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^nibersiitp of igortf) Carolina
Collection of J^ortl) Caroliniana
(Snlioto cb hv
lofjn ^prunt llill
of the Class of 1889
t/'^"--^^-^ '•: W''.:
This bookmust not be
taken from the Library
North Carolina Department
From December 1, 1922
To November 30, 1924
MEMBERS STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE
1. W. A. Graham, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman
2. F. P. Latham, First District 4. W. B. McLelland, Eighth District
3. W. A. Brown, Third District 5. Clarence Poe, Fourth District
6. K. W. Barnes, Secretary and Purchasing Agent
MEMBERS STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE
1. Edith K. Vanderbilt, Tenth District
2. R. W. Scott, Fifth District
3. J. Vance McGougan, Sixth District
4. J. J. Harris, Second District
5. C. C. Wright, Seventh District.
6. O. Max Gardner, Ninth District
North Carolina Department
From December 1, 1922
To November 30, 1924
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
December 12, 1924.
To His Excellency, Cameeon Morrison,
Governor of North Carolina.
Sir: — In compliance witli section 3944 of the Revisal o£ 1905, I
submit the following report of the operations of the Department of
Agriculture for the years 1922-24, to be transmitted to the Legislature
with such reference as you may deem necessary for the public welfare.
G omm/ission&r of Agriculture.
OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE STATE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE
W. A. Graham, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh
F. P. Latham, Belhaven First District
J. J. Harris, Macon Second District
W. A. Brown, Rocky Point Third District
Clarence Poe, Raleigh Fourth District
R. W. Scott. Haw River Fifth District
J. Vance McGougan, Fayetteville Sixth District
C. C. Wright, Hunting Creek Seventh District
W. B. McClelland, Stony Point Eighth District
O. Max Gardner, Shelby Ninth District
Mrs. Edith Vanderbilt. Biltmore Tenth District
OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES
W. A. Graham .Commissioner
K. W. Barnes Secretary and Purchasing Agent
Mrs. Carl Hill Bookkeeper
Miss Mary Knight Stenographer
Experiment Station and Extension Service
B. W. Kilgore Director
F. E. Miller Assistant Director Branch Experiment Stations
( Vacancy ) State Agricultural Chemist
W. G. Haywood Fertilizer Chernst
E. S. Dewar Assistant Chemist
Z. B. Bradford Assistant Chemist
C. L. Williams , Assistant Chemist
E. F. Hord Assistant Chemist
D. M. Jeffress Assistant Chemist
J. O. Halverson Feed Chemist
L. M. Nixon Assistant Chemist
H. A. Dickert Assistant Chemist
F. W. Sherwood Assistant Chemist
Miss M. S. Birdsong Secretary
H. H. Brimley Curator
Harry T. Davis Assistant
William Moore Veterinarian
C. P. Caldwell Assistant
L. J. Faulhaber Assistant
Miss Hattie Bell „ Stenographer
4 Officers and Employees
Animal iNDtrsTBY Division
R. S. Curtis Acting Chief
J. A. Arey In Cliarge, Dairy Extension
A. C. KiMEEY Assistant Dairy Specialist
W. L. Clevengek Assistant Dairy Specialist and Instruction
F. R. Faenham Assistant Dairy Specialist, Production Work
H. L. Wilson Assistant Dairy Specialist, Swiss Cheese Work
W. A. Graham Assistant Dairy Specialist, Cheddar Cheese Work
W. W. Shay In Charge, Swine Extcnf^ipn
W. V. Hays Assistant Swine Specialist
G. P. William Sheep Specialist
Earl H. HosTETLER....In Charge, Office of Swine Investigations and Instruction
L. H. McKay Assistant, Office of Swine Investigations and Instruction
Vernon M. Williams In Charge, Office of Dairy Investigations
Allen G. Oliver In charge, Office of Poultry Extension
E. G. Wardin Assistant, Office of Poultry Extension
Miss Nellie Fort Secretary, Animal Industry Division
Miss Edna Walborn Stenographer
Miss Lillian Bender Stenographer
Division of Agronomy
Dr. R. Y. Winters Plant Breeding Agronomist
W. F. Pate In Charge, Soil Fertility Investigations
L. G. Willis „ _ Soil Chemist
E. C. Blair Extension Agronomist (Soil and Crops)
P. H. KiME Assistant Plant Breeder
G. M. Garren Grain Specialist
H. B. Mann Assistant in Soil Fertility
S. K. Jackson Assistant in Soil Fertility
S. F. Davidson Assistant in Soil Survey
W. A. Davis Assistant in Soil Survey
H. A. McGee (Tobacco) Extension Agronomist
Division of Entomology
Franklin Sherman Chief in Entomology
R. W. Leiby Assistant Entomologist, Investigations
C. S. Brimley Assistant, Investigations
T. B. Mitchell Assistant, Inspections and Field Work
J. C. Crawford Assistant, Investigations
J. A. Harris Assistant, Investigations
W. B. Mabee , Assistant, Extension
C. L. Sams Beekeeping Extension
Miss Jessie Almer Marion Clerk
Division of Horticulture
C. D. Matthews Chief
Robert Schmidt Vegetable Culture
W. A. Radspinner „ Pomology
C. F. Williams , „ Research
G. O. Randall Extension Work
H. R. Niswonger Extension Work
Mrs. O. H. Bishop Stenographer
Officers and Employees 5
Food and Oil Division
W. M. Allen State Food and Oil Chemist and Chief of Division
L. B. Rhodes Assistant Food and Gasoline Chemist
W. A. Queen Assistant Food and Linseed Oil Chemist
E. W. Constable Assistant Gasoline Chemist
M. A. Townsend Clerk and Assistant Chemist
C. R. Warlick Food and Sanitary Inspector
F. T. Ward Oil and Gasoline Clerk
S. G. Allen - General Clerk
Sallie F. Palmer Clerk and Stenographer
Division of Botany
J. L. Burgess , Botanist
Miss Susie Allen Seed Analyst
Miss Gussie Finch Assistant Seed Analyst
Miss Grace Stone Assistant Seed Analyst
Miss Kate Ballard Assistant Seed Analyst
Markets and Rural Organizations
George R. Ross Chief
R. B. Etheridge Specialist in Farm Crops
Albert E. Mercker Specialist in Fruits and Vegetables
G. R. Blount Specialist in Marketing Fruits and Vegetables
J. I. Johnson Cotton Grading
J. P. Brown Warehouse Inspection and Oi^ration
A. V. Anderson Credit Unions
V. W. Lewis Livestock Marketing Specialist
H. R. PowLEDGE Chief Clerk
W. L. Nelson Telegraph Operator
Miss Mabel Haynes Stenographer
Mrs. J. N. Mason Stenographer
Miss Elizabeth Moore Stenographer
Division of Agricultural Economics
Frank Parker Agricultural Statistician
William H. Rhodes, Jr Assistant Statistician
E. B. Morrow Assistant Statistician
Mrs. Katherine W. Haig Record Clerk
Mrs. Ella R. Simpson Filing Clerk
Mrs. Polk Denmark Mailing Clerk
Mrs. Rebecca W. Horton Census Clerk
F. H. Jeter Agricultural Editor
A. O. Alford Assistant Editor
Mrs. J. S. Whiteneb _ ^ Stenographer
Miss Thelma Owens Clerk
6 Officers and Employees
E. R. Rainey Farm Building and Equipment
Miss Louise B. Wright Stenographer
H. M. CURRAN Farm Forestry Specialist
R. E. Ourrin, Jr Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C.
F. T. Meacham Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C.
S. C. Clapp Superintendent Buncombe Test Farm, Swannanoa, N. 0.
Charles Dearing Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C
E. C. Moss Superintendent Granville Test Farm, Oxford, N. C.
J. L. Rea, Jr Superintendent Washington Farm, Wenona, N. O.
REPORT OF COMMISSIONER
Upon the death of my beloved father, who served the State as Com-
missioner of Agriculture continuously from September, 1908, till Decem-
ber, 1923, you saw fit to place the responsibilities of the office in my
Stimulated by a desire to emulate the achievements of my father,
whose work, now passed into history, was made possible by the wise
counsel of his board and loyal cooperation of his stafL I decided to
accept the challenge of service and trust to you for support in carrying
forward the great work of the Department not only along present lines
but into new and relatively unexplored fields of activity.
Since we last met, Hon. A.. Cannon, for over twenty years a member
of the board, has been taken from us. He was devoted to the agricultural
interests of the State; efficient and loyal, and his wise counsel will be
sadly missed. Mrs. Edith K. Vanderbilt of Buncombe County was ap-
pointed to fill this vacancy.
While the State is justly proud of the record of progress made by our
board and its former Commissioner, there are yet vast territories to
conquer before we shall reach our goal of financial independence for
agriculture in Worth Carolina.
I use the term "financial independence" advisedly. Our. country
people, as a rule, have ample food supplies, but have little money. They
have learned to produce bountifully, but since for years much of this
bounty, beyond household necessities, has been forced to decay at the
point of production, our farmers have found it wise to curtail produc-
tion in certain lines, in sheer self-defense, with the result that our
large consuming centers have been compelled to draw their food sup-
plies largely from outside sources, thus depriving I^orth Carolina of mil-
lions of dollars that rightfully belong in the pockets of North Carolina
Practicax, Marketixg the Paramount JSTeed at this Time
By a survey of the agricultural conditions in this State, I am driven
to the conclusion that we are making a one-sided economic development.
We are forcing theoretical instruction too far ahead of practical achieve-
ment. To illustrate, we have been teaching our farmers to build modern
potato houses without creating a set of market conditions to prevent the
potatoes from rotting from too long a storage period. We have shown
the farmer the advantages of purebred stock and enabled him to pro-
duce the best of farm animals only to glut the local market and smother
his ambitions in the excess of his own productions. You, yourself, will
recall similar examples of this unbalanced economic condition in our
8 BiENisriAi. Report
Wider Markets Imperative
Our farmers have, as a body, always been out of toucb with our
large consuming centers; but, witb our superb transportation system
about complete, and with, a vigorous campaign under way to organize
tbe farmers into industrial groups for marketing purposes, we should
soon begin to make inroads upon the leading markets of the country.
We have no criticism of the theoretical teaching that has gone before,
but we insist that the time has now arrived to reduce our theories to
practice; and that it is a cruel and short-sighted policy that fosters in-
creased production without providing for a parallel increase in the re-
turns from this production.
Through our Market Division we have determined to concentrate the
efforts and energies of this Department on the one object of finding the
best markets for the products of the farm. To this end we have secured,
as Chief of this Division, the services of George R. Ross, of Moore
County. Mr. Ross is a native of ISTorth Carolina; a graduate of the
A. and E. College; a young man full of energy and enterprise, and well
equipped for the duties he has been engaged to perform.
While the details of the Market Division will be arranged by Mr,
Ross and the different lines of activity largely determined by him and
his staff, I might outline to you one or two features of the work to show
you the proposed practicability of the efforts of this division. The far-
mers close to the larger cities generally have a fair local market, but
those in the back country are at a distinct disadvantage even with our
system of good roads. It is here that our best work in this line can be
done. In these remote sections our market man will stimulate the pro-
duction of surplus hogs, or cattle, or poultry, or potatoes far beyond
what can be disposed of in the immediate section. Ten farmers, say,
in one of these communities will raise and fatten six more hogs each
than they have been able, heretofore, to market. Sixty hogs will make
a carload. Our market specialist will be in touch with the nearest
packing house. The hogs will be ready for delivery on demand after
ISTovember first, we will say. When the market is ready all of these hogs
will be delivered at one point and shipped and the net proceeds pro-
rated among the farmers by our .market specialist.
We will not be able to guarantee any definite price for any length of
time, but we will be able to get the best price prevailing at the time of
shipment. There is a packing house in Richmond and one in Atlanta
and one is being built in Asheville.
These carload shipments could be repeated any number of times and
with a dozen different farm products, and hundreds of thousands of dol-
lars distributed throughout sections of the State where it is not now
thought possible to place a dollar. Through our Market Division, we ex-
pect, within the next year or two, to be able to say to the farmers, "you
grow the stuff and we will sell it for you."
COMMISSIONEK OF AgRICULTUKE
There is anotlier work of deep interest to our agriculture, and that ia
Section 4686, Vol. 2. of the Consolidated Statutes of 1919 reads as
follows : ''The Department of Agriculture shall investigate and report
upon the condition of the timber in jSTorth Carolina and recommend
such legislation as will promote the growth thereof and preserve the
In order to bring out, in greater relief, the vital importance of main-
taining and preserving our timber supply, I wish to call your attention
to some of the relationships existing between the farmer's wood lot
and our leading industrial enterprises. And first I wish to call your
attention to the use of the woods in the manufacture of :
Vehicles and Machinery
We have at various important centers of the State, as at "Wilson,
Durham, and Hickory important buggy and wagon manufacturing in-
dustries. These call for the best young growth of hickory for axles and
shafts, and first-class hickory and white oak for axles, double and single
For use in the manufacture of vehicles and various farm machinery,
hickory and oak are invaluable products of the farm.
Some days ago I noted with pleasure that the paper interests were
seriously considering the location of a number of pulp mills in this State
to use up the usual fifty per cent of the tree that goes to waste in getting
•out logs for the sawmills.
We have in ISTorth Carolina woods that can be made into every grade
of paper from the coarsest wrapping paper to the most delicate tinted
note paper, and at Canton, this State, there is now a very large pulp
plant that makes from the different woods of the mountains the best
news-print to be found in the fifteen and one-half billion yearly circula-
tion of America's newspapers and periodicals. The white pine, the
chestnut, and various oaks are among the timbers thus used in the
daily spread of information among the American people, and Western
North Carolina is peculiarly adapted to the growth of these woods.
We have not yet found anything to take the place of tannic acid in
the manufacture of leather. While metallic salts and certain oils are
used to a limited extent in the preparation of hides, the great leather in-
dustry of the United States is mainly dependent upon tannic acid ex-
tracted from the oak, chestnut, and hemlock barks as found in Western
10 Biennial Report
iSTorth Carolina, tlie gathering of whicli has, for years, constituted a
more or less remunerative springtime industry for the farmers of this
section of the State.
The Cotton Mills
So far as I am informed, every shuttle that plies in every loom in
every one of our thousands of cotton mills is made of either persimmon
wood or dogwood, and, practically, every farmer in the Piedmont and
Mountain sections of North Carolina has a few of these trees on his
farm. These woods are of vast importance to the cotton industry of
this State and the country at large, and, being woods of exceedingly slow
growth should be scrupulously protected and allowed to occupy all lands
that do not lend themselves easily to cultivation.
There is a close relationship between farm forestry and the year-
round maintenance of high voltage in our hydro-electric power plants.
While our larger streams have their rise on the wooded side of our
mountains, where a gradual run-off is maintained throughout most of
the year, they receive most of their supply of water from small streams
that are fed from springs and intermittent showers throughout the
partially cleared lands of the Piedmont section. Most of the water
impounded behind the great dams at Badin on the Yadkin and behind
those of the Southern Power Company on both the Yadkin and
Catawba rivers, is gathered by these streams after they have left Wilkes-
boro and Old Port.
It is important, therefore, as an indirect aid to the industrial power
development of the State, that our farmers in the Piedmont section
early learn the importance of properly conserving their forest areas
along the small streams and thus aid in the year-round, continuous
water supply to the big industrial power plants that should, in turn,
aid in producing a market for their products.
Of course the intimate relationship between railroad transportation
and farm forestry is apparent to every one who has ever observed at
the little way-side stations and sidings the endless piles of ties for build-
ing and repairing the roads. The preservation, then, of our young oak
growths, on lands otherwise useless, is of great importance throughout
Piedmont ISTorth Carolina.
The Furniture Industry
The second city in the United States in furniture production is High
Point. Just what percentage of the lumber used in the production of
this furniture is produced in ISTorth Carolina I do not know, but I am
Commissioner of Agriculture 11
sure that the maple, the walnut, the poplar, the ash, the oak, the cedar,
the pine, and much o£ the cherry used by these mills should be grown
and cut from the waste acres on the farms of this State. And High
Point is but one town in which first-class furniture is made. You can
name a dozen other towns, such as Mebane, Thomasville, Worth Wilkes-
boro and Statesville, where the wood-working industry is of first-class
The fame of our once magnificent forests along the coast has now
passed into history, and we have only the stumps to remind us that
lumbering and the gathering of naval stores once formed the principal
industry of nearly half the area of the State.
But we must still have lumber ; and the most practical way I can see
to get it in sufficient and dependable quantity is for each farmer to grow
all he can on his waste acres surrounding his fields.
I am told it takes but thirty years to grow a pine tree from the seed
to a saw log a foot and a half thick. If then, we could grow the ideal
acre of 200 trees and have them average 400 feet of lumber to the tree,
and this lumber should be worth $30 the lowest price it sells for today,
the acre would yield the farmer $2,400 or an average of $80 an acre for
each of the thirty years. With what other crop can he do so well ?
I have said nothing of the importance of farm forestry to the fuel
supply of both the farm and the city. Every one knows of its vital con-
nection with the fuel supply.
In 1921 there were 190 telephone companies in ISTorth Carolina operat-
ing 337 exchanges connecting 39,731 business and 63,706 residence
phones with 25,507 miles of wire. With fifty telephone posts to the
mile, and this is a low average, this mileage requires 1,275,350 posts to
support the lines. The only durable woods we have for telephone posts
are black locust, red cedar and juniper. As time goes on the wisdom
of conserving these three woods for fence and telephone posts will
become increasingly apparent.
In the forests and parks of Portugal, there is everywhere displayed a
sign which makes a tree speak thus to the wayfarer and to humanity :
"Ye who pass by and would raise your hand against me. hearlven ere you
"I am ttie heat of your hearth on the cold winter nights, the friendly shade
screening you from the summer sun, and my fruits are refreshing draughts
quenching your thirst as you journey on.
"I am the beam that holds your house, the board of your table, the bed
on which you lie, and the timber that builds your boat.
12 Biennial Report
"I am the handle of your hoe, the door of j'our homestead, the wood of your
cradle, and the shell of your coffin.
"I am the bread of kindness and the flower of beauty.
"Ye who pass me by. listen to my prayer : Harm me not."
In my address before tlie State Forestry Association a year ago at
"Washington, N. C, I called attention to the following facts :
I find by an examination of the records that in 1923 ISTorth Carolina
contained 334,448 acres in JNTational forests, 300 acres in State forests,
1,225 acres in State Parks, and 2,200 acres belonging to State Institu-
tions, half of which was, perhaps, in forest growths.
The report of the last census shows that in 1912-14-15 ISTorth Caro-
lina ranked fourth as a timber producing state, but that in 1920 it
ranked ninth in this respect.
There is little doubt that much more extensive and profitable forest
areas can be created and maintained in I^orth Carolina than we find
here today. The census of 1920 shows that we had in ISTorth Carolina
at that time 8,240,795 acres of improved farm lands and 11,805,619
acres of unimproved farm lands. Of course, all of these unimproved
acres of farm lands were not set to timber, but, as a rule, we all know
that throughout ISTorth Carolina abandoned lands are pretty soon re-
seeded and set to young forest growths; and we could hardly be in-
correct if we should state that at least one-half of these unimproved acres
are partly set to young forest growths at present. Many of these unim-
proved acres represent lands that were cleared in the early history of
the State, then "worn out" and abandoned.
In recent years, however, we have learned that it is much easier and
cheaper, by the use of modern methods, to revive these abandoned tracts
and bring them into a high state of cultivation than to clear virgin
territory, take out the stumps, subdue its wild nature, and reduce it to
easily tillable land. We find, therefore, a wide-spread tendency on the
part of our farmers to allow old lands that have become fairly well set
to forest growths to remain so occupied, and turn their attention to the
reclaiming of lands that were once thought too poor to plow.
Of course there is much land surface in the State that is too steep
and too rocky to be disturbed by the plow and these areas must of neces-
sity remain in timber. It appears, therefore, that in these regions only
the service of the expert forester in managing the annual cut of mature
timber would be required^ but throughout the more level areas of the
State there are many cases in which these old lands might better be
left to reforestation, either by artificial or by natural agencies, and
thus extend our forest areas.
There are some things, however, that work against this increase of
forest areas in the more level parts of the State. Of course, as popula-
tions increase more land must be brought under cultivation; but this
tendency may be largely offset, or, at least, its progress greatly retarded,
by the fact that scientific agriculture has already, and will in the future,
Commissioner of Agriculture 13
enable the farmer to produce as mucli on one acre as he produced on
five thirty years ago. The farmer, however, is faced with this one
economic proposition that is difficult for him to get around, namely : that
all of his acres are taxed alike, and that since taxes must be paid every
year all of his acres should be made to produce enough to support
themselves, at least to the extent of paying the taxes annually required.
It would seem, therefore, that if our Legislatures could devise a means
whereby newly forested lands, which cannot produce any revenue
whatever under twenty to thirty years, could take a lower rate of taxa-
tion than those under improvement, or which are set to well matured
forests, our farmers would be encouraged to cultivate fewer acres more
intensively and allow all poorer acres to become set in forest growths for
the production of timber and fuel in the years to come.
The terms of the following members of the board expire March first :
First District, F. P. Latham, Belhaven; Fourth District, Clarence Poo,
Raleigh; Seventh District, C. C. Wright, Hunting Creek; Tenth Dis-
trict, Mrs. Edith K. Yanderbilt, Biltmore.
Following are the biennial reports of the different divisions of the
Department of Agriculture which will show the different lines of work
of the Department and the progress made since 1922 :
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir: — I beg to present herewith a brief report of the work of the
Division of Agricultural Chemistry for the two years,, December 1, 1922
to N'ovember 30, 1924 :
The Analytical Division can make a report of considerable progress
during the past two years. Its new laboratories have recently been
completed and equipped with substantial laboratory tables, desk and
other necessary permanent equipment. With our new quarters and
with the new equipment installed, we feel that greatly increased effi-
ciency and service will follow.
Analyses of fertilizers and various fertilizer materials, cottonseed
meal, soils and miscellaneous products of an agricultural nature have
been made in the usual way and with satisfactory results, the results hav-
ing been published at the usual times in the bulletin of the Department,
with such comm.ents and information as seemed desirable and of interest
and value to those interested in these materials.
The amount and kind of chemical work done in the laboratory during
the two years— December 1, 1922 to JSTovember 30, 1924, is given in the
following summary of analyses made in that time.
Official samples of fertilizers 4,000
Fertilizers and fertilizer materials for farmers 480
Cottonseed meal 450
Limes, limestones, and marls 110
Mineral waters 55
) Respectfully submitted,
W. Gr. Haywood,
THE BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATIONS
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — I am submitting lierewitli a report for the Branch Experiment
Stations to be published in the biennial report of the Department
of Agriculture. I trust this will meet with your approval.
This report will be in the form of a summary of the many lines of
investigational work being conducted on the central and seven branch
experiment stations. Special emphasis will be given to the kinds of
work on the different stations due to their locations and to the improve-
ments and notable results since the last biennial report. A detail re-
port of projects will be covered in the following reports of the subject-
The stations are very favorably located to render service to the farm-
ers over the State. The Central and Swine Research Station at Ealeigh
deal with strictly research projects and some of the more general farm
problems. The six outlying stations are located on the principal soil
regions of the State and are concerned with the problems of their respec-
tive regions. At present 176 approved projects are being conducted on
the experiment stations. These relate directly or indirectly to practi-
cally every phase of agTiculture, and the solution of these problems is
important to the future development of a successful agriculture.
Cea^tral Experimekt Station — Kai^eigh
The program of work on this station is to deal with problems of a
research nature as it offers better equipped laboratories for technical
studies. Some of the more general farm problems are also dealt with.
The station being located adjacent to the State College gives the agri-
cultural students the opportunity of studying the different experimental
projects under way.
The outstanding research problem of the Animal Industry Division
is to determine the effect of cotton meal upon the growth and reproduc-
tion of cows. Some very striking results have been obtained from this
experiment which will have much influence on the amounts of cotton-
seed meal that can safely be used in dairy rations. The early results
have shown that feeding excessive amounts of cottonseed meal causes
abortion, weak calves and soft bone, and that the milk produced from
cows receiving such rations fails to produce normal growth with calves.
During the past year the cottonseed meal was supplemented in various
ways by the use of calcium carbonate, butter fat, cod liver oil, yeast,
mineral steam bone meal and wheat, embry, and with the view of deter-
mining the cause of the ill-effect in feeding excessive amounts of cotton-
16 Biennial Report
The poultry work deals with, diseases of fowls, breeding studies, feed-
ing tests, marketing experiments, problems in incubation, and studies of
the general pathology of the fowl. Much valuable information has been
secured from these tests which is used by the poultrymen of the State,
and in the poultry class at the State College.
The agronomy tests include seed selection and improvement, variety
tests, fertilizer studies. The information gained here is used in advising
general farm practices for the section and classroom studies.
Swine Research Station — Eaxeigh
The station of seventy-six acres is located just South of Raleigh, and
is given over entirely to investigational work with swine. The brick
buildings formerly used by the Veterinary Division for making serum
have been rearranged to meet the requirements of the swine work making
available a nutrition barn, farrowing barn, feed barn and laboratory
which includes room for slaughtering, curing meat, mixing feed, and
office. The farm has been arranged into a system of pastures and feeding
lots, which as a whole is ideal for swine experimental work.
The problem of "Soft Pork" is given first consideration in the inves-
tigational work, and the following projects are being conducted :
To determine the length of time necessary to make pigs soft on pea-
nuts, and the length of time necessary to harden them after they have
been made soft.
For effect of various amounts of peanuts on body carcasses, ten pigs
sixty to eighty pounds in weight were fed individually for approximately
one hundred and fifteen days.
For effect on body carcass of the same quantity of peanuts being
fed to each pig, four pigs averaging 125 pounds each were individually
fed for about one hundred and ninety-five days.
The adequacy of the protein in peanut meal for supporting growth
when fed properly otherwise supplemented ration was tried on a sixty
For the effect on body carcass of rice feeding following peanut
feedings, pigs of weaning age are being used.
To determine the effect upon carcasses of seventy-five to one hundred
pigs which have been fed peanuts or soybeans for eight weeks, with a
subsequent feeding on corn and tankage for twelve weeks. The results,
show that pigs fed peanuts or soybeans for eight weeks followed by a
feeding period of twelve weeks on corn and tankage did not kill out
Other tests in determining the cost of raising pigs to weaning age (8
weeks), and feeding tests in connection with pasture crops are under
The Duroc Jersey breed of swine is used exclusively on the station and
sufficient number of brood sows are maintained to raise all pigs re-
quired for the different investigations.
Commissioner of Agriculture 17
Blackland Experiment Station — Wenona
This station is located on a typical area of the black lands which
extend from Virginia well down in Eastern ISTorth Carolina. One of
the largest developments in the last few years have been on these lands.
"With the drainage canals and lateral ditches thousands of acres of this
fertile soil have been cleared and brought into cultivation, which has
attracted many settlers from outside the State. Much information is
needed on the methods of handling these muck soils for best crop re-
sults, and the work on the station is planned with the view of working
out a practical solution of some of the fundamental problems confront-
ing the blackland farmers.
Drainage. — The drainage investigations have proven the value of the
tile drainage for these muck soils. This was doubtful at the beginning
of the test for two reasons; one that with the extremely flat grade re-
quired in laying such tile it would tend to fill up because of muck seeping
through; the other, that as this black soil settles the tile lines would
sag out of grade and thus ruin the drainage. However, 3.6 miles of tile
are now in use on the station farm, and it works perfectly; some of the
lines have been in use for eight years. The size of tile ranges from
four to fifteen inches and is laid at a minimum depth of four feet. The
grade used varies from one-half to one inch per hundred feet. The
lines are spaced 330 feet apart; this being the standard spacing for all
open ditches in this section.
Agronomy. — Corn has been the only money crop so far tried that
succeeds well the first year after clearing, but the practice of contin-
uous cropping with corn, even though lime has been applied, tends to
decrease the original yield. More information is needed on the value
of fertilizers and crops that can be grown in rotation with corn. "With
this in view, a three-year fertilizer rotation test was started on the
station last year : the first year, corn ; second year, spring oats, followed
by soybeans for seed or hay ; third year, Irish potatoes, followed by soy-
beans for seed or hay. Considerable information was gained in the first-
year test, the oats and soybeans making a very favorable showing.
The lime test conducted further proved that lime is essential to the
production of corn and soybeans and that finely ground limestone is
better than marl or hydrated lime.
The fertilizer experiments indicate that stable manure, nitrate of
soda and kainit applied separately or in combination will increase the
yield of corn. Acid phosphate seems to have very little, if any, value
when used alone or in combination with other materials.
The experiments with truck crops, culture practices, hay crop, pas-
ture mixtures and seed improvement have been continued with favor-
Swine Investigations. — The hog work at the station probably at-
tracts m.ore attention than any other phase of the experimental work.
18 Biennial Repokt
The feeding experiments in 1922 proved that fish meal and shelled corn
were better than tankage and shelled corn from the standpoint of gain
This year soybean meal was tested against fish meal as to its feeding
value and tests to determine the best grazing crops for swine are under-
way and will be reported on in the next report.
The general crop land is planted to hay and oats and corn with the
view of producing sufficient feed for work-stock and supplying corn for
the extensive hog experiments. Under the present plan two carload of
hogs from the feeding tests will be marketed each year. The car of fifty
hogs shipped in August, 1924, brought 10% cents per pound in Rich-
mond which netted the station $1,052.80 after deducting freight and
Improveinents.- — The following items of improvements have been com-
pleted since the last report which will facilitate the economic manage-
ment of the station as a whole and greatly add to the general appearance.
ISTew engine and pump house, additional room, porch and bath-room on
tenant house, ISTo. 1 : Septic tank, 500 feet of water line to all hog lots,
fenced four acres additional hog lots, painted horse barn, corn crib,
seven hog farrowing houses, water tank and engine house ; new system of
fences around poultry lots and tenant houses; new central hog feeding
house, and new implement shed 34 x 60 feet with loft above for storage.
CoASTAx Plain Experiment Station — Willard
The experimental work at this station deals with the kind of farming
for the lower coastal plain region of the State, and much valuable infor-
mation has been secured from the many lines of investigational work
which is being used generally by the farmers of the section. The long
time experiments have been carried forward with good results. Several
new projects have been added to the program of work, and many im-
portant improvements have been made during the past two years.
New Undertahings. — The station has undertaken a project of grow-
ing narcissus bulbs. The Government embargo on these bulbs becomes
effective in 1926 thus shutting off an importation of 77,000,000 bulbs
annually. It is believed that no section of the country is better adapted
to the production of narcissus and the station is attempting to lead the
way, and at the same time gain experience which will permit it to advise
others who take up this industry. The station has purchased approxi-
mately 65,000 bulbs. These are being planted, and the flowers will be
sold annually to help defray maintenance costs. In 1926 mother bulbs
will be sold under a contract we now hold, and there will be left an ac-
cumulation of smaller bulbs that will permit a sale of mother bulbs
In cooperation with the Agronomy Division, a pasture experiment
consisting of ten different experimental plantings has been made; also
a seed breeding project has been started during the year for the improve-
COMMISSIONEK OF AGRICULTURE 19
ment of ISTorfolk Early Market corn (a leading truck crop of tlie sec-
tion), and Cokes Prolific corn, the variety of field corn recommended for
The station has purchased a four months old bull calf whose pedigree
includes the only two gold medal Jersey bulls south of the Mason and
Three acres of strawberries (a leading money crop of the section)
have been interplanted with the Muscadine utilization vineyard. This
demonstration of "two-story horticulture" has already attracted consider-
A collection of fifteen varieties of Japanese Persimmons, six varieties
of figs and three varieties of native plums have been added to the
One acre of dewberries has been planted which includes the important
varieties and will serve as a valuable demonstration for the section.
Improvements. — The improvements made during the past two years
have materially benefited the station and added to its efficiency. The
implement shed begun in 1922 was completed and put into use, and has
in addition to anticipated use, enabled a better handling of the annual
picnic crowds and the storage of surplus hay that would otherwise have
been stacked in the open. ISTew fences were placed about the dairy, and
additional fencing is underway around the calf lots and pasture. A
new building was added to the dairy group which furnishes the much
needed bull pens and maternity stalls. Some minor improvements in
the dairy barn proper were made to permit the daily removal of manure
from the barn to the fields in manure spreader without other handling.
In 1923 a field (which has been named the "Scott Field" in honor of
the member of the board championing the work) was taken in as farm-
ing land. This required tile drainage, as well as clearing. The result
was that this land heretofore idle, yielded thirty bushels of corn per acre
and a crop of soybeans and fodder to turn under. The work of clearing
and establishing the twenty-six acre permanent pasture has been com-
The poultry work has been enlarged by fencing three acres additional
in poultry runs and providing two new modern range houses. The ex-
perimental work made possible by this expansion will deal chiefly with
feeding tests in comparing the value of meat meal and milk in poultry
All buildings on the station have been repaired and painted which
greatly adds to the general appearance of the station as a whole.
