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Full text of "Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Colorado"

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FOURTH 

BIENNIAL REPORT 


Sfljerintenfeit of Wlic InsinictioD 


OF THE 



STATE OF COLORADO 



FUR THE YEARS ENDING 



AUGUST 31, 1883, AND AUGUST 31, 1884. 




TO THE GOVERNOR. 






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FIRST FLOOR. 

FRANKLIN SCHOOL. 

fiate 9. Sef Page 4q. 




FIRST FLOOR. 

EMERSON SCHOOL. 

E— School Rooms. p— Halls. R— Cloak Rooms. H— Teachers' Platforms. 
Plate 3. See Page 4g. 



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DIAGRAM OF SCHOOL ROOM WITH SINGLE DESKS FOR SIXTY-FOUR 
SCHOLARS. 
A — Boys' Wardrobe. 
B— Girls' Wardrobe. 
C — Vestibule. 
E — Ventilating Flue. 



F— Stove. 

H— Teacher's Closet. 
I — Smoke Pipe. 
P— Teacher's Desk, 



Aisles between desks, i6 to 20 inches. 

Aisles next to the walls and middle aisle, 24 to 30 inches. 

F/ate 4. See Page 50. 



I 




INSIDE VIEW OF WINDOW, SHOWING HOW 
TRANSOM SHOULD BE HUNG. 



Plate J. See Page j/. 



FOURTH 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Siperateitot of Mlic IistmctioD 



OF THE 



STATE OF COLORADO 



FOR THE YEARS ENDING 



AUGUST 31, 1883, AND AUGUST 31, 1884 



TO THE GOVERNOR. 



DENVER, COLORADO : 

Collier & Cleaveland Lith. Co., State Phinters. 

1885. 



State Board of Education, 



1883 TO 1885. 



JOS. C. SHATTUCK, 
Stiperintendent of Public InstruciiGii. 

MELVIN EDWARDS, 

Secretary of State. 

D. F. URMY, 

Attorney GeJieral. 



1885 TO 1887. 



L. S. CORNELL, 
Siiperintendent of Public Instruction. 

MELVIN EDWARDS, 

Secretary of State. 

, T. H. THOMAS. 
Attorney General. 



State University, 

BOULDER. 

BOARD OF REGENTS. 

Term Expires 

MAX HERMAN 1887 

JOS. C. SHATTUCK 1887 

JAMES RICE 1889 

L. S.CORNELL 1889 

R.W.WOODBURY 1891 

C. M.TYLER 1891 

FACULTY. 

JOSEPH A. SEWALL, M. D., LL. D., President. 
Professor of Chemistry and Metallurgy. 

ISAAC C. DENNETT, A. M., 
Professor of Latin. 

PAUL H. HANUS, B. S., 
Professor of Mathematics. 

MARY RIPPON, 
Professor of German .and French. 

JAMES W. BELL, Ph. D., 
Professor of Political Economy and History. 

W. F. C. HASSON, (Assistant Engineer U. S. Navy), 
Professor of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics. 

. J. RAYMOND BRACKETT, Ph. D., 
Professor of English Literature and Greek. 

WILLIAM R. WHITEHEAD, M. D., 
Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. 

CHARLES AMBROOK, M. D., 
Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine, 

JAMES H. KIMBALL, M. D., 
Professor of Physiology, Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

THOMAS H. EVERTS, 
Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Wom.en. 

H. W. McLAUTHLIN. M. D., 
Professor of Pathology and Histology. 

GEORGE CLEARY, M. D., 
Professor of Opthalmology and Otology, 

W. H. MERSHON, 
Licensed Instructor in Music, 

EDWARD C. WOLCOTT, 

Librarian 



i 



State School of Mines, 

GOLDEN. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Term Expires 

C. C. WELCH 1885 

JAMES T. SMITH 1885 

FREDERICK STEINHAUER - 1887 

R. H. VAN DIEST 1887 

E. L. BERTHOUD 1887 



FACULTY. 



REGIS CHAUVENET, A. M., B. S., President, 
Professor of Chemistry and Assaying. 

ARTHUR LAKES, 
Professor of Geology and Drawing. Curator of the Museum. 

MAGNUS C. IHLSENG, E. M., C. E., Ph. D., 
Professor of Physics and Engineering. ■ 

PAUL MEYER, Ph.D., 
Professor of Mathematics. 



GEO. C. TILDEN, C. E., 
Assistant in Assaying. 



State Agricultural College 

FORT COLLINS. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 



Term Expires 

B. s. Lagrange 1891 

W. F. WATROUS 1891 

JOHN J. RYAN 1889 

HENRY FOOTE 1889 

DAVID BOYD 1887 

OZRO BRACKETT 1887 

R. A. SOUTHWORTH 1885 

G. W. RUST 1885 



FACULTY. 



C. L. INGERSOLL, M. S., President, 
Professor of Political Economy and Logic. 

A. E. BLOUNT, A. M., 

Professor of Agriculture and Superintendent of Farm. 

C. F. DAVIS, M. S., 
Professor of Chetnistry and Physics. 

ELWOOD MEAD, B. S., C. E., 

Professor of Mathematics and Engineering. 

JAMES CASSIDY, 
Professor of Botany and Horticulture. 

J. W. LAWRENCE, 

Professor of Mechanics and Drawing. 

G. C. FAVILLE, B. S., D. V. M., 
Professor of Veterinary Science and Zoology. 



State Industrial School, 



GOLDEN. 



- . BOARD OF CONTROL. 

Term Expires 

J. FRANK GARDNER 1885 

W. B. OSBORNE 1885 

W. G. SMITH 1887 



W. C. SAMPSON, 

Superintetident. 

RACHEL B. SAMPSON, 
Matron. 

A. W. EXTROM, 
Family Father of Family One and Teacher. 

ED. L. HEALEY, 
Fam,ily Father of Fam,ily Four and Teacher. 

L M. SIBBET, 
Assistant in Family One and Teacher. 

J. H. WILLIAMS, 
Foreman of Broom Shop and Assistant. 

CHARLES A. COBB, 

Bookkeeper. 

L. M. RHOADES, 
Charge of Shoe Shop and First Night Watch. 

ANTONIA KLEIN, 
Baker and Second Night Watch. 

C. M. COBB, 
Charge of Laundry and Teacher. 

J. xM. WRIGHT, 
Charge of Kitchen and Officers' Dining Room. 

R. B. FISK, 
Charge of Boys' Dining Roo7n and Officers' Quarters. 

RHODA CARPENTER, 
Charge of Tailor Shop. 



\ 



Deaf-Mute and Blind Ii^stitute, 



COLORADO SPRINGS. 



TRUSTEES. 

Term Expires 

Dr. R. G. BUCKINGHAM, President 1885 

CHARLES H. WHITE, Secretary 1885 

Dr. JAMES CORREY, Treasurer 1885 

EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 

D. C. DUDLEY, 
Principal. 

H. M. HARBERT, 

A. I. LAMOREAUX, 

Mrs. a. WHITCOMB, 

Miss LIZZIE KIRKPATRICK, 

Teachers. 

Mrs. C. C. WYNN, 
Teacher of Blind Class. 

Miss M. E. CHURCHMAN, 
Teacher of Vocal and Instrumental Music, 



DOMESTIC DEPARTMENT. 

Mrs. a. O. WHITCOMB, 

Matron. 

Miss MARY HARBERT, 
Girls^ Supervisor. 

COLLINS OSGOOD, 

Boys' Supervisor. 

ROBERT MAGEE. 
Engineer. 



INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT. 

H. M. HARBERT, 
Teacher of Printing. 

Miss G. SUTTON, 
Teacher of Needle- Work. 



Department of Public Instruction, "| 

* Denver, Colo., Dec. 10, 1;?84. j 

To His Excellency, 

JAMES B. GRANT, 

Governor of Colorado: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the Fourth 
Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
for the biennial term ending August 31, 1884. 

Very respectfully, 

Jos. C. Shattuck. 



\ 



I 



IIVDIANA STATE NORMAL 
LIBHARf 



SYNOPSIS 



OF THE 



Public School System of Colorado. 



OFFICERS, 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
State Board of Education. 
County Superintendents. 
District Boards. 



SCHOOLS. 

Ungraded District Schools. 

Town and Citv Graded Schools, with 

High School Courses. 

HIGHER AND SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

University, Boulder. 

School of Mines. Golden. 

Agricultural College, Fort Collins. 

Mute and Blind Institute, Colorado Springs. 

OTHER AGENCIES. 

State Teachers' Association, voluntary. 
County Teachers' Association, voluntary. 

SCHOOL AGE. 

Between six and twenty-one; attendance voluntary. 



12 . STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

SCHOOL YEAR. 

Begins September 1, ends Augu.st 31. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Elected by the people for two years. Has general super- 
vision of the public schopls; collects and tabulates the 
school statistics of the State; apportions the State school 
fund to the counties; gives information to school officers 
upon construction of school law; prepares and furnishes 
blanks for use of school officers and registers for teachers; 
visits annually such counties as most need his personal 
attendance, inspecting schools and making public addresses; 
is President of the State Board of Education and a member 
of the State Board of Land Commissioners; makes biennial 
report to the Governor in December previous to each session 
of the Legislature; causes school law to be published and 
distributed in pamphlet form; is ex officio State Librarian. 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Consists of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Sec- 
retary of State and Attorney General. 

Issues State diplomas to such teachers as may pass 
examination, after having taught successfully in the State 
for two years;- tries appeals from the decision of County 
Superintendents, but cannot render a judgment for money. 

STATE BOARD OF EXAMINERS. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, the President 
of the State University, the President of the Agricultural 
College, and the President of the State School of Mines, 
constitute a State Board of Examiners, having entire con- 
trol of the examinations for State diplomas. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. 

Elected by the people for two years. Compensation 
five dollars per day, and fifteen cents for each mile neces- 
sarily traveled, but such compensation may not exceed one 



SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS. 13 

hundred dollars in one year for each school in the county ; 
holds quarterly examinations for teachers, and grants cer- 
tificates to successful applicants; apportions the county 
school fund to the districts; visits each district at least once 
each quarter while school is in session, for the purpose of 
inspecting the schools, advising with teachers and school 
officers, and examining the books and accounts of the latter, 
to see if the same are properly kept, and the district funds 
accounted for; receives reports from district secretaries and 
and makes report annually to Superintendent of Public 
Instruction ; hears appeals from decisions of district boards ; 
supplies districts and teachers with copies of the school law 
and all needed blanks and registers; is Land Commissioner 
of the county. 

DISTRICT BOARDS. 

In districts of the first class : i. e., those which have a 
school population of more than 1,000, the district board is 
composed of six directors, two of whom are elected annu- 
ally on the first Monday in May, and hold office three 
years. They elect one of their number president, a secre- 
tary, who may be a member of the board, and a treasurer, 
who may not be a member of the board. In all other 
districts the board consists of three members, term three 
years, one elected each year. These district boards are the 
executive officers of the districts, which are bodies corpo- 
rate, created by law. 

The directors are custodians of the district property of 
all kinds ; they employ and discharge teachers and laborers, 
and fix the salaries of the same; make rules for the govern- 
ment of the schools, and prescribe the course of study and 
the text books ; suspend or expel pupils ; disburse all 
school money ; keep district records ; take school census; 
report annually to County Superintendent ; enforce the 
rules and regulations of the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, and in general do all things necessary to carry 
on the schools. 

In districts with a school population of 350 or more, 
the directors fix the amount of the special tax levy, if any, 
for school purposes ; in smaller districts the question is 
submitted to a vote of the people, if more than 2 mills is 
to be levied. 



14 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

♦ 

The Constitution of the State provides: "That no 
person shall be denied the right to vote at any school dis- 
trict election, or to hold any school district office on 
account of sex." 

SCHOOLS. 

No district is entitled to any portion of the State or 
county fund unless it maintains a school, taught by a 
licensed teacher for at least sixty days in each year. In 
the county districts schools are maintained from sixty to 
one hundred and sixty days, sometimes prolonged even to 
two hundred days. In cities and towns the schools are 
from one hundred and twenty (in a few) to two hundred 
days in length ; those in which is enrolled a majority of the 
pupils of graded schools are in session at least one hundred 
and ninety days ; while those in which is enrolled a 
majority of the pupils of ungraded schools are in session 
about one hundred days. 

All the graded schools have a High School course 
open to all, while Denver is the only city sufficiently popu- 
lous as yet to require a High School with a full and entirely 
distinct faculty. 

HIGHER AND SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

Separated, "as the people of Colorado are, by so many 
miles and so much cost of travel, from the institutions of 
learning in the older States, they early saw and felt the 
necessity of providing for the advanced education of the 
youth of the State at home, since the majority are effectu- 
ally debarred from attending elsewhere. 

Out of this necessity sprung the University at Boulder, 
the Agricultural College at Fort Collins, and the School of 
Mines at Golden, all supported by the State; all, of course, 
yet in their childhood, but all vigorous and promising, in 
charge of teachers of experience and skill, and with courses 
of study which compare favorably in breadth and thorough- 
ness with similar institutions in the older States. 

The University is controlled by a Board of Regents, 
six in number, two of whom are elected biennially by the 
people. 



SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS. 15 

The boards of management for the other institutions 
are appointed by the Governor. 

A tax of one-fifth of one mill is levied by the State for 
the support of each. 

REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 

The State Industrial School at Golden is a reform 
school for boys. It has been managed from the first on 
the modern family plan, nothing prison-like in its appear- 
ance or its discipline, and its success has been gratifying. 

• 

SCHOOL REVENUE. 

The Public School revenue of Colorado is derived 
almost exclusively from taxation. In common with other 
new western States, she has a land ^rant of sections sixteen 
and thirty-six in each surveyed township, but so large a 
portion of these fall upon arid lands that the grant is of 
little aid to our school fund. The statute provides for the 
annual levy of a county tax for school purposes of not less 
than two nor more than five mills; this, with the proceeds 
of penal fines constitutes the county school fund. To this 
is added whatever may be received from the State fund, 
which, during the past year, has amounted to sixty-one 
cents per capita of the school population. For the year 
ending August 31, 1884, nineteen counties levied the mini- 
mum rate, and of the remaining twenty which exceeded it, 
two reached the maximum. 

The State fund will be materially increased hereafter by 
the amount received from the Insurance Department. 

In many States there is a "Teachers' Wages Fund," 
which cannot be used for any other purpose. There is no 
such fund known to the laws of Colorado. What is known 
as the " General Fund," derived, as above stated, from the 
county tax, from fines and estrays, and from the State fund, 
is available for all legitimate expenses of the district, except 
purchasing sites, erecting and furnishing buildings, making 
permanent improvements or betterments. The proceeds of 
a Special School tax, when collected, are practically added 
to the General Fund, because available for precisely the 



i6 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

same purposes. The excess of the Special Bond tax, if 
any, after paying the interest coupons due, can be used for 
the same purposes. None of these moneys can be used for 
building, enlarging or furnishing school houses, or pur- 
chasing sites, except the unexpended balance remaining to 
the credit of the district any year, after paying the expenses 
of a ten months' school for that year. Repairs rendered 
necessary by the ordinary wear and tear of the buildings 
can be paid from this fund. If a district is to build, enlarge, 
furnish, or purchase site, it must tax itself for that purpose. 
There is no statutory limit to the rate of taxation which a 
district may vote, either for school or building purposes, 
and in districts of first and second classes it is the duty of 
the board to fix the rate, and the board may also order the 
levy of one-tenth of a mill to be expended for a library. 



SUGGESTIONS 



FROM 



County Superintendents, 



DELTA COUNTY. 

Geo. H. Merchant, Superintendent. 

The school interests of Delta county are rapidly 
increasing. The districts have increased in number from 
3 to 8 since my last annual report. During the year there 
have been 4 schools in session; one 7 months, two 6 
months and 1 three m.onths. District No. 1 has voted 
$7,000 bonds for the purpose of building and furnishing a 
school house. It will be located at Delta, the county seat, 
will be of brick, and will be built and furnished in modern 
style. In the districts recently organized, none of them 
have less than 17 persons of school age. and all expect to 
have school the coming winter. We find that the maxi- 
mum rate of -taxation as fixed by law — 5 mills — for the 
general fund will mt support schools in these new districts 
as long as the people desire. If the maximum were fixed 
at 10 mills, and the rate then left to the judgment of the 
county commissioners, the needs of the people m sparsely 
settled counties would be better served. 



CHAFFEE COUNTY. 

John G. Hollenbeck, Superintendent. 

School District No. 14 has completed a fine brick house 
this year. The Salida district is building one, and it will 
be ready for occupancy about December 1st. District No. 



i8 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

16 expects to build next year. The teachers in this county 
have held no institute this year. It seems to be an impos- 
sibiHty to get 25 teachers to even promise to attend on 
account of the expense. * It is probable that a teachers' 
association will be fprmed during the holidays, the expense 
attending it being small on account of the shortness of its 
duration. I have been unable to attend to my official 
duties as I should have done, on account of the expense 
and the low price of county warrants. I think is is not 
right for counJ;y superintendents to work for nothing and 
board themselves. The school district officers of this 
county are generally good business men, and are careful 
not to employ incompetent teachers, frequently consulting 
with the superintendent before hiring them. During the 
year four new districts have been organized, viz. : One at 
Monarch, No. 21 ; one at Calumet, No. 22; one at Divide, 
No. 23; and one near Salida, No. 24, the latter having been 
organized since September 1st. 



CUSTER COUNTY. 

Artemas Walters, Superintendent. 

Mo:?t of the schools in this county during the past year 
have been ably conducted by a class of teachers well qual- 
ified for their work, and many of them are using the latest 
methods and text books in their schools, while every 
teacher in the county reads one or more educational jour- 
nals. Some of the districts are very large and sparsely 
inhabited, hence some of the pupils have a great distance 
to go to attend school, making the attendance in such dis- 
tricts very irregular and the average small. Without a 
special tax for school purposes, thinly populated districts 
cannot maintain a school longer than 3 months in a 
year. Other districts, by levying a special tax, maintain a 
school from 6 to 10 months in a year, and have some very 
fine and well furnished school buildings, which are a credit 
to the people who have built them. All districts in this 
county but two have school houses, and those two use 
very comfortable rooms; the use of which is donated. We 
are taking steps towards holding a teachers' institute the 



COUNTY REPORTS. 19 

coming year. I have visited every district in the county 
several times, and found a lively interest manifested in 
regard to schools, and the holding of longer terms. It has 
been my endeavor to foster and increase the interest among 
the people, and above all, to have teachers in charge of our 
schools who understand their business, and who teach 
instead of keet> school. 



ELBERT COUNTY. 

S. J. Stid, Superintendent. 

I am in hopes the Legislature will appropriate Elbert 
county enough money to hold *a teachers' institute at least 
one week every year. Our schools are in rather a back- 
ward condition for this age of rapid progression. We have 
just organized a graded school at Elbert, which will 
undoubtedly be a success. 



EL PASO COUNTY. 

B. A. P. Eaton, Snperinte?ident. 

I think section 16 of school law should be so amended 
as to require school boards in districts of the first class to 
hold examinations for teachers who expect to be employed 
in said districts, on or about the 10th day of June in each 
year; and that said examination shall be conducted just as 
the county examination is ; the district secretary to report 
the result to the county superintendent upon blanks pre- 
pared for that purpose within ten days after said examin- 
ation closes. Also an additional clause to section 61, for- 
bidding members of the several school boards from draw- 
ing warrants on the county treasurers in favor of them- 
selves, except for their pay as members of the board. Also, 
another, prohibiting members of school boards from con- 
tracting to build or furnish school houses. 



20 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

GUNNISON COUNTY. 

Geo. B. Spratt, Superintendent. 

A marked improvement has been perceptible in the 
educational work during the past year. Notwithstanding 
the hard times, several new school houses have been built, 
one at a cost of ^8,000 ; another, a frame, in course of 
erection in district No. 3. One new district organized 
since last report. There has been an increase in the school 
population of over five per cent.; in the ** average daily- 
attendance" of ten per cent. Teachers are doing good 
work. Although the directors are doing more to promote 
the interests of education in their districts than heretofore, 
I regret very much to saythat most of them have been 
extremely tardy in sending in their annual reports, as 
required by law. A large majority of those reporting were 
incorrect. I have been compelled to go to a number of 
districts and make out their reports myself, which has con- 
sumed time and caused a great deal of unnecessary expense 
and trouble, therefore I hope you will excuse the unavoid- 
able delay, on my part, in not reporting to you at an earlier 
day. District officers experience no little inconvenience in 
the matter of settling up and keeping a correct cash account 
with county treasurer, for the reason, when they are about 
to create an indebtedness or issue an order for the payment 
of the same, they are at a loss to know just what amount 
of cash on hand, etc., until the close of the year, because 
the law does not require the county treasurer to render a 
statement of balance on hand each quarter, but simply to 
report the amount collected. Most school officers are, 
therefore, apt to overdraw their accounts. I think the 
school law of the State should be revised so as to place the 
funds, as fast as collected, in the hands of the district 
treasurer. 



HUERFANO COUNTY. 

A. H. QuiLLiAN, Superintendent. 

I am satisfied that there is a constant improvement in 
school work in this county. New methods are being 



COUNTY REPORTS. 21 

adopted in some of the schools with marked success. 
There is also a growing disposition to house the schools. 
We have in this county a large per cent, of Mexican chil- 
dren — in a few districts the school population is entirely 
Mexican. With this class of people there is a very decided 
improvement in the interest evincecj by the parents con- 
cerning the education of their children. 



LARIMER COUNTY. 

W. H. McCreery, Superintendent. 

In addition to the tabulated annual report this day for- 
warded, I would submit the following items in regard to 
the progress of school work in this county during the past 
two years. In that time the number of districts has 
increased from 26 to 35, while the increase in school popu- 
lation has been only about 14 per cent.; in the valuation of 
property in the county about 36 per cent. The increase in 
the value of school buildings has been more than 50 per 
cent., while the amount received by the schools from 'the 
general and special funds, together, has increased from 
^10.782.96 in 1882, to $23,590.10 in 1884, an increase of 
over 100 per cent. The liberality with which the people 
vote and pay heavy taxes, in some cases as high as 85 mills 
on the dollar, for building houses and maintaining schools, 
shows that the work of education occupies no second place 
in their hearts. As a class our teachers are devoted and 
earnest. In Aiigust, 1888, I organized a normal institute, 
which continued in session two weeks, with very satisfactory 
results. In this work I acknowledge gratefully the help 
received from yourself and from professors of the Univer- 
sity, Agricultural College, and others. In August of 
this year a similar session was held. To make these Nor- 
mal institutes what they should be we need State help. 
These sessions were attended by about three-fourths of the 
teachers employed in the county, although the attendance 
was entirely voluntary on their part and at their own 
expense. You will notice that the average salary of female 
teachers in the ungraded schools of the county is a little 



22 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

higher than that of males. And so the world niove.s. 
May the system of school we are building up help to move 
it right. 



OU-RAY COUNTY. 

P. H. Shue, Svpcrintendent. 

I suggest that the school law be so amended as to 
make it the duty of the county judge (or commissioners) 
to appoint an assistant to the county superintendent in 
holding quarterly examinations of teachers, whose duties 
and powers shall be equal to those of the county superin- 
tendent in examining and grading the answers of appli- 
cants. It mi^ht do away with much irregularity in issuing 
certificates. The law is now plain enough, but it is some- 
times evaded. 



PUEBLO COUNTY. 

A. Y. Hull, Superintendent. 

The public schools in this county during the past year 
were largely attended, and notably successful both in cities 
and country. The schools of Pueblo, under the superin- 
tendency of J. S. McClung. and those of South Pueblo, 
under F. B. Gault, will take rank with the best in the west; 
while the schools in the country have had the advantages 
of superior teachers as a rule, and the work has been very 
gratifying. All of our schools in the city and country, 
with few exceptions, have re-employed the superintendents 
and teachers of last year, which is a sufficient guaranty of 
a successful school year. 



RIO grandp: county. 

SiGEL Heilman, Stiperintendent. 

I predict more improvement in the educational work 
of this county during the coming year, than during any 



COUNTY REPORTS. 23 

time in its p ist history. The better elements of society are 
rapidly settliiig in our little county, and they have already 
made their interest and influence felt in our educational 
work. The assessable property of the county is greater 
than ever before, and the school boards are using more 
care in the application of school funds and the selection of 
teachers. The. district boards favor the regulation of 
teachers' wages by the grade of certificates; and also, the 
adoption of a uniform series of text books. They will give 
their support to a measure for having all school books 
furnished by the State. 

Note. --See remarks elsewhere on text books. 



SAGUACHE COUNTY. 
W. E. White, Superintend e?it. 

Educational facilities in the way of new buildings, furni- 
ture and improved apparatus, have been greatly increased 
during the year, and the efficiency of our schools has been 
much enhanced by the services of a higher grade of 
teachers, and the wider interest and effort on the part of 
patrons, and yet for the money expended the schools are 
not what they should be. Some of the districts lacked the 
small amount of interest necessary to elect a board of 
directors at the last election, and others elected men pos- 
sessing so little interest in educational matters that they 
failed to qualify. Many of the districts possess no maps, 
globes or charts, all of which are indispensable to the 
highest success of instruction. The influences of relation- 
ship, friendship, or other extraneous circumstances, rather 
than true professional merit, has governed too often in the 
selection of teachers, who should be employed only 
because of fitness for the work. In order that our schools 
may be highly successful, patrons should take the deepest 
interest and see that only men who are qualified and will 
perform their duties are elected directors. Directors 
should p.'iy teachers as hi^h wages as possible, in order 
that they may fit themselves for tlie difficult duties of their 
profession. Patrons, and especially directors, should sup- 



24 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

port and encourage teachers when they are doing their 
duty, and if they are not performing their duty and attain- 
ing reasonable success, they should be promptly discharged. 
School boards will find that to attain the highest success, 
good maps, globes, charts and blackboards are indispen- 
sable, and the final result will justify their purchase, even 
ifit is found necessary to shorten the school term. Text 
books are being rapidly improved and should be changed 
as often as possible compatible with justice to those who 
buy. Teachers of proved ability and success should be 
retained in the same school as long as they are successful. 
Much valuable time is lost by the frequent change of teach- 
ers. Factional quarrels should never be permitted to inter- 
fere with the proper management of the schools. Permits, 
as well as certificates, are now issued only upon the strong- 
est evidence of ability, and the grade of teachers is being 
raised as rapidly as possible. 

Our State statutes in regard to teachers' institutes do 
not provide the assistance that our teachers should have. 
Many of the counties that are making an earnest and faith- 
ful effort to make the influence of the public schools felt in 
every home, have not twenty-five teachers to attend an insti- 
tute; and a term of two weeks is too long, because entail- 
ing too much expense upon teachers whose work is limited 
to a few months in the year. 

An interchange and candid discussion of methods of 
instruction arid discipline is the greatest utility of a teach- 
ers' institute, and this can be accomplished perhaps nearly, 
if not quite, as well in two or three days as in two or three 
weeks, and with much less expense. We suggest that State 
aid should be given to procure competent and progressive 
instructors in new and improved methods of instruction 
and discipline, and whatever aid possible to maintain a live, 
energetic institute for a period of two or three days every 
fall in each county of the State; and we are satisfied that 
the increased efficiency of our schools would more than 
compensate for such expenditure. The profession of teach- 
ing, with a few individual exceptions, has grasped only half 
of its power for true advancement. The great majority of 
our teachers only increase power, without giving that power 
right direction. The teacher is truly successful — the 
country is truly safe — the future is truly secure, only when 



COUNTY REPORTS. 25 

principle and intelligence are wedded together; and it is 
cheaper and less dangerous for the Nation or State to pay 
good teachers and furnish means to that end, than to sup- 
port the products and effects of moral and mental igno- 
rance. 



SUMMIT COUNTY. 

B. A. Arbogast, Superini€7ident. 

Our county is fast emerging from the chaotic condition 
incident to a floating population. All our school boards 
have wisely consented to the adoption of a uniform system 
of text books. Our teachers and school officers are all 
working harmoniously, hence we look forward to a year of 
as prosperous school work as our limited finances will 
permit. 



WELD COUNTY. 

A. K. Packard, Superintendent. 

I have secured, in seven or eight school houses, better 
arrangements as to light, ventilation and entrances, than 
were to be found in the county before. One hindrance to 
the best success of some of our schools is the carelessness 
of school boards in taking for teachers, simply because 
they apply, persons of whom neither they or any known to 
them, have knowledge, when they might easily obtain those 
of whose qualifications and successful experience they are 
or may be assured. Sometimes boards neglect to engage 
a teacher till they wish school to begin. Again, many 
boards, paying a teacher good wages, never have any per- 
sonal knowledge of the teacher's work, and so sometimes 
a really good teacher gets an ill reputation in a district, and 
a poor one is counted successful. In the former case the 
testimony of incapable and prejudiced or malicious pupils 
is taken without examination. In the latter the teacher has 
not given offense, and though inefficient, ignorant and unapt, 
the trustees commend the teacher by saying, "we hear no 
complaint." 



26 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

I would beg leave to renew, or repeat, the suggestion 
in my last year's report, that the State should provide, by 
the appointment of a commission, or otherwise, to insure 
that no school house, great or small, should be built with- 
out certain conditions to secure sufficient and the best light 
and proper venplation, for the lack of both which most of 
our teachers and scholars suffer, some consciously, but most 
without thought of it, and all wrongfully. 

Is it not possible, and desirable, to lighten the burden 
that oaths and bonds lay .upon school officers? In a county 
like Weld, in portions thinly populated, it is quite a serious 
question. One secretary wrote me that he could not swear 
to his report without a journey that would cost $7.50, besides 
the time required, and the time is quite an important con- 
sideration in a busy season. A secretary has told me of 
going to a not near neighboring town to swear — of going 
the third time before finding the necessary notary or justice. 
It vexes the secretary to be at so much trouble to swear 
that he will do his duty, and then, every time he returns a 
census list or report, to go again to swear that he has done 
his duty. If he must make oath when he takes office, might 
not his certificate be sufficient for his census list and report? 
Treasurers sometimes grudge the time and trouble and 
expense of swearing and giving bonds for the delivery of 
their record book and copy of school laws to their suc- 
cessors. 



REPORT 



OK 



Superintendent of Public Instruction, 



-There lias been so marked an improvement in county 
reports for the present year, that the statistical tables for 
188-A are the most reliable ever published for this State — 
in a number of the items, are reliable for the first time, as I 
believe, since educational statistics were collected in this 
State or Territory. This is due, in part, to the fact that the 
people are becoming familiar with the working of the 
school law, which has been subject to modifications rather 
than to radical changes since 1876, and the modifications 
have, for the most part, been to secure greater simplicity in 
the machinery necessary in district organization and man- 
agement. It has been of advantage to the people that all 
changes in the law since it was enacted by the first General 
i\ssembly of the State, have been in the shape of amend- 
ments to the various sections of the original law, and not 
by separate acts. The State Constitution wisely provides 
that when any section of a law is amended the entire sec- 
tion must be re-enacted as amended, hence the school law 
of Colorado is complete in itself and does not require a 
digest. 



'is' 



The financial part of the county reports is now made 
with a near approach to absolute correctness. This is the 
result of the provision of law which keeps the district 
funds in the county treasury, from which it is paid out for 
the lawful expenses of the district, and the further provision 
requiring the county treasurer to report at the close of the 
school year to each district secretary the cash received, 
and paid out during the year on account of his district, 
and also to send to the county superintendent an abstract 
of the reports to, the districts. This method enables the 



28 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

county superintendent to detect and correct any errors in 
district reports, and to make his own report to the Super- 
intendent of PubHc Instruction correct, as it could not be 
by any other plan yet devised. 

Some few district officers still object to the provision of 
the present law which makes the county treasurer the cus- 
todian of the district funds, instead of the district treasurer, 
as formerly. I have made diligent inquiry wherever 
complaint has reached me, and have never found anything 
more serious than a little inconvenience, which is disap- 
pearing as the people become familiar with the present 
method. It is apparent to all thinking people, that the 
school funds are safer in the hands of one man, who is 
almost sure to be a skilled accountant, and behind whom is 
an ample bond, than it is when parceled out among ten, 
twenty or forty men, a majority of whom have little skill 
in accounts, and whose bonds, being in most cases for small 
amounts, are apt to be found worthless when put to the 
test of the courts. A well known citizen and banker, who 
has been treasurer of his county a number of terms, tells 
me he has repeatedly seen the three district officers come to 
his office, and, after receiving the district funds from the 
county treasurer, divide the money between themselves before 
leaving the room, making no pretense of accounting for it. 
This is, of course, an extreme case, but every year money 
was lost to the schools, at different points. It was loaned 
on insufficient security ; being in small amounts it was 
mixed with the treasurer's personal funds, and no account 
kept but his memory, hence at the end of the year, a report 
that contained any information of value was an impos- 
sibility ; and so in one way and another, here a little and 
there a little, in all a large fraction of the school fund of 
the State never benefited the schools. Such leaks are 
well nigh impossible under the present law, and as a matter 
of fact are stopped. 

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. 

In 1877 questions for use in the quarterly examinations 
of teachers were sent from this office to all county superin- 
tendents. From that time till 1881 the use of these uniform 
questions was tentative and voluntary, but so satisfactory 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 29 

that it was then incorporated into the law and made com- 
pulsory. It comes as near giving universal satisfaction as 
it is possible for any system which touches so many indi- 
viduals. As the method of our examinations, and the 
rigor with which they are conducted, are matters of interest 
to very many people, at home and abroad, I publish the 
circular sent to county superintendents, rules to be furnished 
each applicant, and the questions used at one exami- 
nation. The purpose of uniform questions would be but 
half accomplished unless there were also some approach to 
uniformity in the manner of using them and the grading 
of the answers. As the suggestions of the circular have 
been very generally followed, this publication puts the 
Colorado county examination clearly before the reader : 

Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, ) 
Denver, Colorado. j 

Circular to County Superintendents Concerning the Quarterly Exam- 
ination of Teachers : 

Gentlemen : By virtue of law I am now required to prepare 
questions for your use in the quarterly examination of teachers. In 
sending these questions I desire to make the following suggestions 
as to their use : 

These questions will be forwarded to you in sealed packages. I 
recommend that you open them on the morning of the examination, 
in the presence of the applicants. There is work for two days of five 
or six hours each of the average applicant, and I recommend a two 
days' session, at least in the more populous counties. Applicants 
should have time to do themselves justice. Let it be understood by 
all, that to receive a certificate, the applicant must do the work 
at the time and in the manner prescribed for all. If one can do it 
in half a day, well — but let it be known that a certificate will never 
be given for a part of the work. Absentees must take the consequence 
of their own misfortune, however imperative the cause of their 
absence. This is not given as a rule, but merely the plain statement 
of a fact. 

By dividing the slips you can give out half a day's work at a 
time, and I urge this plan as much fairer to all than giving the topics 
singly, as some will gain time in one branch, others in another ; but 
no applicant should be allowed to leave the room after seeing any 
questions, until such questions are answered, that there may be no 
opportunity or temptation to consult authorities. 



30 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

The topics are numbered from one to twelve. For the first day 
use Nos. I to 6 inclusive ; second day, Nos. 7 to 12 inclusive. Take 
up questions and answers promptly at expiration of each session. 
If you wish an oral examination, take sufficient time for that and for 
reading before or after the time allotted to the session. 

Do not take a mijuite of the session for general exercises, or talk, 
or allow any one else to do so. 

Take such further time as you wish to satisfy yourself as to the 
moral character of all applicants, and as to their experience in and 
aptitude for the business of teaching, and also time to give such 
counsel concerning their duties as you may think helpful. 

For marking the applicants divide the topics into two groups : 
First group, Nos. i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12 ; second group, Nos. 4, 7, 
8 and 9. Give certificates as follows : 

FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATE. 

First Group — Average 90 per cent. ; no branch below 75 per cent. 
Second " " 75 " " " 60 " 

SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATE. 

First Group — Average 75 per cent. ; no branch below 60 per cent. 
Second " " 60 " " " 40 " 

THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATE. 

First Group — Average 60 per cent. ; no branch below 50 per cent. 
Second ". " 50 " " " 40 " 

Note — A third grade certificate must not be refused on account of a failure in the 
Natural Sciences. 

File and retain all answers, for your own protection. Number 
the applicants, but take no names. 

Give each a blank envelope and paper sufficient for the work. 
Examine and grade all papers by number before opening the envel- 
opes to learn the names, (If you can get a committee of competent 
persons to examine and grade the papers, it will guard you still 
further from any charge of unfairness, which disappointed applicants 
are apt to make.) 

A high degree of practical success in teaching should be 
accepted as a sufficient reason for issuing a certificate of a higher 
grade than is warranted by the percentage upon examination, and 
inexperience or want of success should lower the grade of the cer- 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 31 

tificate given, while failure as a teacher might be so marked as to 
make it your duty to refuse a certificate, whatever the percentage 
obtained. 

I earnestly recommend that certificates of the first grade be 
given only to teachers who have earned it by success in the school 
room as well as at examination. I also recommend the addition of 
ten to the grade earned on Theory and Practice, for the regular 
reading of some good educational periodical, or of one or more reli- 
able books upon the subject. 

Refuse certificates to applicants of whose moral character you 
have a reasonable doubt. 

Please report to me as soon as convenient after your examina- 
tion, on the blanks furnished for the purpose, giving the names of all 
applicants. 

Preserve these instructions for future reference. 

Take great pains that none of the questions go out of your 
hands until the end of the quarter. 

No private examinations are lawful, except for temporary cer- 
tificates, valid only till next public examination. 

Respectfully yours, 

JOS. C. SHATTUCK, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



RULES FOR THE CONDUCT OF THE EXAMINATION. 

(This slip is given to each applicant with the first questions.) 
*i. Provide yourself with a lead pencil. 

2. Write your name, age, nativity and postoffice address on a 
slip of paper, and answer the following questions : 

1. How long have you taught, and where ? 

2. In what school or schools were you educated ? 

5. What educational papers or journals do you read regu- 
larly ? 

Place the answers in the envelope, seal it, and put your number, 
but not your name, on the back. 

3. Take a different paper for each branch, write the subject 
and also your number at the head of each paper, and write on but 
one side of the paper. 



32 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

4. Number your answers to correspond with the questions, but 
do not repeat the questions. 

5. Read all the questions on a topic before answering any of 
them. 

6. All communication during examination is absolutely for- 
bidden. 

7. Do not take the questions from the room. Any applicant 
who violates this rule will forfeit all right to a certificate. 

8. When possible, abbreviate. Give short but complete solu- 
tions to arithmetical problems. 

9. Ask no questions. If you have doubts as to the meaning of 
any question, let them be submitted in writing, so that the Superin- 
tendent may examine them when he examines the answers to the 
questions. 

10. Omissions will be considered as failures, and in estimating, 
your rank the general appearance of the papers as well as the cor- 
rectness of the answers will be considered. 

*If the Superintendent conducting the examination prefers to have the work done 
with pen and ink, he will provide them. 



QUESTIONS USED AT QUARTERLY EXAMINATION OF 
TEACHERS, THIRD QUARTER, 1884. 

1. ARITHMETIC. 

Indicate the working of problems. No credit for mere answers. 
T. On what principle does cancellation depend ? 10. 

2. Name the different kinds of common fractions, and illustrate 
by examples. 3 off for each omission. 

3. Reduce ^'' qi 0^12 — ^^ ^ simple fraction. Proc. 5, ans. 5. 

4. How much will 12,^3 tons of hay cost at $i7}4 per ton ? 

Proc. 5, ans. 5. 

5. If 36% acres^yield 637 bushels of wheat, at the same rate 
what will 5^ acres yield ? Proc. 5, ans. 5. 

6. (.o49x.ooo49)^ (.049— .00049) ? P^oc. 5, ans. 5. 

7. What is the cube root of 12.812904? Proc. 5, ans. 5. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 33 

8 and 9. A commission merchant receives 24,000 pounds of 
pork, worth 6 cents i)er pound, and $3,000 cash, with instructions to 
invest both in United States 5-20S at market rates. He charges 5 per 
cent, both for selHng and investing. What is the amount of his 
commission? United States bonds are that day quoted at 108^, 
and none are to be had of a less denomination than I50. How much 
does he invest, and what balance remains in his hands ? 

Proc. 10, ans. 10. 

10. I wish to borrow I400 from a bank for 30 days. What must 
be the face of my note when discounted at 6 per cent, that 1 may 
receive this amount? Proc. 5, ans. 5. 



3. UNITED STATES HISTORY AND CONSTITUTION. 

1. Give an account of the Stamp Act. 10. 

2. In what year, where, and by what American Commissioners 
was the treaty of peace at the close of the Revolutionary War nego- 
tiated ? 3 off for each error. 

3. During whose administration did the War of 1812 occur, and 
what battle terminated it ? « 2 pts. 5 each. 

4. Name the Presidents in their order, that filled the office for 
eight years ? 5 off for each error. 

5. Name the nationalities that made early discoveries in Amer- 
ica, and the parts of the country discovered by each. 

3 off for each error. 

6. Give the boundaries of the United States at the close of the 
Revolutionary War. 10 

7. What are the qualifications required by the Constitution for 
a Representative? Senator? President? 

8. What bills must originate in the House of Representa- 
tives ? 8. 

9. What is the substance of the Thirteenth Amendment to the 
Constitution ? 10. 

10. What part of Colorado formerly belonged to Mexico ? 10. 



3. READING. 

I. What particulars are embraced in the general term "Expres- 



sion ?" 
5 



34 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

2. At what point in a child's reading do you first insist on 
proper expression ? lo. 

3. How many inflections are there ? Name them, and show 
how they are indicated in books ? 4 off for each error. 

4. What inflection is used to express irony, sarcasm, derision 
and contempt? 4 pts. 3 each. 

6. Read the following sentence so that it will make a temper- 
ance speech and an anti-temperance speech : 8. 

" The person who daily uses intoxicating liquor, if he does not become a drunk- 
ard, will be in danger of losing his health and character." 

6 to 10. Read selections from. Independent Sixth reader : 

First, from "The Rim of the Bowl," page 255. 

Second, from "Eloquence," page 325. 

If this reader is not at hand, examiners will make other selec- 
tions to test applicants in both prose and poetry, and give the last 
five credits according to the degree of proficiency shown. 



4. PHYSIOLOGY AND LAWS OF HEALTH. 

1. Name the subdivisions of the heart, and give the office of 
each. 10. 

2. Describe the lungs. 10. 

3. What is ventilation, and on what does it depend ? 10. 

4. Define absorption, and explain the process. 2 pts. 5 each. 

5. Describe the ear, and state how the sensation of sound is 
produced. 10. 



5. PENMANSHIP. 

1. What is meant by principles ? ' 10. 

2. What is the object of the study and practice of principles 
in learning to write? 10. 

3. In what way may the teacher assist the pupil in obtaining a 
clear conception of the forms to be written ? 10. 

4. Write the loop letters. Write the letters composed of the 
first and second principles. 5. 5- 

5. Analyze a, m, h, y, d. 5 pts., 2 each. 

Note — Your writing in answering the above questions will be taken as a specimen of 
your penmanship, and marked o to 50. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



35 



6. ORTHOGRAPHY. 

1. How many syllables are there in every word ? lo. 

2. How many elementary sounds in our language ? lo. 

3. What is the rule for "e" final when suffixes are added ? 10. 

4. Give directions for the use of capital letters. 10. 

5; 6, 7, 8. Write the following words, and make all the correc- 
tions necessary, and mark the accent : Antilope, caff, cammell, 
iknuman, exchecker, lovable, secrecy, sibel, irascible, sintilation, sus- 
ceptibility, cirsingle, intelligible, meretricious, tranquility, tran- 
sendent. o to 20. 



7. SCHOOL LAW. 

1. In what manner is the revenue raised for the support of the 
public schools of this State ? 20. 

2, 3. To whom must the teacher make reports; and what is the 
penalty for failure in this duty ? 40. 

4, 5. How many persons obtain a State diploma in Colo- 
rado, and what is the character of such diploma ? 40. 



8. BOTANY. 

I, 2, Name the two grand divisions of Phenogamia or Flower- 
ing Plants, and give the leading characteristics of each. 40. 

3. Define Inflorescence ? Dehiscence? 2 pts. 10 each. 

4. Point out the distinctive characteristics of herbs, shrubs and 
trees. 10. 



5,' What is a weed ? An exotic ? 



2 pts. 10 each. 



9. OTHER NATURAL SCIENCES. 

What is science ? 10. 

Define Solids and Fluids. Inertia. 3 pts. 2j4 each. 

What is Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation ? 10. 

Define Organic Chemistry. Inorganic. 2 pts. 5 each. 

How many chemical elements in nature ? 10. 

Give the leading characteristics of Mammalia. 10. 



36 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

7, 8. Define Fragmental Rocks, Metamorphic Rocks, Calcareous 
Rocks and Igneous Rocks. 4 pis. 5 each. 

9. Describe the Solar System. 10. 

10. Who discovered the exact shape of the planetary orbits, 
and what is his first law ? 2 pts. 5 each. 



10. GRAMMAR. 

1. Give all the participles in both voices, of the verbs "to win" 
and "to lay." , 10. 

2. Write a complex sentence in which the subject and predicate 
are each modified by a clause. 10. 

3. State the difference between ellipsis and abridgment, and 
give an example of each. 10. 

4. Correct the following, and give the reasons : 

" Each one did their duty." 

" The Pleasures of Hope" were written by Campbell. 

" Counties who fail to make returns will forfeit their portion of the public 
fund." 

5» 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Analyze the following, and parse the italicized 
words : 

" Every hour that fleets so slowly. 

Has its task to do or bear; 
Luminous the crown and holy, 

When each gem is set with care. 
Do not linger with regretting, 

Or /or passing hours despond ; 
Nor, the daily toil forgetting. 

Look too eagerly beyond." 

o to 60. 



11. THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

1. Why should a teacher read regularly some educational pub- 
lication ? 10. 

2. Is it necessary that your daily programme should specify the 
time for study as well as recitation ? 10. 

3. How many terms and in what grades of school have you 
taught ? 10. 

4. Define Corporal Punishment. How many cases ought to 
occur in a school of 50 pupils in three months ? 2 pts. 5 each. 

5. Are boys or girls the easier to manage in school ? Mention 
points of difference in their management. 2 pts. 5 each. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 37 

6. Wiuit is the teacher's duty during recess ? 10. 

7. Is the correct teaching 01" vocal music of any use further 
than the musical information imparted ? 10. 

8. What do you teach outside the course of study ? 10. 

9. Write of the relations between teacher and school board ? 10. 
ID. Between teacher and parents. 10. 



12. GEOGRAPHY. 

1. Give some account of the extent, resources and people of 
the countries engaged in the last European war. 10. 

2. Trace a water route from Bismark, Dakota, to the largest 
city of Continental Europe. 10. 

3. Bound and destribe Kentucky. 10. 

4. How wide is the Torrid Zone, and what determines its 
width ? 10. 

5. Why does the sun shine on the north side of our houses in 
summer, morning and evening ? 10. 

6. How wide are the Temperate Zones, and what determines 
their width ? 10. 

7. Where are the Great Antilles? Name them. 2 pts. 5 each. 

8. Bound and describe the most powerful of the South Ameri- 
can States. 10. 

9. Name the five first-rate powers of Europe in the order of 
importance. 6 off for each omission. 



STATE EXAMINATIONS AND DIPLOMAS. 



The following circular sent to all parts of the State, in 
February last, fully explains the subject of State certificates 
in Colorado : 

Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. 1 
Denver, Colorado, February i, 1884. J 

The State Board of Education is authorized to grant diplomas to 
teachers eminent in their profession by reason ot character, scholar- 
ship and successful experience, by virtue of the following provisions 
of the School Law, viz. : 



38 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

Sec. 3. The State Board of Education is hereby authorized to 
grant State diplomas to such teachers as may be found to possess 
the requisite scholarship and culture, and who may also exhibit sat- 
isfactory evidence of an unexceptionable moral character, and v/hose 
eminent professional ability has been established by not less than 
two years' successful teaching in the public schools of this State. 
Such diplomas shall supersede the necessity of any and all other 
examinations of persons holding the same, by county, city or local 
examiners, and shall be valid in any county, city, town or district 
in the State, unless revoked by the State Board of Education. 

Sec. 4. But State diplomas shall only be granted upon public 
examination, of which due notice shall be given, in such branches 
and upon such terms, and by such examiners, as the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, the President of the State University, the 
President of the State Agricultural College and the President of the 
State School of Mines may prescribe. 

The Committee of Examination, constituted by section four 
above quoted, after carefully considering the provisions of the 
statute, has decided that applicants for State diplomas should be 
required to comply with the following 

TERMS AND CONDITIONS. 

1. To furnish the State Superintendent, prior to examination, 
satisfactory evidence of good moral character. 

2. To furnish the State Superintendent satisfactory evidence of 
having taught, with decided success, not less than two years in this 
State. 

3. To pass a very thorough examination in Reading, Mental 
and Written Arithmetic, English Grammar, Modern Geography, 
Physical Geography, History of the United States, the Constitution 
of the United States and the Constitution of Colorado, with the 
Elements of Civil Government, and Theory and Art of Teaching, 
limited for 1884 to Payne's Lectures on Teaching, and an Essay on 
Horace Mann, specific topics for the essay to be given at the time of 
writing. 

4. To pass a satisfactory examination in Physics, Anatomy and 
Physiology, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Astronomy and Geology. 
The examination in these branches will embrace the rudimentary 
principles only. School Law of Colorado, Algebra, the Elements of 
Plane and Solid Geometry, not including Spherical Geometry, 
English Literature, to be limited to general questions upon American 
poets, and a special examination upon Whittier's Snow Bound, 



STATE SUPERINTENDEiNT'S REPORT. 39 

5. To pass a satisfactory examination in one branch of the 
follo\ying group, choice to be made by the candidate : 

Latin, to be limited to the first four books of Caesar, the first two 
books of the ^Eneid of Virgil, questions upon grammatical prin- 
ciples involved in the passages translated, and Latin composition ; 
German, to be limited to translations from German into English and 
from English into German, and Schiller's William Tell, with ques- 
tions on German Grammar ; Spanish, to be limited to Rudiments of 
Spanish Grammar ; outlines of Spanish Literature ; El si de las 
Nifias, by Moratin ; sight translation from Spanish into English, and 
from English into Spanish. 

CREDENTIALS. 

In regard to moral character, no set form of evidence is required, 
so that the fact of good character appears to the satisfaction of the 
committee of examination. If an applicant is personally known to 
either member of the committee as of good character, it will be 
sufficient to state the fact ; no evidence will be requisite. . If not, 
written testimonials from one or more responsible persons acquainted 
with the applicant will be required. There must be no doubt on the 
question of character. 

In respect to the length of time that an applicant has taught, his 
own statement, giving the time, place, and kind of school, will be 
sufficient. 

Concerning success in teaching, written testimonials from 
employers, or other responsible and competent persons acquainted 
with the facts, will be required. The evidence upo7t this point is vital, 
and must be clear and explicit. 

The minimum time to be accepted for two years' theaching is 
fixed by the Committee at sixteen school months. 

CONDITIONS PRECEDENT, 

Satisfactory evidence relative to character, length of time taught, 
and success, must be furnished before a candidate can be admitted 
to the examination; it is a condition precedent, and should be trans- 
mitted to the State Superintendent, by each candidate, along with 
his application for examination, so that if defective due notice may 
be given, and that there may be no disappointment or loss of time 
in the inspection of credentials on the day of examination. Any 
one whose credentials are unsatisfactory will be promptly informed, 
and the deficiency pointed out, that it may be supplied, if practicable, 
and if not he will be declared ineligible and saved the expenses of 
attendance. Attention to these preliminaries is important ; that 



40 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

there may be time for this, the application and credentials should be 
sent in by June i. There will be no time to inspect testimonials 
during the examination, and none can be examined without them. 

Papers forwarded as testimonials must, in all cases, be originals. 
If any applicant wishes the originals returned, copies thereof, for 
filing in this office, must be sent with the originals. When copies 
are so sent the originals will be returned, but not otherwise. 

The candidate must also state, when he sends in his credentials, 
in which branch, in the elective studies named above, he will offer 
himself for examination, such choice to be final. 

MODE OF EXAMINATION. 

The questions to be answered under each branch embraced in 
the written examination, will be printed on slips of paper and con- 
secutively numbered. Each applicant will be furnished with one of 
these slips and with pen and paper. A definite time will be allowed 
to each branch. Each answer must bear the number of the corres- 
ponding question. In questions requiring demonstration or analysis, 
the entire work must be given, and not merely the result or answer, 
so that the several steps of the process may appear, and the exam- 
iners be better enabled to judge of the candidate's habits of thought 
and reasoning. 

In addition to writing answers to the printed questions, candi-- 
dates will be examined orally in Reading and Arithmetic, but, in the 
latter branch, the written examination will have double the weight 
of the oral in determining the standing. 

MODE OF AWARD. 

The greatest care will be taken to make the examination strictly 
impartial. To this end each candidate will be given a number, by 
which he will be known during the examination, and he will be 
required to write his name, age, nativity and post-office address on 
a slip of paper and place the same in the envelope furnished, and 
put his number, but not his name, on the back. Each sheet of paper 
containing answers must also contain the number of the candidate 
using it. 

In grading the papers, the examiners will note the grade of each 
one opposite the number found thereon. The envelopes containing 
the names will not be opened until the papers have been examined 
and the results obtained. After all papers have been finally graded, 
he marks of the oral examinations will be combined with the 
marks of the written work. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 41 

Diplomas will be awarded only to such candidates as secure the 
unanimous recommendation of the board of examiners. 

In determining the merits of the papers, the examiners will be 
guided by the following rules': Scale 100. In Zoology, Physics, 
Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, the minimum will be 60; in all 
other branches, 70. Certificates will be recommended when the 
candidate's average for the whole examination does not fall below 
75; Provided, that in no branch he is below the minimum fixed for 
it. The time for Chemistry, Astronomy, Botany, Zoology, Physics, 
Physiology, Geology, Physical Geography, and Geography will be 
one hour each. In all the other branches, two hours will be allowed. 
In making up the average, each branch to which two hours were 
given in the examination will be counted double the branch to which 
but one hour was given. The candidate will be graded in spelling 
by noting the accuracy of the spelling in several pages of his papers 
written at this examination. 

If a candidate reaches the required average for examination, 
but falls below the minimum in one or more branches, he will be 
required to take those branches only at the next examination, and 
will be recommended for a diploma when he has passed in each with 
a grade of 75. Candidates who fail to reach the required average 
will be allowed credit for topics on which they rank 95 or more, and 
at the next examination will be excused in such topics. 

TIME AND PLACE. 

The examination will begin June 30, and continue four days, at 
Denver. 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF RESULTS. 

Some time must elapse after the close of the examination before 
the results can be announced. Such an inspection of the work sub- 
mitted as will enable the examiners to do impartial justice requires 
time, but as soon as the report of the examiners is received by the 
State Board, diplomas will be forwarded to those declared by the 
Board of Examiners to be worthy of them. Applicants who fail will 
be apprised of the fact by letter. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Punctual attendance upon all four of the days will be very 
important. 

The rules governing the examination will be stated at the begin- 
ning of the examination, and general directions given, which will 
not be repeated. Moreover, there will be full work for the whole 



42 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

time, and persons arriving after some of the topics have been writ- 
ten upon cannot make up for lost time without protracting the exam- 
ination, which it will not be practicable to do ; therefore, no person 
arriving two hours or more, after the session has begun, will be 
allowed to participate. 

Inasmuch as a State diploma supersedes "the necessity of any 
and all other examinations of persons holding the same, by county, 
city or local examiners," and is valid for life, unless revoked for 
cause, it is, therefore, not only the highest known to our system of 
public education, and an honor to those receiving it, but it has also 
an important business value to all professional teachers. It is the 
object of the law, in providing for these examinations, specially to 
recognize and honor those experienced and successful teachers who 
have given character and dignity to the profession in this State, and 
to furnish to young teachers a stimulus to honorable exertion. 

By order of the Committee, 

JOS. C. SHATTUCK, 
Superintendeiit of Public Instruction. 

It only remains to be said that, no applications being 
filed within the specified time, there was no examination. 



SUPPLY AND DEMAND. 



To the question which comes to this office by nearly 
every mail, "Is there a demand for teachers in Colorado?" 
I know of no better answer than that of Philip to 
Nathaniel, "Come and see." Our population is shifting 
but steadily growing ; teachers leave the school room for 
other work here as elsewhere — perhaps rather more than 
in the older States ; not a large number of our young people, 
as yet, engage in teaching. These causes make room for 
some new arrivals every year, but it is rare that a teacher is 
engaged by correspondence. The employment of teachers 
is the business of the local school boards, and many boards 
make it a rule to make no engagements by correspondence. 
Hence it is safe to say to all applicants by letter, "The only 
way to get a situation as teacher in Colorado, is to come 
and find a vacancy and secure employment by personal 
application." Schools begin early in September, and 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 43 

engag^errtents for the year are usually made one or two 
months previous. For length of school terms and wages 
paid, see tables elsewhere. 



COURSE OF STUDY. 



A little more than two years ago a conv^ention of gen- 
tlemen interested in school work, and representing various 
parts of the State, met at the office of the State Superin- 
tendent, and, after deliberation, appointed committees to 
prepare courses of study for both ungraded and graded 
schools, including high schools. These committees pre- 
pared such courses, which were published in the last bien- 
nial report from this office, and also upon the inside of the 
cover to the daily registers furnished by the State. At the 
session of the State Teachers' Association in December, 
1883, a committee was appointed to revise the high school 
course and report the revision to the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. This committee consisted of Mr. J. H. 
Baker of Denver, Mr. W. C. Thomas of Leadville, and Mr. 
Oscar Jackson of Pueblo. The course of study recom- 
mended by this committee is found below, and is com- 
mended to all interested in high schools as worthy of 
adoption : 



44 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



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46 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



NORMAL INSTITUTES. 

To Larimer county belongs the credit of holding the 
only real ivorkiiig teachers' institute that has been held in 
the State. Under the direction of County Superintendent 
McCreery, a goodly number of the teachers of Larimer 
county were brought together for a two weeks' term, the 
third and fourth weeks of August, 1883, and the same in 
1884. The time was spent in work in the common 
branches, to the end that better methods of illustrating and 
teaching these branches might be acquired. The teachers 
of this county keep up a county association, by means of 
which they have adopted a course of reading — partly pro- 
fessional and partly general — which many of them are pur- 
suing, and to a discussion of which some time is given at 
the meetings of the association. It is an echo of Chautau- 
qua, sent back from the foot-hills of the Rockies, worthy of 
all praise. 

There has been considerable discussion, during the 
last three or four years, concerning the propriety of estab- 
lishing a State normal school at some point, as a separate 
institution. There is a normal department at the State 
University, which affords ample facilities to meet all 
demands, as yet, as far as numbers is concerned, but it is 
urged that our State is so large in territory that no one 
institution can well accommodate the entire State, because 
the distance will be so great from many points. A little 
thought, however, must convince any one that our popula- 
tion is yet too sparse to support a separate normal school 
at any point, or to justify the expense. If a small fraction 
of what a normal school will cost were appropriated to 
assist the counties in the support of normal institutes of 
two to four weeks each year, at least in all the larger coun- 
ties, there can be no question but that the schools would 
be benefited far more than by the establishment of another 
State institution of learning of any description. 

Another point worthy of serious consideration is, whether 
any more financial burdens ought to be laid upon the tax- 
payers of the State. The credit of the State is now of the 
best, and it is much easier to keep it so than to restore it 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 47 

when once impaired. As far as I have been able to learn, 
there is no demand, whatever, for another State educational 
institution, except by the communities which expect help 
by the spending of public money in their mj'dst. Until 
there is some sounder reason than this, the legislature 
should be deaf to all appeals for the establishment of a 
State normal school, more especially when the expenditure 
of $2,000 to ;$3,000 per annum, distributed where it will do 
the most good among the counties, for the support of 
county normal institutes, will fill a real want, and be of 
marked benefit to the schools of the State. 

The normal institute is not an experiment. Its use- 
fulness has been thoroughly demonstrated, and its necessity 
recognized in all of the most enterprising and prosperous 
Western States. The influx of well-trained teachers from 
abroad has enabled us to bring up the schools of this new 
State to a high degree of excellence, but the time has fully 
come when the need of the normal institute is felt. The 
graduates of our own schools are entering the ranks as 
teachers. Not all those who come to us from abroad, and 
who secure employment, are beyond the need of additional 
training, as Superintendent Packard, of Weld county, 
shows in his remarks on a previous page. County normal 
institutes, if once established on a sound basis, would soon 
create a public sentiment in favor of selecting teachers from 
among those who attend the institutes, and do much to 
remedy the evil of which the superintendent of Weld com- 
plains, and which is by no means peculiar to his county. 



SMALL DISTRICTS. 

Colorado schools, in districts of small population, 
suffer the ills incident to small, ungraded schools, with 
scant revenue, everywhere. If there be any way whereby 
a country district, with few people and a small amount of 
property from which to derive its revenue, can afford its 
handful of children as good educational advantages as its 
populous and wealthy neighbor, that way has not yet been 
found. I know both by the experience of my childhood 
and by recent observation, that this difficulty is no less 



48 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

serious among the New England hills than with the scat- 
tered ranches of Colorado. Occasionally there is found in 
charge of one of these small country schools, one whose 
soul has been touched with the Divine fire, without which 
any teacher is but a drudge, and with which, not infrequently^ 
a man or woman in charge of a small country school, for a 
few weeks, has kindled the entire neighborhood, roused 
a noble enthusiasm for real learning in the heart of every 
boy and girl in the community, in short, stamped her better 
self on the lives of her pupils, as no teacher in a large 
city school ever did or ever can. We lament the short 
schools, inexperienced and often incompetent teachers of 
the country districts, but the fact is open to all that the bus- 
iness of this country is, and always has been, largely in the 
hands of men whose boyhood gathered its'strength amid 
just such untoward surroundings. Generally a real teacher 
costs money, and it is the prevailing vice in the manage- 
ment of the district schools that some one is hired to "keep 
the school," because he or she will work for small pay, and 
thus a longer term is secured. If people will only believe,, 
and have the courage to act up to their convictions, that 
three months under the instruction of an apt teacher is bet- 
ter for a child than nine months under an unskillful one; 
that whether the school house be good or poor, the one 
thing that determines the character of the school is the 
teacher, and that skill in any sphere of human activity costs 
money, then the rural districts need not deplore their lack 
of educational facilities as an evil without compensation. 
County superintendents should exercise great care in order- 
ing the division of districts, or cutting off a portion of one 
and annexing it to another on petition. Too often these 
divisions are desired for no better reason than a neighbor- 
hood quarrel. The superintendent should only act after 
such careful investigation as will put him in possession of 
all the facts, and he is convinced that the proposed change 
will be beneficial to a majority of those concerned. 



SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

Probably in no other way is so much money misspent 
with the best of intentions, as in building school houses. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 49 

I will not discuss exteriors, because here arise questions of 
taste and length of purse, but there are certain matters of 
interior arrangement upon which depend the comfort and 
health of the children in school, to which I ini^ite careful 
attention. As an introduction I wish to call attention to 
the cuts in this report. 

PLATE ONE 

Is Franklin School, West Denver. This is the most 
expensive school building yet erected in this State, costing 
^59,500. Its seating capacity — single seats — is 660. It is 
heated and ventilated by the Ruttan system, and by an 
improved arrangement the air can be tempered in the sup- 
ply pipes to any degree from hot to cold, thus introducing 
cool air, when the rooms are too warm, through the regis- 
ters ; a very excellent substitute for the usual method of 
admitting the cold outer air directly by door or window. 

PLATE TWO 

Shows the floor plans of the same building. The rooms 
are all airy, well-lighted and cheerful, the seats so placed 
that the light comes to all pupils from the back and left 
side. The windows are all furnished with transoms open- 
ing in at the top, to which special attention is called further 
on. There is a director's room with fire-proof vault in the 
basement. Altogether the building is very attractive and 
admirable in all its appointments. 

PLATE THREE 

Represents the floor plans of the Emerson School, Denver, 
the last building completed in the city. It cost ^27,600, 
and seats 440 pupils in single seats. It has a steep shingle 
roof and enough of the "Old English" in exterior appear- 
ance to be substantial without being "dudish." In this 
building the light is admitted only on the left of the pupils. 
The windows being large, the light is ample for our sunny 
climate, but would doubtless be insufficient in the States 
east of us. Attention is called to the spacious halls and 
broad stairways, both in this and the Franklin. This we 
claim as an excellent feature of all our recent Colorado 



50 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



large buildings not often found elsewhere. These buildings 
can be emptied of 400 to 600 children in less than two 
minutes. The halls being warmed, the practice is of late 
to have the doors between it and the school rooms open at 
all times, except during concert exercises. This gives the 
children the benefit of all the air space inside the building, 
and its effect is excellent. The building is heated by hot 
air furnaces, and ventilated very effectively, and the win- 
dows are all furnished with transoms. No light being 
admitted behind the pupils it is far less trying to the eyes 
of the teachers than the usual arrangement which obliges 
them to face the glare most of the time. Like the Frank- 
lin, the Emerson is so nearly perfect throughout as to leave 
little to be desired. 

PLATE FOUR 

Is given as a desirable plan for a one-room country school 
house, which will accommodate sixty-four pupils. If seated 
with double seats, the width may be twenty-four feet instead 
of thirty-two, although the latter width gives none too 
much air space for that number of pupils. If the width be 
reduced to twenty-four feet, it may be desirable to put the 
vestibule on one side — say where A now is — and have one 
wardrobe instead of two. The position of the stove is a 
matter of choice. By taking out the back seat on each of 
the two rows beside the middle aisle, the stove may be 
placed there. If the house be of brick, the chimney may 
be built in the middle of the rear wall — flush on the inside. 

School boards will find the following table correct and 
valuable. It will aid them in determining just how many 
seats a house will hold, and the sizes wanted : 



Single Seats and Desks for One 
Pupil. 



Seat 
inches 
high. 



Seat Desk 


Desk 


nches top in. 


inches 


wide. wide. 

j 


long. 



In. from 

Desk 
to Desk 



'I 


14 


16 


24 


16 


14 


15 


24 


15 


13 


14 


22 


14 


13 


13 


■1- 


13 


12 


12 


II 


12 


II 


18 



Double Seats and Desks for Two 
Pupils. 

Seat I Seat [ Desk j Desk jln fiom 
Jl linches inches top in. j inches! Desk 
I/} 1 high. wide. wide. long. Ito Desk 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 51 

Wainscot the school room all around two feet six inches 
high, above the floor and teachers' platform. Make a 
smooth wall above that, and put liquid slating on the wall 
four feet wide above the wainscoting. Recitation seats, or 
cases for district library and apparatus, can be put where 
convenient. Windows should extend to the ceiling to 
throw the light over the room. 

VENTILATION AND SANITATION — PLATE FIVE 

Is an inside view of a window with transom at the top, 
which arrangement has proved to be one of the very best 
for supplying fresh air to the school room directly from the 
outside without subjecting pupils near the windows to a 
dangerous draft. If one or more of these be open on dif- 
ferent sides of the room, when there is any wind at all, the 
air will come in freely, but is forced to take such an upward 
direction that it does not fall upon the heads of any, as is 
always the case when the ordinary sash is lowered at the 
top. Its superiority to the common window has been 
demonstrated by use in many school houses in Denver 
and other towns, and so excellent are its results that one of 
the most experienced city superintendents in the State 
declares that it should be made unlawful for any board to 
build a school house in this State without putting such 
transoms over the windows, and I fully endorse his emphatic 
approval. It is especially valuable in Colorado, where so 
many days of our school year are clear and admit of open 
windows on the sunny side of the building, even in cold 
weather. I urge upon school boards the use of this tran- 
som, the real merits of which are almost sure to be under- 
valued by those who have not proved it. // is all I claim 
for it, and more, and its cost is trifling. For large and 
heavy transoms it will be necessary to put a transom lift, 
shown on the right of the cut, on both sides. 

Referring again to the diagram of school room — plate 
4 — we find that a room 32x32, and 12 feet high, will contain 
12,288 cubic feet of air. The amount of fresh air allowed 
to hospital patients is about 2,500 cubic feet per hour. If 
we allow two-fifths this quantity to our children in school, 
they will require 1,000 cubic feet per hour, and sixty 
children will need an hourly supply of 60,000 cubic feet, 



52 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

or nearly five times the amount contained in the room repre- 
sented by the diagram. In other words, the air of this 
room must be entirely changed every twelve minutes, if the 
children are to breathe pure air. How many school rooms 
fill these requirements ? Is it not rare to find one, even 
among costly city school buildings, that make more than 
one-half these allowances, either in air space or rapidity of 
change ? 

The best authorities estimate the allowance of floor 
space from fifteen to eighteen square feet to each pupil, and 
250 to 300 cubic feet of air space as the frmitmrnn con- 
sistent with health, and this is less than one-eighth the hos- 
pital allowance as given above. If the room be 82x32, 
each of sixty-four pupils will have sixteen square feet of 
floor space, and fourteen leet in height will give each 224 
cubic feet of air space ; twelve feet in height will give each 
192 cubic feet. Reduce the size to 32x24, and there will 
be but twelve square feet of floor space, and if twelve feet 
high, 144 cubic feet of air space ; if fourteen feet high, 168 
cubic feet to each pupil. 

Park's Practical Hygiene states : ** If 100 cubic feet of 
air be allowed to a man in a sealed room for one hour, 3,900 
cubic feet of fresh air is required to restore that 100 cubic 
feet to a health standard." 

Dr. Albert Buck, of New York, a recognized authority 
on hygiene, says : ** We expire fourteen to twenty cubic 
feet of air per hour, requiring 200 times that amount of 
fresh air to dilute it to a health basis, or 3,500 cubic feet 
per hour." 

In the Report of New York State Board of Health, 
1882, Dr. D. Y . Lincoln says of school requirements : 
"Assuming 1,800 cubic feet of air for each pupil per hour, 
and starting with 300 cubic feet for each pupil, six changes 
of air per hour are necessary in order to attain a reasonable 
health standard." 

Let anyone compare the first half-dozen school rooms 
within his reach with the above figures, and the statements 
of these eminent authorities^ and he will quickly see how 
the ** Murder of the Innocents" is going on daily in about 
nine-tenths of the school rooms in this enlightened land. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 53 

Rooms are seated with double seats for the sake of 
economy in space, because room costs money, and no 
thought is given to what the occupants shall breathe. It 
should not be necessary at this late da}^ to quote the well 
worn proofs that air loaded with organic contaminations is 
the source of nervous disorders and depression of the physi- 
cal powers, of tubercular diseases and consumption; every- 
one knows them by heart. It is not, however, as generally 
known that children are many times more sensitive to 
atmospheric poison than adults, and that their natural 
brightness and activity during their school life, instead of 
showing that they endure its noxious influences with 
impunity, only conceal for a time the disorganization of 
lungs, or nervous system, which will assert itself when it 
is too late to remedy it. In planning our large city school 
houses, some attention is usually paid to ventilation. Too 
often, however, the result is a costly abortion, as the nos- 
trils of every visitor inform him before he is fairly inside 
the outer door, and in very few of our country school 
houses, east, west, north and south, is there any evidence 
of an intelligent comprehension of the end to be attained, 
or the adaptation of means to that end. Not only are they- 
wholly destitute of any provision for ventilation, but, being 
warmed by stoves, no fresh air is admitted. Yet small 
school houses are perhaps the easiest of all buildings to 
ventilate, if the object to be secured and the dangers to be 
avoided are kept in mind. 

Briefly, the aim of ventilation should be to maintain 
a steady supply of fresh air, and withdrawal of foul, at 
all parts of the room, removing the products of respira- 
tion and organic particles as fast as thrown off, and leaving 
no corners stagnant or unswept by the purifying current. 
To accomplish this in small buildings, the windows should 
be so made as to be easily handled. Nothing can take 
the place of aeration by means of open windoAvs. If the 
transom be used, the air will change so frequently that 
it will not become seriously vitiated. Artificial ventila- 
tion, though required for changing the air when the 
windows are necessarily closed, is almost always insuffi- 
cient, unless the room is from time to time thoroughly 
refreshed and purified by the sweep of the free air through 
all its windows widely opened. Such an atmospheric 



54 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

washing should be secured at recess, and at the close of 
each session, banishing teachers and children from the 
room meanwhile, if necessary. Nothing but the most 
inclement weather should prevent this cleansing. Eyes 
should be fixed in the upper sashes, and a pole and hook 
furnished with which to handle them .; the window frames 
must be well made and looked after from time to time to 
see that all is in working order. It is a shame to any dis- 
trict to allow a window of its school room to remain in 
such a condition that the teacher cannot easily move it at 
will. 

There are times, however, when windows cannot be 
opened, and means must be provided for insuring the 
withdrawal of the respired air from the room in some 
other way. If fresh air is to be introduced into a room, 
provision must be made for the escape of foul air. The 
simple experiment of attempting to blow into the mouth 
of a bottle will impress this fact upon the mind, and will 
show why it is that rooms supplied with hot air from 
furnaces cannot be warmed until a window or other outlet 
is opened, allowing the pent-up air to escape, and a fresh 
supply to enter in its place. 

For our country school houses, and for two to four 
room buildings in our villages, it is useless to consider 
any costly system either of heating or ventilation. 

The powers and properties of air shafts are often so 
grossly misunderstood that an explanation of their action 
may be necessary before proceeding to details. Nothing 
is more common or more absurd than to see rough ventil- 
ating flues, 4 by 8 inches, built in walls without any pro- 
vision for heating them, under the supposition that they 
will " draw." The action of every such shaft or chimney 
is precisely analogous to the movement of tv/o boys bal- 
anced on a see-saw. If their weights be equal, neither 
moves ; if one is slightly heavier, he descends and the 
other ascends. So with ventilating shafts ; the column 
of air in them is balanced against a column of the same 
size and height outside of them. If the outer air is cold 
and that in the shaft warm, the latter column will be 
slightly lighter, because, being expanded, a given volume 
contains less weight. This difference of weight, if there is 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REF^ORT. 55 

not too much friction in the cliimney to be overcome, 
will incline the balance, and the air in the chimney will rise, 
cold air from without descending to take its place. The 
actual difference of weight between the column of air in a 
chimney 1*2 inches square and 30 feet high, at a tempera- 
ture of 100 degrees Fahr., and an equivalent volume at 
32 degrees Fahr., would be five ounces ; and this, deduct- 
ing the friction of both the ascending and descending cur- 
rents, will be the measure of the ascensive force of the air 
in the shaft. This feeble force is all we have to depend 
upon, and it need hardly be said that all obstructions to its 
action must be avoided. The foul air shaft must be large, 
straight and smooth. One shaft two feet in diameter will 
carry off about as much air as six shafts each one foot in 
diameter, because of the increased friction in the smaller 
shafts. The one indispensable condition is, this shaft must 
be heated, else it will be useless. It has also been demon- 
strated under my own observation, that the best results are 
obtained when the greatest heat is applied i7t the upper por- 
tion. I have in mind a costly and beautiful church, sup- 
plied with foul air shafts, warmed by steam coils at the 
bottom, and though the shafts are of sufficient capacity and 
well located, they do not give satisfaction at all, it often 
being found necessary to close them when they are most 
needed, to prevent the in-flow of cold air. If the upper 
third of the shaft is heated there is always an upward move- 
ment of the air within it. Referring again to plate 4, E is 
the chimney, built upon the ground always, — and for this 
room it should be not less than 16x16 inches — inside. Into 
this the stove pipe should be inserted 2 or 3 feet below the 
ceiling. The pipe or flue for the smoke, made of galvan- 
ized iron, or something heavier, should be put into the 
chimney when it is built, and carried to the top of the 
chimney. Just above the floor, in this case above the floor 
of the platform, an opening must be made into the chimney, 
nearly equal in size to the sectional area of the chimney. 
Whenever there is fire in the stove, the column of air in 
the chimney is heated by the smoke pipe from the point 
where it enters to the top, and a "draft" is created, which 
takes out the cold air near the floor, which can always be 
best spared. 

Another method is to build two flues side by side, 
using one for smoke and the other for foul air. The results 



56 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

from this are not so satisfactory as when the smoke flue of 
metal is carried up inside the chimney because the latter 
gives a higher temperature to the air in the shaft. 

The withdrawal of the foul air is always a more difficult 
problem than the introduction of fresh, yet the latter must 
receive attention. For a large room, or for a two or four 
room building, a furnace in the basement, with its smoke 
flue carried up inside a large ventilating chimney with which 
all the rooms are connected, is always to be recommended. 
If for any reason a furnace is not used, still fresh air, suit- 
ably warmed, can be introduced. There are now ventilat- 
ing stoves made, which are really excellent, One made by 
Richardson & Boynton is in use in several school rooms 
in the State, and is well liked. Fresh air is admitted under 
the stove and carried up between the fire-box and the outer 
jacket, and, after becoming heated in the passage, is dis- 
charged at the top of the stove. If the ground is dry 
under the floor, and there are grated openings in the foun- 
dation, as there always should be, a hole in the floor under 
the stove is all that is needed. In the second story a pipe 
can be run between the joists from a suitable opening in 
the wall. 

John Grossius, of Cincinnati, also makes a similar stove, 
which gives satisfactory results, and no doubt there are 
others. I was informed recently by Superintendent Peasley, 
of Cincinnati, that after some years of trial, the steam- 
heating apparatus has been' removed from all the public 
school buildings in that city, and the Grossius stove put in. 

If these stoves are too costly for the district purse, 
excellent results may be obtained by putting a jacket of 
galvanized iron around a common stove, about six inches 
from the stove, resting on the floor, and extending to the 
top of the stove, open at the top, strengthened by large 
wire, with large door in front to admit of feedini^ and clean- 
ing the stove. The fresh air being admitted under the 
stove, is heated by passing up between the stove and the 
jacket, and is discharged warm into the room. With the 
ventilating flue already described, this simple contrivance, 
within reach of the poorest district, will keep the air of the 
school room in fair, if not perfect, condition. There will 
be the additional advantage that the pupils who are obliged 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 57 

to sit near the stove will not be roasted for the benefit of 
those more distant. These appHances are as suitable for 
churches and halls as for sciiool houses. 

I have discussed ventilation and heating somewhat at 
length, because six years of visiting school rooms in Colo- 
rado and elsewhere, has convinced me that the most serious 
defect -in the construction of modern buildings, public and 
private, is the absence of any provision for ventilation, or 
the use of methods entirely inadequate and often absurd ; 
that the seeds of disease are sown in our school rooms, too 
often in greater abundance than the- germs of intellectual 
development; whiie, except in large buildings containing 
many rooms, ventilation is not difficult, and ought not to 
be rare. In closing, I again call attention to the ventilating 
chimney I have described, and the window transom shown 
by plate 5. 

For many valuable suggestions on the subjects of heat- 
ing and ventilation, I am indebted to Circular No. 4, 1880, 
issued by the Bureau of Education at Washington ; but I 
have recommended nothing which I have not proved by 
personal observation. 

The following are a few out of an almost exhaustive 
series of questions officially issued to teachers in the Onta- 
rio schools by the Provincial Board of Health. They have 
equal pertinence for every school in Colorado : 

1. How many cubic feet of air space for each pupil? 

2. Is light admitted in front of the pupils, at their left 
or right side, or from behind them ? or is it admitted from 
two sides ? 

3. Is light well distributed ? 

4. How near to the ceiling and to the floor do the 
windows extend ? 

5. Are there any blinds on the windows ? 

6. Is a uniform and equitable temperature of from 63° 
to 70° F. constantly maintained during school hours ? Is 
this tested ? 



58 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

7. Is the air dry ? What means are adopted for sup- 
plying moisture? 

8. Explain fully how each room is ventilated in cold 
and in warm weather (whether by windows open at the top 
or bottom, by ventilating flues, or in what other way). 

9. To what expedients do you resort to prevent 
draughts from open windows striking pupils? 

10. Is the air of the school-room completely changed 
by opening doors and. windows at stated intervals during 
school hours and at recess ? 

11. How often is the school-room swept per week? 

12. Do pupils frequently complain of headache, cold 
feet, or any symptoms indicating the existence of defects in 
ventilation or heating ? 

13. What is the duration of school hours and recesses ? 

14. How are scholars and teachers occupied during 
recess ? 

15. At what periods are the greatest numbers absent ? 

16. Is the water pure, cold and abundant? 

17. If from a well, what means have been adopted to 
prevent its receiving the soakage from surrounding grounds? 

18. Is drinking water kept in the school house? If 
so, where is it kept, and how is it protected from dust and 
other impurities ? 

19. Are there cellars or other excavations beneath the 
school house ? 

20. Are there water closets for the different sexes in 
separate buildings? 

21. Are they properly protected from observation and 
from inclemencies of weather? 

22. State where they are located in relation to school 
house, wells, etc., and give distances? 

23. What means are adopted to keep them clean ? 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 59 

24. Are the receptacle and the closet itself well ven- 
tilated? 

25. Is any disinfectant used, and what ? 

26. If water closets are used, are the traps and appli" 
ances efficient? 

27. In the case of privy pits, how are the vaults con- 
structed, how often emptied, and by what means ? 

28. Have you any observations to make regarding the 
clothing of pupils ? Protection against sitting in wet feet, 
etc.? 

29. Is there any instruction given in hygiene ? 



TEXT BOOKS. 



Section 16, Article IX., of our State Constitution reads 
as follows : ** Neither the General Assembly nor the State 
Board of Education shall have power to prescribe text 
books to be used in the public schools." 

The statutes makes it the specific duty of each school 
board to determine what text books shall be used in the 
schools of the district, with the limitation that after the 
adoption of any book, it cannot be changed under four 
years. To make the adoption binding, the board must 
take formal action at a meeting at which at least a majority 
are present ; the action must be properly recorded in the 
minutes of the board, and the books put into actual use. 
The courts of this State have never passed on the question, 
but courts in other States have put this construction upon 
the word "adoption" in similar statutes. 

This section of our constitution has saved the State 
from the unseemly contests for " State adoption" to which 
many other States are subjected, and from any attempt by 
scheming printers to secure text books prepared and pub- 
lished by the State. For the protection thus afforded, let 
us be thankful. 



6o STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

The sentiment in favor of "free text books" — that is, 
text books owned by the district and loaned to the pupils 
— seems to be growing in many places in the country. The 
plan has given such satisfaction in various districts else- 
where, that perhaps the time has come for the slight change 
needed in our law to allow school boards to own and fur- 
nish the books where the public sentiment of the district 
approves the experiment. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



6i 



COMPARATIVE TABLE. 



SUMMARY. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Number of districts 

Number of males of school age 

Number of females of school age 

Total school population 

School population between 6 arid 16 

School population between 16 and 21 

Number between 6 and 16 enrolled in school 

Number between 16 and 21 enrolled in school 

Number enrolled in graded schools 

Number enrolled in ungraded schools ... 

Total number enrolled in school during the year... 

Average daily attendance 

Per cent, of school population enrolled in school. 
Per cent, of school population under 16 enrolled 

in school 

Per cent, of school population over 16 enrolled in 

school 

Per cent, of average attendance on enrollment 

Per cent, in graded schools 

Volumes in school library 

Number of school houses 

Value of school houses and property 

Number of male teachers in graded schools 

Number of female teachers in graded schools 

Number of male teachers in ungraded schools 

Number of female teachers in ungraded schools.... 
Average monthly wages of male teachers in 

graded schools 

Average monthly wages of female teachers in 

graded schools 

Averge monthly wages of male teachers in 

ungraded schools 

Average monthly wages of female teachers in 

ungraded schools 

Average cost per month for each pupil based on 

enrollment 

Average cost per month for each pupil based on 

average daily attendance 

Received from county tax (general fund) 

Received from district tax (special fund) 

Received from district tax for building fund 

Received from all sources, including amount on 

hand at beginning of year 

Expended for teachers' wages 

Expended for current expenses 

Expended for buildings, sites and furniture 

Total expenditure 

*Expenditure per capita of school population 

Expenditure per capita of enrollment 

Expenditure per capita of average attendance 

Expenditure per capita of population between 6 

and 16 



552 
26869 
26557 
53426 
41770 
1 1 636 
33030 

3414 
20930 
15514 
36444 
23008 
68 

79 

29 

43 

57 

6096 

459 
81,551,080 

51 
295 
233 
454 

$109.89 
68.45 
51-23 
50-91 



$329,408 

269,442 

37,829 

992,119 

367,356 

"7,194 

267,611 

1,744,280 

952 

14.00 

22.12 

14.41 



1884. 



604 

28433 
Z7809 
56242 

43131 
13111 
34730 
3142 
22131 
1 5 741 
37872 
23307 
70 

83 



62 

58 

6387 

525 

$1,676,130 

66 

317 
262 
448 

$110.15 

66.41 

51-30 

41-35 

2.58 

4.19 
336,903 
210,784 
189,996 

1,087,659 

432,255 

140,322 

237,321 

809,898 

10.51 

15-63 

25-33 



13-71 



Increase. 



52 
1564 
1252 
2816 
1361 
1455 
1700 

272 
1201 

227 
1428 

229 
2 



Dec. I 

19 

I 

291 

66 

$125,050 

15 

52 

Dec. 6 

26 

Dec. 2.04 

.07 

Dec. 9.56 



^ 7,495 

Dec. 49,058 

152,167 

95,540 

64,899 

23,128 

Dec. 30,290 

Dec. 934,382 

I 63 
3-21 



Dec. 



■30 



*In calculating these per capita expenditures, only interest on amount expended for 
buildings, sites, etc., is added to the other amounts expended. 



62 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 



THE SCHOOL POPULATION OF COLORADO SINCE ITS ADMISSION WAS 

AS FOLLOWS : 



1877 21,612 

1878 . 26,473 

1879 • 29,738 

1880 35,566 



1884 



40,804 
49,208 
53,426 
56,242 



THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT PUPILS ENROLLED IN SCHOOL 



1877 14,085 

1878 - 16,641 

1879 18,771 

1880 22,119 



1882 



1884 



26,000 
3^738 
36,444 
37,872 



THE AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE: 



1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



8,141 
9,699 
10,919 
12,618 



1083 
1884 



14,649 
18,488 
23,008 
23,307 



THE NUMBER OF SCHOOL HOUSES ; 



1877 
1878 
1879 



219 
249 

255 
292 



1882 
1883 
1884 



314 

370 
459 

525 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



VALUE OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS. SITES AND FURNITURE: 



1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



II 

$ 472,983 ' 1881 $ 977,213 

474,771 ij 1882 1,235,491 

496,891 j 1883 1,551,080 

682,410 j 1884 1,676,130 



NUMBER OF MALE TEACHERS EMPLOYED: 



1877 
1878 
1879 



233 


1881 


226 


1882 


255 ' 


■ 1883 


247 


, 1884 



245 
257 
284 

328 



NUMBER OF FEMALE TEACHERS EMPLOYED : 



1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



297 
341 
338 
431 



1882 ..*. 



556 
630 
749 
795 



What is known as the "General Fund" is derived from the county tax for school 
purposes, penal fines, and the amount received from the State fund. 

THE RECEIPTS FROM THESE SOURCES HAVE BEEN AS FOLLOWS: 



1877 $120,057 

1878 128,788 

1879 "9»4i9 

1880 182,326 



1884 



..$ 208,845 
. 254,804 
. 329,408 
• 336,903 



RECEIPTS FROM SPECIAL (DISTRICT) TAXES 



1877 • #65,394 I 1881 . 

1878 57,377 |! 1882. 

1879 95,675 j I 1883 . 

1880 154,007 ' ; *i884 



$ 168,927 
. 181,708 
• 269,442 
. 409,780 



♦This includes tax for building fund not heretofore included. 



64 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

EXPENDED FOR TEACHERS' WAGES: 



[877 $ 140,780 

'878 153,-89 

[879 153,144 

[880 186,426 



1881 $ 240,384 

1882 300,128 

1883 367,356 

1884 432,255 



TOTAL EXPENDITURE FOR SCHOOL PURPOSES, INCLUDING BUILD- 
INGS, SITES AND FURNITURE : 



1877 $ 215,225 

1878 243,850 

1879 264,371 

1880 395,227 



1881 $ 557,151 

1882 661,419 

1883 752,161 

1884 876,671 



^EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA OF SCHOOL POPULATION : 



1877 $ 7 95 

1878 9 21 

1879 8 88 

i88o .• II 07 



1881 $ 13 64 

1882 8 45 

1883 9 52 

1884 10 51 



*In calculating these per capita expenditures, only interest on amount expended for 
sites and all permanent improvements is added to the other expenditures. It would be 
more nearly correct, as I think, to add the interest on a fair valuation of all school property,, 
instead of on the amount expended for this purpose during the current year; but I follow 
the plan of the Bureau of Education at Washington. 



EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN SCHOOL 



1877 % 12 20 

1878... 1465 

1879 1408 

1880 1780 



i88i $ 12 90 

1882 13 10 

1883 14 00 

1884 T5 63, 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 65 

EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA OF AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE: 

1877 $ 21 10 1881 $ 22 88 

1878 2514 : 1882 2255 

1879 2421 !' 1883 22 12 

i88o 3138 1884 2533 



STATE FUND. 



The amount of the Public School Fund, on Nov. 80, 
1884, was ^114,220. This is kept invested in State war- 
rants at 6 per cent, interest. This interest, and the rental 
from leased lands, is distributed semi-annually to the coun- 
ties that have made a legal report for the preceding year, 
per capita of schood population, deducting from the portion 
of each county the value of the blank books and registers 
furnished. The first apportionment w^as made in 1879, and 
the annual apportionments have been as follows : 



1879 $ 7,041 30 j 1883 $ 29,529 80 

1883 15,683 76 1884 32,038 42 

1881 14,443 27 , ; 

188a 17,95376 Total gi 16,690 31 



THE PER CAPITA HAS BEEN AS FOLLOWS: 



1879 26 cents, 6 mills 1882 44 cents 

1880 53 cents 1883 60 cents 

1881 41 cents 1884 61 cents 



Looking at the per capita expenditures on a previous 
page, one can see how small the help that comes from the 
State fund. Our expenditures are almost ^100,000 per 
month for the months in which the schools are in session, 



66 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

hence the entire proceeds of the State fund for the six 
years inclusive, since it has been productive, would support 
our schools about five weeks. This is a poor showing for 
an endowment fund, but it is not at all certain that it is a 
calamity. The people of Colorado expect no schools 
except as they tax themselves to pay for them, and the 
prompt liberality with which they vote taxes — and pay 
them — for public schools, is worthy of emulation. It is of 
itself an endowment beside which the most colossal fund 
were poor. If the people of all the States were possessed 
of the same spirit, there would be little need of "National 
Aid to Education." It is not that our people are rich, but 
because they are determined to have schools, and knowing 
they need hope for no external aid, have learned to depend 
upon themselves. 

WHAT LACK WE YET? 

In nothing fashioned by' human hands or human minds 
is perfection found. The machine of to-day is old iron 
to-morrow, because some more skillful hand has more cun- 
ningly adapted materials to the end in view; and a "body 
of sound doctrine" for one generation is laid aside like an 
outgrown garment by the next. 

Many years since, at Edinburgh, the jewels in the crown 
of Scotland were locked up in a strong box, and that box 
put into another box, and so on, until they were supposed 
to be burglar proof They were then locked up in the 
vault of a castle, there to remain for one hundred years, 
the keys being then placed in a mortar and fired into the 
sea. Scarcely fifty years passed by, and the modern lock- 
picker opens the vault and boxes without trouble. 

No reasonable friend of the public schools will claim for 
them immunity from human defects. The schools of a 
community are, to an extent, exhibition galleries, from an 
examination of which one can judge with reasonable accu- 
racy of the community, the grade of its refinement and the 
tone of its morals. 

As the morals and the culture of every community 
have some blemishes and some crudities, so there must be 
some improvement possible to its schools. While believ- 



^TATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 67 

ing enthusiastically in the American public school, both 
for its results to-day and its promise for to-morrow, I am 
not satisfied with its present achievements, any more than 
I am with any other institution of society. Progress is 
possible only to those who are dissatisfied with the present. 
This is put in telling phrase in a recent article in one of 
our local papers : " For be sure of this, that never anything 
worth preserving by posterity grew out of a satisfied man 
or a satisfied society. The glorious fruits of human progress 
sprang not from roots like these. All the grand characters 
of the past, the noble ones of earth, the benefit of their 
kind, whose ideas left their imprint on the ages in which 
they lived, and whose deeds live after them in the institu- 
tions we enjoy, were animated in life by a profound and 
lasting discontent, only satisfied at last in peaceful death." 
This is what Emerson called the "Divine unrest." It was 
the thought of the great apostle when he wrote to the 
Phillippians, " forgetting the things which are behind, and 
reachmg forth unto those that are before." I am not a 
prophet of smooth things. It is the vice of professional 
associations that they are in fact mutual admiration socie- 
ties, whose contented minds are only ruffled by adverse 
criticism from an outsider, when they bristle " like the quills 
of a fretful porcupine." I trust our State Association may 
not fall into this slough; but, "with malice toward none, 
with charity for all," there will be in all meetings of instruc- 
tors and school officers, whether State or county or cit3;^, a 
free discussion of existing errors, and a ''reaching forth to 
those things which are before." Stanley Hall says : " To 
believe that there is but one true method of instruction is 
erroneous. To persuade a young teacher that she has that 
method, is fatal." There is nothing so wholesome as sound 
criticism, and even captious, unfair criticism may be of great 
advantage. It is generally, not always, the exaggeration of 
a real defect, and it will always profit the criticised to sep- 
arate the grain of wheat from the peck of chaff, and use 
the wheat. I confess it seems to me that not infrequently 
the critics of our schools have amassed a remarkably large 
stock of ignorance upon the topic of which they write. 

I could wish that critics would not so frequently com- 
pare the average child with the perfect child, which exists 
only in imagination, and for every point where the real 



68 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

falls below the ideal, cry aloud against the school as the 
cause of the discrepancy, forgetting that when the perfect 
child puts in an appearance there will be a perfect home 
from which he comes, a perfect church, and a perfect society^ 
each and all of which must exist and play well their parts 
with the perfect school in fashioning the perfect child. It 
is so much easier to transfer than to bear responsibility, that 
the over-burdened common school is made the scapegoat 
to carry away into the wilderness the sins of the people. 
To those whose lances are so free in thrusting the school,, 
I say, look about you a little to learn if there be not some 
lack in the other institutions which are responsible for the 
child, which should not be overlooked in fixing the blame 
for ills which we all admit. Above all, let it not be for- 
gotten that it is the ordination of Providence that home 
should form the character. When the home is so arranged 
and conducted that children wander from the parental roof 
for amusement, it is quite unnecc^ssary to seek further for the 
root of the evil life which is so apt to follow. The child 
or youth who does not love his home, or has none to love, 
begins the battle of life v/ith tremendous odds against him. 
A few years since it was ascertained that seventy- five per 
cent, of the convicts in Pennsylvania prisons were orphaned 
children, yet because more than seventy-five per cent, of 
them could read, a critic was ready to aim an arrow, 
pointed with this fact, at the public schools. No doubt 
better schools might have saved some, but I submit, they 
should not bear all the burden; but if this unfair aspersion 
brought home to any teacher a keener realization of the 
weighty responsibility under which she works ; if it aroused 
any community to the duty of looking after and caring for 
the waifs upon its streets, deprived of both home and school 
and becoming criminals by natural selection, then, indeed,. 
even its unfairness may be excused. 

I could wish that the elegant gentlemen who so coolly 
mark out for the "children of the laboring classes," as they 
are pleased to term them, the limit of school instruction 
beyond which it will be injurious for them to go, would 
wake up to the fact that all talk of ''classes of society," 
or a boundary to learning, beyond which any child may not 
go, because he is to remain in the condition of his parents, 
is the idlest of idle talk in this land of ours. If, in the light of 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 69 

the great problems, so pregnant with the good of the race, 
which have been wrought out in this New World in the 
last two hundred and fifty years, and wrought so largely by 
men and women who. if born in any other country on the 
face of the globe, must have remained ** hewers of wood 
and drawers of water" because their parents were; if in the 
light of .such a history as ours any man can seriously talk 
of the public school as an injury to any "class" of Ameri- 
can society, I am tempted to say, "Though thou bray a 
fool in a mortar, yet will he not understand." And yet it 
may be true that our schools are not fully adapting them- 
selves to the greatly changed condition of society as com- 
pared with that of even twenty-five years ago, the most 
marked of which changes is the growth of cities. The 
door must be kept open for the future Lincolns and Gar- 
fields, who have the persistence to push to the top, but we 
must adapt our schools to the wants of the thousands who 
will not go to the top. Do they meet the wants of the 
children of the great cities as well as they have met those 
of the small cities and the rural communities in the past ? 
Emerson says, " The castle which conservatism is set to 
defend is the actual state of things, good and bad. The 
project of innovation is the best possible state of things. 
Conservatism goes for comfort, reform for truth." Teachers 
and school officers are not, as a class, prone to defend 
this castle. They are on the alert for innovations, and it 
behooves them to think much and act wisely on this point, 
— the growth of cities. In 1793, the proportion of our 
population living in cities was 3.3 per cent..; in 1840, it had 
reached 8.5; in 1860, 16.1 ; and in 1880,22.5. This means 
a constantly increasing number of children growing up 
with idle hands ; some of them in pleasant homes, some in 
the street, but all alike deprived of that invaluable training 
Avhich comes to the child in the country and in small 
villages by his hourly contact with material things. 

The blood of our cities so far has been kept healthful 
and vigorous only by the constant absorption of fresh, 
energetic country life. The rotation is so well established 
as to be familiar to all. The country boys come to the 
city; they have had a few weeks each year in the district 
school ; they have risen early and worked hard ; their play- 
mates have been domestic animals more frequently than 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 70 

other boys ; they have cultivated muscle by day, and read 
books by night; their hardships have made them strong- 
and self-reliant. By the side of their city cousins they are 
rude, often uncouth, but they swarm into the cities like the 
barbarians upon ancient Rome. Like the Goths and Van- 
dals, also, they will conquer, to be in turn rendered 
effeminate by the voluptuous life they so eagerly seize ; 
their children, most likely, to be reconquered in the same 
way. Must this be so ? What is to be the end ? The 
struggle for life grows intense, as our wilderness becomes 
populous. Limits are already set to the ** Boundless West," 
which through all our history has been our safety valve. 
The contests between labor and capital, which have increased 
so greatly in frequency and bitterness in the last ten years, 
are but the mutterings of the tempest that is to come, 
which warn us that the immunity from the ills of over- 
crowded population which we have enjoyed by reason of 
our vast extent of unoccupied territory, will soon be ours 
no longer. What then? Is it possible to educate the 
town-bred child to be the equal in strength, endurance, and 
moral stamina of his country cousin? Must the children, 
or the grandchildren, of the men who by industry and 
frugality win a fortune, die poor? While this remains the 
rule, it is evident we have not learned how to educate boys 
and girls under conditions of wealth, and make much of 
them. Out of this manifest inadequacy of our present 
method of training city children, both in home and school, 
has grown the discussion of manual training as a factor in 
this great problem. Its place is not yet fixed, its results 
not yet determined. The public school can afford to wait 
the development of the experiments going forward by 
private munificence. How extensive these experiments are, 
under what differing circumstances and influences, may be 
judged by the fact that in the last twelve years more than ten 
millions of dollars have been given to found and support 
technical schools in this country. Such results as we look 
for, hope for, must be awaited with patience. If it be 
determined that manual training should have a place in the 
public schools as a substitute or a supplement, a place will 
be found for it. The American people will have such 
schools as they want ; never doubt that. 

There are not wanting those among us who, having^ 
themselves been trained in other lands, and by methods 



I 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 71 

widel)' different from ours, are sure that we lack almost 
everything because we have not followed the time honored 
models of the Old World. We are told of the extraordi- 
nary examinations through which boys are able to pass 
successfully after being trained in tlie famous English 
schools ; and again on other hands we are assured that 
until We adopt the German system of training teachers and 
supervising their work we must fall far short of the results 
which are there obtained. Now, first, I remark, that we 
can best judge a nation's school system by its men and 
women of forty years, not by its boys and girls of fourteen or 
twenty. Secondly, many men trained in the English schools 
have come among us during the last twenty-five years, 
and, as far as I have heard, they have generally found 
enough to do to hold their own among our "ill-trained 
Yankees." I do not know enough of the great English 
schools to discuss them, but until some one convinces me 
that the pictures drawn in Tom Brown, and the Auto- 
biography of Anthony Trollope are vile slanders, and that 
these schools are not, and have not been in the recent past, 
such dens of mediaeval barbarity, as these books repre- 
sent, I must avow a decided preference for the little red 
school house of New England, and the log cabin -of the 
frontier, which have given us our Websters, Lincolns, and 
Garfields. 

The German system of supervision, in which an abso- 
lute government inspector comes round and winds up the 
machine over the heads of the people, whose only part is 
to send the children to school, is doubtless very attractive 
to a considerable class of educated men, whose confidence 
in their own theories is confirmed by a chronic distrust of 
the power of the people to take care of themselves. But 
the most ordinary school district in America has in it the 
elements of a broader and more profound system of edu- 
cation, in placing the power and responsibility for school- 
ing the children on the people themselves, and inviting all 
men to contribute their best ideas, and co-operate in the 
election of the administrators of instruction. Of course, 
this means a vast amount of crude school keeping, with a 
perpetual danger of collapse into the slough of partisan 
politics. But on the other hand, it never fails to educate 
an increasing body of intelligent men and women, whose 



72 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

indirect supervision of the schools, in the long run, weeds 
out incompetent teachers, explodes impracticable methods, 
and does for the children the best thing under the circum- 
stances. At any rate this is the American way in all 
things; not the direct, despotic supervision, but the indi- 
rect, constant, growing superintendency, that at last creates 
that atmosphere of intelligent public opinion, which is the 
most powerful agency for good in this world. This, and 
only this, is in harmony with the American doctrine that 
the best government is that which teaches us to govern 
ourselves. 

A number of distinguished writers have told us in 
recent years, that the schools of to-day lack the efficiency 
of those of a generation ago ; that if we would retrace our 
steps and reproduce the methods of the instructors of 
former days, results would be far more satisfactory. Fairly 
stated, the schools of to-day have no results. We must 
wait twenty years, at least, for them, and here, I think, is 
the basal error of those who admire the dead and gone 
schools of the last generation. They compare boys and 
girls now in school with men and women who have been 
twenty or more years in the broader school of life. Judged 
in this' manner, of course our schools must suffer. I have 
a profound and reverent admiration for the stern men and 
women who, amid all the terrible discouragements of the 
early settlement of New England, resolutely insisted that 
none of the children of the community should be allowed 
to grow up in ignorance. As Warner so admirably puts it, 
** The Mayflower did not bring over a sewing machine, but 
a bit of paper on which was written the charter of human 
rights and duties. The Pilgrims built a church before 
they built a ship; they set up a school house long before 
they thought of a factory. The first seeds they sowed 
were those of education. They quarried their wealth in 
chunks of energy, industry and faith out of the old family 
Bible." But I insist that the claim that these first rude 
schools — rude because everything else was rude — kept even 
pace with the improvements of all other social institutions 
for two hundred years, then halted while everything else 
continued its onward march, is, to say the least, inex- 
plicable, and to be credible must be supported by indubit- 
able facts. What are the facts adduced ? In brief, they are 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 73 

the excellencies of the old, often enchanted by distance, 
compared with admitted defects in the new, or to state it 
differently, the men of to-day are compared with the boys 
of to-day, to prove the superiority of the schools of fifty 
years ago. When a gray-haired patriarch will sit calmly 
down and reproduce for us the school of his boyhood as it 
really was, it is easy, then, to see that the school has been 
no exception to the general march of progress. Those 
who have had the privilege of reading the recent articles 
of Superintendent Harrington, of New Bedford, in the New 
England Journal, realize how true this is. 

I have in my possession an arithmetic printed in 1807, 
and used by my father. It is, at least, one of the very first 
of its kind published in this country. I am sure the most 
sturdy advocate of the old schools, not even Edward 
Everett Hale or Dr. Hudson, would recommend it as prefer- 
able to any now in use. Since instruction began, it has been 
true that the teacher makes the school, and that among those 
who wielded the rod fifty years ago — for that was a laborious 
part of their business — there were doubtless men who 
roused the nobler impulses in their pupils in spite of the 
gross imperfections of prevailing methods of instruction, 
and the sickening brutalities of discipline. It is said that 
our school books are filled with matter which has no con- 
nection with practical life. A brief examination of this 
book proves that the every step of the evolution by which 
the modern book has grown out of this one, has been an 
attempt to bridge the chasm between school and business. 

I cannot pursue the subject. I stand by the American 
public school, as it has been, as it is, as it will come to be, 
with its many human defects, as the best seminary yet 
devised in which to train American citizens. If everything 
which England has taught us in the century concerning 
public education were obliterated, it would leave no void, 
so they left us Thomas Arnold. He sowed seed at Rugby 
which is now ripening in both hemispheres. Grand and 
great as England is, she cannot hold such a man ; he 
belongs to the race and the age. His life has been an 
inspiration to a generation of teachers ; the spell of his 
influence more potent now, because moie widel\' extended 
than when he died. Died ? Such men cannot die. 

10 



74 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

To Germany we are indebted to the formula of Froebel 
— that the mind of a child is a force to be directed, not a 
magazine to be filled — beyond that we owe little in this 
department to Continental Europe. The probability is far 
greater that Germany will adopt our system, in which the 
people are the source of power in school affairs, as in all 
others, than that we shall borrow the despotic system of 
Germany. I have not the space here in which to state my 
reasons, but I hold to the American school for American 
children, with the achievements of a century of national life, 
behind me, to which I point all cavilers. 

Does some one say this is but pluming the American 
eagle? Very well. Let him sore. Bid him scream. He's 
our bird. I would I had space here to quote from the speech 
made last year in Parliament, by Mr. Labouchere, in which 
he compares the English board schools with the public 
schools of the State of Illinois, showmg, beyond question^ 
the signal superiority of the Illinois schools. 

In 1876 the French government sent a number of gen- 
tlemen here — educational experts — for the express purpose 
of examining our school. I commend their report to that 
small class of my countrymen who imagine it to be evidence 
of culture to claim superior excellence for European educa- 
tional methods. My extracts shall be brief: " Need one be 
astonished, then," say they, '* at the frank pride with which 
the American citizen speaks of his schools? Has he not a 
right to be proud when he shows us the son and the daughter 
of the humblest citizen so mentally elevated that between 
them and the privileged of fortune no difference of culture, 
no trace of intellectual inferiority, is to be discovered ? If 
it is glorious to see society freely giving to the poor the 
benefit of a public school education, is it not a still more 
extraordinary spectacle to behold a nation that deems it 
would wrong its humblest citizens were their children denied 
any opportunity for the full and fiee expansion of their 
minds ? So far as social equality can possibly be reached on 
this earth, it is attained by the American school. In other 
countries it is to be feared that the children of different classes 
of society, though brought together for awhile in the public 
school, must soon find themselves separated by the whole 
distance between their respective families. In the United 
States every effort is made to delay and to diminish this 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 75 

separation, to carry as far as possible, and as high as pos- 
sible, that common instruction which effaces the distinction 
of rich and poor. If it be true that the prosperity of a 
republic is in the direct ratio of the replenishment of its 
middle classes, of the abundance and facility in the indefi- 
nite recruiting of these classes, then the school of the 
United States is the best investment that can possibly be 
made." 

These are the honest words of educated foreigners, 
who came here to observe, not to parade their own 
superiority. 

The school of the future will not be that of to-day. 
The times press it; the changing conditions of national life 
are laying upon it new burdens, which cannot be shirked; 
the great Church of Rome has declared open war upon the 
schools from its every pulpit in the land. These are but 
the voice of God to the schools, repeating the command 
given to Moses on the sea shore, "Speak unto the children 
of Israel, that they go forward." 

We shall not return to the schools of the fathers, albeit 
there have been, and will be, old gentlemen with kindly 
memories and a sharp pen, who will bewail the degeneracy of 
the times. That has been common since the days of Solo- 
mon, but we nor our children will take no steps backward in 
any matter touching the training of the children of the 
Republic. And now, in severing finally my official con- 
nection with the public schools of Colorado, I bid adieu to 
the people of the State with this sentiment: The Ameri- 
can Public School, right or wrong. If right, to be kept 
right; if wrong, to be set right. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The changes in the school law, which experience indi- 
cates are required, are mostly such as are needed to clear 
up ambiguities, and render it less liable to be misunder- 
stood. Beyond this and the correction of clerical errors 
due to the hurry of the last days of the short sessions of 
the General Assembly, I recommend : 

First — That the school year be made to end with June 
30, instead of August 31. This will make it coincide with 



76 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

the time for balancing the books of the county treasurer, 
and save much trouble; and I am advised from the 
National Bureau at Washington, that June 30 will make 
our year agree with that of many other States, and hence 
make a better adjustment of statistics. It will occasion 
very little inconvenience to district officers, and will give 
time enough to insure the rendering of the yearly report in 
season. It will necessitate some change in the time of tak- 
ing the census, which ought to be done in mid-winter, v/hen 
the majority of district secretaries are not too busy to 
attend to it properly. 

