
their power for harm was largely gone, Burgoyne had 
met defeat at Saratoga, and Washington was closing in 
around Cornwallis at Yorktown. Knowing the influence 
that these Moravians exercised, DePeyster, at Detroit, 
ordered them brought to him. The thriving villages 
were broken up, and after many privations, they again 
located a settlement, this time on the Clinton River near 
Mt. Clemens. The massacre of these Christian Indians 
by our own people, when they returned to Muskingum 
after their ungathered crops, is one of the blackest stains 
on our fair name. 

Zeisberger kept the Delawares from an English alli- 
ance at the most critical time in our history, when every 
man counted. For sixty-two years he toiled without pay 
among the Indians, subjected to peril, privation and 
abuse, rendering a service to our country which cannot 
be estimated, and now he, too, lies in an obscure grave 
on the Muskingum. He, also should be remembered. 

It can be said for DePeyster that he treated these 
missionaries well and discouraged as far as his orders 

from the English cabinet would permit, the horrible In- 
dian barbarities. 

Many futile attempts to capture Detroit were inaugu- 
rated, but they failed for want of means. 

There was one man among the partisan fighters who 
had their headquarters at Detroit, who from the utter 
depravity of his nature, achieved a measure of infamy 
that time cannot increase. He was an American, born 
in Pennsylvania, and for British gold sold himself to prey 
upon his neighbors and former friends. He had all the 
vices of an Indian with none of his virtues. He loved 
to invent new methods of torturing prisoners. Hate 
and ferocity seemed his predominant traits. Inoffensive 
missionaries, women and children, he followed up with 
the same insensate fury that he evinced toward com- 
batants, captured in arms. He looked on and saw Col. 
Crawford, the friend of Washington, tortured to death, 
and laughed and joked with the Indians while the ordeal, 
which lasted four hours, went on. 

When Detroit was surrendered to the Americans in 
1796, this fiend, expecting retribution, plunged his horse 
into the river and swam across. He lies buried near 

By the treaties between Great Britain and the United 
States, the Americans believed that the whole North 
West south of the Lakes was ceded to them. The Brit- 
ish did not act in accordance with this idea. 

It would seem as Benj. Franklin said: "The War of 
the Revolution was the war for Independence, and the 
War of Independence had yet to come." 

The British claimed that the treaty of 1782 and 1783 
was only provisional, and the forts were not given up. 
In 1787, the Fort at Detroit was reinforced, the works 
strengthened, and emissaries were busy throughout the 
territory, inciting the Indians to hostilities and tamper- 
ing with the people of Kentucky to the end of inducing 
them to unite with the British and wrest Louisiana from 
Spain, thus anticipating Burr's conspiracies by a score 
of years. 

Indians becoming very troublesome in Ohio, Gen. 
Harmer with a small army was sent against them. He 
was surprised and defeated near the village of the Mi- 
amis, Sept. 19, 1790, and the scalps of the Americans 
were paraded through the streets of Detroit, strung upon 
long poles. In 1791, Gen. St. Clair was sent against 
the savages and met defeat near the headwaters of the 
Wabash. The Indians in both these engagements were 
encouraged by the British. Negotiations were entered 
into with Indians, but the British influence was too 

Finally, Maj. Gen. Anthony Wayne, sometimes called 
"Mad Anthony," on account of his daring and impetuos- 
ity in battle, was sent out against them. In the mean- 
time, Gov. Simcoe had ordered the erection of a Fort on 
the Miami and nearly all the available force at Detroit 
had been sent to strengthen that post. 

At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, now Fort Wayne, 
Gen. Wayne administered a crushing defeat to the In- 
dians, and as usual when in distress, the savages fled for 
shelter and protection to Detroit, that pirates' paradise, 
where murder was paid for in money. 


The red men becoming distrustful of the capacity of 
the British to protect them, and the English on their part 
seeing that the holding of these posts meant another 
war, conceded the line as now established between the 
United States and Canada east of the Mississippi, and on 
the nth of July, 1796, the town was surrendered to the 
Americans. During all the time between 1776 and 1796, 
most of the French had been in sympathy with the 

Notwithstanding peace had been declared, the Brit- 
ish continued their intrigues with the Indians in our Ter- 
ritory, until finally General Henry Harrison proceeded 
against the savages and defeated them at the Battle of 

There was one man in command at Detroit in 1797 
who had a most remarkable career, but because he was 
a villain and a conspirator, he has been consigned to 
oblivion. I do not know that I am right in mentioning 
him now, even for the purpose of showing his rascality. 
His name was Wilkinson. He was born in Benedict, 
Maryland, in 1757. He enlisted in the Revolutionary 
Army in 1775 and soon getting a Captain's commission, 
became intimate with Benedict Arnold and Aaron Burr. 
He was in Arnold's expedition to Canada in 1775, after- 
wards was made a Major and appointed to the staff of 
General Gates. He was in the Conway Cabal against 
Washington and his career in the Patriot Army was full 
of trickery. After the Revolutionary War, he emigrated 
to Kentucky and for $2,000 a year and the privilege of 
a trading commission on the Mississippi, he sold himself 
and his country, as far as he could sell it, to the Spanish 


Government, who then held possession of that stream. 
By the use of Spanish gold and glittering promises, Wil- 
kinson nearly secured control of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of Kentucky, which was to meet in 1778. His 
intrigues were discovered and defeated. Notwithstand- 
ing his record, he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel in 
the American Army in 1791, on the ground that he was 
less dangerous in the Army than unemployed. He was 
in treasonable communication with the Spanish officials 
down to 1800. He was with Gen. Wayne when he was 
Commandant at Detroit, and during all that time he was 
in communication through special agents with the Span- 
ish authorities, and was on the pay roll of that Govern- 
ment. He was made a Brigadier General and on the 
death of Gen. Wayne in 1796, assumed supreme command 
of the American Army. He was made Governor of 
Louisiana in 1805 and in the fall of that year, he be- 
trayed Burr's Conspiracy, looking to a South Western 
Empire, to the American Government. He was undoubt- 
edly a co-conspirator with Burr and betrayed him. In 
181 1, he was tried for complicity in the plot but was 
acquitted for lack of evidence, which proof afterward 
appeared in his published correspondence and showed his 
guilt conclusively. He was afterward a Major General, 
but he made no reputation during the War of 1812. That 
a man could pursue such a career of intrigue, treachery, 
and double dealing in high public positions, when he was 
suspected by so many, is difficult of belief. Like many 
another unconvicted criminal, he died in his bed, but 
the fact that he was a resident of Mexico, would indicate 

that he had found a residence in his own country un- 

On June 18th, 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain, and Detroit again became a post with two fron- 
tiers. Much has been written about Gen. Hull's surren- 
der. There was no apparent reason for it. His force 
was adequate to repulse an attack and his men were 
eager for the fray. I have been told by eye-witnesses 
that Hull was thoroughly demoralized. Women and 
children, fearful of savage atrocities, clung to his knees, 
and with tobacco juice running from the corners of his 
mouth, he presented a pitiable sight of abject imbecility. 

Some idea of the importance of this place may be 
had when I cite a few of the items surrendered. Forty 
barrels of powder; four hundred rounds of 24-pound shot ; 
one hundred thousand ball cartridges ; twenty-four thou- 
sand stand of arms ; thirty-five iron and brass cannon, 
together with a large supply of provisions. 

Gen. Brock, who commanded the British troops, was 
an elegant gentleman, a chivalrous man and a first-class 
officer. He compelled the Indians to treat the Americans 
respectfully, restored their goods to all Americans who 
had been prisoners at Maiden, sent them across the river, 
where they walked to Detroit and surrendered with the 

After Brock's departure, Proctor remained in com- 
mand and earned and deserved the execrations of the 
Americans by his brutal conduct. He permitted the 
Indians to plunder and insult the people, and when 
complaints were made to him, he met them with coarse 
revilings and vulgar abuse. A favorite amusement of 


the Indians was knocking off the hats of Americans. 
Proctor encouraged this sport. When complaint was 
made to Tecumseh, the Indian chief, unlike the Christian 
commander, he compelled his young men to desist. 

Tecumseh was a patriot, a statesman, a gentleman and 
a warrior. He saw the extinction of the Indians if the 
Americans were not driven out, just as Pontiac foresaw 
the same result if the English were permitted to stay. 
A great natural orator, he strove to arouse the tribes far 
and wide and unite them against the invaders. He was 
a great warrior and a chivalrous man and died in the fore- 
front of battle at the River Thames, near Chatham. 

Winchester's defeat at Frenchtown, the present site 
of Monroe, and the subsequent massacre of the wounded 
by the Indians, with the connivance of the infamous 
Proctor, add another bloody chapter to the story. The 
bones of these martyrs were afterward conveyed to Ken- 
tucky, and there interred with proper ceremony. "Re- 
member the River Raisin" was a dreaded cry in the ears 
of an Indian for years afterward. Proctor met an over- 
whelming defeat at the hands of Maj. Croghan, who 
killed and wounded more of the enemy than he (Croghan) 
had men in his command. 

It was recognized by both sides that the control of 
Lake Erie was necessary for the possession of Detroit. 
Perry, a young man of but thirty-two, sought the enemy 
near Put-in-Bay, and his dispatch is world famous. He 
captured an entire British fleet, an event unprecedented 
in history. It was told, when I was a boy, that the 
English vessels had tanks, containing fresh water for 
drinking purposes. It sounds absurd, but is on a par 


with other mistakes of the British war department. Proc- 
tor abandoned Detroit, was chased by Harrison and 
Perry to the Thames, met an overwhelming defeat and 
was afterward courtmartialed, because of it. 

The Northwest of to-day conveys to most of us an 
impression of a country, practically undefined, which has 
its western limits on the boundaries of the Russian Em- 
pire. It conveys to us pictures of fertile prairies, snow 
clad mountains, barren plains, mighty rivers, and innu- 
merable islands. There was a time, however, when it 
had a restricted and well defined meaning; when its 
boundaries were sharply drawn and when its orgainc law 
proclaimed to the world that it was to be the abode of 
religion, education and morality. 

The Northwest was the first adopted child of the 
United States. The Ordinance of 1787 was the twin 
sister of the Constitution. It placed the imprint of lib- 
erty on its forehead and made religion, education and 
morality its watchwords. Over one hundred years have 
passed since that immortal statute dedicated it to free- 
dom. Nor slavery, nor states' rights has ever found a 
footing here. In the five states created from it, no flag 
has ever found allegiance but the flag of our country. 
No love of state has obscured the love for the flag; no 
colonial traditions, confused the conceptions of national 
life ; no selfish impulse ever caused it to look for profit 
elsewhere than to the Constitution of its country. 

It has been true to its dedication. Throughout its 
expanse, the spire of the church is seen, the bell of the 
school house calls millions of children together, where 
patriotism and morality are inculcated and virtue assured 


by the promotion of intelligence. Letters, the dragon's 
teeth of Cadmus, were planted and behold, in the hour 
of her need, a million of men sprang to arms in defense of 
our country. 

We can say that we have a city with a history. A 
Caucasian community has lived here two hundred years. 
On this ground, Cadillac and the ancestors of many of our 
townsmen lived two centuries ago. During the Revolu- 
tion, although apparently regarded as out of the pale of 
the contest, there were a large number of American sym- 
pathizers here, enough to call for repressive measures 
from Gov. Hamilton. Detroit enjoys the distinction of 
being the greatest market of its kind at any time in the 
world. Here Gladwyn, isolated and surrounded by perils, 
achieved fame by his courageous defense of his post ; 
from here went whites and Indians to take part in Brad- 
dock's defeat; here was organized the raid on and the 
massacre at Wyoming; through these streets, prisoners 
from there were driven. Here unfortunates recognized 
the scalps of their murdered kindred ; here men and 
women impoverished themselves to ransom captives from 
death or captivity; here the pious Zeisberger and his as- 
sistants presented themselves for trial ; here Daniel Boone 
and Simon Kinton were prisoners during the Revolution ; 
here have sojourned for a time Logan, the Mingoe chief, 
the two Johnsons, Brant, the educated Mohawk chief, 
Stark of Bennington fame, the chivalrous Brock, Perry, 
the naval hero, the heroic Tecumseh, and his brother, the 
Prophet, Lord Dorchester, Gov. Simcoe, Generals Shelby 
and Harrison, the dastardly Proctor, the fiendish Gerty 
and the daring Croghan ; and through it all, here have 

lived men, consecrated to the worship of God and the sal- 
vation of their fellow men, who have striven to mitigate 
suffering and to inspire to a higher life. 

Detroit was a convention city two hundred years be- 
fore the word "Welcome" was writ in letters of fire on 
our City Hall. Here came for consultation with the 
Commandant, or with each other, the Delawares, the 
Wyandottes, the Hurons, the Eries, the Ottawas, the 
Winnebagoes, the Foxes and the Algonquins. 

Our history presents a picture, where the dark back- 
ground of savagery gives a shading to the virtues, con- 
stantly displayed, until we have come to a point where we 
have no defensive or aggressive wars to wage, save 
against vice, ignorance, want of faith, agnicism, irre- 
ligion and bad government. 

May our future be as progressive as our past. 


An Astounding Chapter of Territorial History. 

By Silas Farmer, City Historiographer. 

The history of territorial government by the Gover- 
nor and Judges in the region covered by the Ordinance 
of 1787 includes the most unique and remarkable series 
of legislative and administrative occurrences that ever 
took place in any part of the Federal Union. 

It exhibits a form of government previously unknown 
in any part of the country, and after it ceased in Michi- 
gan it had no further existence in any part of the United 

The reasons for the rise and progress of this, the 
strongest and longest lived autocracy that ever existed on 
the continent, have never heretofore been uncovered nor 

The beginnings of the strange methods of govern- 
ment that eventually obtained, are found in the organiz- 
ation of the Ohio Company, and in that notable document, 
the Ordinance of 1787. 

The Ohio Company was organized in 1786-7, with the 
purpose of interesting officers of the Revolutionary Army 
in the settlement of the West, and with the ultimate de- 
sign of promoting the interests of stockholders in one of 

*Copyright 1902 by Silas Farmer. 

the most gigantic real estate schemes ever conceived — . 
a scheme which, even in this day of large syndicates, 
would attract attention by its boldness and extent, and 
by the daring character of the enterprise. The details 
of the project show that the fathers of the republic were 
possessed of consummate nerve and ability, with power 
to plan, equal to that possessed by the greatest of finan- 

The authorship of the Ordinance of 1787 was for a 
long time accredited to Nathan Dane, but many facts are 
strongly against the theory that Mr. Dane was the author 
of the most important features of that document. The 
real author of the vital portions of the ordinance must 
have been Manassa Cutler. His diary* and letters show 
clearly that the purchase by the Ohio Company of a 
large tract of land — about 1,500,000 acres in what is now 
the state of Ohio — was conditioned upon the passage of 
an ordinance that would meet the approval of the pro- 
posed purchasers. It is also shown that although vari- 
ous propositions for governing the Western territory 
had been before Congress for several years without adop- 
tion, yet within one week from the time Dr. Cutler be- 
gan his efforts on Congress, an ordinance that he, as a 
director and agent of the Land Company, favored, was 

Congress was led to favor the ordinance, not only to 
insure the sale of the lands, the government being in 
great need of money, but in order that settlements 

*Manassa Cutler. Life and Times. 2 vols. R. Clarke & Co., 
Cincinnati, 1888. 

might be formed as a bar against Spanish and French 
influence in the South and West. 

Dr. Cutler's diary makes it evident beyond dispute 
that he and Winthrop Sargent suggested portions of the 
ordinance and insisted on them with such persistence 
that they secured their adoption "without the least 
variation." The portions they would especially desire 
to have inserted would naturally be those that would fur- 
ther the financial possibilities of the Land Company in 
which they were interested, and to this end it was desir- 
able that the ordinance should appeal to Northern, and 
particularly to New England, men. 

It is apparent that Cutler was long-headed and dip- 
lomatic, that he understood how to combine influences, 
and was possessed of so much skill, wisdom, suavity 
and secretiveness that probably a more expert lobbyist 
never solicited favors from a body of legislators. He 
possessed unusual literary and educational ability, was 
a notable scholar, was a specialist in astronomy, miner- 
alogy, and botany, corresponded with many learned men, 
and was a member of various foreign societies of import- 
ance. His educational and religious proclivities easily 
account for the insertion of the paragraph providing for 
the encouragement of "religion, morality, and educa- 

The dormant, but definite anti-slavery sentiment of 
New England in which he evidently participated, found 
expression in the article which provided that "neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude should be established 
in the territory." 