The station is now furnished with electric lights, having connected
the electric plant at Wallace.
Notable Results. — The station had developed its dairy to the extent
that it was possible in the spring of 1923 to transfer a herd of twenty
animals to the Mountain Branch Station for the purpose of starting an
experimental dairy there.
20 Biennial Report
In the herd development work the first group of heifers matured J
shows an increased milk production over that of their dams. These "
daughters were sired by Eminent 19th, No. 78620, and have been bred
to Rumina's King, !N"o. 160969. One of the daughters (Lass G's Ola
"No. 49463) has just completed a test that qualifies her for the American
Jersey Cattle Club's Class AA silver medal. She also becomes State
Champion for her breed and State Class Champion for all breeds.
The tests with peanut meal vs. cottonseed meal for maturing heifers
shows that both feeds appear to grow the animals satisfactorily when
mixed with equal parts of crushed corn, oats and wheat bran.
In determining the value of home-mixed vs. ready-mixed feeds for
milk production, the results show home-mixed feeds are in a large ma-
jority of instances more palatable, produce more milk, and cost consider-
ably less per ton.
In the poultry marketing experiments simple rations as equal parts
corn meal and ground oats with milk give as good results as the more
complex and expensive mixtures.
Several new varieties of Muscadine grapes have been developed in the
grape breeding experiments which are very promising, and additional
information has been secured on the methods of pruning and training
also on the grape utilization work.
The fertilizer test of the Agronomy Division have yielded much data
on rotations and fertilizer, which is generally used by the farmers of the
section. The soybean selection work has progressed to the point of sup-
plying seed to the local farmers at a reasonable price.
The anthracnose project of the Botany Division indicates that the
disease is spread by the boll weevil.
The annual farmers' field day and picnic of the station as a means
of getting the station and farmers together proved a great event,
approximately 5,000 people attended the picnic in automobiles and the
trains, buggies and carts brought their quota. A program of appropri-
ate instruction was prepared, which was followed by inspection trips
over the work of the station.
Upper Coastal Plain Experiment Station — Rocky Mount
The program for work on this station has been maintained to the
extent that the most fundamental problems confronting the farmers of
the upper coastal plain region might be given first consideration. At
present boll weevil control, soil fertility, seed improvement, swine feed-
ing tests, cropping systems and horticultural investigations have been
deemed most important and the experiments now underway are care-
fully planned with the view of supplying new information to the farmers
of the section.
Agronomy (Field D). — The agronomy rotation experiment has been
continued and interesting data has been secured on the importance of
Commissioner of Agriculture 21
well planned rotations against continuous cropping with corn and cot-
ton. This test has been running several years, and will soon be ready for
This past spring a new series of fertilizer experiments were started
to determine the effect of different formula and applications on maturity
and yield of cotton under boll weevil conditions. The results for this
year showed considerable difference in first picking in favor of high or
reasonably high percentage of acid phosphate, and that a heavier appli-
cation of fertilizer than generally used is profitable. The cotton breed-
ing work is confined to Mexican Big Boll variety. The strain developed
here is meeting with much favor over the cotton growing area of the
State, especially in the coastal plain region and Eastern Piedmont, on
account of its uniformity, yield and length of staple. In the plant to
row tests this year many rows showed unusual production and a l/^g
inch staple. The station planted thirty-five acres this year using the
selected seed from last year's crop and will make close to thirty bales
in spite of the unfavorable weather conditions. The seed from this
cotton have been engaged in advance for planting purposes. Last
winter we distributed 800 bushels of purebred seed over the State from
the 1923 crop, and all reports from the parties using our seed were very
This year breeding work has been started with Latham's Double field
corn and Fulghum oats.
The work of producing important strains of seed of the better varie-
ties for the section and distributing them at a fair price to the farmers
in the section is proving a great factor in agricultural uplift.
Horticulture. — A year around farm garden is demonstrated on the
station showing the possibilities of having fresh vegetables for the table
at all seasons.
The variety pecan orchard yielded a heavy crop this year, and the
results were favorable in further proving the better varieties for the
upper coastal plain region, namely, Schley, Stuart, Alley, and Success.
The sweet potato seed selection and improvement work showed good
results, and one hundred bushels of improved Porto Eico and N'ancy
Hall seed potatoes were distributed to growers in Eastern ISTorth Caro-
lina last season. With the new modern sweet potato storage house com-
pleted in 1923, storage tests were conducted to determine best method
of storing sweet potatoes, also the storage qualities of different commer-
Swine Investigations. — ^With the purebred herd of Hampshire hogs
and the new equipment added last year, the feeding test this year have
furnished considerable information. As stated in the last report the
primary object of the hog work here is to determine the best method
and cost of carrying a purebred herd under average farm conditions.
This is to include the value of different feeds, pasture crops and utiliz-
ing all the so called waste from the farm. The experiments underway
22 Biennial Report
are: To determine tlie value of a combination of peanuts and sweet
potatoes and the effect on body carcass ; to determine tbe value of sweet
potatoes when fed to bogs ; to determine tbe value of bogging off corn
and soybeans grown togetber and tbe effect on tbe body carcass; to de-
termine tbe cost of raising pigs to weaning age under various conditions
and seasons; to determine tbe practicability of gleaning soybeans and
peanut fields witb pigs in pork production, and to determine tbe adapt-
ability of breeds of swine to various conditions in tbe State.
Tbe data from tbe sweet potato feeding test were especially noticeable.
Cull sweet potatoes were used in tbe first test wbicb bad very little, if
any, market value. Tbe results sbow tbat witb corn at $1 per busbel
and fish meal at $60 per ton, tbe cull sweet potatoes were worth 34
cents per busbel wben fed alone, and 25 cents per busbel wben fed witb
2 per cent corn. Tbe pigs were sold at a premium on tbe local market
because of their excellent quality.
In the second sweet potato test in 1923 pigs were turned into tbe field
and allowed to harvest the crop. They also had access to a self feeder
containing fish meal and mineral mixture. Because of dry weather that
year the yield of sweet potatoes was rather low, since the average area
harvested yielded only 105 bushels per acre, but despite this yield of
potatoes 360 pounds of pork per acre was produced, which is greater than
that from other crops of comparable yields, and in addition the pigs
handled in this way "killed out hard."
Improvements. — The improvements added during the past two years
have facilitated the handling of experimental and general cropwork,
and have increased tbe efficiency of the station as a whole.
A new modern central bog house has been constructed to take care of
the sows at farrowing time, and to provide space for individual dry lot
A new system of fencing has been installed for tbe hog pastures with
water connections in each lot.
Tbe four tenant bouses have been repaired, and are now in good con-
dition which will enable the farm to hold good labor. Two acres of
waste lands have been cleared and are now in grazing crops for the
A new fence has been built around the seven and one-half acre pecan
orchard which adds a great deal to tbe appearance, and provides addi-
tional hog pasture.
The drainage system on the back side of the farm has been improved
thereby bringing into cultivation several acres of land which heretofore
have been idle for want of drainage.
The main drainage ditch through the farm has been straightened and
made deeper which improves the drainage of the pecan orchard and most
of the cultivated lands.
A new and attractive office building was completed last spring fur-
nishing office space and laboratories for tbe administrative and investiga-
Commissioner of Agriculture 23
The superintendent's house has been enlarged and remodeled and is
now a very creditable farm home.
A landscape design has been prepared for the station grounds and
some progress has been made with the shrubbery plantings.
The general farm work is planned as near as possible to produce
feed for the farm work stock and the hog feeding experiments, and to
produce such money crops as may seem advisable.
"While the experimental work is given first consideration, it is im-
portant that our general farm work should be above the average, and
should serve as an example of good farm practises for the upper coastal
plain region. This station is having more calls than ever before for in-
formation, as the boll weevil has about convinced the farmer that it
will be necessary to do better farming than they have been doing.
The second annual field day was held last August with very gratifying
results, and it was voted to make this an annual big farmers day for the
section. About 2,000 people attended the meeting and all seemed very
much interested in the work of the station.
MoTJNTAiisr Experiment Station — Swannanoa
The mountain section of the State embraces the large high plateau >-
area extending from the Tennessee line, and including the irregular
chain of mountains known as the Blue Ridge. The average elevation
of these mountains is around 4,000 feet, although its highest peak,
Mount Mitchell, is 6,711 feet above the sea. The foot hills and river
valleys range from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in altitude, and the soils of this
area are very fertile, although the mountain sides, in many cases, are
cultivated profitably up to their summits.
The Mountain station is located in the Swannanoa River valley, on
the hard-surfaced road between Asheville and Black Mountain, with an
altitude of 2,600 feet. The mean annual temperature being 55.4 degrees,
and the annual precipitation 57.04 inches. The station consists of 305
acres which represent the typical soils of the region. This section has
great agricultural possibilities principally with fruit, truck crops,
dairying, poultry and pasture crops, and the work on the experimental
farm is planned with the view of developing these industries.
The work on the station has grown a great deal in the past two years,
and many improvements in the way of buildings and equipment have
been made. The two major projects added to the work are poultry and
dairy investigations; and modern equipment has been provided to take
care of these important projects. The horticultural work has been en-
larged, and two additional acres were planted with apples to further
provide for the fertilizer and pruning experiments.
Agronomy. — The fertilizer and rotation tests were carried forward
another year, and the results have furnished valuable information for
general farming in the section.
Field A. — Soil fertility and rotation studies with corn, wheat and
red clover. The results indicate that phosphoric acid, nitrogen and
24 " Biennial Report
lime are needed to produce large yields, and that phosphoric acid is
the foremost plant food requirement.
Field B. — Rotation and soil type tests showing the effect of continuous
cropping in comparison with well planned two and three-year rotations
where legumes are used.
Field D. — Rock phosphate tests in rotations of corn, wheat and red
clover. The results so far secured show that acid phosphate is a more
economical carrier of phosphoric acid than is rock phosphate on this
Field F. — Special potash test, in rotation, consisting of Irish potatoes,
corn, wheat and red clover. The different sources of potash used have
not materially affected the yield of potatoes, and the normal fertilizer
used of 800 pounds of an 8-4-6 seems to give best results.
Field Gr. — To compare phosphoric materials with a complete ferti-
lizer, with limestone and stable manure; the results indicate the lime-
stone and manure with fertilizers give better results than where ferti-
lizer is used alone.
The seed selection and improvement work has been mainly with soy-
beans, Haberlandt Wo. 38 and Biggs field corn, strain ]^o. 17. Tests are
also conducted with wheat, oats, and soybeans. The results have been
very favorable, and the station has been growing these improved seed
for distribution to the farmers of the section.
Horticulture. — The mountain region of the State offers great possi-
bilities as a leading horticultural area in the union, and the projects
underway at the station are to deal with the most fundamental problems.
The following experiments are underway which have already furnished
much information to the industry.
Apple Pruning. — This is one of the outstanding experiments of the
station, and will furnish much needed information on the value of
different systems and different amounts of pruning apple trees. The
results so far secured indicate that growers have been pruning too
severely, thereby causing a reduction in fruit production.
Other tests with apples are to determine the value of thinning on
the size of fruit and fruit-bud formation ; the value of different varieties,
cultural methods and fertilizers.
The work with peaches deals with varieties as to hardiness in Western
ISTorth Carolina. Attention is also given to value of small fruit varieties
and cultural methods.
The truck crop investigations include cabbage variety tests, Irish
potato seed production, Irish potato hill and tuber unit, seed selection
and vegetable garden studies. The results of the Irish potato seed pro-
duction indicate that Western ISTorth Carolina seed potatoes are superior
to JN'orthern grown seed for our spring crop in Eastern ISTorth Carolina.
Animal Industry. — The work on this station comprises poultry and
dairy investigations, and thoroughly modern plants have been provided
to handle each department.
Commissioner of Agrictjltuke 25
The poultry plant which was completed last year is a very creditable
addition to the station and consists of the following : five-room dwelling
for poultryman, incubator house with feed room and laboratory com-
bined, four 16' X 24' brooder houses, one 20' x 50' half monitor house for
the breeding flock, one 20' x 100' half monitor laying house, and ten
acres of land fenced into poultry lots for grazing. The poultry work is
to deal with the problems peculiar to the mountain section, and the
following experiments are under way:
1. "Studies in building up a farm flock." The breeding flocks, two in
number, consist of single-comb Ehode Island Eeds and single-comb
White Leghorns. The two flocks contain 150 hens each, with 12 cockerels.
Twelve hens laid during the past year between 200 and 258 eggs each,
several of which were State records.
2. Feeding tests are being conducted to determine the kinds and
amounts of feed for the breeding flocks.
3. The range experiments are to determine the methods of handling
and the suitability of different pasture crops per chickens in the moun-
tain section of the State.
4. One unit of 500 single-comb White Leghorns is maintained as an
experimental commercial unit.
5. Incubation experiments in connection with the two breeding flocks
are carried on in view of developing high producing flocks.
6. Studies in determining the cost of putting birds into the laying
house by ISTovember 1st are under way.
7. Fattening tests are being conducted to determine the value of milk
feeding young chickens before marketing.
8. Studies are made in the cost of marketing eggs and poultry.
The poultry work for the year gave very satisfactory results, and
further indicates that it is a profitable industry for the mountain sec-
tion of the State, if handled in an intelligent manner.
The dairy work which was started in the spring of 1923 is to deal
with the problems of the dairyman in the western part of the State.
A herd of twenty Jersey cattle was transferred to the station from the
Coastal Plain Station at Willard, and a herd bull of Eminent breeding
has been purchased. The necessary equipment has been added to handle
the project as follows : dairy barn complete with concrete fioor and
mangers, the necessary water connections and drains, stanchions to ac-
commodate 28 animals, feed room and milk room, and a one-hundred-ton
concrete silo connecting with the feed alley, a thoroughly modern milk
house with boiler room, washing room and milk room equipped with
Babcock tester, cream separator, milk cooler and sterilizer, calf barn
18' X 60' with two bull pens combined and loft above for storage.
The experimental work at present deals with feeding and pasture
tests, herd development and management and marketing dairy products.
Plans are under way to build a small cheese laboratory in connection
with the dairy and conduct experiments in marketing Swiss cheese.
26 BiENisriAL Repokt
Aside from tlie improvements in dairy and poultry plants, an attrac-
tive new spring lionse lias been built of native rock combining engine
and pump room, milk cooling room and a section given over to tiie
spring. A new garage also bas been constructed to bouse tbe station
automobile, truck and tractor,
A new five-room dwelling for tlie dairyman was built last spring,
a fruit and vegetable storage house lias been recently completed wbich.
will provide storage for the good crop of apples and Irish potatoes pro-
duced on the station this year.
The general farm land is handled in a way to demonstrate good farm-
ing methods for the section, to produce feed for the work stock, dairy
and poultry, and to produce such money crops as may seem advisable.
The rapid development of the station has attracted many visitors
seeking information on the various phases or agriculture. The station
is a gathering place for those interested in agriculture, the fertilizer
manufacturers and principals of rural schools with their agricultural
classes; county agents with groups of farmers and many others visit
the station during the year and study the different experiments under
way. The third Thursday in August is set aside for the big annual
Field Day and picnic, which has proved a very popular event, and has
been helpful in getting our work before the farmers throughout the
mountain section. An instructive program is prepared which is followed
by inspection trips to the fields where the different experiments are ex-
plained by the specialist in such a way that the farmer may take home
results and apply them to his conditions.
Piedmont Experiment Station — Statesville
The Piedmont region comprises nearly one-half of the territory of
the State, and the soils and climate are suited to a wide range of agri-
cultural pursuits. The station farm is located pretty well to the center
of this area and the conditions there are typical of the Piedmont section.
The important farm problems for the region are dealt with on the
station farm, and much definite information has already been obtained
on the better farm practices and is being generally used in the section.
Agronomy. — The agronomy experiments are more extensive here than
at any other station in the State. The tests include three series of soil
fertility and rotation tests with cotton, corn, wheat and red clover : Pield
D brings out the value of well planned rotations in comparison with con-
tinuous cropping; Field E — soil type studies; Field F — nitrogenous
materials for corn and cotton; Field Gr — rock phosphate tests; Field K —
tests with soft phosphates.
The ISTovember bulletin published on Fertilizer Experiments with
Wheat on Piedmont Red Clay Soils and Wheat Culture in ISTorth Caro-
lina is a report on the results of the work with wheat on this station,
1911 to 1921 inclusive, and the information contained therein should be
of great value to the Piedmont farmers.
Commissioner of Agricultuke 27
The seed selection and improvement work has been continued "with
the following crops: Appier oats increased strain INTo. 11, Abruzzi rye
increase strain 'No. 7, Virginia soybeans No. 11, Leaps Prolific wheat
increase strain No. 32, King Cotton strain IsTo. 29, and "Weekly's Im-
proved corn. Variety studies with oats, rye and barley have been
carried on. The results of the breeding work have been very valuable,
and the station is now growing these improved strains and distributing
them to farmers over the Piedmont section at a reasonable cost.
Horticulture.- — -"Work with small fruits, apples, peaches and pears is
under way in determining varieties, methods of cultivation, intercrop-
ping, pruning, spraying and marketing; the results have been most in-
structive. A new four acre experimental apple and peach orchard was
planted in the spring of 1923 which includes some of the newer varie-
ties for the Piedmont. Tests will be conducted with this orchard from
the standpoint of fertilization, pruning and intercropping.
Livestock. — The work here is confined mainly to hogs, sheep and
feeding experiments with the work stock. The main sheep project is
to determine the kind of pasture suited to sheep under Piedmont con-
ditions and some very striking results have been obtained both with
summer and winter pastures. A flock of thirty ewes and one ram is
maintained on the station, and information is secured on the cost of
maintaining breeding ewes and producing lambs. A series of pastures
have been arranged that will provide grazing practically the year round
for the sheep and hog feeding tests.
The swine experiments show that it costs $3.97 to raise pigs to weaning
age and that the number of pigs in the litter has little effect upon the
size of each pig at weaning time. Complete information on the methods
and cost of raising pigs to weaning age is given in a recent bulletin pre-
pared by the Animal Industry Division. Further tests are under way
to determine the value of different grazing crops for swine. Eight pure-
bred Poland China brood sows and a boar are used in these experi-
Feeding tests with the farm work stock show that cottonseed meal
is relished more by horses than mules, and that one and one-half pounds
can be fed daily to work stock. When cottonseed meal is fed the grain
ration is cheapened slightly.
General Crops. — The station farm consists of two hundred and ten
acres, of which seventy acres are devoted to experimental plats, forty
acres to pasture, eighteen acres to orchard, twelve acres to grove, yards,
and garden, and the remainder to general crops. The general crop
lands are handled in a way to demonstrate good farming methods for
the section with the view of growing sufiicient corn, oats and hay for
the livestock, and to produce such money crops as may seem advisable.
Some twenty years ago when the station was established the farmers
were not especially interested in improved methods of farming, but as
the work on the station developed the local interest began to increase
28 Biennial Report
until today the station stands out as an agricultural institution for the
Piedmont area. The popularity of the station is further emphasized
by the attendance at the main farmers field day held last July which
numbered five thousand people. Several smaller meetings were held
during the year with good attendance for the purpose of recreation and
studying the work of the farm. The county agents frequently bring
groups of farmers from adjoining counties to study the results from
the different experiments. These meetings are becoming more popular
each year and are encouraged as they are one of the best means of bring-
ing the farmers in touch with the station, and of getting results of our
work put into practice.
Tobacco Experiment Station — Oxford
The tobacco experimental work here has been continued in coopera-
tion with the TI. S. Department of Agriculture and additional informa-
tion on tobacco culture has been secured. The principal experiraents
under way are fertilizer tests, variety tests, rotation systems for tobacco,
tobacco after cowpeas, permanent tobacco seed beds, potash and lime
experiments, nutrition investigations with continuous cropping, legume
effects and general crop effects.
The results of the magnesium and potash plats were especially out-
standing this year. "Where fairly liberal applications of magnesia were
applied either from dolomitic limestone or double manure salts and
kainit no ''Sand Drown" was prevalent, with the exception of double
manure salts plots where calcite was applied and no lime was applied.
On these two plats small percentage of the plants developed symptoms of
^'Sand Drown" indicating that the amount of available magnesia was
insufficient to mature the large growth of the leaf which prevailed last
season. The tobacco fertilizer plats further proved that cottonseed
meal as an individual source of nitrogen stands highest with nitrate of
soda, dried blood and ammonium sulphate next in order named, al-
though a mixed nitrogen composed of one-fourth of each of the above
ingredients gave satisfactory results. Acid phosphate gave better results
than any of the other sources of phosphate. Muriate of potash produced
tobacco with a larger yield and higher market value than tobacco grown
with high-grade sulphate of potash, although all tests have shown that"
tobacco from sulphate of potash has better burning quality than that
produced with muriate of potash. The test with twenty-five so-called
varieties was conducted and selections were made from each variety with
the object of improving the yield and quality, also some crosses were
made with the view of developing new outstanding varieties.
Experiments with tobacco after cowpeas have been fairly satisfactory,
but in order to get best results from such cropping it is necessary to
plant tobacco close, top high, and harvest by priming, if not, an exces-
sive amount of nitrogen will produce tobacco of poor quality.
Commissioner of Agricultuke 29
Under the direction of this station tobacco demonstration tests were
conducted in Reidsville and Clarkton. These tests furnished first-hand
information to the tobacco growers of the respective localities.
In addition to the experimental work with tobacco some work with
seed corn breeding and selection has been conducted on this station in
comiection with Plant Breeders' Office of the College and Central Sta-
tion, and the results have been helpful in supplying good seed for the
station's use, and some for distribution to the farmers in the section.
Several meetings have been held at the station this year at which
experimental work was studied, results observed in the field with dis-
cussions of various phases.
On August 14th around 1,500 farmers and business men attended
the annual field day at this station, at which several of the members of
the Board of Agriculture and officials of the Department discussed the
object of the Experiment Station work and results obtained. This was
followed by inspection trips to experimental plats. Last year about
.thirty representatives of the fertilizer manufacturers with several ferti-
lizer dealers, business men and farmers met at the station to discuss
fertilizer problems for tobacco. Several county agents brought farmers
to the station to study tobacco problems. In all there has been a larger
number of farmers both locally and from other counties to visit the
station this year than heretofore. The local high schools have taken
more interest in the work this year than previously.
In regard to improvements on the station will state that some pro-
gress has been made in carrying out the landscape plans si^bmitted by
Prof. Mulford of the U. S. Department of Agriculture last spring. A
new garage and poultry house have been built at a nominal cost. Most
of the out-buildings have been painted.
The large drainage project will be completed by the close of the year.
This will add to the value of the farm and greatly improve the general
appearance. The survey, which was prepared by the Drainage Division,
required 1,910 feet of tile, ranging from 8 to 18 inches, 1,500 feet of
6-inch and 3,000 feet of 4-inch tile. This will make fifty acres of land
available for cultivation heretofore idle for lack of proper drainage and
will also benefit the adjoining lands. The new lands will be used for
enlarging the general crop work on the station during the coming year,
and later given over to experimental work as needed.
The crops on the station as a whole have been fairly good this year.
Plenty of feed stuffs have been made for the farm and some to spare.
As a whole the work has progressed satisfactorily both as to experi-
ments and general cropping.
Note. — The insect and plant control measures on all stations are under the
direction of the Entomology and Botany Divisions. The spray calendar for
each station is prepared by these divisions and the actual spraying or dusting
operations are under close supervision.
B. "W. KiLGOEE, Director.
F. E. Miller^ Assistant Director.
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — I beg t'o submit berewitb my biennial report as Curator of the
State Museum for the years 1923 and 1924.
The chief duties of the Curator during this period have been those
connected with the completion and equipment of the Agricultural
Building, and the rehabilitation and equipment of the Museum Build-
As secretary of the Building Committee and of the Purchasing Com-
mittee of the Department, all the detail work of these committees has
been in my hands, but this work is now largely completed, at the oppor-
tune time when more active work is being taken up in connection with
putting the Museum in condition to again serve the public.
The time of my assistant, Mr. Harry Davis, has also been so occupied, '
except for that devoted to his work in the identification and analysis
of all the specimens of minerals that come to the Department for exami-
nation and this work is steadily increasing, an average of more than
twenty specimens a month being submitted for examination and analy-
sis. We have added equipment to the Museum Mineralogical Laboratory
so that this part of our work can be handled more effectively, and I wish
to state here that Mr. Davis has proved an invaluable aid in all the
building an^ equijDment work that has been placed with us as well as
in his special lines and in the general work of Museum administration.
We have done what we could in keeping our stored specimens in
some kind of shape, but the crowded condition of the storage makes
this a very difficult problem and we will undoubtedly find a considerable
deterioration in evidence when we start our rearrangement program
after the completion of the remodeling and rehabilitation of the Museum
The work of the Museum in the future is going to require more
money than it has in the past. We have done what we could on a
minimum of expenditure,, but we have reached a point now where if
we fail to go forward we will have to go backward — and the Depart-
ment can hardly allow that.
The Museum has been out of commission for two and a half years
and it is still not unusual for several hundred visitors a day to call at
the Agricultural Building, the State Departments Building and the
Museum Building to inquire as to the present location of the Museum,
indicating in a degree to what extent it is being missed by the public.
We have been badly handicapped and delayed in our reconstruction
work by the continued presence of some of the laboratories and their
"jvorkers in the Museum rooms, and it was late in September, 1924,
COMMISSIONEK OF AGRICULTURE 31
before these rooms were finally vacated by tlie last of the DepartmeBt's
forces that had been temporarily housed therein.
Owing to an insufficiency of funds for the completion of all the neces-
sary work, that is, the work in all of the exhibition rooms, it has seemed
best at this time to confine our effort and our remaining funds to eight
of the nine rooms, leaving the largest of them, that on the second floor
on the Salisbury Street side of the building, which is 39 by 95 feet in
size, for future attention.
The seven old rooms of the Museum had remained virtually without
repairs from the time of their erection, a period of from 25 to 28 years.
Their condition was very bad all through. All the old plaster on the
walls had to be removed and replaced, every window frame and sash
needed repairs and all the glass had to be reset.
The acute fire risk on the north side of the building has been largely
eliminated by installing fireproof windows on that side.
The woodwork in all the rooms needs repainting, and the condition
of the floors calls for replacement in some rooms and recovering in all.
But the work is progressing satisfactorily and by the time this report
reaches your hands the plastering (except in Room ISTo. 9 as before in-
dicated) will have been completed. This will be immediately followed
by the painting, and the treatment of the floors will follow that.
The present outlook would indicate that we will have a part of the
Museum open to the public some time during the present winter, and
the remainder will be pushed to completion as fast as the rooms can be
finished and the cases and exhibits renovated, repaired and installed.
The new handsome and dignified entrance on Halifax Street will be
a wonderful improvement over the old arrangement, and we now face
the problem of making the interior equally as much a credit to the
State. And it is to this end that we are now applying our efforts.
We hope and expect to rebuild the Museum into an institution of even
greater value to ISTorth Carolina than it has been in the past, an insti-
tution of which both the Department and the citizenship of the State
may well be proud, and this can be done if we can secure the funds that
are essential to that end. But we cannot make it what it should be with-
out such funds. A museum is now recognized as a visual educational
institution of the highest value to its surrounding population, and it is
•always one of the first items of interest in a city to be visited by both
transient and stay-over visitors. And through such visitors the lessons
taught by the institution are disseminated far and wide. And ours, as
a strictly ISTorth Carolina museum, has been, and can continue to be,
one of the very best advertising and visual educational mediums the
State has ever had. Respectfully submitted,
H. H. Brimley.
Curator, State Museum.
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sik: — I herewitli submit the biennial report of tbe Veterinary Divi-
sion covering the period from December 1, 1922, to December 1, 1924.
Details bave been omitted in order to make tbe report brief.
Since Marcb 3, 1923, we bave conducted tick eradication under tke
tick eradication law enacted by tbe last Legislature. Tbis law divided
tbe quarantine counties (nineteen) into tbree zones — Zone 1 to work in
1923, Zone 2 in 1924, and Zone 3 in 1925. Altbougb we bad a very late
start last year in Zone 1, tbe work was pusbed vigorously, and on De-
cember 31, 1923, tbe counties of Gates, Hertford, Bertie, Camden and
Perquimans and tbat portion of Beaufort County lying north of tbe
Pamlico Biver and tbe banks of Dare County from Oregon Inlet to tbe
Currituck County line were released from State and Federal quarantine,
leaving only a few infested premises in tbese counties to be worked
during tbe 1924 season. "We did not complete tbe work in Currituck
County in 1923 on account of tbe county commissioners not getting tbe
vats finished until very late in the season. Dipping was continued in
this county this season and the county was released from quarantine
August 1, 1924.
As you know, Currituck County borders on Princess Anne County,
Virginia, on the north. There is a strip of land in Currituck County
between Currituck Sound and the ocean known as tbe Banks, which
extends into the State of Virginia. I recently visited this section and
found at the State line that this strip of land (the Banks) was between
two and three miles wide. The ocean side is a sand bed and the sound
side is more or less wooded. I also found that this was open range with
a number of cattle on it that go over the State line at will. We have a
vat located just below the State line and dip all of our cattle regularly,
and also dip some Virginia cattle. There is a vat in Virginia, just over
the line, but not all of the cattle are being properly dipped. There is a
possibility of our cattle becoming reinfested by ticky cattle from Vir-
ginia, making it necessary for us to continue to inspect the cattle on this
range at frequent intervals.
Active tick eradication was started in Zone 2, comprising tbe counties
of Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Hyde, Dare and that portion of Beau-
fort County lying south of the Pamlico Eiver on January 1, 1924. The
work was conducted vigorously and all of tbese counties will be released
from State and Pederal quarantine December 1, 1924. Dipping has
been discontinued at this time in Zone 2 except those herds which it
was necessary to keep in quarantine.
Commissioner of Agriculture 33
Ntjmbee of Herds or Premises and ISTumber of Cattle to be Held in
Quarantine in Zone 2
Martin — three premises — three herds — fifty-tliree cattle.
Washington — one premise — no cattle.
Tyrrell — twenty-eight premises — twenty-eight herds — one hundred twenty-
Dare — two premises — thirty-eight herds — one hundred thirty cattle.
Hyde — seventy premises — seventy herds — six hundred fifty-six cattle.
Beaufort (south of Pamlico River) — three premises-^three herds — fifty-two
There will also remain under quarantine at tlie end of this season
twenty-six premises or herds outside of Zones 2 and 3.
We have met with the boards of county commissioners of the counties
in Zone 3 with a view of having them build vats and otherwise prepare
these counties for systematic tick eradication in 1926. All of the coun-
ties in Zone 3 are now constructing vats, and we hope to have these coun-
ties ready for systematic tick eradication January 1, 1925. Zone 3 com-
prises 4,466 square miles, and it will require approximately 450 vats.
In Zone 1 there are 3,384 square miles of territory, requiring 388 vats.
In Zone 2 there are 2,441 square miles and 236 vats. During 1923 there
was dipped 112,300 herds of 388,624 cattle and 625 herds of 1,473
ponies. During the ten months ending October 31, 1924, we dipped
78,709 herds of 259,868 cattle and 4,350 herds of 8,219 ponies.
One of the greatest problems we have to deal with is wild or semi-
wild cattle. All of this territory prior to January 1, 1922, was under
free range, and while stock law is now being generally observed, there
are many large community pastures and many swamps in which wild
or semi-wild cattle roam at large. We have encountered wild cattle in
all of the counties in Zones 1 and 2. The approximate number being as
Zone 1 Zone 2
Camden 300 Martin 25
Currituck 100 Washington 15
Perquimans 75 Tyrrell 150
Gates 25 Dare 200
Hertford 15 Hyde 400
Bertie 25 Beaufort 100
The wild cattle have been captured or slaughtered in all of the above
counties, except Tyrrell and Hyde, and we believe that this work will be
completed in these two counties by January 1, 1925. It has been neces-
sary in a good many instances to trail these cattle with dogs like deer
in order to slaughter or capture them. The difficult part of this is to
capture or slaughter the last few cattle in a swamp. Some of these
cattle range over an area fifteen by thirty miles. This has been the most
difficult tick eradication encountered in any state, due to these wild
cattle and to the lack of interest in better cattle by cattle owners. In
34 BiENisriAL Report
order to complete tick eradication in any county it is necessary to free
all cattle of ticks. "We nave placed the responsibility of getting these
cattle on the owners, and in this we have been upheld by the courts.
These cattle are in most instances a nuisance and of little value.
During the extra session of the Legislature in August, 1924, a bill
was introduced amending the Tick Eradication Law in such a way as
to make the law not apply to wild cattle. This bill was finally defeated.
If the Tick Eradication Law was so amended it would make the com-
pletion of tick eradication impossible. "We have received spleiadid co-
operation from the courts in enforcing the Tick Eradication Law. Most
of the counties have cooperated in a satisfactory manner.