5^<;^;2<^ -Section 50 should be so changed as to pro- 
hibit school boards from paying any member of such board 
for his services as a member of said board, only excepting 
the payment of the secretary a reasonable per diem for the 
time necessarily spent in the duties of his office. Taking 
the annual census, keeping the district records, and making 
the lawful reports, are of vital importance to the district, 
and should be well done and paid for ; but the payment of 
salaries to other members of the board is a perversion of 
the school fund, and should be prohibited. 

Third — The law should be so changed that treasurers, 
in districts where no money, or but trifling sums, will come 
into their hand, need not be required to give bond. 

Fourth — The special building fund should be consoli- 
dated with the special school fund. The people of a dis- 
trict may safely be left to their own discretion in the dis- 
posal of their special funds. If kept separate, it makes 
much additional work for the county treasurers, for which 
there is no adequate gain to the pubHc service. As a mat- 
ter of fact, many, if not most of the treasurers now keep 
the two as one fund, and the law should be changed 
accordingly. 

Fifth — As to the need <>{ changes in the laws concern- 
ing the State educational institutions, the reports of the 
institutions will speak. I wish to call special attention to 
the imperative demand of experience for such change in the 
law concerning the Mute and Blind Institute as will enable 
the trustees to appoint a competent man as superintendent, 
who will be in fact the responsible head of the institution in 



1 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 77 

all its departments. Upon no other plan can this or any 
other institution be successfully conducted. 

Sixth — A number of other western States have, by act 
of legislature, put the 5,000,000 acres internal improve- 
ment land into the public school fund. There is a general 
desire that the legislature shall transfer the proceeds of the 
internal improvement land, realized to date, to the capitol 
building fund. I suggest to the legislature the desirabil- 
ity of transferring the remainder yet to be derived from 
these lands to the public school fund. Several States have 
transferred the entire 500,000 acres to that fund. 

I have been urged to recommend that instruction con- 
cerning the action of alcohol upon the human body be 
made compulsory in the public schools. It is very desira- 
ble that some changes be made in our school physiologies, 
enlarging upon the pernicious effects of stimulants and nar- 
cotics, and authors and publishers are recognizing the 
demand, and meeting it promptly. There are text books 
already in the market containing the desired amplification 
on these points; but I am not one of those who expect the 
dawn of the temperance millenium when all school chil- 
dren receive this special and useful instruction. Among 
the scores of human wrecks it has been my misfortune to 
meet, I have yet to know of one who became an inebriate 
through ignorance of the effects of intoxicating liquor upon 
both body and soul. The question is, as I view it, a ques- 
tion of morals far more than of physiology, and the teach- 
ing of correct morals depends upon the teacJier, not the 
lazv. The law can inquire into the character of the teacher, 
but to attempt, by legal enactment, to enforce the teaching 
of good morals, as if it were arithmatic or geography, is a 
waste of words. Every district can, if such be the desire 
of the people, secure such teachers as will give most effective 
moral instruction, not by set lectures — not by giving so 
many minutes of the daily programme to the teaching of 
morality but by remembering: 

"That correct example is vitally important as a means 
of influencing others ; that the teaching which tells on 
character is not chiefly by word; that life is more than 
logic; character more mighty than catechism. Matthew 
Arnold affirms that conduct is three-fourths of life. To 



78 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

moral teaching it bears a larger proportion. Truth will 
have little vitality apart from the personality of the teacher. 
One must be, in order to do and to teach. A consistent 
example is the most convincing of arguments. 'Come' 
inspires conviction ; 'go' awakens doubt." A wine drinker 
cannot be relied on to teach children correctly the effects 
of whisky, because the law says he shall do it. Home- 
brewed ale is no more virtuous than commercial XXX. A 
genteel tippler has no moral advantage over a ragged toper. 
Any cherished habit of self-indulgence weakens one's moral 
influence. Not a few are handicapped in their advocacy of 
temperance by the quid or cigar. "Who can bring a clean 
thing out of an unclean?" The American people will have 
such schools as they believe in and demand, and it is only 
necessary that any district should realize that the teacher 
is of more consequence than the law, and it will, if it desire, 
have temperance taught in the most telling manner with- 
out legislative enactment. Without realizing this vital fact, 
no act of legislature can secure correct moral instruction 
in the school room. 

STATE LIBRARY. 

By the use of the appropriation made by the Fourth 
General Assembly, the library has been shelved, the books 
cleaned of the accumulated dust of some years of neglect, 
and arranged and catalogued, and the remainder of the 
appropriation expended in new books of reference and per- 
manent value, and the bills filed with the State Auditor. 
A copy of the new catalogue is submitted with this report, 
which will show what the library now contains. 



State University. 



To the ' Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of 
Colorado : 

Sir : — I have the honor herewith to submit the follow- 
ing biennial report : 

The Constitution of the State of Colorado provides for 
the election of a Board of Regents of the Uni\/ersity, and 
•defines its duties. While the Boards of Control of the 
other educational institutions of the State are appointed by 
the Governor, the members of the Boards of Regents are 
elected directly by the people [Const., Art. IX., Sees. 12, 
13, 14], thus bringing the management of the University 
as near the people as practicable. The Organic Act, 
establishing and providing for the maintenance of the Uni- 
versity, was passed by the General Assembly of Colorado 
March, 1877, and provides as follows: 

" The University shall include a classical, philosophical, 
normal, scientific, law and such other departments, with 
such courses of instruction and electiv^e studies as the 
Board of Regents may determine, and a department of the 
physical sciences. The Board shall have authority to con- 
fer such degrees and grant such diplomas as are usually 
conferred and granted by other Universities. And the 
Board of Regents is hereby authorized and required to 
-establish a preparatory department, which shall be under 
the control of said Board of Regents, as are the other 
departments of the University. Nothing in this action 
shall be so construed as to require the Regents to estab- 
lish the several departments, other than the normal and 
preparatory, as herein provided, until such time as, in 
their judgment, the wants and necessities of the people 
require." 

In accordance with the above named provisions, the 
Board has established, and there is now maintained, a 



8o 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



preparator}'-, a normal, a classic, a scientific and a medical 
department. 

Since my last report, I believe I am justified in stating 
that the University has had a constant and healthful 
growth, as the following statistics and other facts will 
disclose: 

Whole number of pupils in attendance 145 

College classes 13 

Preparatory school ico 

Normal school 31 

Special students 17 

Medical students 2 

Counties of Colorado represented 15 

Other States represented 8 



ATTENDANCE BY TERMS. 



Preparatory and Normal \ Male 

Schools / Female.. 

Literary and Scientific ) Male 

Dept. of College J Female., 

Medical Department Male 

Department of Music | f^^^^^ 



Totals. 



\ 


882-188 


^■ 


• I 


883-1884 




First 


Second 


Third 


First 


Second ! 


Third 


1 Term. 


Term. 


Term. 


Term. 


Term. 


Term^ 


1 33 


28 


16 


37 


25 1 


15 


1 40 


34 


25 


5X 


41 1 


33 


1 9 


9 


7 


9 


8 , 


7 


1 ..' 


2 


' 


I 
2 


2 1 




I 


... 


... 




3 


3 


3 


i - 


... 




5 


5 1 


5 


85 


73 


49 


|.CS 


85 


64 



Average attendance per term, i88c-i 
Average attendance per term, 1881-2 
Average attendance per term, 1882-3 



63. 
60 
69 



Average attendance per term, 1883-4 8( 

Amount of orders drawn on general fund from Septem- 
ber aO, 1882, to September 30, 1884: 



Regents % 

Salaries — Professors ; 

Janitor 

Fuel 

Furniture 

Laboratory 

Libr 



try 



Buildings and Grounds 

Advertising 

Telephone rent 

Botanical and Geological Collection, 

Stationery -. 

Sundries 



1,663.00 
2,055.00 
[,570 20 
[,090.53 
[,092.71 
164.38 
149 91 
[,734 82 

!,0I3.02 
240.00 
104.80 
797.77 

',372 86 



$44,049.00. 



STATE UNIVERSITY. 8i 

Amount of orders drawn on special fund from May 10, 
1883. to September 30, 1884: 

Cottages for Students and President's Residence $15,017 45 

Buildings and Grounds 4,893 36 

Libiary 459 28 

Apparatus 717 50 

Furniture ' 704 25 

Total". ^21,791 84 

Total expenditures ... ^65,840 84 



STATEMENT 

OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF C G. BUCKINGHAM, TREAS- 
URER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, FROM OCTOBER i, 
1882, TO MARCH 17, 1884, BOTH INCLUSIVE. 



GENERAL FUND. 



Received from Treasurer State of Colorado i ^33,246 44 



Received from sundry sources 



Disbursed as per vouchers. 



1,020 00 
$34,266 44 

$35,327 90 



BUILDING FUND. 



Received from Treasurer State of Colorado 


311,700 00 






Contra. 
Disbursed as per vouchers 


? 3,992 40 



RECAPITULATION. 



Receipts for account General Fund $34,266 40 

Receipts for account Building Fund 11,700 00 



Contra. 



Disbursed on account General Fund 

Disbursed on account Building Fund 

Due as per lormer statement 

Turned over to W. I. Jenkins, Treasurer. 



$45,966 40 



$35,327 90 

3,992 40 

34 97 

6,611 17 

$45,966 44 



82 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



STATEMENT 



OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF W. I. JENKINS, TREASURER 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, FROM MARCH 18, 1884, TO 
OCTOBER I, 1884, BOTH DATES INCLUSIVE. 



GENERAL FUND. 



Received from Treasurer of State of Colorado- 
Received from sundry other sources 

Total receipts 

Contra. 
Disbursed as per vouchers 

Balance cash on hand 



% 


9,800 
62 


00 
50 


$ 


9,862 


50 




$ 


8,840 


40 


$ 


1,022 


10 



BUILDING FUND. 



Received from C. G. Buckingham, Treasurer 

Received from Treasurer of State of Colorado 


$ 6,611 17 

7,900 OQ 




Total receipts .... 


$14,511 17 


Conira. 
Disbursements as per vouchers , 


114,486 27 
$ 24 90 


Balance cash on hand .. . 





RECAPITULATION. 



Receipts for account General Fund... 
Keceipts for account Building Fund. 



Total receipts 



Contra. 
Disbursements for account of General Fund... 
Disbursements for account of Building Fund ., 



Total disbursements... 
J3alance cash on hand 



$ 9,862 50 
14,511 17 

$24,373 67 



$ 8,840 40 
14,486 27 

$23,326 67 

$ i,c47 00 



The following^ are the names and titles of the present 
membiers of the faculty, with the salary of each : 

Joseph A. Sewall, M. D., LL. D. .President, Professor of Chemistry and Metallurgy..$3, 500 00 

Isaac Dennett, A. M., Professor of Latin 2,200 00 

Paul H. Hanus, B. S., Professor of Mathematics 2,000 00 

Mary Rippon, Professor of German and French 1,250 00 

James W. Bell, Ph. D., Professor of Political Economy and History 1,620 00 



STATE UNIVERSITY. 83 

W. F. C. Hasson, (Assistant Engineer U. S. Navy,) Professor of Mechanics and 

Applied Mathematics i,ooo oo 

J. Raymond Brackett, Ph. D., Professor of English Literature and Greek i,8oo oo 

William R. Whitehead, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Surgery 1,500 00 

Charles Ambrook, M. D., Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine * 

James H Kimball, M. D., Professor of Physiology, INIateria Medica and Thera- 
peutics * 

Thomas H. Everts, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women * 

H. W. McLauthlin, M. D., Lecturer on Pathology and Histology * 

George Cleary, M. D., Lecturer on Opthalmology and Otology * 

Edward C. Wolcott, Librarian 175 co 

W. H. Mershon, Licensed Instructor in Music No salary 

*Salary made contingent upon continuation of appropriation by the State. 

NORMAL SCHOOL. 

In arranging the course of study of the preparatory and 
normal schools, it was deemed advisable, as the faculty is 
so limited in number, and the classes so numerous, to com- 
bine the first and second years of the course in the two 
departments. Arrangements will be made, however, to 
give a course of lectures on Pedagogy for the benefit of 
students who do not complete the course, but who will, as 
undergraduates, teach in the schools of the State. By 
adopting this plan of combining the academic work of the 
two schools for the first and second years, the standard of 
the normal school was not only placed much higher, but 
together with other minor changes, the board was enabled 
to reduce the annual expense for salaries $4,450. 

MILITARY. 

The State having supplied the University with rifles, a 
cadet corps has been organized under efficient discipline. 
None but students at the University are admitted to the 
corps. Students desirous of becoming members at their 
own discretion, present a written application to the com- 
mandant. This application being accepted, the student 
becomes subject to the regulations governing the corps, 
and his option ceases. The commandant reserves the right 
to reject any application. The cadets are drilled in the 
schools of the soldier and the company. The corps num- 
bered thirty-two during the years 1883-4. The cadets make 
a commendable appearance in ranks, and their general car- 
riage and manners are improved in a marked degree. The 
cadet officers are instructed by Assistant Engineer W. F. 



84 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

C. Hasson, U. S. Navy, who was detailed in Maj^, 1883, by 
the Secretary of the United States Navy, to give instruc- 
tion in mechanics and engineering at this institution. 

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT. 

The entire department has been remodeled, and now 
offers to students one hundred and ten courses in seventeen 
branches of literature, language, mathematics, and physical 
science. 

PREPARATORY SCHOOL. 

In order to place the standard of admission to the 
various departments of the University on an equality with 
the ranking institutions of the United States, the course of 
study in the preparatory school has been extended from 
three to four years. 

During the two years, fifteen have completed the pre- 
paratory course of study, and received certificates. Three 
have completed collegiate courses, and received degrees; 
two receiving the degree of B. S., and one B. A. 

Since my last report, extensive alterations and improve- 
ments have been made in the University buildings ; the 
library has been enlarged; several small rooms on the third 
floor have been thrown into one, affording a commodious 
lecture room, a large well ventilated dissecting room, 
furnished with lead floor, dissecting tables and water 
supplied. 

The auditorium or chapel has been furnished, making 
as fine a room as there is in the State. Additions have 
been made to the furnishing of the several class rooms in 
the way of tablet settees, wall maps, charts, etc. 

About one thousand dollars' worth of books have been 
added to the library; two hundred dollars of which was 
donated by Mr. C. G. Buckingham. 

The following instruments have been furnished for the 
departments of surveying and engineering : 

Gurley's engineer's transit, with solar attachment ; 
Gurley's Y level [20-inch] and New York rod; Chester- 
man's steel tape; brazed steel chain; set of marking pins 



STATE UNIVERSITY. 85 

A team of horses wjs purchased in the spring of 1883, 
from the proceeds of land donated to the University by Mr. 
Wm. Arnett, 1875, and has been constantly and profitably 
employed in working upon the grounds, hauling coal, etc. 

In addition to these substantial improvements upon 
and in the main buildings, a portion of the ground has been 
cleared, of boulders, and two stone bridges have been built, 
each containing about three hundred tons of stone. 

Five additional buildings, including the hospital, have 
been built, costing in the aggregate about twenty-three 
thousand dollars. 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Since my last report, the School of Medicine and 
Surgery has been established as a department of the Uni- 
versity. It was estimated that not less than one hundred 
practitioners of medicine were coming to Colorado each 
year, and a careful investigation of the report of the State 
board of medical examiners for 1883, indicates the fact that 
this supply, in many instances, was not of the most desir- 
able quality. Yet the fact of their coming and finding remu- 
nerative employment indicates a demand for competent 
medical practitioners. And as it seems to be the settled 
policy of the State, as indicated by its constitutional and 
legislative acts, to present its educational advantages to all 
classes of its citizens seeking education, technical, literary, 
or professional, the Board of Regents believed that the 
time contemplated in paragraphs 2748 and 2758 of the 
general laws had arrived, and the taxpayer whose son 
desired to study medicine had the same rights as his 
brother who was receiving instruction in agrculture, 
mineralology, chemistry, civil or mining engineering, sur- 
veying or pedagogy. Conceding that all the taxpayers 
had a right to the fostering care of the State in conserving 
their health, so far as to give to those desirous of following 
medicine as a profession, opportunity to acquire the neces- 
sary knowledge, the Board of Regents unanimously decided 
that the medical department should be organized and main- 
tained. In August, 1883, the board appointed a professor 
of anatomy and physiology, who entered upon his duties 
in September, 1883. 



86 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

There was little opportunity for the proper advertising 
of the school before the opening of the term, and as it was 
deemed best to limit the new department to first year 
students, thus obviating the necessity of appointing a full 
corps of instructors, and at the same time making the 
expenses of the first year as small as possible, this plan 
compelled the faculty to reject several applicants who were 
advanced in their standing ; with these provisions two stu- 
dents were matriculated. 

In August, 1884, the board made the necessary arrange- 
ments for the appointment of a corps of teachers for the 
medical department, and for the erection of a hospital upon 
the grounds of the university, The board recognizes the 
fact that the hospital should be entirely under the control 
of the medical faculty, and all who are conversant with the 
history of hospital management will heartily approve of 
its action in this particular, and the necessity of such an 
institution for the purpose of giving practical bedside 
instruction to those to whom the State would in the near 
future look as protectors of the public health, is apparent 
to all. 

The hospital is situated on the southeast corner of the 
university grounds, easy of access to students. It is 
modeled after the plan of the United States army post hos- 
pitals, having two wings or one story wards, attached to a 
central administrative building, with a rear extension 
divided irito kitchen, dining room and store room. The 
central building and one wing or ward has been erected, 
and the other wing can be added when needed, and in the 
future, should the number of patients make it necessary, 
the accommodations can be indefinitely increased, at a mini- 
mum cost, by adding wards at right angles to those already 
erected, thus securing most of the advantages of the pavil- 
ion plan at the least possible cost. 

The hospital, when opened (January 1 , 1885,) will accom- 
modate thirty patients ; it is intended to receive all classes 
of patients except cases of contagious diseases, which will 
be cared for in special quarters provided for them away 
from the university grounds. 

The hospital is for any sick person who can pay from 
seven to fourteen dollars a week, according to accommo- 



STATE UNIVERSITY. 87 

dations ; at present no free beds are provided, but such may 
be arranged for in the near future. 

The present medical faculty is as given above. 

The term of study extends over three years of nine 
months each, and the studies are so arranged that they can 
be pursued in courses of first, second and third years, or in 
mixed classes. 

The question of fees was duly considered, and it was 
thought that, as the State gave instruction free in all its 
institutions, academical, technical and agricultural, there 
could be no good reason for a new departure in its medical 
school. If onerous tuition fees were charged, it would 
present the spectacle of making the noblest pursuit, that of 
making preparation for alleviating human suffering, depend- 
ent upon mere money qualifications, and not ability, and 
this decision has additional weight from the fact that at the 
Agricultural College, veterinary surgery is taught without 
fees. The inference is that the State is willing to do as 
much for its citizens as for its animals. 

This being the first year that it was announced as a 
medical school, teaching all branches, is practically its first 
year, and its success is gratifying to all its friends, there 
being sixteen matriculants. 

The requirements for admission are: A degree in 
arts and sciences, a high school diploma, or a satisfactory 
examination equivalent thereto. 

The requirements for graduation are: Three years' 
study, actual dissection and chemical laboratory work, 
with not less than two courses of lectures, three being 
recommended, and satisfactory examinations, both written 
and oral. 

' EDUCATION AND THE STATE. 

We boast of our free institutions — of the democratic 
idea. We proudly exclaim and declaim that in our 
country there is no lordly aristocracy, no great kingly 
power to crush, no oppressing ecclesiastical authority to 
which we are subject and must bow. But, with all our 



88 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

boasting, we feel that though we all have equal civil and 
religious liberty in the fullest measure; though the poorest 
man stands the same before the law as the richest; though 
each is permitted to worship God according to the dic- 
tates of his own conscience; and the poorest and lowliest 
citizen has the same political rights as his richest and 
proudest neighbor — still, we somehow have a smouldering 
idea, a dim belief, that there is, after all, a class distinction, 
a seeming aristocracy, which, the more we contemplate and 
investigate, appears the more real. The aristocracy of 
wealth. 

The masses growl "Monopoly"; the partisan press finds 
it convenient to utilize the fact as political capital, and the 
pulpit lays great stress upon the text relating to the camel, 
the needle's eye and the rich man. Now, if it be true that 
there is an aristocracy of wealth springing up; if our 
boast equality of rank is only seeming; and, if it be true 
that though the masses have equal civil and political rights 
with the select few, yet it is apparent and true that while 
these civil and political rights have been given in the fullest 
measure, at the same time social equality has been lost, 
and castes have been established, class distinction based 
upon wealth. 

The free public schools of our country, giving to all 
children, rich and poor alike, an opportunity to secure a 
common school education, acts as a partial leveler, and 
tends to make class distinction less marked; while higher 
educational privileges — the State universities and colleges 
— go far to neutralize the evil tendencies of great unequal 
distribution of wealth. ■ Abolish the free or State institu- 
tions of higher education, and in a short time there would 
arise an aristocracy based upon wealth and intelligence, and 
the few, with these elements of power, wealth and intelli- 
gence, could and would hold control of the great majority; 
for poverty with ignorance is no match for either wealth or 
intelligence. 

In fact, the free public school system seems to be the 
one great, efficient bar against a despotism of wealth and 
intelligence — a despotism as strong and as hard and as 
cold as any that ever rested upon a people. 



I 



STATE UNIVERSITY. 89 



THE PRACTICAL IN EDUCATION. 

There is a strong tendency in the present age to regard 
what is called theoretical in education as of no value ; in 
fact, making it synonymous with impractical. 

The practical is what is demanded. 

But in demanding the practical, it is well to consider 
the source from which this practical comes. 

Do engineers build the bridges that span the rivers and 
then construct theories with regard to the transmission of 
strains and stresses ? Are lines of irrigating ditches con- 
structed before the development of theories with regard to 
the flow and velocity of streams ? 

When a thorough and exhaustive study of the struc- 
ture of a grain of wheat has been made — and it was a mar- 
velous study, the results of which filled a large volume — 
the miller applied the theory derived from this purely theo- 
retical study and investigation, and made more and better 
flour from a given quantity of wheat. 

The only real is the ideal. The only practical is an 
outcropping of this ideal. Every machine that is used by 
man, from the simplest to the most complicated, is but an 
imperfect material representation of the ideal that preceded. 
The steam engine with all its complications is only an idea 
stamped in the material. The idea is greater than the 
material, inasmuch as the idea is the progenitor — the 
creator — while the material — the machine — is the product, 
the created. 

The Ancient and Modern Languages, Higher Mathe- 
matics, Science, Philosophy, and the rest, are non-practical 
studies; but somehow experience has taught us that the 
pursuit of these studies develops and makes strong men. 

The clicking of the telegraph and the speaking of the 
telephone were heard before a pole had been set, a wire 
stretched, or a battery charged. The whole apparatus was 
set up and tested in the brain of the inventor before it 
passed into the material — the actual — the practical. 

13 



90 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

Froude, England's great historian, says: 

" If this age is to stake its reputation on steam engines 
and money getting, on its rejection of what ages have 
proven good in education, morals, society, to gain what is 
merely practical, the dreariest farce in history will have 
been acted, and men will see it in that light when impartial 
minds shall, a few hundred years from now, sit in judgment 
on what we have done." 

The purpose for which the institution was established 
is clearly set forth in the language of the organic act. 
And what has been done by the Board of Regents and by 
the faculty accords as nearly as possible with the spirit and 
intent of that organic act. The best and truest friends of 
the institution, those best acquainted with its affairs, do not 
claim for it perfection, or that the results are all that could 
have been wished. 

Let the institution be judged by the results attained. 
But let the judgment be candid, honest and intelligent ; let 
it be based on truth and not on some irresponsible "they 
say," or the biased testimony of prejudice. 

We desire that what is done, should be known and 
understood. If any citizen wishes to know what is here 
being done for the promotion of higher education, let him 
come and see. He shall have full opportunity to cfbserve 
and judge for himself 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. A. SEWALL, 

President of the University of Colorado. 



MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS IN CERTAIN SUBJECTS 

For Admission to the University of Colorado. 

Such a course of study for the State Preparatory 
School has been prescribed as, in the judgment of the Fac- 
ulty, best prepares for college. The University has no 
intention of lowering its standard, and all candidates are 



STATE UNIVERSITY. ^ 91 

urged to do the work prescribed in its preparatory course. 
But students will be admitted from schools not having 
instructors enough to teach all the branches required, pro- 
vided tlie course is, in other respects, sufficiently thorough 
and extended. The following work, however, cannot be 
omitted: 

/. — Mininiuin requirements of candidates for courses 
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts : 

*1. Latin — Latin Grammar — A thorough preparation 
in the elements; Jones's Latin Prose Composition, or 
an equivalent in Harkness or Arnold; Caesar — four books 
of the Gallic war; Cicero — three orations; Virgil — first 
six books of the yEneid. 

2. Greek — Hadley's or Goodwin's Greek Grammar; 
White's Lessons : Jones's Greek Prose Composition ; Xen- 
ophon — Anabasis, four books. 

3. Mathematics — Arithmetic — Common and decimal 
fractions; compound numbers, including applications of 
the metric system; percentage; interest; involution and 
evolution. Algebra — Through quadratic equation, i. e., as 
much as is contained in Olney's Complete Algebra, omit- 
ting the Progressions and the "Business Arithmetic." 
Geometry — Plane Geometry, i. e., the first five books of 
Chauvenet, or as far as Article 380 of Olney's Geometry. 

4. English — An essay on a subject assigned at the 
time of examination. In 1885 the subjects will betaken 
from Shakespeare's " Merchant of Venice," Hawthorne's 
"Scarlet Letter," Bryant's "Thanatopsis;" in 1886, from 
Shakespeare's " Hamlet," Longtellow's " Evangeline," Web- 
ster's "Reply to Hayne." 

5. History — Roman History, to the death of Corn- 
modus ; outlines of General History. 

//. — Minimmn requirements of candidates for courses 
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science : 

* Note —These requirements cannot be regarded as fixed. The continuous growth 
of the University, and the consequent extension of the courses of study will very probably 
necessitate considerable additions at an early date. For further information see University 
catalogues. 



92 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

1. Latin — Lati7i Grammar — Etymology and Syntax; 
Latin Lessons; Caesar — four books of the Gallic war. 

2. Science — Chemistry — Eliot and Storer's or Roscoe's 
Elements, omitting Organic Chemistry. Botany — Gray's 
Lessons. Physics — Gage's Elements of Physics, or 
Avery's Elements of Natural Philosophy. 

3. Mathematics — All the mathematics required under 
I., and in addition as follows : Solid Geometry — nine books 
of Chauvenet's Geometry. Algebra — Olney's Complete 
Algebra entire, including an elementary knowledge of 
logarithms. 

4. English — As under I. 

5. History — Outlines of General History. 

///. — Requirements for admission to the Normal School : 

Candidates for admission to the Normal School must 
have passed the entrance examination to the Preparatory 
School, and have completed the work of the first two 
years, or its equivalent. 

J. A. SEWALL, 
ISAAC DENNETT, 
PAUL H. HANUS, 

Committee on Minimum Requirements. 



State Agricultural College. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT. 
To the State Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir: — In accordance with the requirements of the Act 
of the General Assembly of the State of Colorado, approved 
February 11, 1881, I hereby submit the biennial report of 
the State Agricultural College, showing its growth and de- 
velopment, and, in part, the public work which it is now 
performing for the benefit of the State. 

The former report was submitted soon after the reor- 
ganization of the college on a firm industrial basis, which 
was designed to make this institution something more than 
an industrial college in name. How well the present man- 
agement have succeeded in this work, it is the province of 
this report to show, and whatever success has been attained 
has, in large measure, been the result of a steady course 
pursued both by board and faculty-, and also to the fact that 
few changes have been made. 

The present board, with terms of expiration of office, is 
as follows: 

STATE, BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

B. S. La Grange, Greeley February, 1891 

\V. F. Walrous, Fort Collins February, 1891 

John J. Ryan, Loveland February, 1889 

Henry Foote, Del Norte February, 1889 

David Boyd, Greeley February, 1887 

Ozro Bracket, Frankstown February, 1887 

Hon. R. A. Southvvorth, Denver February, 1885 

*G. W. Rust, Boulder February, 1885 

His Excellency, Governor James B. Grant Ex-officio 

President, Charles L. Ingersoll Ex-officio 

*Elected to fill vacancy caused by the decease of P. M. Hinman. 



94 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

OFFICERS. 

David Boyd President 

W. F. Watrous Secretary 

Fred Walsen (ex-officio) Treasurer 

The present faculty, with salary paid each member, 
commencing September 1, 1884, is as follows: 

FACULTY OF INSTRUCTION. 

Present Salary. 

Charles L. IngersoU, M. S., President, Professor of Political Economy and Logic... $2,500 

Ainsworth E. Blount, A. M., Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm 1,800 

Charles F. Davis, M. S., Professor of Chemistry and Physics 1,400 

Elwood Mead, B. S , C. E., Professor of Mathematics and Engineering i 400 

James Cassidy, Professor of Botany and Agriculture, Superintendent of Department 1,400 

James W. Lawrence, Professor of Mechanics and Drawing 1,400 

George C. Faville, B. S., D. V. M., Professor of Veterinary Science and Zoology..,. 1,400 

Miss Ella Silcott, Instructor in Vocal and Instrumental Music * 

Mrs. C. L. IngersoU, Matron of Ladies' Dormitory 400 

W. F. Watrous, Secretary of State Board and Faculty 400 

*No salary — paid entirely by music fees. 

The salaries paid are, in the main, much below those 
paid elsewhere for the same quantity and quality of work. 

The faculty is largely composed of young, enthusiastic 
workers, and thorough work has been done by all. 

To sortie the faculty may seem large, but when they 
know that twenty recitations are conducted each day, and 
that from five to nine squads of students are at labor in the 
various departments, as farm, garden and conservatory, 
mechanic shop, dissecting room, cheijiical laboratory, or 
field surveying, for two hours daily, and that this labor 
must be performed under the eye and direction of the in- 
structor, they will then see that each professor has all the 
work he can perform ; indeed, several are overworked when 
they undertake the investigation of questions which need 
to be answered for the people of the State. 

The attendance at the college has increased in a steady 
and regular ratio until the present term, when there has 
been quite a notable increase. One feature of the attend- 
ance during the period covered by this report is that the 
students have remained for a longer period of time and 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 95 

have become much more attached to the college and its 
work ; they have also, more and more, taken the regular 
course. 

The college sent out its first graduating class at the 
commencement held June 7, 1884. The class of three 
consisted of two gentlemen and one lady, and all were 
natives of Colorado. Two were residents of Larimer 
county, and the third was from Longmont, Boulder 
county. 

The present senior class has six students, and the 
lower classes have increased numbers, so that in the col- 
lege we have in — 

College classes (regular) 44 

College classes (special) 16 

College classes (post graduates) 3 

College classes (total) 63 

Preparatory class 22 

Total attendance 85 

This is the daily attendance in classes at date of this 
report. 

The table of attendance, showing the number of each 
sex and the attendance by terms, together with averages, 
is given below : 

ATTENDANCE. 



TERMS. 



I 



First (winter) term 

Second (spring) term.. 
Third (fall) term 

Average attendance 
Total enrollment 



1883. 



1884. 



31 j 63 

32 54 
45 I 85 



31M 36 
55 52 



675^ 
107 



The present course of instructions and labor is tabu- 
lated and annexed : 



96 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



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8 


6 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 97 

HISTORY. 

At the close of the previous report the faculty was 
composed of four (4) Professors, a Superintendent of Floral 
Department and a Farm Superintendent; the increased 
labor incident upon the addition of one full line of study 
and labor for the five years of the course, made it necessary 
to have more assistance. 

Accordingly, at the last meeting of the State Board of 
Agriculture, held in 1>82, the chair of Chemistry and 
Mathematics was divided, and Prof Charles F. Davis 
retained as Professor of Chemistry and Physics, while the 
new chair of Mathematics and Engineering was created, 
and Prof Elwood Mead, B. S., C. E., a graduate of Purdue 
University-, and formerly connected with the United States 
Topographical Survey in the Ohio and Wabash valleys, was 
called to take charge of the department. 

In February the Floral Department was consolidated 
with the Horticultural, which was in charge of the Farm 
Superintendent temporarily, and Prof James Cassidy, of 
Michigan Agricultural College — a horticulturist of many 
years' experience and acknowledged ability — was called to 
the chair and placed in charge of the new department. 

On March 21, 1883, Prof Frank H. Williams, M. E., 
resigned, and Prof James W. Lawrence, from Boston Insti- 
tute of Technology, was elected to the chair of Mechanics 
and Drawing, to fill vacancy caused by resignation. The 
chair was very ably filled, and the work of the department 
went on almost without a break. 

In August, 1883, the new department of Veterinary 
Science and Zoology was created, and Prof George C. 
Faville, B. S. D. V. M., was called to the chair and put in 
charge of the department. The doctor is a gradate of the 
Iowa Agricultural College in both degrees, and a very 
valuable accession to our college and State, in everything 
which pertains to his line of work. 

The Music Department was added to the list April 1, 
1881, in order to give all students, but more especially the 
ladies, the opportunity to become proficient in this branch, 
which has almost ceased to be considered an accomplish- 

13 



98 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

ment, but a necessity, in every well-regulated home. Miss 
Ella Silcott, a graduate of the Music Department of Simp- 
son Centennary College in Iowa — a lady highly recom- 
mended — has taken charge, and is giving excellent satis- 
faction. 

The college has thus in two years been expanded to 
cover all the lines of work intended in the reorganization, 
and has the following distinct departments, viz : 

Agriculture. 

Horticulture and Botany. 

Chemistry and Physics. 

Mathematics and Engineering. 

Mechanics and Drawing. 

Veterinary Science and Zoology. 

Music. 

And, as thus organized, touches all the material inter- 
ests in the State except mining, and this incidentally in the 
engineering and mechanics and drawing, thus teaching our 
students how to build houses or rhachinery and operate the 
same, while the veterinary department assists in all ques- 
tions of diseased stock, of which the stockmen have stood 
in so much fear during the past year. 

LEGISLATION. 

The last legislature of the State passed an act creating 
a levy of one-fifth mill, annually, on each dollar of va.lua- 
tion ; it also passed an act appropriating the sum of ten 
thousand (;$ 10,000) dollars, for mechanic shop and con- 
servatory. 

At the last session of Congress w^as passed an act 
making immediately available the 90.000 acres of land 
donated to the college, and this is being located for the 
future endowment of the college, w^hen sold. 

In the meantime, however, the State will be obliged to 
aid the school until the college can begin to realize from 
the endowment. 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 99 



IMPROVEMENTS. 

With the appropriation of $10,000, by adding some from 
one-fifth mill tax, we have erected a mechanic shop and 
equipped it well, at a cost of nearly twelve thousand (Sl2,- 
000) dollars, and a conservatory, with improved apparatus 
for heating, at a cost of two thousand seven hundred ($2,700) 
dollars. We have also introduced water from the city water- 
works into the buildings for convenience and fire protec- 
tion, and also have a good hydrant upon the ground, 
from which all the buildings can be reached; this cost 
about $1,500. The building, originally erected for a barn, 
was changed into a chemical laboratory at a cost of $1,450. 
This is the most complete in all its appointments of any 
laboratory in the State, though not as large as some. Water 
and gas are on each desk, and ventilating hoods keep the 
room clear of obnoxious gases, while the building is thor- 
oughly plumbed for sewage. The grounds have been rap- 
idly improved, so that even now we have one of the most 
attractive places in the State. In apparatus we have added 
largely to the chemical department, in machinery to the 
mechanical department, in instruments to the engineering 
department, and in surgical instruments and other material 
to the veterinary department, while our museum has grown 
to be the best general museum in the State, illustrating 
botany and forestry, zoology and comparative anatomy. 
The library has more than doubled and is growing rapidly. 
On the farm more fine stock has been secured, including 
some Clydesdale horses, while we have our conservatory 
filled with choice plants, many of economic value, and 
largely by the donations of friends of the institution. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

The college has laid out an experimental ground of 
nearly twelve acres, which is entirely devoted to the com- 
parative growth and treatment of all kind of farm products. 
The farm is carried on experimentally to some extent. The 
gardens are devoted largely to experimental work on vege- 
tables, while the conserv^atory has been the scene of a large 
number of seed tests this year. The chemical department 
has been examining soils, corns and waters from different 
parts of the State, and conducting a series of observations 



loo STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

tri-daily, during the growing season, on soils, temperatures 
and the way in which soils are affected by irrigation. The 
veterinary department has been paying its attention to the 
so-called foot-and-mouth disease, Texas fever and "loco" 
poisoning of stock. The engineering department has been 
working a large portion of this year in conjunction with the 
State engineer in gauging the streams and ditches of Colo- 
rado, and in making experiments on the flow of water 
with the new instrument — a self-registering fluviameter — 
devised by our State engineer and purchased by our col- 
lege. These experiments in due time w^ill be published for 
the benefit of the people of the State, and will represent in 
part the interest and self-denying labor performed by our 
faculty during the summer vacation, when teachers in other 
institutions and other lines of work are spending their vaca- 
tion in recuperation and rest. 

The valuable agricultural display from our college, 
which has been at the Denver Exposition, and which never 
has been equalled in the United States, will be sent to the 
New Orleans World's Exposition — there to advertise the 
resources and possibilities of our State, while a fine educa- 
tional display will be sent from other departments. The 
work of the college is thus threefold in its character : 

First — Giving instruction such as shall educate mind, 
eye and hand, and send into the varied industries of the 
State men and women trained to make the best self-sup- 
porting citizens, those who will add to the material wealth 
of the State. 

Second — To experiment in directions where private 
industry cannot, or will not, and put the results before the 
people for their benefit. 

Tliird — To exhibit the work of our hands in various 
lines and call attention to the resources which lie hidden, as 
it were, in our soil, water and climate, and to protect the 
great stock interests of the State by the use which we can 
make of our veterinary department. 

In closing, let me quote from Hon. J. L. Dow, M. P., 
of Australia, who spent several months in America investi- 
gating her resources, schools, systems of railroads, etc., etc. 
After having examined into the workings of one of the 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. loi 

oldest colleges of its class in the United States, and after 
having visited several colleges of the same kind in Canada 
and the United States, he says, in a book published in Mel- 
bourne on his return : " The Colorado Agricultural College, 
which although the youngest, is one of the best managed 
establishments of the kind in America." That we may be 
able to keep it up to this standard now attained, and even 
to improve upon it, is the earnest wish of each member of 
the faculty and the State Board of Agriculture, who have 
the institution under their supervision. 

C. L. INGERSOLL, 

President. 



State School of Mines, 



Golden, Colo., December 1, 1884. 

To the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of 
Colorado : 

Sir — I have the honor herewith to submit the following 
report : 

The general objects of the School of Mines, its courses 
and schemes of instruction, having been frequently set forth, 
both in its catalogues and in the last biennial report, it is 
thought unnecessary to recapitulate them in detail in the 
present one. 

Since the biennial report of 1882, the new building has 
been completed, and during the winter of 1883-84 its out- 
fit was increased by the addition of a laboratory, designed 
for the use of the professor and instructor in chemistry, for 
advanced students, and more especially for conducting 
scientific or technical investigations. The work done in 
the latter direction during the present year will be described 
later. The lecture room for physics has also been fitted up 
since the same date. 

The number of students attending during the school 
year 1882-88 was sixty-nine ; ladies taking instruction in 
drawing, sixteen; total, eighty-five. 

The number attending during the school year 1883-84 
was forty-nine ; ladies attending as above, seventeen ; total, 
seventy-six. 

The number of students from Colorado is usually 
somewhat greater than from all other States and Terri- 
tories combined. It may, however, be stated (although 
the present report properly carries the record only to Sep- 
tember 1) that at present the Colorado students, exclusive 



SCHOOL OF iMlNES. 103 

of ladies, are exactly equal in number to those from other 
States. In the past, single or "special" courses of instruc- 
tion have been preferred by a majority of the students, 
but at present the tendency is toward full or regular 
courses. This is quite in accordance with the views of the 
present faculty, and new-comers are advised in all cases to 
take a regular course if possible. 

It is- not intended by any means to exclude special 
courses from the scheme of studies, but to expand them 
into something more than a single specialty. Thus, students 
in Assaying are required to pursue a laboratory course, 
besides lectures on General Chemistry and Stoichiometry, 
and attain a practical knowledge of quantitative operations, 
of which furnace work is but a single branch. 

In the Chemical Department instruction in practical 
analysis is much more efficacious with the present facilities, 
and the improvement, both in the amount and quality of 
work done, over that accomplished before the completion of 
the present laboratories, is very marked. Advanced work 
in Analytical Chemistry is now being pursued by some of 
the students, for the first time since the opening of the 
school. 

In connection with the courses in Mining Engineering, 
Geology and Metallurgy, excursions have been made to 
various points during the last \^\o years. These have been 
to Central, Georgetown, Idaho Springs, Canon City, Mani- 
tou, Pueblo and Leadville. Three more are in prospect for 
the present school year. Our thanks are due the management 
of the Denver and Rio Grande and Union Pacific Railroad 
Companies for reduced rates, whereby many students have 
been enabled to take these trips who would otherwise have 
been compelled to forego their advantages. Under direction 
of the professor in charge, each student is required to take 
full notes, and to write a descriptive thesis upon some sub- 
ject connected with the trip. The benefit of thus combining 
active field work with the regular course, is sufficiently 
obvious. 

The corps of instruction is, at present, constituted as 
follows : 



I04 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

Regis Chauvenet, A. M., B. S., Professor of Chemistry and Assaying. Salary $3,ooo 

Arthur Lakes, Professor of Geology and Drawing Salary 1,500 

Magnus C. Ihlseng, E. M., C. E., Ph. D., Professor of Engineering and Physics. 

Salary 1,800 

Paul Megee, Ph. D., Professor of Mathematics. Salary i,ooo 

George C. Tilden, C. E., Instructor in Chemistry and Assaying. Salary 900 

Previous to the last biennial report there was no Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, the subject having been taught by 
the Professor of Engineering and an assistant. On the other 
hand, it has been found practical to reduce the corps some- 
what for the year 1884-'85, by redistribution of duties among 
the present members, so that no new appointments have 
been made to fill the vacancies caused by the resignations of 
Professor Moss and Dr. Mackenzie. Although not intended 
as permanent, this reduction of force can be maintained 
without disadvantage during the present year, and will 
materially aid in extinguishing the debt of the school. 

The necessary expenses of a technical school, outside of 
salaries, are, of course, greater than those of an institution 
where theoretical instruction only is given. A very large 
portion of the expenditure of the past two years is not to be 
charged to current expense, but to apparatus, fittings, and 
various appliances indispensable for any technological school, 
and which the School of Mines has had to supply from its 
annual income. It is only slowly that the full outfit of a 
school of this kind can be thus brought to completion, but 
we can now fairly say that our heaviest expenses are over, 
and our laboratories and assay-rooms are inferior in con- 
venience and appliances to none in the West. No other 
institution of similar scope and facilities now exists between 
the Missouri River and San Francisco, and in the two years 
just passed, not one of the mining States or Territories has 
been without one or more representatives among the 
students. 

During the past season the Board of Capitol Managers, 
having in charge, among other details, the selection of a 
suitable building material to be used in the construction of 
the new capitol, resolved to submit all the samples of stone 
sent to them to chemical and physical tests. No satisfac- 
tory report having been obtained from other sources, the 
matter was referred to the State School of Mines. 



I 



SCHOOL OF MINES. 



105 



As, in the view of the trustees, investigations of this 
"kind, of direct benefit to the State and of general interest, 
form a part of the proper functions of the school, no charge 
was made for the work. The report of the Board of Capi- 
tol Managers has been published, and that portion of the 
same undertaken by the School of Mines has been separ- 
ately issued, and is transmitted herewith. It is believed 
that few States have as complete a record of their available 
building, material as is presented in these publications. 

It should be mentioned, as showing that the school is 
becoming favorably known, that applications have been 
made to it at several times during the past two years for 
chemists and assayers, to fill vacancies in this and other 
States and Territories. It has usually been practicable to 
answer at once, and furnish a competent incumbent from 
among the -more advanced students or graduates. As it 
had been suggested that it might be a matter of interest to 
many to learn the present occupations of students who 
have left the school after taking more or less complete 
courses, inquiries were made resulting in the formation of 
a tolerably complete record, which is given below. It 
comprises all whose present residence and occupation is 
known, and who left the school from the spring term of 
1881 to the same term of 1884. It will be seen that seven- 
eighths of the whole number are in Colorado and the min- 
ing Territories: 

RESIDENCES BY STATES. 



Colorado 53 

Montana Territory 5 

New* Mexico Territory 6 

Nebraska i 

Idaho Territory i 

Utah Territory i 

Kansas ..^... i 

Illinois 2 



Oregon i 

Dakota Territory i 

Arizona Territory i 

Wyoming Territory i 

California 3 

Wisconsin i 

New York 2 

Total 80 



14 



lO^ 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

OCCUPATIONS. ' 



Assayers 21 

Superintendents 5 

Mining 12 

Mining Experts 2 

Railroads 8 

U. S. Deputy Surveyors 10 

Lumber 3 



Chemists 8 

Students 4 

Journalists 2 

Real Estate. 2 

Lawyers 2 

Druggist 1 

Total 80^ 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

The books of the Secretary of the State School of 
Mines and of the Professor in charge, from September 1, 
1882, to November 30, 1884, show the following receipts 
and expenditures for the time noted, two years and two 
months: 

DEBIT. 

Warrants drawn on State Auditor since last biennial report, viz. : 

From September i, 1882, to September i, 1883 $29,100 00 

From September 1, 1883, to November 30, 1884 27,398 30 

Total for twenty-six months $56,498 30 

Receipts from students since last biennial report, viz. : 

From September.!, 1882, to September I, 1883 $ 1,608 50 

From September i, 1882, to November 30, 1884 i>753 77 

Total for twenty-six months $ 3,362 ej 

Total receipts from all sources for twenty-six months ending November 30, 1884 $59,860 57 

CKEDIT. 

Vouchers issued for approved accounts since last biennial report, viz. : 

From September i, 1882, to September i, 1883 $32,488 42 

From September i, 1883, to November 30, 1884 21,842 13 

Total expenditures $54,33° 55 

Suspense account (due from Everett's bank) 2,400 19 

Grand total September i, 1882, 10 November 30, 1884 $56,730 74- 

Total receipts September i, 1882, to November 30, 1884 $59,860 57 

Expenditures and suspense account ($56,730.74) less cash in hands of Treasurer 

($328 39) 56,402 35 

Reduction of debt since October 12, 1882 $ 3,458 22 



I 



SCHOOL OF MINES. 

DETAILS OF EXPENDITURES. 



107 



Building and grounds 

Furniture and fittings 

Permanent apparatus 

Library 

Salaries 

Repairs -. 

Supplies (chemical and apparatus) 

Fuel, light and incidentals , 

Printing, advertising and stationery 

Interest, insurance and expense accounts- 



Totals. 



Total for twenty-six months. 



1882^83. 



$12,996 90 
2,459 6c 

301 80 

217 68 
7,898 42 

6j7 88 
3,850 83 

472 81 

1,680 C2 
2,002 46 



^32,488 42 



5-84.t 



$ 545 41 

1,042 30 

647 88 

185 29 

12,326 39 

722 11 

3,089 69 

642 05 

890 63 

1,750 38 



$21,842 13 



$54,330 55 



*Twelve months. 



fFourteen months. 



STATEMENT OF SCHOOL DEBT. 



Debt of school October 12, 1882 

Debt of school November 30, 1884 

Reduction in two years 



$9,463 36 
6,005 14 



$3,458 22 



The present debt of the institution (;^6,005.14) is covered 
by over-drafts on the State Auditor to the amount of 
$6,500, which, when paid from taxes levied and in course of 
collection, will more than meet liabilities outstanding at the 
date of this report, November 30, 1884. 

The Treasurer of the institution, Hon. F. E. Everett, 
who was also filling his third term as a member of the 
Board of Trustees, committed suicide at Golden, July 17, 
1884, at which time his indebtedness to the school, as 
shown by the books of his banking house at Golden, was 
3*2,400.19, which amount is added to the expenditures for 
1884. The affairs of the bank are now in process of 
settlement, and such amount as may be received of the 
indebtedness stated will go towards still further reducing 
the debt. 

On July 30, 1884, Moritz Barth, Esq., of the City 
National Bank, Denver, was elected Treasurer of the 
school, and at the meeting of the Board of Trustees, held 



io8 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

August 21, 1884, the bond of the Treasurer, in the sum of 
;^10,000, with William Barth and John C. Kaufman as sure- 
ties, was formally accepted and placed in the hands of the 
President of the Board. 

From the date of his qualification, August 21, until 
November 30, 1884, Mr. Barth received from the State 
Auditor ;^5,298.30, and in cash from the Secretary of the 
Board of Trustees ^286.70, making ;^5,685, out of which 
he paid warrants to the amount of ;^5,256.61, leaving 
^328.39 as cash on hand. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FREDERICK STEINHAUER, 

President Board of Trustees. 



Institute for Mute and Blind, 



Colorado Springs, December 2, 1884. 

Hon. Jos. C. Shattuck, Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colo. : 

Dear Sir — In compliance with the law I desire to give 
a brief statement regarding the Colorado Institute for Mute 
and Blind, over whose educational department I have the 
honor to preside. 

The total number of pupils who have been under 
instruction during the two years is fifty-nine, though some 
of these were here only for a short time. The average 
attendance per session has been about forty-five. 

General good health has prevailed and the work of the 
school has been uninterrupted. There has been a slow, 
but gradual increase in the number who avail themselves 
of the benefits so kindly offered by the State, and we hope 
that as information concerning the object and scope of the 
institution becomes more generally diffused, we shall be 
able to gather into our walls all who need our assistance to 
become good, useful and self-supporting citizens. 

The institution is a part of the public school system of 
the State, and designs by its special appliances and methods 
to educate those who could not be reached in the ordinary 
way. It is of necessity a boarding school, for in no one 
community of a sparsely settled State could a sufficient 
number of pupils be gathered to justify the expense of 
organizing a school. 

We endeavor to give those committed to us a fair Eng- 
lish education, to instruct them in some useful trade, and 
so to train them in morals that they may apprehend their 
duties to their fellow-man and the Supreme Being. 



Tio STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

Since our last report a blind department has been 
organized, and we now have ten j3Hpils who are making 
creditable progress under their two teachers — one instruct- 
ing them in the ordinary branches and the other in music. 
Some of the smaller pupils are becoming quite proficient in 
kindergarten work. 

There are four teachers in the Deaf Mute department 
and two in that of the Blind. The salaries of the officers 
are as follows: . 

Principal $1,500 

Matron and Acting Superintendent 900 

First Teacher, Deaf Mute Department 1,200 

Second Teacher, Deaf Mute Department T. 480 

Third Teacher, Deaf Mute Department 300 

First Teacher, Blind Department 600 

Second Teacher, Blind Department 400 

In conclusion, I desire to request you to emphasize the 
duty of county superintendents, or rather the secretaries 
of the school districts, to report all the blind and deaf chil- 
dren in their respective districts between the ages of four 
and twenty-one years. This, though prescribed by law, has 
not been done heretofore, and hence we have been unable 
to lay before the parents of such children the information 
they so much need. Many of them have no just concep- 
tion of the institution and. its work, but regard it more as 
an asylum than as a school. 

Holding myself in readiness to hand you any informa- 
tion you may desire, 

I am, with great respect, yours truly, 

D. C. DUDLEY, 

Principal. 



I 



State Industrial School, 



SUMMARY OF THE SECOND BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, AT GOLDEN, JEF- 
FERSON COUNTY, COLORADO. 



The State Industrial School was formally opened July 
16, 1881, and has since received 196 pupils — 116 of whom 
were admitted during the past biennial term. 

THERE HAS BEEN EXPENDED DURING THE PAST TWO YEARS: 



For ordinary expenses 

For building and other extraordinary expenses. 

Total 



^44.467 90 
29,465 18 



$73,933 c8 



The appropriation made by the General Assembly in 
1883 was exhausted in November of the same year, and 
the hopes of. the Board of Control that State certificates of 
indebtedness could be issued to support the school until a 
new appropriation should be made, were disappointed. In 
this dilemma His Excellency, Governor James B. Grant, 
was applied to for aid, who, after thoroughly examining 
into its business, and assuring himself that its business had 
been well and economically conducted, gave his personal 
note as collateral security for the sum of ;^20,000, the 
amount needed to carry on the school until January, 1885. 

When the school numbers one hundred or more pupils 
in daily attendance, the operating expenses per capita is 
about fifty-one cents per day. At the time the appropria- 
tion was made, the school had ninety-seven scholars. 
Expecting that certificates of indebtedness could be issued 
when the appropriation should be exhausted, the school 
was kept open, and all boys properly committed were 



112 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

received, until our number in April, 1884, reached 141. 
When it was decided illegal to issue certificates for the sup- 
port of the school, it became necessary rapidly to reduce 
our numbers ; active effort was made to find homes for 
those best fitted for them, and by the end of May following 
our attendance was reduced to seventy-four — and every boy 
sent away was provided with a good home, either with his 
parents or with strangers. The average number of pupils 
during the whole term has been 120 1-6. 

The past biennial term has been one of substantial 
progress. By the purchase of fifteen acres of land during 
the past term, our grounds have been increased to twenty 
acres and enclosed by a neat fence. 

Four brick buildings have been erected with appropria- 
tion of 1888. Three of these are planned and used for 
family and school purposes ; each are 26x50 feet and two 
and one-half stories high ; in these, properly placed, are 
boys' and officers' dining rooms, kitchen, laundry, tailor 
shop, three lavatories, four school rooms, and three dormi- 
tories. The whole is arranged for three families of fifty 
boys each. The first stories are heated by stoves, the 
second by furnaCces specially arranged to heat the third by 
warm air through registers. The whole is well ventilated 
by large registers connected with a successful ventilating 
system. The fourth brick building is 82x32 feet, finished 
in two stories and basement. The basement is provided 
with a large oven, and thoroughly fitted up as a bakery. 
The upper stories are arranged in eight rooms for officers^ 
occupancy. 

Two fine shops have been erected — frame buildings, 
completely lined with brick. The larger is our broom 
factory, and the smaller is divided into shoe and carpenter 
shops. With lofts, they give floor space of 8,960 square 
feet. 

A well-arranged wagon shed, coal and wood shed, barn 
yard and boys' closets have also been arranged and built.. 
The main building has been entirely remodeled and the 
former laundry building fitted with basement, first and 
second floors, as a storehouse. 

The buildings are not designed as permanent school 
buildings, but finally, when the growing wants of the school 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 113 

demand it, to be used as factory buildings, for which they 
are specially adapted, and more commodious structures will 
be erected for the accommodation of the school. 

There is now ample room for 175 boys, and with a little 
crowding 200 could find here a comfortable school. 

REPAIRS. 

» 

There is economy and education in keeping all build- 
ings well repaired and painted and the whole premises in 
the best of order. Want of means has hindered the fully 
carrying out our wish in this particular, but it has ever 
been our principle of action and been carried out as fully as 
possible. 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. 

An important part of every true reform work must be 



its industrial department 



f 



Our boys, as soon as they enter the school, are taught 
to take an active part in its industries, and very soon be- 
come interested in its work. They learn to take pride in 
the neatness and order of the whole premises; it becomes 
part of their making and a daily source of education. 

The entire work of the school is performed by the 
pupils, and each department, or force, is presided over by 
competent teachers. 

The laundry work is entirely done by a force of boys. 
The work in dining room, kitchen, tailor shop, shoe shop, 
yards and premises have to each a force detailed. In the 
same manner the broom factory, bakery, carpenter, barn, 
school, dormitory, house and incidental work is divided, 
and each department or work is felt to be a work of import- 
ance. 

All clothing worn, including shoes, are made in our own 
shops, so that everything is had at the least cost, and all 
becomes part of our educational system. 

Our broom factory started under many difficulties, but 
has proved a real success. One thousand dollars of the 
profits has been paid over to the Treasurer to help support 

15 



114 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

the school, and nine hundred and seventy-six dollars and 
eighty-seven cents of surplus earnings remains in the busi- 
ness, with the capital stock intact. Broom making, shoe 
making, tailoring, baking and carpentering give five import- 
ant trades taught in the school. The products of but one 
trade have, as yet, been offered in the market. Our brooms 
have had a ready sale, and we hope to make them indis- 
pensable to every Colorado housekeeper. 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT. 

Careful attention is given to school instruction. Three 
and one-quarter hours are given daily in school. 

The pupils are carefully graded in five classes, and rapid 
progress in study has particularly marked almost every 
scholar. 

The following course of study in each class will show 
what is aimed at: 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

The E grade comprises the necessary primary instruc- 
tion in letters and figures for first beginners. 

IN THE D GRADE. 

Pupils complete the First Reader, numeration and addi- 
tion, and receive lessons in penmanship, spelling, geography 
and mental arithmetic, 

IN THE C GRADE. 

Pupils complete the Second Reader, subtraction, multf- 
plication and short division, receive instruction in penman- 
ship, written and oral spelling, drawing, mental arithmetic, 
U. S. History and physiology. 

IN THE B GRADE. 

Pupils complete the Third Reader, long division and 
common fractions, receive lessons in penmanship, written 
and oral spelling, drawing, mental arithmetic, physiology, 
U. S. History and language lessons. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 115 

IN THE A GRADE. ^ 

Pupils review common fractions and complete arithmetic 
and take up algebra, receive lessons in penmanship, draw- 
ing, written and oral spelling, geography, physiology, book- 
keeping and language lessons. 

LIBERAL APPROPRIATION NEEDED. 

To accomplish the greatest good, the necessary wants 
of the school should be fully if not liberally supplied. The 
State can hardly afford to have the school again closed 
against those who should be received, for every boy thus 
excluded will probably continue to be an offender against 
the public peace, and a depredator on private rights; but 
admitted into the school, taught temperance, industry, 
truth, morality, to respect private and public rights, and 
the fear of God, given at least a fair common school educa- 
tion, and, as a rule, ninety out of every one hundred, at 
least, will be returned to society and the State, at the end 
of their school course, intelligent, industrious citizens, and 
contributors to its wealth and prosperity. 

DISCIPLINE. 

The necessity of rapidly reducing our numbers has at 
times interfered with the regularly established methods of 
discipline, and to an extent weakened the excellent effect of 
our badge system ; but good order and cheerful obedience 
has been a most pleasing characteristic of the school, and 
at very little cost of punishments. Our school has much 
the method of a well ordered home family. Most of the 
pupils take pleasure in maintaining the spirit as well as the 
letter of its rules, and become deeply interested in its good 
name and work. Many of them have been permitted, unac- 
companied by officers, to visit stores in Golden and make 
purchases for themselves and the school, and a trust has 
never been betrayed. Their good manners and polite 
behavior have been a constant subject of remark. 

The school, by invitation, has taken part in several pub- 
lic occasions, and has always received praise for correct and 
soldierly conduct. Permission to visit home has been freely 
given, and not a single furlough has been violated. 



ii6 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

Mrs. 'Sampson has regularly held a voluntary noon-day 
prayer meeting, which has been well attended, and with 
marked results for good. 

A Band of Hope society has been organized in each 
family, and is conducted entirely by the boys, they electing 
their own officers quarterly. Temperance literature is read, 
speeches, recitations and songs form part of the regular pro- 
gramme, and every Saturday evening a public rehearsal is 
held in the chapel, interesting alike to visitors, officers and 
pupils. 

The ministers of the various churches in Golden have 
most kindly given their gratuitous and eloquent services on 
Sabbath afternoons, making chapel exercises especially inter- 
esting and profitable to all. 

The Sunday evening "service of song," conducted by 
Mrs. Sampson, has been very much enjoyed by the boys. 

LIBRARY. 

Our Legislature, at their last session, appropriated two 
Jiundred dollars to form the nucleus of a library. The money 
has been most carefully spent for books of real value and 
interest. 

Two hundred and sixty volumes, comprising encyclo- 
pedias, dictionaries, histories, biographies, books of travel, 
science, art, and works of standard fiction. In this selection 
the wants of the smaller as well as the larger boys have 
been considered and provided for. The books are much 
read by the pupils of every age, and an additional appro- 
priation would be hailed with delight by the entire school. 

girls' department. 

There has been a constant demand during the entire 
term for the admission of girls, it being claimed that the 
State should at least show as much care for its girls as it 
does for its boys. It is hoped it will be possible to at once 
establish the girls' department of the school. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 117 

LONGER TIME NEEDED. 

It is regretted that many of the terms of the pupils 
have been entirely too limited to give the best results. It 
is desirable that the present limit of commitment be 
extended to read not less than two nor more than five 
years. We aim to give every boy sent to our school a 
good common school education, and in addition, skill in 
some desirable trade, that he may hereafter become an inde- 
pendent, self-reliant worker. 

For this desirable end time should be given to complete 
the education aimed at, otherwise the incomplete effort may 
prove a comparative failure. 

I desire to tender my sincere thanks to His Excellency, 
Governor James B. Grant, for nobly coming to our help at 
a most critical time ; to the board of control for their earnest 
devotion to the best interests of the school and the welfare 
of the children committed to its care ; to various kind 
friends for donations of books, magazines and papers ; to 
A. G. Smith, Esq., for the gift of ten dollars for the Fourth 
of July, 1883; to the jubilee singers of our school, under 
the direction of W. P. Rhodes, Esq., and Mr. James McMul- 
len, for public entertainments, netting the sum of forty dol- 
lars, which was donated to the reading fund. 

SANITARY CONDITION OF SCHOOL. 

Golden, Colo., October 16, 1884. 

To the Honorable Board of Coniviissioiiers : 

I beg leave to submit to your honorable board the fol- 
lowing report concerning the sanitary condition of the 
State Industrial School, located at Golden, Colorado : 

I have made a thorough examination of the premises 
and each and every department of said school, and found 
them neat and clean. The ventilation of school rooms and 
dormitories is fair, the food of uniform good quality and 
well prepared. 

Upon examining the inmates I found no evidence of the 
diseases which usually prevail in such institutions. The 



ii8 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

school has been exceptionally free from all contagious dis- 
eases, and excepting a few cases of measles, there has been 
no disease of an epidemic character. I think the location 
of the school and the arrangement of the buildings render 
it one of the most healthy. 

Yours, most respectfully, 

JOHN P. KELLY, M. D. 



LETTER FROM REV. C. M. JONES. 

Denver, Colo., November 7, 1884. 

It is three years since Superintendent Sampson requested 
the pastors of Golden to preach at the Sunday afternoon 
services which he holds at the Industrial School. In this 
way once each month I have gone to address these boys, 
and it has proved one of the most pleasant experiences of 
my life. I have never known so satisfactory an audience. 
The presumption would not seem to be in favor of much 
encouragement in moral and religious work among boys 
whose homes and haunts had been so frequently so demor- 
alizing and depraving. And undoubtedly such pastoral 
service as ours would have proved utterly unavailing had 
not the boys been in such a school and under the daily 
influence of Superintendent and Mrs. Sampson. 

In sympathy with their magnificent spirit we have 
labored to supplement and emphasize their moral and relig- 
ious teaching. Catching something of their noble enthu- 
siasm, we have endeavored to exalt the idea of a true man- 
hood. We assume, as without question, that these boys 
are going to make men of themselves, and we draw upon 
every motive and means by which they may be induced to 
appreciate the worthiness and real glory and sure satisfac- 
tion of such a career. We preach a gospel of cheer, and 
strength and magnanimity. Religion we urge as a prepar- 
ation for a true human life. 

This is the spirit in which, during these three years, I 
have spoken in these Sabbath discourses, and I believe I 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 119 

am also speaking for my brother pastors, as to their spirit 
and purpose. The Christian young men who have gone 
from this school will average, I believe, better for well 
founded principles and genuine religious purpose, than the 
same number from any other kind of school. They are 
to be found, some of them in distant States, devoted and 
true Christians and promising men. 

Very cordially submitted, 

CHAS. M. JONES, 

Pastor Golden Baptist Church. 

As the school has printed a full report of its work for 
the past biennial term, it is thought unnecessary to put the 
State to the further expense of reproducing it in that of the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. The State superin- 
tendent, desiring that the important work of our school 
should be known as widely as possible, invited this con- 
densed summary of its work for the past biennial term. 

Those wishing a full report of the school will please 
send their address on a postal card to the superintendent at 
Golden, Colorado. 

WM. C SAMPSON, 

Superintendent. 

R. B. SAMPSON, 
Matron. 

J. F. GARDNER, 

Frankstown, 

W. B. OSBORN, 

Loveland, 

W. G. SMITH, 
Golden, 
Board of Control. 



I20 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE 1. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. 
Term expires January, 1886. 



COUNTY. 


NAME. 


POST-OFFICE. 


Arapahoe 

Bent 


John L. Fetzer 

John A. Murphy 

A. L. Gravelle 

JohnG. Hollenbeck 


Denver 

W^est Las Animas 


Boulder 

Chaffee 


Boulder 

Salida 


Conejos 


R. K. Brown 

William Stewart 


Conejos 

Ft Garland 


CuStT 


Artemus W^alters 


Silver Cliff 


Delta 


George H. Merchant 

0. H.Taylor 

WiUiam B Evans 

L. S. Pierce 

S. J. Stid 

Rev. B. A. P. Eaton 

Z.T.Hill 

M.V. B. Blood 


Delta 


Dolores 

ESS"^:::::::::;:::::;:::;;::::;; 

Elbert 

El Paso 


Rico 

Larkspur 

Taylor 

Elbert 

Colorado Springs 

Canon City 


Fremont 


Garfield , 




Gilpin 


H.M.Hale 

Everett M. Harmon 

Geo. B. Spratt 

John M. Finley 

A H Quillian 


Central City 


Grand 

Gunnison 


Grand Lake 

Gunnison 




Lake City 


Huerfano .. .. 


Walsenburg 

Golden 

Leadville 


Jefferson 

Lake 


W.G.Smith 

E T Taylor 


La Plata 


D Preston Bell 






Rev. W. H. McCreery 

John W. Douthit 

George Caldwell 


Ft. Collins 


Las Animas ...: 

Mesa . . . 


Trinidad 

, Grand Junction 


Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 


Dr. W W. Ashley 

P. H. Shue 

Wm. L. Bailey, Jr 


Montrose 

Ouray 

Fairplay 


Pitkin 


H. L.Harding 

Dr. A. Y Hull 

Sigel Heilman 


Pueblo 

Rio Grande 


Pueblo 

Del Norte 


Routt 

Saguache 

Sap Juan 


J. H Cheney 

W E.White 

Dr. R. H. Brown 

H. C. Lay, Jr 

Dr B. A. Arbogast 

Rev. A. K. Packard 


Yampa 

Saguache 

Silverton 




Telluride 


Summit 

Weld .. 


Breckinridge 

Greeley 





STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



121 



TABLE 11. 

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaflfee 

Clear Creek. 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont .... 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison ... 
Hinsdale .... 
Huerfano .... 
Jefferson .... 

LaKe 

La Plata .... 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose .... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande., 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan .. 
San Miguel., 

Summit 

Weld 



Total. 



1883. 

CERTIFI«ATES GIVEN. 



First 
Grade. 



Second 
Grade. 



u 








g 


•^ 


fa 


^ 


21 


4 


2 


4 


18 


s! 


8 


2 


3 


r! 



....j. 



Third 
Grade. 



! 21 


5\ 


1 3 


I 


' 2 


2 


6 


6 


21 




7 
16 


4 



68^ 173' 72 



17 



1884. 



CERTIFICATES GIVEN. 



First 
Grade. 



...... 



53 



63 201 



9, 
521 

804' 



Second 


Grade. 




V 


•^ 


B 


S 


fc 


7 


35 


2 


3 


I 


14 



Third 
Grade. 



I 4 



84' 139 1 75 



247 



2 






2 


3 


2 


8 


7 


Q 


6 




5 


7 





I 


20 


e 


e^ 


10 


=^1 


6 


I 


I- 




2 


2 . 





76 204 



12 

77 
825 



16 



122 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE III. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

*Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison .... 
Hinsdale .... 
Huerfano .... 
Jefferson .... 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose .... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache .... 

San Juan 

San Miguel... 

Summit 

Weld 



CENSUS— 1883. 



BBTWBEN 6 AND 16. 



I 

r 
5177 
165 
1217 
669 
693! 
498, 
386! 
529, 
55 1 
33 
2^51 
63 1 
134; 
721 1 



5404 
190 
1198 
641 
677 
484 
343 
540 
58 

'9 

268 

72 

131 

767 
624 



648 

IC2 
470 
103 
674 
714 

1078 
386 
792 I 

1278, 

106 

581 

102 

238 

48, 

9451 

2231 
41! 

326 
59 i 
471 

"71 



10581 

355 

2415 

1310 

1370 
982 
729 

1069 
113 
52 
503 
135 
265 

1488 

1330 



BETWEEN 16 AND 21 



^578 
51 
387 
261 
187 
197 

no 

•154 
63 

7 
59 
II 

43 
259 
154 



630 
90 

390 

87 

688 

1075 

1197 

293 1 

75 X I 

1167 

96 

40 

281 

43, 
1212 

161 



287 
69 
35 
145 
832 



Total 



20665I 21105 41770 



1278 
192 

86o 

190 

1362 

1789 

2275 

679 

1543 

244s 

202 

98 

200 

519 

91 

2I,S7 

384 

63 

613 

128 
82 

262 

1 661 



184 



24s 

206 
260 
86 
211 
381 



1532 

43 

356 

234 

154 

138 

65 

152 

67, 

81 

i. 

32i 



3110 
94 
743 
495 
341 
335 

3c6 

130 

15 

113 

19 

75 

453 

330 



TOTAL BET. 6 AND 21 , 



6755 
216 

1604 
930 

8801 
695I 
496. 
683 

118 

40 
294 

74 1 
1771 



860 



12! 
381 
84 



92 i 
16 

i3i 

276 



M7| 
22 
100 

19 
230 
108 
222 

59 
184; 
267 



70 1 

14 
34i 

2IO| 



331 
42 

204 
40 

475 

364 

482 

145 

395 

648 

44 

20! 

76 

137 

18 

624! 

86 

20 

162 

29 

27 

67 



832, 
122, 

574j 

124! 

919 

920 

1338 

472 

1003 

1659 

128 

701 

140 

322 

60 

1252 

271 

53 

4x8 

75 

60 

150 

X105 



69361 1369 

2331 44 
1554 

875 

831 

622 



408 
692 
125 

27 

322 

80 

163 

961 



777i 

II2| 

490! 

ic6 
918 
1233 
7419 

352 
935 



[18 

48 
136 
334 

46 

1529 

199 

3^ 
357 

82 

49 
179 

1042 



3150 

1805 

1711 

1317 

904 

1375 

243 

67 

616 

154 

340 

1941 

1660 



1609' 

234 

1064 

230 

1837 

2153 

2757 

824 

1938. 

434 3093 

246 

n8 

276 



656 
109 
2781 
470 
83 
775 
157 
109 

329 
2147 



6204; 5452 11656 26869 26557 53420 



*Estimated. No report. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



123 



TABLE III. — Concluded. 



CENSUS-1884. 



COUNTIES. 



BETWEEN 6 AND 16.] BET. 16 AND 21. TOTAL BET. 6 AND 21 



Arapahoe I 5496; 6025J 11521 

Bent 1 184 222| 406 

Boulder 1123 

Chaffee | 685 

Clear Creek | 660 

Conejos ' 627 

Costilla ■ 290 

Custer 443 

Delta I 96 

Dolores 27 

Douglas 1 251 

Eagle 60 

Elbert } 149 

El Paso 769 

Fremont 609 

Garfield i 32 

Gilpin ] 6151 

Grand , „ 89 

Gunnison 409 

Hinsdale j 79 

Huerfano j 731 

Jefferson 764 

Lake I 1179 

La Plata I 304 

Larimer 792 

Las Animas 1261 

Mesa I 148 

Montrose j 106 

Ouray I 104 

Park I 294 

Pitkin •. 77 

,Pueblo 1135 

'Rio Grande 274 

Routt ; 31 

Saguache 294 

San Juan I 54 

San Miguel ' 42, 

Summit | 151 

Weld I 950 

Total I 21564 21567 4313 



1185 
603 
671 
620 
262 

497 

89 

21 
266 

61 
123 
808 
589 

17 
589 

72 
435 
'82 
734I 
7371 
978 
321 j 

745; -_. 

11691 2430 

129! 277 

81 187 
112' 216 
597 

11961 2331 
233, 507 



301, 
61' 



285! 

531 

25! 

T91 

936 



2408 
1288 

1331 
1247 
552 
940 
185 
48 
517 
121 
272 

1577 
1198 

49 

1204 

161 

844 

161 

1465 

1 501 

2157 
705 
1537 






1823: 
73' 
366, 
210 
193' 
176 

4471 
128I 

^9 
12 
80 



53 
218 
283J 

" 
206! 

2l| 
138 

'3 
262 1 

255 

214, 

ic6' 

258 

374 

34 

24 

43 

94 

20 

337- 

16 

87 
32! 
13: 
35 
307. 



1802 

50| 
3731 
2081 
176! 
164' 
1651 
121 



30| 
2451 
332 

.6?! 

16; 
235 

i8ol 
i95i 
98 
213I 

308J 

22 1 

^7| 
37 
71 
20 
283; 
64' 
Sj 

20} 

13 

50' 

246 



3625 
123 

739 
418 
369 
340 
412 
249 
22I 41 

II 23 
58 138 

III 31 
83 

463 

615 

20 

373 
37 

273 
21 

497 
435 
409 
204 

471 

682 
56 
41 
80 

i6s 
40' 

620 

143 
21 

138 
52 
26 
85 

553 



7080 6031 131 ] 



7319 
257 

1589 
895 
853 
803 
537 
571 
"5 
39 
331 
80 
202 
987 
892 

431 
821 
no! 
5461 

92. 
993' 
1019 

1393 
490 
10:0 

1635 
182 
130 
147 
388 

97 
1472 

343 
47 

381 
86 
55 

186 
12571 



7827 
272 

1558 
811 
847 
784 
427 
618 
III 
32 
324 
72 

153 

1053 

921 

26 

756 

88 

571 j 
90 

9691 

917! 
"73 

419 

958 
1477 

151 
98 

149 

374 
81 

1479 

307 

46 

336 

li 

241 
1182 



28433! ^7809 



15146 

529 

3147 

1706 

1700 

1587 

964 

1189 

226 

71 

655 

152 

355 

2040 

1^3 

69 

1577 

198 

1117 

182 

T962 

1936 

2566 

909 

2008 

3112 

333 

228 

296 

762 

178 

2951 

650 

93 

717 

159 

93 

427 

2439 



56242 



124 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE IV. 



ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe ... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaflfee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson ... 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose .... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache .... 

San Juan 

San Miguel.. 

Summit 

Weld 



iJ o 



»IOI 

128 

1005 
601 

810 
184 



435 



897 
362 






c 


B 


-a . 


-a . 










P^ 


■ps 


c-f= 


c-c 


Wc>5 


Wr^ 


"2.2 


<o 






S-^ 


J3 


7.^ 


u 


^ 






97' 



755 
234 
1454 
526 

479 
727 
370 
391 
61 

57 
517 

74 
263 

815 
880 



8567 
344 
2297 
1025 
1203 

743 
312 

60 

55 

481 

240 
i486 
"33 



560 
1819 
351 
660 
808 



1780^ 
258 



207: 

114 

354 

38i 

723 

863 

289 

315 

685 

858 

54' 

33 

131 

4.8 

75; 
463 
183 

80 
471! 

75! 

48 
246 



289 

18 

162 

102 

86 

168 

58 

51 

I 

2 

36 
5 

226 
109 



499 



1132 
109 
771 
149 
532 

1280 

1731 
586 
1287 

1273' 
48 
33 
116 
466 
74 
2066 

317 
60 

35o| 
70 



188 58 

1548 139 i 



46 
5 

46 
23 
191 

143 

377 

80 

58 

15 
56 
I 
177 
124 



8856 
262 

2459 
1127 
1289 
911 

370 

826 

61 

57 

517 

74 

263 

1712 

1242 



(=)«• 






Total 20930; 15514 33030 3414 I 36444 23008 68 



1178 

114 

817 

172 

723 

1423 

2108 

666 1 

1345 

1666 

54 

33 

131 

522; 

75I 

2243 

441 ; 

80 j 

48: 
246, 
1687 



PERCENTAGES. 



806 

86 

516 

97 
524 
945 
172 
281 
877 
827 

41 

14 

79 
338 

52 
1268 
270 

25 
289 

70J 48 

22 44 

163' 78 

"37, 78 



II 

o 3 

^^ 
(4 



5591 

192 j 

1681 

809 1 
535' 
231 
553 
34 
37 
301 

49 

159 

1042 

863 



H 



5S 



63 


3 


11 


13 
3 


n 


k 


59 


5 



3 

5 

3^ 

3 

2 

3>^ 

4 



2^ 

2 
2 

2j^ 



63 



STATE SUPERINTENDENI'5 REPORT. 



125 



TABLE IV. — Concluded. 



ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder , 

ChaflFee , 

Clear Creek . 
Conejos ........ 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle , 

Elbert 

El Paso , 

Fremont 

Garfield -..., 

Gilpin , 

Grand 

Gunnison .... 
Hinsdale .... 

Huerfano 

JeflFerson ..., 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose ..., 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin......... 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan.. . 
San Miguel.. 

Summit 

Weld 



1884. 



CV2 



9011 
104 

1114 
698 

389 
200 



490 



349 



975 



581 
1 712 
348 
686 
791 



1953 
258 



133 



529 



483 
258 
1356 
380 
738 
8co 
427 
349 
152 

43 
477 

83 
250 
696 
1017 

24 
185 

71 
391 

^9 
794 
900 
249 
274 
811 

?ii 

143 

82 

406 

103 

601 

176 

54 

377 

85 

49 

191 

1 1 320 



Total 






327 
2322 
1003 
1071 
855 
349 
787 
129 

37 
435 
81 
223 
1229 
1276 

H08 

68 

823 

129 

643 

1380 

1890 

553 

1400 

1388 

164 

133 

151 

441 

99 

2331 

400 

44 

76 
44 

375 
1686 






%0^ 

O 



646 

35 
148 

li 

145 
78 
52 

'I 

42 
2 

27 

269 

90 

7 

52 

3 

65 

2 

151 

lOI 

71 

69 

97 
162 



4 

223 
34 

loj 

55 

9 

5 

163 



Whole No. enrolled 
in Public Schools. 



i I i 



4613 

170 
1258! 
548 
572 i 
5611 
270 

^i^ 

23 

242 
46 
136 
756 
670 



590 
36 

447 
69I 

419 

754| 

lOOI 

359I 
7631 
882 

t\ 

io6| 
2601 

56 
1254I 
246 

21 
249 

46: 

28; 
180 
954 



191 
1212 
530 
555 
439 
157, 
440, 

69; 

20] 

2351 
37, 
"4, 
742 
696 

9 
570 

35 
441 1 

62 
375I 
727, 
960' 
263 

734; 

668! 
72 i 
57 
761 

324 

4?' 

1300! 

188 

33 
221 

39 



9494 
362 
247c 
1078 
H27 
1000 
427 

839 

152 

43 

477 

83 

250 

1498 

1366 

24 

1160 

71 

888 

131 

794 
1481 
1961 

622 
1497 
1550 

168 

143 

182 

484 

103 

2554 

434 

54 

470 

85 

49 

412 

1849 



6126 
221 

1642 
698 
726 
467 

239 

427 

87 

39 

253 

50 

157 
907 
916 

15 
717 

44 
569 
III 
524 
937 
1088 

353 

859 

868 

98 

68 

135 

346 

66 

1529 

246 

41 

270 

57 

30 

186 

1195 



PERCENTAGES. 






11 



63 1 71 
58 64 



■;6 
76 I 

67 I 
61 

45 ! 
64 



3 

4 
2K 



3 
5 

3-7 
4 



15741 34730' 3142 20264 17568 37832; 233C7 67 



126 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE V. 



NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN GRADED AND UNGRADED SCHOOLS, AND 
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARIES. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek , 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer ........ 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas.. .. 

Eagle 

Elbert.. 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas . 
Mesa 



Montrose. 
(Juray .... 



Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel., 

Summit 

Weld 



GRADED SCHOOLS. 



Teachers. 



9; "9 



128 



Salaries. 



ii8 oo'$ 

I20 OO 

138 88 

75 00 

112 34 

120 00 



100 00 



58 00 
75 00 

64 70 

65 00 
80 00 
73 00 



60 00 



130 00 
100 00 



[4 108 33 



117 50 
100 00 



20 29 

3 5 

9; " 

10 14 



32j 37 
4 



.1.,., 



105 00 
137 00 
95 00 
97 50 
90 CO 



67 81 
57 50 



84 09 



71 50 
80 00 



66 eo 
80 00 
75 00 
60 00 
64 00 



80 00 



130 00 
100 00 



55 00 



65 00 
75 00 



61 00 



UNGRADED SCHOOLS. 



Teachers. 



Salaries. 



13 



I I 



26 



38^ 

64. 
22: 
^7i 
23 
121 

^sl 

3 .- 

il... 

27 

.il 

33 
25 



54 00$ 
60 00^ 

57 14! 
60 301 

60 00 1 

61 80! 
25 66: 
43 75' 



45 00 
60 00' 

45 00 j 

46 42 1 



55 75! 
45 



57 


50 


50 


00 


45 


00 


55 


00 


55 


00 


41 


25' 


44 


00 

1 









4 
24 


6x67; 

6d go. 


38 

8 
4 


48 21 
62 50 
45 00, 
53 33 







xo 

70 


47 50 

4585, 



48 00 

52 50 

42 II 

46 60 

49 00 
44 37 
3386 

41 00 

47 66 
80 00 

42 00 

53 00 
46 15 

43 35 
42 08 



56 30 
44 00 

57 67 
50 00 

47 75 
44 00 

56 25 
54 44 

39 21 
41 00 
50 00 
50 00 
60 00 

40 00 
104 28 

49 66 

48 75 

50 00 
47 90 
79 44 

57 50 
53 75 
43 23 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



27 



TABLE v.— Concluded. 



NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN GRADED AND UNGRADED SCHOOLS, AND 
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARIES. 



1884. 



GRADED SCHOOLS. 



UNGRADED SCHOOLS. 



COUNTIES. 



Teachers 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek.. 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose — 

< >uray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande. 

Routt 

Saguache — 

San Juan 

San Miguel., 

Summit 

Weld 



I 



136 150 



Salaries. 



Teachers. 



Salaries. 



$105 55! 
100 001 

no oo| 

78 33; 
150 ool 

166 67 1 



^59 
75 
72 
60 
77 
72 



tS7 50 
no 00! 



107 501 
100 00 



7 28| 35 
3 2 5 



107 50 
120 00 
92 so 
97 50 
91 25 



"7 87, 
123 33 



166 66 



103 33 I 56 82 



70 00 
55 56 



107 ool 73 37, 



100 00 75 
100 00' 55 



70 26 
75 00 



80 00 50 00 



6-> 00 
66 56 



*3 
10 


4 


9 


10 


4 


2 


I 


I 


12 


18 


J 


5 


6 


13 


9 


22 



3! 



17 28 



6' 
61 i 



$48 05, 
61 401 
53 53 

59 28, 
67 85! 
50 78 
41 16 
40 93 
61 67. 
90 oo| 

47 50} 

60 00' 

57 25' 

67 r,o\ 
56 



56 00 

45 00 
53 33' 
50 00 

46 73 
46 00 

60 00 1 
65 00: 

39 50 

48 00! 
50 oo] 

61 OOj 

50 00 

39 33 [ 
no 00, 

46 84' 

49 54' 

50 00 

59 00; 



52 50' 
48 86 



$48 23 

53 00 
43 37 
46 44 
42 77 
48 37 

45 00 
38 83 
40 00 
90 00 
42 38 
65 71 

46 85 
40 00 
45 42 
50 00 

45 00 

46 67 
58 06 
50 00 
45 45 

42 63 
55 00 
50 00 
40 23 
40 00 

54 20 
50 00 
33 34 
48 43 
85 00 
48 60 

43 74 
50 00 

44 00 
82 00 

65 CO 

55 00 

45 23 



128 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE VI. 



DISTRICTS, SCHOOL HOUSES AND TUITION. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

*Costilla 

Custer 

Deha .. 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano.. .. 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Lets Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose .... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel.., 

Summit 

Weld 



Total 



1883. 



552 



No. of days 
of School. 



gen 
O 



190 
200 

1831 
167 
184 

195 



n 



166 



180 



86 
87 

II 
109 

81 
102 

lOI 

771 
100 
60 

99 

160 

145 

92 

78 

44 

95 

140 

64 

76 

130 



183' 



School Houses. 



$707,950 

9.925 

65,150 

32,227 

34,893 

i7,76j 

680 

8,025 

100 

2,068 

9,325 

I, coo 

5,725 

48,050 

34,690 



> 



48,760 

300 

43,1501 

28,000 
2, no 
34,400 
90,000 
18,025 
35,075 
23,800 



6925 

231 

2352 

819 

989 

535 
235 
809 


2180 


50- 
350 


Z 


56 
522 

46 
300 











1032 



873 

40 
1082 
132 

349 



717 

1304 

550 



50 . 

i,525J 

4,025! 

4,500 

[45,630] 

13.5071 

50' 

5,640 

4,000 



601 1 

70 

[922 

400 

25' 
375 
50, 



6,000 
85,523 



300 
[724 



459 $1 



800 

58 



1676 



150 
300 



300 

6C96 



*From report for 1882. No report for 1883. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



129 



TABLE VI. — Concluded. 



DISTRICTS, SCHOOL HOUSES AND TUITION. 



COUNTIES. 



1884. 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose.. .. 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo........ 

Rio Grande. 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan.. .. 
San Miguel.. 

Summit 

Weld 



No. of Days 
of School. 



2w 
O 



ceo 



1751 
i8o 

184I 
133 



100 
195! 



■?! • 

32i 193, 

9' 163 

6 .... 
i4| i6d^ 



100 
180 



136 
137 
112 
103 
lie 
92 

no 
140 
no 
123 
153 
"5 
113 
60 

94 
54 
77 
80 

93 

117 

70 

86 

no 

95 

88 

85 

70 

103 

80 

91I 
104 
68 
92 
100^ 



School Houses. 



I ^ 



$ 640,000 
18,025 
67,230 
37,750 

21, 100 
18,721 

2,40c 

10,520 

940 

1,800 
12,300 

1,100 
10,300 
64,755 
44,900 



45,025 

607 

19,700 

30,500 

3,246 

40,838 

150,980 

15,310 

42,450 

33.580 

8,500 

8,000 

10,450 

13,930 

4,6 
157,390 
13,600 
230 
9,M5 
2,500 
4,000 

9,657 
100,000 



Total : 604 



6311 

2576 

1248 

1047 

598 

400 

928 



534 
52 

347 
1665 
1273 



96. 



•is 



2300 



34 



1768 



300 



1208] 

1661 

530' 
1679 
1770: 

609 
i475| 

600 

250 

200 

264 

449 

^50 
1843 452 

438 
42 

370 



48 

291 

2150 



Av. cost per 

month for 
each pupil. 



c c 



$2 76 1 
4 44 

2 34 

3 12 
1 76 
I 98 

1 55 

2 51 

1 56 

2 81I 

2 7^1 

3 241 
485 
2 92 

2 23 

3 oo| 
I 86 



4 IX 
6 07I 
426} 

2 21! 

2 59' 

1 19 

3 04 

2 58 

1 72 
387 

2 80, 

2 65, 
061 



2 82 



100 525 $1,676,130 35662. 6687 $2 58 $4 



3 841 

5 23; 

2 76 

3 72 

1 31' 

2 06 
2 46 



$3 90 
6 62 

3 77 
5 04 

2 69 

3 68 

2 64 

4 35 

3 16 

3 10 

4 71 

5 68 

8 18 
4 77 

3 34 

4 15 

3 01 

6 63 

9 21 

4 65 

3 27 

4 24 
2 93 
4 74 

4 19 

2 88 

5 21 
5 00 

5 27 
4 42 

3 22 

4 78 

7 72 

6 88 

4 69 

5 62 

2 10 
4 56 

3 90 



17 



13® 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE VII. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe 

Eent 

Boulder .., 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

*Cosiilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield(no organization) 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 



Total. 





-d 


'6 


i 


I-. 


i 


on he 

882. 


fa 


c 
fa 


fa 

.£ 


4: 



1 P' 








-73 














rt ui 


1 H 


c " 







m 


6^ 


p< 


g. 


E 


g 


E 


§ 


~ 


Sx. 







£ 


U U) 





< 


fa 


fa 


fa 


fa 


H 


$ 18954 59 


51C8395 30 


$127390 99 




$ 89857 92 


^344598 80 



431 94 13714 65 
691 95 
007 23 
939 84! 

179 42 

180 681 




$128239 23^329408 23 $269441 99 $37829 _-7j2272oo 26 <992ii9 &8 



•Estimated. No report. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



131 



TABLE VIL— Concluded. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

*Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont ...... 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison .... 
Hinsdale .... 
Huerfano .... 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose .... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache .... 

San Juaif. 

San Miguel... 

Summit 

Weld 



EXPENDITURBS. 



$102558 27 $ 

5757 75, 
21478 00! 
10347 66. 

1T357 37 

6130 70 

1762 95 

6730 15 

413 50 

300 00 

5030 79 

713 30 

4120 25 

15761 50 

9846 15 



. « c 

u rv' 
fa 



29318 76^150028 011$ 26490 56^308395 

1 100 63^ 2580 55 1 3 001 9441 

3800 381 12620 04 5525 51! 43423 

3171 27, 2852 82] 180 99' 16552 

3228 73! 2396 86 143 gii 17126 

2171 141 4490 29 80 80 12872 

389 75 250 27 1 2402 

1431 95 352 8" 



107 
323 
37 
693 
3275 
2325 



267 95 

436 85. 



97 23 
95 71 



542 60 



42| ! 

371 3875 76 981 73 
50j 7364 74! 1667 85 



509 

675 

6333 

750 

4813 

23894 

21204 



6o|i; 

93 

93l 

74 

87, 

93 

97 



36203 20 
4272 72 
6497 69 
6195 23 
3904 31 
2457 83 
2976 40 
1321 95 
36 70 

794 49 
4560 19 

193 39 
4622 90 
5372 84 
1750 03 




250 001 

150 00 

1338 751 

4543 19 

1460 GO 

30117 44 
4552 04^ 

150 OOp 

3699 72 1 

800 001 

225 00' 

1673 33] 

19415 35| 



326 

541 
868 

'7853 
1207 



40 1 3073 65 j 5569 95 

40 j 647 49 

50: 428 46, I 

29 1 22745 53' 39606 66 

23 2044 26 1 



701 

12 

65 

152 

7233 



8 75 
08 
43 

3^1 



1047 00 i 

253 £5 1 



609 28 
162 24 



5597 9^ 
23593 41 



475 00 
311 22 



16818 

801 

19984 

6736 

5979 
25x62 

31374 

11113 

27581 

22644 

300 

150 

10308 

5732 

2756 

I 10322 

7803 

150 

6057 

1344 

290 



54 
08 
67 
50553 29 



Total 



412 22 

199 44 
2642 92 
1732 88 
2642 34 
3700 44 
I 061 90 
1090 90 
5501 72 
9825 90 
44 18 



1034 46 

3861 77 

6 80 

10995 21 

1607 74 

II 00 

107 I 64 

600 90 

203 00 

1257 23 

12559 25 



•^367355 89 $117194 22 $267610 79$ 96714 47 $848875 37, $143243 71 



*Estimated No report. 



132 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE VIII. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1884. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe ... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaifee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson .. . 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose .... 

Ouray , 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache .... 

San Juan , 

San Miguel.., 

Summit 

Weld 



< 



37843 96 
4272 72 
6016 06 
6097 23 
1707 20 
3089 II 
2806 53 
1727 00 



141 T9 
3544 45 

193 39 
5076 87 
5395 85 
169 1 26 



458 76 

77 50 

3259 81 

1792 88 

1853 42 

4514 28 

11966 73 

1585 52 

6337 00 

9825 74 

24 75 



6489 88 

3943 60 

514 c9 

I 1680 77 

859 12 

256 00 

1649 96 
6c 6 76 
203 00 

1213 49 
12318 60 



Total 



5i 10467 53 
7504 67 
15322 66 
9283 51 
6981 08 
7388 70 
1826 85 
6580 99 
1813 33 

860 63 
4064 01 

626 53 
5167 74 
10196 40 
9431 27 

242 12 
5561 20 
1725 00 
4068 16 
4276 05 
5106 72 
9220 87 
8724 03 
6845 72 
I 1945 22 
9550 51 
4253 59 
1268 78 
1007 6=; 
4238 56 

433 80'. 
22c66 40I 
2590 56 

720 00 j. 
3731 43 
3130 S3 • 
1032 28, 
2584 6i| 
24763 63 



$ 56778 26 $1 
1372 27 

11219 60 
4826 20I 

1039 1 00 1 
4097 56 



3764 54 
493 85 
845 79 

1745 78 

1086 88 

326 96 

[3342 83 

8561 21 



31366 81 $ 
5461 38, 

5610 32 

2843 7?| 
1200 00 

1399 97. 
233 65 j 
142 49 1 



492 33: 
1091 20: 

532 54 • 
27 831 
2401 28' 
2045 34 



26$ 

396 24 

1420 65 

118 00 

31 2 1 60 

643 90 1 

26 20I 

225 43! 

296 00 j 

39 29 

901 83 



247 15! 

75 86 

2089 23: 



12646 06 

7 00 

14869 72 

15 79 

1900 64 

10501 87 

13505 01' 

2655 63I 

I 1644 88 

5692 63' 

812 16 

839 70] 

3430 02! 

1836 44I 



2396 47, 
3194 y8 
2970 00 



99c8 57' 
273 53i 

1224 3o| 
414 92| 



102 551 

106 57; 

[0876 93' 



4582 24! 

7985 94 

733 40 1 

5431 i4f 

10768 97 



7»ao 00 

821 84 

41 42 



4694 51 
5358 10 



432 55 
1109 95 



2960 c6 



7651 
2094 01 
5390 29 



591 66 

"'7 57 
2769 54 



250 00 
372 22 

679 57 1 
56681 97' 

404 45 

60 00 

loii 85 



3ODO GO 



379144 82 
19007 28 

39589 37 
23168 67 
23400 88 
16619 24 
4893 23 
12440 45 
2603 18 
2379 41 
11347 27 

2439 34 
10846 55 
31412 22 
23818 31 
212 12 
18768 57 

1916 07 
35471 C9 

9279 50 
1 1 830 78 
29119 26 
52090 28 
12093 80 
36582 54 
36252 77 

5090 50 

9888 48 
12009 39 
10432 24 

1627 46 
95556 01 
10322 18 

1036 00 
, 9853 30 

3737 29 

4903 45 

7C09 68 
67836 20 



.'!iSi6io34 48^236903 33^219784 021^189905 77^179941 58$ 1087659 

II III 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



133 



TABLE VIIL— Concluded. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1884. 



EXPENDITURES. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe ... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta ,. 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont ... 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison ... 
Hinsdale ... 
Huerfano ... 
Jefferson ... 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose .. 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo : 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache ... 
San Juan ... 
San Miguel 

Summit 

Weld 



$128338 34 $ 
6367 25, 
23219 62 
12886 6ij 
11992 69 

7931 25' 
2040 00 

8157 41' 

1210 43 

630 00 

5676 84 

1077 12 

4417 50 

17214 35: 

io7!:;9 30 

62 44 .. 

14614 08 

961 96, 

11120 4i| 

1890 00 

6202 06 

14925 20 

23725 85' 

7228 68 

15541 00 

13218 35? 

1493 00 

1259 86 

2059 00 

5272 34 

354 32 

32250 23 

4550 35 

780 00 

4216 64 

1595 00 

310 00 

2393 " 
24212 56 



I 

43923 83 $ 

1737 29 

4120 88 

3470 72 

3358 24 

1607 83 

681 87 

1802 51 

136 09 

225 00 

395 46 

271 25 

636 12 

3899 71 

2451 82 



3372 32 

297 14 

6656 66 

2575 57 

252 51 

2722 17 

10994 14 

844 49 

5571 65 

2397 30 

914 95 

352 30 

687 20 

1495 69 

553 17 

17670 15 

1844 17 

27 75 

1218 96 

1008 03 

373 25 

1689 35 

8093 65 



31366 

1706 

5873 

2183 

642 

2193 

249 

439 

336 

730 

1331 

482 

760 

5807 

1083 



45 

36 

7946 

3840 

588 

2681 

[6660 

425 

4684 

1091 

735 

5260 

7740 

154 



3 S - 






iS rt p = 



9979 19 
46 44 

1697 05 

15 00 

32 53 

268 II 



130 35 
100 00 



121 



65 55 

95 33 

3494 35 



100 86 



4763 30 

202 57 

7 29 

4365 80 



I313608 

9857 

349" 

18556 

16025 

1 2001 

■ 2971 

10529 

1783 

1585 

7525 

1830 

5879 

27118 

17789 

62 

18132 

1295 



1327 38 
3457 07 
2645 13 



761 50 



8465 



395 

200 

3682 

625 

1 6001 



24785 93 

292 51 

26 00 

272 89 

199 71 



8119 98 



8509 

7050 

^4694 

51380 

9826 

29254 

19352 

3143 

6872 

11239 
6922 

907 

83171 
7555 
833 
6104 
3002 
4365 
4707 

56427 



II $ 65536 65 
78 9149 50 
4678 30 
4612 43 
7371 90 
4618 21 
1921 86 
1910 48 
819 72 
794 46 
3821 59 
608 71 
4966 93 

4^93 47 

6029 28 

179 68 

635 84 

620 40 

5587 70 

770 50 

4780 19 

4424 54 

7=9 43 
2267 56 

7327 95 

16900 21 

1946 64 

3116 03 

769 79 

3509 16 

719 97 

12384 22 

2766 29 

2Q2 25 
3249 02 

734 55 

537 91 

2302 22 

13408 58 



Total $432255 05^140322 208237321 20 i 66772 67 S876671 12 $210988 06 

I I I 



134 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



TABLE IX. 



FINANCIAL SUMMARIES. 



Amount on hand September i, 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund 

From Building Fund 

From all other sources 



Total receipts. 



For teachers' wages 

For current expenses 

For sites, buildings, furniture, etc.. 
For temporary loans paid 



Total expenditures 

Balance in hands of County Treasurer, August 
Totals 



Received 




$ 992,119 08 



$ 367,355 89 
117,194 22 
267,610 79 
96, 7M 47 

$ 848,875 37 



$ 145,243 71 



$ 992,119 08^ 992,119 08 



1884. 



Amount on hand September 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund 

From Building Fund 

From all other sources 



[883 



Total receipts 



For teachers' wages 

For current expenses 

For sites, buildings, furniture, etc. 
For temporary loans paid 



Total expenditures 

Balance in hands of County Treasurer, August 31, 1884. 
Totals 



Received. 


Paid. 


$ 161,034 48 

336,903 33 
219,784 02 
189,995 77 
179,941 58 




$1,087,659 18 






$ 432.255 05 

140,322 20 

237,321 20 

66,772 67 




$ 876,671 12 





$ 210,988 06 



$1,087,659 18 $1,087,659 18 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



135 



TABLE X. 



APPORTIONMENT OF STATE FUND. 



1883. 

60 CENTS PER CAPITA. 



18S4. 
61 CENTS PER CAPITA. 



COUNTIES. 



t1 

S C 

o o 



Arapahoe 

Bent , 

Boulder 

Chaffee .....*.... 
Clear Creek ... 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Deha , 

Dolores 

Douglas , 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremcnt 

Garfield , 

Gilpin , 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas .. 

Mesa ; 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande .. 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel.... 

Summit 

Weld 



7227 60 
276 60 

i8oo 60 
928 20 
961 80 
745 80 
542 40 
769 8c 



45 45$ 
9 57 

82 23J 

33 73' 
36 00, 
35 20! 
9661 
30 55 



! '2 



48 00 

343 80; 



17 43, 



7182 15 $ 
267 03 

1718 37 
89447 
925 80 
710 60 
532 74 
739 25 

46 CO 

326 37 



8128 C9 
264 78 

1865 93 
1047 70 
1039 64 
782 47 



213 CO 

I23I 20 

981 00' 



12 73; 

4 70 

44 85 



2CO 27 
1226 50 

936 15 



954 00 

118 80 

883 20' 
134 40 
964 80. 

it54 40 
1561 8o| 
460 20' 
1057 80! 
1817 40I 



30 90 
8 00 

95 19 
4 80 
29 85 i 
22 28I 
36 55' 
7 681 
66 96 
34 73 



923 10 
no 80' 
788 01; 
129 60 
934 95' 

II32 I2{ 

1525 25 

452 52' 

990 841 

1782 67I 



130 80 

399 60 

85 20 

1519 20 

321 00. 



10 35 

5 33 

2846: 

53 41 



3 30 



120 451 
394 27 

56 74; 

1465 79 
317 70 



430 20, 
43 20 



565 
3 50 



424 55 
39 70 



3C9 00| 
mo 00 



12 41 
90 92 



296 59 
1019 08 



Total $ 29524 So$ 912 33$ 28612 47$ 32038 42 J 901 87$ 3 




APPENDIX. 



^TATE ^EACHER^' ^^^OCIATIOjS 



1884. 



18 



COLORADO 



State Teachers' Association 



TENTH ANNUAL SESSION. 



MONDAY, TUESDAY aijd WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 29, 30 aijd 31, 1884. 

HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, - - - DENVER. 



Executive Committee : 

y. S. Mc CLUNG, Chairman, Pueblo. ROBERT S. BEGGS, Secretary, Denver. 

A. C. COURTNEY, Denver. 



The session was a very successful one, the attendance 
larger than ever before. The papers read were of a high 
order, as may be judged by the two herewith pubUshed. 

The following order of exercises was observed : 

MONDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 29. 

Lecture— " Poetic Justice " . . . Rev. Myron W. Reed, Denver 

TUESDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 30. 

President's Address, David Boyd, Greeley 

" Unmarked Results," Miss Harriet Scott, Pueblo 

" Scientific Temperance Instruction in Schools," .... 

A. B. Copeland, Greeley 

General discussion and announcement of committees. 

AFTERNOON. 

"A New Demand," F. B. Gault, South Pueblo 

" Philosophy of Teaching," . Hiss M. A. B. Witter, North Denver 
"What Lack We Yet," . . Jos. C. Shattuck, Supt. of Public Inst. 
"Discussion," Fred. Dick, Trinidad 



I40 APPENDIX. 

EVENING. 

Lecture — "The Development of Character," 

President Edwin C. Hewett, Normal, Illinois 

WEDNESDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 31. 

" The Microscope in the School-Room," 

H. F. Wegener, Supt. Schools, West Denver 

"Theory as Related to Practice in Teaching," 

Charles A. McMurry, Denver 
" How to Secure a Judicious Cut-Down in Geography," . . 

President J, A. Sewall, Boulder 

General discussion. 

AFTERNOON. 

"Selection and Use of Public Libraries," 

Frona R. Houghan, Denver 
"School Reading," E. C. Stevens, Alamosa 

" Mistakes in School Management," 

E. L. Byington, Colorado Springs 

"Discussion," T. E. Irwin, La Junta 

"The Teacher Out of School," Aaron Gove, Denver 



Sessions begin at 9 a. m., 2 p. m. and 8 p. m. Discussions will be in order after 
the reading of each paper. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



The Ethical Imagination, 



David Boyd, Greeley. 



In the opening half-hour of your dehberations, which 
custom assigns to the address of your president, he has 
concluded, on the present occasion, to invite your attention 
to the importance of cultivating in yourselves and the youth 
under your charge the ethical imagination. 

By ethical imagination, I mean that faculty of the human 
mind by which it represents to itself human actions and 
their consequences as possible occurrences, and experiences 
in the presence of these representative or ideal actions, the 
sensations and emotions that it would in the presence of 
real actions. 

There are three sources of the thrills which agitate our 
being — sensation, memory and imagination. 

Sensation is the response of the mind to an external 
stimulus. This response the mind is capable of reviving in 
the absence of the external stimulus. 

This is memory: It is living over a past forever van- 
ished as an external reality. At pleasure the mind is usu- 
ally capable of reproducing these thrills of organism, fuller 
or fainter echoes of past experiences. But the mind can do 
more than this. It can experience sensations of emotions 
corresponding to stimuli, of which past experience only 
furnished a hint. 

This is imagination : It is a real, subjective world, co- 
related to an unreal, objective world created by the mind 
out of the hints of former experiences. 



142 APPENDIX. 

These experiences are divided into three classes, cor- 
responding to the true, the beautiful and the good, giving 
foundations for science, esthetics and ethics. The part 
played by the imagination in the domain of the beautiful 
seems alone to have received the attention of thinkers until 
Tyndall brought into recognition the scientific imagination. 
But that there is an ethical imagination is just as certain. 
As there is ideal truth and ideal beauty, so is there ideal 
virtue. As the mind is pleased or pained about truth and 
error, beauty and deformity, so it is about virtue and vice. 
Each has created for itself an ideal world. 

Science has its pure mathematics, formal logic and 
supersensible ether, molecules and atoms ; esthetics its fine 
arts; and ethics* its literature of fictitious actions and 
characters. 

We are all agreed about the beauty of virtue, the 
importance of right living, the desirableness of private and 
public well-being and well-doing, and how to secure these 
ethical ends has been the problem of the wise and good of 
all ages and nations. But, in my opinion, the hope for the 
future in this regard chiefly reposes upon the teachers in 
our public schools. 

I would not underrate the ethical work done by the 
Christian Church ever since its rise, and believe that it is 
now doing more and better work than ever before in its 
history. But scarcely half the people ever enter a church, 
and its pulpit addresses itself mostly to the adult mind. Its 
Sabbath schools are, no doubt, an important adjunct in the 
formation of virtuous character; but half the children are 
not in these schools, and those that are receive instruction 
only one hour a week, as against thirty in the public 
schools. 

• The home made by the parent for the child alone has 
an ethical importance equal, or perhaps superior, to the 
public school. But, alas, we know not how to prevent a 
multitude of homes from remaining what they have long 
been, nurseries of vice and crime. Hence I may say to the 
teachers here assembled before me, '' Ye are the ethical salt 
of the earth." If the savor of virtue be native to you, and 
abide in you, the prevention of moral corruption may be 
hoped for. 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 143 

The significance of beginning ethical training early is 
shown by the multitude of maxims and proverbs found 
upon this theme in ever\' civilized language. However, the 
difficulty of the tasks expected to be performed by those in 
charge of the young remains as arduous as ever, and is 
best appreciated by those who have the most earnestly 
struggled in this work. "Bend the twig and bend the tree" 
is easily said; but some twigs will break before they bend, 
and others that will bend and remain bent under a sufficient 
pressure will immediately resume their native direction 
when the pressure is removed. 

Few children are like a bar of lead, many are like a bar 
of cast steel, while most are like the tine of an American 
hay fork. By applying sufficient force in the right direc- 
tion the tine may be straightened out, but take away the 
pressure and the tine immediately resumes the shape given 
in its manufacture. Some teachers will remember certain 
boys whom they straightened out, but who would not 
remain straightened. I know how often you have to sigh 
over the persistent survival of the ethically unfittest of the 
race, and would be ready to reply to him who would blame 
you for it, as a certain teacher is said to have very indis- 
creetly replied to a parent who was finding fault because 
John did not get on better in his studies. *' Sir," said he, 
^* there is one important respect in which the teacher cannot 
stand in loco parentis^ and that is in furnishing the pupils 
brains." 

The boy has been very aptly named the savage of 
civilized society. I fear that we are all born ethically per- 
verse. The Calvanist who teaches total depravity is nearer 
the truth than the sentimentalist who takes the child char- 
acter as the t\'pe of moral perfection. 

All children are selfish, self-willed and cruel, and display 
these qualities to the extent of their small abilities. Their 
innocence and purit>^ are the innocence and purity of imbe- 
cilit>^ No reasonable man would pray for the coming of 
the kingdom of heaven whose moral bore any resemblance 
to child ethics. To such a one the child is interesting as a 
bundle of possibilities. 

All of you, in your endeavor to form the young mind 
to virtue, have no doubt been struck bv the inefficacv of the 



144 APPENDIX. 

finest moral maxims and precepts. They have fallen upon 
your own soul like the dew upon the withered flower. But 
the reason for the difference is not far to seek. It is the 
experience of life which has consecrated for you these say- 
ings of the world's sages. They originated in their expe- 
rience, and can only be fully understood'by him who has had 
it. The child has no such experience, and can only anticipate 
it through imagination in sympathy with the feeling that 
animates your tongue and face. This it should be able to 
do, not from a set form of words, however beautifully allit- 
erated into a proverb, but by a narrative whose actions it 
can simulate. It luxuriates in the realm of make-believe 
performance. Its imagination is more active in simulating 
action than in creating objects. It takes delight not so 
much in mud pies themselves as in the making of mud 
pies. The kindergarten folk understand this propensity of 
child-nature, and hence their success. 

