Wi)t i,ibratp of tfjc ^nibersiitp of igortf) Carolina Collection of J^ortl) Caroliniana (Snlioto cb hv lofjn ^prunt llill of the Class of 1889 A iii^ mwm^-^m 'v.^i t/'^"--^^-^ '•: W''.: >1^:^ii(^^. 00033953516 This bookmust not be taken from the Library building. s rif %% |[^Ue.-«-*-^L, BIENNIAL REPORT of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture From December 1, 1922 To November 30, 1924 MEMBERS STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 1. W. A. Graham, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman 2. F. P. Latham, First District 4. W. B. McLelland, Eighth District 3. W. A. Brown, Third District 5. Clarence Poe, Fourth District 6. K. W. Barnes, Secretary and Purchasing Agent MEMBERS STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 1. Edith K. Vanderbilt, Tenth District 2. R. W. Scott, Fifth District 3. J. Vance McGougan, Sixth District 4. J. J. Harris, Second District 5. C. C. Wright, Seventh District. 6. O. Max Gardner, Ninth District BIENNIAL REPORT of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture From December 1, 1922 To November 30, 1924 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL December 12, 1924. To His Excellency, Cameeon Morrison, Governor of North Carolina. Sir: — In compliance witli section 3944 of the Revisal o£ 1905, I submit the following report of the operations of the Department of Agriculture for the years 1922-24, to be transmitted to the Legislature with such reference as you may deem necessary for the public welfare. Respectfully submitted, G omm/ission&r of Agriculture. OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE W. A. Graham, Commissioner, ex officio Chairman, Raleigh F. P. Latham, Belhaven First District J. J. Harris, Macon Second District W. A. Brown, Rocky Point Third District Clarence Poe, Raleigh Fourth District R. W. Scott. Haw River Fifth District J. Vance McGougan, Fayetteville Sixth District C. C. Wright, Hunting Creek Seventh District W. B. McClelland, Stony Point Eighth District O. Max Gardner, Shelby Ninth District Mrs. Edith Vanderbilt. Biltmore Tenth District OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES Executive Officers W. A. Graham .Commissioner K. W. Barnes Secretary and Purchasing Agent Mrs. Carl Hill Bookkeeper Miss Mary Knight Stenographer Experiment Station and Extension Service B. W. Kilgore Director F. E. Miller Assistant Director Branch Experiment Stations Analytical Division ( Vacancy ) State Agricultural Chemist W. G. Haywood Fertilizer Chernst E. S. Dewar Assistant Chemist Z. B. Bradford Assistant Chemist C. L. Williams , Assistant Chemist E. F. Hord Assistant Chemist D. M. Jeffress Assistant Chemist J. O. Halverson Feed Chemist L. M. Nixon Assistant Chemist H. A. Dickert Assistant Chemist F. W. Sherwood Assistant Chemist Miss M. S. Birdsong Secretary Museum H. H. Brimley Curator Harry T. Davis Assistant Veterinary Division William Moore Veterinarian C. P. Caldwell Assistant L. J. Faulhaber Assistant Miss Hattie Bell „ Stenographer 4 Officers and Employees Animal iNDtrsTBY Division R. S. Curtis Acting Chief J. A. Arey In Cliarge, Dairy Extension A. C. KiMEEY Assistant Dairy Specialist W. L. Clevengek Assistant Dairy Specialist and Instruction F. R. Faenham Assistant Dairy Specialist, Production Work H. L. Wilson Assistant Dairy Specialist, Swiss Cheese Work W. A. Graham Assistant Dairy Specialist, Cheddar Cheese Work W. W. Shay In Charge, Swine Extcnf^ipn W. V. Hays Assistant Swine Specialist G. P. William Sheep Specialist Earl H. HosTETLER....In Charge, Office of Swine Investigations and Instruction L. H. McKay Assistant, Office of Swine Investigations and Instruction Vernon M. Williams In Charge, Office of Dairy Investigations Allen G. Oliver In charge, Office of Poultry Extension E. G. Wardin Assistant, Office of Poultry Extension Miss Nellie Fort Secretary, Animal Industry Division Miss Edna Walborn Stenographer Miss Lillian Bender Stenographer Division of Agronomy Dr. R. Y. Winters Plant Breeding Agronomist W. F. Pate In Charge, Soil Fertility Investigations L. G. Willis „ _ Soil Chemist E. C. Blair Extension Agronomist (Soil and Crops) P. H. KiME Assistant Plant Breeder G. M. Garren Grain Specialist H. B. Mann Assistant in Soil Fertility S. K. Jackson Assistant in Soil Fertility S. F. Davidson Assistant in Soil Survey W. A. Davis Assistant in Soil Survey H. A. McGee (Tobacco) Extension Agronomist Division of Entomology Franklin Sherman Chief in Entomology R. W. Leiby Assistant Entomologist, Investigations C. S. Brimley Assistant, Investigations T. B. Mitchell Assistant, Inspections and Field Work J. C. Crawford Assistant, Investigations J. A. Harris Assistant, Investigations W. B. Mabee , Assistant, Extension C. L. Sams Beekeeping Extension Miss Jessie Almer Marion Clerk Division of Horticulture C. D. Matthews Chief Robert Schmidt Vegetable Culture W. A. Radspinner „ Pomology C. F. Williams , „ Research G. O. Randall Extension Work H. R. Niswonger Extension Work Mrs. O. H. Bishop Stenographer Officers and Employees 5 Food and Oil Division W. M. Allen State Food and Oil Chemist and Chief of Division L. B. Rhodes Assistant Food and Gasoline Chemist W. A. Queen Assistant Food and Linseed Oil Chemist E. W. Constable Assistant Gasoline Chemist M. A. Townsend Clerk and Assistant Chemist C. R. Warlick Food and Sanitary Inspector F. T. Ward Oil and Gasoline Clerk S. G. Allen - General Clerk Sallie F. Palmer Clerk and Stenographer Division of Botany J. L. Burgess , Botanist Miss Susie Allen Seed Analyst Miss Gussie Finch Assistant Seed Analyst Miss Grace Stone Assistant Seed Analyst Miss Kate Ballard Assistant Seed Analyst Markets and Rural Organizations George R. Ross Chief R. B. Etheridge Specialist in Farm Crops Albert E. Mercker Specialist in Fruits and Vegetables G. R. Blount Specialist in Marketing Fruits and Vegetables J. I. Johnson Cotton Grading J. P. Brown Warehouse Inspection and Oi^ration A. V. Anderson Credit Unions V. W. Lewis Livestock Marketing Specialist H. R. PowLEDGE Chief Clerk W. L. Nelson Telegraph Operator Miss Mabel Haynes Stenographer Mrs. J. N. Mason Stenographer Miss Elizabeth Moore Stenographer Division of Agricultural Economics Frank Parker Agricultural Statistician William H. Rhodes, Jr Assistant Statistician E. B. Morrow Assistant Statistician Mrs. Katherine W. Haig Record Clerk Mrs. Ella R. Simpson Filing Clerk Mrs. Polk Denmark Mailing Clerk Mrs. Rebecca W. Horton Census Clerk Publications F. H. Jeter Agricultural Editor A. O. Alford Assistant Editor Mrs. J. S. Whiteneb _ ^ Stenographer Miss Thelma Owens Clerk 6 Officers and Employees Farm Engineering E. R. Rainey Farm Building and Equipment Miss Louise B. Wright Stenographer Farm Forestry H. M. CURRAN Farm Forestry Specialist Test Farms R. E. Ourrin, Jr Superintendent Edgecombe Test Farm, Rocky Mount, N. C. F. T. Meacham Superintendent Iredell Test Farm, Statesville, N. C. S. C. Clapp Superintendent Buncombe Test Farm, Swannanoa, N. 0. Charles Dearing Superintendent Pender Test Farm, Willard, N. C E. C. Moss Superintendent Granville Test Farm, Oxford, N. C. J. L. Rea, Jr Superintendent Washington Farm, Wenona, N. O. REPORT OF COMMISSIONER Upon the death of my beloved father, who served the State as Com- missioner of Agriculture continuously from September, 1908, till Decem- ber, 1923, you saw fit to place the responsibilities of the office in my hands. Stimulated by a desire to emulate the achievements of my father, whose work, now passed into history, was made possible by the wise counsel of his board and loyal cooperation of his stafL I decided to accept the challenge of service and trust to you for support in carrying forward the great work of the Department not only along present lines but into new and relatively unexplored fields of activity. Since we last met, Hon. A.. Cannon, for over twenty years a member of the board, has been taken from us. He was devoted to the agricultural interests of the State; efficient and loyal, and his wise counsel will be sadly missed. Mrs. Edith K. Vanderbilt of Buncombe County was ap- pointed to fill this vacancy. While the State is justly proud of the record of progress made by our board and its former Commissioner, there are yet vast territories to conquer before we shall reach our goal of financial independence for agriculture in Worth Carolina. I use the term "financial independence" advisedly. Our. country people, as a rule, have ample food supplies, but have little money. They have learned to produce bountifully, but since for years much of this bounty, beyond household necessities, has been forced to decay at the point of production, our farmers have found it wise to curtail produc- tion in certain lines, in sheer self-defense, with the result that our large consuming centers have been compelled to draw their food sup- plies largely from outside sources, thus depriving I^orth Carolina of mil- lions of dollars that rightfully belong in the pockets of North Carolina farmers. Practicax, Marketixg the Paramount JSTeed at this Time By a survey of the agricultural conditions in this State, I am driven to the conclusion that we are making a one-sided economic development. We are forcing theoretical instruction too far ahead of practical achieve- ment. To illustrate, we have been teaching our farmers to build modern potato houses without creating a set of market conditions to prevent the potatoes from rotting from too long a storage period. We have shown the farmer the advantages of purebred stock and enabled him to pro- duce the best of farm animals only to glut the local market and smother his ambitions in the excess of his own productions. You, yourself, will recall similar examples of this unbalanced economic condition in our agriculture. 8 BiENisriAi. Report Wider Markets Imperative Our farmers have, as a body, always been out of toucb with our large consuming centers; but, witb our superb transportation system about complete, and with, a vigorous campaign under way to organize tbe farmers into industrial groups for marketing purposes, we should soon begin to make inroads upon the leading markets of the country. We have no criticism of the theoretical teaching that has gone before, but we insist that the time has now arrived to reduce our theories to practice; and that it is a cruel and short-sighted policy that fosters in- creased production without providing for a parallel increase in the re- turns from this production. Through our Market Division we have determined to concentrate the efforts and energies of this Department on the one object of finding the best markets for the products of the farm. To this end we have secured, as Chief of this Division, the services of George R. Ross, of Moore County. Mr. Ross is a native of ISTorth Carolina; a graduate of the A. and E. College; a young man full of energy and enterprise, and well equipped for the duties he has been engaged to perform. While the details of the Market Division will be arranged by Mr, Ross and the different lines of activity largely determined by him and his staff, I might outline to you one or two features of the work to show you the proposed practicability of the efforts of this division. The far- mers close to the larger cities generally have a fair local market, but those in the back country are at a distinct disadvantage even with our system of good roads. It is here that our best work in this line can be done. In these remote sections our market man will stimulate the pro- duction of surplus hogs, or cattle, or poultry, or potatoes far beyond what can be disposed of in the immediate section. Ten farmers, say, in one of these communities will raise and fatten six more hogs each than they have been able, heretofore, to market. Sixty hogs will make a carload. Our market specialist will be in touch with the nearest packing house. The hogs will be ready for delivery on demand after ISTovember first, we will say. When the market is ready all of these hogs will be delivered at one point and shipped and the net proceeds pro- rated among the farmers by our .market specialist. We will not be able to guarantee any definite price for any length of time, but we will be able to get the best price prevailing at the time of shipment. There is a packing house in Richmond and one in Atlanta and one is being built in Asheville. These carload shipments could be repeated any number of times and with a dozen different farm products, and hundreds of thousands of dol- lars distributed throughout sections of the State where it is not now thought possible to place a dollar. Through our Market Division, we ex- pect, within the next year or two, to be able to say to the farmers, "you grow the stuff and we will sell it for you." COMMISSIONEK OF AgRICULTUKE [Farm Tokestky There is anotlier work of deep interest to our agriculture, and that ia farm forestry. Section 4686, Vol. 2. of the Consolidated Statutes of 1919 reads as follows : ''The Department of Agriculture shall investigate and report upon the condition of the timber in jSTorth Carolina and recommend such legislation as will promote the growth thereof and preserve the same." In order to bring out, in greater relief, the vital importance of main- taining and preserving our timber supply, I wish to call your attention to some of the relationships existing between the farmer's wood lot and our leading industrial enterprises. And first I wish to call your attention to the use of the woods in the manufacture of : Vehicles and Machinery We have at various important centers of the State, as at "Wilson, Durham, and Hickory important buggy and wagon manufacturing in- dustries. These call for the best young growth of hickory for axles and shafts, and first-class hickory and white oak for axles, double and single trees, etc. For use in the manufacture of vehicles and various farm machinery, hickory and oak are invaluable products of the farm. Paper Industry Some days ago I noted with pleasure that the paper interests were seriously considering the location of a number of pulp mills in this State to use up the usual fifty per cent of the tree that goes to waste in getting •out logs for the sawmills. We have in ISTorth Carolina woods that can be made into every grade of paper from the coarsest wrapping paper to the most delicate tinted note paper, and at Canton, this State, there is now a very large pulp plant that makes from the different woods of the mountains the best news-print to be found in the fifteen and one-half billion yearly circula- tion of America's newspapers and periodicals. The white pine, the chestnut, and various oaks are among the timbers thus used in the daily spread of information among the American people, and Western North Carolina is peculiarly adapted to the growth of these woods. Leather Industry We have not yet found anything to take the place of tannic acid in the manufacture of leather. While metallic salts and certain oils are used to a limited extent in the preparation of hides, the great leather in- dustry of the United States is mainly dependent upon tannic acid ex- tracted from the oak, chestnut, and hemlock barks as found in Western 10 Biennial Report iSTorth Carolina, tlie gathering of whicli has, for years, constituted a more or less remunerative springtime industry for the farmers of this section of the State. The Cotton Mills So far as I am informed, every shuttle that plies in every loom in every one of our thousands