Tuberculosis eradication in animals has progressed during the year
in a very satisfactory manner. Practically all of this work is done
under the area plan; that is, the testing of all cattle in a county. This
work is conducted in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Animal In-
dustry and the several boards of county commissioners. The following
counties have completed the work :
We have more counties that have completed tuberculosis eradication
than all of such counties combined in the other states.
The work is now being conducted in the following counties :
The work will be completed in several of these counties at an early
The following counties have recently made an appropriation for
this work: Burke, Yancey. Work will be started in these counties at
an early date.
From IsTovember 1, 1922, to IsTovember 1, 1924, there has been tested
227,275 cattle. Of this number 965, or less than one-half of one per
cent, were found to be affected with tuberculosis. All of the tuberculous
animals were slaughtered and the owners were indemnified in accordance
with the law covering. During the two-year period we have paid 816
claims amounting to $26,881.14.
Commissioner of Agriculture 35
Summary of Testing Cattle Reactors
1918 1 4,358 104
1919 : 7,445 168
1920 10,389 219
1921 23,402 385
1922 114,296 785
1923 104,030 499
1924 (10 months) 102,326 381
As previously stated we now have a total o£ forty-nine counties co-
operating in this work. Included in tliis number are most of the
richer counties of the State that were able to pay for this work without
any trouble whatever. "We now have left fifty-one counties to work.
Many of these counties are not at this time financially able to take up
this work unless material assistance is given by this Department and
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
I believe that it is important that this work be completed in all coun-
ties as rapidly as possible, thus preventing reinfestation of the counties
already completed. The infection is light in these counties at this time
and it will cost much less to complete the work now than if we wait until
the disease has spread further. In view of this, I believe that this De-
partment should allow a very liberal appropriation for this work or
secure same from the Legislature and a law should be enacted requiring
all cattle in the remaining counties to be tested.
We have had some hog cholera but not as much as in previous years.
There are many sections where cholera seems to exist at all times. Al-
though hog cholera serum can be absolutely depended upon to control
cholera, there are many owners who will not vaccinate their hogs until it
is too late.
The feeding of raw garbage and the shipping of hogs for immediate
slaughter into the State are responsible for a considerable part of our
cholera. We are constantly trying to control this, but they are difficult
problems to handle. We now require those who desire to receive hogs
for immediate slaughter to maintain proper facilities for handling
them, and to use them for immediate slaughter only. We require such
establishments to have a permit, and we frequently inspect the premises.
Just at this time we have no one regularly employed on hog-cholera
work. We are taking care of outbreaks and giving assistance, where
needed, with the inspection force of this office, who also look after out-
breaks of other contagious diseases.
Our practicing veterinarians are becoming more numerous and the
livestock owners are fast learning the value of veterinary service.
There has been a decided decrease in hog cholera in the eastern part
of the State as a result of the stock law. From ISTovember 1, 1922, to
ISTovember 1, 1924, we have distributed 3,750,965 c.c. of serum — a de-
cided decrease over previous years.
36 Biennial Repoet
About the usual number o£ investigations on reported outbreaks of dis-
eases liave been made by inspectors of this office. We have had no serious
outbreaks of disease during this period, but we have had numerous re-
ports which have been investigated. Two animals affected with glanders
have been found and destroyed. Frequent visits are made to the inspec-
tors engaged in tick eradication work and tuberculosis eradication work.
Both of these projects are being conducted on a large scale and close
supervision is necessary. We have also made frequent visits to the ex-
periment stations and State institutions to look after the livestock on
In order to do effective work in the control and eradication of con-
tagious diseases of livestock it is essential that a diagnostic laboratory
be available. We feel constantly the need of such a laboratory at the
present time to check up on the field work which we are doing. The
states of Georgia and South Carolina require that all cattle shipped into
those states shall first pass a negative blood test for contagious abortion.
Our farmers who desire to ship cattle into those states must depend
upon blood samples being sent out of the State to commercial labora-
tories, thus causing expense, delay, and inconvenience. If we are to
conduct investigations for the control of contagious abortion and for
the control and eradication of internal parasites of livestock, it is very
necessary that we have a diagnostic laboratory.
ANIMAL INDUSTRY DIVISION
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — In response to your request for a biennial report, I am pleased
to furnish, you with a rather complete summary of the work performed
by the Animal Industry workers, embracing research and extension for
the period ending November 30, 1924.
I am sure you realize fully that it would be practically impossible to
furnish you with the many details of the work in research and exten-
sion as conducted during the year. In order that you may have a com-
prehensive idea of the many problems which are being covered in the
two above lines of work, I have included a list of the various offices in
the division and the personnel of each. Each worker has a number of
definitely outlined projects and the magnitude of work under way can
thus be visualized without difficulty.
For your information and guidance I wish to say that this division
has twenty-nine definitely outlined projects in livestock research, ex-
clusive of poultry, which work was conducted under the auspices of this
division during the last fiscal year. The extension workers of the divi-
sion have thirty-nine definitely outlined projects, making a total of
sixty-eight projects in all.
At the conclusion of the report covering the work of the current year,
I am attaching a list of these projects with a brief outline of each. I
am sure that by having these before you you will be enabled to make a
more exhaustive study of the problems under way.
If there is any additional information which you need I will be pleased
to furnish it upon request, I wish to again mention that the informa-
tion which I am giving you is merely a brief outline covering the various
projects, giving the high lights in each with a statement of progress
or results obtained, as the case may be.
The following is the report by offices embraced in the division :
J. O. HAI.VERSON, In Charge
F. W. Sherwood, Assistant
H. A. DiCKERT, Assistant
The following soft-pork studies, as reported by Dr. Halverson, are in co-
operation witlL Mr. Hostetler, in charge of Swine Investigations :
1. SoFT-PoKK Investigations
(a) Soft-Pork Experiment IX. — This work was conducted for the purpose
of determining the effect of various amounts of peanuts on the body carcasses
of young weaned pigs which were fed individually on the above ration for a
period of five months.
38 Biennial Repoet
In this work it was determined that there was a very marked softening
effect on the carcasses of young pigs when fed a peanut ration. The determi-
nation of this fact is of great economic importance, since a large portion of
Eastern North Carolina is well adapted to the growing of peanuts. The
determination of this fact is a step toward overcoming the ultimate conse-
quences of softening feeds when fed to hogs.
(b) Soft-Pork Experiment X. — In this study different methods of feeding
peanuts and hardening feeds were tried. It is a known fact that such feeds
as peanuts and soja beans produce soft carcasses, and that these effects can
be overcome in a measure at least by feeding such rations as corn, digester
tankage, and rice products.
In this particular study three of the pigs fed according to farm practice
killed hard. The other group graded medium hard. All of them passed
market requirements, the results, therefore, being very satisfactory.
(c) Soft-Pork Experiment XI. — Eight pigs of an approximate weight of 90
pounds each were fed individually on peanuts in varying amounts from one
and one-half months to three months to determine the quantity of peanuts
required to make a pig kill soft.
The results of this work show that there was a varying degree of softness,
depending upon the length of time fed. In other words, there was a gradual
softening of the carcasses as they grew heavier and the period of peanut feed-
ing was extended.
(d) Soft-Pork Studies XII. — This study to determine the effect of different
methods of feeding peanuts and hardening feeds on the carcasses of hogs is
similar to the Soft-Pork Experiments X and VII. Six pigs one-half as large
as those used in Experirnent X were fed for three months. All killed hard
or medium hard after receiving as much as 140 pounds of shelled peanuts.
Results are satisfactory. Chemical work on this experiment, however, has
not been completed.
(e) Soft-Pork Experiment XIII. — This experiment is to study the effect of
peanuts on gestation, lactation, growth, and the condition of the carcasses of
pigs grown to a considerable size. Inasmuch as this work is in progress, no
conclusive report can be made showing results.
2. The Effect of Cottonseed Meal and Hulls on Breeding, Gestation,
Lactation, and Growth op Cattle
This project is in cooperation with Mr. Vernon M. "Williams from May 1st
last, and Mr. R. S. Curtis, in charge of dairy cattle and beef cattle investiga-
The plan of this work and the object in view is to determine definitely the
amounts of cottonseed meal which can be fed under normal conditions to
animals, having in mind the effects on the above mentioned factors or condi-
tions. It is well known that the amounts of cottonseed meal which can be fed
are limited. This has been attributed to toxicity in the meal and the purpose
of this experiment is to work out definitely the causes, and then undertake
to remedy the defects or deficiencies.
This work has been continued for a second gestation and lactation period
on fifteen cows, five of which were heifers. During these two years supple-
ments have been fed with cottonseed meal with the following results :
It can be stated definitely that during these two years work with supple-
mentary feeds more cottonseed meal has been fed to these cows than pre-
viously, the cottonseed meal averaging approximately 86.2 per cent of the
total grain ration consumed. Some striking results have been obtained in
breeding, lactation, production of live calves, and raising them on their
mothers' milk with nothing but corn husks for roughage.
Commissioner of Agriculture 39
No convulsions or deaths have occurred during the period when supple-
ments were fed. Some of the cows have gradually declined in weight and
gone off feed. The adjustment of the proper amount of supplements and the
proper balancing of these rations with cottonseed meal and hulls is difficult,
and therefore more work is required.
The results of this work are very gratifying and justify pursuing it until
facts are definitely established.
3. Onion Flavor in Milk
This work was conducted in cooperation with Mr. Stanley Combs, formerly
in charge of Dairy Cattle Investigations. This work was for the purpose of
determining the effect of Mrs. Lea's Milk and Butter Purifier, a proprietary
mixture on milk flavored with onions. The results have been published and
are cited at the close of this section of the report.
4. The Nutrition Quality or Butter from Cows Fed on Dry Feeds and on
This project is being pursued. Albino rats are used and fed on highly
purified rations to determine the effect of butter produced from cows made
under the above conditions.
5. Mineral Supplements, Chiefly Calcium, in Relation to the Mixed
Feeds for Farm Animals
This project on mixed feeds and their by-products has been pursued for two
years and the results published, the citation following.
6. The Nutritive Value of Peanuts
(a) This study of the effect on reproduction is being pursued on small
animals. In this case albino rats are used. The peanut meal used is obtained
from the Protein Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of
(b) This study is also being pursued on a sow during gestation and lacta-
tion. The sow produced 13 pigs under these conditions of feed. Eleven lived,
nine of which are still living and the mother is being maintained on the same
Note. — I would like to add that work of the nature that Dr. Halverson is
pursuing is usually involved, and it is, therefore, difficult to give a satisfactory
report, this being especially true in case of those who are looking for conclu-
The field of nutrition is new when considered in the light of actively pur-
suing the many problems confronting Animal Industry workers. It should
be remembered that the economic importance of the above problems are such
that it would be a most profound mistake to give out statements until every
angle of the various problems under way are searched out dihgently. This is
merely offered for explanation to aid the reader in considering these studies.
7. Publications, 1924
(a) "The Calcium Requirements of Animals in Relation to the Calcium
Content of Feeds," by J. O. Halverson and L. M. Nixon, Commercial Feeds,
1923. The Bulletin of North Carolina Department of Agriculture. June. 1924,
(b) "Onion Milk Investigation — Mrs. Lea's Milk and Butter Purifier." by
Stanley Combs and J. O. Halverson, The Bulletin, Commercial Feeds, 1923
N. C. Department of Agriculture, June, 1924, page IS.
40 BiENKiAL Report
(c) "Minerals in Animal Nutrition," by J. O. Halverson, Association of
Feed Control Officials, Washington, D. C. October 23, 1924.
(d) "The Calcium Requirements of Farm Animals," by J. O. Halverson,
Flour and Feed, Vol. XXV. November, 1924, No. 6.
(e) "The Lime Content in Feeds in Relation to the Requirements of Farm
Animals," by J. O. Halverson and L. M. Nixon, Flour and Feed, XXV.
November, 1924, No. 6.
(f) "The Chemical Analysis of Okra Seed (Hibiscus Esculentus)," by
B. Naiman and L. M. Nixon, American Chemical Society, Local Section,
Trinity College, Durham, May 3, 1924.
(g) "Soft Pork and its Causes I: Some Results of Soft Pork Investigations
II," by J. O. Halverson and Earl Hostetler, N. C. Academy of Science, May 2,
(h) "Notes on Gossy-Pol," by F. W. Sherwood, N. C. Academy of Science,
May 2, 1924.
(i) "Vitality of Albino Rats for Experimental Purposes," by F. W. Sher-
wood, N. C. Academy of Science, May 3, 1924.
Eael H. Hostetler, In charge
L. H. McKay, Assistant
This office has been actively engaged in conducting swine research work at
the Swine Research Farm, Raleigh, and at four of the branch experiment
stations, namely : Piedmont, Blackland, Upper Coastal Plains, and Coastal
Plains. A project is outlined for the Tobacco and Mountain Stations, and the
work will probably be started by January 1, 1925.
Considerable new physical equipment has been installed at all of the farms
and we have, therefore, been able to do more and better work than heretofore.
On September 1, 1924, Mr. L. H. McKay was secured to do research and
teaching work with swine.
The following is a report of the projects under way and the results obtained :
SWINE RESEARCH FARM, RALEIGH
J. T. Keesee, Superintendent and Herdsman
There are four main projects being carried on at this farm with a herd of
purebred Duroc-Jersey swine, as follows :
1. Value of Pastures for Pigs
(a) Ohject.- — The object of this work was to determine the cost of carrying
pigs from weaning age to 200 pounds with and without pasture.
(b) Plan. — The plan was to use 56 weaned pigs and divide them equally
into six lots of eight pigs each, except lot 6, which had 16 pigs, as follows :
Lot 1 — Self-fed in dry lot.
Lot 2 — Three per cent grain with permanent pasture.
Lot 3 — Grain self-fed with permanent pasture.
Lot 4 — Grain self-fed with temporary pasture.
Lot 5 — Three per cent grain with temporary pasture.
Lot 6 — Two per cent grain with temporary pasture.
The permanent pasture consisted of orchard grass and clovers and the
temporary pastures of oats followed by soybeans.
(c) Results. — Lots 1, 3, and 4 required approximately the same number of
days to reach 200 pounds in weight. Lots 2. 5, and 6 will not reach the
required weight until after October 1st. Therefore, the results are not only
incomplete, but a report giving conclusions at this time is out of question.
Commissioner of Agkicultuke 41
2. Soft Poek (Cooperation with De. J. O. Halverson)
(a) Olyject. — To determine the effects upon the carcasses of pigs of a given
weight when fed varying amounts of peanuts. .
To determine the effect upon the carcasses of pigs of a given weight when
fed peanuts and rice by difCerent methods.
To determine the effect upon the carcasses of pigs, the dams of which have
been fed peanuts during the gestation period.
(b) Plan. — The plan was to feed S pigs of a given weight on varying amounts
of peanuts, each pig to be fed individually.
To feed sis 75-pound pigs an equal amount of rice and peanuts. Three of
the pigs were fed both kinds of feeds after they had been thoroughly mixed,
and the other three were fed the feeds separately.
To feed one sow a peanut ration during the gestation and suckling periods,
and feed the litter of pigs on rice after they had been weaned.
(c) Results. — It was found that different amounts of peanuts in the ration
affected the carcasses at slaughtering time.
The pigs that were fed peanuts and rice separately "killed harder" than
those that were fed the two feeds together.
The sow on the last phase of the experiment is not due to farrow until
after October 1st. No definite statements can, therefore, be made at this time.
3. Soft Pork (Cooperation with Bureau of Animal Industry)
(a) Oiject. — The object of this work was to determine the effect of feeding
peanuts for eight weeks with a subsequent feeding on corn and brewers rice
for twenty weeks on the carcasses of 65-pound pigs.
(b) Plan. — The plan of this work was to feed twenty-seven pigs on peanuts
for eight weeks, after which three were killed and the other 24 pigs divided
into two equal lots of twelve each. Lot 1 was fed a ration of shelled corn for
twenty weeks, and Lot 2 a ration of brewers' rice for twenty weeks.
Three pigs out of each lot were slaughtered at the end of each four-weeks
period, beginning with the 56th day on corn and brewers' rice.
(c) Results. — The three pigs slaughtered, after being fed on peanuts for 8
weeks, killed soft and oily. The majority of the other pigs produced satis-
4. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time
(a) O'bject. — The object of this work was to determine the cost of raising
■oigs to weaning age of eight weeks.
(b) Plan. — All cost records are kept on the sows in the herd, both during
^heir suckling and dry periods.
(c) Results. — This work is still in progress and, due to the many factors
and conditions involved, definite conclusions cannot be drawn at this time.
UPPER COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION, ROCKY MOUNT
R. E. CuREiN, Je., Superintendent
L. A. Page, Herdsman
A herd of twelve purebred Hampshire sows and one boar are kept at this
farm, and the experimental work is carried on with the offspring from these
animals. The work is planned so that two carloads of hogs can be shipped
from the farm each year.
Two fundamental lines are being conducted, namely: (a) Cost of raising
pigs to weaning time; (b) determining the value of different grazing crops
for maturing weaned pigs.
42 BlENJSriAL E.EPOKT
1. Gkazing Crops
Corn and soybeans grown together :
(a) Object.— The object of this work is to determine the amount of pork
produced per acre when the crops are "hogged off."
(b) Plan.- — The plan was to allow 52 weaned pigs to harvest 2.8 acres of
corn and soybeans grown together.
(c) Results. — The results show that one acre of the above crop, with the
addition of 143 pounds of fish meal, produced 838 pounds of pork.
Harvesting soft, immature corn by hogs :
(a) Object. — The object of this work was to determine the value of young,
immature corn when "hogged oft" by pigs.
(&) Plan. — The plan was to allow 20 eighty-three-pound pigs to harvest 1.63
acres of immature corn. The pigs were turned in on the crop when the corn
was in the dough stage.
(c) Results.- — The results show that 28 days were required for twenty pigs
to harvest 1.63 acres of the above crop. After adding 100 pounds of fish meal
and 21 pounds of mineral mixture one acre of young, immature corn produced
457 pounds of pork.
2. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time
The object, plan, and results so far secured from this work are the same as
those at the Swine Research Farm, where similar work is being conducted.
A report was made on the results of work at Raleigh under section 4 pre-
BLACKLAND BRANCH STATION, WENONA
J. L. Rea, Jr., Superintendent
A. P. Lefevers, Herdsman
A herd of purebred Poland Chinas is- kept on this farm. The herd consists
of one boar and twelve sows. The offspring from this herd is used as a basis
for experimental work. Two carloads of hogs are shipped from the farm each
year, one in the spring and one in the fall.
Three projects are carried on at this farm, namely: (a) Grazing crops;
(b) dry lot feeding; and (c) cost of raising pigs to weaning time.
1. Grazing Crop Experiments with Soybeans
(a) Object. — The object of this work was to determine the amount of pork
produced from a given area of soybeans when supplemented with a 2 per cent
ration of corn.
(b) Plan. — The plan was to graze 45 eighty-pound pigs on three acres of
Virginia soybeans supplemented with shelled corn.
(c) Results. — This work showed that one acre of soybeans, with the addi-
tion of 337 pounds of corn and 21 pounds of mineral, produced 395 pounds of
pork. The yield of soybeans was rather low and the 45 pigs consumed three
acres in 20 days.
2. Dry Lot Feeding
Soybean meal versus fish meal :
(a) Object. — This work was conducted to determine the comparative value
of soybean meal and fish meal when fed as supplements to corn in a dry lot.
(b) Plan. — The plan was to divide 52 ninety-pound pigs into two equal lots,
feeding shelled corn, fish meal and mineral to Lot 1, and shelled corn, soybean
meal and mineral to the hogs in Lot 2. Each lot of hogs was fed these
different feeds in separate compartments of self-feeders.
(c) Results.- — The results show that the pigs in Lot 2 consumed three times
as much of the protein supplement as the pigs in Lot 1. However, the total
feed consumed per 100 pounds gain was approximately the same in each lot.
Commissioner of Agriculture 43
The above work was conducted during tlie spring of 1924. During the
summer of the same year the work was repeated. The results of the summer
work show that the pigs in Lot 2 fed on soybean meal made less gains and
required 58 pounds more of feed to produce 100 pounds gain than the pigs in
Lot 1, which received fish meal.
3. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time
The object, plan, and results of this work are again the same as that con-
ducted on the Swine Research Farm at Raleigh. This work is being repeated
at several of the stations to corroborate conclusions and eliminate error in
so far as possible. In addition, conducting this work at the various farms
will give an opportunity to determine which section of the State is from all
viewpoints the best adapted to producing high-class hogs that will pass the
market requirements. This determination is especially needed in this State
because of the soft producing feeds which are factors in pork production.
PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION, STATE SVILLE
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent
G. A. Bekey, Herdsman
A herd consisting of eight purebred Poland China sows and one purebred
Poland China boar is maintained on this farm. The offspring from these
animals are used for experimental work and for herd development.
The two principal projects with swine at this farm are: (a) Grazing crop
studies, and (b) cost of raising pigs to weaning time.
1. Grazing Experiments with Red Clover
(a) Object. — The object of this work was to determine the value of red
clover for pigs when supplemented with corn and fish meal fed from a self-
(b) Plan. — Twenty-five spring-farrowed pigs were used, weighing about 35
pounds each. They were divided into two equal lots, one lot receiving shelled
corn, shorts, fish meal, and mineral in separate compartments of a self-feeder
in a dry lot. The pigs in Lot 2 were fed the same feeds in the same manner
and in addition they were grazed on a red clover pasture instead of being
kept in a dry lot.
(c) Results. — The results show that the pigs in Lot 2 required 319 pounds
of grain in addition to the clover pasture to make 100 pounds of gain.
2. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time
This is again a repetition of a similar piece of work being conducted on the
Swine Research Farm at Raleigh. Much valuable data is being assembled on
this problem which will be published after definite conclusions are drawn.
COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION, WILLARD
Charles Dearing. Superintendent
One swine project is being conducted at this farm and the same kind of
work will be inaugurated at the Tobacco and Mountain Branch Stations in
the near future.
The following is the outline of the work under way :
1. The Family Sow
(a) Ohjeet. — The object of this work is to determine the cost of maintaining
two purebred sows and one purebred boar under general farm conditions
where all possible feed wastes are utilized.
44 BiENJsriAL Repokt
(b) Plan. — The plan of this work is to maintain a community herd boar
and furnish service at a nominal charge. This will be in addition to the use
made of the boar and the project outlined. The pigs produced each year will
be used for harvesting waste field products. When they are finished they will
be used to furnish the home meat supply. Those that are not needed for home
consumption will be sold either as breeding animals or for pork, depending on
their adaptability for these purposes.
(c) Results. — No results as yet have been obtained on this project, as the
work was only started late in the year.
Articles Published on Swine Production
(a) The Home Supply of Pork.
(b) Give the Pigs a Fair Start.
(c) Pastures for Swine.
(d) Cotton (to Feed) Work Animals.
(e) Cottonseed Meal for Work Animals.
(f) Report of Cooperative Soft Pork Work. .
(g) Curing Pork at Home.
(h) Soybean Meal versus Fish Meal for Fattening Pigs.
(i) Hard or Soft Pork.
(j) Report of Corn and Soybeans Hogged Off.
During the year several important meetings were attended, among these
being the Soft Pork Conference held in April at Knoxville, Tenn. Representa-
tives from twelve states were at this meeting. Mr. Hostetler was on several
During the year 516 letters were written on subjects pertaining to swine
production, judging, feeding, and management.
DAIRY CATTLE INVESTIGATIONS
Vernon M. Williams, In Charge
The experimental work conducted by this oflice will be reported on a basis
of the following outline covering the major projects which are being con-
1. General Statement.
2. Central Experiment Station.
a. Cottonseed Meal Investigations.
(1) Effect of heavy cottonseed meal feeding on reproduction and
lactation of the dairy cow.
(2) Corn silage as a protective factor in heavy cottonseed meal
feeding to dairy cattle.
(3) Corn silage and cracked corn as protective factor in heavy
cottonseed meal feeding to dairy cattle.
(4) Effect of heavy cottonseed meal feeding on the growth and
health of calves receiving milk from cows so fed.
b. Corn Plant Feeding Investigations.
(1) Effect of feeding ration solely from the corn plant on the
reproduction and lactation of the dairy cow.
(2) Effect of feeding rations solely from the corn plant on the
growth and health of calves receiving milk from cows so fed.
3. Coastal Plains Branch Experiment Station.
4. Mountain Branch Experiment Station.
Commissioner of Agricultuke 45
The work of the Office of Dairy Investigations is actively carried on at
three stations: The Central Experiment Station at Raleigh, the Coastal
Plains Branch Experiment Station at Willard, and the Mountain Branch
Experiment Station at Swannanoa.
The work at the Central Experiment Station is carried on in cooperation
with the Office of Animal Nutrition and the Office of Beef Cattle Investigations.
On January 1, 1924, the resignation of Mr. Stanley Combs, formerly in
charge of this office, went into effect and the work was under the supervision
of cooperating offices until May 1, 1924, when Mr. Vernon M. Williams took
No major changes have been made in the physical equipment at the three
The office has had the full cooperation of the other offices of the Animal
Industry Division in obtaining materials and data.
CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION
A. Cottonseed Meal Feeding Investigations
(1) Effect of Heavy Cottonseed, Meal Feeding on Reproduction and Lactation
of Dairy Cow.
For years cottonseed meal has generally been considered harmful when fed
in large amounts to dairy cattle. Much has been said in regard to the poison-
ous qualities of this feed. Some of the foremost feed authorities in the world
have recommended its use only as a rich protein supplement in amounts not
exceeding two or three pounds daily.
The earlier work at this and other stations where unextracted cottonseed,
cottonseed hulls and cottonseed meal were fed as the principal part of ration
the cows so fed became blind, developed convulsions, aborted, gave birth to
weak, blind calves with soft bones, and other general anatomical and physio-
Cottonseed meal is the cheapest rich protein dairy feed used generally
throughout the South and a great part of the North and West. It is also one
of the cheapest sources of energj^ food for cattle. Consequently the manu-
facturers of this meal and the men who feed it have been trying for some
time to find a way to use it safely.
This station then set about to find out what was wrong with cottonseed
meal, and how, if possible, to right the wrong. For some time it was thought,
because of the isolation from the lohole cottonseed kernel of a poisonous sub-
stance called gossypol, that the trouble in heavy cottonseed meal feeding was
due to this poisonous substance. It was later suggested that copperas feeding
would offset the poison. But this suggestion did not bring success. The
"poison" or "toxic" theory has been accepted rather widely over the country.
More recent work in animal nutrition has shown that certain dietary factors
which, although occurring in exceedingly small quantities in many natural
foods, play a most vitally necessary part in animal life. In view of this, the
station has investigated cottonseed more thoroughly with regard to these
dietary factors and certain mineral substances.
Certain mineral salts were added to the rations of cows whose roughage
was cottonseed hulls and grain was entirely cottonseed meal. There was
some improvement in the cows, but the cows continued to get in bad shape,
calves were born prematurely and. even though some gestation periods were
normal, the calves were weak, and in most cases unable to live long after
46 Biennial Report
Beginning in 1923, certain other supplements were added in small quantities,
and the result has been astonishing. Cows receiving cottonseed hulls for
roughage, and a grain ration from 80 to 90 per cent cottonseed meal have
produced normal calves, the calves have grown normally to weaning age on
their dam's milk, and the calves have produced approximately the average
for dairy cows in this State. This work is not yet complete, and will need to
be slightly modified and continued before conclusions can be reached. It will
be necessary to continue and repeat some of the work under farm conditions
at the branch stations before definite recommendations can be made.
(2) Corn Silage as a Protective Factor in Heavy Cottonseed Meal Feeding to
Cottonseed meal supplemented with corn silage has not proved to be a
satisfactory ration. The addition of certain minerals has not proved sufiicient.
The addition of certain minerals and small amounts of other substances
containing proteins of higher quality and rich in the food accessories has made
silage and cottonseed meal apparently sufficient for reproduction and lactation
not far below average.
(3) Corn Silage and Cracked Com as Protective Factors in Heavy Cottonseed
Where cottonseed meal and hulls have been supplemented liberally with
corn silage and cracked corn the cows receiving this ration have not been
able to give birth to normal calves and milk normally. But with the addition
of small quantities of certain other substances to the rations, these cows have
given birth to normal calves and have milked well above the State average.
(4) Effect of Heavy Cottonseed Meal Feeding on the Growth and Health of
Calves Receiving Milk from Coios so Fed.
In all the three experiments described above calves were fed on the milk
of their dams and where calves died they were replaced with week-old calves
purchased from nearby dairymen.
Up until the past year calves fed milk from the cows on the heavy cottonseed
meal rations failed to make the normal growth and to resist disease as did
the calves fed on milk produced by cows fed normal rations. The success in
producing living calves that made normal growth is ascribed to the effects of
the supplements added to the rations of the cows.
B. Corn Plant Feeding Investigations
(1) Effect of Feeding Ration Solely from the Corn Plant on the Reproduction
and Lactation of the Dairy Cow.
It is not uncommon on some farms to feed cows throughout the winter season
on corn fodder and some corn grain. This feeding system was used on four
mature cows. The cows so fed developed an unthrifty appearance, but would
often come through the season in fair flesh. The calves, however, were some-
times born prematurely, weak, and blind. By supplementing rations of corn
stover, corn silage, and crushed corn with steamed bone meal and certain
highly potent sources of vitamines, fully developed calves of normal weight
were obtained. And these cows produced a fair flow of milk. The cows whose
rations were raised in protein by adding corn gluten meal produced consid-
erably more than the average for the State. These results are in accord
with the findings of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, and would
indicate that dairy cows whose rations are largely made up of products of the
corn plant should be fed some mineral compound containing calcium, such as
steamed bone meal or calcium carbonate, at the rate of 2 to 3 pounds per
hundred pounds of grain.
Commissioner of Agriculture 4T
(2) Effect of Feeding Rations Solely from Corn Plant, as Shoivn by the Growth
and Health of Calves Dropped dy Receiving Milk from Cows so Fed.
Until the rations of the cows described above were supplemented, the calves
were subnormal and of low vitality. Following the addition of these supple-
ments, normal calves were obtained, which proceeded with normal growth.
COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATION
The herd development work has been continued at this station. It was
interfered with somewhat by the transfer of part of the herd to the Mountain
Branch Station, but the heifers now in the herd will soon bring the cow herd
up to the desired number of approximately thirty-five.
There are now eight bull calves, sixteen heifers, and twenty-two cows in
milk. Of these twenty-two, five are heifers which freshened during the year.
The other seventeen that were in the milking herd produced an average of
7.025.6 pounds of milk and 126.96.36.199 pounds of butter fat.
Three daughters of Eminent 19th completed Register of Merit records as
Name Number Age at Beginning Butter Fat
Pender Eminent Lass D 369.039 7 yrs., 11 mos. 612.21
Pender Eminent Lass Q 407,986 4 yrs., 6 mos. 551.87
Pender's Delia's Girl 428,960 4 yrs., 8 mos. 534.82
Lass G's Ola, No. 491463. a granddaughter of Eminent 19th, out of Pender
Eminent Lass G and by Rumina's King, completed a very good record of
565.87 pounds of butter fat. starting at 2 years, ten months, which wins an
American Jersey Cattle Club Silver Medal for her and makes her State Class
CJiampion over all breeds.
These granddaughters of Eminent 19th by Rumina King are in turn being
bred to the Distinguished Eminent. This is a line bred bull out of a Gold
Medal cow, who was in turn sired by a Gold Medal sire and out of a cow
with a good Register of Merit record. He was sired by Sensational Fern
and out of Eminent's Distinction, a Gold Medal cow. From a breeding stand-
point, then, the blood of this bull should make a splendid cross on the grand-
daughters of Eminent 19th. When the heifers by the Distinguished Eminent
shall have reached a mature age, thx-ee full mature generations will be com-
pleted in the Herd Development Project. The records of these cows will
show clearly the extent to which a herd can be developed in a few years by the
use of bulls whose ancestry is well filled with high production records.
MOUNTAIN BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATION
The dairy bam at this station has been improved and the herd has become
established so that research may now be carried on at this station.
The cows at this station were taken from the herd at the Coastal Plains
Station and apparently are very well adapted to the conditions at their new
There are in this herd at present two bulls, eleven heifers and eleven cows.
These eleven cows produced an average of 7,524.3 pounds of milk and 360.78
pounds of butter fat during the past year, and only six of the eleven are
mature animals. The average for the State is about 3,000 pounds milk and
135 pounds of butter fat.
All the cows in the herd are daughters or granddaughters of Eminent 19th,
and are being continued in the breeding studies started at the Coastal Plains
48 Biennial Report
Station. One of them, Eminent's Queen Anne, No. 491462, now on official test
as a junior four-year-old, averaged 69.36 pounds of butter fat during her first
five months on test.
During the year several important meetings were attended, among these
being the American Dairy Science Association held at Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
October 6th and 7th. Representatives from the entire United States and
Canada attended this meeting.
During the year approximately 1.200 letters were written on subjects per-
taining to dairy cattle investigations, feeding, and management.