Now this child tendency in living in an unreal, ideal 
world, instead of being suppressed, should be encouraged, 
directed and prolonged as fast as possible into the adult life. 
Through the whole journey of life it offers us great possi- 
bilities. The finest joys of the finest natures, the purest 
happiness of the choicest men and women, spring up, bud, 
blossom and fructify in the realm of the ideal. We do not 
ask as a test of a finer nature what wine a man likes, or 
what brand of cigar, or what fish, flesh or fowl, but what 
poem or what novel delights him. Indeed, will we, nil 
we, the far greater part of the life of even the adult must be 
passed in this world of imagined experiences. They may 
be high or low, gross or refined, and they will give tone to 
our conversation and conduct. What they are in youth and 
after life will depend much on the home and school training. 
As the child readily takes its opinions from another, so it 
may be easily led by another to form its ethical ideal. P'ic- 
titious narratives about other children is the best means of 
gaining the end. It must be fictitious, because as all real 
children are very naughty you must invent your models, or 
take those that you find at hand already invented. These 
models must find happiness, joy, delight in well-doing. 
Your success will depend on your histrionic ability — that 
is, upon the penetrating power of your expression. Says 
Horace: "If you would have me weep, you must your- 
self shed tears." 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 145 

The generous, the magnanimous, the disinterested deed 
must appear to fill you with a glowing enthusiam. The 
sense of your appreciation will sparkle in your eye, flush on 
your cheek, tremble on your lips and thrill in your voice. 
Children are readily led by sympathy, and will experience with 
you your loves and hate, your approvals and disapprovals. 
It is just as important that you show yourself a good hater 
of the mean as a warm lover of the generous. Attempt no 
foolish compromise here, pretending to have some false 
sentimental love for the man, the person, while you detest 
his character. Eliminating from the equation some 150 
pounds, more or less, of solids and fluids identical for us 
all, the character is the man, the person. The child cannot 
understand your fine spun distinction ; nor in realit>' does 
the distinction exist. It is a fiction invented to reconcile 
rational morality with certain impracticable moral precepts, 
such as " Love them that hate you and despitefully use you, 
and say all manner of evil concerning you." 

However, it is better to dwell upon the loveable in man 
than the hateful, for hate, like care, corrodes the heart and 
tends to make us unamiable and misanthropic. Besides, 
rightly viewed, it is the goodness in humanity and not the 
evil that is to be wondered at. Selfishness, cruelty, and 
immodesty we have in common with other animals ; while 
disinterestedness, kindness and modesty are peculiarly 
human characteristics. What is lowest in our nature is 
easily explained on the theory of inherited tendency. The 
comparative ethical inferiority of the child nature is also 
easily explained by the theory of evolution, Embryolog- 
ical research shows that the human organism passes suc- 
cessively through structured changes, corresponding in its 
leading features with the development in time of the animal 
series. Analogy would lead us to expect that functional 
evolution would follow the same order. At birth structural 
metamorphosis is nearly complete, while independent func- 
tional existence is only then beginning. In accordance 
with this analogy we find that the child's first functional 
activities are purely animal. As the organic germ inherits 
the tendency to build up the organism after the parental 
type, so the infant organism inherited the tendency to per- 
form the functions necessary to complete and preserve the 
The love of life is a sine qua non of living. An 

19 



T46 APPENDIX. 

individual or race deficient in this propensity would soon 
succumb amid the fierce struggle for existence everywhere 
going on in nature. The tendency to take a vigorous part 
in this struggle has been inherited by us through a long 
line of savages, if we are not allowed to say brute ances- 
tors. The fact of man's victory in the struggle implies the 
energy, skill and audacity of man's self-assertion. H^nce, 
as we said, the wonder is not about man's self-assertion and 
self-indulgence, but Concerning why and how he has suc- 
ceeded in making a partial escape from the dominion of 
these powerful tendencies. 

In order that the child may be led to form for itself a 
fair, fascinating ethical ideal in harmony at once with its 
affection and with the principles of human well-doing and 
well-being, it must be led in a path that it understands, into 
an ideal world of beauty and virtue, w^hose actions it can 
take part in and appreciate. As in teaching knowledge, we 
should begin with the near and known, and gradually help 
it to reach out to the unknown and far, so in our attempt to 
fascinate it with the beauty of virtue, we must lead it 
through activities lying close to its own young, narrow life. 
It should begin with child life, its plays and its pleasures, 
its griefs and its perplexities. Next it can be introduced 
into the activities of youth and adult life, such as lies near 
it and immediately under its observation. Sooner than 
some of us old folks think we are studied and seen through 
and our actions weighed and classified by the little folks. 

The point to be brought out in all these fictions of life 
should be that it is more manly to help than to hurt, to 
help than be helped, and that the finest pleasure is derived 
from the endeavor to make others happy. 

That the persons introduced in the narrative may have 
a vital influence upon the life of the child, they must be 
genuine human beings, neither helped nor hindered by any 
superhuman beings or agencies. 

The supernatural aid received by the heroes of the Iliad, 
and the semi-divine genesis of some of them, lessens our 
interest in their prowess. We sympathize with each of 
them just in proportion to their strictly human origin and 
energy. The divine Achilles, invulnerable by being dipped 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 147 

in the Styx by his goddess mother, Thetis, and armed and 
armored in panoply manufactured by the god Vulcan, sinks 
into contempt by the side of the Trojan, Hector, thoroughly 
human and relying solely upon human armor and native 
human courage. 

The Hebrew Psalms, prophecies and proverbs contain 
some of the loftiest ethical utterances to be found in litera- 
ture, and the practice of having the young commit to 
memor\' some of the gems of Hebrew ethical literature is 
excellent. In this way there is created for the young 
an ethical standard quite at variance with their ethical 
ideal. The one is creation of adult reason, which we have 
been taught to believe, pretend to believe, and often even 
think we believ^e, but away from which the affections are 
averted; the other a beautiful goddess which we disown, 
but which we worship in our heart of hearts. 

The moral battle of life lasts as long as these two con- 
flicting ideals usurp our allegiance. In their reconciliation 
and unification we have peace. It may be the peace 
brought on by moral death, or the peace wrought out 
by us, struggHng in the path of duty, "on with toil of 
knees and heart and hands, through the long gorge to the 
fair light," which illumines "those shining table lands, to 
which our God " (the unified, perfected, ethical ideal) " is 
moon and sun." The conquest consists in winning over 
the affections to the love of virtue embraced as the supreme 
good. Says Seneca, " We do not love virtue because it 
pleases us, but virtue pleases us because w^e love it." And 
Marcus Aurelius, "To ask to be paid for virtue is as if the 
eye demanded a reward for seeing," 

The ethical end is met when we find our supreme hap- 
piness in making others happy ; the other end, whatever we 
call it. is reached when we find our chief pleasure in mak- 
ing others miserable. The first secures the complete recon- 
ciliation of public and private ends; the second sets up 
their complete antagonism. 

We see that the moral magnet has two poles, at the one 
happiness for him who makes happy, at the other a fiendish 
satisfaction in making others miserable. Few have reached 
either goal. We are mostly either climbing upward to the 



148 APPENDIX. 

one, or crawling backwards to the other. Few have reached 
Bunyan's land of Beulah, and none Dante's "Inferno/' 
whose gates bore the inscription, " He who enters here 
leaves hope behind." He who climbs may crawl, and he 
who crawls may climb. Teachers, it is your privilege to 
start the coming race a-climbing. To succeed you must be 
sure you are yourselves climbing. " Honor the truth by 
use." Your own lives will radiate sweetness and light in 
proportion to the firmness and strength of the ethical ideal 
you have succeeded in enshrining in your hearts. If the 
prevailing tone of your minds be " it is better not to be at 
all than not to be noble," it will radiate from the counte- 
nance as the divine effulgence is said to have beamed from 
the face of Moses, fresh from talking face to face with the 
ineffable brightness. 

Some one has called the hope of posthumous fame the 
most refined and supersensual of all that can be called 
reward, yet a still more refined and supersensual reward 
because refined of all selfishness. It is the hope of living: 

In other minds made better by your presence, 
In pulses stirred to generosity, 
In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn 
Of miserable aims that end in self; 
In thoughts sublime, that pierce the night like stars. 
And with their mild persistence urge men's search 
To vaster issues. 
May you reach that purer haven 
"And be to other souls that cup of strength 
In some great agony ; feed pure love, 

Beget the smiles that have no cruelty ; , 

Be the sweet presence of a good diffused. 
And in diffusion ever more intense. 
So you may join the choir invisible. 
Whose music is the gladness of the world. 

So far I have but hinted at the method of quickening 
the ethical imagination in the young. We will now speak 
of perfecting it in yourselves, which will also apply to the 
more advanced pupils. 

For ethical purposes mathematics and science are about 
as good as worthless. History has two very distinct lessons 
for us. The one relates to the rise, growth and influence 
of institutions and phases of thought; the other to indi- 
vidual conduct and the formation of character. Writers 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 149 

will value the one or the other of these elements in propor- 
tion to the relative importance which they attach to knowl- 
edge as compared to character. Hence we find Buckle 
excludes biography from the domain of history, while 
Emerson says, "There is properly no history, only biogra- 
phy." Biography may be said to be the stuff from which 
the ethical imagination forms its ideal character. This 
study constituted the greater part of the education of the 
Roman youth. Says Plutarch in his " Helps to Virtue:" 
" Whenever we begin an enterprise, take possession of a 
charge or experience a calamity, we place before our eyes 
the example of the greatest men of our own or bygone 
ages, and we ask ourselves how Plato, or Epaminondas, 
Lycurgus or Agesilaus would have acted, seeing these 
persons in our minds as in a faithful mirror, we remedy our 
defects in word and deed." It was with this end in view 
that Plutarch wrote his "Lives," a work which has had an 
immense influence in forming the character of the great men 
whose lives have adorned modern civilization. However, 
there is now within our reach a biographical literature of 
more importance to us. The nearer a man's life is to our 
own the more will a study of his influence ours. Hence, 
first of all, Americans of our own age, and so receding in 
time and space. Macaulay called Plutarch a charming 
writer, but still only a romancer. Had his delineations been 
more literally true they would have no doubt been much less 
effective. Since we all are prone to say, "what others have 
done I can do," it is well to have the highest achievement 
for example. Into the biography that is the most tonic for 
us there always enters some fiction. Macaulay remarks that 
it is a proof of the intrinsic greatness of Sam Jonson's char- 
acter that even the minute shadowing of Boswell could not 
make it contemptible. We all know how the severe truth- 
fulness of Froude has taken down from its pedestal the 
imposing character of Carlyle. 

How different from the one Swinburne drew for him in 
these four lines : 

Storm god of the northern foam, 
Strong, wrought of rock, to breast and break the sea. 
And thunder back its thunder, rhyme for rhyme. 
Answering as tho' to out-roar the tides of time. 

This leads us to observe that the best models are pure 
fictions. As long as they remain genuinely human, the 



I50 APPENDIX. 

finer and stronger the better. If the art be high there is 
but little difference whether it be in prose or in verse. 
When the culture and experience of life will make it avail, 
then the words of sages like Emerson or Carlyle may be 
read and pondered. 

More than reading the words of the absent and departed, 
is the conversation of a friend who is yearning for more 
light, and a fuller, overflowing life. Such a one is not to 
be met at every step of our lives, nor will the all-compelling 
circumstance allow our paths long to lie parallel. 

There is one direction in which the ethical imagination 
was cultivated to an extraordinary degree, and that was in 
anticipating the rewards and punishments of a future life. 
Even in quarters where these rewards and punishments are 
still believed, there are now no such efforts being made to 
paint to the imagination the terrors of the one or the felici- 
ties of the other. In other quarters there is a very decided 
decline in the belief both about any rewards or punish- 
ments, and about there being any hereafter or any power 
outside of natural causation to punish either here or here- 
after. Some deplore this and point to a like decline in 
faith about the supernatural accompanying the moral deca- 
dence which brought about the fall of the Roman empire. 
It is said that history repeats itself, and that there are signs 
that a like demoralization is now going on parri passu with 
a decline in religious belief. 

In answer to this we can point to the fact that in 
periods of the greatest demoralization there was to be 
found side by side with it a philosophic morality never 
surpassed for the grandeur of its conception, or the lives 
and characters of its followers. Those ages produced a 
Marcus Aurelius on the throne, and Epictetus, the slave of 
cruel master, yet the author of writing which that emperor 
thanked Providence for having access to. 

True, this philosophy failed to reform the masses and 
save the empire. But so also did Christianity with all its 
allurements and terrors of a future life. It is then pertinent 
to ask what we have to save the masses which Rome did 
not. I answer two things in particular: The printing press 
and the free common schools. The last especially, for the 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 151 

press, though generally on the side of right and virtue, is 
too apt to print what pays. But if the common schools 
save the nation it will not be by means of the multiplica- 
tion table, or a knowledge of the law of gravity. Under 
the fierce electric light of science old faiths are fading and 
the motives of life are changing with them, but all that was 
ever made truly for righteousness still remains. Those were 
brutal and blind ages, when the " fear of hell was a hang- 
man's whip to hold the wretch in order," and it had no 
great efficacy in doing that. The more refined motives for 
action still remain. It is your mission to lift the life of the 
masses to a higher, healthier plane, where these more 
refined motives may guide their feet into paths of righteous- 
ness. It is for you to prepare the heart for the beauty of 
holiness, the grandeur of generosity and magnanimity, the 
serene majesty of utter truthfulness. 



THE MICROSCOPE IN THE SCHOOL ROOM. 



H. F. Wegener, Denver. 



It has been said that he who makes two blades of grass 
grow where formerly only one grew is a benefactor of man- 
kind. Equally true I believe it to be of the teacher who, 
besides teaching his pupils how to read, write and cipher, 
can also awaken in them a bent or inclination which, m its 
prosecution in after life, shall be to them not only a source 
of pleasure and recreation, but also a means of self- 
education. 

Curiosity is a trait of human nature especially active in 
childhood. Children are always ready and willing to see 
things. To develop this curiosity in pupils to such an 
extent as to lead them to look deeper than the mere super- 
ficial form; to cultivate a habit of seeing and discov- 
ering all that can be seen about an object, and then to 



152 APPENDIX. 

collect and arrange the knowledge thus gained in a 
tangible and available form, should be the basis of all 
true teaching. 

A desire to indicate one way in which this can be done 
is the object of the present paper. I have chosen the 
microscope as the means, because no other instrument 
enters in its investigations into the affairs of every day life 
at so many points as this does. In our work during the 
past term, time did not permit us to follow more than one 
line of study methodically. We, therefore, chose as a 
course the growth and development of the lower forms of 
animal and vegetable life. 

One of the simplest and easiest studies, and one which 
will give most striking practical results, is a study of that 
very common, yet very little understood substance called 
yeast. With this we began our course. I required -each 
member of my class to bring to school a small quantity of 
yeast, some in the fluid form and some in the dried form. 
I also requested that each pupil supply himself with four 
or five clean bottles. These, with some Florence flasks, 
test tubes and a microscope, completed our apparatus. We 
first observed the general appearance of yeast in its fluid 
state. That bought at the baker's is usually of light brown 
color, containing more or less solid material. We strain off 
the latter. Four bottles, marked 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, 
were prepared. Into the first one a solution containing 
sugar was. poured, and then a little yeast added. This is 
put in a warm place, and we await results. The mixture 
soon begins to disengage bubbles containing gas. Its 
sweetness gradually loses itself, and a vinous flavor takes 
its place. From this liquid alcohol can be obtained by 
distillation. Another bottle, numbered 2, is partly filled 
with the same solution as before, but, before adding the 
yeast, we pass the latter through a very fine filter. This 
bottle is now allowed to stand under the same conditions 
as the first one, but no change takes place. A third bottle, 
containing the same solution, dul not corked, is allowed to 
stand in the room with the yeast, but none is added. After 
a few days we observe bubbles beginning to rise, a sign 
that yeast has gotten into it, and that it is beginning to 
work. In our fourth bottle another portion of sugar solu- 
tion is placed, and some yeast added. Now, this solution 



iJli 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 153 

we boil, and, whilst it is boiling, we fit into its wide neck a 
plug of cotton. We set this also in the neighborhood of 
the yeast, and then wait. But we wait in vain. No change 
is apparent. 

Four facts have thus been learned regarding the nature 
of yeast. Let us sum them up. By the first experiment 
we discovered that if yeast is placed in contact with a fluid 
containing sugar it induces a chemical change, by which 
the sugar is decomposed, principally into carbonic, anhy- 
dride and alcohol. The second experiment taught us that 
this something which induces the chemical change can be 
filtered off from the containing fluid, whilst the third 
experiment informed us that these particles float in the air, 
and that they can be filtered out by passing the air through 
cotton. In the fourth and last experiment we gained the 
knowledge that the efficiency of yeast is destroyed by heat. 
The question, What are these particles that they can pro- 
duce such mysterious changes? remains to be answered. 

And now we will call upon our microscope to assist us 
in finding the answer. A drop of yeast is placed on a 
glass slide and covered with a thin glass. The micro- 
scope is adjusted with a moderately high magnifying power. 
With the drop of yeast on the stage of our instrument, we 
take a look through the tube. What do we see? A num- 
ber of round or oval transparent cells are seen floating 
before us. Some are single, others are arranged like a 
string of beads, whilst still others show a large cell with 
one or two small cells attached. The large cell we may 
call the mother cell, the smaller ones are daughter cells. 
Each cell is composed of a thin walled sac, enclosing a 
granular fluid. The sac is the cell wall, the contents is 
protoplasm. The average size of these cells is about j-^\-^ 
of an inch. Chemical analysis has determined its composi- 
tion to be made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, 
phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium. In order 
to determine whether these cells are living organisms, we 
shall have to perform another experiment. For this pur- 
pose I had prepared one of Pasteur's culture fluids. In a 
portion of this fluid we placed a small quantity of yeast, 
and examined it with the microscope. We see only a few 
isolated cells here and there in the fluid. We allow it to 
stand in a warm place over night. Next morning we 



^54 



APPENDIX. 



examine the contents of our bottle again. The surface of 
the fluid is covered with a frothy scum. This scum, upon 
examination, is found to consist of an immense number 
of yeast cells, which have grown during the night. We> 
therefore, conclude that these cells are living cells, for only 
living organism can grow and multiply. But we have 
also discovered how they grow. When we examined the 
contents of our bottle in the evening we saw only a few 
single cells. Now we see a great many cells with smaller 
ceils attached. These cells, therefore, multiply by budding. 
Each bud in turn becomes the parent of another bud, 
until we sometimes see six or seven cells joined together. 
Each cell is a perfect individual, and represents one gener- 
ation. 

One more question remains to be answered. We have 
not yet determined whether the organism is a plant or an 
animal. Our culture fluid will help us to solve the prob- 
lem. This fluid is a solution of the inorganic salts, ammo- 
nium tartrate, potassium phosphate, calcium phosphate, 
magnesium sulphate and sugar, the whole dissolved in dis- 
tilled water. In this we found the yeast plant will grow 
very vigorously. 

As the cell consists of cellulose and its contents is pro- 
toplasm, neither of which we placed in the fluid, we are 
led to the conclusion that these cells are plant cells, for 
only plant cells have the power of taking up from the sur- 
rounding fluid the inorganic salts and constructing out of 
them such organic compounds as protoplasm. 

We can classify it still further. We know it is a plant. 
To what division of the vegetable kingdom does it belong? 
It contains neither starch nor chlorophyll. It grows with- 
out requiring sunlight. It absorbs oxygen and gives off 
carbonic anhydride, all properties which are not character- 
istic of green plants. But these are the characteristics of 
another class of plants called fungi. 

1 have now presented with more or less detail our first 
study. Although I have omitted some particulars, enough 
has been indicated to give a comprehensive view of the 
plan. Every experiment and every observation was made 
by the pupils themselves. 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 155 

The knowledge which they gained was derived from 
phenomena observed with their own eyes, and worked out 
by their own hands. 

The practical bearing of the results was thoroughly 
understood. The girls of the class were particularly inter- 
ested in this subject; practically familiar with it, they had 
never known its nature nor the conditions which favor its 
growth. They had now been supplied with the means of 
solving for themselves that seemingly inexplicable mystery 
which so often puzzles and aggravates our good house- 
keepers — an obstinate batch of dough. 

To them the cause and prevention of fermentation in 
preserved and canned fruits is no longer a matter of tradi- 
tion, but rests upon a knowledge obtained by personal 
observation. 

As the yeast plant is the simplest type of the no^i-chlo- 
rophyll bearing fungi, so protococcus is the simplest type 
of tkat large class of green or chlorophyll bearing plants. 
This, then, formed the subject of our second study. To 
avoid tediousness, however, I will .omit details and give 
only results. 

My pupils explored water-troughs, mud holes and 
ditches to supply the necessary specimens for observation. 
Like the yeast plant, the protococcus consists of a single 
cell, composed of a cell wall and a granular protoplasm, 
but instead of being transparent and colorless, it has dif- 
fused through its mass granules of coloring matter, gener- 
ally green, but occasionally half green and half red, some- 
times wholly red. We found the yeast plant to multiply 
its cells by budding. Protococcus multiplies by dividing 
each cell into two cells. Protococcus requires sunlight for its 
development and growth. The yeast plant does not. The 
latter gives off carbonic anhydride, and absorbs oxygen. 
Protococcus absorbs carbonic anhydride and gives off oxy- 
gen, when exposed to sunlight. 

One peculiarity of this plant is its motile stage. During 
this stage it possesses two long filaments — projections of 
protoplasm — called cilia. By means of these it can move 
very rapidly through the V\-ater, and thus be easily mistaken 
for an animal. 



i 



■ 



156 APPENDIX. 

In our next study the proteus animalcule permitted us 
to observe the simplest manifestations of animal life, and to 
note the conditions of its existence. 

We chose the bacteria for the fourth study, because in 
our current literature we frequently meet with allusions to 
them in connection with the cause of contagious diseases. 
As some very conflicting notions prevail regarding their 
nature I thought it desirable that we should observe some 
facts about them. Pasteur's culture liquid and diverse infu- 
sions furnished the means. We learned that bacteria are 
organisms belonging to the vegetable kingdom. They 
have a great variety of forms. They are the cause of all 
putrefactive fermentation. No decay of organic matter 
takes place without their presence. They are so extremely 
small that they require the highest power of the microscope 
to discern them. They float in the air, but can be filtered 
off by means of cotton. A temperature of 140 deg. 
destroys their vitality. 

In the study of moulds we first met with that singular 
form of reproduction called alternation of generation. 

A view of the streaming motion of the protoplasm in 
the vegetable cell, sometimes miscalled circulation, gives a 
reality to our conception, which no anjount of descriptive 
text could impress so well. 

Definite ideas regarding the characteristics of a cryp- 
togamous plant and the differentiation of cells to form tis- 
sues can be most readily acquired by a careful study of the 
structure and life of a fern. 

By means of thin cross-sections of the rhizome the 
microscope will reveal its beautiful scaloriform and spiral 
vessels. The brown patches on the under side of the pin- 
nules are seen to be bunches of translucent cells full of 
minute bodies called spores. The growth and develop- 
ment of the prothallus of the fern and the discovery of its 
function is always a source of wonder and surprise. 

A quantity of duckweed gathered by my pupils one day, 
from a pool of clear water close by, gave occasion for more 
expression of astonishment and delight than anything 
which so far had been discovered. On the stems of these 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 157 

tiny plants are found whole colonies of vorticellae, wheel- 
animalcules and green hydrae. 

Whoever has observed a wheel-animalcule in its native 
element, when exposed to sunlight, with all its beautiful 
transparent organs in rapid motion, can form some idea of 
the effect which such a wonderful spectacle has upon a 
young mind to whom it is presented for the first time. Our 
hydra, too, seemed to catch the inspiration of the occasion, 
for it filled its spectators with amazement by sending out a 
bud from its body, and developing it into a complete coun- 
terpart of itself — tentacles and all — in the short time of 
twenty hours. 

Here we have another instance of multiplication by bud- 
ding, but in this case it is an animal instead of a plant. 

In the study of human physiology, the circulation of the 
blood through the capillaries is seldom clearly compre- 
hended by ordinary pupils. We can illustrate this beauti- 
fully by a living animal. 

For this purpose I asked my boys to secure for us one 
of those nocturnal vocalists whose discordant notes so fre- 
quently break the monotony of a balmy summer evening. 

The translucent membrane found between the toes of 
tiis foot, when spread out on the stage of the microscope, 
gives a most excellent view of the movement of the red 
blood discs through this net-work of minute tubes. Both 
the arterial and venous flow can be seen at the same time. 
But while it serves to illustrate a physiological function, it 
can also be made to exhibit a pathological condition : 
namely, the state of the capillaries during an inflammatory 
process. If we place a few grains of mustard on the moist 
membrane as it is stretched out before us, a change in the 
motion of the blood discs soon becomes apparent. Instead 
of continuing to pass through the tubes singly, they now 
begin to crowd through, in much greater numbers, giving 
to the membrane a much redder appearance. This is due 
to an increase in the diameter of the tubes. The irritation 
produced by the mustard causes the muscular fibres sur- 
rounding the blood-vessels to become flaccid, and they, 
therefore, allow more blood to enter the vessels. 



158 APPENDIX. 

Another change is noticeable. The blood flows slower 
and slower, until finally complete stagnation ensues. 

We have now before us a perfect inflammation of the 
frog's foot. A precisely similar condition obtains in an 
inflammation of any organ of the human body. 

If such a condition were continued for any length of 
time, it is obvious that serious structural changes must 
result. We, therefore, remove the mustard and keep the 
membrane moist until the flow of blood is fully re-estab- 
lished. In consideration of the interesting lesson afforded 
us by our subject under the microscope, and as we owe 
him no grudge, he is returned to his favorite element, 
where he will, no doubt, be the hero among his amphibious 
colleagues. 

Many more examples could be cited to illustrate the 
numerous uses to which the microscope can be put. But I 
determined to indicate only an outline of my own experi- 
ence with the instrument as an adjunct in school work. 

No time which I have ever spent in the pursuit of 
information or knowledge has yielded me so much genuine 
pleasure and such fruitful results as the time spent with this 
instrument. 

But its value does not lie wholly in the immediate 
knowledge which we gain by its use. It excites in us a 
desire to go farther than mere external appearance. The 
curiosity to know something about the nature of an object, 
its life, and the conditions which brought it into existence, 
leads us, unconsciously, to become independent observers. 

My observation and experience has led me to believe 
that the teacher who has stored his mind with accurate and 
positive knowledge, and has this knowledge in an available 
form, can do better teaching, can secure more satisfactory 
and happier results, than he with whom a certificate and a 
school is the climax of his ambition. 

RESOLUTIONS. 

The following resolutions were reported by committee 
and unanimously adopted: 



STATE ASSOCIATION. 159 

Resolved, That we thank the Board of Education of 
District No. One, the railroads and hotels, and the Denver 
University, for favors extended; the executive committee 
for their work in the interests of the association, and 
Doctors Hewett and Reed for their lectures. 

Resolved, That a periodical published in the interests 
of the schools of Colorado and affording a medium of in- 
struction and communication between the State department 
of education and the several school boards throughout the 
State is desirable. 

Resolved, That the Hon. H. M. Hale, with two others 
whom he may appoint, shall constitute a committee the 
duty of which shall be to prepare and print a pamphlet 
embodying a history of the schools of Colorado, and 
especially a history of this Association now just complet- 
ing its tenth year of life; and that said committee be 
hereby empowered to draw on the treasury of this Associa- 
tion to the extent of ^200 to defray expenses, said money 
to be refunded from the proteeds of the sale of said pam- 
phlet. 

Resolved, That it is the decided sense of this Associa- 
tion that the true aim of education is the development of 
character ; that the culture of the heart should never be 
subordinated to that of the head — the training of the con- 
science to the training of the intellect — and that in realiza- 
tion of this aim we recognize as the most potent factor a 
true Christian morality, embodied in the character of the 
living teacher and pervading and guiding all the work of 
the school. 



Fifth Biennial Report 







SUPERINTENDENT 



OF 



Public; Ipstmetioi^ 



OF THE 



STATE OF COLORADO, 



FOR THE YEARS ENDING 



I Auigiast 31, 1H85, and Aiagtast 31, 1886. 



EHSHH^aSZga^g ^^^^^^^lEEHE c^SEHSgg ^S^^ ^E E^ EEEHHEEHiS SSS 



TO THE GOVERNOR. 



FIFTH BIENNIAL REPORT 



OF THE 



SUPERINTENDENT 



OF 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, 



OF THE 



STATE OF COLORADO, 



FOR THE YEARS ENDING 



AUGUST 31. 1885, AND AUGUST 31, 1886. 



TO THE GOVERNOR. 




DENVER, COLO. : 
The Collier & Cleaveland Lith. Co , State Printers. 

1887. 



Department of Public Instruction, ') 
Denver, Colo., December lo, 1886. j 

To His Excellency, 

BENJAMIN H. EATON, 

Governor of Colorado : 

Sir: 

In accordance with the requirements of law, I have 
the honor to submit to you the Fifth Biennial Report of 
the Department of Public Instruction for the biennial term 
ending August 31, 1886. 

Leonidas S. Cornell, 

Supermtendent of Public Instruction. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Officers of State Board of Education 7 

Officers of State Institutions 8 

Table Showing Increase lo 

Synopsis of Public School System ii 

Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction . 17 

County Teachers' Associations 19 

School Libraries ■" 19 

Course of Study for Country Schools 20 

Convention of County Superintendents 23 

Teachers' Institutes 25 

State School Fund 26 

Arbor Day • • . 26 

History of Education in Colorado 28 

School Houses . ; 28 

Teachers and Teachers' Examinations 29 

Free Text Books 37 

Temperance Instruction 38 

Colorado School Journal . 39 

School and County Visitation 39 

State Library 39 

County Superintendents ...... 42 

List of County Superintendents 43 

Statements of School Work by County Superintendents .... 45 

Reports of State Institutions 78 

State University 78 

State Agricultural College 91 

State School of Mines . 100 

Institute for Mute and Blind . . . 105 

State Industrial School ... 107 

Statistical Tables 108 

State Teachers' Association 129 

President's Address, 1885 .... 129 

President's Address, 1886 139 



state Board of Education. 



1885 TO 1887. 



LEONIDAS S. CORNELL, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

MELVIN EDWARDS, 

Secretary of State. 

THEODORE H. THOMAS, 

Attoriiey General. 



1887 TO 1889. 

LEONIDAS S. CORNELL, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

JAMES RICE, 

Secretary of State. 

ALVIN MARSH, 

Attorney General. 



State University, 



BOULDER. 

BOARD OF REGENTS. 

Term Expires 



JAMES RICE 

L. S. CORNELL 

R. W. WOODBURY 1891 

D. E. NEWCOMB 1891 

E. J. TEMPLE :.._ 1893 

WOLFE LONDONER 1893 

T A SFWAT T / P^^^^^^"^ \iw\\\ January i 1887 

-'■ ■ ' ) Professor in charge until July I- 1887 

H. M. HALE, President from July I 1887 



State School of Mines. 



GOLDEN. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Ter»i Expires. 

FREDERICK STEINHAUER, Pres't of Board_-_ 1887 

E. L. BERTHOUD 1887 

P. H. VAN DIEST 1887 

C C. WELCH 1889 

J. T. SMITH _.-. 1889 

REGIS CHAUVENET, President. 



State Agricultural College. 

FORT COLLINS. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Terfn Expires. 

OZRO BRACKETT 1887 

DAVID BOYD 1887 

JOHN J. RYAN____ I 

HENRY FOOTE (deceased) i 

B. S. LAGRANGE 1891 

W. F. WATROUS 1891 

GEORGE WYMAN 1893 

R. A. SOUTHWORTH 1893 

C. L. INGERSOLL, President. 

State Industrial School. 

GOLDEN. 

BOARD OF CONTROL. 

Term Expires. 

WILLIAM G. SMITH 1887 

M. N. MEGRUE__ . 1887 

A. L. EMIGH 1 1887 

W. C. SAMPSON, Superintendent. 

Deaf-Mute and Blind Institute. 

COLORADO SPRINGS. 

TRUSTEES. 

Term Expires. 

A. L. LAWTON 1887 

HENRY BOWMAN- 1889 

DANIEL HAWKS 1889 

H. R. FOSTER .. 1891 

C E. NOBLE 1891 

D. C. DUDLEY, Superintendent. 



The following statement will show, in a measure, the 
advance of the school work of the State during the past 
two years : 



Number of children of school age 

Number of school distiicts 

Number of school houses...., 

Number of pupils enrolled 

Average daily attendance 

Number of teachers employed 

Value of school property 

Total receipts .. 

Total expenditures 

Balance on hand 

Volumes in school libraries 



1884. 



INCREASE. 



56,242 
604 

37,832 

23,307 

1,123 

$1,676,130 00 

1,087,659 18 

876,671 12 

210,988 06 

6,687 



60,798 j 
685 i 

631 ! 

40,690 ! 

26,428 

1,304 

$2,343,982 00 

1,217,008 80 

905,622 57 

311,386 23 

11,561 



4,556 

81 

106 

2,858 

3,121 

181 

$ 667,852 00 

129,349 62 

28.951 45 

100,398 17 

4,874 



SYNOPSIS 

OF THE 

Public School System of Colorado. 



Officers. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
State Board oi Education. 
County Superintendents. 
District Boards. 



Schools. 



Ungraded District Schools. 

Town and City Graded Schools, with 

High School Courses. 

Higher and Special Schools. 



University, Boulder. 

School of Mines, Golden. 

Agricultural College, Fort Collins. 

Mute and Blind Institute, Colorado Springs. 



Other Agencies. 

State Teachers' Association, voluntary. 
County Teachers' Association, voluntary. 



School Age. 



Between six and twenty-one; attendance voluntary 



12 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



SCHOOL YEAR. 



I 



Begins September i, ends August 31, 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 



Elected by the people for two years. Has general 
supervision of the public schools; collects and tabulates 
the school statistics of the State ; apportions the State 
school fund to the counties; gives information to school 
officers upon construction of school law ; prepares and 
furnishes blanks for use of school officers and registers for 
teachers; also furnishes questions for teachers' examina- 
tions ; visits annually such counties as most need his per- 
sonal attendance, inspecting schools and making public 
addresses; is President of the State Board of Education, 
and a member of the State Board of Land Commissioners; 
makes biennial report to the Governor, in December pre- 
vious to each session of the Legislature; causes school 
law to be published and distributed in pamphlet form; is 
ex officio State Librarian. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Consists of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Sec- 
retary of State and Attorney General. 

Issues State diplomas to such teachers as may pass 
examination, after having taught successfully in the State 
for two years ; tries appeals from the decision of County 
Superintendents, but cannot render a judgment for money. 



STATE BOARD OF EXAMINERS. 



The Superintendent of Public Instruction, the President 
of the State University, the President of the Agricultural 
College and the President of the State School of Mines, 
constitute a State Board of Examiners, having entire con- 
trol of the examinations for State diplomas. 



STATE S^PERI^'TENDEXT'S REPORT. 18 



COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. 

Elected by the people for two years. Compensation, 
five dollars per day, and fifteen cents for each mile neces- 
sarily traveled ; but such compensation may not exceed one 
hundred dollars in one year for each school in the county; 
holds quarterly examinations for teachers, and grants cer- 
tificates to successful applicants; apportions the county 
school fund to the districts; visits each district at least once 
each quarter while school is in session, for the purpose of 
inspecting the schools, advising with teachers and school 
officers, and examining the books and accounts of the latter, 
to see if the same are properly kept, and the district funds 
accounted for ; receives reports from district secretaries and 
makes report annually to Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion; hears appeals from decisions of district boards; sup- 
plies districts and teachers with copies of the school law 
and all needed blanks and registers ; is Land Commissioner 
of the county. 



I 



District boards. 

In districts of the first class : i. e., those which have a 
school population of more than i.ooo, the district board is 
composed of six directors, two of v/hom are elected annu- 
ally on the first Monday in May, and hold office three 
years. They elect one of their number president, a secre- 
tary, who may be a member of the board, and a treasurer, 
who may not be a member of the board. In all other 
districts the board consists of three members, term three 
years, one elected each year. These district boards are the 
executive officers of the districts, which are bodies corpo- 
rate, created by law. 

The directors are custodians of the district property of 
all kinds; they employ and discharge teachers and laborers, 
and fix the salaries of the same; make rules for the gov- 
ernment of the schools, and prescribe the course of study 
and the text books; suspend or expel pupils; disburse all 
school money; keep district records ; take school census; 
report annually to County Superintendent; enforce the 
rules and regulations of the Superintendent of Public In- 



14 



STATE SUPERIIs-TEISrDENT S REPORT. 



struction, and in general do all things necessary to carry 
on the schools. 

In districts with a school population of 350 or more, 
the directors fix the amount of the special tax levy, if any, 
for such purposes. In smaller districts the question is sub- 
mitted to a vote of the people, if more than two mills is to 
be levied. 

The Constitution of the State provides: "That no per- 
son shall be denied the right to vote at any school district 
election, or to hold any school district office on account of 

sex." 



SCHOOLS. 



No district is entitled to any portion of the State or 
county fund, unless it maintains a school, taught by a 
licensed teacher for at least sixty days in each year. In 
the count}'- districts, schools are maintained from sixty to 
one hundred and sixty days, sometimes prolonged even to 
two hundred days. In cities and towns the schools are 
from one hundred and twenty (in a few) to two hundred 
days in length ; those in which is enrolled a majority of 
the pupils of graded schools are in session at least one 
hundred and ninety days ; while those in which is enrolled 
a majority of the pupils of ungraded schools are in session 
about one hundred days. 

Many of the graded schools have a High School course, 
open to ail, while Denver is the only city sufficiently popu- 
lous as yet to require a High School with a full and entirely 
distinct faculty. 



TEACHERS. 



All teachers engaged in public schools must hold a 
certificate from the County Superintendent, or a State cer- 
tificate issued by the State Board of Education. Neither 
county nor Slate certificates are granted, except upon a 
thorough examination in the branches required. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 15 



HIGHER AND SPECIAL INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING, 



The State has made ample provision for the higher and 
special education of its youth. The State University, at 
Boulder, under the control of a board of six Regents, 
elected by the people; the Agricultural College, at Fort 
Collins; the - School of Mines, at Golden, and the Deaf 
Mute and Blind Institute, at Colorado Springs, are con- 
trolled by boards of management appointed by the Gov- 
ernor. These institutions are supported by the State, by 
an annual tax levy of one-fifth of one mill. 



Reformatory institutions. 

The State Industrial School, at Golden, is a reform 
school for boys. It has been managed from the first on 
the modern family plan, nothing prison-like in its appear- 
ance or its discipline, and its success has been gratifying. 



SCHOOL Revenue. 

The public school revenue of Colorado is derived almost 
exclusively from taxation. In common with other new 
Western States, she has a land grant of sections sixteen 
and thirty-six in each surveyed township, but so large a 
portion of these fall upon arid lands, that the grant is of little 
aid to our school fund. The statute provides for the annual 
levy of a coiinty tax for school purposes of not less than 
two nor more than five mills; this, with the proceeds of 
penal fines, constitutes the county school fund. To this is 
added whatever may be received from the State fund, 
which, during the past year, has been materially reduced, 
owing to the fact that all funds arising from the leasing of 
school lands were, by an act of the last Legislature, trans- 
ferred to the permanent school fund. 

In many States there is a " Teachers' Wages Fund," 
which cannot be used for any other purpose. There is no 
such fund known to the laws of Colorado. What is 



ffHI! 



16 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

known as the "General Fund," derived, as above stated, 
from the county tax, from fines and estrays, and from the 
State fund, is available for all legitimate expenses of the 
district, except purchasing sites, erecting and furnishing 
buildings, making permanent improvements. The pro- 
ceeds of a special school tax, when collected, are practically 
added to the General Fund, because available for precisely 
the same purposes. The excess of the special bond tax, if 
any, after paying the interest coupons due, can be used for 
the same purposes. None of these moneys can be used 
for building, enlarging or furnishing school houses, or 
purchasing sites, except the unexpended balance remaining 
to the credit of the district any year, after paying the ex- 
penses of a ten months' school for that year. Repairs ren- 
dered necessary by the ordinary wear and tear of the 
buildings can be paid from this fund. If a district is to 
build, enlarge, furnish, or purchase site, it must tax itself 
for that purpose. There is no statutory limit to the rate of 
taxation which a district may vote, either for school or 
building purposes, and in districts of first and second 
classes it is the duty of the Board to fix the rate, and the 
board may also order the levy of one-tenth of a mill to be 
expended for a library. 



Report 



Superintendent of Public Instruction, 



In presenting this report, it is quite gratifying to note 
the evidence of substantial growth and vigorous life mani- 
fested in the school work throughout the State during the 
last two years. The statistical reports and written state- 
ments from the County Superintendents of the various 
counties indicate that much is being done to render the 
schools more efficient. More care in the examination and 
selection of teachers, a disposition to grade the country 
schools, and establish school libraries, and the organization 
of teachers' associations, are among the things that are 
worthy of special mention. 

In entering upon the duties of this office, at the begin- 
ning of the present term, it was with a conviction that, 
among other things, steps should be taken to grade country 
schools, to build up school libraries, and to organize count)- 
educational associations where such organizations did not 
already exist. 

These county organizations seemed to be a necessity in 
order to secure intelligent and uniform action in matters 
relating to school work. 

In order to secure uniformity of action throughout the 
State in the above matters, and to awaken an interest 
therein, the following letter was addressed to the County 
Superintendents of the State, immediately after they took 
charge of their offices in January, 1886: 



I' 



18 



■I 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 

Office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colo., January 15, 1886. 



Superintetident of Schools, 
Dear Sir: 



Cou7ity 



You have just entered upon the duties of your office for a term of 
two years, and during this period you can do much for the improve- 
ment of the schools in your county. In order that unity of action 
may exist throughout the State, permit me to call your attention to a 
few things of importance to the school work, and urge upon you the 
necessity of earnest effort to secure them. 

First, it is important that a course of study be adopted in all the 
ungraded schools of your county. At present most of our ungraded 
schools are without a definite outline of work, and under this con- 
dition the results are not satisfactory. The condition of the schools 
will be greatly improved when a course of study is adopted by each 
school board, and the teacher is required to carry it out in the school 
room. This will not be done unless the County Superintendents urge 
its importance and point out its value to school officers and teachers. 
For the purpose of uniformity, I wish to recommend the "Course of 
Study for Ungraded Schools," published in the Daily Register, in 
use in the public schools of Colorado. This course was adopted in 
June, 1882, by a convention of the educators of the State, and is in- 
tended as an outline, to be varied in detail to meet the wants of the 
school. In comparing this with courses of study used in like schools 
of other States, I find nothing that seems better. In Boulder county 
a number of ungraded schools have adopted a course of study, and 
good results are already reported, although introduced but recently. 

Inasnauch as it is impossible, under the present provisions, to hold 
*' Teachers' Institutes," except in a very few counties, allow me to 
recommend the organization of a County Teachers' Association, to 
be held for two or three days, at least once a year. This will give 
you an opportunity of having your teachers together, where you can 
make such suggestions in regard to the work as you think best. You 
can also arrange to have such work done, and methods of teaching 
illustrated, together with the discussion of other important features 
of the school work, as you deem will be of benefit to the educational 
interests of your county. 

You can also do much toward the establishment of School Libra- 
ries. At present we have but few in the State. These are in the 
larger towns, and have been created by means of private contribu- 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 19 

tions and entertainments. The law provides that a tax may be 
levied by a district for library purposes. The carrying out of this 
provision of the law should be encouraged. No school is well 
equipped without a library, yet you may find a disposition among 
the people to advance slowly in this matter; but it is a needed ad- 
vance, and one which you can greatly aid, standing as you do at the 
head of the schools of your county. If the County Superintendent.'i 
of the State will take hold of these matters, in connection with the 
other duties of the office, a new life will dawn upon the schools of 
the State. I shall be glad to hear from you in regard to the fore- 
going suggestions. 

Hoping they may find in you a hearty approval, I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 

L. S. CORNELL, 

Superintendetit of Public Instricction. 



COUNTY TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



It is- encouraging to know that about twenty-five coun- 
ties have already organized Teachers' Associations, and 
others will do so in the near future. I have endeavored to 
be present at these meetings when possible. These associa- 
tions have been attended with good results. Through 
them a new life has entered into the school work. Teach- 
ers have been inspired with new zeal, and school boards 
have been led to see the importance of making their schools 
better. 



SC-HOOL LIBRARIES. 

In establishing and maintaining public school libraries, 
something has been done, but not enough. But few dis- 
tricts have availed themselves of the provision of the law 
for levying one-tenth of a mill for library purposes. Most 
of the libraries now established are the result of private 
contributions and public entertainments. Districts of the 
third class should be authorized by law to levy a library 
tax, as well as districts of the first and second classes. 

Such libraries are of great value, and every school in the 
State ought to have one, of at least a few volumes for refer- 



20 



STATE SUPERINTE]ST)ENT S REPORT. 



ence. Without doubt, there is an increased interest in 
Hbraries among the school people of the State, as the reports 
show that the number of volumes in school libraries hav^e 
almost doubled in the past two years, but the matter must 
not be allowed to rest here. It will be time to rest when 
all of our schools are supplied with suitable reference 
books for the use of pupils. 



Course of study for the country Schools. 



'fflBHIv 



This feature of the school work has recently received 
considerable attention in this State, and encouraging pro- 
gress has been made. The reports this year show that in 
the State there are now a large number of country schools 
that have adopted a definite course of study. Our country 
schools cannot be made as thorough and efficient as they 
should be, until a definite course of study is adopted and 
the pupils are classified. 

It has been over four years since the course of study 
published in our daily registers was first recommended to 
district boards of ungraded schools for consideration and 
adoption, but little seems to have been done until last year, 
and the reports this year are the first to show country 
schools with a course of study. This course of study was 
intended- only as a general outline of the work, with a view 
to variation in detail to meet the contingencies that may 
arise in different schools. 

The following statements, from a few of the County 
Superintendents in regard to the success of a course of 
study, are in place: 

"The schools in our county that have adopted a course 
of study are all we could wish. Our shifting population 
makes all methods an up-hill work. 

*'B. A. Arbogast, 
''Superintendent of Schools, Summit Cou7ity!' 



^T.ATE SUPERINTEXDEIS^t's REPORT. 21 

"A special effort has been made during the past year to 
have our schools adopt the excellent course of study for 
ungraded schools printed in the Daily Register, and I am 
glad to report encouraging success. Wherever this course 
has been adopted and carefully carried out, thorough work 
has been the result. I shall continue to urge its import- 
ance until every school in the county has adopted it» 

"J. B. Cooke, 
''Superintendent of Schools, Weld County!' 



"The schools of this county that have adopted a regu- 
lar course of study are progressing in a very satisfactory 
manner. There seems to be more mterest taken by both 
pupil and teacher, as now they have some definite plan of 
labor, systematized so as to be continually progressive to 
the pupil, and encouraging alike to both teacher and pupil. 
Although but few outside districts have adopted a course, 
it is gratifying to know that it is meeting with success where 
adopted, and is enthusing new life into the school work. 

" Wm. G. Smith, 
''Superintendent of Schools^ Jefferson County!' 



"Seven schools in this county have adopted the course 
of study, but only one long enough to test it. This school 
adopted a course of study one year ago, and has succeeded 
beyond our most sanguine expectations. 

" RoBT. N. Hancock, 
"Superintendeyit of Schools, Douglas County!' 



** In every case where a course of study has been adopted 
and the school graded, the result has been very flattering, 
more especially so in the country schools. It is a great 
incentive to work for both teacher and pupil. The teacher 
has a starting place, and after a time she can look back and 
see what has been done. There is always an effort to do 
the work well, if the school is graded, much more so at 



22 STATE superintendent's report. 

least than in schools where the pupils are working in a 
haphazard manner. Again, the pupil is stimulated to 
work harder and more earnestly when he sees that there 
is a chance for him to step up from one grade to another. 
I think there is another and a very important advantage in 
having country schools graded, which, at first, is not real- 
ized. I find that it is often the case that a pupil in a country 
school is allowed to make very rapid progress in his favorite 
study or studies, to the detriment of his other studies. 
This, of itself, is not right, and whenever a pupil that has 
lost his equilibrium, so to speak, in his studies, wishes, as 
is very often the case, to enter a graded school in some 
town or city, he becomes much discouraged by being 
placed in a grade where his neglected studies entitle him 
to be ^placed. The work in the country and city schools 
should be so graded that the work in the former, as far as 
it goes, be like the work in the latter. 

''S. D. Carroll, 
''Superintendent of Schools, Gunnison County !' 



"The country schools in this county which are using a 
course of study and have been graded, are very successful 
in the course pursued. The results obtained by so doing 
are, the pupils are better classified, a more uniform series of 
books is used, and more and efficient work is performed 
by both teachers and pupils in these schools, while the" 
work is guided by the course of study so that each suc- 
cessive teacher does not have to classify and grade the 
school, but can commence where his predecessor left off, 
thus preventing a repetition of work, which is often the case 
in country schools. One of the results gained in grading 
the schools is an incentive to the pupils, as they will work 
more diligently to reach a higher grade. The course of 
study and grading of schools pursued in this county is 
according to the formula prescribed in the Daily Register. 

"A. Walters, 

''Superintendent of Schools, Custer County T 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 28 

If the country schools are graded, the work must be 
accomplished largely through the efforts of the County 
Superintentents. They must see that the teachers properly 
classify the pupils of such schools, and keep proper records 
of such classification. From these records the teacher 
should make monthly reports to the County Superintend- 
ent, which shall show the progress of the school. The 
mere adoption of a course of study by a school board will 
avail but little unless some system is inaugurated for having 
it carried out and made permanent. It is not expected that 
any one course of study can be adopted in detail in every 
school. County Superintendents must determine what 
course is best suited to the schools of their counties. Yet, 
if possible, it will be better to follow one general outline of 
work in every county. 



CONVENTION OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 

In order to secure more perfect uniformity of action in the 
school work of the State, the following call for a State 
convention of County Superintendents was issued: 

Office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colo., March 19, 1886. 
Dear Sir : 

A convention of the County Superintendents of the State will be 
held at the Barclay Block, Denver, April 15, at 10 o'clock a. m , to 
which your are especially invited. Among the subjects to be discussed 
are the following: 

" The County Superintendents' Work in the Office and Among the 
Schools." Discussion opened by W. H. McCreery, Fort Collins. 

" Necessity of Uniformity in County Superintendents' Work." 
Discussion opened by B. A. P. Eaton, Colorado Springs. 

" What can be Done to Improve Our Country Schools ?" Discus- 
sion opened by J. L. Fetzer, Denver. 

"County Superintendents' Meetings. Shall We Organize District 
Conventions?" Discussion opened by J. H. Freeman, Canon City. 

L. S. CORNELL, 

Superintendefit of Public Instruction. 

In response to the above call, a very enthusiastic and 
profitable meeting was held. There vv-ere present during 



24 STATE superintendent's report. 

the sessions, State Superintendent Cornell, County Super- 
intendents J. L. Fetzer, of Arapahoe; Amos Bixby, of 
Boulder; Artemus Walters, of Custer; J. B. McGinty, 
of Delta ; Robert N. Hancock, of Douglas ; B. C. 
Killin, of Elbert; B. A. P. Eaton, of El Paso; J. H. 
Freeman, of Fremont ; F. S. Beggs, of Gilpin ; Fred 
Pischel, of Huerfano; W. G. Smith, of Jefferson ; W. H. 
McCreery, of Larimer; I. S. Smith, of Park; B. A. Arbo- 
gast, of Summit ; J. B. Cooke, of Weld ; and City Super- 
intendents Gove and Wegener, ' and ex-Superintendent 
Shattuck. 

The addresses made and the discussions that followed 
showed that all had a deep interest in the public school 
work and were desirous of obtaining the best methods for 
county supervision of schools. 

During the session of the convention, the following 
resolutions v/ere adopted : 

Resolved, That we recommend the course of study printed on 
cover of Daily School Register, and urge upon the district boards 
of all our schools to adopt and carry out this course of study. 

Resolved, That we consider the development of character as the 
highest end of education and the only safe basis of American citi- 
zenship, and we urge upon Superintendents the duty of doing all in 
their power to purify the moral atmosphere of the schools and all 
their surroundings. 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that a teacher's 
certificate of the first grade should be evidence of a high degree of 
proficiency in the art of teaching, as well as in literary qualifications, 
and to this end we recommend the uniform practice among County 
Superintendents of granting no first grade certificate upon examina- 
tion, without being satisfied also by personal observation, that the 
applicant possesses a high degree of ability in all that pertains to the 
actual management of the school. 

Resolved, That we recommend great care in the issuing of tem- 
porary certificates, granting them only upon good evidence of fitness, 
and when imperatively demanded by a scarcity of regular teachers 
or other urgent reason. 

Resolved, That our hearty support is due, and that it be given to 
The Colorado School Journal, and that we recommend to our teach- 
ers, directors and others interested in the school work of our State, 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 25 

tliis worthy monthly above all others, when only one school journal 
is taken by the individual, and that the Journal be adopted as the 
official organ of the County Superintendents. 

Resolved, That we should do for Arbor Day everything in our 
power to make the day what it was intended to be, and that the 
school boards, teachers and pupils of the various districts of our 
respective counties be especially invited by us to transplant trees on 
the school grounds, if suitable, or on other public or private grounds 
as may be deemed best, and that they report to the County Super- 
intendents the number of trees planted, that we may be able to 
further report to the State Forestry Commissioner. 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that the income 
arising from the leasing of the school lands should be placed in the 
general school fund for semi-annual distribution, and that the 
amount received from this source, since the change of the law of 
1885, should be transferred from the permanent fund to the general 
fund for apportionment among the several counties, and that legis- 
lation to this end be asked of the next Legislature. 



TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. 

Boulder, Larimer, Weld, Fremont and Las Animas 
counties have been able to hold institutes of two weeks' 
length, with much profit, although quite expensive, owing 
to the small number of teachers. But few other counties 
are able to bear the expense, hence in most counties in the 
State, institutes are impracticable. This would be so, even 
if the Legislature should grant an annual appropriation of 
$100 to each county, for such purpose. In most counties, 
the number of teachers are too \^\^ to hold a successful 
institute of two weeks' length. The value of Teachers' 
Normal Institutes is not questioned, but how to supply the 
teachers of this State with such institutes, in such a manner 
as to reach the greatest number at the least expense, is a 
question to which I have given considerable study. It is 
my opinion that the best thing that can be done at present 
is to divide the State into about four Normal Institute 
districts, and provide for Uolding an institute annually in 
each district. While in the present condition of State 
finances, the Legislature will never consent to the appro- 
priation of $100 to each county in the State, aggregating 



26 STATE superintendent's report. 

the sum of ^4,000 annually, it might cheerfully grant 
$100 to each district annually, or the sum of ;^400 for the 
whole State. Our State ought to have Normal Insti- 
tutes, and this seems to me to be the best solution of the 
problem. 

State school Fund. 



The amount to the credit of the public school fund, 
November 30, 1886, was ;^26i, 374.74. This includes the 
funds from sale of school lands and rents on said lands 
since the law of 1885 took effect. Interest arising from the 
investment of the above amount constitutes, under the 
present law, the funds for semi annual distribution among 
the schools of the State. Previous to the Legislature of 
1885, all funds arising from the leasing of school lands 
became a part of the funds thus distributed, but, by an act 
of that body, it became a part of the permanent fund, and 
only the interest on it can be used, thus depriving the 
schools of a large amount of needed help. 

During the last two years the rent on the school lands 
of the State, not apportioned, have amounted to the sum 
of ;^89,8o4.69. 

It is my opinion that the policy of retiring this fund from 
distribution is a mistaken one, and should be corrected by 
the next Legislature. 

If there is a time when the schools of the State need 
help, it is now, while they are in their infancy and struggling 
for existence. Sparsely settled districts frequently make 
the local tax for the support of schools burdensome; yet 
our people pay those taxes cheerfully. While the amount 
per capita arising from the rent on school lands would not 
be large enough, it would be sufficient in many cases to 
afford a partial relief 



ARBOR DAY. 



More interest was manifested by the schools of the State 
in tree-planting during the past year, than usual. Many 
trees were planted through the instrumentality of public 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 27 

schools, not only on school grounds, but upon other public 
grounds. An endeavor was made by this office to have 
Arbor Day generally observed by the schools of the State. 
The following letters were sent out, the first to Principals 
of schools, the second to County Superintendents: 



Office of 
superintendemt of public instruction 
Denver, Colo., April 8 



)N, >- 

1886. j 



Principal of School: 

Dear Sir: 

Governor Eaton has selected April 29 as Arbor Day. If your 
school grounds are enclosed, and can be irrigated, I hope you will 
observe the day with appropriate exercises and the planting of trees. 
Please report to your County Superintendent the number and kind 
of trees planted. 

Yours truly, 

L. S. CORNELL, 
Superinlendent of Public Instruction. 



Office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colo., April 8, 1886. 



Superintendent of Schools County: 

Dear Sir: 

Governor Eaton has selected April 29 as Arbor Day for the State 
of Colorado. Permit me to urge upon you the importance of having 
the schools of your county observe the day by appropriate exercises 
and the planting of trees upon such school grounds as can be irri- 
gated and are enclosed. Hon. Edgar T. Ensign, State Forestry 
Commissioner, desires you to report to him, at Colorado Springs, the 
number and kind of trees planted in your county. 

Yours truly, 

L. S. CORNELL, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



28 STATE superintendent's report. 

In accordance with this request, the County Superin- 
tendents reported to the Forest Commissioner, and his pub- 
lished report will show the results. 



History of Education in Colorado. 

Under the supervision of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion, a history of the educational work in Colorado has 
been published. The committee authorized to prepare this 
history consisted of H. M. Hale, Aaron Gove and J. C. 
Shattuck. This volume, although brief, furnishes a collec- 
tion of the facts in connection with the early history of 
education in this State that are worthy of preservation. It 
was thought best to collect these facts while those who en- 
gaged in Colorado's first educational work were still living. 

SCHOOL HOUSES. 

As will be seen elsewhere in this report, there have been 
erected during the past two years io6 school houses. 
Some of these have been built with reference to the com- 
fort, convenience and health of the pupils, while others 
have not. 

In regard to the proper construction of school houses, 
so many excellent suggestions were made by my prede- 
cessor, -the Hon. J. C. Shattuck, in his last biennial report, 
that I deem it unnecessary to say more until school boards 
have time to profit by what has already been said. 



TEACHERS. 

At no time in the history of the State have we had a 
greater supply of excellent teachers than now. There is a 
constant influx of teachers from all parts of the Union, 
seeking positions in our schools. At times I have as many 
as fifty names of teachers wanting situations, and no situa- 
tions to be had. 

Those coming to Colorado for the purpose of teaching 
must make up their, minds to take their chances, for the 
supply is greater than the demand. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 29 



TEACHERS' EXAMINATIONS. 



All teachers who teach in the schools of Colorado must 
hold a certificate obtained from the proper county or State 
authority, by passin^r the required examination, as no 
certificates are eranted without examination. 



fc>' 



For the "information of those who may desire to know 
something of our county examination, the following instruc- 
tions, rules and questions are inserted : 

Office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colorado. 

Circular to County Superintendents Concerning the Quarterly Ex- 
amination of Teachers. 

Gentlemen : 

By virtue of law, I am now required to prepare questions for use 
in quarterly examination of teachers. In sending these questions, I 
desire to make the following suggestions as to their use. 

The questions will be forwarded to you in sealed packages. I 
recommend that you open them on the morning of the examination, 
in the presence of the applicants. There is work for two days of five 
or six hours each for the average applicant, and I recommend a two 
days' session, at least in the most populous counties. Applicants 
should have time to do themselves justice. Let it be understood by 
aH, that to receive a certificate, the applicant must do the work at 
the time and in the manner prescribed for all. If one can do it in 
half a day, well — but let it be known that a certificate will never \i^ 
given for a part of the work. Absentees must take the consequence 
of their own misfortune, however imperative the cause of their 
absence. This is not given as a rule, but merely the plainstatement 
of a fact. 

By dividing the slips you can give out a half day's work at a time, 
and I urge this plan as much fairer to all than giving the topic? sin- 
gly, as some will gain time in one branch, other in another, but no 
applicant should be allowed to leave the room after seeing any 
questions, until said questions are answered, that there may be no 
opportunity or temptation to consult authorities. 

The topics are numbered from one to twelve. For the first day 
use Nos. I to 6, inclusive; second day, Nos. 7 to 12, inclusive. Take 
up questions and answers promptly at the expiration of each session. 



30 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

If you wish an oral examination, take sufficient time for that, and for 
reading before or after the time allotted to the session. 

Do not take a minute of the session for general exercises or talk, 
or allow any one else to do so. 

Take such further time as you wish to satisfy yourself as to the 
moral character of the applicants, and as to their experience in and 
aptitude for the business of teaching, and also time to give such 
counsel concerning their duties as you may think helpful. 

For marking applicants, divide the topics in two groups : First 
group, Nos. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11 and 12 ; second group, Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 
9. Give certificates as follows : 



FIRST Grade Certificate. 



First Group — Average 90 per cent.; no branch below 75 per cent. 
Second Group— h^j^x^.%% 75 per cent.; no branch below 60 per cent. 



SECOND Grade certificate. 



First Group—AvexdigQ 75 per cent.; no branch below 60 per cent. 
Second Group — Average 60 per cent.; no branch below 40 per cent. 



THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATE. 



First Group — Average 60 per cent.; no branch below 50 per 
cent. 

Second Group — Average 50 per cent.; no branch below 40 per 
cent. 

Provided that a certificate shall not be refused for failure in Nos. 
8 and 9. 

All answers to be filed and retained in your office for six months. 
Number the applicants, but take no names. 

Give each a blank envelope and paper sufficient for the work. 
Examine and grade all papers by number before opening the en- 
velopes to learn the names. (If you can get a committee of compe- 
tent persons to examine and grade the papers, it will guard you still 
further from any charge of unfairness, which disappointed appli- 
cants are apt to make). 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 31 

A high degree of practical success in teaching should be accepted 
as a sufficient reason for issuing a certificate of a higher grade than 
is warranted by the percentage upon examination, and inexperience 
or waut of success should lower the grade of the certificate given, 
while failure as a teacher tnight be so marked as to make it your duty 
to refjise a certificate, whatever the percentage obtained, 

I earnestly recommend that certificates of the first grade be 
given only to teachers who have earned it by success in the school 
room as well as at examination. I also recommend the addition of 
ten to the grade earned on Theory and Practice, for the regular 
reading of some good educational periodical, or of one or more relia- 
ble books on the subject. 

Refuse certificates to applicants of whose moral character you 
have a reasonable doubt. 

Please report to me as soon as convenient after your examina- 
tion, on the blanks furnished for the purpose, giving the names of 
all applicants. 

Preserve these instructions for future reference, 

Take great pains that none of the questions go out of your hands 
until the end of the quarter. 

No private examinations are lawful except for temporary certifi- 
cates, valid only till next public examination. 
Respectfully, Yours, 

L. S. CORNELL, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction . 



Rules for the Conduct of the Examination 



(This slip to be given to each applicant with the first questions.) 

*i. Provide yourself with a lead pencil. 

2. Write your name, age, nativity and postoffice address on a 
slip of paper, and answer the following questions : 

1 . How long have you taught, and where ? 

2. In what schools were you educated? 

3. What educational papers or journals do you read regularly? 

Place the answers in an envelope, seal it, and put your num.- 
ber, but not your name, on the back. 

3. Write your number on each paper. 



32 STATE superintendent's report. 

4. Take a different paper for each branch, write the subject at 
the head of each paper, and write on but one side of the paper. 

5. Number your answers to correspond with the questions, but 
do not repeat the questions. 

6. Read all the questions on a topic before answering any of 
them. 

7. All communication during examination is absolutely for- 
bidden. 

8. Do not take the questions from the room. Any applicant 
who violates this rule will forfeit all right to a certificate. 

9. When possible, abbreviate. Give short but complete solutions 
to arithmetical problems. 

10. Ask no Questions. If you have doubts as to the meaning 
of any question, let them be submitted in writing, so that the. Super- 
intendent may examine them when he examines the answers to the 
questions. 

11. Omissions will be considered as failures, and in estimating 
your rank the general appearance of the papers, as well as the cor- 
rectness of the answers, will be considered. 



*If the Superintendent conducting the examination prefers to have the work done with 
pen and ink, he will provide them. 



QUESTIONS FOR THE QUARTERLY EXAMINATION OF 
TEACHERS. FIRST QUARTER, 1886. PREPARED BY 
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, DEN- 
VER, COLORADO. 



1. Orthography, 

1. What is the use of teaching the sounds of letters ? 

2. Ought pupils to be taught to spell words of which they do 
not know the meaning ? Why ? 

3. What are the rules for doubling final consonants? 

4. What use do you make of the dictionary in teaching spelling ? 

5. Give directions. for use of capital letters. 

6- 10. Write twenty words dictated by the examiner. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 33 

2. ARITHMETIC. 



1. What are the fundamental operations of arithmetic? Why 
are they so called ? 

2. Define prime factor, fraction, decimal fraction, percentage 
and root. 

3. From |. of a mile take f of a rod. 

4. (I— Rf)^[iXf-(f4-i)]= ? 

5. Multiply 32.765 by .000985. 

6. What sum will amount to |i,ooo in 5 years with interest at 8%? 

5. A cubical box contains 10 bushels. What is the length of one 
side ? 

8. What will it cost to plaster a room 18 feet long, 14 feet wide, 
and 12 feet high, at 30 cents per square yard ? 

9. A district whose property is valued at 1500,000 wishes to raise 
a special school fund of $2,500. What must be the rate of taxation ? 

10. The amount of a certain principal for three years, at a certain 
rate per cent., is I750, and the interest is X of the principal. What 
is the principal and what is the rate ? Solve by analysis. 



3. READING. 



1. Classify and define the inflections. 

2. Of what use are punctuation marks to the reader ? 

3. What is gained by concert reading ? 

4. a— Name five great American poets, b — Three of the ablest 
authors among American women. 

5. What constitutes the preparation of a reading lesson on the 
part of the pupil ? 

6-10 An exercise in reading, conducted by the examiner. 



4. UNITED STATES HISTORY AND CONSTITUTION 



1. Give a brief account of the capture of Washington City. 

2. Slavery, a— When introduced, and by whom ? <5— When 
abolished ? 



34 STATE superintendent's report. 

3-4. Explain the connection the following names have with 
American history: De Soto, General Scott, Alexander Hamilton, 
Arnold, Farragut, John Brown. 

5. Explain the cause of the war with Mexico. 

6. What was gained to the United States by the adoption of the 
Constitution ? 

7. What provisions for carrying on war did the Second Conti- 
nental Congress make ? 

8. In the war of 181 2, by what forces were most of the victories 
of the United States achieved? 

9. What amendments were made to the Constitution in the in- 
terest of the colored race? 

10. Name three important American inventions. 



5. PENMANSHIP. 



1. Of what value is the blackboard in teaching penmanship? 

2. What slant should all straight lines make with the base line ? 

3. What is the chief object to be gained in penmanship ? 

4. Anah ze the letters in the word ''light.'' 

5. Write the following as a specimen of your penmanship: 

" Lord Marmion turned, well was his need, 
AnJ dashed the rowels in his steed." 



6. PYS50L0GY. 



1. Name the bones of the arm and the leg. 

2. Name the organs of digestion. 

3. a—Explain the effect of alcohol upon the digestion. <^— Upon 
the circulation. 

4. Name three laws of healtli which you consider important to 
observe'. 

5. rt— What are the offices of the sKin? <^— Under what condi- 
tions can it best perform them ? 



7. SCHOOL LAW. 



T. rr-By whom are text bt>oks adopted? b -Wo\s long must 
tbe\- r^^rrmin in use when ad-Mit^-d ? 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 35 

2. To whom is the principal teacher required to report at the end 
of each term ? 

3. From what source are school funds derived ? 

4. When and by whom are the school funds apportioned ? 

5. Upon what basis are the school funds apportioned ? 



8. BOTANY. 



1. a — What is meant by germination ? b — Venation ? 

2. a — Explain the function of the leaves, b — The roots. 

3. Give an example of a dicotyledonous plant. Monocotyledon- 
ous. Polycotoledonous. 

4. Explain the growth in exogenous plants. 

5. What part of the Cactus performs the function of the leaf ? 



9. NATURAL SCIENCES. 



1. Name the general properties of matter. 

2. a — Describe the mercurial barometer. <^— What are its uses ? 

3. In what direction do the trade winds blow ? Why ? 

4. Name two minerals that are harder than glass, and give their 
composition. 

5. What is supposed to be the cause of volcanoes ? 

6. Name the planets that have moons, and give the number be- 
longing to each. 

7. Explain the chemical reaction that takes place in a coal fire. 

8. Give some important distinctions between animals and plants. 

9. To what class of the vertebrates do each of the following 
animals belong: cat, frog, seal, bat, man? 

10. Define astronomy, geology and zoology. 



10. Grammar. 



1. Name the properties of verbs and pronouns. 

2. Write the principal parts of the following verbs: wring, fly, 
can, bend, get, draw, flee, drink. 



36 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

3. Define Grammar, and name its principal divisions. 

4. Define sentence, subject, predicate, object. 

5. Analyze : 

" I know thou art gone where the weary are blest. 
And the mourner looks up and is glad." 

6. Analyze: ''He that has ears to hear, let him hearT 

7. Parse the words in italics in the above sentence. 

8. Write a complex declarative sentence. 

9. Conjugate the verb "to write," in the past tense, potential 
mood. 

10. Punctuate and capitalize : "a stranger in a printing office 
asked the youngest apprentice what his rule of punctuation was said 
the boy i set up as long as i can hold my breath and then i put a 
comma when i gape i insert a semicolon and when i want to sneeze 
i make a paragraph." 



11. THEORY AND PRACTICE. 



How would you cultivate the power of attention in the pupil ? 

What are perceptive faculties ? 

What book have you read on mental development? 

What is the use of the object lesson ? 

Name five requisities of a good teacher ? 



12. GEOGRAPHY. 



1. How many counties has Colorado ? Name and locate the 
county last organized. 

2. Name the countries in which each of the five races of men 
predominate. 

3. Name the countries and States in the same latitude as France. 

4. Name five capital cities of Europe in the order of their size. 

5. Name the principal islands of the West Indies, and give the 
government to which each belongs. 

6. What and where are the following : Honolulu, Nicaragua, St- 
Helena, Aetna, Baton Rouge, Lima, Geneva, Po, Biscay, Shasta. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 37 

« 

7. Name all the countries that are washed by the Mediterranean 



8. Locate Australia, and name its principal cities and most im- 
portant products. To what government does it belong? 

9. Locate the following : Providence, Bangor, Vicksburg, Puget 
Sound, Bay of Funday, Pueblo, Portland (2), Detroit, Atlanta. 

10. Write a topical outline for the study of the geography of Col- 
orado. 



FREE TEXT BOOKS. 



There is a strong and growing sentiment in this State 
in favor of school districts purchasing and owning the text 
books. The frequent changes that our people make from 
one locality to another has caused the purchase of text 
books to become a burden. This has led the people to 
inquire if there is not some way to secure relief. A gen- 
tleman said to me : ** Is there no way to reduce the expense 
of purchasing text books?" Said he: "I moved three 
times last year, and was compelled to buy three sets of 
text books for my children." 

It will require but little change in the law to bring this 
relief, and that is to provide for the school districts to 
purchase and own the books. This step should be taken, 
for it will greatly reduce the text book expense in the 
State. It can be shown that such a measure will save to 
the people of this State the sum of ^100,000 annually, for 
school books. 

While East, last spring, I took occasion to make inquiry 
in reference to the advantages of the Free Text Book sys- 
tem. I conversed with a number of educators from Mas- 
sachusetts, and visited a number of schools in New York, 
for the purpose of ascertaining what there is in the Free 
Text Book system to commend it. 

The following are some of the facts noted : 

1. The annual expense is from 33^ to 50 per cent, 
less. 

2. The books are better preserved than when the chil- 
dren owned them. 



38 STATE superintendent's EEPORT. 

3. Increased enrollment in schools. 

4. The children are all supplied with' needed books at 
the opening of the school term, rich and poor alike. 

5. The work of the teacher is not materially increased. 

The following from the last report of the State Board 
of Education of Massachusetts, is worthy of considera- 
tion : 

The advantages of the Free Text Book system are: 

1. Economy in time and money. Under the present 
system schools may be supplied on the first day of the 
term with all the necessary means of study. This prevents 
the long delays that were formerly experienced in organizing 
the classes, and enables the teacher to make a better classi- 
fication of his school. Experience has proved that the 
expense of books and supplies, by the new method of pur- 
chase, is reduced nearly one-half 

2. The new system furnishes a good occasion for train- 
ing the children to take good care of those things not their 
own, but which they are allowed to use. 

3. It has, without doubt, increased the attendance upon 
the schools more than ten per cent. 

4. The public schools of the State are now literally 
free schools, offering to all on the same free terms, the 
advantages of a good education. 

Before the act of 1884 was passed, sixteen towns in the 
commonwealth had voluntarily adopted the free text book 
system. In all cases of fair trial, the most satisfactory 
results have been produced. 



TEMPERANCE INSTRUCTION. 



A great deal of interest is shown by the people in differ- 
ent parts of the country in relation to temperance instruc- 
tion in the public schools. Many States have already taken 
steps in this direction, and have provided for instruction 
that shall show the injurious effects of alcoholic stimulants 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 39 

and narcotics. Congress has also provided that such in- 
structions shall be given in the public schools of the District 
of Columbia and all the Territories of the United States. 
Should not Colorado take some steps in this direction ? 
Many of the people of our State are asking for some action 
in this matter, and the Legislature should give the subject 
serious consideration. 



Colorado school journal. 



The publication of a School Journal for Colorado was 
undertaken in the spring of 1885, by Superintendent Gove 
as editor and J. D. Dillenback as publisher. Although the 
effort has not been a remunerative one, it has met a necessity 
in the school work of the State that could not well be pro- 
vided in any other way. It has furnished a means of com- 
munication for the school people of the State, and a medium 
through which the rulings of this office may reach those 
interested therein. It is worthy of a better patronage than 
it has received up to this time. 



School and County visitation. 

I have endeavored as much as possible to visit the var- 
ious counties in the interest of the public schools. The 
county associations afford a favorable opportunity for meet- 
ing teachers and school officers, and I have made an effort 
to attend these meetings. My work in this direction has 
been pleasant to me, and, I trust, profitable to the school 
interests of the State. The lectures given have been mostly 
confined to some feature of school work, with a view to 
awakening an increased interest in the work of education. 
I have visited a large number of schools in the State, and 
find them as a rule in excellent condition. Men and 
women of ability and experience are found in our schools 
in all parts of the State. 



STATE LIBRARY. 



Since removing to the present quarters, in May, 1885, 
the library has been classified and arranged as well as the 



40 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

limited room would permit. Its more convenient location, 
and the fact that the doors have been open every day, 
excepting legal holidays, from 9 a. m. to 4 p. m., have 
caused a marked increase in the number of readers. 

An attempt has been made to fill the gaps in a number 
of incomplete sets of publications, especially the official 
documents of Colorado, and some of the more important 
publications of the United States Government. The results 
have been highly gratifying. With the permission of the 
Secretary of State, the document room belonging to his 
office was searched, and about one hundred Colorado 
documents, consisting of session laws, journals and official 
reports were obtained. Even with this number added, the 
Colorado section of the library is by no means complete. 
Accepting the offer of the honorable Secretary of the 
Interior, to receive duplicate documents in exchange for 
such numbers as could be furnished to fill out incomplete 
sets, seventy-seven volumes of duplicates were sent to 
Washington, and the same number have been received in 
return, with a promise of others. 

A few volumes were also exchanged with Messrs. Pierce 
& Curtis, of this city. With these additions, we now have 
a complete set of the Patent Office Records from 1847 to 
the present time, a complete set of the Congressional 
Globe, a set of the Congressional Record, with the excep- 
tion of volume 12, and almost a complete set of the pub- 
lications of Hayden's Geological Survey. 

A number of volumes have been added to other valuable 
sets. 

As we are receiving from many of the States and Terri- 
tories all of their publications, it would be simple justice to 
give them the journals and official reports of this State in 
return. Only the laws and Supreme Court reports are now 
exchanged. It would be well to provide that the Secretary 
of State furnish the State Library fifty copies of each public 
document for exchange with other libraries. This would 
insure us a complete series for our own library in the future. 

The library ough.t to have a small appropriation for the 
purchase of reference works' and books pertaining to Colo- 
rado, and for binding some books in the library that sadly 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. • 41 

need it. A State Library should be a complete leference 
library, and should contain every book pertaining to the 
State. 

The following statement will show the growth and 
present condition of the library: 

Number of volumes catalogued November 30, 1884 7,481 

Number of volumes received from States and Territories 350 
Number of volumes received from United States (regular 

series) 340 

Number of volumes received from United States (in ex- 
change) 77 

Number of volumes received from individuals and all 

other sources 68 

Total receipts 835 

Duplicates exchanged -. 85 

Lost during removal 8 

In library November 30, 1886 8,223 

One hundred and seventy-three volumes of judicial 
reports and laws have been received, and turned over to 
the Supreme Court Library. 

The following periodicals have been donated by the 
publishers, and kept on file : 

Aspen Daily Press, 

Atwood Advocate, 

Christian Register, 

Colorado Farmer, 

Colorado School Journal, 

Deaf Mute Havvkeye, 

Denver Times, 

Denver Tribune-Republican, 

Journal of the Franklin Institute, 

Patent Office Gazette, 

Polyclinic, 

Rocky Mountain Herald, 

Rocky Mountain News, 

Saguache Chronicle, 

Saguache Democrat, 

Shaker Manifesto, 

Unitarian Review. 

Most of these have been received regularly — some only 
a part of the time. It is to be regretted that the list is so 
short. A complete collection of the newspapers of the 
c 



42 • STATE superintendent's report. 

State would be invaluable to future historical students, but 
at present we must depend on the generosity of the pub- 
lishers to furnish them. 



COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 



The condition of the schools is largely dependent upon 
the County Superintendents. This is especially true of 
the country schools, and in no department of the educa- 
tional work is there more need of able supervision than in 
these schools. A judicious, earnest and capable County 
Superintendent can do much toward improving the schools 
of his county, but it requires earnest effort. It is some- 
times said that the office of the County Superintendent is 
not appreciated. It is called an unimportant office. The 
importance of the office depends upon how it is filled. The 
County Superintendent has it in his power to render the 
office one of great value, and compel the people to ac- 
knowledge its importance. 

Most of the present County Superintendents of the 
State are proving themselves well fitted for the office, but, 
unfortunately, changes in this office occur too frequently 
for the good of the schools. When a County Superintend- 
ent holds the office but two years, he has little time to 
mature and carry out plans. It takes him one year at least 
to learn the wants and condition of the schools of his 
county; then he has but little time left to carry out any 
methods for advancing the schools. For this reason, 
County Superintendents who are doing good work should 
be retained as long as possible. Unfortunatel)^ in some 
counties the County Superintendents have been denied pay 
for valuable services rendered — items of work rejected be- 
cause not specially mentioned in the law. It is to be hoped 
that where County Superintendents are doing efficient and 
earnest work, they will not have their efforts checked by 
the refusal to pay them for necessary services rendered. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



43: 



STATE OF COLORADO. 



COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS, FROM JANU- 
ARY, 1886, TO January, I888. 



POSTOFFICE. 



Arapahoe .... 
Archuleta .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison .... 

Hinsdale , 

Huerfano 

Jefferson '. 

Lake 

La Plata , 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose — 



John J. Fetzer 

B. Price ... 

John A. Murphy 

Amos Bixby 

R. J. Coleman 

Henry Bowman 

R. K. Brown 

Fred Etter 

Artemus Walters 

J. B. McGinty 

Rev. W. H. Howard.., 

Robert N. Hancock 

L. S. Pierce 

B. C. Killin 

Rev. B. A. P. Eaton.., 

J. H. Freeman 

W. D. White 

W. J. Thomas 

Frank Coy 

S. D. Carroll 

Lyman Henry, deputy... 

Fred Pischel ... 

W. G. Smith 

D. J. Sayer 

Oscar C. Wood 

Rev. W. H. McCreery.. 

Fred Dick 

M. O. Whitehead 

John J. Tobin 



Denver 

Chromo 

.West Las Animas 

Boulder 

Buena Vista 

Idaho Springs 

Conejos 

Fort Garland 

Ula 

Hotchkiss 

Rico 

Castle Rock 

Mitchell 

Kiowa 

. Colorado Springs 

Caiion City 

• Glenwood Springs 

Central City 

, Grand Lake 

Crested Butte 

Lake City 

, La Veta 

Golden 

Leadville 

Durango 

Fort Collins 

Trinidad 

.... Grand Junction 
Montrose 



44 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



COUNTY Superintendents-Concluded. 



COUNTY. 


NAME. 


POSTOHFICE. 


Ouray 

Park 


Dr. W. W. Rowan 


Ouray 

Fairplay 

Aspen 

Pueblo 

Del Norte 

Yampa 

Saguache 

Silverton 


I. S. Smith 




W. R. Callicotte 


Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 


Dr. C. F. Taylor 

Sigel Heilman 

John T. Whyte 

W. H. Nelson 

Dr J N Pascoe 


San Miguel 


H C Lay 


Telluride 


Dr B A Arbogast ... 


Breckenridge 

Greeley 


Weld 


Rev. J. B. Cooke 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 45 



REMARKS 

OF 

County Superintendents, 



Statements by County Superintendents, here inserted, 
will give the reader an idea of the school work in the 
different counties : 



ARCHULETA COUNTY. 

B. Price, Superintendent. 

This county has been organized but little more than one 
year, and its school work has merely commenced. A year 
ago there was not a dictionary, globe, map, chart nor school 
seat in this county, and all educational work was very crude. 
To-day each district has good furniture and a well selected 
variety of apparatus. Another new district has just been 
organized. One district will build a new school house next 
spring. The school census of one year ago was erroneous; 
the present one is, I believe, correct. Indifference to school 
matters is passing away, and a real healthy interest is taking 
its place. , 

BOULDER COUNTY. 

/ 

Amos Bixby, Superintendent. 

Boulder county is divided into fifty school districts, and 
is taxed about forty thousand dollars a year for public 
school purposes. Including voluntary contributions for 
building school houses, for lengthening terms of school, 
and for the various forms of aid to the public schools, the 
whole sum annually expended will not vary much from 
fifty thousand dollars, and this for the education of about 



46 STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 

twenty-five hundred children. The total school population 
of the county is 3,302, and the assessed valuation nearly 
iive million dollars. Some districts tax themselves much 
higher than others, varying according to needs and the 
varying educational spirit of the people. The average by 
direct taxes is about 7^4 mills; including voluntary con- 
tributions, it is about 10 mills. on the property valuation. 

With few exceptions, the school houses of the county 
are substantial structures, creditable in appearance. If 
built of wood, they are generally nicely painted; have win- 
dow blinds, and are supplied with good seats, mostly single 
seats, of the most approved modern patterns. The better 
class of country school houses are constructed with pro- 
visions for proper ventilation. There is growing up an 
enlightened attention to this matter of providing unpol- 
luted air for pupils. The school ground in the country is 
usually one acre, in the towns much more. In both town 
and country, considerable attention is paid to the adorn- 
ment of the ground with ornamental trees. One country 
district has voted a one-mill tax for this special purpose. 
Some are fencing and providing for irrigation, with the 
view of the future transplanting of trees on the school 
acre. 

The best thing that can be said of the public schools of 
the county, is that there is an increasing demand for the 
higher order of teachers — teachers whose armor is a natu- 
ral aptitude for imparting instruction, a good education, 
and high character. Of this class, a larger proportion than 
ever before are employed. This is taken as proof, that on 
the part of school directors, and of the people generally, 
there is growihg up a nicer discrimination between compe- 
tent and incompetent teachers. 

The standard of teachers is raised by the presence of 
the higher educational institutions — the State University, 
at Boulder, the Longmont College, the High School of the 
Longtnont public schools, and the established excellence of 
the city schools of Boulder. From these sources, teachers 
for the common schools are more and more derived. Pub- 
lic sentiment is in favor of giving the schools to the care 
of home educated teachers, as fast as they become really 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 47 

well qualified. To this end, a good normal course is pro- 
vided for in connection with the Longmont College. 

By the heavy taxes they pay for the sake of good 
schools, by the liberal contributions they make for found- 
ing schools of the higher order, by their appreciation of 
accomplished teachers, by their pride in fine school houses, 
and the arboreal decoration of school grounds, the people 
of this county evince an interest in education it is believed 
not excelled in any community of families. 



CLEAR CREEK COUNTY. 



Hexry Bowman, Superintendent. 

A marked improvement has followed the educational 
work in this county during the past two years, and in that 
time there has been quite an increase in the school popu- 
lation. 

District No. 5, Idaho Springs, has completed a fine 
brick house this year, at a cost of ;$ 19,000. 

The liberality displayed by our people in voting and 
paying taxes for buildmg and enlarging houses, and main- 
taining school, is an evidence of their deep interest in the 
school system of this county. 

As a class, our teachers are earnest and well up to 
their work. 



CONEJOS COUNTY. 

R. K. Brown, Superintendent. 

An increased interest in our public schools is manifest. 
Each portion of our county having the requisite number of 
children has been organized into a school district. Our 
public schools are almost solely relied upon for the educa- 
tion of the children in this county. Teachers of advanced 
scholarship are sought after by districts that can afford to 
pay good salaries. I am proud to say that some of our 
schools are prepared to advance students until their scholar- 



48 STATE superintendent's report. 

ship would entitle them to the degree of B. S. or A. B. in 
many colleges. Several of our districts continue their 
schools from eight to ten months during the year. Some, 
however, have so far only from three to five months' school. 
We labor under some disadvantage on account of the 
Spanish-speaking districts, though the rapidity at which 
the little fellows, under a successful teacher, learn to trans- 
late from the English into Spanish, and vice versa, is won- 
derful. Taking everything into consideration, I think our 
schools are at least making fair progress. 



Costilla county. 



Frederick Etter, Superintendent. 

This county has shown marked progress in educational 
matters within the past few years, although much yet re- 
mains to be done. The principal drawback is the lack of 
suitable school houses, which the. people do not feel war- 
ranted in building, as the title to the land in the greater 
part of this county is in dispute. 

A compulsory education law is, in my estimation, a much 
needed measure in Colorado, or at least in this part of the 
State, owing to the indifference of some parents, who, hav- 
ing no education themselves, do not realize the importance 
of one, 

I also hope to see a law enacted authorizing the State 
Board of Education to adopt a standard set of text books 
for use in the public schools, and furnish the same to the 
County Superintendents throughout the State, who in turn 
could furnish the .same to the different districts as required. 

I would also suggest that the school law be so amended 
that the County Treasurer should not honor any check 
drawn by the district boards, unless countersigned by the 
County Superintendent. This will, to a great extent, pre- 
vent any illegal use of the district funds. 



I 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 49 



CUSTER COUNTY. 



Artemus Walters, Superintendent. 

The educational work of this county has been steadily 
increasing the past year, and both patrons and teachers 
have manifested, by their works, a desire to improve upon 
the past. 

Every school district, except one, in the county has 
voted a special tax, which will enable many of the districts 
to maintain longer terms and pay better wages in the future 
than they have paid heretofore. 

One new district was formed during the past year, viz.: 
Westcliffe, No. 24. 

Several of the districts have furnished their school 
houses with new patent furniture and the latest improved 
apparatus, thus making their teachers' work more pleasant 
and interesting. 

The course of study recommended by the State Super- 
intendent has been very successfully pursued in the schools 
at Rosita, Silver Cliff and Blumanan, which were the first 
to use it in the county, while many other districts are 
gradually working to it, and the teachers are using it as far 
as they can introduce the prescribed course. 

An institute of three days duration, was held last August, 
at which about twenty-five teachers and a number of school 
officers participated. The work done during the session 
was of an interesting character and productive of much 
good to the teachers. 

An educational column is edited by J. H. H. Low, prin- 
cipal of the Rosita school, and published in one of our 
county papers. It is a medium by which the teachers of 
the county exchange ideas and publish their reports. 

While we have many inconveniences to work against, 
such as rude school houses and furniture in many districts, 
low finances and sparsely inhabited districts, where the 
attendance is small and irregular, the educational interests 



50 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

of the youth are not neglected, but are watched and guided 
by an able and industrious corps of teachers, whose highest 
aims are to inculcate in their pupils that desire for knowl- 
edge which elevates the intellect and enriches the mind for 
future usefulness in life. 

I have visited each district several times during the year, 
and urged the necessity of holding longer terms of schools, 
paying higher wages, thus securing the better class of 
teachers and working by some uniform course of study and, 
thus secure greater results in the school room. 



DELTA COUNTY. 



J. B. McGiNTY, Superintendent. 

The school interest of this county was never so great as 
at the present time. We held the second annual Teachers' 
Association at Delta the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth of 
October, and the earnestness manifested there in the teach- 
er's work, shows ten-fold more zeal than was manifested 
one year ago. I have labored incessantly to awaken this 
interest in the patrons, as well as in the teachers, and when 
we cannot interest the latter, we push them out. 

I have also labored diligently to grade our country 
schools, and have, by the hearty co-operation of our wide- 
awake and energetic school officers, succeeded in getting a 
uniform system of text books adopted throughout the 
county, and at the above mentioned institute, the teachers 
unanimously passed a resolution pledging themselves to 
aid me in this work. 

Some of our school buildings are not as commodious as 
we would like, but better than we could expect in a country 
so lately abandoned by the Indians. We have one ;^7,ooo 
brick building, and another brick and two frame buildings 
near completion that will aggregate ;^5,ooo. The number 
of school districts has increased from seven to twelve the 
past year, while the school population has only increased 
from 415 pupils to 499 pupils. 



i 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 51 



DOUGLAS COUNTY. 

Robert N. Hancock, Sjiperintendent. 

The school work in Douglas county never was in as 
good condition as now. The majority of the boards are 
disposed to hire only good teachers, and are willing to pay 
liberal salaries if they get good teachers. Four of our 
country districts are paying ;^6o a month this year. The 
Castle Rock board is paying J. H. Matthews ;^ioo a month. 
.Seven of our districts have tormally adopted the course of 
study as laid down in the Daily Register. None of them 
have been pursuing it long enough yet to pronounce it a 
success, except one that adopted it a year ago, and it has 
succeeded beyond our most sanguine expectation. The 
pupils are taking a greater interest in their work, and are 
doing better work than they have ever done before. 



Eagle County. 

L. S. Pierce, Superintendent. 

I am pleased to report that during the past year there 
has been a greater interest taken in the educational work 
and the welfare of the children of our schools than here- 
tofore. There have been from three to seven months of 
school taught in each of the schools of our count}' during 
this period. Since my last report there have been two new 
school districts organized. One of these districts includes 
the new and thriving town of Clinton, on Battle Mountain, 
the inhabitants of which have built and furnished a good 
and substantial frame building, at a cost of about $i,ooo. 
They propose to give the use of this building to the school 
district for school purposes, free of charge, and a school 
will be commenced there within a few days. In the other 
new district, and in districts Nos. i and 2, school has 
already begun with a good attendance. School districts 
Nos. 4 and 5 are expecting to build school buildings dur- 
ing the coming year. Since their organization they have 
used buildings donated or ninted for school purposes. The 
school population has increased from 191 in 1885, to 278 
in 1886, making an addition of 87 children of school age. 



52 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPOliT. 



ELBERT COUNTY. 



B. C. KiLLiN, Superintendent. 

The school year just closed has been productive of very 
satisfactory results in the school work of Elbert county. 
Notwithstanding the great extent of territory embraced in 
twelve school districts, we have enrolled in our schools 68 
per cent, of the entire school population of the county. 
Our teachers are faithful and earnest in the discharge of 
their duties, thereby winning the confidence and respect of 
both pupils and patrons. Most of our teachers will con- 
tinue with us another year. 

Building and improvements have been slow the past 
year, but there is a prospect of considerable being done in 
that line next summer. Many of the early-day school 
houses are being sold or torn down, and replaced by new 
comfortable buildings, in more convenient locations. 

It is interesting to observe the alacrity with which the 
taxpayers come forward to vote the funds necessary for 
building and furnishing school houses. 

At the town of Elbert is a handsome, substantial brick 
two-room. school building. It has seating capacity for 150 
pupils, with three grades in each room. This building was 
completed in September, 1884, at an expense of ;^3,ooo, 
bonded indebtedness, interest 8 per cent, per annum. An 
additional sum of ;^ 1,000 was raised by special taxation for 
the purpose of furnishing the building. 

At Elizabeth is a very neat and substantial building, 
erected and furnished at a cost of ;^ 1,200. It is a credit to 
the thrift and enterprise of the citizens of that district. 

In District No. 13 was erected, in 1884, one of the most 
tastefully furnished buildings in the county. It seems 
almost incredible that it could be built and furnished at the 
cost of only ;^6oo. The heavy work, hauling material, etc., 
was generously donated by the patrons of the school. 

At Hugo, a new brick building is in contemplation, to 
replace the frame building now in use. 



STATE SUPERINTENBENT's REPORT. 53 

At Kiowa the school building was completed last season, 
with an additional outlay of ;S450. It now ranks second 
in the county in size, cost, and also in daily attendance of 
pupils. 

A three-days' session of the Elbert County Teachers' In- 
stitute was held at Elbert, beginning June 23, 1886. Pro- 
fessor Cornell was in attendance during the day of the 
twenty-fifth, and delivered a lecture in the evening. The 
teachers were deeply in earnest in the work, encouraged 
and supported by the friends of education throughout the 
county. Twenty -five new names were added to the list of 
membership. 

The system of county institutes is of vast importance to 
our school interests. It is the teacher's need; the fountain- 
head for recuperation and progress, and more, his range 
extends beyond his narrow school room, beyond his fellow 
teachers ; he speaks with the people, with friends of educa- 
tion all over the country, and they in turn become more 
deeply than ever interested in the teacher's work. 

I am quite interested in a new system of readers intro- 
duced in the Elbert school this term by Miss Woods, of the 
Primary Department. They are divided into small books or 
parts, each part containing thirty-two pages, the First 
Reader containing three parts, Second Reader six parts, 
etc. It is surprising how the pupils work to master one 
part in order to take up the next. There is always some- 
thing new in store for them, and they know it is not very 
far off. The study never becomes stale or monotonous. 

Were I to suggest any change in the law governing 
text books, it would be that the directors shall purchase 
all books, paying for them from the district fund, and fur- 
nish them free of cost, except in cases where books are 
wilfully or carelessly destroyed by the pupils. 

Uniformity of text books in a county can only be 
brought about by the teachers and superintendents putting 
aside personal preferences, and settling upon a series of 
books to be adopted by the directors. 

Our teachers follow as nearly as possible the course of 



54 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

study outlined in the Daily Register. Even with consider- 
able modification, it is of invaluable aid to teachers. 

As to the thoroughness of our instruction, I will only- 
say, several pupils from outlying districts are attending 
echool in Denver at this time, at ages ranging from 13 to 
1 5 years. All passed examination to enter the Eighth grade 
in the city schools. 



EL Paso County. 



Rev. B. a. P. Eaton, S7iperi7ite?ident. 

In addition to the regular annual report, I wish to say 
that we have built four new school houses in the county 
this year. In Colorado Springs there are now being built 
two new brick buildings of four rooms each, with all 
modern improvements, and when completed, which will be 
about December i, we shall have four school buildings 
that will compare favorably with any in the State. We 
have organized two new school districts this year. Our 
school population has increased nearly eight per cent, 
during the past year. We are trying to grade all our 
country schools, but it is rather an up-hill work. How- 
ever, we have succeeded in several of the country districts, 
and expect to succeed in all. 

We urge upon school boards the necessity and import- 
ance of maintaining school for at least eight months in 
each year ; also, the importance of furnishing their schools 
with the necessary helps for the teacher, by way of plenty 
of blackboard, wall maps, reading, arithmetical, and physio- 
logical charts, globes, dictionaries, etc. And, we are glad 
to say, we find a disposition in many districts to provide 
these helps. We urge upon teachers the necessity and im- 
portance of exercising great care in this work, so that what 
the pupil does learn, he will never have to relearn, or cor- 
rect in the future. 

I am glad to be able to say that, as a rule we have an 
excellent class of teachers in the county. Pardon us when 
we say that we have some teachers in the county, with 
whose ability and proficiency, we are so well pleased, that 
we believe there are none better in the State. 






STATE superintendent's REPORT. 55 

School boards in El Paso county are fast learning that 
poor, cheap teachers are dear at any price, and, that a too 
frequent change of teachers is not best, so a number of our 
school districts retain their teachers from year to year. 

We hold a County Teachers' Association once a year, 
which is of great practical benefit, especially is it beneficial 
to those of our teachers who need theory and practice of 
teaching. 

El Paso county is proud of her schools. Our excellent 
High School department gives the finishing touches to 
those who complete the course, well-fitting them for the 
ordinary duties of life, and those who wish to go higher, 
have only to pass up to Colorado College, located in Colo- 
rado Springs, where they may take the regular college 
course, fitting them for the more important stations of life. 
Our motto is, " Upward and Onward," believing there is 
plenty of room at the top. 



FREMONT COUNTY. 



Jacob H. Freeman, Superintendent. 

In this county, since its organization, twenty-four school 
districts have been formed. Four of these are now vacant. 
In the twenty remaining districts one thousand five hundred 
and fifty pupils were enrolled during the past year, with an 
average daily attendance of nine hundred and forty-one. 
But, large as these figures may appear, sixty-four per cent, 
of the school population of the county were absent from 
school every day, and forty per cent, of those enrolled were 
not present. 

That five hundred persons of school age in the county 
should not enter school, is explained by saying that many 
of them are heads of families, others have completed the 
work of the common schools; a very few are attending 
school elsewhere, and many are earning their daily bread. 
But that more than six hundred of those enrolled should be 
absent every day is not so satisfactorily explained. 

This irregular attendance is the greatest hindrance to 



56 STATE superintendent's report. 

thorough work in our schools. Indeed, this evil is so great 
in some districts, that teachers tell me classes must be 
formed every few days, and the instruction must suit the 
needs of those who chance to be present. 

I believe that the cause of this evil lies deeper than mere 
carelessness on the part of pupils and patrons. It is due to 
a misconception of what the district school really is. It is 
looked upon as an institution of the people and for the 
people, to the extent that it is, in a great measure, a private 
institution, to be used, abused or neglected, as may suit 
each individual's fancy or convenience. Is it not rather 
true that the State — the whole people — demands the educa- 
tion of every individual within its borders, and that the 
public school is the creature of the State, an institution 
whose advantages every parent is not only privileged but 
in duty bound to secure to his children ? That this is the 
correct view of the matter is substantiated by the fact that 
the framers of our State Constitution inserted a clause in 
Article IX., affirming the right of the Legislature to pass 
laws compelling the attendance of pupils at schools, when- 
ever such a law may be deemed necessary. Is it not about 
time something be done to correct this evil? Sickness is 
the only sufficient excuse for a child's absence from school 
during the period of his connection therewith. 

The reports of district secretaries upon the ages of 
pupils is incomplete, but enough is given to show that we 
lose from our school the boys and girls at the very ages 
when they most need the instruction. In District 24, 
where nearly 200 pupils attended school, but two were over 
sixteen years of age. As a partial remedy for this falling 
off, I urge the establishment of district schools of higher 
grade, in various parts of the county. Let houses and 
accommodations be prepared especially for large pupils. 
Put teachers there who know how to reach and stimulate 
the pride and enthusiasm of such, and we shall not fail to 
accomplish an important step in popular education. 

Until the present year nothing had been done toward 
grading our village and country schools. Teachers had 
come and gone, and plans of school work had passed away 
with them. Others had worked on, year by year, ever at 
the mercy of capricious parents and pupils, utterly unable 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 5 7 

to carry out any systematic work. After repeated confer- 
ences with teachers and school officers upon this subject, I 
prepared a manual for Fremont county schools, a copy of 
which I transmit herewith. This pamphlet is designed to 
be a guide that shall lead all toward a uniform system of 
school work. This step has met a very cordial second 
from teachers and school boards, and there is every reason 
to believe that in a few years our country and village 
schools will be as well graded as those of any other 
State. The schools in Canon City are already thoroughly 
graded, and are doing good work. 

For promoting the cause of education in a general way 
and acquainting teachers, especially, with each other, an 
institute was held in Canon City, August 23, 24, 25 and 
26, attended by some thirty teachers and many visitors. 
The greater part of the expense was paid by contributions 
from the business men of the town. The meeting was 
unanimously voted a complete success. It was but the be- 
ginning of what will hereafter be an annual gathering. 

Three new houses are building, many are newly 
furnished and supplied, two abandoned districts have been 
reformed, every district in the county has voted a special tax 
of 2 to IS mills, at least eight more teachers are employed 
than last year, and in every respect the work appears to 
take on new life. 

District secretaries give no report on private schools. 
Very little was done in that direction. In Coal Creek 'two 
teachers had private schools during the summer, and in 
Canon City and at Hillside one each was maintained. 

At the State Penitentiary a night school was held dur- 
ing the greater part of the year. At the request of Warden 
Cameron I visited this school and found some forty con- 
victs reciting reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar and 
Spanish. They were taught by convicts, and all seemed 
much in earnest, and were making splendid progress. This 
work is superintended by Elwood Dudley, who is also 
superintendent of the prison library and laborator)^ If we 
can make our prison places of reform as well as of punish- 
ment, we have accomplished a double purpose; and such 
is certainly the tendency of the prison school. 



58 STATE superintendent's report. 

I find that the month of September, which should be 
spent by every Superintendent among his schools, is largely 
taken up with receiving and making reports. I trust our 
next Legislature will not fail to change the school year to 
agree with the year of the business world, and also that 
they will make a few other very necessary changes. 



Gunnison county. 



S. D. Carroll, Superintendent. 

You will see from my report sent you this day that there 
has been a decrease of about twelve and one-half per cent, 
in the school population of Gunnison county for this year, 
as compared with the previous year. This, however, does 
not indicate that there has been, during the past school 
year, or that there is at present, so great a falling off of the 
actual. number of pupils attending the public schools. 

Here, as in all new counties, as the population becomes 
more settled and the industries of the people more staple, 
the number of pupils attending school, in proportion to 
school population, becomes greater. 

Another fact which shows an advancement in our school 
interests is found in the fact that there are now fewer 
changes of teachers than in previous years. The better 
teachers always come to the top in time, and the patrons 
of the school soon learn that it is for their interest to re- 
tain such teachers. In the early days of this county many 
persons were teaching as a make-shift, while to-day our 
teachers are those to whom the work is a profession. 

In regard to an uniform course of study, only a begin- 
ning has been made. 

In many of the schools the teachers were handicapped, 
owing to the mixed condition of the text books, thus mak- 
ing it very difficult for the teachers to properly classify their 
pupils. This difficulty has in a great measure been removed, 
and a number of our schools are now followmg the course 
of study given in the Daily Register, and so general is the 
feeling among teachers and school officers, that this is a 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 59 

move in the right direction, that it will be only a short time 
before all the schools of the county will have an uniform 
course of study. 

Another matter which deserves comment, and a matter 
of great importance, is the interest which is being taken in 
the study of Physiology. Two or three years ago, there 
was but one school in the county where this branch was 
taught; now a majority of the schools have taken up the 
study; in some cases, however, the pupils have no text 
books, oral instructions being given by the teachers, but in 
all cases the results are the same, viz.: good. And in con- 
nection with this subject, I will say that 1 have been sur- 
prised at the willingness with which school boards have 
purchased anatomical charts, in some cases very high 
priced charts; and the one reason, which more than another 
has prompted them to buy, is owing to the great assistance 
which most of these charts give to the teacher in giving in- 
structions on the effect of stimulants and narcotics. 

All in all, the schools of Gunnison county are far from 
being perfect. There are great opportunities for improve- 
ment. But the people of this county can congratulate 
themselves, I think, on the fact that there is progress being 
made in the right direction. 



Hinsdale County. 

The principal part of our school work is in the town of 
Lake City. Here we can show a visitor a fine school 
building, provided he does not wish to look at the rooms. 
It is a large two-story brick building, but the upper rooms 
have never been finished. Two rooms have been finished, 
and are used, on the first floor. The Primary Department 
is furnished with a few charts that call forth respect on 
account of age. There has been no money with which to 
purchase proper supplies for that department. The teachers 
could utilize the building as an object lesson in architec- 
ture and expenditure. In the Grammar Department, the 
room gives a visitor an impression of vastness and bar- 
renness. 

So much for criticism, A high order of work has been 



60 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

accomplished in the Lake City schools. This is true, 
when the many inconveniences and disadvantages are taken 
into consideration. Five or six years ago, more attention 
was given by the people to the appearance of the building 
to the passer-by than to the advancement of educational 
interests. At present, the people are deeply interested in 
the advancement of learning. The mining fever having 
passed, the people are determined to make their position 
in school advantages as high as the means at command will 
allow. 

Last year schools were maintained for six months; the 
year before that for eight months. The School Board will 
endeavor to maintain schools in this district for eight 
months of the school year. 

There are two other school districts in this county. At 
Capitol City, in District No. 2, there is a good frame 
school building. It has one room. Last year no school 
was taught in that district. That was owing to the gen- 
eral despondency of the people. Many who had formerly 
attended in that district have, by the removal of families, 
become pupils in the Lake City schools. 

In District No. 3, the school is taught in a rented room 
at Antelope Springs. There were only two pupils in 
attendance during the school taught there for sixty days 
during the past year. The settlement at Antelope Springs 
is far from any other place in which schools could be had. 
The hope of the people, which hope causes them to main- 
tain their district organization, is that there will be an im- 
migration of school population, or an increase in the num- 
ber of the rising generation. 

No institutes have been held. If the mining industry 
be prosperous during the present year, the next school year 
will witness much advancement in educational work in 
Hinsdale county. 

• Huerfano County. 



Fred Pischel, Superintendent. 

There is certainly a constant growth of educational 
interest here, which manifests itself in different forms. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 61 

Three new schools have been or are being built; three 
more will go up in the spring, of which one, at least prom- 
ises to be of some merit for a country district. A compar- 
ison of these new buildings with the old log or adobe 
cabins, roughly and crudely put up, with no regard to 
light, comfort, or convenience, is evidence of progress. 
Here the old rough tables and benches are replaced with 
the modern school desk, there a globe, a set of wall maps 
or charts are purchased. Special taxes are voted freely and 
liberally. Many inquiries are made regarding the best 
schools in the county, with a view to sending the children 
there. While this may be the cause of rejoicing, much can 
and should be done, and especially in the selection of 
teachers are many mistakes made, proving a hindrance to 
the best success of the school. Engagements are often 
made to accommodate the wishes of Neighbor John's boy, 
who, it is true, never went to college or normal school, but 
can read or write pretty well, and everybody likes him. 
Besides, he has not much to do during the winter and 
would like to teach the school. A temporary certificate 
can be secured for him from the Superintendent by a 
petition. 

Often school boards make no provision for a teacher 
until school is to begin. Hasty engagements are the con- 
sequences. Not difference enough, if any, is made in the 
real teacher of long and successful experience, and Neigh- 
bor John's boy. Many school boards never visit their 
schools, and have no personal knowledge of the teacher's 
work, but form their opinion solely according to the 
praises or complaints of the little ones. How many noble 
teachers are hampered in their great aims by such a course, 
until they become disgusted and shake the dust from their 
shoes. 

A majority of the population of the county consists of 
Mexicans, and almost one-half of the schools are exclu- 
sively attended by them. The great bulk of these people 
do not understand English. Their teachers ought to be 
familiar with the Spanish language to meet with any success. 
It is a matter of great difficulty to secure capable men, who 
can talk Spanish. I must confess that, so far, my experi- 
ence has not sufficiently pointed out the best course to be 
pursued. But, to the credit of these people be it said, that 



62 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

many of them begin to appreciate the advantages of educa- 
tion, the necessity to put their children on an equal footing 
with the children of others for the race of life, and the con- 
sequent necessity of learning the English language. To 
encourage such feeling, and make plain the value of school- 
ing, is one of the Superintendent's great duties. 

I have as yet had no teachers' association in the county, 
simply because we have never had but a few teachers in the 
county at the same time ; but I see the proper time near at 
hand when I will request the aid of the State Superintend- 
ent, and some of the other educators in the State, to assist 
in bringing about a universal appreciation of good public 
schools, and the necessity of raising the standard of our 
teachers. 



Jefferson county. 



Wm. G. Smith, Superintendent. 

In addition to the statistics contained in the annual 
report forwarded, there are several matters of interest relat- 
ing to our schools and their progress, which are worthy of 
note. One new school district has been organized during 
the school year, and all the old organizations have been 
prosperously maintained. 