of cotton mills is made of either persimmon wood or dogwood, and, practically, every farmer in the Piedmont and Mountain sections of North Carolina has a few of these trees on his farm. These woods are of vast importance to the cotton industry of this State and the country at large, and, being woods of exceedingly slow growth should be scrupulously protected and allowed to occupy all lands that do not lend themselves easily to cultivation. Hydko-Electric Power There is a close relationship between farm forestry and the year- round maintenance of high voltage in our hydro-electric power plants. While our larger streams have their rise on the wooded side of our mountains, where a gradual run-off is maintained throughout most of the year, they receive most of their supply of water from small streams that are fed from springs and intermittent showers throughout the partially cleared lands of the Piedmont section. Most of the water impounded behind the great dams at Badin on the Yadkin and behind those of the Southern Power Company on both the Yadkin and Catawba rivers, is gathered by these streams after they have left Wilkes- boro and Old Port. It is important, therefore, as an indirect aid to the industrial power development of the State, that our farmers in the Piedmont section early learn the importance of properly conserving their forest areas along the small streams and thus aid in the year-round, continuous water supply to the big industrial power plants that should, in turn, aid in producing a market for their products. Railroad Ties Of course the intimate relationship between railroad transportation and farm forestry is apparent to every one who has ever observed at the little way-side stations and sidings the endless piles of ties for build- ing and repairing the roads. The preservation, then, of our young oak growths, on lands otherwise useless, is of great importance throughout Piedmont ISTorth Carolina. The Furniture Industry The second city in the United States in furniture production is High Point. Just what percentage of the lumber used in the production of this furniture is produced in ISTorth Carolina I do not know, but I am Commissioner of Agriculture 11 sure that the maple, the walnut, the poplar, the ash, the oak, the cedar, the pine, and much o£ the cherry used by these mills should be grown and cut from the waste acres on the farms of this State. And High Point is but one town in which first-class furniture is made. You can name a dozen other towns, such as Mebane, Thomasville, Worth Wilkes- boro and Statesville, where the wood-working industry is of first-class importance. • Lumbering The fame of our once magnificent forests along the coast has now passed into history, and we have only the stumps to remind us that lumbering and the gathering of naval stores once formed the principal industry of nearly half the area of the State. But we must still have lumber ; and the most practical way I can see to get it in sufficient and dependable quantity is for each farmer to grow all he can on his waste acres surrounding his fields. I am told it takes but thirty years to grow a pine tree from the seed to a saw log a foot and a half thick. If then, we could grow the ideal acre of 200 trees and have them average 400 feet of lumber to the tree, and this lumber should be worth $30 the lowest price it sells for today, the acre would yield the farmer $2,400 or an average of $80 an acre for each of the thirty years. With what other crop can he do so well ? Fuel I have said nothing of the importance of farm forestry to the fuel supply of both the farm and the city. Every one knows of its vital con- nection with the fuel supply. Telephone Poles In 1921 there were 190 telephone companies in ISTorth Carolina operat- ing 337 exchanges connecting 39,731 business and 63,706 residence phones with 25,507 miles of wire. With fifty telephone posts to the mile, and this is a low average, this mileage requires 1,275,350 posts to support the lines. The only durable woods we have for telephone posts are black locust, red cedar and juniper. As time goes on the wisdom of conserving these three woods for fence and telephone posts will become increasingly apparent. In the forests and parks of Portugal, there is everywhere displayed a sign which makes a tree speak thus to the wayfarer and to humanity : "Ye who pass by and would raise your hand against me. hearlven ere you harm me. "I am ttie heat of your hearth on the cold winter nights, the friendly shade screening you from the summer sun, and my fruits are refreshing draughts quenching your thirst as you journey on. "I am the beam that holds your house, the board of your table, the bed on which you lie, and the timber that builds your boat. 12 Biennial Report "I am the handle of your hoe, the door of j'our homestead, the wood of your cradle, and the shell of your coffin. "I am the bread of kindness and the flower of beauty. "Ye who pass me by. listen to my prayer : Harm me not." In my address before tlie State Forestry Association a year ago at "Washington, N. C, I called attention to the following facts : I find by an examination of the records that in 1923 ISTorth Carolina contained 334,448 acres in JNTational forests, 300 acres in State forests, 1,225 acres in State Parks, and 2,200 acres belonging to State Institu- tions, half of which was, perhaps, in forest growths. The report of the last census shows that in 1912-14-15 ISTorth Caro- lina ranked fourth as a timber producing state, but that in 1920 it ranked ninth in this respect. There is little doubt that much more extensive and profitable forest areas can be created and maintained in I^orth Carolina than we find here today. The census of 1920 shows that we had in ISTorth Carolina at that time 8,240,795 acres of improved farm lands and 11,805,619 acres of unimproved farm lands. Of course, all of these unimproved acres of farm lands were not set to timber, but, as a rule, we all know that throughout ISTorth Carolina abandoned lands are pretty soon re- seeded and set to young forest growths; and we could hardly be in- correct if we should state that at least one-half of these unimproved acres are partly set to young forest growths at present. Many of these unim- proved acres represent lands that were cleared in the early history of the State, then "worn out" and abandoned. In recent years, however, we have learned that it is much easier and cheaper, by the use of modern methods, to revive these abandoned tracts and bring them into a high state of cultivation than to clear virgin territory, take out the stumps, subdue its wild nature, and reduce it to easily tillable land. We find, therefore, a wide-spread tendency on the part of our farmers to allow old lands that have become fairly well set to forest growths to remain so occupied, and turn their attention to the reclaiming of lands that were once thought too poor to plow. Of course there is much land surface in the State that is too steep and too rocky to be disturbed by the plow and these areas must of neces- sity remain in timber. It appears, therefore, that in these regions only the service of the expert forester in managing the annual cut of mature timber would be required^ but throughout the more level areas of the State there are many cases in which these old lands might better be left to reforestation, either by artificial or by natural agencies, and thus extend our forest areas. There are some things, however, that work against this increase of forest areas in the more level parts of the State. Of course, as popula- tions increase more land must be brought under cultivation; but this tendency may be largely offset, or, at least, its progress greatly retarded, by the fact that scientific agriculture has already, and will in the future, Commissioner of Agriculture 13 enable the farmer to produce as mucli on one acre as he produced on five thirty years ago. The farmer, however, is faced with this one economic proposition that is difficult for him to get around, namely : that all of his acres are taxed alike, and that since taxes must be paid every year all of his acres should be made to produce enough to support themselves, at least to the extent of paying the taxes annually required. It would seem, therefore, that if our Legislatures could devise a means whereby newly forested lands, which cannot produce any revenue whatever under twenty to thirty years, could take a lower rate of taxa- tion than those under improvement, or which are set to well matured forests, our farmers would be encouraged to cultivate fewer acres more intensively and allow all poorer acres to become set in forest growths for the production of timber and fuel in the years to come. The terms of the following members of the board expire March first : First District, F. P. Latham, Belhaven; Fourth District, Clarence Poo, Raleigh; Seventh District, C. C. Wright, Hunting Creek; Tenth Dis- trict, Mrs. Edith K. Yanderbilt, Biltmore. Following are the biennial reports of the different divisions of the Department of Agriculture which will show the different lines of work of the Department and the progress made since 1922 : ANALYTICAL DIVISION To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir: — I beg to present herewith a brief report of the work of the Division of Agricultural Chemistry for the two years,, December 1, 1922 to N'ovember 30, 1924 : The Analytical Division can make a report of considerable progress during the past two years. Its new laboratories have recently been completed and equipped with substantial laboratory tables, desk and other necessary permanent equipment. With our new quarters and with the new equipment installed, we feel that greatly increased effi- ciency and service will follow. Analyses of fertilizers and various fertilizer materials, cottonseed meal, soils and miscellaneous products of an agricultural nature have been made in the usual way and with satisfactory results, the results hav- ing been published at the usual times in the bulletin of the Department, with such comm.ents and information as seemed desirable and of interest and value to those interested in these materials. The amount and kind of chemical work done in the laboratory during the two years— December 1, 1922 to JSTovember 30, 1924, is given in the following summary of analyses made in that time. Official samples of fertilizers 4,000 Fertilizers and fertilizer materials for farmers 480 Cottonseed meal 450 Limes, limestones, and marls 110 Mineral waters 55 Miscellaneous 75 Soils 200 Total 5,370 ) Respectfully submitted, W. Gr. Haywood, Fertilizer Chemist. THE BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATIONS To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — I am submitting lierewitli a report for the Branch Experiment Stations to be published in the biennial report of the Department of Agriculture. I trust this will meet with your approval. This report will be in the form of a summary of the many lines of investigational work being conducted on the central and seven branch experiment stations. Special emphasis will be given to the kinds of work on the different stations due to their locations and to the improve- ments and notable results since the last biennial report. A detail re- port of projects will be covered in the following reports of the subject- matter divisions. The stations are very favorably located to render service to the farm- ers over the State. The Central and Swine Research Station at Ealeigh deal with strictly research projects and some of the more general farm problems. The six outlying stations are located on the principal soil regions of the State and are concerned with the problems of their respec- tive regions. At present 176 approved projects are being conducted on the experiment stations. These relate directly or indirectly to practi- cally every phase of agTiculture, and the solution of these problems is important to the future development of a successful agriculture. Cea^tral Experimekt Station — Kai^eigh The program of work on this station is to deal with problems of a research nature as it offers better equipped laboratories for technical studies. Some of the more general farm problems are also dealt with. The station being located adjacent to the State College gives the agri- cultural students the opportunity of studying the different experimental projects under way. The outstanding research problem of the Animal Industry Division is to determine the effect of cotton meal upon the growth and reproduc- tion of cows. Some very striking results have been obtained from this experiment which will have much influence on the amounts of cotton- seed meal that can safely be used in dairy rations. The early results have shown that feeding excessive amounts of cottonseed meal causes abortion, weak calves and soft bone, and that the milk produced from cows receiving such rations fails to produce normal growth with calves. During the past year the cottonseed meal was supplemented in various ways by the use of calcium carbonate, butter fat, cod liver oil, yeast, mineral steam bone meal and wheat, embry, and with the view of deter- mining the cause of the ill-effect in feeding excessive amounts of cotton- seed meal. 16 Biennial Report The poultry work deals with, diseases of fowls, breeding studies, feed- ing tests, marketing experiments, problems in incubation, and studies of the general pathology of the fowl. Much valuable information has been secured from these tests which is used by the poultrymen of the State, and in the poultry class at the State College. The agronomy tests include seed selection and improvement, variety tests, fertilizer studies. The information gained here is used in advising general farm practices for the section and classroom studies. Swine Research Station — Eaxeigh The station of seventy-six acres is located just South of Raleigh, and is given over entirely to investigational work with swine. The brick buildings formerly used by the Veterinary Division for making serum have been rearranged to meet the requirements of the swine work making available a nutrition barn, farrowing barn, feed barn and laboratory which includes room for slaughtering, curing meat, mixing feed, and office. The farm has been arranged into a system of pastures and feeding lots, which as a whole is ideal for swine experimental work. The problem of "Soft Pork" is given first consideration in the inves- tigational work, and the following projects are being conducted : To determine the length of time necessary to make pigs soft on pea- nuts, and the length of time necessary to harden them after they have been made soft. For effect of various amounts of peanuts on body carcasses, ten pigs sixty to eighty pounds in weight were fed individually for approximately one hundred and fifteen days. For effect on body carcass of the same quantity of peanuts being fed to each pig, four pigs averaging 125 pounds each were individually fed for about one hundred and ninety-five days. The adequacy of the protein in peanut meal for supporting growth when fed properly otherwise supplemented ration was tried on a sixty pound pig. For the effect on body carcass of rice feeding following peanut feedings, pigs of weaning age are being used. To determine the effect upon carcasses of seventy-five to one hundred pigs which have been fed peanuts or soybeans for eight weeks, with a