The growing spirit of freedom from the domination 
of English law, especially the law of entail, undoubtedly 
caused him to desire the adoption of a distinctly demo- 
cratic law for the descent of property. 

Lastly, as the Land Company would naturally wish 
to control the region in which they were to have such 
large interests, it was provided that the Governor, Secre- 
tary, and Judges should each be required to own in the 
territory several hundred acres of land. This provision 
is not found in any previous or later law organizing other 
territories, and any continuance of the custom in terri- 
tories organized out of the North West Territory was 
not definitely required. 

The Ordinance of 1787 gave to the Governor and 
Judges the powers of a legislative body, and out of this 
fact there sprang an almost endless number of legal 
absurdities and complications, and even civil disorder. 

Under the Ordinance,* Congress was to appoint a 
Governor whose term was for three years, unless sooner 
revoked, who was required to possess in freehold an 
estate of 1,000 acres in the territory, a Secretary for the 
term of four years, unless revoked, who was required to 
have 500 acres of land, and three Judges, any two of 
whom might form a court which should have common 
law jurisdiction, and each of them to serve during good 
behavior, and each to own 500 acres of land. The Gov- 
ernor and Judges, or a majority of them, were given 
power to adopt and publish such laws of the original 
states, criminal and civil, as might be necessary, these 

*Charters and Constitutions. Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1878. Vol. 1, page 429. 

laws to be reported to Congress and be subject to disap- 

When the number of free male inhabitants of full age 
reached 5,000, they were authorized on giving proof to 
the Governor to elect a General Assembly. 

This peculiar authority, the power given to four, or 
possibly to only three persons, of making territorial laws, 
was subsequently granted to the Governor and Judges 
of the Territories of Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois, when 
organized out of the North West Territory. No such 
powers were given to the Governor and Judges of the 
Territories of Iowa, Wisconsin, or Minnesota. No laws 
organizing other territories in the United States have 
contained any such provision except in the case of the 
law organizing the Districts of Orleans and Louisiana. 

In Indiana Territory this power existed from May 
7th, 1800, to September nth, 1804, or for four years. 

In Illinois Territory from February 3d, 1809, to May 
21, 1812, or three years. 

In the Territory of Louisiana, over that part now in- 
cluded in the States of Arkansas and Missouri, from 
March 3, 1805, to June 4, 1812, or seven years. 

Diligent search and enquiry in Indiana, Illinois, 
Louisiana, and Missouri have failed to reveal any evi- 
dence of startling or peculiar legislative doings by the 
Governor and Judges having rule in the territories includ- 
ing those states, but in Michigan a most remarkable and 
unparalleled state of affairs came into existence. 

The Governor and Judges of the original North West 
Territory exercised their peculiar powers from July 25, 
1788, to January 22, 1799, a period of eleven years. 

Over the North West Territory as reduced in size by 
the creation of the Territory of Indiana, they ruled from 
May 7, 1800, to November 1, 1802, a period of two years. 

Concerning the exercise of legislative powers by the 
Governor and Judges of the North West Territory, Gov. 
St. Clair was of the opinion that as the words of the 
ordinance gave only power to "adopt and publish" such 
laws as might be necessary and best suited to the cir- 
cumstances, the Governor and Judges had no authority 
to frame or create entirely new laws, or laws varying 
from those of the original states, and he repeatedly so 

The Judges, however, assumed and acted on the sup- 
position that the ordinance was not to be construed 
literally, and that they were at liberty to add any par- 
ticulars they deemed necessary. Stripped of all verbiage, 
they practically said, we know better than Congress 
what sort of laws are needed. 

In defending their "actions" they said with unaffected 
simplicity, "we are sensible these observations rather 
tend to evince what the powers should have been than 
what they are."* 

Holding that, if they were authorized to adopt entire 
laws of any one state, they were also empowered to 
adopt parts of laws, and therefore parts of laws of 
several states, they proceeded to make conglomerate 
laws, and in order to make their medley of various laws 
harmonize, the diction was frequently changed with the 
result that they exercised all the legislative powers that 
any law-making body could possess. 

*St. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, pages 67-69. 


Judges Symmes and Turner argued that as certain 
laws needed in the territory could not be found in the 
codes of the original States they were justified in passing 
new laws. Here it will be noticed all pretense of being 
governed by the authority of the Ordinance was thrown 
aside. Against these reasonings the criticism and objec- 
tions of Gov. St. Clair were of no avail, and the Judges 
soon entered upon a further interpretation intended to 
increase their power. They claimed that as the law said 
"The Governor and Judges, or a majority of them, shall 
adopt and publish," they alone, without the Governor, 
could adopt and publish laws. This interpretation was 
earnestly resisted by Gov. St. Clair who, though he 
frankly admitted that the sentence because of its punctua- 
tion was open to the construction claimed, insisted that 
Congress intended that all laws should have the appro- 
val of the Governor, and that to leave the adoption of 
laws solely to the persons who were to enforce and ex- 
pound them would be a manifest impropriety, especially 
if there were no restriction as to what laws they might 
adopt, and particularly so, if the persons who sought to 
both make and enforce the laws, were in no sense re- 
sponsible to the people over whom they exercised au- 
thority. He held that the clause was intended to read 
"the Governor, and Judges or a majority of them shall 
adopt and publish," and in this opinion he was sustained 
by Congress.* 

In reading and reviewing the reasoning of Gov. St. 
Clair, one can but admire his clear, logical, and sturdy 
utterances; he discusses the principles and objects of the 

*St. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, pages 61, 64, 67. 

ordinance and his own relation to the Government of the 
Territory in a manner worthy of the most exalted execu- 
tive. He was evidently worthy of the position he held, 
and fully competent to maintain the dignity and pro- 
prieties of his office. In expressing his purpose to keep 
within the line of duty, and not lay himself open to criti- 
cism, he said, with such clearness and force that his utter- 
ance might well be insisted upon as a rule of conduct for 
office-holders of the present day, "No excuses should be 
admitted for men in public trust."f 

Gov. St. Clair frequently protested to the Judges 
against the proposed titles of certain laws, the arrange- 
ment of the clauses, the rhetoric, and even against the use 
of certain words. Some laws he objected to as needless 
and liable to vicious interpretation, besides being inap- 
plicable to conditions then existing. His positions were 
apparently logical and forceful and yet he was often over- 

In a letter to a Mr. Coit he said that, though he was 
clearly of the opinion they had no power to make laws, 
Judges Parsons and Varnum were "decidedly of the con- 
trary opinion and the point was battled both verbally and 
in writing for a considerable time." He further says that 
neither of these gentlemen [the Judges just named] were 
in possession of the codes of the States, although three 
months of their respective salaries had been paid to them 
before they entered upon their offices, as a compensa- 
tion for the time and pains the collection of these codes 
would cost them." He then says, "I had that of Penn- 

tSt. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, page 77. 
*St. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, page 72. 

sylvania only, to which they were averse. After the 
death of these gentlemen I endeavored to bring them [the 
new Judges] to what I conceived to be the design of 
Congress ; but I met with the same opinion and the con- 
current sentiments of two sets of Judges put an end to 
further objections on my part."f 

The laws passed at this period were not printed but 
were in manuscript only, and as most of the inhabitants 
were French, the laws when read to them were at best 
only partially understood. 

In addition to all the other disagreeable facts of that 
regime, the Judges quarreled with each other and on one 
occasion Judge Turner threatened to impeach Judge 
Vanderburgh, saying he encouraged law-breakers. Judge 
Turner himself however seemed to act as though he was 
above all law. He committed a prisoner guilty only of 
an offence against the civil law to the colonel of a regi- 
ment to be kept in the guard house, and he issued a 
habeas corpus for the release of a military prisoner and 
thus brought on a direct conflict between the civil and 
military authorities. For these and other offences he was 
indicted by the Grand Jury, one charge being that he had 
removed the official records from one place to another 
without authority. Gov. St. Clair in a letter to Edmund 
Randolph dated May 4, 1795, says with fine sarcasm 
"This is a very extended country, and from a variety of 
causes would require the eye and hand of the executive 
in every part of it, but as that is impossible at all times 
you may perceive that Judge Turner seems inclined to 
take some of the trouble." 

fSt. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, page 234. 


Judge Turner however was not the only judge who 
seemed disposed to be a law unto himself. Gov. St. 
Clair sets forth that Judge Varnum would agree to a 
law and then refuse to approve it and the Governor was 
compelled to take him to task for his inconsistency and 

It also appears that Judge Symmes had peculiar ideas 
as to property rights. The St. Clair papers show that he 
bought certain lands from the United States, but sold 
lands to which he had no right, and the Governor was 
compelled to issue a proclamation defining what lands 
the Judge had a right to sell.f 

The legal outcome of the illegal actions of these judi- 
cial law-breakers was the introduction of a bill in the 
House of Representatives to disapprove of all laws 
enacted at Cincinnati from July, 1788, to December, 1792. 
The Senate disapproved of the bill not because they dif- 
fered in opinion but because they believed the said laws 
were ipso facto void. 

In Michigan Territory the rule of the Governor 
and Judges continued from January nth, 1805, to March 
3, 1823, or fully eighteen years. 

It naturally becomes an interesting subject of inquiry 
as to the causes or conditions which perpetuated this 
singular form of government for so long a time in Michi- 

The reasons were various, for almost all the circum- 
stances were unique and many of them peculiar to this 
region. The fire of June II, 1805, had so fully destroyed 

*St. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, page 96. 
tSt. Clair Papers. Vol. 2, page 209. 

the town of Detroit, the only town in the territory, that 
it was deemed a matter of little importance as to the 
method of government. The inhabitants were mainly 
French and generally indifferent, mostly of a docile char- 
acter, and easily satisfied ; the larger traders, both French 
and "Bostonian," did not desire any change that would 
bring notoriety, or new-comers and competitors. The 
region was quite isolated, north of, the route usually 
travelled, and the land was commonly believed to be 
swampy and consequently undesirable. 

There were no detailed maps of the region and in fact 
during the entire rule of the Governor and Judges there 
were no published maps of any topographical value. The 
lands deemed most desirable were in possession of the 
early French settlers, and there was no large land com- 
pany to invite immigrants or those seeking investments. 

Those who had control of affairs naturally desired to 
retain it, and discouraged any knowledge or action that 
would bring a change. The opportunities of such a trust 
under such circumstances could not be resisted, espe- 
cially when there was included the laying out of a new 
town, and the disposal of city lots by the hundred be- 
sides thousands of acres of adjacent lands. There were 
also opportunities in connection with the Indian trade, 
with the clothing of a force of militia and the supplying 
of their equipment, including close connection with, if 
not control of, a bank purposing the issue of millions of 

All of these things, together with frequent Indian 
threatenings and finally the War of 1812 and the desola- 
tion and distress growing out of it, delayed the inaugura- 
tion of a more American form of Government. 

In addition to all other reasons the population was 
not large enough to admit of an election of a General 
Assembly until 1818, and, strange to say, the returns 
of the election of that year showed a majority against the 
establishment of such a body. It is however not at all 
improbable that there were irregularities in connection 
with such a return. 

The actions of the Governor and Judges in their sev- 
eral distinct roles have been detailed elsewhere but no 
complete realization of the facts can be gained without 
considering in a single view all of their administrative 
powers and doings. 

The three Judges and the Governor, in themselves, 
possessed all power whether legislative, executive, or 
judicial. They had no occasion to pose or personate; 
they were given power that enabled them at their own 
will and pleasure to serve as law-makers, as judge, jury 
and client. In modern parlance they were themselves 
"the whole thing" and like Boss Tweed, and with much 
greater reason, could have said and probably did say, 
"what are you going to do about it?" 

They made laws, built court houses, issued scrip, laid 
out streets and lots, gave away lots to churches, schools, 
societies, and individuals, and were practically "Lords of 
the Manor of Detroit," for they exercised almost all the 
powers that such a title would imply, and even more, as 
they imposed taxes, issued licenses and were de facto 
"Farmers General" for both town and territory. 

An appropriate business card for the first officials 
would have been : 

"Hull & Co., Dealers in Real Estate, 

Lots bought, sold, exchanged, 


Given away. 

Solicitors & Counsellors, 

Brokers and Bankers. 

Well-diggers, Builders & Contractors; 

Dealers in Militia Uniforms ; Licenses issued 

To Traders, Hotels, etc. Collections made. 

Government, Administrative, and Judicial 

business transacted at all hours 

of the day and night — Sundays 
included. Office and Court-Room 
at any place where we may 
happen to be and Business of 
any sort transacted ad interim." 
So many, so varied, so peculiar were the powers that 
they exercised that the plain sober truth concerning their 
actions seems like fiction. It is but just to state that 
certain responsibilities were thrust upon them by con- 
ditions that existed, but it is manifest that they willingly 
assumed, and persistently sought to perpetuate and in- 
crease, all their governmental powers and prerogatives 
both local and general. 

The Governor and Judges were appointed January n, 
1805. Judges Woodward and Bates arrived at Detroit 
June 12 and found that on the previous day every house 
in the town save one, had been destroyed by fire. A few 
stone chimneys and, near the fire line, several unique and 
antique pear trees alone remained to sentinel the ruins. 
Gov. Hull arrived on the evening of July 1 following. 
The date of the arrival of Judge Griffin is unknown. 

The fire of June II, 1805, which, in view of its results, 
was the most important event that ever happened in De- 
troit, had thrown every interest into confusion. Not only 
were the moss-grown buildings destroyed, but many 
property lines were obliterated. The opportunities for 
new and wider streets could not be overlooked nor neg- 
lected. Added to these considerations of convenience 
and future growth, there was such an opening for specula- 
tion that it could not be resisted and some one had to take 

It must be remembered that at this time railroad 
and steamboat conveyances were unknown; there were 
no telegraph lines ; there was not even a respectable road- 
way to the east, west, or south. A bridle-path through 
the woods enabled the post rider, and part of the way 
a footman, to carry mail to and from the east and south, 
the time occupied being about six weeks, though even 
that time was uncertain. 

The communal system — the cultivating by individuals 
of the lands adjoining the Fort lying between the Private 
Claims now known as the Cass and Brush farms — had 
prevailed from time immemorial. Year after year on what 
are now the principal avenues and squares of the older 
portion of Detroit, the poor French in their wooden sabots 
broke up land, raising oats and onions, and used in com- 
mon, portions of the soil for pasturage. 

It was deemed desirable and in accord with the spirit 
of American institutions that this semi-individual owner- 
ship should cease; the exigencies of the times required 
that all titles to land in the town just destroyed should 
be adjusted, and future growth demanded a new plan 


with wider streets. Opposition to this was natural and 
to be expected, but executive prestige and power, and 
eastern and southern acumen were more than sufficient 
to accomplish the results desired. 

In many respects the Governor and Judges were par- 
ticularly well fitted to enter upon and complete the laying 
out of a new Detroit. Judge Woodward came from Alex- 
andria, Va., and was evidently full of knowledge con- 
cerning, and of admiration for, the plan of Washington 
which was then in its "newness." He manifestly desired 
and determined that Detroit should be modelled after 
that "City of Magnificent Distances." Sections of his 
plan as drawn by A. F. Hull, the son of the Governor, 
could be laid upon the plan of Washington and matched 
to a line. This similarity undoubtedly aided the Gover- 
nor and himself in obtaining authority to lay out De- 
troit in accordance with the plan which they took to 
Washington in the fall following the fire. 

There was naturally some opposition to the adoption 
of a plan which gave so much power into their hands, 
and Judge Woodward claimed to have expended over 
$303 in lobbying the bill through Congress. 

The people must have been very indifferent, or else 
cajoled and outwitted into silence, while the plans were 
in progress, for month after month went on after the 
fire, without any public decisions as to plans or the erec- 
tion of any houses. Why could not houses be built? One 
reason was, that by proclamation of Sept. 4, 1805, Gov. 
Hull forbade the cutting of any timber in the St. Clair 
pinery, at that time practically the only source of supply. 
Ostensibly the reason must have been that people cutting 

were trespassing on Government lands, but that alone 
would not under the circumstances seem a sufficient rea- 
son for such a proclamation. 