BEEF CATTIvE AND SHEEP INATESTIGATIONS
CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION, RALEIGH
R. S. Curtis, In Charge
D. W. Jones, Herdsman
1. Effect of Cottonseed Meal Upon Growth and Reproduction of Cows
Object. — To determine the various residual effects from using excessive
quantities of cottonseed meal when fed to cows and heifers under controlled
conditions. Some of the probable results are abortion, animals with soft
bones, partial and total blindness, and general oedemic conditions.
Results. — Results show that various supplements, such as calcium carbon-
ate, butter fat, cod liver oil, yeast, mineral steam bone meal and wheat
embryo have corrective effects. This is a long-time experiment, however, and
conclusive evidence on the many angles of this problem are not now available.
Note. — This work is cooperative with Mr. Vernon M. Williams and Dr. J. O.
Halverson, in charge of Dairy Research and Animal Nutrition, respectively.
2. Stomach Worms in Sheep
Object. — To determine the effect of grazing crops, high feeding, and specific
antidotes for preventing and ridding sheep of stomach worms.
Results. — Results up to date show that all three of the above have correc-
tive effects, but as to the comparative value of each it is not justifiable in
making a statement just at this time.
PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION, STATESVILLE
F. T. Meacham, Superintendent
Grady A. Berry, Herdsman
1. Cost of Raising Lambs to Marketable Age
Object. — To determine the cost of raising high-class market lambs to mar-
ketable age and condition, using a purebred Hampshire ram and high-grade
ewes of Shropshire and Merino blood.
Results. — The results show conclusively that good market lambs can be
produced under Piedmont North Carolina conditions with pastures, silage, and
cracked com supplemented with cottonseed meal and wheat bran. All of the
lambs produced have been sold in Raleigh at good prices, ranging from 15 to
20 cents per pound, depending on the year and season sold.
Commissioner of Agkicultuke 49
BLAOKLAND STATION, WENONA
J. L. Rea, Jr., Superintendent
A. P. Lefeveks, Herdsman
1. Pkodtjction of Beef Cattle
Object. — To determine the success with which high-grade beef cattle can
be produced under Blackland conditions by using purebred sire and common
or native females, native pastures to be grown for the purpose and wintering
feeds to be supplied from the farm with the possible exception of cottonseed
Results. — Tentative plans are just under way to inaugurate this work, and
as soon as the cattle tick is eradicated in the county, which will be in
December, this work will be started.
COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION, WILLARD
Charles^ Bearing, Superintendent
Thomas H. Cameron, Herdsman
1. Permanent Pasture Studies
(In cooperation with Mr. W. F. Pate, Agronomy Division)
Object. — To determine the grasses which will grow best under Coastal
Plains ' conditions, and to determine their carrying capacity with beef steers,
later applications to be made with dairy cattle.
Results. — Experiment outlined only and plans being made for its execution.
Note. — This same work will be duplicated at the Blackland Station at
The most important meeting attended during the year was the Soft Pork
Conference held at Knosville, Tenn., during April. Twelve states were repre-
sented at this meeting. The writer is also chairman of the Council of Live-
stock Research for the Southern States. A report of the work conducted by
this council was reported at the. meeting of Southern Agricultural Workers
held at Montgomery, Ala.
Numerous other meetings were attended throughout the State during the
year. These pertained either to research or extension work.
ANIMAIi INDUSTRY DIVISION
OFFICE OF SWINE EXTENSION
W. W. Shay, In Charge
W. V. Hays, Assistant
1. Swine Feeding Demonstrations
Owing to the fact that the present custom of feeding and marketing hogs as
practiced by the farmers of North Carolina is not the most profitable possible,
and that proof of the superiority of the methods advocated by the Office of
Swine Extension is necessary to insure their adoption, the feeding demonstra-
tion has been pushed as our major project.
Proof that it does convince is frequently found in the remarks of cooperating
farmers. One at Red Springs, while delivering his hogs for a cooperative
car-lot shipment, said : "It seems strange that I should have fed hogs all my
life and never learned how to do it properly until I was sixty-five years old."
50 Biennial Report
Another at Bayboro, in Pamlico County, had nine hogs in a cooperative sliip-
ment. He evidently qiaestioned the wisdom of parting with his property
before receiving his money, but being something of a philosopher, as the car
disappeared up the line, he said : "Well, there they go, and if I never see
a dollar for them, what I have learned about feeding hogs is worth as much
to me as they are." Needless to add that his check came promptly and was
During the fiscal year just ended, ninety-five demonstrations have been
started in twenty-one counties in cooperation with sixteen agents and four
instructors of vocational schools. In these demonstrations 1,282 hogs were
weighed, their initial weight being 75,045 pounds.
When a lot of hogs are weighed a schedule is made out showing the
varieties and amount of feed best suited to that particular lot of hogs during
the ensuing five weeks, and an estimate of the gains which will result, all of
which is based on the results of many experiments by various experiment
In this connection it is interesting to note that a recent computation cover-
ing 91 periods of 48 such demonstrations, running an average of 63 days, and
embracing 698 hogs, showed estimated gains of 50,360 pounds missed the
actual amount of gains by less than two pounds per head, as the 698 head of
hogs actually gained during the 63 days 51,714 pounds. At the close of each
period, the hogs are reweighed and a new schedule made for the following
An analysis is made of the rate and cost of gains during the last period.
This sheet is known as Form 10, and upon it is shown not only the rate and
cost of gains, but variety amount and cost of feed consumed, also returns per
bushel of corn and fertilizer value of the feed consumed. This form is
mimeographed and the cooperating county agent is supplied with as many
copies as he desires for distribution in the neighborhood where the demonstra-
tion is being conducted. At the close of the demonstration some agents make
it a practice to hold a field meeting, during which the final weighing of the
demonstration hogs is done and a computation of results made.
A special effort is made to stage demonstrations with hogs of an age and
weight suitable to arrive at a final weight of slightly less than 200 pounds at
a time when the seasonal price trend is near its highest points when the
service of the Division of Markets is made use of in marketing to the best
advantage ; their cooperation has been excellent and of great benefit.
Such demonstrations, when properly conducted and persisted in, are in-
variably followed by cooperative car-lot shipments, and such shipments con-
tinue and expand because of the known and proven profit in the practice. No
attempt is made to demonstrate profit from commercial pork production on a
farm where the average yield of corn is less than twenty-five bushels per acre.
The attached form is a condensed final report of all the work done in
Lenoir County during the last fiscal year, and although this feeding was done
during a period of low prices for hogs — the entire eighty head selling at an
average price of $8.72 per 100 pounds at a local market, the returns per
bushel of corn fed was $1.47, which was 47 per cent above the current local
market price, which undoubtedly more than doiiMed the profit ahove the cost
of producing the 554 bushels of corn eaten hy these hogs as compared with
selling it as corn at the current market price of $1 per hushel, besides retain-
ing on the farm its fertilizer value of approximately $85, or fifteen cents per
iushel. Since the above hogs were sold the price has been as high as $12.25.
During the coming year a special effort will be made to have carried to
completion a larger percentage of demonstrations started, as it is the com-
pleted demonstration that carries weight.
Commissioner of Agriculture
Location and Summary of Results of Demonstrations Started During the
Fiscal Year Ending October 31, 1924
Office of Swine Extension
County Agent or
Present Status or
Cause of Discontinuation
Alamance . .
S. A. Allred, V. T
J. W. Cameron
B. E. Grant
L. D. Thrash
C. B. Farris
A. H. Harris
Feed stolen from feeder
Other hogs in field
One still running
V. C. Taylor, V. T.-__
W. R. Anderson
22 (7 completed)
L. B. Altman. ..
One still running
C. A. Rose -
Owner taken sick
R. W. Graeber .
Jones . .
E. F. Fletcher . .
C. M. Brickhouse
A. R. Morrow
Both still running
R. W. Galphin
J. M. Henley, V. T..._
J. C. Anderson
B. T. Ferguson
A. H. Veasey, V. T....
17 county agents
4 vocational teachers
'Complete records not expected on such a large number.
fComplete analysis of results attached. Same is issued on all completed work and furnishes in
convenient form proof that hogs when properly handled are profitable.
Still running 11
One or more successful periods 15
Incomplete or no records 2
Total started 95
2. Ton Litter Contest
This project has not been pushed, owing to the fact that it has been over-
shadowed by the feeding demonstrations. To date there have been three
litters entered, two of which failed to weigh a ton at 180 days of age — one by
only 139 pounds. The third will be ISO days old November 20, and we have
hopes that they will reach the required weight to win a medal.
3. Register of Merit for Swine
For some time there has been a feeling on the part of the more thoughtful
men interested in purebred hogs that a pedigree of good breeding and excellent
bodily conformation to the requirements considered necessary to high classifi-
cation according to the score card, still left something to be desired in the
record of an animal to be used as foundation stock.
52 Biennial Eepoet
Other questions arise, to illustrate, in the case of a sow: (1) What assur-
ance have we of her prolificacy? (2) Does she come of a strain of good,
careful mothers of ample milk production? (3) How does this strain of that
particular breed function in the feed lot, both as to rate and economy of
gains? (4) What dressing percentage may be expected of them, and what
proportion of the various high-priced cuts?
A little consideration will lead to the belief that here is an opening for a
register of merit based on actual performance, but the question at once
arises : How far can we go ? Believing that it is better to make a start in a
small way and add as seems wise, rather than not make a start at all, or
start more than can be continued, last year a Register of Merit based on
prolificacy and the ability to raise to weaning age at exceptionally good
weight a minimum number of pigs sufiicient to insure profit if properly
handled, such a register was started. The requirements were those listed
under "Class A" in the attached form 30-A.
The failure of seven sows which were entered indicated the possibility that
the requirements were too great. However, the fact that two of the seven
sows met the requirements for one litter gave reason for a belief that they
Realizing that requirements too easy of attainment would take rank accord-
ingly, and also that the winning of a bronze and silver medal might act as a
stimulant to greater effort, and at the same time give recognition to com-
mendable work, the two classes "B" and "C" were added.
The next sow entered farrowed 16 pigs, carried ten to a total weight of
422 pounds at eight weeks old ; she was rebred, farrowed 14, and is now
nursing nine, which are at present six weeks old, and will undoubtedly enable
her to complete a record entitling her to a gold medal.
4. Consignment Sales
Complete plans have been made for arranging for and conducting consign-
ment sales of purebred hogs. These plans have been proven sound and satis-
factory by use in one such sale. The plans guard against the holding of a
sale where there is no existing demand for stock, also against sending one
kind of stock when there is a demand for another kind. The interests of
both the consignor and purchaser are guarded.
Since the first sale was held under these plans, there have been requests
for three more sales, but investigation developed proof that such sales would
be held at too great risk to the consignors, and we did not feel justified in
. 5. Cooperative Car-Lot Shipments
As far as possible, plans are made for such shipments when feeding demon-
strations are started in a neighborhood, and it is a usual stipulation that all
hogs to be shipped cooperatively must be fed in accordance with instructions
from this oflice. In this work the Division of Markets has given excellent
6. Miscellaneous Help
Under this heading might be classed an innovation in swine judging at the
State Fair this fall which, so far as we know, was the first time that the
reasons for placing an animal first in his class were ever given at a large
A card was marked by the judge. As soon as placed the first prize winner
was driven over the scales to a pen at one end of the ring. Over this pen a
rack was arranged in which were slid the weight and reasons which were
printed on heavy cardboard in four-inch letters. Information appeared on the
bulletin board as follows :
Commissioner of Agricultuke
REASONS FOR PLACING
Back — Shoulders — Heart Girth
As for other work under this heading, it includes assistance in planning
buildings and equipment, advice regarding the purchase of hogs, information
relative to feeds and pastures, etc. ; in this connection we try to apply our
slogan of the Office of Swine Extension :
Not just noise, l)ut oxtion. Not simply action, hut properly directed action,
tvhich is not only properly directed hut executed in a thorough manner. That
is the requisite of success in Stvine Extension Work.
Condensed Summary of Activities of the Office of Swine Extension for
THE Fiscal Tear Ending October 31, 1924
October . .
*Extension Circular No. 143
OFFICE OF DAIRY EXTENSION
J. A. Akey, In Charge
A. C. KiMREY, Assistant
W. Li. Clevenger, Creamery Manufacturing Specialist
F. R. Farnham, Production Specialist
H. L. Wilson, Cheese Specialist (Swiss)
W. A. Graham. Cheese Specialist (Cheddar)
1. Herd Record Work
In order to secure individual production and feed cost records on milk
cows located in various sections of the State, records have been kept during
the past year on eight herds scattered from New Bern to Canton. This work
was undertaken because the dairy herds are scattered, making it very expen-
sive to carry on regular Cow Testing Association work, and without feed and
54 Biennial Report
production records it is impossible to do economical feeding. These herds are
used as demonstrations and the data obtained will be used in our dairy schools
and in news items for the press.
During the early part of April I canvassed the sections around Greensboro,
Charlotte, and Gastonia for the purpose of organizing regular Cow Testing
Associations. The herds in this part of the State are fairly close together, and
I was successful in perfecting two associations with all-time testers which
started operation June 1st. One of these, the Piedmont Cow Testing Associa-
tion, embraces a section of country from Pinehurst to Winston-Salem. It has
thirteen members, six of whom do semi-official work. In this association
records are being kept on 275 cows. R. H. Scott is doing the testing at a cost
to the association of .$1,700 per year : The officers are : Leonard Tufts, Pine-
hurst, president; Tom Pemberton, Greensboro, vice-president; and J. I. Wag-
oner, Greensboro, secretary-treasurer.
The Gaston-Mecklenburg Association is located in Gaston and Mecklenburg
counties. There are twenty members in it, four of which are carrying on semi-
The officers of this association are as follows : R. E. McDowell, president ;
R. H. Martin, vice-president ; and Mr. Tom Sparrow, secretary and treasurer.
Mr. C. G. Midyette is tester.
The records secured in this work and furnished the herd owners by the
testers will enable them to locate the cows in their herds which are capable of
converting feed into milk at a profit. These cows will be fed grain according
to production, while the unprofitable ones will be sold to the butcher.
In addition to keeping feed and milk production records, the testers are
encouraging home mixing of the grain ration and the purchase of feeds co-
operatively in car lots. By purchasing feeds in large quantities and home
mixing we have demonstrated by the record kept here in the office that the
dairymen can save from eight to twelve dollars per ton.
2. Placing Purebred Bulls
Our experience with the Federal plan of Cooperative Bull Association has
not been satisfactory, so this year our efforts in placing purebred bulls has
been largely with individuals and community groups rather than with an
association made up of several community groups. Due to the fact that the
members of some of the bull associations, which were organized a few years
ago, have not worked together harmoniously, we feel that the average farmer
is not fully convinced of the true value of a purebred sire in herd improvement.
For the purpose of selling the idea of the importance of the "Good Sire" to
the average dairyman and at the same time to replace on the farms of Bun-
combe County scrub, grade, and otherwise inferior dairy bulls with purebreds
of good type and out of dams with fat production records of not less than 400
pounds, a Purebred Sire Campaign was put on during the first week in
Previous to the beginning of this campaign, a cattle census was taken on
1,282 farms by a committee of about fox'ty farmers. The large herds were
not included, since I was desirous to obtain data representative of the small
or average Buncombe County herd.
The reports turned in by this committee showed the following number of
cows per farm. 4.3, ration of purebred to grades. 4-1.
Just previous to the campaign a county organization was perfected with
the following committees : Finance, Publicity, Executive, Sales, and Trans-
By personal solicitation and through the help of breed field men I got five
Guernsey, four Holsteins, and three Jersey bulls placed on exhibition in the
CoMMISSIOiS^ER OF AGRICULTURE 55
county garage during the week of tlie campaign. The expense of their keep
was borne by the Wachovia Loan and Trust Company.
The campaign lasted five days. About 40 meetings were held in various
sections of the county and a number of personal visits were made. The latter
produced greater results than the former. Mr. F. H. Jeter had chai'ge of the
publicity and received excellent cooperation from the press. Assisting in the
campaign were the following workers : W. E. Wintermeyer and J. H. McLean,
from the Bureau of Dairying. Washington, D. C. ; H. C. Bates and G. W.
Humphreys of the Southern Railway ; Stanley Combs, Holstein representative ;
W. W. Fitzpatrick. Guernsey representative; Charles Oliver, from the Jersey
Cattle Club ; and J. W. Goodman. C. W. Tilson, L. D. Thrash. T. F. Arnold,
F. R. Farnham, and J. A Arey of the State College Extension Service.
All of the bulls were placed during the week, excepting two of the Holsteins.
A number of pro.spective buyers were also located, five of which have pur-
chased Jersey bulls since.
The Baker Packing Company offered a premium of one cent per' pound on
the first ten bulls that were replaced by purebreds.
Before the close of the campaign a strong sentiment favoring the use of
purebred sires was apparent over the entire county. Quite a number of
farmers expressed the desire to purchase a few purebred females. We expect
to supply this demand through an auction sale of purebred dairy cattle on
3. Cheese Factoky Development
The low market for cheese during the past summer retarded the progress
we should have made in the cheese-producing area. The price which the
small factory could pay for milk after deducting operating expenses was not
a sutficieut inducement to cause the farmers to milk their cows : therefore,
several factories remained closed throughout the summer. The great need of
all the factories is a larger volume of milk, and until the supply to some of
the smaller factories is increased it will be impossible for them to operate at
4. Creamery Maxufacturixg
The progress made by our creameries during the past year has been very
satisfactory. The price for butter fat has been fair to good, which has acted
as a stimulus to the work. No new plants have been erected, but the produc-
tion in 1923 was sixteen per cent greater than that of 1922. There was also
a marked improvement in the quality of the butter.
I have discouraged the organization of creameries in two different counties
during the past year, since there was not sufficient cream to successfully
operate a plant on in either section. In Macon, one of these counties, about
3.000 pounds of butter fat is now being produced per month, and I think that
a creamery can be successfully operated in this county after another year's
work in production has been carried on. In Beaufort, the other county, no
fat is now being produced for creamery purposes, but on account of the de-
struction of the cotton crop by the weevil in this and adjoining counties there
is a growing interest among the farmers and business men in livestock farm-
ing. It is my intention to give considerable time to this section next year,
with the hope that a sufficient number of cows may be brought in to make
possible the operation of a local creamery.
Special time has been given this year to the sections in which our smaller
creameries are located for the purpose of increasing the volume of fat deliv-
ered to the plant. Volume is essential in the economical operation of butter
factories, and although I do not believe in centralized methods. I hope to
see, in the near future, the production of each of our creameries increased
to not less than 120,000 pounds of butter annually.
. The following table shows the production and growth of the cream industry
in this State from 1917 to 1923, inclusive.
Butter Made in North Carolina
1918 1919 1920 1921
Totals 988,744 912,239 941,046 989,713 1,315,628 1,560,994 1,812,919
5. Dairy Schools
During the year eleven dairy schools were held in four different counties,
with a total attendance of 982 people. The subjects discussed were feeding
and care of the dairy cow and the proper care of her products.
6. Special Meetings Attended
In addition to the dairy schools, the following special meetings were at-
Kind of Meeting
World's Dairy Congress...
Washington, D. C.-
Syracuse, N. Y
Progress of Jerseys in N. C
Feeding the Dairy Cow
Dairy Development in N. C
In Charge Program and Feed-
Perfecting Jersey Association...
Cheese Factory Picnic
Feeding the Dairy Cow
Bull Trial ..
Guernsey Progress in N. C
Value of Pure Bred Sire .
Cheese Factory Picnic
During January several special meetings were held in cooperation with Mr.
J. H. McLain of the Quaker Oats Company, Chicago. The county agents
assisted in these meetings, during which about 1,500 people attended. Motion-
picture machines were used illustrating the results on improving dairy cattle
by the use of a good sire.
Commissioner of Agkicultuke
7. Placing Cattle
On November 9, 1923, Mr. Arey accompanied W. L. Smith and J. A. Boone
to Orange, Va., where he selected three purebred and eleven grade Holstein
cows for them. They were distributed among dairymen here at Raleigh.
Mr. Arey purchased one purebred Jersey bull in Catawba County for farmers
in Yancey County. As a result of the purebred sire campaign in Buncombe
County fifteen purebred bulls have been placed up there. On November 8,
1923, Mr. Arey assisted in putting on the annual consignment sale of the
N. C. Jersey Breeders' Association of 57 head. On August 28, 1924. Mr. Arey
assisted in putting on the annual consignment sale of the North Carolina
Guernsey Breeders' Association of 32 head.
8. Milk Utilization
Assistance was given in organizing a county-wide milk campaign in Cleve-
land'County, but no actual help was given in the campaign.
9. Fairs and Exhibits
Exhibits were put on at the State Fair, Raleigh ; Mooresville, and Lenoir.
In addition to this, the Dairy Cattle Department of the State Fair was under
the direction of Mr. Arey.
10. Official Testing
During the year Mr. Arey supervised official testing work in twenty-four
herds of cattle, embracing about 135 cows. Seventeen men have supervised
213 tests during the past year at a cost of $2,832.66, or an average of $13.30
A list of the State Class Leaders having completed records since last October
first follows :
Class Cow Owner
Mature Pioneer's Country Lassie J. F. Diggs
Milk, 11,986 ; fat, 747.52
Sr. 4 Peurs College Farm Tee N. C. State College
Milk, 13.441 ; fat, 663.01
Jr. 4 State Jean Pogis N. C. State College
Milk, 12.015 ; fat, 586.68
Sr. 3 Valley Forge Coleta Leonard Tufts
Milk, 11,780 ; fat. 543.89
Jr. 3 Oxford's Noble Brownie ; R. E. McDowell
Milk. 11.944; fat, 764.95
Sr. 2 Lass G's Ola N. C. Dept. Agr.
Milk, 10,209; fat, 565.87 (Pender Herd)
Jr. 2 Reynolda's May Queen Reynolda, Inc.
Milk, 10,816; fat, 634.87
Under 2 State Warden Pogis N. C. State College
Milk, 10,301 ; fat, 502.75
12 and over Allison's Beauty S. W. Miller
Milk, 8.826 (11 years)
Fat, 480.27 (349 days)
11. News Letter
A News Letter is issued monthly giving the results of the official testing
work along with other timely items of interest to dairymen.
58 Biennial Eeport
12. Special Work
Mr. Arey. in cooperation with Mr. E. R. Raney. advised Mrs. J. F. Stephens
and Dr. J. I. Foust, both of Greensboro, concerning bam plans. Both built
according to plans furnished. During the year Mr. Arey has referred a
number of dairymen to Mr. Raney for plans for barns and milk houses.
In December, 1923, Mr. Arey assisted Mr. Clevenger in purchasing machinery
for the College Creamery Laboratory.
Number of official tests supervised 213
Total amount collected for testing. $2,832.66
Number doing official testing 24
Number of testers furnished 17
Number doing individual herd record work 8
Number of cow-testing associations organized....^ • 2
Number assisted in barn building 2
Purebred bulls placed 16
Pui-ebred cows placed 3
Grade cows placed 11
Exhibits placed 4
Butter made by creameries 1,812,919
Cheese made by cheese factories 132,448
Milk campaigns organized 1
Press articles written 30
Number of meetings held 50
Total attendance 8,576
Miles traveled by rail 11,504
Miles traveled by auto : 2,169
Personal visits and consultations - 412
Letters written 2,200
In addition to the report as given by Mr. Arey, each worker under him has
submitted a detailed report for the year, at the close of which is a summary
of the work of each. These are available for reference at any time.
The following is a summary of the activities of all Dairy Extension workers :
Number of meetings held 249
Attendance , - 27,651
Number of miles traveled by rail—. 35,765
Nvimber of miles traveled by auto 36,454
Number of letters written 3,745
Number of purebred cows and heifers placed 28
Number of purebred bulls placed 40
Number of grade cows placed , 110
Number of cow-testing associations organized 2
Number of official tests supervised 213
Total amount collected for official testing $2,832.66
Number doing individual herd record work 8
Number of exhibits placed 26
Number of cheese factory buildings erected 4
Cheese manufactured 132,448
Cheese factories assisted , 12
Creameries and ice-cream plants assisted 14
Butter manufactured , 1,812.919
Press ai-ticles written 63
Personal visits and office consultations 3,021
Milk campaigns held 7. 1
Commissioner of Agriculture 59
G. P. Williams, In Cliartjc
1. Flock Improvement
This work consists of instructing farmers where they can buy i^^iebi-ed rams
at moderate prices and how they can secure the best results from them.
Complete instructions are given how to feed and manage the flock throughout
the various seasons of the year.
2. Development of Pastuees
Instructions are given on providing a succession of pasture crops for lambs
and sheep throughout the year. This consists of an explanation of the best
kind of pasture to provide under various conditions. The use of catch crops
for grazing sheep is especially emphasized.
3. Management and Feeding of Eakey Lambs
Systematic methods have been outlined for saving young lambs, pushing
them for the early market and good weights, and with quick cash returns.
Definite plans have been worked out to do this and aid farmers in making
4. Docking and Castrating Lambs
Demonstrations have been given on when and how to properly dock and
castrate lambs for market or breeding purposes. The use of flocks throughout
the State were resorted to in order to make this work as practical as possible.
5. Parasite Control
Definite instructioiis have been given on the control of parasites, more
especially of stomach worms, which are the chief antagonists of sheep produc-
tion. Drenching fluids were prepared and demonstrations given, showing
the proper and improper methods of administering. Explanation was made as
to the condition the sheep should be in when the dose Is given, and also in
regard to the frequency and the number of doses required.
6. Peepakation of Wool for Market
More careful preparation of wool is needed in order that the highest market
price be obtained. Lessons were given in managing the flock so as to elimi-
nate all burrs and other foreign matter in so far as possible. Demonstrations
were given in keeping the fleece intact by proper rolling and tying with paper
7. Grading and Bagging Fleeces
After the wool has been taken from the sheep and tied there still remains
another important operation in the grading and bagging of the fleece. Assist-
ance was given in purchasing regular wool bags and putting the wool up in
attractive packages so as to attract the better class of buyers.
8. Summary of Activities
Visits to county agents 59
Farm visits and demonstrations 77
Meetings addressed 31
Attendance at meetings addressed 596
Office visits — 72
Letters written 1.124
Extension press articles written 70
Miles ti-aveled by auto 1,746
60 Biennial Report
Miles traveled by rail 7,042
Assistance buying and selling registered sheep 56
Assistance buying and selling grade stock sheep 360
Assistance in holding wool pools 11
Different counties visited : 38
OFFICE OF POULTRY EXTENSION
AxLEN G. Oliver, In Charge
E. G. Waedin, Assistant
Herewith will be found the report of the activities of this office for the past
year, as proposed and outlined in my last annual report. It has been the
object of this office to carry out the several projects in their proper seasons
and to stimulate and encourage the work in every way.
Marked progress has been shown as follows : In more purebred flocks on
the farms, properly housed and fed, which has been shown by the increased
egg production per fowl, and a larger number of chicks raised and properly
prepared for market.
Many new poultry and brooder houses have been constructed and old ones
remodeled under our supervision. In fact, the whole line of work shows
progress and better methods and conditions.
In many counties communities have been organized into cooperative associa-
tions, whereby the members are greatly benefited, not only by buying their
supplies in bulk, but by selling their products in the same manner. During
the year we assisted many farm agents in disposing of car lots of surplus
poultry consisting of old fowls past their usefulness. By doing this, the
farmer not only had more room for his younger fowls, but at the same time
received a higher price than could be obtained on the local market for them,
and as these buyers were from outside the State that much extra money was
brought into it.
The following projects have been stressed the past year, and we would
suggest their continuance :
Project No. 1. Standardisation of Farm Flocks.
Organizing communities for the purpose of standardizing the poultry
that the products — poultry and eggs — may be graded in standard grades
to bring the highest market prices. The aim will be to keep but one breed
in each community.
Project No. 2. Cooperative Buyvng and Sellwig.
The purpose of this is to market cooperatively that a higher price may
be obtained and to buy supplies in large lots to save the poultry keeper
money. Methods of assembling, grading, packing, and shipping eggs.
Also market factors of live and dressed poultry.
Project No. 3. Feeding Project.
The campaign here will teach proper feed mixtures and methods of
feeding for heavy egg production, chicks, range birds, and fattening for
market. How, when, and what to grow for poultry.
Project No. 4. Building Project.
Proper methods of constructing farm poultry houses, commercial laying
houses, brooder and range houses, also sitting and brooding coops and
Commissioner of Agriculture 61
Project No. 5. Breeding Project.
Culling campaign, selection, and mating breeding birds. Judging classes
Pboject No. 6. Disease Control.
In cooperation with the office and laboratory of Poultry Investigations
and Pathology. Control of lice, mites, and contagious diseases. Sanita-
tion, location of poultry houses.
Peoject No. 7. Fairs.
Exhibits of houses and equipment and other poultry educational features
will be provided so far as possible at State, district, county, and com-
Project No. 8. PuMicity.
Aid and cooperation in general poultry problems in demonstrations,
lectures, and articles will be given through county and home agents, local
leader or secretary of community clubs, news and farm papers of the
State. To encourage the writing and presentation at club meetings of
the club members' results. The production and general poultry program
is divided into seasonal sections representing spring, sumriier, fall, and
Principal Work Accomplished by Office of Poultry Extension
Proper housing and home-made equipment for care of farm poultry.
Furnishing models and blue-prints.
Early hatching and keeping of all early-hatched pullets.
Feeding mature birds for fall and winter egg production.
Feeding of young growing birds that they may reach maturity in the short-
est possible time.
Culling and grading of eggs for market.
Finishing young cockerels by milk feed, wherever possible, before shipping
Exhibit of purebred farm poultry raised by farm boys and girls at various
fairs throughout the State.
Holding culling and judging schools on farms.
Assisting in organization of poultry associations in many counties.
Purchasing of poultry feeds and shipping cooperatively.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs sold over 40,000 purebred eggs for hatching
Holding educational exhibits at various places.
Practical demonstrations in many counties.
Summary — Mr. Oliver
Miles traveled by rail 9,582
Miles traveled by auto 4,875
Number letters written 1,488
Number farms visited : 428
Number demonstrations 762
Number meetings 264
Number in attendance 11,369
Community fairs .' 2
Other shows and fairs 16
Number members showing 645
Number birds shown 3,437
Amount of cash won $2,522
Poultry houses, new 30
62 Biennial Report
Poultry houses, remodeled 48
Office consultations 160
Local articles for press 41
Flocks culled 379
Number dozen eggs shown 52
Judging contests 6
Educational exhibits 35
Educational lectures 245
Summary — Mr. Wardin
Miles traveled by rail 4,748
Miles traveled by auto - 6.192
Letters written 424
Bulletins mailed , 1,634
Farms visited 310
Community fairs 6
Other shows and fairs 4
Number members showing 140
Number birds shown 1,072
Amount of cash won $425
Poultry houses, new 39
Poultry houses, remodeled 18
Office consultations 32
Local press articles 85
Flocks culled 75
Birds handled 4,837
Number dozen eggs shown
Judging contests -
Educational exhibits 15
Educational lectures 241
Counties visited - 54
BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION
R. S. Curtis, In Charge
G. P. Williams, Assistant
There has been no regularly organized beef cattle extension work done,
although we have our projects on same. The time of the writer is consumed
largely in handling administrative matters and in research work. Mr. Wil-
liams has given some assistance in beef cattle extension when he could find
time to do so.
The administrative duties of the division consume considerable time, and
from this viewpoint I wish to speak a word in regard to the splendid progress
which has been made during the year. The morale of the Division has been
fine, and I would not feel that I had performed my duty without making
mention of the splendid cooperation effective among all workers.
If there is any additional information which you may desire, I will be
pleased to furnish it upon request.
R. S. CUKTIS,
Ammal Industry Division.
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — In the report of this division two years ago attention was called,
at the outset to two important developments: (1) That the boll weevil
had virtually completed the invasion of all our cotton area, and (2) that
the Mexican bean beetle, first invading our extreme southwestern county
of Cherokee, had spread nearly to Waynesville and Hendersonville. It
is fitting, therefore, at the outset of this report to sketch the present
status in regard to these two prime insect pests.
(1) That the boll weevil has invaded all our cotton area is proven by
the fact that during 1923 we saw actual specimens of genuine boll weevil
from such extreme outlying counties as Currituck, Caswell, and even
Cherokee. In this last county the weevils were found on a few rows of
cotton being grown for home use in a mountain garden some twenty or
more miles from the nearest known commercial cotton fields across the
line in Georgia.
However, it was not until 1924 that our entire cotton area had been
infested long enough for maximum damage to be possible over the entire
area. We therefore watch the season with keen interest. As expected,
the weevil damage was much heavier to the south and east, and much
lighter in the Piedmont. The damage averaged very light on the whole,
though it rapidly inceased toward the close of the season.