subsequent feeding on corn and tankage for twelve weeks. The results, show that pigs fed peanuts or soybeans for eight weeks followed by a feeding period of twelve weeks on corn and tankage did not kill out strictly hard. Other tests in determining the cost of raising pigs to weaning age (8 weeks), and feeding tests in connection with pasture crops are under way. The Duroc Jersey breed of swine is used exclusively on the station and sufficient number of brood sows are maintained to raise all pigs re- quired for the different investigations. Commissioner of Agriculture 17 Blackland Experiment Station — Wenona This station is located on a typical area of the black lands which extend from Virginia well down in Eastern ISTorth Carolina. One of the largest developments in the last few years have been on these lands. "With the drainage canals and lateral ditches thousands of acres of this fertile soil have been cleared and brought into cultivation, which has attracted many settlers from outside the State. Much information is needed on the methods of handling these muck soils for best crop re- sults, and the work on the station is planned with the view of working out a practical solution of some of the fundamental problems confront- ing the blackland farmers. Drainage. — The drainage investigations have proven the value of the tile drainage for these muck soils. This was doubtful at the beginning of the test for two reasons; one that with the extremely flat grade re- quired in laying such tile it would tend to fill up because of muck seeping through; the other, that as this black soil settles the tile lines would sag out of grade and thus ruin the drainage. However, 3.6 miles of tile are now in use on the station farm, and it works perfectly; some of the lines have been in use for eight years. The size of tile ranges from four to fifteen inches and is laid at a minimum depth of four feet. The grade used varies from one-half to one inch per hundred feet. The lines are spaced 330 feet apart; this being the standard spacing for all open ditches in this section. Agronomy. — Corn has been the only money crop so far tried that succeeds well the first year after clearing, but the practice of contin- uous cropping with corn, even though lime has been applied, tends to decrease the original yield. More information is needed on the value of fertilizers and crops that can be grown in rotation with corn. "With this in view, a three-year fertilizer rotation test was started on the station last year : the first year, corn ; second year, spring oats, followed by soybeans for seed or hay ; third year, Irish potatoes, followed by soy- beans for seed or hay. Considerable information was gained in the first- year test, the oats and soybeans making a very favorable showing. The lime test conducted further proved that lime is essential to the production of corn and soybeans and that finely ground limestone is better than marl or hydrated lime. The fertilizer experiments indicate that stable manure, nitrate of soda and kainit applied separately or in combination will increase the yield of corn. Acid phosphate seems to have very little, if any, value when used alone or in combination with other materials. The experiments with truck crops, culture practices, hay crop, pas- ture mixtures and seed improvement have been continued with favor- able results. Swine Investigations. — The hog work at the station probably at- tracts m.ore attention than any other phase of the experimental work. 2 18 Biennial Repokt The feeding experiments in 1922 proved that fish meal and shelled corn were better than tankage and shelled corn from the standpoint of gain and cost. This year soybean meal was tested against fish meal as to its feeding value and tests to determine the best grazing crops for swine are under- way and will be reported on in the next report. The general crop land is planted to hay and oats and corn with the view of producing sufficient feed for work-stock and supplying corn for the extensive hog experiments. Under the present plan two carload of hogs from the feeding tests will be marketed each year. The car of fifty hogs shipped in August, 1924, brought 10% cents per pound in Rich- mond which netted the station $1,052.80 after deducting freight and hauling charges. Improveinents.- — The following items of improvements have been com- pleted since the last report which will facilitate the economic manage- ment of the station as a whole and greatly add to the general appearance. ISTew engine and pump house, additional room, porch and bath-room on tenant house, ISTo. 1 : Septic tank, 500 feet of water line to all hog lots, fenced four acres additional hog lots, painted horse barn, corn crib, seven hog farrowing houses, water tank and engine house ; new system of fences around poultry lots and tenant houses; new central hog feeding house, and new implement shed 34 x 60 feet with loft above for storage. CoASTAx Plain Experiment Station — Willard The experimental work at this station deals with the kind of farming for the lower coastal plain region of the State, and much valuable infor- mation has been secured from the many lines of investigational work which is being used generally by the farmers of the section. The long time experiments have been carried forward with good results. Several new projects have been added to the program of work, and many im- portant improvements have been made during the past two years. New Undertahings. — The station has undertaken a project of grow- ing narcissus bulbs. The Government embargo on these bulbs becomes effective in 1926 thus shutting off an importation of 77,000,000 bulbs annually. It is believed that no section of the country is better adapted to the production of narcissus and the station is attempting to lead the way, and at the same time gain experience which will permit it to advise others who take up this industry. The station has purchased approxi- mately 65,000 bulbs. These are being planted, and the flowers will be sold annually to help defray maintenance costs. In 1926 mother bulbs will be sold under a contract we now hold, and there will be left an ac- cumulation of smaller bulbs that will permit a sale of mother bulbs annually thereafter. In cooperation with the Agronomy Division, a pasture experiment consisting of ten different experimental plantings has been made; also a seed breeding project has been started during the year for the improve- COMMISSIONEK OF AGRICULTURE 19 ment of ISTorfolk Early Market corn (a leading truck crop of tlie sec- tion), and Cokes Prolific corn, the variety of field corn recommended for this section. The station has purchased a four months old bull calf whose pedigree includes the only two gold medal Jersey bulls south of the Mason and Dixon line. Three acres of strawberries (a leading money crop of the section) have been interplanted with the Muscadine utilization vineyard. This demonstration of "two-story horticulture" has already attracted consider- able attention. A collection of fifteen varieties of Japanese Persimmons, six varieties of figs and three varieties of native plums have been added to the orchard plantings. One acre of dewberries has been planted which includes the important varieties and will serve as a valuable demonstration for the section. Improvements. — The improvements made during the past two years have materially benefited the station and added to its efficiency. The implement shed begun in 1922 was completed and put into use, and has in addition to anticipated use, enabled a better handling of the annual picnic crowds and the storage of surplus hay that would otherwise have been stacked in the open. ISTew fences were placed about the dairy, and additional fencing is underway around the calf lots and pasture. A new building was added to the dairy group which furnishes the much needed bull pens and maternity stalls. Some minor improvements in the dairy barn proper were made to permit the daily removal of manure from the barn to the fields in manure spreader without other handling. In 1923 a field (which has been named the "Scott Field" in honor of the member of the board championing the work) was taken in as farm- ing land. This required tile drainage, as well as clearing. The result was that this land heretofore idle, yielded thirty bushels of corn per acre and a crop of soybeans and fodder to turn under. The work of clearing and establishing the twenty-six acre permanent pasture has been com- pleted. The poultry work has been enlarged by fencing three acres additional in poultry runs and providing two new modern range houses. The ex- perimental work made possible by this expansion will deal chiefly with feeding tests in comparing the value of meat meal and milk in poultry rations. All buildings on the station have been repaired and painted which greatly adds to the general appearance of the station as a whole. The station is now furnished with electric lights, having connected the electric plant at Wallace. Notable Results. — The station had developed its dairy to the extent that it was possible in the spring of 1923 to transfer a herd of twenty animals to the Mountain Branch Station for the purpose of starting an experimental dairy there. 20 Biennial Report In the herd development work the first group of heifers matured J shows an increased milk production over that of their dams. These " daughters were sired by Eminent 19th, No. 78620, and have been bred to Rumina's King, !N"o. 160969. One of the daughters (Lass G's Ola "No. 49463) has just completed a test that qualifies her for the American Jersey Cattle Club's Class AA silver medal. She also becomes State Champion for her breed and State Class Champion for all breeds. The tests with peanut meal vs. cottonseed meal for maturing heifers shows that both feeds appear to grow the animals satisfactorily when mixed with equal parts of crushed corn, oats and wheat bran. In determining the value of home-mixed vs. ready-mixed feeds for milk production, the results show home-mixed feeds are in a large ma- jority of instances more palatable, produce more milk, and cost consider- ably less per ton. In the poultry marketing experiments simple rations as equal parts corn meal and ground oats with milk give as good results as the more complex and expensive mixtures. Several new varieties of Muscadine grapes have been developed in the grape breeding experiments which are very promising, and additional information has been secured on the methods of pruning and training also on the grape utilization work. The fertilizer test of the Agronomy Division have yielded much data on rotations and fertilizer, which is generally used by the farmers of the section. The soybean selection work has progressed to the point of sup- plying seed to the local farmers at a reasonable price. The anthracnose project of the Botany Division indicates that the disease is spread by the boll weevil. The annual farmers' field day and picnic of the station as a means of getting the station and farmers together proved a great event, approximately 5,000 people attended the picnic in automobiles and the trains, buggies and carts brought their quota. A program of appropri- ate instruction was prepared, which was followed by inspection trips over the work of the station. Upper Coastal Plain Experiment Station — Rocky Mount The program for work on this station has been maintained to the extent that the most fundamental problems confronting the farmers of the upper coastal plain region might be given first consideration. At present boll weevil control, soil fertility, seed improvement, swine feed- ing tests, cropping systems and horticultural investigations have been deemed most important and the experiments now underway are care- fully planned with the view of supplying new information to the farmers of the section. Agronomy (Field D). — The agronomy rotation experiment has been continued and interesting data has been secured on the importance of Commissioner of Agriculture 21 well planned rotations against continuous cropping with corn and cot- ton. This test has been running several years, and will soon be ready for publication. This past spring a new series of fertilizer experiments were started to determine the effect of different formula and applications on maturity and yield of cotton under boll weevil conditions. The results for this year showed considerable difference in first picking in favor of high or reasonably high percentage of acid phosphate, and that a heavier appli- cation of fertilizer than generally used is profitable. The cotton breed- ing work is confined to Mexican Big Boll variety. The strain developed here is meeting with much favor over the cotton growing area of the State, especially in the coastal plain region and Eastern Piedmont, on account of its uniformity, yield and length of staple. In the plant to row tests this year many rows showed unusual production and a l/^g inch staple. The station planted thirty-five acres this year using the selected seed from last year's crop and will make close to thirty bales in spite of the unfavorable weather conditions. The seed from this cotton have been engaged in advance for planting purposes. Last winter we distributed 800 bushels of purebred seed over the State from the 1923 crop, and all reports from the parties using our seed were very favorable. This year breeding work has been started with Latham's Double field corn and Fulghum oats. The work of producing important strains of seed of the better varie- ties for the section and distributing them at a fair price to the farmers in the section is proving a great factor in agricultural uplift. Horticulture. — A year around farm garden is demonstrated on the station showing the possibilities of having fresh vegetables for the table at all seasons. The variety pecan orchard yielded a heavy crop this year, and the results were favorable in further proving the better varieties for the upper coastal plain region, namely, Schley, Stuart, Alley, and Success. The sweet potato seed selection and improvement work showed good results, and one hundred bushels of improved Porto Eico and N'ancy Hall seed potatoes were distributed to growers in Eastern ISTorth Caro- lina last season. With the new modern sweet potato storage house com- pleted in 1923, storage tests were conducted to determine best method of storing sweet potatoes, also the storage qualities of different commer- cial varieties. Swine Investigations. — ^With the purebred herd of Hampshire hogs and the new equipment added last year, the feeding test this year have furnished considerable information. As stated in the last report the primary object of the hog work here is to determine the best method and cost of carrying a purebred herd under average farm conditions. This is to include the value of different feeds, pasture crops and utiliz- ing all the so called waste from the farm. The experiments underway 22 Biennial Report are: To determine tlie value of a combination of peanuts and sweet potatoes and the effect on body carcass ; to determine tbe value of sweet potatoes when fed to bogs ; to determine tbe value of bogging off corn and soybeans grown togetber and tbe effect on tbe body carcass; to de- termine tbe cost of raising pigs to weaning age under various conditions and seasons; to determine tbe practicability of gleaning soybeans and peanut fields witb