The loss to the county, through the State apportion- 
ment, has been nearly one thousand dollars this year over 
the former school year. Of course it is understood that 
this loss is occasioned by the passage of a law by the 
Legislature, withdrawing from the apportionment fund the 
rentals of school lands, and placing that in the permanent 
school fund. That loss has been seriously felt in some of 
the weaker districts, where patrons are struggling to main- 
tain a public school in sparsely settled localities. 

It would seem to be a proper step to ask the next Leg- 
islature to correct the mistake, for it is very evident that 
while our State is young, and the several school districts 
are struggling to build school houses and to place their 
school interests on solid footing in all sections, then is the 
time all the help is needed that can be legitimately obtained. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 63 

There has been one other drawback to perfect progress in 
the schools of this county. In some instances teachers 
have been employed who hail from the East, or some other 
distant clime, and of whose ability the school boards or 
Superintendents know nothing. In a few instances, in 
country districts, this has proved of great detriment, the 
teacher not only faiUng to do good work, but in some 
instances they have been the means of working into the 
school certain odd text books, belonging to series in use 
forty years ago, and ill adapted to the progressive school 
system of to-day. This has, in some measure, tended 
toward confusion in any effort which might be put forth 
looking toward the establishment, so far as possible, of any 
uniformity in text books throughout the county. How- 
ever, it is only necessary to state that the liberality of our 
people in paying school tax, in some cases as high as fit- 
teen mills, shows that the school interests of Jefferson 
county are dear to their hearts, and they are determined to 
maintain them. We are encouraged by the fact that seven- 
teen thousand dollars more tax, for special school purposes, 
has been collected the past year than the previous one. 
Twenty-seven, out of the fifty one teachers employed in 
the county, held first grade certificates, which is an excel- 
lent sign of progress. It is also gratifying to notice that 
the average school term during the year in each district 
has been increased about ten per cent., while three of the 
county districts have built commodious new school houses, 
and several others have branched out with a commendable 
freak of enterprise, and improved their school buildings 
and grounds, rendering them attractive and beautiful. 



Lake county. 



D. J. Sayer, Superiniendent. 

Our schools are in better condition than they have been 
for some years. Owing to their financial condition, we will 
be enabled to have school for the whole year. 

In regard to renewing certificates of the first grade an 
indefinite number of times, I must record myself as 
opposed to it, for the reason that I think teachers get care- 



64 STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

less, and do not keep themselves posted when they think 
they can get their certificates renewed without taking the 
examination, and I would recommend that after a certificate 
is once renewed, the holder of the certificate should be 
required to take an examination. 



Note. — The renewal of certificates is wholly in the hands of the County Superintend- 
ents, and may be renewed or not, at their discretion. — Superintendent Public Instruc- 
tion. 



Larimer County. 



Rev. W. H. McCreery, Superintendent. 

The growth of the school interests of Larimer county 
is quite marked. Comparing with five years ago, I find 
that the school population has increased nearly sixty per 
cent. In the same time the number of school districts has 
more than doubled, while the number of schools in the 
aggregate has nearly trebled, and amount paid for teachers' 
wages has more than trebled. In some parts of the county 
the population is much scattered. A number of the dis- 
tricts are weak, with a small school population, yet the 
average duration of school in country districts is six 
months. 

The Larimer County Normal Institute held its fourth 
annual session last July, in Estes Park, with instructors of 
national reputation, and an attendance from several counties. 
At that meeting a project was set on foot to establish a per- 
manent summer institute at that place, embracing Arapa- 
hoe, Boulder, Jefferson, Larimer and Weld counties in the 
organization. To make this district institute completely 
successful, State aid should be given. These institutes 
have been greatly useful to the teachers and through them, 
to the schools. 

We are now organizing local teachers' associations in at 
least two parts of the county. There is noticeable, also, 
quite an improvement in the matter of school appliances 
and furniture. Schools are pretty generally supplied with 
maps, charts and dictionaries. A few have obtained cyclo- 
pedias. A few districts have voted a library tax this year. 
One district gives the teacher five dollars each month to 



STATE SUPEUINTENDENT's REPORT. 65 

expend for the school at her own discretion. This example 
might be followed with good results by many other districts. 

There are many reasons why the time for ending the 
school year should be changed to June 30. One is, it will 
leave the County Superintendent free to visit schools in the 
month of September, instead of keeping him at office work 
during the time when his visits would count for most. It 
is absolutely necessary, too, that the district secretaries 
have longer than five days to make annual report after 
time fixed for county treasurer's financial statement to 
secretary. Owing to long distances and infrequent mails, 
at least fifteen days would be required for some secretaries 
in this county. If a few plans, suitable for country school 
houses of moderate expense, could be published in your 
biennial report, I think it would greatly add to its value. 
The value of school property in the county will be aug- 
mented this coming year by the building of a number of 
school houses in the county, and a ^20,000 building in 
Fort Collins, consisting of eight rooms, heated by furnace, 
with improved Ruttan system of ventilation. Quite a num- 
ber of our districts are taking another step to the front, in 
the adoption of single, instead of double desks. 

I am thankful for the privilege of working with the peo- 
ple on one hand, and yourself on the other, under God, in 
building up our noble educational system. 



Las Animas County. 



Fred Dick, Superintendent. 

The educational interests of this county are gradually 
approaching a much higher standard than heretofore, which 
is largely due to an increased activity in school work on 
the part of the people, and to the employment of more 
competent teachers. A committee, appointed at a conven- 
tion of school directors of the county, has examined and 
recommended for adoption in all the schools of the county 
a uniform system of text books. Three new school houses 
have been erected during the past year. Three new dis- 



66 . STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

tricts are now in process of organization. A Teachers' 
Association, the first in the county, was held in August 
last, continuing two weeks. Our population in the rural 
districts is largely Mexican, and it is with great pleasure 
that I refer to the progress made and the interest mani- 
fested by them in education. 



MESA COUNTY. 



M. O. Whitehead, Superintendent. 

During the past year two new districts have been 
formed, which have had a summer term of three months 
each, and will soon begin their winter schools. 

Districts No. 2 and No. 8 have been using rented build- 
ings, but in the near future they will possess buildings of 
their own. No. 8 will build a frame, while No. 2 will put 
up a substantial brick, to cost about ^5,000. 

There is a growing demand for first class teachers. The 
best are none too good, and wages are also advancing. The 
simple fact that patrons want longer terms, or more school, 
and the best teachers procurable, is a sign of advancement 
in school interests. 

The graded school at Grand Junction, under Professor 
Stone, is doing good work, and he is making many friends, 
who are pleased with his efforts and will do all they can to 
aid and encourage him. 

It is to be hoped that, in the near future, a High School 
will be established. 



Ouray county. 



Dr. W. W. Rowan, Snpermtendent. 

Our schools were never in better condition. Excellent 
corps of teachers, good school houses, and children learn- 
ing rapidly. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 67 



PARK COUNTY. 



I. S. Smith, Superintendent. 

The interest in good schools is increasing throughout 
the county. School boards are more anxious to secure 
first class teachers than to employ cheap ones. 

There is a growing demand for more and better school 
room appliances. 

District and county educational meetings have been 
held within the last year. The result has been a mutual 
benefit to parents, officers and teachers. More co-operation 
of these three forces will insure greater progress in the 
schools. 

During the year the county has been organized into 
districts, to which definite boundaries have been given. 

Short terms and two frequent changes of good teachers 
are a hindrance to the best results. The average number 
of months of school is gradually increasing. Some rural 
districts have eight months a year. 

Indications of progress are noticeable, in the prompt- 
ness with which secretaries make their annual reports. 
Punctuality and accuracy in district reports are necessary. 

The attendance for the last year has been better than in 
any year previous. Yet, a large per cent, of the pupils of 
the county are not enrolled in the schools. Teachers are 
prompt in sending their monthly reports to the County 
Superintendent. These reports show an increased attend- 
ance. Parents are too apt to be indifferent to the benefits 
that are offered them. It is a deplorable state of affairs 
when one-third of the children of school age fail to attend 
regularly. We' have earnest and enthusiastic teachers, 
who are striving to make this coming year show better 
results. 

Another difficulty that confronts us, is the variety of 
text books in use. We are striving to weed out the "stale 
.and unprofitable," and introduce the best. 



68 STATE superinte:n dent's report. 

The subject of grading the country schools is receiving 
the attention of school boards and teachers. Systematic 
classification throughont the county is the ultimate object. 

Three new school houses have been erected during the 
year. Alma constructed a two-story frame building at a 
cost of ;$3,ooo. 

On the whole, the educational outlook in this county is 
encouraging. What we want is the aid and influence of 
every citizen in support of our system. The people are 
willing to tax themselves to the extent of the law, and 
cheerfully pay those taxes in support of the schools. What 
we want, is the best educational goods for the money. We 
are laboring to make the home and the school "one and 
inseparable." 



Pitkin county. 

W. R. Callicotte, Superintendent. 

The organization of public schools in this county dates 
from August i, 1881, at which time Judge D. H. Waite 
assumed the duties of Superintendent of Schools, having 
been appointed to that position. 

The first school district, Aspen, No. i, was organized 
August 6, 1881. Soon after the organization, a school was 
opened, a building being rented for the purpose, and main- 
tained for six months of that year. Districts Nos. 2 and 3 
were organized during the same year, and each held short 
terms of school. The total enrollment during the first year 
was fifty-eight. 

Fortunately for our county, it has been peopled by those 
who are earnestly in favor of a good system of public 
instruction. 

In 1882, District No. I voted bonds for building pur- 
poses, to the amount of ;^5,400. These were cashed at 95 
per cent., and a very respectable house was built, contain- 
ing three rooms. The district maintained an eight months* 
school. This year, 1882, the enrollment amounted to 
sixty-nine. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 69 

In 1883, the school population had increased sufficiently 
to require the services of two teachers. Mrs. I. E. Grubb, 
having been elected Superintendent of Schools, was also 
employed as Principal of Schools. During the year, 
eighty pupils were enrolled, and eight months' school 
maintained. 

The other two districts failed to maintain their organiza- 
tion. 

The rapid increase in population during the latter part 
of 1884, induced the Board to employ three teachers, 
Professor H. C. Rogers taking the position of Principal. It 
became necessary, ere the year closed, to employ four 
teachers. The total enrollment reached 273. 

Mr. H. L. Harding was elected County Superirtdentent 
of Schools in 1884. 

In 1885, additional school facilities became necessary, 
and a bonded debt of ^10,000 was contracted; from the 
proceeds of this debt a commodious addition to the old 
building was made, and a two-roomed building built in 
East AsperL These buildings were completed in October^ 
1885. Seating and ventilation have been properly arranged 
according to the most modern plans. The seating capacity 
is now about 400. 

Mr. W. R. Callicotte was employed as principal of 
schools, with seven assistants. A course of study and 
regulations were published ; the schools were graded, and 
a general interest aroused. Schools were open for nine 
months, with an enrollment of 462. 

Numerous ranches having been opened up along the 
Roaring Fork Valley, it became necessary to organize for 
school purposes. Three additional districts were organized 
in 1886, in two of which, schools have been maintained. 
The retirement of the State School Fund has been a 
serious drawback to these new districts. There is but 
little property yet taxable in these districts. The result 
is, that those with large families must bear a very heavy 
burden for some time, supporting their schools by private 
contributions. It is to be hoped that the next Legislature 



70 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

will see to it that we again have the funds appropriated as 
formerly. 

Our schools are prosperous, and teachers well paid. All 
assistants receive, in Aspen, ;^ioo per month. 

Aspen schools have re-opened for a nine months' term, 
September 6, 1886. All rooms are filled, with a probability 
that more seating will be necessary ere the year closes. 

The school population of the county is 572. W. R. 
Callicotte is Superintendent of the county, and Principal of 
the Aspen school. 



Pueblo County. 

Dr. C. F. Taylor, Superintendent. 

I have reason to believe that the cause of education has 
advanced in Pueblo county, within the year past, although 
there are many things that may well be deplored; but on 
the whole, the school work done for the year just past has 
been excellent. Our city schools have prospered as never 
before, under the superintendency of J. S. McClung, in 
District No. i, with an able corps of teachers, most of 
whom are adepts, while Professor F. B. Gault still holds the 
superintendency of the schools in District No. 20, with a 
corps of teachers who have been thoroughly tested and 
endorsed by the people. 

Our high schools in connection with the two above 
named districts, have each an excellent course of study, 
fitting pupils for the scientific course in most of our Ameri- 
can colleges, and, more especially, for the higher educational 
institutions of our own State. 

Owing to the rapid growth and settlement of the rural 
districts of the county, three new districts have been 
formed, and are now in a good, prosperous condition, 
while several have been redistricted, until now we have 
thirty-six fully organized and wide-awake school districts in 
the county. What we have said of the city schools, can 
be equally applied to the country schools, owing to the 
better class of teachers now employed by the directors. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 71 

and also the greater interest manifested by parents, and 
especially school officers, as they seem fully aroused to the 
needs of their respective schools, and are not satisfied with 
simply a "school mistress," but demand a teacher — one 
who is thoroughly educated in her work, believing that 
three months of good school is worth more than six months 
of poor school, even if the cost is the same. 

Most of the directors have reported promptly, with, of 
course, a little assistance from the County Superintendent. 

Our school houses throughout the county, with few 
exceptions, have all modern improvements (either in the 
rooms, or have ordered and are now awaiting the arrival of 
the same, but of course, in several instances, the purchase 
of such was too late for report this year, although several 
have so reported), such as wall maps, globes, charts and 
improved furniture. Several new school houses have been 
built and the old ones repaired this season, so that, with a 
few exceptions, our school rooms are pleasant and agree- 
able. 

We need badly a uniformity of text books, not worse 
here, probably, than in other counties; but we need the 
change, it appears to me, all over the State. We have in 
operation sixty-eight schools in this county, so you can 
imagine how much time the County Superintendent can-, 
waste on the street corners. In fact, one cannot make the 
visits, as required by law, and do justice to the schools 
and consult with the district officers, as he should; but, 
however, we are doing the best for the interest of the 
schools that our ability admits of We have not been able 
as yet to hold a county teachers' institute, as most of our 
teachers were away during July and August, therefore 
making it impossible to hold it during our summer vacation, 
but anticipate that, in the near future, we may be able to 
follow in the wake of our sister counties. 



Rio Grande County. 



SifiEL Heilman, SiLperintetident. 

In 1874, the first school district was organized in Rio 
Grande county; since that time others have been formed, 



72 STATE superintendent's report. 

so that there are now seventeen public schools under my 
supervision. Of these, only one is a graded school, and 
this is the one at Del Norte. Next year the school at 
Monte Vista will be graded. The Del Norte district, in 
1876, voted bonds to the amount of ;^io,coo, to be applied 
in building and furnishing a two-story brick building of 
four rooms. Though a district of the third class, I believe 
it to be as well provided with school apparatus, and man- 
aged as successfully, as any other of this class in the State. 

This year the Monte Vista district issued bonds to the 
amount of ;^4,oco, and the proceeds have been used in 
erecting a brick building of equal capacity and complete- 
ness to the one at Del Norte. Five other districts each 
have an adobe school house; in four others are as many 
log and one frame. Excepting School District No. i, and 
*those named above, the buildings in all other districts are 
insufficiently supplied with blackboards, maps, dictionaries 
and other necessary apparatus. 

The boards of directors, in even wealthy districts, have 
failed to provide even fair buildings, and all have neglected 
to establish any fixed course of study or uniformity of text 
books, notwithstanding m^^ urgent request for them to do 
so. This is the state of facts, outside of Del Norte. In 
some districts outrageous prices have been paid for poor 
buildings. 

It seems to me that the power of establishing a course 
of study, of determining the capacity and necessary appa- 
ratus of a school building, in districts of the third and sec- 
ond classes, ought to be vested in a more intelligent source 
than where that power now is. I believe it will prove bet- 
ter for our schools if every. County Superintendent had this 
power, providing no better source can be found. Until 
something of this kind is done, the plan of grading which 
you so much desire can never be made a success. 

It is apparent to any one of experience that several 
changes ought to be made to our existing school law. I 
recommend that the first provision of 3023, section 28, 
General Statutes of 1883, be so amended that the applica- 
tion for transfer, therein referred to, be made within ninety 
days after the formation of the new district, and that a 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 7 3 

higher levy of tax shall not be considered a hardship; that 
the salary of boards of directors shall be limited by law, 
in districts of the third and second classes; that the inter- 
est collected on delinquent school tax shall be credited to 
the respective school funds, instead of going into the 
county contingent, as now. 



Routt county. 

John T. Whyte, Superintendent. 

" Progress all along the line" are the words well-fitted 
to characterize the school work of this county. New dis- 
tricts are being organized — the old ones are holding longer 
terms and providing better building accommodations. A 
hearty interest in educational matters is. shown not only by 
parents, but by the public in general. Unmarried men, 
realizing how essential good schools are to the building up 
of a new country, are frequently foremost in the work of 
organization, and the erection of suitable buildings. 

All the schools of the county, with one exception, were 
taught the past year by persons holding either first or 
second grade certificates. The approval of the work of 
three of these teachers is shown by their re-engagement in 
the county, with monthly salaries increased ^lo, ^15 and 
^20 respectively. 

Of course there are many difficulties in the way, and 
progress is sometimes not as rapid as we wish. The work 
of bringing order out of chaos is necessarily slow. But 
beginning at bed rock, we are trying to lay the foundation 
strong and sure. Despite the obstacles, our pioneers in 
school work persevere, and when asked for a message to 
send to the State Superintendent, say, " Tell him we're 
rising." 

SAGUACHE COUNTY. 



W. H. Nelson, Snperinte7tde?it. 

Saguache county is earnest in its desire to have good 
schools, and mostly consistent in its efforts to secure them. 



74 STATE SUPERmTENDENT's EEPORT. 

Amongst our teachers are some who have few superiors 
anywhere. 

We have held two brief Institute sessions during the 
year just closed, and they were very well attended and 
profitable to those who were there. The citizens, too, man- 
ifested as much interest in the teachers' meetings as the 
teachers themselves. Day and evening sessions were filled. 

One of the unfortunate conditions which affect the 
schools in our county, however, is the practice of changing 
teachers frequently. This prostitutes the real character of 
a school, for a school can no more be established in all 
virtue by giving itself over to every suitor, than can a lover 
by frequent changes. 

Another fault is in the habit of employing teachers by 
favoritism, and thus obliging the examiner, either to grant 
a temporary certificate to one who should have been examined^ 
or to keep the schools idle until next regular exammation. 
The former course is disastrous often to the real interests 
of the school, the latter may be equally so, and is sure to 
involve ill-feelings. It would be wise, I think, to do away 
with the temporary certificate entirely. 

One district in our county (No. 3,) has held a ten months 
school during the year just closed, and is now building a 
new and substantial house, which will be ready for occu- 
pation by November. 

The people want good schools, and are mostly willing 
to do all in their power to procure them. A good many, 
however, do not appreciate the importance of regularity of 
attendance, and hence, send very irregularly. Some com- 
pulsion in the matter would be good for the schools, 

A legislative enactment, too, enforcing something like 
a uniform course of study is, in my judgment, very much 
needed. The course presented in the School Registers is 
good, and something of the sort for the ungraded country 
schools should be made obligatory. There should be no 
such thing as an ungraded school. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 75 



SAN JUAN COUNTY. 

Dr. J. N. Pascoe, Superintendent. 

Our county has only one school district organized at 
present, but it has a good, substantial school building, cost- 
ing $10,000, which speaks well for the enterprise of its citi- 
zens. Our school has been conducted principally on the 
"go-as-you-please" plan, but this year it has been thor- 
oughly reorganized and graded. 



San Miguel county. 



H. C. Lay, Superintendent. 

The first school within the limits of the present San 
Miguel county was a private one taught, in Telluride dur- 
ing the summer of 1 88 1, by Miss Lily Blair. On Novem- 
ber 15, 1 88 1, a private school was opened at San Miguel 
City by Mr. Charles Jeffs, continuing during the winter 
months. 

July 10, 1882, a public school was opened in Telluride, 
and in the summer of 1883 the present school house, 
25x80, divided into two rooms and a lobby, was built. 
School has been held regularly each year. Until this sea- 
son, however, the vacations have been thrown in the spring 
and fall, on account of climatic considerations. 

A school ' organization has been twice arranged, at 
Ames; but dissensions among the citizens there prevented 
the engagement of a teacher, and now the smelter, which 
supported and caused the town, is indefinitely closed. 

At San Miguel City there are a number of children who 
will ere long be of school age, when a school will probably 
be started there. The other towns in the county, Pandora, 
Ophir and Placerville, have few children. 

All of the county, except the eastern end, is dependent 
upon its cattle interests, and it is not probable that there 
will be any aggregation of people therein for years to come. 



76 STATE superintendent's report. 

No other private schools have been held, beyond those 
mentioned, except one taught by a Mrs. Folsom at Ames, 
some time previous to 1885, and a night school taught in 
Telluride by myself during the winter of 1883-4. 



Summit County. 



Dr. B. a. Arbogast, Superintendent, 

The work in our county is more satisfactory than it has 
ever been. We have had more teachers that make Summit 
county their home, hence an interest in the work beyond 
the pay they get, and a ''pleasant summer vacation," with 
their thought, their energy, their ambition somewhere else. 
I repeat, the public schools should not be an asylum for the 
physical wrecks that Colorado's pure air and beautiful 
climate bring to us. Come to Colorado, but don't afflict 
our schools. 



Weld county. 



John B. Cooke, Superintendent, 

We are glad to report rapid progress during the past 
year. When the last report was made we had fifty-five 
school districts in the county; we now have sixty-seven, 
and several more organizing. In 1885 we had 2,951 per- 
sons of school age; we now have 3,439. 

A special effort has been made during the past year to 
have our schools adopt the excellent course of study 
printed in the Daily Register, and I am glad to report en- 
couraging success. Wherever this course has been 
adopted, and carefully carried out. thorough work has 
been the result. I shall continue urging its importance till 
every school in the county has adopted it. The work of 
grading in our county schools is slow, but encouraging. I 
have introduced teachers' contracts among the schools of 
this county, and find them an excellent remedy for the 
numerous misunderstandings so common between teachers 
and school boards. 



STATE SUPEKINTENDENT S REPORT. (1 

I would suggest that there be more time between the 
County Treasurer's statement to the district secretaries 
and the Superintendent's annual report. It is impossible, 
in a large county like that of Weld, under the present 
arrangement, for the Superintendent to receive the secre- 
taries' reports in time to make his report on the first Tues- 
day in October. 

I would also suggest that the law be so amended that 
the Superintendent be allowed to hold examinations in 
other places than the county seat. In this county, many 
teachers are obliged to pay out almost a month's salary to 
secure a teacher's certificate. 



78 STATE superintendent's report. 



Reports of State Institutions. 



State University 



To the Stiperintendent of Public Insti'iiction 

of the State of Colorado: 

Sir: — I have the honor herewith to submit the fol- 
lowing biennial report: 

The Constitution of the State of Colorado provides for 
the election of a Board of Regents of the State University, 
and defines its duties. While the boards of control of the 
other educational institutions of the State are appointed by 
the Governor, the members of the Boards of Regents are 
elected directly by the people (Const., Art. IX., Sees. 12, 
13 and 14), thus bringing the management of the Univer- 
sity as near the people as practicable. The organic act, 
establishing and providing for the maintenance of the 
University, was passed by the General Assembly of Colo- 
rado March, 1877, and provides as follows: 

*'The University shall include a classical, philosophical, 
normal, scientific, law, and such other departments, with 
such courses of instruction and elective studies as the 
Board of Regents may determine, and a department of the 
physical sciences. The Board shall have authority to con- 
fer such degrees and grant such diplomas as are usually 
conferred and granted in other Universities. And the 
Board of Regents are hereby authorized and required to 
establish a preparatory department, which shall be under 
the control of said Board of Regents, as are the other 
departments of the University. Nothing in this section 
shall be construed as to require the Regents to establish 
the several departments, other than the normal and prepara- 
tory, as herein provided, until such time as, in their 
judgment, the wants and necessities of-the people require." 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



79 



In accordance with the above named provisions, the 
Board has estabHshed, and there is now maintained, a Pre- 
paratory, a Normal, a Classic, a Scientific and a Medical 
Department. 



ATTENDANCE BY TERMS. 








First term, 1884-1885. 85 

Second term, 1884-1885 77 

Third term, 1884-1885 60 


First term, 1885-1886 

Second term, 1885-1886 

Third term, 1885-1886 




88 

... 79 
.... 67 




Total number of students in attendance for the two years, 132. 






RESIDENCE BY COUNTIES. 






Arapahoe county i ^ 

Boulder . 100 


Fremont county 

I Gunnison , 




.... 1 


Chaffee . „.. . i 


Jefferson t 


Clear Creek i 

Custer • . . 7 


Saguache 

Weld 

1 Other States and Territories 




I 

3 

. 18 


El Paso ... I 








SUMMARY. 


28 
19 

9 
14 
20 
42 

132 




Department of Philosophy and the 










Preparatory School : 












Fourth class 




Total 









The following are the names and titles of the present 
members of the faculty, with the salary of each : 

JOSEPH A. SEWALL, M. D., LL. D., President $ 3,500 

Professor of Chemistry and Metallurgy. 

I. C. DENNETT, A. M 1,800 

Professor of Latin. , 

PAUL H. HANU5, B. S 1,800 

Professor of Mathematics. 

MARY RIPPON 1,400 

Professor of German and French. 



80 STATE SUPEPwINTENDENt's REPORT. 

JAMES W. BELL, Ph. D. (Leipzig) i,8oo 

Professor of Political Economy and History. 

J. RAYMOND BRACKETT, Ph. D. (Yale) i,8oo 

Professor of English Literature and Greek. 

JAMES H. KIMBALL, M. D 700 

Professor of Principles and Practice of Medicine, Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics. 

H. w. McLaughlin, m. d 500 

Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. 

GEORGE CLEARY, M. D 500 

Professor of Surgery, Opthalmok)gy and Otology. 

W. J. WAGGENER, A. M 1,500 

Professor of Physical Sciences. 

HON. PLATT ROGERS 100 

Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence. 

L. M. GRIFFIN. M. D 500 

Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 

R. N. MAYFIELD, M. D 2o«. 

Lecturer on Pathology and Hygiene. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 

Amount of orders drawn on special fund, from Septem- 
ber 30, 1884, to September 30, 1886, inclusive: 

Cottage for students and President's residence $ 614 oe 

Building and grounds 1,442 ti 

Library 3,264 55 

Apparatus 3,233 99 

Furniture 237 23 

Insurance ,. 862 50 

Hospital ^ 6,738 13 

Horse and wagon „ 360 00 

$ 16,752 53 

Amount of orders drawn on general fund, from Sep- 
tember 30, 1884, to September 30, 1886, inclusive: 

Regents $ 1,313 lo 

Salaries — Professors ^ 30,350 00 

Janitor i,7S8 20 

Fuel 803 .SI 

Furniture 109 80 

Laboratory 47 95 

Library . 489 55 

Building and grounds ... 419 29 

Advertising 327 05 

Telephone rent 140 25 

Stationery and printing 893 86 

Medical Department ". 950 77 

Horse keeping 575 15 

Sundries 730 04 

$ 38,908 S2 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 81 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 

^ Statement of receipts and disbursements of W. I. Jen- 
kins, Treasurer of the University of Colorado, from Octo- 
ber I, 1884, to February 24, 1885, both dates inclusive : 

GENERAL FUND. 

Balance as per report^ October i, 1884 $ 1,022 lo 

Received from State Treasurer 400 00 

Received from other sources 176 00 

Total receipts $ 1,598 10 

CONTRA. 

Disbursed as per vouchers , $ 1,225 48 

Turned over to Charles L. Spencer, Treasurer 372 62 

Total $ 1,598 10 

SPECIAL FUND. 

Balance as per report, October i, 1884 J 24 90 

CONTRA. 

Turned over to Charles L. Spencer, Treasurer f, 24 90 

RECAPITUL.\TION. 

Total receipts. General Fund $ 1,598 10 

Total receipts, Special Fund 24 90 

Total $ 1,623 00 

CONTRA. 

Disbursements account. General Fund $ 1,225 48 

Turned over to Charles L. Spencer, Treasurer 397 52 

Total $ 1,623 00 

To the Board of Regents of the University of Colorado : 

Receipts and disbursements of Charles L. Spencer, 

Treasurer, from February 24, 1 885, to September 30, 1886, 
both dates inclusive : 

GENERAL FUND. 

Received from W. L Jenkins, Treasurer.. f, 372 62 

Received from Treasurer of State, Current Expense fund 42,050 00 

Received from Treasurer of State, Land Income Fund 7,380 00 

Received from Dr. Sewall, fees, Bragdon 10 00 

Total receipts f 49,812 62 

CONTRA. 

Disbursed, as per vouchers % 37,864 48 

Balance cash on hand ",948 14 

Total ,.... % 49,8i2 62 



82 STATE superintendeist's report. 

SPECIAL FUND. 

Received from W. I. Jenkins, Treasurer $ 24 90 

Received from Treasurer of State 22,968 00 

Received from Dr. Sewall, rebate express charges 3 95 

Total receipts $ 22,996 85 

CONTRA. 

Disbursed, as per vouchers $ 20,711 65 

Balance cash on hand 2,285 *<* 

Total $ 22,996 85 

RECAPITULATION. 

Total receipts, account General Fund $ 49,812 62 

Total receipts, account Special Fund 22,996 85 

Total receipts jj 72,809 47 

CONTRA. 

Disbursements, account General Fund 8 37,864 48 

Disbursements, account Special Fund 20,711 65 

Balance cash on hand 14.233 34 

Total $ 72,809 47 

Respectfull)' submitted, 

Chas. L. Spencer, 

Treasurer. 



Noytmber 5, 1886. 



Librarians Report. 



J. A. Sewall, President: 

Sir: — I have the honor to submit the following report 
of the Buckingham Library: 

Number of volumes registered Sept. 30, 1886 . . . 2,499 

Number of volumes unregistered 790 

Number of volumes unbound 60 

Total 3,349 

Number of volumes Sept. 30, 1884 1.796 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 83 



INCREASE FOR TWO YEARS. 

Volumes purchased 1,267 

By pamphlets received ... 60 

Presented by Mary Rippon 3 

Presented by W. J. Waggener . 2 

Presented by W. F. C. Hasson i 

Presented by J. W. Bell 2 

Presented by J. R. Brackett . i 

Presented by L. Huber, M. D., of Pennsylvania . . 37 

From the U. S- Government and others 180 

1,553 

The following periodicals are purchased for the reading 
room: 

North American Review, 

Contemporary Review, 

Fortnightly Review, 

Edinburgh Review, 

Quarterly Review, 

British Quarterly Review, 

London Quarterly, 

VV^estminster Review, 

Blackwood's Magazine, 

Nineteenth Century, 

Atlantic Monthly, 

Harper's Monthly, 

■Century, 

Nation, 

Rocky Mountain News, 

Education, 

New Englander, 

Library Journal, 

Fliegende Blaetter, 

Deutsche Rundschaa, 

journal of Speculative Philosophy, 

American Journal of Philology, 

Zeitschrift Internationale, 

Anglia, 

Englische Studien, 

Latin et Graece, 

Nature, 

American Naturalist, 

American Chemical Journal, 



84 STATE superintendent's report. 

Popular Science Monthly, 

Popular Science News, 

Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club, 

Science, 

Electrical Review, 

American Journal of Mathematics, 

Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques, 

Revue des Deux Mondes, 

Journal des Economistes, 

Mind, 

Messenger of Mathematics, 

Journal fuer die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik, 

Youth's Companion. 

The following have been presented by the publishers : 

Citizen, 

Challenge, 

Co-operative Index, 

Critic, 

Literary News, 

Natural Science Bulletin, 

Teacher, 

Boulder County Herald. 

From September, 1885, to February, 1886, the library 
was open two hours a day. Since February, 1886, it has 
been open each school day from 8:15 a. m. to 12:30, Dur- 
ing these hours an assistant librarian is in charge. Besides 
the care of the circulation of the books, checking and cut- 
ting the magazines.received, and keeping the room in order, 
the assistants have, in the last five months, registered 2,^00 
volumes, entries averaging eighteen words each, written 
2,643 cards for the charging department, and printed about 
2,200 cards on the type-writer for an alphabetical index to 
the library; 140 volumes have been prepared for the 
binder; over 1,000 volumes have been received, labeled 
and placed upon the shelves; all the books in the library 
have been rearranged "upon the shelves, and each volume 
marked with its accession number, subject number and 
author number; printed guides have been placed upon the 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 85 

shelves, and every volume has twice been compared with 
the accession book to guard against loss. For this, skilled 
labor is required. The following students have assisted in 
this work: E. C. Wolcott, B. A.; F. L. Chase, B. A.; W. 
R. Wood, Guy V. Thompson, M. B. Johnson, Jennie Sewall 
and E. C. Mason. All have been students in the Depart- 
ment of Philosophy and the Arts ; they have been paid 
twenty-five cents an hour. 

The first library in connection with the University was 
started by a literary society, the " Lyceum;" the few vol- 
umes collected afterwards passed into the University 
library, which was founded by C. G. Buckingham, of 
Boulder. Mr. Buckingham gave ;^i,200, May 2, 1879, and 
continued his donations till March 31,1 884, giving ^2, 1 2 1 .60 
in all. 

The students, by giving a series of five entertainments, 
raised money to buy curtains and chairs; Piatt Rogers, and 
other citizens of Boulder, furnished a carpet for the library 
room; four walnut book cases were purchased from the 
Buckingham fund; the regents made an appropriation for 
the purchase of three tables. 

Orders have been drawn on the university funds on 
account of the library as follows: 



From April 28, 1877, to April 30, 1880 ! $ 10090 

From September 30, 1880, to October i, 1882 1 333 80 

From September 30, 1882, to September 30, 1884 14900 

From September 30, 1884, to September 30, 1886 ' 2,523 04 

Total $ 3,10674 




The first three years, less than one-third of one per 
cent, of the total expenditures of the University went to 
the support of the library; for two years ending October 
I, 1882, a trifle over one per cent; for the two years ending 
September, 1884, a little more than one-third of one per 
cent.; for the last two years, five and one-half per cent. 

The library occupies the southwest room in the second 
story of the main building. The following is a fair esti- 
mate of the cost of its property : 



86 STATE superintendent's report. 

Books purchased by appropriation ^2,500 

Books purchased by Buckingham fund __ 2,000 

Books presented 800 

Furniture 300 

Card cases and Hbrary supplies 100 

Type writer 108 

Total |5,8o8 

The subscriber was appointed Librarian in June, 1885^. 
He has given an hour and half a day to the supervision^ 
of the work. The books have been arranged by subjects^ 
according to the decimal system of classification, first used 
by Melvil Uewey in the library of Amherst College, and 
afterward at Columbia College; the author numbers used 
are those invented by C. A. Cutter, librarian of the Boston 
Athenaeum. The catalogue is based on the plan of the 
card catalogue of Yale College. It has been the study of 
the Librarian to make everything the library contains easily 
available and yet to employ only such methods as are 
equally applicable to a library of half a million volumes. 

It is a low view that limits the work of a college to 
learning and reciting lessons prescribed by a course of 
study. The successful teacher must bring to his class a 
fund of collateral and historical information; and, what is 
more important, the student must be trained to acquire 
this information for himself. The main object of a col- 
legiate education is the formation of scholarly habits and 
the ability to investigate special subjects. The graduate 
may be pardoned the ignorance of many things, but if he 
cannot consult a library correctly and rapidly, he has little 
claim to be called a scholar. In any literature, lectures 
and the study of manuals are particularly barren, unless 
supplemented by a good library; the material dealt with 
in these studies is books; and without the books them- 
selves, the work is too superficial to be a part of university 
training. 

The books of the Buckingham library have been 
selected with great care. Excluding public documents, 
there are not quite 2,500 volumes. The library is too 
small for extended research in most departments, or for the 
proper illustration of studies in belles-lettres. In no way 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 87 

can a true university spirit be fostered at less expense than 
by a permanent appropriation for the library. 



Recommendations. 

1. That an annual appropriation be made for the 
library. Sixteen hundred dollars a year seems to be the 
least amount that can meet the growing needs of the 
different departments. 

For assistants and supplies $ 250 

For binding ico 

For periodicals 200 

Purchases in Latin and Greek 100 

Purchases in modern languages 100 

Purchases in history and philosophy ...... 100 

Purchases in science and mathematics ..... 100 

Purchases in English and comparative literature . 200 

For general growth of the library 450 

Total $1,600 

A small annual appropriation will secure a better selec- 
tion of books than a large appropriation at irregular 
intervals. There is also a constant demand for annual 
additions, as new volumes of books appear, completing sets 
that the library has in part. 

2. That the Librarian be empowered to purchase 
books. Of course each professor is best able to judge of 
books in his own department; but only one person can 
have a full knowledge of what there is in the library, and 
avoid the purchase of duplicates. Many of the most val- 
uable books are difficult to secure, and chance opportunities 
for their purchase must be seized with promptitude. 

3. That a room be set apart for public documents, and 
that it be fitted with adjustable shelving. These books are 
the unregistered volumes mentioned in the first paragraph 
of this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Raymond Brackett, 

Librarian, 



88 STATE superintendent's report. 



NORMAL SCHOOL. 



The only direct or special work done in this department 
has been by a course of lectures on methods of instruction. 
These lectures were given by the President and two mem- 
bers of the faculty. The academic studies of this class 
have been the same as provided for the preparatory classes. 



Medical School. 



The majority of the one hundred and twenty medical 
schools now in existence in the United States are private 
enterprises, established and conducted for pecuniary profit. 
It therefore follows that each school, desiring all the 
students possible, establishes that grade of qualifications 
which most conduces to its own interests. 

The evils which result from the underbidding, and the 
questionable methods adopted to draw students have only 
within a few years attracted the attention of State officials 
and University authorities, so that comparatively little has 
been accomplished towards a remedy. 

The State Board of Illinois has doubtless done more to 
advance the standard of medical education than any other 
organization, and mainly through its efforts and the exam- 
ples shown by a few of the older schools, we find twenty- 
four colleges of the one hundred and twenty, requiring 
three full courses of lectures, instead of two, which a few 
years ago made the generally adopted standard. 

More attention, too, is directed to the preliminary edu- 
cation of the applicants, an examination as to their fitness to 
enter the profession now being required by the best schools. 
From the facts before stated, the efficient Secretary of the 
Illinois Board of Health, draws the following logical con- 
clusions : First — "That the best interests of the public 
welfare demand the highest attainable standard of educa- 
tional qualifications, skill and ability, as well as of profes- 
sional honor, integrity and morality, among those engaged 
in the practice of medicine." Second — "That it is the duty 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 89 

of the State to exercise the inherent plenary power and 
authority which it possesses, for the protection and promo- 
tion of the public welfare, to secure such standard." 



Progress. 



The wealth of the State increased from 1878 to 188^ a 
little more than one hundred per cent., the population in- 
creased about eighty per cent., the number of students in 
attendance at the University increased in this period one 
hundred per cent., while the schools of like grade, author- 
ized to confer like degrees, increased two hundred and 
sixty-six per cent. Surely the State is well supplied with 
colleges and universities. Moreover, the attendance on the 
University has not only increased in number, but the rank 
of the students is higher. In i8yy-jS, all the students 
were in the preparatory school, and all but six, in the first 
year of this school. In 1885, twenty-eight were pursuing 
the studies of the college courses, while only forty-two 
were of the entering, or first year class of the preparatory 
school, out of a total of one hundred and thirty-two. 



NSTRUCTION. 



I believe I am justified in most heartily commending 
the character of the instruction given. The professors in 
the several departments have labored with a zeal that must 
produce good results. While it is not claimed that the 
University affords all the facilities of older and better en- 
dowed institutions, yet the instruction given is equal to the 
best. And our graduates will compare favorably with those 
of any institution of learning in the country. 

It is a credit and an honor to the State, particularly to 
the efificient professor of Latin, that to-day, one of our 
early graduates holds the position of professor of Latin in 
one of the oldest and best colleges in New England. 

Surely, something has been done to maintain a high 
standard of attainment, and whatever success has been 
achieved, the credit belongs to the hard-working, faithful 
faculty. 



90 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

In June, 1886, Paul H. Hanus, professor of mathe- 
matics, tendered his resignation, which was accepted by the 
Board of Regents. Professor Hanus had been connected 
with the institution about six years, and in that time had 
demonstrated his ability and fidelity as an instructor of 
rare merit. Few young mathematicians in the country are 
his equal, none his superior. When he left us, there was a 
vacancy which I fear cannot soon be filled. 

Whatever may be the future of the University, I am 
sure something has been done for the cause of higher edu- 
cation. A few, at least, of the youth of the State have felt 
the stimulating, invigorating influence that comes of learn- 
ing and culture. My earnest desire and hope is, that the 
dark and discouraging days of the University are past, and 
that a new administration may bring with it abundant pros- 
perity and success. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 91 



State Agricultural College. 

To the State Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir: 

In accordance with the act of the General Assembly of 
the State of Colorado, this biennial report is submitted, in 
order that yourself and the coming Assembly may have at 
command the facts pertaining to the growth and develop- 
ment of the State Agricultural College, as one of the 
factors in our State system of general education. 

This college is under the supervision of the State Board 
of Agriculture, whose terms of office expire as follows: 

State Board of Agriculture. 

Term expires 

Hon, R. A, Southworth, Denver 1893 

Hon. G. E. Wyman, Longmont 1893 

Hon. B. S. Lagrange, Greeley 1891 

Hon. W. F. Watrous, Fort Collins 1891 

Hon. J. J. Ryan, Loveland 1889 

*Hon. Henry Foote, Del Norte -'-1889 

Hon. David Boyd, Greeley- 1887 

Hon. Ozro Brackett, Frankstown 1887 

His Excellency, Gov. B. H. Eaton, 1 tt cc ■ 
President C. L. Ingersoll, / ^^ ^fi^^^^" 

OFFICERS. 

Hon. David Boyd President 

Hon. W. F. Watrous -Secretary 

Hon. George R. Swallow (ex officio) Treasurer 

♦Deceased. (Vacancy to be filled by appointment, 1887.) 

The present faculty, with the salary paid each, is as 
follows: 



92 STATE superintendent's report. 

Faculty. 

Charles L. Ingersoll, M. S President $ 2,500 

Ainsworth E. Blount, A. M Agriculture 1,800 

^Charles F. Davis, M. S Chemistry and Geology-- 1,400 

James Cassidy Botany and Horticulture- 1,500 

James W. Lawrence Mechanics and Drawing-- 1,400 

fGeo. C. Faville, B. S., D. V. M- -Veterinary Science 

(State Veterinarian.) 

Maj. Vasa E. Stolbrand Mathematics and Military 

Science 1,400 

(Late Lieutenant U. S. Army.) 

Miss E. G. Bell English Literature and 

Modern Languages 1,200 

Elwood Mead, B. S,, C. E Physics and Engineering- 1,400 

Miss Grace Patton, B. S Instructor 450 

♦Resigned September i, 1886. (Temporarily carrying the work, until successor shall be 

elected and installed in the chair.) 
fSalary paid by State as State Veterinarian. 

As was remarked by me in a previous report, the sal- 
aries named above, except those of President and Professor 
of Agriculture, are small and entirely out of proportion 
with salaries paid in most places for the same quantity and 
quality of work. 

No more self-denying men are to be found, and the diffi- 
culty of filling a chair, when it becomes vacant, with a 
really good, earnest man, is one not easily met, when 
the cost of living in Colorado is taken into consideration, 
and is a serious bar to good progress. 



Finances. 

The President of the College, having nothing to do offi- 
cially with the finances of the College, does not report upon 
the receipts and expenditures; this information will be 
found in the annual report of the Secretary of State Board 
of Agriculture, who has this work in charge. To his 
report you will, therefore, refer. 



Course of Study. 



The course of study adopted in 1882 has remained until 
at the meeting held June 9, 1886, when it was reduced to 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 93: 

three recitations daily. To accommodate this new order 
of things, the Rhetoric was stricken from the course, other 
branches were given less time, electives were given in the 
last two years of the course, thus really expanding, and 
giving three general courses in the Junior year, viz: Irri- 
gation Engineering, Mechanics and Drawing, and Lan- 
guage, and adding to these Veterinary Science in the Senior 
year. 

The Language course gives one year of French, and 
two years of German, in place of Agriculture, Horticulture, 
and Applied Chemistry, and is designed primarily for the 
young ladies, although no student is debarred from it. 

All courses are parallel for the first three years. The 
courses at that point converge, and each has two studies in 
common, while the third study is in connection with the 
special department, which has the elected course. 

Irrigation Engineering comprises the study of Hydrau- 
lics, Agricultural Chemistry, Reservoirs, Canal Work, Irri- 
gation Law, and Astronomy, running through two years. 

Mechanics and Drawing comprise one exercise daily in 
Architectural and Machine Drawing, for one year, and 
lectures on the Steam Engine, Machinery, and Transmis- 
sion of Power, in the second year. 

The labor in the elected courses is in consonance with 
the studies taken up in the last two years. In the first 
three years, the time is nearly equally divided between 
farm, garden and shop, laboratory and field surveying. 

The students in all courses, except the Mechanical, are 
required to take a course in Misroscopy, consisting of two 
exercises each week, two hours each, in the Senior year, 
at the close of which each student is required to hand in a 
thesis on some topic embodying the work of the year, 
some of which work shall be original investigation in some 
special line chosen by such student. 



94 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



GRADUATES. 



The total number of graduates to date of this report is 
ten. Of this number, one, and a graduate of Kansas Agri- 
cultural College, who spent a year of post-graduate work 
in Veterinary Science, have both graduated with honor 
from the Veterinary department of Iowa College, taking 
the degree of D. V. M. On their entrance there, the 
examination and work of our college was accepted without 
question. The present Senior class numbers four, and the 
lower classes are much larger, so that we are limited for 
room for proper efficiency in our work. 



Attendance, 



Males 



Females. Total. 



Males. Females. ToUl. 



First (winter) term 

Second (spring) term 

Third (fall) term 

Total 

Average daily attendance 

Total enrollment for year.. 



75 
119 



37 


3^ 


68 


26 


27 


53 


5^ 


37 


88 


114 


93 


207 


38 


31 


69 


67 


50 


117 



Scarlet fever breaking out in the College and town, 
materially reduced the attendance for two terms, and threat- 
ened to close the College, as it did close the city schools 
for several weeks. 



HISTORY. 



1884. November 10. Professor Elwood Mead resigned. Professor 
L. G. Carpenter acceptably filled the chair until January r, 
1885, by appointment. 

1885. January i. Vasa E. Stolbrand, Lieutenant U. S. Army, elected 
to the chair of Mathematics and Military Science. 

1885. September i. Miss Elizabeth G. Bell, of Chester, N. H., 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 95 

elected to chair of Eno:lish Literature and Modern Languages, 
which was created at that time. 

1886. January i. Professor Elwood Mead was re-elected to take 
charge of the newly created department of Physics and Irri- 
gation Engineering. 

1885. September i. Miss Grace Patton was elected assistant in 
Chemistry for one year, and 

1886. September i, to be instructor for year ending June, 1887. 
Miss Patton is the second of our graduates who has thus 
been honored in her preparation and work. 

1886. September i. Professor Charles F. Davis resigned the chair 
of Chemistry and Geology. 

The changes brought about by the enactment of the 
State sanitary and veterinary law, and the appointment of 
the professor of Veterinary Science, State Veterinarian, in 
accordance therewith, has worked better than the majority 
anticipated. The preference has always been given to the 
State work as the more important and required by law. 
The work at the College has not suffered, as there has been 
some one qualified to give some portion of the instruction, 
so that classes have not been without daily instruction. 

The only failure of duty has been the presentation of 
the semi-annual report to the State Board of Agriculture 
on the date required by law. 

The greater work has been accomplished — that of for- 
mulating and putting in motion the machinery of inspec- 
tion upon our borders, and enlisting the active sympathy of 
stockmen and railroads in the enforcement of the law. We, 
as a State, may congratulate ourselves on freedom from 
infectious disease among our animals to this date, when 
there is so much of it elsewhere. 

Slight questions having risen in regard to the discipline 
of the school, the whole matter was set right by resolution 
of the Board of Trustees endorsing the faculty, and placing 
the discipline in their hands, where, bylaw, it was assigned. 
The result is seen at once in the better order and progress 
of the .school this year just begun ( 1 886-7). ^^^ ^" ^^^ 
greater earnestness of all students enrolled. 



96 STATE superintendent's report. 

The school has, during the two years, 1885 and 1886, 
made good solid growth, though it has often been pinched 
for actual necessaries in its regular work and advancement. 
No single person has, probably, felt this more than the 
President, whose every anxiety has been that no false step 
be taken, and that every advantage be seized upon to pro- 
mote the best interests of the school — that this school, 
almost the youngest of its class in the United States, should 
not wander over the tortuous road traveled by older insti- 
tutions, but that, profiting by their failures, we might, in a 
few years, reach that perfection of work only attained by 
them in many years of labor. 

The exhibits made by our college at the New Orleans 
Exposition, won for us a diploma that our mechanical work 
and products of the soil were seldom equalled and never 
excelled. The work done by our students in Microscopy 
received the following commendation on its receipt at 
Washington, where it was to form part of a collective ex- 
hibit from various colleges: 

Washington, D. C, November 29, 1884. 

Professor Charles G. Ingersoll, 

President Colorado Agricultural College, 

Fort Collins, Colorado: 
My Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the twenty-first instant is received, also the bound 
copy of Theses in Scientific Work, Microscopy, with plates. I have 
given the volume all the examination my time at present will permit, 
and am greatly delighted. The President of the Maryland Agricul- 
tural College and Hon. J. O. Wilson, a most excellent judge of edu- 
cational matters, and Superintendent of Schools here, were in while 
I was looking at it, and were surprised and delighted, I have also 
shown it to Secretary Teller, who expresses great pleasure at results 
so satisfactory. It will now be forwarded to New Orleans, to be re- 
turned to you at the close of the Exposition, as you desire. 

Yours respectfully, 

JOHN EATON, Commissioner. 

The road of industrial education is not yet well defined 
and marked, but enough has been accomplished in Colo- 
rado to cause our legislators to pause and seriously reflect 
ere they lessen the efficiency by making less the income 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 97 

of our college, or causing it to become less sure than to- 
day — to consider carefully ere they talk of consolidating 
this distinctive school with any other, or in any way to 
interfere with or disturb its work. 

Perhaps I cannot better close this report than in the 
attempt to have you see us as we appear in our work to 
those outside our State, and who are in a position to look 
upon this plan and its working, with unbiased minds. 

You will remember that prestige is in favor of older and 
well-established institutions; that people do not, as a lule, 
come to young States and Territories, somewhat removed 
from the older centers of civilization, in order to be taught 
the best way to do things in education, or in the arts; hence 
it is with a pardonable feeling of State pride, that I intro- 
duce the following testimony: 

In March, 1885, a commission from Victoria, Australia, 
composed of three gentlemen, visited America, for the pur- 
pose, primarily, of inspecting and reporting upon our sys- 
tem of irrigation; but, secondarily, to examine the system 
of education practiced in the various Agricultural Colleges 
of the United States. After carefully examing several col- 
leges, they unanimously reported on "their return in favor 
of the system in operation in "Colorado Agricultural Col- 
lege," and inaugurated at the reorganization in 1882. 

This endorsement was unlooked for and unasked, and 
was the more highly appreciated, as the commission came 
upon us without a moment's warning, and saw the college 
as it is in every day work. 

In March, 1886, the President was asked to present the 
general plan, together with details of work in our college 
to a commissioner (Lieut. Francis Winslow, U. S. Navy), 
appointed by Gov. A. M. Scales, of the State of North Car- 
olina, to investigate and report upon Industrial Education, 
for the benefit of that State, which proposes to establish an 
" Industrial College." 

The Colorado plan was fully presented, and on June 15, 
1886, after looking over data from various sources, reply 
was received as follows : 



98 STATE SUiPERINTENDENT's REPORT. 

Beaufort, N. C, June lo, 1886. 
Mr. C. L. Ingersoll, M. S., 

President Colorado Agricultural College: 

Dear Sir : — Press of work has delayed my reply to yours of the 
twenty-eighth instant sooner, and indeed I must beg you to accept 
my apologies for not acknowledging before the receipt of your pre- 
vious letters and communications. I am not competent to express 
any opinion as to the merits of a particular plan — that is, an opin- 
ion that would be of any value. I am interested, as every one must 
be, in the industrial training of our rising generation, and manual 
training seems especially needful in newly-settled parts of the country 
like your State, or in those older sections, like the South, where the 
conditions are, in practice, very similar. It has struck me, as well 
as others, that you in Colorado had managed to accomplish a good 
deal on a very small expenditure, and I think your success had its 
influence in determining the authorities of this State to institute the 
indtistrial system of education. Upon what plan the school will be 
modeled I cannot say. The funds at the disposal of the State will 
not permit a very elaborate establishment. I presume whatever 
action is taken will have the same end in view that is contemplated 
by yourself — that is, the making of good, thrifty citizens, intelligent 
in the concerns of daily life, and fitted to develop along some par- 
ticular line of action other than that of brain work, pure and simple. 
The progress of the age demands that all one's faculties should be 
developed while plastic and capable of development, and the value 
of technical education, especially practical manual education, is 
shown clearly by the fact that pupils of industrial and technical 
schools rarely wait long for places or employment. As a graduate 
of one ofj^i^e oldest technical schools in the country, the United 
States Naval Academy, I can testify as to the great improvement 
wrought, by the special training there given, in the whole mass of the 
navy. Ihih'-e also had several years' experience as an officer and 
instructor on board one of our training ships for seamen apprentices. 
They are floating technical schools, or, better, manual training 
schools for common seamen. That the navy should be greatly ben- 
efitted by the introduction of these especially trained youngsters is 
not surprising, and the whole service will testify that the benefit is 
great ; but so far as we can learn, the large percentage of boys who 
leave when their apprenticeship expires generally do very well, and 
are in demand for positions on shore for which their naval training 
would not, presumably, in any way fit them. I consider this to be 
due to the habit of following intelligent mental action by equally 
intelligent manual action. The boy is not only quicker of mind, but 
quicker and handier with his body. People like that kind of a boy, 



STATE SUPERE^TEN dent's REPORT. 99 

and he has no difficulty in finding a place. I regret that my study of 
this important matter has necessarily been of late so superficial that 
my opinion is of little value, but I am sure that no better work than 
that you are doing can be instituted in your section of the country. 
Wishing you every success, I am, 

Respectfully yours, 

FRANCIS WINSLOW, 

Lieut. U. S. N. 
(Original on file.) 

Let us then briefly summarize this outside testimony, 
and see the results : 

The Province of Victoria, in Australia, has gone for- 
ward, and, acting under the report received, the present 
Parliament has set aside 150,000 acres crov^^n lands to 
endow agricultural education; a council of agriculture has 
been created to take charge, and the Colorado plan has 
been adopted almost in detail for the central college of 
their system. 

We also see that the State of North Carolina is well 
pleased with what we are doing, and there are strong 
probabilities of her endorsing and adopting the same 
system. 

I wish to call attention to the fact that these conclusions 
have been reached by these outside and widely distant par- 
ties only after careful study and comparison of systems and 
plans. 

And now, in closing this report, I wish again to empha- 
size the thought that we seem to be on the right track, and 
if we are in error, we err in exceedingly good company — 
the distinguished gentleman from Melbourne, Australia, 
and an excellent officer and teacher in our United States 
Navy. I, therefore, appeal to all friends of education, to 
all who have State pride, to assist those in charge of this 
school to go forward with the work so well begun and 
from which we are already gathering the first fruits. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

C. L. Ingersoll, 

President. 



100 STATE superintendent's REPORT'. 

State School of Mines, 

GOLDEN. COLORADO. 



December i. 1886. 

To the Superintendent of Public Instruction 

of the State of Colorado: 

Sir:— I have the honor, in compliance with law, to sub- 
mit the following- biennial report of the condition and 
management of the State School of Mines: 

The financial condition of the institution is shown by 
the reports of the secretary and treasurer, submitted here- 
with. They show that the outstanding indebtedness at 
date of last report, ;^6,005.I4, has been entirely paid, and 
that the cash balance in the hands of the Treasurer, at this 
time, is ;^ 1,5 26.42. The value of the grounds, buildings, 
apparatus and library now attached to the school, and fully 
paid for, is $^0,J\J , divided as shown in the inventory. 

The financial standing of the institution, and the fact 
that no new buildings were needed during the past two 
years, has enabled the board of trustees to carry out a 
design entertained for some time, that of employing the 
faculty of the school during the summer vacation months 
in original research pertaining to the mineral resources of 
the State, such as coal, iron, materials for manufacture and 
the precious metals. In accordance with this plan. Prof 
Chauvenet, the president of the faculty, commenced, in 
June, 1885, an examination of the iron resources of south- 
ern Colorado, the result of which was printed in the report 
of the school to the Governor, December i, 1885. The 
same volume, 1,500 of which were printed for distribution 
to other scientific institutions, and for general use, also con- 
tained a "Review of the Mining Interests of the San Juan 
Region," by Prof M. C. Ihlseng, a "Report on the Oil 
Fields of Fremont County," by the same writer, and reports 



^''^'^^ STATE mm 

LIBRARY 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 101 

on the Trinidad and Crested Butte coal regions, by Prof. 
Arthur Lakes. The reports of Prof. Ihlseng and Prof. 
Lakes were accompanied by complete maps and diagrams 
illustrating the topics in hand. The field work for 1886 
includes a review of " The Iron Prospects of Northern 
Colorado," by Professor Chauvenet, made at the special 
request of the Denver Chamber of Commerce. Professor 
Ihlseng continues his observations on mining and ore treat- 
ment in the San Juan region, and Professor Lakes gives 
•' The Geology of the Aspen District," accompanied by 
maps and charts. The present development of the Eagle 
county mines is described by Professor George C. Tilden, 
who passed the summer months in that part of the State, 
and Professor Van Diest, of the Board of Trustees, reviews 
" The Mineral Resources of Boulder County." The papers 
mentioned are published for distribution as an appendix to 
this report. This field work for the past two years, in- 
cluding cost of engraving and printing, has entailed an 
expenditure of some ;^2,ooo, a sum which contrasts more 
than favorably with the large amounts paid out in other 
States for geological surveys. 

During the past two years the board has made persist- 
ent efforts to raise the standard of the school as to course 
of instruction, and has been encouraged in this direction 
by an increase in the number of students in the regular 
four-year course, from eight at date of last report to seven- 
teen at the present time, of whom nine are in the first year, 
four in the second, three in the third and one in the fourth, 
two having graduated in the full course in June, 1885, 
with the degree of "Engineer of Mines," and eight in the 
special assaying course. In the special assay course there 
are now five students, and four in the preparatory or irreg- 
ular course, preparmg to take places in the regular line of 
study. This makes the present total attendance forty-nine, 
ranging in age from seventeen to twenty-three years, 
agamst a total attendance of thirty-three two years ago. 
The present attendance is classified as follows : 

Technical Course 26 

Drawing 16 

High School Course 7 

Total ■ ■ . . 49 



102 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

The faculty at the present time is organized as follows: 

Regis Chauvenet (President), Professor of Chem- 
istry and Assaying-, salary l3,ooo 

Arthur Lakes, Professor of Geology and Drawing, 

Curator of the Museum ... . 1,500 

Magnus C. Ihlseng, E. M., C. E., Ph. D., Professor 

of Engineering 1,800 

Paul Meyer, Ph. D., Professor of Mathematics . . 1,200 

P. H. Van Diest, M. E., Lecturer on Metallurgy . . . 

George C. Tilden, C. E., Laboratory Instructor . 1,200 

Professor Van Diest has no salary, his services bein^^ 
needed only at stated times, in connection with the graduat- 
ing class, and are paid for as rendered. 

The Professor in Charge, during the past two years, in 
his capacity as ex officio Commissioner of Mines — there 
being no commissioner and no apparent need for any — has 
made a number of expert examinations in different districts 
of the State, at the request of Eastern and St. Louis capi- 
talists, the good effects of which are already seen. 

Besides the iron analyses in connection with Professor 
Chauvenet's reports, which have occupied a portion of the 
laboratory for several weeks, examinations have been made 
during the past two years of mineral waters, tin ores, sup- 
posed nickel ores, and other materials that are out of the 
general run, requiring extensive apparatus for their proper 
determination. 



Receipts and expenditures. 



In the books of the Secretary of the State School of 
Mines, the following receipts are shown for the two years 
beginning December i, 1884 (date of last report to the 
General Assembly), and ending November 30, 1886: 



Receipts. 



To warrants drawn on State Auditor $35>5oo 00 

Receipts from students 1,991 03 

j^rom the Everett estate ^- 598 70 

Total receipts $38,089 73 

By transfer to M. Barth, Treasurer 38,089 73 



\ 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 103 

From July 30, 1884, to November 30, 1886, the follow- 
ing were the receipts : 

To warrants drawn on State Auditor ..-.$ 5,298 30 

Receipts from students 286 70 

Total receipts $ 5,585 00 

By transfer to M. Barth, Treasurer $ 5,585 00 

Transfers to November 30, 1886 38,089 73 

Grand total of transfers $43,674 73 



■ DISBURSEMENTS. 

The books of the Professor in Charge show the follow- 
ing disbursements for the twenty-three months beginning 
December i, 1384 (date of la^t report to the General As- 
sembly), and ending October 31, 1886, the bills for Novem- 
ber, 1886, being omitted, as they are not. audited and 
allowed until the December meeting, which is held subse- 
quent to the date when this report is called for by law : 

Buildings and grounds $ 333 54 

Furniture and fittings 750 92 

Permanent apparatus 83809 

Library- 1,238 33 

Salaries 20,28495 

Repairs 249 00 

Supplies, chemicals, etc 3,51/ 83 

Fuel, light and incidentals 923 62 

Printing, advertising and stationery 2,044 53 

Interest, insurance, freight and express __ 3,157 00 

Total paid out ' 133.337 81 

Of the expenditures noted above, those designated as 
" Buildings and grounds," " Furniture and fittings," "Per- 
manent apparatus," and " Library," amounting to ;^3, 160.88, 
are permanent in their nature, and add to the value of the 
inventory, thus reducing the actual expenditures of the 
twenty-three months to $30,176.93. From the cost of sup- 
plies, etc., should also be deducted the receipts from 
students (;^i,99i.03), making the net expenditures equal 
$28,185.90. 

James T. Smith, 

Secretary. 



104 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

THE TREASURER'S REPORT. 



Statement of the Treasurer of the State School of 
Mines, of receipts and payments from July 30, 1884, date 
of assuming office, to November 30, 1886: 

RECEIPTS. 

Dr. 

Received from State Treasurer % 40,798 30 

Received from James T. Smith, Secretary . 2,227 73 
Received from Everett Estate 598 70 

Total receipts | 43,674 73 

PAID OUT. 

Cr. 
By Warrants paid between July 30, 1884, and 

December i, 1886 . . ' •■ % 42.148 31 

By Cash on hand . 1,526 42 

Total % 43,674 73 

MoRiTz Barth, 

Treasurer. 

The auditins^ committee met at the School of Mines, 
December 2, 1886, and checked paid warrants to the value 
of ;$42,i48.3i, destroying the same. It vv^as found that the 
warrants outstanding November 30, 1886, amounted in 
value to ;^I28, which should be taken from the balance in 
hands of Treasurer, making the actual cash balance, 
^1,398.42. The indebtedness reported at date of last re- 
port (^6,005.14), has entirely disappeared. 



rNVENTORY OCTOBER 31, 1886. 

Buildings and grounds (estimated) % 30,000 

Fixtures . . | 5,590 

Furniture . , 3.880 

Tools and appliances 624 

10,094 

Library 2,702 

Mining and surveying instruments . . % 981 

Mechanical instruments 145 

Physical and electrical apparatus . . - 2,550 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 105 

Balances 965 

Chemical apparatus 2,255 

Mineral and geological collection . . . 1,025 

7.921 

Total $ 50,717 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick Steinhauer, 

President Board of Trustees. 
James T. Smith, Secretary. 



Institute for Mute and Blind, 



Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir: — It affords me pleasure, in compliance with the law, 
to hand you herewith a brief statement of the workings of 
the Institute for Mute and Blind during the past two years, 
for insertion in your biennial report. 

The most important event of this period was the reor- 
ganization of the Institute by the last Legislature. The 
defective law under which it had struggled along for some 
years, was repealed, and another, embodying the good 
points of laws governing similar institutions in other States, 
passed. By this new law, every department of the school 
is placed under the control of the Superintendent, who is 
vested with all necessary authority, and held responsible 
both for his acts and those of his subordinates. 

Another good feature of the law is the provision that 
the board shall never all go out at once, and leave the 
Institute in the hands of an entirely new administration. 

The attendance has steadily increased, until there are 
now sixty-one pupils — forty-two deaf mutes and nineteen 



106 STATE SUPERmTENDENT's REPORT. 

blind. These are graded in four classes in the deaf mute 
department and two in the blind. Special classes among 
the deaf mutes are taught articulation and lip reading, 
while all the blind who are capable are given lessons in 
vocal and instrumental music. 

It is imperative that the classes should be small in an 
institution of this size and character, if success is to be 
reached, and it is our ambition to do all for the mute and 
the blind children of Colorado that is possible. 

The Institute is designed to be a home to the children 
nine months of each year. It therefore devolves upon us 
to provide not only for their mental advancement, but for 
their moral training as well. It is also incumbent upon us 
to lead them to form industrious habits. All these fields 
are covered by our arrangements, and we confidently hope 
that when these defective children go forth into the ''world's 
broad field of battle," they may do so thoroughly equipped 
for the struggle. 

The salaries of the officers and teachers are as follows: 

Superintendent, (resident) $1,500 

Matron and Articulation Teacher, (resident) . . . 800 
First Teacher, D. M. Department, (non-resident) 
Second Teacher, D. M. Department, (resident) 
Third Teacher, D. M. Department, (resident) 
Fourth Teacher, D. M. Department, (resident) 
First Teacher, Blind Department, (resident) . 
Music Teacher, (resident) 



1,200 
500 
500 
225 
600 
450 



I am pleased to note that the secretaries of school dis- 
tricts are becoming more careful in the performance of 
their duty, as regards reporting the mute or blind children 
in their respective sections; still it is a matter of regret that, 
though a generous State has made the Institute entirely 
free to all who need its benefits, there are many whose 
parents fail to take advantage of the proffered assistance 
and retain their children at home. 

Some do this because, being ignorant themselves, they 
do not appreciate the value of an education. Others are 
poor, and need the assistance of their children. The far 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 107 

larger part, however, are those who are sensible of the 
benefit of an education and are abundantly able to provide 
well both for themselves and their children; but they are 
overmastered by a blind and selfish love for their unfortu- 
nate children, and cannot bear to have them out of their 
presence, even though to keep them there involve them in 
perpetual helplessness and ignorance. All that can be 
done in the case of such parents is to spread all necessary 
information before them, and leave the responsibility where 
it belongs. 

The Institute is now as full as is consistent with health, 
and in our forthcoming report to the Governor we shall 
ask for another building. The State should not hesitate to 
make the necessary appropriation, as it will otherwise soon 
be our duty, in justice to those who are here, to refuse 
to admit others, except as vacancies occur. If the State 
assumes the burden of caring for any of the mute or blind 
children within its borders, it should see to it that all have 
the same opportunity. 

Requesting a continuance of your interest in the Insti- 
tute, I have the honor to be, 

Yours, respecfully, 

D. C. Dudley, 

Superintendent. 



State Industrial School, 



The printed report shows the school in a prosperous 
condition, but the institution is not able to provide for all 
who are sent to it. This institution should have a hearty 
and liberal support by the State. The printed report will 
be transmitted to the General Assembly, as required by law. 



108 



STATE RUPERIjSTTENDENT S REPORT. 



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STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



109 



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V tl o 

> > V 

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110 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



o o u 

V V V 

Q fi « 



STATE STIPE RmTENDENTS REPORT. 



Ill 



TABLEIIM. 

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. 



CERTIFICATES GIVEN. 



COUNTIES. 



First 
Grade. 



Second Third 
Grade. Grade. 






1886. 

CERTIFICATES GIVEN. 



First 
Grade. 



Second 
Grade. 


Third 
Grade. 


1 1 


Male. 
Female. 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek .. 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbeit 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson , 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Orande . 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan .... 
San Miguel . 

Summit 

Weld 



Total 



4 

5 23 



6 287 73 225 924 



29 



30 



74 281 



7 


2 


18 


4 




I 


5 


C! 




2 


7 


3^i 


S 




21 


6 




9, 


I 


8 


3 



61 1 237 880 



112 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 



TABLE III. 



COUNTIES. 



CENSUS— 1885. 



BETWEEN 6 AND 16 



BETWEEN 16 AND 21, 



TOTAL BET. 6 AND 21 



Arapahoe ... 
Archuleta ... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer «. 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano.... 
Jefferson — 

Lake 

La Plata .. 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan.. . 
San Miguel 

Summit 

Weld 

Total ... 



513S 
38 
177 



1961 

l^' 

176 

1 186 

3^8 

32 

306 

50 

42 

162 

1082 



57161 10854 
60 



.S.S3 


597 


645 


690 


730 


751 


340 


357 


458 


496 


132 


138 


3S 


26 


250 


268 


79 


66 


ib4 


150 


778 


810 


737 


721 


64 


50 


589 


629 


28 


39 


239 


371 


60 


70 


778 


744 


804 


719 


c86 


1051 


387 


313 


qo4 


842 


405 


1283 


181 


162 



411 
2448 
II50 
1335 

I48I 

697 

954 

270 

61 

518 

145 

314 

1588 

1458 

ii4i 

1218 

67; 

710: 

130 

1 522 1 

1523 

2137: 
700 

1746 

2688 
3431 
343 i 
241J 
446: 
340 

2375 
571' 
65! 
5921 

II2J 

73 

317 

2128 



,877 
40 
99 
387 
190 
248 
234 

HI 

146 

65 

23 

75 

29 

65 

253 

201 

32 

203 

14 

124 

15 

264 

258 

201 

98 

302 

430 
50 
56 
71 
92 

49 
293 

87 

49 

7 

3^ 

387 



1814 


3691 


7015 


7530 


• 9 


49 


78 


31 


64 


'i' 


276 


298 


397 


784 


1635 


1597 


192 


382 


743 


789 


183 


431 


893 


873 


206 


440 


964 


957 


85 


196 


451 


442 


118 


264 


604 


614 


35 


100 


197 


173 


11 


36 


58 


39 


66 


141 


325 


334 


17 


46 


108 


83 


37 


102 


229 


187 


273 


S2b 


1031 


1083 


185 


386 


933 


906 


15 


47 


96 


65 


171 


374 


792 


800 


12 


26 


42 


51 


lOI 


225 


463 


472 


9 


24 


75 


79 


236 


500 


1042 


980 


218 


476 


1062 


937 


204 


405 


1287 


1255 


93 


191 


48s 


406 


265 


S67 


1206 


1107 


322 


752 


1835 


1605 


40 


90 


231 


202 


34 


90 


252 


181 


48 


119 


i88 


172 


94 


t86 


305 


327 


42 


91 


225 


206 


278 


571 


^479 


1467 


81 


174 


411 


334 


14 


32 


50 


47 


62 


149 


393 


348 


22 


71 


99 


84 


15 


22 


49 


46 


49 


85 


iq8 


204 


319 


706 


1469 


13^5 


6438 


13710 


29279 


28676 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



113 



TABLE m-CoNCLUDED. 



CENSUS— 1886. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe ... 
Archuleta .... 

Bent 

Boulder , 

Chaffee 

CJear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale.... 

Hueriano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer , 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan..... 
San Miguel.. 

Summit 

Weld 



BETWE 


EN 6 AND 16 




«• 












1 


C 



BETWEEN 16 AND 21 



Total 23024 23197 4622 



5494 

37 

2I9| 

1223 
576 
679 1 
710I 
371 
399! 
178I 

35I 
2491 
108 
171 
842! 
776! 
106; 
625 

17' 
288I 



1217 
415: 

93o| 
13361 
209' 
263! 
no 
256! 
250 
1066 

3-8, 
50, 

264' 
62 

24 

162 

1309 



TOTAL BET. 6 AND 21 



5947 


J1441 


1961 


1961 


3922 


7455 


7900 


15363 


22 


59 


16 


6 


22 


53 


28 


81 


270 


489 


105 


88 


193 


324 


3S8 


682 


1585 


2808 


441 


434 


875 


1664 


2019 


3683 


533 


1109 


189 


140 


329 


765 


b73 


1438 


075 


1354 


241 


19s 


436 


920 


870 


1790 


720 


1436 


241 


210 


451 


951 


936 


1887 


3to 


737 


130 


91 


^S' 


501 


457 


958 


442 


841 


159 


129 


286 


558 


571 


1129 


177 


355 


84 


60 


144 


262 


237 


499 


21 


56 


21 


9 


30 


56 


30 


86 


290 


539 


97 


81 


178 


34b 


371 


717 


114 


222 


38 


18 


5b 


146 


132 


278 


ibb 


337 


66 


39 


105 


237 


205 


442 


840 


1682 


286 


289 


575 


1128 


1 129 


2257 


7b3 


1539 


237 


271 


508 


1013 


1034 


2047 


89 


195 


55 


41 


qb 


161 


130 


291 


b25 


1250 


171 


183 


354 


796 


808 


1604 


21 


38 


12 


18 


30 


29 


39 


68 


312 


600 


"3 


105 


218 


401 


417 


818 


50 


105 


II 


2 


13 


61 


57 


118 


709 


1520 


236 


202 


438 


1047 


911 


1958 


770 


1579 


261 


194 


455 


1070 


964 


2034 


959 


2170 


177 


166 


343 


1394 


1125 


2519 


310 


725 


no 


97 


207 


525 


407 


932 


850 


1780 


362 


273 


b3S 


1292 


1123 


2415 


1287 


2623 


444 


367 


811 


1780 


1654 


3434 


179 


388 


67 


43 


no 


275 


223 


498 


230 


493 


78 


51 


129 


341 


28r 


622 


124 


234 


56 


38 


Q4 


166 


162 


328 


281 


537 


86 


82 


168 


342 


363 


705 


226 


476 


46 


50 


96 


296 


276 


572 


1139 


2205 


349 


352 


701 


1415 


1491 


2906 


273 


601 


«3 


64 


147 


411 


337 


748 


50 


100 


17 


18 


35 


67 


68 


135 


240 


504 


74 


62 


136 


33« 


303 


640 


78 


140 


24 


19 


43 


86 


97 


i«3 


25 


49 


9 


8 


17 


33 


33 


66 


165 


327 


45 


56 


101 


207 


221 


428 


I2b3 


2572 


472 


395 


867 


1781 


1658 


3439 


3197 


46221 


7670 


6907 


I4S77 


30693 


30105 


60798 



114 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 



TABLE IV. 



ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE. 



PUPILS- 



PERCENTAGES 



COUNTIES. 



o 



2 


li- ! 


M 


=^8 


^jd 


S-f^ 




fc/2 


.r o 




■5=-^ 


-^^ 






w"^ 


D- 



Whole No. Enrolled 
in Public Schools. 



II 



2, 




< 


u 








C-^ 




e 


Q.- 


Sz 


£'0 


6 u 


?1 


> s 


^=^ 


<*^ 



u 

c 



:3 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek- 
Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagie 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

•Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson — 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Anmas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel.. 

Summit 

Weld 



751 
880; 
406, 

7641 
1 

456! 
145 
240 
491 

1026 
347 
685 
578 
155 
116 
115 
87 
275 

2027 
220 



948 



Total. 



713 
109 
141 
1381 
420 
886 
908 
247 
395 
175 
s6 



733 
1032 

57 
392 



6 
1 104 
1038 
144 
254 
ic66 
11C9 

"7 
120 
108 

354i 



40, 
185 
:i5o 



8626J 
60 
357. 

2333! 
890! 

1205 j 
961' 
205 
792 
216 
48 
45°: 
115 
254 

1398! 

13751 

*47' 

*=iiio' 

*42| 

6141 

145 

"=1089 1 

1386I 
11171 
551! 
I594I 
1509 

246 

=^215 

IQO 

205 

2344 

385 

*56 

463 

77 

41 

*2^2 



800 

49 
22 

171 
75 
41 

135 
42 
82 
27 



42. 

2I5i 

.63i 
*io 

*46; 

*ioi 

551 
61 
*255| 
143 
53 
50 
157 
178 
26 



33 
126I 

io[ 

272 

*2r I 

54| 

31 

7 

*65 

208 



4747 

78 

169 

1276 
498 
592 
590 
153 
429 
140 
31 
255 

162 
823 
723 
*35 
*570 

*22 

309 
80 

*766 
766 
594 
328 
900 
972 
148 
137 
"3 
226 

134 
1250 

244 
39 

258 
33 
21 

145 
1064 



22208 16687 35208 3687I 19879 19016 38895 24747I 67 



4679 

3' 
210 
122S 
467 
654 
506 

94 
445 
103 

25 
256 

57 
'341 
790 
715 

*22 

*586 

*30| 

360 

7' 

*578 
763 
576 
273 
851 
715 
124 

99 
no 

215 

141 
1366 

18s 
38 

259 
47 
27 

152 
1034 



9426 
109 
379 

2504 
965 

1246 

1096 
247 
874 
243 
56 
5" 
116 
296 

1613 

M38 
57 

1156 

52 

669 

151 

1344 

1529! 

117c 

601 

175' 

1687 

272 

236 

223 

441 

275 

2616 

429 

77 

517 

80 

48 

297 
2098 



6307 

24 

235 

1431 
620 
880 

543 
181 

553 

174 

33 

302 

|9 
189 
1129 
818 

41 
710 

44 
429 

850 
1014 
960 

349 

1088 

919 

160 

III 

137 

315 

180 

1532J 

263 

55 

344 

58 

26 

187 

1418 



64 i 

lOOl 

66! 

77 
62: 



3^ 



3'A 

3 

2 

3% 

4 



63 



* Estimated, 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



115 



TABLE IV— Concluded. 



ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE. 



COUNTIES. 









PUPILS— 


r. 


•o 




TS „• 


"« «)• 1 














T 




=3 O 




s 


2 


h.'o 


2^ 


t'^ 




O 


^ 2 




Co 


_c 


c 


= ,^ 


Woi 


Wen 


yA 




•S-o 




■S3 


1| 


n 


•Stt- 


xA 


a^ 


W^ 


i& 


^.E 


5-s| 



Percent- 
ages. 



Whole No. Enrolled 
n Public Schools. 



< 






>, 


n^ 


■3 = 




o H 


^P 


II 


11 


c 



iJ— . >» 



8425 



270 

1079 
601 

619 

^62 



446 



Arapahoe ' 469 

Archuleta | 

Bent 

Boulder I 23 

Chaffee... \ 15 

Clear Creek | 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer.. I 

Delta I j 

Dolores ' ' 

Douglas I ! 

Eagle .! \ 

Elbert ' 68 

El Paso 76 1208 

Fremont ; 20 386 

Garfield 

Gilpin 794 

Grand 

Gunnison 17 405 

Hinsdale 102 

Huerfano 

Jefferson.. 50 597 

Lake 19 

La Plata 

Larimer 55 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park :... 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 113 

Rio Grande 

Routt ; 

Saguache '■ 

San Juan \ 

San Miguel | 

Summit ' 89 

Weld 108 979 



1036 

393 
696 
568 
177 
202 

"3 
20Q 
462 
1575 
196 



94.5 


9099 


,SS 


48 


138 


367 


1401 


2284 


366 


918 


.sqq 


"39 


«53 


1027 


417 


337 


434 


803 


379 


316 


.51 


47 


491 


446 


107 


104 


234 


284 


SIS 


1601 


1144 


1468 


209 


173 


412 


1160 


36 


29 


230 


608 


b 


104 


847 


709! 


1^9 1 


1375 


196 


II2li 


4«5 


777! 



1074 

1049 

184 

214 
119 
308 



39 

176 

1472 



1622 

1491; 

325' 

378 

205 

469 

44i| 

2221 

433' 

55 

391 j 

104 

39'. 

201 j 

2280'- 



740 
5^ 

41 1 
219 

64 

79 
188 
80 
77, 
63 
4 
45' 



36 
46 
7' 
44 
4' 
138 
163 
130 

lOI 

203 
126 
36 
38 
27 

39 
21 
183 



48 



4888 

35 

203 

1284 

499 
608 
669 
285 
428 
200 
26 



594 
15 
309 
47 
484 
793 
645 
506 
965 
927 
209 
227 
122 
239 
254 

t2I5 

273 

40 

216 



122 
[303 



4951 


98.39 


18 


53 


205 


408 


1219 


2.S03 


483' 


982 


610, 


1218 



546 

132 
452 
179 
25 
263 

56 

142 
909 
780 

91 
612 

21 

343 
61 

363 
745 
606 
372 
860 
690 
152 
189 
110 
269 
208 



35 
223 
57 
19 
133 
1256 



Total : 965 22410 17315 36999I 3691 1 20915 19775 40690; 26428 



i 1215I 

417J 

I 880 1 

I 3791 

491 1 

T07I 

I 302 

1799 

1550 

209 

1206 

36 

652 

108 

847 

1538 

1251 

8781 

1825 

1617 

361 

416 

232 

508 

462 

2404 

474 

75 

439 

105 

39 
255 
2559 



7108 


64 


72 


3 


32 


65 


60 


2 


245 


58 


60 


2 


1772 


67 


70 


3 


603 


68 


fci 


3 


776 


68 


63 


2^ 


680 


6*^ 


50 


5 


233 


43 


55 


2 


523 


77 


59 


2 


219 


75 1 


57 


5 


25 


59 i 


49 


2 


314 


68: 


64 


3 




38: 


64 


2 


188 


68' 


62 


3 


1064 


79: 


59 


2 


910 


75; 


58 


4 


96 


72: 


45 


2 


759 


75I 


63 


2 


20 


53 1 


55 


4 


401 


79 1 


61 


2 


75 


9i| 


69 


5 


417 


43 


49 


3H 


992 


75! 


64 


3 


952 


49' 


70 


2 


401 


94I 


45 


5 


IIIO 


75' 


60 


4 


839 


47 


51 


2 


212 


72, 


58 


2 


237 


66 


57 


2 


138 


7°'. 


59 


2 


359 


72; 


70 


2 


309 


80 


66 


2 


1753 


821 


72 


3 


319 


^3' 


67 


2 


41 


58^ 


53 


2 


266 


68 : 


60 


2 


53 


57' 


50 


2 


22 


59 


54 


2^2 


182 


591 


71 


3, 


1395 


i 


54 


3^2 


6428 


66' 


64 





116 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



TABLE V. 



NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN GRADED AND UNGRADED SCHOOLS. ANI> 
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARIES. 





1885 




GRADED SCHOOLS. 


UNGRADED SCHOOL.S. 


COUNTIES. 


Teachers. 


Salaries. 


Teachers. 


Salaries. 




i 


E 


"5 





B 




6 


H 

H 


1 


e 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson , 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas , 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande.. 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel .. 

Summit 

Weld 



[2 50 



100 00 

106 2S 

87 91 

150 00 

1 66 60 

87*57 
66 66 



65 CO 
150 CO 
96 00 



$ 66 



t53 50 



100 00 
75 00 



130 00 
150 00 
92 50 
78 92 

125 GO 



70 CO 
104 GO 
100 00 

103 33 
*3i 45 
M3 33 



75 00 



66 66 

69 20 
70 

79 16 

75 < 

"59 18 

52 50 



50 00 
66 87 
53 00 



72 66 
"68 66 



69 8 
80 00 
68 33 
63 40 
56 66 
8g go 
55 00 
75 50 
60 00 
88 75 
63 72 
75 00 



60 00 
81 94 



97 29 



75 00 
56 75 



32 $ 51 00 ^ 



27 



60 00 
48 4 
60 00 
70 00 
66 68 
37 
45 
53 75 
90 
48 46 



52 
48 65 
51 
50 00 

60 GO 

45 00 
50 00 



53 17 
48 70 
75 00 
53 88 

45 70 

46 56 



62 50 
54 00 

50 GO 



46 66 
44 58 

50 GO 

59 00 



80 OG 

60 00 
45 40 



57 00 

50 00 
47 46 

46 89 

51 73 
53 79 

58 05 

45 00 
39 65 

47 50 

58 GO 

41 39 
53 33 

47 25 

42 81 

43 CO 
41 66 
50 00 

50 00 

51 48 
50 00 

48 57 

41 30 
60 00 
53 00 

42 00 

46 81 

49 70 

50 00 

52 00 
40 00 



48 98 

49 79 

50 00 
47 50 



70 00 
55 62 
45 89 



8TATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



117 



TABLE V— Concluded. 



NUMBER QF TEACHERS IN GRADED AND UNGRADED SCHOOLS. AND 
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARIES. 



COUNTIES. 



[886. 



GRADED SCHOOLS. 



Teachers . 



Salaries. 



UNGRADED SCHOOLS. 



Teachers . 



Salaries. 








JJ 


a 


s 


fe 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos , 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas , 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale.. 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

. Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande.. 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel .. 

Summit 

Weld 



163 



$ 132 30 



95 00 
109 50 

91 38 
156 00 

84 45 



$ 76 71 



83 33 



66 66 
103 50 



94 37 
80 00 



107 50 

187 50 
155 44 
98 66 
125 00 

100 GO 
85 00 
100 GO 

77 50 

150 CG 

136 40 

125 00 



70 00 



3| 70 00 
23 99 91 



68 75 
66 00 
63 50 
76 25 
71 25 



53 70 



50 00 
66 42 
70 71 



65 33 
40 00 



62 50 
81 25 
64 25 
62 50 
56 25 
76 00 
55 00 
75 00 
50 00 
97 63 
71 32 
75 00 



60 00 
80 00 



65 00 
62 60 



I 




20 


^5 


15 


32 




7 


q 


10 


II 


61 


32 


7 




8 



41!$ 

4 
10 
67 
39 
15 
26 
13 
25 



53 40 

48 00 
55 00 
50 09 

52 50 
85 00 

53 12 
38 79 

46 50 

63 33 
90 00 

50 75 

49 16 

54 16 

47 00 
62 00 
60 00 
70 00 
40 00 
60 00 

50 00 
49 63 
45 61 



60 66 
49 93 
47 89 



43 05 
50 00 
47 50 



53 33 
45 60 
60 00 
51 58 



60 00 
50 09 



49 68 
46 20 

50 25 

42 65 

46 84 

47 32 

45 50 
49 00 
40 63 

46 87 
90 00 

43 60 
58 75 
46 07 
40 00 
43 30 
49 79 
52 50 
45 00 

48 43 



45 43 
40 79 

53 00 

51 85 
42 20 

44 77 

52 50 
50 54 

45 16 
44 4<i 



48 19 
44 16 
50 00 

49 10 



80 00 
52 60 
43 82 



118 



STATE SUPERIi^TENDENT S REPORT. 



TABLE VI. 

DISTRICTS. SCHOOL HOUSES AND TUITION. 









1885. 












No. of Days 
of School. 


SCHOOL HOUSES. 


Av. cost per 
month for 
each pupil. 


COUNTIES. 














^ 


















c . 




~ 
















«5 « 

S 2 








.y 


•Sg 


«'P 


^ 


,0 


? 


2 

c 


.T3 

> C 




o, 


'3^ 


IS 


^ 


> 


■5 

'J5 


3^ 


>. 





Arapahoe .... 
Archuleta ... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison .... 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer . 

Las Animas. 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan — 
San Miguel . 

Summit 

Weld 



13 • 
22, 



[841 



2001 
^78 
160 
200 
180 



165I 
186 
180 



177 
90 

152! 
1751 
191 1 
160 
1351 
200 j 
190 
180' 
180; 
160; 



i37| 
180 



160 



[40, 49; $ 



106' 
100 

125I 
104! 

4j 
U 

194 
110 
121 
144 
no 
114 
80 
no 
80 
91 
65 



124 
60 

106 i 
120! 
100! 
146 

69 
102 



113 
95 
60, 

lOI 



202 

79' 
124 



I -^: 



39 



,037,100 

200 

19.725 

69,34 

46,927 

21,600 

19.150 

1,829 

II. 135 

7.665 

2,000 

13.665 

1,000 

10,640 

71,870 

44,041 



733 

445 

931 

141 

50 

614 

42 

396 

1736 

1438 



49,975 
600 

46,350 
4.485 
8,050 

43.237 

141,290 

17,710 

46,770 

37,840 

12,600 

11,300 

11,200 

11,225 

5.198 

157,256 

17,785 

250 

10.755 

11,000 

4,000 

10,500 

115,632 



Total 



645 



108; 5251 ^2,052,100 38482 10660 



936 

150 

1 155 

166 

400 

1805 

1670 

627 

1757 
650 
301 
275 
425 
540 
160 

2165 
522 
50 
404 
100 
40 
355 

2539! 



5620 



86951 

723! 
2870! 490 

1359 
1077 



150 



1768 



290 
50 



45' 
520' 



25' 
415 



535I 

68 i 



2 96I 
2 69 
2 66l 

2 66; 

1 60 

2 01 

1 77, 
5 43' 

2 53' 
I 56: 

3 02 
I 73' 

1 10 
3 52 

2 50! 
2 99I 



3 17 
632 
7 ool 

97| 

2 59; 

4 391 

3 841 
2 45; 

5 05| 
2 91; 
2 78, 
2 76 



$4 48 

2 08 

6 81 

3 55 

7 29. 

2 91 

3 37 
3 68 

3 72 

4 01 



25 



4 07 

2 76 
7 64 

3 63 
2 50 



2 95 
I 21 

5 22 
4 46 
8 95 

3 98 

6 27 

7 83 
'7 75 
I 48 

76 
43 
55 
80 



4 
7 
5 
3 

6 96 
5 42 
4 06 
4 26 



i 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S KEPOKT. 



119 



TABLE VI — CONCLCDED. 



DISTRICTS, SCHOOL HOUSES AND TUITION. 



[886. 



COUNTIES. 



No. of Days 

of School. 






SCHOOL HOUSES. 



Av. cost per 
month for 
each pupil. 



J< o 



S 5 



^« 






Arapahoe. 

Archuleta. ... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata ... . 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande , 

Routt 

Saguache ...., 

San Juan 

San Miguel . 

Summit. 

Weld 



Total 



152 
120 



125 
99 



95 



199 


I 


I 


116 


21 


22 


117 


2 


2 


159 


14 


15 


104 


33 


' 45 


127 


21 


34 


B8 


3 


4 



67! i79J^; 1275^ 



194^] 128 j 9 20 



15 


4! 


2, 


3 


15 


17 


32 


50 


9 


32 


15 


22 


44 


50 



106 

535 
2711 

1551 
1225 

859 

55 

1123 

439 

50 

630 

463 
1593 
1639 

148 

993 

20 

1047 

162 

973 

1882 

2125 

610 

1853 

1220 

460 

616 

302 

660 

480 

2763 

. 552 

116 

524 

75 

40 

375 



,108,000 
750 
21,050 
74,667 
45,725 
36,850 
18,385 

1,860 
",837 

8,175 

2,000 
13,600 

1,030 
",675 
88,820 
46,100 

2,400 

38,130 
270 
44,400 
29,086 
8,365 
45,966 

141,550 
27,475 
57.205 
35,445 
13,500 
12,260 
10,900 
17.150 
15,200 

173.910 
14,295 
260 
io,6oo 
11,000 
4,000 
11,500 

128,592 



685 1 172 



106 63] 



42864 $2,343,983 11561 



5742 



50 



50 



590 
58 



350 



75 



32 
300 



$3 61 
72 
07 
63 
40 



1 33 
5 43 

3 30 
8 90 

2 08^ 
2 II 
1 28 

1 92! 

2 82: 

1 70 

2 76 
2 78; 
2 44' 

4 55: 

2 38, 

3 48' 
356, 

4 29 
338, 



2 761 



37 

89 

62 

5 15 

4 45 

4 55 

5 50 
8 14 
3 96 

2 43 

3 47 
2 09 
8 91 

51 



120 



STATE SUPEKINTENDEIMT S REPORT. 



TABLE VI 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 









RECEIPTS. 






COUNTIES. 


rt 00 


"rt 

V 




-5 

33 . 


1 

o 


Receipts 






S c 




-■o 


eg 


"rt 






1^ 


1- 


1- 


si 


O 



Arapahoe \$ 

Archuleta 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel 

Summit 

Weld 



65630 78 $138345 00 



9149 50 

5118 90 

4396 19 

7267 10 

5266 67 

1689 II 

1897 30 

847 70 

794 40 

3440 38 

608 71 

4845 60 

4407 33 

4369 51 

143 47 

634 45 

224 51 

4481 19] 

478 57l 
2544 43| 

4454 611 

685 73 

2312 17I 

7673 53i 

16809 61 1 
1946 64 

3237 39; 

769 79, 
3288 77 

227 06 

10527 43 

4018 68 

168 38 

3173 65 

727 75 

1015 29 

1818 16 

12831 55 



8181 94 

15774 35 

9967 43 

6633 34 

7844 52 

2710 84 

5482 80 

2297 75 

592 34 

4801 15 

688 22 

6560 95 

12444 25 

1 1036 71 1 

783 12 

5599 07' 
1210 86 
7300 37 
2637 31 
6190 05 
9810 27 
6096 39 
7148 31 

17221 77 

10241 61 
2721 92 
1389 60 
1172 45 
3878 36 
489 87 

25343 43 
2857 10 
788 50 
3661 06 
2069 50 
947 24 
2841 74 

26402 71 



$142998 10 $ 68231 70 $ 13189 60 



3483 
15230 
4924 

1 1 797 
2848 

549 

2294 

786 

995 

1930 

643 

4001 

18784 

7389 

26 

12606 

285 

12505 

3 
2098 
10542 
17618 
4500 
10998 
4845 
1976 
2074 
6095 
2516 

1737 

40999 

5394 

215 

3398 



1045 
19455 



4423 07 

3164 20 

[5367 21 

434 19 

377 89 



II 54 

2949 50 

98 42 



I 182 29 



1408 58 

113 08 
2823 34 

646 74 
2603 51 

834 33 



314 



73102 51 
3143 24 



521 21 
1504 63 
1672 25 



Totals $203921 99 $382766 17 $380290 59 $189132 98 $64353 14 $1220464 87 



1407 55 
497 34 
648 12 

1268 13 

32 50 

242 18 



50 80 

3075 97 

265 12 

8 30 

55 41 

3271 25 

27 70 

72 65 



6734 19 



4378 99 
1930 96 
21 35 
5152 94 
4224 57 

148 46 
2984 72 

416 34 
1022 44 
1611 45 



$ 428395 18 



1138 18 
I 75 
839 13 
300 00 
204 21 
92 75 
901 I 19 



20827 23 
41954 56 
22950 12 
41713 42 
1 7661 76 

5360 32 

9916 93 

3931 46 

2444 73 
16197 04 

2303 58 
1 5416 61 
37896 48 
26067 13 
980 77 
18913 22 

1720 50 
32203 95 

3119 07 
10848 27 
30594 95 
26931 89 
14095 09 
43869 96 
367^9 14 

9396 99 
10520 34 

8454 33 
11020 55 

4065 85 

149973 21 

16552 04 
1174 II 

13072 83 
3<^97 56 
3407 74 
7302 93 

69373 01 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT 8 REPORT. 



121 



TABLE VI I— Concluded 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1885. 







EXPENDITURES. 




-0 3 >n 














'jj 




H 


c«-T3 




sr- 


COUNTIES. 


ii 


£x 


- •> 


§•« 


3 


c^ ?, 




H 


5| 


Sites 
ilding 
rnitur 


Temp 
ans P 


al 
pendl 


ill 




si 


|« 


1-3 3 


1^ 


^« 


lo< 



Arapahoe $\ 

Archuleta . 

Bent I 

Boulder 

Chaffee ; 

Clear Creek ' 

Conejos ; 

Costilla j 

Custer ' 

Delta 

Dolores ; 

Douglas ' 

Eagle ! 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa , 

Montrose „ 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt :..., 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel 

Summit 

AVeld„.., 



42176 93! $65023 39; $82825 14 



1647 67 
6235 06 
1839 68 

6314 3Q 

2221 40 

250 00 

319 35 
166 40 



6795 

23332 

12579 

14317 

7984 

2028 

6774 

-J428 

HOC 

5608 

945 

5244 

1 71 52 

12490 

490 

13686 

540 

9020 

1525 

6630 

153T5 

7483 

7995 

19970 

13515 

3239 

2193 

3577 
5538 
1695 
29666 
6603 

649 
5125 
1475 

690 

2793 
26789 



1391 30. 
4428 94i 
3185 62' 
3048 33 ■ 
1182 65' 
882 08: 
1283 lO' 

678 22; 

379 94; 

459 83 

183 85: 
1796 73! 
5788 52 
3595 60; 

116 75 

2099 89 

58 60; 

2718 20! 

1282 95. 

304 91 
3581 39 
6744 17' 
1509 21' 
5555 19, 
3537 18 
ir88 55 i 

300 76! 

858 72^ 
1156 oil 

858 99; 
23175 02! 
1831 65; 

87 20J 

1379 341 
I 158 40 
458 01 
942 00 
7544 26 



Totals I447169 95!$i6i755 52 J160797 9811163887 60' *|934726 83 



$18742 78 



$ 508768 24 $119626 94 



601 50 

2596 32 

8 99! 



26I 



2523 66 
137 48 
2040 03 
5889 12 
2010 34 



17 441 
81 88, 



3346 15 j 
203 991 



1305 13^ 
2757 2i| 



6650 95 
21 8o| 
1 148 75|- 
2€>45 71 

743 29 

362 94J 

5295 94' 
1467 651 
2122 54J 
4590 69, 
2157 27; 
861 621 

1556 54i 
1956 oo( 



436 641 
9239 40 



5235 
"I95 


57 
15 


3904 49 
7235 46 


16 71 
143 79 



86221 41' 
1908 72' 



2351 63I 206 20! 



361 CO . 

628 25 . 
I195I 29! 



10436 29 

36593 13 
17613 38 
23679 72 

1 1 589 73 
3160 99 

8394 73 
3355 32 
1479 94 

11938 44 
1470 47 
9081 31 

30134 77 

20853 74 
6g6 75 

16327 89 
598 60 

28745 44 
2829 75 
8083 03 

26178 64 

26165 61 
9867 52 

34726 43 

25755 46 
6550 09 
7101 81 
6737 13 
7556 17 
3443 39 
I 40619 52 

12299 37 

736 70 

po62 36 

2633 40 
1509 01 
4363 92 

53677 74 



10390 94 

5361 43 

5336 74 

18033 70 

6072 03 

2199 33 

1522 22 

576 14 

964 79 

4258 60 

833 II 

6335 30 

7761 71 

5213 39 

374 02 
2585 33 
1121 90 
3458 51 

289 32 
2764 34 
4416 31 

766 28 
4227 57 
9143 53 
11013 68 
2846 90 
3418 53 
1717 20 
3464 38 

622 46 
9353 69 
4252 67 

437 41 
4010 47 

464 16 

1898 73 

2939 oi 

15695 27 



$285738 04 



* Includes $1, 116^08 not itemized. 



122 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



TABLE VIM. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1886. 



COUNTIES. 







RECEIPTS. 






hand 
1885. 


i 


a 


to 

is 


1 



H. 


"* 


. 


m 


3 

33 . 




S 


*J Q, 


s'S 


£-§ 


b'^ 


ii 




1'^ 


&- 


1^ 


&- 




H 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek , 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson I 

Lake i 

La Plata 1 

Larimer ! 

Las Animas....; 

Mesa 

Montrose : 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel 

Summit 

Weld 

Totals 



^119626 94!;^ 

60 99 

10390 94 

5196 29 

5461 35 

[7127 38 

6072 03 

2047 65 

1922 91 

595 62 

964 79 

4386 35 

833 II; 

6153 861 

8381 78 

4740 56 

702 33 

2756 67 

2706 82 

3000 14 

282 58 

2912 10 

4461 34 

597 69 

4229 25 

7574 43 

11066 89 

2459 52 j 

1831 241 

1753 491 

3530 oil 

234 53! 

8038 89 1 

4262 67 

756 94i 

3583 51 1 

523 74 

1833 09 

1553 86| 

16250 99' 



:i3i6i 

48( 

9558 

14499 
7062 
5384 
6115 
1803 
4365 
2800 

539 
4152 

550 
5717 
1 004 1 
9804 
1822 
4187 

995 
4471 
208B 

5469 
9032 
167A 

7927 
16092 

9957 
2479 

1833 

864 

4063 

1625 



4309 
1594 
1060 
1448 
24559 



64 
20 
42 
41 

54 
71 
19 
13 
99 
63 
70 
48 
04 
50 
04 
34 
16 
97 
64 
44 
22 

40 j 
28 

04 1 
'5! 



^100719 6r 

477 04 

109 89 

18865 28 

6586 59 

I I 190 44 

3421 31 

409 65 
2938 93 
1 173 80 

548 82 
2068 39 

331 72 

2956 23 

20544 44 

7808 44 

1248 83 

16058 92 

212 00 
9256 09 



2525 S4 

12294 14 

4326 16 

3002 47 

14564 13 

2994 07 

2784 82 

2637 86 

2136 37 

4428 27 

10457 55 

27185 27 

6125 87 

57 15 
2960 49 



;^843o6 06 



3371 53 

4640 32 

1243 78 

234 83 



7 65 
1183 44 
2 45 
1325 61 
220 00 
240 71 
22652 24 



2035 00 
289 85 



206 94 



1377 20 
1307 74 



300 03 

445 74 

21 55 

2596 49 

1519 78 



284 03 



2046 62 

2448 01 

21 64 



727 99 1 

1502 25'. 

19118 62i 



365 33 
6756 01 



^280865 27'fo46738 I9jg326755 74^i4i45o 



5496 10 



4989 90 
716 43 
7009 67 
3094 23 
132 00 
606 70 
147 40 



167 24 
239 55 



239 00 
2152 17 
191 26 
897 79 



90 35 



181 75 

4595 5^ 

262 26 

158 34 

4189 24 

3616 64 

138 82 

1540 06 

269 21 

3070 32 

2429 80 

61562 17 

2532 32 

63 66 

1265 68 

63 49 

36 64 

1058 61 

7994 71 



$ 423310 54 

1027 67 

23430 56 

48191 21 

21070 56 

40946 86 

18703 28 

4392 49 

9841 32 

5901 25 

2055 69 

12100 29 

2174 86 

15067 84 

61858 96 

24505 21 

5999 76 
24190 39 

3914 79 

17025 16 

2371 02 

12466 II 

31691 13 

21908 39 

15617 13 

42865 69 

27656 83 

10458 69 

9362 22 

5023 99 

15376 38 

14747 63 

122831 63 

17487 61 

1867 89 

12118 95 

2181 34 

4024 00 

6563 40 

74680 08 



^121199 °2 $1217008 80 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



123 



TABLE vim-Concluded. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1886. 



COUNTIES. 





EXPENDITURES. 




-«, 


' 6 


>. 


^ ! 


teache 
ges. 


current 
penses. 

sites, 

Idings, 

niture,e 


tenipor.n 
ns paid. 


al expen 
es. 


u a 


^ s^ i' -! — 






=2^ 


£- \ ^^'^ 


1^ 


i- 1 



^H -" 



■5^ 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Qear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Engle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Mesa „ 

Montrose 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande 

Routt ; 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel 

Summit 

Weld ^ 

Totals ' 



$157289 2ok 

347 60] 

6519 20[ 

26009 88| 
12134 051 
14856 371 

9442 80; 

2263 50! 

6i83 33J 

3061 25 1 
900 00| 

6311 00 

1270 OQi 

5437 37! 
2x950 96: 
1 3166 69 

1080 99! 

14677 00| 

590 ooj 

8479 171 

870 ool 

6817 28! 
I6I65 64 1 

9899 5o| 
8432 48 
51283 84 
14181 27J 
3738 ooj 

3614 23I 
3420 00 
6589 28! 
5787 85! 
36552 72 j 

6403 60 I 
1142 i5t- 
59^5 87' 
1440 oo| 
735 00 
2833 62 j 
30170 61 



37896 39 $ 

257 74 
1529 12 
4534 10 
1898 96 
3572 22; 
2425 671 

754 161.. 
1273 41 

988 79! 

245 25 

570 73; 

132 05, 

638 41: 
6404 13 
2300 66: 

466 60 
2797 52 

no o5i .. 

4990 73' 

414 06, 

732 04 I 

3559 09* 

9290 58!... 



3150 



7J 

1792 89: 

960 96 

21 1 1 52' 

535 05J 
1323 31 
6455 79 
[9483 10, 
3452 24! 

498 67' 

475 12 . 

576 27 

1745 05 1 

8491 661 



59840 4i|;J 28185 81' 

58 oo| I 

7578 05! 224 29: 
7718 76} 1217 o7| 



1933 26 

16368 00 

673 63 



534 II 
815 79 

II 78 

565 41 

145 45 

1338 05 

20286 68 

737 96 

2151 61 

2030 69 



402 27 
1172 43| 
654 00; 



618 22J 



802 84 

120 00 



222 47 
890 00 

559 33 
1243 07 



105 78 
3903 68 
1053 89 
2369 05 

541 41 

728 04 
3525 17 
1470 80 
4751 82 
1910 86 
49 58 

388 93 



556 07 

2656 45 

91 96 

224 68 



387 


81 


372 


70 


4213 


63 


70 


03 



274 64 
1327 84 

14943 86 



3695 


47 


%l 11 

42 69 


154 90 


44953 
463 


06 
66 



^97968 30i$i44345 36i$i63047 80 



1214 56 
361 60 
3204 24 



$ 2832II 81 


Si 


66334 




15S50 66 




39479 81 




16368 48 




35969 02 




13196 10 




3017 66 




8614 07 




4865 83 




1157 03 




8249 98 




1667 50 




7413 83 




49197 84 




18861 76 




3791 16 




19729 89 




700 05 




14080 18 




2174 06 




8481 35 




25181 43 


19260 II- 


1168S 43 


34394 09 


20529 40 




7766 64 




6267 85 




4725 78 




I I 592 66 




13714 44 




105740 70 




12230 36 




"91 73 


8018 03 


1915 12 


1947 51 


5906 51 


56810 37 


_ 



[40098 73 

364 33 

7579 90 

8711 40 

4702 08 

4977 84 

5507 18 

1374 83 

1227 25 

1035 42 

898 66 

3850 31 

507 36 

7654 01 

12661 12 

5643 45 

2203 65 

4460 50 
3214 74 
2944 98 
196 96 
3984 76 
6509 70 
2648 28 
3928 70 
8471 60 

7127 43 
2692 05 

3094 37 

298 21 

3783 72 

1033 19 

17090 93 

5257 25 

676 16 
4100 92 

266 22 
2076 49 

656 89 
17869 71 



$100261 II $ 905622 57 $311386 23 



124 



STATE superintendent's REPORT 



TABLE IX. 

FINANCIAL SUMMARIES. 



1885. 



Amount on hand September 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund 

From Building Fund 

From all other sources 



r884 



Total receipts. 



For teachers' wages 

For current expenses 

For sites, buildings, furniture, etc 

For temporary loans paid 

Expenditures not itemized 



Total expenditures 

Balance in hands of County Treasurer, August 31, i? 
Totals 



203.921 99 
382,766 17 
380,290 59 
189,132 98 
64,353 14 



$ 1,220,464 87 



447,169 95 
161,755 52 
160,797 98 
163,887 60 

l,Tl6 08 



$ 934,726 83 



$ 285,738 C4 



$ 1,220,464 87J $ 1,220,464 87 



1886. 



Amount on hand September i, 1885 , 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund 

From Building Fund 

From all other sources 



Total receipts. 



For teachers' wages 

For current expenses 

For sites, buildings, furniture, etc 
For temporary loans paid 



Total expenditures 

Balance in hands of County Treasurer, August 31, 1886. 
Totals 



$ 280,865 27 
346,738 19 
326,75s 74 
141,450 58 
121,199 02 



$ 1,217,008 80 



497,968 30 

144.345 36 

163,047 80 

100,261 II 



$ 905,622 57 



$ 311,386 23 



$ 1,217,008 80' $ 1,217,008 80 



STATE SUPERHSTTENDENt's REPORT. 



125 



TABLE X. 

APPORTIONMENT OF STATE FUND. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe 

Archuleta .... 

Bent 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek... 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso .... 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mesa.. 

Montrose .... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin ;., 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache , 

San Juan 

San MigueL.. 

Summit 

Weld 



1885. 

70 CENTS PER CAPITA. 



1886. 



CENTS PER CAPITA. 



ii 



<o-o i 

O O I 



O u 
1^ 



$ 1 1359 50 



84$ 11340 66 



396 75 

2360 25 

1280 50 

1275 00 

1190 25 

723 00 

891 75 

169 50 

53 25 

491 25 

114 00 

266 25 

1530 00 

1359 75 

51 75 

1182 75 

148 50 

837 75 j 

136 50 

1471 50 

1452 00 

1924 50 

681 75 

1506 00 

2334 00 

249 75 

171 OOi 
222 00| 

571 50 

133 50 

2213 25! 