Meantime, during the past several years we have been able to demon-
strate repeatedly the profitableness of the standard dust-poison method
of control, and information on this has been issued in printed form and
widely distributed at meetings, to county agents, and to farmers. Our
experience has shown the need of following the directions carefully, so
as to make the applications when they will be profitable, and to avoid
the useless waste of making them when they will not pay. Tarmers
who merely get the one idea of "poisoning" in their minds are liable
to spend as much as they gain ; but we have proven to the satisfaction of
many that "proper poisoning" is virtually certain to yield profits. There
is high heed for more ample test work, for continued biological studies,
for observation of the effects of our weather conditions, and for study
of the natural enemies of the boll weevil. These are the basis of a sound
understanding from which to teach the public.
(2) The Mexican bean beetle in 1923 spread nearly to the Blue Ridge
in the counties of Ashe, Watauga, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey, and
spread east of the Blue Eidge in the more southern counties of McDowell,
Rutherford, Cleveland, Lincoln, and Gaston. In 1924 its widest spread
has been in our northern counties ; its advance line at close of the season
reaching approximately to Catawba River on the south and nearly to
Mount Airy, Surry County, in the north.
64 Biennial Repokt
A field station for the study of this pest was conducted at Bryson City
during 1923 by Mr. J. C. Crawford of this division; and with the
eastward spread, his studies in 1924 have been at the Mountain Test
Tarni Branch Station at Swannanoa. Poison dusts have given a good
measure of protection, and at this writing a publication by Mr. Craw-
ford is in press and will soon be ready for distribution.
There is basis for hope that this Mexican bean beetle will not be so
serious in our Piedmont as in the Mountain counties, for since its ap-
pearance in Alabama in 1919-20 it has shown a tendency to spread into
and persist most vigorously in the cooler and more highly elevated
The course of events with these two insects (boll weevil, and Mexican
bean beetle) illustrates the importance of studies of the geographical
range and intensity of attack of insect pests. Both species invaded the
United States from Mexico, yet in this State the boll weevil is showing
preference for the lower warmer region toward our coast, while the bean
beetle bids fair to be more severe in the higher cooler region of our
Both of these insects are further discussed under their project head-
ings later in this report.
Mr. T. B. Mitchell does the greater part of the inspection work which
is required under the regulations of the board. The scouting work to
determine the spread of boll weevil and bean beetle has also been par-
ticipated in by Messrs. J. A. Harris and "W. B. Mabee.
Plant Nurseries : — All plant nurseries in the State are inspected each
year and certificates issued, based on their satisfactory condition as to
pests which would likely be introduced into new localities on shipments
of plants. The number of these nurseries has increased considerably in
recent years, especially since the war period, as shown by the following
Year Nurseries Licensed
1924 : 82
These nurseries are scattered throughout the length and breadth of
the State, an average about eleven acres each in salable trees and plants.
Outside Nurseries: — ISTurseries outside the State are required to file
with us a copy of their certificate of inspection and to secure lIlTorth
Carolina tags to attach to shipments in this State. Por these a nominal
price is charged.
Inspection of Imported Plants: — Working in collaboration with the
Pederal Horticultural Board at Washington, an inspection is made of all
Commissioner of Agricultuke 65
shipments of plants coming into this State from foreign countries, and
findings are reported to "Washington. These constitute a considerable item
of work during late winter.
Scouting to Determine Spread of Boll Weevil : — As already indicated,
the boll weevil completed the occupation of our cotton area in 1922-23.
Our field examinations determined very accurately its spread each year,
from the time that it invaded the State in 1919 until the entire area was
occupied in 1922-23.
Scouting to Determine Spread of Mexican Bean Beetle: — Since the
invasion of our State by this pest in 1921 its eastward spread has been
determined each year until at close of 1924 it is known to extend approxi-
mately to a north-and-south line drawn from Catawba River on the
South Carolina line to a point slightly west of Mount Airy in Surry
Bee-Disease Inspection: — This work was undertaken under regula-
tions adopted by the board in July, 1923, to provide a service which is
not covered by the extension work in beekeeping. Seven queen-breeding
apiaries were each inspected twice during the year, a total of fourteen
"Work on Definite Projects
Potato Spraying : — At Swannanoa Test Farm, Buncombe County,
tests have now been conducted through a ten-year period to ascertain and
demonstrate the profitableness of spraying potatoes with standard poi-
soned Bordeaux mixture. This work has been in charge of Dr. R. W.
Leiby, assisted by Mr. S. C. Clapp, superintendent of the farm. For
the whole ten-year period the average increase in yield of sprayed over
unsprayed potatoes may be shown as follows :
Potato Spraying, Using Standard Poisoned Bordean,x Mixture
Average yield, unsprayed 117.3 bus. per acre
Average shield, sprayed 170.6 bus. per acre
Gain by spraying (46 per cent) 53.3 bus. per acre
These findings furnished the basis of our advice to our western potato
growers. We are pleased to know that especially in the case of persons
attempting to grow seed potatoes, the practice of proper spraying i&
becoming quite generally established.
Other materials have also been used in comparison with the standard
poisoned Bordeaux, and during late years dusting with a copper-lime
arsenate mixture has done well. As this method is more expensive it is
not yet much used.
While the above tests relate to the late potatoes of our mountain
region, the question of using this practice on the early crop which is
largely grown in the eastern part of the State, has not been forgotten,
Q6 Biennial Report
Tests conducted over a period of four years witk the early crop, and the
average from six tests showed a gain of 74 bushels per acre (or 106
per cent) by spraying with standard poisoned Bordeaux mixture.
Insect Survey : — For many years we have been carrying on a study
of the complete insect life of the State, making records of the known
occurrence, distribution, seasonal activities, etc., of every species found.
Mr. C. S. Brimley is chiefly engaged upon this project, while various
other workers contribute and participate as opportunity affords. This
is necessarily a- permanent project, for the insect life of no locality in
the United States is fully known, and even the status of known species
changes from time to time. On several occasions there have been destruc-
tive outbreaks of insects which our citizens believe to be "new" but
which our Insect Survey records showed to be old residents which for
some reason were abnormally abundant for the time being. In such
cases we have been able to accurately infer that the outbreak would be
only temporary, as contrasted with such pests as boll weevil and Mexican
bean beetle which are genuinely new to our territory and bid fair to
be permanent pests.
We cannot too greatly emphasize the value of this Survey work in
giving us an understanding of insect problems, and of their relation to
other factors in our welfare. In this report of two years ago we re-
ported that 6,344 species ("kinds") of insects were then on our records
as occurring in the State. "We now report that our lists at present (N'ov.
25, 1924) show 7,047 species on record, a gain of 703 during (approxi-
mately) the past two years. While some of these new records are
gleaned from the publications of other workers, yet we more highly
prize those which are derived from our own work and are represented
by specimens in the permanent collections.
The collections resulting from this Survey work are in constant use
by our own workers in their studies, they aid us in identification of
specimens sent by citizens; they are drawn upon for exhibits in our
State Museum, at State Fair, at other fairs, and to illustrate discus-
sion at various meetings. Also, specialists in other states and at Wash-
ington frequently ask for such information as our records may supply.
Boll Weevil : — During the past two years studies and tests with this
insect have been conducted at the Field Station at Aberdeen, Moore
county, by Messrs. E,. W. Leiby and J. A. Harris. Mr. W. B. Mabee
has also been very active in work in cooperation with county agents and
farmers throughout our cotton area. The studies and observations have
given such information as the following :
In 1924 over-wintered weevils invaded the fields from May 25 to
July 1. Weevils of the next ("first") generation began to appear about
July 10, — of these nine pairs laid an average of 102 eggs per female
during their lives. In the latter part of the season seven pairs laid an
average of 74 eggs per female.
Commissioner of Agkicultube 67
Our studies indicate that in cases of moderately heavy initial infes-
tation it is usually the progeny of the over-wintered weevils which
emerge in first half of July, (i.e. the first field-reared generation of the
season) that brings the square-puncturing up to the "dusting-point," for
we find these weevils becoming abundant and active in mid-July, and in
such cases we find the dusting point to be reached in late July or very
early in August.
In connection with these studies there have been tests of the standard
dust-poison method advised by the TJ. S. Bureau of Entomology, begin-
ning when the weevils have punctured from 10 to 15 per cent of the
squares. In 1922 Mr. "W. B. Mabee of this office conducted four such
tests on short-staple cotton in Scotland County, securing an average
increase of 244 pounds seed cotton per acre, with profit (above computed
costs) of $20.11 per acre; while in another test with long-staple cotton
the gain was 402 pounds seed cotton with profit of $41.24 per acre. In
1924 Messrs. Leiby and Harris conducted four tests in vicinity of Aber-
deen which gave an average increase of 198 pounds seed cotton with
net profit of $17.31 per acre.
County agents, the Virginia-Carolina Company, and Royster Com-
pany, have all conducted tests during the past few years along this same
line and have kindly reported results to us, until we now have data from
a total of 58 tests conducted in 19 counties, ranging from Cleveland in
the west to Onslow, Carteret and Halifax in the east; and the grand
average of all these tests shows a gain of 246 pounds seed cotton per
acre by the proper use of the dust-poison method.
While the above data seems to abundantly prove the reliability of the
dust-poison method when properly applied, yet many of our farmers
have now passed through several seasons of weevil-infestation and have
produced satisfactory crops without using poisons in any form, and we
have ourselves had the experience of selecting a field in advance for
"demonstration" and have had the weevil-injury be so light that it
would not pay to poison. This has emphasized the economy of following
the directions so as not to waste poison (and money) in needless appli-
cations, and has led us to watch the effect of weather conditions on the
weevil. Both in 1923 and 1924 there were periods of heat and drought
which came at appropriate times to check the weevil, and if the farmer
were watchful, they saved him from much waste of poison.
The idea of early-season poisoning for the over-wintered weevils has
had considerable attention throughout the south in recent years. While
some of the tests have indicated good results, others have been less
satisfactory, and no clear basis for a statement of the money-profit from
it has yet been secured, so far as we know. Our own tests in 1923 indi-
cated that fearly applications delayed slightly (but did not prevent)
heavy infestation later. On the basis of all findings and opinions, an
application of poison at the "pre-square" period, in case the weevils
were abundant in early season, was included in our boll weevil program
68 Biennial Report
for 1924, yet we do not know of a single instance in our State where the
conditions were such as to call for its use during the year.
Our studies have also shoMai that several species of native parasite-
enemies of the boll weevil are at work. These presumably vary in their
abundance in different fields and at different times in the season.
In sum, it may be said that to date our studies, observations and ex-
periences, all show the complexity and many-sidedness of the boll
weevil problem; yet certain profitable methods of procedure are clear.
The conditions of climate which favored us the past two seasons are
not dependable for the future. "We feel the urgent need of continued
studies through the next several years until the whole issue shall be-
come more soundly stabilized in the minds of our people than it is
at present. To this end we feel that field studies and careful tests should
be made at two or more points in our chief cotton area.
Peach and Plum Curculio. — At the field station at Aberdeen Dr. E.
W. Leiby and Mr. J. A. Harris have continued their work with this
pest, and have gained keen response and appreciation from the peach
growers. By careful watching of the activities of the insect both in the
insectary and in the orchards, these workers have been able to issue
letter -bulletins to growers and local papers which clearly indicate the
practices and when to apply them. This curculio is the common cause
of wormy peach fruits, and in each year careful tests, with untreated
"check" trees for comparison have demonstrated the high degree of
control that has been secured by the methods of winter clean-up, spray-
ing (or dusting), and gathering of "drops." Thus their data shows
that in 1924 trees of Slappey variety which were not treated showed
22.2 per cent of the fruit to be wormy at harvest, while the same variety
under the treatments which were advised showed less than 2 per cent
wormy at harvest. Furthermore, as fungicide materials are commonly
used in combination with the insecticide, the same tests showed bene-
ficial control of rot and scab diseases.
Not only do the data secured indicate that the findings in this work
should be worth many thousands of dollars to our peach growers, but
actual consultation with the growers themselves shows that they have
used the findings, have procured the protection, and secured the profits.
The work is in high favor among the growers, who greatly desire that
it be continued. The work has also included some tests against peach
borer and San Jose scale, both pests of long standing in the control
of which there have been some fresh developments in recent years.
Black Corn Weevil. — For the last several years this pest of maturing
and stored corn has been complained of more frequently than formerly.
Accordingly, Mr. T. B. Mitchell has devoted some attention to it at times
when his other duties would allow. As its ravages are especially serious
in our eastern section, the observations have been made chiefly at the
Blacklands Test Farm at "Wenona, Washington County; and in view
of the usual absence of storage houses suitable for fumigation on the
COMMISSIONEK OF AGRICULTURE 69
farms o£ this section, the studies have been along lines of field practice
and management which might lessen the weevil infestation.
Mr. Mitchell's findings indicate that later-planted corn is much less
subject to attack than corn which is planted early. They also indicate
that corn grown at a distance from a corn-crib which has not been
thoroughly cleaned out (in winter or early spring) is much less subject
to attack than corn grown close to such a weevil-infested crib ; in other
words, apparently an infested crib serves as a center for dissemination
of weevils, which, however, are not inclined to fly very far away. It
is also found that tight-fitting husk which entirely encloses the ear
appears to lessen weevil attacks. These several facts offer their own
suggestions, which,- so far as they may be followed, may help to prevent
Mexican Bean Beetle. — Mr. J. C. Crawford of this division was
located at Bryson City, Swain County, for the season of 1923, where
he conducted a field station for the study of this new invader. For the
season 1924 his work has been located at the Mountain Test Farm,
Swannanoa, Buncombe County.
At Bryson City (1923) the first over-vnntered beetles were found in
the fields on May 23, and by June 6 most of them were in the fields.
Two full generations of beetles were produced, and a partial third, be-
fore the season closed.
Some of the features in the insect's life were found by Mr. Crawford
to be as follows : The yellow elliptical eggs are laid in clusters of about
fifty eggs per cluster on the under side of the leaf. On an average each
female may lay from ten to fourteen such clusters. At the end of from
six to seven days the eggs hatch to the spiny yellow worms (larvae) which
greedily feed on the leaf. On an average the larvae become mature in
about eighteen to twenty days, and they then change to pup» attached
to the leaf. The pupa stage lasts approximately six days, and it then
emerges as a beetle, which also feeds ravenously upon the leaves.
Table varieties of beans are preferred; while cowpeas and soybeans
are attacked, this usually occurs after near-by table beans have been
destroyed, and we have not seen serious damage to extensive plantings of
cowpeas or soybeans.
Two forms of dust poison which gave most satisfactory protection
(1) Calcium arsenate 1 part (by weight), sulphur 1 part, hydrated
lime 4 parts.
(2) Calcium arsenate 1 part, hydrated lime 9 parts.
Both the above gave good protection when applied often enough to
keep new foliage covered, v-hich required three to four treatments.
Lead arsenate (commonly used in orchard spraying) is not recom-
mended for use against the bean beetle, for the reason that bean foliage
seems especially susceptible to "burning" by it. While it is known that
lead arsenate will kill the insect, and while plants treated are not always
70 Biennial E-epoet
hurt by it, still tliere seems to be a greater risk to tbe plants from its use
than from the use of the calcium arsenate.
The Mexican bean beetle seems to be wary and fastidious; while it
is apparently in no sense immune from poisoning, it seems to prefer
not to eat a leaf which is coated with poison, hence it may seek parts of
the plants which were missed in the application, or perhaps await new
growth, or perhaps abandon the poisoned plants to seek others. Also,
it has the habit of feeding much on the under side of the leaves which
are not easily reached. These facts, together with the susceptibility
of bean foliage, renders completely satisfactory results from the use of
poison uncertain. The protection secured is no doubt partly due to the
killing of the beetles and their larvae, and partly to the purely repellant
effects in causing the beetles to abandon the plants. *
In addition to the work on bean beetle, Mr. Crawford, at Swannanoa
Test Farm during 1924, has begun work upon several other insect prob-
lems of our mountain region.
BeeJceeping. — In this work Mr. C. L. Sams has continued his activi-
ties among the beekeepers in many counties, including all sections of
the State. This work is done in cooperation with district and county
agents, and the beekeepers themselves. The improved methods of man-
agement and equipment are demonstrated at many local meetings each
year. Many of our people find beekeeping to be a convenient source of
additional income, in addition to securing honey for home use. Several
local beekeeping clubs have been organized from time to time, some of
these among boys and girls.
Under the influence of this work our commercial beekeepers have
considerably increased in number, and the production of honey by the
ton by individual beekeepers is no longer a rarity. Several are now
making beekeeping their sole business.
Mr. Sams has also taken part in directing the exhibits of bees, wax,
honey and equipment at the State Fair, and at this Fair and at others
has given cage demonstrations in the handling of bees.
In concluding this report, grateful acknowledgement is made of the
kindly interest and support of the Commissioner and board, as well as
of the faithful and efficient service of each member of our divisional
force. Respectfully submitted,
Chief in Entomology.
DIVISION OF HORTICULTURE
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — I herewitli submit tlie biennial report of tbe Division of Horti-
culture for the years 1923 and 1924,
Tbe greatest interest in botb commercial and home borticulture tbat
has ever existed in tbe State bas resulted from tbe operation of existing
agricultural conditions and conditions in different horticultural indus-
tries, Tvbicb include tbe general economic need for diversification, boll
weevil conditions, and a realization of advantages of tbe State for differ-
ent horticultural crops. This great interest has resulted in increasing
demands on tbe Division of Horticulture for service of both an exten-
sional and investigational nature.
Tbe division, through its extensional and experimental activities, is
trying to improve its service to botb amateur and commercial horticul-
ture. The main objects underlying both phases of the work are net
profits for farmers, improved living conditions, and the production of
home supplies. These objects are typified in the slogan of the division,
which is : "Make Carolina Another California for Horticulture."
Tbe work of the division consists in general administration, corres-
pondence, work of a general horticultural nature, experimental work in
pomology and vegetable culture, the extension work in pomology and
A notable event of 1923 was the winning of the Wilder medal of tbe
American Pomological Society by the division for a display of named
varieties of apples at the ISTational Horticultural Congress, Council
Bluffs, Iowa. This was the only exhibit of named varieties that won the
medal in 1923, which indicated tbe high quality of varieties produced in
this State. As a result of the exibition at Council Bluffs much valuable
horticultural publicity for ISTortb Carolina was secured, and many
middle western growers were interested in ISTortb Carolina.
Under publications of 'the division should be mentioned "jSTorth Caro-
lina : A Land of Horticultural Opportunity," which has had national
distribution, and which has developed much interest in JSTorth Carolina
A second edition of the "Farm and Home Garden Manual" was pub-
lished this year to meet the demand for this publication.
Eesults of the investigation of thermal belts, conducted over a period
of years, has been recently published as Supplement 19 of the "Monthly
72 Biennial Report
Weather Review," under tlie heading of "Thermal Belts and Fruit
Growing in ISTorth Carolina, and Thermal Belts from the Horticulture
Viewpoint." Extension circular entitled "Growing Apples in JSTorth.
Carolina" was published.
Changes in Staff
A number of changes have been made in the staff : H. R. ISTiswonger,
formerly of Kentucky, was appointed to the position of extension horti-
culturist to especially look after the development of horticultural indus-
tries in the western part of the State; Mr. H. ISTeal Blair was appointed
to part-time worker to assist in building and operating kraut factories ;
Robert Schmidt of iN'ew Jersey was appointed to the position in vege-
table culture; W. A. Radspinner of Indiana was appointed to the posi-
tion of pomologist; Glenn O. Randall was appointed to the position of
extension horticulturist to succeed R. F. Payne, who resigned.
A large part of the time of the Chief of the Division of Horticulture
is employed with matters of the administration of the division. This
work consists, for the most part, in planning and directing the experi-
mental work at the branch experiment stations, and in planning for the
various lines of horticultural demonstration projects; these duties are
increasing each year.
The requests for information regarding different horticultural crops
make extensive demands on different members of the division for hand-
Rruit Crop Estimate Reports
To facilitate the compiling of the fruit-crop estimates, an arrange-
ment was made with the Worth Carolina Crop Reporting Service to do
this work on a cooperative basis.
The fruit-crop estimates issued by this office have been in much de-
mand by the agricultural press, by the secretaries of the State horticul-
tural societies, and by marketing organizations throughout the country.
To compile these fruit-crop reports, it has necessitated an extensive
correspondence with growers and a large amount of work in tabulating
Considerable attention has been given to the horticultural work at
the State Fair. Due to the efforts of the division the horticultural ex-
hibits at the Fair were larger and more extensive during the last two
years than previously. ISTearly two cars of fruit were shown during
In 1923 three important phases of the extension work in horticulture
were illustrated at the State Fair. The work of the home beautification
Commissioner of Agriculture 73
project was outlined in a very effective demonstration. This consisted
of two small liouses constructed to be identical. The one set upon stone
pillars situated in a barren yard all cut up with, ruts showing no order
or arrangement, few or no trees and shrubs and no lawn. The other
represented the same house after it had been tastefully painted and
shrubs, trees, vines, and flowers were planted in an orderly, logical
' way about the foundation and borders of the green, well-kept lawn. The
drives and walks were well arranged and well kept. This presented a
decided contrast to the former.
An exhibit demonstrating the results of the 18 demonstrations on
the comparative value of "Western North Carolina and northern seed
was very effectively made. This graphically showed the results of this
work, as reported in another section of this report.
The work in orchard management was very emphatically brought out
iiT an exhibit of the actual fruit from a tree in the treated plat and
from a tree in the untreated plat in the Walker demonstration at Hen-
dersonville, mentioned under the heading of "Apple Work" in another
section of the report.
The Cooperative Eotundifolia Experiment Vineyard
(Truck Station, Willard, ]^. C.)
The rotundifolia vineyard established in cooperation with the United
States Department of Agriculture at the truck station has furnished,
through the work of Mr. Charles Dearing, Horticulturist of the United
States Department of Agriculture, much valuable information regarding
the training and management of rotundifolia grapes, and in the making
of grape products. Mr. Dearing has made much progress in the deter-
mination of the most desirable varieties, in the breeding of improved
strains of existing varieties, and in the production of new varieties of
Erom the standpoint of station work, chief mention should be made
of projects in apple pruning, cultural practices, variety testing and
seed development with Irish potatoes; cultural practices, seed selection,
storage investigation with sweet potatoes ; and variety tests and cultural
practices with pecans.
Pruning work with apples conducted at the mountain station is giving
conclusive results in the value of training apple trees to the modified
leader and the use of a light system of annual pruning.
It has demonstrated further that the majority of our growers who do
prune, cut their trees with the result that fruit bearing surface is
greatly reduced and the trees are much later in coming into bearing.
While only five years results have been secured in this work, it is clearly-
evident that the results are going to be worth thousands of dollars to
74 Biennial Report
The project o£ dev eloping methods for producing seed Irish potatoes
in the western part of the State that are superior or equal to Maine
seed has given results that indicate that this is a practical proposition
and opens up new possihilities in potato growing in Western Carolina.
Investigation with improved cultural practices in growing sweet
potatoes are showing the value of these practices in giving increased
yields and at the same time more uniform potatoes. One of the big
problems in the sweet potato industry is to secure strains which will
produce a higher percentage of uniform sweet potatoes. Selection
work in this connection which has been conducted for the last eight
years is producing striking results. The main problem in connection
with sweet potato storage has been very well worked out, but there are
many minor problems which need to be solved, and which are receiving
our attention at this time.
As a result of the investigational work with pecans, it has been
definitely proved that Schley, Stuart, Success, and Alley varieties are
of immense value in Eastern Carolina. A number of points in connec-
tion with the soil requirements and cultural practices of pecans have
been worked out.
Preliminary investigation with winter injury of peaches, which has
been severe in the Sandhills and eastern part of the State in the last
few years, has brought out many interesting facts and suggestions for
future work in solving this problem.
ExPEEIMENTAL WOEK IN PoMOLOGY
1. Variety WorJc in Pomology (C. D. Matthews and W. A. Rad-
ISTotes and observations on the behavior of varieties of fruits in the
different sections of the State are made from year to year. These
notes and observations show the range of adaptability of the varieties
in different sections.
Much time and care is expended each year in writing, revising and
checking descriptions of almost all of the important varieties of fruit
grown in the State. These descriptions are to be used in future publi-
cations, and are employed by the Division as an aid in identifying^
varieties of fruit sent to the oifice from over the State.
2. Native Fruits of North Carolina (C. D. Matthews).
The place of origin, the history, and the description of a number of
varieties of North Carolina origin have been secured. When oppor-
tunity offered, the descriptions of varieties secured previous to this
season were verified. Paintings and photographs have been made of
the most important varieties.
3. Investigational Work with Peaches (Mountain Station, Truck
Station, Piedmont Station, Coastal Plain Station — C. D. Matthews-
and W. A. Radspinner).
Commissioner of AGHticuLxuKE 75
(a) "Dehorning" Peach Trees. — ISTo active work done on this project
during tlie period.
(b) Peach Breeding. — It is the object of this project to produce
improved commercial varieties that are more suited to ]Srorth Carolina
conditions than are the present varieties. It is the purpose to produce
varieties hardier in bud than the present commercial sorts.
To provide working material for this project a variety orchard con-
taining over 60 different varieties of peaches was planted at the Truck
Station during 1917. These trees have made a very satisfactory growth
since being planted. The last year nearly all varieties were killed by
cold and consequently no work was done. Some very valuable preliminary
work was done in regard to collecting data concerning the characteris-
tics of the different verieties.
(c) Hardiness of Peach Varieties in Western North Carolina. —
Twenty varieties of peaches, comprising varieties adapted both to ex-
treme northern and to southern conditions, were planted at the Moun-
tain Station in the spring of 1919 to furnish material for work on deter-
mining the relative hardiness of different peach varieties in "Western
ISTorth Carolina. These trees have made a very satisfactory growth
since being planted.
(d) Phenological Studies ivith Peaches. — The practice of collecting
phonological notes on the peach varieties in the varietal peach orchard
at the Truck Station was started during the spring of 1920. These
notes will be of immense value in handling the breeding project.
(e) Variety Testing with Peaches. — ISTo active work was done on this
project because the crop at the Truck Station was killed by late spring
4. Investigational WorJc with Pecans (Truck Station, Coastal Plain
Station, and Piedmont Station — C. D. Matthews and W. A. Radspinner),
(a) Variety Testing.— Thivtj-two of the most important southern
varieties are included in this test which has been conducted for fifteen
years. Gratifying results are being secured from this work, as certain
varieties are showing marked adaptability to ISTorth Carolina conditions,
while others are proving to be undesirable. At this time valuable
recommendations regarding pecan varieties for planting in this State
can be made. According to the results secured, the Schley, Stuart, and
Alley varieties are the most desirable for Eastern ISTorth Carolina.
(b) Individual Tree Performance. — The securing of performance rec-
ords of the individual pecan trees in the experimental orchards at the
several stations is being continued from year to year. Such a record
affords a more detailed study of the behavior of the different varieties.
As a result of the individual tree performance records it has been
noted, that trees of the same variety under identical conditions are uni-
formly heavy yielders, while others are very poor producers, that some
produce uniformly large nuts and others uniformly small nuts. As these
76 Biennial Repokt
individual performance records suggest the possibility of improving and
standardizing individual yields by bud selection, work lias been started
along this line.
(c) Cultural Practices.- — The value of correct cultural practices, such
as tillage and the use of cover crops, is clearly shown in the increased
size and number of nuts produced when compared to trees and their
products grown in sod. To detemiine the most desirable system of
tillage and cover cropping to be employed in pecan orchards, work of
this nature is being conducted at the branch stations.
(d) Pecan Breeding.- — The seedlings, as a result of pecan breeding
work, that were set in 1915 at the truck station are making a statisfac-
tory growth. Some of these seedlings are of bearing size and should
produce some nuts during the coming year.
(e) Top-worhing Pecan Trees. — The investigations dealing with the
methods of budding and grafting employed in top-working pecan trees
was continued this year. It has been found that a combination of both
grafting and budding should be used to secure the most satisfactory
results. As a result of years of investigation it is the opinion of this
division that top-working should be confined, as a general rule, to trees
not over 8 to 10 years old to be entirely successful.
(f ) CracMng Tests with Pecan Varieties. — The cracking tests of the
different varieties is made each year. The cracking test is a necessary
adjunct to the performance record of a given variety in determining its
value in a certain section. Very often a variety is highly satisfactory
from a productive standpoint, but the cracking test shows it to be nearly
worthless from a utility viewpoint. The cracking test shows the number
of nuts per pound and determines the per cent of unbroken halves the
variety will crack out, the per cent of shrunken kernels, the per cent of
physiological spot, the percent of faulty nuts, and shape and size of the
kernels, the texture, quality and flavor of meat, the per cent of meat and
the thickness of shell. As a result of these cracking tests conducted each
year, certain varieties that were satisfactory from a productive stand-
point proved to be totally unsuited to IN^orth Carolina conditions.
5. Investigational Worh loitli Strawberries (Truck Station — C. D.
Matthews and Robert Schmidt).
(a) Variety Testing. — This project was discontinued temporarily be-
cause of lack of funds. The variety testing project with strawberries
was initiated several years ago with the purpose of determining whether
or not there were any other varieties more desirable as commercial
market varieties than Klondike and Missionary, the two leading com-
mercial varieties. For this State the most profitable berry combines the
characteristics of productiveness, earliness, and shipping quality. ISTone
of the varieties so far tested have shown themselves superior to Klondike
and Missionary as commercial varieties. Several of the varieties have
shown themselves valuable for home use.
CoMMISSIOiSrER OF AGRICULTURE 77
6. Investigation's with Apples (C. D. Matthews and W. A. Radspinner^
Mountain Station, Piedmont Station, and Truck Station).
(a) Pruning (Mountain Station). — Tlie pruning project was begun
during 1919 with the intention of securing information on the desirable
height to head apple trees, to determine the comparative value of the
open head and the modified leader system of training, and to secure in-
formation on the amount of annual pruning most desirable. To supply
material for this work an orchard containing approximately 128 trees
was planted at the Mountain Station in the spring of 1919. The trees
have made a very satisfactory growth and the first four years work
has been completed as planned. The results so far secured indicate that
growers have been pruning too severely, thereby causing a reduction
in fruit production. Light pruning is the most satisfactory.
(b) Apple Thinning (Mountain Station and Piedmont Station) —
Experiments to determine the effect of thinning fruits and leaves from
the fruit spurs of the apple were initiated. "Work on this project has
not been conducted a sufficient length of time to supply information on
(c) Summer Apples (Truck Station).— The summer apple orchard
at the Truck Station did not produce a crop this season because of
Experimental Work in Vegetable Culture
1. Investigational Work with Siveet Potatoes (Truck Station and
Edgecombe Station — C. D. Matthews and Robert Schmidt).
(a) Variety Testing. — It is the purpose of this work to determine the
most desirable varieties of sweet potatoes for Eastern ISTorth Carolina
from the standpoint of productivity, market value, keeping quality and
quantity. There were 29 varieties under observation this year. The
results were, in the main confirmatory of the work of previous season.
ISTancy Hall and Porto Rico have proved their desirability, while others
have shown, themselves to be undesirable.
(b) Storage. — In connection with the variety work, storage tests are
being made from year to year in the storage-houses to determine the
behavior of the different varieties in storage. Certain varieties have
proven themselves to be better keepers than others.
Investigations to determine the relation of time of digging to keeping
quality, the relation of proper harvesting to keeping quality, the proper
method of curing, and the correct management of the house, have been
continued this season.
As a result of this work, the division can authoritatively make recom-
mendations regarding varieties for storage and the most desirable
methods to employ in the management of the storage-house.
(c) Cultural Practices. — During the year, work was conducted to
secure information on the following different cultural practices :
(1) The comparative value of slips versus vine cuttings as regards
78 Biennial Report
(2) The effect of ridging on productivity and type of potatoes.
(3) Tlie effect of vine cuttings on yield.
(d) Seed Selection. — The following lines of work dealing with, the
•seed selection of sweet potatoes were conducted during the year :
(1) To determine the relative value of seed stock from high-yielding
and low-yielding hills as regards productivity and uniformity of potatoes.
(2) To determine the relative value of vine cuttings as compared
with slips for maintaining yield and type, commencing from the same
(3) To determine the comparative value of large and small potatoes
(4) To determine the comparative value of seed from late vine
cuttings and seed from main crop draws as regards productivity, type
and keeping quality.
Yery satisfactory progress should be reported on this project for this
2. Investigational WorTc with Irish Potatoes (Mountain Station and
Truck Station — C. D. Matthews, Robert Schmidt, and S. C. Clapp).
(a) Variety Testing (Mountain Station). — The testing of varieties
of Irish potatoes to determine the most desirable varieties for Western
ISTorth Carolina conditions was discontinued temporarily this year. The
testing has been in progress for a sufficient length of time to afford
this division with the necessary information to make reliable recommen-
dations regarding the choice of varieties for the western part of the
(b) Variety Testing (Truck Station). — Satisfactory progress should
be reported on the work to determine the most desirable early varieties
for Eastern North Carolina and the best varieties for the second crop.
(c) Cultural Practices (Truck Station). — ^Work was conducted to
determine the effects of different cultural practices on the yield of
potatoes. Practices receiving consideration were:
(1) "Width of rows.
(2) Distance apart in the rows.
(3) Freshly cut or stored cut seed.