pigs in pork production, and to determine tbe adapt- ability of breeds of swine to various conditions in tbe State. Tbe data from tbe sweet potato feeding test were especially noticeable. Cull sweet potatoes were used in tbe first test wbicb bad very little, if any, market value. Tbe results sbow tbat witb corn at $1 per busbel and fish meal at $60 per ton, tbe cull sweet potatoes were worth 34 cents per busbel wben fed alone, and 25 cents per busbel wben fed witb 2 per cent corn. Tbe pigs were sold at a premium on tbe local market because of their excellent quality. In the second sweet potato test in 1923 pigs were turned into tbe field and allowed to harvest the crop. They also had access to a self feeder containing fish meal and mineral mixture. Because of dry weather that year the yield of sweet potatoes was rather low, since the average area harvested yielded only 105 bushels per acre, but despite this yield of potatoes 360 pounds of pork per acre was produced, which is greater than that from other crops of comparable yields, and in addition the pigs handled in this way "killed out hard." Improvements. — The improvements added during the past two years have facilitated the handling of experimental and general cropwork, and have increased tbe efficiency of the station as a whole. A new modern central bog house has been constructed to take care of the sows at farrowing time, and to provide space for individual dry lot feeding tests. A new system of fencing has been installed for tbe hog pastures with water connections in each lot. Tbe four tenant bouses have been repaired, and are now in good con- dition which will enable the farm to hold good labor. Two acres of waste lands have been cleared and are now in grazing crops for the hogs. A new fence has been built around the seven and one-half acre pecan orchard which adds a great deal to tbe appearance, and provides addi- tional hog pasture. The drainage system on the back side of the farm has been improved thereby bringing into cultivation several acres of land which heretofore have been idle for want of drainage. The main drainage ditch through the farm has been straightened and made deeper which improves the drainage of the pecan orchard and most of the cultivated lands. A new and attractive office building was completed last spring fur- nishing office space and laboratories for tbe administrative and investiga- tional workers. Commissioner of Agriculture 23 The superintendent's house has been enlarged and remodeled and is now a very creditable farm home. A landscape design has been prepared for the station grounds and some progress has been made with the shrubbery plantings. The general farm work is planned as near as possible to produce feed for the farm work stock and the hog feeding experiments, and to produce such money crops as may seem advisable. "While the experimental work is given first consideration, it is im- portant that our general farm work should be above the average, and should serve as an example of good farm practises for the upper coastal plain region. This station is having more calls than ever before for in- formation, as the boll weevil has about convinced the farmer that it will be necessary to do better farming than they have been doing. The second annual field day was held last August with very gratifying results, and it was voted to make this an annual big farmers day for the section. About 2,000 people attended the meeting and all seemed very much interested in the work of the station. MoTJNTAiisr Experiment Station — Swannanoa The mountain section of the State embraces the large high plateau >- area extending from the Tennessee line, and including the irregular chain of mountains known as the Blue Ridge. The average elevation of these mountains is around 4,000 feet, although its highest peak, Mount Mitchell, is 6,711 feet above the sea. The foot hills and river valleys range from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in altitude, and the soils of this area are very fertile, although the mountain sides, in many cases, are cultivated profitably up to their summits. The Mountain station is located in the Swannanoa River valley, on the hard-surfaced road between Asheville and Black Mountain, with an altitude of 2,600 feet. The mean annual temperature being 55.4 degrees, and the annual precipitation 57.04 inches. The station consists of 305 acres which represent the typical soils of the region. This section has great agricultural possibilities principally with fruit, truck crops, dairying, poultry and pasture crops, and the work on the experimental farm is planned with the view of developing these industries. The work on the station has grown a great deal in the past two years, and many improvements in the way of buildings and equipment have been made. The two major projects added to the work are poultry and dairy investigations; and modern equipment has been provided to take care of these important projects. The horticultural work has been en- larged, and two additional acres were planted with apples to further provide for the fertilizer and pruning experiments. Agronomy. — The fertilizer and rotation tests were carried forward another year, and the results have furnished valuable information for general farming in the section. Field A. — Soil fertility and rotation studies with corn, wheat and red clover. The results indicate that phosphoric acid, nitrogen and 24 " Biennial Report lime are needed to produce large yields, and that phosphoric acid is the foremost plant food requirement. Field B. — Rotation and soil type tests showing the effect of continuous cropping in comparison with well planned two and three-year rotations where legumes are used. Field D. — Rock phosphate tests in rotations of corn, wheat and red clover. The results so far secured show that acid phosphate is a more economical carrier of phosphoric acid than is rock phosphate on this soil. Field F. — Special potash test, in rotation, consisting of Irish potatoes, corn, wheat and red clover. The different sources of potash used have not materially affected the yield of potatoes, and the normal fertilizer used of 800 pounds of an 8-4-6 seems to give best results. Field Gr. — To compare phosphoric materials with a complete ferti- lizer, with limestone and stable manure; the results indicate the lime- stone and manure with fertilizers give better results than where ferti- lizer is used alone. The seed selection and improvement work has been mainly with soy- beans, Haberlandt Wo. 38 and Biggs field corn, strain ]^o. 17. Tests are also conducted with wheat, oats, and soybeans. The results have been very favorable, and the station has been growing these improved seed for distribution to the farmers of the section. Horticulture. — The mountain region of the State offers great possi- bilities as a leading horticultural area in the union, and the projects underway at the station are to deal with the most fundamental problems. The following experiments are underway which have already furnished much information to the industry. Apple Pruning. — This is one of the outstanding experiments of the station, and will furnish much needed information on the value of different systems and different amounts of pruning apple trees. The results so far secured indicate that growers have been pruning too severely, thereby causing a reduction in fruit production. Other tests with apples are to determine the value of thinning on the size of fruit and fruit-bud formation ; the value of different varieties, cultural methods and fertilizers. The work with peaches deals with varieties as to hardiness in Western ISTorth Carolina. Attention is also given to value of small fruit varieties and cultural methods. The truck crop investigations include cabbage variety tests, Irish potato seed production, Irish potato hill and tuber unit, seed selection and vegetable garden studies. The results of the Irish potato seed pro- duction indicate that Western ISTorth Carolina seed potatoes are superior to JN'orthern grown seed for our spring crop in Eastern ISTorth Carolina. Animal Industry. — The work on this station comprises poultry and dairy investigations, and thoroughly modern plants have been provided to handle each department. Commissioner of Agrictjltuke 25 The poultry plant which was completed last year is a very creditable addition to the station and consists of the following : five-room dwelling for poultryman, incubator house with feed room and laboratory com- bined, four 16' X 24' brooder houses, one 20' x 50' half monitor house for the breeding flock, one 20' x 100' half monitor laying house, and ten acres of land fenced into poultry lots for grazing. The poultry work is to deal with the problems peculiar to the mountain section, and the following experiments are under way: 1. "Studies in building up a farm flock." The breeding flocks, two in number, consist of single-comb Ehode Island Eeds and single-comb White Leghorns. The two flocks contain 150 hens each, with 12 cockerels. Twelve hens laid during the past year between 200 and 258 eggs each, several of which were State records. 2. Feeding tests are being conducted to determine the kinds and amounts of feed for the breeding flocks. 3. The range experiments are to determine the methods of handling and the suitability of different pasture crops per chickens in the moun- tain section of the State. 4. One unit of 500 single-comb White Leghorns is maintained as an experimental commercial unit. 5. Incubation experiments in connection with the two breeding flocks are carried on in view of developing high producing flocks. 6. Studies in determining the cost of putting birds into the laying house by ISTovember 1st are under way. 7. Fattening tests are being conducted to determine the value of milk feeding young chickens before marketing. 8. Studies are made in the cost of marketing eggs and poultry. The poultry work for the year gave very satisfactory results, and further indicates that it is a profitable industry for the mountain sec- tion of the State, if handled in an intelligent manner. The dairy work which was started in the spring of 1923 is to deal with the problems of the dairyman in the western part of the State. A herd of twenty Jersey cattle was transferred to the station from the Coastal Plain Station at Willard, and a herd bull of Eminent breeding has been purchased. The necessary equipment has been added to handle the project as follows : dairy barn complete with concrete fioor and mangers, the necessary water connections and drains, stanchions to ac- commodate 28 animals, feed room and milk room, and a one-hundred-ton concrete silo connecting with the feed alley, a thoroughly modern milk house with boiler room, washing room and milk room equipped with Babcock tester, cream separator, milk cooler and sterilizer, calf barn 18' X 60' with two bull pens combined and loft above for storage. The experimental work at present deals with feeding and pasture tests, herd development and management and marketing dairy products. Plans are under way to build a small cheese laboratory in connection with the dairy and conduct experiments in marketing Swiss cheese. 26 BiENisriAL Repokt Aside from tlie improvements in dairy and poultry plants, an attrac- tive new spring lionse lias been built of native rock combining engine and pump room, milk cooling room and a section given over to tiie spring. A new garage also bas been constructed to bouse tbe station automobile, truck and tractor, A new five-room dwelling for tlie dairyman was built last spring, a fruit and vegetable storage house lias been recently completed wbich. will provide storage for the good crop of apples and Irish potatoes pro- duced on the station this year. The general farm land is handled in a way to demonstrate good farm- ing methods for the section, to produce feed for the work stock, dairy and poultry, and to produce such money crops as may seem advisable. The rapid development of the station has attracted many visitors seeking information on the various phases or agriculture. The station is a gathering place for those interested in agriculture, the fertilizer manufacturers and principals of rural schools with their agricultural classes; county agents with groups of farmers and many others visit the station during the year and study the different experiments under way. The third Thursday in August is set aside for the big annual Field Day and picnic, which has proved a very popular event, and has been helpful in getting our work before the farmers throughout the mountain section. An instructive program is prepared which is followed by inspection trips to the fields where the different experiments are ex- plained by the specialist in such a way that the farmer may take home results and apply them to his conditions. Piedmont Experiment Station — Statesville The Piedmont region comprises nearly one-half of the territory of the State, and the soils and climate are suited to a wide range of agri- cultural pursuits. The station farm is located pretty well to the center of this area and the conditions there are typical of the Piedmont section. The important farm problems for the region are dealt with on the station farm, and much definite information has already been obtained on the better farm practices and is being generally used in the section. Agronomy. — The agronomy experiments are more extensive here than at any other station in the State. The tests include three series of soil fertility and rotation tests with cotton, corn, wheat and red clover : Pield D brings out the value of well planned rotations in comparison with con- tinuous cropping; Field E — soil type studies; Field F — nitrogenous materials for corn and cotton; Field Gr — rock phosphate tests; Field K — tests with soft phosphates. The ISTovember bulletin published on Fertilizer Experiments with Wheat on Piedmont Red Clay Soils and Wheat Culture in ISTorth Caro- lina is a report on the results of the work with wheat on this station, 1911 to 1921 inclusive, and the information contained therein should be of great value to the Piedmont farmers. Commissioner of Agricultuke 27 The seed selection and improvement work has been continued "with the following crops: Appier oats increased strain INTo. 11, Abruzzi rye increase strain 'No. 7, Virginia soybeans No. 11, Leaps Prolific wheat increase strain No. 32, King Cotton strain IsTo. 29, and "Weekly's Im- proved corn. Variety studies with oats, rye and barley have been carried on. The results of the breeding work have been very valuable, and the station is now growing these improved strains and distributing them to farmers over the Piedmont section at a reasonable cost. Horticulture.