487 50! 
69 75! 

537 75' 
119 25^ 

69 75 
320 25 
1829 25! 



15 42 
57 54 
40 81 

25 24 

26 20 

10 71 

22 09 
18 80 

2 45 

16 62 
I 32 

20 46 

1 60 

21 52 

16 68 
20 26 
20 00 

23 15 

2 65 

11 28 
5 10 

25 57 

17 34 
83 26 

26 32 
635 

16 39 
23 00 
20 09 
10 39 
44 30 
29 76 
7 " 

12 80 
I 84 

7 90 

8 45 
93 65 



381 33 

2302 71 

1238 69 

1249 76 

1164 05 

712 29 

869 66 

150 70 

50 80 

474 63 

112 68 

245 79 

1528 40 

1338 23 

35 07 

1162 49 

128 50 

814 60 

133 85 

1460 22 

1446 90 

1898 93 

664 41 

1432 74 

2307 68 

243 40 

154 61 

199 00 

551 41 

123 II 

2168 95 

457 74! 
62 64 
524 95 
117 41 
61 85I 
3" 8oj 
1755 60 



3294 44 

24 68 

130 col 

732 04 j 

346 99 1 

399 99 1 

435 10 

202 36] 

275 871 

83 80 

21 96 

149 26 

43 26 

94 22 

478 84 

417 66 

36 46 

360 58 

21 06 

211 78 

34 87 

457 97 

452 77 

575 75 

20I 81 

523 89 

779 16 

98 07 

98 07 

81 54 

U3 14 

97 62 

667 26 

168 74 

21 96 

167 83 

41 45 

21 52 

91 04 

641 89 



36 23 
19 38 

17 76 

84 31 
30 40 

19 22 

18 83 
17 37 
13 57 
30 90 

35 
12 48 
5 32 
3 40 
32 81 
84 17 
10 90 

20 22 



3258 21 

5 30 

112 24 

647 73 

316 59 

380 77 

416 27 

184-89 

262 30 

52 90 

21 61 

136 78 

37 94 

00 82 

446 03 

333 49 

25 56 

340 36 

21 06 

171 72 

29 38 

397 39 

404 09 

563 96 

188 II 

480 71 

713 35 

75 25 

67 02 

75 61 

113 14 
81 03 

622 31 
145 85 

147 35 
39 80 
19 72 
78 78 

560 35 

Total '$ 42181 50', $ 833 26$ 41348 24 J 13126 60 $ 1060 83 $ 12065 77 






40 06 

5 49 

60 58 

48 68 

11 79 
13 70 

43 18 
65 81 
22 82 
31 05 

5 93' 
30 00 
16 59I 

44 951 
22 89' 
21 96 
20 48 ■ 

I 6s! 
I 8o| 

12 26 
81 54' 



o 3 



APPENDIX. 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION 



1885-1886. 



state Teachers' Association 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS, 

1885. 



Independence of Thought and Character." 



L. S. CORNELL. 



In the use of the time allotted to the President for the 
opening address, it seems important to direct your atten- 
tion to the necessity of cultivating in the youth the habit 
of independent thought as a prerequisite to the formation 
of good and noble character and useful lives. Among 
those who have charge of the intellectual and moral train- 
ing of the youth the question should often arise: "What 
is most needed for the child, society, and the government 
in which he is to exercise the functions of citizenship?" 
It is evident that whatever is best for the child will be best 
for the society and government .of which he is a factor. 

It is the duty of those who have the direction of habits 
of thought and life largely under their control to know the 
qualities that constitute the valuable and noble citizen. 

Duty requires those who give shape to thought and 
character to know what system of training is necessary to 
develop the most valuable possibilities of the child, thereby 
preparing him to be a desirable member of society and 
State. To do this well requires knowledge of the, child, as 
well as a knowledge of what constitutes the basis of a great 
and permanent people. If we determine what is desirable 



130 STATE SUPPJKIxNTENDENT'S UEPOKT. 

for the individual, we siiall know what is desirable for 
society and the State, and 7iice versa. 

Especially should the American teacher ask what is 
most needed to insure the purity, prosperity and safety of 
the American people, and what can be done by our schools 
to supply that need. In making this inquiry, it will be 
well to remember that the glory and stability of a nation, 
do not depend upon the wealth of its citizens, nor upon 
the rush of its people for places of distinction and honor, 
but that the life of a nation is preserved or destroyed by 
the thought and character of its people. 



The Rich Inheritance. 

Wealth of pure, indep:ndent i nought aiul noble char- 
acter is the richest inheritance a nation can possess. To 
secure these, much labor is required on the part o^ those 
who direct the thoughts and habits of childhood. Edu- 
cators should carefully study the thought and character of 
the American people, and note the condition and tenden- 
cies of the same. By doing so they should be able to de- 
termine whether or not the conditions of a great and per- 
manent people are met. It does not answer to say that 
teachers have little or nothing to do with the habits of 
thought and character of the people. It is fully time that 
educators realized the importance of the school in the 
formation of habits, whether mental or moral. If these 
two factors are the life preservers of the nation, then the 
schools are responsible if they fail to do their part in pro- 
•ducing them. The mental and moral habits of life are 
adopted in childhood, and the direction those habits as- 
sume depends upon the training. This divides the responsi- 
bility between the home and the school. In many homes 
the training is anything but desirable, and this increases 
the labor and responsibility of the teacher. 

Educators are largely responsible for the mental tastes 
and habits of the people, therefore responsible for the 
tendency of character^ also; for the tendency of thought 
indicates the tendency of character. It has been said : 
"Tell me what one delights to read, and I will tell you his 



STATE teachers' ASSOCIATION. 131 

character." Teach a child to think right, and fix the habit, 
and you have, in a large measure, taught him to act right. 
Right thought, however, must include both manner and 
substance of thought. As a person thinks in his heart, so 
will he do. Our life work is composed of the execution 
of thought, good or bad. The ultimatum of education is 
reached when the child is taught to think right and do 
right. In the study of the tendency of American thought 
and character, do we find them all that is desirable? Is 
there a prevalence of pure and independent thought, joined 
with strength and uprightness of character? I think not. 
There is a want of the formation of independent opinions 
on the part of the people. They are swayed to and fro by 
ranting leaders. In a country like ours, such a condition 
is dangerous. The people are wild with a desire for 
wealth, position and display. These are elements of weak- 
ness, and will lead to decay and death. 

The tide of American desire must be turned from these 
things, toward the essential elements of permanency and 
greatness, nobleness of character and independent thought. 
Restless discontent is the spirit that rules. It is a disease 
that must be healed b}' a return to sober thought and sim- 
ple habits. The people must be made to feel that a pure 
life, crowned with noble thought, is more to be desired 
than riches, honor or display. The individual must be 
taught to form opinions for himself, and act accordingly. 



The Welfare of the Republic. 

That which is most conducive to the welfare of the 
Republic should be earnestly sought for until obtained, and 
the work can be best accomplished by a judicious training 
of the young. The saying, that intelligence is the safe- 
guard of the Nation, is true only when that intelligence 
produces independent thought and action ; for a Nation's 
safety cannot be divorced from the character of the people, 
whatever their intelligence may be. As character is the 
true test of the individual, so must it be in the aggregation 
•of individuals. 

Thought precedes action., and right thought precedes 



132 



right action. To procure that which is needed, the mental 
training must be such as to set the habit of thought in the 
right direction, and this training should give the mind 
power and inclination to think for itself. Without inde- 
pendent thought there can be no independent action. A 
few years ago, I read of a man who was trying to get his 
cow upon the top of his house that she might eat a boun- 
tiful crop of grass that had grown upon the dirt roof. He 
was rigging up some kind of a contrivance for elevating 
the cow to the desired position, when one of his neighbors, 
observing his purpose, said: "Why don't you cut the grass 
and throw it down to the cow?" "Oh," said the man. "I 
hadn't thought of that." There is a great lack of inde- 
pendent thought in the w^orld, and always has been. 

The first object of education should be the develop- 
ment of thoughtfulness, and this should begin in the pri- 
mary department, for if it is neglected at first it will always 
be apparent in the work that follows. A teacher in the 
upper grades can determine, with considerable accuracy,, 
what the primary training has been. The power and incli- 
n ation to exercise independent thought should be developed 
in the child from the first. One author has wisely said : 
'Mental training should produce mental muscle, and not 
mental fat." Creative or productive minds, rather than 
acquisitive, should be the object. A pupil may commit to 
memory all the facts in a course at college, but if he has not 
become an independent thinker, he has simply acquired 
"metal fat," and not "mental muscle." He may have mental 
size, but no mental force. He may have a large, intellectual 
hand, but no mental grip. Educated in this way, he has a 
warehouse full of material which he cannot use. A man 
may own a prodigious lumber yard, and not be able to erect a 
single building. It is this system of educating the mind 
that has caused the people to ask for a more practical edu- 
cation; and in many places, manual labor has been intro- 
duced to satisfy this demand. When you have taught the 
child to exercise his own thoughts, and connect those 
thoughts with the activities of real life, you have met this 
want. Without this, the pupil enters real life as a machine, 
waiting to be acted upon — a flat-car on the track, waiting 
to be attached to a locomotive. It is astonishing to observe 
the number of fiats that are in America, to day, attached. 



1 



STATE teachers' ASSOCIATION. 133 

or waiting to be attached to some leader. It is for you to 
judge what the training has had to do with this state of 
things. The child educated by merely committing to 
memory the contents of the text books, finds himself una- 
ble to take hold of life in a practical way. 



The Mere Camp- Follower. 

He is helpless and dependent, a mere camp-follower. 
He (does not know the value of an independent thought; 
he will possess no independent opinion or character, but 
will think and do \^hat those think and do with whom he 
associates. The rule with this class is: " Do as others do' 
for you had as well be out of the world as out of fashion." 
This tendency indicates the training, for the action discloses 
the mind. Any system of education that is mechanical, 
and has for its object the mere acquisition of knowledge, 
has this tendency, and produces helpless imitators who are 
slaves to the thoughts and opinions of others. China has 
neither invented nor discovered anything for the last 500 
years. Living, progressive, independent thought has no 
existence in the nation, because there is nothing in their 
system of education to inspire creative or 'productive 
thought. Education there consists mostly in committing 
to memory records of ancient Chinese history and the 
dogmas of their religious system. Such a system of edu- 
cation destroys the plasticity of the mind, and leaves it 
rigidly fixed in slavery to the past. The moral qualities of 
this people very fully and justly reflect the mental condi- 
tion, for thought and action go hand in hand. Thought 
has been enslaved in all ages. Every age has had its limit 
of thought, beyond which it desired no one to go, and he 
who dared to express an opinion in advance of the age met 
with opposition and suffering. 

Each age has endeavored to enslave the thought of the 
•one that followed, and only through the heroes of thought, 
who dared to maintain opinions in advance of the times, 
has the world progressed. Conceptions that over-reach 
the common boundary of thought are startling to a prosy, 
self-satisfied people, and require courage on the part of the 
thinker, for opposition is aroused in proportion to the 



134 STATE superintendent's report. 

importance of the advance. There has been the slavery of 
conservatism born of prejudice, all along the ages, and 
our own country is not free from it. As a result, the 
advance of science, art, philosophy and religion has been 
through much tribulation. Slaves to the opinion of the 
majority, but few have the courage to advance. Christ suf- 
fered opposition and death because He dared to teach a 
system of religion in advance of the age in which He lived. 
Socrates must die, because he thought in advance of his 
time. Galileo suffered on the rack because he dared to 
teach that "the earth moves." Columbus was thought' be- 
side himself when preparing to sail westward in search of 
the Indies. Fulton was thought foojish and visionary 
when planning the navigation of the Hudson by the steam- 
boat. Morse was considered wild and chimerical when 
proposing to send messages from city to city by means of 
the telegraph. Patrick Henry must be greeted with the 
word "treason," because he dared to make a speech in 
favor of liberty on American soil. These, with many others, 
**were men of whom the world was not worthy." 



THE World Moving Onward. 



But, notwithstanding the opposition met by the heroes 
of thought, the world has moved onward in science, inven- 
tion, philosophy and religion. As age has succeeded age, 
evolution has succeeded evolution in the realm of thought 
and action, and to day the world has a higher and broader 
conception of life and its relations and duties than in the 
ages gone. The highest conception that a little boy had of 
power was his father, so when asked who made the world 
he replied, "My father." As he grew older his idea of 
power underwent a change. So, too, the little boy may 
think his father's farm forms a large part of the world, 
until his point of observation has been elevated and 
broadened. 

About three and one-half centuries before the Christian 
era, and during the reign of the Ptolemies in Egypt, there was 
erected on the coast of the Mediterranean, near the mouth of 
the Nile, the Pharos of Alexandria. It was 350 feet in 
height, and was built for the purpose of lighting vessels 



STATK TKACHEKS' ASSOCIATION. 135 

safely into harbor. Its light could be seen lOO miles at 
sea. This lighthouse was such a wonderful production for 
the age that it is known as one of the seven wonders of 
the world. This structure was of commercial value only, 
being material in its conception and design, and tends to 
show the spirit of the age in which it was built. Recently 
there has been placed on Bedloe's island, in New York 
harbor, a work of art which represents, " Liberty Enlight- 
ening the World." In this statue, by Bartholdi, is centered 
one of the grandest conceptions of human thought, and is 
the legitimate product of the series of evolutions that have 
grown out of the conflicts and experiences of the ages since 
the fires of the Pharos guided the mariner into port. The 
nations of to-day are radiating the light from fires kindled 
by a higher conception of man and his necessities than was 
known in the age of the Ptolemies; and America stands 
at the head, for upon her is conferred the honor of being 
represented by the statue of Liberty enlightening the 
world. The conception of Liberty, as represented by this 
statue, should mean more than freedom of body. It should 
convey the idea of a higher order of liberty — the emanci- 
pation of the mind. If the conception is in advance of the 
age, the people must be brought up to it by those whose 
duty it is to direct and encourage mental growth. For a 
long time the world has been making vigorous efforts to 
abolish human slavery, and it is now time to begin in 
earnest the emancipation of thought and character from the 
mechanical and treadmill conditions in which we find them, 
into the realm of independence, where the mind may act 
as a living force and the character have sufficient strenorth 
to Stand alone. 

Must Begin with the Youth. 

If this emancipation is to take place, it must begin with 
the youth in those places were habits of thought and char- 
acter are trained. If a people of independent thought and 
character in the next generation is desirable, the founda- 
tion must be laid in the children now. It must be thought 
no crime to have opinions at variance with those com- 
monly accepted. 

It is not the intention to encourage the rejection of old 



136 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

thought, but to inspire the mind to think for itself, whether 
the subject be new or old. We need a people who will 
think for themselves, and foim opinions upon questions of 
science, art, politics and religion. 

The people of the world have always been too ready to 
permit a few to do their thinking on these great subjects. 
The teacher and pupil who are content to let the text book 
furnish the limit of thought on a given subject, and believe 
duty performed when the contents are committed, are under 
the same spirit of bondage. It dbes not meet the case to 
say that the thoughts of the few have been good. The 
mere memorizing of those thoughts does not produce the 
quality of mind needed. Such a course leaves the mind 
unproductive, and the person devoid of individual thought 
or character. 

The teacher who enters the school room with the idea 
that he or she is an enormous reservoir of knowledge, and 
the pupils in charge are but so many empty little jugs to 
be filled by the overflowing abundance of the teacher's 
wisdom, has no place in the schools of to-day. 

The coming system of education is the one that shall 
induce the child to think independently, and act uprightly 
and conscientiously. 

A period has been reached in the educational work, 
when a knowledge of the human mind is regarded as an 
essential qualification on the part: of the teacher. The time 
has arrived w^hen the child is regarded as possessing mental 
and moral faculties, the same as other people. The teacher 
now needed is the one who knows something of the order 
of mental development. To meet this demand, the teacher 
must study the unfoldings of the child-mind in the order 
of nature, and lead it out into the realm of independent 
thought, where it can walk alone. That training which 
teaches the child to think for himself is the only true or 
valuable one. 

INDEPENDENT THOUGHT. 



The training that induces the child to exercise one inde- 
pendent thought is of far more value to himself and the 
world than the one that merely induces the child to commit 



STATE teachers' ASSOCIATION. 137 



volumes of existing thoughts to memory. The mind that 
simply acquires and never gives is of but little value. The 
impression should be thoroughly implanted in the minds 
of those who instruct the youth, that whatever tends to 
hold the mind to mechanical conditions and fix the limit 
of thought, saying: "Thus far shalt thou go and no far- 
ther," is detrimental to the world's best interests, and is a 
slavery that destroys the growth and activity of the intel- 
lect. The w^ork of lifting society above the shadows of 
this mental bondage must be done by the leaders of thought 
and action. Teachers should enter into this work with 
hearts of courage and hopefulness. Tor the reward is sure. 
I know of nothing better with w^hich to close this address 
than the lines of Charles Mackay: 

Men of thought be up and stiring night and day; 
Sow the seed withdraw the curtain — clear the way ! 
Men of action aid and cheer them as ye may ! 

There's a fount about to stream. 

There's a warmth about to glow, 

There's a flower about to blow , 
There's a midjjight blackness changing into gray; 
Men of thought and men of action, clear the way ! 

Once the welcome light has broken, who shall say : 
What the unimagined glories of the day ? 
What the evil that shall perish in its ray? 

Aid the dawning, tongue and pen ; 

Aid it, hopes of honest men ; 

Aid it, paper ; aid it, type ; 

Aid it, for the hour is ripe. 
And our earnest must not slacken into play ; 
Men of thought and men of action, clear the way ! 

Lo ! a cloud's about to vanish from the day ; 

And a brazen wrong to crumble into clay. 

Lo I the right's about to conquer ; clear the way ! 

With the right shall many more 

Enter smiling at the door ; 

With the giant wrong shall fall 

Many others, great and small. 
That for ages long have held us for their prey ; 
Men of thought and men of action, clear the way ! 



President's Address. 



H. F. We(3ENEr, Supaintendent Schools^ 



WEST DENVER. 



Fellow Teachers, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

On looking over the programme of the present meeting 
as prepared by the Executive Committee, I am much 
pleased with the division of the work into sections, the 
many new topics selected for consideration, and especially 
the lectures on pedagogy. I believe it can be taken as a 
fair measure of the general desire to get a better insight 
into the principles and maxims which form the basis of our 
work as teachers. 

I have therefore prepared a few thoughts suggested by 
this programme. 

We have often, at the close of our meetings, heard the 
remark, "What is the use of attending these conventions?" 
Year after year, we hear the same subjects treated in about 
the same way. Very few new and original thoughts are 
offered. Those subjects in which we are most directly in- 
terested are rarely touched, and if they are, it is in such an 
unsatisfactory way that it affords us little new and available 
knowledge. The men who have the largest experience 
and from whose lips we should expect words of wisdom 
and advice, sit here day after day and say nothing. Or, if 
perchance they are aroused from their moody silence, they 
speak with such exasperating brevity, or in such a vague, 
non-committal manner, that it forms rather a conundrum, 
than a means of information. 



140 

More than one teacher went away from our last meeting 
with the feehng that he had not received an adequate 
equivalent for the expense incurred and time lost by his 
attendance. 

I hope that the meetings which we are to-day inaugura- 
ting shall not merit such a criticism. That they shall be 
characterized by such a breadth and variety of thought, 
shall call out so much enthusiasm that everyone shall go 
away with a conviction that his attendance has been the 
means of giving him, not only new light, but also inspired 
him with a higher and nobler view of hi.^ calling. 

If we look over the columns of our many educational 
journals, a noticeable feature is the frequency with which 
we meet articles on industrial education, temperance, teach- 
ing, spelling reform, kindergarten, the new education and 
popular science. If we read the review notices, the large 
number of new books on the theory and art of education 
and educational methods, is particularly striking. Now and 
then, a work on pedagogy is beginning to appear. The 
question, Is pedagogics a science? seems to receive in this 
country, the same positive answer which it has received 
long ago in Germany and France. 

Among many thoughtful men outside of the profession, 
as well as among prominent educators, doubt is beginning 
to arise, regarding the educational values of the subjects we 
teach. The suggestion that we stop and take new bearings 
is one which should receive the thoughtful attention of 
every earnest teacher. 

I believe that this tendency to look with distrust upon 
historic methods and views, this seeking after better 
methods, this testing and this review, in order to see 
whether we have varied enough to keep pace with the pro- 
gress of civilization — whether we have resisted the law of 
evolution to accommodate ourselves to our ever-changing 
environment and conditions of society — is a healthful sign 
of the vigor and vitality of our professional body. So 
strong has this movement become, that even our great 
universities, which are monuments to conservatism, have 
found it necessary to rearrange and modify their courses 
of study to meet this new demand. This movement is not 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 141 

one which has suddenly sprung up ; it is the result of a 
steady growth, whose germ began many years ago. 

Many of the questions at issue will no doubt receive the 
consideration, which their importance deserves, at our 
present session. A few which may not be suggested, but 
which I think should not be overlooked, I shall venture to 
notice. 

One of these, is the subject of temperance teaching in 
our public schools. In a number of our States, the Leg- 
islatures have passed laws reading substantially as follows : 
" Teachers shall give instructions in physiology and hygiene, 
with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, 
stimulants and narcotics upon the human body." As soon 
as one or two States had added this requirement to the 
other duties of the teacher, enterprising publishers stood 
ready to furnish the necessary text books containing this 
specialty. It is not unusual to find text books, which have 
been gotten up on the spur of the moment, to be defective, 
and often not trustworthy. Such is the case with these 
text books. If we compare them with standard authors 
on physiology, we are very forcibly impressed with the 
general conservative statements of the latter, and the posi- 
tive specific language of the former. Our highest authori- 
ties on physiology confine themselves strictly to the physi- 
ological effects. The moral effect is a matter belonging in 
another field. Every teacher who attempts to teach the 
physiological effects of alcohol, should get his information 
from the best sources. He should make a clear distinction 
between the two effects. He should present both effects 
strictly in accordance with facts, and free from personal 
bias. I believe fanaticism, in any cause, more often retards 
than facilitates a reform movement. 

The evil effects of intemperance on the human race are so 
obvious that no sane man can have the temerity to defend 
them. The question with us should be, how can we contrib- 
ute to the reform ? How can we mould the qharacter and sen- 
timent of the rising generation that it shall be as much a part 
of their nature to abhor and avoid alcoholic stimulants as it 
is to shun deadly poison. Temperance, like every other 
social reform, in order to be permanent, must be a growth 
extending through generations. I believe the common. 



142 STATE SrPERINTENDENl^'s liEPOKT. 

school teacher can do more to bring about the solution of 
this problem than all the anti-license laws and prohibition 
parties combined. The firm, strong, consciously determined 
"I will," carries with it a force that no amount of coercive 
''You shall" can hope to achieve. 

The existence in our country of an association having 
for its object the reformation of our spelling, is known to 
most of our teachers. It was my good fortune to be per- 
mitted to listen to the deliberations and discussions of this 
organization at their eleventh annual session, last summer. 
It may not be generally known that this association is com- 
posed of many of the most prominent philologists of both 
England and America. The large array of eminent men 
who support this movement gives to it a character which, it 
seems to me. is not appreciated as fully as its object 
deserves. 

By common consent, all teachers who are required to 
teach spelling agree that the orthography of the English 
language is an abomination. Now, it would seem natural 
that no person could be more directly interested in this 
movement than the English speaking teacher. Such, how- 
ever, is not the fact. To what cause this apathy among 
teachers, to whom the simplification of our spelling should 
be a matter of gratitude, is due, it is hard to understand. 

Many years of fruitless effort to find some easy way of 
mastering the intricacies of English orthography, many 
failures to get as satisfactory results in the school room, as 
the time expended would warrant one to expect, has pre- 
pared me to embrace its spirit. The assertion has been 
made that, if all the teachers in the United States would 
take the interest in this matter which its importance de- 
mands; if every teacher would make himself thoroughly 
familiar with its object, its aim and the means to be used, 
and if he would take every opportunity to explain and 
expound to the intelligent people of the community in 
which he lives the advantages of such a change, reformed 
spelling would be an accomplished fact within ten years. 

Probably, not one of the many subjects which have 
sprung up in the course of the last few years, has attracted 
ihe attention of so many teachers, as the so-called New 



1 



president's address. 143 

Education. It is a matter of interest for us to know what 
this new education is. How does it differ from the old? 
Does it possess the merit which some of its enthusiastic 
supporters claim? What new principles form its basis? 
In one of our journals, which may be called the organ of 
its chief advocate, we get a kind of an answer to our queries. 

It says : The new education is distinguished from the 
old by the spirit it breathes. It says: Education is due to 
man, no matter what his occupation in life is to be ; no 
matter what the color of his skin ; no matter where he 
lives. As God is no respecter of person, neither should 
education be. That a man is ignorant is enough; give 
him education. Here we have the whole matter in a nut 
shell. It is not necessary to offer any comment. 

In the days of Pestalozzi, such statements might have 
been accepted as new, but in our age, in which almost every 
civilized nation has a system of schools, free to every man 
and child, we must respectfully beg leave to say that it is 
not new. Have we nothing, then, which justifies this. name ? 
If the question is asked, what new truths have been dis- 
covered, what new principles formulated, then we must say 
that the new education has no foundation in fact. There 
is another sense, however, in which this term is used. The 
last decade has witnessed among all our best teachers, a 
renewed spirit of inquiry into fundamental principles. 
The best thoughts and aims of cur greatest reformers have 
been gathered up and arranged in a more available form. 
What was once the property of the few is now the property 
of the nfiany. 

The study of Psychology, in its bearing upon education, 
is receiving marked attention everywhere. Teachers are 
beginning to learn that the evolution of the mental faculties 
follows a natural law. That this law cannot be ignored, if 
we expect to reach the best results, is an accepted princi- 
ple of our age. We know that there is a certain sequence 
in which the faculties develop, and that certain kinds of 
knowledge are acquired more readily during certain stages 
of this developm'ent than at any other time. In this sense, 
then, that we have made great progress in the knowledge 
of the principles which form the foundation of our work, 
and that this knowledcje is more crenerallv diffused, we 



144 STATE superintendent's report. 

may say that we have a new education compared with our 
methods and views fifty years ago. 

Finally, it is not my intention to make any extended 
remarks, or encroach upon the subjects of the programme; 
but I wish to express the hope that the time is not far dis- 
tant when the profession of teaching shall receive the same 
recognition that is accorded to law, theology and medicine. 

We know that our art is based upon a science, whose 
foundation rests upon well-established principles. It is 
true that these principles have not yet received a distinct 
enunciation, have not been formulated into a well-defined 
system. 

It is also true that we are, to some extent, following 
empirical laws, but the same is true of all the other pro- 
fessions. Yet, we do not hesitate to accord to them the 
dignity of such a name. 

May not the parent place his child \n the hands of a 
skillful, conscientious teacher, with as much confidence in 
his ability to develop and train all his faculties, as he does 
when he places him in the care of a physician for the heal- 
ing of his bodily ailments. 

My experience and observation lead me to believe that 
there is no profession whose members, as a rule, display a 
greater willingness to do their duty, who are more con- 
scientious and painstaking in their work, who try harder 
to meet the wishes and expectations of those who employ 
them, than the American public school teacher. 

The teachers assembled here to-day, in many respects, 
have reason to feel gratified that their lot is cast in a^ State 
in which the subject of education receives so much atten- 
tion and appreciation. , For where do we find more 
healthful, commodious and conveniently arranged school 
buildings? Wher.e do we find a people who are more will- 
ing to pay heavy taxes to support good schools than in our 
own beautiful Colorado? 

It behooves us then, as teachers, to make the character 
of our work commensurate with our surroundings. Let 
us be animated by a spirit of firm determination to reach 



president's address. 145 

the highest degree of excellence attainable. A teacher 
should not be contented with the thought that he is doing 
the best he can do. He should ask himself the question: 
Am I doing the best that can be done by any teacher? 

Make yourselves more and more masters of principles. 
Study the nature of the being confided to your skill in all 
its bearings. Remember, before you can hope to harmon- 
ize your methods with the matter you teach, it is neci:ssary 
to obtain a knowledge of the way in which the faculties of 
the child develop. Remember that a complete education 
is one in which the child is so trained that, in the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge, he secures such a mastery over all his 
faculties that they respond instantly to his will whenever 
he desires to use them. 

One more point needs our attention. On every side we 
hear a clamor for a practical education. There is a con- 
stant demand to clip off everything that is not of direct 
utility as a means of gaining a livelihood. There is danger 
in our efforts to compromisv." with this demand that we lose 
sight of one function of education — the cultivation of the 
moral faculties. We should not neglect to train our child- 
ren in that which is human. We should not forget the 
culture of their aesthetic nature. We should not forget to 
reach the feelings and the soul. 



Sixth Biennial Report 




SUPERINTENDENT 



OF 



PUBLIC INSTR 



u 



inn 
jli 



N 



OF THE 



State of Colorado. 



FOR THE 



Biennial Term Ending June 30, i 



SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT 



OF THE 



SUPERINTENDENT 



OF 



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 



OF THE 



STATE OF COLORADO, 



FOR 



BIENNIAL TERM ENDING JUNE 30. 1888. 



TO THE OOVERNOR. 




DENVF:r, COLO.: 

TiTE Collier & Cleaveland Lith. Co., State Printers. 

1889. 



Department of Public Instruction, ) 
Denver, Colo., December lo, 1888. / 

To His Excellency^ 

ALVA ADAMS, 

Governor of Colorado. 

Sir: — In accordance with the requirements of law, I 
have the honor to submit to you the Sixth Biennial 
Report of the Department of Public Instruction, for the 
biennial term ending June 30, 1888. 

Leonidas S. Cornell, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 



CONTENTS. 



Officers of State Board of Education 7 

Officers of State Institutions 8-10 

Synopsis of Public School System 11 

Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction 17 

High Schools 18 

School Houses 19 

School Enrollment 19 

Free Text Books 20 

School Libraries 20 

Teachers 21 

Teachers' Examination 22 

Rules for Conduct of Examination 24 

Questions for Examination 25 

State Examinations 30 

Temperance Instruction 46 

Normal Institutes 46 

State School Fund 47 

State Library 47 

List of County Superintendents 50 

Statement of School Work by County Superintendents .... 51 

Statistical Tables 84-101 

Reports of State Institutions, State University 105 

State Agricultural College 117 

State vSchool of Mines 125 

Institute for Mute and Blind 127 

State Industrial School 145 



State Board of Education, 



1887 ^^ I 



LEONIDAS S. CORNELL, 

Superinte7tdent of Public Instruction. 

JAMES RICE, 

Secretary of State. 

ALVIN MARSH, 
Attorjtey General. 

1889 TO 1891. 

FRED DICK, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

JAMES RICE, 
Secretary of State. 

SAMUEL W. JONES, 
Attorney General. 



State University 



BOULDER. 



BOARD OF REGENTS. 



Term Expires 

R. W. WOODBURY ... 1891 

D. E. NEWCOMB 1891 

WOLFE LONDONER 1893 

E. J. TEMPLE • 1893 

S. A. GIFFIN 1895 

CHARLES E. DUDLEY 1895 

HORACE M. HALE, President. 



State School of Mines. 

GOLDEN. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Term Expires 

C. C. WELCH i! 

J. T. SMITH i\ 

FRED. STEINHAUER, Pres't of Board .... 1891 

A. A. BLOW 1891 

E. L. BERTHOUD 1891 

REGIS CHAUVENET, President. 



State Industrial Scliool, 

GOLDEN. 

BOARD OF CONTROL. 

Term Expirei> 

J. C. HUMMEL 1893 

M. X. MEGRUE 1891 

A. L. EMIGH 1889 

W. C. SAMPSON, Superintendent. 



State Agricultural College, 

FORT COLLINS. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Term Expires 

JOHN J. RYAN 1889 

R. C. NISBET 1889 

B. s. Lagrange 1891 

W. F. WATROUS 1891 

GEORGE WYMAN 1893 

R. A. SOUTHWORTH 1893 

F. J. ANNIS 1895 

CHARLES H. SMALL 1895 

C. L. INGERSOLL, President. 



Deaf Mute and Blind Institute, 



COLORADO SPRINGS. 



Trustees. 



Term Expiies 

HENRY BOWMAN 1889 

DANIEIv HAWKS 1889 

H. R. FOSTER 1891 

J. W. STILLMAN 1891 

A. L. LAWTON 1893 

JOHN E. RAY, Superintendent. 



State Home and Industrial School for Girls 

BOARD OF CONTROL. 

Term Expires 

MRS. JOHN L. ROUTT 

MRS. A. JACOBS i88q 

MRS. C. S. MOREY 1890 

MRS. J. McLENE 1891 

REV. P. F. CARR 1892 



SYNOPSIS 

OF THK 

Public School System of Colorado. 

Officers. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
State Board of Education. 
County Superintendents. 
District Boards. 

SCHOOLS. 

Ungraded District Schools. 

Town and City Graded Schools, with 

High School Courses. 

Higher and Special Schools. 

University, Boulder. 

School of Mines, Golden. 

Agricultural College, Fort Collins. 

Mute and Blind Institute, Colorado Springs. 

Other Agencies. 

District Normal Institutes. 

State Teachers' Association, voluntary. 

County Teachers' Association, voluntary. 

School age. 
Between six and twenty-one; attendance voluntary 

School Year. 
Begins July i, ends June 30. 



12 STATE SLTPKKINTKNDENT's RKPOKT. 



Superintendent of Public instruction. 

Elected by the people for two years. Has general 
supervision of the public schools; collects and tabulates 
the school statistics of the State; apportions the State 
school fund to the counties, gives information to school 
officers upon construction of school law; prepares and 
furnishes blanks for use of school officers and registers 
for teachers; also furnishes questions for teachers' exam- 
inations; visits annually such counties as most need his 
personal attendance, inspecting schools and making 
public addresses; is President of the State Board of 
Education, and a member of the State Board of Land 
Commissioners; makes biennial report to the Governor, 
in December previous to each session of the Legislature; 
causes school law to be published and distributed in 
pamphlet form; is ex-officio State Librarian. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Consists- of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Secretary of State and Attorney General; issues State 
diplomas to such teachers as may pass examination, 
after having taught successfully in the State for two 
years; tries appeals from the decision of County Super- 
intendents, but can not render a judgment for money. 



State Board of examiners. 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Presi- 
dent of the State University, the President of the Agri- 
cultural College and the President of the State School 
of Mines, constitute a State Board of Examiners, hav- 
ing entire control of the examination for State diplomas. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 13 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. 

Elected by the people for two years. Compensation, 
^5 per day, and 15 cents for each mile necessarily trav- 
eled; but such compensation may not exceed $100 in 
one year for each school in the county; holds quarterly 
examination for teachers, and grants certificates to suc- 
cessful applicants; apportions the county school fund to 
the districts; visits each district at least once each quar- 
ter while school is in session, for the purpose of inspect- 
ing the schools, advising with teachers and school officers, 
and examining the books and accounts of the latter, to 
see if the same are properly kept, and the district funds 
accounted for; receives reports from district secretaries 
and makes report annually to Superintendent of Public 
Instruction; hears appeals from decisions of district 
boards; supplies districts and teachers with copies of the 
school law and all needed blanks and registers; is Land 
Commissioner of the county. 



DISTRICT BOARDS. 

In districts of the first class: i. e.^ those which have a 
school population of one thousand or more, the district 
board is composed of five directors, one of whom is 
elected annually on the first Monday in May, and holds 
office five years. In all other districts the boards consist 
of three members, term three years, one elected each 
year. These district boards are the executive officers of 
the districts which are bodies corporate, created by law. 

The directors are custodians of the district property 
of all kinds; they employ and discharge teachers and 
laborers, and fix the salaries of the same; make rules 
for the government of the schools, and prescribe the 
course of study and the text books; suspend or expel 



14 STATE SlJFE:KII<rrEIfJ>ENT's REPORT. 

pupils; disburse all school money; keep district records ; 
take school census; report annually to county superin- 
tendent; enforce the rules and regulations of the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, and in general do all 
things necessary to carry on the schools. 

In districts with a school population of three hundred 
and fifty or more, the directors fix the amount of the 
special tax levy, if any, for such purposes. In smaller 
districts the question is submitted to a vote of the peo- 
ple, if more than two mills is to be levied. 

The Constitution of the State provides: "That no 
person shall be denied the right to vote at any school 
district election, or to hold any school district office on 
account of sex." 

Schools. 

No district is entitled to any portion of the State or 
county fund, unless it maintains a school, taught by a 
licensed teacher for at least sixty days in each year. In 
the county districts, schools are maintained from sixty to 
one hundred and sixty days, sometimes prolonged even 
to two hundred days. In cities and towns the schools are 
from one hundred and twenty (in a few) to two hundred 
days in length; those in which is enrolled a majority of 
the pupils of graded schools are in session at least one 
hundred and ninety days; while those in which is en- 
rolled a majority of the pupils of ungraded schools are 
in session about one hundred days. 

Many of the graded schools have a High School 
course, open to all, while Denver is the only city suffi- 
ciently populous as yet to require a High School with a 
full and entirely distinct faculty. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 15 

TEACHERS. 

All teachers engaged in public schools must hold a 
certificate from the county superintendent, or a State cer- 
tificate issued by the State Board of Education. Neither 
county nor State certificates are granted, except upon a 
thorough examination in the branches required. 

Higher and Special Institutions of Learning. 

The State has made ample provision for the higher 
and special education of its youth. The State Univer- 
sity, at Boulder, under the control of a board of six 
Regents, elected by the people; the Agricultural Col- 
lege, at Fort Collins; the School of Mines, at Golden, 
and the Deaf, Mute and Blind Institute, at Colorado 
Springs, are controlled by boards of management ap- 
pointed by the Governor. These institutions are sup- 
ported by the State, by an annual tax levy of one-fifth 
of one mill. 

REFORMATORY INSTITUTIONS. 

The State Industrial School, at Golden, is a reform 
school for boys. It has been managed from the first on 
the modern family plan, nothing prison-like in its ap- 
pearance or its discipline, and its success has been grati- 
fying. 

The State Home and Industrial School for Girls was 
established by the last Legislature, and is located at 
Denver. It has already accomplished some good work, 
and promises to be of great value to the State. 

School Revenue. 

The public school revenue of Colorado is derived 
from taxation and revenue from vState lands. Interest 



16 STATE SUPERINTKNDENt's REPORT. 

on permanent funds received for school lands sold, and 
rentals received from leased school lands constitute the 
State land revenue. The statute provides for the an- 
nual levy of a county tax for school purposes of not less 
than two nor more than five mills; this, with the penal 
fines, constitutes the county school fund. To this is 
added whatever may be received from the State as reve- 
nue from lands and permanent fund. 

In many States there is a "Teachers' Wages Fund," 
which can not be used for any other purpose. There is 
no such fund known to the laws of Colorado. What is 
known as the "General Fund," derived, as above stated, 
from the county tax, from fines and estrays, and from 
the State fund, is available for all legitimate expenses 
of the district, except purchasing sites, erecting and fur- 
nishing buildings, making permanent improvements. 
The proceeds of a special school tax, when collected, 
are practically added to the general fund, because avail- 
able for precisely the same purposes. The excess of the 
special bond tax, if any, after paying the interest coupons 
due, can be used for the same purposes. None of these 
moneys can be used for building, enlarging or furnish- 
ing school nouses, or purchasing sites, except the unex- 
pended balance remaining to the credit of the district 
any year, after paying the expenses of a ten months' 
school for that year. Repairs rendered necessary by the 
ordinary wear and tear of the buildings can be paid from 
this fund. If a district is to build, enlarge, furnish, or 
purchase site, it must tax itself for that purpose. There 
is no statutory limit to the rate of taxation which a dis- 
trict may vote, either for school or building purposes, 
except third-class districts, which are limited to fifteen 
mills, and in districts of first and second classes it is the 
duty of the board to fix the rate, and any board may 
also order the levy of one-tenth of a mill to be expended 
for a librarv. 



J 



REPORT 



SBiiBrinteiflBDt of Pilic Instniction 



During the biennial period, which this report covers, 
there has been much advancement in the school work of 
the State. This activity in the school work has not 
been confined alone to those parts of the State recently 
settled, but has existed in all parts of the State. 

The following table will show the growth in some of 
the more important departments during the past two- 
vears : 



1«86. 1888. Increase. 



Xumber of children of school age . 60,798 76,212 

Number of school districts 685 990 

Number of school houses 631 820 

Number of pupils enrolled 40,690 50,745 

Average daily attendance 26.428 31,516 

Number of teachers employed . . . 1.304 ^ 1.704 

Value of school property 3 2.343,982 00 ' $ 3,238,021 00 

Total receipts 1,217,008 80 1,548.104 58 

Total expenditures 905,622 57 I 1,152,411 78 

Balance on hand 311,386 23 I 395,692 80 

Volumes in school libraries .... 11,561 17.375 

SCHOOLS. 

The schools of our State give evidence of advance- 
ment in quality as well as in number. There is a deter- 
mination on the part of most school boards to make the 




18 STATE SUPE HINT indent's REPORT. 

schools better, every year. This is evident from the 
increased attention and care given to the building and 
furnishing of school houses and the selection of teach- 
ers. It is further evident from the efforts that are beine 
made to adopt a definite and somewhat uniform course 
of study, for where a course of study has been adopted 
some effort at grading or classification follows. This 
tends to systematize and make definite the school work 
and can not fail to be of value. 



HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Many of our towns and villages are making an effort 
to sustain high schools, and while the effort is commend- 
able it must be made under great difficulties. The 
number of high school pupils in many of the towns are 
necessarily few, and the teachers have but little time to 
give to this department in connection with the regular 
grade work which can not be neglected. Yet it is better 
perhaps to carry forward the high school work in this 
way rather than have no such work done. Yet it would 
be better if all our high schools could be graded up to a 
uniform standard and course so as to meet the condi- 
tions of admission into our State University. A few of 
our high schools are so situated that they can do this 
work without great difficulty, because they are located 
in cities or towns of sufficient size to bear the expense, 
but how to make the high schools of the weaker towns 
and villages a success is the important question. In our 
school law there is a provision which doubtless was in- 
tended to meet these cases, but the law or provision is 
incomplete in that it does not provide means for build- 
ing up and maintaining what it proposes. I refer to the 
law relating to union high schools. I believe it will be 
a wise provision in the law to grant the right not only 
of establishingr union his^h schools but of maintaining 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 19 

them by a direct local tax upon the property of the dis- 
tricts united. Under the present law there is no means 
provided for erecting buildings for high school purposes 
or for levying a tax on the property of the districts in- 
terested, for the support of such union high school. 
Many of the high schools which are now weak and in- 
complete, would, under some better arrangement, be- 
come strong and prosperous. 



SCHOOL HOUSES. 

During the past year there have been built in the 
State one hundred and thirty-four school houses. Many 
of these buildings have been constructed with reference 
to style, convenience and comfort, and are a credit to 
the communities in which they are located. The im- 
provement in the style of school houses is pleasing to 
note. The tact that Denver has as fine and well con- 
structed school buildings as any city east or west, is well 
known, but other places in the State have good school 
buildings, and some of the smaller towns have recently 
erected elegant houses for their schools. La Veta, Las 
iVnimas, Colorado City, Manitou, Monte Vista and other 
towns, have erected buildings within the last two years 
of which their citizens may well be proud. There is 
no reason for school boards making mistakes in the con- 
struction of school buildings in these days, when the 
most approved plans may be had and considered at a 
small cost. 



School enrollment. 



In some counties the per cent, of enrollment in the 
public schools is very good, while in others it is entirely 
too low. In Boulder and El Paso counties, for instance, 
the enrollment of the school population in the public 



20 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

schools is 78 per cent. , while in Huerfano it is only 42 
per cent. I mention these counties in order to show the 
extremes, although one or two small counties show a 
still greater per cent, of enrollment than those men- 
tioned. The enrollment for the whole State is 66 per 
cent, of the school population, which shows an increase 
of 3 per cent, in the last two years; but still a larger 
enrollment is desirable. 

How to secure a larger per cent, of enrollment and 
how to have a better daily attendance, are questions 
that have long been asked and variously answered, and 
seldom have the answers been satisfactory. 

A law making attendance at school compulsory may 
answer these questions in some communities, but not in 
all. Yet, perhaps, most communities would be bene- 
fitted to some degree by a compulsory law of some kind. 



FREE TEXT-BOOKS. 

The last Legislature amended the school law so as to 
permit school districts to purchase and own the text- 
books for the use of all the children in the schools. 
Quite a number of the districts in the State have already 
availed themselves of this provision, and are well 
pleased with the results. In my opinion free text-books 
owned by the district is the only solution of the text- 
book problem. The anxiety to have all the schools of 
the county or the State use the same books ceases when 
each district owns its own books. 



SCHOOL LIBRARIES. 



By virtue of the present law any school board can 
levy a tax of one-tenth of a mill for library purposes. 
This provision, if used, would soon establish in all our 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 21 

districts, libraries which would greatly aid in the edu- 
cational work. But up to this time but few districts 
have availed themselves of this means of building up a 
library. I trust the importance of good reference libra- 
ries for all of our schools will not be overlooked by the 
school boards. 

Teachers. 

Colorado has always been an attractive spot to teach- 
ers, not only because the wages paid are better than in 
the States east of us, but because of our excellent cli- 
mate and beautiful mountain scenery. Hundreds of 
teachers who lost their health in the Middle or Eastern 
States have come here and regained it. Many such 
teachers are doing good work in our schools now, but 
the number of our schools is limited, and the numbers 
that come every year seem to be unlimited; hence the 
supply is greater than the demand. Many teachers in 
the East, who do not understand the situation, write me 
that if I will engage a school for them at a salary suffi- 
ciently in advance of the one they are getting to pay 
them to make the change, they will come on a short 
notice. To such the following letter is usually sent: 

Office of the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

Denver, Colorado, i88- 

Mr. -- 

Dear Sir: — I will state for your information that Colorado is full 
of excellent teachers, for all grades of school work. If you want to 
come and take your chances with them do so, and you will find it a 
pleasant and healthful State in which to work. You can not well hope 
to be employed unless you are in this State, but first-class teachers 
will usually get employment, although they may be compelled to 
wait awhile after getting here. All teachers employed in this State 
must take an examination here, whatever be your standing in other 
States, for this is the law. Wages are from I35 to $75 per month in 
ungraded, and from $50 to $150 per month in graded schools. 

Yours Trulv. 

L. S. CORNELL, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction . 



'>s 



22 STATE superintendent's report. 

TEACHERS' EXAMINATION. 



The law provides that teachers' examinations shall 
occur quarterly on the last Fridays of February, May, 
August and November, and at no other time, and the 
questions used are those prepared by the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. This make the examination uni- 
form throughout the State, both in regard to time and in 
the examination itself. In addition to the above exam- 
inations, districts of the first class may conduct their 
own examinations for filling vacancies. 

In order to give to those who may desire to know an 
idea of the scope of a regular county examination, the 
following instructions, rules and questions are inserted: 



Office of 

Superintendent of Pubwc Instruction 
Denver, Coi^orado. 



■1 



Circular to County Superintendents concerning the Quarterly Ex- 
amination of Teachers. 
Gentlemen: 

By virtue of law I am now required to prepare questions for your 
use in quarterly examination of teachers. In sending these questions 
I desire to make the following suggestions as to their use: 

The questions will be forwarded to you in sealed packages. I rec- 
ommend that you open them on the morning of the examination, in 
the presence of the applicants. There is work for two days of five or 
six hours each for the average applicant, and I recommend a two 
days' session, at least in the more populous counties. Applicants 
should have time to do themselves justice. Let it be understood b}^ 
all, that to receive a certificate the applicant MUST do the work at 
the time and in the manner prescribed for all. If one can do it in 
half a day, well, — but let it be known that a certificate ^^^ll 7iever be 
given for a part of the work. Absentees must take the consequence 
of their own misfortune, however imperative the cause of their ab- 
sence. This is not given as a rule, but merely the plain statement of 
a fact. 

By dividing the slips, you can give out a half day's work at a 
time, and I urge this plan as much fairer to all than giving the topics 
singly, as some will gain time in one branch, others in another, but 
no applicant should be allowed to leave the room after seeing any 



STATK S^PERINTENDE^'T'S RKPORT. 23 

questions, until such questions are answered, that there may be no 
opportunity or temptation to consult authorities. 

The topics are numbered from one to twelve. For the first day 
use Nos. I to 6, inclusive; second day, Nos. 7 to 12, inclusive. Take 
up questions and answers promptly rit the expiration of each session. 
If you wish an oral examination, take sufficient time for that and for 
reading before or after the time allotted to the session. 

Do not take a minute of the session for general exercises or talk, 
or allow any one else to do so. 

T.ike such further time as you wish to satisfy yourself as to the 
moral character of the applicants, and as to their experience in and 
aptitude for the business of, teaching, and also time to give such 
counsel concerning their duties as you may think helpful. 

For marking applicants, divide the topics into two groups: First 
group, Nos. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, II and 12; second group, Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 
9. Give certificates as follows: 

FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATE: 

First Group — Average 907^ ; no branch below 75%. 

Second Group — Average 75 9^ ; no branch below 60%. 

SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATE. 

First 6'r6>«/— Average 75 ^r; no branch below 60%. 
Second Group — Average 60^^ ; no branch below 40^. 

THIRD GRADE CERTIFICATE. 

First Group — Average 6o;?c ; no branch below 50 ^c. 
Second Group — Average 50 f^ ; no branch below 40^, 

Provided that a certificate shall not be refused for failure in Nos. 
8 and 9. 

All answers to be filed and retained in your office for six months. 
Number the applicants, but take no names. 

Give each a blank envelope and paper sufficient for the work. 
Examine and grade all papers by number before opening the envel- 
opes to learn the names. ( If you can get a committee of competent 
persons to examine and grade the papers, it will guard vou still fur- 
ther from any charge of unfairness, which disappointed applicants 
are apt to make. 

A high degree of practical success in teaching should be accepted 
as a sufficient reason for issuing a certificate of a higher grade than is 
warranted by the percentage upon examination, and inexperience or 
want of success should lower the grade of the certificate given, while 
failure as a teacher m,ight be so marked as to make it your duty to 
refuse a certificate, whatever the percentage obtained. 

I earnestly recommend that certificates of the first grade be given 
only to teachers who have earned it by si-.ccess in the school-room as 
well as at examination. I also recommend the additioi^ of ten to the 



"24 STATE superintendent's report. 

^rade earned on Theory and Practice, for the regular reading of some 
jgood educational periodicals, or of one or more reliable books on the 
subject. 

Reluse certificates to applicants of whose moral character you 
have a reasonable doubt. 

Pi^EASE REPORT to me as soon as convenient after 3-our examina- 
tion, on the blanks furnished for the purpose, giving the names of all 
applicants. 

Preserve these instructions for future reference. 

Take great pains that none of these questions go out of your 
hands until the end of the quarter. 

No private examinations are lawful except for temporary certifi- 
cates, valid only until next public examination. 

Respectfully yours, 

L. S. C0RNEI.1,, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



:RULES FOR THE CONDUCT OF THE EXAMINATION. 

(This slip to be given to each applicant with the first question.) 
* I. Provide yourself with a lead pencil. 

Write your name, age, nativity and post-office address on a slip 
of paper and answer the following questions: 

I. How long have j'ou taught, and where ? 

2.- In what schools were you educated ? 

3. What educational papers or journals do you read regular!}-? 

2. Place the answers in the envelope, seal it, and put your num- 
ber, but not 3'our name on the back. 

3. Write 3'our number on each paper. 

4. Take a different paper for each branch, write the subject at 
the head of each paper, and write on but one side of the paper. 

5. Number your answers to correspond with the questions, but 
do not repeat the questions. 

6. Read all the questions on a topic before answering any of 
them. 

7. All communication during examination is absolutely for- 
hidden. 

8. Do not take the questions from the room. Any applicant who 
violates this rules will forfeit all right to a certificate. 

* If the Superintendent conducting the examination prefers to have the work 
done with pen and ink he will provide them. 



STATE SUPKKENTENDENt's REPORT. 25 

9. When possible, abbreviate. Give short but complete solutions 
to arithmetical problems. 

10. Ask no questions. If you have doubts as to the meaning 
of any question, let them be submitted in writing, so that the Super- 
intendent may examine them when he examines the answers to the 
questions. 

.11. Omissions will be considered as failures, and in estimating 
your rank the general appearance of the papers, as well as the cor- 
rectness of the answers, will be considered. 



QUEvSTlONS FOR THE EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS, SEC- 
OND QUARTER, 1888. PREPARED BY THE SUPERIN- 
TENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, DENVER, COLO- 
RADO. 

1. PENMANSHIP. 

1. What s^^stem of penmanship do you use? Write all the ele- 
mentary forms as given in this system. 

2. .Name the different movements, acd give an example of the 
use of each. 

3. Write all the letters that contain the capital stem. 

4. What is the unit of measurement ? What is the height of the 
extended or looped letters ? 

5. Analyze m, /. d, q. 



2. ARITHMETIC. 

1. Define cancellation, division, greatest common divisor, ratio 
and interest. 

2. Subtract 394 from 783, and explain each step as you would to 
a class beginning the subject. 

3. How many yards of carpet ^ of a yard wide are required to 
cover a floor measuring 21x25 ft., if the carpet is so laid as to cause 
the least possible waste? Explain. 

4. In 1886 the school census of Colorado showed a population of 
60,798 between the ages of 6 and 21; in 1887 this was increased to 
65,216. What was the rate per cent, of increase? 

5. If 5 per cent, more be gained by selling a wagon for $98.00 
than for $95.00, what was the cost of the wagon ? 

4 



26 



STATE SUPEIilNTENDENT S REPORT. 



6. How many acres are there in a rectangular field measuring 50 
rods on one side and 75 rods on the diagonal ? 

7. Write a promissory note for $500, dated Jan. 15, 1887 ; endorse 
on it a payment of I125, Sept. 10, 1887; find the amount due May i, 
1888. Interest, 8 per cent. 

8. The difference in time between two places on the equator is 4 
hours and 20 minutes; how many miles apirt are they? 

10. What sum of money must be invested in 4 per cent, bonds, 
selling at 125, to give an annual income of $2,500? What rate of 
interest is received on the investment ? 



3. READING. 

1. Define reading and elocutiou. 

2. What are the qualifications of a good reader? 

3. How may distinct articulation be secured ? 

4. Name the different kinds of inflection, and give examples in 
which each should be used. 

5. What plans do you use to secure natural tones and delivery? 
6-10. An exercise in reading conducted by the examiner. 



4. UNITED STATES HISTORY. 



1. Why was this continent called America? 

2. Give brief acounts of the connection of the following persons 
with American history: De Soto, Sir Walter Raleigh, Henry Hudson 
and Patrick Henry. 

3. a — Describe the capture of Quebec, b — In what war did it 
occur ? 

4. Name the most important events in Jackson's administration. 

5. a — What were the Alien and Sedition Laws? b — Why were 
they enacted ? 

6. What part of the United States was especially in favor of the 
Mexican war? Why? 

7. Name the important improvements in methods of travel and 
communication intioduced during this century. 



STATE 8UPP:KINTENDENt's REPORT. 27 

8. Name the principal events of 1865. 

9. Describe fully the method of electing the President and Vice 
President. 

10. What is meant by "Civil service reform ?" 



5. 6rthography. 

I. Give two rules of spelling that you have found useful. 

2-3. Name five prefixes and five suffixes, and give the meaning 
of each. 

4. a — What is diacritical spelling ? b — Of what use is it ? 

5. Correct the spelling and indicate the pronunciation of the fol- 
lowing: Audaceous, camelia, comunist^ errudition, gangreen, gib- 
bous, greivous, hipocrasy, silouette, unizon. 

6-10. Write twenty words dictated by the examiner. 



6. PHYSIOLOGY. 

1. Name three kinds of joints in the human skeleton and give 
an example of each. 

2. Define absorption, secretion, gland, artery and vein. 

3. How many teeth are there in the "temporary" set? How 
many in the "permanent" set? 

4. Distinguish a food from a stimulant. 

5. Why is proper ventilation of a school room so important? 
Explain fully. 



7. SCHOOL LAW. 

1. What records and reports is a teacher required to make ? 

2. a — When may applicants for license to teach be examined ? 
b — What is the penalty for teaching without a license? 

3. What provision is made for appeals for County vSuperintend- 
ents' decisions ? 

4. a — When does the annual school election occur? b — When 
does the school year end ? 

5. How may a State diploma be obtained in Colorado, and what 
is the character of such a diploma ? 



28 STATE superintendent's i^eport. 

8. BOTANY. 



1. Define tuber, root and bulb. 

2. To what order do most of the trees in our mountain forests 
belong ? 

3. Describe some wild flower now in bloom, with which you are 
familiar. 

4. State the principal diff"erence between exogens and endogens, 
and give examples of each. 

5. a — What are the principal characteristics of the order com- 
positcB? b — Give the common names of five plants belonging to this 
order. 



9. NATURAL SCIENCES. 



1. Define physics, chemistry and geology. 

2. What is gained by the use of the so-called Mechanical Powers ? 

3. Describe the essential features of a steam engine. 

4. a — What is the mean distance of the sun from the earth ? 
b — At what time of the year is it nearest ? 

5. What is a chemical element ? Name ten elements. 

6. How does a compound differ from a mixture ? 

7. What is chalk ? Of what are the common blackboard crayons 
made ? 

8. Name in their order the "ages" of geological time. 

9. Classify the rocks of the earth's crust according to the mode 
of their formation. 

10. To what division of the animal kingdom does each of the fol- 
lowing belong: Sponge, coral, crayfish, ant, man ? 



10. GRAMMAR. 



I. Name the principal divisions of grammar, and define each. 

2-3. Name and define each of the parts of speech. 

4. Give rules for the formation of the possessive case. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 29 

5. Write a compound imperative sentence. 

6. Analyse or diagram : Teaching men to live more nobly is an 
occupation luorthy of the highest talent. 

7-8. Parse the italicised words in the above sentence. 

9. Correct if necessary and give reasons for each change: "I 
think I have saw you before," " In old English this species of words 
were numerous," "All debts are cleared between you and I." 

10. What is the difference between grammar and language lessons. 



11. THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

1. What methods of discipline have you found efficient? 

2. What are the objects of a recitation ? 

3. How may the observing powers of children be cultivated ? 

4. What is the " Grube method " in primary arithmetic ? 

5. Is it a good plan for pupils to commit to memory the words 
of the text-book, in geography and history, for example ? 

6-10. Let the examiner grade the applicant from o to 50, accord- 
ing to experience and success as a teacher. 



12. GEOGRAPHY. 

1. Describe the motions of the earth. 

2. What is the season now in the Argentine Republic ? 

3. How does the climate of the eastern ccast of the United States 
compare with that of the Pacific coast in the same latitude? Give 
reasons for the difference 

4. Describe the southern part of the Pacific Ocean. 

5. What peninsula in the southern part of Russia ? What has 
made it famous ? 

6. Name and locate the principal capes on the Atlantic coast of 
the United States. 

7. Name five leading powers of Europe and give their capitals. 

8. In what'States and Territories is irrigation necessary ? 



30 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

9. Locate the following cities : Baltimore, Tacoma, New Orleans, 
Birmingham, Chicago, Omaha, Helena, Fort Worth, Memphis, Louis- 
ville. 

10. Bound Colorado, give the number of counties, describe its 
surface and name the principal products. 



EXAMINATIONS FOR STATE DIPLOMAS. 

Bxaminations for State diplomas for teachers have 
been held once every two years, but few have taken this 
examination. Mrs. Cornelia Miles, of Denver, and Mr. 
S. A. Wilson, of Weld county, completed the examina- 
tion last sprino^ and received State diplomas. In order 
that all may have an understanding- of the nature and 
conditions of a State examination, the following circu- 
lar is inserted, after which will be found a list of the 
questions used in the State examination: 



■■1 



STATE EXAMINATION. 

Office of 
Superintendent of Pubwc Instruction, 
Denver, Colorado, March i, 1888. 

The State Board of Education is authorized to grant State diplo- 
mas to teachers eminent in their profession by reason of character, 
scholarship and successful experience, by virtue of the following 
provisions of the school law, viz : 

Sec. 3. The State Board of Education is hereby authorized to 
grant State diplomas to such teachers as may be found to possess the 
requisite scholarship and culture, and who may also exhibit satisfac- 
tory evidence of an unexceptional moral character, and whose emi- 
nent professional ability has been established by not less than two 
years' successful teaching in the public schools of this State. Such 
diplomas shall supersede the necessity of any and all other examina- 
tions of persons holding the same, by county, city, or local examiners, 
and shall be valid in any county, city, town or district in the State, 
unless revoked by the State Board of Education. 

Sec. 4. But State diplomas shall only be granted upon public 
examination, of which due notice shall be given, in such branches 
and upon such terms, and by such examiners, as the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, the President of the State University, the Pres- 
ident of the State Agricultural College, and the President of the 
State School of Mines may prescribe. 



STATE SUPERINTENUKNTS REPORT. 81 

The committee of examination, constituted by Sec. 4, above 
quoted, after carefully considering the provisions of the statute, has 
decided that applicants for vState diplomas should be required to com- 
ply with the following: 

TERMS AND CONDITIONS. 

1. To furnish to the State vSuperintendent, prior to examination, 
satisfactory evidence of good moi al character. 

2. To furnish to the State Superintendent satisfactory evidence 
of having taught, with decided success, not less than two years in 
this State. 

3. To pass a very thorough examination in Reading, Mental and 
Written Arithmetic, English Grammar, Modem Geography, Physical 
Geography, History of the United States, the Constitution of the 
United States, and the Constitution of Colorado, with the elements 
of Civil Government, and Theory and Art of Teaching. 

4. To pass a satisfactory examination in the elements of Physics, 
Anatomy and Physiology, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Astronomy, 
Geology, Mineralogy and Psycholog}-. The examination in these 
branches will embrace the rudimentary principles only. Also in 
School Law of Colorado, Algebra, the elements of Plane and Solid 
Geometry, not including Spherical Geometry, and English Literature. 

5. To pass a satisfactory examination in one of the following 
branches, choice to be made by the candidate: 

Latin, to be limited to the first four books of Caesar, the first two 
books of the ^neid of Virgil, questions upon grammatical principles 
involved in the passages translated, and Latin composition; German, 
to be limited to translations from German into English, and from 
English into German, with questions on German grammar. 

MODE OF EXAMINATION. 

The questions to be answered under each branch embraced in the 
w^ritten examination will be printed on slips of paper and consecu- 
tively numbered. Each applicant will be furnished with one of these 
slips and with pen and paper. A definite time will be allowed to each 
branch. Each answer must bear the number of the corresponding 
question. In questions requiring demonstration or analysis, the en- 
tire work must be given, and not merely the result or answer, so that 
the several steps of the process may appear, and the examiners be 
better enabled to judge of the candidate's habits of thought and rea- 
soning. 

In addition to writing answers to the printed questions, candidates 
will be examined orally in reading. 



32 STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 

MODE OF AWARD. 

In determining the merits of the papers, the examiners will be 
guided by the following rules: Scale, loo. In Zoology, Physics, 
Chemistry, Astronom5^ Geology, the minimum will be 60; in all 
other branches, 70. Certificates will be recommended when the can- 
didate's average for the whole examination does not fall below 75. 
The candidate will be graded in spelling by noting the accuracy of 
the spelling in several pages of his papers written at this examination. 

If a candidate reaches the required average for the examination, 
but falls below the ■tninimiim, in one or more branches, he will be re- 
quired to take those branches only at the next examination, and will 
be recommended for a diploma, when he has passed in each with a 
grade of 75. Candidates who fail to reach the required average will 
be allowed credit for topics on which they rank 95 or more, and at 
the next examination will be excused in such topics. 

TIME AND PI^ACE. 

The examination will begin June 26, and continue four days, at 
the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Denver. 

GENERAIv REMARKS. 

Punctual attendance upon all four of the days will be very 
important. 

All necessary directions will be given at the beginning of the ex- 
amination, and will not be repeated. 

Inasmuch as the State diploma supersedes "the necessity of any 
and all other examinations of persons holding the same, by county, 
city or local examiners," and is valid for life, unless revoked for 
cause, it is, therefore, not only the highest known to our system of 
public education, and an honor to those receiving it, but it has also 
an important business value to all professional teachers. It is the 
object of the law, in providing for these examinations, specially to 
recognize and honor those experienced and successful teachers who 
have given character and dignity to the profession in this State, and 
to furnish to young teachers a stimulus to honorable exertion. 

By order of the committee. 

Iv. S. CORNEI.I., 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



READING. 



I. What is embraced in expression ? 
II. Name and illustrate the inflections. 



STATE .SUPEKINTENDEXt's REPORT. *d3 

III. What is the value of teaching pupils to define words bv the 
stud}- of synonyms ? 

IV. What are the general rules to be observed in good reading ? 
V. Define emphasis, accent, articulation, elementary sound. 



ARITHMETIC. 



1. A man bought 3 tracts of land containing 112, 144 and 176 
acres, respectively, which he fenced into equal fields of the greatest 
possible number of acres; how many acres did each contain? 

2. Divide (f of | of |) by ^?~ and add the quotient to f — j^-. 

5t'(T 

3. Cube .01. Extract the square root of i.ooi to three decimal 
places. 

4. Define: An abstract number, the prime factors of a number, 
a mixed number, percentage and bank discount. 

5. Find the surface and diagonal of a cube of granite containing 
162,144 cubic inches. 

6. Received 6 per cent, interest on stock bought at 25 per cent, 
below par; what rate of interest did the investment pay? 

7. What is the difference between the true and bank discount of 
$250 due 10 months hence at 7 per cent? 

8. I owe a debt of I325.50 due in i yr. and 5 mo., without inter- 
est; what will pay the debt now, money being worth 6 per cent, per 
annum ? 

9. Required the solidity of a cone the diameter of whose base is 
30 feet and whose height is 96 feet. 

10. The signal service reports that 3>^ inches of rain fell in 24 
hours;- how many cubic yards fell on an acre of ground. 



English Grammar. 

1. ( loj Define and illustrate the object of a verb; showing all 
the varieties in w-hich it appears. 

2. (5) Use of il in the following: 

// will rain, // is they. // is no light thing to undertake this 
task. He lords il over all his fellows, /i is not known where he 
died. 

5 



34 STATE SUPERINTENDENTS IlEPOKT. 

3. (8) "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife, 

Their sober wishes never learned to stray." 
Construction of yizr/ What does the phrase "from — strife" modify? 

4. (6) "And many a holy text around she strews 

That teach the rustic moralist to die." 
Antecedent of thatf Is the form teach grammatically correct ? 

5. (10) ''Save where the beetle wheels its droning flight." 

"The paths of glory lead but to the grave." 
''Hard by yon wood." 
"If chance, by lonely contemplation led 
Some kindred spirit shall inquire thy fate." 
Construction of the italicized words in the above. 

6. (6) "To be a Roman was greater then a king." 

Subject of the above sentence, and construction of Roman and king. 

7. (15) Correct or justify the following. Reasons: 
I saw a young and old man walking together. 

I hoped to have seen you sooner. 

Having failed in this attempt, no further trial was made. 

She always looks very amiable. 

Nothing but grave and serious pursuits delight him. 

This work did not end with the night as it might have done. 

His verse and prose run into one another. 

8. (6) Is the expression, "Someone else's book," correct? If 
not, how should it be? What part of speech is elsef 

9. (14) Distinguish carefully the correct use of shall and will, 
with examples;, and correct or justify the following: 

I think I will certainly have a chill to-day. 

If he had had good sense, this should not have happened. 

Soldiers of Italy! shall you be found wanting? 

He told them that he should be glad to hear them. 

If you would be respected, you should be in earnest. 

10. (20) Punctuate, capitalize and arrange in metrical order the 
following: 

Cromwell I did not think to shed a tear in all my misery but thou 
hast forced me out of thy honest truth to play ihe woman lets dry 
our eyes and thus far hear me Cromwell and when I am forgotten 
as I shall be and sleep in dull cold marble where no mention of me 
must more be heard of say I taught thee say Wolsey that once trod 
the ways of glory and sounded all the wrecks and shoals of honor 
found thee a way out of his wrack to rise in a sure and safe one 
though thy master missed it. 



REPORT. 35 

GEOGRAPHY. 



1. Of what value is map drawing in teaching geography? 

2. Name the political divisions of South America. 

3. Name in order of size the ten largest cities in the United States. 

4. a — What is the cause of ocean currents ? b — Where are the 
principal currents? 

5." Name the countries and States in the same latitude as France. 

6. Name the principal islands of the West Indies and give the 
government to which each belongs. 

7. What and where are the following: Honolulu, Nicaragua, St. 
Helena, ^tna, Baton Rouge, I^ima, Geneva, Po, Biscay, Shasta? 

8. Ivocate Australia and name its principal cities and most im- 
portant products. To what government does it belong ? 

9. Describe Alaska and name its products and principal river. 

10. Write a topical outline for the study of the geography of Colo- 
rado. 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

1. State some of the reasons for regarding the earth as a spheroid. 

2. Account for the variations in the seasons. Explain why day 
and night are not of equal duration. 

3. What are "trade w4nds" and "gulf stream?" How produced? 

4. Explain the development of rain storms. 

5. What effect has latitude upon climate, and why? Ditto, alti- 
tude ? 

6. Why do rivers flow to the ocean ? 

7. Define volcano, geyser, cloud, aurora borealis, meridian, longi- 
tude and gravitation. 

8. What agents are at work in constantly changing the configu- 
ration of the surface of the globe ? 

9. How many races of men occupy the globe ? Give their main 
characteristics. 

10. What are the resources of the State of West Virginia; of Ger- 
man v; and of the Hawaiian Islands. 



PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY. 

1. Define psychology. 

2. Of what value is the knowledge of psychology to a teacher? 

3. What is a mental faculty or power ? Explain and give an ex- 



ample. 



36 STATE superintendent's report. 

4. Define perception; conception. 

5. Give the order of mental development in a child. 

6. How would you develop and strengthen a child's observing 
power ? 

7. Give two objects of a class recitation. 

8. Compare the merits of the "topical" and the "question" meth- 
ods of conducting a recitation. 

9. Give yom^ idea of the value of written examinations. 
10. What is the educational value of "manual training?" 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

1. Give and illustrate the laws of motion. 

2. A body is acted upon by four forces, A. B. C. and D. A. tends 
to move it to the east with a force of 100 pounds; B. tends to move it 
to the south with a force of 75 pounds; C. tends to move it to the 
north-west with a force of no pounds, these three forces act in the 
same plain, while D. tends to move the body in an upward direction 
in right angles to the plain of the first three forces, with a force of 80 
pounds. Produce the formulae by which to determine the direction 
in which the body will move and the force of its movement. 

3. A stone weighing 40 pounds strikes the earth, having fallen 
from rest, with a force of 60,000 pounds. How far did it fall ? 

4. Explain the principle of action of an aneroid barometer. 

5. How does heat of high refrangibility differ from heat of low 
refrangibility ? What bodies emit rays of each kind ? 

6. Explain the principle of the suction pump. 

7. Explain the mode of action of each of the simple machines. 

8. Explain the law which is illustrated by the mirage. 

9. Upon what does the pitch of a musical tone depend ? Give 
proof. 

10. Explain the cause of a flash of lightning with reference to the 
electrical condition. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1. State how many bones there are in the skull (cranium and 
face), and name the bones of the cranium. 

2. What are the functions of the pancreatic juice? 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 37 

3. Give the course of the circulation of a drop of blood passing 
from the Superior (Descending) Vena Cava to the Aorta, naming the 
valves of the heart in the order passed. 

4. What changes does the blood undergo in passing through the 
lungs ? 

5. What effect has the gastric juice on 

a — Starchy (amyloyd) foods; 

b—Vats\ 

c — Albuminoid (proteid) foods? 

6. What is the chemical reaction of the gastric juice ? 

7. Name the divisions of the small and large intestines. 

8. What is the name of the valve at the junction of the small 
and large intestines, and what is its use? 

9. Name the humors of the eye ; give the shape of the crystal- 
line lens, and the position of the lens in relation to the humors. 

10. What is the name of the first pair of cranial nerves ; to what 
organ are they distributed ; what is their function ? 



BOTANY 



1. Define botany. 

2. Describe the different methods of propagation in plants. 

3. Distinguish between annuals, biennials and perennials, and 
give an example of each. 

4. Write of the arrangement of leaves on the stem. 

5. Describe the order Leguminoscr. 

6. What is the function of the leaf? 

In leafless plants, what parts may perform this function ? 
7; Describe fully the process of germination. 

8. Define monoecious, dioecious and polygamous. 

9. What are the characteristic features of ferns ? 

10. a — What is meant by the flora of a country ? b — Name five 
Colorado plants, and give order to which each belongs. 



ZOOLOGY. 



I. Distinguish between Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Fishes. 
II. To what sub-kingdoms do the following animals belong ? 
Snake, Rat, Grasshopper, Seal, Oyster, Spider. 



38 STATE SUPERINTENDENTS KEPORT. 

III. Describe the methods of breathing of Insects, Fishes and 
Mammals. 

IV. Of what substance is bone mainly composed ? 

V. Name some animals which have become extinct during the 
present geological epoch. 



CHEMISTRY. 

1. Have we any evidence that matter is ever destroyed ? 

2. What property of matter persists throughout all physical and 
chemical changes ? 

3. Define "Solid," "Liquid," "Gas." 

4. What is meant by an element ? 

.5. What is the difference between a "mixture" and a "com- 
pound?" 

6. Take the equation: 

Zn + H2 S04=ZnS04 -f 2H, 
name each term and describe the nature of the whole reaction. 

7. What are the relative volumes of the two following gases as 
expressed by the symbols, viz: "O," and "NH3?" 

8. A certain oxide has the symbol "RO" ("R" being used as a 
symbol for an unknown element). Its composition is as follows, by 
weight, viz: "R" 60 per cent, "O" 40 per cent. What is the com- 
bining weight of "R," that of "O" being 16? 

9. What is the composition of the atmosphere, and of water? 
10. What is the function of CO2 in animal and vegetable life? 



ASTRONOMY. 



1. Starting at the sun, name the planets in order. Which is the 
smallest? The largest? The distance of the outermost from the sun 
is how many times the distance of the earth from the sun? 

2. What planets are attended by satellites, and by how many? 

3. Draw a pencil sketch illustrating the path annually traversed 
by the earth, and locate the sun with reference to that path. 

4. Account for the phases of the moon. 



STATE SUPEIUNTENDENt's REPORT. 89 

5. What causes an eclipse of the moon? Of the sun? What is 
meant by a Transit of Venus ? 

6. Answer briefly: What is the sun? What are the stars? 
What are the important differences between the planets and the stars?' 

7. What and where are the Asteroids ? Mention one theory 
accounting for their origin. 

8. .Describe the physical condition of the surface of the moon ? 

9. What are the Nebulae ? How has the Spectroscope assisted 
in their study ? 

10. What is the Nebular Hypothesis ? 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

1. State and explain the general influences of atmospheric 
agencies on rocks. Explain the usual origin of canyons. 

2. Describe and explain the phenomena of glaciers; what traces 
have they left of their former presence in localities where they are 
no longer found? 

3. What do you mean by sedimentary stratified rocks, and how 
are they formed ? Name some of them.. 

4. Explain the origin of coal. 

5. What are fossils, how are they formed, of what important use 
are they in geological history ? 

6. Name in order the seven principal geological ages. 

7. In what form does "Galena" cr3'stalize ? 

8. . What is the mineralogical name of Silica ? 

9. What is the composition of " Fluor-Spar? " 

10. What is meant by the term. "native" as used in Mineralogy? 



SCHOOL LAW. 



I. Into how many classes are the school districts of the State 
divided ? 

n. What constitutes districts of the first class, and in what 
respects do they difi"er from others? 



40 STATE s[jperintendp:nt's report. 

III. From what sources are the funds for the support of public 
schools derived in this State, and how are they distributed ? 

IV. When does the law require the county examination of 
teachers to be held ? 

V. How many grades of certificates may the county superin- 
tendent of schools isrue, and what is the length of each ? 

VI. What reports must be made by the principal teacher in each 
school, and to whom ? 

VII. What is necessary before a teacher can be legally employed ? 
VIII. By whom are the text books for the schools adopted ? 
IX. V/ho constitute the State Board of Education ? 
X. How many days' school during the year is required by law 
in order to entitle the district to public money ? 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

1. State at what points on the eastern shores of North America 
discoveries were made by different European nations, and the results. 

2. When were the settlements made within the United States 
which have most specially influenced the destinies of the Nation ? 
State some of the causes which led the people of the several European 
nations to make each settlement, and briefly mention the results or 
effects of these settlements on the history of the United States. 

3. How did the Virginia and New England settlements become 
involved in Indian wars, and what results grew from those wars ? 

4. Give an account of Braddock's campaign, its purpose and 
results. 

5. State what occurred at the close of 1776 and the beginning of 
1777, and the effects of these events on the war. 

6. Name the cause of the Mexican war and what were its most 
important battles ? What were the terms of the treaty at its close ? 

7. Name four of the most prominent men in the Revolution and 
state what was the distinguishing trait in the character of each, and 
in what did each most influence our history. 

8. Do the same for four men in the Civil war. 

9. State the alleged reasons for Secession, and give your opinion 
of the real ones. 

10. Name four naval battles in the war of 1812. What was the 
effect on the history and character of the people ? 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 41 

CONSTITUTION OF UNITED STATES AND CONSTITUTION 
OF COLORADO. 



1. The United States Constitution was the outgrowth of what 
two ideas, and how were these blended in it? 

2. What three divisions in governmental function and what 
check does each have upon the other ? 

3. What qualifications must the President have and how elected 
at first ? Now ? 

4. Who compose the Cabinet ? What are their duties and what 
departments do they represent ? 

4. About what time and for what purpose were the Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments adopted. How is the Consti- 
tution amended ? 

6. State the principal powers of Congress; of the United States 
Senate ? 

7. Give the main features of the Constitution of Colorado. 

8. Give a list of the State ofiices, and state briefly the duties of 
the person filling each oflfice. 

9. How is the Legislature elected? What are the powers of the 
two houses and the length of the session ? 

10. State briefly the routine of a bill introduced before a legisla- 
tive body before it can become a law ? 



ALGEBRA. 

1. If m and n be positive integers, prove that a" X 
^n __ ^m + n. ^j^^ assuttiing this formula to be true for all 

m 

values of the indices, deduce the meanings of an^ a° and 

2. Divide x* + y*+z*— 2 (x^ y^-f y' z'-^rix' ) by x^ 4- 

2vz — y^ — z^, and multiply an b~i — a2nb~i-^l by a2iib~3 

+ 1. 



42 STATE superintendent's report. 

3. Prove that the L. CM. of any two algebraic 
expressions is equal to their product divided by their 
G. C. M. Find G. C. M. and L. C. M. of c (x^+b^) + 
X (b=^+c^) and c (x^— b^ + x (b^— c^). 

. .- 2-^a-b 3(a + 6)>^_ 

4. Simplify __^^---^— 4-3-(,^,^^^2(,_i,)^ 

5. Solve -===] =x — 2 as a quadratic. 

\x-l/x2-9 / 

6. Extract sq. roots of 9 — 4]/ 2 and x^ — Ox -f 13 
12— x-H4x-l 

7. What is the term to be added to 9xH12x^+20x 
H-to 25 make it a complete square? Show method of 
solution. 

8. Of two squares of carpet, one is 44 feet more in 
perimeter than the other and 187 square feet more in 
area. What are their sizes? 

9. Express log. f ^^^ in a form adapted to com- 
putation. 

10. From a xfh-'z+h^ take b J^^'^^JlT and ex- 

^ z— I ^ Z+I 

press result in simplest form. Solve 3y°'i^y'n 1 --??"L_= 16. 

GEOMETRY. 

1. In an isosceles triangle ABC, the sides A B, and B C, being 
equal, show that the bisector of the exterior angle at B is parallel to 
the side A C. 

2. Show that the three bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet 
in a point, and that this point is the center of the inscribed circle. 

3. What is the svim of the angles of a pentagon ? 

4. How is the area of a trapezoid expressed ? 

5. Demonstrate that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each 
other. 

6. Is an equiangular polygon always equilateral ? Why or why 
not? 



STATK SUPERINTENDENTS RKPORT. 48 

7. Prove that all angles inscribed in the same arc are equal. 

8. Show that any triangular prism can be divided into three 
pyramids of equal volume. 

9. Prove that triangles having an angle in each equal are to each 
other as the rectangles of their including sides. 

10. In what ratio are the surfaces of a sphere and its circumscrib- 
ing right cylinder ? 



ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

[Accurate answers to fifty per cent, of the questions pass the candidate. Num- 
ber answers and each part of an answer as the questions are numbered. Place a 
dash on your manuscript after the number of each question that you decline to 
answer.] 

I. Literary history before 1066. 

1. Name the chief epic poem in English. 

2. Name a poet who paraphrased the Scriptures. 

3. Name a writer of church history who translated the Gos- 

pel of John. 

4. Name a chief writer of prose. 

5. What foreign language and literatu: e had most influence 

on English. 

II. Literary history from 1066 to the present time. 

1. What foreign literature had most influence over English 

from 1066 to 1400 ? 

2. What foreign influence was introduced by Wyatt and 

Lurrey ? 

3. What foreign influence was pre-eminent from 1660 to 1700? 

4. To what nation of Modern Europe has English poetry 

been most deeply indebted ? 

5. What contemporary literature has most influence over 

English thought ? 

III. Literary chronology and authorship. 

I. Classify the following works by centuries, and name the 
author of each : Every Man in His Humour ; Atalanta 
in Calydon ; Ralph Royster Doyster ; Eve of St. Agnes ; 
Ancient Mariner ; Hudibras ; Confessio Amantis ; Gul- 
liver's Travels ; Brut ; Ring and the Book ; Tristram 
Shandy ; The Newcomes ; Manfred ; Adam Bede ; Tom 
Jones ; Aurora Leigh. 

IV. Course of reading. 

Name the author and work in which the following passages 
occur : 
I. Know then thyself; presume not God to scan. 



44 



2. Yet I doubt not thro' the ages one increasing purpose 

runs, 
And the thoughts of men are widened with the process of 
the suns. 

3. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and 

writing an exact man 

4. But Christes lore, and his apostles twelve 

He taught, but first he followed it himselve. 

5. Heaven lies about us in our infancy. 

6. There C. stepped a little aside to his fellow Hopeful, say- 

ing, "It runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of 
Fair-speech ; and if it be he, we have as very a knave in 
our company as dwelleth in these parts." 

7. None but the brave, 
None but the brave. 

None but the brave deserves the fair. 

8. Sweet Auburn ! loveliest village of the plain. 

9. Ye banks ard braes o' bonnie Doon. 

10. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 

V. Criticism. 

1. The plan of the Faerie Queene. 

2. The characters of Hamlet, Portia of Belmont, and Desde- 

mona; or one character from each of any three of 
Shakespeare's plays, 

3. The plan of Paradise Lost. 

4. One of Scott's longer poems, or one of the Waverly nov.-ls. 



LATIN. 

No one will pass who omits the parsing. Great importance will 
be attached to accuracy and elegance of translation. 

C^SAR. 

1. Book I. Translate Chapter XVII. 

2. Explain the chief syntactical difference between Direct and 
Indirect Discourse. 

3. Turn the Ivatin of the Indirect Discourse in this chaper into 
the corresponding Latin of the Direct Discourse. 

4. Give an historical sketch that will explain the allusions in 
this chapter. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 4:5 

5. Give the rule for the cases of oratione, noJinuUos, impcria, 
hostibus, periciilo. Principal parts, active and passive, of confera7it, 
gerantur, coerceri, intelligere, tacuisse. 

If the candidate prefer, instead of answering questions i and 3 in 
Book I., Chapter XVII., he ma}' answer these same questions relative 
to Book II., Chapter XV. 

VIRGIL. 

1. What is the story of the Aeneid? 

2. Book I. Translate lines 254-266. 

3. Divide into feet the first three lines of this passage, and define 
hiatus, caesura, crasis and spondiac line. Give the derivation of 
promissa and transierint. 

4. Book II. Translate lines 544-553. 

5. Give a brief account of Pyrrhus, Achilles, Hector and Ulysses. 



GERMAN, 

I. Grammar. 



Inflect Mann, Mutter; inflect together der runde Tisch. 



2. Full inflection of uns and the relative pronoun welcher. 

3. Inflect the imperfect, perfect and future tenses oi sein. 

4. Inflect the imperfect oi geben, iiehmen. 

5. Write the principal parts of bleiben, defiken, essen, fahren, 

graben, helfen, rufen, schneiden, turn, sterben. 
II. Translate into German. 

1. We shall set out for France on the fifth of June. 

2. The author of the work has been rewarded by the king. 

3. The merchant promised to send me the cloth to-day. 

4. The bird flies through the air; the fishes swim in the water, 

and the worms crawl upon the earth. 

5. I have not received a letter from my brother this week. 
III. Translate into English: "Es war in einem Provinzialstaedt- 

chen," sagte der Mond, "freilich war es im vergangenem Jahre, aber 
das thut nichts zur Sache, ich sah es sehr deutlich; heute Abend las 
ich in den Zeitungen davon, aber da war es lange nicht so deutlich. 
In der Gaststube sass der Baerenfuehrer und ass sein Abendbrod; der 
Baer stand draussen hinter deni Holzstosse angebunden, der arme 
Petz, der Niemand etwas zu leide that, obwohl er grimmig genug 
aussah. Oben in der Dachkammer spielten in meinen Strahlen drei 
kleine Kinder; das aelteste mochte sechs Jahre alt sein, das juengste 
nicht mehr als zwei. "Klatsch, Klatsch!" kam es die Treppe hinauf; 



46 STATE superintendent's report. 

wer konnte das wohl sein ? Die Thuere sprang auf— es war der Petz, 
der grosse, zottige Baer! Er hatte Langeweile gehabt unten im Hofe, 
und hatte nun den Weg zur Treppe hinauf gefunden. "Ich habe alles 
gesehen," sagte der Mond. "Die Kinder erschracken sehr ueber das 
grosse zottige Thier; jedes kroch in seinen Winkel, er endeckte sie 
alle drei, that ihnen aber nichts zu leide. — [Andersen.) 



TEMPERANCE INSTRUCTION. 

The temperance law passed by the last Legislature 
has been orenerally observed throughout the State. In 
all of our schools instruction as to the effect of alcohol 
and narcotics on the human system has been given. 
The law, as passed, is somewhat vague and indefinite, yet 
it has been obeyed as the school boards understood it. 
It would be well, perhaps, if the next Legislature would 
make the law more definite, yet in its present form it 
may accomplish all that is desired. 



Normal institutes. 

By an act of the last Legislature the State was divided 
into six Teachers' Normal Institute districts. This, I 
believe, was a wise step, and had for its object the good 
of those who are engaged in teaching. These Institutes 
are to be held for the purpose of developing the best 
methods in teaching, and are of great value to all teach- 
ers, and especially to beginners. 

These Institutes should be held annually for a period 
of not less than two weeks, but as yet only Normal Dis- 
trict No. I has organized. This district has held two 
very successful Institutes. It is to be hoped that in the 
near future all of the districts will organize, and hold 
their Institutes annually for two weeks. Thus far the 
State has failed to make an appropriation for aiding the 
Institute work. The law provides for an appropriation 



STATE SUPERITTENDENt's REPORT. 47 

of $56 for each district, but even this small amount has 
not been provided by an appropriation. It would pay 
the State to do much more than this to aid in the Insti- 
tute work. 

In the absence of Institutes, County Teachers' Asso- 
ciations have been held, with good results. 



State School Fund. 



The amount of permanent School Fund in hands of 
State Treasurer November 30, 1888, was $488,684.85; 
amount due on deferred land payments, $112,507.20; 
making a total to the credit of the State of $601,192.05. 

The revenue derived from permanent fund as interest 
and the rentals on school lands have arnounted during 
the past year to a fraction over $2.00 per capita for all 
persons of school age, or the sum of $143,141.70. Such 
an amount as this brings a much needed aid to the 
school work, and reduces in a measure the rate of tax- 
ation. 



State Library. 

During the past two years there has been a marked 
increase in the number of readers who patronize the 
Library. Its convenient location, and the fact that its 
doors are open from 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. , have done much 
to increase the number. 

An attempt has been made to fill the gaps in a num- 
ber of incomplete sets of publications. The attempt 
has met with considerable success. Through the kind- 
ness of the Honorable Secretary of the Interior, one 
hundred and thirty-eight volumes have been received in 
exchange during the past two years. By this means a 
number of valuable sets have been completed. There 
is now in the Library a complete set of Patent Office 



48 STATE superintendent's report. 

Records, from 1847 ^^ the present time; a complete set 
of Annals of Congress, Congressional Globe and Con- 
gressional Record, and almost a complete set of Hayden's 
Geological Survey. A number of volumes have been 
added to other valuable sets. 

Many of the States and Territories send all of their 
publications to the Library, and it would be nothing 
more than right to send them the Journals and Official 
Reports of this State in return. Only the laws and 
Supreme Court Reports are now exchanged. It would 
be well to provide that the Secretary of State furnish 
the Library with forty or fifty copies of each public doc- 
ument for exchange with other Libraries. This would 
insure us a complete series for our own Library in the 
future. 

The Library ought to have a small appropriation for 
the purchase of reference books, and works on Colorado, 
and for the binding of some books in the Library that 
sadly need it. A State Library should be a complete 
reference Library, and should contain every book per- 
taining to the State. 

The following will show the increase and present 
condition of the Library: 

Number of volumes catalogued November 30, 1886 8,223 

Number of volumes received from States and Territories ... 231 
Number of volumes received from United States (regular series 348 
Number of volumes received from United States (in exchange) 138 

Number of volumes received from all other sources 99 

Total receipts 816 

In Library November 30, 1888 9.309 

Six hundred and forty-eight volumes of Supreme 
Court Reports and laws have been received and turned 
over to the Supreme Court Library, including one hun- 
dred Colorado documents. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 49" 

The following periodicals have been donated by the 
publishers and kept on file in the Library: 



I. 


The Christian Register. 


2. 


Unitarian Review. 


3. 


Journal of Franklin Institute. 


4- 


Polyclinic. 


5- 


The American Exchange and Mart 


■6. 


Boulder News. 


7. 


Rocky Mountain Herald. 


8. 


Local Miner. 


9- 


Martha's Vineyard Herald. 


10. 


The Mining Industry. 


II. 


Holyoke Tribune. 


12. 


Colorado Farmer. 


13. 


Denver Republican. 


14. 


Denver News. 


15. 


Denver Times. 


16. 


Patent Office Gazette. 


17- 


The World. 



These papers are received regularly and are valuable 
to many readers. It is to be regretted that so few are 
received. It would be well if every county in the State 
could be represented by its leading paper. In this mat- 
ter the Library depends entirely upon the generosity of 
the publishers, and any contribution of papers would be 
highly acceptable. 



50 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. 

From January, 1888, to January, 1890. 



POST OFFICE. 



Arapahoe A. D. Shepard j Denver 

Archuleta Charles Harpst j Amargo, N. M. 

Bent John A. Murphy Las Animas 

Boulder I Dr. F. A. Shute Boulder 

Chaffee ! Rev. Jacob Kagey Buena Vista 

Clear Creek : Henry Bowman Idaho Springs 

Conejos j Charles Brickenstein . . . j . Alamosa 

Costilla Frederick Ktter Fort Garland 

Custer I J. P. Wright Silver Cliff 

Delta J. B. McGinty ....... | Hotchkiss 

Dolores J. O. Campbell j Rico 

Douglas P. H. Hammond Castle Rock 

Eagle James Dilts Dotsero 

Elbert B. C. Killin | Kiowa 

El Paso . Reuben Berry Colorado Springs 

" '" ^ Caiion City 

Carbondale 

Central City 

Grand Lake 

Crested Butte 

Lake Citv 

La Veta 

Golden 

Leadville 

Durango 

Fort Collins 



Fremont . B. G. Woodford 

Garfield [ Samuel M. White . . . 

Gilpin Wm. J. Thomas. . . . 

Grand | Walker McQueary. . . 

Gunnison I S D. Carroll 

Hinsdale i W. S. Elmendorf . . . 

Huerfano Fred Pischel, 

Jefferson J- S. Eagleton . . . . . 

Lake Rev. A. E. Armstrong 

La Plata i T. J. Jackson 

Larimer . . . • S. T. Hamilton .... 

Las Animas . . , I Dr. M. Beshoar I Trinidad 

Logan ' Oscar Trego. Sterling 

Mesa ! D. T. Stone Grand Junction 

Montrose I J- J- Tobin Montrose 

Ouray ! Rev. O. E. Ostenson. . . . ' Ouray 

Park 1 I. S. Smith ! Fairplay 

Pitkin J. W. Deane | Aspen 

Pueblo Dr. C. F. Taylor Pueblo 

Rio Grande Sigel Heilman Monte Vista 

Routt .... • ! John T. Whyte Yampa 

Saguache I C. M. Herren Saguache 

San Juan j Dr. J. W. Brown Silverton 

San Miguel j H. C. Lay Telluride 

Summit i Dr. B. A. Arbogast .... I Breckenridge 

Washington W. Curtiss Akron 

Weld i Rev. A. K. Packard Greeley 



STATEMENT 



OF THE 



SCHOOL WORK 



IN THE VARIOUS COUNTIES, BY THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 



ARAPAHOE COUNTY. 

A. D. Shepard, Superintendent. 

Arapahoe county commences the school year of 1888 
with seventy-six organized school districts, containing a 
school population of nineteen thousand five hundred. 
Districts Nos. i, 2 and 17 are districts of the first class, 
and are for the most part situated in the city of Denver. 
Each of these districts are called upon each year to 
expend large sums of money, that the ever-increasing 
population may be supplied with adequate facilities for 
the proper education of their children. At present Dis- 
trict No. 17 is building one of the finest school houses 
in the country, containing sixteen rooms, at a cost of 
;^90,,ooo. District No. 2 is building an eight-room house, 
at a cost of $36,000, and District No. i is building a 
twelve-room house, at a cost of $74,000, besides com- 
pleting one of the largest and most complete high school 
buildings in the United States. The country schools 
are also coming to the front, and a general disposition 
is shown on the part of directors to improve their schools 
by increasing the length of time school shall be held, 
and also in providing the teacher with suitable apparatus 
for educational work. Districts Nos. 61, 7i;and 21 are 



52 STATE superintendent's report. 

each bulling a new one-room brick, and have adopted 
the principle of our city schools in securing proper light, 
heat and ventilation. These buildings will cost about 
$12,000 each. During the short time that lihave been 
in this office I have found that a majority of the direc- 
tors of our country schools are not only willing, but are 
ready to adopt any suggestions that are made to them 
that will be of advantage to the schools. True, there 
are some districts that can not afford to adopt many 
things that would tend to benefit the schools, but time 
will work its changes in this respect. We have in this 
county a room in the court-house known as the county 
school-room. It is furnished with sixty (No. i single 
desks, chairs, office table, and plenty of black-board 
surface. This was done at my suggestion, by the Board 
of County Commissioners, in order that the educational 
work of the county might be advanced by having a per- 
manent place to hold examinations, teachers' meetings, 
etc. Each year brings some improvements in our 
schools, and taking all things into consideration, I 
think we are making fair progress. 



ARCHULETA COUNTY. 

C. H. Harpst, Superintendent. 
We have three school districts in Archuleta county, 
each district has one school. District No. i is now 
erecting a ;^3,ooo school-house, modern style, and alto- 
gether a very fine building; will be completed in No- 
vember, 1888. During the last school year District 
No. 2 erected a good school building, costing about 
$1,500, which is now thoroughly equipped throughout 
with modern apparatus and furniture. District No. 3, 
organized in February, 1888, will also build a first-class 
school-house at no distant date. As to our school work,. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 58 

we believe it to be first-class. We aim at thorough- 
ness in every particular, and to secure this end only the 
best teachers are employed, and with the best of results. 
Our young county is rapidly settling up, and the new- 
comers take hold with us in our educational work in a 
manner which is very gratifying. When we have suf- 
ficient population we expect to take our place among 
the first counties in educational work, and even now we 
claim a very good showing for our three years' work 
since the organization of our county. 



Boulder County. 

T. A. ShuTE, Siiperijitendent. 
I have the honor to supplement my report of Sep- 
tember I, 1888, with a few remarks. The report closes 
a prosperous year for the schools of Boulder county. 
We are getting a better class of teachers, with better 
organization. Our schools are having longer sessions. 
The directors of the several districts are men who wish 
to advance the standard of our public schools; they are 
employing only teachers of experience and ability. The 
people generally are manifesting a greater interest in 
educational work. There are several school buildings 
in process of erection in the county. 



CLEAR CREEK COUNTY. 

Henry Bowman, Supermiendent. 

I take pleasure in saying that the educational work 
in this county is steadily increasing in excellence, and 
that the progress made during the past two years is of a 
marked character; this is especially the case in our 
graded schools. Our people display a deep interest in 
educational matters, as shown by their liberality in the 



54 STATE superintendent's report. 

payment of taxes for the support of schools, and our 
school boards have seen the importance of furnishing 
plenty of wall maps, charts, globes, and other necessary 
helps. 

I am glad to report that we have many excellent 
teachers in this county, and that our school boards see 
the advisability of securing those of a high standard. 

I hope that our next General Assembly will enact 
laws relating to compulsory education and truancy. 
This is essential in view of the fact that many parents 
do not realize the importance of their children possessing 
even the advantages of a common school course. 



Conejos county. 

C. H. Brickenstein, Superintendent. 

Conejos county schools are in a better condition than 
they ever were; there are more of them, and the people 
are taking a great deal mor^ interest. Since January i 
I have established seven new districts among people who 
want schools, and will see that the educational interests 
of their districts are well looked after. A large propor- 
tion of our immigration this year has been of the class 
that appreciate our public schools, and almost their first 
move after settling is to have the school house located. 
It is the intention to hold an Institute here this winter, 
and a great deal of interest is being taken, both by the 
teachers and the public generally. Last year I had only 
two graded schools — this year I have four; everything, 
in fact, points to a greater degree of activity in educa- 
tional work in Conejos county than has ever been known 
before. 



I 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 55 



COSTILLA COUNTY. 

Fred. Etter, Superintendent. 

In answer to your request askino^ for information re- 
garding: the schools of this county, I beg leave to sub- 
mit the following: 

It gives me much satisfaction to be able to inform 
you that the schools of this county have made consider- 
able progress in the past two years. Better teachers 
have been employed, more school-houses built, and im- 
proved text-books, apparatus, etc., purchased than ever 
before in the history of this county, and I am glad to 
say this spirit of progress bids fair to continue. 

Compulsory education is, in my estimation, a most 
needful measure for the future welfare of the rising gen- 
eration. We should allow no boy or girl to reach ma- 
turity without being able to read, write, and compute 
such accounts as are liable to come in their way in the 
ordinarv walks of life, and until compulsory education 
is a law this can not be accomplished, for no matter 
what educational facilities are placed within the reach 
of some people, they will allow their children to stay 
away on some frivolous pretext or other, when they 
should be at school. 

Uniformity of text-books in the public schools of the 
State is, I think, most desirable. My ideas on this 
matter are that the State Board of Education should 
select the text books, purchase the same with money 
appropriated for the purpose, and furnish the County 
Superintendents with as many as are needed, who in 
turn would furnish the District Boards. Each county 
and district would be charged with the value of books 
received, and the same deducted from its apportionment. 
Bv this means a uniform set of text-books could be had 



56 STATE superintendent's report. 

throughout the State. The very best would, of course, 
be procured, and at much less cost to the community 
than at present. 

Custer County. 

J. P. Wright, Superintendent. 

The educational interest of this county has about 
held its own. This is saying much when we consider 
that this is a mining county and that this industry has 
been almost at a stand-still the entire year. 

An Institute of two days was held at Silver Cliff, and 
was attended by nearly all the teachers in the county at 
that time. An Institute fund was formed by each one 
wishing to be a member paying fifty cents. Money 
enough was raised to pay all expenses, and a few dollars 
left in the treasury. 

An educational column is edited by the teachers of 
the county and published in the Wet Mountain Tribiuie^ 
at West ClifFe. 

The county superintendent can not give his entire 
attention to the office, as he is paid in county warrants, 
which sell at sixty-five cents on the dollar, and as most 
superintendents cannot live on climate and altitude 
alone, I would suggest a law be passed to pay them from 
the contingent fund. 

Two new districts have been formed, and one old 
one re-organized, none of which have as yet held schooh 
and unless the patrons of the schools make up money it 
will be hard for them to commence school in the pre- 
scribed limits of the law. 

There is a tendency when building new houses to 
build of stone, which I think a move in the right direc- 
tion. No. 8 will build a $500 stone house this fall. 
The people of the district will do most of the work, 
which will make a house of $1,000. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 57 

That most of the schools do orood work is proven b}' 
the fact of the pupils, when movino^ from the county to 
well graded schools, enter the higher classes. This is 
more noticeable from the graded schools. One pupil 
writing me from the Pueblo Public Schools says, ''I 
entered the High School, ninth grade." She says fur- 
ther, ''My brother, who was in the intermediate grade 
at Silver Cliff, entered in the seventh, and in a week or 
so will be ready for promotion." 

In conclusion, I will say, enact some law to put our 
county out of debt and compel people to pay their taxes, 
and pay the county superintendent dollar for dollar, and 
I will promise you, should an educational exhibit be on 
the programme of our next State Fair, that Denver, 
Pueblo and Aspen would have to look well to their 
laurels. 



Delta County. 

J. B. McGiNTY, Superintendent. 

The schools of Delta county are progressing nicely. 
It is indeed gratifying to see the interest manifested in 
education. 

Since my last report eight creditable school buildings 
have been erected, and furnished with the best modern 
school desks. 

There seems to be a panic at present to secure globes, 
maps, charts, dictionaries, and new and improved appa- 
ratus in genaral. 

Three years ago there was not a school in the county 
that was furnished with a good school desk. Nor was 
any school furnished with a globe, a map, a chart, a 
dictionary, or even a suitable black-board. Now there 
are only a few schools but what have all these appli- 
ances. 

8 



5S STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

It has taken three years steady hammering to awaken 
the people to their needs and bring these results about. 
This has been accomplished principally through three 
channels, viz: By educational gatherings; by grading 
the schools; and by procuring more efficient teachers. 

We now have seventeen schools in the county, and 
three more soon to be organized, all of which expect to 
have school from five to ten months the coming year, 
an increase of from one to three months in most of the 
districts. 

And as our teachers are fifty per cent, better than at 
any previous time, good results must crown Delta 
county the coming year. 

Our next efforts will be to procure a good, suitable 
librarv for each school. 



Dolores county. 

J. O. Campbell, Superintendent. 
Your circular, requesting a report of school work in 
this county, received. We have but one school in this 
county, that located at Rico, ungraded; employs one 
male teacher, holding a first grade certificate, and is a 
first-class instructor; name, W. B. Hess; has enrolled 
fifty-seven scholars, nearly all of whom attend regularly; 
they range in age from six to eighteen years, and are 
taught all the branches required by law, and besides a 
class in book-keeping, which is taught partially out of 
school hours. Mr. Hess is a thorough instructor and 
disciplinarian, gives entire satisfaction, and receives a 
salary of seventy dollars per month, which is much less 
than it should be for the work performed. 

Eagle county. 

James Dilts, Superintendent. 
There are ten organized school districts in Eagle 
county, four having been organized in the past year. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 59 

The contour of the county and its consequent chief in- 
dustrial pursuits are not favorable to the growth of 
schools. High and rough mountains, valuable chiefly 
for mining and grazing, comprise almost its whole ex- 
tent. The typical prospector is either unmarried or far 
from his family, and the cowboy loves the freedom of 
his reckless life more than the tame comforts of home. 
There are two permanently settled mining towns in the 
county — Red Cliff, the county seat, and Gillman, its 
younger rival in both business and population. The 
people in these are enterprising and prosperous; many 
of them well educated. Each of these towns supports 
a school for at least eight months each year. They 
employ trained and competent teachers at liberal sala- 
ries, provide comfortable and attractive rooms, and their 
schools are well attended. The other schools of the 
county are in thinly peopled districts — one near the Con- 
tinental Divide, in a charcoal and mining camp, the 
others in the narrow limits of the agricultural area along 
the river courses. These are meeting the difficulties 
incident to new settlements. The actual necessities of 
life often cost all the energies of the people. A strong 
interest, however, in the growth of the school actuates 
the settlers, whether heads of families or unmarried 
men, and very praiseworthy progress is being made. 
Short terms of school are being taught in such houses 
as can be secured at small expense, and in many in- 
stances part of the cost is paid by voluntary contribu- 
tions. 

The value of the property in the county is advancing; 
nearly eighty miles of railroad have been constructed, 
and agricultural land is being patented. These re- 
sources, behind the present fostering interest everywhere 
felt, point toward better schools and higher culture and 
better morals in the future for the people of Eagle 
county. 



60 STATE SUPERINTENDENTS RKPORT. 



ELBERT COUNTY. 



B. C. KiLLiN, Superintendent. 

The annual report of Elbert county is herewith re- 
spectfully submitted. Also a brief statement of educa- 
tional work for the year ending June 30, 1888: 

Organization of districts has comprised a considerable 
portion of the work of this office during the past year. 
This was principally in the new settlements within the 
"rain belt" in the extreme eastern part of the county 
and near the State line. The great distance of those 
settlements from the county seat has made progress of 
organization somewhat slow; yet I believe every step 
taken has been strictly in accordance with law, and all 
remarkably harmonious with regard to boundary lines. 

The new districts in that locality aggregate about 
five hundred persons of school age. Nealy all have 
sod school-houses, which are cheaply built, and quite 
comfortable both summer and winter. 

Resident teachers of experience and ability are there 
in abundance. Eleven new school districts have been 
organized in the vicinity of Burlington since January 
I, 1888. • 

FINANCIAL. 

Notwithstanding the rapid increase in school popula- 
tion, the financial condition continues prosperous, the 
increase in taxable property more than keeping pace 
with the increase in population. 

BUILDING. 

Building has been confined principally to the newly 
organized districts, although District No. 7 (Hugo) has 
in process of erection a three-room brick school build- 
ing, to cost, exclusive of furniture, $7,300; this amount 
to be raised by special taxation the current year. 



STATE SUPKRINTENDENt's REPORT. 6 1 



teachers' associations. 

A meeting of the County Association was held at 
Elbert, June 28-29, 1888. A goodly number of teach- 
ers were present, and some earnest and beneficial work 
accomplished. 

In September, 1887, an organization was formed at 
the town of Burlington, in the eastern part of the 
county, called the "Eastern Elbert County Teachers' 
Association." Twenty members were enrolled, and 
great earnestness in the work was manifested by the 
teachers and friends of education at that place. I may 
add, much profit is to be derived from these county asso- 
ciations, and teachers are awakening to the importance 
of becoming enrolled and attending each session. 

We also intend to hold semi-annual meetings, and 
issue certificates of attendance. We expect also to have 
the name of every teacher in the county on our list be- 
fore the present school year closes. 

More work and better work is expected from the 
teachers, and those who are careless must soon drop out 
of the ranks. 

The remarkable decrease in average monthly salary 
paid teachers in ungraded schools is not permanent, and 
by no means alarming; such a condition is not unusual 
where there is a large influx of population, and many 
new districts suddenly organized. Those best fitted for 
the work will remain with us, while many will turn 
their attention to other fields of labor. 

Much credit is due our State Superintendent for his 
earnest work in advancing the school interests of the 
State, foremost among which I consider the organization 
and fostering of county associations. 



62 STATE superintendent's keport. 

EL Paso county. 

Reuben Berry, Superintendent. 

It affords me o^reat pleasure in being able to report to 
you, as Superintendent of Public Instruction that the 
public schools of El Paso county are in a most flourish- 
ing and prosperous condition. With rare exceptions, 
the schools of this county have been taught by capable, 
conscientious, earnest teachers, who seem to have been 
imbued with the true spirit of their profession, and 
hence a marked progress in all the branches taught, as 
well as in method and ethics, is apparent and most grati- 
fying. This is- especially true of our graded schools, in 
most of which the teachers employed last year have 
been retained for the current year. 

The ready co-operation of school boards with teach- 
ers and County Superintendent has done much to 
advance and promote the educational work in our 
county. It has resulted in furnishing many of our 
schools with improved seats and desks, more black- 
boards, maps, charts, and other conveniences, for the 
comfort of scholars, and better facilities for imparting 
instruction. 

The people of this county, as well as school officers, 
take great interest in the public schools. This is shown 
in part by their liberal provision for maintaining schools 
on an average in the entire county for over seven months 
during the year. Also in the erection of comfortable 
and convenient school-houses. 

Six new school districts have been org^anized durino^ 
the past year, four of which have had short terms of 
school, and the other two will soon have new school 
buildings completed, and commence a full term of school. 