(4) Effect of sprouting on yield.
(5) Cut versus uncut seed.
(d) Testing the Value of Different Sources of Seed. — Experiments
ivere conducted to determine the comparative value of Maine-grown
seed, second crop seed produced in the Coastal Plain and Western North
Carolina seed in different stages of maturity as the most desirable seed
for the early crop of Irish potatoes in Eastern North Carolina. Results
so far secured indicate that this is a practical proportion and opens up
new possibilities in potato growing in Western North Carolina.
(e) Investigation of Methods for Producing Seed Potatoes in Western
-North Carolina for Use in Eastern North Carolina. — Two methods of
Commissioner of Agriculture 79
attack are being used in this investigation — one consists in growing the
seed at different elevations, while the other consists in planting the
potatoes at different times in the spring and summer. In both cases
it is intended to secure seed at different stages of maturity. At present
results indicate that elevations over 2,500 feet will grow desirable seed
for Eastern Carolina.
3. Investigation Worlc with Cabbage (Mountain Station — C. D.
Matthews, Robert Schmidt, and S. C. Clapp).
(a) Variety Testing. — The testing of varieties of cabbage to deter-
mine the most desirable varieties for Western JSTorth Carolina was con-
tinued this year. The testing has been in progress for a sufficient length
of time to afford this division with the necessary information to make
reliable recommendations regarding the choice of varieties for the
western part of the State.
» Extension "Work
Extension work of the division has been conducted with the idea of
developing both commercial and home horticulture. Outstanding among
the home phases of this work "are home gardening, home beautification,
and home fruit production, all conducted with the aim of improving
living conditions on the farm. The workers of this division in coopera-
tion with the home agents and the county agents have been stressing
these lines of work, with very satisfactory results, through the means
of meetings, instruction and demonstrations.
In commercial horticulture special attention has been directed to the
apple, Irish potato, cabbage and sweet potato industries. The value
of this work is emphasized when the need of the western part of the
State for money crops and the demand of the boll weevil section for
money crops to supplement cotton is fully understood.
Intensive and valuable demonstrational work has been conducted with
the apple growers in proper methods of spraying, pruning, fertilization,
and general orchard management.
The seed Irish potato industry in the western counties is being
rapidly developed. Seed growers associations are being formed, with
those of Avery and Buncombe being notable examples.
The division organized and conducted seed certification service with
these organizations, in which the seed plats and stock of each grower
was inspected with the idea of certifying his stock in regard to varietal
purity, freedom from disease, trueness to type and grade. In connec-
tion with this work the division is conducting demonstrations in the
eastern part of the State to show the value of "Western North Carolina
seed in comparison with Maine seed.
Particular attention has been given to the development of the cabbage
industry and kraut-making. In this connection a part-time kraut
specialist has been employed to work with the growers, and in Watauga
County the Watauga Kraut Growers Association has been formed.
80 Biennial Report
The sweet potato industry was propably confronted with more prob-
lems than any other horticultural industry, and consequently received
m.ore attention from the division during the year than any other project.
The activities of the workers were expended in behalf of improved varie-
ties, better strains, better seed, uniform cultural practices, and building
Apples. — The limiting factors in apple production in JSTorth Caro-
lina are orchard management and pruning and spraying. Definite pro-
jects and definite demonstrations with orchard management and with
pruning and spraying have been conducted in cooperation with the
In the orchard management demonstrations splendid results have been
secured. The results secured in cooperation mth W. W. Walker, Hen-
dersonville are illustrative of the effectiveness of the work. In this dem-
onstration part of the orchard was treated by giving light dormant
pruning, nitrate of soda, cultivation and six sprays — one dormant and
five summer applications. The untreated portion of the orchard received
no pruning, fertilization, cultivation or spraying. A tree from' each
portion of the orchard was selected and actual yields measured. The
trees were of the Winesap variety, twenty years old, and set a heavy
bloom. The two trees were 25 feet apart. The treated tree gave 18
bushels of marketable apples and 3 bushels of culls, while the untreated
tree gave a total yield of one-fourth bushel of culls.
As an example of the spraying demonstrations in the same orchard
six Winesaps were sprayed with the result that they yielded 126 bushels
of apples. The checked tree of one Winesap yielded only one-fourth
The statistical summary of the work for 1923 on apple projects shows
32 visits to agents, 71 demonstrations, 171 visits to others, 58 meetings,
with attendance of 1,741 at meetings and demonstrations, 3,524 miles
traveled by rail and 3,332 miles traveled by auto.
Peach. — The division cooperated with the Hamlet Chamber of Com-
merce in conducting the third annual Sandhills Peach Show. An in-
teresting program was conducted with about 3,000 in attendance.
General Fruit. — General demonstrations with pruning and. spraying
the home orchard were also made throughout the State. The statistical
summary of this work for 1923 shows 9 visits to agents, 9 demonstra-
tions, 8 meetings, with an attendance of 360 484 miles traveled by rail
and 184 miles traveled by auto.
Sweet Potatoes. — The progress in sweet potato work is one of the
outstanding features of the program of the division. This work consists
in holding demonstrations, attending m.eetings and in supplying infor-
mation in regard to the production, harvesting, storing and handling of
Commissioner of Agriculture 81
sweet potatoes. Mucli assistance is given in the construction of sweet
potato storage-houses and in the organization and management of local
associations of sweet potato growers.
The organization of local associations of sweet potato growers to con-
struct storage-houses and to market their potatoes has been conducted
in cooperation Avitli the Division of Markets. These locals were success-
fully federated into a central selling agency. Counties that have be-
come infested with the boll weeial have been advised to grow slowly into
commercial sweet potato business, while every community has been
urged to build" storage-houses to supply its local demand as a strictly
conservation measure. A statistical summary for 1923 of this work
shows 7 visits to agents, 23 visits to others, 9 demonstrations, 14 meet-
ings, attendance 177 969 miles traveled by rail, 154 by auto.
Irish Potatoes. — The work of the project consists of three important
phases : First the development of seed-growers cooperative associations
in the western part of the State; second, the development of the inspec-
tion service for seed potatoes in the State and, third, the demonstration
of comparative value of Western ISTorth Carolina seed with that of the
Maine grown seed for Eastern Carolina. In organizing the seed potato
growers associations the membership of nearly 300 growers was secured
on a contract basis. Definite methods of production were worked out in
cooperation with the associations, so that a very high type of potato
production was secured.
Inspection service was developed whereby three field inspections and
one bin inspection were given to fields entered for certified seed. This
work was done in five counties in Western ISTorth Carolina with nearly
200 fields. As a result of the inspection work a quantity of very high
quality seed stock has been produced.
Eighteen demonstrations in Eastern Carolina showing the compara-
tive value of the Western ISTorth Carolina seed and the Maine seed were
conducted. Erom the 18 demonstrations an average yield of 174 bushels
of ISTo. I's and 48 bushels ISTo. 2's and culls from the mountain seed,
and 150 bushels ISTo. I's and 51 bushels of ]STo. 2's and culls from the
Maine seed were secured. This shows that the mountain seed outyielded '
the northern seed an average of 24 bushels per acre.
In the conduct of the potato work the statistical summary for 1923
shows 46 visits to agents, 223 visits to others, 50 demonstrations, 16
meetings (total attendance, 379), 2,305 miles traveled by train, and 2,829
Cahhage. — The work on this project consisted in the organization of
a cabbage growers association, the construction of a kraut factory,
and giving demonstrations and supplying information in regard to
cabbage growing and the operation of a kraut factory. Very successful
results are being secured with the sale of cabbage through the associa-
tion in the manufacture of kraut and in the sale of kraut. There are
90 cabbage growers in the association. Three hundred and fifty tons of
82 Biennial Eeport
cabbage bave been delivered to tbe association, witb about 120 tons of
it sold in tbe fresli state, and 230 bave been put into kraut. Cabbage
bas been sold above tbe market price because of tbe superior grade of
tbe cabbage of tbe association, wbicb is possible from tbe fact tbat lower
grades can be put into kraut. Tbe statistical summary of tbe work on
tbis project in 1923 sbows 45 visits to agents, 404 visits to otbers, 13
meetings (attendance 192), 1,616 miles traveled by rail and 838 traveled
Home Garden. — Of f ar-reacbing importance was tbe work of tbe bome
garden project, in wbicb efforts were successfully made fo increase tbe
number and quality of bome and farm gardens and to empbasize tbe
value of tbe "all-year" garden. Tbe circular "Tbe Farm and Home
Garden Maimal" was reprinted to supply tbe demand for tbis publica-
tion. Botb tbe county and bome agents bave been developing tbe work
in otber counties. . Tbe work bas been conducted, witb tbe economic,
tbrift, social, educational and public bealtb pbases empbasized. Mucb
assistance bas been given to bome agents in tbeir project of growing
vegetables for tbeir curb markets. A statistical summary for 1923
sbows 163 demonstrations, 49 meetings witb a total attendance of 2,486.
Home B eautification. — The following types of demonstrations are
given in cooperation witb tbe bome demonstration and county agents
during tbe last year :
1. Transplanting Demonstrations: To teacb tbe bome owners bow
to transplant trees, sbrubs and vines, especially native varieties, from
tbe woods, to tbeir yards so as to save tbe wbole sbape or frame work
of tbe tree or sbrub.
2. Variety Demonstrations : To acquaint tbe prospective planters
witb flowers, sbrub and tree varieties and tbeir use in tbe landscape,
witb empbasis on tbe native varieties — and improved exotic sorts.
3. Arrangement Demonstrations : To sbow bow plant materials can
be arranged to really enbance tbe appearance of tbe grounds and to give
serviceable comfort as well.
4. Lawn Demonstrations: To sbow tbe fundamental principles of
lawn building and maintenance by soil preparation and fertilization, and
tbe proper seeds and seeding.
5. Engineering Demonstrations : To sbow tbe proper metbods of
drainage, yard divisions, arrangement of buildings and tbe construction
and maintenance of drives and walks.
6. Maintenance Demonstration: To demonstrate bow to properly
prune, fertilize, spray and otherwise maintain tbe plantings.
The following method was employed: The county home demonstra-
tion or farm agent, or both, had previously arranged to hold a "County
Home and School Improvement Campaign." The bome garden spe-
cialist was then called into conference and a definite plan or program
for the landscape part of this cam.paign was determined. In some
counties community meetings were held in which the proposition was
Commissioner of Agriculture 83
presented in detail. Then a day or so was spent in this community
giving demonstrations on home, yard and community grounds planning
(the latter usually a school ground) . Definite plans were made, to scale
on . a sheet of white paper, size 17 x 22. Carbons were made of this
plan in triplicate. One copy to go to the demonstrator, one to the
county agent and one to place in the files at the horticultural ofiice in
Raleigh. Each plan shows in detail complete planting and arrangement
plans. Also lists showing varieties suitable for each district, checking
those plants to be used in the plan. Such plans were prepared for the
actual demonstrations while merely rough pencil sketches were made
and given to the owners often times where only a few suggestions were
This work offered a variety of types of landscape improvement.
Plans were prepared for eighty schools, seventy-nine homes, twenty-
eight churches, one community park, two cemeteries, seven courthouse
grounds, and one town community center. Rough sketches were made
of seventy-one home grounds, five cotton mill grounds, three mill villages,
and one whole town was replanned. The plan is to follow up these
demonstrations for two full years in order that as far as possible the
plantings and arrangements may actually become accomplished facts.
Planting bees or arbor days are to be arranged at each school or com-
munity demonstration, at which time each pupil and patron, of the
school is to plant some permanent tree, shrub, or flower. It is the plan
this year to hold one such day in each of the counties where such demon-
strations have been started, others to follow as time will permit.
A special course for home agents was given during the summer at
the annual conference of home agents. Several demonstrations were
prepared and presented to them in their annual state conference at Blue
Ridge in early July. Each of these lessons was amply illustrated by
graphic illustrations. The object of these lessons was to show in at
least a general way the types of plants that are most suitable for home
landscape; to acquaint the demonstration agents with the general plan
of home and community landscape improvement; to familiarize the
agents with the native plant materials; to show that each home is a
specific problem and how best to handle it. These lessons were well
received by the agents, who were very attentive, and many have since
shown that much good was derived.
Three important phases of the extension work in horticulture were
illustrated at the State Fair. The work of the home beautification pro-
pect was outlined in a very effective demonstration. This consisted
of two small houses constructed to be identical. The one set upon stone
pillars situated in a barren yard, all cut up with ruts, showing no order
or arrangement, few or no trees, and shrubs, and no lawn. The other
84 Biennial Keport
represented tlie same house after it had been tastefully painted and
shrubs, trees, vines and flowers were planted in an orderly, logical way
about the foundation and borders of the green, well-kept lawn. The
drives and walks were well arranged and well kept. This presented a
decided contrast to the former.
An exhibit demonstrating the results of the eighteen demonstrations
on the comparative value of Western North Carolina and northern seed
was very effectively made. This graphically showed the results of this
work as reported in another section of this report.
The work in orchard management was very emphatically brought out
in an exhibit of the actual fruit from a tree in the treated plat and from
a tree in the untreated j)lat in the Walker demonstration at Henderson-
ville, mentioned under the heading of apple work in another section of
General Truck Worh. — This project includes work with commercial
truck crops. A statistical summary for 1923 shows 12 visits to agents,
9 meetings, 470 attendance, 235 miles traveled by rail, 121 by auto.
Cooperative Packing Houses. — This division working in cooperation
with the workers from the Virginia Extension Service formed the Vir-
ginia Carolina Fruit Growers Association at Mount Airy, N. C. Seven
orchards, comprising 40,000 bearing apple trees, were signed up. A
central grading and packing plant has been equipped and this year's
crop is being sold cooperatively by the Virginia-Carolina Fruit Growers.
As a result of the central packing house a very high quality pack is
being prepared. Respectfully submitted,
C. D. MatthewS;,
Chief, Division of Horticulture.
DIVISION OF AGRONOMY
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
SiK : — You will find enclosed a copy of the complete report of the Field
Crop "Work conducted in the Division of Agronomy during the past year.
This report includes hoth the work on the branch stations and on the
Central Station farm.
REPORT OF FIELD CROP WORK, NOVEMBER 1, 1923, TO
NOVEMBER 1, 1924
R. Y. WiNTEES. P. H. KiME, and G. M. Gaeren
The field crop work of the past year has consisted of seed improve-
ment investigations, crop-culture experiments, and seed treatment tests.
This work has been conducted on the Central and Branch Experiment
Station Farms. The following is a brief account of the work done dur-
ing the past year along with some of the important results secured.
RESULTS ON MOUNTAIN STATION FARM
Six field crop projects are in progress at the Mountain Station.
These include variety tests of spring oats, soybeans and stock beets, and
seed selection work with corn and soybeans. The severe winter in the
mountain section limits the production of oats to spring plantings.
Former tests with winter oats planted in the fall proved that this prac-
tice was unsafe on account of winter killing. The recent work has had
for its purpose the testing of local and improved strains of winter and
spring oats. Seed of improved strains were secured from northern ex-
periment stations. In these tests the Fulghum oat, an early southern
winter strain, has yielded best. The soybean variety tests at this station
have included eleven of the earlier varieties of this crop. This year, as
in former years, the soybeans have attracted a large number of visitors
and have had considerable influence in the introduction of the crop into
the mountain section. The pedigreed strain of Haberlandt JSTo. 38
continues to lead in yield of seed at this station and is gradually being
distributed to farmers of the mountain section. In order to better fit
the Haberlandt to mountain conditions, plant-to-row selection work has
been conducted during the past two years. The selections have shown
considerable variation in earliness and ability to stand upright at the
time of maturity. The selections from Haberlandt l^o. 38 soybeans
at this station will furnish the mountain section with a productive soy-
bean which fits the short season there.
The testing of stock beet varieties was started by Mr. S. C. Clapp,
superintendent of the station. Although this was started primarily to
determine the best source of vegetable winter food for poultry, the re-
sults will also be valuable for the small dairymen of the mountains who
do not have sufficient cows to warrant the construction of a silo.
The selection work with seed corn has been continued, a special ef-
fort being made to save as much good seed corn this season as possible
on account of the damage by early frost to the seed corn of portions of
the mountain section.
RESULTS ON THE PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION FARM
The field crop work at the Piedmont Branch Station has consisted of
small grain culture tests, small grain variety tests, cotton culture tests,
cotton improvement, and corn improvement. The small grain culture
tests, which have been in progress five years, include comparison of differ-
ent dates and rates of seeding wheat and oats. The following table con-
tains the average results for wheat. The results indicate that the period
between October 15 and ISTovember 1 is the best time and 90 pounds per
acre the best rate for seeding wheat in the section of the State repire-
sented by this station.
Table ISTo. II contains similar results for seed oats, showing that
the best results are secured from seedings made between October 15 and
ISTovember 1, with a seeding of three bushels per acre. The field work on
this project has been discontinued and the results are being prepared
Table I — Whbiat Culture Studies
Average Yield from Different Dates and Rates of Seeding on Piedmont Branch
Station, Statesville, North Carolina
Dates of Seedings
Rates of Seeding-
Table II — Oat Culture Studies
Average Yield from Different Dates and Rates of Seeding, Piedmont Branch
Station, Statesville, North Carolina
Dates of Seedings
Rates of Seedings-
—Pounds per Acre
Commissioner of Agriculture 87
The work witli small grain varieties has consisted of field tests with
standard varieties of wheat, oats, barley and rye. In the wheat work
Leap's Prolific and Fnlcaster continue to lead, though Alabama Blue
Stem and Gleason are very promising varieties. The Alabama Blue
Stem is particularly well adapted to the light soils of the Piedmont
section and Gleason has been remarkable for its resistance to rust. The
Fulghum oats has been the highest yielding oat, with Appier a close
second. The oat variety tests have given splendid information in regard
to the relative yields of ordinary commercial seed oats and oats of the
same variety selected from high yield and properly handled. The pedi-
greed Pulghum oats have averaged 17 bushels per acre more than the
ordinary comme:?cial seed bought of seedsmen. The pedigreed Abruzzi
rye improved at this station has continued to hold the lead in the rye
variety test. This strain of Abruzzi rye has furnished a good source of
seed during the past five y&ars.
During the past two years this station has conducted work with barley
varieties to determine their relative yield when compared with oats
and to determine the best strain for the Piedmont section. In these
tests the oats have produced the heavier yield during mild seasons, but
are not as winter hardy as barley. On account of the custom of seeding
all small grain, rather late barley will succeed better on land subject to
winter killing. In the barley tests the pedigreed strain of Hooded Bar-
ley jSTo. 6 from the Tennessee Experiment Station has yielded best.
The cotton culture tests included studies of early bedding as compared
with fresh bedding and close spacing of plants in the row compared with
broad spacing. This project was started the past season and the com-
plete results have not been secured.
In the corn improvement project the modified ear-to-row method
of selection has been practiced. This work has established a source of
good seed for the Piedmont section. The field meetings of farmers and
county agents held at these plats have stimulated interest in the field
selection of corn in this section.
The field crop work at the Central Station has included two research
or Adam's projects with cotton, seven research projects in cooperation
with graduate students of the college, and eleven Hatch projects. The
following is a list of these projects with a summary of the results :
Cotton Research (Adam^s Project JSTo. 14)
This study of the inheritance and association of economic characters
in the cotton plant was started in 1913. The work has consisted of
isolating from one variety of cotton several strains varying in earliness,
habit of branching, amount of vegetative growth, size of boll, amount
of fuzz, covering on the seed, length of staple, and yield. Careful data
has also been taken on the temperature and rainfall during the growing
88 Biennial Report
season, and particularly the reaction of tlie different types to seasonal
conditions. The main portion of the field results were completed in
1921, but certain strains have been continued to check results that are
at variance with other authors.
Two papers have been prepared from the above material, one con-
cerning the relation of rainfall at the time of blooming to the balance
between fruiting and vegetative growth, and the other deals with the in-
heritance of fuzz on the seed coat of cotton and its probable economic
Place Effect Studies With Cotton
In this work a study has been made of cotton plants produced from
seed of the same pure line, part of which were grown in Mississippi and
part in Worth Carolina. Certain growers of Mississippi were of the
opinion that JSTorth Carolina grown cotton_ seed gave an earlier crop
than their home-grown seed. Although the plantings were made for
five years, only during three years was the stand sufficient to obtain
reliable results. During two of three years the seed grown in Missis-
sippi produced plants that were slightly taller at blooming time and at
maturity. The Mississippi grown seed also produced slightly earlier
maturity when measured by the percentage of crop opened at a given
date. The data on rainfall and temperature taken at the two points
showed practically no difference. Differences were found in the size
and weight of seed produced in the two localities, the Mississippi seed
being larger. A third comparison in which large seed were supplied
from ISTorth Carolina gave slightly earlier plants in the I^orth Carolina
plantings. This work has been discontinued on account of the difficulty
of securing uniform stands at the two points the same year.
COTTON RESEARCH PRO.JECTS CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH
From time to time the cotton investigations have suggested problems
of interest and economic value which could not be handled by the
regular workers in this field. Seven such problems have been studied
in cooperation with graduate students, who have chosen them as major
problems. In each case the students have had a problem outlined and
supervised with the understanding that the data thus secured could be
used by the experiment station. The following is a list of the projects
that have been treated in this way, along with a brief summary of the
1. A study of the diameter and tensile strength of cotton fibers from
five varieties of cotton which were grown under the same conditions.
This work was through the cooperation of R. Y. Winters, Plant Breed-
ing Agronomist, and J. B. Cotner, graduate student.
Results. — In the examination of fibers from five varieties of cotton,
Cleveland Big Boll, Mexican Big Boll, King, Cook, and Rowden, con-
Commissioner of x^gricitltitee 89
siderable differences were found in the average diameters and tensile
strength. There was a direct relation between diameter and tensile
strength, the varieties with the broader fibers having the greatest break-
ing strength. Among the varieties studied Mexican Big Boll gave the
greatest diameter, 22.576 microns, and the greatest strength, 54.54 deci-
grams, while Cleveland Big Boll furnished fibers of the smallest diameter,
18.836 microns, and a breaking strength of 31.43 decigrams. The corre-
lation tables for each variety show a direct relation between diameter of
fiber and tensile strength, the broader fiber being stronger. The corre-
lation between diameter of fiber and tensile strength for all varieties was
.623 -j- .013, showing a positive relation.
2. A study of the density of cotton fibers on the seed coat and its
relation to other physical qualities of the fiber. This work was con-
ducted in cooperation between E. Y. Winters, Plant Breeding Agrono-
mist, and L. I. Henning, a graduate student.
Results. — In this Avork a new method of determining the density of
cotton fiber population on the seed coat has been suggested. It consists
of the use of a sharpened leather punch which cuts out a section of the
seed coat of known area. By counting the fibers attached it is possible
to determine the relative number of fibers on different portions of the
seed and on seeds of different plants. In the material studied the follow-
ing relations were found : As the fiber population increased, the diame-
ter of fiber, the lint index and percentage of lint increased, and the length
of fiber and weight of seed decreased. Decrease in length was associated
with increased diameter.
3. A study of relation betw^een length and diameter of cotton fibers.
Conducted in cooperation between B. Y. Winters, Plant Breeding Agron-
omist, and P. J. ISTaude, a graduate student.
Results. — The results from the material used show that as the length
of fibers increase the per cent of lint and diameter of fibers decrease.
The correlation between length and diameter of fibers is — 0.02929 +
0.03560. The correlation between length of fibers and percent of lint is
— 0.2650 + .03621. Increase in size of seed was found to be slightly
associated with longer fibers. The correlation between these two char-
acters is +0.11303 + 0.03845.
4. A study of the density of fiber population on the cotton seed coat
and its relation to the twist in fiber. Conducted in cooperation between
E. Y. Winters, Plant Breeding Agronomist, and T. C. Chang, graduate
Res2iUs. — Increased density of fiber population is definitely- associated
with increased number of twists per inch. Increased length was found
to be associated with decrease in number of twists per inch. When the
fibers Avere divided in half and the number of twists per inch counted
the end attached to the seed contained the smaller number of twists per
5. A study of the distribution of cotton fibers on the seed and its rela-
tion to the veination of the seed coat. This project has been outlined
and the material secured for cooperative work with J. H, Moore, grad-
uate student. The project is to be completed in the spring.
6. A comparison of physical characters of cotton fibers from two
varieties of cotton grown in states of the Southwest and ITorth Carolina.
This project has been outlined and material secured for cooperative work
with G. L. "Winchester. The project is to be completed by May 1,
7. In connection with the above project a cooperative project with the
State College Textile School has been outlined. The work consists of
spinning tests with inch and a sixteenth cotton produced in the south-
west and in ISTorth Carolina.
The following are Hatch projects in progress at the Central Station.
In recent years the division has had several inquiries regarding the
treatment of cotton seed just previous to planting for the purpose of
hastening germination. In order to answer these questions more intelli-
gently, this project was started the past season. The seed were treated
by the following methods, delinted with sulphuric acid, seed rolled in
wood ashes, rolled in 15 pounds of nitrate of soda per bushel, and no
treatment. Records were kept on length of time required to germinate
stand, relative earliness and yield. The delinted seed were first to
germinate, those rolled in ashes second, the normal seed third, and those
treated with nitrate of soda last. The nitrate of soda delayed germina-
tion approximately four days when compared with the delinted seed.
The following table contains the results of stand, yield, and relative
earliness of plants from seed treated by the above method.
Cotton Seed Treatment Tests
Rolled in ashes
No treatment (check)
Rolled in nitrate of sodaft
*Delinted — Seed delinted with sulphuric acid, washed, and rolled in lime to neutralize acid.
fNitrate of soda — Seed rolled in nitrate of Soda at the rate of fifteen pounds per bushel.
Small Grain Improvement
The small grain improvement work has consisted of increasing selec-
tions from Leap's Prolific and Blue Stem Wheat, and testing recent
selections from Abruzzi rye. The pedigreed strain N"o. 32 from Leap's
Prolific has continued to stand well on soils that produce fifteen or more
Commissioner of Ageiculture
bushels of wheat per acre. Seed of this strain is now being established
among growers of Davie and Rowan counties. The Blue Stem is the
earliest strain of wheat that has come to our attention. On account of
its small growth and early maturity it has led the wheat variety tests on
land that produce less than fifteen bushels per acre. The pedigreed
strain of Abruzzi rye selected at this station has been a source of good
seed during the past five years. It has been established in Forsyth,
Eowan, and Guilford counties. The selection work is being continued
to keep the strain up to standard.
Crimson Clover Source of Seed Test
Crimson clover seed from American and European sources were sown
under uniform field conditions and the relative growth, earliness, and
yield of hay determined. The local sources of seed included samples
from ISTorth Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, and the foreign seed
included six samples from France, one from England, and one from
Czecko Slovakia. This work is being conducted in cooperation with the
Office of Forage Crop Investigations of the Bureau of Plant Industry.
The results of the past season indicate that regardless of source of seed,
the earlier maturing strains are best adapted to this section of the State.
The following table contains a summary of the results :
Crimson Clover Soukce of Seed Test, Season 1923-24
Source of Seed
Stage of Maturity
Note. — Harvested for hay May loth.
This project has been continued. The results should be of value in
finding strains best adapted to our State, and may furnish a source of
seed with which to start the production of home-grown seed of this crop.
During the past few years lespedeza has become an important crop
in the southern Piedmont section of our State. It is now being grown
extensively in Union, Anson, and Stanly counties. In order to supply
the county agents and farmers of these sections with reliable informa-
92 Biennial Report
tion about the strains of this crop, comparisons have been made with the
Tennessee, Kobe, and ordinary commercial lespedeza. In previous tests
the Tennessee strain has proved superior in growth to the ordinary
lespedeza. In the current year's test the Tennessee strain has given
more upright growth than the Kobe strain and did not fail so soon in
Plantings were made of Woolly Podd, Hungarian, and Purple vetches
for determining their relative growth and earliness. All of these vetches
were damaged by cold, though the woolly podded vetch stood up best.
ISTew seed of the Hungarian vetch have been secured from x^lantings that
were made under more severe winter conditions and the work continued
The spacing tests of cotton have been continued though the unfavor-
able spring weather caused too many breaks in the stand to get a fair
comparison this season. In last season's tests the eight-inch spacing
yielded higher than plats having no thinning, twelve, eighteen, and
Cotton Seed Improvement
The cotton seed improvement work for the past season included
studies of yield and lint characters of four strains isolated from Mexican
Big Boll No. 6. Records have been kept of the time of blooming and
relative amount of fruit set early in the season. In this respect strain
6 — 1 — 9 has been superior to the other three. Strain 6 — 1 — 9 has also
given a more uniform length of 1%6 staple. Sufficient seed of this
strain have been saved to plant thirty acres next year.
Sorghum Seed Improvement
The work, with sorghums was started during the war, when there was
a scarcity of sugar. In the variety tests of that time the Honey or
Japanese seeded Ribbon cane was the highest yielder of juice and syrup.
Seed were secured and selection work was started with this variety.
Last year the selections showed considerable difference in earliness and
production. The lowest yielding strain produced at the rate of 84.4
gallons of syrup per acre and the highest yielding strain 147.5 gallons.
Four of the best strains have been continued this season and one of this
lot has been chosen for further increase. On account of the lack of
interest in sorghums for syrup production, this project will be discon-
tinued. On account of the high tonnage yields of silage from the best
strain, it mil be established in the eastern part of the State for that
purpose, and the strain perpetuated by saving small quantities of seed
COMMISSIOI^EK OF AGRICULTURE
Soybean Seed Improvement
Tlie pedigreed strains of Mammotli Yellow 101, Virginia N'o. 11, and
the Herman soybeans have continued to be leaders in their class. In a
small way these strains are gradually becoming established among seed
growers of the State.
During the past season twelve standard varieties and thirty-five selec-
tions from varieties and hybrids have been included in the variety tests.
Among the new strains that have shown promise are: One of Laredo,
and a yellow-seeded strain selected from a hybrid between Virginia and
Haberlandt. This strain has plant characters like Virginia and the
seed color like the Haberlandt.
Soybean Selection for Increased Oil Content
This work has consisted of comparisons of pure lines of Mammoth
Yellow for yield of seed and oil content. The high oil strains proved to
be so much lower in yield that they did not produce as much oil per acre
as the high-yielding strains of medium oil content. The work has been
narrowed down to the increase of two high-yielding strains of medium
oil content and one strain having a high oil content. The results of
previous v^ork are being prepared for publication.
EDGECOMBE BRANCH STATION, ROCKY MOUNT, N. C.
The following is a summary of the work and results with field crops
at the Edgecombe Branch Station during the past season:
Cotton Culture Experiments
The cotton culture experiments have included spacing tests, date of
seeding tests, and a comparison of early bedding with fresh bedding for
Date of Planting Cotton
Date of Planting
per Plat of
-During the past season plantings made on April 19 and 30 have given
the highest yields. The stand of the early seedings was considerably
reduced by unfavorable weather. The April 30 seeding yielded at the
rate of 255 pounds of seed cotton per acre more than the April 9 seeding.
The preparation tests were started the past season with the hope of
finding some method of securing a better stand of cotton and reducing
the death rate of young seedlings during unfavorable spring weather.
Eor this purpose plats were prepared two weeks before planting by
breaking, running rows, applying fertilizer and bedding. These plats
were allowed to stand until planting time, when other plats were pre-
pared fresh by the usual method. The folloAving table contains the
results from the current year's test.
Time of Bedding
For the past season the early bedding produced at the rate of 195
pounds of seed cotton per acre more than the freshly bedded plats. The
results represent the average for three plats.
Cotton Seed Teeatment
The seed treatment tests included comparisons of graded and ungraded
seed, seed delinted with sulphuric acid, and seed treated with varying
amounts of nitrate of soda before planting. The following table con-
tains the results of these tests.
Cotton Seed Teeatment Test
Nature of Treatment
Nitrate of soda, 6 pounds per bushel..
Nitrate of soda, 12 pounds per bushel
Nitrate of soda, 18 pounds per bushel
Check (no treatment)
Delinted (sulphuric acid)
The nitrate of soda treatment delayed germination slightly and the
heavier treatment reduced the number of plants per plat slightly. The
average yield of the plats planted to graded seed represents an increase
'of 195.5 jDounds of seed cotton per acre more than those planted to
Commissioner of Agkicttlture 95
Cotton Spacing Test
In this work plats of cotton liave been left without thinning and
others thinned to 8, 12, and 18 inches between hills. The results this
year do not quite support the results of other years in different sections
of the State. On the average the plats that are not thinned have given
the highest yield at the first picking. This season there was very little
difference in yield and the early maturity was slightly in favor of the
THE TOBACCO EXPERIMENT STATION
This project was started the past season to supply reliable informa-
tion to growers of the tobacco belt who have recently started the produc-
tion of cotton. Previous results secured in their section of the State
indicate that Cleveland Big Boll and Mexican Big Boll are best adapted.
COASTAL PLAIN STATION
This work consists of the selection of seed for the improvement of
one variety of field corn and one early dent corn for roasting-ears.