Finally, after summering and wintering as best they 
could among their friends outside of the old town limits, 
the inhabitants were gratified with the news that on 
April 21, 1806, Congress had authorized the Governor 
and Judges to lay out a new town, build a court house 
and jail and in connection therewith dispose of 10,000 
acres near the town, with the power to convey lots in 
the new town of Detroit, giving former owners and 
householders lots in the same, and generally settling all 
of the details therewith connected. Allowing even two 
months for news of the passage of this act to reach De- 
troit there was still unaccountable delay on the part of 
the Governor and Judges, for it was not until Sept. 6, 
1806, or four months after the date of the act, that they 
held their first meeting. Interminable slowness seems 
to have been their purpose, plans and counter-plans, 
change and repeated change in surveys their method 
of action. "How not to do it" might well have been their 
motto. Lots were numbered and renumbered, streets 
laid out on paper, obliterated, and then laid out anew in 
new directions and locations. Decisions were bandied 
about and referred from one person or authority to an- 
other and questions of ownerships of lots, like a shuttle- 
cock, were tossed to and fro. Plans were prepared, ap- 
proved, used and then discarded. Every new difficulty 
and scheme seemed to give rise to new and radically dif- 
ferent lot outlines and numbers. Lots were alternately 
granted and withdrawn, caprice alone seeming to dictate. 

Eventually even the slaves were given lots. Without 
bond or books of account, without system or method 
other than the method of not leaving any record of what 
monies were received or how expended, they did as they 
pleased. A Philadelphia lawyer could not possibly have 
kept track of, and have recorded all of the acts, doings, 
and undoings of these town-site manipulators. They 
were evidently past masters in the art of change and 

As a result, for a year and a half after the fire there 
was not a single house erected, and up to May, 1807, 
deeds had been given for only nineteen lots. Meantime 
the debris of the fire covered the site of the ancient village 
and here and there the old stone chimneys reared them- 
selves as monuments of the disaster and of the incom- 
petency or worse of those in authority. Discomfort ex- 
isted everywhere. 

During this period the Governor was engaged in per- 
fecting his "wonderful gold lace broad-cloth and silver 
epauletted uniform" scheme for the poor, awkward and 
impoverished inhabitants of his demesne and on June 6, 
1806, the material for the elaborate uniforms arrived. 
The details of this farcical and financial scheme concocted 
for his personal benefit are such as would tax one's 
credulity to believe, if the evidence were not everwhelm- 
ing. He ordered the militia to procure uniforms and he 
alone could furnish them. How clearly one hand clasped 
the other! 

Closely associated with this mercantile venture was 
a "wild-cat" bank scheme which the wildest speculator of 
modern days might envy for the "nerve" it displayed. A 

petition for an act to organize such a bank with a cap- 
ital of $400,000 was presented to the Governor and Judges 
March 27, 1806. An act was passed on September 19 
providing for a bank with not to exceed $1,000,000 capital 
with a charter to last 100 years. It was claimed that 
notes to the amount of several hundred thousand dollars 
were disposed of and even to this day its bills are occa- 
sionally brought to light, but fortunately Congress dis- 
approved of the bank and just how much the swindle 
produced is unknown. 

While these schemes were incubating, attention was 
also given to the enacting of laws for the Territory. The 
first law was adopted July 9, 1805, and before May, 
1806, many other laws had been agreed upon. At inter- 
vals for nearly twenty years, as necessity or inclination 
moved them, the farce of "Legislation made easy" was 
performed by various members of this notable company. 
The several roles were alternately assumed by one or 
another as preference or prejudice indicated. There was 
neither dignity nor the semblance of it in the doings of 
these legislators. Sometimes one and sometimes another 
would formulate a law and carry it about for the approval 
of one or more of the others. Disagreements were fre- 
quent and for months at a time one or another would 
have no intercourse with other members of the august 
body. The adoption of laws from the original thirteen 
States, which was all that they were authorized to do, 
became under their methods a mere burlesque. A writer 
of that period openly charged, and exaggerated but little 
in saying, that they would "parade the laws of the orig- 
inal States before them on the table, and cull letters from 

the laws of Maryland; syllables from the laws of Virginia, 
words from the laws of New York, sentences from the 
laws of Pennsylvania, verses from the laws of Kentucky, 
and chapters from the laws of Connecticut." Formu- 
lated under such methods, the laws of that period, if ex- 
amined, would afford opportunities for a "rainbow edi- 
tion" that would please the most extreme of the "higher 

During most of this "Reign of Four" there was no 
newspaper published at Detroit and none nearer than 
Pittsburg, and in order to catch the attention of the 
people and awaken them" to their own interests, articles 
and notices were written out and suspended from doors 
and windows and guarded by men in arms. 

However intrigue and deception continued to prevail, 
and there was so much official neglect and misdoing that 
a blank indictment might be filled up with a long list of 
crimes committed by these officials. The executive acts 
and the legislative doings were a travesty on right and 
propriety. Just how much of cause for their actions was 
contained in "six black bottles" which were charged for 
in a bill against the Territory, is of course unknown. 
But in view of indisputable evidence one can possess a 
judicial spirit and still believe almost anything as to their 

It should not be forgotten that during nearly the en- 
tire period of this autocracy the Governor and the Judges 
possessed absolute power over all the local affairs of the 
town as well as over the Territory. There was a pre- 
tense on one occasion of giving the inhabitants local gov- 

*Territorial Laws of Michigan. Vol. 4, page 3. 

ernment by the passage of the act of Sept. 6, 1806,* which 
provided for an upper and lower council of the city of 
Detroit and for officers to be elected by the people. When 
however the councils organized and attempted to control 
city affairs they then realized that under the act the 
Mayor, who was appointed by the Governor and Judges, 
had an absolute veto power even when both councils 
were agreed upon a course of action, the power being 
thus really lodged with the Mayor — the official instru- 
ment of the Governor and Judges themselves. The two 
councils were therefore, as was then expressed, "a body 
without guts. Instead of having power to open one 
street and prevent the removal of another, they had not 
power to open a hog-pen, or to prevent the removal of 
a hen-roost." 

Of course such a charter fell at once into "innocuous 
desuetude." The law was repealed February 24, 1809, 
and the Governor and Judges continued to hold the reins 
of government. 

Notwithstanding all the singular legislation of their 
own creation they seemed to have a fear of some of the 
singular provisions of old English law. This was not 
altogether unreasonable, for by act of the Governor and 
Judges of Northwest Territory passed July 14, 1795, the 
statutes of the British Parliament not local to that king- 
dom were made of force in the Territory : 

"The common law of England, all statutes or acts of the 
British Parliament made in aid of the common law, prior to the 
fourth year of the reign of King James the First (and which 
are of a general nature, not local to that kingdom) and also the 
several laws in force in this Territory, shall be the rule of 
decision and shall be considered as of full force until repealed 

by legislative authority or disapproved by Congress. Adopted 
from the statutes of Virginia and published in July 14, 1795, to 
take effect Oct. 1, 1795."* 

In order to prevent any appeal to such English laws, 
they would from time to time enact, either generally or 
specifically, that such laws were abolished. An act as 
late as Feb. 21, 1821, says "so much of any law, or sup- 
posed law, as might operate to require four knights girt 
with swords to be on the jury for the trial of the issue, 
joined in an action of right, be, and the same is abolished, 
abrogated, and repealed."! 

An act of May 11, 1820, abolished trial by battle, and 
this was again specifically abolished by law of February 

21, l82I.f 

As late as April 12, 1827, a law gravely provided that 
"the benefit of clergy shall be, and the same is hereby 

When we turn to the doings of the Judges sitting as 
a court, the extravagancies and inconsistencies of their 
conduct are even more manifest. The Supreme Court 
was organized on July 29, 1805. No regular time of ses- 
sion was observed and the court met at private houses, 
at a tavern, in the clerk's office, and sometimes (this is 
sober truth) out-of-doors on a pile of wood. The ses- 
sions were continued until one, two, and three o'clock 
in the morning, and at such times, with the court in regu- 
lar, or rather irregular, session, suppers including 

♦Statutes of Ohio, by S. P. Chase. Vol. i, p. 190, Chap. 

{Territorial Laws of Michigan. Vol. 1, page 800, Sec. 12. 
flbid., Vol. 3, pages 586, 802. 

whiskey, were served and partaken of even while cases 
were being prosecuted and argued.^ 

Different Judges would adjourn or convene the court 
at their own convenience, one Judge frequently con- 
travening the decisions and orders of another. Imagine 
any irregularity that you can and it was charged against 
them. They declared that their own decisions should 
be no guide as to what their decisions might be in other 
similar cases. They ordered at least one Indian crim- 
inal branded, and in other cases showed great favoritism, 
even making court rules for the benefit of particular per- 
sons. Occasionally even while on the bench, Judge 
Woodward would close his eyes and order the clerk to 
enter in the journal that he was absent. 

When they desired to take action according to some 
form of law and no sufficient law was in force, the court 
would adjourn and the same three men with the addition 
of the Governor would come together in the evening as 
a Legislature and pass a law to meet the case and then, 
under this new ex post facto law, proceed with the trial. 
Two Indians were convicted under these circumstances 
and subsequently executed.* 

It is due to one or two of those associated as Judges 
during a part of this regime, to say that Judge Wood- 
ward, who was in office for the entire period, was very 
largely responsible for the conditions that existed. 

Gov. Hull was equally guilty, but the War of 1812 

^Memorial to Congress dated January 3, 1823, in Detroit 

*See Witherell's Reminiscences in Gibb's Fourth Michigan 
Reports; also Territorial Laws of Michigan. Vol. 1, pages 
234, 235. 


relieved the Territory of his incompetence, the surrender 
of Detroit by him being only the natural result of his 
pride, selfishness, and conceit, and his conscience should 
have, and did, make him a coward. 

The accession of General Cass as Governor, the estab- 
lishing of the Detroit Gazette which ventilated the pro- 
ceedings, and the coming in of new immigrants finally 
brought people enough to have a general assembly, and 
with freer discussion, and elective methods, order began 
to reign after twenty years of chaos and disorder. 


By President James B. Angell, L. L. D. 

While sitting here through this hot afternoon I have 
been wondering whether if the intrepid Cadillac had been 
asked on his arrival here to listen to the speeches of 
seven gentlemen with the thermometer at 90 , he would 
not have turned the prow of his canoe away without 
founding Detroit. 

There are two Cities of the Straits, destined by their 
very situation to be beautiful and important. One is in 
the old world, the other in the new. One is two thou- 
sand years old, the other two hundred years old. The 
former stands on the Bosphorus, that stream, which the 
dwellers on its banks deem the finest in the world. 

They will tell you that no waters are so green and 
clear as its waters, no sky is so blue as that which over- 
arches it, no hills are so picturesque as those which rise 
on either side of it, nowhere will you see such -a 
variety of costume and nationality as in the graceful 
caiques which fly rather than float upon its surface. 

There the commerce of two continents has met for 
more than twenty centuries. The keels of all nations fur- 

*President Angell spoke extemporaneously. — Editors. 

row the swift current, which pours the floods of the 
Euxine and the Azof into the Marmora and the Mediter- 

But we must be pardoned for believing that the 
stream which gives the name to our city has waters as 
sparkling and as bright as those of the Bosphorus ; that 
the matchless American sky over it is as blue as that of 
the Orient ; that as fair as the hillsides of Constantinople 
are the fertile plains stretching away from here, singing 
with the golden harvest that gladdens the hearts of the 

We see from our windows merchant fleets crowding 
our channel in numbers far exceeding those which are 
passing Stamboul. If we have not here a variety of cos- 
tume and language, we have what is far better, a great 
and homogeneous people with intelligence, law, and lib- 
erty, with all the blessings of a civilization a thousand 
years in advance of that on the banks of the Bosphorus. 

Therefore we gather here to-day with grateful hearts 
to pay homage to that brave and enterprising soldier, 
Antoine de La Mothe Cadillac, who two hundred years 
ago to-day founded this fair city of Detroit. It may seem 
strange that no one before him should have selected this 
spot for a settlement. Years before, those devoted mis- 
sionaries Raimbault and Jogues, had established them- 
selves at Sault de Ste. Marie. That brave explorer La 
Salle had sent his ship, the "Grifon," up this stream, had 
penetrated to the Mississippi and had made his way back 
over the prairies and morasses of Illinois and Michigan. 

That great man who united the enterprise of an ex- 
plorer with the holiness of a saint, Father Marquette, had 


in 1670 made his plantation at St. Ignace, had pushed 
on to the Mississippi, and descended it to the Arkansas, 
and had then returned to die at Ludington at the early- 
age of thirty-seven, and had left an impress upon Michi- 
gan that has never been effaced, so that when the state 
was called to choose its two representatives to be com- 
memorated by statues in the rotunda at Washington, by 
the common consent of Catholics and Protestants alike 
the good Pere Marquette was selected as one. 

But the attention of all these men, whether concen- 
trated on missions or on the fur trade, was naturally 
fixed on the northern region. Cadillac, however, after 
holding the military command of the post at Mackinaw, 
saw with the eye of a statesman that in the conditions 
existing at the close of the seventeenth century this was 
the point from which to control the Indians and also the 
fur trade. Having persuaded the home government of 
the justice of his views, he was permitted to establish 
himself here. 

It is eminently fitting that we should celebrate the day 
with every token of gratitude and rejoicing. The pres- 
ence of these distinguished representatives of France, 
reminds us that we have much to learn from their nation 
in showing fitting appreciation of great historic events 
and personages. 

France is a great gallery of statues, pictures, arches, 
columns, edifices, commemorative of the achievements of 
her great men and the notable events in her history. The 
very streets of Paris bear the names of the dates of signal 
occurrences. Every square is adorned with statues or 
columns or arches that inflame the patriotism of the citi- 

zen. Go to Versailles and you see in the spacious gal- 
leries of the palace the history of France from Clovis to 
Loubet depicted by great masters upon the walls. Wher- 
ever you turn in France, the past is appealing to you 
through some artistic representation. 

So it is perhaps in lesser degree in Italy or Germany. 
Not only are the deeds of the warrior glorified. The 
homes of great authors are preserved as shrines, as for 
instance the house of Goethe in Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
and that of Jean Paul in Bayreuth. Even in England, 
we visit with emotion the home of Carlyle in Chelsea, 
and the Shakespeare theatre at Stratford-on-Avon. 

We have erred as a nation by giving too little expres- 
sion to our feelings. We have perhaps inherited from 
our English ancestors a disposition to suppress all ex- 
pression of emotion. True, since the civil war which 
stirred our natures to the centre we have erected monu- 
ments, not always of high artistic merit, to the memory 
of those who died that we might live, and have marked in 
appropriate manner some of our great battlefields. 

But we may well imitate our French friends in ex- 
pressing more generously by suitable tokens the notable 
events and memorable persons in our glorious history. 
Let us make our squares and parks populous with statues, 
affix descriptive plates of bronze to our historic mansions, 
erect triumphal arches over our streets, and in all becom- 
ing methods show our gratitude to our ancestors who 
sacrificed so much in building this nation that we might 
enter into the precious inheritance of peace, comfort, and 
regulated liberty, which has come to us as our invaluable 



By Hon. Peter White. 

The Michigan of to-day is the same country the sav- 
ages possessed and the French explored, and the Detroit 
is the same beautiful river. 

But how immense have been the changes ! If De La 
Mothe Cadillac were here to-day he would recognize 
nothing but the green water of the river, and some of the 
names still represented in this audience. 

The wilderness of forest and swamp has disappeared. 
We could paraphrase our State motto and say to him, 
"If you seek a beautiful and populous State look about 

Cadillac's first Michigan experience was not at De- 
troit. Mackinac or Michilimackinac was the great post 
for French influence. But the site of Teuscha Grondie, 
the Indian village that used to stand here, had been recog- 
nized as of immense strategic importance as a check on 
the plans of the English and their wily hirelings, the 
Iroquois, so Cadillac was duly commissioned to estab- 
lish a fort here. 