- — -"Work with small fruits, apples, peaches and pears is under way in determining varieties, methods of cultivation, intercrop- ping, pruning, spraying and marketing; the results have been most in- structive. A new four acre experimental apple and peach orchard was planted in the spring of 1923 which includes some of the newer varie- ties for the Piedmont. Tests will be conducted with this orchard from the standpoint of fertilization, pruning and intercropping. Livestock. — The work here is confined mainly to hogs, sheep and feeding experiments with the work stock. The main sheep project is to determine the kind of pasture suited to sheep under Piedmont con- ditions and some very striking results have been obtained both with summer and winter pastures. A flock of thirty ewes and one ram is maintained on the station, and information is secured on the cost of maintaining breeding ewes and producing lambs. A series of pastures have been arranged that will provide grazing practically the year round for the sheep and hog feeding tests. The swine experiments show that it costs $3.97 to raise pigs to weaning age and that the number of pigs in the litter has little effect upon the size of each pig at weaning time. Complete information on the methods and cost of raising pigs to weaning age is given in a recent bulletin pre- pared by the Animal Industry Division. Further tests are under way to determine the value of different grazing crops for swine. Eight pure- bred Poland China brood sows and a boar are used in these experi- ments. Feeding tests with the farm work stock show that cottonseed meal is relished more by horses than mules, and that one and one-half pounds can be fed daily to work stock. When cottonseed meal is fed the grain ration is cheapened slightly. General Crops. — The station farm consists of two hundred and ten acres, of which seventy acres are devoted to experimental plats, forty acres to pasture, eighteen acres to orchard, twelve acres to grove, yards, and garden, and the remainder to general crops. The general crop lands are handled in a way to demonstrate good farming methods for the section with the view of growing sufiicient corn, oats and hay for the livestock, and to produce such money crops as may seem advisable. Some twenty years ago when the station was established the farmers were not especially interested in improved methods of farming, but as the work on the station developed the local interest began to increase 28 Biennial Report until today the station stands out as an agricultural institution for the Piedmont area. The popularity of the station is further emphasized by the attendance at the main farmers field day held last July which numbered five thousand people. Several smaller meetings were held during the year with good attendance for the purpose of recreation and studying the work of the farm. The county agents frequently bring groups of farmers from adjoining counties to study the results from the different experiments. These meetings are becoming more popular each year and are encouraged as they are one of the best means of bring- ing the farmers in touch with the station, and of getting results of our work put into practice. Tobacco Experiment Station — Oxford The tobacco experimental work here has been continued in coopera- tion with the TI. S. Department of Agriculture and additional informa- tion on tobacco culture has been secured. The principal experiraents under way are fertilizer tests, variety tests, rotation systems for tobacco, tobacco after cowpeas, permanent tobacco seed beds, potash and lime experiments, nutrition investigations with continuous cropping, legume effects and general crop effects. The results of the magnesium and potash plats were especially out- standing this year. "Where fairly liberal applications of magnesia were applied either from dolomitic limestone or double manure salts and kainit no ''Sand Drown" was prevalent, with the exception of double manure salts plots where calcite was applied and no lime was applied. On these two plats small percentage of the plants developed symptoms of ^'Sand Drown" indicating that the amount of available magnesia was insufficient to mature the large growth of the leaf which prevailed last season. The tobacco fertilizer plats further proved that cottonseed meal as an individual source of nitrogen stands highest with nitrate of soda, dried blood and ammonium sulphate next in order named, al- though a mixed nitrogen composed of one-fourth of each of the above ingredients gave satisfactory results. Acid phosphate gave better results than any of the other sources of phosphate. Muriate of potash produced tobacco with a larger yield and higher market value than tobacco grown with high-grade sulphate of potash, although all tests have shown that" tobacco from sulphate of potash has better burning quality than that produced with muriate of potash. The test with twenty-five so-called varieties was conducted and selections were made from each variety with the object of improving the yield and quality, also some crosses were made with the view of developing new outstanding varieties. Experiments with tobacco after cowpeas have been fairly satisfactory, but in order to get best results from such cropping it is necessary to plant tobacco close, top high, and harvest by priming, if not, an exces- sive amount of nitrogen will produce tobacco of poor quality. Commissioner of Agricultuke 29 Under the direction of this station tobacco demonstration tests were conducted in Reidsville and Clarkton. These tests furnished first-hand information to the tobacco growers of the respective localities. In addition to the experimental work with tobacco some work with seed corn breeding and selection has been conducted on this station in comiection with Plant Breeders' Office of the College and Central Sta- tion, and the results have been helpful in supplying good seed for the station's use, and some for distribution to the farmers in the section. Several meetings have been held at the station this year at which experimental work was studied, results observed in the field with dis- cussions of various phases. On August 14th around 1,500 farmers and business men attended the annual field day at this station, at which several of the members of the Board of Agriculture and officials of the Department discussed the object of the Experiment Station work and results obtained. This was followed by inspection trips to experimental plats. Last year about .thirty representatives of the fertilizer manufacturers with several ferti- lizer dealers, business men and farmers met at the station to discuss fertilizer problems for tobacco. Several county agents brought farmers to the station to study tobacco problems. In all there has been a larger number of farmers both locally and from other counties to visit the station this year than heretofore. The local high schools have taken more interest in the work this year than previously. In regard to improvements on the station will state that some pro- gress has been made in carrying out the landscape plans si^bmitted by Prof. Mulford of the U. S. Department of Agriculture last spring. A new garage and poultry house have been built at a nominal cost. Most of the out-buildings have been painted. The large drainage project will be completed by the close of the year. This will add to the value of the farm and greatly improve the general appearance. The survey, which was prepared by the Drainage Division, required 1,910 feet of tile, ranging from 8 to 18 inches, 1,500 feet of 6-inch and 3,000 feet of 4-inch tile. This will make fifty acres of land available for cultivation heretofore idle for lack of proper drainage and will also benefit the adjoining lands. The new lands will be used for enlarging the general crop work on the station during the coming year, and later given over to experimental work as needed. The crops on the station as a whole have been fairly good this year. Plenty of feed stuffs have been made for the farm and some to spare. As a whole the work has progressed satisfactorily both as to experi- ments and general cropping. Note. — The insect and plant control measures on all stations are under the direction of the Entomology and Botany Divisions. The spray calendar for each station is prepared by these divisions and the actual spraying or dusting operations are under close supervision. B. "W. KiLGOEE, Director. F. E. Miller^ Assistant Director. MUSEUM To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — I beg t'o submit berewitb my biennial report as Curator of the State Museum for the years 1923 and 1924. The chief duties of the Curator during this period have been those connected with the completion and equipment of the Agricultural Building, and the rehabilitation and equipment of the Museum Build- ing. As secretary of the Building Committee and of the Purchasing Com- mittee of the Department, all the detail work of these committees has been in my hands, but this work is now largely completed, at the oppor- tune time when more active work is being taken up in connection with putting the Museum in condition to again serve the public. The time of my assistant, Mr. Harry Davis, has also been so occupied, ' except for that devoted to his work in the identification and analysis of all the specimens of minerals that come to the Department for exami- nation and this work is steadily increasing, an average of more than twenty specimens a month being submitted for examination and analy- sis. We have added equipment to the Museum Mineralogical Laboratory so that this part of our work can be handled more effectively, and I wish to state here that Mr. Davis has proved an invaluable aid in all the building an^ equijDment work that has been placed with us as well as in his special lines and in the general work of Museum administration. We have done what we could in keeping our stored specimens in some kind of shape, but the crowded condition of the storage makes this a very difficult problem and we will undoubtedly find a considerable deterioration in evidence when we start our rearrangement program after the completion of the remodeling and rehabilitation of the Museum rooms. The work of the Museum in the future is going to require more money than it has in the past. We have done what we could on a minimum of expenditure,, but we have reached a point now where if we fail to go forward we will have to go backward — and the Depart- ment can hardly allow that. The Museum has been out of commission for two and a half years and it is still not unusual for several hundred visitors a day to call at the Agricultural Building, the State Departments Building and the Museum Building to inquire as to the present location of the Museum, indicating in a degree to what extent it is being missed by the public. We have been badly handicapped and delayed in our reconstruction work by the continued presence of some of the laboratories and their "jvorkers in the Museum rooms, and it was late in September, 1924, COMMISSIONEK OF AGRICULTURE 31 before these rooms were finally vacated by tlie last of the DepartmeBt's forces that had been temporarily housed therein. Owing to an insufficiency of funds for the completion of all the neces- sary work, that is, the work in all of the exhibition rooms, it has seemed best at this time to confine our effort and our remaining funds to eight of the nine rooms, leaving the largest of them, that on the second floor on the Salisbury Street side of the building, which is 39 by 95 feet in size, for future attention. The seven old rooms of the Museum had remained virtually without repairs from the time of their erection, a period of from 25 to 28 years. Their condition was very bad all through. All the old plaster on the walls had to be removed and replaced, every window frame and sash needed repairs and all the glass had to be reset. The acute fire risk on the north side of the building has been largely eliminated by installing fireproof windows on that side. The woodwork in all the rooms needs repainting, and the condition of the floors calls for replacement in some rooms and recovering in all. But the work is progressing satisfactorily and by the time this report reaches your hands the plastering (except in Room ISTo. 9 as before in- dicated) will have been completed. This will be immediately followed by the painting, and the treatment of the floors will follow that. The present outlook would indicate that we will have a part of the Museum open to the public some time during the present winter, and the remainder will be pushed to completion as fast as the rooms can be finished and the cases and exhibits renovated, repaired and installed. The new handsome and dignified entrance on Halifax Street will be a wonderful improvement over the old arrangement, and we now face the problem of making the interior equally as much a credit to the State. And it is to this end that we are now applying our efforts. We hope and expect to rebuild the Museum into an institution of even greater value to ISTorth Carolina than it has been in the past, an insti- tution of which both the Department and the citizenship of the State may well be proud, and this can be done if we can secure the funds that are essential to that end. But we cannot make it what it should be with- out such funds. A museum is now recognized as a visual educational institution of the highest value to its surrounding population, and it is •always one of the first items of interest in a city to be visited by both transient and stay-over visitors. And through such visitors the lessons taught by the institution are disseminated far and wide. And ours, as a strictly ISTorth Carolina museum, has been, and can continue to be, one of the very best advertising and visual educational mediums the State has ever had. Respectfully submitted, H. H. Brimley. Curator, State Museum. VETERINARY DIVISION To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sik: — I herewitli submit the biennial report of tbe Veterinary Divi- sion covering the period from December 1, 1922, to December 1, 1924. Details bave been omitted in order to make tbe report brief. Tick Eradication Since Marcb 3, 1923, we bave conducted tick eradication under tke tick eradication law enacted by tbe last Legislature. Tbis law divided tbe quarantine counties (nineteen) into tbree zones — Zone 1 to work in 1923, Zone 2 in 1924, and Zone 3 in 1925. Altbougb we bad a very late start last year in Zone 1, tbe work was pusbed vigorously, and on De- cember 31, 1923, tbe counties of Gates, Hertford, Bertie, Camden and Perquimans and tbat portion of Beaufort County lying north of tbe Pamlico Biver and tbe banks of Dare County from Oregon Inlet to tbe Currituck County line were released from State and Federal quarantine, leaving only a few infested premises in tbese counties to be worked during tbe 1924 season. "We did not complete tbe work in Currituck County in 1923 on account of tbe county commissioners not getting tbe vats finished until very late in the season. Dipping was continued in this county this season and the county was released from quarantine August 1, 1924. As you know, Currituck County borders on Princess Anne County, Virginia, on the north. There is a strip of land in Currituck County between Currituck Sound and the ocean known as tbe Banks, which extends into the State of Virginia. I recently visited this section and found at the State line that this strip of land (the Banks) was between two and three miles wide. The ocean side is a sand bed and the sound side is more or less wooded. I also found that this was open range with a number of cattle on it that go over the State line at will. We have a vat located just below the State line and dip all of our cattle regularly, and also dip some Virginia cattle. There is a vat in Virginia, just over the line, but not all of the cattle are being properly dipped. There is a possibility of our cattle becoming reinfested by ticky cattle from Vir- ginia, making it necessary for us to continue to inspect the cattle