The selection of corn adapted to the muck lands of the section repre-
sented by this farm.
On account of the seed improvement work of this Department on the
Central and branch stations the following improved seed have been
supplied to farmers of the State at a reasonable price: Cotton, 1,600
bushels; corn, 140 bushels; rye, 125 bushels; wheat, 80 bushels; soybeans,
80 bushels; barley, 20 bushels; and oats, 40 bushels.
Through the cooperation of the Department of Plant Breeding and
the State Seed Laboratory, 20,000 bushels of cotton seed intended for
seed purposes were found to be very low in germination. The informa-
tion was supplied to growers in time to prevent their being used for seed
purposes. The condition is very much more serious this year on account
of the very general damage of cotton seed by the excessive rains this
fall. Unusual efforts should be made this fall and winter to test cotton
seed from all sections of the State in order to prevent poor stands of
cotton next spring, for the boll weevil at its worst could not cause more
damage than is likely to come from the planting of the average cotton
seed produced this year.
R. Y. "Winters,
Plant Breeding Agronomist.
REPORT OF THE SOIL FERTILITY WORK
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — I hand you lierewitli the report of the Soil Fertility section of
the Division of Agronomy, from ISTovember, 1923, to ISTovember, 1924.
The work in the Division of Soil Fertility has been carried out during
the year along the following lines : Soil Chemistry, Soil Survey, and
Soil Survey. — During the year the following counties have been sur-
veyed and typical samples of the different soil series taken: Polk,
Rutherford, Greene, and Yadkin counties. About one-half of Wilson
County and ISTorthampton County have been done. During the winter
and spring it is hoped that Wilson and l^orthampton counties will be
Up to now 73 per cent of the State has been mapped and the soils
classified in a manner so that the reports can be used to advantage by
farmers, county agents, and other extension workers, teachers and busi-
ness men. In fact, the reports as now gotten out are being used by the
different agencies more than ever before. It is hoped that it will be
possible in the next few years to have a fairly complete survey of the
soils of this State.
The soil survey work is being done in cooperation with the Bureau of
Soils at Washington, D. C, and there is complete harmony in the work.
As all of our soil chemistry and soil fertility studies are based on soil
types, it is very necessary that the type be mapped accurately in order
that correct information from fertility and crop lines can be given to the
farmers in an intelligent manner.
Soil Chemistry: Much Soils. — Studies of muck soils have been con-
tinued and the characteristics of four different types observed. One
type from the experimental farm at Wenona is being investigated to
determine the effect of water content and other treatments on reaction
and other factors affecting the growth of plants. The results of this
investigation, while interesting, are not ready for discussion at this date.
The amount of lime necessary to neutralize this soil is about ten tons
per acre, though the exact reaction is influenced by other factors besides
the amount of lime added. Corn grows best on this muck soil if it is
kept distinctly acid.
Lime mixed with the surface soil of the muck does not neutralize the
acidity of the subsoil. In a test to determine the effect of leaching on
the downward movement of the lime it was found that within four
months of treatment liming did not alter the reaction of the soil or
subsoil more than an inch below the depth of the application. This
observation indicates the advisability of mixing lime in the field to as
great a depth as possible.
Commissioner of Agriculture 97
Tlie influence on tlie yield of corn o£ some fertilizer combinations with
a green manure crop of oats was studied in tlie field. The outstanding
indications of this test were:
A. The soil responded to siaigle treatments in the following order from
least to greatest:
(1) Oats (green manure) .
(2) ISTitrate of soda.
(4) Muriate of potash.
B. All single treatments were beneficial and combinations generally
increased the yield in comparison with the results of single treatments^
except where muriate of potash was used in connection with the green
manure. This test was made at Terra Ceia, and is in line with other
results on the same soil. The beneficial effect of the green manure crop
suggest the possibility of improving these soils by means of a suitable
The value of potash fertilizers on some of these extremely acid soils
has indicated that potash had an influence in helping the plants to
overcome the toxicity present. A series of solution cultures has shown
that this property lies in certain potash salts but not in others, and inves-
tigations are planned to furnish more complete evidence on this point.
Corn grown in pots filled with soil taken from untreated plat of the
lime-test field at Wenona gave the following significant results :
1. Liming was necessary in order to produce a crop.
2. With the surface soil limed the plants were injured by the acid
3. The injurious effect of the acid subsoil is sufficient to mask the
benefits of fertilization.
4. "With lime mixed throughout the soil and subsoil, fertilizing ele-.
ments were beneficial in the following order, from the greatest to the
(a) Nitrate of soda.
(b) Muriate of potash,
(c) Acid phosphate was injurious in three out of four tests.
Conclusions. — Growth of corn on the "Wenona type of muck soils is
limited by soil acidity. Application of lime to the surface soil is not
fully effective as a remedy on account of the acidity of the subsoil. "With
the acidity of the soil and the subsoil partly neutralized by lime, bene-
ficial effects may be had from fertilization with nitrate of soda and
potash. Acid potash seems to be injurious in most instances.
The Availability of Organic !N"itrogenous Fertilizers
Tests made with 16 organic ammoniates in comparison with nitrate
of soda, sulphate of ammonia, and nitrate of potash on a soil which is,
in the field, deficient in nitrogen gave inconclusive results, the unferti-
98 Biennial Eeport
lized soils yielding more tlian many of tlie fertilized soils. This is
attributed to the effect of excessive rainfall, which doubtless leached
much of the available nitrogen out of the soil, and to the fact that drying
the soil in preparation for placing in pots undoubtedly increased its
productivity. Treatments have been renewed and rape planted in order,
if possible, to get additional results before spring.
Availability of Soil Potash
Studies of the availability of potash in soil minerals have been con-
tinued, but no results obtained for the reason that the soil used when
first placed in the pots did not show a deficiency of potash. Continued
cropping has depleted the soil to some extent, and it is possible that
further work will be more successful.
Chemical Composition of Soil Types
The analyses of samples of soil obtained from the soil survey has been
held up for some time, owing to inadequate facilities for the work.
About 300 samples have been received since the analytical work was
discontinued. It will require several months work to complete the
analyses of these soils if no other work is done.
Soil Fertility. — During the year the soil fertility investigations have
been continued at the following experimental farms : Central Station
Farm, Ealeigh ; Mountain Branch Station Farm, Swannanoa ; Piedmont
Branch Station Farm, Statesville; Blackland Station Farm, "Wenona;
Coastal Plain Station Farm, Willard; and Tobacco Station Farm, at
Oxford, ISTorth Carolina.
Central Station Farm. — At this farm it has been found by experi-
ments covering a series of years that nitrogen, phosphate and lime are
the controlling factors in larger crop production. As the type of soil
on this farm is one in which the supply of organic matter is very low, a
series of rotation experiments have been started in order to show the
value of different crop rotations and the turning under of summer and
vrinter legumes at infrequent intervals.
Mountain Branch Farm: — The projects on this farm are being con-
tinued and valuable information is being secured for the farmers. At
this farm nitrogen, phosphates, and lime are the controlling factors in
increasing crop production. The value of lime stands out very clearly
wherever red clover is used as a crop, but lime alone is not sufficient for
a guarantee of a red clover crop, phosphate also has to be supplied.
On potatoesi potash is showing up to some extent, and from the
information secured we are advising farmers to use a higher-grade
fertilizer than is their custom.
Piedmont Branch Station Farm. — The fertilizer projects on this farm
are being continued and some valuable results have already been secured.
In these experiments the fertilizer requirements for the ordinary field
COMMISSIONEB OF AgRICTJLTUEE 99
crops of this type o£ soil — and this type of soil occurs over a large area
of the Piedmont section of the State — are nitrogen, phosphate, and
lime, the same as for the mountain soils.
"We have found that the farmers are not using probably enough nitro-
gen for the best results, and we are advising them to secure fertilizers
containing a larger portion of plant food per ton. It is found to be
impossible to grow clover at this farm without lime and phosphate.
Soft phosphate has been studied in comparison with acid phosphate
and rock phosphate, and soft phosphate does not show as good returns
as acid phosphate. At this farm, also, nitrate of soda has given a
greater efficiency in crop yields than has sulphate of ammonia, or any
of the organic sources of nitrogen. It is probable that farmers should
use in their general crops not only more nitrogen than they have been
using, but also in the form of nitrate of soda, or other equally available
Coastal Plain Station Farm. — At this farm a new project has been
started, which includes many different crop rotations with legumes to
furnish organic matter. It is hoped to learn from this project how to
incease the crop production and have a greater diversified agriculture,
especially as the boll weevil is beginning to effect the yield of cotton.
In growing cotton under boll weevil conditions at this farm it is
found, as a general rule, that the recommendations given for increasing
cotton yields before the boll weevil came are still the best.
It has been found that by using too much ammonia or too much
potash that the maturity of the cotton is affected somewhat, causing a
late crop, while formulses that are well balanced have effected the
maturity advantageously, giving more early cotton than even where
no fertilizer was used.
Miscellaneous Experiments. — ^During the year we have carried out
twenty-two miscellaneous experiments in cooperation with farmers in
different parts of the State. Most of these experiments have been put
out with the idea of determining the best fertilizer to use for cotton
under boll-weevil conditions and to determine the most efficient carriers
of ammonia for cotton under boll-weevil conditions. The experiments
this year have shown, with one or two exceptions, that nitrate of soda
was the most efficient carrier of ammonia to cotton. Also applying the
nitrogen before the crop is planted or soon after it is worked out the
first time is the best time to use it. The organic nitrogenous materials
very seldom give as good results as the inorganic materials.
The low-grade fertilizers will not give as good results as fertilizers of
a higher analyses. In general, the farmers are not purchasing fertilizers
containing enough ammonia for the best results. This is true in prac-
tically all of the State and for most crops, as we have found that nitro-
gen seems to be the greatest limiting factor in crop production in this
100 Biennial Eepokt
Soil Acidity Work. — During tlie year we liave received and reported
on several hundred samples of soil sent in by farmers and county agents.
In tlie examination of these samples of soil we have found in practically
every case where the soil has not previously received lime that the soils
were acid, taking from 1,000 pounds to 3,000 pounds to neutralize the
acidity. When writing to the farmers regarding these soils we have
called attention to how to best use lime, the proper crop rotation, and
the intelligent use of fertilizer for the crops they are growing. "We feel
that this work has been of immense value to the farmers and that in the
future this kind of work will be on the increase.
Correspondence. — During the year there has been a very large request
from farmers asking for information along the intelligent use of ferti-
lizers for specific crops and definite soils, also the home mixing of ferti-
lizers. In this correspondence we have taken occasion to call attention
to the value of high-grade fertilizers compared to lower-grade fertilizers,
also the value of soluble nitrogeneous materials in comparison with the
organic nitrogeneous materials.
Publications. — ^During the year many special articles have been pre-
pared for the newspapers of the State on some phases of soil fertility
work, and a bulletin is now in the press on the "Results of Fertilizer Ex-
periments with Cotton and Irish Potatoes on the Principal Soil Types of
North Carolina." Pespectfully submitted,
W. P. Pate, In Charge
Soil Fertility Investigations.
DIVISION OF BOTANY
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir : — The Division of Botany is charged with the following lines of
First, the examination and testing of field, garden, and flower seeds.
Second, the manufacture and distribution of nitrocultures for inocula-
tion of legumes.
Third, the placing of market grades on grain.
Fourth, the identification and control of pestiferous weeds.
Fifth, the supervision of the lime properties belonging to the State.
Greatly increased demands have been made on our seed laboratory the
past two years. Some idea of this increase may be gathered from the
fact that the number of samples submitted from farmers and seedsmen
during January, 1923, was 52, while the number submitted in January,
1924, was 331, or over six times as many.
There have been received in the seed laboratory the past two years
a total number of seed samples amounting to 4,732, of which we have
been able to complete 3,464.
The months of December, January and February are largely given
over to the recleaning of tobacco seed sent to us by the farmers. The
past two years we have received 287 pounds and recleaned 226 pounds.
The past two years we distributed 253,723 seed tags to ninety-three
The distribution of pure cultures for legumes the past two years was
6,587 acre bottles.
A great many plants have been identified the past two seasons, some
persons sending in as many as twenty at once. We have had to give con-
siderable time to this phase of work.
Since our grain-grading service was established we have had 172 cases
of disputed shipments of wheat, corn, and oats submitted to us. Some
102 Biennial Kepoet
of these cases involve large sums of money, and before our service was
established the millers of the State sustained much loss in the accep-
tance of inferior grains from distant shippers.
During the past two years we have distributed 517 tons of agricul-
tural limestone. We have secured this on contract as our plant in
Tennessee has not had enough business for the last two or three years
to justify us in operating it.
James L. Burgess^ Botan/ist
DIVISION OF FOOD AND OIL INSPECTION
To the Commissioner of Agriculture :
Sir: — I beg to submit the following report of the work of the Divi-
sion of Food and Oil Inspection for the two years ending June 30, 1924.
The work is authorized by and carried out under the following in-
spection laws : Pure food, bleached flour, standard weight meal and
flour, sanitary bottling plant, sanitary bakery, creamery, ice-cream
plant and cheese factory, linseed oil, illuminating oil, and gasoline.
The object of the work is to prevent the making or sale of food that
is deleterious to health and the fraudulent sale of any and all foods,
beverages, linseed oil, illuminating oil or gasoline.
The food law forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or mis-
branded food or beverage. The law makes it the duty of the Depart-
ment to enforce same without providing any funds for the purpose.
The bleached flour law requires all flour that has been artiflcially
bleached to be labeled "Bleached," so that the whiteness of a low-grade
flour bleached white to appear like a high-grade will not be misleading
and cause the flour to pass as a high-grade flour. The law carries an
inspection fee for its enforcement.
The soft drink and sanitary bottling plant law, the sanitary bakery,
creamery, ice-cream plant and cheese factory laws requ.ire that these
food producing plants be operated under such clean, sanitary conditions
that the food produced by them will be clean and wholesome, and not
deleterious to health. These sanitary laws all carry inspection fees for
The linseed oil law requires all linseed oil and substitutes for same to
be plainly labeled with the name of the material, with the name and
address of the manufacturer, jobber or wholesaler stated on the label
of same, and must meet the standard requirement in quality.
The illuminating oil law requires that illuminating oil must meet the
standard requirement of safety and illuminating quality.
The gasoline inspection law requires that all gasoline sold in the
State must meet the requirements of the State standards of quality.
The oil and gasoline laws carry inspection taxes for their enforcement.
The funds from the oil and gasoline laws are kept as separate funds and
all such funds, not required in the enforcement of the laws, are turned
into the general fund of the State Treasury.
The work to prevent the manufacture and sale of adulterated or mis-
branded food which may be either deleterious to health or a fraud is,
because of the effect of food on health, the most important inspection
104 Biennial Repokt
work done by tlie State, but this most important work is greatly handi-
capped for lack of funds. ISTotwitbstanding tbe importance of tbe food
inspection work, more tban five times as mucb money is spent by tbe
State to protect tbe quality of tbe gasoline used as is spent to protect
tbe food supply of tbe State wbicb is so vital to buman bealtb. This
is not consistent and sbould not be tbe case. Tbe food work sbould be
expanded and made more extensive and more effective tban is possible
witb tbe funds available for tbe purpose.
During tbe two years sucb inspections of grocery stores and otber
places wbere food and foodstuffs are made and sold, as bave been pos-
sible under tbe circumstances, bave been made, wbicb bave amounted to
about two general inspections a year vdtb a large number of special
inspections of many products and places tbat needed special attention.
During tbe time 1,613 samples of food and foodstuffs bave been ex-
amined. More or less adulteration and misbrandings were found in
many samples. Tbe manner in wbicb a product is labeled determines
wbetber it is misbranded, or even adulterated, or not. For instance,
tbe sale of coffee containing cbicory is legal if it is labeled "coffee and
cbicory," but if it is labeled "coffee," or sold as coffee, tben it would
be adulterated and misbranded.
Some sbrewd manufacturers, witb able attorneys and cbemists to
advise tbem, try to evade tbe law, but do it in sucb a way that tbey ap-
pear to be complying, or trying to comply, witb tbe requirements of
Tbe most serious trouble found lately was in adulterated and mis-
branded molasses and syrups. "When tbe adulteration was detected, as
it was in interstate shipments, we reported the facts to the courts through
the Federal authorities. Tbe defendants plead nolo contendere and were
"We are now having trouble with a new process of bleaching flour.
They claim that while tbe process bleaches the flour somewhat, that
bleaching is not tbe object of the treatment ; that the object is to age or
ripen the flour to improve its baking quality, as is done by natural age-
ing, and that tbe bleaching is incidental, and is no more than flour is
bleached by natural ageing. They have able chemists and attorneys to
defend their position, and are therefore hard to deal with, and have so
far refused to have their flour labeled "bleached." The matter will
probably have to be determined by the courts.
Because of a scare produced by the death of about fifteen persons
caused from botulinous poison in ripe canned olives broadly distributed
over the country during the summer of 1924 a rapid investigation of
the ripe olives in the State was made. It was largely on the advice of
the Federal authorities who advised that the situation was serious and
that the use of certain brands and possibly other ripe olives would be
dangerous because of the botulinous poison that they might contain.
The wholesale trade was called upon as promptly as possible to stop the
Commissioner of Agriculture 105
sale of the olives in question, but fortunately none of the bad olives
had been received in the State, and the investigation possibly prevented
any of the olives being sold in the State.
An investigation of self-rising flour is being conducted. Self-rising
flour is flour to which a leavening agent, baking powder, has been added
by the mill when the flour is made. The principle question involved
is whether the leavening agent, or baking powder mixed with the flour
by the miller, will retain its leavening power such time as will be ordi-
narily required for the flour to be consumed.
The demand for self-rising flour has grown to the point that more
than 85 per cent of the flour sold to consumers in the State is self -rising.
It seems to be satisfactory to the consumers, but all the baking powder
added to flour by mills deprives the baking powder makers of that much
business. The same baking powder costs the consumer much less in
self -rising flour than when sold at retail and added to the flour by the
cook. The question is, will it serve the same purpose? Our investiga-
tions are to determine this fact, and while not conclusive yet the indica-
tions are that baking powder in self -rising flour serves the purpose as
well as if added by the cook.
The Sanitary Food Work
The sanitary bottling plant law was passed in 1919, and the sanitary
bakery, creamery and ice-cream plant laws were passed in 1921. Dur-
ing the two years 619 inspections have been made of bottling plants,
512 of bakeries, and 476 of creameries and ice-cream plants. When
these laws were passed many of these food producing places were in
very dirty, insanitary condition, and were therefore a menace to health.
But while many were in bad condition many others were in good condi-
tion. Great improvements have been made in the condition of many of
them. It was necessary for some of them to move to more suitable
quarters, and some others that could not or would not make necessary
improvements had to close up.
Many of the smaller plants of this nature changed hands and are in
and out of business so often that they are hard to deal with. While all
of these plants are not up to standard, yet the general improvement has
The Department is often called upon and urged to do chemical work
of a very varied nature. Some of this work is very difficult because
there is little or nothing known on the subject and the chemist must do
research or original work on it. ISTew things are being discovered by
commercial chemists, and for commercial purposes and benefit no in-
formation is published about them, and as there is no public information
about them the official chemist must study and work his way into them.
106 Biennial Report
Under "Miscellaneous," 135 samples were examined, not many of
whicli, however, were of a difficult nature. Many of them were simple^
but some were very difficult.
Tlie requirements of tlie linseed oil law are being complied with,
reasonably well, but it requires close attention to see tbat tlie inspection
tax is paid on all oil coming into tbe State.
During tbe time 431 samples of linseed oil were examined, about 30
of wbicb were sent in by farmers and others using the oil. Compara-
tively little adulteration was found. A few samples were found to con-
tain either mineral, fish or other vegetable oils.
Illuminating Oil and Gasoline
The illuminating oil business in the State during the past two years
has increased tremendously, the volume increasing from 46,069,344
gallons during two years ending 1922 to 66,417,040 gallons during two
years ending 1924.
During the time 6,531 samples of oil were collected and tested. These
samples were taken from tank cars, delivery truck tanks and retail
tanks all over the State. Gasoline is not intentionally left in oil by
the refineries. Neither is dangerous oil intentionally sold by oil com-
panies, but oil and gasoline being handled as they are there is great
danger of the accidental mixing of the two by employees delivering
The detection of gasoline in oil by the Department and stopping the
sale of the oil which was dangerous has doubtless prevented much
damage from explosions and fires. But, due to accidental mixing at
the time of delivery into the retail tanks and with the endless number
of these tanks, it is impossible to make the protection from such danger
The increase in the oil business has been great, but the increase in
the volume of gasoline used in the State has been much greater, of
course. During the two years of 1921 and 1922, 146,677,152 gallons of
gasoline were sold in the State. During the same period ending June
30, 1924, 250,454,792 gallons of gasoline were sold in the State, which
is more than a hundred million gallons in excess of what was sold
during the last two years ending June 30, 1922.
Had it not been for new processes developed in the making of gaso-
line the demand could not have been supplied at a reasonable price,
but the new processes have increased the volume of gasoline from the
crude oil tremendously.
Taken from tank cars, storage and retail tanks all over the State,
14,803 samples of gasoline were collected and analyzed. Of these,
nearly all samples from original containers met the State standard re-
quirements, but good many samples taken from delivery tanks and re-
Commissioner of Agkioultuke 107
tail tanks contained kerosene oil. A few samples contained oil in rather
large amounts, but in most of tliem the oil was in small amounts, in-
dicating accidental mixing. In these cases great effort was made by
the officials to impress the dealers of the great danger that exists in the
careless handling of oil and gasoline. Where there was any cause to
suspect intentional mixing oil with gasoline as an adulterant, the matter
was properly followed up and the law enforced.
The results obtained under these inspection laws have been reasonably
The inspection fees and taxes under these laws are collected by this
division. Except from oil and gasoline, the funds are turned over,
when collected, to the Department bookkeeper. Funds from oil and
gasoline are kept as separate accounts with the State Treasurer.
The number of samples examined and inspections made are as follows :
Food, including bleached flour 1,61.3
Linseed oil 431
Illuminating oil 6,531
Bottling plant inspections 619
Bakery inspections 512
Creamery and ice-cream plant inspections 476
Funds collected and turned into Department treasury:
Bottling plant inspection fees $2,540.00
Bakery inspection fees ^ 2,070.00
Creamery and ice-cream plant inspection fees 2,265.00
Bleached flour inspection fees 16,215.00
Linseed oil inspection taxes 3,956.73
Total collected $27,046.73
Amount expended in enforcing the above inspection laws, except oil
and gasoline 13.600.00
Oil and Gasoline Funds
Funds from oil and gasoline inspection taxes are collected by the
Food and Oil Division and deposited in State Treasury, where they are
kept as separate funds.
Statement from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924
Account With State Teeasureb
gasoline inspection fund
Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $59,687.23
Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 626,136.98
108 Biennial Repokt
Expenses from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 $78,755.00
Transferred to General Fund - 584,500.00
Total expenses and transferred 663,255.00
Balance in treasury Gasoline Fund, July 1, 1924 $22,569.21
ILLUMINATING OIL INSPECTION FUND
Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $16,192.02
Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 166,042.60
Expenses from June 30, 1922. to July 1, 1924 $58,106.59
Transferred to General Fund 115,000.00
Total expenses and transferred 173,106.59
Balance in Treasury Oil Fund, July 1, 1924 9,128.03
W. M. Allen, Chief,
Division Food and Oil Inspection.
DIVISION OF MARKETS
To the C om.missioner of Agriculture:
Sir:- — -I submit herewitli tlie biennial report of tbe Marketing Divi-
sion for 1923-1924.
Tbis report for tbe two calendar years 1923-1924 covers tbe activities
of tbe Division of Markets, some work of "wbicb bas been in cooperation
witb otber agricultural agencies, Federal and State, but only tbose activi-
ties wbicb bave been directly supervised by tbe Division of Markets are
Tbe question of marketing is now receiving more attention tban in
tbe past and rigbtly so because of tbe cbanging conditions in metbods
of marketing and transportation and tbe uneven and ever-increasing
production. In tbis swing to greater activity in tbe marketing work,
let us not be unmindful of tbe underlying principals of all agriculture
and tbeir relation to orderly and successful marketing. I sbould say
tbat in tbis great question of marketing we migbt place marketing as
tbe central link witb economical production at one end and tbe buying
public at tbe otber. Successful marketing depends upon :
1. Economical production, tbat is to say we must grow a crop for
wbicb a market can be bad. Tbe soil must be suited for tbat crop. Tbe
seed for tbat crop must be free from diseases ; must be of tbe rigbt
variety to mature at tbe rigbt time, and for wbicb tbere as a known
demand. Cultivation and barvest must be tborougb in order to produce
tbe best crop, but tb6 cost must be low in order to compete witb any
market, and tbereby bave a profit on tbe favorable markets.
2. Efficient marketing agencies wbicb can only be bad by tbe use of
standard packages. State grades and brands, tbe proper advertising
before tbe time of sale, news service and proper distribution witb selling
and buying agents of proven good repute.
3. Educating tbe public is perbaps a new field for State agencies in-
terested in a better return from tbe farmer, but altbougb new, it is of
first importance because, after all, tbe purpose of production and market-
ing is to sell for a profit, tbereby bringing gain to producers of crops
in order tbat tbey may in turn purcbase tbeir necessities, tbeir better
living and tbeir luxuries. We must tben educate tbe public to buy wbat
we bave to sell from tbe farms, and we must jealously maintain tbeir
confidence by giving to tbem in our grades and brands bonest packages
witb good food tberein.
Various industries may bave tbeir protection from time to time. Agri-
culture bas none and must expect none except tbat protection wbicb it
provides for itself tbrougb intelligent production and efficient marketing.
It is witbin tbe bounds of reason to expect tbat l^ortb Carolina, witb a
proper development of warebousing facilities, canning and preserving
no Biennial Kepokt
factories, cold storage and refrigerating plants, can eliminate any over
V production which, after all, is a lack o£ distribution, or the facilities
for handling one crop to its final consumption, or until another crop
of less proportions can be produced.
While orderly marketing depends upon orderly production, it is
likewise true that profitable crops can only be grown when there has
been established a market for them. At our present stage of development
in I^orth Carolina agriculture, we would as agricultural agencies be
very foolish to advise a farmer to quit growing cotton or tobacco, or
some other staple crops, for which a ready market is always available,
and grow in place of them crops for which we have not yet found a
stable market. However, it is so important that variety of crops be
produced upon many of the farms in l^orth Carolina, it becomes the
duty of the State Division of Markets to greatly enlarge its service to
the scattered production of a nuuiber of crops.
This is simply another way of saying that the State Division of
Markets will have to foster largely at our expense the marketing of
many of the minor crops until they can be produced in sufficient quan-
tity to eliminate much of the time and expense from the State Depart-
ment in more or less detail marketing work. A striking example, which
^ amounts almost to a tragedy in this situation, is the scattered produc-
tion of apples in Western ISTorth Carolina, which do not bring a price
sufficient to encourage the further planting of orchards, because the pro-
duction is scattered and moves in small volume. This can only be
remedied by increased production and I do not believe that we can expect
an increased production until the enterprising individuals who now
have apple orchards and the State agencies promoting good agriculture,
bring about the sale of North Carolina apples, under North Carolina
brands that will return a better profit to the grower.
Placing agriculture upon a more stable and business-like basis has
been the purpose of the State Division of Markets since its creation
"ten years ago. And the fundamentals upon which we will go forward
in our standardization, inspection and grading work, in order to bring
about the best marketing conditions, include warehousing, and credit
facilities through rural credit organizations that meet with the demands
of agriculture. These are the principals worked out by Dr. W. K. Camp,
first Chief of the Division of Markets, and his successor, Dr. B. T.
Brown, who is now Dean at State College, and was my predecessor.
I consider the work done by Dr. Brown and his assistants, which
largely brought about the organization of the cotton and tobacco associa-
tions, of not only great value to the State, but the beginning of at least
another, and I think a safer method of selling farm commodities. I
cannot conceive of a more gigantic task than the organization of the
sale of tobacco when there had not been established any Federal or
State grades, but this has been done successfully by the tobacco coopera-
tives and definite grades have been established, which no doubt sooner
Commissioner of x\griculture 111
or later will be certified as Federal and State grades, because tbey were
largely worked out with the assistance of this Division and the Bureau
State Warehouse System
The changing conditions brought about in the marketing of cotton
by the organization of the Cooperative Cotton Association, also the de-
velopment of the textile industry in ISTorth Carolina, has made for the
development of large central warehouses and has practically eliminated
any further development of small community warehouses for the stor-
age of cotton only. It, therefore, will become necessary for the smaller
cotton warehouses to develop other commodity storage other than cotton
in order to pay their stockholders a dividend and to relieve their in-
debtedness to the State Warehouse Fund or the local banks, as the
case may be.
The State warehouse system has been a large factor in the develop-
ment of cotton marketing in jSTorth Carolina and no doubt has made it
possible for the Cotton Association and large dealers in cotton to handle
with the greatest possible safety this valuable crop. The supervision
of the operation of these warehouses continues in the hands of Mr. J. P.
Brown, who is also supervising inspector under the Federal Law and a
joint employee of the State and Federal departments. A detailed report
from him has been filed in your office.
The joint arrangement between the Federal and State departments
for the Federal supervision of the classing of cotton has been continued
up to this time, and is now being discontinued because there is not suffi-
cient demand for its existence. It has served a useful purpose and will
be continued only in so far as a purely State service is concerned — that
is, the cotton for the State Warehouse System will be classed in order
that the State Warehouse receipts may show the proper grade as re-
quired by the State Warehouse Act, also farmers living throughout the
State who desire may continue to send in cotton in order that the grade
may be determined for their benefit in marketing. This work, which
has heretofore been under Mr. P. H. Hart of the Federal department,
will be handled by Mr. J". I. Johnson, of the State department.
Warehouse Construction and Organization
As the demand for new warehouses are very few, and the promotion
of more community warehouses at this time not advisable, the work in
this connection has been left in the hands of the warehouse superinten-
dent without any special assistance in this work.
At the beginning of this fiscal year Mr. V. W. Lewis, who had been
a specialist in the marketing of livestock jointly between the Extension
112 BiENisriAL Eeport
forces and the Division of Markets, was taken over as a full-time
division of markets specialist in tke marketing of livestock. He lias
kad no regular assistant.
In tke marketing of carlot shipments of poultry, hogs and cattle he
has from time to time had the assistance of different imembers of tke
Extension force, and during this fall, in tke marketing of beef cattle
in "Western North Carolina for either slaughter or feeding purposes,
he has had, through a special arrangement from the Division of Markets,
the assistance of Hon. T. L. Gwyn, Canton, IST. C.
The wool pools have been conducted successfully for three years in
Eastern and "Western ISTorth Carolina.
The development of the cheese industry as to its manufacture and
marketing has continued as a joint work with the Extension forces.
The result of these several projects have brought about more or less
of the following general plan. "Whereas poultry and poultry products
are State-wide interest, and the conditions in this State offer the best
opportunity for immediate results to producer and consumer, we are
now entering upon a program for this development. This work is being
conducted by Mr. Lewis with such assistance as is available until a
regular man can be had.
The success this year mth adverse marketing conditions in handling
beef cattle would indicate the opportunity for the organization in
"Western ISTorth Carolina of a cattle shipper's association to be handled
largely upon the basis of grades worked out by Mr. Lewis and Mr. Gwyn
this year, bringing together a sufficient number of cattle at the different
shipping points to enable 'them to send the different grades of cattle to
the market best suited for that type and size animal. A more detailed
report of the activities of Mr. Lewis has been filed in your office.
Eeuits and Yegetables
On the first of September this year Mr. Gorrell Shumaker resigned
as Specialist in the Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables. During Mr.
Shumaker's connection with the Division of Markets he had worked
out many of the grades and standards that are now in use in ISTorth Caro-
lina for fruits and vegetables, and the work of this year has been largely
carrying thpse standards and grades into use with the farmers and
their organizations along with the police and shipping point inspection
work as provided for in the State and Federal laws.
The Division of Markets has now made permanent a temporary con-
tract with the Department at Washington, whereby we have stationed
here Mr. Albert E. Mercker to supervise the point of origin inspection
and to conduct schools in which special agents appointed by the Division
of Markets may be issued licenses whereby it is possible for our certifi-
cates, when issued on a package or carload of fruits or vegetables, to be
acceptable as evidence in not only the State courts, but also the Federal
courts. Mr. Mercker will also, in connection with the Extension forces-
Commissioner of Ageiculture 113
tlirough. their county agents, instruct groups of farmers in tlie proper
types of packages and grades of fruits and vegetables.
Herein lies our greatest opportunity to bring into Nortli Carolina vast
sums of money by tbe proper standardization of fruits and vegetables
and shipping them out under State brands, each bill of lading bearing
Tvith it a certificate setting forth not only the grade of the fruit it con-
tains, but also the condition of the car in which it is shipped. This
makes it possible for the commission men handling the product to sell
it while in transit and prevents the unreliable commission merchants
at the other end of the line turning down shipments on his own judg-
ment as to its condition and quality. It is our purpose to greatly in-
crease this activity throughout the State.