The early French influence is hard to characterize in 
any simple terms. It was religious and every unpre- 
judiced observer must agree with Parkman, Hubbard, 


Trowbridge and Campbell, that it was sincerely so. The 
Recollet or Franciscan Missionaries came first, but 
seemed to lack the stamina of their successors, the Jesuits, 
and these from long association with soldiers and poli- 
ticians learned to look on the country with one eye for 
the church, and another for the interests of La Belle 

Great as was the political significance of the Jesuit 
explorations, it would be hard to trace anything modern 
back to them. They were for a long time lost sight of, 
and indeed the religious effect was also for a long time 
supposed to be lost. But when the resettlement of 
Northern Michigan began in 1830 or thereabouts, and 
Roman Catholic missionaries once more came in contact 
with the Indians, they found unmistakable evidences of 
their earlier christianization, and that, without priest or 
altar, they had retained some knowledge of the faith 
once taught them. 

With the priest, or sometimes alone, came the soldier, 
oftentimes a gentleman or small nobleman. Some of 
these priests, Marquette, Hennepin, Mesnard, Allouez, 
Dablon, Jogues, were as great heroes as ever fell on the 
battlefield, but their soldier companions like Joliet, 
Du Lhut, Cadillac and La Salle seem to have been quite 
worthy of them. 

Their exploits were simply marvelous, and it would 
have been well for this universal Yankee nation, could 
she have borrowed from the French their invariable fair- 
ness toward the Indians and almost unfailing success in 
finally concilating their friendship. 


With each settlement came necessarily a fort, a small 
garrison and a motley crew of voyageurs, coureurs de 
bois, and serviteurs, ready to follow the settlement to a 
new place if it was transferred. 

The garrison would protect merchants and skilled me- 
chanics and grants would be made, as they were here, un- 
der peculiar conditions to settlers on the shore. 

Every original French settlement was on a water 
course. The original carry-all was a bateau or canoe. 

The settlement on the Detroit was fluctuating as to 
population. In 1763 it had about 2,500 people in the fort 
and scattered in the cottages along the river. Any one 
who now goes down to Petite Cote can get a fair idea of 
the way the original cottages stood, only then there were 
no roads and barely any clearings. But now and again a 
new settlement in the Illinois country would take away 
half the population, and there was no substantial growth. 

The early habitant was a poor farmer. I suspect that 
farming in Normandy must have been at that time very 
backward, and for a long time the river Frenchman did 
not improve. He threw away his fertilizers and ploughed 
very lightly. But he had good taste in apples and pears. 
The snow apple, wherever he got it, comes direct from 
the along-the-river Frenchman. It is certainly a great 
civilizer. The so-called French pear is seen nowhere 

The backwardness of the French farmer may be at- 
tributed partly to the restrictions, feudal in their charac- 
ter, under which they held their land; partly also to the 
speedy admixture of Indian blood, bred to the chase, 
among the settlers. But this admixture seems not to 


have affected the town or garrison people to any con- 
siderable extent. They retain their pure Caucasian line- 
age most honorably until this day. 

Gay and careless in some ways as the early French 
were, they were not lax in morals, as some writers have 
stated. They were devoted church goers and loyal 
friends, and were not left wholly without education. 
Even among the women, reading was not uncommon. 

In the Revolution, and in 1812, the French became 
strong American partisans. They never took kindly to 
British rule. In business they were honorable but ex- 
tremely conservative ; in hospitality supreme. So charm- 
ing were the convent bred belles of the better class 
among them, that future settlers of every sort who came 
here, found them wives among the French, so that it is 
hardly necessary to prove more than the very early set- 
tlement of any particular family in Detroit, to raise a 
strong presumption of French blood, whatever the name 
may be. 

The one trade the early Frenchman cared for was 
the fur trade. The English and Americans who came 
after 1760 do not seem to have looked beyond this. The 
English had to suppress Pontiac before they could do 
much and the Revolution followed too soon for British 
influence to have pressed very deep. 

Many personal friends of Mr. C. C. Trowbridge are 
here assembled. There were 9,000 people in Michigan 
when he came, and he personally talked with many peo- 
ple who had seen the Bloody Run fight in 1763. 

Among the British commanders a most honorable 
place must be yielded to Major Arent DePeyster. But 

in general, British military occupancy merely meant that 
Detroit was an emporium for rum, tomahawks and gun 
powder, and Hamilton in the Revolution and Proctor in 
the War of 1812 have dishonorable prominence in pur- 
chasing or permitting savage barbarity. 

The surrender* of the northwest posts in 1796 brought 
in the first considerable number of English speaking resi- 
dents. They were of a somewhat different character 
from the earlier stock, because coming with broader pros- 
pects. They came mainly from Ohio and belonged to 
genuine American stock. The territorial government 
came in immediately after the fire which destroyed old 
Detroit in 1805, and brought an additional settlement, 
but until after 181 5 there was nothing considerable at 
any distance from the old French posts. Four thousand 
people in 1805 had increased in 1820 to 9,000 and this in 
a Territory more than twice as large as the present limits 

After 1812 an increasing large number of settlers be- 
gan to come in from New York, so that whole rural 
neighborhoods now bear the names of those sections of 
New York State from which their settlers came, and when 
the State was organized, the laws of New York and its 
legal practice formed models for very slightly modified 

Since State organization the growth in wealth and 
population has greatly advanced, and here and there large 
sections have been entirely taken up by foreign colonies. 
But foreign born populations have had far less to do, 
save in the north, with developing our State than with 
many Western States. 

The voyageur hung on in the north around Mackinac 
as long as that post remained the headquarters of the 
American Fur Company, and there are many people still 
living who are familiar with everything about old wood 
ranger and voyageur life. 

At the risk of being considered tedious I feel that I 
must give you a little idea of the life of the wood ranger 
and voyageur, from a bit of my own experience. 

On the 9th of April, 1851, Hon. Abner Sherman ar- 
rived at Marquette from Ontonagon, on foot and alone. 
He was en route for Sault Ste. Marie by the same kind 
of conveyance. The agent of the Marquette Iron Com- 
pany, in whose employ I was, looked upon it as a delight- 
ful opportunity for the young clerk in the company store, 
to journey along with Mr. Sherman from Marquette to 
Sault Ste. Marie, in order that a new tract of land might 
be secured before other parties might purchase it at the 
United States land office at that place. We were to 
make our way through an unbroken wilderness, through 
a trackless forest and unknown swamps, along a lake 
shore, with but little beach, the lake still full of broken 
ice, the woods still full of snow in drifts many feet deep, 
the rivers everywhere overflowing their banks and rush- 
ing in raging torrents down to the lake. There was little 
show of "April showers bringing forth May flowers." We 
each carried two blankets, some extra clothing, a tin pail 
in which to make tea, and each carried provisions esti- 
mated to last eight days. Each had a pair of large snow 
shoes and one carried what we called a half axe. Each 
had in his pack at least forty pounds. No Indian or half 
breed or French voyageur possessed greater powers of 


endurance than did this brace of woodsmen, or states- 
men, whichever you might style them. Starting from 
Marquette at ten a. m., April 9th, we crossed many 
swollen streams on improvised rafts and at six o'clock 
at night we reached the Au Train river. It seemed a 
thousand feet wide. We hastily constructed a wide raft 
of dry cedar logs that lay scattered along the shore. We 
noticed that these logs were old timbers as they were 
perforated with worm-holes, yet we believed the craft 
would carry us safely over. We did not know then, as 
I have since become convinced, that the worm-holes in 
those cedar logs were loaded with sand, and that as 
soon as they should be loaded with water, they would 
sink to the bottom as quickly as bars of iron. We jumped 
upon our raft, armed with poles to propel it, I retain- 
ing my pack upon my back, with the ten quart tin pail, 
its cover tighly closed, and this fact enables me to be 
here to-day to tell you the story, for with the very rapid 
current we had necessarily to cross the downward way 
diagonally and when we reached the middle of the river 
the water-logged raft went down as quickly as if a hun- 
dred tons of rock had fallen on it. Mr. Sherman, a pow- 
erful swimmer, reached the other shore, not without al- 
most superhuman efforts, and I with my life preserver 
pail holding my head above the water, passed down 
out of the mouth of the river, until my feet struck the 
sand bar where I guided myself toward shore, my com- 
rade coming out and extending me a helping hand, say, 
one or two hundred feet from shore. Ten minutes before 
I had not the slightest chance ever to reach the shore 
alive. Sherman remarked that he was mighty glad that 
I had saved the pail. 


We made a big fire and dried our clothes and slept 
well that night, for we were tired. The next day we 
reached a point opposite Grand Island. In that harbor 
there was no ice. We built a fire and made other signals 
that induced Williams, the king of Grand Island, to send 
over a fish boat for us, and we staid with him that night, 
and he sold us an old boat, sails and oars, with which 
we got on our way about fifteen miles when we encoun- 
tered vast fields of impenetrable ice, broken though it 

So after securing the boat where some one might 
some day find it we trudged on, sometimes through deep 
sand, then slushy snow, then through terrible swamps — 
sometimes when night came finding no place dry enough 
to enable us to build a fire. We would travel on and 
on until darkness forbade another step. Then the bal- 
ance of the sleepless night was terrible, and we would 
take advantage of the first dry spot next day to make a 
fire, cook some food, and take a short nap. I will not 
further tire you with the dull details of our trip except 
to say that after fording or rafting across many rivers, 
surviving many other perils, we reached Tauquamenon 
Bay, where it was impossible to walk on the beach be- 
cause there was no beach, and impossible to walk in the 
woods, the water there was so deep, and the brush and 
logs so thick as to make is impossible with packs on our 
backs to make any headway. So we had to take to the 
water, which was full of slush ice, but we got along 
slowly in it, and after nine days of excitement, peril and 
suffering, footsore and weary, we reached Sault Ste. 
Marie. I waited for weeks to get a steamer to get back 


to my home. I have never tried that trip since. I for- 
got to tell you that my companion carried a pistol, and 
his unerring aim several times brought down a fat part- 
ridge, otherwise we might have starved. 

The interior of Michigan was so long supposed to 
be a wilderness that none of the Revolutionary land war- 
rants were taken up here. These military lands long 
retarded actual settlement in other States but not so in 
Michigan. The actual settler soon became of the opinion 
of Bishop Philander Chase, who lived for some time at 
Gilead in Branch County, that no fairer land could be 
found anywhere. 

The early settlers of American stock were deeply 
concerned about education, and Romanist and Protestant 
joined hands in the erection of the university. There was 
thus an early growth of enlightened public sentiment, 
but Judge Campbell points out that the whipping post 
for Indians and Negroes convicted of various offenses 
and for disorderly persons, was still maintained as late 
as 1831 and could be used by order of a single Justice. 
"The not less barbarous custom of selling the poor to 
the lowest bidder was also long kept up, with the dis- 
gusting spectacle of the ball and chain gang." 

I cannot refrain from quoting entire another para- 
graph from Judge Campbell's wonderful book. Writing 
in the National Centennial year he said: "This year, of 
so much interest to the people of the United States, finds 
Michigan furnishing a hopeful illustration of the results 
of the experiment made a hundred years ago. She was 
then governed by martial law, with few people and but 
one civil settlement. For twenty years after the Declara- 

tion of Independence, she remained under British control, 
and was intended to be reserved as a refuge for savages 
and a haunt of beasts of the chase. A few years later she 
fell again for a short time under the same governance, 
as much to the surprise of the captors as to the disgust 
and rage of the surrendered. But with the recapture 
came the beginning of progress. Multitudes of the Revo- 
lutionary patriots and of their children came westward 
to enjoy the inheritance earned by the struggle for inde- 

"The laws and customs of the new land were fresh 
copies of those of the older colonies, changed only where 
change was needed. In every village churches and 
schools stood foremost in the estimation of the people, 
and ignorance, idleness and immorality were under the 

So much for general influences. The men who had 
the most to do with them must not be forgotten. Chief 
and foremost is the name of Cass, and with him many 
others of national and worldwide renown. While receiv- 
ing influences on her development, Michigan has not 
been slow to assert herself upon others. 

The University of Michigan is the pioneer of much of 
the modern system of American education. 

The Michigan Supreme Court under the immortal 
quartet, Campbell, Cooley, Christiancy and Graves, con- 
tinues and will continue to be quoted with respect, ad- 
miration and authority throughout the English-speaking 

We have not selfishly absorbed, but have given to 
the world even more than we have received. If it is 

well to listen to the wise man when he says, "Let us now 
praise famous men," where else do we need to turn? We 
have had statesmen in Cass, Lothrop, Dickinson and 
McClelland ; Senators in Felch, Norvell, Howard and 
Chandler ; Judges in the noble quartet I have mentioned ; 
merchant princes, manufacturers, civil reformers, advo- 
cates, authors, educators, poets, artists, scientists, ex- 
plorers, ethnologists, financiers, diplomats ; whole-souled 
gentlemen, christian prelates, and devoted missionaries ; 
kings of men, as noble as the noblest, like the Trowbridge 
you all know. We have had orators too, and we have 
them still. May the Mayor of this beautiful city long 
live in health and prosperity to charm, us with words of 
wisdom, patriotism, good fellowship and attic grace. 

May I in conclusion say something about the Detroit 
of my first acquaintance and recall a few of the events 
and circumstances of the times? I came here first in the 
early summer of 1845 m search of employment which I 
did not find. But I had better luck the next year, and 
worked for Freeman & Bro. who kept a grocery store 
on the corner of Brush street and Jefferson avenue. I 
spent portions of '45, '46 and '47 in your beautiful city. 
It was not then as beautiful as now. Many streets were 
not paved, and were sandy and sometimes very muddy. 
It seems to me now that down through the middle of 
Jefferson avenue was a plank road and that in the autumn 
and winter months the mud on each side of it used to 
be hub deep, and that portion of the avenue between 
Bates and Brush streets was the market place of the 
city, where stood loads of wood, hay and potatoes every 
day in the year except Sundays and holidays. 

Garry Spencer, Justice of the Peace, before whom all 
infractions of city ordinances were tried, had his office 
on the upper side of the avenue near this market place 
and not infrequently a boisterous mob stood about his 
office door on the sidewalk, eager to learn, for how many 
days or dollars the various sentences were. 

I think there were four good banks then in the city ; 
the Michigan Insurance Company Bank, the Peninsular, 
the Farmers and Mechanics and the State Bank. They 
were all good always and when they quit they did it 
honorably. There is so much to write about concern- 
ing banks and bankers of Michigan in early days that 
would be entertaining but far too voluminous for this 

There was a plague here in those early days known as 
fever and ague, that came in April and staid until Decem- 
ber, leaving seeds for the next year's crop. Seventy-five 
per cent of the people of all ages had it each year and they 
shook at regular and irregular hours every other day. 
When the apples and peaches were ripe one of these 
shakers could grasp the trunk of a tree and before he 
was through shaking all the fruit would be harvested. 

More than half a century has passed since my first 
visit to Detroit and every one of its years has brought 
to Detroit some improvement, and developed its indus- 
tries, its beauty and its natural charm. 

Its citizens may take just pride in it, for all Michi- 
gan is proud of it and in a peculiar way, it belongs to 
all Michigan, for it has been the key to the State's de- 
velopment and progress. 

No boat ever plies the Great Lakes but some eye views 
admiringly the City of the Straits and its beautiful park. 
No stranger ever visited it without giving it its deserved 
tribute of praise and no traveller returning to it as to 
his home, but has noticed with eyes grown keener, 
sighted by wider observation, how richly nature has en- 
dowed Detroit and how ably and wisely its people have 
builded and adorned it. 

And it seems most fitting that the people of Detroit 
should celebrate to-day two hundred years of progress 
and should give their meed of praise to those men who, 
by their bravery, their wisdom and their energy, have 
brought the city to its fair perfection, and going back 
over the long list, that they should delight to dwell on 
the far time of its romantic beginnings and picture to 
themselves a July day two hundred years ago when that 
brave soldier of France, Cadillac, building "better than he 
knew," laid the foundation of the most beautiful city of 
the West. 

Cadillac, with a keen eye to its commercial import- 
ance, distinguished it as "the porte ouvre on this con- 
tinent through which the king might go in and out to 
trade with his allies." 

To none of these explorers did the future seem so hid- 
den as to those who landed upon the banks of the De- 
troit river on the 24th of July, 1701. 