on this range at frequent intervals. Active tick eradication was started in Zone 2, comprising tbe counties of Martin, Washington, Tyrrell, Hyde, Dare and that portion of Beau- fort County lying south of the Pamlico Eiver on January 1, 1924. The work was conducted vigorously and all of tbese counties will be released from State and Pederal quarantine December 1, 1924. Dipping has been discontinued at this time in Zone 2 except those herds which it was necessary to keep in quarantine. Commissioner of Agriculture 33 Ntjmbee of Herds or Premises and ISTumber of Cattle to be Held in Quarantine in Zone 2 Martin — three premises — three herds — fifty-tliree cattle. Washington — one premise — no cattle. Tyrrell — twenty-eight premises — twenty-eight herds — one hundred twenty- four cattle. Dare — two premises — thirty-eight herds — one hundred thirty cattle. Hyde — seventy premises — seventy herds — six hundred fifty-six cattle. Beaufort (south of Pamlico River) — three premises-^three herds — fifty-two cattle. There will also remain under quarantine at tlie end of this season twenty-six premises or herds outside of Zones 2 and 3. We have met with the boards of county commissioners of the counties in Zone 3 with a view of having them build vats and otherwise prepare these counties for systematic tick eradication in 1926. All of the coun- ties in Zone 3 are now constructing vats, and we hope to have these coun- ties ready for systematic tick eradication January 1, 1925. Zone 3 com- prises 4,466 square miles, and it will require approximately 450 vats. In Zone 1 there are 3,384 square miles of territory, requiring 388 vats. In Zone 2 there are 2,441 square miles and 236 vats. During 1923 there was dipped 112,300 herds of 388,624 cattle and 625 herds of 1,473 ponies. During the ten months ending October 31, 1924, we dipped 78,709 herds of 259,868 cattle and 4,350 herds of 8,219 ponies. One of the greatest problems we have to deal with is wild or semi- wild cattle. All of this territory prior to January 1, 1922, was under free range, and while stock law is now being generally observed, there are many large community pastures and many swamps in which wild or semi-wild cattle roam at large. We have encountered wild cattle in all of the counties in Zones 1 and 2. The approximate number being as follows : Zone 1 Zone 2 Camden 300 Martin 25 Currituck 100 Washington 15 Perquimans 75 Tyrrell 150 Gates 25 Dare 200 Hertford 15 Hyde 400 Bertie 25 Beaufort 100 The wild cattle have been captured or slaughtered in all of the above counties, except Tyrrell and Hyde, and we believe that this work will be completed in these two counties by January 1, 1925. It has been neces- sary in a good many instances to trail these cattle with dogs like deer in order to slaughter or capture them. The difficult part of this is to capture or slaughter the last few cattle in a swamp. Some of these cattle range over an area fifteen by thirty miles. This has been the most difficult tick eradication encountered in any state, due to these wild cattle and to the lack of interest in better cattle by cattle owners. In 3 34 BiENisriAL Report order to complete tick eradication in any county it is necessary to free all cattle of ticks. "We nave placed the responsibility of getting these cattle on the owners, and in this we have been upheld by the courts. These cattle are in most instances a nuisance and of little value. During the extra session of the Legislature in August, 1924, a bill was introduced amending the Tick Eradication Law in such a way as to make the law not apply to wild cattle. This bill was finally defeated. If the Tick Eradication Law was so amended it would make the com- pletion of tick eradication impossible. "We have received spleiadid co- operation from the courts in enforcing the Tick Eradication Law. Most of the counties have cooperated in a satisfactory manner. Tuberculosis Eradication Tuberculosis eradication in animals has progressed during the year in a very satisfactory manner. Practically all of this work is done under the area plan; that is, the testing of all cattle in a county. This work is conducted in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Animal In- dustry and the several boards of county commissioners. The following counties have completed the work : Scotland Cumberland Alamance Durham Rowan Cabarrus Wayne Franklin Pender Buncombe Mecklenburg Halifax New Hanover Forsyth Stokes Lenoir Davie Robeson Guilford Wilson Greene Stanly Davidson Iredell McDowell We have more counties that have completed tuberculosis eradication than all of such counties combined in the other states. The work is now being conducted in the following counties : Rutherford Wake Cleveland Chowan Union Gaston Moore Edgecombe Rockingham Northampton Pitt Henderson Randolph Warren Anson Richmond Polk Surry Hoke Transylvania Johnston Person The work will be completed in several of these counties at an early date. The following counties have recently made an appropriation for this work: Burke, Yancey. Work will be started in these counties at an early date. From IsTovember 1, 1922, to IsTovember 1, 1924, there has been tested 227,275 cattle. Of this number 965, or less than one-half of one per cent, were found to be affected with tuberculosis. All of the tuberculous animals were slaughtered and the owners were indemnified in accordance with the law covering. During the two-year period we have paid 816 claims amounting to $26,881.14. Commissioner of Agriculture 35 Summary of Testing Cattle Reactors 1918 1 4,358 104 1919 : 7,445 168 1920 10,389 219 1921 23,402 385 1922 114,296 785 1923 104,030 499 1924 (10 months) 102,326 381 As previously stated we now have a total o£ forty-nine counties co- operating in this work. Included in tliis number are most of the richer counties of the State that were able to pay for this work without any trouble whatever. "We now have left fifty-one counties to work. Many of these counties are not at this time financially able to take up this work unless material assistance is given by this Department and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. I believe that it is important that this work be completed in all coun- ties as rapidly as possible, thus preventing reinfestation of the counties already completed. The infection is light in these counties at this time and it will cost much less to complete the work now than if we wait until the disease has spread further. In view of this, I believe that this De- partment should allow a very liberal appropriation for this work or secure same from the Legislature and a law should be enacted requiring all cattle in the remaining counties to be tested. Hog Cholera We have had some hog cholera but not as much as in previous years. There are many sections where cholera seems to exist at all times. Al- though hog cholera serum can be absolutely depended upon to control cholera, there are many owners who will not vaccinate their hogs until it is too late. The feeding of raw garbage and the shipping of hogs for immediate slaughter into the State are responsible for a considerable part of our cholera. We are constantly trying to control this, but they are difficult problems to handle. We now require those who desire to receive hogs for immediate slaughter to maintain proper facilities for handling them, and to use them for immediate slaughter only. We require such establishments to have a permit, and we frequently inspect the premises. Just at this time we have no one regularly employed on hog-cholera work. We are taking care of outbreaks and giving assistance, where needed, with the inspection force of this office, who also look after out- breaks of other contagious diseases. Our practicing veterinarians are becoming more numerous and the livestock owners are fast learning the value of veterinary service. There has been a decided decrease in hog cholera in the eastern part of the State as a result of the stock law. From ISTovember 1, 1922, to ISTovember 1, 1924, we have distributed 3,750,965 c.c. of serum — a de- cided decrease over previous years. 36 Biennial Repoet Investigatio ns About the usual number o£ investigations on reported outbreaks of dis- eases liave been made by inspectors of this office. We have had no serious outbreaks of disease during this period, but we have had numerous re- ports which have been investigated. Two animals affected with glanders have been found and destroyed. Frequent visits are made to the inspec- tors engaged in tick eradication work and tuberculosis eradication work. Both of these projects are being conducted on a large scale and close supervision is necessary. We have also made frequent visits to the ex- periment stations and State institutions to look after the livestock on these farms. In order to do effective work in the control and eradication of con- tagious diseases of livestock it is essential that a diagnostic laboratory be available. We feel constantly the need of such a laboratory at the present time to check up on the field work which we are doing. The states of Georgia and South Carolina require that all cattle shipped into those states shall first pass a negative blood test for contagious abortion. Our farmers who desire to ship cattle into those states must depend upon blood samples being sent out of the State to commercial labora- tories, thus causing expense, delay, and inconvenience. If we are to conduct investigations for the control of contagious abortion and for the control and eradication of internal parasites of livestock, it is very necessary that we have a diagnostic laboratory. Eespectfully submitted, William Mooee, State Veterinarian. ANIMAL INDUSTRY DIVISION To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — In response to your request for a biennial report, I am pleased to furnish, you with a rather complete summary of the work performed by the Animal Industry workers, embracing research and extension for the period ending November 30, 1924. I am sure you realize fully that it would be practically impossible to furnish you with the many details of the work in research and exten- sion as conducted during the year. In order that you may have a com- prehensive idea of the many problems which are being covered in the two above lines of work, I have included a list of the various offices in the division and the personnel of each. Each worker has a number of definitely outlined projects and the magnitude of work under way can thus be visualized without difficulty. For your information and guidance I wish to say that this division has twenty-nine definitely outlined projects in livestock research, ex- clusive of poultry, which work was conducted under the auspices of this division during the last fiscal year. The extension workers of the divi- sion have thirty-nine definitely outlined projects, making a total of sixty-eight projects in all. At the conclusion of the report covering the work of the current year, I am attaching a list of these projects with a brief outline of each. I am sure that by having these before you you will be enabled to make a more exhaustive study of the problems under way. If there is any additional information which you need I will be pleased to furnish it upon request, I wish to again mention that the informa- tion which I am giving you is merely a brief outline covering the various projects, giving the high lights in each with a statement of progress or results obtained, as the case may be. The following is the report by offices embraced in the division : ANIMAL NUTRITION J. O. HAI.VERSON, In Charge F. W. Sherwood, Assistant H. A. DiCKERT, Assistant The following soft-pork studies, as reported by Dr. Halverson, are in co- operation witlL Mr. Hostetler, in charge of Swine Investigations : 1. SoFT-PoKK Investigations (a) Soft-Pork Experiment IX. — This work was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of various amounts of peanuts on the body carcasses of young weaned pigs which were fed individually on the above ration for a period of five months. 38 Biennial Repoet In this work it was determined that there was a very marked softening effect on the carcasses of young pigs when fed a peanut ration. The determi- nation of this fact is of great economic importance, since a large portion of Eastern North Carolina is well adapted to the growing of peanuts. The determination of this fact is a step toward overcoming the ultimate conse- quences of softening feeds when fed to hogs. (b) Soft-Pork Experiment X. — In this study different methods of feeding peanuts and hardening feeds were tried. It is a known fact that such feeds as peanuts and soja beans produce soft carcasses, and that these effects can be overcome in a measure at least by feeding such rations as corn, digester tankage, and rice products. In this particular study three of the pigs fed according to farm practice killed hard. The other group graded medium hard. All of them passed market requirements, the results, therefore, being very satisfactory. (c) Soft-Pork Experiment XI. — Eight pigs of an approximate weight of 90 pounds each were fed individually on peanuts in varying amounts from one and one-half months to three months to determine the quantity of peanuts required to make a pig kill soft. The results of this work show that there was a varying degree of softness, depending upon the length of time fed. In other words, there was a gradual softening of the carcasses as they grew heavier and the period of peanut feed- ing was extended. (d) Soft-Pork Studies XII. — This study to determine the effect of different methods of feeding peanuts and hardening feeds on the carcasses of hogs is similar to the Soft-Pork Experiments X and VII. Six pigs one-half as large as those used in Experirnent X were fed for three months. All killed hard or medium hard after receiving as much as 140 pounds of shelled peanuts. Results are satisfactory. Chemical work on this experiment, however, has not been completed. (e) Soft-Pork Experiment XIII. — This experiment is to study the effect of peanuts on gestation, lactation, growth, and the condition of the carcasses of pigs grown to a considerable size. Inasmuch as this work is in progress, no conclusive report can be made showing results. 2. The Effect of Cottonseed Meal and Hulls on Breeding, Gestation, Lactation, and Growth op Cattle This project is in cooperation with Mr. Vernon M. "Williams from May 1st last, and Mr. R. S. Curtis, in charge of dairy cattle and beef cattle investiga- tions respectively. The plan of this work and the object in view is to determine definitely the amounts of cottonseed meal which can be fed under normal conditions to animals, having in mind the effects on the above mentioned factors or condi- tions. It is well known that the amounts of cottonseed meal which can be fed are limited. This has been attributed to toxicity in the meal and the purpose of this experiment is to work out definitely the causes, and then undertake to remedy the defects or deficiencies. This work has been continued for a second gestation and lactation period on fifteen cows, five of which were heifers. During these two years supple- ments have been fed with cottonseed meal with the following results : It can be stated definitely that during these two years work with supple- mentary feeds more cottonseed meal has been fed to these cows than pre- viously, the cottonseed meal averaging approximately 86.2 per cent of the total grain ration consumed. Some striking results have been obtained in breeding, lactation, production of live calves, and raising them on their mothers' milk with nothing but corn husks for roughage. Commissioner of Agriculture 39 No convulsions or deaths have occurred during the period when supple- ments were fed. Some of the cows have gradually declined in weight and gone off feed. The adjustment of the proper amount of supplements and the proper balancing of these rations with cottonseed meal and hulls is difficult, and therefore more work is required. The results of this work are very gratifying and justify pursuing it until facts are definitely established. 