Three new two-story brick school-houses are now in 
course of construction, one of six rooms at Manitou, 
another of six rooms at Colorado City, and one of four 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 63 

rooms in Colorado Springs. These buildings, with fur- 
niture, will cost about $60,000. 

Three Teachers' Association meetings have been held 
in the county during the year, at two of which our 
worthy State Superintendent of Public Instruction was 
present and delivered interesting and instructive lectures 
before the association. These association meetings have 
been of great benefit to the teachers — and especially so 
to those of limited experience. I am happy to say that 
our teachers are giving special attention to the recent 
enactment by our State Legislature, relating to the in- 
jurious effects of alcoholic stimulants and narcotics. 

These schools which have adopted a regular course 
of study, such as that recommended in the Daily Reg- 
ister^ show much better results than those which are 
conducted without any definite course of study. 

A want of uniformity of text books in our schools is 
a source of great injury, and some means should be pro- 
vided to remedy the evil. I know of no better or effect- 
ive plan than the enactment of a law by our General 
Assembly empowering school boards throughout the 
State to adopt a uniform series of text books and provide 
for the payment of the same out of the public funds. 



Fremont County. 

B. G. Woodford, Superintendent. 

The schools of this county are in fair working order, 
and there is a perceptibly growing interest being taken 
by patrons and school officers. 

Several districts have built new houses; others have 
repaired or enlarged. District No. i issued bonds to the 
amount of $13,000, and has completed a fine stone addi- 
tion to the school building, making it one of the best 
and most commodious in the State. District No. 2, Flor- 



64 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

ence, has completed a $7,000 brick school house, which 
is a fine structure and well arranged, and has a good 
system of ventilation. District No. 21, Rockvale, made 
improvements on the school building and provided bet- 
ter means of ventilation. 

There is much work being done to raise the standard 
of the district schools by having a well-defined "Course 
of Study" and by grading them as far as is practicable, 
which we find a difficult problem. 

Most of the school boards have been liberal in pro- 
viding maps, charts, etc., and others are awakening to 
school interests and purchasing those essentials of a 
school-room. 

We now have twenty-four school districts in the 
county, giving employment to forty-four teachers. 

The village schools are prosperous, and the Canon 
City schools are thoroughly graded and in fine condition. 

During the past year two "County Teachers' Asso- 
ciations" were held, having been well attended and 
resulting in the manifestation of much interest in edu- 
cational work. 

We made an effort in this Institute District to hold a 
District Institute, but, for want of funds and lack of 
interest, failed. 

As the Legislature makes no provisions for the Insti- 
tutes, I would suggest that a law be passed requiring 
the payment of $2 from each applicant for examination, 
which shall go into the Institute Fund. 



Garfield County. 

Samuel M. White, Superintendent. 

Garfield county may justly feel proud of her public 
school system. There is a constant growth of educa- 
tional interest here, which manifests itself in different 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 65 

forms. Not only are the heads of families interested, 
but the young men, the bachelors, all respond with open 
pocket-books to further the cause of education. At 
Rangely, the scene of the late Ute war, to-day there is a 
good log building and all the modern improvements 
within, and I must say that the young men assisted me 
in building up the school almost exclusiveLy. A school 
district has been organized at the Old Agency farm, on 
White river, where the lamented Meeker was massacred 
by the Utes. The citizens of Meeker have built a ten 
thousand dollar ($10,000) school building, with all the 
modern improvements. During the spring and summer 
I have orgnnized eight (8) districts, with good, substan- 
tial school-houses, and most of them supplied with 
books, globes, maps, etc. , etc. The young people have 
given entertainments from time to time, and purchased 
organs for the schools. Carbondale has an excellent 
school building, and I must here state that the young 
men responded liberally towards the completion of the 
school building. Glenwood Springs has a magnificent 
school building, with an enrollment of one hundred and 
sixty pupils. The cost of the building, with all the 
modern improvements complete, was $27,000. 

Professor Kiggins has charge of the school, and, with 
his able assistants, everything moves like clock-work. 
We have now twenty-one organized school districts in 
Garfield county. I must state that I am decidedly op- 
posed to issuing temporary certificates, especially to res- 
idents of the county. As soon as a school district is 
organized, there is some one that wants to teach who 
resides in the district, and, as a matter of course, they 
teach for ;$io or $15 on the month cheaper than a pro- 
fessional teacher, hence we have a little of the Chinese 
business even in our public schools. I have been an- 
noyed considerably by some of these would-be local 
teachers, who will ask: "Mr. White, please send me a 



66 STATE SirPERINTENDENT's REPORT. 

temporary certificate, or send me your questions and I 
will send the answers." Well, such gall! I might as 
well send them a United States history, and ask them 
who was George Washington. I have given my entire 
attention to the cause of education in Garfield county, 
and my salary is just barely enough to pay my expenses, 
but next year it will be quite different. 



Gilpin County. 

W. J. Thomas, Superinteitdent. 

In answer to your request of recent date respecting 
the educational work of my county, would state that 
the outlook educationally was never brighter than at 
present. 

I have endeavored through persistent efforts to make 
the question of education one of general interest to the 
public, and have met with such success that the welfare 
of our schools is now discussed in almost every house- 
hold. 

During the past year a new district was organized in 
the eastern portion of the county, and a school con- 
ducted there this summer. I am about to organize 
another district in the northern part of the county, and 
when this is accomplished every portion of little Gilpin 
that is available for school purposes will have been ap- 
propriated. 

It has been my object to secure a uniform system or 
course of study throughout the county, and have met 
with every encouragement from school boards and teach- 
ers in the several districts. This has not yet been per- 
fected, but it is only a matter of a few months before 
we shall have a perfect grade from the primary class in 
the remotest district to the finished grade in the high 
school. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 67 

The work of the Central City schools has never been 
better than at present, and through the efforts of our 
efficient superintendent, Mr. E. C. Stevens, the people 
may now boast of having a public school that is second 
to none in the State. 

We shall strive to retain this interest, and by this 
means endeavor to do our share for the welfare of educa- 
tion in general. 



Huerfano county. 

Fred Pischel, Superintendent. 

Additional to the tabulated annual report, allow me 
to say a few things in a more general direction regard- 
ing the educational condition of the county. 

In 1885 twenty organized districts showed the valua- 
tion of school property to be $8,050 (including one 
district with $5,600). Two thousand and twenty persons 
of school age were enrolled. The total number of mills 
of special tax voted by all the districts was thirty and 
one-half mills, of which Walsenburg and La Plata alone 
are marked with fourteen mills. Two thousand ninety- 
eight dollars and seventy-nine cents of special taxes 
were paid that year. Now, with twenty-six districts 
and two thousand one hundred and fifty-one pupils en- 
rolled, the total number of mills of special taxes voted 
is one hundred and seven. Four thousand nine hundred 
and twenty-seven dollars and seventy-one cents of spe- 
cial taxes were paid last year, and the valuation of school 
property has increased to $22,656, or nearly $12,000 since 
last year. 

Some of our school houses are ornaments to any com- 
munity or place, and are furnished and finished in mod- 
ern style, with a view to comfort and beauty, and in 
themselves are aiding education by developing a taste 
for neatness, cleanliness and order, and a greater appre- 
ciation of the importance of the public school. 



68 STATE superintendent's report. 

Our Mexican population is keeping well along in the 
line of progress, as evinced by a number of neat, well 
furnished school houses, and the per cent, of the aver- 
age attendance to the enrollment. They are, however, 
not making as rapid an advancement in the mastery of 
the English language as the importance of the case 
would lead us to expect. By custom they live in settle- 
ments by themselves; the American business man is 
ready to learn the use of their language; the Mexican 
ladies apparently take a very slight active part in outside 
affairs, consequently the necessity of a knowledge of the 
American language does not as yet to them become very 
apparent. Mothers feel the want of its use least of all. 
The mother tongue is spoken exclusively, and but little 
inducement or encouragement for learning English is 
offered the children outside of the school room, and the 
efforts there made do not meet with the ready home 
appreciation so necessary to promote the interest. 

Where lies the remedy? 

I regret that my report does not show an increased 
percentage of average attendance to the number enrolled. 
In 1886 it was 49.2%, in 1887, 60.92%, and this year it 
is only 58.74%. The appearance and spread of scarlet 
fever during last fall and spring over the greatest part 
of the county closed entirely several schools before expi- 
ration of school terms, and in others reduced the attend- 
ance to such a point that school was kept up only as a 
matter of form. Such obstacles can not be avoided or 
controlled, but may next year be free from similar inter- 
ference. 

The schools of the county have been and are being 
graded and course of studies adopted, carrying with it a 
more thorough classification, records of classification at 
end of term, written monthly examination, a better 
supervision, and an expected greater efficiency from 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 69 

teachers and increased interest of parent and scholars. 
Uniformity of text-books is growing rapidly. 

Does it not seem that Colorado is now old enough — 
its educational interest far enough advanced — to increase 
the legal school term from three to at least four months? 
Our revenues from the public school lands are growing, 
and if" the lands are manipulated to the best interests of 
the school fund, regardless of the wishes of ravenous 
speculators, they will yield increasing returns. The 
present appraisement of these lands as a basis for deter- 
minino; the rental value will bear a revision and advance- 
ment. 

It is evident that the present law on Union high 
schools is inoperative, and inoperative because imprac- 
ticable. Country high schools we must have; they 
afford advanced education to many whose financial con- 
dition now puts a peremptory halt; they will serve as an 
incentive to a better system of country grammar schools, 
and a more regular and longer attendance at these. 

Can not the next Legislature be induced to thoroughly 
digest a feasible plan and put it in operation? Can not 
the next State Teachers' or Superintendents' Associa- 
tion formulate a practical plan which to lay for adoption 
before the Legislature? However it may be accom- 
plished, let us have country high schools — schools that 
take up at least the first two years' work of the regular 
high school course, with such modifications as the par- 
ticular location may seem to demand. 



La Plata County. 

T. J. Jackson, Superinteiident. 

I have the honor to submit i.ercwith my annual report 
for the year ending June 30, 1888. It has been some- 
what delayed by difficulties in the county treasurer's 
office, of which I have already informed you. 



70 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

All things considered, the schools of this county are 
doing exceedingly well. There is marked improvement 
in every department and district. Seven new districts 
have been organized, and all bid fair to do well. 

The number of applicants for situations as teachers 
has increased very much, thereby giving wider scope for 
choice, and consequently a better corps of teachers 
throughout the entire county. This is a great advan- 
tage, and has already produced good fruit. There is 
such a demand for higher educational facilities that the 
city schools of Durango have responded with three ad- 
ditional grades and a regular high school course; while 
the Mancos valley has decided upon the immediate 
erection of a commodious building, and will, in a few 
weeks, have a regular high school in session. 

It is a matter of regret that the attendance in our 
schools is no better. As may be seen from my report, 
the enrollment is only sixty-five and three-fourths per 
cent, of the population of school age; the daily attend- 
ance is less than thirty-seven per cent., and, worse still, 
the daily attendance is only fifty-six per cent, of the 
enrollment. This results, in part, from the shifting 
nature of the population in this western country, and 
its scattered condition in some parts; but it must be 
admitted that it is, in a large measure, due to indiffer- 
ence and a lack of appreciation of the advantages of 
education. It is a matter of the profoundest signifi- 
cance, and, in my humble judgment, calls for a compul- 
sory statute. This is a time so critical in our State's 
history that it should command the most earnest atten- 
tion of the law-making power. Such a law could be so 
framed as to prevent hardships in case of great distance 
from a school, and could be so tempered with other 
wholesome exceptions as not to do injustice to any. 

The school officers are earnest and active in their 
endeavors to build up the schools of the county. The 



STATE SUPKRINTENDENT's REPORT. 71 

teachers are earnest, painstaking and progressive. The 
most harmonious and pleasant relations exist between 
the officers, teachers and myself; and the next year bids 
fair to be one of great prosperity and success for the 
pride of our young State — the public schools. 



Larimer county. 



S. T. Hamilton, Sut>erintendent. 

Larimer county is divided into fifty-five districts, 
with a school population of two thousand, six hundred 
and ninety-seven, and is taxed about forty thousand 
($40,000) dollars a year for the support of schools. 

In these districts are fifty-three school-houses, the 
majority of which are good and substantial structures, 
costing, in the country, from $700 to $1,500 each. This 
year nearly two thousand pupils received benefit from 
the schools at a cost of $2.62 per capita^ based on total 
enrollment. 

Larimer county has two graded schools — one at Fort 
Collins and one at Loveland. Berthoud will soon in- 
crease the number to three. 

The schools are doing good work, and have an excel- 
lent corps of teachers, the majority holding first and 
second grade certificates. 

I would suggest that the law be so amended that only 
two grades of certificates— first and second — be issued. 

With this change the schools can easily be supplied 
with teachers and the standard of teaching raised nearer 
to the demand of the times. 

LOGAN COUNTY. 

Oscar Trego, Superintendent, 
The schools of Logan county are, on an average, 
prospering well. During the school year ending June 



72 STATE superintendent's report. 

30, our county organized forty-two (42) new school dis- 
tricts and annulled but one. 

The total number of districts in the county is eighty 
(80), all of which will have at least six (6) months' 
school during the coming year. Several have built new 
frame houses during the past year, others are building 
now, and several more will be built before winter. A 
majority of the remainder have good, comfortable sod 
buildings. Sterling, the county seat, is building a 
brick house, which will be open for the fall term. They 
have six teachers employed, and will open a high school 
department this year. I think that section ninety (90) 
of the school law should be amended by our next Legis- 
lature, allowing districts to issue bonds equal to five (5) 
per cent, of their assessed valuation, instead of three 
and one-half (3J/2) per cent., as it now is. Under the 
existing law new districts are placed at a disadvantage, 
and prevented from making good and necessary im- 
provements as soon as they are needed. One of our 
largest town districts would have built a $15,000 house 
this summer if the limit had been five instead of three 
and one-half per cent. 

Our Teachers' Association, which was organized in 
November, "1887, is doing well, with a membership of 
about one hundred (100) teachers. Meetings will be 
held semi-annually, or oftener, each meeting being 
called at a different point, thus bringing it near home to 
all teachers at some time during the year. 



Mesa county. 



D. T. Stone, Superintendent. 
Mesa county is divided into twelve school districts. 
It has at present a school population of 678. The peo- 
ple in almost every part of the county take an active 



STATK superintendent's REPORT. 73 

interest in the condition of their public schools. A 
special tax-levy of eight or ten mills is not unusual, in 
order that ample funds may be procured for the employ- 
ment of good teachers. Several country districts pay 
$65 and $70 per month for their teachers. This enables 
the director to secure experienced and skilled instruct- 
ors, as. may be seen from the fact that of the fifteen 
teachers employed in the schools of Mesa county the 
past year, eleven held first grade and four second grade 
certificates. 

The Grand Junction public school now has a corps 
of five teachers: David T. Stone, principal; Thomas H. 
Sweeney, Charles O. Beard, Ella J. Joseph and Rose 
Allison, assistants. The primary and grammar grades 
are on an equal basis with those in the best schools of 
the State, since pupils completing the eighth grade here 
are qualified to enter the Denver high schools. 

A three years' high school course, including Algebra, 
Geometry, Rhetoric, Physics, Botany, Book-keeping 
and other branches has been recently adopted by the 
board. The high school department now contains six- 
teen pupils, and is meeting the hearty encouragement 
of patrons. The school for the past two years, under 
Prof. Stone's management, has been especially distin- 
guished for the obedience and orderly conduct of its 
pupils. 

The school at Fruita is presided over by Edward T. 
Fisher, principal, and Mabel C. Steele, assistant. Prof 
Fisher, lately from Monroe, Iowa, has graded the school 
and is proving himself a succeesful teacher. Three 
pupils of the Grand Junction high school, Misses Avis 
Clark, Josephine Tonpain and Bertha Belknap have 
successfully begun the work of teachers in the county 
schools of the county. A County Teachers' Association 
was organized by the County Superintendent last spring, 
and held a highly interesting meeting on April 14. 



74 STATE superintendent's report. 

Among our teachers now there are seven college and 
high school graduates, and all the schools are conceded 
to be in a healthy, prosperous condition. 



Montrose county. 

John J. Tobin, Superintendent. 

During the past year there have been seven new- 
school houses constructed and fully supplied with all 
school apparatus. 

Our school population has increased over twenty per 
cent, the last year. 

Our schools have all adopted the same series of 
books, and both teachers and directors are endeavoring 
to thoroughly complete the grading system. 

This year the Board of Education at Montrose have 
added two more grades to the ten grades established 
heretofore, now making a full high school course of 
twelve grades. 

The District Normal Institute will be held at Mont- 
rose, and all the teachers seem to take a great interest. 

The county and city teachers hold a monthly meet- 
ing on the second Saturday of each month in different 
parts of the county. 

School boards and patrons are all anxious to secure 
good teachers, and willing to retain them and advance 
their wages when they prove themselves competent. 

Teachers' wages advanced ten per cent, during the 
past year. 

The terms of school are longer and all the districts 
will have a term from six to eleven months this coming 
year. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 75 

Ouray county. 

O. E. OSTENSON, Superinte7tdent. 

I have the pleasure to report that this has been a 
prosperous year for the schools in Ouray county. They 
are forging to the front in numbers and efficiency. I 
began the year 1888 with eight school districts, with 
six school-houses, requiring ten teachers. Now there 
are nine districts with eight school-houses, requiring 
thirteen teachers. In every case a strict compliance 
with the law has been had. In every district the num- 
ber of children of school age and percentage of attend- 
ance at school have been held, if not increased. Some 
of my country schools have been taught by teachers of 
great ability and long experience, holding first grade 
certificates. Our town school, now of four depart- 
ments, has been supplied with teachers of exceptional 
ability and skill. And the scholarship is high. Still 
the average was no higher the past year than one of our 
country schools. 



Park County. 

I. S. Smith, Superintendent. 

Two new school-houses have been built within a 
year. Others will be planned soon. 

Teachers' aids and school-room appliances are on the 
increase. Several hundred dollars have been expended 
in this direction since last report. 

Two districts now own the text-books for their 
schools, and the plan meets with general satisfaction. 

Grading the country schools is a movement much 
encouraged and meeting with reasonable success. 

The migratory life of the teacher causes financial 
waste and retards the advance of the pupil. This is an 
evil. The remedy is being sought after. 



76 STATE superintendent's report. 

The funds of the various districts indicate wisdom on 
the part of the school boards. Some believe that the 
minimum school term annually should be four months, 
instead of three. 

Better attendance is constantly urged and gradually 
secured. In this will be the solution of many vexed 
problems. 

The County Teachers' Association is considered one 
of the permanent factors in educational advancement. 

We are trying to give more time to the first five 
grades, and less attention to studies having no claims on 
the ordinary district school. Good citizenship is far 
preferable to ripe scholarship. 

Park county is on the up grade. With a better class 
of teachers than usual, this year shall be the banner 
year in results. 



Pitkin county. 

F. G. Salmon, Superintendent. 

The first school district organized in Pitkin county 
dates its existence from August 6, 1881, and includes 
within its limits the town of Aspen. The first term of 
school was held in a rented room, and was in session six 
months. The number of pupils enrolled during the 
term was fifty-eight. The following year a comfortable 
frame school-house of three rooms was erected. It soon 
became necessary to provide more room and better accom- 
modations. This was promptly done. The original 
building was enlarged, and a new house of two rooms 
was built in the east end of town, giving, in all, a seat- 
ing capacity of four hundred. For a time there was 
ample room for all who desired to attend, but at the 
beginning of the present school year the accomoda- 
tions were found to be. inadequate. Seats were at once 
ordered for two additional rooms, and the Christian 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 77 

church was procured for the use of the school. Four 
hundred and eighty pupils are already enrolled, and 
eleven teachers are employed. The actual enrollment 
for the year promises to exceed the census list, which 
gives the whole number of school age to be five hundred 
and twenty-one. The excess of the enrollment over the 
census list can easily be accounted for when we consider 
the rapid growth of the town, and the development of 
the mines, ranches and other property surrounding it. 

The officers of the district are efficient, progressive 
and thoroughly in earnest. They have the sympathy 
and support of the people of the town, and the confi- 
dence and respect of those in their employ. 

The school is well organized, and is following an 
adopted course of study. 

Such improvements will be made upon our present 
system, from time to time, as experience may suggest. 

The library is small, but contains several valuable 
reference books, dictionaries and encyclopedias. 

Apparatus of different kinds is needed, but is being 
supplied as fast as circumstances will permit. 

There are five school districts in Pitkin county. In 
the First district (Aspen) are two schools, in Capital 
Creek, Moody, Emma and Aspen Junction, one each. 
In the Aspen district there are nine months of school in 
the year, and in the other districts school is kept open 
from three to five months in the year. In two of the 
country districts, Emma and Moody, they now rent their 
school buildings, and steps are being taken to purchase 
or build school houses in the other districts. None of 
the school districts, the First (Aspen) excepted, have any 
debt. In the country districts the same course of study, 
as far as practicable, and the same books are used as in 
the Aspen schools. There are now over one hundred 
scholars receiving tuition in the country district schools. 



78 STATE superintendent's repokt. 



ROUTT COUNTY. 

John T. Whyte, Superintendent. 

No backward steps have been taken by the people of 
this county in the line of school work. They have many 
hindrances, two of the greatest being an inadequate 
mail service and a sparsely settled country. Communi- 
cations are long delayed, and settlers remote from the 
center of a district find it difficult to send their children 
to school. The winter snows in some localities and the 
high water of spring impede travel, and lessen the 
school attendance. 

But, notwithstanding these hindrances, good progress 
is being made. Within the past two years the number 
of the school districts has been doubled. In 1886 no 
district reported having held during the previous year 
more than three months of school; but five months will 
be the average length of the term for the year through 
which we are now passing. Since the last published 
report, four school houses have been erected, and pro- 
vision for building is now being made in several districts. 

Egeria Creek District (No. 8) deserves especial men- 
tion, and furnishes a striking illustration of the grit of 
our pioneers. 

An organization was effected in that valley two years 
ago. Work upon a school building was begun at once, 
and the school was opened in due time. Last year this 
building caught fire and was reduced to ashes, not even 
the books of the pupils being saved. Deeply grieved, 
but not disheartened, these friends of education proved 
equal to the occasion. Strong, willing hands began 
work upon a second structure and, ere long, this build- 
ing, larger and better than the first, was ready for occu- 
pancy, thus making two school houses erected during 
the first year and a half of this district's history. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 79 

Routt county is destined to be one of the garden spots 
of the West. People who contemplate making it their 
future home need no longer be deterred by the idea that 
their children would, if living here, be debarred from 
school privileges. Our aim for the coming year is to 
have in each and every school district, not less than six 
months of school, under a good teacher, in a comfortable 
building, properly furnished. We are moving in the 
right direction, and hope to continue making "progress 
all along the line." 



Saguache County. 

C. M. Herren, Stiperhitendent. 

The schools of this county are flourishing. The corps 
of teachers is such^hat any county would be proud to 
possess. Two new school houses are in course of con- 
struction, and more are to be built. 

An effort is being made to induce the several Boards 
of Education to supply their districts with more school 
apparatus. 

The Teachers' Associations promise excellent results, 
the grade of work being such that every teacher feels 
the benefit. Although the teachers are doing good 
work, they are still striving to improve it. 



San Miguel county. 

H. C. Lay, Super iittendent. 
The school population of this county is yet so small 
that I have but little to report. There are this month, 
for the first time in the history of the county two, schools 
in operation, one at Telluride and one at Wright's Mesa, 
in the cattle region. The Telluride school ts also now 
changed to a graded institution, and two teachers will 



80 STATE SHPEKINTENDENt's REPORT. 

henceforth be employed in it. I hope also that a third 
school will be started in a short time in the village of 
San Miguel. 



SUMMIT COUNTY. 

B. A. Arbogast, Superintendent. 
The schools of Summit county are increasing in use- 
fulness every year. We have money enough to pay 
good salaries to teachers, thereby insuring good, compe- 
tent, earnest, healthy and ambitious teachers; teachers 
who are alive to their work; teachers who did not come 
up here for their health, but teachers who are abreast of 
the times; teachers who "are full of the subject," and 
not burdened with the "fullness" of "the new idea" in 
school teaching, but teachers who have all the BEST 
methods. Our schools are longer by almost a month 
than ever before. On August 31 and September i we 
were able to have the first Teachers' Association in the 
county, and was attended by every teacher in the county, 
and was largely attended by the citizens, that was en- 
couraging to teachers and school officers. The State 
Superintendent, Hon. L. S. Cornell, was with us one day 
and assisted in the discussions, which were both ani- 
mated and instructive. Altogether, we are proud of the 
progress of the school work for the past year; we have 
much still to do. 



Washington County. 

W. Curtis, Superintendent. 

This county was organized in February, 1887, from 

a part of Weld county. At that time there were nine 

( 9) scho(51 districts in that part of Weld county now 

embraced in Washington county. To-day (October 11, 



STATE SUPEIUNTENDENt's REPORT. 81 

1888,) there are forty- three (43) districts. The census 
lists of 1887 showed a school population of 640; that of 
1888 showed a population of 1,020, and since such census 
was taken fifty more have been added, making in all as 
reported 1,070. About one-third of the county still 
remains as unorganized territory. 

The tide of immigration has brought to this county 
the very best of citizens — citizens who are anxious for 
school privileges for their children — hence the rapid 
formation of districts. New school-houses are going up 
all through the county, the one just completed at Akron 
being an ornament to the town and a credit to the 
people. 

Several of our school districts have adopted the plan 
of purchasing their own text -books, and, so far as re- 
ported, it has been a grand success. A number more 
will do so in the near future or at the next annual meet- 
ing. We are attempting to have a uniform system of 
text-books throughout the county. I am urging all dis- 
tricts to adopt Barnes' system, as, so far as I can learn^ 
it is more generally used than any other. 

As to teachers, I would say we have the cream of the 
teachers of the East. Our teachers are wide awake, 
energetic and ambitious. We have several who are 
graduates of Eastern colleges and Normal schools, and 
"progress" is their watchword. We have a fully organ- 
ized Teachers' Association, which is doing valiant 
work for the cause of education in the county. With 
particular pride I refer to the work of Miss Mary E. 
Elmore, in the Yuma school; Mrs. S. Cordeal, in 
Akron; Miss Mary E. Barnes, in Otis, and Miss Jennie 
Corbett, also in Akron. Our schools, being so new, are 
but slightly graded, but we are gradually forming them 
into grades, especially in the towns, and are doing 
something in this line in our country schools. 



82 STATE superintendent's report. 

One detriment to the securing of the best teachers 
has been the temporary certificate. I consider this, on 
the whole, an injury to our school system. It allows 
directors to choose teachers from favoiHtisjn rather than 
from scholarship. I am endeavoring to overcome some 
of its objectionable features by being entirely satisfied 
of the applicant's competency — and, of course, the only 
true way of doing this is by a thorough examination — 
which I do as far as is practicable. I would wish, also, 
that the grade of marking for certificates might be 
raised. 

To my fellow Superintendents I say, "Let us speed 
the good work of education," and may the work prosper 
in this great and glorious Centennial State. 



Weld county. 

A. K. Packard, Superinte^ident. 

It is difficult to write definitely of the cqndition of 
the schools in the county, and to say generally that they 
are increasing in number and improving in character 
would not be useful, perhaps. 

Within a few years there has been direct effort toward 
improvement in the school-houses of the county, as re- 
spects lighting, heating, ventilation and the arrangement 
of entries and cloak closets in relation to each other and to 
the school-rooms. All teachers assent to what may be said 
of the importance of pure air in the school-room; but 
comparatively few take anything like the necessary 
pains to secure it in the ordinary school-rcom. The 
school-house should be so constructed as, without the 
care of the teacher constantly, to inhale fresh air and 
expel the used air — taking in the air at the heater and 
allowing it to escape through the floor into the chimney. 
This, of course, has reference to ventilation in the win- 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 83 

ter. In most of the houses lately built the attempt has 
been made to secure good ventilation; in some the plan 
has been carried out so as to secure success. One some- 
times goes into a school in the morning and sees the 
windows on the west side remain covered as they were 
the previous afternoon, and the sun shining in at the 
east windows, till the scholars complain. In the after- 
noon the east windows are curtained and the sun shines 
through the west windows on the scholars' desks. Most 
school houses built now in the county have windows 
only on the north and south sides, those on each side in 
one body, and the middle of them, in some instances, to 
the rear of the middle of the room. The north win- 
dows furnish the best light and never need to be cur- 
tained. The south windows admit so much sunshine 
as may be desired for health and cheerfulness. 

One difficulty in the w^ay of the improvement of 
schools is sometimes in the carelessness, or the amiable- 
ness, of directors in engaging teachers. Strangers, of 
whom the directors have no, or little, knowledge, are 
taken because the first to apply, or because somebody's 
cousin wants to come to Colorado, when known success- 
ful teachers might have been secured. 

Mentioning directors, reminds me of what seems a 
reasonable complaint on the part of secretaries who are 
remote from a justice or notary, that, after they have 
sworn and given bonds that they will p,erform their 
duties faithfully, they should be put to expense in time 
and money and trouble every time they make a census 
list or annual report, to swear that they have done their 
duty in it. 

I shall be glad if this supplement to my report is 
allowed. 



84 



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& = £ 



W r- — • 



2 8 



s s :: AJ 






o _ 

S 






c c 

I- 1; 



= IJ -S 
V > X 



o 1/ s .« 



cc .s. .- .:- 



X! 5 
i2 <2 "^ 



a p- 2 



< ^ Z 



05 w w w :- 



86 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 




o 


a 




1 


<+-! 


^ 


1^- 


U-i 


o 


o 


O 


o 


rt 


rt 


rt 


cfl 


ii 








'5. 


"El 


'a 


'E 


rt 


CO 


cti 


cS 


o 


(J 


Ci 


o 




^^ 


i_ 


l_ 


cD 


a; 


(U 


V 


P- 


O. 


a 


a 


<u 




V 


a; 


;> 


w 


u 


l-c 


S 


3 


a 


3 


















XJ 


TJ 


'2 


T3 


a 


a 




C 


(u 


V 


V 


OJ 


a 


Cu 


a 


a, 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W 


w 


W 


W 



STATE SI PERINTKN DENTS REPORT. 



87 



TABLE II. 

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. 



COUNTIES. 



18S7. 

CERTIFICATES GIVEN. 



First Second Third 
Grade. Grade. Grade. 



g ! fa : ^ 



18HS. 

CERTIFICATES GIVEN. 



S : o ' - 

fa H 



First 
Grade. 


Second 
Grade. 


Third 
Grade. 




Male. 
Female. 


Male. 
Female. 


Male 
Female 


1 



Arapahoe . . . 
Archuleta . . 
Bent . 

Boulder .... 
Chaffee .... 
Clear Creek .. 
Conejos . . . 
Costilla .. . . 
Custer .... 

Delta 

Dolores .. . . 
Douglas . . 

Eagle 

Elbert .... 
El Paso . . . 
Fremont. . . 
Garfield . . . 
Gilpin .... 
Grand .... 
Gunnison . . 
Hinsdale. . . 
Huerfano .. . 
Jefferson. . . 

Lake 

La Plata . . . 
Larimer • . . 
Las Animas . 
Logan . . . . 

Mesa 

Montrose . . 
Ouray .... . 

Park 

Pitkin . . . . 
Pueblo. . . . 
Rio Grande 

Routt 

.Saguache .. . 
.San Juan. . . 
San Miguel 
Summit . . . 
Washington 
Weld . . . . 



44 ' 

I 
i6 

S2 
26 

'5 

19 ! 
7 
8 I 

ID I 



1 .S 

3 
4 17 



6 20 

28 8o 



Totals 



50 129 75 258 46 204 762 113 iqo 105 364 105 348 1225 



88 



STATK Sl'PKIClN'rKNDKNT S liKPOlt'l". 



TABLE 



SCIKK)], POmJI.ATION. 



CKNST'S 1««7. 



COUNTIKS, 



liKTWKKN I 

(> AND l6. 



hktwken 

l6 AND 21. 



TOT A I. BKTWKI'-.N 
ft AND 21. 



•hiilfia 



AraiKil 
An 
H'-iif 

I{<,iilfl(r . 
Ch-'ifRf 
Clefir Cif( 
Com-joH . 
CoHtilla . 
Ciislcr . . 
iKlt-'l . 

Donj^his , 

Hlbcri . . 
El Pa»o . 
Fremont 
Garfielfl , 
Oilpiii , . 
Graiifl . . 
<iuniiis(>ii 
Uinmlfilc 
HucTfaiio 
Je/fer«on 
take . . 
La Plata 
Larimer . 
LaM Aiiima» 
LoKan . . 
Mesa . . 
MoiitroHe 
Ouray . . 
Park . . 
Pitkin . . 
Pueblo . 
Rio Grande 
Routt . . 
fiaffuache 
San Juan 
San Mix'K 
Summit 
Washin^fto 
Welrl . . 

Totalh 



^,023 


6,220: 


12,243 


2,15' 


2,051 


4 , 202 


8,174 


8,271 


16,445 


35 


21, 


17 


9 


26 


52 


30 


3 7'-' 
1,320 


371 
1,351 


741 
2,671 


;« 


140 
430 


282 
916 


i,-^ 


1,781 


1,023 
3,587 


566 


540 


1,106 


197 


153 


350 


763 


g 


1,456 


674 


728 


1,402 


223 


170 


3'»3 


897 


1,795 
1,948 


729 


765 


1,494 


230 


224 


454 


959 


414 


406 


850 


158 


lOI 


259 


602 


507 


1,109 


422 


421 


843, 


133 


"Z 


250 


555 


538 


1,093 


21H 


214 


4.32 


w 


58 


'57 


317 


272 


589 


?>f> 


V 


47 


11 


7 


18 


41 


24 


65 


249 


283 


532 


104 


94 


198 


353 


377 


730 


136 


124 


260 


t 


'9 


57 


174 


2^5^ 


317 


223 


2J7 


440 


41 


125 


307 


565 


882 


t. 


1,790 


288 


276 


264, 


1,17" 


1,884 


2,354 


861 


1,683 


279 


248 


527 


1,140 


1,070 


2,210 


120 


112 


23' 


60 


54 


114 


180 


166 


346 


619 


649 


1,268 


14H 


136 


284 


767 


785 


',552 


25 


36 


61 


19 


8 


27 


44 


44 


88 


3»5 


350 


665 


115 


112 


227 


430 


462 


892 


5' 


5' 


102 


12 


7 


19 


63 


58 


121 


749 


657 


1,406 


301 


235 


536 


I ,o.so 


892 


1,94/ 


S82 


764 


1,646 


278 


254 


532 


1,160 


1,018 


2,178 


?;? 


856 


1,775 


199 


'99 


398 


1,118 


■IS 


2,173 


1 


974 


144 


I2S 


269 


662 


1,243 


912 


1 , 785 


417 


298 


715 


1,329 


1,171 


2,500 


',335 


1,269 


2,604 


576 


396 


972 


1,911 


1,665 


3,576 


507 


476 


983 


1/7 


112 


229 


624 


588 


1,212 


262 


210 


472 


87 


63 


150 


f 


273 


622 


280 


241 


521 


102 


83 


'¥ 


324 


706 


126 


128 


254 


39 


42 


81 


165 


170 


335 


255 


285 


54^^ 


100 


85 


185 


355 


370 


725 


236 


226 


462 


61 


44 


105 


297 


270 


567 


1,128 


1 , 208 


2,336 


417 


388 


805 


1,545 


1,596 


^•i^' 


281 


253 


534 


81 


70 


151 


362 


323 


685 


82 


70 


152 


28 


34 


62 


no 


104 


214 


313 


265 


578 


89 


62 


'5> 


402 


327 


729 


44 


82 


126 


15 


6 


21 


.59 


88 


147 


24 


18 


42 


6 


4 


10 


30 


22 


52 


160 


174 


334 


54 


55 


ifj9 


214 


229 


443 


257 


236 


493 


50 


54 


104 


307 


290 


597 


M5J 


t.097 


2,248 


437 


377 


814 


1,474 


3,062 


^4,733 


24,450 


49.183 

1 


8,592j 


7,441 


16,033,33,325 


31,891 


65,216 



STATK SUPKKINTKNDKNT S KKPOR'i 



89 



TABLE 



-Concluded. 













CENSUS i888. 












HETWK 


EN 






BKTWEEN 


TOTAL BETWEEN 


COl-NTY. 




6 .\ND 


i6. 






l6 AND 21. 




6 AND 


21. 






c 




15 
o 




Female. 
Total. 




'A 


o 



747 
271 
179 
274 
214 



70 
606 
93 
1 ,594 
1,6691 
2,018 
1,117 
1,913 



518 
583. 
334 
534 
482 



214 
671 
107 

315 

772, 

2,426 



127 

45 
108 

383 

327 

149 

163 

16 

126 

10 

304 

312 

127 

188 

462 

600 

212 

80 

105 

59 

92 

66 

421 

93 

37 

105 

13 

12 

58 

127 

557, 



2,796] 

14 

220 

424 

154 

137 

297 

1031 

137' 

61 

5 

93 

32 

75 

350 

284 

154 

179 

13 

118 

10 

253 i 

252 

I47i 

149 

322 

645 



75 

41 
10^ 

66 
412 

72 

34! 

93 
5 
7 

67 
121: 
452 



5,864 
34 
474 
899 
358 
302 
606, 
207 1 
293 1 
143 
13 
220 

77 
183 
733 
611 
303 
342 

29 
244 



Arapahoe 6,887 6,722 13,609 3,068! 

Archuleta 61 29' 90 20; 

Bent 741 688 1,429 254 

Boulder 1,337 1,301 2,638 4751 

Chaffee 576 566 1,142 204 

Clear Creek 680 "720 1,400 165 

Conejos 928 835 1,7631 309 

Costilla 502 475| ■ 9771 104 

Custer . . . 409 417 826 156 

Delta ." 237 235 • 472: 82 

Dolores 23 14 37 8 

Douglas 25S 285 543 

Eagle 153 154 307 

Elbert 350 323 673 

El Paso 1,057 1,132 2,189 

Fremont 917 915 1,832 

Garfield 352 381 733 

Gilpin 621 658 1,279 

Grand 36 34' 

Gunnison 287 319 

Hinsdale 46 47 

Huerfano 845 749 

Jefferson 1,072 597 

Lake 987 1,031 

La Plata 603 514 

Larimer 967 945 

Las Animas .... i,997 1,916 3,913 

Logan 669 727 1,396 

Mesa 271 

Montrose 312 

Ouraj- 155 

Park" . ■ 260 

Pitkin 268 

Pueblo 1,297 1,271 2,568 

Rio Grande 332 282 613 

Routt ' 113 101 

Saguache 361 310 

San Juan i 43 64 

San Miguel [ 41 30 

Summit 151 164 

Washington , 386 386 

Weld I i,i38 1,188 

Totals 128, 806 27, 73156, 537110,429! 9,146 19,57539,23536,97776,212 



557 
564 
274 
337 
784 

1,245 

406 

160 

180 

100 

195 

132 

833 

165 

71 

198 

18 

19 

125 

248 

1,009 



9,955 
81 

995 

1,812 

780 

845 

1,237 

666 

565 

319 

31 

385 

198 

458 

1.440 

1,244 

501 

784 

52 

413 

56 

1,149 

1,384 

1,114 

79 1 

1,429 

2,597 

881 

351 

417 

214 

352 

334 

1,718 

425 

150 

466 

56 

53 

209 

513 

1,795 



9,518 


19,473 


43 


124 


908 


1,903 


1,725 


3,537 


720 


1,500 


857 


1,702 


1 , 1.^2 


2,369 


578 


1,184 


S54 


1,119 


396 


615 


19 


50 


37H 


763 


186 


384 


.X 


856 


2,922 


1,119 


2,443 


535 


1,036 


837 


1,621 


47 


99 


437 


850 


57 


113 


1,002 


2,151 


849 


2,233 


1,178 


2,292 


663 


1,454 


1,268 


2,697 


2,561 


S,ISH 


921 


1,802 


327 


678 


346 


763 


220 


434 


377 


729 


2S0 


614 


1,683 


3,401 


354 


779 


i.is 


285 


403 


869 


69 


125 


37 


90 


231 


440 


.507 


1,020 


1,640 


3,435 



v^o 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



TABLE IV. 



ENROIvLMENX AND ATTENDANCE. 



Counties. 



(LI O 



PUPILS— 18 



PERCENT- 
AGES. 



w 


C <'"■ 1 


o 


^ o 


o 






r^-C 1 






•-cr. 


-'X 


y>7, 


?.?. ' 




rJ-o 


o rt 








SO 


s be 


, >^ 


W 



8 


^^ 


^ 


'O'S 








d'/5 


o 


w.y 


.2 


vo3 


3 


" 3 


^ 


t-PL| 






C 


> c 




o- 



Whole No. En- 
rolled in Pub- 
lic Schools. 



<Li a 



i >. 



PS 
< 



CO JS <u S X 



Arapahoe . 
Archuleta .... 

Bent 

Boulder . . 25 

Chaflfee .... 
Clear Creek 40 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso . . 97 

Fremont . 32 

Garfield .... 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison . 15 

Hinsdale .... 
Huerfano .... 
Jefferson . 45 

Lake ... 45 

La Plata 

Larimer . . 28 

LasAnimas 48 

Logan 

Mesa 

Montrose ... 

Ourav 

Park' 

Pitkin . . 15 

Pueblo . . 204 
Rio Grande . . . 

Routt 

Saguache .... 
San Juan .... 
San Miguel 

Summit 

Wash'ngtn . . . 
Weld . . 55 



481! 9,117! 



266 
1,127 
601 ' 
623 
349 



1,009 9,549 

46 40 

279 483 

1,559 2,396 

400 904 



449 
153 



65 
:,233 



608 

744 
468 
482 
268 
44 
454 
164 
287 
458! 



:,204 
962 
369 

837 

357 

37 

462 

3»8 
,593 



,058 5,246: 

6 32 

62 258. 

315 1,3671 

97 i 4891 

67. 636I 

131 675 
99 
94 



5,36i!io,6o7 
14 46, 



291 
441 
226 
24 
268 



867 1,497 



34 i 180 
195 916 
86 722 



287 

1,344 

512 

635 

418 

177 
490 

195 
20 
265 
80 
172 
872 
861 



7,055 64^' 
25 56 



5451 
1,7111 
1,001 
1,271 

i,093i 
468 

931 

421 

44 

533 

164 

35? 

1,788 

1,583 



405 
1,831 

769 

790 

729 

235 

523 

242 71 
24 67 

3421 73 

101 

200 
1,192 

928 



51 
62 
76 

71 1^ 



973 



411 

104 



575 
,183 
483 
751 
616 
244 
208 
217 
138 
237 
432 
,525 
180 



.094 



132 
41 1 
221 

870 
866 
241 
343 
1,142 
1,077 
211 
241 
282 
126 
245 
43 
657 
285 
108 
332 



1,075 

27 

592 

]02 

712 

1,299 

1,413 

787 

1,711 

1,521 

391 

398 

454 
246 
440 
458 
2,156 

415 
90 

438 
90' 
25 

197 

267 
2,139' 



30 

14. 

55 

2 

158 

187 

56 

39 

210 

220 

64 

51 

45 

18 

42 

32 



532 1 
20 
319 
53 
524 
761 
769 
428 

979, 
989 
230 
229 
285 
144 
233 
256 



573 1,105 



21 
328 

51 
346 
725 
700 
398 



41 
647' 
104 
870 
,486 
.469 
826 



942 1,921 
752 1,741 
225 455 



220 
2:4 
120 
249 
2.34 



449 
499 
264 
482 
499 



732 

27 

419 

29 

530 

944 

884 

541 
;,i64 

913 48 

242 37 

249 72 

305 70 



230 I . 206 

50 245 
18 54 



270 



267 
38 
17 
109, 
141; 
,230 



180 2,386 
465 
108 
500 
91 
27 
234 
274 



220 
54 

233 
53 
10 

125 

133 1 



[68 78 

303 66 

405 86 

1,459 76 

317; 68 

76' 50 

321 68 

61 62 

16 52 



153 52 

155' 46 

1,179 2,409 1,384 78 



66 2 

65 2 

64, 2 

28i 4^ 

60 3^ 

63^ 3 
66 

65 5 

60 4 

52 2 

53 • • 
55' 2 

61 2 
63 2 

62 2 



Totals . 1,130 24,471 17,300 38,601 4,30021,91320,98842,90127,147 



STATK SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



91 



TABLE IV.-CONCLIDF.D. 

ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE. 



PUPILS— 1888. 



Si 






21 






t> 3 

a n 
t3- 



II 

> C 

o- 



Whole Number , 
Enrolled in Jr'ub- >■ . 
lie Schools. '5 J^ 
Q a 



! <! 






PERCENT- 
AGES. 









so ^3, 



5 o:-.5^ 



Arapahoe. 59910,872 1,33511,000 1,517 6,263 6,254112,517' 8,026 

Archuleta 79 63 16 49 3°' 79 43 

Bent 587 457 956 88 502 542' 1,044 634 

Boulder. . 47 1,114 1,622 2,473 31° 1.422 1.361 2,783 1,808 

Chaffee 627 462 999 90 569 5^o 1,089 713 

Clear Creek 92 547 613 1,172 801 597 655 1,252 859 

Conejos 411 881 1,157 I35l 71? 575 1,292 689 

Costilla 531 446 85 267 264 531 298 

Custer 372 436 697 III 412 396 808 521 

Delta 116 335 3&8 63 231 220 451 276 

Dolores ......... 35 28 7 20 15 35 23 

Douglas. .... 91 485 491 85 271 305 576 363 

Eagle . . . I . . . I . . . 211 194 17 105 106 211 116 

Elbert. ...... i 77 513 546 44 317 273 590 379 

El Paso . . 69 1,638 574 2,099 182 1,156 1,125 2,281 1.393 

Fremont . ... 914 905 1,691 128 908 911 1.819 1,106 

Garfield 830 630 150 412 418 830 480 

Gilpin 970 178 1,109 39 557 59i 1,148 580 

Grand 52 33 19 25 27 52 35 

Gunnison . 11 360 216 523 64 277 310 587 344 

Hinsdale ... 93 ■ • - 86 7 46 47 93 33 

Huerfano .... 310 608 488 30 540 378 918 539 

Jefferson . 47 581 882 1.358 152 790 720 1,510 1.046 

Lake ... 31 1,183 405 1.559 60 825 794 1,619 

La Plata 494 462 849 107 518 438 956 

Larimer 873 1,110 1,755 228 1,043 94° 1,983 

LasAnimas 8 834 1,565 2,084 323 1,330 1,077 2.407 

Logan 332 1,031 1,230 133 755 608 1,363 

Mesa. 9 205 288 443 59 258 244 502 

Montrose .... 235 315 495 5s 288 262 550 

Ouray 169 183 326 26 178 174 352 209 

I^ark 209 284 376 124 246 253 499 265 

Pitkm ... 25 496 93 482 132 334 280 614 385 

Pueblo . . 150 1,779 716 2,357 288 1,308 1,337 2,645 1,499 

Rio Grande ... 182 366 508 40 267 271 548 366 

Routt 142 119 23 77 65 142 106 

Saguache . 1 . . . 174 322 444 52 267 229 496 304 

San Juan . * 91 . . . 90 i 38 53 91 61 

San Miguel 52 52 . . . 30 22 52 33 

Summit 272 234 40 126 148 274 166 

AVashigt'n .... 534 456 78 269 265 534 374 

Weld ... 65 1,050 1,507 2,358 264 1,303 1,319 2,622j 1,667 

Total. . 1,15327,98621,60645,293 5,45225,92324,82250,745131,516 



64^/2 

63/2 

54 

78 

72 

73 

54 

45 

72 

73 

70 

75 

55 

69 

78 

74 

80 

70 

53 

69 

82 

42 

67 



) 1,359 


73 


> 537 


65 


1,083 


74 


1,097 


46 


969 


75 


302 


74 


330 


72 



68 
100 
77 
71 
50 
57 
73 
58 
62 
52 
76 



64 2% 
54 • • 

60 2 

65 2 

65 3 
68 . . 
53 2 
56 2 
64 5 

61 5 

66 . . 
63 3 



55 2 
64 3 

61 2 
60 3 
59 2 
50 2 

67 1% 

59 2 
35 4 

58 3^ 

69 3 
84 . . 

56 5 
54 4 
45 • • 
71 5 

60 2 
60 . . 

59 2 

73 2 

62 . . 

57 3 
66 2 

74 4 

68 2 
66 . . 

63 2 

60 3 

70 2 
631 3% 



*Estimated. 



92 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



TABLE V. 

NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN GRADED AND UNGRADED SCHOOLS, AND 
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARIES. 



GRADED SCHOOLS. 



UNGRADED SCHOOLS. 



COUNTIES. 



Teachers. 



Salaries. 



Teachers. 



Salaries. 



<u o 



Arapahoe 
Archuleta . 
Bent .... 
Boulder . . 
Chaffee . . . 
Clear Creek 
Conejos . . 
Costilla. . . 
Custer . . . 
Delta. . . . 
Dolores. . . 
Douglas . . 
Eagle . . . 
Elbert . . . 
El Paso . . 
Fremont . . 
Garfield . . 
Gilpin . . . 
Grand . . . 
Gunnison • . 
Hinsdale . . 
Huerfano . 
Jefferson . . 
Lake .... 
La Plata . . 
Larimer . . 
Las Animas 
Logan . . . 
Mesa .... 
Montrose 
Ouray . . . 
Park .... 
Pitkin . . . 
Pueblo . . . 
Rio Grande 
Routt . . . 
Saguache 
San Juan . 
San Miguel 
Summit . . 
Washington 
Weld .... 



22 159 



181 1| 131 00!$ 74 00 



85 GO 

86 50 

100 GO 
125 GO 

97 12 



62 00 

67 OG 

65 72 

70 00 

61 67; 



90 85 53 GO^ 

80 GO 6g 00 



too GG 57 50 



72 77 
102 5: 



50 00 

6583; 

66 25 



19; 29 $ 55 og!$ 



55 28 
49 82 i 
67 50' 
81 661 

5893! 
40 00 1 

49 64 

53 89 j 

53 63; 

51 00' 

45 001 

59 75 j 



6 91 

(I 52I 

18, 23I 

[2 15 

ti: 181 

2 14; 

10. 22 

ji 'I 



155 00 72 65 



97 37 



62 50 

65 GO 



Total 102 447 549 



84 45 
180 00 
IG4 16 

88 75 
125 00 
82 50 

IGO 00 
100 00 

85 00 

132 50 

136 00 

120 orn 



49 54 
72 22 

64 37 
63 33 
68 50 

52 50J 
70 00 

53 33 
83 33 

50 00 

100 GO 
70 GO 

75 00 



60 00 
8g 00 



2 3 75 OG 

19 24 80 85 



72 50 

51 20 



50 00 
50 80 



17, 27, 

271 37: 

6 7: 

8 15. 

39 48, 

12 35i 

10 14, 

9 

8 

5 
12 

3 

33 

9 

4 



12: 
6i 

i 

37; 

15; 
10! 

14! 



53 97 

45 90 

60 GO 

55 97 

46 24, 

43 331 
53 131 
50 CO, 
55 041 
6g 00 
45 00 1 
50 00, 
50 col 
50 ogI 
59 i7i 
52 00 



I I 

6 6] 

8 II, 

43 56 



242 599! 8411 



26 67 
49 00 



52 00 
47 50 
45 00 
40 78 
52 18 
45 75 
3863 

40 00 

41 25 
44 17 

90 GO 

42 77 
55 83 

40 GO 

59 56 
44 82 



49 57 

50 00 

50 CO 



45 90 

40 12 
55 00 
51 00 

41 98 
34 45 
32 GO 

53 33 

51 03 

54 67 
45 00 

52 50 

45 00 
40 25 
44 25 

46 50 



8g go 
6g 00 
37 00 
44 25 



I 



STATK Sl'PEKINTENDENT S REPORT. 



93 



TABLE V— Concluded. 



NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN GRADED AND UNGRADED SCHOOLS, 
AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARIES. 



COUNTIES. 



GRADED SCHOOLS. 



Teachers. 



Salaries. 



UNGARDED SCHOOLS. 

Teachers. Salaries. 



Arapahoe . . . 
Archuleta 

Bent 

Boulder .... 
Chaffee .... 
Clear Creek . . 
Conejos .... 
Costilla .... 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores .... 
Douglas . . 

Eagle 

Elbert . . . 

El Paso .... 
Fremont .... 
Garfield .... 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison . . . 
Hinsdale .... 
Huerfano. . . . 
Jefferson .... 

Lake 

La Plata .... 
Larimer .... 
Las Animas . . 

Logan 

Mesa 

Montrose . . . 

Ourav 

Park' 

Pitkin 

Pueblo 

Rio Grande . . 

Routt 

Saguache . . . 
San Juan . . . 
San Miguel . . 
Summit .... 
Washington . . 
Weld 



25 167 192 $ 



18 50 68 $ 



83 33 
99 30 
100 00 
126 25 

87 00 



7 78 33 
3 80 00 



I 2 75 00 
32 40 98 12 
15 19 75 00 



3 5 

II 15 

16 19 

11 13 
16 23 

12 14 
3 5 
3 4 
3 4 



82 50 

92 00 
131 48 
117 50 

76 32 
112 50 

82 50 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

85 00 
150 00 
162 33 
150 00 



3 70 00 
5 126 64 



57 78 

65 50 

66 25 
73 50 
6s 00 



51 25 
55 00 



60 00 



55 00 
67 06 
63 25 



16 119 91 69 06 



65 00 
75 00 
50 00 

57 70 
7667 
72 90 

52 51 

58 46 

53 33 

70 GO 

66 67 
75 00 
55 00 
82 50 
69 20 
75 00 



60 00 
7781 



26 79 58 52 35 



18 28 
45 60 



7 
30 

H 
47 
66 
II 
8 17 
6 10 
21 23 
4 5 
33 40 
13 17 



54 .50 $ 

50 00 
46 40 

53 80 
57 67 
78 13 

51 00 
41 67 
46 90 
50 71 

50 00 

54 42 
37 64 
46 36 

55 00 
7583 
72 77 
46 67 
61 87 



26 25 
49 56 



43 00 
48 33 

45 20 

40 80 

53 70 

46 25 

42 GO 

41 90 

46 20 

47 00 
74 33 

44 00 

54 42 
32 54 
41 85 

48 00 
53 70 
39 90 

45 00 

49 50 



50 19 


45 93 


41 10 


37 90 


7.5 00 


60 00 


59 00 


50 17 


42 70 


49 72 


48 00 


35 00 


35 «5 


25 12 


45 00 


54 25 


55 63 


50 00 


58 75 


5458 


35 00 


40 00 


55 00 


55 00 


49 00 


46 75 


50 00 


43 00 


53 12 


50 40 


.53 12 


47 05 



65 00 
60 00 

28 69 

43 26 



Total 109 452, 561 



253 890 1 143 



94 



STATE SIJPERINTKNDEN r S REPORT. 



TABLE VI 



DISTRICTS, SCHOOL HOUSES AND TUITION. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe 
Archuleta 
Bent . . . 
Boulder . 
Chaffee . 
Clear Creek 
Conejos . 
Costilla . 
Custer . . 
Delta . . 
Dolores 
Douglas . 
Eagle . . 
Elbert . . 
El Paso . 
Fremont 
Garfield . 
Gilpin . . 
Grand . . 
Gunnison 
Hinsdale 
Huerfano 
Jefferson 
Lake . . 
La Plata 
Larimer . 
Las Animas 
Logan , . . 
Mesa 
Montrose 
Ouraj' . . 
Park . . 
Pitkin . . 
Pueblo 
Rio Grande 
Routt . . 
Saguache 
San Juan 
San Miguel 
Summit 
Washingto 
Weld . . 



Total 
Average 



No. Days 
of School. 



1887. 



School-Houses. 



:Av. cost per 

I month for 

each pupil 



! 1~ 



u 



190 

'180 
178 
177 
197 
140 

'160 
160 

180 

■176 

'55 
177 






140J 
90 
100 
107 

89 
113 
94 
80 



151 
100 
114 



U o 
V o 



193 



192 
140 



37 


t8o 


8 


160 


18 


180 


51 


166 


37 


195 


36, 
II 


172 
169 


15 


180 


8 


199 


1? 


168 


4' 


143 


37 


178 


14 


1.54 



140 

176 



160 



59 178 



108 

95 
80 

'85 
112 
62 
94 
124 



85 

f 
65- 
119' 
80 
114 
103 
53 
76 

199 
xoo 

90 
128 



54 



9,106 

100 

563 

3,070 

1.663 

1,213 

992 

265 

1,100 

6si 

60 

615 
70 

424 
2.224 
1 , 705 



20 1,043 

14 

24 I , 162 

3 182 

22 970 
50 1,912 
33 1,705 

23 694 
2 , 402 

^^9 



393 
494 
496 
430 
60/ 
480 
-,630 
596 

97 
505 

75 



8 368 

I 40 

75^ 2,777 



$ 1,130,600 
2,069 
21,675 
70,158 
43,600 
38,217 
18,639 
3,500 
13,412 

12,432; 

1. 000 

13,788 

1,200 

i:,385 
152,000 
46 , 500 






6,553$ 2 20; 
. . . 4 29 



613, 
87 

432' 

120 

3 

44 

105 
75 



531 
65; 



3 78- 

1 90 
3 .52 
2,32 

2 74 

1 95 

2 56 

2 93 

1 60 

3 02 

4 44 
3 09 

2 73 
2 30 



46,564 
150 
46,200 
29,685 
10,965 
47,180 

141,5.50 
29,045 
72,680 
36,430 
12,150 
20,^69 
17,6841 
10,8001 
15,320' 

175,000 

172.005 
21,235 
785' 
11,860 
I I , 000 
4.000 
11,300^ 
5001 

125,578' 



60 



2 26 
7 35 
5 59 
2 28 



450 2 46 



808 

97 

I 

92 



46 



303 



2 60 

1 81 

2 84 

2 75 

3 18 
3 35' 

2 52 

3 ^5 

4 94 
4 94 

1 10 

2 15 
2 88 
6 42 
4 12 
2 76 



2 90 
635 
5 72 

2 80 
4 q8 

3 77 

3 73 

2 90 

4 00 

4 51 
4 66 
438 
7 15 
4 67 
4 17 

3 88 



326 
q 83 
8 64 

8 17 

3 25 

4 23 

3 02 

6 20 

4 23 

2 91 

■ 5 38 

3 99 

4 64 

4 83 

2 71 

7 99 

5 70 
7 00 
I 72 

3 21 

9 37 
10 62 

7 33 

4 73 



779 ...... j 686 1,002 45.093 I 2,492,701 13,733 



172 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT 



V^5 



TABLE V I— Concluded. 
DISTRICTS, SCHOOIv HOUSES AND TUITION. 

















1888. 












' 
















Av. cost per 




No. days 




School-Houses. 




month for 






of school. 












each 


pupil 


COUNTIES. 










1 




1 
















1 




^ 




>>(U 




1 

to 

, 5 


ll 

0^ 


Ungraded 
Schools. 


5 

a 

s 




i 


> 


'il 
s ^ 

> 


P 1 




Arapahoe . . J 7° 


186 


123 


73 


185 


11,988 


$ 1,636,103 


10,600 


3 10 


5 20 


Archuleta . . 


3 




118 


2 


2 


28 


1,920 




5 09 


9 08 


Bent 


32 


' '163 


99 


17 


32 


987 


34,750 




3 II 


5 13 


Boulder . . . 


51 


173 


105 


52 


74 


3,338 


76,308 


600 


2 14 


3 48 


Chaffee .... 


22 


185 


105 


21 


32 


1,463 


45.025 


12 


2 22 


488 


Clear Creek . 


14 


195 


114 


12 


27 


1,171 


38.717 


582 


2 32 


3 22 


Conejos . . . 


i8 


149 


110 


12 


21 


1,035 


18.135 


265 


I 70 


3 31 


Costilla .... 


17 




83 


10 


12 


422 


6.315 


14 


I 78 


2 92 


Custer .... 


24 


132 


88 


18 


24 


1,118 


11,040 


69 


2 22 


3 44 


Delta 


12 


200 


107 


13 


15 


585 


14,000 


70 


2 30 


383 


Dolores .... 


I 




157 


1 


I 


60 


1,200 


89 


2 68 


4 26 


Douglas . . . 


26 


'i8o 


120 


24 


25 


700 


16.300 




2 50 


565 


Eagle .... 


ID 


. . . 


79 


2 


2 


75 


1. 100 




2 12 


3 79 


Elbert .... 


32 


146 


93 


31 


32 


829 


12,575 




2 44 


4 14 


El Paso . . . 


37 


167 


114. 


40 


68 


2,326 


154,700 


550 


3 II 


5 10 


Fremont . . . 


24 


172 


119 


30 


48 


2,460 


65,100 


76 


2 54 


3 97 


Garfield . . . 


21 




80 


II 


iS 


900 


39.200 




6 40 


II 08 


Gilpin .... 


8 


193 


113 


9 


20 


1,078 


46.514 


1,488 


1 70 


3 42 


Grand .... 


5 




95 


I 


I 


14 


175 




7 35 


983 


Gunnison . . 


i8 


' '185 


76 


17 


26 


1,266 


39,450 


75 


426 


635 


Hinsdale . . . 


3 


157 




2 


3 


182 


30,000 




5 07 


14 59 


Huerfano . . . 


26 


125 


■ '84 


22 


2? 


1. 130 


22,656 




264 


4 42 


Jefferson . . . 


39 


180 


129 


43 


5^ 


1,773 


49,570 


601 


2 19 


3 16 


Lake 


7 


160 


90 


9 




2,125 


141,350 


147 


3 46 


5 20 


La Plata . . . 


23 


189 


110 


21 


30 


923 


35,245 


100 


3 07 


5 47 


Larimer . . . 


55 


180 


121 


53 


53 


2,437 


«4,88o 


809 


2 62 


4 79 


Las Animas . 


58 


192 


60 


28 


35 




36,531 


78 


I 53 


2 97 


Logan .... 


75 


173 


82 


32 


37 


1,026 


16,380 




2 ID 


3 47 


Mesa 


11 


177 


123 


9 


14 


684 


19,225 


135 


.3 02 


5 76 


Montrose . . . 


15 


180 


112 


15 


18 


579 


18,491 


20 


I 53 


2 55 


Ouray. . . . 


S 


177 


67 


6 


9 


330 


11,150 


100 


^2 51 


4 13 


Park ' 


19 


186 


108 


20 


21 


599 


13,825 




5 25 


6 95 


Pitkin .... 


5 


, 168 


73' 


3 


13 


577 


17,479 


130 


3 17 


5 06 


Pueblo .... 


43 


183 


103 


44 


78 


2,797 


172,215 


500 


3 16 


5 31 


Rio Grande 


14 


160 


108 


14 


20 


630 


22,100 




3 00 


4 82 


Routt 


12 




80 


6 


6 


146 


1,200 




4 30 


5 75 


Saguache . . 


19 


160 


104 


12 


14 


456 


12,575 


200 


3 00 


4 90 


Sau Juan . . 


I 


176 




I 


4 


300 


16.000 




2 15 


3 21 


San Miguel . 


2 




204 


1 


2 


50 


4,000 




746 


11 27 


Summit. . . . 


8 




118 


8 


10 


373 


11,225 


44 


3^^ 


3 94 


Washington . 


38 




92 


10 


17 


560 


21.352 




763 


Weld 


64 


181 


133 


65 


88 


3,147 


136.945 


520 


3 39 


6 07 


Total . . 


990 


5,492 


4,199 


820 


1,316 


52.607 


% 3.238.021 


17.375 






Average . 




172 


105 





























96 



stath: siiprklntexdknt's kp:port. 



TABLE VII. 

FINANCIAI. STATEMENT FOR 1887, 









RECEIPTS. 








'h~ 


1 


1 


ing 


1 


I 


COUNTIES. 


.13 00 


fl 




2 





V, 




u - 





'X! 


"3 


^ tfi 


^ 




" 




. 


PQ . 


cfl V 


f^ 




■^ a 


ai 


«'0 


a1 


il 


C8 




P 


3 


3 


3 









^^ 


£^ 


'i^ 


£« 


I 


Arapahoe . . 


$ 140,098 73 


$ 113,493 33 


$ 212,069 99 


$ 78395111,59798 


$ 478,043 98 


Archuleta . . 


356 90 


43^ 67 


708 47 


510 02 




2.016 06 


Bent .... 


7,579 90 


8,830 98 


2,144 97 


10,387 02 


■ 8644 


29,129 31 


Boulder , . . 


9,008 81 


9,633 22 


18,231 09 


6,454 03 


2,243 50 


45,570 65 


Chaffee . . . 


4,477 23 


6,475 02 


8,046 10 


2,670 92 


356 05 


22,025 32 


Clear Creek . 


4,746 51 


4,077 49 


15,614 16 


169 21 


258 76 


24,866 13 


Conejos ... 


5,507 18 


5,456 58 


2,426 10 


565 03 


2,600 13 


16,555 62 


Costilla . . . 


1,362 48 


1,128 95 


871 31 




113 00 


3,475 74 


Custer . . . 


1,218 90 


4,386 06 


3,361 82 




66479 


9,631 57 


Delta .... 


I. 214 63 


3,268 14 


3,739 65 


99D 01 


729 83 


9,942 26 


Dolores . . . 


898 66 


336 


591 99 


172 71 


9 40 


1,676 12 


Douglas . . 


4,012 51 


4,325 43 


2,949 97 


589 92 


185 71 


02,063 54 


Eagle .... 


487 99 


685 23 


790 59 


745 15 




2,708 96 


Elbert . . . 


7,693 47 


5,322 60 


3,279 02 


19 




16,293 28 


El Paso 


5,803 06 


9,595 35 


20,605 94 


3,197 05 


2,721 00 


41,922 40 


Fremont . . 
Garfield . . 


5,730 79 
4,454 28 


9,689 77 
4.252 94 


12,861 40 




2,846 00 


31,127 96 


Gilpin . . . 


15,851 57 






687 25 


25,246 04 


Grand . . . 


922 32 


840 08 








1 , 762 40 


Gunnison . . 


?,93S 93 


4,202 55 


8,493 22 


262 62 




15,897 32 


Hinsdale . . 


198 50 


I , 705 76 








I , 904 26 


Huerfano . . 


4,019 03 


5,284 52 


2.664 15 


1,239 13 


474 46 


13,681 29 


Jefferson . . 


6,485 04 


7,780 64 


11,314 83 


242 77 


4,206 73 


30,030 01 


Lake .... 


546 69 


4.360 63 


14,425 00 




105 35 


19,437 67 


La Plata. . . 


3,521 56 


9,739 75 


5,894 92 




30 75 


11,186 98 


Larimer . . 


• 8,733 14 


14,369 25 


14.496 39 


3,604 65 


19,936 80 


61,140 23 


Las Animas . 


7,046 44 


14,476 37 


13,071 03 


1,412 27 


4.813 81 


40,819 Q2 


Logan . . . 


923 .9 


85386 


3,6S9 86 


1,597 61 


390 24 


7.454 96 


Mesa . . 


2,661 25 


2,027 21 


3,423 26 


1,153 26 


199 00 


9,463 98 


Montrose . . 


1,192 46 


2,225 14 


4,446 19 


2,072 54 


18 11 


9,9,^4 44 


Ouray . . . 


295 90 


695 65 


3,123 82 


193 98 


1,118 14 


5,428 49 


Park .... 


3,451 48 


3,543 37 


3,397 46 


271 12 


449 46 


11,112 89 


Pitkin . . . 


1,253 .34 


1,217 70 


12,605 17 


129 79 


1,684 58 


16,890 58 


Pueblo . . . 


16,687 83 


22,492 44 


19,941 51 


737 18 


1^,105 79 


72,964 75 


Rio Grande . 


5,257 25 


2,010 04 


4,997 64 


Ti,i82 82 


8,888 44 


22,337 09 


Routt .... 


676 16 


2,253 60 


64 76 


649 53 


8 24 


3,652 29 


Saguache . . 


4,098 40 


3,388 01 


1,848 45 


451 35 


1,264 81 


11,050 98 


San Juan 


266 22 


1,842 53 


1,584 72 


. . . , . 


490 74 


4,184 21 


San Miguel . 


661 91 


2,595 92 


389 96 






3,647 09 


Summit . . . 


867 51 


2,463 78 


2,041 41 


1,237 34 




6,610 04 


Washington . 


III 26 


504 87 


1,400 47 





15 95 


2,032 55 


Weld .... 


16,302 00 


24,394 27 


13,859 82 
$ 471,317 48 


12,095 52 


3,755 60 


70,407 21 


Total . . 


$ 293,771 04 


$ 326,324 96 


S.55,778 25 


486,156 84 


f 1,233,348 57 





STATK SUPERINTENDENTS RKPORT. 



97 



TABLE VII.— Concluded. 
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1887. 



EXPENDITURES. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe 
Archuleta 
Bent . . 
Boulder . 
ChafiFee . . 
Clear Creek 
Conejos. 
Costilla . . 
Custer . . 
Delta . . . 
Dolores. . 
Douglas . 
Eagle . . 
Elbert 
El Paso. . 
Fremont . 
Garfield . 
Gilpin . . 
Grand . . 
Gunnison 
Hinsdale . 
Huerfano. 
Jefiferson . 
Lake . . . 
La Plata 
Larimer . 
Las Animas 
Logan . . 
Mesa .... 
Montrose . . 
Ouray . . . 
Park ... 
Pitkin . . . 
Pueblo . . . 
Rio Grande. 
Routt. . . . 
Saguache. . 
San Juan . . 
San Miguel. 
Summit . . 
Washington 
Weld .... 






o !2 



0=3 



5 ^ 
= 






; 3 (3 

15^ 



$159 



794 74 $ 
540 00 
372 40 
168 32 

0Q3 90 

361 12 
522 70 
221 50 
019 40 
567 92 
63S 00 
232 70 

394 75 
214 60 
037 50 
437 53 



31,700 

61 

2,099 

5,591 
2,223 

4,751 

2,124 

558 

1,369 

886 

157 

•780 

536 

1,351 

3,706 

2,471 



! 

43 $ 94,053 41 $ 

50 476 00 

46 2,313 46 

15 6,579 34 

74 1,468 72 

25 ?65 38 

56 524 93 

19 I 00 

56 442 71 

89 1,615 II 

54 60 00 

00 184 59 

40 173 37 

.55 321 30 

83 9,303 42 

43 3,733 77 



,773 85 

958 00 
,269 53 

910 00 
,659 06 
,024 66 
.770 15 
,096 80 
,960 29 
,042 71 
,180 36 
,074 00 
,327 12 
,251 96 
,900 45 
.165 98 
.134 68 
,152 75 

873 40 
,111 40 
,440 00 

560 00 
,150 25 

791 00 
,991 51 



3,481 21 

205 85 

3,538 80' 

764 41 

507 95 

2,183 69 

5-005 65 

1,762 50 

5,018 37 



12,242 46^297,791 04$ 

,335 43 
,806 22 
,758 69 
,847 55 
.112 25 
,917 32 
,883 34 
;,044 22 

■,948 28 

855 54 
,296 19 
.104 52 
,887 46 
',267 21 
,713 62 



257 93 



419 88 

1,061 19 

1,134 50 

1,745 13 

102 65 

212 55 

878 36 

98 80 



1,219 46 
3,070 89 



360 46 


3,135 18 


829 03 


57 70 


2,127 34 
1,018 73 


534 17 
1,052 68 



1,312 62 

1,735 45' 




2.628 82 



20,750 70 

1,163 85 

12.695 06 

1,674 41 

8,828 52 

20,279 76 

17,785 90 

12,521 71 

49,354 37 

31-323 45 

4,340 45 

7,282 09 

7,814 00 

4,247 44 

7,084 69 

13,768 66 

60,709 63 

16,717 71 

1-358 39 

6.632 76 

3-549 20 

1,356 81 

4,425 96 

1,262 60 

51.541 76 



180,252 95 

680 63 
17,323 09 
8,811 96 
6,177 77 
2,753 88 
4,638 30 

592 40 
1,587 35 
1,993 98 

820 58 
4,767 35 

604 44 
8,407 82 
4,655 19 
6.414 34 



4.495 34 
598 55 

3,202 26 
229 85 
4,852 77 
9,750 25 
1,661 77 
6,665 27 
11,785 86 

9.496 47 
3. 114 51 
2.181 87 
2,140 44 
1,181 05 
4,028 20 
3,121 92 

12.255 12 
5,619 38 
2,293 90 
4,418 22 
635 01 
2,290 28 
2,184 08 
769 95 
18,865 45 



Totals 



. 1^499,187 095120,918 23^193,287 89 S 51,635 555865,028 76$ 368,319 81 



^s 



STATE SUPEKINTENDENTS KEPOKT. 



TABLE VIM. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 1887. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe , 
Archuleta . , 

Bent 

Boulder . . 
Chaffee. . 
Clear Creek 
Conejos . . 
Costilla . . , 
Custer . . . , 
Delta. . . . 
Dolores . . . 
Douglas . . . 
Eagle . . . . 
Elbert . . . , 
El Paso . . 
Fremont . . 
Garfield . . . 
Gilpin . . . 
Grand . . . , 
Gunnison . . 
Hinsdale . . . 
Huerfano . 
Jefferson . . , 
Lake .... 
La Plata . . , 
Larimer . . 
Las Animas 
Logan ... 

Mesa 

Montrose . . 
Ouray . . . . 
Park ... 
Pitkin . . . . 
Pueblo . . . 
Rio Grande , 
Routt . . . 
Saguache . , 
San Juan . . 
San Miguel 
Summit . . . 
Washingfton 
Weld 



o ;= 



o 

rt C (U 



I •:= 



180,138 831$ 
1,697 12 
17,323 09 
8,779 21 
6,653 41 
2,652 60 
4,371 06' 

561 75 

988 09 
2,154 .53 

820 58 
4.634 86 

604 44 
6,8od 46 
5,142 90 
6,341 27; 
1,761 17* 
4,495 34' 

690 93 i 
2,835 II 

450 49 
4,970 97 
9,784 43 

566 22; 
7,160 32i 
12,515 39' 
9' '^5 5.V 
3,404 88 
2,581 69 
2,983 97 
1,188 14 
4,112 82' 
3,122 02 
11,736 48 
5,597 32, 
2,293 9oi 
4,086 30 

635 01; 
2,290 281 

980 731 

120 15 
18,567 09 



£1 



I 

134,858 76i$ 

782 49 
10,639 03: 
13,365 14; 
9,493 77 
6,948 96 
4,331 08 
1,447 84 
5,480 8b 
4,733 89 
59 34 
5,869 84 

1,359 42 
7,389 07 

15,273 55i 
7,768 06 
4,136 23] 
6,187 971 
586 92! 
5,168 47; 
1,292 III . 
7,785 77^ 

12,413 30 
6,752 08 

10,289 46! 

19,863 621 

13,422 69 
8,070 871 
3,722 62 
3,570 91 

1.692 92 
4,761 69 
2,280 73, 

28,075 50 i 
2,935 87; 
2,425 75' 
3,231 33, 
1,395 36 
1,344 881 
1.974 58' 

2.693 33 i 
28,794 04; 



218,264 991I 

1,137 66| . 

11,666 601 

25,343 18 

13,125 73 

19,995 78 

4,292 03 

1,609 75 

3,835 43 

4,507 81 

592 64 

4,633 20 

1,956 09 

2,889 99 

32,922 871 

17,916 36 

5,873 82: 

^4.590 971 

477 13 i 

8,735 521 



8,441 



4,027 71 
11,305 56; 
21,891 231 

6,578 44 
18,197 24I 

20,05i« 61 

10.247 93' 

8,733 75' 

10,023 97: 

6,189 64: 

4,759 831 

15,300 20: 

29,943 04! 

10,162 73I 

398 53 1 

3,187 27; 
288 39: 
456 29 1 

3,130 65j 

9,079 92! 

35,650 55 i 



11,905 

4,324 

3,517 

1,562 

2,826 

262 

894 

789 

21 

506 

79 

757 

17,343 

9,604 

508 

422 

39 

13 



461$ 541, 

3, 
51, 
51, 
32. 
31, 
15, 

3, 
II, 
12, 

I, 
15, 

3, 
17, 
70, 
41, 
12, 

25, 

I, 

16, 



1,293 

2,648 

125 

86 

8,418 

1,342 

7,064 

1,632 

483 

655 

94 

119 

22,637 

3,540 

10 



2,097 
15,367 
8,357 



704 04 
617 27 
534 35 
812 49 
790 09 

159 73 
820 56 
881 94 
198 46 
186 17 
493 72 
644 28 
979 04 
841 41 
683 20 
630 47 
279 68 
695 85 
794 14 
752 83 
742 60 
977 81 
151 29 
334 68 
114 59 
994 62 
003 36 
788 11 
670 56 
063 01 
725 70 
728 70 
822 22 
392 35 
236 01 
128 iS 
506 62 
318 76 
091 45 
183 48 
260 47 
369 29 



Totals $ 367,784 90$ 414,650 lolf 624,873 031$ 140,796 55]$i,548,i04 58 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



99 



TABLE VIII-CONCLUDED. 
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR li 



EXPENDITURES. 



COUNTIES. 



Arapahoe 
Archuleta 
Bent . . 
Boulder . 
Chaffee . 
Clear Creek 
Conejos , 
Costilla . 
Custer . . 
Delta . . . 
Dolores . 
Douglas . 
Eagle . . 
Elbert . . 
El Paso . 
Fremont. 
Garfield . 
Gilpin . . 
Grand . . 
Gunnison 
Hinsdale 
Huerfano 
Jefferson 
Lake . . 
La Plata . 
Larimer . . , 
Las Animas 
Logan . . 
Mesa . . 
Montrose . . 
Ouray . . . 
Park . . . 
Pitkin . . . 
Pueblo . . 
Rio Grande 
Routt 
Saguache . 
San Juan . 
San Miguel 
Summitt . 
Washington 
Weld . . . 



Totals 



$ 175,246 iS$ 

731 68 

11,398 04 

26.464 82 

12,380 65 

16,050 66 

6,53^ 03 

2,677 10 

6.560 16 

4,795 80 

603 75 

7,670 43 

2,059 75 

7,698 50 

28,994 17 

18.667 27 

5,071 33 

14,903 23 

1,080 00 

8,415 87 

I. 160 09 

6.445 12 

16,887 15 

14,551 60 

11,731 51 

24,418 64 

16.167 20 

9,418 59 

6,033 64 

7,248 97 

3,957 70 

6.874 62 

7,949 50 

36,113 10 

5,651 24 

2,776 00 

5,342 16 

1,716 50 

960 00 

3,137 45 

5,171 73 

33,613 32 



72,979 97 1 

348 36 

3,688 40 

5,766 69 

3.168 69 

7,336 32 

I. 318 55 

636 17 

1,694 51 

2,034 .39 

147 39 

708 40 

677 03 

1,036 29 

12,933 78 

2,931 85 

2,271 04 

4,003 99 

383 39 

3.907 07 

240 60 

1,043 65 

3.951 80 

6,524 29 

1,806 95 

5.518 43^ 
3,579 50 
2,311 48 
2,906 72 

I , 737 35 
721 43 
1,168 02 
8,065 13 
10,626 20 

8.519 22 
103 40 
666 86 
45S 77 
201 94 

2,7'3 57 
3 . 1 60 So 
10,852 57 




1,585 72 

31 00 

1,021 25 
4,516 07 
11,517 28 


387 72 

79 55 

630 27 

2,496 69 


72 47 


1,022 64 


912 77 

3.718 51 
3,315 86 

1,730 18 


88 17 

15 30 

5,044 41 

6 03 



10,932 72 
2.516 50 

5,518 88 
1,342 43 

2.599 73 
598 60 
914 09 

1,521 39 
15,042 41 

1.600 61 
140 74 
433 60 



6,242 40| 

6,535 57 

1,507 63 

34 60 

1,165 02 
20 88 

8,606 96 
2,247 26J 

' 988 35 



223 4] 



14,876 II 
20,141 25 



427 041 

... 
219 42 
,808 741 



418,237 

2,197 

32,412 

43,006 

20,779 

25,655 

10,887 

3,417 

9,204 

,847 

751 

10,352 

2,767 

9,835 

47,074 

35,613 

7,342 

20,002 

1,463 

13,323 

1,400 

11,222 

29,199 

21,075 

15,274 

47,112 

28,798 

18,756 

10,317 

11,586 

6,443 

8,977 

17,536 

70,388 

18,018 

3,020 

7,430 

2,175 

1,812 

5,851 
23,428 

69,415 



$ 586,242 12$ 204,250 96$ 306,771 16 $55,147 54 $1,1.52,411 78395,692 80 



1.427 00 
19,121 68 

806 30 
12,011 03 
5,504 45 
4,932 93 

464 37 
1,993 71 
3,339 14 

742 58 
5,292 01 
i ,211 26 
8,005 82 
23,608 91 
6,017 38 
4,937 31 
5,694 .52 

330 75 

3.428 96 
342 00 

7,755 09 

6,952 07 

8,258 79 

8,839 92 

11,882 43 

15,204 59 

10,031 53 

6,353 17 

5,476 96 

3,282 93 

4,751 09 

3,286 20 

22,003 68 

4,217 68 

2,108 04 

4,075 75 

143 49 

2,279 06 

2,332 46 

3,832 41 

21,953 41 



100 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



TABLE IX, 



FINANCIAL SUMMARIES. 



1887. 



RECEIVED. 



Amount on hand September i, ife86 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund 

From Building Fund 

From all other sources 



I $ 293,771 04' 

I 326,324 96 

1 471,317 48 

55,778 25 

86,156 84; 

Total receipts ! $1,233,348 571 



Teachers' Wages 

For Current Expenses 

For Sites, Buildings and Furniture 
For Temporary Loans Paid .... 



Total Expenditures 



$ 499,187 09 
120,918 23 
193,287 89 
51,635 55 

$ 865,028 76 



1888. 



RECEIVED. 



Amount on hand June 30, 1887 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund 

From all other sources .... 



I $ 367,784 90' 

414,650 10' 

624,873 03! 

! 140,796 55: 

Total Receipts 1 Ji, 548, 104 58 



For Teachers' Wages 

For Current Expenses 

For Sites, Buildings and Furniture 
For Temporary Loans Paid .... 



Total Expenditures 
Balance on hand June 30, 18 



$ 586.242 12 

204,250 96 

306,771 06 

55,147 54 

51,152,411 78 



$ 395,692 80 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



101 



TABLE X. 

APPORTIONMENT OF STATE FUND. 



1887. 

.328 PER CAPITA. 



1888. 

2.008 PER CAPITA. 



COUNTIES. 



11 



II ' ii^- 

Si xi ™ S .'ti 



§5 



^ IT. 

s s 



Sr.-c 



u o 



Arapahoe . . 
Archuleta . . 

Bent 

Boulder . . . 
Chaffee . . . 
Clear Creek . 
Conejos . . . 
Costilla . . . 
Custer . . . . 
Delta . . . . 
Dolores . . . 
Douglas . . . 
Eagle . . . . 
Elbert . . . . 
El Paso . . . 
Fremont . . 
Garfield . . . 
Gilpin . . . . 
Grand . . . ". 
Gunnison . . 
Hinsdale . . 
Huerfano . . 
Jefferson . . 
Lake . . . . 
La Plata . . . 
Larimer . . . 
Las Animas 
Logan . . . . 
Mesa . . . . 
Montrose . . 
Ouray . . . . 
Park . . . . 
Pitkin . . . . 
Pueblo . . . 
Rio Grande . 
Routt . . . . 
Saguache . . 
San Juan . . 
San Miguel . 
Summit . . . 
Washinerton 
Weld . . . . 

Totals . . 



$5,347 66 


$ 57 39 


26 85 




421 50 


33 34 


1,17685 


29 03 


478 24 


5 27 


58855 


8 54 


, 636 37 


6 40 


I 357 41 


5 17 


360 01 


16 74 


189 70 


II 92 


3 61 


25 


740 60 


23 80 


102 34 


16 22 


178 72 


22 00 


768 03 


20 92 


716 31 


9 32 


III 17 


27 00 


511 24 


10 77 


28 02 




: 289 47 


6 99 


: 39 56 


3 18 


637 65 


14 80' 


708 33 


9 20 


722 13 


4 90 


371 75 


16 72 


81643 


10 19 


1,158 95 


31 82 


346 63 


31 77 


198 81 


14 52 


228 02 


15 52 


119 31 


498 


236 10 
18646 


4 25 


13 83 


1,019 80 


31 90 


227 33 


13 45j 


67 16 


II 92' 


235 08 


8 10; 


49 73 


I 231 


17 64 


151 


144 67 


3 01 


170 74 


46 84 


1 1,01788 


55 44 


|$2I,I52 82 

1 


$ 659 79 

i 



,290 27 

26 85 
388 16 
,147 82 

472 97 
580 01 
629 97 
352 24 
343 27 
177 78 
336 
216 80 

87 94 
156 72 
747 II 
706 99 

84 17 
500 47 

28 02 
282 48 

36 38 
622 85 
699 13 
717 23 
355 03 
806 24 
,127 13 
314 86 
184 29 

212 51 
114 33 
230 85 
172 63 
987 90 

213 88 
55 24 

226 98 
48 50 
17 49 
141 66 
123 90 
962 44 



$ 36,334 48 

210 64 
3,018 69 
7,136 08 
2,956 68 
3,502 52 
4,378 05 
2,308 99 
2,223 22 
1,212 10 

114 09 
1,507 46 

709 90 
1,459 55 
5,335 65 
4,684 05 
1,449 61 
3,179 92 

18875 
1,748 43 

236 40 
4,105 39 
4,433 65 

4.477 25 
2,647 38 
5.235 72 
8,987 33 
3,490 37 
1,311 39 
I , 080 07 

812 12 
1,455 25 
1,190 91 

6,595 47 

1.478 41 
508 37 

1,621 69 

271 09 

146 02 

886 26 

1,661 96 

6,549 63 



145 93 

I 05 

95 70 

24 93 
8 95 

12 64 
31 24 
29 37 

3 84 

54 53 

85 

25 73 
19 58 
99 70 
83 76 
68 18 
52 21 
10 29 

i ^9 

8 50 

1 70 
15 68 
28 55 

2 98 
36 74 
45 69 

15^ 35 

268 91 

19 26 

5 13 

2 51 

15 70 
14 97 
36 54 

9 53 

13 37 

16 96 
85 

2 25 

3 31 
95 57 
80 63 



I 36,088 55 

209 59 
2,922 29 
7,111 15 
2,947 73 
3.489 98 
4,346 81 
2,279 62 
2,219 38 
1,157 57 

113 24 
1,481 73 

690 32 
1.359 89 
5,251 87 
4,615 87 
1,398 21 
3,169 63 

187 56 
1,739 93 

234 70 
4,189 7X 
4,405 10 
4,474 27 
2,610 64 
5.090 03 
8,733 78 
3,221 46 
1,292 13 
1,474 94 

809 61 
1,439 55 
1,175 94 
6,558 93 

1.468 88 
4Q5 00 

1,604 73 
270 24 
143 77 
882 95 

1,566 37 

6.469 00 



659 79 $20,494 85 $143,141 70 $1,648 47: $141,493 23 



Reports 



OF 



State Institutions. 



State University. 



Hon. Leonidas S. Cornell, 

Superintendent of Picblic Instriictio7i: 

Sir: — I have the honor herewith to submit the fol- 
lowing biennial report of the State University for the 
two years ending September 30, 1888. 

Horace M. Hale, 

President. 
Boulder, Colo. , November 29, 1888. 

The Constitution of the State of Colorado provides 
for the election of a Board of Regents of the State Uni- 
versity, and defines its duties. While the boards of 
control of the other educational institutions of the State 
are appointed by the Governor, the members of the 
Boards of Regents are elected directly by the people 
(Constitution, Article IX., Sections 12, 13 and 14), thus 
bringing the management of the University as near the 
people as practicable. The organic act, establishing 
and providing for the maintenance of the University, 
was passed by the General Assembly of Colorado, March, 
1877, and provides as follows: 

''The University shall include a classical, philo- 
sophical, normal, scientific, law, and such other depart- 
ments, with such courses of instruction and elective 
studies as the Board of Regents may determine, and a 
department of the physical sciences. The Board shall 
have authority to confer such degrees and grant such 
diplomas as are usually conferred and granted in other 
universities. And the Board of Regents are hereby 
authorized and required to establish a preparatory de- 



106 STATK SlIPEItlNTENDENT's REPORT. 

partment, which shall be under the control of said 
Board of Reg;ents, as are the other departments of the 
University. Nothing^ in this section shall be so con- 
strued as to require the Regents to establish the several 
departments, other than the normal and preparatory, as 
herein provided, until such time as, in their judgment, 
the wants and necessities of the people require." 

In accordance with the foregoing provisions there is 
now maintained a Preparatory, a Normal, a Classic, a 
Scientific and a Medical Department. 

SUMMARY OF ATTENDANCE. 

1886-7. 1887-8. 

Department Philosophy and the Arts 18 31 

Department of Medicine 7 12 

Normal Department 8 22 

Preparatory Department ; First Class 11 4 

Second Class 14 12 

Third Class 45— 70 55— 71 

103 136 

The following are the names and titles of the present 
members of the faculty, with the salary of each: 

HORACE M. HALE, A. M I 2,500 

President. 

I. C. DENNETT, Ph D 1,900 

Professor of Latin. 

MARY RIPON 1,600 

Professor of German and French. 

J. RAYMOND BRACKETT, Ph D 1,900 

Professor of English Literature and Greek. 
librarian. 

JAMES H. KIMBALL, M. D 800 

Professor of Principles and Practice of Medicine, Materia Medica, 
and Therapeutics. 

H. W. McLAUTHLIN, M. D ■ 600 

Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. 

GEORGE CLEARY, M. D 500 

Professor of Opthalmolog>', Otology, and Larj'ngologj-. 

W. J. WAGGENER, A. M 1,800 

Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

L. M. GIFFIN, M. D 600 

Professor of Anatomy and Phj'siology. 

CHARLES PALMER, Ph. D 1,700 

Professor of Chemistrj\ 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 107 

L. DuP. SYLE, M. A. (Yale) $i,6oo 

Professor of Political Economy and History. 

S. A. BONESTEEIv, M. D 550 

Professor of Surgery. 

IRA M. DeLONG, M. a 1, 600 

Professor of Mathematics. 

R. N. MAYFIELD, M. D 250 

Lecturer on PatholOg>' and Hygiene. 

J. M. NORTH, A. M., LL. B 100 

Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence. 

S. E. SOLLY, M. R. C. S. M. D 50 

Lecturer on Climatology. 

G. B. BLAKE. M. D fees and 50 

Lecturer on Materia Medica and Demonstrator of Anatomy. 

P. V. CARLIN, M. D 50 

Lecturer on Physical Diagnosis. 

CHARLES RICHARD, M. D. U. S. A loo 

Lecturer on Military, Medicine and Surgery. 

EDITH STYLE per month 25 

Assistant Librarian. 

H. N. WILSON per month 15 

Tutor in Greek. 

HENRY FULTON per month 15 

Assistant in Chemistry. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 

The following orders were drawn between Septem- 
ber 30, 1886, and September 30, 1888, inclusive, for the 
purposes set forth below: 

Regents $ 1,323 60 

Salaries of professors, academical department 26,872 18 

Janitor and janitor's supplies 1,36630 

Fuel and oil 807 83 

Furniture 1,030 68 

Chemical labratory and apparatus 1,20462 

Physical apparatus 1,185 61 

Library and reading room 2,206 76 

Buildings and grounds and insurance 11,241 83 

Advertising, printing and stationery' 820 24 

Horses and keeping 351 64 

Salaries and incidentals, medical department 5,457 40 

New medical hall 2,540 20 

Sundries 1,581 14 

Total $57,990 03 

S. A. GIFFIN, 

Secretary. 



108 STATE SUPERINTENBKNt's KEPOKT. 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 

Statement of Charles L. Spencer, Treasurer, from 

October i, 1886, to January 31, 1887, both dates inchi- 
si ve : 

GENERAL FUND. 

Balance as per report to October I, 1886 $11,94814 

Received from Treasurer State, current expense fund . . 157 00 

Received from Treasurer State, ]and income fund ... . 21 00 

Received from Dr. Sevpall, matriculation fees 115 00 

Total receipts | 12,241 14 

CONTRA. 

Disbursed, as per vouchers $ 8,723 61 

Turned over to C. G. Buckingham, Treasurer 3, 517 53 

Total $ 12,241 14 

SPECIAL FUND. 

Balance as per report to October I, 1886 $ 2,285 20 

Received from Treasurer State 25 00 

Total receipts $ 2,310 20 

CONTRA. 

Disbursed as per vouchers $ 237 84 

Turned over to C. G. Buckingham, Treasurer 2,07236 

Total $ 2,310 20 

RECAPITULATION. 

Total receipts account general fund $ 12,241 14 

Total receipts account special fund 2,310 20 

Total receipts $ 14,551 34 

CONTRA. 

Disbursements account general fund $ 8,723 61 

Disbursements account special fund 237 84 

Turned, over to C. G. Buckingham, Treasurer . ..... 5,. 589 89 

Total $ 14,551 34 

Statement of C. G. Buckingham, Treasurer, from 
February i, 1887, to September 30, 1888, both dates in- 
clusive: 

GENERAL FUND. 
RECEIPTS. 

From C. L- Spencer, Treasurer $ 3,517 53 

From State Treasurer, current expense fund 47,80000 

From State Treasurer, land income fund 10,339 46 

From H. M. Hale, matriculation, library and tuition fees 467 00 

From right of way, D., M. & B. R. R 425 00 

From overdrawn warrants (error) i 75 

From sale of old wagon . 36 00 

From medical department 16 15 

From J. A. Sewall, furniture sold to 90 00 

From U. P. R. R., rebate on freight 26 46 

From C. G. Buckingham,-donation to library 20000 

Total $ 62,919 35 



STAVE SUPEKINTKNDENT S REPORT. 109 



DISBURSEMENTS. 



Disbursements, as per vouchers $ 46,411 45 

Balance, cash on hand 16,507 90 

Total $ 62,919 35 



SPECIAL FUND. 

RECEIPTS. 

From Charles L. Spencer, Treasurer $ 2,07236 

From State Treasurer 162 16 

From boot on exchange ol horses 150 00 

$ 2,384 52 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Disbursements as per vouchers $ 2,384 52 

RECAPITUI.ATION. 
TOTAL RECEIPTS. 

General Fund $ 62,919 35 

Special Fund 2,384 52 

$ 65,303 87 

TOTAL DISDURSEMENTS. 

General Fund $ 46,411 45 

Special Fund 2,384 52 

Balance, cash on hand 16,507 90 



I 65,303 87 



LIBRARIAN'S Report. 



H. ]\I. Hale, President: 

Sir: — I have the honor of submitting the following 
report of the Buckingham Library: 

Number of volumes in general librarj-, September 30, 1888 . . 3,259 

Number of public documents 1,450 

Number of volumes unbound 108 

Total 4,817 

Number of volumes September 30, 18S6 3,349 

Volumes purchased September 30, 1886, October I, 1888 .... 627 

Presented by Mary Rippon i 

Presented by J. R. Brackett 3 

Presented by W. J. Waggener 4 

Presented by Public Library, St. Louis i 

Presented by A. S. Barnes & Co., New York 29 

Presented by Ivers Phillips, of Boulder 77 

Presented by the United vStates Government 552 

Bound volumes from the reading room 91 

Unbound volumes from reading room 83 

Increase in two years 1,468 



110 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

During the year ending September 30, 1887, no ap- 
propriation was made for the Library. The purchases 
were confined to a few necessary books, being for the 
most part publications already subscribed for. The sum 
expended was $87.78. 

For the year ending September 30, 1888, there was 
an appropriation of $1,000. 

Orders have been drawn on the University funds on 
account of the library as follows: 



From April 28, 1877, 
From September 30, 


to April 30, 1880 




.ooi/,— 


1880, to October i, 1882 


333 80 


.01 + 


From September 30, 


1882, to September 30, 1884 .... 


149 00 


.00/3 + 


From September 30, 


1884, to September 30, 1886 .... 


2,523 04 


.05>4 


From September 30, 


1886, to October i, 1888 


1,349 90 


.02 — 


Total . . . 


$ 4,456 64 





The sum spent during the last two years is not quite 
two per cent, of the income of the University; of this 
sum $200 was presented by C. G. Buckingham. 

The following is a fair estimate of the cost of the 
property belonging to the Library: 

Books purchased by appropriations $ 3,426 16 

Books purchased by Buckingham fund 2,20000 

Furniture 333 40 

Card cases and library supplies 140 44 

Type writer 108 00 

Total $ 6,208 00 

The books of the Buckingham Library have been 
selected with great care. Excluding public documents, 
there are three thousand three hundred and sixty-seven 
volumes. The library is too small for extended research 
in most departments, or for the proper illustration of 
studies in belles lettres. 

The library is open to the public for consultation, 
and to students for consultation and drawing books, from 
8:10 to 12:50 each school day. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



Ill 



In accordance with a request made in my first report, 
a room has been set apart for public documents, and it 
has been fitted with adjustable shelving. 

The books on chemistry and geology has been re- 
moved to Room 8, and are under the care of Dr. C. S. 
Palmer. 

I recommend the increase of the appropriation for 
the purchase of books to a sum of not less than $2,500 
per annum. 

READING-ROOM. 



The following periodicals 
the reading-room: 

North American Review. 

Contemporary Review. 

Fortnightly Review. 

Edinburgh Review. 

Quarterly Review. 

Westminister Review. 

Blackwood's Magazine. 

Nineteenth Century. 

New Princeton Review 

Scottish Review. 

Shakespeariana. 

Andover Review. 

Atlantic Monthly. 

Harper's Monthly. 

Scribner's Magazine. 

Centurv-. 

Nation. 

Education. 

New England Journal of Educa- 
tion. 

New Englander. 

Librarj- Notes. 

Librarj' Journal. 

Forum. 

Literary World. 

Deutsche Rundschau. 

Internationale Zeitschrift fuer 
Sprachwissenschaft. 

Harper's Weeklj'. 

The following have been 
Ushers. 

Challenge. 

Co-Operative Index to Periodicals. 

Literar>' News. 

Natural Science Bulletin. 

Colorado School Journal. 



have been purchased for 



Fliegende Blaetter. 

Revue des Deux Mondes. 

L'Art. 

Journal of Philology-. 

American Journal of Philolog>'. 

Anglia. 

Englishe Studien. 

Journal of Speculative Philosophy. 

Quarterly Journal of Economics. 

Political Science Quarterly. 

Nature. 

Science. 

American Journal of Science. 

Popular Science Monthly. 

Comptes Rendus. 

American Chemical Journal. 

Loudon Chemical News. 

Journal London Chemical Society. 

Journal de Physique. 

American Journal of Mathematics. 

Annals of Mathematics. 

Nouvelles Annales de Mathe- 

matiques. 
Mathesis. 
Journal fuer die Reine und Ange- 

wandte Mathematik. 
Rock}' Mountain News. 
Judge. 

presented by the pub- 

Boulder County Herald. 
The Sentinel. 
Boulder News. 
The Local Miner. 



112 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

The Regents set apart for the support of the reading- 
room a sum equal to the matriculation fees and reading- 
room fees. 

During the year 1886-1887 there was paid for peri- 
odicals, $163.88; for care of reading-room, $207.50. 

During the year 1 887-1888 there was paid for peri- 
odicals, $184; for care of reading-room, $220.22. 

With the exception of three newspapers, all the peri- 
odicals purchased are bound and become the property of 
the Buckingham Library. These additions to the library 
during the two years represent a cost value of $383.28. 

For care of the room during the two years the sum 
of $427.72 has been paid. The assistants who have had 
care of the reading-room have also performed all the 
hired work that has been done in the library. 

I recommend that the reading-room fee be increased 
to $3.00 per annum. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Raymond Brackett, 

Librarian. 



Normal Department. 

A Normal course of four years is now established. 
The first three years of this course, so far as the branches 
of study are concerned, are identical with the Prepara- 
tory Course. Special lectures in didactics have been 
given, and exemplary work done by the presidents. 
This work will be continued during the fourth and last 
year of the course, in addition to academic work as pre- 
scribed in the catalogue. 



Department of Medicine. 



Persistent efforts of a few of the older schools have 
for the past ten years "been directed toward securing an 



STATE SIPEKINTENDKNT's REPORT. 118 

advance in the standard of medical education, and also, 
by preliminary examinations, toward selecting those 
only whose general knowledge was sufficient to form a 
proper foundation for professional teaching. They have 
been seconded in their endeavors by the school con- 
nected with State Universities, probably without excep- 
tion, and notably by the Illinois State Board of Health, 
which has recently voted that after the session of 1890— 
91, a school to be in ''good standing" must require four 
years of study and three courses of lectures. Graduates 
of schools, which after that date fail to adopt these 
requirements, will be debarred from practicing their 
profession in that State. This change will doubtless 
lessen the number of students, but must improve their 
quality, and it will be hailed with pleasure by colleges 
not dependent upon fees for their existence. The med- 
ical department of the University of Colorado has this 
year been placed upon a secure foundation. It has 
received the endorsement of the Board of Regents and 
of the people. It has been provided with a buildings 
especially constructed for its purposes, and the Faculty 
has been increased to twelve in number. The museum 
has received many interesting and valuable pathological 
specimens from members of the medical profession. 
The greater part of the present class, sixteen in num- 
ber, are first year students who have entered upon a full 
three years' course, thus anticipating the action of the 
Illinois State Board. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. H. Kimball, M. D., 

Secretary.. 

At the end of the calendar year, 1886, Dr. Joseph A. 
Sewall, who had filled the office of President from the 
opening of the University, in 1877, resigned. At the 
request of the Board of Regents, Dr. Sewall continued 



114 STATE superintendent's KKPORT. 

in the chair of Chemistry, and also acted as President, 
until the close of the academic year, June 30, following, 
at which time his successor, Horace M. Hale, assumed 
the Presidency, and Dr. Charles S. Palmer was called to 
the chair of Chemistry. Since the last report. Dr. J. 
W. Bell, Professor of Political Economy and History; 
and Professor W. W. Campbell, of Mathematics, have 
resigned, and Professors L. D. Syle and Ira M. DeLong 
fill the respective chairs. 

During the past two years there has been constructed 
a medical hail, an iron foot bridge, a beautiful little 
lake, and a horse shed with ten compartments. All of 
the buildings have been painted and thoroughly repaired, 
a new roof put upon, and new furnaces put into, the 
main building, and into the President's house. About 
seven hundred trees have been planted, several roadways 
and paths graded, and about six hundred loads of stone 
removed from the land. 



Remarks. 



The University has fairly entered upon its second 
decennary; and with bright and encouraging prospects. 
It will be observed, by reference to the summary of 
attendance, that the increase of 1888 over that of 1887 
is nearly 33^ per cent. — a growth fully commensurate 
with that of the State. More than this could not reason- 
ably have been expected. Furthermore, it will be 
noticed that the increase in the number of students is 
almost entirely in the higher departments, indicating a 
growth in the right direction. 

During the first ten years of its life, the University 
of Colorado has furnished no exception to the invaria- 
ble rule that has obtained relative to all institutions of 
its kind. This has had to contend in kind and quantity, 
with the same opposition and antagonism that has been 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 115 

met and overcome by all of the State colleges in the 
land; and not by the colleges only, but by the entire 
system of public education now so popular. 

Criticisms of institutions of this character emanate 
from two distinct and opposite sources — one from friends, 
one from foes. The former, that progress may be made 
by correcting faults; the latter, that prejudice may be 
engendered and ruin result. The one is wholesome; 
the other selfish and vicious. All that fair-minded peo- 
ple need do in such cases is to analyze the antagonisms; 
trace them to their legitimate sources, and let their bet- 
ter judgment decide. 

It is a trite saying that schools of this kind are not 
"made," they "grow," and that time must be given for 
their growth. This is true only in part. A century ago 
it was nearer true than it is to-day. Now, large and 
popular institutions of "first magnitude" spring into 
existence as if by magic, whenever and wherever suffi- 
cient endowments are furnished and judiciously used. 
Cycles of time avail but little if these are wanting. 
Some of the oldest colleges are to-day the weakest; some 
of the youngest are the strongest and best. 

Considering the limited means at the disposal of our 
Board of Regents, it must be conceded that much has 
been accomplished. Colorado's climate and natural re- 
sources, the intelligence, liberality and enterprise of her 
people, the rapid and healthy increase in her population, 
the reputation she is acquiring abroad, the excellence 
of her public school system, with Boulder's beautiful 
and healthy location, all conspire to stimulate in the 
hearts of the friends of popular education among her 
citizens the hope that the State University may be per- 
mitted to keep, at least, even pace with the State's 
growth, and thus fulfill the destiny prescribed for it by 
the Constitution and the statutes. 



State Agricultural College. 

Hon. IvEOnidas S. Cornell, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Sir: — I have the honor to submit for your considera- 
tion, and publication, the biennial report of the State 
Agricultural College for the years 1887-88. 

The college was originally founded as the outgrowth 
of the act of July, 1862, and supplementary acts of Con- 
gress, having for their object the establishing of schools 
in the several States and Territories, "where the lead- 
ing object shall be, without excluding other scientific 
and classical studies, and including military tactics, to 
teach such branches of learning as are related to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts in such a manner as the 
Legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, 
in order to promote the liberal and practical education 
of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life." 

The State, before taking the benefit of this act, had 
moved independently, and had founded this college, 
placing its control and management with the State 
Board of Agriculture, and that they have wisely and 
well fulfilled the trust imposed upon them the growth 
and prosperity of the institution will attest. 

The State Board of agriculture. 

Term expires. 

Hon. Frank J. Annis, Fort Collins 189.S 

Hon Charles H. SmaV, Pueblo 1895 

Hon. R. A. Southworth, Denver 1893 

Hon. George Wyraan, Longmont 1893 

Hon. B. S. LaGrange, Greeley 1891 

Hon. W. F. Watrous, Fort Collins 1891 

Hon. John J. Ryan, J^ovelantl 1889 

Hon. Robert C. Nisbet, Del Norte 1889 

His Excellency Governor Alva Adams, ( Fx-Officio 
President Charles L. Ingersoll, * 



118 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD. 

Hon. George Wyman President 

Hon. Frank J. Annis Secretar3' 

Hon. Peter W. Breene (ex-officio) Treasurer 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 
Hon. J. J. Ryan, Hon. W. F. Watrous, Hon. C. H. Small. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

OF 

THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 
Hon. J. J. Ryan, Hon. W. F. Watrous. Hon. G. Wyman. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER OF STATION. 
Hon. Frank J. Annis. 

The faculty of instruction has been subject to some 
chang^es from various causes, but through them all, by 
the willing co-operation and assistance of all the in- 
structors, the college has suffered little. The most seri- 
ous drawback has been that of lack of growth in depart- 
ments, due to change of head, such as could have been 
secured by a continuous administration. This fact has 
been most noticable in the departments of Biology and 
Irrigation Engineering. 

FACUI.TY CHANGES. 

The following changes have taken place: 

1886, December. Prof Charles A. Crampton was 
elected to the chair of Chemistry and Geology; services 
to begin September i, 1887. 

1887, September i. Prof Crampton resigned to ac- 
cept a position with Dr. H. G. Wiley, U. S. chemist. 

1887, September i. David O' Brine, E. M., M. D., 
D. Sc, was elected to the chair of Chemistry and Geol- 
ogy, and began work at once. 

1887, ^"^Pril 9- Miss Elizabeth G. Bell resigned the 
chair of History, Eiterature and Modern Language on 
account of ill health, and Miss Maud Bell was elected 
to the same. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 119 

1888, April 2. Prof. Elwood Mead resigned the 
chair of Physics and Engineering to accept the position 
of Engineer in the Territory of Wyoming. 

1888, June 9. William McEachran, M. D., V. S., 
was elected to the chair of Veterinary and Science and 
Zoology. The chair had been vacant nearly two years. 

1888, June 9. Prof Louis G. Carpenter, M. S., of 
Michigan x\gricultural College, was elected to chair 
vacated by Prof Mead. 

The latter two men began their work on September 
I, 1888. 

The college thus began its school year of 1888-89 
with a full corps of instructors, and fully prepared to do 
good, efficient work. The present faculty with the 
salaries paid each by the State, are as follows: 

Salary. 

Charles L. IngersoU, M. S., President 12,250 

Ainsworth E. Blount, A. B., Agriculture 1,500 

James Cassidy, B. S., Botany and Horticulture 1,500 

James W. Lawrence, Mechanics and Drawing 1,500 

Vasa E. Stolbrand (Major C. N. G.), Mathematics and Military 

Science 1,500 

Maud Bell, History, X,iterature and Modern Language .... 1,200 

David O'Brine, E- M., D. Sc, M. D., Chemistry and Geology . 1,500 

Louis G. Carpenter, M S., Physics and Engineering 1,500 

William McEachran, M. D., V. S., Veterinary Science and 

Zoology 1,500 

Grace Patton, B. S., Instructor in College and Preparatory . . 900 

Frank J. Annis, Secretary 1,500 

In this connection, let me take the opportunity to 
acknowledge the assistance rendered by the members of 
the faculty, each vieing with the other in attempting to 
do well the work intrusted to them, and to heartily 
co-operate in the execution of the general plan. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

The course of study has had -but slight change dur- 
ing this period. It has been made more distinctive, the 
better to subserve the intention expressed in the lan- 
guage quoted from the act, by the establishment of two 
courses after the completion of the Junior year, viz: 



120 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

1. The Agricultural Course. 

2. The Mechanical Course, with German, two years, 
as a distinctive feature for ladies; but no student is de- 
barred from it. Other slight changes are, striking 
French from the course, and giving Agriculture in place 
of Penmanship in the Preparatory year's work. 