The adventurer had come along years before, led by 
the legends and fables in which the Indian was then, and 
is now, prolific. The fountain of youth, pouring forth 
golden glories, was the ignis fatuus that lured their ad- 
venturous predecessors on to disappointment- The hard 

promise of an existence in the wilderness and the priva- 
tions incident thereto was all that the future seemed to 
have in store for them. How little did they realize, in- 
deed how little do any of us realize, the ultimate effect 
of a present, and humble duty, well performed. To-day, 
in the crucible of two hundred years, we try their deeds 
and words; we go around about the zion of their build- 
ing, mark well the foundations they laid, and we are cer- 
tainly both privileged and happy in the discovery that all 
they said was marked with a sense of justice and of dig- 
nity, and that all they did was pregnant with the spirit 
of charity and hospitality. 

So potent was the spirit of this baptism in their lives 
and labors that we are here to testify to the fullness 
thereof, in a day glorious to them, as also glorious to us. 

It is indeed not among the least of the privileges 
which this delightful occasion has afforded me that I am 
permitted to lay an humble wreath along with the more 
pretentious chaplets that this occasion has woven for 
them. Among the many beautiful allusions to this cele- 
bration from the pulpits of this city on Sunday last I 
select two sentences which I wish to repeat and empha- 
size. It is this : "If God has a plan at all we cannot 
doubt that the dwelling places of man enter into that 
plan. Let us not, as we remember the first fort, and 
Cadillac, who built it, the first boat and the men who 
sailed it, forget the lakes and the river and God, who 
made them." 

In closing I will give you a dialect poem written by 
Dr. Wm. Henry Drummond for this occasion. 


Two honder year ago, de worP is purty slow, 

Even folk upon dis countree's not so smart, 
Den who is travel roun an' look out de pleasan' groun' 

For geev de Yankee peop' a leetle start? 
I'll tole you who dey were; de beeg rough voyageurs 

Wit' deir cousin w'at you call coureurs de bois, 
Dat's fightin' all de tarn, an' never care a dam, 

An' ev'ry wan dem feller he's come from Canadaw. 

He's comin' all de way from Canadaw. 

But he watch dem, le bon Dieu, for he's got some work to do, 

An' he won't trus' evry body, no siree! 
Only full-blood Canadien lak' Marquette an' Hennepin, 

An' w'at you t'ink of Louis Verandrye? 
On Church of Bonsecours! makin' ready for de tour, 

See dem down upon de knee, all prayin' dere — 
Wit' de paddle on de han' ev'ry good Canadian man 

An' affer dey be finish, hooraw for anyw'ere! 
Yass, sir! 

Dey're ready now for goin' anyw'ere. 

De nort' win' know dem well, an' de prarie grass can tell 

How often it is trample by de ole tarn botte sauvage — 
An' grey wolf on hees den' kip very quiet, w'en 

He hear dem boy a'singin' upon de long Portage, 
An' de night would fin' dem lie wit' deir faces on de sky, 

An' de breeze would come an' w'isper on deir ear 
'Bout de wife an' sweetheart dere on Sorel and Trois Rivieres, 

Dey may never leev' to see anoder year. 
Dat's true, 

Dey may never leev to kiss anoder year. 

An' you'll know de place dey go, from de canyon down below, 

Or de mountain wit' hees nose above de cloud, 
De lake among de hill, w'ere de grizzly drink his fill 

Or de rapid on de reever roarin' loud, 
Ax de wil' deer if de flash of de ole Tree reever sash 

He don't see it on the woods of Illinois, 
An' de musk ox as he go, w'ere de camp fire melt de snow, 

De smell he still remember of tabac Canadien. 
Ha! Ha! 

It's hard forgettin' smell of tabac Canadien! 

So ma frien' de Yankee man, he mus' try an' understan' 

Wen he holler for dat flag de Star an' Stripe, 
If he's leetle win' still lef, an' no danger hurt hese'f, 

Den he better geev anoder cheer, ba cripe! 
For de flag of La Belle France, dat show de way across 

From Louisburg to Florida an' back, 
So raise it ev'ry w'ere, lak' de ole tarn voyageurs, 

Wen you hear of de La Salle an' Cadillac. 

For de flag of de La Salle an' Cadillac. 



By Silas Farmer, City Historiographer. 

In a city like Detroit with history regnant in almost 
every square, the definite marking of the sites of memor- 
able events was too long neglected. The bells of St. 
Anne's for two centuries have tolled our age. Registrars' 
documents and other government archieves from the mar- 
gin of the Seine proclaim our intimate relationship to the 
days of the Grand Monarch and to Richelieu, Mazarin, 
and Maintenon. 

As we look at the yellow pages of the past, visions of 
the lily and the cross pass before us, gigantic pear trees 
loom aloft, fife and drum are heard, voyageurs and red 
coats march in review, low houses with plastered sides 
almost shut us in, and Indians, dogs and children throng 
the narrow streets. 

In Detroit, localities where events of national import- 
ance transpired are not numerous, but sites that recall 
events of great local interest are abundant. 

The educational value to our own people, especially 
to the youth of the city, of historical tablets was not the 
only consideration that inspired the placing of certain 
memorials. Visitors of the cultured and communicative 
class who become familiar with these bronze reminders, 
are sure to spread abroad the knowledge they obtain of 
remarkable and romantic details in the city's past.. 

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The first tablet erected in Detroit was that which 
was unveiled in connection with the celebration of the 
centennial of "Evacuation Day" on July n, 1896. The 
tablet committee on that occasion consisted of Silas 
Farmer, A. H. Griffith and Rev. L. A. Arthur. It was 
the privilege of the writer to suggest that a tablet com- 
memorating the evacuation, be placed at the Fort street 
entrance of the Federal Building then nearing completion, 
and located between Fort and Lafayette, Shelby and 
Wayne streets. This locality included a portion of the 
site of Fort Lernoult, afterwards named Fort Shelby, 
where on July 11, 1796, the American flag for the first 
time in this region was raised as the symbol of the United 
States government. Through the efforts of Hon. Don 
M. Dickinson a resolution passed both the United States 
Senate and House of Representatives on the same day, 
authorizing the placing of the tablet and directing that 
payment be made for the same. 

The inscription on the tablet is as follows : 

"This tablet designates the site of an English Fort erected 
in 1778 by Major R. B. Lernoult as a defense against the Ameri- 
cans. It was subsequently called Fort Shelby in honor of Gov. 
Isaac Shelby, of Kentucky, and was demolished in 1826. 

"The evacuation of this Fort by the British at 12 o'clock 
noon July nth, 1796, was the closing act of the war of inde- 

"On that day the American flag was for the first time raised 
over this soil. All of what was then known as the Western 
Territory becoming at that time part of the Federal Union." 

About three years after the unveiling of the Evacua- 
tion Day tablet the writer interested the officers of the 
Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company in the placing 
of a tablet on their building, and personally procured the 
tablet for them and supervised its erection. 

The following article then prepared gives facts of in- 
terest in connection with this tablet, and of the build- 
ing on which it is located : 


The building on the southwest corner of Jefferson 
Avenue and Griswold Street, facing on Jefferson Avenue, 
is one of the oldest business buildings in the city, and is 
much the oldest stone structure in Detroit. It is built of 
shell limestone, and in the earlier years of its history a 
coat of oil brought out many fine and fancifully shaped 

It has been successively occupied by banks, federal 
courts and postoffice. It is now owned and occupied by 
the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company. It was 
erected in the flush times of 1836, by the Bank of Mich- 
igan, which had been organized eighteen years before, and 
was then in successful operation, its stock at one time 
commanding forty per cent premium. 

Six years after the erection of the building, and during 
the general financial crisis of 1837, the Bank went into 
liquidation, and on December 12, 1842, the property was 
sold at auction to the United States. Early in the follow- 
ing year, the Postoffice was established in the basement 
of the building, and the Federal Courts in the upper por- 
tion ; the former remaining for six years, and the latter for 
twelve years or until 1855. The building was sold on 
October 4, 1855, to the Michigan Insurance Bank, which 
occupied it until its reorganization in 1865 as a national 
bank, under the title of The National Insurance Bank. 
In 1869 this bank was practically merged into the First 


National Bank which continued to occupy the building 
until 1896. The present owners began to occupy the up- 
per portion of the building in 1872, and purchased the 
property in 1892. Since 1896 they have occupied the en- 
tire property. 

The site of the building represents in concrete form 
the history of the city. In the rear, within a stone's 
throw, the first settlers landed, and here also year after 
year the Indians beached their canoes on the sandy shore. 
The structure stands on or near a portion of the site oc- 
cupied by Cadillac and the original colony nearly two 
hundred years ago. The various enlargements of the or- 
iginal stockade actually included it within the limits of 
the fort. The moccasins of the savages, and the shoepacs 
of the early French, undoubtedly pressed every inch of 
the soil it occupies. As near as can be determined, it 
is located on the very spot where the gateway of the fort 
opened on May 7, 1763, to allow Pontiac and his warrior 
braves to enter, only to find from the preparations made 
that his plot had been discovered. Almost immediately 
in the rear of the building was the King's Garden, where 
was buried the body of Captain Dalyell, killed in the bat- 
tle of Bloody Run July 31, 1763. A little to the west of 
the building, and in the same block, was the Indian Coun- 
cil House. To this place during the Revolutionary War 
hundreds of captives were brought by the Indians, and 
also thousands of human scalps. 

For many years past the building has overlooked the 
financial centre of the city, and it stands as a sentinel of 
the "Wall Street" of Detroit. 

The tablet was unveiled with appropriate exercises 
on Nov. 29, 1899. The inscription reads: 

"This Tablet designates the site of one of the gateways of 
Fort Detroit. The original stockade was known as Fort Pont- 
chartrain and was erected when the city was founded in 1701. 

"Through the gateway here located Pontiac, the Ottawa 
chief, with a band of Indians, passed on May seventh, 1763, in- 
tending to surprise and massacre the garrison. 

"The exposure of his plot on the previous day caused the 
defeat of his plans and gave the English the supremacy in this 
region until the close of the Revolutionary War." 

The historic memorial known as the Cadillac Chair 
was unveiled as the first act of the Bi-Centennial celebra- 
tion of July 24, 1901, and is located at the west end of 
Cadillac Square. It was procured chiefly through the 
efforts of Mr. J. C. Batcheldor. The programme of exer- 
cises is given elsewhere. The symbolism and suggestive- 
ness of the chair and its site, as stated by the City His- 
toriographer at the time of the unveiling, are as follows : 

"Several months ago I suggested that in view of the 
historical events connected with this site it be marked 
with a stone seat as representing the seat of power. 
That idea has been elaborated in the stone chair of today 
and probably no more appropriate design could possibly 
be suggested for such an event as we celebrate. 

"A chair is a place in which to sit — it suggests occu- 
pancy — 'the sitting under one's own vine and fig tree.' 
When Cadillac and his colonists seated themselves here, 
the settlement — the colony of Detroit — began. 

"This site literally represents a seat or place of power. 
It was first occupied in 1835 by the city hall, which was 
erected out of the proceeds of the sale of lots located on 
the grounds of old Fort Shelby, given the city by congress 
in 1826. On this site the first state election was held 

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and here from 1835 up to 1871 all city ordinances were 
enacted. On this site the several boards controlling the 
fire department, the water works, the schools and the 
police were created. In a very definite sense, therefore, 
the beginnings of the city were here, on the site we now 

"It is especially appropriate that a memorial to Cad- 
illac be erected on the square named in his honor, and it 
is a singular coincidence that in this year, when, for the 
first time, we have 'one-man' boards in several city de- 
partments we should dedicate this chair to the memory 
of the founder of the city who most emphatically illus- 
trated 'one-man' rule. Louis XIV., who then held the 
sceptre of France, said : 'I am the state.' He was abso- 
lute in France ; Cadillac was equally so at Detroit. 

"Let us imagine Cadillac in this chair of justice two 
hundred years ago. He had thg power of life and death. 
Practically the only restriction upon his acts was the fact 
that harsh treatment would weaken the settlement and 
thus injure himself. There is no evidence that he was se- 
vere, but his tenants were not allowed to kill certain kinds 
of game. Their grain must be ground at his mill, and their 
bread baked in his ovens. The blacksmith had to shoe 
his horses, permits had to be obtained from him before 
trade or traffic of any sort could be carried on, and his 
leases stipulated for various personal rights. 

"Let us be glad that we today live under the rule of 
no seigneur or king, but under the stars and stripes.' " 

The inscription reads as follows : 

This Chair, erected July 24, 1901, 

is located on the site of the City Hall 

built in 1835 and occupied 

until 1871 as the seat of Civic Authority. 

It is Symbolic of the Seigneurial Rule 

of Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, Knight 

of St. Louis, who, with his company 

of Colonists, arrived at Detroit, July 24, 1701. 

On that day, under the patronage of Louis XIV 
and protected by the Flag of France, the 
City of Detroit, then called Fort Pontchartrain, 
was founded. 

The Fire Tablet commemorating the notable fire of 
June nth, 1805, is placed at the west end of the Palms 
building on the N. E. corner of Jefferson avenue and 
Shelby street. It was unveiled August 16, 1901, the Fire 
Department giving a display of modern methods in con- 
trast with those of ninety-six years previous. The in- 
scription on the tablet is as follows : 

"This tablet marks the starting point of the notable fire of 
June 11, 1805, which is commemorated in the City Seal. 

"That fire destroyed every house save one in the ancient 
town of Detroit. It obliterated old lot lines and narrow streets, 
and secured the wide avenues and public squares of the present 

The Old Council House Tablet was put in position in 
October, 1901. It is located on the Water Works build- 
ing, on the S. W. corner of Jefferson avenue and Ran- 
dolph street. 

The inscription reads : 

"In 1796, when Detroit came under the rule of the United 
States, an old stone building known as an Indian council house 
was here located. For many years it was used as a court house, 
as military headquarters, for elections, and for town meetings. 
It was destroyed in the great fire of May 9, 1848. 

"In 1827 the first city reservoir was located on the rear of 
this lot, and sixty years later the property passed into the 
possession and occupancy of its present owners, the Board of 
Water Commissioners of the City of Detroit." 

The most elaborate tablet is that erected in honor of 

Maj.-Gen. Anthony Wayne, after whom Wayne county 

is named. It is located on the south pylon at the main 

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entrance to the County Building on Randolph street, and 
faces Cadillac Square. It had its inception in a resolu- 
tion offered by the writer at a meeting of the Sons of the 
American Revolution, held April 15, 1901. It was paid 
for jointly by the said society and by the Board of Audit- 
ors of the county. It was formally unveiled on Oct. 19, 

The inscription reads : 

'This tablet is a triubte to Major-General Anthony Wayne, 
U. S. A., to whom, as general in command, the English sur- 
rendered this region July II, 1796. The County of Wayne was 
created and named in his honor, August 15th, 1796. 

"As then established, the county embraced nearly all of the 
present state of Michigan and portions of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois 
and Wisconsin, including the sites of Milwaukee and Chicago 
and parts of Fort Wayne and Cleveland. 

"Erected under the auspices of the Michigan Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution." 

As a result of the efforts of the Tablet Committee 
of the Bi-Centennial, the Alumni of the University of 
Michigan, in March, 1902, placed a tablet marking the 
location of the original building of the University. This 
tablet is located on the laboratory of Farrand, Williams 
& Clark, on the west side of Bates street, midway be- 
tween Congress and Larned streets. 

The inscription on the tablet is as follows : 

"The University of Michigan, which since 1837 has been 
established at Ann Arbor, was originally located at Detroit, and 
occupied a building erected for the purpose in 1817-18 on the 
spot here designated. 

"The first professorships were held by the Rev. John 
Monteith of the First Protestant Church, and the Rev. Gabriel 
Richard of St. Anne's Roman Catholic Church. 

"From 1844 until demolished in 1858 the building was occu- 
pied by the Board of Education of the City of Detroit. 

"The First Sunday School in Michigan began its sessions 
in this building October 4, 1818. 

"This tablet is erected by the University of Michigan Asso- 
ciation of Detroit. A. D. 1901." 


At the time the tablet marking the site of the gateway 
of Fort Detroit, through which Pontiac passed on May 
7, 1763, was placed, one of the officers of the Michigan 
Stove Company promised that the site of the battle of 
"Bloody Bridge" or "Bloody Run," where Pontiac de- 
feated the English on July 31, 17,3, would be also marked. 