3. Onion Flavor in Milk This work was conducted in cooperation with Mr. Stanley Combs, formerly in charge of Dairy Cattle Investigations. This work was for the purpose of determining the effect of Mrs. Lea's Milk and Butter Purifier, a proprietary mixture on milk flavored with onions. The results have been published and are cited at the close of this section of the report. 4. The Nutrition Quality or Butter from Cows Fed on Dry Feeds and on Summer Pastuee This project is being pursued. Albino rats are used and fed on highly purified rations to determine the effect of butter produced from cows made under the above conditions. 5. Mineral Supplements, Chiefly Calcium, in Relation to the Mixed Feeds for Farm Animals This project on mixed feeds and their by-products has been pursued for two years and the results published, the citation following. 6. The Nutritive Value of Peanuts (a) This study of the effect on reproduction is being pursued on small animals. In this case albino rats are used. The peanut meal used is obtained from the Protein Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. (b) This study is also being pursued on a sow during gestation and lacta- tion. The sow produced 13 pigs under these conditions of feed. Eleven lived, nine of which are still living and the mother is being maintained on the same ration. Note. — I would like to add that work of the nature that Dr. Halverson is pursuing is usually involved, and it is, therefore, difficult to give a satisfactory report, this being especially true in case of those who are looking for conclu- sive statements. The field of nutrition is new when considered in the light of actively pur- suing the many problems confronting Animal Industry workers. It should be remembered that the economic importance of the above problems are such that it would be a most profound mistake to give out statements until every angle of the various problems under way are searched out dihgently. This is merely offered for explanation to aid the reader in considering these studies. 7. Publications, 1924 (a) "The Calcium Requirements of Animals in Relation to the Calcium Content of Feeds," by J. O. Halverson and L. M. Nixon, Commercial Feeds, 1923. The Bulletin of North Carolina Department of Agriculture. June. 1924, page 25. (b) "Onion Milk Investigation — Mrs. Lea's Milk and Butter Purifier." by Stanley Combs and J. O. Halverson, The Bulletin, Commercial Feeds, 1923 N. C. Department of Agriculture, June, 1924, page IS. 40 BiENKiAL Report (c) "Minerals in Animal Nutrition," by J. O. Halverson, Association of Feed Control Officials, Washington, D. C. October 23, 1924. (d) "The Calcium Requirements of Farm Animals," by J. O. Halverson, Flour and Feed, Vol. XXV. November, 1924, No. 6. (e) "The Lime Content in Feeds in Relation to the Requirements of Farm Animals," by J. O. Halverson and L. M. Nixon, Flour and Feed, XXV. November, 1924, No. 6. (f) "The Chemical Analysis of Okra Seed (Hibiscus Esculentus)," by B. Naiman and L. M. Nixon, American Chemical Society, Local Section, Trinity College, Durham, May 3, 1924. (g) "Soft Pork and its Causes I: Some Results of Soft Pork Investigations II," by J. O. Halverson and Earl Hostetler, N. C. Academy of Science, May 2, 1924. (h) "Notes on Gossy-Pol," by F. W. Sherwood, N. C. Academy of Science, May 2, 1924. (i) "Vitality of Albino Rats for Experimental Purposes," by F. W. Sher- wood, N. C. Academy of Science, May 3, 1924. SWINE INVESTIGATIONS Eael H. Hostetler, In charge L. H. McKay, Assistant This office has been actively engaged in conducting swine research work at the Swine Research Farm, Raleigh, and at four of the branch experiment stations, namely : Piedmont, Blackland, Upper Coastal Plains, and Coastal Plains. A project is outlined for the Tobacco and Mountain Stations, and the work will probably be started by January 1, 1925. Considerable new physical equipment has been installed at all of the farms and we have, therefore, been able to do more and better work than heretofore. On September 1, 1924, Mr. L. H. McKay was secured to do research and teaching work with swine. The following is a report of the projects under way and the results obtained : SWINE RESEARCH FARM, RALEIGH J. T. Keesee, Superintendent and Herdsman There are four main projects being carried on at this farm with a herd of purebred Duroc-Jersey swine, as follows : 1. Value of Pastures for Pigs (a) Ohject.- — The object of this work was to determine the cost of carrying pigs from weaning age to 200 pounds with and without pasture. (b) Plan. — The plan was to use 56 weaned pigs and divide them equally into six lots of eight pigs each, except lot 6, which had 16 pigs, as follows : Lot 1 — Self-fed in dry lot. Lot 2 — Three per cent grain with permanent pasture. Lot 3 — Grain self-fed with permanent pasture. Lot 4 — Grain self-fed with temporary pasture. Lot 5 — Three per cent grain with temporary pasture. Lot 6 — Two per cent grain with temporary pasture. The permanent pasture consisted of orchard grass and clovers and the temporary pastures of oats followed by soybeans. (c) Results. — Lots 1, 3, and 4 required approximately the same number of days to reach 200 pounds in weight. Lots 2. 5, and 6 will not reach the required weight until after October 1st. Therefore, the results are not only incomplete, but a report giving conclusions at this time is out of question. Commissioner of Agkicultuke 41 2. Soft Poek (Cooperation with De. J. O. Halverson) (a) Olyject. — To determine the effects upon the carcasses of pigs of a given weight when fed varying amounts of peanuts. . To determine the effect upon the carcasses of pigs of a given weight when fed peanuts and rice by difCerent methods. To determine the effect upon the carcasses of pigs, the dams of which have been fed peanuts during the gestation period. (b) Plan. — The plan was to feed S pigs of a given weight on varying amounts of peanuts, each pig to be fed individually. To feed sis 75-pound pigs an equal amount of rice and peanuts. Three of the pigs were fed both kinds of feeds after they had been thoroughly mixed, and the other three were fed the feeds separately. To feed one sow a peanut ration during the gestation and suckling periods, and feed the litter of pigs on rice after they had been weaned. (c) Results. — It was found that different amounts of peanuts in the ration affected the carcasses at slaughtering time. The pigs that were fed peanuts and rice separately "killed harder" than those that were fed the two feeds together. The sow on the last phase of the experiment is not due to farrow until after October 1st. No definite statements can, therefore, be made at this time. 3. Soft Pork (Cooperation with Bureau of Animal Industry) (a) Oiject. — The object of this work was to determine the effect of feeding peanuts for eight weeks with a subsequent feeding on corn and brewers rice for twenty weeks on the carcasses of 65-pound pigs. (b) Plan. — The plan of this work was to feed twenty-seven pigs on peanuts for eight weeks, after which three were killed and the other 24 pigs divided into two equal lots of twelve each. Lot 1 was fed a ration of shelled corn for twenty weeks, and Lot 2 a ration of brewers' rice for twenty weeks. Three pigs out of each lot were slaughtered at the end of each four-weeks period, beginning with the 56th day on corn and brewers' rice. (c) Results. — The three pigs slaughtered, after being fed on peanuts for 8 weeks, killed soft and oily. The majority of the other pigs produced satis- factory carcases. 4. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time (a) O'bject. — The object of this work was to determine the cost of raising ■oigs to weaning age of eight weeks. (b) Plan. — All cost records are kept on the sows in the herd, both during ^heir suckling and dry periods. (c) Results. — This work is still in progress and, due to the many factors and conditions involved, definite conclusions cannot be drawn at this time. UPPER COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION, ROCKY MOUNT R. E. CuREiN, Je., Superintendent L. A. Page, Herdsman A herd of twelve purebred Hampshire sows and one boar are kept at this farm, and the experimental work is carried on with the offspring from these animals. The work is planned so that two carloads of hogs can be shipped from the farm each year. Two fundamental lines are being conducted, namely: (a) Cost of raising pigs to weaning time; (b) determining the value of different grazing crops for maturing weaned pigs. 42 BlENJSriAL E.EPOKT 1. Gkazing Crops Corn and soybeans grown together : (a) Object.— The object of this work is to determine the amount of pork produced per acre when the crops are "hogged off." (b) Plan.- — The plan was to allow 52 weaned pigs to harvest 2.8 acres of corn and soybeans grown together. (c) Results. — The results show that one acre of the above crop, with the addition of 143 pounds of fish meal, produced 838 pounds of pork. Harvesting soft, immature corn by hogs : (a) Object. — The object of this work was to determine the value of young, immature corn when "hogged oft" by pigs. (&) Plan. — The plan was to allow 20 eighty-three-pound pigs to harvest 1.63 acres of immature corn. The pigs were turned in on the crop when the corn was in the dough stage. (c) Results.- — The results show that 28 days were required for twenty pigs to harvest 1.63 acres of the above crop. After adding 100 pounds of fish meal and 21 pounds of mineral mixture one acre of young, immature corn produced 457 pounds of pork. 2. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time The object, plan, and results so far secured from this work are the same as those at the Swine Research Farm, where similar work is being conducted. A report was made on the results of work at Raleigh under section 4 pre- ceding. BLACKLAND BRANCH STATION, WENONA J. L. Rea, Jr., Superintendent A. P. Lefevers, Herdsman A herd of purebred Poland Chinas is- kept on this farm. The herd consists of one boar and twelve sows. The offspring from this herd is used as a basis for experimental work. Two carloads of hogs are shipped from the farm each year, one in the spring and one in the fall. Three projects are carried on at this farm, namely: (a) Grazing crops; (b) dry lot feeding; and (c) cost of raising pigs to weaning time. 1. Grazing Crop Experiments with Soybeans (a) Object. — The object of this work was to determine the amount of pork produced from a given area of soybeans when supplemented with a 2 per cent ration of corn. (b) Plan. — The plan was to graze 45 eighty-pound pigs on three acres of Virginia soybeans supplemented with shelled corn. (c) Results. — This work showed that one acre of soybeans, with the addi- tion of 337 pounds of corn and 21 pounds of mineral, produced 395 pounds of pork. The yield of soybeans was rather low and the 45 pigs consumed three acres in 20 days. 2. Dry Lot Feeding Soybean meal versus fish meal : (a) Object. — This work was conducted to determine the comparative value of soybean meal and fish meal when fed as supplements to corn in a dry lot. (b) Plan. — The plan was to divide 52 ninety-pound pigs into two equal lots, feeding shelled corn, fish meal and mineral to Lot 1, and shelled corn, soybean meal and mineral to the hogs in Lot 2. Each lot of hogs was fed these different feeds in separate compartments of self-feeders. (c) Results.- — The results show that the pigs in Lot 2 consumed three times as much of the protein supplement as the pigs in Lot 1. However, the total feed consumed per 100 pounds gain was approximately the same in each lot. Commissioner of Agriculture 43 The above work was conducted during tlie spring of 1924. During the summer of the same year the work was repeated. The results of the summer work show that the pigs in Lot 2 fed on soybean meal made less gains and required 58 pounds more of feed to produce 100 pounds gain than the pigs in Lot 1, which received fish meal. 3. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time The object, plan, and results of this work are again the same as that con- ducted on the Swine Research Farm at Raleigh. This work is being repeated at several of the stations to corroborate conclusions and eliminate error in so far as possible. In addition, conducting this work at the various farms will give an opportunity to determine which section of the State is from all viewpoints the best adapted to producing high-class hogs that will pass the market requirements. This determination is especially needed in this State because of the soft producing feeds which are factors in pork production. PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION, STATE SVILLE F. T. Meacham, Superintendent G. A. Bekey, Herdsman A herd consisting of eight purebred Poland China sows and one purebred Poland China boar is maintained on this farm. The offspring from these animals are used for experimental work and for herd development. The two principal projects with swine at this farm are: (a) Grazing crop studies, and (b) cost of raising pigs to weaning time. 1. Grazing Experiments with Red Clover (a) Object. — The object of this work was to determine the value of red clover for pigs when supplemented with corn and fish meal fed from a self- feeder. (b) Plan. — Twenty-five spring-farrowed pigs were used, weighing about 35 pounds each. They were divided into two equal lots, one lot receiving shelled corn, shorts, fish meal, and mineral in separate compartments of a self-feeder in a dry lot. The pigs in Lot 2 were fed the same feeds in the same manner and in addition they were grazed on a red clover pasture instead of being kept in a dry lot. (c) Results. — The results show that the pigs in Lot 2 required 319 pounds of grain in addition to the clover pasture to make 100 pounds of gain. 2. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Time This is again a repetition of a similar piece of work being conducted on the Swine Research Farm at Raleigh. Much valuable data is being assembled on this problem which will be published after definite conclusions are drawn. COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION, WILLARD Charles Dearing. Superintendent One swine project is being conducted at this farm and the same kind of work will be inaugurated at the Tobacco and Mountain Branch Stations in the near future. The following is the outline of the work under way : 1. The Family Sow (a) Ohjeet. — The object of this work is to determine the cost of maintaining two purebred sows and one purebred boar under general farm conditions where all possible feed wastes are utilized. 