A large proportion of the irish potato crop, with some other vegetables
from Eastern North Carolina, practically all of the peach crop from the
Sandhill section, and most of the apple crop from the Mount Airy
section, were marketed on these certificates this year.
Mr. R. B. Etheridge has taken up the work as Specialist in the
Marketing of Farm Crops. This much neglected field is rapidly be-
coming one of the most important activities of the Division of Markets.
At the present soybeans are being marketing out of Eastern ISTorth Caro-
lina to Piedmont and "Western ISTorth Carolina, and also outside the State.
Orders are being filed with the Farm Crops Department for the pur-
chase of cotton seed. Irish potatoes from Western ISTorth Carolina are
being marketed in southern territory and Eastern ISTorth Carolina. All
this work is being done with the Specialist of Farm Crops being the
intermediary agent to assure confidence between the buyer and seller
that he is getting an honest product true to variety and assure a germina-
tion test for samples drawn by our marketing agents and tested by the
Botany Department of the Department of Agriculture. It will be pos-
sible within a few weeks for our Marketing Specialist to issue certifi-
cates that will be good outside the State on these farm crops, as is being
done on fruits and vegetables.
We have also met in this Department what I think is the solution of
the hay question as a product that is imported very largely in this
State. Mr. Etheridge attended the Government School on Hay In-
spection, and having passed a successful examination was issued a
license whereby his inspection of a car of hay would be the final deter-
mination of its grade. We are therefore instructing the buyers of hay
to specify in their orders that it be U. S. Fancy, or U. S. 'No. 1, and
that will naturally bring to them a certificate issued at the point of
origin; and upon the arrival in this State, if the buyer is not satisfied.
Mr. Etheridge can settle the dispute, and will do so by the payment of
the actual expense involved in transportation. It is not so much that
114 BiEisrisriAL Kepokt
this service will be used as it is that, by having it available, the buyers
of hay can protect themselves if they will only specify in their purchas-
ing orders that it must meet the standards of the Federal-State grades.
The several publications of the Division of Markets have now been
combined into one weekly issue of the "Market IsTews," to be edited by
Miss H. M. Berry, with such supplementary issues as may be necessary
from time to time on the different commodities.
Market ISTews Service was furnished from this office this year daily
in their respective seasons to the growers and commission merchants of
strawberries, dewberries, lettuce, beans, cucumbers, peaches, watermelons
and cantaloupes and Irish potatoes. Some reports issued twice a week
on poultry and eggs and livestock and wool. This service was possible
due to the Federal leased wire connection and the assistance of a man
from the Market JNTews Service of the Federal Bureau of Agricultural
Mr. Frank Parker, a joint employee of the Federal and State depart-
m.ents, has continued the Crop Reporting Service and the publication of
the "Farm Forecaster" and the compiling of the farm census reports.
A more detailed report of his work is filed in your office.
Since the employment of Mr. A. V. Anderson a year ago, the credit
unions have been brought to a more business-like basis without any
special attempt to organize new ones, except during the last few months.
Of the twenty-five credit unions in the State, located in twelve counties,
there are 1,040 members, 334 depositors, representing in total resources
about $100,000. These credit unions have loaned to 392 farmers. There
appeark to be two difficulties in the development of the credit union
as heretofore operated. The banks have not interested themselves in
the credit unions and, therefore, money has not been available for their
development. The credit unions themselves have not had any earnings
that, would justify the payment of a secretary to keep the credit union
affairs in active business-like condition. But in spite of these shortcom-
ings they have been as a whole successful and every thought of rural
credit would seem to justify their existence and their further growth.
Mr. John Sprunt Hill has agreed to pay a large part of the expenses
to promote the credit union organization in the State, and Miss H. M.
Berry is now working on the promotion of credit unions, giving a large
part of her time to that work. It is, therefore, our purpose, with Miss
Berry as a promoter of credit unions and Mr. Anderson as the Super-
visor of credit unions, to attempt in the next few months to organize
Commissioner of Agricultuke 115
enough credit unions so that it will justify the establishment of a cen-
tral credit union which will be as a central bank or its discounting
agent between the local credit union and the intermediate credit banks.
The credit unions, as is generally understood, handle no deposits in the
sense of being a regular banking business and they deserve the support
of every bank in the State and when the relation of the credit union
to the bank as a depositor becomes more generally known, I believe that
it is possible to expect a great development to the advantage of the
credit union and to the country bank.
In so far as we have given personal aid and furnished copies of by-
laws and contracts to different organizations throughout the State,
practically covers the work in rural organization up to this time,
I think that there should be a Supervisor of Cooperative Societies
similar to the Supervisor of Credit Unions, because cooperative societies
enjoy special privileges under our State laws and for that reason should
be supervised. The general question of rural organization cannot be
further developed until other matters of a similar nature are clearly
defined as activities of the College or the Department of Agriculture and
for that reason no attempt has been made along this line.
Geo. R. Ross,
Chief, Division of Markets.
DIVISION OF STATISTICS
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
Sir: — The cooperative relations between the ]Srortli Carolina and
TJnited States Departments of Agriculture through the forming of the
Cooperative Crop Reporting Service was begun in the spring of 1919.
The present statistician was appointed Chief of the Division of Statis-
tics without salary. Two years later the work had grown remarkably
and had achieved considerable publicity. This was largely in a boosting
sense concerning Worth Carolina's crop and livestock values, diversifica-
tion and comparisons with other states.
The high mark in the present service was reached in 1921-22 when it
was united with the Division of Markets. Since that time the appropria-
tion has been steadily decreased with a consequent essential curtailment
in results. It should be recognized that in order to interpret and fore-
cast economic and current farm conditions, field travel into the various
sections of the State and printed publicity reports of the field and re-
porters' results should be made monthly. At the present time there is
not nearly enough appreciation of the meaning and value of economic
farm statistics as there should be. While North Carolina farmers have
distinctly advanced ahead of other Southern states in this regard, we
are still greatly behind many other progressive western states. While
almost every industry and business profession has found it essential to
secure and study statistical results of supply and demand in their various
lines, farmers are still largely holding to the idea that what they do is
no one else's business. Thus, their haphazard, blind business methods
are continuing to hold them in a dark and hard way.
A special committee of three suggested that a study of the Crop Re-
porting Service be made by Dr. C W. Forster, and that his recommen-
dations be outlined. This was done and the results indicate that much
valuable information is going to waste. An enviable opportunity for
developing valuable research work is lying dormant. If. Dr. Forster's
plans were half carried out, double the present funds would be needed.
He emphasized the need of a research specialist, who would be entirely
free from any detail work and encouraged to ferret out and assemble
into tangible form much more of the basic facts available.
Statistical Work Now Developed and Operating
The Crop Reporting Service is getting its frequent information from
many classified lists of reporters, aggregating about 9,000 voluntary re-
porters and surveys of about 150,000 farms annually.
The Farm Forecaster, a monthly publication, has helped probably
more than any other agency for holding together the favorable relations
COMMISSIONEE OF AGRICULTURE 117
between tlie Federal and State departments and tlie thousands of re-
porters Avho serve without corapensation.
The tobacco warehouse sales reports have resulted in the kindliest
feelings between tobacconien and the Department. Incidentally, they
have recently shown a closer trend in prices in the different markets
than was shown prior to this development.
The Farm Census, begun voluntarily in 1918, has grown steadily in
completeness and in State-wide appreciation, but is going backward
for lack of adequate funds.
The Crop ISTotes service is developed semi-monthly from a large list
of bankers, farmers, supply merchants and others familiar with the
economic features of farm work. That this is appreciated is evident
from the press publicity and from the hearty cooperation of reporters
to get the results in exchange for their voluntary aid.
For the first time, the Department of Agriculture is having a promi-
nent hand in the United States Census enumeration which is being made
this December and January. It has long been felt that the farm part of
the census should be in charge of agriculturally interested officials. "With
our previous several years experience in census work favorable data is
expected under our supervision.
Statistical "Woek ISTeedhstg Better Development
Through the Cooperative Crop Reporting Service, the two depart-
ments are securing very valuable information, but not nearly complete
usage is made of the data. Some of it might be compared to the farmer
who goes all of the devious and expensive ways to produce and house
his crops and then lets most of it decay for lack of usage. He has
the satisfaction of making good crops, but comes out at the short end in
For this reason it is highly essential that the Farm Forecaster be
issued regular throughout the year as a medium for presenting in a
comprehensive and acceptable form a maximum of the current informa-
tion collected each month through this service. This much is due the
aids in exchange for their voluntary services. The State Farm Census
likewise is not utilized nearly to the extent that it should be. For the
most value, the work should be tabulated in a most speedy manner and
the results published before the crops are marketed. To stimulate the
friendliness and most valuable relations between this office and the
various other divisions, extension workers and college specialists, oppor-
tunity for research work should be encouraged and promoted.
Agencies ISTeeding our Statistical Economic Information
Agricultural extension workers. State and ISTational bankers, colleges
for economic studies, agricultural high schools, State and county offi-
cials. Libraries and civic organizations. All those who are interested in
the farmer's welfare.
118 Biennial Eepokt
The Puepose of the Crop Reporting Service
The scope of information covered by this office includes acreages,
yields, production, quality, stocks, prices and values, shipments, cur-
rent trends, etc., of crops; also, the numbers and values of livestock,
wages, labor supply and demand, land values, and many other features
on special crops like peanuts, cotton, fruit, vegetables, pecans, etc. It
cannot be presumed that this service is in the least confined to the usage
of any one phase of agricultural endeavor. While the Division of
Markets might use it advantageously, entomologist, horticulturist, agron-
omist, veterinarians and others could use it quite as well. Its maximum
usefulness can only be gained when all divisions and agricultural
agencies enjoy its services and cooperate in its endeavors on an equal
basis. This can only be done as an independent organization.
Statistical work has its peculiar problems, difficulties, unpopularity
and lack of appreciations. There are few who really understand or like
statistical work. This type of worh embraces long procedures to simple
results. This service aims for results of performance rather than pro-
paganda publicity. It might be compared with the business service of
Babson, Brookmires or other business economic agencies, each costing
subscribers from $100 to $300 per year.
!N^0RTH Carolina's Agricultural Situation
The data on the accompanying sheet is self-explanatory and presents
in a simple way what it has required many weeks, months and years to
compile. The reliability of the government methods is well recognized
by brokers, business agencies and farm organizations. They are better
than any private estimates.
The State budget of this Service is also attached, and your careful
examination is respectfully requested.
Commissioner of Agkicultuke
North Caeolina Crop Statistics
CoRX, bushels —
Yield per acre
Wheat, bushels —
Yield per acre
CoTTOX, pounds —
Yield per acre
Tobacco, pounds —
Yield per acre
Tame Hat, tons —
Yield per acre
Wild Hat, tons-
Yield per acre
Oats, bushels —
Yield per acre
Potatoes, bushels —
Yield per acre
Total crop value
Total livestock value.
STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA
Obops — Field Recommendations, December, 1924. Revised, 1923.
Instructions in F. A. 1,000
Crop and Unit
Yield per Acre
Corn, for grain, bu _.
Corn, for silage, tons
Corn, for forage.
Corn, all (ex. sweet, pop),
Winter wheat planted. .."._
Winter wheat harv., bu
Grain sorghum, bu
Cotton, harvested, lbs
Tame hay, all, tons
Sorghum for forage, tons.
Wild hay, tons
Potatoes, Irish, bu
Potatoes, sweet, bu
Sugar cane, tons
Sorghum for syrup, gals. .
Clover seed, bu
*1, 020, 000
REPORT ON DRAINAGE
To the Commissioner of Agriculture: '
Sir: — I liereby submit the biennial report on drainage conducted
under a cooperative agreement between the ISTorth Carolina Department
o£ Agriculture and tbe United States Department of Agriculture. Tbis
report covers the two crop years from December 1, 1922 to Iv'ovember
Mr. J. A. Bropby, who bad been acting as Junior Drainage Engineer
of tbe ISTortb Carolina Department of Agriculture resigned on February
1, 1923. Mr. Alfred Ogram, Junior Drainage Engineer, of tbe United
States Department of Agriculture, was detailed to tbis State as tempo-
rary assistant on March 26, 1923 but was recalled on May 19th of that
year. Since that time, tbe writer has been carrying on the work without
On July 1, 1923, the work of the Drainage Division was placed on a
research basis; the plan being to carry on projects along experimental
and research lines exclusively from that date on. However, a large num-
ber of approved extension projects remained uncompleted on July 1st,
and the major portion of the work of the division up to the spring of
1924 was devoted to the clearing up of these unfinished projects. Since
that time, the extension activities of the Division were limited mostly to
the lands of State, Public or Semi-Public Institutions, though in certain
approved instances aid was rendered to individuals. Requests for infor-
mation or advice on subjects related to drainage and soil erosion coming
in to the Department were answered in the correspondence of the Divi-
sion and news articles and the results of investigational work given to
the press from time to time. These projects were, however, incidental to
research work during the last nine months of the period under considera-
The extension work has been conducted along the same lines as in
previous years. In general, this part of our program consisted (1) in
assisting farmers in the improvement by drainage and terracing of
lands now under cultivation and (2) in making preliminary and recon-
naissance examinations for drainage districts and other cooperative asso-
ciations desiring to make drainage improvements.
Upon request, either from the county agent or from the farmer, the
Drainage Engineer made preliminary examinations, surveys, designs,
estimates, specifications and reports for tile drainage projects on the
farm. A blueprint was sent to the farmer, showing the complete system
of drains. When the farmer was ready to install the tile certain drains
were staked out in the field and instructions given in the proper methods
122 Biennial Eepokt
Terraces were laid off in entire fields, and instructions given in the
use of the farm level, and in terrace construction. Various methods of
construction were demonstrated at terrace-building demonstrations, the
completed terrace serving as a model for the community in which it
was built. County agents in those counties needing terraces were in-
structed in approved methods of terrace location and construction and
the levels used in this work were tested and adjusted by the engineers
of the division.
The engineer also made preliminary examinations of drainage dis-
tricts. The proposed district was visited and from all available data
that could be secured a report prepared, accompanied by a map, copies of
which were furnished to interested parties. The methods of organizing
a district under the State Law were also outlined.
The following summary gives a brief account of the work accom-
plished along these lines :
During the past two years, 63 farms situated in 26 counties, ranging
in location from Mountains to Coast, have been visited for the purpose
of giving assistance in tile drainage. The areas of these tracts covered
by surveys and for which plans and reports for tile drainage were pre-
pared covered an area of 1,439 acres on 27 farms. This does not include
areas examined of which no survey was made or map prepared. States
and grades for tile drainage construction have been given on 15 farms
in 11 counties for the installation of 26,800 feet of tile. The amounts on
individual farms ranged from 225 to 7,000 feet, the tile installed run-
ning from four to eighteen inches in diameter.
Considerable correspondence was carried on with tile manufacturers
in regard to the establishment of a tile factory in the State and an in-
spection trip made to two tile plants.
Sixty-eight farms in 16 counties have been visited for the purpose of
giving assistance in the loctation and construction of terraces to prevent
hillside erosion, the total length of terraces laid out being approxi-
mately 108,040 feet or 20l^ miles, an average of 1,590 feet per farm.
Fourteen examinations of a preliminary or reconnaissance nature
have been made covering an area of 262,000 acres. The land covered
by these projects is located in 15 counties in both the Piedmont and
Coastal Plain regions of the State. Addresses were made at several
meetings of landowners in which the State law and methods of organi-
zation were outlined. In this connection, the Convention of the North
Carolina Drainage Association held at JSTew Bern was attended, and a
number of drainage districts throughout the State visited and a memo-
randum prepared on the conditions noted.
Commissioner of Agkiculture 123
Prior to the inauguration of a research program an inspection trip
was made in which the staffs of the Divisions of Agricultural Engineer-
ing of Ohio State University, Purdue University, the University of
Illinois and the University of Missouri were visited and consulted. An
examination was also made of the steam gaging work of the United
States Department of Agriculture in the vicinity of Girardeau, Mo.
Plans were prepared and the work of construction undertaken for an
experiment in soil erosion on the Experiment Station Earm at Raleigh.
Construction was completed during the latter part of May, 1924, and
» records of rainfall, runoff and erosion kept since June 1st. The experi-
ment consists essentially of the measurement of soil loss on plots of the
same length under different crops and of varying length under the same
crop, on a Cecil fine sandy loam soil. The seriousness of the erosion
problem to the southern farmer is evidenced by the records already ob-
tained, which show that during one thirty-day period last summer,
erosion from one of the test plots took place at the rate of twenty-five
tons per acre.
Studies of the height of the groundwater level in a muck soil in
Beaufort County and on a typical Coastal Plain soil in Pender County
have been continued. Similar studies formerly carried on at the Black
Land Station of the Department at Washington County have been dis-
continued. Considerable time has been devoted to the compilation of
the data obtained from these experiments, although the material has
not yet been put into the form of a report. These data will give a
comparison of groundwater conditions in soils of different types, in
soils drained by tile lines spaced at varying depths, and between the
effect of open ditches and tile drains.
About 400 feet of experimental concrete drain was installed on a
farm in Wilson County, for the purpose of studying the action of concrete
tile in the acid soils of the Coastal Plain. Treated and untreated tile as
well as tile manufactured under different conditions, methods and mater-
ials were used. The location is one where difficulty had previously been
experienced through the disintegration of concrete tile. The tile is to
be examined and specimens tested at intervals to determine its condition.
E. O. Bartel,
Associate Drainage Engineer.
DIVISION OF FARM ENGINEERING
To the Commissioner of Agriculture:
SiK : — Tlie division has been devoted entirely to extension work cover-
ing three main projects as f ollo-n^s :
1. "Water supply, water power, sewerage disposal, lights and other
2. Farm buildings and concrete construction.
3. Farm machinery and motors.
This work was easily covered by one man in its beginning, but has
grown now to where it is simply a matter of taking care of as many
of the calls as possible. Building work alone has increased from just
a few designs from which the commercial printers were paid to get out
prints, to 153 designs at this time from which have been mailed out
over 3,000 sets of plans during the past two years. These are all being
made on our blue-print machine, which is now too small for the demands,
for 10 cents per sheet less than we were paying the commercial printers.
In carrying on this work trips have been made to A^arious sections
where a number of people were interested in one or more phases of the
work, their locations gone over and recommendations made. This
included furnishing plans, getting up bills of materials and estimates
of cost, and in many cases making an extra trip later when an actual
working demonstration was put on. At these demonstrations all the
interested parties from over the community were invited and discus-
sions usually arose regarding various other locations and conditions.
In case of some of the larger buildings it is usually only necessary
to lay out foundations and then familiarize the carpenters with the
plans. It has been a very great help to be able to refer interested
parties to some building, water supply outfit or other propositions that
had been installed in his county or community that was similar to what
he wanted. The greatest number of our calls have come from sections
where the practical demonstrations had been put on.
It is the plan to use standard sets of building plans as far as possible,
but, of course, there are always cases that call for individual plans. We
have designs now for all the various houses for poultry, colony hog
houses, central hog house, self-feeder for hogs, breeding crates for hogs,
sheep, mule, dairy, beef cattle and general-purpose barns, bull pens,
calf pens, implement sheds, dipping vats, lime spreaders, water towers,
lime storage bins, clover seed savers, dwellings, septic tanks, water sys-
tems, milk houses, concrete sterilizers, special storage warehouses and
a number of plans for special barns.
One hundred and thirty x^ractical demonstrations have been put on
including 10 dairy barns, 6 mule barns, 18 self-feeders for hogs, 8 breed-
ing crates for hogs, 6 poultry houses, 5 brooder houses, 9 hydraulic rams,
Commissioner of Agriculture 125
7 water supply outfits operated by engine, 5 water towers, 4 septic
tanks, 33 silos, 9 demonstrations in the use of explosives, and 11 other
small buildings of various kinds.
A silo man has been put on during the summer months, and in this
connection 86 bills of materials and plans have been mailed out in
addition to the 33 silos constructed.
The 3,071 sets of plans have gone to 87 counties and a good many
to outside states.
Visits have been made to 78 counties where 22 water-power proposi-
tions have been investigated; 37 meetings, Avith a total attendance of
1,898 ; 322 farms were visited where either some of the above work
was put on, or investigations made for home water supply, building,
lights or machinery.
ISTine hundred and fifty-three consultations were held and 2,088
letters written; traveled 6,348 miles by automobile and 11,209 miles by
A paint campaign was put on in Mecklenburg County in cooperation
with the county and home agents, together with the paint manufacturers
and dealers. During the campaign 210 people signed up to paint the
outside of their homes, 178 to paint the inside of their homes, 52 to
paint barnes and out buildings and 44 to paint all farm machinery.
From later trips through the county and reports of paint sales by dealers
a good majority have kept their promise. Two other counties have
since put on similar campaigns.
A survey of soybean harvesters being made and used in the State was
made, and showed that the machines were getting on the average of
about 75 per cent of the beans, each machine would take care of about
five acres per day or forty acres per season.
A survey was made covering a number of counties in various sections
of the State to determine the estimated damage done by rats and weevils
in stored corn. These estimates ran from 1 per cent to 25 per cent in
each case with an average of 5 per cent damage by rats and the same
for weevils. The weevil damage was much worse in Eastern Carolina
while that for rats was fairly well distributed.
jSTineteen thousand feet of terrace were laid off for 12 men.
Sixty-five new designs have been added to our list during this time and
we always have a list waiting that time and help does not permit getting
out although we need them to take care of requests.
E, E. Eaney,
Extension Farm Engineer.
REPORT OF FEED INSPECTION WORK
To the C ommisdorher of Agriculture:
Sik: — As per your request, I am presenting a report briefly of the
Feed Inspection Control "Work for the years 1923 and 1924.
Our laboratories are now equipped and we will be able to handle work
with more dispatch from now on. In the past two years this work has
been greatly handicapped. Only by the most persistent efforts has the
feed laboratory been kept intact and running. This has been done,
notwithstanding that twice it was suggested that we close down.
In 1923 we moved the feed laboratory about in the museum. The past
June we again moved out of there into our present quarters. The illness
of our inspector the past spring somewhat cut down the number of
samples received, as also did moving into and equipping the new labora-
However, the fact we kept our inspection and analytical work going
has had a good effect. The past two years, the uniform Wheat Mill
Feed Standards on the amount of bran allowed in wheat feeds has been
in force with apparently good success. These standards prevent over-
loading of shorts and middlings Math bran, a cheaper feed.
In the year 1923, cheap, poor, horse and mule feeds, overloaded with
molasses and "hulls and chaff as fillers," were seized on the Virginia
border in the vicinity of Norfolk, and their sale prevented. During the
present year this practice at Wilmington, Fayetteville, and Charlotte
has been gone after and stopped. These "low-grade" feeds were crowd-
ing the licensed legitimate horse and mule feeds off the market by under-
selling. Several firms have been compelled to withdraw from this State.
Twenty-one feeds were examined for poison, several by actually feed-
ing them to animals. Two alone contained poison.
The following work has been published:
1. The Bulletin, "Commercial Feeds," 1923.
2. "Onion Milk Investigation with 'Mrs. Lea's Milk and Butter Purifier,' " a
proprietary preparation, by Stanley Combs and J. O. Halverson.
3. "The Calcium Requirements of Farm Animals in Relation to the Calcium
Content of Dairy Feeds, Hog Feeds, and Poultry Feeds," by J. O. Halverson
and L. M. Nixon.
Summary of Work — Years 1923-24
Forty-four refunds (feed below guarantee) made to the dealers, approxi-
mately 200 tons (year 1923, 95.5 tons), $290. 77.
Thirty-five lots of feed withdrawn from sale, 145.9 tons.
Eleven additional notification of shortages given the manufacturers.
Commissioner of Agriculture 127
Official samples 322 244
Unofficial samples 68 59
Experiment station samples 46 132
Total 436 435
Grand total 871
J. O. Halverson,
DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS
To the C omviissioner of Agriculture:
Sir: — In submitting a report for the Division of Publications, I
would first call to your attention that this work has been conducted
jointly with the agricultural extension service work of the State College
of Agriculture. The Department of Agriculture has paid part of the
salaries of three of the workers connected with this office, has furnished
office space, some equipment, and paid the cost of publishing bulletins
prepared by workers located both at the College and in the Department
During the biennium from December 1, 1922, to December 1, 1924,
the Division of Publications has edited, published, and distributed for
the Department of Agriculture twenty-one issues of the official bulletin
with a total edition of 67,500 copies. The office has prepared, also, in
addition to these bulletins, 1,000 copies of the Commissioner's report for
1920-22 and 5,000 copies of a poster, ''The South, the ISTation's Greatest
Publications giving the analyses of fertilizers were issued as bulletins
and supplements in January, March, June, July, August, and December
of 1923, and in March, July, and August of 1924. Reports of seed tests
prepared by J. L. Burgess were published February, 1923, and January,
1924. Reports on the analyses of commercial feeds were issued in
April, 1923, and June, 1924.
In addition to these strictly departmental bulletins, eight popular
bulletins, prepared by department and experiment station workers, were
published. These, in accordance with the month of issue, are as follows :
March, 1923 — "The Plum Curculio on Peaches in North Carolina." by R. W.
May, 1923 — "Farm Credit in North Carolina," by Fred R. Yoder.
November, 1923 — "Fertilizer Experiments with Wheat on Piedmont Red
Clay Loam Soils," by C. B. Williams and others.
March, 1924 — "Habits and Control of the Cotton Boll Weevil in North Caro-
lina," by R. W. Leiby and J. A. Harris.
April, 1924 — "Cost of Clearing and Seeding Cut-over Lands in Western
North Carolina," by R. S. Curtis and F. T. Peden.
August, 1924 — "The Culling and Feeding of Poultry," by Dr. B. F. Kaupp.
September. 1924 — "Results of Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton and Irish
Potatoes," by W. F. Pate and Dr. J. J. Skinner of the U. S. Department of
November, 1924 — "The Mexican Bean Beetle in North Carolina," by J. C.
Commissioner of Agriculture 129
These eight publications were distributed to 43,600 residents of the
State and to libraries and specialists engaged in agricultural work in
other states. We also have a supply on hand with which to answer
Fifty-four thousand copies of the Farmers' Market Bulletin, prepared
by the State Division of Markets, have also been mailed to the various
lists in charge of this division.
In our service work we have supplied an average of thirty-seven
requests per day for departmental bulletins. Many of these are for
copies of former issues and, in all, a total of approximately 164,000
bulletins have been mailed to residents of the State in the past two years.
In addition to answering requests for general bulletins of the Depart-
ment, the Division of Publications also gives assistance in mailing out
the informational matter prepared and distributed by other divisions.
We are called on nearly every day to address envelopes to the various
mailing lists, to mimeograph letters, and to fold them for distribution
to farmers of ISTorth Carolina. Our service work for the Department of
Agriculture, alone, shows that we have mimeographed and multigraphed
a total of 107,360 letters during the past biennium. Most of these letters
were folded and prepared for mailing in this office. This, of course,
does not include any of the work done for the workers rated as extension
The division has also prepared a considerable amount of small print-
ing, such as letterheads, envelopes, and blank forms, for the different
departmental workers. In addition to these duties, a complete record
of all tag transfers is kept by Mr. A. O. Alford, assistant editor.
One of the big items of the Division of Publications is maintaining
a news service about better farming and improved agriculture to the
papers of N"orth Carolina and the agricultural journals. The division
maintains a regular service each week to all weekly papers circulating
in the State, a service to the dailies through the Associated Press, and
a monthly service to large agricultural papers circulating in ISTorth
Carolina. A service is also maintained for Monday papers, and some
of the papers, notably the News and Observer of Raleigh, carry a regular
farm page on which these Monday releases are featured.
In this work of supplying news material to the press of ISTorth Caro-
lina, an effort is made to credit to the Department of Agriculture the
work done by the specialists in the Department, and to credit to the
State College of Agriculture the work done by the agricultural extension
130 Biennial Kepoet
specialists. Credit for tlie work of tlie experiment station organization
is given to tlie two institutions according as it appears liow the work
I need not call your attention to the importance of this editorial work
and the way in which it is received by the press of the State. In it we
make no attempt to advertise anybody or anything. We simply give
the facts and try to put them in such shape that they will show their
news value. The response by the press of the State has been truly
remarkable. Recently, one Associated Press representative told me
that he did not know of another Southern State where as much agricul-
tural material was being used by the press as in the State of J^orth
In handling the large amount of work which passes through the
Division of Publications, there has been a fine spirit of cooperation in
the office, and it would not be possible for us to handle the amount of
work that is handled if it were not for improved machinery and this
spirit of loyalty which characterizes each worker in the Division. In
an office such as maintained by this Division, none of us are ever entirely
off duty. It has been necessary for us at times to work overtime
and on holidays. However, this has been done with a fine spirit of
service, and I believe the results which the division has secured in the
last biennium will amply speak for themselves.
F. H. Jeteb, Editor.
Balance, July 1, 1922 $45,671.92
Receipts, July 1, 1922-June 30, 1924 774,376.51
Legislative appropriation 50,000.00
Expenditures, July 1, 1922-June 30, 1924 768.797.12
Balance, July 1, 1924 $101,251.31
July 1, 1922-June 30, 1924
Distribution 1923 1924 Total
Fertilizer tags $216,362.36 $237,862.95 $454,225.31
Cottonseed meal tags 21,754.57 23,525.12 45,279.69
Feed tags 52,442.01 57,165.35 109,607.36
Test farms 24,088.82 36,664.48 60,753.30
Hog cholera serum 19,283.54 20,756.14 40,039.68
Bleached flour licenses 7,800.00 8,415.00 16,215.00
Oil and gasoline divisions 3,000.00 9,165.87 12,165.87
Seed licenses 2,225.00 2,375.00 4.600.00
Linseed oil stamps 1,961.25 1,995.48 3,956.73
Animal Industry farm 2,206.34 1,010.12 3,216.46
Legume inoculation 1,378.48 1,270.39 2.648.87
Bottling plant licenses 990.00 1,550.00 2.540.00
Lime plant 1.874.50 525.20 2.399.70
Ice-cream licenses 930.00 1.335.00 2.265,00
Bakeries 1,210.00 860.00 2,070.00
Seed tags 873.60 1,094,37 1,967.97
Condimental feed licenses 900.00 1,040.00 1.940.00
Refunds 848.81 290.94 1,139.75
Irregularities 409.50 552.56 962.06
Tobacco sales 162.46 203.55 366.01
Grape work, Pender Farm 56.62 234.69 291.31
Maps and bulletins sold 247.92 6.14 254.06
Furniture sold 50.00 10.00 60.00
Testing and cleaning seed 8.30 20.60 28.90
Protested checks made good 4,485.50 4,485.50
Permit tags. Entomology Division 413.65 413.65
Marketing Division 20.35 20.35
Interest on deposits 450.39 13.59 463.98
Total $361,514.47 $412,862.04 $774,376.51
133 Biennial Eepokt
Summary op Disbuksements for Last Two Fiscal Yexajss. Ending
June 30, 1923. and June 30, 1924
Distrihution 1923 1924 Total
Executive Office :
Animal Industry :
Markets and Rural Organizations :
Expenses ' 900.75
Tuberculosis Work :
Hog Cholera Work:
Cooperative Demonstration :
Commissioner of Agriculture 133
Distribution 1923 1924 Total
Pure Food :
Plant Diseases :
Test Farm Directors and Agricultural
Salary 575.00 575.00 1,150.00
Janitors, etc. :
Salaries 1,884.85 2,376.97 4,261.82
Test Farms :
To cover protested checks 101.25
Refunded for paint stamps 4,281.55
Work on serum plant 2,550.00
State Fair 1,238.36
Pictures rural schools 5.00
Total : $391,089.83 $377,707.29 $768,797.12
134 Biennial Repoet
DIVISION OF FOOD AND OIL INSPECTION
Financial Statement from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924
GASOLINE INSPECTION FUND
Account With State Teeasurek
Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $59,687.23
Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $261,737.51
Receipts from June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 364,399.47
Total receipts 626,136.98
Expenses June 30, 1922, to July 1. 1923 $37,404.98
Expenses June 31, 1923, to July 1, 1924 41,350.02
Total expenses $78,755.00
Transferred to General Fund :
From June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $260,000.00
From June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 324,500.00
Total amount transferred 584,500.00
Total amount expended and transferred 663,255.00
Balance in Treasury to gasoline account $22,569.21
ILLUMINATING OIL INSPECTION FUND
Account With State Treasurer
Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $16,192.02
Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $75,423.24
Receipts from June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 90,619.36
Total receipts $166,042.60
Total - $182,234.62
Expenses June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $30,000.66
Expenses June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 28,105.93
Total expenses $58,106.59
Transferred to General Fund :
From June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $55,000.00
From June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 60,000.00
Total amount transferred 115,000.00
Total amount expended and transferred 173,106.59
Balance in Treasury to Oil Fund $9,128.03
"W. M. Allen,
Chief of the Division.