The company named own the site of the so-called 
"Pontiac Tree" and also the locality through which the 
stream known as Parent's Creek or "Bloody Run" emp- 
tied into the Detroit river. They procured a handsome 
tablet, and with appropriate exercises, it was unveiled on 
the one hundred and thirty-ninth anniversary of the 
battle, July 31, 1902. 

The inscription on the tablet, as phrased by the City 
Historiographer, is as follows: 

"This tablet marks the course of the historic stream called 
Parent's creek. After the battle of July 31st, 1763, which took 
place near by, it was known as Bloody Run. That battle closely 
followed the Indian outbreak known as the Pontiac Conspiracy 
and resulted in a loss to the English of fifty-six killed and 
wounded and the death of Capt. Dalyell, of the British army. 

"An old monarch of the forest, known as the Pontiac tree, 
stood in this vicinity until 1886 and was said to have been a 
silent witness of the combat." 


aiiaifeftM ^ 



Hon. William C. Maybury, Chairman. 

Gen. R. A. Alger 
W. J. Chittenden 
Hon. W. E. Quinby 
Lewis Tossy 
Henry B. Ledyard 
Hon. Don. M. Dickinson 
Rt. Rev. John S. Foley 
Rev. N. Boynton 
W. C. McMillan 
Stephen Baldwin 
Hon. Jos. H. Donovan 
Hon. Wm. A. Moore 
Rev. L S. McCollester 
Hon. Jas. Phelan 
Hon. Morse Rohnert 
John Davidson 
Hon. Geo. F. Monaghan 
Hon. F. B. Dickerson 
Theodore D. Buhl 
Walter H. Coots 
Sidney T. Miller 
Col. August Goebel 
F. B. Tibbals, M. D. 
F. F. Palms 
Ralph Phelps, Jr. 
Hon. A. F. Sellers 
Edmund Atkinson 
Col. Frank J. Hecker 
Hon. J. J. Haarer 
James E. Scripps 
J. L. Hudson 
Charles M. Heald 
Hon. John B. Corliss 
A. Marxhausen 

D. J. Campau 

E. D. Stair 

Hon. John T. Rich 
Rev. Geo. D. Elliott 
Rev. C. D. Newman 
Hon. W. A. Carpenter 
J. P. Murtagh 
Sam'l Marcus 

Wm. B. Thompson 

Rt. Rev. Thomas F. Davies 

Hon. F. A. Blades 

D. Augustus Straker 
Hon. Alfred J. Murphy 
Thomas Pitts 

Elliott T. Slocum 

Hon. Alfred Russell 

Hon. Robert E. Frazer 

Peter Henkel 

James H. Pound 

Alex. Chapoton 

Hon. J. B. Whelan 

R. P. Joy 

Geo. H. Barbour 

W. Livingstone 

A. Neiderspreum 

Geo. H. Russell 

J. Dwyer 

Howard Beck 

Rev. A. H. Barr 

M. M. Stanton 

Thos. Zoltowski 

Henry A. Weber 

Fred Mohn 

Alex. Lewis 

Hon. James McMillan 

James Schermerhorn 

E. T. Hance 
M. W. O'Brien 

D. M. Ferry 

Rabbi L. M. Franklin 
Rev. Chas. Haas 
W. C. Martindale 
Hon. Geo. S. Hosmer 
Hon. T. E. Tarsney 
Hon. T. A. E. Weadock 
John She* 
Hon. T. W. Palmer 

E. C. Crevier 
Hon. O. F. Hunt 
Alderman Miller 


J. E. Saxton, Chairman. 

A. H. Griffith 
J. L. Batchelder 
John J. Bagley 
.William Warren 
A. S. Brooks 
C. M. Hayes 
David Whitney 
Wm. A. Dwyer 
William H. Beamer 
R. A. Newman 
C. M. Burton 
Chas. L. Palms 

T. H. Eaton 

Oren Scotten 

Alderman McGuire 

John Walker 

Hon. D. E. Heineman 

Thos. Neal 

C. A. Black 

Robert Barrie 

C. A. Ducharme 

F. K. Stearns 

Frank H. Walker 


George W. Fowle, Chairman. 

J. H. Hansjosten 
Frank Lorang 
Jule Meyer 
Jas. Findlater 
C. M. Hayes 
Ed. Henderson 
Major R. W. Jacklin 
S. T. Douglas 
Fred B. Smith 
J. S. Quinn 
Walter Rogers 
Walter Barlow 

E. R. Harris 
Geo. A. Marr 
R. L. Polk 
C. E. Dudley 
Gabriel Chiera 
L. Schiappacasse 
Theodore Lorang 

F. S. Armstrong 
Aid. W. W. Magee 
Dan Smith 

G. F. Monaghan 
C. H. Bieber 
Thos. Barium 

Aid. L. E. Tossy 
Jas. P. Murtagh 
Geo. Waldom 
Jos. Mayworm 
H. F. Chipman 
Col. August Goebel 
E. W. Pendleton 
J. W. Haas 
P. F. Bagley 
J. C. Stevens 
W. T. Benallack 
Thomas Hill 
W. W. Wilcox 
James Roach 
Alfred Lucking 
Fred Postal 
W. A. Pungs 
A. C. Cogswell 
H. F. Eberts 
M. P. Bardon 
C. H. Leonard 
Walter Beckwith 
J. H. Cudahy 
J. E. Brill 
J. F. McGregor 


W. C. Martindale 

C. W. Harrah 
W. E. Barker 
H. F. Moeller 
J. J. Gorman 
H. W. Bush 
Max Keene 

F. T. Caughey 
Geo. T. Moody 
W. C. Jupp 
P. Brietmeyer 
A. A. Gray 
Thos. Lucking 
Allan H. Kessler 
Dr. W. M. Bailey 
Ed. Dupont 

F. S. Dreskell 
W. P. Sumner 
W. G. Latimer 
W. D. Howard 
W. R. Farrand 
Ed. Atkinson 

G. W. Chandler 
John Lane 
Henry Loranger 
Chas. F. Jones 
F. Forquhar 
W. H. Maybury 

E. H. McCurdy 
Aid. Fred F. Snow 
Fred Foote 

D. L. Robbin 
Aid. R. P. Joy 
D. C. Delamater 
Homer Warren 

C. A. Warren 
J. G. Hoffman 
W. S. Biddle 
T. H. Cross 
W. E. Chapin 
H. A. Rogers 

F. T. Moran 
F. T. Lodge 

D. W. H. Moreland 
Harold Jarvis 
Marcus Polasky 
John A. Preston 

M. J. Murphy 
W. P. Holliday 
M. J. Thiesen 
J. T. Spillane 
A. A. Schantz 

E. W. Smith 
Julius Stroh 
J. E. Saxton 
Robt. Bailie 
Thos. Neal 
Jas. A. Swart 

Hon. Morse Rohnert 
W. H. Kessler 
Blaine Gavett 
M. G. Van Antwerp 
Thos. Barrett 

F. D. Standish 
F. F. Ingram 
Jas. R. Hayes 
Harry Starkey 
A. C. Varney 

A. W. Hill 
M. Kulwicki 
John H. Hanna 
Geo. C. Chittenden 
W. W. Hannan 

P. C. Baker 
Henry C. Weber 
E. S. Barbour 
C. J. Reilly 
Hugh Scullen 
Will Watts 
John Owen, Jr. 
Oren Scotten 
Harry Balsley 

B. J. Brodie, M. D. 
H. C. Corns 

C. F. Bielman 

J. B. Cook, M. D. 

J. B. Kennedy, M. D. 

M. N. Reese 

James Gellish 

R. Phelps, Jr. 

Herman Mayer 

John Naylon 

Jos. Harris 

J. B. Todenbier 



H. H. Habercorn 
Geo. L. Weber 
T. G. Craig 
A. H. McLeod 
H. Avery 
M. M. Stanton 
Hon. James Phelan 
H. E. Hatch 
Aid. H. A. Weber 
Geo. W. Bissel 
John I. Mason 
Samuel Marcus 
F. P. K. Oldfield 
Jos. C. Armstrong 
Strathearn Hendrie 
Capt. Calmer 
T. W. Wadsworth 
Chas. Whittaker 
Allan H. Kessler 
Robt. Bolger 
F. H. Rogers 
J. W. Ames 
F. T. Sibley 
Jas. Schermerhorn 
Geo. H. Patton 
Geo. Gaston 
C. A. Cotton 
Julius Kiegel 

C. E. Foote 
J. Stuetzer 

D. B. Hodgson 
Frank Boydell 
Richard Macauley 
C. M. Rousseau 
J. D. Burns 
Eugene Muffat 
Ignatius Lerchenfeld 
W. T. McGraw 

T. R. Inglis 
Frank H. Clark 
O. N. Hayes 
John Walsh 
Archie Ellaire 
Hibbard Gebhart 
Henry A. Haigh 
W. P. Beyer 
E. D. Sowden 

M. J. McLeod 
Thos. Reynolds 
T. E. McDonough 
G. W. Bissell 
C. P. Collins 
W. S. Green 
W. H. McGregor 
Hugh A. Holmes 
Jerome Ingersoll 
C. H. Schulte 
C. W. Herbert 
E. H. Doyle 
Sidney R. Dixon 

B. C. Whitney 
J. S. Bersey 
H. S. Scott 

E. L. Hamilton 

E. W. Klein 
Jas. Vernor 
W. D. Mahon 
W. D. Mohn 

C. F. Beck 

F. H. Blackman 

G. H. Caswell 
H. J. Dean 

A. H. Griffith 
W. F. Blake 

D. J. Campau 
J. C. Hutchins 
J. J. Haarar 
Geo. Hatt 
Sam'l Smith 
A. N. Marion 

E. W. Cottrell 
O. R. Looker 

Hon. Alfred J. Murphy 
Robt. B. McGregor 
H. W. Leach 
A. Y. Malcomson 
Dayton Parker 

A. P. T. Benitau 

B. F. Rothwell 
H. N. Williams 

C. C. Chadwick 
J. A. Forester 
W. J. Higham 
B. O. Kaufman 



A. E. Morey 
J. J. Mulheron 
L. C. Newton 
Edw. Lafferty 
H. Carhartt 
Dr. H. H. Jackson 
A. H. Frazer 
Maj. Morris 
J. A. Grogan 
Ant. Skockek 
C. F. Marschner 
Theo. Quinby 
Col. Chas. Dupont 
C. A. Lenhard 
J. C. Lodge 
Robt. Oakman 

E. T. Berger 
George F. Case 
Chas. L. Palms 
Byron L. Reed 
W. W. Essig 
George B. Greening 
Arthur L. Holmes 

F. B. Dickerson 
J. T. Shaw 

H. B. Lothrop 
C. B. Calvert 

Chas. H. Clements 
Jacob F. Williams 
Col. P. J. Shehan 
W. H. Shea 
John Zynda 
F. C. Andrews 
F. C. Pingree 
Alex. Chapoton, Jr. 
Marvin Preston 
Lou Burt 
H. A. Mandell 
Fred Sanders 
Hon. J. B. Whelan 
Jos. Neubauer 
John Martin 
J. D. LeBlanc 
A. C. Lee 
W. A. Owen 
Louis Blitz 
A. H. Babcock 
W. R. Thompson 
J. E. Clark 
E. B. Fenton 
J. G. Ferguson 
Wm. Heimbuch 
Fred Bamford 
Denis S. Donahue 

A. H. Griffith, Chairman. 

C. M. Hayes 
Geo. Beck 
Jas. H. Moore 
J. C. Hutchins 
E. D. Stair 

A. E. Nash 
Geo. W. Fowle 

B. C. Whitney 

M. J. Keating 

F. H. Moore 

Max C. Koch 

Basil A. Lemke 

Henry C. Neverman, Jr. 

D. Rust 

Chas. F. Beck 


A. M. Seymour, Charmain. 

Chas. H. Chope 
F. S. Armstrong 
Maj. Gil R. Osmun 
Nicholas Coulson 
Thos. H. Stephens 
Maj. R. W. Jacklin 
Hon. C. W. Moore 
Ed. Telfer 
M. P. Barden 
E. A. Bressler 
Jos. Belanger 
Chas. L. Gall 
Chas. E. Foote 
Dan'l W. Rose 

E. M. Kanter 
Thos. Haney 
Fred A. Welch 

F. E. Fisher 
R. L. Polk 
Thos. Zoltowski 
Chas. M. Grebus 
Jacob Steketee 
F. P. K. Oldfield 
Robt. Hutton 

H. C. Corns 

Thos. G. Whittaker 

Uriah Gould 

O. R. Looker 

F. S. Ring 

W. H. Ellis 
W. W. Ferguson 
Wm. G. Griffiths 
C. Pagelson 
Chas. C. Snedicor 
Geo. W. Hill 
C. F. Backus 
C. J. George 
J. D. Anderson 
H. E. Hatch 
Homer McGraw 
Wm. E. Robinson 
A. L. Bressler 
Jas. Burk 
Peter Sorensen 
G. Rubes Lisa 
F. C. Trowbridge 
Jos. Greusel 
Sam'l A. Baugh 
A. C. Leonard 
C. C. Campbell 
John Hopkin 
C. T. Mayo 
W. D. Southwick 
Wm. Wandersee 
Th. Francois 
Carlo Aldaire 
Pietro Cardiello 


Hon. Thomas W. Palmer, Chairman. 
Silas Farmer, Acting Chairman. 

A. H. Griffith 
Rufus W. Clark 
Robert Barrie 
F. W. Carlisle 
Silas Farmer 
R. R. Elliott 
R. P. Joy 

A. G. Pitts 

C. M. Burton 

Charles Moore 

Rev. E. Van Dyke 

Rev. C. L. Arnold 

Rev. Francis Mueller 

Miss Mary Catharine Crowley 



A. I. McLeod, Chairman. 

C. F. Bielman 
Fred Staiidisk 
John CUgg 
William Stevens 
W. A. Pungs 
William Hillg-er 
W. E. Campbell 
David Carter 
Harry Pierson 
John S. Quinn 
Wm. Farrand 
Anthony Weiler 
Edw. Dustin 
E. C. Walker 

P. C. Baker 
Wm. Moebs 
Carl Schmidt 
Oscar B. Marks 
A. A. Schantz 
Truman Newberry 
P. J. Mulford 
Guy F. Kiefer 
Hamilton Carhartt 
S. Hendrie 
Alf. Bush 
Alex. McVittie 
F. E. Kirby 
R. H. K. Whiteley 


D. C. Delamater, Chair 

Thos. Neal 
Jas. E. Davis 
A. P. Sherrill 
E. H. Nelson 
O. R. Baldwin 
J. B. Howarth 
Hamilton Carhartt 
J. M. Thurber 
M. J. Murphy 
Wm. H. Brace 

A. M. Seymour 

Jas. Inglis 

A. Krolik 

F. W. Eddy 

J. J. Crowley 

J. L. Lee 

Oscar B. Marx 

H. B. H. B. Gillespie 

Wm. H. Armstrong 


Silas Farmer, Chairman. 

A. H. Griffith 
F. F. Snow 
J. E. Saxton 
Fred W. Smith 

C. M. Burton 
H. W. Skinner 
Wm. C. Maybury. 


O. R. Baldwin, Chairman. 

William W. Magee, Jr. 

George Beck 

Robert Bolger 

Lou Burt 

F. R. Fenton 

C. M. Rousseau 

Hamilton Carhartt 

Julius Stroh 

W. H. Beamer 

C. F. Belanger 

E. W. Voigt 
Otto Rheinhardt 
W. H. McGregor 
A. N. Marion 

F. F. Ingram 
John J. Steiger 
Thos. Barium 
F. T. Moran 
Thos. Pitts 


M. J. Keating, Chairman. 

Robert Barrie 
William Koenig 
Aid. Houghton 
J. L. Calnon 
John Weibel 

Jacob Klein 

Mr. Sidey 

W. H. Baxter 

D. W. H. Moreland 


A. A. Schantz, Chairman. 

J. S. Hall 
Blaine Gavett 
Daniel Campbell 
J. D. Hawks 
George B. Davis 
James Houston 
James Rhines 
S. F. Angus 
A. H. Stanley 
H. F. Moeller 
J. C. Hutchins 
F. W. Brooks, 

C. M. Swift 

F. A. Hinchman 

Dr. Lau 

C. F. Bielman 

C. J. Reilly 

A. R. Parker 

John Winter 

J. W. Franklin 

M. Fletcher 

H. F. Liphardt 

A. F. Wolfslager 

Strathearn Hendrie 


Col. Fred E. Farnsworth, Chairman. 