GRADUATE>S. 

The graduates of the College now number i8. 

The class of 1887 4 

The cla.ss of 1888 4 

Total 8 

The higher classes of the institution are now more 
full than usual, with promise of more in the near future 
taking a full course. 

The majority remain with us from two to three years, 
and without further preparation begin life-work. 

It will be interesting to note the enrollment by years, 
and, hence, I introduce the following: 



ENR01.1.MENT. 



1879. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. ; 1885. , 1886. 1887. li 



43 62 95 I 90 I 107 i 119 117 145 



You will thus see that there has been a comparatively 
regular and healthy growth in development and attend- 
ance. 

The present year has had the draw back of being a 
year of short water supply, and many who have been 
firm supporters of the school, and its patrons, have felt 
too poor to continue their children in school, or to send 
them for the first term. 

Notwithstanding this, there is a goodly representa- 
tion from different parts of the State. During the 
period covered by this report, the following counties 
have been represented: 



STATE STPERIlNTENDENT S KKPORT. 



121 



Arapahoe, Bent, Boulder, Chaffee, Costilla, Custer, 
Douglas, El Paso, Fremont, Garfield, Gunnison, Jeffer- 
son, La Plata, Lake, Larimer, Las Animas, Park, Pit- 
kin, Pueblo and Weld. 

In addition to this, the College has had several 
students from the adjacent States and Territories of 
Nebraska and Kansas, Wyoming and New Mexico; also, 
a few from Eastern States, on account of adaptation of 
the course or salubrious climate, or both combined. 



ATTENDANCE. 







1S87. 






1888. 




TERM 
















Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Winter term . . . . 


53 


31 


84 


62 


27 


89 


Spring 


■ 41 


18 


59 


44 


24 


68 


Fall 


68 


32 


100 

243 


61 


29 


90 


Totals 


162 


81 


167 


80 


247 


Average attendance 


54 


27 


81 


55H 


26% 


82 


Year's enrollment . 


96 


49 


145 


89 


45 


135 



In the early part of 1887, measles took a run among 
our students, and in 1888 the scarlet fever became epi- 
demic in town (not in college), and these both in a mea- 
sure influenced the attendance. 

EXPERIMENTS. 

The College since its inception has put forth consid- 
erable effort in the way of experiment. At first for 
three years on the farm, then adding Horticulture, and 
at a later day experiments in flow of water and evapora- 
tion; and, also, in diseases of animals. 

In Colorado the conditions are found to be so differ- 
ent that new experiments must be instituted, and those 
of other States repeated, in order to have the results of 
any value to the people of the arid region. In 1887, 
"The Hatch Experiment Station" bill passed Congress, 



122 statp: superintendents report. 

and at a later day, February, 1888, an appropriation was 
made to carry out the provisions of the act. This gives 
the sum of $15,000 annually to support an experiment 
station in Colorado, in connection with the State Agri- 
cultural College. 

The State Board of Agriculture met February 20, 
1888, and proceeded to organize such a station as con- 
templated by law, and make it one department of the 
college. Its name is "The Agricultural Experiment 
Station." It is governed by an executive committee of 
three, but the experiments are decided by a council, 
composed of the officers and workers of the station, and 
are afterwards ratified by the committee in charge. 

This department has auxiliary stations in other por- 
tions of the State, viz: 

" The San Luis Valley Station," near Del Norte, Colorado. 
"The Bent Agrictiltural Station,' at Rock\' Ford, Colorado. 
"The Divide Agricultural Station," near Eastonville, El Paso county, 
Colorado. 

Experiments at these Stations will be in consonance 
with those of the college department, as above named, 
and under the same management. 

The officers of the station and their salaries are as 
follows: 

Salary. 

C. Iv. INGERSOLL, M. S., Director $ 75© 

Frank J. Annis, M. S., Secretary and Treasurer 500 

A. E. Blount, A. B., Agriculturist 500 

James Cassidy, B. vS., Horticulturist and Botanist 500 

David O'Brine, E. M., M. D., D. Sc. Chemist 500 

L. G. Carpenter, M. S , Meteorologist and Engineer .... 500 

Wm. McEachran, M. D., V S., Veterinarian 500 

assistants. 

Ransom H. McDowell, B. S., Agriculture 800 

Max C. Brose, Horticulture 800 

Isaac P. Kemoe, (Technical College, Drontheim, Norsvay), 

Chemistry 350 

Harvey H. Griffin, B. S., San Luis Valley Experiment 

Station - 800 

Frank Watrous, Bent Agricultural Experiment Station . . . Sco 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 123 

FINANCES. 

The finances are in the hands of the Secretary of the 
Board and a Finance Committee. The Executive Com- 
mittee has jurisdiction over that part pertaining to the 
Experiment Station. The Secretary makes a full reoort 
to the Governor of the State, which supercedes the 
necessity of any statement here. The one-fifth mill tax 
has kept our College in fair growing condition, but has 
not provided such facilities in the way of buildings and 
appliances as we desire, or the exigencies of the times 
demand. 

We look to the next General Assembly to assist in 
this direction, and give to this school what so richly it 
deserves. 

Since February 20, 1888, the Board of Agriculture 
has been actively engaged in formulating experiments 
and in preparing for the scientific as well as the routine 
work of the main station and its branches. 

In the conditions which are found in Colorado, no 
more important field for experiment can be found, and 
the determination of the adaptability of certain crops to 
the soil and climate by the State Agricultural College 
Experiment Station will be worth far more to the people 
of the State than the school and station will cost for a 
quarter of a century. The determination, within three 
years past, of the value of the tobacco plant as a crop to 
be raised, will be worth a vast sum to the people of this 
State, and especially is this true when they know that 
the quality ranks beside the best in the Union. 

Work in botany and forestry; in entomology, with 
reference to our noxious and beneficial insects, in insec- 
ticides for the same; work in chemistry and veterinary 
science, all, if well and thoroughly done, can not fail to 
be of inestimable value to the State. 

In conclusion, then, let me say that the two years 
past have been years of prosperity and good solid growth. 



124 STATE superintendent's report. 

They have shown the need of more room and a conse- 
quent stronger financial support. The next year will 
show the importance of the State supplementing the 
amount received under the Hatch act by about two- 
thirds the amount annually, in order that the work of 
experimentation may be pushed while the State is 
young, and thus its possibilities be brought to the front. 
We believe, up to the present time, no serious criti- 
cism has been made on the methods or results of work 
here; but, on the contrary, we have, many times each 
year, received hearty and unsought commendation at 
the hands of those who have visited the school and in- 
spected its work and results. 
I have the honor to be 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. L. Ingersoll, 

President. 



State School of Mines. 



No report of this institution was made to me in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of section 2503 of the Gen- 
eral Statutes. A printed report, made to the Governor, 
was placed in my hands, but I did not feel at liberty to 
reprint such report with the report of the office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



Institute for Mute and Blind. 



Report of the Superintendent. 



Hon. Leonidas S. Cornell, 

Supert7ttendent of Public Iitstructiofi: 
Sir: — Permit me to hand you herewith a report of 
the conduct and operations of the Institution for the 
Education of the Mute and Blind of Colorado for the 
two years ending November 30, 1888. That it has been 
a period of unprecedented prosperity in the history of 
the school, you need onlv refer to the statistics accom- 
panying, to be fully convinced. The faithfulness, effi- 
ciency, energy and earnestness of the teachers and offi- 
^ cers have been an inspiration to the pupils, who have 
thereby been led to better habits of industry. There is 
no better organized, nor more competent corps of teach- 
ers, if I may be permitted to pass judgment, in any like 
institution west of the Mississippi. The obedience and 
gentlemanly bearing of the pupils, too, have been a 
source of gratification and encouragement to the Super- 
intendent. There has been but one really serious hind- 
rance to the progress of the institution, so far as the 
general work is concerned. The painful and continued 
illness of the former most excellent Superintendent, Mr. 
D. C. Dudley, to whose energy, devotion, executive 
ability and Christian conduct is due, more than to any 
thing else, the present prosperous condition of the insti- 
tution, rendered it necessary, to the deep regret of all 
concerned, for him to resign the position which he had 
so acceptably filled for more than three years. 

Among the pupils there has not been a single case of 
death, nor had there been a serious case of sickness dur- 



128 STATE superintendent's report. 

ing the two years until the recent crowded condition of 
the building has rendered it almost dangerous. The 
loving hand of a kind Providence has shielded and pro- 
tected us from pestilence and epidemics. 

This is the fifteenth year of the history of this insti- 
tution. During this period about one hundred and fifty 
children have been under instruction here, and yet only 
two deaths have ever occurred. This is, indeed, a re- 
markable record. I fear, however, that we shall not 
have so good a report to make very long, unless our 
present crowded condition is relieved. 

In the institution there are three departments, viz: 
The Educational, the Domestic, the Industrial. From 
this it will be seen that we try to cultivate and develop 
to the highest possible degree the mind, the heart and 
the body. I will speak briefly of the departments in 
the order in which I have named them. First, then, 
the 

EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT. 

The work of the institution is simply a part of the 
general system of education which is provided for every 
child in the State. The children who receive instruction 
here are those whose total, or partial, deafness or blind- 
ness is such as to render it impossible for them to receive 
the benefits of the ordinary public schools near their 
homes. This has necessitated the establishment of a 
special school for these less fortunate ones, who are 
deprived of one, or more, of their senses. I will not 
stop here to say that it is one of the noble characteristics 
which distinguish civilized. Christianized nations from 
the heathen, that they do not treat such children as 
brutes, but as unfortunate members of the great human 
family, entitled to the same consideration, the same privi- 
leges, the same advantages that our more favored off- 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 129 

springs enjoy. May I not say that we owe them a greater 
debt? 

As the peculiar condition of these children renders it 
impracticable to give them an education in the general 
public schools, and as there are so few of them in any 
particular locality, it becomes necessary to have a special 
school for them, to which all who are similarly afflicted 
may come and receive the benefits to which they are 
justly entitled, and which they so much need. 

The great object of this institution is to render the 
condition of these children, as nearly as possible, the 
same as that of their more favored fellow-beings — to put 
them as far as practicable, upon the same plane with 
their speaking, seeing and hearing brethren. To do this 
successfully, with the natural disadvantages under which 
they must labor, you will see at once that it is necessary 
to emply the best of teachers, and the most convenient 
and helpful appliances. Even with the most favorable 
conditions, it is a most laborious, and almost impossible 
undertaking. 

OEFICERS AND TEACHERS AND THEIR SALARIES. 



John E. Ray, resident ..... Superintendent $ 1,500 

Miss L. K. Thompson, resident . . Matron and Teacher of Articulation 800 

D. C. Dudley non-resident .... Teacher of the Deaf . : 1,200 

H. M. Harber, non-resident ... Teacher of the Deaf and Printing . . i,2co 

E. C. Campbell, non-resident . . . Teacher ot the Deaf and Art .... 900 

G. W. Veditz, resident Teacher ol the Deaf and Editor . . 700 

Mrs. Annie C. Wing Teacher of the Deaf 550 

Mrs. C. C. Wynn, resident ... Teacher of the Blind 6co 

Mi.ss M. E. Churchman, resident . Teacher of the Blind and Music . 550 

Fred H. Manning, resident .... Teacher of the Blind 450 

Miss Mary Harbert, resident . . . Girls' Supervisor and Seamstress . . 400 

F. T. Brown, resident Boys' Supervisor 4S0 

Samuel Gale, non-resident . . Teacher of Carpentry 675 



180 

The blind Department. 

As you will see at a glance, the difficulties referred to 
above, apply with less force to the blind than to the deaf. 
Through the ear the former drink in information and 
obtain a flow of language from which the deaf are en- 
tirely excluded, and being acquainted with spoken lan- 
guages that knowledge is invaluable as a foundation 
upon which to build the superstructure of an extensive 
education. Although our blind department has been in 
operation only about five years, and there is but one of 
the pupils now here who came at the beginning, yet we 
have those among the present attendants whose progress 
and advancement will compare very favorably with the 
standing of children in the higher grades of our public 
schools. They read readily both the raised letters and 
the New York "point system;" the latter consisting of 
perforations made in thick, stiff paper, a certain number 
of these perforations occupying a certain position with 
relation to each other, representing the respective letters 
of the alphabet. Pupils are furnished with slates pre- 
pared for the purpose, by means of which they easily 
write and thus communicate with their parents and 
friends at a distance. They are taught spelling, gram- 
mar, geography, history, arithmetic and even some of 
the branches of science. And with almost amazing 
accuracy they work mentally very diffiult problems in 
mathematics. There is now on foot a movement to 
secure an appropriation from Congress to aid in the 
higher education of the blind, which I greatly hope will 
be successful. This is the more important since the 
time allowed by most of the States for the schooling of 
the blind and the deaf is entirely too short for them to 
have the advantages of an advanced course. 

In our school particular attention is given to music, 
vocal and instrumental. If there is one department in 



STATE SUPERn'TENDENT's REPORT. 18 1 

which the blind, as a class, excel, and for which they 
have a peculiar fondness, it is in this. And it is by no 
means to be overlooked, since it is frequently the case 
that they can make a living in this way after leaving 
school, to say nothing of the pleasurable feature of it. 



The deaf Mute department. 

The education of the deaf is attended with very much 
greater difficulty. The loss of hearing naturally entails 
the loss of speech. And where there has never been 
any hearing, there has naturally never been any speech. 
The deaf mute, then, is entirely cut off from the out- 
side world, so far as communication by means of a 
spoken language is concerned. And, being unac- 
quainted with a spoken language, he has no conception 
of a wTitten language, until this is given him by con- 
stant and laborious effi^rt. 

ARTICULATION. 

This system of instruction is used, to a greater or 
less extent, in nearly all the schools for the deaf in 
America and Europe. I will not stop here to discuss 
its merits, as it was so ably done by my predecessor in 
the last report of this institution. Suffice it to say that 
the success attained is such as to justify the effiart to 
give every deaf child an opportunity to test his ability 
to speak and read the lips. And while the percentage 
of those who progress satisfactorily is comparatively 
small, it is sufficient to induce me to give each pupil 
who enters this school a fair trial to develop what pow- 
ers to speak he may possess. Those whose progress 
warrants it are kept in this department, while those who 
do not succeed are put into the sig^n department, where 
all the deaf of sound mind and body can be taught a 
fair use of the English language. 



132 STATE superintendent's report. 

AURAL DEVELOPMENT. 

A new feature has been added to our course of in- 
struction since the issue of the last report — that of aural 
development. The object had in view is the testing of 
what power for hearing the deaf have, and improving 
that power as much as possible. There is a question in 
the minds of some as to whether the hearing is actually 
improved or the child is simply made cognizant of the 
fact of its possession. However, it has been found b> 
actual experiment that some children thought to be al- 
most totally deaf have a decided ability to hear, when 
the proper appliances are used, which ability has been 
allowed to lie dormant so long as to render the possessor 
almost unconscious of its existence. By the aid of the 
audiphone, the flexible tube, Currier's "duplex tube," 
etc., there have been developments which have aston- 
ished the most sanguine friends of this system. 

The classes in the sign department are doing better 
than ever before. The earnestness with which they 
study and the success attained are sources of gratifica- 
tion, and I feel very much encouraged in the work of 
the institution. 

There is a most serious drawback in the educational 
department because of a lack of suitable appliances, ap- 
paratus, school rooms, etc. In the deaf-mute depart- 
ment there is not a well-equipped school room. And 
the want of a good supply of scientific apparatus has 
materially retarded the progress of the more advanced 
pupils. May we not hope that the next Legislature will 
supply the means to remove these difficulties. 

ATTENDANCE. 

The total attendance at the institution for the past 
two years has been just one hundred. Of this number 
eight have been enrolled the present session. The last 



I 



STATE superintendent's KEPORT. 133 

report showed an attendance at that time of fifty-nine^ 
classified as follows: 

Deaf-mute boys 23 

Deaf-mute girls 17 

Blind boys 10 

Blind girls 9 

Total 59 

Since that time we have added in all 41 

Making a total attendance, for the two years, of . . . 100 

Of this number we have expelled 2 

Removed to other States 2 

Dismissed because of feeble-mindedness 2 

Voluntarily remained at home 13 

Total dismissions 19 

Present attendance . 81 

These are classified as follows: 

Deaf-mute boys 30 

Deaf-mute girls 25 

Blind boys 13 

Blind girls 13 

Total 81 



DOMESTIC DEPARTMENT. 

It is the desire of the officers of the institution to 
make this department as much like a home as is possi- 
ble, and every effort is bent to that end. The Superin- 
tendent has done what he could to place himself in the 
attitude of father to the children. To all intents, the 
Matron stands in the place of mother. The necessity 
of this is apparent when you consider the fact that these 
children are not only far separated from their parents, 
but are rendered doubly dependant upon some kind 
protector by reason of their affliction. To supply this 
necesssity is the great aim of the department. 

The female officers take turns in carrying the girls 
out to walk at least once a week, thus giving them a 
good amount of healthful exercise and fresh air. They 
are not allowed to go out shopping, except in company 
with some officer. They are thus kept from any ex- 



184 STATE SUPKRINTENDKNt's REPORT. 

posure to outsiders. In the institution the boys and girls 
are kept as entirely separate as if they were in separate 
buildings, or even in separate schools, except in the 
school rooms and dining room, where they are under the 
watch care of the officers. The play grounds are 
divided by high, closely built fences. The sleeping 
apartments are in different wings of the building, with 
the rooms of the officers between them and among them. 
The door of approach to the girls' dormitories is se- 
cured by a strong wire shutter which is locked carefully 
every night. In addition to all this, we have a night 
watchman who is required to visit every part of the 
premises every hour during the night. It will be seen, 
then, that no danger can arise from that source. 

The boys are encouraged to engage in athletic sports 
of various kinds, which inure to their health and physi- 
cal development. This is sufficiently augmented by their 
work in the industrial department to free them from any 
danger which might arise from a neglect in this direction^ 

Among the deaf pupils who have attended our school 
during the past two years, seventy-one in all, I find the 
following facts relating to the causes of deafness: 

Congenital (born deaf) 17 

Unknown 14 

Cerebro-spinal meningitis 8 

Brain fever 6 

Scarlet fever 5 

Teething 4 

Typhoid fever 3 

Cold 2 

Eruption 2 

Fall 2 

Throat trouble 2 

Whooping cough 2 

IvUng fever i 

Sun stroke, followed by fever i 

Diphtheria i 

Impure blood i 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 135 



CAUSES OF BLINDNESS. 

There have been twenty-nine pupils in attendance in 
this department during the past two sessions, and the 
causes of their blindness are recorded as follows: 

Unknown 7 

Inflammation 6 

Congenital 5 

Measles 3 

Small-pox 2 

Meningitis 

Blown out by giant ppwder 

Scarlet fever 

Ashes blown into the e\-es of 

St. Vitus' dance 

Fall 



INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT. 

x\s nearly as possible, I believe it to be the duty of 
the management of an institution like ours to train the 
pupils, not only in the use of language, but also to 
make of themselves useful and self-sustaining citizens. 
For this reason the arrangement of this is different from 
that of the other departments of the public school sys- 
tem of the State. The pupils are all given instruction 
in some kind of work. A large class of the deaf-mute 
boys is in the carpenter shop three hours each day, in- 
cluding Saturdays. Here they are under the care of an 
experienced cabinet-maker, who takes a very deep inter- 
est in his pupils and instills much enthusiasm into them. 
There are several of the boys in the shop now who can 
make a good, comfortable living if it became necessary 
for them to suddenly stop school. And some of the 
work turned out by them would do credit to any cabinet- 
maker. A good deal of attention has been given by 
Mr. Gale for the past session to teaching two of the boys 
wood carving. The success attained is far above any- 
thing he had even hoped for. A talent and taste have 
been exemplified which will bring to these boys a hand- 
some living. 



136 STATE S[JPKHINTENDKNT S REPORT. 

The printing office is still presided over by Mr. H. 
M. Harbert, who teaches in the educational department 
in the forenoon, and devotes his afternoon hours to this 
department He has a larger number of boys under his 
charge this session than ever before. Some of these 
have already earned good wages during their former 
vacations. It is greatly to be hoped that the Legislature 
will provide the necessary means for procuring a full 
line of such type as is necessary to the successful opera- 
tion of a first-class job office, so that this important 
feature of the printing trade may be fully taught. If 
we had these we could realize a handsome income from 
the work thus done by our boys. The principal work 
of this department has heretofore been the type-setting 
necessary to the issue of the little weekly paper, the 
Deaf-Mute Index^ which goes as a regular visitant to 
the homes of all the parents of all our children. The 
paper has not only paid its own way, but has been actu- 
ally a source of small revenue to the institution, the 
subscriptions and advertisements more than paying the 
expenses of publication. 

The blind boys are encouraged in their work at cane- 
seating, the only trade we have yet been able to teach 
them. With the increased attendance in the blind 
department and the growing number of large boys, it 
becomes a matter of the greatest importance that facili- 
ties be available for teaching these blind boys mattress- 
making and broom-making. These are really the only 
trades at which the blind can hope to make a livelihood 
after leaving school, and is it not criminal, reall}' a 
shame, that they should not have the benefit of them ? 
If we had the room this matter would receive immediate 
attention. As soon as this is done, we can not only 
make all our own mattresses and brooms, but can realize 
a considerable amount from sales. I believe in making 
our boys self-sustaining as far as is practicable. Shall 
we have the room? 



STATK SUPEULNTENDENt's REPORT. 187 

The deaf-mute girls are instructed in needle-work, 
crocheting, dress-making, mending, etc., as well as in 
general house-work; while the blind girls devote a part 
of their time to bead work and such other things as they 
can do to advantage. I think it very important that we 
teach our girls the culinery art as well as needle-work. 
But the same serious difficulty stares us in the face — 
want of room and the proper appliances. 

OUR URGENT NEEDS. 

The growth of the institution has made it absolutely 
necessary to enlarge our facilities, or to have our work 
so crippled as to defeat the very end had in view in the 
establishment of the school. My predecessor wisely said 
in his last report: "The house is now full to overflow- 
ing, and it would be unwise to admit more pupils and 
endanger the health of all by overcrowding." If that 
was true when the actual attendance was fifty-nine, what 
must it be at present, when the enrollment for this fall 
session alone has reached eighty-three — nearly fifty per 
cent, larger? The prophecy of Prof. Dudley has been 
verified, too; for we have had mure sickness this session 
than at any time since the establishment of the school. 
But how could we do otherwise than receive the children 
who were crying at our doors for admission to the privi- 
leges of an education, for the ability to become useful 
citizens and useful members of society? 

Nor is this the worst feature of the situation. From 
information at hand I find that there are to-day sixty 
other children, deaf or blind, of proper age, in the State, 
who should be here at school. And these are simply 
those whose names I have. From circumstances which 
are trustworthy, I am convinced that there are not less 
than one hundred children in Colorado who should now 
be here at school. Our State can not afford to allow this 
condition of affairs to longer exist. We must have more 



188 STATE supkrintendent's report. 

room, and in building we must keep an eye to the 
future. It is neceasary that we erect at the earliest pos- 
sible day a building just south of the present main 
building, seventy-five by one hundred and ten feet, 
three stories high, which shall be used for school-room 
purposes, a chapel, etc. 

It is simply impossible to conduct the affairs of the 
school as they should be carried on without some means 
of heating the buildings. We now have to resort to the 
use of stoves in all the rooms, except in a part of the 
extreme south wing, where we are using an old furnace, 
whose worn-out condition makes it absolutely dangerous, 
to which we are exposed in having to use stoves among 
children, a part of whom can not hear, and the rest can 
not see, can only be imagined when you think of the 
calamity which a little carelessness or oversight would 
cause. Suppose a fire should break out. And this is 
only one side of it. The unusual amount of sickness in 
school this session ma}^ be largely due, must be due, 
almost wholly to our want of heating conveniences, 
coupled with the crowded condition of all the apartments. 

We can no longer get along without a kitchen, din- 
ing-room, store-room and apartments for the domestics 
employed about the premises. We can arrange these all 
in the same building so as to make one do for all. From 
estimates I have received, the cost of the three buildings 
will be as follows: 

For the school building, including the necessary furni- 
ture $ 45,000 00 

For the steam-heating apparatus, with building for the 

same 10,000 00 

For the kitchen, dining-room, domestics' quarters, etc . . 20,000 00 

Total amount needed $ 75,000 00 



STATE SUPERINTEND KNT's REPORT. 139 

Itemized statement of expenses for the two years 
ending November 30, li 



Bread $ 86i 76 

Books and stationery 730 40 

Boots and shoes 365 35 

Cows, horses and wagons 687 75 

Deaf-Mute Index 210 41 

Dry goods and clothing 1,042 80 

Fuel 1 .474 70 

Furniture 394 10 

Groceries and provisions ... 7,032 83 

Hardware and stoves 1,262 97 

Hay and grain 865 25 

Household goods 62 80 

Improvements and repairs 4,031 07 

Insurance 95 00 

Interest 1,240 93 

Lighting 1,058 91 

Literature 80 30 

Livery 31 25 

Meat 2,599 25 

Medicine and medical attendance 558 27 

Miscellaneous r.430 76 

Musical instruments 35i 46 

Plumbing 725 95 

Postage, express and freight 125 35 

Printing ' 56 59 

Queensware 102 34 

Salaries 17,582 85 

Traveling expenses i,494 17 

Vegetables 15 80 

Wages 4,479 08 

Water works 100 co 

Total expenses for the two years $51,15693 

Total receipts 

Leaving a of 

VALUE OF BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. 

Value of buildings and grounds December I, 1886 . . . . $56,96100 

Improvements, December i, 1886, to November 30, 1888 . 4,031 00 

Value December i, 1888 $ 60,992 00 

JOHN E. RAY, 

Sitpe rin ten den t. 



L 



►. 



Fourth Biennial Report 



OF THE 



State Industrial School, 



TO THE 



HON. L. S. CORNELL. 



Superintendeiit of Public Instruction, 



FOR 1887 AND 1888. 



DENVER. COLO. : 
The Collier & Cleaveland Lith. Co., State Printers. 



t 



{ 

Board of Control and Of&cers. 

Hon. M. N. MEGRUE, President. 
Hon. a. L. EMIGH, Secretary. 
Hon. J. C. HUMMEL. 

superintendent, 
WM. C. SAMPSON. 

MATRON, 

RACHEL B. SAMPSON. 

treasurer, ex officio, 

Hon. peter W. BREENE. 

physician, 

J. P. KELLY, M. D. 



Assistant Officers. 

SAMUEL S. POE. 
Family Father, family one; detailing officer and charge of grounds. 

S. EVANS DECKER, 
Family Father, family two; teacher and charge of house force. 

JOHN S. CASE, 
Family Father, family three; teacher and charge of yard force. 

ElylPHALET L. ABELIv, 
Family Father, family five; teacher and charge of carpenter shop. 

N. G. VOSLER, 
Clerk, book-keeper and teacher Grade A. 

W. B. MILAM, 
Foreman broom shop, assistant in family two and teacher. 

JOHN D. SLATER. 
Foreman shoe shop, leader band and assistant family three. 

P. J. KEANE, 
Foreman baker, second night watch, assistant family five. 

JOSEPH V. LINDER, 
Gardener, first night watch and assistant family one. 

MARY BRECKELS, 
House Mother, family four and general charge girls work. 

ROSE FISK, 
In charge of laundry and assistant in family four. 

ANNA MARSHALL, 
In charge of boys' dining-room and officers' quarters. 

BERTHA BUDER, 
In charge of kitchen and officers' dining-room. 

JOHANNA WEIDEMAN, 
In charge of tailor shop. 



J 



FOURTH BIENNIAL REPORT 

OF THE 

State Industrial School, 



Hon. IvEOnidas S. Cornell, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction: 

Dear Sir: — The Board of Control of the State Indus- 
trial School herewith presents its Fourth Biennial Report 
for the years 1887-8. 

The law directs that the report be made November 
10, but the fiscal term begins January i and ends De- 
cember 31. 

The last Legislature appropriated for the years 1887-8, 
for all purposes, fifty-four thousand ($54,000) dollars, four 
thousand ($4,000) dollars of which was set apart and used 
for the purchase of forty acres of land, and one thousand 
($1,000) dollars as directed was used for seeds, implements 
and improvements for the same, leaving for the mainte- 
nance of the school for the two years, forty-nine thousand 
($49,000) dollars, of which there remains six thousand 
four hundred and eighty-nine dollars and seventy-seven 
cents ($6,498. 77), which, with receipts from the broom 
and shoe shops, and other sources, will be ample to meet 
all the expenses of the school to the end of the year. 

To work within the appropriation, it was found nec- 
essary to limit the number of children to ninety for the 
first eighteen months of the term; but for the last half 
year there has been no limit to the number received, and 
the school has now present one hundred and sixty-four 
pupils. 



146 STATE superintendent's report. 

For the next two years the State will be called on to 
provide for an average of two hundred and twenty-five 
children, which, for maintenance alone, will require an 
appropriation of sixty thousand ($60,000) dollars in ex- 
cess of receipts. 

The dormitories, school-rooms, etc., will only ac- 
commodate one hundred and forty boys and thirty -five 
girls, which necessitates additional buildings. 

To accommodate the larger school of the near future, 
the Board and Superintendent have planned a new- 
building which, when completed, will leave the present 
dormitories for shops, for which they will be needed and 
are well suited. 

This plan is designed to accommodate girls and boys 
in the same building, but with entirely separate depart- 
ments. Such a building can be constructed part at a 
time. The part for a girls' school, which is an imme- 
diate necessity, will cost about twenty-five thousand 
($25,000) dollars, for which a special appropriation is 
asked. 

At present the only water supply is for domestic use. 
Water is needed in larger quantities for growing trees, 
and for ornamenting the grounds, to make the place 
heart-some and home-like. 

There is a water power in a ditch near the grounds, 
which can be improved with pumps and other machin- 
ery in such a manner as to afford the needed supply, all 
to cost about twenty-five hundred dollars ($2,500), as 
estimated by the State Engineer, who made the survey. 

An appropriation for this purpose is earnestly asked. 

It gives us great pleasure to report that the school has 
been in a very prosperous condition since the last report 
was made. The work done has been good in all depart- 
ments, and most of the pupils who have received instruc- 
tion here, and have gone out, are making good records 
for themselves and the school. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 147 

A reference to the report of the Superintendent, Wm. 
C. Sampson, herewith submitted, will show he recom- 
mends that the children should be committed during 
their minority, leaving it to the Board of Control to 
shorten the time, as the w^elfare of the children may 
demand. 

The recommendation is fully conceded in by the 
Board. 

Further reference is made in the report by the Super- 
intendent as to the use made of the land obtained and 
the great benefit it is to the school, either in economic, 
sanitary or an esthetic sense. 

The health of the school generally has been good, as 
evidenced by the report of the physician, Dr. J. P. Kelly. 

In conclusion, it only remains to say that Mr. and 
Mrs. Sampson, as Superintendent and Matron of the In- 
stitution, have performed their work so faithfully and 
carefully as to merit the lasting remembrances of all 
committed to their care, and the gratitude of the State 
which they have served. Other officers and employes 
have done their work well. Some of them have rend- 
ered very valuable services. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. N. Megrue, 

President. 
A. L. Emigh, 

Secretary. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 

To the Board of Control of the State Industrial School : 
Gentlemen: — I take much pleasure in presenting 

you my Fourth Biennial Report. 

Several very desirable features have been added our 

school during the term. For a long time we experienced 

great inconvenience from an insufficient water supply, 



148 STATE superintendent's report. 

even for most ordinary domestic purposes, so with de- 
light we hailed the final completion of arrangements 
connecting us with the Holly system of Golden. First 
water was received on the twenty-eight of December, 
1887. Since then the management of the Golden Water 
Works have cheerfully responded to our call for more 
water. 

This term has afforded our first experience of the lux- 
ury of a garden and farm to supply our table and stock. 
Though we did not enter the new possessions until late 
in March, 1888, our added forty acres under ditch have 
proved very valuable to us, very pleasantly improving 
our table, and at the same time lessening the expense 
of the food item. (i. See Exhibit No. 19. 2. See 
Exhibit No. 21.) 

During all previous terms the school has been limited 
in every department of its work by want of means, but 
during this term all children offered have been received, 
and improvement has marked every part of the work. 

A girl's department (the need of which has been so 
pressingly felt in every city of the State) has been opened. 
This department has already twenty-five pupils in it, and 
is known as. Family Four; is under the immediate care 
of Miss Mary Breckels, as Family Mother, assisted by 
Mrs. Fisk. The girls make and repair all their own 
clothing; keep in order their dormitories, dining-room, 
sitting-room and sewing-room, and do the inside work 
of the main building. They also do the laundry work 
for the school. 

Our school, from its commencement, has been con- 
ducted on the open family or cottage system, as it is 
variously called, as distinguished from the congregate 
plan of management. 

Under this plan the school is now divided into five 
families. Our dormitories hold but thirty-six, and as it 
is desirable that each boy should have a bed alone, the 



STATK superintendent's REPORT. 149 

families are limited to thirty-six. The plan of division 
is according to size and age. 

The larger thirty-six boys are placed in Family One; 
the thirty-six next smaller in Family Two; the third 
division of thirty-six in Family Three, and the re- 
mainder of the boys in Family Five. Bach family of 
boys is in charge of a teacher, who, as head of the 
family, is known as Family Father. There is an assist- 
ant attached to each, who takes charge of the family in 
the absence of his principal. 

The Family Father has the same charge of his boys 
as a parent would have; calls them up in the morning, 
sees that each properly washes, cares for their clothing, 
is with them in their family rooms, on the play ground, 
accompanies them to chapel, seats them in the dining- 
room, and exercises a constant care over them at all 
times; gives special attention to their deportment; in- 
structs them in morals, religion, declamation and vocal 
music, and leads them in family worship. 

The children in school are classed as in all graded 
schools. Four hours of each day are spent in the 
school-room for eight months of the year. During 
June, July, August and September half an hour is 
taken from the evening school session and added to the 
play hour as vacation time. 

Our school time is one hour before breakfast, which 
is devoted to arithmetic; one hour before supper (3:20 
to 4: 20) to penmanship and written exercises; two hours 
after supper (5:30 to 7:30) to reading, geography, his- 
tory, oral spelling, language lessons, physiology, etc. 

Each grade is taught by an experienced instructor, 
who observes a carefully prepared programme. Satisfac- 
tory progress has marked school work*. 

To each family is given an average of three acres for 
play-ground. Base and foot-ball, marbles, top and the 
usual games of children are enjoyed to the fullest ex- 



150 STATE superintendent's REPORT. 

tent. Our girls' play-ground is supplied with swings, 
see-saws and croquet. 

The clothing is always seasonable, neat and plain, 
and is kept clean and neatly repaired. All have Sun- 
day and working suits, and the girls have, in addition, 
school dresses. The children do not go barefooted any 
part of the year. 

Except stockings and socks, all clothing and shoes 
worn by them are made in our own shops by the pupils; 
under the instruction of skilled teachers'. 

(^Exhibit 12. ^Exhibits 15, 16 and 17.) 

The great object of the school is to correct past loose- 
ness or crookedness in their lives and education, and, if 
possible, to prepare them for honorable, honest, indus- 
trious and useful citizens. 

To this end, as far as time will permit, to give them 
a sound common school education; to elevate their 
moral principles to the full Christian standard; to teach 
them the fear and love of God, our Heavenly Father; 
to instill in their lives hatred of sin and meanness, and 
a longing for that which is honorable, pure and true; 
to teach them obedience, the keynote of all success in 
life; to teach them that work is honorable and desirable 
in all; to endeavor to give skill to their hands, correct- 
ness to their eyes, that distance, size, weight and color 
may readily be distinguished. 

Trade and trade instruction would be most valuable 
in the work. A department large enough to receive 
one-third of our older boys, where practical, technical 
and scientific instruction should be given in any chosen 
trade in wood, iron, leather, stone, brick or mortar. 
Such departments have been added to a number of the 
reform schools of this country with telling effect for 
good. 

We have practical commencements in the following 
trades and employments: Carpentering, painting, shoe- 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. If)! 

making, tailoring, baking, broom-making, farming, gar- 
dening, care of horses and stock, and general work in 
houses and yards for our boys. Girls are instructed in 
housework, sweeping, cleaning, dusting, orderly arrange- 
ments, dish-washing, care of table and table-waiting, 
scrubbing, scouring, washing, ironing, sewing by hand 
and on machine, care of clothing and person, thus fitting 
them for usefulness and wage-earning when they return 
to their homes. 

Reformation supposes the changing from a life of 
idleness, wickedness and sin to one of honesty, truthful- 
ness and industry. This can not be given as one would 
measure merchandise, but must be wrought in the heart 
and life of the child by oft-repeated, long-continued, 
patient instruction and life examples. Discouragements 
mark every step of the way. That we thought com- 
pleted is often found to be scarcely commenced; but 
faith in God and His grace will crown faithful work 
with these needy ones with final success. 

It is not at all desirable that a child should be kept 
too long in a public institution, where others think for 
and supply their wants, without an effort on their part; 
and yet reformation, to be true to its name, should be 
able to hold the children until there is at least some evi- 
dence of having accomplished the work intended. With 
some children a few months of discipline accomplishes 
all we could desire; with others, years of most patient 
effort is required. It has often happened that very bad 
boys, for the worst crimes, have been given the shortest 
sentence, and comparatively innocent boys, guilty only 
of a technical offense, have received the full extent of 
the law. 

I would respectfully recommend that all sentences be 
given for minority, unless sooner reformed, or that the 
law give the Board of Control the authority to extend 
sentences, when in their judgment the case requires it. 



152 STATE superintendent's report. 

A study of Exhibits numbered Three and ten will show 
that such authority will be wisely used for the good of 
the children. 

The great majority of our children have homes and 
are gladly received when we can endorse them as good 
boys, but some are not so fortunate, as will be seen by 
Exhibit No. ii. These we endeavor to find places for 
when their terms are nearly out, and they manifest the 
proper disposition. For thirteen such boys places have 
been found during this term; some in Golden and vicin- 
ity. Six boys, who were ready to return home, re- 
quested that I should try and find places for them in the 
glass factory at Golden. The opportunity offering, they 
went to work there. At first they came home to the 
school every night, but this was objected to as it was 
feared it would have a tendency to reduce wages, so 
boarding places were found for them, five with a widow 
lady and one in a private family, the boys paying 
their own board from their wages, which was in no case 
less than that earned by the town boys at similar work. 
While at work and living in Golden they were regularly 
visited, both at their boarding place and at the factory, 
by the Superintendent and Matron, and thus kept in 
view. A few weeks, however, ended the trial, and they 
all returned to the school preparatory to seeking other 
employment and homes. One went to Denver and 
found work there. The savings of another paid his fare 
to his friends in Pueblo, Colorado, where he has an ex- 
cellent name; and another obtained work in lyaramie 
City, Wyoming Territory. For another, a place was 
found with a dairyman near Denver. The parents of 
another finally obtained means to pay his car fare to 
their home in Leadville, and the last boy was recom- 
mitted to the school. 

In every instance I am glad to say a home and work 
has been found for the discharged one. To take boys, 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 153 

when their course in school ends, to the gate and bid them 
begone, would be savage cruelty, unbecoming the char- 
acter of the State, likely to defeat the very object fo^ 
which they were sent here, and strangely at variance 
with every instinct of humanity. 

Our school has now been in operation seven years and 
six months. 



The State appropriations during that time have been . . 





1^204,000 00 


Vahie of school property (See Exhibit No. 20) 


558,684 14 1 


Unexpended balance in Treasur>'(see Exhibit Nos.13 and 20) 


6,498 77 ! 


Turned back into the Treasury January I, 1887 


4,034 70 1 69,217 61 


Showing net cost to the State to be 





$134,782 39 







A cost of $185. 18 per capita per year, or a little less 
than fifty-one cents per day for each pupil cared for by 
the school since its establishment. 

Our school has outgrown its present very limited ac- 
commodations, and pressingly calls for permanent build- 
ings in keeping with the rapid progress of the State and 
importance of the work. 

The present brick structures will always be important 
in the work of the school. The administration buildinor 
can be used as a family building for the smaller boys and 
store-rooms; the school buildings for the technical de- 
partment, for which they are specially adapted; and the 
officers' quarters for a hospital. 

By proper machinery, water can be raised from the 
ditch running through our premises, in sufficient quan- 
tities to irrigate the school grounds. This would enable 
us very quickly to change the present desert-like appear- 
ance of the campus and cover it with lawns, trees, shrubs 
and flowers, thus making this elevated site a most attrac- 
tive one. 

The general health of the school has been excellent, 
but we are pained to report the first death in its history, 
that of John McCourt, who has been most of the sum- 



154 STATE superintendent's report. 

mer, and until the latter part of November 1887, work- 
ing for a farmer a few miles from the school, but feeling 
sick, he came home, and was found to have the typhoid 
fever. He was carefully nursed and visited daily by 
Dr. Kelley; appeared to be getting along favorably, but 
peritonitis setting in, quickly proved fatal. John was a 
good boy, and firmly believed that his Saviour would 
take him to His bright, heavenly home. 

We received one hundred and sixty-nine new com- 
mitments during this term, and will be called upon to 
receive at least two hundred and twenty-five during the 
coming one. This will leave in the school at the end 
of the next term two hundred and twenty-five children 
at least, and this number will make necessary enlarged 
school accommodations. 

In addition to the regular duties of her position, Mrs. 
Sampson has given unremitted daily attention to the 
religious instruction of the children, and has exerted a 
very positive influence for good with every child who 
has been in the school. 

Regular morning and evening worship is held in the 
chapel; correct deportment and good discipline is in- 
sisted upon in every place, and there is abundant evi- 
dence of a sound work of reform being accomplished. 

Our grateful acknowledgments arc due the Rev. Wil- 
liam H. Green and the Rev. William M. Bewley, of the 
Methodist F^piscopal Church; the Rev. Charles H. Jones, 
Rev. W. E. Orton and the Rev. Stokes, of the Baptist 
Church; the Rev. Eugene Brooks and the Rev. George 
M. Anderson, of the Christian Church ; and Rev. McLean, 
of the Presbyterian Church, who have voluntarily main- 
tained a very interesting and profitable Sunday afternoon 
service with the children. 

The Rev. Martin O'Driscoll, of the Catholic Church, 
instructed and received into his church quite a large class. 



I 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



155 



Special attention is called to the twenty-one exhibits 
which follow. The first thirteen give a complete tabu- 
lated statement of matters of interest about the children, 
and the last eight give an exhaustive showing of the 
financial condition of the school. 



Exhibit No. i. 



Showing the number of pupils received during the 
term from November, lo, 1886, to November 10, 1888, 
with the numbers previously reported: 



RECErVED. 



1S86, 
1S86, 
1887, 
1887. 
1S87, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 



November 2 

December 7 

January o 

February 7 

March 3 

April 5 

May 3 

June 4 

July 5 

August 10 

September 5 

October 9 

November 6 



RECErV'ED. 



887, December 

888, January . 
8b8, February . 
888, March . 
888, April . . . 
888, May . . . 



888, June 11 

888, July 4 

888, August 8 

888, September . . 21 

888, October to 

888, November 10 13 



Total received during the fourth biennial term 169 

Total received during the third biennial term 115 

Total received during the second biennial year 116 

Total received during the first biennial year So 

Total received to date 480 



156 STATE superintendent's report. 

Exhibit No. 2. 

Showing from what sources children were received, 
and who were complainants: 









rt 
I 


Sent by the Courts on complaint of parents. ... 
Sent by the Courts on complaints of others th 
Placed in school as boarders 


an parents. 


49 

105 
15 


105 

187 
19 


154 
292 

34 


Totals , 


169 


3" 


480 





EXHIBIT No. 3. 



Showing length of time given children sent during 
present and previous terms, with averages: 



Present Third Second First 
Term, i Term. Term. Term. 



Total. 



For term of minority 

For term of seven years 

For term of five years 

For term of four years. ... . . . 

For term of three and one-half years 

For term of three years 

For term of two and one-half years. . 

For term of two years 

For term of one and two-thirds vears . 
For term of one and one-half years . . 

For term of one year 

For term of ten months .... 

For term of nine months 

Totals 



I 





12 


■ ■ 1 
40 


53 








2 


I 


3 


3 








7 


10 


I 





2 


2 '. 


5 











I 1 


I 


121 


80 


67 


12 


280 








I 


! 


I 


14 


16 


6 


8 • 


44 


I 








I 
1 


I 


2 





3 


I 


6 


21 


12 


21 


4 


58 


I 





I 


1 


2 


4 


7 


I 


4 ! 


16 


169 


115 


116 


so , 


480 













Average time for present term, 2 years, 7 months, 22 days. 
Average time for third term, 2 years, 6 months, 4 days. 
Average time for second term, i year, 8 months, 24 days. 
Average time for first term, i year, 2 months, 16 days. 



^ 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



157 



EXHIBIT NO. 4, 



Showing from what counties children have been sent: 



COUNTY. 

Arapahoe . . 
Pueblo. 
Lake. . 
Boulder 
Custer . 
Clear Creek 
Weld . . 
El Paso . 
Fremont . 
Chaffee . . 
Gilpin . . 
I,ariiner . 
Jefferson. 
Gunnison 
.Summit . 
Wyoming- 
Las Animas 
Huerfano . . 
Bent. . 





SB 





COUNTY. 



! .08 


!1 
164 1 


1 35 


57 !l 


26 

j 


42 Ij 


19 


22 ii 


^3 


-w 


12 


12 1 


i " 


21 ,1 


9 


13 I 


i 9, 


23 I 


i 7 


9 '.: 


6 


8 : 


6 


' w 


6 


20 i' 


5 


5 


5 


6 





(fi 






ga 


.2 a i 


w \r 


> i- 




i) V 


fu 


Ph 



Conejos 
Park. . . 
New Mexico 
.Saguache .. 
Rio Grande 
La Plata . . 
Costilla .. . 
Grand . . . 
San Juan. . 
Douglas . . 
Montrose .. 
Montana. . 
Delta .... 
Mesa. . . . 
Ouraj' . . . 
Garfield . . 
Logan . . . 
Archuleta . 
Totals. 



o 
o 



3" 



480 



15 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



EXHIBIT NO. 6, 

Showing the age of children when received: 



7 years . . . 

8 years . . . 

9 years . . 

10 years . . . 

11 years . . . 

1 2 years . . . 

13 years . . . 

14 years . . . 

15 years . . . 

16 3'ears . . . 

Totals 



AGK. 




23 


48 


27 


40 


29 


51 


15 


54 


21 


20 


169 


311 



66 
64 
71 
67 
80 
69 
41 
480 



Average age of those received during present term, 12 years, 9 mos., 3 days. 
Average age of those received during previous term, 12 years, 7 mos., 11 days. 
Average age of all received to present time, 12 years, 8 mos., 7 days. 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



159 



EXHIBIT NO. 6. 

Showing nativity of children received, etc. 



Colorado 94 ; 

Illinois 58 

Missouri 51 

Kansas 42 

Iowa 28 

Pennsylvania 29 

New York 16 

Nebraska 14 

Michigan ' ' 14 

Ohio 12 

Massachusetts 8 

Texas 8 

Kentucky 7 

Minnesota ... 7 

Indiana 6 

California 6 

Louisiana 4 I 

New Mexico 4 

Utah 4 

Arkansas 3 

New Jersey 3 

Tennessee 3 

Wisconsin 3 



Maryland 

Wyoming Territory 
Connecticut . . 

Florida 

Indian Territory . . . 

Vermont 

Oregon 

Washington Territory- 
District of Columbia . 

England 

Germany 

Ireland 

Canada 

Wales 

Sweden 

Italy 

Scotland 

Norwaj- 

France 

Denmark 

Mexico 



Total 480 



Native of the United States 438 White race 

Native of foreign lands 42 Black race. 

Males 452 Females . 



442 

38 
28 



i 



160 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



EXHIBIT NO. 7. 

Showing nativity of parents: 



United States 317 j Mexico . . . 

Ireland 55 1 1 Nova Scotia 

EIngland 38 ' Norway . . . 

Germany 36 ! Italy 

Canada 12 1 Denmark . . 



Scotland. 
France . 
Sweden . 
Wales . . 



Holland . 
Switzerland 
Russia. . . . 
Total . 



480 



EXHIBIT NO. 8. 



Showing previou.s social condition and habits: 

Both parents living 248 

p-ather onlj- living • • . . 80 

Mother only living 122 

Neither paYent living 30 

Total 480 

Parents owning their own homes 146 

Parents owning household goods only 272 

Children without homes 62 

Total . . 480 

Attended school regularly 17 

Attended school irregularly, or not at all 463 

Total 480 

Had repeatedly been under arrest 91 

Had been inmates of other institutions 17 

Parents living, but separated 42 



STATE SUPKRINTENDKNT S REPORT. 



161 



EXHIBIT NO. 9. 



Showing the number of children in the school on the 
fifteenth of each month, from December,. 1886, to Octo- 
ber, 1888, and on November 10, 1888, with the general 
average for the whole term: 



1SS6, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1S87, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 
1887, 



December 
January . 
February 
March 
April 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October . 
November 















88 

. 89 

89 

90 1 
85 
93 
95 

^ ! 

104 
109 \ 
105 
112 


1 
f li 

1 i[ 

1 

i 
1 



887, December ii8 

888, January 119 

888, February 123 

888, March 125 

888, April 124 

1888, May 128 

i, June . 136 

5- July 143 

1888, August 138 

J, September 141 

i, October 155 

i, November 164 



Average number in school during the term . . . . 
Highest number in school during term, November 4, 
IvOwest number in school during term, April n, 1887 , 



:888 



116 
164 

84 



162 



STATE SUPEKINTENDENT S REPORT. 



EXHIBIT NO. 10. 

Showing the number of final discharges during the 
term : 



DISCHARGED. 



886, November o 

, December I 3 

887, January 1 i 

887, February i 7 

887, March 2 

887, April 

887, May 1 I 

887, June 2 

887, July o 

887, August I 

887, September 4 

887, October I 4 

887, November ." | o 

Died (in December, 1887) | i 



DISCHARGED. 



1887, December . 

1888, January . . 
888, February . 
888, March . . . 
888, April .... 
888, May .... 
?88, June .... 
888, July .... 
888, August . . . 
888, September . 
888, October . . 

Escaped— 1886, 2; 



!,3 



Total final discharges 



95 



Received during term 169 

Number in school at last report 90 



Total number in school during term 
Less number discharged 



259 
95 



Present number in school 



164 



Average time that boys discharged during the present term remained in the 
school, two years and two daj's. Previous terms, one year, eleven months and ten 
■days. 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 163 



EXHIBIT No. 11. 

Showing the disposition of children discharged dur- 
ing the present term: 

Sent to homes in Colorado 69 

Sent to homes in Nebraska i 

Sent to homes in Wyoming: Territor5' 6 

Sent to homes in Dakota i 

Obtained work with farmers 6 

Obtained work in restaurant i 

Obtained work at baking 2 

Obtained work in dry- goods store i 

Obtained work in grocery i 

Apprenticed to family ... i 

Died December 18, 1887 i 

Escapes 5 

Remaining in school 164 

Total in school during term 259 



EXHIBIT No. 12 

Gives the course of study, grade entered, promotions 
and present number in each grade. 

The school is classed in four grades known as grade 
D. C. B. and A. 

GRADE D 

Takes the beginners through the First Reader, receives 
instruction in Spelling, Writing, with pen and on slates 
and in Notation, Numeration, Addition, Mental Arith- 
metic, Geography, and in the science of common things. 

GRADE C 

Takes the class through the Second Reader, reviews 
Addition, completes Subtraction and Multiplication; 
receives instruction in Mental Arithmetic, Spelling, 
Language Lessons, Penmanship, Geography, History 
of the United States, Physiology and Elementary 
Drawing. 

GRADE B 

Takes the class through the Third Reader, completes 
simple Division; receives instruction in the properties 



164 STATE superintendent's report. 

of numbers; reduction of fractions, reviews the princi- 
ples of Arithmetic and is instructed in Mental Arith- 
metic, Penmanship, Language Lessons, Composition, 
United States History, Physiology and Elementary 
Drawing. 

GRADE A 

Reads in the Fourth Reader, commences with Common 
Fractions, completes Practical x^rithmetic, receives in- 
struction in Mental Arithmetic, Book-keeping, Spell- 
ing, Definition, Penmanship, History of the United 
States and General History, Language Lessons, Physi- 
ology and Elementary Drawing. 

GRADES ENTERED. 

Entered Grade D 79 

Entered Grade C 61 

Entered Grade B 20 

Entered Grade A 9 

Total 169 

PROMOTIONS. 

Promoted from Grade D to C 64 

Promoted from Grade C to B 82 

Promoted from Grade B to A 68 

Total promotions 214 

. WHOI.E NUMBER IN EACH GRADE. 

There are now in Grade D 44 

There are now in Grade C 42 

There are now in Grade B 38 

There are now in Grade A 40 

Total 164 



166 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



EXHIBIT No. 13. 

State Industrial School in account with Hon. Peter 
W. Breene, State Treasurer, and Treasurer ex officio, of 
the State Industrial School: 



1887 



Nov. 10 
May I 



Balance of cash hind and appropriation to 
credit support account 



1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 



1888 



To appropriation for support of school 

To appropriation for purchase of land . . . 

To appropriation for farm implements and 
j seeds 

I To collections for November, remitted . . . 

To collections for December, remitted . . . 

To collections for Januarj^ remitted . . . . 

To collections for February, remitted . . . . 
! To collections for March, remitted . 

To collections for April, remitted 

To collections for May, remitted 

1 To collections for June, remitted 

To collections for July, remitted 

To collections for August, remitted 

j To collections for September, remitted . . . 

To collections for October, remitted 

To collections for November, remitted . . . 
; To collections for December, remitted . . . 

To collections for January, remitted . . . . 

To collections for February, remitted . . . . 

j To collections for March, remitted 

1 
To collections for April, remitted 

To collections for May, remitted 

I To collections for June, remitted 

To collections for July, remitted 

To collections for August, remitted 

To collections for September, remitted . . . 

To collections for October, remitted 

To collections for ten daj's in November . . 

Total amount subject to draft 



$49,000 00 
4,000 00 



614 57 
499 37 
572 76 
486 89 
533 92 

881 02 
418 08 
623 30 
701 10 
371 66 
583 84 
863 91 
192 66 
348 02 

1,263 14 
303 60 
552 95 

1,434 02 
345 30 
335 05 
863 58 
355 66 
308 63 

882 27 
69 40 



$ 10,084 57 



54,000 00 



14,404 70 
$ 78,489 27 



STATE SUPERINTKNDKNT S REPORT. 



IHT 



EXHIBIT NO. 13-CONCLUDED. 

State Industrial School in account with Hon. Peter 
W. Breene, State Treasurer and Treasurer ex officio of 
the State Industrial School: 

Cr. 



-87 



By amounts paid out for library account 
By forty acres farming land 



By farm implements, seeds, wagons, har- 
ness, etc 

By repairs and improvements, shop tools, etc. 

Bv water supply, connecting with the Golden 
Water Works 



By insurance (unexpired policies) 



By all ordinary expenses of the school classed 

under maintenance 

(See Exhibit No. 21.) 
By broom material 

By unexpended bal. in hands of Treasurer, 
Jan. 1, 1887, turned back into State treas'ry 

I Balance of cash and appropriation now in 
' hands of Treasurer 




Total appropriation and cash 



$ 250 22 

4,000 GO 

1,223 26 
4,182 04 

1,172 23 
723 15 

47,008 85 
9,396 05 

4,034 70 
6,498 77 



I 78,489 27 



168 STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT 



EXHIBIT NO. 14. 

Showing from what sources moneys remitted were 
received : 

Remitted from sales of broom shop $ 8,515 11 

Remitted for pupils' board 5,100 19 

Remitted for sales of bone ash product 364 45 

Remitted for shoe shop work done for officers and others 278 90 

Remitted from sales of pigs 126 25 

Remitted for calf sold 15 00 

Remitted amount refunded from library fund 2 55 

Remitted from plants sold 2 25 

Total amount remitted State Treasurer $ 14,404 70 



EXHIBIT NO. 15. 

Showing stock, work and net cost of shoe shop dur- 
ing term: 

Dr. 

Value of stock, tools and machinery' in shop, 

November 10, 1886 % 352 71 

Leather findings and tools bought 1,48581 

Total $ 1,838 52 

Cr. 

Received for custom work % 260 05 

Value of stock, tools and machinery, as per in- 
ventory, November 10, 1888 423 20 

683 25 

Total net cost $ 1,115 27 

During the term there has been made 591 pairs 

shoes @ 90 cents $ 495 90 

4,955 pairs shoes repaired at a fraction less than 

15 cents per pair 659 37 

Total $ 1,155 27 



STATE SUPEKINTKNDENTS KEPOKT. 



169 



EXHIBIT NO. 16. 



Giving work done in tailor shops, laundry and bakery. 
In the tailor shop there have been made: 



Shirts 

Pairs pants 

Towels 

Sheets 

Vests 

Pairs drawers 

Button-holes in new shoes . 

Bed spreads 

Wagon covers 

Carpet rags, balls 

Over jackets 

Jackets 



1,271 

700 

225 

.316 

178 

30 

112 

158 

3 

9 

4 

656 



Caps 356 

Pillow slips 265 

Aprons 43 

Under shirts 24 

Rag mats 91 

Bed ticks . . . , 179 

Carpets 5 

Banners 16 

Bags 14 

Table napkins 246 



Total pieces made 4,901 



There have been articles repaired as follows: 



Jeans pants 5,859 

Jackets 3,056 

Pieces under-clothing 3,144 

Pairs suspenders 1,012 

Aprons 63 

Bed spreads 48 

Pairs mittens 12 

Music books 46 

Pillowslips 12 



Pairs socks 
Sheets . . . . 
Overcoats . . . 

Caps 

Wagon covers 
Bed quilts . . . 
Towels . . . . 
Officers' suits . 



Shirts 5,797 



Total pieces repaired . 



7,302 

257 

50 

164 

6 



. 16,852 



Pieces laundried 91,640 

Baked in bread, pie and cake during term (flour), pounds . . 89,625 



170 STATE superintendent's report. 



EXHIBIT NO. 17. 

Showing work done in girls' sewing room since May, 
1888. There have been: 

School dresses 43 | Underskirts 20 

Laundry dresses 15 j! Pairs drawers 28 

Underskirts 7 | Chemise 25 

Pillow ticks 125 ]! Nightgowns 10 

Pillowcases 91 j Waists 2 

Bed sheets 131 j I Basques 6 

|l " " 

Aprons 70 1 1 Total pieces 573 



There have been repaired: 



Underskirts 40 

Pairs stockings 179 

Dresses 130 

Total . . 349 



EXHIBIT No. 18. 

Statement of broom business: 

Dr. 
stock, machinery and tools, as per inventory November 

10, 1886 $ 2,903 06 

Material purchased during 1887 and 1888 9,396 05 

Surplus (profit) to balance 543 55 

Total • . . $12,842 66 

Cr. 

Stock as per inventory November 10, 1888 $ 2,473 06 

Tools as per inventory November 10, 1888 . 1,013 21 

Cash from broom sales, remitted State Treasurer 8,51511 

I,edger accounts outstanding 841 28 

Total $12,842 66 



STATE SrPEKINTENDKNT S KEPOKT 



171 



EXHIBIT NO. 19. 



Showing cost of farm, fencing, trees, vines, plants, 
seeds, gates and bridging: 



Fortv' acres of land 


— 




I 


$ 

7 


4,000 00 




150 00 




" 150 1 
.5 ; 

400 

1,015 

50 

500 

500 

20 

1 100 








Raspberry bushes 




Red currant bushes 




White currant bushes 




Root rhubarb plants . . 




Root asparagus plants 




Root horse radish plants lbs 




Grape \-ines (assorted varieties) . 
Seeds purchased 






214 50 




.>. 


181 20 




2 

I 
I 
I 
I 
1^ 


Harrow 






Plows ... 




Clod breaker 


Leveller 




Cultivator 


Seed drill 




Broadcast sower .... 

Mower 

Hand weeders, hoes, hand whee 


Marker 

Horse rake 


200 75 


Gates, bridges and fluraing . . 






165 50 


Total 








4,911 95 















172 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT S KEPOKT. 



Exhibit No. 20. 



Giving inventory of all property and balances belon^^- 
ing to the school, November lo, 1888: 



I^ands, building and fencing- $ 39,650 00 



Dry goods, clothing and furnishing goods 

Groceries and provisions in store 

Glassware and queensware in store 

Hardware and woodenware in store 

I^eather, findings, tools and machinery in shoe shop 
L,umber and tools in carpenter shop 



Furniture, carpets and fixtures in buildings, school requis- 
ites and office stationery in offices of main building . . 

Library and cases 

Furniture, fixtures and furnishing in main building .... 

Furniture and fixtures in officers' building 

Fixtures in store rooms 



$ 513 55 \ 
616 00 I 
1,567 95 
560 00 
127 50 t 



Chapel and school rooms I 1,982 50 



Kitchen, officers' and boys' dining room 
Tailor shop, tools and machines .... 

Watchman's cottage 

Bake shop 

Hospital building 

Laundry 

Oil storage 



657 30 
255 15 
25 65 , 
130 30 

15 20 I 

I 
342 25 I 

17 70 i 



1,124 86 
869 00 
100 19 
256 22 
423 20 
231 18 



Bedsteads in children's dormitory 1 1,19200 



STATE superintendent's REPORT. 



73 



The garden and farm has given the following returns: 



Beans, lbs 2,365 

Carrots, lbs 1.924 

Peas, lbs 3.447 

Ears of Green Corn 12,924 

Heads of Cabbage 2.504 

Celerj-, bunches 500 

Beets, lbs 3,588 

Bunches Green Onions 582 

Dr>- Onions, lbs 2,500 

Pie Plant, lbs 1,200 

Squash, lbs 3,588 

Oats, cut green for feed, lbs . . . 8,000 



Pumpkins, lbs 2,050 

Watermelons * 800 

Muskmelons 2,500 

Radishes, lbs 2,500 

Egg Plants 150 

Cauliflower, heads 350 

Turnips, lbs 3,7cx> 

Lettuce, heads 5.084 

Tomatoes, lbs 4,000 

Barrels of Pickles 13 

Alfalfa, lbs 4.000 

Corn Eodder, lbs 4,000 



174 



STATE SUPEKINTENDENT S KKPOKT. 



EXHIBIT NO. 21 



Classified statement of expenditures for maintenance 
account; showing also the cost of each item per capita 
per term and day : 



ON WHAT ACCOUNT. a: 

Groceries and provisions ' $i 

Clothing material and dry goods ' 4, 

Leather and findings 

Fuel and lights I 2, 

Laundry account 

School books and requisites 

Postage, telegrams and telephone 

Stoves and furnaces 

House furnishing goods 

Office printing and stationery' 

Drugs and medicines 

Medical attendance 

Stable account, ha}' and grain 

Horseshoeing and blacksmithing 

Insurance of buildings and stock 

Police expense 

Officers' salaries 15, 

Expense and salaries of Board of Control ... 2, 

Furniture and fixtures 

Totals <;47, 



OUNT. 


PER 
TERM 




PER DAY. 


,657 17 


$ 100 


49 


$ 0.137 


,939 72 


4^ 


58 


0.058 


,485 8r 


12 


81 


0.017 


,570 15 


22 


15 


0.03 


503 38 


4 34 


0.006 


,059 91 


8 


93 


0.012 


548 76 


4,4 


0.006 


210 13 


1 


81 


0.002 


,800 93 


15 52 


0.021 


821 53 


7 


08 


O.OI 


98 92 




85 


0.001 


501 00 


^ 


32 


0.006 


,405 71 


12 


12 


0.016 


569 79 


4 


91 


0.006 


140 75 


I 


21 


0.001 


157 25 


I 


35 


G.OOl 


,827 44 


136 


44 


0.186 


,203 80 


18 


99 


0.25 


506 70 


4 


36 


0.006 


,008 85 


s 405 05 


$ 0.547 



STATE SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 175 



Band instruments and music 


$ 217 51 






Bedding in institution 


1,387 75 






Fire escapes 


161 50 


$ 9,763 82 




Machinery, tools and stock in broom shop . . . 




3,486 27 




Live stock, wagons, harness and farm utensils . 





1,97057 




Merchandise sold and not paid for 


$ 997 15 






Merchandise bought and not paid for 


168 32 


808 83 




Cash and appropriation in hand of Treasurer unexpended 


6,498 77 




Total value of school property . 






$ 65,182 91 







To my associate officers who have so nobly done their 
dnty and thus made possible the successful work of the 
school, I desire to give most grateful thanks. 

To you, gentlemen of the Board of Control, I desire 
to express my sincere gratitude for your kind considera- 
tion, wise counsel and patient support at all times, and 
trusting in the blessing of our loving Heavenly Father, 
we look for still greater success in our work for the 
children during the new term just entered. 
Most respectfully, 

Wm. C. Sampson, 

Superinte 7tdent. 

Physicians Report. 

Golden, Colo., Nov. io, 1888. 
To the Honorable Board of Control : 

Gentlemen: — The following report is respectfully 
tendered for your consideration. 

It is impossible for me to make a complete report, as 
no record of minor cases was kept, but I will give a few 
facts relative to the sanitary condition of the school, with 
a tabulated statement of the recorded cases treated dur- 
ing the past two years. 



176 



STATE SUPEIMNTENDENT 8 REPORT. 



I am satisfied the plan adopted, of isolating all con- 
tagious diseases, is working well. 

The grounds and buildings were never in as good 
condition as at present. 

The new water supply is an important factor among 
the many, going to make up a healthy school. Chemical 
analysis has demonstrated that it contains less impurities 
than the well water of our town; and I would recommend 
its use when possible. 

The school-rooms and dormitories are fairly ventilated, 
and kept scrupulously neat and clean. This, with the 
persistent effort of the proper officers, has done much for 
the health of the inmates. 

It is gratifying to note that we have had no epidemic 
of any serious nature, and the health of the school is 
far above the average in such institutions, as will appear 
from the subjoined table: 

Remaining in Hospital from 1886 i 

Admitted during 1887 and 1888 122 

Discharged, cured 112 

Sent to State Asylum i 

Surgical cases not requiring operation, but given proper instru- 
ments to wear 5 

Died . . I 

Number remaining under treatment 4 

Total number treated 123 

The above death is the only one which has occurred 
in the school since its foundation. 

John P. Kelley, 

Physician for the SchooL 



A PASTOR'S REPORT. 



Golden, Colo., Nov. io, li 
Gentlemen: — For the past year and a half I have 
been visiting the Industrial School once a month to con- 
duct Sunday afternoon chapel service, and have often 
visited the school in company with persons from different 



STATK SHPERINTENDKNt's REPORT. 177 

parts of the State and of other States, and all have ex- 
pressed themselves as being delighted with the school. 
Especially have they spoken of the neatness and clean- 
liness that was seen everywhere. 

I visited the school some time ago with a minister. 
After having gone through all the different departments, 
he expressed his surprise at finding such an institution. 
Why, said he, "This is more like a happy home than a 
place of tt)nfinement. " 

Everything is done to give them a moral training. 

If the boy or girl that spends any length of time in 
this institution is not made better, it will not be in the 
fault of the teachings. 

This school is an honor to the State. 

So far as I am able to judge, the management of the 
school is as near perfect as it can well be. 

Respectfully, 

W. M. Bewley, 
Pastor M. E. Church. 




fF^r'r'r'T^r'r ' r'r^^r' SSj Er'r't't^t'r'r'^r'i^r'Fl^^ 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 



SUPERINTENDENT 



Public Instruction 



STATE OF COLORADO 



BIENNIAL TERM ENDING JUNE 30, 1890. 



jjjj-ijj-i.j.^jjjjjjj-njjjjjj^jjj.'^^jjjsi - ^j.jjj.j^j^jjjj.jj^^j^ 



TO THE GOVERNOR. 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 



SUPERINTENDENT 



Public Instruction 



STATE OF COLORADO 



BIENNIAL TERM ENDING JUNE 30, 1890. 



) TO THE GOVERNOR. 



DENVER, COLORADO: 
Collier & Cleaveland Lithographing Co., Printers. 
1891. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Department of Public Instruction, 1 
Denver, Colo., December^io, 1890. J 

To His Excellency^ 

JOB A. COOPER, 

Governor of Colorado: 

Sir: — In compliance with the requirements of law, 
I have the honor to submit herewithjthe Seventh Bien- 
nial Report of the Department of Public Instruction for 
the biennial term ending June 30, 1890. 

FRED DICK, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

State Board of Education 7 

Officers of State Institutions ' 9 

Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction 10 

State Aid 13 

Compulsory Law ... 14 

Free Text Books 15 

School Law Legislation 16 

Normal Institutes 17 

The Office of County Superintendent 21 

State Certificates 22 

Quarterly Examinations 23 

Temporary and Third Grade Certificates 23 

Teachers' Associations 24 

State Association 25 

State Association of County Superintendents 25 

State Organization 25 

Course of Study 26 

State Department 27 

State University • . . . . 28 

State Normal School 28 

State Agricultural College 29 

State School of Mines 29 

Deaf, Mute and Blind Institute 30 

Arbor Day 30 

State Library 31 

Statistical Tables 32 

Official Decisions 73 

Remarks by County Superintendents 88 

Exhibit I. — List of County Superintendents, City Superintend- 
ents and Principals of High Schools 113 

Exhibit II. — List of Questions used in Quarterly Examinations 117 

Exhibit HI. — List of Questions used in State Examinations . . 122 

Exhibit IV. — Circular to County Superintendents, 1890 .... 132 

Exhibit V. — Circular of Information 134 

Exhibit VI. — Arbor Day Manual 139 

Exhibit VII. — State Manual and Course of Study 156 

Report of the Proceedings of State Association, 1889 171 

Reports of State Institutions 195 

State University 195 

State Normal School 204 

Letter from President State School of Mines 212 

State Agricultural College 213 

State Deaf, Mute and Blind Institute 221 

State Industrial School 230 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



1889 TO 1891. 

FRED DICK, 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

JAMES RICE, 

SECRETARY OF STATE. 

SAMUEL W. JONES, 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 



1891 TO 1 993. 



NATHAN B. COY, 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

EDWIN J. EATON, 

SECRETARY OF STATE. 

' JOSEPH H. MAUPIN, 



ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 



STATE UNIVERSITY, Boulder. 



BOARD OF REGENTS. 



Term expires. 

i8qi 



R. W. Woodbury Denver ... 

D. E. iSTEwcoMB La Jara . . . 1891 

Wolfe Londoner Denver . . . 1893, 

E. J. Temple Boulder . . . 1893 

S. A. GiFFiN Boulder . . . 1895 

Charles E. Dudley Denver . . . 1895 

Horace M. Hale, President. 

O. J. Pfeiffer Denver 1 Elected 

W. H. Cochran Del Norte J Nov. 4, 1890 



STATE SCHOOL OF MINES, Golden. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Fred. Steinhauer, President Denver 

J. T. Smith, Secretary Denver 

M. Barth, Treasurer Denver 

Dr. J. P. Kelly Golden 

E. F. Brown Aspen 

Regis Chauvenet, President. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, Greeley. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 



Term expires. 

Jesse Hawes , Greeley . . 1895 

Isaac Gotthelf Denver . . . 1895 

J. W. Wallace Greeley . . 1893 

P. W. Breene Leadville . . 1893 

E. E. Nichols Manitou . . 1891 

J. C. Davidson Golden . . . 1891 

Fred. Dick, State Superintendent, ex officio. 



10 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

STATE HOME AND INDUSTRIAI. SCHOOL 
FOR GIRLS, Denver. 

BOARD OF CONTROIv. 

Mrs. Amelia Eddy, Mrs. A. Jacobs, 

Mrs. Thalia Rhodes, Mrs. John Arrins. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, Golden. 

BOARD OF CONTROI.. 

Term expires. 

M. N. Megrue, President .... Pueblo . . . 1891 

J. M. Morris, Secretary .... Golden . . . 1895 

J. C. Hummel Denver . . . 1893 

D. R. Hatch, Superintendent. 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Fort 
Collins. 

BOAR© OF TRUSTEES. 

Term expires. 

John J. Ryan Loveland . . 1897 

A. L. Emigh Fort Collins . 1897 

B. S. LaGrange Greeley . 1891 

W. F. Watrous Fort Collins . 1891 

George Wyman, President . . . Longmont . 1893 

R. A. South worth ...... Denver . . . 1893 

F. J. Annis, Secretary Fort Collins . 1895 

Charles H. Small Pueblo . . . 1895 

C. L. Ingersoll, President. 
Gov. Job A. Cooper, ex officio. 
W. H. Brisbane, State Treasurer, Treasurer ex officio. 



The school system of Colorado is continuous in its 
growth and development. Since statehood the school 
population has quadrupled, the enrollment and average 
daily attendance have increased five times, while the 
receipts and expenditures have multiplied the first totals 
by ten and nine respectively. Evidence of these facts is 
found at a glance in the following table: 



rSUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



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12 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

The number of school buildings has increased froiir 
219 in the year 1877 ^^ 1,182 at the present time, fur- 
nishing accommodations for 72, 160 pupils. The number 
of teachers employed has advanced from 530 to 2,375. 
The valuation of school property has increased from 
$472,983 to $4,387,809.49. The annual cost of main- 
taining the public school system during the first year of 
statehood was $215,225, as against $1,944,807.88 during 
the school year of 1889 and '90. These figures indicate^ 
in no indefinite way that the educational facilities of the 
State have kept pace with its almost unprecedented 
material development. 

atte;ndance:. 

By a careful examination of table one in this report 
it will be seen that the number enrolled in the public 
schools in the State during the school year ending June 
30, 1890, was but 69 per cent, of the entire school popu- 
lation of the State, while the average daily attendance 
was but 59 per cent, of the enrollment or 40 per cent, 
of the total school population. No thoughtful person 
will question for a moment that more than 69 per cent, 
of our school population should be enrolled in the 
schools of the State. The present condition does not 
differ in any great degree from that which has existed 
for the past thirteen years and may be attributed to the 
following conditions, which from careful examination 
and personal inspection I know to exist at the present 
time. 

J^zrs^—ThQ limited financial circumstances of a very- 
large number of the patrons of our schools. 

Second — The indifference of parents to the import- 
ance of education. 

The first of these conditions is the natural outgrowth 
of circumstances peculiar to a new and undeveloped 
country. In Colorado the people are striving to 
develop the resources of the State. In a majority of 
the school districts the residents are in poor circum- 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 13 

stances financially and any draft upon their financial 
resources outside of purchasing the necessary clothing 
and food for the family is a burden. In a number of 
the counties of the State the people are absolutely 
forced to call upon every member of the family of suffi- 
cient age to assist in maintaining the family and in pro- 
\ndhng for the comforts of a home. 



State Aid. 

The State is the projector and protector of the Public 
School System, and has chosen the -public free schools 
as the means by which it is to advance to the highest 
and most perfect condition of Statehood. For this rea- 
son it should make the burden of the support of the 
public schools by taxation as light as possible upon the 
people, and that assistance should be given when the 
schools and the people are in greatest need of it. Colo- 
rado, unlike many other States, has no provision in its 
Constitution which provides for the levying of a State 
tax for school purposes. Its only means of giving finan- 
cial aid to the school system is by the sale and rental of 
its school lands, of which it ow^ns at the present time 
upw^ards of three and one-half million acres. The sum 
apportioned from the State fund to each person of school 
age during the last school year was $1.32, which is only 
a nominal sum when we consider that the cost per capita^ 
based upon the school population during the last year, 
w^as $19.77, leaving the cost per capita to be raised by 
direct tax upon the people, $18.45. '^^ illustrate: A 
district with a school population of fifty pupils will have 
$922.50 to raise by direct tax. In such districts the 
valuation of taxable property does not in the majority 
of cases exceed $40,000, thus requiring a tax of nearly 
two and one-fourth per cent. The amount received 
from the general fund of the county may possibly reduce 



14 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

this one per cent., leaving a tax of 12^ mills to be- 
raised by the district. It is evident that this is burden- 
some to any community, and ought not to be allowed to 
exist if assistance can in any way be legally given by 
the State. The only solution of this problem thus far 
has been to reduce the number of months that school is 
held each year, thereby depriving the pupils in, more 
than one-half of the school districts of the State of just- 
and reasonable educational advantages. lyast year 620 
out of 1,276 did not have to exceed 120 days of school. 
I therefore recommend that those who hereafter have 
charge of the school lands of the State, give earnest: 
attention to devising some means by which assistance 
may be given the majority of school districts in the.- 
State. 



Compulsory Law. 



Thus far no one has devised a successful plan by 
which the indifference of parents to the education of 
their children can be wholly overcome. Many of our 
leading educators have advocated the theory of bringing 
the schools to such a high degree of perfection in 
methods of instruction and special attractive features 
as to draw by the force of such attraction all young 
people into the schools. It is certainly conceded by all 
that at the present time no such condition has been 
reached, or will be for years to come. Other prominent: 
educators, and those more especially who have recog- 
nized the intimate relation between the State and the 
public schools, have advocated the adoption of a com- 
pulsory educational law. Such a law was passed by the- 
Seventh General Assembly, Its provisions are compre- 
hensive and its enforcement not necessarily oppressive. 
Its weakest point is found in the manner prescribed for 
its enforcement, that feature being left very largely tO) 



' SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. I5 

the directors of the different districts, or impliedly to 
the residents of the district. I am of the opinion that 
the success of such a law depends upon the appointment 
of a special officer for its enforcement, and, although 
this law has had the desired effect in many instances, 
much more could be accomplished by it were provision 
made for the appointment of a special officer in each 
district, whose duty it should be to attend to the enforce- 
ment of it. As will be seen by examination of Table 
''I," the total number of persons of school age in Colo- 
rado is 95,137, while the whole number enrolled in the 
public schools is 65,490, or 69 per cent. If we make 
the liberal allowance of 5 per cent, for those in attend- 
ance at other than public schools, we have twenty-six 
per cent, of our school population not in attendance at 
any school. Possibly one-third of this number are 
between the ages of six and twenty-one years, leaving 
about 18,000 persons between the ages of six and sixteen 
years of age not enrolled in any school during the last 
year. If, as has been asserted, the safety and preserva- 
tion of a republican form of government lie in the virtue 
and intelligence of the people, then certainly a condition 
ought not to exist which allows nearly one-fifth of the 
school population to be deprived of the opportunity of 
obtainino^ an education, 



Free Text Books. 



At the present time the school law of the State per- 
mits districts to own the text books used in school, and 
furnish them free to pupils in attendance. At the pres- 
ent time 201 districts have availed themselves of this 
privilege, and I have yet to hear a single complaint 
raised against the plan, while very many, both officers 
and parents, have expressed themselves in its favor. 
The arguments usually presented in its favor may be 



IQ SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

summed np as follows, and these points are sustained by 
evidence gained from the experience of districts in other 
States throughout the Union, which have for years 
owned their text books: 

I^i'rs^ — A gain of from 25 to 40 per cent, on first cost. 

Second — A gain of at least 33 per cent, in the time 
the book will be in proper condition for use. 

Third — Considering first cost "and time of use, there 
is a gain of about 50 per cent, in cost to the community. 

Fourth — The classes are uniformly supplied at the 
proper time and with the proper text book. 

Fifth — The very unpleasant distinction between rich 
and poor is avoided. 

Sixth — Increased attendance. 

Seventh — Schools are more successfully graded. 

Eighth — A State or county system is more easily car- 
ried out. 

Ninth — A very great and unnecessary expense to 
teachers is avoided. I recommend that every school 
district in the State, as far as possible, furnish its text 
books free to its pupils. 



School Law Legislation. 



The school laws of this State are strong in their 
simplicity. The less they are tampered with by legisla- 
tors, the less liable is our present excellent system to be 
crippled. There will, from time to time, arise certain 
new conditions, which will necessitate slight changes, 
but, generally speaking, school legislation should be 
avoided. There is, at the present time, a Committee on 
School Law, appointed by the State Association of 
County Superintendents, and another by the State Asso- 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. IJ 

ciatioii of Teachers, both of which Committees have for 
their chairman A. D. Shepard, County Superintendent 
of Arapahoe county. These committees, under his able 
direction, will prepare and present a bill making- some 
alterations in the present law, among which will be the 
following: 

Firs/ — An increase in the number of Normal Institute 
Districts. 

Second — A classification of the counties of the State, 
^'ith a provision for the payment of salaries to County 
Superintendents instead of a per diem^ as at present. 



Normal Institutes. 



A strong impetus has been given to the professional 
work in the State during the past two years, by the 
holding of Teachers' Institutes as provided by section 8i 
of the school laws. An institute has been held in each 
district during the month of August of the years 1889 
and 1890. The following table will give the important 
features of each. 

NORMAL INSTITUTES— 1890. 

First District — At Fort Collins, August 18 to 29. 
Conductor, Ira M. DeLong, Boulder. 

Instructors — C. S. Crandall, Fort Collins; Mrs. Scott- 
Saxton, Denver; Rev. W. O. Thompson, Longmont; 
Superintendent S. T. Hamilton, Fort Collins; E. L. 
Byington, Fort Collins; David O'Brien, Fort Collins; 
Superintendent W. V. Casey, Boulder; J. R. Whiteman, 
Greeley; Miss Carrie Leach, Boulder. 

ENROLLMENT. 

Larimer, 61; Weld, 40; Boulder, 25; Morgan, i; 
Sedgwick, i; Washington, o; Yuma, o; Phillips, o; 
Routt, o; Grand, o; Logan, o. Total, 128. 



18 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES. 

Balance on hand, 1889 $ 143 84 Conductors $ 114 lo- 

Due from counties 128 00 Instructors 258 65 

From registration. . 133 00 Incidental expenses 37 35 

Entertainment 46 85 

Received from State 000 00 $410 10 



Total receipts $451 69 Balance on hand $ 41 59 



Second District — At Golden, August ii to 23. 
Conductor, James H. Baker, Denver. 

Instructors — L. P. Norvel, Denver; Miss Martha 
Pease, Denver; Fannie Mutchmore, Claremont. 

ENROLLMENT. 

Arapahoe county, 63; Jefferson, 65; Clear Creek, 6; 
Gilpin, 9; Douglas, 7; Kit Carson, 2; Cheyenne, o; 
Lincoln, o; Elbert, 3. Total, 155. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES. 

Balance on hand % 24 75 Paid conductor $ 119 60 

Due from counties 16 00 Paid instructors 176 66 

Rec'd from counties 137 00 Incidental expenses 36 25 

Rec'd from registration fees ... 155 00 

Rec'd from other sources .... 35 75 Total expenditures $ 332 51 

Due from counties 16 00 

Total receipts $ 368 50 Balance on hand 19 99- 



Third District — At Pueblo, August ii to 23.. 
Conductors, P. W. Search, Pueblo; and A. B. Cope-^ 
land, Greeley. 

Instructors — J. G. Draper, Pueblo; Iv. B. Grafton^ 
Manitou; Miss Carrie Palmer, Manitou; Mrs. Ella Jeff- 
reys, Caiion City. 

ENROLLMENT. 

El Paso, 63; Pueblo, 80; F^remont, 28; Custer, 6; 
Bent, 9; Baca, 6; Huerfano, 3; Kiowa, 21; Prowers, 5; 
Otero, 3; Las Animas, o. Total, 224. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



19 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



RECEIPTS. 

Due from couuties $ 52 oo 

Rec'd from, counties 18030 

Rec'd from registration fees . . 227 00 
Rec'd from other sources .... 50 75 



Total receipts $ 510 05 



EXPENDITURES. 

Paid conductors $ no 00 

Paid instructors 265 00 

Incidental expenses 90 75 



Total expenditures $ 4^5 75 

Balance 44 3° 



Fourth District — At Leadville, August i8 to 30. 
Conductor, W. T. Eddingfield, Aspen. 

Instructors — Miss A. Holdredge, Leadville; Miss 
Lillian Pike, Montezuma; Rose Parker, L/eadville. 

ENROLLMENT. 

Lake, 20; Park, 7; Pitkin, 5; Garfield, 12; Eagle, 
10; Summit, 9; Rio Blanco, 6; Chaffee, 16. Total, 85. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



RECEIPTS. 

Due from counties $ 85 oo 

Received from registration fees 91 00 
Received from citizens of Lead- 
ville 202 00 



EXPENDITURES. 

Paid conductor $ i35 80 

Paid instructors 105 00 

Incidental expenses 23 00 

Lecture 10 00 



Total receipts % 378 00 



Total expenditures $ 273 80 

Balance 104 20 



Fifth District— ; At Montrose, August i8 to 30. 
Conductor, J. A. Guttery, Grand Junction. 

Instructors — G. A. Thrailkill, Ouray; Superintendent 
B. T. Fisher, Grand Junction; Mrs. E. H. Manhire,- 
Montrose; Miss Wagner, Telluride; J. H. Allen, Mont- 
rose. 

ENROLLMENT. 

Ouray, 12; Montrose, 27; Mesa, 12; Hinsdale, o; 
Gunnison, o; Delta, 8; San Miguel, 3. Total, 62. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES. 

Due from counties % 58 oo Paid for conductor $ no 00 

Received from registration fees . 56 00 Paid instructors 71 00 

Received from citizens of Mont- Incidental expenses 5 00 

"^ Total expenditures | 186 00 

Balance 13 00 



Total receipts $ 199 00 



20 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

Sixth District — At Durans^o, August 4 to 15. 
Conductor, A. B. Copeland, Greeley. 

Instructors— Wx^. F. B. Haffy, Del Norte; T. O. 
Baker, Durango. 

ENROLLMENT. 

Conejos, 3; Costilla, 2; Rio Grande, i; La Plata, 45; 
Montezuma, 5; San Juan, i; Dolores, o; Archuleta, 2; 
Saguache, o. Total, 59. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 
RECEIPTS. EXPENDITURES. 

Due from counties $ 59 oo Paid conductor $ 138 75 

From registration fees 59 00 Paid instructors 150 94 

From citizens of Durango . . . 187 00 Incidentals 16 25 

From State 



Total expenditures .... $ 295 94 

Total receipts % 305 00 Balance 9 06 

With the rapid settlement of the State and the 
increase in the number of counties, some of these dis- 
tricts have become too large for the most profitable 
work. As one County Superintendent expressed it: 
"His teachers are one hundred miles from the railroad 
and his institute district extends from Utah to 
Nebraska." The small salary and the heavy expense 
incurred make it impossible for teachers in remote dis- 
tricts to avail themselves of the advantages of the insti- 
tute. -The importance of the work is such that the 
institutes should be sustained, hence the law should be 
so changed and such support given by the State as will 
make it possible for every teacher in the State to attend 
one institute during the school year. These institutes 
have thus far been maintained by membership fee paid 
by teachers, limited payments by the counties repre- 
sented, and local private subscriptions. Although the 
law provides for a small appropriation by the State, it 
has not been made and therefore not received by the 
different institutes. Our teachers are entitled to great 
credit for the energy and interest they have displayed in 
supporting these institutes, and the State not only ought 
to make liberal appropriation for their future mainten- 
ance, but should make such appropriation as is necessary 
for the payment of money due for the past two years. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 91 



The County Superintendent. 



So great has been the increase of the number of 
school districts in many of the counties of the State, 
that thirty of the thirty-five counties require all the* 
time of their respective County Superintendents, in the" 
proper supervision of their schools. Fifteen of them 
will require at least nine months of the attention of that 
officer, while ten counties which are mostly in the 
mountainous sections will require less of his time. 
Familiarity with educational work compels us to recog- 
nize the great importance of close inspection. Super- 
intendents of Schools in large cities are employed with 
that in view, and to their efforts is due the excellency 
of most city schools. County Superintendents are doing 
an admirable work in this State. I believe there is 
greater interest manifested by them to-day than ever 
before. More time is devoted to direct supervision. A 
County Superintendent is elected by popular vote. He 
bears the same relation to all the schools of the county 
that a city superintendent bears to the schools of his 
city. He is to direct and visit schools, examine and 
advise teachers, report and make decisions in school 
matters. He can, by close attention to his duties, lead 
the schools, to eminent success, or by carelessness and 
indifference permit them to fall into decay. But to 
meet with success, he must devote his time to the inter- 
est of the schools, and for that he is entitled to liberal 
compensation in accordance with the provisions of law. 
Could County Commissioners become thoroughly in- 
formed in regard to the many and various demands 
made upon a competent Superintendent and the urgent 
necessity of personal supervision over the schools, I can 
not help thinking that they would take a much broader 
view of the situation than is taken at the present time 
in many counties. Children in rural districts suffer 



22 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

most by want of supervision or by inattention on the 
part of the County Superintendent. There is no place 
in county management where the commissioners can do 
as great permanent and lasting injury to their constit- 
uents as by checking honest energetic and intelligent 
action of a faithful County Superintendent in behalf of 
his schools, by disallowing his accounts, which are pre- 
sented itemized and under oath. 

I therefore recommend the passage of a law that 
shall provide for a proper classification of the counties 
of the State and payment of an adequate salary to 
County Superintendents of Schools in lieu of 2i per diem 
as at present. 



State Certificates. 



Two examinations for State Certificates have been 
held durfng this biennial term. On June 24, 1889, there 
were four applicants, one of whom, Miss Atta L. Nutter, 
of Pueblo, was given a State Diploma. On June 26, 
1890, there were three applicants, one of whom, Mr. 
Edward C. Hill, of Denver, was successful. At the 
present time the following named persons have received 
under the law State Certificates to teach: 

ISSUED PRIOR TO 1888. 

H. M. Hale, Ira W. Daris, E. C. Stevens, 

Aaron Gove, A. B. Chase, W. C. Thomas, 

Justin E. Dow, Robert Casey, Miss N. O. Smith, 

F. J. Annis, F. E- Smith, Mrs. Cornelia Miles, 

I. C. Dennett, P. H. Hanus, S. A. Wilson, 

J. H. Baker. J. C. Shattuck, Robert H. Beggs, 

H. ly. Parker, F. B. Gault, A. B. Copeland, 

H. F. Wagener, C. 1,. Ingersoll, Miss A. E. Del^an. 

Mary Thomas, W. W. Remington, 

Adelle M. Overton, J. S. McClung, 

ISSUED DURING THIS BIENNIAI. TERM. 

E. L. Byington, Fort Collins. E. C. Hill, Denver. 

Wm. Eiseman, Loveland. J. A. Guttery, Grand Junction. 

J. H. Freeman, Saguache. Mrs. E. K. La Barthe, Colorado Springs. 

J. P. Jackson, Colorado City. W. T. Eddiugfield, Aspen. 

C. V. Parker, Denver. A. C. Courtney, Denver. 

W. A. lyindsey, Denver. Grace Patton, Fort Collins. 

Miss Atta L. Nutter, Pueblo. L. S. Cornell, Denver. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 23 



Quarterly Examinations. 



During the present biennial term, 4,240 persons have 
applied for certificates to teach. Of that number, 641 
certificates of the first-o^rade were issued, 1,199 of ^^^ 
second-o^rade, and 1,298 of the third-grade; in all, 3,138 
persons were licensed to teach in the schools of the State. 
In addition to these, 844 temporary certificates were 
issued. 



Temporary and Third-Grade Certificates. 

That provision of the law which allows a County 
Superintendent to issue a temporary certificate when, in 
his judgment, the applicant is entitled to one, has 
worked great injury in many cases, not alone to individ- 
ual districts, but to the entire system of the State. The 
privilege has been abused by the misrepresentations of 
applicants for such certificates, and in too many cases 
wholly unqualified persons have been placed in charge 
of schools. In my opinion, County Superintendents 
would be justified in granting such certificates only in 
very urgent and unavoidable cases, such as sickness or 
accidentj which have prevented the applicant from 
attending the regular examinations. At the last meet- 
ing of the State Association of County Superintendents, 
a resolution was passed recommending that only two 
third-grade certificates be issued to the same person, 
thereby indicating a desire to compel teachers to advance 
in scholarship. That resolution meets with my earnest 
approval. Young persons without experience cannot 
expect to receive, on their first application, much more 
than a third-grade certificate. If, after having had one 
year's experience in the school-room, they prove them- 
selves competent to receive a higher grade by reason of 



24 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

their success, it certainly is to their discredit if their 
scholarship does not indicate that they are entitled to a 
higher than the third-grade which they received on their 
first application. While persons who have been in the 
profession for two or more years certainly can give no 
good reason for not advancing beyond the requirements 
of a third-grade certificate. 



Teachers' Associations. 



Teachers are practically members of one great order. 
Their interests are common. It is impossible for one to 
learn and acquire all of the best subject matter and best 
methods of instruction, by reading and study. If he 
attempts it he will become rutty and rusty. One secret 
of the success of schools in large towns is, that each 
teacher recognizes that he is a member of a great 
system, that he is one link of a chain whose strength 
and usefullness depend upon each link being perfect 
and without a flaw. Teachers throughout a county are 
bound to realize that they form a part of a much longer 
chain and one of greater strength and usefulness. The 
interests of one are the interests of every teacher in the 
county. He is by reason of his position obligated to 
give of his experience and knowledge to his associate 
teachers. He is at the same time bound to fit himself 
in the best manner possible to perform the work which 
he enters into a contract to do. He owes it to his 
directors, to the patrons of the school and to his pupils. 
There are associations of lawyers, doctors, ministers, of 
mechanics, of merchants, every profession and occupa- 
tion has its organization for the purpose of discussion 
and comparison. Organized, harmonious action is the 
most intelligent and most successful — the most profit- 
able. Teachers have not performed their whole profes- 
sional duty unless they have attended once each year, 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 95 

iDoth the County and State Associatiors and the District 
Institute. 

County Associations of teachers have been organized 
in forty-one counties of the State. Some of these 
organizations hold meetings quarterly while others meet 
semi-annually. They have proven to be of great value 
to teachers in comparing and discussing methods of 
instruction, in unifying county work, and in creating a 
more healthful public sentiment in favor of public 
schools. 

The State Association of Teachers held its fifteenth 
annual session in the High School building in Denver, 
December 26-28, 1889. It was commonly remarked at 
the time that there was a larger number present and 
greater interest manifested than ever before. 

I give a synopsis of the proceedings, for which I am 
indebted to the Colorado School Journal. 

There is also a State Association of County Superin- 
tendents which meets semi-annually in different cities. 
The last meeting was held at Canon City, May 15-17, 
1890, and thirty-eight of the fifty-five Superintendents 
w^ere present. 



State Organization. 



. In an address before the County Superintendents' 
Association, held at Glen Park in June, 1889, I used the 
following language: 

"The County Superintendents should mark out a 
course of study as adapted as far as possible to both city 
and rural schools. Beginning with the primary grades 
it should gradually and naturally lead up to and through 
a high school course of three years. There should 
be the same general plan for all schools in a county. 
Examinations for promotion should be held at stated 
times. Promotion should be made upon the same basis, 



26 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

test examinations should be held, using the same ques- 
tions in every school, and all held on the same day, ta 
insure uniformity of work. A system of reports should 
be adopted, one as a means of communication between 
the school and the parents, another, from the teacher to 
the County Superintendent. The former should indi- 
cate the monthly or quarterly standing of the pupil 
together with his deportment and attendance. By the 
latter the Superintendents should be able to learn of the 
attendance, the discipline and the advancement of each 
grade, of the transfers, withdrawals and promotions of 
students. As students advance, a certificate should be 
issued to each showing the branches studied, the stand- 
ing in each, with a permit to enter the next grade if the 
required standard is reached." 



State Course of Study. 

At that meeting a committee was appointed consist- 
ing of County Superintendents J. S. Eagleton, of Jeffer- 
son; S. T. Hamilton, of Ivarimer, and P. H. Hammond, 
of Douglas, to prepare a course of study for the public 
schools of the State. At the next meeting of the Asso- 
ciation held in Canon City in May, 1890, that committee 
made its report, which was amended in some respects 
and adopted as amended. The course of study has been 
printed and circulated very generally throughout the 
State, and is now in successful use by a large majority 
of the districts in every county. A copy of it is hereto 
annexed and marked "Exhibit VH." 

At the same time I made the following additional 
recommendation. A high school should be established, 
or a high school department at least, should be organ- 
ized at the earliest possible date in every county. This- 
ultimatum of the course of study through the county 
should be kept constantly before the pupils in order that 
as many as possible may be led to finish the grammar 
grade and enter the high school. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 27 

HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OF STUDY. 

At the last meeting of the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion a committee was appointed to formulate a course 
of study for high schools which should form a fitting 
preparation for entrance to our State University. That 
committee, I am credibly informed, has performed its 
work'and will be ready to make its report at the next 
meeting of the State Association, to be held December 
30, of this year. 

When these courses of study shall have been adopted 
by the various school authorities of the State, and this 
attempt at a more thorough organization of school 
work in the State shall have been perfected, I have 
reason to believe much better results will be obtained. 



State Department. 



This department is not directly connected with any 
of the higher or special institutes of learning, except 
the State Normal School. 

In my opinion, the State Superintendent should be 
a member, ex officio^ of the Board of Regents of the 
University and of the Board of Trustees of the School 
of Mines, the Agricultural College, the Deaf, Mute and 
Blind Institute, as he is of the State Normal School. 

While he is courteously received by the authorities 
of each and all of the State Institutions, there can not 
be the same active and personal interest on his part in 
their behalf unless he assumes some of the responsibil- 
ities of their management. 



28 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



State University. 

Our State University furnishes a fitting close to the 
facilities for a liberal education provided by the State. 
I spent twenty-four hours at the last commencement of 
that institution. To be interested in the University 
and to realize its capabilities, one has but to visit it. A 
beautiful and healthful location, appropriate and costly 
apparatus, a well-arranged curriculum and a faculty of 
undoubted character and scholarly attainments, give 
this institution an advanced position in the work of 
higher education. 

With this connected and systematized work which 
unites the- various departments of the State system of 
education, there will be and I believe has already been 
created a mutual and a close relationship which will be 
of great value to the entire state system. 



The Normal School. 



We are coming to realize more and more each day 
the very great importance of having trained teachers in 
our schools. . Colorado has heretofore been compelled to 
look to other States for its supply of professionally 
trained teachers. Young people, the graduates of our 
High Schools, who wished to specially prepare them- 
selves for the profession, have sought such advantages 
as were afforded by Normal Schools outside of Colorado, 
or have assumed the grave responsibility of "practic- 
ing" upon pupils in districts whose trustees were will- 
ing to pay them for serving an apprenticeship in their 
schools. 

By an act of the last lyCgislature, a Normal School 
for the training of teachers was established and located 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 29 

at Greeley. The unexpectedly lar^e attendance, as 
well as the age and scholarship of the students, give 
conchisive evidence of the demand for such an institu- 
tion in this State. Its influence in raising the standard 
of the profession by giving to our schools teachers 
trained in the science of education, and whose lives 
have been largely passed in the State, thereby making 
them familiar with the peculiar conditions that surround 
us, will be of inestimable value. The first report of the 
school is hereto annexed, and I earnestly recommend 
that its interests be carefully and liberally fostered by 
both the Legislative and Executive Departments of the 
State. 



The Agricultural College 



Has at present an enviable reputation, not only 
throughout the United States, but even States in 
foreign countries are watching its experiments and are 
profiting by its successes. It has successfully intro- 
duced, and is carrying on, a manual training depart- 
ment, which will, in my opinion, be of great assist- 
ance to the educational system of the State, when we 
shall have reached the time for its adoption as a part 
of the public school work. 



The State School of Mines, 



Under the very able direction of its President, 
Prof. Regis Chauvenet, is certainly doing much to- 
wards accomplishing the object for which it was estab- 
lished. The attendance is steadily increasing, its field 
of usefulness is gradually expanding, while the high 
order of instruction given makes it an honor to the 
State. The report of Prof. Arthur Lakes, one of the 



30 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

faculty, upon the Colorado coal deposits, is a document 
of untold value, giving, as it does, the location, extent 
and nature of our extensive coal fields. 



Deaf, Mute and Blind Institute. 

The Deaf, Mute and Blind Institute forms an import- 
ant element in the State system. It is not an asylum, 
nor a hospital nor a house of correction. But it is in 
every sense of the term a public school, with the addi- 
tion of a cheerful, attractive and beautiful home. 
President Ray is doing an admirable work in developing 
the mental powers of the pupils under his charge. He 
is preparing them for and directing them into fields of 
labor adapted to their conditions and attainments. The 
results attained are marvelous when we consider the 
difiSculties to be overcome. 



Arbor Day. 



A law passed by the Seventh General Assembly 
designated the third Friday in April of each year as 
** Arbor Day." In compliance with its provisions an 
effort was made to have the day generally observed by 
the public schools of the State in the planting of trees 
on school and other public grounds, and in having 
appropriate literary exercises by the pupils. The re- 
ports sent in by the various school authorities indicate 
a high degree of interest in carrying out the spirit as 
well as the letter of this law. 

Exhibit VI. is a copy of a circular issued by this 
department with a view to creating an active interest in 
Arbor Day. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 31 

State Library. 



There are at present 10,080 volumes of books in the 
:State Library. These comprise the session laws, official 
reports and other books of reference of like nature 
received from the different States; also the reports of 
the various departments of the General Government. 
In addition to these there are about 800 volumes of 
miscellaneous works by different authors. The useful- 
ness of the library is materially crippled by the manner 
in which books are obtained, there being no provision 
made with which to meet the expense of exchange or 
to purchase such books as are reasonably expected to be 
found in a State Library, which is essentially one of 
Teference. 



32 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



TABLE I. 



COMPARATIVE TABI,E— SUMMARY. 



ITEMS 


1889 


1890 


INCREASE 


Number of school houses 


995 


1,190 


195 


Value of school houses and property 


$ 3,838,353 00 


$ 4,387,809 40 


$ 549,456 49 


Number of male teachers in graded 
schools 


134 


144 


10 


Number of female teachers in graded 
schools . . . . 


536 
$ 95 21 


614 


78 
$ I 59 


Average monthly salary of male 
teachers in graded schools .... 


$ 9680 


Average monthly salary of female 
teachers in graded schools .... 


$ 6350 


$ ' 62 78 


$ D 72- 


Number of male teachers in ungrad- 
ed schools 


407 


478 


71 


Number of female teachers in un- 
graded schools - . . 


863 


1,139 


276 


Average monthly salary of male 
teachers in ungraded scnools . . 


$ 51 08 


$ 5184 


$ 76 


Average monthly salary of female 
teachers in ungraded schools . . . 


$ Ai 50 


1 4448 


$ 298 


Received from county tax and State 
fund (general fund) 


613,589 76 


640,485 99 


26,896 23 


Received from district tax (special 
fund) 


793,814 94 


953,162 87 


159,347 93 


Received from all sources, including 
amount on hand at beginning of 


2,037,251 98 


2,596,948 47 
818,604 65 


559,696 49 


Expended for teachers' wages .... 


713,971 78 


104,632 87 


Expended for current expenses . . . 


241,965 51 


255,270 71 


13,305 2a 


Expended for buildings, sites and 
furniture 


550,205 63 


607,503 32 


57,297 69 


Number of districts 


1,182 


1,284 


102 


Number of males of school age. . . 


43,780 


48,500 


4,720 


Number of females of school age . . . 


42,044 


46,637 


4,593 


Total school population 


8^824 
64,702 


95,137 


9,313 


School population between 6 and i6 . 


72,483 


7,781 


School population between i6 and 21. 


21,122 


22,654 


1,532 


Number between 6 and 16 enrolled in 


53,532 


59,383 


5,851 


Number between 16 and 21 enrolled 
in schools 


5,581 
1,484 


6,107 
1,733 


526 


Number enrolled in high school . . . 


249 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 33, 

TABIyE \— Concluded. 



ITEMS 



1889 



1890 



Number enrolled in graded schools . 

Number enrolled in ungraded schools 

Number enrolled in public schools . . 

Average daily attendance 

Per cent, of school population en- 
rolled in school 

Per cent, of school population under 
16 enrolled in school 

Per cent, of school population over 
16 earoUed in school 

Per cent, of average attendance on 
enrollment 

Volumes in school libraries 

Total expenditure 

Expenditure per capita af school 
population 

Expenditure per capita of enrollment 

Expenditure per capita of average 
attendance 

Expenditure per capita of population 
between 6 and 16 ... 



32,580 
25,049 
59,113 
35,054 

68 87-100 io 

82 73-100 5i 

26 42-100 ic 

59 29-100 ic 
20,916 
$ 1,585,519 44 

18 47 
26 73 

44 57 
24 54 



36,347 
27,410 
65,490 
38,714.58 

68 83-100 i 

81 92-100 $ 

26 95-100 $< 

59 11-100 $ 
26,516 

% 1,944,807 88 

20 44 
29 69 

50 23 

26 83 



3,767 
2,361 
6,377 
3,660.58 

D 4-100 ^ 

D 81-100 Ji 

53-100^ 

D 18-100 it 
5,600 
I 359,288 44. 

1 97 

2 96 

5 66 
2 29 



M 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

TABLE II. 



EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. 











.188? 


. 












1890 


• 








FIRST i SECOND 


THIRD 




FIRST 


SECOND 


THIRD 




COUNTIES. 


GRADE GRADE 

1 


GRADE 


1 


GRADE 


GRADE 


GRA 


DE 

1 






4; 

1 


V 


4> 
1 


e 


V 




V 




1 


V 

S" 




3 


Arapahoe . . . . 


3 


13 


5 


45 


6 


50 


122 


6 


12" 13 


50 


25 


60 


166 


Archuleta . . . . 


2 






, 






2 


1 










2 


3 


Baca 


I 


I 


, 


2 


3 


3 


10 


4 


7 


11 


12 


8 




51 


Bent 


3 


7 


lO 


23 


5 


TO 


58| 


1 


1 


1 


9 


. . 




16 


Boulder 


5 


8 


11 


25 


3 


12 


64| 


3 


.6 7 


19 


2 




61 


ChaflFee . . . . 


2 


8 


5 


6 






29 


I 


2 


I 


3 




37 


44 


Cheyenne . . . . 














I 






3 


4 


2 




13 


Clear Creek . . . 


3 


5 


2 


9 






26 


1 


2 




6 






II 


Conejos 


4 


2 


4 


2 


9 




28 


4 


3 


2 


5 


7 




28 


Costilla 


4 


3 


5 




I 




14 


3 


5 


2 


I 


2 


3 


16 


Custer 


I 


I 


5 


5 


2 


6 


20 


1 


2 


I 


2 


2 




20 


Delta 


2 


5 


2 


4 




I 


14' 


3 


4 


12 


6 


10 




39 


Dolores 
















. 


1 


. . 


I 






2 


Douglas 


2 


2 


2 


15 




8 


29 


2 


3 


3 


6 


2 




34 


Eagle. ...... 


I 


•• . 




I 


3 


5 


10, 


I 


1 




3 


2 


13 


20 


Elbert ... . . . 


I 


6 


10 


13 


6 


9 


45 


1 


1 


2 


7 


2 


6 


19 


El Paso 






2 


i6 


7 


2S 


SO 


3 


8 


I 


18 


S 


^S 


70 


Fremont . . . . 


8 


7 


7 


6 


3 




38 


2 


8 


5 


12 


4 


18 


49 


Garfield 


2 


9 


2 


15 






28 


2 


11 


I 


18 


. . 




32 


•Gilpin 




? 


I 


8 




T-l 


25 
9 


3 


7 
2 


1 


9 


1 


14 

1 


35 
3 


Grand .... 




1 




4 










Gunnison . . . 


2 


6 


2 


10 


1 


. . 


21 




2 




9 


. . 


10 


21 


Hinsdale . . . 


2 




. . 


I 






3 


2 


. . 




1 


. . 




3 


Huerfano . . . 


3 


6 


3 


4 


2 


6 


24 


3 


5 


2 


8 


5 


11 


34 


Jefferson . . . 


I 


12 


9 


23 


3 


29 


77 


3 


9 


2 


22 


I 


27 


64 


Kiowa .... 


2 


2 


2 


2 


I 


6 


15 


4 




4 


10 


6 


10 


34 


Kit Carson . . 


4 


3 


3 


6 


3 


6 


25 


2 


I 


7 


5 


9 


21 


45 


I,a Plata. . . . 


6 


I 


5 


10 


I 


2 


25 


. . 


6 


5 


7 


2 


II 


31 


I,ake 




I 




3 




I 


' 




7 




10 


2 


1 


20 









SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 35 



TABIvB W— Concluded. 



COUNTIES. 



FIRST SECOND 
GRADE GRADE 



THIRD 
GRADE 



1890. 