John Walker 
L. E. Tossy 
Jos. Mayworn 

A. A. Deimel 
Lou Burt 


C. M. Hayes,, Chairman. 

James Roach 
Harry Dean 
William F. Moeller 
Percy Ives 
Fred Bamford 
Geo. A. Rackham 
John Weibel 
Francis Paulus 
Geo. R. Angell 

M. H. Godfrey 

Fred Mason 

Phil Breitmeyer 

Fred Foote 

Geo. Mason 

Robert Bolger 

A. G. Pitts 

D. W. H. Moreland 


August Marxhausen, Chairman. 

Herman Behr 
C. B. Stevens 
Edwin Jerome 
Herman Becker 
Chas. Connors 
F. L. York 

Jno. Murner 

J. H. Hahn 

Mrs. E. A. Thomas 

M. J. Corey 

F. F. Snow 


William E. Quinby, Chairman. 

Jas. E. Scripps 
Edw. Trowbridge 
L. A. Safford 
Geo. Miller 
Edward Wildman 
W. H. Hughes 
H. P. Hetherington 

Jos. J. Noeker 
John A. Freda 
James Schermerhorn 
F. H. Wakefield 
August Marxhausen 
A. Neiderpreum 


Charles A. Warren, Chairman. 

A. E. Stevens 
A. H. Griffith 
Robt. Tannehill 

F. H. Wakefield 
Harmon R. Vernor 


Mrs. Bertram C. Whitney, President. 

Mrs. J. H. Donovan, Secretary. 

Mrs. Marguerite Beaubien, Treasurer. 

Miss Weir, Corresponding Secretary. 


Mrs. Bertram C. Whitney. 

Mrs. Fred Sibley 

Mrs Talcott Wing 

Mrs. Samuel Pittman 

Mrs. Lyman Baldwin 

Miss Isabelle C. Weir 

Mrs. Henry Starkey 

Mrs. John Walker 

Miss Mary Ducey 

Mrs. Leartus Connor 


Mrs. F. F. Ingram, Chairman. Miss M. E. Halloran, Secretary. 

Mrs. Ada M. Stoddard Mrs. H. L. Obetz 

Mrs. F. H. Wakefield Mrs. D. A. Wood 

Miss Matie Stanley Mrs. S. M. Dudley 

Mrs. W. E. Barnes Mrs. Alexis M. Lay 



Mrs. Marguerite Beaubien, Chairman. 


Lyman Baldwin 


E. H. McCurdy 


W. R. Farrand 


G. N. Brady 


H. F. Brownson 


J. F. Webber 


H. A. Krolik 


J. H. Donovan 


Ray Levey 


Elsie C. Hance 


M. Gibbs 


F. B. Dickerson 




Minnie A. Dwyer 


J. B. Morris 


Talcott Wing 


Anna Pitkin 


George Carlisle 


Frank J. Hecker 


T. B. Rayl 


Samuel S. Marquis 


Michael Brennan 


John Walker 


F. P. Byrne 


Mary Ducey 


Philip Beaubien 


W. J. Chittenden 


Mary Maybury 


W. B. Robinson 


Elwood T. Hance 


Jean Hutchings 


Thomas F. Davies. 


Abbott and Finchley, 182. 

Abbott, Edward, Lt. Gov. Vincennes, 

Aberdeen, Countess, 75. 
Aderson, Mrs. Dr., 85. 
Adams, Pres. John, 183, 216. 
Allouez, Father, S. J., 273. 
Anthon, Rev. Dr., 194. 
Angell, James B., 20, 27, 28, 268. 
Andrews, Mrs. Franc C, 85. 
Antaya, Charles, 4S, 49. 
Antaya, Joseph, 40, 48. 
Anthony, Mrs. Susan B., 75. 
Arnold, Rev. C. L., 0, 12, 14, 22. 
Arreta, Minister of Instruction, 

France, 32, 40. 
Aubry, Joseph, 40, 48. 
Armand, St., Widow, 94. 
Arnold, Benedict, 238. 
Arthur, Rev. L. A., 289. 

Batchelder, J. C, 292. 

Bagley, Mrs. John N., 85. 

Barbour, Mrs. Levi L., 85. 

Bamford, Mrs. F., 85. 

Barnard, Mrs. Henry D., 85. 

Barribeau, Louis, 45, 60. 

Barrie, Robert, Alderman, 12, 19, 20. 

Barton, Miss Clara, 75. 

Baudoin, Achille. 

Bates, Judge, 257. 

Beaubien, J. B., 48. 

Beaubien, Mrs. Margaret, 73, 75, 83, 

Beaubien, Mrs. Philip J., 85. 
Beaubien, Philip J., 31, 47, 51, 63. 
Beaudin, Achille, 48. 
Beaudry, D., 49, 51, 52. 
Beaulieu, J. B., 48. 
Beaupre, Louis N., 40, 48. 
Beauvais, Francois, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52. 
Beauvais, Medard, 40, 48. 
Bedard, Henry, 48, 49. 
Bedard, J. A., 40, 4S, 49, 51. 
Bedard, Joseph F., 48. 
Belanger, Mrs. Joseph, 84. 
Belanger, Joseph, 21, 27, 29, 31, 35, 

49, 51, 52, 53, 55. 

Bellamie, Henry, 40, 48. 

Bellestre, Chevalier de, 18. 

Boone, Daniel, 243. 

Braddock, General, 227. 

Brant, Thayandanega, 243. 

Brehm, Captain, 192, 193. 

Bernier, Francis, 49. 

Berry, Mrs. R. M., 75. 

Bezeau, Rene, 40, 48, 49. 

Bezeau, William, 48, 49. 

Bidigare, Joseph F., 40, 48. 

Bienville, de, Sieur, 96. 

Bird, Captain Henry, 190, 192, 210, 

Blades, Francis A., Controller, 14. 
Bliss, Governor, 36, 55, 78, 79. 
Blouin, Francis Xavier, 48, 49. 
Bottoms, Mrs. Margaret, 75. 
Boucher, Arthur, 48, 49. 
Bower, Miss Emma E., 84. 
Brennan, Mrs. Michael, 84, 85. 
Brock, Gen., 240, 243. 
Bruchesi, Most Rev. Paul Napoleon, 

Archbishop of Montreal, 55, 57, 67, 

Brush, Mrs. H. T., 85. 
Brymner, Douglas, 165. 
Brodhead, Col. Dan, 190, 195, 196. 
Bums, Mrs. F. E., 84. 
Burns, Miss Louise, 75, 76. 
Burt, Mrs. Lou, 85. 
Burton, Clarence M., 0, 22, 23, 28, 

Butin, Rudolph, 40, 48. 
Buell, R. W., 181. 
Burr, Aaron, 237, 238, 239. 
Burgoyne, General, 235. 

Cadillac, Chevalier, de La Mothe, 14, 
15, 17, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 33, 
34, 35, 38, 49, 51, 52, 53, 58, 59, 
60, 62, 64, 77, 79, 92, 93, 95, 96, 
97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106, 
107, 108, 109, 112, 243, 268, 269, 
270, 272, 273, 285, 292, 293. 

Cadillac, Madam de La Mothe, 26, 29, 
36, 74, 75, 77, 78, 101, 102, 103, 
104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112. 

Cadillac, Antoine, son of the founder, 

Cadillac, Jacques, son of the founder, 

Cadmus, 243. 

Caldwell, in re Elliott, 207. 

Cambon, Marquis de, Minister from 
France, 38, 52, 53. 

Campbell, Donald, 168. 

Campbell, Judge James V., 181-2, 
187, 280, 281. 

Campeau, Joseph, 19, 194. 

Campeau, Miss Elise, 84. 

Carbonneau, Henry, 48, 49. 

Carlyle, 271. 

Carleton, Gov. Gen., 196, 1S4. 

Cass, Lewis, 267, 281, 282. 

Casselty, J., 199. 

Catharine, Indian girl, in re Glad- 
win, 230. 

Carrier, Alexis, 40, 48. 

Carpenter, Mrs. C, 85. 

Cartier, Jacques, 63. 

Carhart, Mrs. Hamilton, 84. 

Carlisle, Mrs. George, 84. 

Cecil, George, 40, 48. 

Cecil, Michael, 40, 48. 

Chacornacle, Lieutenant, 76, 99. 

Champagni, 95. 

Chapoton, Alexander, Jr., 39, 48, 74. 

Chapoton, Miss Alice, 74. 

Charlier, Edward, 48. 

Chartier, Joseph, 48, 49. 

Chartier, Edward, 40. 

Celeron, Louis, 226. 

Chandler, Hon. Zacharias, 282. 

Chase, Bishop Philander, 280. 

Chase, S. P., 265. 

Chene, Isadore, 199. 

Chevrette, Edward, 40, 48. 

Chittenden, Mrs. W. J., 85. 

Choate, Mrs. E. F., 84. 

Churchill, Mrs. F. P., 85. 

Christiancy, Judge, 281. 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers, IS, 1S3, 
184, 186, 188, 189. 

Cleveland, Mrs. Grover, 75, 197, 232, 
233, 234. 

Cooley, Judge, 281. 

Connaty, Rt. Rev. Bishop, 55, 69. 

Conneault, Emil, 49, 51, 52. 

Coit, Mr., 252. 

Connor, Mrs. Walter, 84. 

Connor, Mrs. Dr. Leartus, 84. 

Coo:s, W. H., Alderman, 20. 

Cook, Mrs. Emma D., 84. 

Corbett, Rev. Michael J., S. J., 

Corbett, Joseph R., 67, 6S. 

Cornwallis, Lord, 206. 

Cotter, Rt. Rev. Joseph B., Bishop 
Winona, Minn., 55. 

Cotton, Clarence A., Mayor's Secre- 
tary, 13, 19, 20. 

Crawford, Col., 206, 208, 236. 

Crockett, Col. David, 188. 

Cloutier, Emil, 48, 49. 

Cloutier, Joseph, 40, 48. 

Cloutier, Omar, 48, 49. 

Cloutier, Ulric, 40. 

Cloutier, Stanislaus, 40. 

Conway, Cabal, against Washington, 

Constantineau, John, 230. 
Couture, Alexander, 48, 49. 
Craig, Mrs. J. G., 85. 
Crowley, Mrs. Coleman, 84, 91. 
Crowley, Miss Mary Catharine, 0, 26, 

83, 84, 91. 
Custer, Mrs. Gen. George A., 75. 
Cutler, Manassa, 246, 247. 

Dablow, Father, S. J., 273. 

Dane, Nathan, 246.' 

Davis, Mrs. Jefferson, 75. 

Davis, Mayor of Windsor, 29, 57. 

Davis, Mrs. Mayor, 85. 

Davock, Mrs. 

Dawson, W. J., 36. 

D'Artagnan, Chevalier, 94. 

Dalyell, Major, 230, 291, 296. 

Dartmouth, Lord (Earl of), 173. 

Daubry, Col., 228. 

Dean, Mrs. C. A., 85. 

De Callieres, Gov. Gen., 229. 

De Jean, Philip, 175, 181, 182, 185, 

186, 1S8, 195, 199. 
De Galinee, Father, 17, 99. 
Delcasse, Minister Foreign Affaires, 

France, 31, 39. 
Delamater, D. C, 13, 19, 
De La Valien, 107. 
De Guise, Joseph, 40, 48, 49, 51. 
De L'Halle, Father, 17, 30, 31, 50, 

54, 56, 58, 64, 67, 76, 99, 105. 
Des Hayes, Louis, 40, 48. 
Des Hayes, Odillon, 40, 48. 
De La Marche, Father, 64. 
De Navarre, 107. 
De Mersac, 107. 
De Nonville, 95. 
De Muy, 90. 

Dempsey, Very Rev. M. J. P., 67, 68. 
Devry, Honore, 40, 48. 
Des Rochers, Joseph, 40, 48, 98, 108. 
De Peyster, Major Arant Schuyler, 

183, 194, 195, 200, 201, 203, 205, 

206, 207, 208, 210, 212, 217, 218, 

219, 231, 235, 275. 
Dickinson, Don M., 282, 289. 
Dodge, Mrs., 84. 
Dollier, Father Francis, 17, 99. 
Donovan, Mrs. James H., 73, 84. 
Donovan, Miss Elise, 84. 
Dorchester, Lord, 243. 
Douglass, Major Ephraim, 217, 218, 

Drummond, Dr. William H., 285. 
Duvernett, Lieutenant, 191. 

Du L'hut, 273. 

Dubo, Arthur, 40, 48. 

Ducq, Andre P., 39, 47, 49, 51, 52. 

Ducy, Miss Mary, 84. 

Dudley, Mrs. C. E., 85. 

Dudley, Mrs. S. M., 85. 

Du L'Hut, 96. 

Dumas, A., 94. 

Dupont, Captain Charles, 48, 49, 51, 

Dupont, S., 49. 
Dwyer, Mrs. Jeremiah, 84. 

Eberts, Capt. H. F., 40, 48, 49, 51, 52. 
Eis, Rt. Rev. Bishop of Marquette, 55. 
Elbert, Miss Kate, 84. 
Elder, Most Rev. William Henry, 

Archbishop of Cincinnati, 55, 66, 

Elliott, Captain William, 207. 
Elliott, Mrs. Richard R., 84. 
Elliott, Rev. George, D. D., 26. 
Elliott, Richard R., 26, 114. 
Emerson, Mrs. Dr. J. E., 84. 
Estaing, Count de, 197. 

Faffard, Jean, 108. 

Falconio, Most Rev. Diomede, Arch- 
bishop and Delegate' Apostolic, 57, 
58, 67. 

Fairbanks, Mrs. Sumner, 75. 

Faille, George A., 40, 48. 

Fancher, Francis, 48, 49. 

Fancher, Joseph, 4S, 49. 

Farmer, Silas, 22, 27, 48, 231, 246, 

Farrand, Mrs. W. R. 

Farrand, Williams & Clark, 295. 

Felch, Senator Alpheus, 282. 

Field, Mrs. M. W., 85. 

Foley, Rt. Rev. John S., Bishop of De- 
troit, 28, 54, 56, 67, 68. 

Foley, Rev. Father John D., S. J., 68. 

Ford, Mrs. J. B., 85. 

Fowle, George W., 13, 19. 

Freitag, Professor G., 69. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 216, 236. 

Freeman & Brother, 282. 

Gabriels, Rt. Rev. Henry, Bishop of 

Ogdensburg, 55. 
Gagnier, David, 40, 48. 
Gagnon, Honore, 48, 49. 
Gage, Mrs. W. T., 85. 
Gates, Gen., 238. 
Gallisomere, Dr., 226. 
Germain, Lorch George, 181, 187, 

194, 196. 
Gibbs, Mrs., 84. 
Gilbert, Louis, 48, 49. 
Girardot, Mrs. E., 84. 
Girty, Simon, 195, 243. 
Gladue, Paul, 40, 48. 

Gladwin, Major, Commandant at De« 
troit, 25, 36, 43, 44, 229, 243. 

Goethe, 271. 

Governor and Judges, 245. 

Grand, Rev. Peter, C. S. B., 55. 

Grant, Mrs. General U. S., 75. 

Gravier, J. B., 31, 39, 47, 49, 51. 

Graves, Miss S. S., 84. 

Graves, Judge, 281. 

Graverat, Gerrit, 200. 

Griffin, Judge, 257. 

Griffith, Professor A. H., 13, 19, 22, 
29, 289. 

Grills and Mills, Architects, 21. 

Grimmelsman, S. J., Father, 67, 68. 

Grimaldi, Gregoire, 49. 

Grimaldi, Joseph, 40. 

Grimaldi, Lieutenant G., 40, 48, 51. 

Gruenewald, Rev. C. S., Sp. 67, 68. 

Guimond, A. J., 39, 47, 48. 

Guion, Francis, 101. 

Guion, Therese, 94, 101. 

Haldimand, Gen. F., 165, 177, 184, 
196, 197, 202, 207, 209, 215, 216. 

Hall, Mrs. Theodore P., 85. 

Halloran, Miss, 80. 

Hamilton, Lieut. Gov. Henry, of De- 
troit, 18, 173, 176, 178, 185, 188, 
195, 196, 207, 231, 232, 233, 243, 

"Half King," Indian Chief, 204. 

Hammond, Louis, 40, 48. 

Handel, 92. 

Hartz, Mrs. Fred, 83. 

Haarer, J. J., Alderman, 14. 

Hayes, C. M. (& Co.), 11, 13, 19. 

Hayes, Miss, 84. 

Hay, Jehu, Lt. Gov., Detroit, 207. 

Harmer, General, 237. 

Harrison, General W. H., 238, 242, 

Heckerwelder, Rev., Moravian Mis- 
sionary, 234, 235. 

Hendrie, Mrs. George, 85. 

Hennepin, Father. 

Henry. Patrick, 183. 

Hillger, William. Alderman, 20. 

Helm, Captain, 232, 233. 

Howard, Senator J. M. ( 282. 

Howard, Tohn, 226. 

Hubbard, Bela, 111. 

Hull, Governor, 240, 257, 259, 261, 

Hull, A. F., 59. 

Hull & Co., 257. 

Huss, Dr. Florence, 85. 

Hutchings, J. C, 11, 13. 

Iberville, Chevalier, 96. 
Ingram, Mrs. F. F., 75, SO, 84. 
Ireland, Most Rev. John, Archbishop 
of St. Paul, Minn., 55, 70, 72. 

James, I., 264. 

Jay, John, 216. 

Janis, Denis, 40, 48. 

jarret, Francis, 40, 4S. 

jolicour, Joseph, 40, 48. 

jolicour, Thomas, 40, 48. 

Jean, Paul, 271. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 187. 

Joques, Father Isaac, Jesuit Martyr, 

269, 273. 
Johnson, Sir John, 243. 
Johnson, Sir William, 243. 

Katzer, Most Rev. Frederic Xavier, 
Archbishop, of Milwaukee, 55, 67, 

Keating, Maurice J., Alderman, 20. 

Kessler, Rev. F., 67, 68. 

Kessler, Mrs. W. H., 85. 

Kiekens, A., 40, 48. 

King, Mrs. J. H. 

Kinton, Simon, 243. 

Kleczkowski, F., French Consul at 
Montreal, 37, 53, 55, 76. 

La Forest, de, 100. 

Lafferty, Edward, 48, 49, 51. 

Lafferty, Mrs., 54. 

Lancashire, Mrs. I., 85. 

Lachance, Francis Xavier, 48, 49. 

Ladouceur, Edward, 40, 4S. 

Ladue, Mrs. A. Y., S4. 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 34. 

La Ferte, Alfred, 48, 49. 

La Ferte, Mrs. D., 85. 

La Ferte, Dr. Daniel, 29, 48, 49, 106. 

La Riviere, 17. 

Larned, Mrs. S., 85. 

La Salle, Chevalier de, 17, 96, 222, 

Latimer, Chief Marshal of Parade, 79. 
Laval, Montmorency, First Bishop of 

Quebec, 57. 
La Verondrrye, 96. 
Lawrence, Mrs. John B., 84. 
La Mothe, William, 186-7. 
Lanman, Historian, 182. 
Langlade, Captain, 227. 
Laurens, 216. 
Lernoult, Major R. B., 178, 18S, 192, 

193, 289. 
Logan, 243. 
Lord, Captain, 175. 
Lothrop, George V. N.^ 282. 
Leblanc, George, 48, 49. 
Levgues, George, French Minister, 

32, 40. 
Leboeuf, Francis, 48, 49. 
Le Tendre, G., 107. 
L'Etourneau, C, 40, 48. 
Lemerise, Francis, 40, 48. 
Lemoyne, de Longueil, 97. 
Leo XIII., Pope of Rome, 13, 54, 67. 
Leonard, Capuchin, Father of Ste. 

Anne, 64. 

Le Page, Octave, 48, 49. 

Le Pariere, Louis, 32, 40, 49. 

Le Pesant, Ottawa chief who killed 

Father De L'Halle, 17. 
Lewis, Mrs. H. B., 80, 84;, 
Livernois, Daniel, 40, 48. 
Loubet, Madam, wife of President of 

France, 75. 
Loubet, President French Republic, 

Louis XIV., King of France, 22, 25, 

35, 43, 49, 50, 51, 54, 55, 58, 59, 

Lydecker, Miss, 84. 
Lydecker, Mrs. Colonel, 84. 

Magellan, Navigator, 222. 

Margerie de, Pierre, French Charge 
d' Affaires, Washington, 21, 27, 28, 
29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39 ,41, 53, 

55, 76, 77. 

Marquette, Fr., 220, 269, 270, 273. 

Mavbury, William C, Mayor of De- 
troit, 11, 19, 21, 22, 28, 29, 31, 37, 
3S, 55, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 80, 89, 

Maybury, Miss Jennie, 85. 

Marion, Adolph N., 39, 47, 51. 

Marion, Charles, 40, 48. 

Martin, Francis, 49. 

Martinelli, Cardinal Archbishop, 55, 

56, 67, 68, 69. 
Martelli, P. J., 49, 51, 52. 
Martel, Henry, 40, 48. 
Malo, Joseph, 40, 48. 
Mance, Mademoiselle, 63. 
Marsonmenue De, 63. 
Matthieu, Joseph, 49. 
Mazarin, Cardinal, 288. 
McCarroll, Mrs. J., 85. 
Macomb, Edgar, 201. 
McClelland, Gov., 282. 
McCurdy, Mrs. E. H., 85. 
McDonald, Mrs. Alexander, 84. 
McDougall, 197-8. 
McDonald, Miss Ailene, 84. 
McGolric, Rt. Rev. James, Bishop of 

Duluth, 55. 
McGraw, Mrs. Thomas, 85. 
Mcintosh, General, 178. 
McKee, Alexander, 185, 203, 204, 206, 

208, 219. 
McKinley, Mrs. William, 75. 
McLean, Mrs. F., 75. 
McLeod, Mrs. A. J., 13, 19. 
McMillan, Mrs. Benton, 74. 
McQuade, Rt. Rev. J. B., Bishop of 

Rochester, N. Y., 69. 
Membre, Father, 17. 
Menard, Achille, 40, 48. 
Meredith, Mrs. H., 85. 
Mesnard, Father, 273. 
Messmer, Rt. Rev. Sebastian Gebhard, 

Bishop of Green Bay, Wis., 69. 

Mills, Grills and Mills, Architects. 
Moffat, Miss Grace, 85. 
Moran, Charles, 181. 
Moran, Mrs. John V., 84, 85. 
Moran, Frederic T., 13, 19. 
Moore, Joseph B., Chief Justice of the 

Supreme Court of Michigan, 21. 
Moore, Charles, 220. 
Monfils, Amede, 49. 
Montcalm, Marquis de, 18. 
Montieth, Rev. John, 295. 
Mount Elliott Cemetery, 66. 
Morton, Mrs. W. D., 85. 

Nadeau, Edward, 40, 48. 

Nadeau, Pierre, 40, 48. 

Neveus, P., Chief of Cabinet Ministry 

of Fine Arts, France, 32, 40. 
Newberry, Mrs. John S., 85. 
Noble, Mrs. C. B., 85. 
North, Lord, 215. 
Norvell, Senator John, 282. 

Obetz, Mrs. Dr. H. L., 83. 
O'Brien, Mrs. M. W., 85. 
O'Brien, Mrs. Noel C, 85. 
O'Gorman, Rt. Rev. Thomas, Bishop 

of Sioux Falls, 55, 69, 70. 
Olds Mrs. R. E., 85. 
Orremarche, Lt. Gov. Quebec, 207. 
Oswald, 216. 
Oulette, Alexander, 49. 
Owen, William, Judge, 179, 180, 181. 

Palms, Mrs. Francis F., 84, 85. 

Palmer, Mrs. Potter, 75. 

Palmer, Thomas W., 19, 27, 220. 

Parkman, Francis, Historian, 96, 272. 

Paradis, L. J., 49. 

Peltier, Pierre, 49. 

Pepin, Napoleon, 49. 

Perry, Commodore O. H., 37, 241, 

Peters, David, 49. 
Peters, J. B., 40, 51. 
Peters, Samuel, 49. 
Pipe, Captain, Indian Chief, 218. 
Phipps, Sir William, Admiral, 104. 
Picard, Jean D., 49. 
Pitkin, Miss Anna, 84. 
Pittman, Mrs. Samuel, 84. 
Plumb, Mrs., 84. 
Pontchartrain, Count Jerome, 109. 
Pontchartrain. Count Louis, 17. 
Raciot, Professor H. E., 33. 
Pontiac, 18, 35, 36, 44, 227, 229, 241, 

275, 291, 292, 296. 
Proctor, Gen., 240, 241, 242, 276. 
Provost, Celestin, 49. 
Poupard, Alexis, 40, 46. 

Raimbault, Father, Jesuit. 
Randolph, Edmund, 253. 
Reaume, Samuel, 51, 52. 

Remi, Louis, 51. 

Rene, 87. 

Repentigny, Sieur de, 95. 

Revest, James, 40, 48. 

Ribourd, Father 17. 

Richard, Very Rev. Gabriel, 18, 58, 

64, 295. 
Richelieu, Cardinal, 288. 
Richter, Rt. Rev. Henry J., Bishop of 

Grand Rapids, 55, 69. 
Riddle, Mrs. N. K. 
Rioux, Samuel, Capt, 49, 51. 
Robelling, Mrs. W. J., 75. 
Robert, W. H., 40, 48. 
Roberge, Regis, 49. 
Roberts, Miss Cornelia, 84. 
Rocheblave, Colonel at Kaskaskia. 
Rogers, Major Robert, 18. 
Rogers, Colonel. 
Rochambeau, Marquis de, 68. 
Rooker, Very Rev. Francis Z., 68. 
Roosevelt, Mrs. Theodore, 75. 
Roquetalliade, De'., 95. 
Ruddle, Captain Isaac, 210. 
Rousseau, A. C, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52. 
Rousseau, A. J., 49. 
Rousseau, Charles, 49. 
Rousseau, Charles M., 21, 30, 31, 32, 

37, 39, 47, 49, 50. 
Rousseau, E. N., 49, 51. 
Rousseau, Francis Xavier, 49. 
Rousseau, Paul J., 49, 51. 
Russell, Mrs. G., 85. 
Russell, Mrs. H., 85. 

Saint Clair, General, 237, 250, 251, 

252, 253. 
Saint Aubin, Jean Casse, 73, 74, 108. 
Sanscraint, Charles F., 40, 49, 52. 
Sarazin, Joseph, 40, 48. 
Saxton, Jesse E., 13, 19. 
Scannel, Rt. Rev. Richard, Bishop of 

Omaha, 66. 
Schantz, A. A., 13, 19. 
Scott, John, Architect, 21. 
Schyler, General, 178. 
Scotten, Mrs. Daniel, 85. 
Scripps, James E., 12. 
Spencer, Gary, Justice, 283. 
Seymour, A. M., 13, 19. 
Shelby, Governor, 37, 93, 243, 289. 
Sheridan, Mrs. Philip, 75. 
Sherman, Abner, 277, 278. 
Sibley, Mrs. E. T., 84. 
Sibley, Mrs. F. J., S4. 
Solanus, Rev. Father, O. F. M., 67, 

68, 69, 70. 
Shindler, Jonas, 175, 182. 
Simcoe, Gov. Gen., 237, 243. 
Sinclair, Sir Patrick, Michilimackinac, 

Spalding, Rt. Rev. John Lancaster, 

Bishop of Peoria, 55. 
Spaulding, Mrs. H. E., 85. 


Stanley, Miss Mary, 83. 
Starkey, Mrs. Henry, 84. 
Starkey, Miss, 83. 
Starkey, Mrs. Eleanor I., 84. 
Starke, General, 243. 
Stearns, Mrs. F. K., 85. 
Sterling, Mrs. James J., 85. 
Stevens, Mrs. Lillian, 75. 
Stodard, Miss, 83. 
Stridiron, Miss Grace, 83. 
Strong, Mrs. W. H., 85. 
St. Castin, de, 96. 
St. Ours, de, 96. 
Swift, Mrs. C. M., 85. 

Tecumseh, Shawnee Indian Chief, 

241, 243. 
Tilly, de Beauvais, 95. 
Tennyson, Lord, 99. 
Teller, Mrs. E., 85. 
Toby, Mrs. E. Lee, 75. 
Thompson, Maurice, 184. 
Tonty, de, Chevalier, 75, 79, 99. 
Tonty, de, Madam, 74, 76, 77, 101. 

103, 108, 111. 
Tossy, L. E., 21, 30, 37, 51. 
Townsend, Sydney, Lord, 209, 214. 
Troie, Achille, 49. 
Trombly, Marcel, 40, 48, 49, 51. 
Trowbridge, Mrs. L. S., 85. 
Truchon, Daniel, 40, 48. 
Trowbridge, Charles C, 273, 275. 
Turner, Judge, 253, 254. 
Tweed, "Boss," 256. 
U. S. Cutters "Fessenden" and "Mor- 

rell," 21. 

U. S. Steamer "Michigan," 21. 

Vanderburg, Judge, 253. 

Van Dyke, Rev. Ernest, 15 23. 

Vaillant de Gueslis, S. J., Father, 23, 

31, 54, 58, 67, 76, 98-9. 
Vernit, Father, 63. 

Wayne, General Anthony, 237, 239, 

294, 295. 
Wakefield, F. H., 20, 83. 
Walker, Mrs. John, 84. 

Walker, Mrs. H. N., 85. 
Washington, General George, 26, 34, 

178, 187, 227, 235. 
Waldo, Mrs. L. C, 85. 
West, "Peggy," 195. 
West, Nancy, 195. 
Weibel, L, Alderman, 20. 
Weir, Miss Isabel, 73, 74, 77, 84. 
Weber, Mrs. H. F., 85. 
White, Peter, 27. 
Whipple, Miss Mary, 84. 
Whitney, Mrs. David, 85. 
Whitney, Mrs. Bertram C, 73, 74, 77, 

SO, 84. 
Willemin, D. B., 39, 47, 49, 51. 
Williams, Mrs. R. P., 85. 
Williams, Mrs. H., Williams, Thomas, 

194, 195, 199. 
Williamson, Colonel, 207. 
Wilkinson, General, 238. 
Wingeneum, Indian Chief, 204. 
Winchester, General, 241. 
Witherell, Judge B. F. H., 266. 
Wood, Mrs. D. O., 83. 
Woodward, Judge, 257, 259, 266. 
Wright, Mrs. Henry M., 84. 

Zeisberger, Moravian missionary, 232, 
234, 235, 243. 


Page 28, tenth line — For John D. Foley, read John S. 

Page 29, twentieth line — For bark, read cutter. 
Page 32, sixteenth line — For one, read our. 
Page 41, ninth line — For emerand, read emerande. 
Page 51, last line — For dramatic, read dramatis. 
Page 67, second line — For McGoldric, read McGolric. 
Page 69, eighth line — For McGoldric, read McGolric. 
Page 83, twenty-first line — Mrs. should read Miss Isabel 

Page 117, twenty-first line — For Father D'Halle, read 

De L'Halle. 
Page 119, ninth line — For 2,000, read 20,000. 

In memory 


IHsss Isabel £atberine ^jeir. 


f ebrnary lift, H. D. wo3. 

Young, joyous, gifted, gracious; 
G>nstant to duty? 

Strong in a faith and a piety that were the 
inspiration of every generous deed; 

Prompt and nobly self-sacrificing in charity. 

She possessed in a marked degree the characteristic 
virtues and graces of the admirable Madame Cadillac 
impersonated by her at the Bi Centenary; and to her 
the publishing committee dedicate this page of the 
Memorial History. 

Silas 5citmcr 

Silas Farmer died suddenly 
on the morning of Sunday, 
December 28th, J902. 

A scholarly and accurate historian, an illustri- 
ous author, an honored citizen, a Christian gentle- 

Of unblemished character, of unswerving in- 
tegrity, of sweet and pure piety. 

Indefatigable in labors, steadfast in principle, 
faithful to every trust. 

To him, as chairman of the special committee on pub- 
lication of Bi-Centenary Proceedings, this page is dedicated 
by the act and authority of the committee.