FIRST 
GRADE 



SECOND 
GRADE 



THIRD 
GRADE 



I,arimer . . . 
Las Animas . 
Lincoln . . . 
Logan . . . 
Montrose . . . 
Morgan . . . 
Montezuma . 
Mesa .... 
Otero .... 
Ouray .... 

Park 

Phillips ... 
Pitkin .... 
Prowers . . . 
Pueblo . . . 
Rio Blanco . 
Rio Grande . 
Routt .... 
Saguache . . 
San Juan . . 
San Miguel . 
Sedgwick . . 
Summit . 
Washington 
Weld .... 
Yuma .... 
Totals . . 



5 4 
13 16 



119 



4 

3, 4 

6 5 



4[ 22 
9 18 



30 8 



187 149, 431 114 387 1,387 



2 
10 16 

31 3 



218 163 



16 



10 34 

I 

4 3 

2 9 

3 8 



183 623 



5 
37 
12 
36 
77 
57 
1,766 



36 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



TABLE III. 



SCHOOI, POPULATION— CENSUS 



COUNTIES. 


BETWEEN 6 AND 16. 


BETWEEN 16 AND 21. 


TOTAL BETWEEN 
6 AND 21. 






















Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total . 


Arapahoe . . . 


8,147 


8,192 


1 
16,339 


3,182 


2,973 


6,155 


11,329 


11,165 


22,494 


Archuleta . . . 


83 


38 


121 


21 


12 


33 


104 


50 


154 


Baca 


505 


426 


931 


122 


108 


230 


627 


534 


1,161 


Bent 


186 


177 


363 


72 


50 


122 


258 


227 


485 


Boulder .... 


1,375 


1,349 


2,724 


515 


460 


975 


1,890 


1,809 


3,699 


Chaffee .... 


646 


606 


1,252 


190 


122 


312 


836 


728 


1,564 


Cheyenne, . . . 


32 


47 


79 


8 


15 


23 


40 


62 


102 


Clear Creek . . 


661 


684 


1,345 


196 


'165 


361 


857 


849 


1,706 


Conejos .... 


! 1,159 


1,066 


2,225 


322 


270 


592 


1,481 


1,336 


2,817 


Costilla .... 


i 534 


472 


1,006 


179 


149 


328 


713 


621 


1,334 


Custer 


383 


377 


760 


148 


119 


267 


531 


496 


1,027 


Delta 


266 


245 


5" 


80 


72 


152 


346 


317 


663 


Dolores .... 


22 


19 


41 


10 


5 


15 


32 


24 


56 


Douglas .... 


293 


304 


597 


123 


102 


225 


416 


406 


822 


Eagle 


• i X43 


152 


295 


56 


40 


96 


199 


192 


391 


Elbert 


. 222 


185 


407 


69 


55 


124 


291 


240 


531 


El Paso . . •. . 


• 1,384 


1,419 


2,803 


458 


404 


862 


1,842 


1,823 


3,665 


Fremont . . . 


990 


958 


1,948 


301 


330 


631 


1,291 


1,288 


2,579 


Garfield .... 


. 367 


307 


674 


109 


100 


209 


476 


407 


883 


Gilpin 


611 


628 


1,239 


183 


203 


386 


794 


831 


1,625 


Grand 


51 


47 


98 


II 


7 


18 


62 


54 


116 


Gunnison . . . 


352 


356 


708 


III 


91 


%02 


463 


447 


910 


Hinsdale . . . 


50 


53 


103 


16 


17 


33 


66 


70 


136 


Huerfano . . . 


900 


877 


1,777 


241 


198 


439 


1,141 


1,075 


2,216 


Jefferson . . . 


. 859 


765 


1,624 


348 


289 


637 


1,207 


1,054 


2,26r 


Kiowa 


222 


187 


409 


40 


^ 43 


83 


262 


230 


482 


Kit Carson . . 


.j 335 


290 


615 


81 


67 


148 


406 


357 


763 


La Plata .... 


401 


387 


788 


126 


112 


238 


527 


499 


1,026 


Lake 


. 837 


922 


1,759 


343 


373 


716 


1,180 


1,295 


2,495 


Larimer .... 


. 1,013 


1,000 


2,013 


403 


296 


699 


1,416 


1,296 


2,712 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 37 

TABLE lll—Co7tttnued. 





BETWEEN 6 AND 16. 


BETWEEN 16 AND 21. 


TOTAL BETWEEN 
6 AND 21. 


COUNTIES. 














i 




i 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total.' 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total. 


^'^'A nfai;. 


Total. 


Ivas Animas" ... 


1,944 


1,842 


3,786 


485 


440 


925 


2,429 ; 2,282 


5,711 


I,incoln . . . 




49 


48 


97 


II 


6 


■' 


60 54 


114 


Logan .... 




445 


414 


859 


151 


127 


278 


596 541 


1,137 


Montrose . . 




330 


314 


644 


122 


62 


214 


452 ! 406 


858 


Morgan . . . 




132 


116 


248 


54 


37 


91 


186 153 


339 


Montezuma . 




213 


188 


401 


85 


57 


142 


298 245 


543 


Mesa .... 




285 


257 


542 


93 


94 


187 


378 351 


729 


Otero ..... 




229 


194 


423 


81 


65 


146 


310 259 


569 


Ouray .... 




241 


254 


495 


97 


94 


191 


338 348 


686 


Park 




292 


308 


600 


104 


97 


201 


396 405 


801 


Phillips . . . 




377 


321. 


698 


112 


96 


208 


489 417 


906 


Pitkin .... 




402 


416 


818 


69 


75 


144 


471 491 


962 


Prowers . . . 




224 


237 


461 


66 


72 


138 


290 309 


599 


Pueblo .... 




1,416 


1,603 


3,019 


441 


479 


920 


1,857 2,082 


3,939 


Rio Blanco . 




86 


89 


175 


30 


13 


43 


116 102 


218 


Rio Grande . 




368 


341 


709 


96 


80 


176 


464 421 


885 


Routt .... 




130 


.33 


263 


47 


36 


83 


177 169 


346 


Saguache . . 




407 


372 


779 


121 


117 


238 


528 489 


1,017 


San Juan . . 




50 


68 


118 


21 


18 


i 39 


71 . 86 


157 


San Miguel . 




52 


1 43 


95 


19 


14 


1 

33 


71 57 


128 


Sedgwick . . 




182 


163 


345 


41 


52 


93 


223 215 


438 


Summit . . . 




166 


164 


330 


64 


67 


131 


230 231 


461 


Washington . 




236 


i 207 


443 


50 


58 


, 108 


286 1 265 


551 


Weld .... 




1 , 138 


, ^'^^^ 


2,282 


532 


393 


935 


1,670 1,537 


3,207 


Yuma .... 




270 


. 327 


597 


i '° 


I - 


175 

1 


350 ; 422 


772 


Totals .... 


32,683 


32,098 


64,781 


11,136 


1 

!lO,02I 


21,157 


43,819 42,119 


85,938 





38 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



TABLE lll—Contmtced. 



SCHOOIv POPULATION— CENSUS 1890. 



COUNTIES. 



BETWEEN 6 AND 16. 



Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total 



BETWEEN 16 AND 21. 



Male 



Fe- 
male 



Total 



TOTAL BETWEEN 
6 AND 21. 



Male 



male 



Total 



Arapahoe 
Archuleta 
Baca . . . 
Bent . . . 
Boulder . 
Chaffee . 
Cheyenne 
Clear Creek 
Conejos 
Costilla 
Custer . 
Delta . 
Dolores 
Douglas 
Eagle . 
Elbert . 
El Paso 
Fremont 
Garfield 
Gilpin . 
Grand . 
Gunnison 
Hinsdale 
Huerfano ] 
Jefferson 
Kiowa . . 
Kit Carson 
La Plata . 
Lake . . 
Larimer . 



10,924 

81 

362 

165 

1,479 

631 

52 
659 
1,174 
546 
365 
290 

43 
292 
169 
232 
1,616 
903 
366 
594 

60 
355 

59 
947 
733 
189 
291 
423 
996 
1,043 



10,906 
58 
290 
176 
1,443 
596 
46 

695 
1,118 

493 
363 
279 

43 
295 
167 
210 
1,618 
880 
428 
647 

46 
319 

70 
881 
847 
161 
278 
409 
^ 950 
974 



21,830 


3,046 


3,224 


139 


23 


13 


650 


131 


"3 


341 


60 


51 


2,922 


512 


447 


1,227 


198 


184 


101 


18 


18 


1,354 


202 


183 


2,292 


352 


309 


1,039 


228 


204 


728 


125 


112 


569 


121 


85 


86 


23 


15 


587 


139 


109 


336 


65 


36 


442 


89 


80 


3,234 


508 


459 


1,783 


309 


307 


794 


93 


135 


1,241 


190 


211 


106 


II 


12 


674 


142 


128 


129 


7 


9 


1,818 


273 


225 


1,580 


340 


275 


350 


51 


35 


569 


85 


79 


832 


122 


102 


1,946 


315 


286 


2,017 


416 


324 



6,270 

36 
244 

III 
959 

382 
36 I 
385 
661 
432 
237 
206 
38 
248 

lOI 

169 
967 
616 
228 
401 

23 
270 

16 
498 
615 

86 
164 
224 
601 
740 



3,970 


14,130 


104 


71 


493 


403 


225 


227 


1,991 


1,890 


829 


780 


70 


67 


861 


878 


1,526 


1,427 


774 


697 

1 


490 


475 


411 


364 


66 


58 


431 


404 


234 


203! 


321 


290 


2,124 


2,077 


1,212 


1,187 


459 


563 


784 


858 


71 


58 


497 


447 


66 


79 


1,210 


1,106 


1,073 


1,122 


240 


196 


376 


357 


545 


5" 


1,3" 


1,236 


1,459 


1,298 



28,100 

175 

896 

452 

3,881 

1,609. 

137 

1,739 

2,953 

1,471 

965 

775 

124 

835 
437 
6ir 

4,201 

2,399^ 

1,022 

1,642 

129 

944 

145 

2,316 

2,195 

436 

733 

1,056 

2,547 

2,757 



ti 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 3^ 

TABLE III— Concluded, 



COUNTIES. 


BETWEEN 6 AND 16. 


BETWEEN 16 AND 21. 


TOTAL BETWEEN 
6 AND 21. 




1 


















Male 


Fe- 
male 


Total 


Male 


Fe- 
male 


Total 


Male 


Fe- 
male 


Total 


Las Animas . . . 


1,925 1,782 


3,707 


594 


464 


1,058 


2,519 


2,246 


4,765 


Lincoln 


56 i 54 


no 


13 


n 


24 


69 ; 65 


134 


Logan 


415 


409 


824 


144 


136 


280 


559 


545 


1,104 


Montrose .... 


382 


346 


728 


no 


83 


193 


492 


429 


921 


Morgan 


121 


128 


249 


74 


36 


no 


195 


164 


359 


Montezuma . . . 


226 


207 


433 


70 


46 


n6 


296 


253 


549 


Mesa 


318 


273 


591 


175 


lOI 


276 


493 


374 


867 


Otero 


281 


279 


560 


no 


93 


203 


391 


372 


763 


Ouray 


258 


288 


546 


99 


S8 


187 


357 37<5 


733 


Park 


290 


286 


576 


no 


102 


212 


400 388 


78S 


Phillips 


393 


344 


737 


III 


78 


189 


504 422 


926 


Pitkin ..... 


461 


422 


883 


123 


97 


220 


584 519 


1,103 


Prowers 


220 


250 


470 


69 


61 


130 


289 3n 


600 


Pueblo 


2,122 


1,927 


4,049 


607 


742 


1,348 


2,729 2,669 


5,398 


Rio Blanco .... 


79 


92 


171 


49 


24 


73 


128 116 


244 


Rio Grande . . . 


352 


356 


708 


113 


98 


211 


465 ; 454 


919 


Routt 


197 


174 


371 


69 


55 


124 


266 229 


495 


Saguache .... 


381 


344 


725 


137 


100 


237 


518 444 


962 


San Juan .... 


70 


58 


128 


12 


13 


25 


82 71 


153 


San Miguel . . . 


94 


78 


172 


27 


17 


44 


121 95 


216 


Sedgwick ..... 


164 j 134 


298 


56 


52 


108 


220 


186 


406 


Summit 


162 150 


3" 


56 


68 


124 


218 


218 


436 


Washington . . . 


231 204 


435 


53 


52 


105 


284 256 


540 


Weld 


1,198 1,186 


2,384 


5" 


410 


921 


1,709 


1,596 


3,305 


Yuma 


298 1 300 

1 


598 


91 


80 


171 


389 


380 

1 


769 


Totals . . . 


'36,723 

1 


35,760 


72,483 


11,777 


10,877 


22,654 


48,500 


46,637 


95,137 



40 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



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42 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



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43 



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SEVENTH BIENNIAL RKPORT OF THE 



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SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 






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49 



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SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



63 



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SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



67 



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68 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



TABIvE IX. 



FINANCIAI, SUMMARIES. 



18891 



RECEIVED 



Amount on hand July i, 1888, , . 

From General Fund 

From Special Fund . '. 

From all other sources 

Total receipts 

Teachers' wages 

For current expenses 

For sites, buildings and furniture 
For temporary loans paid .... 

Total expenditures .... 



$ 405,326 35 
613,889 76 
794,832 05 
223,203 82 



$2,037,251 98 



$ 714,972 68 

' 242,162 82 

550,205 63 

94,947 65 



$ 1,602,288 78 



1890 


RECEIVED 


PAID 


Amount on hand July i 1889 


$ 431,550 43 
640,485 99 
953,162 87 
571,749 18 




From General Fund . . . . ... 




From Special Fund ... 




From all other sources 








Total receipts 


$2,596,948 47 




For teachers'-wages 




$ 818,604 65 


For current expenses 




255,270 71 


For sites, buildings and furniture 

For temporary loans paid 




607,503 32 
263,429 20 




• 




Total expenditures 


$ 1,944,807 88 








Balance on hand 


$ 652,140 59 









SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



69 












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70 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 









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SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 73 



Of&cial Decisions. 



During this biennial term I have received a large 
number of letters asking for my opinion upon certain 
points of school law. In most cases, the opinions were 
approved by Hon. Samuel W. Jones, Attorney-General, 
and are given here in as brief a form as possible. 

Official Decisions of the State superintendent. 

If territory is added to a district after the annual 
census of that district has been taken, the names of per- 
sons of school age residing in the annexed territory 
should be added to the census list and the district given 
its per capita for such additional names. 

A woman can legally act as Deputy County Superin- 
tendent of Schools, and a County Superintendent is 
legally entitled to a per diem for work performed by 
such deputy. 

A District Board of the third-class can legally certify 
a special tax to the Board of County Commissioners 
without a vote of the electors of the district. 

Two schools in one district, holding a five-months' 
session each, do not conform to the requirements of the 
law as prescribed in section seventy-one. 

State Certificates issued by other States are not recog- 
nized by the law of Colorado. Persons who wish to 
teach in this State must hold certificates issued upon 
examination by the proper district, county or State 
authority. 

A woman is not eligible to the office of County 
Superintendent of Schools. 

Organized territory cannot be legally detached from 
one district and added to another by the County Super- 
intendent without a petition from the residents of the 
10 



74 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

territory, except in cases where the boundaries are con- 
flicting. 

The credits which County Superintendents are in- 
structed to give to applicants for certificates by reason 
of attendance at the Normal Institutes should be given 
to those persons only who have attended an Institute in 
Colorado. 

A County Superintendent can issue no certificate or 
"permit" to a person to teach in the public schools of 
Colorado except the certificates mentioned in the School 
Law, namely: A first, second or third, or a temporary. 

In the organization of new counties by the last Gen- 
eral Assembly, the county lines, in a few cases, divided 
organized |school districts into two parts, leaving the 
district in two counties; in such cases, the district should 
be considered as a joint district. 

There is nothing in the School Law of this State to 
prevent a County Superintendent from teaching in his 
county on account of his holding that office. 

In districts of the first-class the School Directors have 
entire charge of the examination of applicants for posi- 
tions in the schools of their district. 

Temporary certificates are valid only until the next 
examination subsequent to the date of issue, and a 
teacher holding such temporary certificate cannot 
legally continue the school after the expiration of that 
time without a certificate legally issued upon examina- 
tion. The law which applies to other certificates in 
such cases does not apply to temporary certificates. 

A certificate to teach cannot be annulled or with- 
drawn from a holder without cause for so doing. Sec- 
tion i6 of the Colorado School Law especially provides 
for such cases. 

A person holding a certificate issued by the County 
Superintendent of one of the counties that was divided 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 75 

by the last General Assembly, and wishing to teach in 
the new county created by such division, should be 
treated the same as one living in a different county from 
the one in which he wished to teach. If he holds a 
first grade certificate the County Superintendent may 
issue a duplicate certificate according to section 16, 
otherwise the applicant must be examined and receive 
a certificate from the County Superintendent of the 
county in which he proposes to teach. 

After a district has voted a special tax, and such tax 
has been certified to the County Commissioners by the 
directors, it cannot be reconsidered or amended, nor can: 
the Board of Directors make a new levy. (See section 
70, School Law.) 

The school law of Colorado does not prohibit 
married women from teaching in the public schools of 
this State. 

A pupil can be expelled by the Board of Directors 
for any offense that in their judgment deserves such a 
penalty. 

The legal holidays recognized by the laws of Colo- 
rado are: New Year's; Washington's Birthday; Arbor 
Day — third Friday in April; Decoration Day; Fourth 
of July; Labor Day — the first Monday in September; 
Thanksgiving and Christmas. 

If a County Superintendent desires to obtain a cer- 
tificate to teach in the county in which he resides, he is 
advised to appoint a deputy to conduct the examination 
and pass upon the answers given to the questions pro- 
pounded, also to issue the certificate in accordance with 
the result of the examination. 

School Directors of a district of the third-class may 
purchase an organ for the use of the school and pay for 
it out of the special fund. The general fund cannot be 
used for that purpose. 



yg SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

A tax-payer of a district can not dictate for what 
purpose the school building can be used. The School 
Directors are the legal custodians of the school property. 

Two members of a Board in a district of the third- 
class can legally contract for furniture for their school, 
house, but such contract should be made or ratified by 
a vote at a regular or special meeting of the Board. 
The third member of such Board can not legally refuse 
to sign warrants issued in payment of such furniture 
simply upon the ground that he considers such furniture 
unnecessary. If illegality or fraud exist then he can 
refuse, but the fact that he considers the furniture 
unnecessary is only a matter of opinion, and he should 
be governed by the opinion of the majority. 

Vacancies in School -Boards of the second and third 
classes must be filled by appointment made by the 
County Superintendent, and the person so appointed 
holds the position until the next annual school election. 

A County Superintendent is legally entitled to re- 
ceive full compensation, both per dz'em and mileage, for 
attendance at the Normal District Institutes. 

A new school district, as soon as its organization is 
complete, . is entitled to its share of the special fund 
standing to the credit of the old district of which it was 
formerly a part, also to receive each month its share of 
the uncollected special tax; providing always that a 
school has been commenced in the district in good faith. 

A contract to teach made by two Directors with the 
proposed teacher is valid, and the person so engaged to 
teach can collect the amount named in the contract as 
compensation for his services if he perform such services 
in accordance with the terms of the contract. 

A certificate to teach cannot be revoked by a County 
Superintendent without having good and sufficient rea- 
sons for so doing. Alleged exorbitant wages named in 
a contract between him and the Directors of a district 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 77 

would not be lawful reason for revoking a certificate 
unless fraud of some kind could be shown. 

When a certificate is revoked by a County Superin- 
tendent such revocation takes effect on the day named 
by him, and the holder thereof cannot lawfully teach 
during the pendency of an appeal to the State Board of 
Education. 

The wife of an alien becomes naturalized upon the 
naturalization of her husband, and is a citizen, as the 
term is used in the School Law. 

The teacher's legal authority over his pupils is con- 
fined to the school grounds. 

A certificate issued under section 16 of the School 
Law terminates at the expiration of the time for which 
the original was issued and cannot be renewed. 

The term "year" used in the Act entitled, "An Act 
to secure to children the benefit of an elementary edu- 
cation," is defined to mean the school year. And the 
term, "A court of competent jurisdiction," used in the 
same Act, is defined to mean a Justice,, a County or a 
District Court. 

A first grade certificate cannot be renewed after the 
expiration of the time for which it was issued. 

The laws of Colorado do not provide for the appoint- 
ment of a truant officer. 

The school funds cannot be legally used for defray- 
ing the expenses of a singing school. 

Failure to open a school in a newly organized district 
within six months from the date of organization, makes 
void all proceedings pertaining to the formation of the 
district, unless the time for opening a school therein be 
extended to eight months by the County Superintend- 
ent. 

The appointment of persons to fill vacancies in dis- 
tricts of the second and third classes, is solely with the 



78 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

County Superintendent. If a Director is absent from 
his district four months, it is a valid reason for appoint- 
ing his successor in office. 

A non-resident of a school district is one whose per- 
manent dwelling place is not within the boundaries of 
that district. 

The residence of a minor is the residence of his 
parents or guardian. 

If a person moves his family into a school district for 
the purpose of availing himself of the advantages 
afforded by that district, and subsequently, during the ' 
school year, removes from the district, he is not a resi- 
dent of such district, within the meaning of the term as 
used in the School Law of Colorado. The following is 
taken from a decision of the Supreme Court of Wiscon- 
sin (N. W. Rep., Vol. 41, page 1,014): "Effort has 
been made to guard against the precipitancy of non-resi- 
dents to points where superior advantages exist, and 
schools of high order are maintained, by holding that 
such children only are entitled to free tuition as are 
actually residing in the district for other reasons as a 
main purpose, than to participate in the advantages 
which the school affords." 

A teacher's salary can be legally increased during the 
term for which he is employed, only ^ at a regular or 
special meeting of the School Board. 

The County Treasurer is the only legal custodian of 
the school funds. The District Treasurer has no legal 
right to hold in his possession any of the general, special 
or bond fund, nor have the directors of a school district 
any legal right to issue orders on the County Treasurer, 
except in favor of those parties to whom the district is 
legally indebted. In the payment of school bonds, the 
District Treasurer has control of the funds only during 
the times of advertising and subsequent payment. 



SUf>ERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 79 

A vote in favor of levying a tax for building purposes 
is not sufficient to authorize the Directors of a district to 
erect a school building, when such tax has been col- 
lected. There must be a vote by the electors directly 
upon the question of building a school house. 

Thf^ site for a school building in districts of the third 
class can be selected or changed only by a vote of the 
electors taken at the annual meeting, or a special meet- 
ing: leo:allv called. 

The quarterly examination cannot be taken in parts. 
If an applicant is successful in some of the subjects and 
unsuccessful in others, the entire examination must be 
taken at some future time. 

Two members of a School Board in districts of the 
second and third classes, can make a legal contract with- 
out the consent of the third member, providing such 
contract is made at a' regular meeting, or at a special 
meeting legally called, and of which all the Directors 
had legal notice. 

School Boards in districts of the first class, have en- 
tire control of the examination and licensing of appli- 
cants to teach in their districts. They also have a legal 
right to renew certificates without examination. 

If a teacher is engaged by the year at an annual salary, 
vacations are not deducted. If he is employed by the 
month, and paid a fixed sum per month, vacations are 
deducted if there is no contract to the contrary. A 
teacher could just as lawfully claim pay for the long 
summer vacation a^ for the customary holiday vacation. 

It does not invalidate a school warrant to specify a 
rate of interest not exceeding 8 per cent., or to have a 
date of payment specified therein. A County Treasurer 
would undoubtedly follow the legal directions as to the 
rate of interest and time of payment, regardless of w^hat 
might be written in the warrant in addition to the usual 
form. 



80 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF TAE 

A teacher cannot be legally dismissed before the 
expiration of the time for which she is engaged "with- 
out good cause shown," and if so dismissed she can 
collect full salary, provided she holds herself in readi- 
ness to fulfill her part of the contract. 

Where a division of a school district places a member 
of the School Board in the new district it works a 
vacancy in the Board of the old district, and does not 
make such person a member of the Board in the new 
district. A full Board must be chosen in the new dis- 
trict and all vacancies in the old district filled by 
appointment made by the County Superintendent. 

Four months of school in each school year are neces- 
sary in order that a district may hold its organization. 
(See sections 30 and ^'].) Three months of school are 
necessary to entitle a district to its share of the public 
funds. (See section 75.) This'practically makes four 
months of school necessary in each district. 

School must be held in a building situated within 
the boundaries of the district. 

A Board of School Directors cannot legally change 
the site for a school building which has been selected by 
a legal vote of the electors of such district. 

Two members of a School Board have a right to dis- 
miss a teacher providing their action is taken at a regu- 
lar or special meeting of which all members of the 
Board have notice. But a teacher having a contract 
with the Board cannot be dismissed without good cause 
for such action being shown. (Section 60, last clause.) 

A County Superintendent cannot remove a member 
of a School Board from office. 

A School Board of a district of the third class has a 
legal right to purchase desks for a school building with- 
out a vote of the electors of the district. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. S| 

A County Superintendent is the proper person to 
approve of the official bond of a School Director, and 
if a person elected to that office cannot give a satisfac- 
tory bond it works a vacarkcy in the board after twenty 
days from his election. (See section 47.) 

All money which shall become forfeited by a school 
district shall be put into the general fund of the county 
and re-apportioned as other money. (Section 26.) 

Teachers are legally entitled to receive the full 
amount of the salary agreed upon between them and 
the Board of Directors. They . are not compelled to 
accept as payment for services' rendered the warrants of 
the district, when such warrants are not worth their face 
value. 

Section 2, page 67, of the Colorado School Law, ex- 
empts persons living more than two miles from a school- 
house from the provisions of that act. 

A person cannot be legally employed to teach in the 
public schools for any length of time, however short, 
unless such person has a certificate to teach, issued by 
the proper authorities. 

A school district created from organized territory, 
which is already bonded for building purposes, can issue 
new bonds to an amount not to exceed the difference be- 
tween its share of the present bonded indebtedness and 
three and one-half pfer cent, of the assessed value of its 
property, both real and personal. 

The auditing of bills against a school district must 
be performed by the Board of Directors at a meeting 
thereof, and vouchers or warrants issued for the pay- 
ment of such bills are legal only when issued by a vote 
of a majority of the Board at such meeting. 

A teacher is not entitled to receive pay for the time 
lost while attending a teacher's examination. 



11 



32 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

The State Superintendent has no authority to excuse 
a person from taking an examination. 

A County Treasurer is legally entitled to two per 
cent, commission on- money* paid to him from the sale 
of school bonds. He is also entitled to a commission 
for collecting taxes to be used in paying both principal 
and interest on school bonds; but he is not entitled to a 
commission for paying out the money. 

All School Directors are required by law to file an 
oath of office with the County Superintendent. This 
applies to such cities or distric.s in Colorado as are 
organized under a speciahcharter. 

A new district cannot be legally organized with less 
than ten persons of school age residing therein. 

A School Board cannot legally loan the money of the 
district. 

A school district cannot be legally divided so as to 
leave fewer than fifteen persons of school age in the old 
district. 

Section 2606, of the General Statutes of 1883, is 
plainly opposed to the employment of a School Director 
as a teacher in his district. 

A first-grade certificate issued in one county cannot 
be renewed by a County Superintendent of another 
county. 

The "certificate of like grade," mentioned in section 
16, is in force for the unexpired term of the original 
certificate. 

Land to which title has not been obtained from the 
Government at the time school bonjds are issued by a 
district of which such lands form a part are not subject 
to tax for the payment of such bonds. Hence, if said 
lands are set off or . detached from the district before 
title: is perfected, they are not subject to a bond tax in 
the original district when title is complete. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. g3 

A County Superintendent has authority to require a 
District Treasurer to give bond in double the amount of 
money liable to come into his hands, if such amount 
exceeds twenty dollars. 

Where a tax levy has been certified to the County 
Commissioners it can not be reconsidered, but it may be 
reconsidered if the certificate has not been filed. 

If the annual election of School Directors is not held, 
and a special election is not called within the required 
ten days thereafter, it then devolves upon the County 
Superintendent to fill vacancies by appointment. 

The total amount of school warrants issued must not 
exceed the amount of tax levy for the current year. 

As between School Directors and the County Superin- 
tendents, the latter has advisory powers only in arrang- 
ing course of study, selection of books and grading of 
schools. 

A district having an area of less than nine square 
miles can not be divided for the purpose of forming a 
new district. 

Certificates issued by districts of the first class are 
valid only within such district. 

Districts of the first class are under the supervision 
of the County Superintendent the same as other 
districts. 

Neither a County nor State Superintendent has any 
discretion in the matter of granting a second temporary 
certificate. The School Law absolutely forbids it. 

The granting of a "duplicate" first-grade certificate 
is optional with the County Superintendent to whom 
application is made. 

If a school board purchase books to be used by the 
pupils of the district, such books are for the use of 
pupils attending school within such district and for no 
other. If residents of the district see fit to send their 



84 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

children into adjoining districts they can not compel the 
district in which they reside to furnish the text books 
for their children. 

Deaf mutes and blind persons between the ages of 
six and twenty-one should be included in the school 
census. 

When the electors of a school district, at a legal 
meeting, vote to erect a building on the school site of 
the district to be used as a teacher's residence, and vote 
a special tax for that purpose, such action legally author- 
izes the Directors of the district to contract for the 
erection of such a building. 

A school board has a legal right to require such 
qualifications of teachers as seem to them to be for the 
best interests of the school, provided such qualifications 
do not conflict with those required by the State. 

School Directors are not legally entitled to witness' 
fees in a case where the district is a party. 

In estimating a maximum amount of bonds that can 
be issued by a school district, the estimate must be 
based upon the last complete assessed valuation. 

A contract to teach made before the annual election 
of Directors for the school year following such election 
is valid and binding upon the district when there is no 
evidence of an attempt to defeat the wishes of the elec- 
tors by such action and especially when a majority of 
the old board remain in office. 

A school district cannot be divided nor territory taken 
from it, if in so doing it will leave less than fifteen per- 
sons of school age in the district. 

More than one question can be voted upon at a special 
meeting of the electors of a school district, provided 
each question is separately stated in the notice of such 
meeting. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 85 

Directors of first and second class districts have a 
right to sell a school building when directed so to do by 
the electors at a special meeting called for that purpose. 
Such sale should be made in the manner prescribed by 
the electors, which should be at public sale after proper 
advertisement. 

A legal notice, under section 68, is a publication for 
twenty days in some newspaper, published at the county 
seat of such county. (Session Laws, 1887, page 4.05.) 

The Directors of a third class district cannot legally 
purchase a school site without a favorable vote of the 
electors. 

In the organization of a new school district, the law 
requires two-thirds of the votes cast to be favorable. 

The charge for miles traveled under section 25 forms 
a part of the limit of $100 per district. 

The departments of a school cannot be legally con- 
sidered as separate schools. 

A School Director cannot be legally garnisheed in 
his official capacity. 

Sex does not disqualify a person from voting upon 
the selection of a school site. 

All certificates to teach should be dated as if issued 
on the last day of a regular examination. 

An offer to teach for unreasonably low wages is 
neither a good nor a sufficient reason for refusing to 
grant a certificate. 

A school warrant payable two years from date of 
issue and in excess of the special tax levy for the cur- 
rent year is invalid. 

The State Department will not pass upon the right 
of an applicant to a temporary certificate. The decision 
of the County Superintendent in such cases is final. 



86 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

All moneys remaining to the credit of any district on 
June 30, should remain to the credit of such district and 
cannot be turned into the general school fund of the 
county for re-apportionment. 

The State Superintendent has no authority to grant 
a certificate to teach except when directed to do so by a 
vote of the State Board of Education in cases of appeal 
and of State examinations. 

A person holds a certificate that expires September 8. 
He begins school under contract on September i. He 
fails to obtain a certificate in the examination held on 
August 29-30, and appeals to the State Board of Educa- 
tion. Held, that he may continue his school during the 
pendency of an appeal. 

A County Superintendent may legally change the 
boundaries of a school district without a vote of the 
electors of the district when it is for the purpose of 
harmonizing the district boundaries. 

The only legal restrictions placed upon School 
Directors in the matter of issuing warrants are that 
they must be issued to persons to whom the district is 
legally indebted, and the total amount issued must not 
be in excess of the special tax levied for the current 
year. 

It is not within the province of the State Superin- 
tendent to take any part whatever in the organization 
of a new school district. He may, however, as a mem- 
ber of the State Board of Education, pass upon the 
legality of such organization when an appeal is taken 
to the Board from the decision of the County vSuper- 
intendent. 

The Directors of a school district have a legal right 
to certify a special tax to the County Commissioners 
without a vote of the electors. In districts of the third 
class such tax must not exceed fifteen mills on the dol- 
lar. If a vote of the electors has been taken in the 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. g7 

district then the Directors should certify the amount 
voted. 

County Treasurers should place the money arising 
from fines collected, and belonging to the school fund, 
in the general fund; 

There is no legal provision for the payment of tuition 
out of a fund belonging to a school district. If a tuition 
is charged pupils who attend school in a district other 
than that in which they reside, that tuition must be paid 
by the parents, and not by the district from which the 
pupils come. 

All persons between the ages of six and twenty-one 
are entitled to all the privileges of the public schools. 

A County Treasurer can legally pay only such war- 
rants as are issued against the school fund of the current 
year. 

A School Director cannot legally become a teacher in 
the district in w^iich he holds that office. See section 
2606, General Statutes of Colorado, 1883. 

All monthly and term reports provided for in the 
new course of study must be furnished by the respective 
counties, 

A second temporary certificate cannot be issued to the 
same per§:)n, no matter in what county the first certifi- 
cate may have been issued. 



Denver, C01.0., JuUy 29, 1889. 
HON. FRED. DICK, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction: 
Dear Sir: — Answering your communication of the twenty-sixth 
inst, I reply that the proper construction of section 33 is, that two or 
more districts of any of the classes may establish a Union High 
School. That the construction of section 52 is, that the boards in 
first and second class districts may establish separate High Schools. 
A Union High School is the result of co-operation by two or more 
districts, while a separate High School is established within and by 
one district. Hence there is no conflict between these two sections. 
One section does not modify or conflict with the other. 



88 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

The circumstance that Union High Schools have been established, 
does not increase the powers of boards of the third class districts in 
Ihe matter of erecting High School buildings, but their powers of 
erecting such buildings must be derived from the electors, as in other 
cases. 

Very truly yours, 

SAM. W. JONES, 

Attoi'fiey- General. 

Denver, Colorado, February 23, 1889. 
HON. JOB. A. COOPER, 

Governor: 
Sir: — Replying to your enquiry whether women ai-e eligible to fill 
the office of County Superintendent of Schools, I have to say: 

Article XIV. section 8, provides for the election of county officers, s 
including, with others, County Superintendents of Schools. 

Same Article, section 10, provides that only qualified electors can 
fill any county office. Article VII., section i, provides who are qual- 
ified electors, confining the privilege to males, etc. 

Hence it follows that a woman cannot fill said office, and so it was 
decided by our Supreme Court, in 9 Colorado, 628. 

It will be observed that under Article VII., section i, substitute 
second, women may vote at and hold district school elections and 
offices. 

Yours very truly, 

SAM. W. JONES, 

Attorney-General. 



Remarks by County Superintendents. 



Arapahoe county. 

HON. FRED DICK, 

State Siiperintendefit Public Instruction. 
Dear Sir: — In connection with my annual report for the year 
ending June 30, 1890, I wish to call your attention to the public 
school work of Arapahoe county in a more general way than that of 
a statistical report. The year closes with ninety-five organized 
school districts. Ninety-three districts made an annual report, and 
maintained at least a four months' school as required by law; but the 
average length of school in the county, not including the city of 
Denver, is seven months. The general school fund for the year 
amounted to I9.73 per capita, and was apportioned in six apportion- 
ments — giving better satisfaction than to apportion but four times in 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 39 

each year. The number of teachers employed in the county, not 
including Denver, is one hundred and twenty-one. To visit all the 
schools in the time and manner prescribed by law is impossible. And 
to get a thorough knowledge of what the schools are doing, I have 
introduced a system of reports which I require each teacher to make 
to me at the close of each school month. The number of, blanks, 
report cards, registers, circulars, etc., used by me in the school work 
of the county, lor the year, amounted to 6,195, and they were of 
considerable assistance to me in making m}- annual report. The law 
relating to the study of the nature of alcoholic drinks and narcotics 
and their effects upon the human system has been very well observed. 
Seventy-six districts reported that they had enforced said law. 

The law relating to Arbor Day is generally observed, and consid- 
erable interest is taken in the exercises of the day by patrons of the 
schools and by all who are immediately connected therewith. 

The Normal Institute of District No. 2, held in Golden, August 
last, had enrolled from this county sixty-nine teachers, and is well 
spoken of by those who were in attendance. Notwithstanding that 
the Institutes have been a success thus far, we cannot hope for their 
continued success unless the provisions of the law governing them 
can be enforced. Some counties refuse to pay the one dollar per 
teacher as required by law, and the Legislature has thus far failed to 
make any appropriation from which the State Treasurer can pay the 
fifty dollars to each Institute as required by law. Thus far we have 
met the expenses b\- a fee of one dollar from each teacher attending 
by voluntary subscriptions, together with what a few counties have 
paid. L'nless the Legislature will make appropriations necessary to 
the support of the institutes they may as well be abolished. 

It seems to me that the time has arrived when the Legislature 
should classify the counties of the State with regard to the office of 
County Superintendent of Schools. Every first-class School District 
in the State employs a Superintendent, who receives from two thous- 
and to four thousand dollars per annum for his services. Whilst a 
County Superintendent, who holds a far more responsible position, 
and in counties of the first class has a much greater amount of work 
to do, is allowed five dollars per day for his services, although he is 
compelled to keep a horse and to travel several thousand miles each 
3-ear in the discharge of his duties. 

Much more of importance might be said on the school question, 
but as your space is limited, and I have perhaps, used more than my 
share, I'll be contented until such time as the State can afford to 
increase the size of the biennial report of her educational institutions. 

A. D. SHEPARD, 
County Superintendeut. 

12 



90 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

ARCHULETA COUNTY. 

The school work of this county is steadily improving, and more in- 
terest is being taken by parents and District Boards in school-house 
conveniences and apparatus; in furnishing free text-books and securing 
the best grade of teachers than ever before. We are endeavoring to 
establish, a uniform system of text-books throughout the county, and, 
as all the District Boards are in favor of it, we hope soon to accom- 
plish this. 

W. P. UNDERWOOD, 



BACA COUNTY. 

I hereby submit to you the annual report for the school year 
closing June 30, 1890, the second report for Baca county. Baca 
county is a new county and a new country. We commenced the 
school work a year ago with the districts in debt, on account of the 
school fujads withheld by Las Animes county. Under the condition 
of things, our schools are most of them in a very good condition. In 
the last year we have had nine monthly teachers' associations and 
well attended by the teachers, and a great deal of valuable work has 
been done in the associations. A majority of the districts have 
school-houses, and most of them are well furnished. I regard an 
efficient State and county supervision of schools of the highest 
public importance. In the last year I have attended, at great ex- 
pense, the State Teachers' Association, Superintendents' Convention 
and the Normal Institute at Pueblo. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHARLES SMITH. 



BOULDER COUNTY. 

HON. FRED DICK, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction: 
I take pleasure in submitting the following report of school work 
in Boulder county: 

The beginning of educational work in this county dates from the 
year i860, when the early settlers of Boulder hauled logs from the 
mountains and erected the first school-house built in Colorado. Since 
that time there has been a steady growth, until we now number fifty- 
five school-houses, an efficient corps of eighty-one teachers, and a 
school population of 3,881. 

Our school-buildings are, with few exceptions, furnished with 
modern fixtures and apparatus, while proficiency in school work has 
been steadily gaining ground. Directors are beginning to realize that 
the time of experimenting with teachers has passed. They are now 
demanding better qualification in teacher's work, and longer experi- 
ence in the school-room. This augurs well for the education of the 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 9I 

future. Our citizens are willing to heavily tax themselves for school 
purposes, demanding, in return, value received for their children. 
Whenever Boards of Directors are unified in this demand, our prog- 
ress will be more marked from that hour. The fact that a Normal 
School has now become an institution of the State, will do much 
toward securing proficiency in the school-room, and those who are 
preparing themselves for the profession of teaching should be urged 
to avail themselves of the opportunities offered by this institution. 

At this writing, fifty districts have adopted the Graded Course of 
Study, as recommended, and we are striving to unify the work in our 
county. I find not much uniformity of work throughout this county. 
Pupils are advanced in one study, and behind in another; if, there- 
fore, we are able to equalize the advancement this year, we shall feel 
that we have made a rapid stride toward S3^stematic work. 

A number of the districts of this county have taxed themselves to 
the limit, fifteen mills, and yet are not able to have five months' school 
during the year. This is caused by the fluctuations in the value of 
property, especially in the mining sections. If this could be reme- 
died in any manner, it would be appreciated by the people. 

Our County Teachers' Association meets semi-annually, and has 
been productive of great good to the teachers throughout this county. 
We hold a two da^^s' session, and a gratifying attendance with increas- 
ing interest has been the result. Methods of instruction are presented 
by experienced teachers, and thoroughly discussed by the members 
of the Association. Lectures have been delivered before the Associa- 
tion by the State Superintendent, and others, and have been greatly 
appreciated. 

The text-book question is being seriously considered by many of 
the districts; one district, within the past six months, has purchased 
books, and now own them. 

The High Schools of Boulder and Longmont are in a flourishing 
condition, seventy-eight students having been enrolled during the 
past year. 

I am trying to establish a school librar\- in each district, and hope 
to give a more extended report of this work in the future. 

Respectfully, 

WILLIAM V. CASBY, 
Superintendent, Boulder County. 



92 SEVENTB BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

Chaffee county. 

To FRED DICK, 

State Siiperinte7ide7it, 

Denver, Colorado: 
The work in Chaffee county, while it yields a fair measure ot suc- 
cess, is not by any means entirely satisfactory. We have many diffi- 
culties to contend with, chief among which are: A large percentage 
of floating population; a lack of interest in rural schools; a deficiency 
of funds, rendering short terms imperative, many of our 4istricts 
being able to proyide only the requisite number of months of school, 
to retain their organization and entitle them to public money. 

We have been able to secure uniformity of text-books, with the 
exception of three, districts, throughout the county, by carrying out 
the plan of my predecessor in office, and in the future all changes 
and purchases of text-books will be in line with the uniform system 
adopted, thus making county uniformity a thing very soon to be 
perfected. We have built four new school-houses during the past six 
months, three frame and one brick. At least one thousand dollars 
have been expended in apparatus aud school supplies within the same 
length of time, so that at present our schools are quite generally 
supplied with working materials. The grade of our teachers has 
been raised until at present we have but two third-grade licenses in 
the county. This we have been able to do by recommending only 
those whose experience would justify the action on our part. 

The State Course of Studj^ is being adapted to our county, and by 
"giving and taking" we are able to make it ver^^ helpful to teachers 
and beneficial to our schools. It follows well our uniformity of books 
and makes the work of each teacher count for something. The work 
in the county has been augmented generously by yourself, and your 
aid and suggestions have been very useful to me in my official 
capacity. 

Very truly, . 

LKE CHAMPION, 
Coiinty Supt. Schools, Chaffee Coiuity. 



COSTILLA COUNTY. 

Fort Gari^and, Cor.o., Nov. 17, 1890. 
HON. FRED DICK, 

Superintendent Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colorado: 
Dear Sir: — In addition to my annual report allow me to state 
that the educational work of this county has been increasing. Nearly 
all districts have furnished their school-houses with the best furni- 
ture and apparatus. The School Boards see the importance of main- 
taining school from six to ten months in each j^ear, but with our 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 93 

sparsely inhabited districts and low finances this cannot be done. 
Some of our districts levy enormous taxes to pay their debts and 
maintain their schools. The assessed valuation is only one million, 
and we have twenty-three organized districts, but considering every- 
thing, I claim our schools are making fair progress. 

Very respectfully, 

FRED ETTER. 



CHEYENNE COUNTY. 

The schools of this county are in a healthy condition. Two new 
school-houses have been built and two are in course of erection. The 
assessed valuation of property in the county is over one and oue-half 
million dollars. With a small lev}' this gives ample money to pay 
expense and give each district school from four to nine months in the 
year. The District Boards have now taken hold with me, and we are 
using every effort to get good teachers. Those who are negligent 
w'ill have to take up the work in earnest or drop out of the ranks. 

S. C. PERRY. 



CONEJOS COUNTY. 

The school system of our count}- was thoroughly revised by my 
predecessor in office, Mr. Chas. H. Brickenstein. Much remains to be 
done — a higher standard of scholarship must be sought. To secure 
this I look to the District Institute for help, and then as our section 
increases in population and wealth, better salaries can be paid, for 
one cannot expect "one-hundred-dollar" work from " thirt3'-dollar " 
teachers. 

L. A. NORLAND. 



DOUGLAS COUNTY. 

Schools of the county are in a good healthy condition. They are 
all reasonably well graded, and are using uniform text-books through- 
out the county. Compulsory school law has not been enforced except 
six in two or three cases. The enrollment on school population is about 
six percent, lower than last year, being about seventy-four per cent., 
while the average attendance shows a slight gain over last 5'ear. The 
law relating to the study of hygiene with reference to the effects of 
alcoholic and narcotic stimulants has been generally enforced. Our 
teachers on the whole have done excellent work and the majority 
of them will be retained the present year. 

P. H. HAMMOND. 



94 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE " 

DELTA COUNTY. 

As the country improves the number of school-houses increase. 
Everywhere there seems to be sympathy for school work. Better 
teachers are demanded in every school. The Directors have all 
agreed to pay not less than fifty dollars per month for teachers' 
services. Bonding districts for new buildings has been discouraged; 
the people advised to fit up the old house comfortably and get 
through taxation needed apparatus, or to volunteer to build a 
new house. In several instances new houses have been built fhrough 
contributions, and very convenient and comfortable houses put up. 
In two instances the people have voted the full limit of tax for 
building purposes, and propose in a year or two, at furthest, to put 
up such a house as they want. Many inquiries are made relative to 
plans of new buildings. All that we can give that will be of good 
we send out. 

Have held one Directors' meeting. While all that could be hoped 
for was not done, yet in the discussion of (i) "The Directors' Duties;" 
(2) '• Employment and Support of Teachers;" (3) "Special Taxes and 
Amendments to our School Law;" (4) "District Ownership of Text 
Books; and (5) "School Apparatus," much interest was awakened. 

The " Manual and Course of Study " has been placed in the hands 
of every teacher. Our County Teachers' Institutes and Associations 
are increasing in interest. A "Teachers' Reading Circle" is formu" 
lating. 

The majority of the Directors have promised to subscribe for the 
Colorado School Journal and keep a copy with the District Secretary, 

The great problem is money to run our schools for not less than 
six months during each year, and pay teachers fair wages. Unless 
help comes through the State, it seems far off. 

Respectfully, 

P. M. CONDIT, 
County Superintendent. 



ELBERT COUNTY. 

Elbert county has 1854 square miles of territory, divided into 18 
school districts, with 20 school houses, an average daily attendance 
of 241 pupils, and a total enrollment in the county of 611 persons of 
school age. During the school year just ended, we have employed 26 
teachers, at an average monthly salary of $47.30. We have paid 
teachers during the year 16,685.50. For current expenses and build- 
ing, we have expended $2,110.34. Our teachers have proven excep- 
tionally energetic, earnest and proficient in their work. Our schools 
show good results; and it affords me pleasure to add that a greater 
part of those same teachers will remain with us another year. Our 
schools have suffered in the past by too frequent changing of teach- 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 95 

ers. Our School Directors have taken more than ordinary interest in 
the performance of their duties as school officers. There have been 
erected in the county three new school-houses, each thoroughly fur- 
nished and equipped, at an average cost of $650. In building, much 
of the heavy work is performed gratuitously by the patrons — such as 
placing the material on the ground selected for the building site, 
digging the wells, and a considerable portion of the carpenter work, 
under the direction of a skillful foreman, employed at fair w^ages. 
Thus a J5j,ooo building is provided for much less actual cash outlay. 
Two buildings have been moved to more central and convenient loca- 
tions, and there have been erected several sheds and stables in which 
pupils can house their horses during the cold, stormy winter days. 
This will materially increase the average daily attendance in those 
districts. It is not unusual for scholars in our country districts to 
drive three and one-half to five miles to and from school daily, except 
in very stormy weather. Since December 15, 1889, we have organized 
four new school districts, with a total of ninety enrollment. 

In justice to the School Directors of Elbert county, they are ready 
and willing at all times, with their influence, labor or money, to fur- 
ther the school interests of their respective districts. Few realize the 
difficulties encountered by our people in sparsely settled localities, in 
providing facilities for educating their children; their efforts are 
worthy of all praise and encouragement. 

Our County Teachers' Association met at Elizabeth, May 28 and 
29, 1890. Twenty teachers w^ere present, and a very gratifying interest 
manifested. The papers and discussions were practical and interest- 
ing, and much credit is due the citizens of the enterprising town of 
Elizabeth for courtesy and hospitality shown the teachers. Our asso- 
ciation now includes the names of all the teachers in the county, with 
possibly one or two exceptions. 

The Course of Study given in the Daily School Register has been 
followed by all teachers in the county, with very satisfactory results. 
The new Course of Study for the Public Schools of the State seems 
admirably adapted to place our schools in systematic working order, 
and aid young teachers in their work. 

Very respectfully, 

B. C. KILUN. 



EL PASO COUNTY. 

C01.ORADO Springs, Sept. 10, 1890. 
To the HON. FRED DICK, 

State Superintendent 'Public Instruction, 
Denver, Colorado: 
Dear Sir: — I have the honor to transmit herewith my third 
annual report for the public schools of El Paso county. In present- 
ing this report to the Department of Education, I desire to call 



96 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

special attention to a few facts concerning the material advancement 
made in the facilities for schools, the large increase in the number of 
schools, the liberal expenditure of public money for more and better 
school buildings, and the generous supply of better furniture and 
school appliances (or "tools"), by means of which we have been 
enabled to carry forward more successfully the work of education. 

Three years ago there were but thirty-one school districts in this 
county, now there are fifty-two districts. The census list three years 
ago showed but twenty- three hundred of school age; it is now over 
forty-two hundred. The number of pupils enrolled in our schools 
the past year footed to nearly thirty-five hundred as compared with 
less than eighteen hundred three years since. The average daily 
attendance in the schools the past year has been nearly double that 
of three yef rs ago. The average number of days of school, in both 
graded and ungraded schools, during the past year, shows an increase 
of about twenty per cent, over that of three years ago. In 1887-8 
but fifty-four teachers were employed, while over one hundred were 
engaged in teaching the past year. The salaries of teachers, for both 
male and females, have been increased from ten per cent, to fifteen 
per cent, over that of 1887. Twenty-two new school-houses have 
been built, at a cost of |6oo to |2o,ooo each, and furnished with latest 
and best improved furniture, maps, charts, globes, etc., the past three 
years; eleven of which were erected and supplied during the past 
year. The amount paid for teachers* wages in 1887 was $36,500, as 
against $47,000 this year. Three years ago $9,000 was expended for 
sites, buildings, furniture and other school appliances, while $87,000 
have been used for that purpose the past two 3'ears. 

Thus it will be readily seen that El Paso county has made a most 
gratifying improvement in those things that are so essential to the 
progress and successful education of the children of this county. 

The improvement made in the practical work done in the schools 
of this county as to methods employed in imparting instruction, as 
well as in the results obtained, are well up in line with its material 
progress. I account for the improvement in this respect from a two- 
fold cause — that of better school-houses and appliances and sup- 
planting inferior for more skilled and better educated teachers. I 
may also add that I have noted a decided improvement in the school 
work of those teachers who attended the Teachers' Normal Institute 
last year. From my observation among my own teachers, I am fully 
persuaded that these Teachers' Institutes are of great advantage to 
our teachers, and will promote ;more thorough work and better 
methods in the school-room. 

The schools at Manitou, Colorado City and Colorado Springs are 
doing splendid work, and are exceedingly fortunate in having at the 
head of each of them able educators as superintendents. Their 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 97 

success the past year is a source of just pride to our citizens and a 
proof of eminent ability in their chosen profession. 

During the past year there has been a marked improvement in 
ever}' school in this county — more thorough, practical instruction on 
the part of teachers' work and a corresponding improvement in the 
acquisition of intellectual attainments by pupils. 

Sixty-three of the teachers of this county attended the Nojmal 
Institute this year, at Pueblo, and I confidently expect to witness the 
good results of the training there obtained by our teachers in more 
effective and skillful teaching by them in our schools this year. 

Our teachers sustain a live County Association, and have, the past 
year, organized a Teachers' I^ibrary Association. Our library is small 
as yet, but consists of the best selection of professional books. 

In conclusion, I desire to say that the teachers of this county feel 
lafgely indebted to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
for the measure of success which they have attained in their school 
work — his zeal, earnest efforts and well directed labors in behalf of 
our public schools have stimulated them to more earnest work and a 
higher conception of their chosen profession, and in this expression 
of their confidence of the valuable services rendered to the cause of 
education, by our present State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
the Hon. Fred Dick, your subscriber must heartily concur with the 
teachers of this county, I have the honor to be. 

Respectfully yours, 

REUBEN BESSEY, 

County Superintendent. 



EAGLE COUNTY. 

The schools keep pace with the general progress in Eagle county. 
Since the last report seven new districts have been organized and five 
good comfortable school-houses built and furnished with apparatus. 
Our want is thoroughness. In school work as in other enterprises 
in this "West" we are impatient and unwilling to be thorough. 
School officers cannot take from their business time to perform well 
their official duties. Teachers cannot afford time and labor to 
become scholars prepared for teaching; and led by these the children 
hasten over the school curriculum as if the harvest is measured by 
the acres gleaned from and not by the grain gleaned. 

JAMES DII.TS. 



Garfield county. 

The schools in Garfield county are in a healthy condition. So far 

as teachers are concerned, we have an excellent corps of teachers. 

The only drawback is funds insufficient to maintain a school in the 

poorer districts where it is hard to support the four months of school 
13 



98 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



necessary in order to draw from the Stale fund. Prof. Dilts and my- 
self are arranging for a joint institute composed of Eagle and Gar- 
field, and try and interest the patrons and school officers so they can 
better understand the aims of the teacher and their relation with the 
patrons. Everything is working well except a few secretaries who 
are so negligent in making reports as to necessitate the vSuperinten- 
dent in withholding the funds from the district, and thus retarding 
the work of the Superintendent. Garfield has some faithful workers* 
and the relationship between Superintendent and teachers is always 
pleasant. 

SAM. M. WHITE. 



FREMONT COUNTY. 

We have twenty^five organized School Districts in this county, 
"with a school population of two thousand three hundred and ninety- 
nine, giving employment to fifty-four teachers. 

The Canon City, Florence and South Canon schools have regular 
courses of study, including primary, grammar and high school grades. 
All these schools are well organized and are doing good work. 

We are proud of our schools throughout the county, and the 
progress they are making, under the teachers in charge, shows an 
increasing interest in educational work. The majority of our 
teachers hold first-grade certificates, and many of them are graduates 
from Normal Schools in this country and of Canada. 

The State Course of Study is meeting with geneal favor among 
the teachers and School Boards of the country schools, and the good 
resulting from its adoption is already manifesting itself 

The Coal Creek District has been deprived of several months of 
school, from the fact that their school building was destroyed by fire, 
and, failing to get any of the insurance money, the Board was delayed 
in the work of rebuilding. But pluck and energy prevailed over these 
discouragements, and a new two-story building that is convenient, 
well lighted and well ventilated, now stands upon the site of the old 
one. Brookside has also built a neat two-story building, costing 
about |3,ooo, which is an ornament to the village. Many other 
improvements have been made throughout the county, all of which 
bespeak the activity of school interests. 

Our county associations are well attended and receive encourage- 
ment, both from teachers and school officers. 

A Teachers'" County Library is now being talked of and we hope 
soon to note its establishment. Let the good work go on. 

B. G. WOODFORD. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 99 

GILPIN COUNTY. 

I am sorry that I am not able to record a great improvement in the 
condition of the country schools in the county. I have had consid- 
erable trouble in obtaining correct annual reports, partly, from the 
incompetency of district secretaries and partly from carelessness in 
permitting teachers to leave and get their salaries without making a 
report to the secretary. However, the secretaries have shown a good- 
natured desire to do their best and to correct all errors they may 
have made; The Directors failed to comply with the call for a meet- 
ing of the association last May, and thereby loet the benefits to be 
"derived from mutual conference. The city schools have been doing 
good work. We shall begin to hold county associations again soon. 

District No. 11 was organized June 28, so that there could be no 
school within the time covered by this report, but now there is a 
school in progress and the district is in a healthy financial condition. 

F. B. McLEOD. 



GUNNISON COUNTY. 

A large number of the schools in the county are in the mining 
camps, and school is held only a few months during the summer. In 
the towns the educational work will compare favorably with towns of 
equal size in the State. With one or two exceptions there is no lack 
of funds to carry on the work as far as climate and other circum- 
stances will allow. 

CHAS. FUBIvLER. 



HUERFANO COUNTY. 

There has been erected eight new school buildings during the past 
year. Five districts are arranging to build. The course of study has 
been adopted in each district. Teachers' County Institute held one 
week with good attendance. Teachers' Huerfano County Library 
Association established with about \wo hundred books. 

THOS. D. BAIRD. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Jefferson county is divided into forty-three districts, with a school 
population of two thousand one hundred and ninety -five. Of the forty- 
three districts onlj' one is above the third-class. In the forty-three 
districts there are forty-five school-houses and fifty-seven rooms. The 
majority of the houses are good and fairly well supplied with all the 
necessary apparatus. The enrollment for last year was one thousand 
five hundred and forty-eight, with an average attendance of one thou- 
sand and thirty-one. Cost per month for each pupil based on enrollment, 
$2.54. Cost per month for each pupil based on average attendance, 



100 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

I3.92. Average number of days school during year in city and village 
schools, one hundred and seventy-six. Average number of days 
school in rural schools, one hundred and twenty-five. Jefferson 
county has but one High School, the Golden High School, which 
comprises a three-years' course. Our rural schools have been working 
on the " five grade " system, which provides for an eight-years' course 
of study for the past two years, and have succeeded most admirably. 
Pupils completing [the course, after passing the examination upon 
a list of questions prepared by the County Superintendent, are 
admitted to High Schools without further examination. The course 
we have been using is almost identical with the one prepared by a 
committee of County Superintendents and adopted at the last State 
Meeting of County Superintendents. After having tried the plan of 
grading and systematizing the work in our rural schools for the past 
two years, I cannot urge too strongly that the Superintendents 
throughout the State use every effort in their power to have School 
Boards in the rural districts adopt the present State course. It system- 
atizes the work so that the progress is much more satisfactorj^ to both 
pupils and parents. 

We have been using the system of examinations, reports and 
records recommended in the State course, and find the results very 
satisfactory. 

The progress in education since the last biennial report has been 
very encouraging. The people of Jefferson county, through their 
oflScers — both county and district — are very liberal in their appropria- 
tions for school purposes. The county levies three mills, and the 
districts from one to ten mills. 

Our teachers are energetic, progressive and alive to the interests 
of school. work. Much of the interest which has been awakened is 
due to the system of Institute work which has been inaugurated dur- 
ing the past two years. 

The carefully prepared and practical questions for teachers' exam- 
inations, during the past two years, has done much towards improv- 
ing the standard of teachers and bringing teaching up to the require- 
ments of the times. While the progress has been very marked in the 
past two years, there is much yet to do. 

Respectfully yours, 

J. S. EAGIvETON, 
County Supt., Jefferson County. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. IQl 

Kit Carson county. 

Burlington, Colo., Sept. i, 1890. 
HON. FRED DICK, 

Superiiitendent Public Instrudioti, 
Denver, Colorado: 

Dear Sir: — The educational work in Kit Carson county has been 
fairly successful during the past year. 

At the organization of Kit Carson county in April, 1889, there 
were thirty-three school districts within the county. We now have 
forty-five organized school districts. 

In October, 1889, a meeting of the Teachers and School Directors 
was held in Burlington, for the purpose of discussing the text-book 
question. It resulted in the appointment of a committee of five to 
examine and report, for adoption by the District Boards, a set of 
text-books, that there might be uniformity of books in the county. 

This committee made their report in November, recommending 
that the School Districts purchase the books for the use of their 
schools. The School Boards throughout the county have accepted 
the report of the coumiittee, and about one-third of the districts have 
purchased the school-books for their schools. In every case where 
the districts have purchased the books, the people are well satisfied 
with the plan, and the teachers in these schools can accomplish much 
more by the children being properly supplied with books. 

The teachers of the county hold quarterly association meetings of 
two days each. These meetings are well attended and are doing 
much to improve the schools of the county. 

A County Institute was held in Burlington this year, commencing 
July 28 and closing August 8, 1890, with twenty-three teachers in 
attendance. As a result, the grades made by the applicants for 
certificates at the August, 1890, examination are fifteen per cent, 
higher than those made at any of the other examinations held in the 
county. 

The teachers have established a professional library, to be kept 
in the office of the County Superintendent, ^nd, although having but 
few books, it is awakening a desire for more thorough preparations 
and better results upon the part of the teacher. 

During the year several good school buildings have been erected 
in the county. Seibert, Vona and Claremont each having a 
good school-house. Flagler is erecting a three thousand dollar 
three-room frame school building. It will be neatly finished and 
well furnished, and speaks well for the educational interests of the 
district. 



102 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

Burlington has erected a five-thousand dollar two-story brick 
school building, which is one of the best buildings in Eastern 
Colorado. It is a manifestation of the interest taken in education 
by the citizens of the county seat. 

Respectfully, 

D. S. HARRIS, 

County Supetintendent^ 



Kiowa County. 

In the spring of 1889, when the county of Kiowa was created it 
had thirteen school districts within its boundaries. There were but 
one or two school-houses in the county, and a County Superintendent 
had never been seen within its limits, although some of the districts 
had been organized two or three years. Within a year from the time 
the county was organized the number of districts had increased to 
twenty-three, and as many teachers were giving instruction to about 
six hundred children. Financially, the districts may well boast, 
with the Missouri Pacific railroad traversing the south center of the 
county for a distance of about eighty miles, and the Union Pacific 
laud grants lying the entire length on the north. During the past 
year school houses have sprung up all over the county as by magic. 
Sheridan Lake, the county seat, boasts of the finest school-house in 
the county. It is a large two-story frame building, of model design, 
and very nicely finished within and without, costing $2,000. The 
Arlington school has quite a large one-story frame building, costing 
about $1,400. District No. 8 has a $1,500 school building now in 
course of erection. District No. 18 has just completed a very neat 
frame building, at a cost of about $1,000. District No. 23 has a sub- 
stantial frame building, costing $900. District No. i is now making 
arrangemetits to burn the brick to put up a $30,000 school house. In 
traveling through the county one can plainly see that the people 
take a great interest in the matter of education. 

F. B. TORBIT. 



LAKE COUNTY. 

The schools in Lake county are all in healthy condition, and a 
larger percentage of children of school age are in regular attendance 
in the public schools than at any previous time in the educ itional 
history of the county. Our teachers are well educated and drilled in 
school work, and are rendering unusual satisfaction to the patrons of 
the different school districts, "Frequent visits of the County Super- 
intendent to the schools and close inspection of the work done by 
each teacher," as suggested by the State Superintendent of Schools, 
has been faithfully carried out in Lake county and has instilled edu- 
cational enthusiasm in the teachers, and has given encouragement to 
tax-payers and to the patrons of the public schools as well as to 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 103 

enliven the interest of the school children in their work. The School 
Boards of every district in the county are composed of the best busi- 
ness men of this county, whose hearts are in the cause of education, 
and who, like the writer, believe that the stability of our government 
is dependent upon an intelligent citizenship, which must come from 

the public schools of the Nation. ♦ 

DR. J. J. CROOK. 



LARIMER COUNTY. 

The schools of Larimer county are progressing in the steps toward 
gradation have been taken and an effort to secure regularity in at- 
tendance has been made. During th€' school year beginning July i, 
1889, and ending Juue 30, 1890, thirty-five districts have enforced the 
"compulsory attendance law" in its fullest meaning, and others have 
partially enforced it. Active measures toward a uniformity in grad- 
ing are now being taken, which together with the regularity secured 
by the "attendance law," would seem to insure a year of prosperity 
in school work. I have introduced teachers' contracts into our dis- 
tricts, certificates of attendance into our schools, and free text-books 
into nearly every district where a change of text-books has been 
necessary. The results from the above-named efforts are so satisfac- 
tory that I have no hesitancy in recommending the line of work to 
everv County Superintendent. 

S. T. HAMILTON. 



Las Animas County. 

The coming year teachers will receive no salary for last month 
of term until report is made out according to law. Thirty thousand 
dollars of school bonds are being issued throughout the county. 
Some elegant school buildings, costing from J56,ooo to the minimum, 
$700, have been built during the past five months. Six new buildings 
are in process of construction at present. Teachers are plenty. I 
have been trying to raise salaries and thus procure first-class teachers 
in county schools, with good success. Seven county schools of third- 
class wilt have tea months' scho-')l, beginning term September 2, 
1890. Some districts are exceedingly poor and have advised them to 
levy special tax, which has been done this year. My Report for 1891 
I hope will show a vast improvement in the schools under my charge. 
The law in regard to fines has been strictly enforced and report of 
same handed to County Commissioners. 

GEO. C. SHIELS. 



LA PLATA COUNTY. 

The schools of La Piata county for the year just closed have been 
prosperous. Two new districts have been organized during the year. 
Of the old Districts all except one have maintained school of from 
four to ten months' duration. One new school building has been 



104 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

erected and District No. 9 is about to erect a High School building at 
a cost of |2o,ooo. 

Much interest is taken in educational matters generally by the 
people, and the schools are gradually improving. Better teachers are 
sought for and everywhere throughout the county there is a disposi- 
tion to increase the length of time school shall be held; in some sec- 
tions private subscriptions being raised for this purpose. Consider- 
able effort has been made to furnish the school-rooms with apparatus 
and appliances for increasing the efficiency of the teachers, and wall 
maps, globes, charts, and other aids have been supplied. 

Teachers' Associations have been held during the year with 
marked success and they have become a permanent institution in the 
educational work of the county. 

The Teachers' Normal Institute which was held in this county 
beginning August 4, 1890, has been productive of great benefit to the 
schools. The Executive Committee were extremely fortunate in 
securing an able corps of instructors, consisting of Professors Cope- 
land and Baker and Mrs. Flora B. Haffy. Forty-five members were 
in attendance from this county and fourteen from other parts of the 
District. The school officers of the several Districts evinced a very 
liberal spirit in voting salaries to teachers who attended the Institute. 
The Institute can be said to have been very successful throughout. 
Fine lectures were given on subjects of interest, and the teachers enjoyed 
entertaining and instructive talks from Superintendent Dick, Profes- 
sors Gray and Fitzpatrick and Mrs. Ashton, of the Cleveland, Ohio, 
Training School. It is urgently recommended that this Normal 
District be divided or at least re-organized. It is ver}' inconvenient 
for teachers from all parts of the District to attend at any point suit- 
able for holding the Institute. 

Compulsory education has received considerable attention and a 
beginning made that will be of great benefit in the future. - 

Financially the School Districts are in a satisfactory condition, 
nearly all being able to cash their warrants when presented. The 
taxable property of the county will soon be increased by the addition 
of thirty miles of railroad now in process of construction and in the 
increase of real estate holdings. The proposition to dispose of a por- 
tion of the school lands, thereby decreasing the burden of taxation, 
is most favorably commented upon in this section and should receive 
the careful attention of those in charge of such matters. 
Respectfully yours, 

C. A. PIKE. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 105 

Lincoln county. 

The schools of this county are progressing well. It is one of the 
xnew counties created in 1889. It is sparsely settled, having been 
until quite lately a stock-raising district altogether. Settlers are 
coming in however, and schools are increasing, so that we now have 
seven in number, and more are being called for. Some of the most 
interesting and earnest schools are those held in sod houses, and it is 
surprising to see what neat and comfortable houses they are ( both in 
winter and summer.) Almost all our schools are well supplied with 
maps, charts, globe, etc., and most of them have terms of nine to ten 
months each year. We have a good corps of teachers, who on the 
.average receive good pay, and I think are earning their wages by 
■conscientious work. The principal school is at Hugo, where they 
have a fine brick school-house, costing ;^8,ooo. 

District No. 3 (Arriba), will build a new frame house in the spring, 
cost |r, 500. One of the schools in District No. 2, Bovina, has just 
completed a new sod house, 18x26 feet, and I doubt if many of the 
frame houses of its size are as well lighted and comfortable as this 
one. They have a live teacher and bright pupils there too. 

On the whole I consider the schools of Lincoln county in a very 
-creditable condition. 

H. A. LOWELL, 

Superintendent. 



MONTROSE COUNTY. 

The educational condition of our schools has greatly advanced. 
'The Normal Institutes have greatly advanced our teachers in their 
work, and have created a very healthy sentiment among our citizens. 
School Boards are aroused to the opinion that it takes a good teacher 
with a supply of school apparatus to run a good school. There have 
been no cases of expulsion or suspension of pupils from school the 
past year, and but few cases of corporal punishment. We have con- 
structed a number of new school-houses in the rural districts during 
the past year. We have graded our rural schools, and where pupils 
have completed their eight years' work in the district school, they are 
admitted to our County High School, located at Montrose. The 
Board of Education at Montrose do not charge any 'tuition to non- 
resident pupils. 

J. J. TOBIN. 



MORGAN COUNTY. 

The school work of Morgan county is progressing satisfactorily, 

with but few exceptions. None but good talent is employed by our 

School Boards. The schools are about all supplied with an abund- 

.ance of the best and latest apparatus. Of the eight districts, five 

Jiave adopted a definite course of study. Our teachers met last 
14 



10(J SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

spring and organized an association for the purpose of meeting to- 
discuss various points in their work. The old teachers of last year 
have been pretty generally retained for this year's work. The finances, 
of our county are in bad shape, because of the failure of the Bank 
of Fort Morgan. The bulk of the funds which were stolen belonged 
to the schools, and, although the districts have a balance credit on 
the Treasurer's books, they are unable to draw the money, and their 
warrants are from five to ten per cent, below par. 

WM. B. GARVER.. 



MONTEZUMA COUNTY. 

I have the honor to herewith submit my annual report for the year 
ending June 30, 1890. Because of the incomplete records in the sev- 
eral districts, this report is necessarily incomplete. District Boards 
have all been furnished with the necessary record books since January 
14, and two new districts have been formed. This is one of the new 
counties of the State, and but recently settled, yet, the people are 
taking an interest in educational work. A High School has been 
established at Mancos, and a Graded School at Cortez, where a stone 
school-house of two rooms, well furnished, has been completed, and 
will be occupied the coming year. The Montezuma County Teachers' 
Association held its second meeting at Cortez on the twenty- 
seventh and twenty-eighth of August, when the name was changed to 
the Montezuma County Educational Association. A constitution and 
by-laws were adopted, admitting to membership those who are inter- 
ested in education, and who subscribe to the constitution and by-laws 
— the aim being to admit all school officers and patrons who wish to 
become members. Arbor Day was not universally observed, because 
of lack of water and permanent location of school-houses. The 
Educational Association of this county will hold quarterly meetings 
in different parts of the county, and suggest that the school law be 
so amended that it will permit the County Superintendent to hold 
examinations on the adjournment, and at the same place in the county 
at which the Educational Association held its meeting. In this I 
heartily concur. 

D. M. LONGENBOUGH. 



MESA COUNTY. 

It is about impossible to get reliable reports from the secretaries. 
Our greatest trouble with the teachers is, that the School Boards are 
inclined to hire transient teachers. The School Boards are ready to 
pay good wages, and are now trying to increase the school months in 
a year. 

:e. t. fisher. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 107 

OTERO COUNTY. 

When I came into office, January 14, 1890, there were eight school 
districts with nine schools. Also, one Union District with Kiowa 
county. But, owing to a loss of part of the school funds, by the 
division with Bent county, three of the schools were closed. But two 
of them started up and continued for two months longer. vSince that 
time I have organized four new districts with the fifth now organi- 
zing. We employed fourteen teachers last year, while we will 
employ twenty-two or twenty-three the present school year. I have 
worked hard to waken a deeper interest in the school work, and I am 
encouraged to believe that good results will crown my efforts. I shall 
encourage the organizing of new districts where needed. Others are 
spoken of As I now view it, the school prospects of Otero county 

are encouraging. 

A. L. LYONS. 



OURAY COUImTY. 

The schools of Ouray county are awakening to the benefits of 
longer terms and a higher grade of teachers. The average salary for 
the past year in rural districts is: male, $60.83; female, $67. 50; high- 
est, male, $75.00; female, $100.00; lowest, male, $50.00; female, $40.00. 
Ouray has the only graded system — with High School course — in 
charge of Prof G. H. Thrailkill and four assistants. District No. 6 has 
a valuation of a half million dollars and a school population of one 
hundred and eleven. During the past year, by the energy of Mr. 
Finney Jones, district treasurer, it has built and furnished two good 
school-houses — one at Ironton and one at Red Mountain — and main- 
tains a ten month's school out of a special tax levied by a vote of the 
electors. This district enjoys the novelty of being the highest (alti- 
tude 11, coo to 13,500 feet) in the State, if not in the United States; 
as well as two of the best "school ma'ams" who each receive a salary 
of $100 per month. This year the assessed value of the county will 
exceed one and one quarter millions, an increase of over half a mill- 
ion, and all the schools have levied special tax to maintain a six to 
ten months term. All have adopted the course of study. No. 3 and 
No. 4 have tried the experiment of owning the text books, and no 
longer call it an experiment but a success. 

I would suggest that the secretaries be required to furnish a list of 
all warrants drawn, to accompany the annual report, and that the 
county treasurer report by number and amounts all warrants paid; 
as at present there is no satisfactory way to get at the outstanding 
indebtedness. 

PHILLIP H. SHUK. 



108 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

PROWERS COUNTY. 

Our county was organized but little over a year ago with only 
thirteen districts in the county, and the number has since been 
increased to twenty-one, which employ twenty-five teachers. The 
progress made in educational work since the organization of the 
county is'quite perceptible, and this is especially true of the Graded 
Schools at Lamar and Granada. Our School Boards are awakening to 
the necessity of furnishing maps, charts, globes and other necessary 
helps. There is also a marked tendency on the part of the various 
School Boards to employ the most competent teachers that can be 
secured, and have in many instances increased the salary of teachers 
from five to fifteen dollars on the month, thereby causing an increased 
number of applicants for certificates as to-day's examination shows 
by the presence of twenty applicants for certificates. 

Since returning from the Institute, I have made a thorough can- 
vass of the teachers of the county and find them loud in their 
demands for smaller Institi4e Districts. I am satisfied that had the 
district contained only five counties my county would have been 
represented by eighteen or twenty teachers instead of only five. 

GEO. T. FEAST. 



PARK COUNTY. 

Ai^MA, CoivO., Nov. 15, 1890. 
STATE SUPT. FRED DICK: 

Dear Sir: — Educational work in this county has progressed com- 
mendably during the past two years. 

Our people do not hesitate to supplement the General Fund by 
voting a liberal amount of special tax for the support of schools. 

Several good school-houses have been built; others will be con- 
structed in the near future. 

We have many excellent teachers, and most of our School Direct- 
ors will engage only those of high standard. 

Yours truly, 

T. W. DUFFY, 

County Superintendent. 



PHILLIPS COUNTY. 

HoLYOKE, Colo., Sept. 12, 1890. 

The schools of Phillips county I am glad to say are in a very good 
condition, considering the adverse circumstances under which we 
have labored. Our limited means is all of which we complain. The 
lack of which is all that retards our progress in shortening our terms 
of school, making it impossible in many districts to provide as fully 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 109 

as could be wished, the appliances so needful in all schools. The 
disposition on the part of the whole people and School Boards is not 
I can truly say excelled anj-where. Our people are wide awake in 
this line, and are doing all they can to advance the cause. We have 
now forty-two districts in the county, three being added the past 
year. Our school term ranges from four months in the country to 
nine in our city school, many of the country 'schools having six and 
eight months. The schools have suffered from the lack of proper 
grading, and I, with the teachers of the county, hail with delight the 
State Manual and Course of Study, and I believe that much good 
will come from its use. 

We instituted in the county the past year Monthly Teachers' 
Institutes, which have resulted in much good to the teachers, and has 
been the means of awakening a deeper interest on the part of the 
people. Our County Institute held a two weeks' session in August, 
which was well attended by the teachers, 38 attending. By the 
generosity of our County Commissioners we were enabled to procure 
very capable instruction. Prof. Condit, of Delta county, being our 
principal instructor, assisted very ably by some of our home teachers. 
The State Superintendent, Hon. Fred Dick, was with us one day and 
encouraged us with his presence, and kind words of encouragement. 
His lecture in the evening on the needs of the rural school struck 
the key-note of our condition here. 

CHAS. B. TIMBERLAKE, 

County Superintendent. 



PUEBLO COUNTY. 

The financial statement is mainly made from the report of the 
County Treasurer, and the personal statistics are largely taken from 
the teachers' reports. The number of private pupils is estimated. 
Quite a number of teachers in the city schools do not hold county 
certificates, and therefore the grade of these is not given. I know 
that this report is faulty, but the data furnished was even more faulty. 
Nearly all of the schools of Pueblo county will open during this 
month, and the terms will be about five per cent, longer than last 
year. I am flooded with low grade teachers, but there has been more 
demand for teachers of a high grade than formerly. To secure uni- 
formity of text-books, to grade the country schools and to obtain a 
regular attendance will be my next month's work. 

J. P. THURMOND. 

RIO BLANCO COUNTY. 

Although far from satisfactory, the work of the year in Rio Blanco 
county gives some encouragement. Two new and comfortable log 
school-houses have been built and furnished with improved automatic 
seats, maps, globes and dictionaries. An association of teachers and 



IIQ SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

school officers has been organized. There is an increased demand for 
better teachers and an advance in the price offered for talent. Tem- 
porary certificates are refused except in urgent cases, and the cheap 
work that drives out professional teachers is a thing of the past. 

The failure of teachers to make their reports in such manner as to 
enable the District Secretaries to compile their annual reports has 
caused trouble.in some instances, and I beg to suggest that the law be 
amended to require teachers to submit their reports to the County 
Superintendent for inspection and endorsement before payment is 
made for the last month's service. 

C. W. FORKMAN. 



Rio Grande county. 

As a natural consequence the schools of our county are increasing 
in number as the county becomes settled. There are, at this time, 
seventeen organized districts, containing twenty-six schools. The 
Monte*Vista and Del Norte districts each have a High School depart- 
ment, which does much to increase the attendance and cause the 
pupils of the lower grades to want to remain in school each year until 
the term closes. With one exception, the several districts have 
coihfortable houses for school purposes, and they are moderately well 
furnished with the latest improved apparatus. The teachers are up to 
the average in text knowledge and skill in teaching, though not 
equal to the standard hoped to be reached soon. A County Teachers' 
Association was organized last year, with good result, and the work 
will be resumed the coming year. In the country districts an effort 
is being made to follow the course of study adopted by the County 
Superintendents' Convention. It is not intended to adopt it in full 
this year, but to get a start toward the final gradation of our district 
schools. 

JESSE STEPHENSON. 



ROUTT COUNTY. 

Teachers throughout the county have given general satisfaction. 
Scholars are bright, and school interest is onward and upward. Im- 
proving in grade of teachers. The territory of each district is large, 
and some scholars cannot reach school privileges. Have had much 
trouble getting reports from all the secretaries. Number ten was sent 
but never reached me, and I had to "run down" the secretary and get 
data. My report is mainly correct, but what I had to base it on was 
not satisfactory. Assessed valuation of each district was not reported 
by any of the secretaries, and I could not get it of the Assessor. If 
wanted, I can get the assessed valuation of property in the county. 
We are cut off from Institutes by mountain ranges and distance, and 
could not make one interesting yet here. The extreme districts are 
two hundred and thirty miles apart. To get to No. 12 I would have 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. m 

to travel one hundred and fifty miles, and seventy-five to No. i, and 
•one hundred to No. ii. No railroad touches the county. Had nine 
good schools during the summer, and will have nine during the win- 
ter. Joint District No. 3, Eagle and Routt, did not report to me. 
There are only four scholars in this county to that district, and perhaps 
the secretary reported to Mr. Dilts, of Eagle. Joint District No 4 

reported to me. 

J. A. CAMPBELL. 

SAN JUAN COUNTY. 

The only school in San Juan county is situated at Silverton, Colo., 
and has been doing splendid educational work during the past year. 
Teachers are both first-class, able and industrious, and are doing good 
school work that will last. 

J. W. BROWN. 



SAN Miguel county. 

Two new districts have been organized, No. 5 only a week or so 
before the end of the school year. It is probable that another district 
,will be organized shortly. It is expected that three of the four dis- 
tricts will have nine months school this coming year. 

H. C. LAY. 



SAGUACHE COUNTY. 

The educational condition of this county was never better, nor the 
•outlook brighter for a successful school year. 

Modern school apparatus has been purchased; school-rooms have 
been refitted and refurnished; school-houses have been built in several 
districts; other districts have added to their room, or repaired their 
houses and, in fact, every step has been taken by School Boards to 
add to the school advantages or comfort of the children. 

Through hard and persistent work on the part of the Saguache 
*School Board, a High School Course, open to all High School pupils 
in the county, has been added to the Saguache school. 

School OfiBcers, Teachers and patrons all over the county are 
<leeply and sincerely interested in the matter of education and feel 
the growing demand for more school advantages and advanced 
courses of instruction. 

However, there is in my mind one serious hindrance to the 
material progress of the country schools, i. e., the continual changing 
of teachers. 

Many schools did not commence as soon as usual, owing to the 
:scarcity of teachers in the county. 

T. M. LYON. 



112 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



Sedgwick county. 

Schools in very good condition. Buildings not very good but in^ 
as good repair as the districts are able to afford. Districts generally 
poor, hence small salaries, and in consequence of which, teachers,, 
many of them, carry low-grade certificates. Conspicuous lack of 
uniformity of text-books in some districts, also great need of more 
apparatus — maps, charts, etc. 

E. H. STB YENS. - 



SUMMIT COUNTY. 

With the strong, healthy impetus given us from the effect of the- 
last two years of institute work, our teachers are all wide awake, and 
their influence is felt all over the county. At our institute this year 
at Leadville, we had every teacher in the county present. I have 
concluded it best and decided not to grant any more permits to teach 
in the county, which has had a decided influence for good to our 
teachers, giving them heart and courage to keep abreast of the times. 



Washington County. 

The schools of this (Washington) county are in as flourishing a-- 
condition as they well can be, considering the one discouraging: 
feature the most of them labor under, viz. : The smallness of attend- 
ance, many of the districts being almost depopulated, yet making; 
noble efforts to retain their organizations. Four new districts have 
been organized this year, while two have gone back. Other, and 
necessary districts, would have been formed, but could not because 
of that portion of the law requiring fifteen persons of school age to 
be left in the old districts. During the coming year school will be- 
maintained in all the present districts, with an increased length of 
term. At Akron the force of teachers will be increased over last year 
by one, and the school will be more thoroughly graded. There is a 
strong sentiment throughout the county in favor of the ownership of 
text-books by the districts, and the coming year all districts will 
probably adopt the plan. The county has been favored with a most: 
excellent corps of teachers the past year, many of whom will be 
retained the coming year. The facts attest the character of the 
work. In behalf of my teachers, I would earnestly request that if 
any division of institute districts be made at the coming session of 
the Legislature, that one be created comprising the counties of Yuma, 
Washington and Morgan. This will make a district convenient for 
all its teachers as well as for many teachers in eastern Arapahoe who 
find it very inconvenient to attend the institutes in that district. 

E. M. FORBES^ 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. II3: 

YUMA COUNTY. 

Our schools are improving and educational interest increasing. 
Our teachers, as a rule, realize the importance of the work in which 
they are engaged, and are striving to improve in scholarship and in 
methods of teaching. The school books, except those owned by the 
districts, are very much mixed, and no reports made by the secreta- 
ries. I am making an eJEfort to have the districts purchase books. 
The Course of Study has been placed in the hands of the teachers, 
and we are making an effort to make the work uniform throughout 
the county. We hold Teachers' Association monthly during the 
school year and most of the teachers take an active part. 

M. W. HOVER. 



EXHIBIT I. 



County Superintendents of Schools^ from January^ 1890, 
to January^ 1892. 



COUNTY 



NAMK 



POST-OFFICE 



Arapahoe . 
Archuleta . 
Baca . . . . 
Bent . . . . 
Boulder , . 
Chaffee . . . 
Cheyenne . . 
Clear Creek 
Conejos . . 
Costilla . , . 
Custer , . . 
Delta . . . . 
Dolores . . 
Douglas . . 
Eagle . . . 
Elbert . . . 
El Paso . . 
Fremont . . 
Garfield . . 
Gilpin . . . 
I5~ 



A. D. Shepard . . 
W, P. Underwood 
Charles Smith . . 
Fred Ford .... 
W. V. Casey . . . 
I,ee Champion . 
S. C. Perry . . . 
Henry Bowman . 
L. A. Norland . . 
Frederick Etter . 
Price Walters . . 
P. M. Condit . . 
Dr. F. Roys . , . 
P. H. Hammond 
James Dilts . . . 

B. C. Killin . . . 
Reuben Berry . . 
B. G. Woodford . 
S. M. White . . . 
F. B. McLeod . . 



Denver 

. . . Pagosa Springs 

Springfield 

Ivas Animas 

Boulder 

Salida 

. • Kit Carson 

.... Idaho Springs 

Alamosa 

.... Fort Garland 

Silver Cliff 

Delta 

Rico' 

Castle Rock 

Red Cliff 

Kiowa 

. . Colorado Springs- 

Canon City 

New Castle 

Central City 



114 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

EXHIBIT l—Co7itinued, 



COUNTY 



NAMS 



post-office; 



Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Kiowa 

Kit Carson 

I^ake 

I,a Plata 

I^arimer 

Las Animas 

Lincoln 

lyOgan 

Mesa 

Montezuma 

Montrose 

Morgan 

Otero 

Ouray 

Park 

Phillips 

Pitkin 

Prowers . .,.'.. . 

Pueblo 

Rio Blanco 

Rio Grande 

Routt ....... 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel 

rSedgwick 

Summit 

Washington 

Weld 

Yuma 



J. N. Pettengill . . . 
Charles Fueller . . , 
W. S. :Elmendorf . . 
Dr. F. D. Baird . . . 
J. S. Eagleton . . . . 
F. K. Torbit 

D. S. Harris 

Dr. J. J. Crook . . . 
Chas. A. Pike . . . . 
S. T. Hamilton . . . 
Geo. C. Shiels . . . . 
H. A. Lowell . . . . 
W. B. Wheeler . . . 

E. T. Fisher 

D. M. Longenbough 

J. J. Tobin 

W. f;. Garner . . . . 

A. R. Lyon 

P. M. Shue 

T. M. Duffy 

C. B. Timberlake . . 

E. C. Stimson . . . . 
Geo. T. Feast . . . . 
J. P. Thurmond . . 
C. W. Foreman . . . 
Jesse Stevenson . . . 
J. A. Campbell . . . 
T. M. Lyons . . . . 
Dr. J. W. Brown . . 

H. C. Lay 

E. H. Stevens . . . . 
Dr. B. A. Arbogast . 
E. M. Forbes . . . . 
W. C. Thomas . . . 
M. W. Hover : . . . 



. . . . Grand Lake 

Gunnison 

Lake City 

.... Walsenburg 

Golden 

Eads 

. . . . Burlington 

Leadville 

. . . . Animas City 
. . . . Fort Collins 

Trinidad 

Hugo 

Sterling 

. . Grand Junction 

Cortez 

Montrose 

. . . Fort Morgan 

La Junta 

Portland 

Alma 

Holyoke 

Aspen 

Granada 

Pueblo 

Meeker 

. . . . Monte Vista 
Steamboat Springs 

Saguache 

Silverton 

Telluride 

Julesburg 

. . . Breckenridge 

Akron 

Greeley 

Yuma 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



115 



EXHIBIT \— Continued, 



City Superintendents and Principals of High Schools^ 
1890-1891. 



NAME 



POSITION 



POST-OFFICE ADDRESS 



Aaron Gove . . 
H. F. Wegener . . 
C V Parker . . . . 
C. L. Kingsley T . . 
P. K. Pattison . . . 
J. A. Smith . . . . 
E. D. Graber . . . 
W. Triplet! . . . . 
E. Iv. Byington . . 
E. C. Stevens . . . 
W. T. Eddingfield . 
J. S. McClung . . . 
P. W. Search . . . 
A. B. Copeland . . 
N. H. Clark . . . . 
J. L. Harding . . . 
Mrs. IvUcy Boling . 
Mrs. Emma I,eake 
W. B. Suckling . . 
J. M. Seright . . . 
W. A. Haggott . . . 
A. T. Bqmier . . . 
P. M. Gondii . . . 
T. H. Davis . . . . 
J. P. Jackson . . . 
J. H. Baker . . . . 

H. L. Peel 

•C. I. Hays 

I,. B. Grafton . . . 
•O. S. Moles . . , . 
H. E. Smith . . . , 
•C. M. Kiggins . . , 



Superintendent Denver, No. i 

Superintendent Denver, No. 2 

Superintendent Denver, No. 17 

Superintendent Boulder 

Superintendent Colorado Springs 

Superintendent Central City 

Superintendent Gunnison 

Superintendent Golden 

Superintendent Fort Collins 

Superintendent Trinidad 

Superintendent Aspen 

Superintendent ... Pueblo, No. i 

Superintendent Pueblo, No. 20 

Superintendent Greeley 

Principal Las Animas 

Principal Longmont 

Principal Salida 

Principal Buena Vista 

Principal Georgetown 

Principal : Silver Plume 

Principal : Idaho Springs 

Principal ' Alamosa 

Principal Delta 

Principal Castle Rock 

Principal Colorado City 

Principal Denver, No. i 

Principal Denver, No. 2 

Principal 



Denver, No. 17 

Principal! ] Manitou 

Principal I Caiion City 

Principal Canon City. 

Principal Glenwood Springs 



115 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

EXHIBIT \— Concluded. 



NAME 

H. W. Zirkle 

W. H. Hoflf 

J. C. Logan 

G. M. McKay 

Mrs. G. M. McKay . . . 
Miss Adelaide Holdridge 

^T. O. Baker 

A. ly. Hamilton 

W. F. Bybee 

J. A. Guttery 

J. H. Allen 

G. H. Thrailkill 

C. M. Stevenson 

H. D.Barr 

T. A. Bird 

John Sogard 

G. W. Reed 

J. H. Freeman 

Miss I/Uella Burgwin . . 

W. H. Kortz 

J. G. Yeager 

E. ly. Hewett ....... 

\V. M. Kollock 

E. F. Nichols 

Mrs. E. H. Fintel . . . . 



POSITION 



POST-OFFICE ADDRESS- 



Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 
Principal 



. Black Hawk 
. Crested Butte 
. . . Lake City 
. . Walsenburg 
.... LaVeta 
. . . Leadville' 
. . . Durango- 
. . . Ivoveland 
.... Sterling. 
Grand Junctiott 
. . . Montrose" 

Ouray 

.... Fairplay 
.... Holyoke 

Lamar 

. . Monte Vista 
. . . Del Norte 
. . . Sagruache 
. . . Silverton 
. . . Julesburg 
. Breckenridge 
. . . Florence 
... La Junta 
. . Rocky Ford 
.... Meeker 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 117 
EXHIBIT 11. 



Questions for the Quarterly Examination of Teachers^ Fourth 
Quarter, i88g; Prepared by the Superintendent of Public In' 
struction, De?iver, Colorado. 



PENMANSHIP. 
( Forty-five minutes.) 

1. Explain the meaning of the term slant. 

2. What ought a teacher to know in order to teach writing in 
the primary grades ? 

3. What is a good business hand ? 

4. Write a receipt for money received to-day, in payment for 
goods sold September i, 1889. 

5. What knowledge of a letter do you require a child to have 
before teaching him to write it ? 

6. Give your method of conducting a recitation in writing. 

7. Write the Capital letters in which the Capital stem occurs. 

8. Describe a proper position of the body when writing. 

9. Analyze the letters that are one and one-fourth spaces high. 
10. Write a suitable copy for a pupil fifteen years old. 

ARITHMETIC. 
( Two hours.) 

1. Write in words, 6789001243. By what numbers, less than 10 is 
it divisible ? How are they determined except by trial ? 

2. How many square feet of stone flagging in a side walk that is 
4 feet wide, extending around a rectangular garden 150 feet long and 
125 feet wide? 

3. Find value of 2\ — 4^ 

9f^ 

3fX| 

4. A yard 54 feet 8 inches, by 42 feet 6 inches, is to be paved 
with square tiles of equal size and as large as possible. What are the 
dimensions of each tile ? 

5. The longitude of Rome is 12° 27^ East, of New York 74° o^ 24^^ 
West. What is the difference between the two places in geographic 
miles? 

6. A. sold goods for I295.00 and gained three times as much as 
he would have lost had he sold them for ^235.00. What was his gain 
per cent.? 

7. A person travels 4 miles the first hour and increases his speed 
% mile each hour for 17 hours. How far does he travel ? 

8. A sphere 9 inches in diameter is placed in a cubic box whose 
edge is 9 inches inside measurement. How much vacant space is 

Teft? 



11§ SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

9. What rate per cent, of income will be received on U. S. 5's at 
108 and payable at par in twenty years ? 

10, If 9 men reap 40 acres in 10 days, working 10 hours per day, 
how many hours per day must 12 men work to reap 50 acres in 15 
days ? Solve by proportion. 

READING. 
( Sixty minutes. ) 

1. What objects are to be kept in view in teaching reading? 

2. When should difficult words be explained to pupils? 

3. How do you cultivate self-reliance in reading? 

4. Define articulation, inflection, rate. 

5. What preparation is necessary, by the teacher, to properly 
conduct a recitation in the second reader? 

1-50. Read selections in the presence of the class and the 
examiner. 

UNITED STATES HISTORY. 
(Ninety minutes.) 

1. Name an important event in U. S. history with which one of 
the following names is associated: Menendez, Ponce de Leon, De 
Monts, Raleigh, Frobisher. 

2. Describe the form of government in a Royal Province. 

3. What were "The United Colonies of New England," and 
what was their object? 

4. Did the Inter-Colonial wars exert any influence upon the 
organization of this government? If so, what? 

5. What led France to assist the U. S. in the Revolutionary war? 

6. Write a brief history of the American Flag. 

7. What events in the history of the U. S. have promoted the 
development of the great resources of this country? 

8. Name five important national questions, since the year 1800, 
upon which political parties have been divided. 

9. Name some of the advantages to the South, growing out of 
the Rebellion. 

10. What was the " Reconstruction. Policy " of President Johnson? 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

( Thirty minutes.) 

1. How many sounds has the letter E? Indicate them. 

2. What is an elementary sound? 

3. Define syllable, vowel, aspirate. 

4. Write five compound words in which the hyphen is used, and 
five in which it is not used. 

5. Indicate the correct pronunciation of combat, bombard, 
executive, dey, garrulous, 

1-50. Spell correctly the words pronounced by the examiner. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. II9 

PHYSIOLOGY. 
( Thirty minutes.) 

1. What is the difference between near sightedness and far-sight- 
edness ? 

2. How does exercise strengthen the bones? 

3. Where are the kidneys located and what is their function ? 

4. How do the muscles compare in. weight with the rest of the 
body, and in number with the bones 

5. If the clothing of a pupil catch fire in the school room what 
would you do ? 

SCHOOL LAW. 
( Forty -five minutes.) 

1. Give the substance of the so-called "Compulsory Education '* 
act, passed by the last General Assembly. 

2. When is Arbor Day in Colorado ? 

3. For what purposes may a school district be bonded ? 

4. Name at least five duties of a School Board. 

5. How are school districts classified ? How many Directors has 
each class? 

BOTANY. 

( Thirty minutes.) 

1. Define the terms, species, genus, variety. 

2. For what purposes are trees grafted? 

3. What are the functions of the cells of plants ? 

4. Describe the parts of a mushroom. 

5. How do plants scatter their seeds? 

NATURAL SCIENCES. 
( Ninety minutes.) 

1. Prove that the air presses in all directions. 

2. Give the three laws of motion. 

3. Plunge a piece of wood into strong H2 S O4 . What can be 
learned from the experiment ? 

4. Name two important substances obtained from coal tar. 

5. What is meant by rain-fall? How does the amount ' of rain- 
fall compare with the amount of water evaporated on the land and on 
the sea ? 

6. What is twilight ? 

7. Name five kinds of building stone. 

8. Explain what is meant by "Harvest Moon" and "Hunter's 
Moon." 

9. Describe the position of the earth at the equinoxes and 
solstices. 

10. What are the general characteristics of mammals ? 



120 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



EXERCISES IN READING AND SPELLING. 

All day we sat in the heat, 

Like spiders spinning, 

Stitching full, fine and fleet, 

While the old Jew on his seat 

Sat greasily grinning; 

And there Tom said his say , 

And prophesied Tyranny's death; 

And the tallow burnt all day, 

And we stitched and stitched away 

In the thick smoke of our breath. 

Wearily, wearily, so wearily, 

With hearts as heavy as lead;— 

But, "Patience! she's coming!" said he; 

"Courage, boys! Wait and see! 

Freedom's ahead!" 

— Buchanan. 

Our skipper— a good sailor though a brute- 
Gave a long look over the vessel's side, 
Then to the steersman whispered half aside, 
"See that ox-eye out yonder? It looks queer." 
The man replied, "The storm will soon be here. 
Hullo! All hands on deck! We'll be prepared! 
Stow royals! Reef the courses! Pass the word!" 
Vain! The squall broke ere we could shorten sail; 
We lowered the topsails, but the raging gale 
Spun our old ship about. The captain roared 
His orders— lost in the great noise on board. 

— Cop pee. 

In the remotest double star which the telescope can divide for us, we see working 
-:the same familiar forces which govern the revolution of the planets of our own 
system. The spectrum analysis finds the vapors and the metals of earth in the 
aurora and in the nucleus of a comet. Similarly we have reason to believe that in 
the past condition of the earth, or of the earth's inhabitants, there were functions 
energizing of which we have no modern counterparts.— /^rowrf^. 

The grave-digging scene next engaged the attention of Partridge, who expressed 
much surprise at the number of sculls thrown upon the stage. To which Jones 
answered, "That it was one of the most famous burial-places about town." "No 
wonder then," cries Partridge, "that the place is haunted. But I never saw in my 
life a worse grave digger. I had a sexton when I was clerk that should have dug 
three graves while he is digging one. The fellow handles a spade as if it was the 
first time he had ever had one in his hand. Ay, Ay, you may sing. You had rather 
sing than work, I believe." Upon Hamlet's taking up the scull, he cried out, "Well, 
it is strange to see how fearless some men are; I never could bring myself to touch 
anything belonging to a dead man on any account. He seemed frightened enough 
too at the Ghost, I thought." — Fielding. 

WORDS TO BE SPELLED. 

Telegraphy, avaricious, orthoepy, diaeresis, gazetteer, tonnage, 
tillable, plantain, tureen, drollery, withe, jocund, perjurer, phthisis, 
;dessert, penguin, chaplain, gnostic, borough, bazaar. 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 121 

GRAMMAR. 
. ( Ninety minutes.) 

1. What are the principal parts of a verb? Why so called? 

2. Write five participles of the verb accuse. 

3. Write one sentence containing the pronouns I, you and he 
used correctly. Give reason, 

4. When are the following adjectives susceptible of comparison? 
dead, straight, equal, square, perfect. 

5. What tense represents an action as finished at or before a 
future time namied ? Give example. 

6. Diagram the following : 

Oh, what would I give, like a bird, to go 
Right on through the arch of the sunlit bow, 
And see how the water-drop.s are kissed, 
Into green and yellow and amethyst ! 

7. Parse words in italics. 

8. What is the value of grammar as a mental dicipline? 

9. Write sentences illustrating Hyperbole, Simile, Personification. 
10. Correct the following and give reasons : 

Will you forget me ; I who have always been your friend ? 

Who are you working for? 

I can not tell whether he has sold it or not. 

Our horse is very kind usually. 

I never read that book and never intend to. 

THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

(Fctrty-five minutes.) 

1. Write a short argument for or against free text-books. 

2. Should pupils, not in class, be allowed to ask questions during 
recitations ? Give reasons. 

3. What rules of order do you require to be observed at recess ? 

4. Name three duties of the teacher to the Board of Directors. 

5. What do you learn from those who have been your pupils? 

6. Define Pedagogics. 

7. How long ought a person to teach school ? 

8. What measures do you adopt to promote the health of your 
pupils ? 

9. Should a teacher have oversight of the play-ground during 
reoess ? Give reasons. 

10. Ought a teacher to use tobacco in any form ? Give reasons. 

GEOGRAPHY. 
( Forty-five minutes.) 

1. Name and bound the County in which you reside. What is 
its County Seat. 

2. Name five Counties of Colorado in which the principal occu- 
pation is silver mining. 



122 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 

3. Which is longer, a solar or a siderial day? Explain. 

4. Name and describe three rivers in Africa, three lakes in. 
Europe, and three islands of Asia. 

5. Bound Brazil. 

6. A tree on the equator to-day, casts a shadow in what direc- 
tion ? Explain. 

7. Name and locate five capes^ on^.the Atlantic coast of the 
United States. 

8. What meridian separates the Eastern from the Western 
Hemisphere ? 

9 Name the State in which President Harrison was born and 
describe its surface. 

10. Give a topical plan for the study of the geography of the 
United States. 



EXHIBIT III. 



Questions for the Examination of Applicants for State Diplomas. 
Denver^ Colorado, fune 24, 2^, 26 a7id ^7, i8go. 



READING. 

1. What is the stan<dard of correct pronunciation adopted by 
good readers? 

2. Define Emphasis. Givej[^four guides for its use. 

3. What is the "nasal tone" and how may it be broken up? 

4. What are the advantages of class drill? 

5. Define Elocution, ToVhat extent should it be taught in the 
first eight grades of the public schools? 

ARITHMETIC. 

1. Define Least Common Multiple, Percentage, Involution Men- 
suration, Duodecimal. 

2. A cubical bin measuring 3 feet on an edge is \ full of wheat. 
What is the wheat worth at $i.i2j^ per cwt.? 

3. If I subtract 26.8946 from the product of 3. 002 by 9.0408 and 
divide the remainder by .0103608, what will be tke result? (Two 
places). 

4. A telegram is sent without loss of time, from Denver, at 11:30 
a. m., to New Orleans, Boston, |San Francisco andf Paris. At what 
time should it be received in each city? Ivongitude[as follows: Den- 
ver, 104° W.; New Orleans, 90° W.; Boston, 71°, 3^,!'3o^^ W.; San 
Francisco, 122°, 24^, 40'^ W,; Paris, 2°, 20^ E. 

5. If it requires i lb., 2 oz. of sugar to i lb., 4 oz. of fruit in'mak- 
ing jam, what will the sugar coct'at .08 per lb. for 48 lbs.[,of fruit? 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 128 

6. Define Trade Discount, Equation -of Payments, Proportion, 
Geometrical Progression. 

7. Prepare a problem in Compound Proportion and solve it. 

8. A merchant sold i of a lot of goods at 10^ profit; % at 20$^ 
profit, and Ye at 15^ profit. The remainder, on which he lost s%, ^^ 
sold for $1.42^. Did he gain or lose, and how much? 

9. A man bought a house and lot for |5,ooo agreeing to pay 6 per 
cent, interest, and to pay principal and interest in five equal annual 
installments; how much was the annual payment? 

10. If I pay I3 the first month, I9 the second month, $2^ the 
third month, and so on, how large a debt will I discharge in one year? 

ASTRONOMY. 

( Answer any eight. ) 

1. State two essential differences between a planet and a«tar, 

2. Show by a figure the meaning and practical value of stellar 
parallax. 

3. Define what is signified by "the proper motion of the stars." 

4. State at least two theories which have been proposed to ex- 
plain the observed uniformity of solar heat. 

5. Why are the sun and the moon not eclipsed every month; the 
former at new, and the latter at full moon? 

6. Give brief accounts of modern planetary discoveries. 

7. Give the current theory of Saturn's Rings; also state whett 
and by whom the moons of Mars were discovered. 

8. Explain the common phenomenon of "shooting stars." 

9. Show^ by the aid of a figure, how you might compute your 
latitude from the altitude, declination, and hour- angle of a star. 

10. As applied to the planets, what is meant by the phrase i 
"apparent retrograde motion"? 

GEOIvOGY AND MINERALOGY. 
( Answer any eight. ) 

1. Sketch the various geological ages, giving a main characteris- 
tic of each, from azoic rocks to the age of man. 

2. What parts have fire and water respectively taken in the 
earth's construction? 

3. Trace the progress of organic life (plants and animals,) from 
its origin in primitive invertebrates to its completion in man. 

4. How are mountains uplifted and formed, and how sculptured 
to their present forms? 

5. What proofs have we of the sea bottom having been elevated 
to the highest land ? 

6. How are fossils formed, and what are their principal uses in 
Geology? 

7. Into what classes are minerals divided, chemically speaking ?' 

8. To which of these classes do most Colorado ores belong ? 



124 SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE 



9. What minerals constitute the ores of lead? 

10. What are the characteristics of the gems, as distinguished 
from other minerals? 

PSYCHOLOGY. 

( Answer any eight. ) 

1. Discuss the general relations of psychology to education. 

2. Sketch briefly the development of the human mind and its 
tendencies in lines of heredity. 

3. What are the Laws of Association, briefly stated, and how do 
we account for sudden apparent departures from these laws? 

4. Attention is what? Discuss it in degree, extent, relation to 
the will, etc. 

5. What is an act of knowledge and on what is it founded ? 

6. l^iscuss acts of knowledge based on representation in whole 
or in part. 

7. What is an idea, and how is it made of value to the world ? 

8. Discuss the emotional in our natures and show why it is essen- 
tial to the good citizen. 

9. What is the will ? Trace an action as the result of the will 
back to its inception. 

10. How may a study of psychology aid one in developing char- 
acter in pupils. 

GRAMMAR. 

" Deerslayer knew too well the desperate nature of the struggle in 
which he was engaged, to lose one of the precious moments. He 
also knew that his ouly hope was to run in a straight line, for as soon 
as he began to turn, or double, the greater number of his pursuers 
would put escape out of the question." 

1. Diagram or analyze the above. 

2. Write each verb with its object or complement. 

3. Compare well, precious, straight, soon, greater. What part 
of speech is each of these words? 

4. Parse the words used as connectives. 

5. Give the syntax of the infinitive phrases. 

6. Write a sentence: a. Containing a verb in the potential mode 
and past perfect tense; d. Containing as used as a pronoun; c. Con- 
taining did used as an adverb. 

7. What modifications have pronouns? 

8. Write the possessive singular and plural of goose, executrix, 
priest, man-servant, wife. 

9. Name ten cases where a capital letter should be used. 
10. Copy the following sentences, correcting all errors: 

1. the prince of wales is the Heir to the english Throne. 

2. You do not recite good 

3. We live at New York in a hotel. 

4. Have you ever met with this gentleman before? 



SUPERINTENDENT PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 125 

5. I question if you are right in your statement. 

6. A long and short vowel occurs in this word. 

7. This is a magnificent slate pencil. 

8. The men, the horses, and the dogs which were engaged 

in the hunt rushed into the open field. 

9. Some one cried out as if they were in pain. 
10. The right hand is usually the strongest. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

1. Define zone. Name the zones on the earth's surface, giving 
location and width of each. What determines the width? 

2. Name and locate five groups of oceanic islands. 

3. Name and locate the cities in the United States having a popu- 
lation of 300,000 or more. 

4. Give directions for drawing a map of Kentucky. 

5. What may be learned from a knowledge of the rivers of a 
country? 

6. Locate the following and designate each as capital or metrop- 
olis: Lincoln, Bismark, Olympia, Pierre, Helena, Portland, Cheyenne, 
Boise City, Carson, Prescott. 

7. How do you account for the good harbors on the Pacific coast 
of the Western Continent? 

8. What form the commercial routes of Eastern Europe? 

9. From what European States is each of the following products 
exported: Wheat, wine, zinc, fish, lace? 

10. Is the greater portion of Africa north or south of the equator? 
Where are its principal mountains? 

SCHOOL LAW. 

1. How and from what sources is money derived for the support 
of the public schools? 

2. What are the duties of each school director? 

3. How is a new school district organized? 

4. When and for what purpose is the school census taken? 

5. Name five of the powers given by law to the directors of first 
and second-class districts, that are not given to directors of the third- 
class. 

ENGLISH LITERATURE. 
(Answer any eight.) 

1. In what year did the Anglo-Saxons invade Britain? What 
poetry, if any, did they bring from the continent? What is most 
noteworthy in the mechanism of Teutonic verse ? 

2. D