44 BiENJsriAL Repokt (b) Plan. — The plan of this work is to maintain a community herd boar and furnish service at a nominal charge. This will be in addition to the use made of the boar and the project outlined. The pigs produced each year will be used for harvesting waste field products. When they are finished they will be used to furnish the home meat supply. Those that are not needed for home consumption will be sold either as breeding animals or for pork, depending on their adaptability for these purposes. (c) Results. — No results as yet have been obtained on this project, as the work was only started late in the year. Articles Published on Swine Production (a) The Home Supply of Pork. (b) Give the Pigs a Fair Start. (c) Pastures for Swine. (d) Cotton (to Feed) Work Animals. (e) Cottonseed Meal for Work Animals. (f) Report of Cooperative Soft Pork Work. . (g) Curing Pork at Home. (h) Soybean Meal versus Fish Meal for Fattening Pigs. (i) Hard or Soft Pork. (j) Report of Corn and Soybeans Hogged Off. Meetings Attended During the year several important meetings were attended, among these being the Soft Pork Conference held in April at Knoxville, Tenn. Representa- tives from twelve states were at this meeting. Mr. Hostetler was on several important committees. Letters Written During the year 516 letters were written on subjects pertaining to swine production, judging, feeding, and management. DAIRY CATTLE INVESTIGATIONS Vernon M. Williams, In Charge The experimental work conducted by this oflice will be reported on a basis of the following outline covering the major projects which are being con- ducted : 1. General Statement. 2. Central Experiment Station. a. Cottonseed Meal Investigations. (1) Effect of heavy cottonseed meal feeding on reproduction and lactation of the dairy cow. (2) Corn silage as a protective factor in heavy cottonseed meal feeding to dairy cattle. (3) Corn silage and cracked corn as protective factor in heavy cottonseed meal feeding to dairy cattle. (4) Effect of heavy cottonseed meal feeding on the growth and health of calves receiving milk from cows so fed. b. Corn Plant Feeding Investigations. (1) Effect of feeding ration solely from the corn plant on the reproduction and lactation of the dairy cow. (2) Effect of feeding rations solely from the corn plant on the growth and health of calves receiving milk from cows so fed. 3. Coastal Plains Branch Experiment Station. 4. Mountain Branch Experiment Station. Commissioner of Agricultuke 45 General Statement The work of the Office of Dairy Investigations is actively carried on at three stations: The Central Experiment Station at Raleigh, the Coastal Plains Branch Experiment Station at Willard, and the Mountain Branch Experiment Station at Swannanoa. The work at the Central Experiment Station is carried on in cooperation with the Office of Animal Nutrition and the Office of Beef Cattle Investigations. On January 1, 1924, the resignation of Mr. Stanley Combs, formerly in charge of this office, went into effect and the work was under the supervision of cooperating offices until May 1, 1924, when Mr. Vernon M. Williams took charge. No major changes have been made in the physical equipment at the three stations. The office has had the full cooperation of the other offices of the Animal Industry Division in obtaining materials and data. CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. Cottonseed Meal Feeding Investigations (1) Effect of Heavy Cottonseed, Meal Feeding on Reproduction and Lactation of Dairy Cow. For years cottonseed meal has generally been considered harmful when fed in large amounts to dairy cattle. Much has been said in regard to the poison- ous qualities of this feed. Some of the foremost feed authorities in the world have recommended its use only as a rich protein supplement in amounts not exceeding two or three pounds daily. The earlier work at this and other stations where unextracted cottonseed, cottonseed hulls and cottonseed meal were fed as the principal part of ration the cows so fed became blind, developed convulsions, aborted, gave birth to weak, blind calves with soft bones, and other general anatomical and physio- logical weaknesses. Cottonseed meal is the cheapest rich protein dairy feed used generally throughout the South and a great part of the North and West. It is also one of the cheapest sources of energj^ food for cattle. Consequently the manu- facturers of this meal and the men who feed it have been trying for some time to find a way to use it safely. This station then set about to find out what was wrong with cottonseed meal, and how, if possible, to right the wrong. For some time it was thought, because of the isolation from the lohole cottonseed kernel of a poisonous sub- stance called gossypol, that the trouble in heavy cottonseed meal feeding was due to this poisonous substance. It was later suggested that copperas feeding would offset the poison. But this suggestion did not bring success. The "poison" or "toxic" theory has been accepted rather widely over the country. More recent work in animal nutrition has shown that certain dietary factors which, although occurring in exceedingly small quantities in many natural foods, play a most vitally necessary part in animal life. In view of this, the station has investigated cottonseed more thoroughly with regard to these dietary factors and certain mineral substances. Certain mineral salts were added to the rations of cows whose roughage was cottonseed hulls and grain was entirely cottonseed meal. There was some improvement in the cows, but the cows continued to get in bad shape, calves were born prematurely and. even though some gestation periods were normal, the calves were weak, and in most cases unable to live long after birth. 46 Biennial Report Beginning in 1923, certain other supplements were added in small quantities, and the result has been astonishing. Cows receiving cottonseed hulls for roughage, and a grain ration from 80 to 90 per cent cottonseed meal have produced normal calves, the calves have grown normally to weaning age on their dam's milk, and the calves have produced approximately the average for dairy cows in this State. This work is not yet complete, and will need to be slightly modified and continued before conclusions can be reached. It will be necessary to continue and repeat some of the work under farm conditions at the branch stations before definite recommendations can be made. (2) Corn Silage as a Protective Factor in Heavy Cottonseed Meal Feeding to Dairy Cattle. Cottonseed meal supplemented with corn silage has not proved to be a satisfactory ration. The addition of certain minerals has not proved sufiicient. The addition of certain minerals and small amounts of other substances containing proteins of higher quality and rich in the food accessories has made silage and cottonseed meal apparently sufficient for reproduction and lactation not far below average. (3) Corn Silage and Cracked Com as Protective Factors in Heavy Cottonseed Meal Feeding. Where cottonseed meal and hulls have been supplemented liberally with corn silage and cracked corn the cows receiving this ration have not been able to give birth to normal calves and milk normally. But with the addition of small quantities of certain other substances to the rations, these cows have given birth to normal calves and have milked well above the State average. (4) Effect of Heavy Cottonseed Meal Feeding on the Growth and Health of Calves Receiving Milk from Coios so Fed. In all the three experiments described above calves were fed on the milk of their dams and where calves died they were replaced with week-old calves purchased from nearby dairymen. Up until the past year calves fed milk from the cows on the heavy cottonseed meal rations failed to make the normal growth and to resist disease as did the calves fed on milk produced by cows fed normal rations. The success in producing living calves that made normal growth is ascribed to the effects of the supplements added to the rations of the cows. B. Corn Plant Feeding Investigations (1) Effect of Feeding Ration Solely from the Corn Plant on the Reproduction and Lactation of the Dairy Cow. It is not uncommon on some farms to feed cows throughout the winter season on corn fodder and some corn grain. This feeding system was used on four mature cows. The cows so fed developed an unthrifty appearance, but would often come through the season in fair flesh. The calves, however, were some- times born prematurely, weak, and blind. By supplementing rations of corn stover, corn silage, and crushed corn with steamed bone meal and certain highly potent sources of vitamines, fully developed calves of normal weight were obtained. And these cows produced a fair flow of milk. The cows whose rations were raised in protein by adding corn gluten meal produced consid- erably more than the average for the State. These results are in accord with the findings of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, and would indicate that dairy cows whose rations are largely made up of products of the corn plant should be fed some mineral compound containing calcium, such as steamed bone meal or calcium carbonate, at the rate of 2 to 3 pounds per hundred pounds of grain. Commissioner of Agriculture 4T (2) Effect of Feeding Rations Solely from Corn Plant, as Shoivn by the Growth and Health of Calves Dropped dy Receiving Milk from Cows so Fed. Until the rations of the cows described above were supplemented, the calves were subnormal and of low vitality. Following the addition of these supple- ments, normal calves were obtained, which proceeded with normal growth. COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATION The herd development work has been continued at this station. It was interfered with somewhat by the transfer of part of the herd to the Mountain Branch Station, but the heifers now in the herd will soon bring the cow herd up to the desired number of approximately thirty-five. There are now eight bull calves, sixteen heifers, and twenty-two cows in milk. Of these twenty-two, five are heifers which freshened during the year. The other seventeen that were in the milking herd produced an average of 7.025.6 pounds of milk and 220.127.116.11 pounds of butter fat. Three daughters of Eminent 19th completed Register of Merit records as follows : Name Number Age at Beginning Butter Fat Pender Eminent Lass D 369.039 7 yrs., 11 mos. 612.21 Pender Eminent Lass Q 407,986 4 yrs., 6 mos. 551.87 Pender's Delia's Girl 428,960 4 yrs., 8 mos. 534.82 Lass G's Ola, No. 491463. a granddaughter of Eminent 19th, out of Pender Eminent Lass G and by Rumina's King, completed a very good record of 565.87 pounds of butter fat. starting at 2 years, ten months, which wins an American Jersey Cattle Club Silver Medal for her and makes her State Class CJiampion over all breeds. These granddaughters of Eminent 19th by Rumina King are in turn being bred to the Distinguished Eminent. This is a line bred bull out of a Gold Medal cow, who was in turn sired by a Gold Medal sire and out of a cow with a good Register of Merit record. He was sired by Sensational Fern and out of Eminent's Distinction, a Gold Medal cow. From a breeding stand- point, then, the blood of this bull should make a splendid cross on the grand- daughters of Eminent 19th. When the heifers by the Distinguished Eminent shall have reached a mature age, thx-ee full mature generations will be com- pleted in the Herd Development Project. The records of these cows will show clearly the extent to which a herd can be developed in a few years by the use of bulls whose ancestry is well filled with high production records. MOUNTAIN BRANCH EXPERIMENT STATION The dairy bam at this station has been improved and the herd has become established so that research may now be carried on at this station. The cows at this station were taken from the herd at the Coastal Plains Station and apparently are very well adapted to the conditions at their new home. There are in this herd at present two bulls, eleven heifers and eleven cows. These eleven cows produced an average of 7,524.3 pounds of milk and 360.78 pounds of butter fat during the past year, and only six of the eleven are mature animals. The average for the State is about 3,000 pounds milk and 135 pounds of butter fat. All the cows in the herd are daughters or granddaughters of Eminent 19th, and are being continued in the breeding studies started at the Coastal Plains 48 Biennial Report Station. One of them, Eminent's Queen Anne, No. 491462, now on official test as a junior four-year-old, averaged 69.36 pounds of butter fat during her first five months on test. Meetings Attended During the year several important meetings were attended, among these being the American Dairy Science Association held at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, October 6th and 7th. Representatives from the entire United States and Canada attended this meeting. Lettees Written During the year approximately 1.200 letters were written on subjects per- taining to dairy cattle investigations, feeding, and management. BEEF CATTIvE AND SHEEP INATESTIGATIONS CENTRAL EXPERIMENT STATION, RALEIGH R. S. Curtis, In Charge D. W. Jones, Herdsman 1. Effect of Cottonseed Meal Upon Growth and Reproduction of Cows AND Heifers Object. — To determine the various residual effects from using excessive quantities of cottonseed meal when fed to cows and heifers under controlled conditions. Some of the probable results are abortion, animals with soft bones, partial and total blindness, and general oedemic conditions. Results. — Results show that various supplements, such as calcium carbon- ate, butter fat, cod liver oil, yeast, mineral steam bone meal and wheat embryo have corrective effects. This is a long-time experiment, however, and conclusive evidence on the many angles of this problem are not now available. Note. — This work is cooperative with Mr. Vernon M. Williams and Dr. J. O. Halverson, in charge of Dairy Research and Animal Nutrition, respectively. 2. Stomach Worms in Sheep Object. — To determine the effect of grazing crops, high feeding, and specific antidotes for preventing and ridding sheep of stomach worms. Results. — Results up to date show that all three of the above have correc- tive effects, but as to the comparative value of each it is not justifiable in making a statement just at this time. PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION, STATESVILLE F. T. Meacham, Superintendent Grady A. Berry, Herdsman 1. Cost of Raising Lambs to Marketable Age Object. — To determine the cost of raising high-class market lambs to mar- ketable age and condition, using a purebred Hampshire ram and high-grade ewes of Shropshire and Merino blood. Results. — The results show conclusively that good market lambs can be produced under Piedmont North Carolina conditions with pastures, silage, and cracked com supplemented with cottonseed meal and wheat bran. All of the lambs produced have been sold in Raleigh at good prices, ranging from 15 to 20 cents per pound, depending on the year and season sold. Commissioner of Agkicultuke 49 BLAOKLAND STATION, WENONA J. L. Rea, Jr., Superintendent A. P. Lefeveks, Herdsman 1. Pkodtjction of Beef Cattle Object. — To determine the success with which high-grade beef cattle can be produced under Blackland conditions by using purebred sire and common or native females, native pastures to be grown for the purpose and wintering feeds to be supplied from the farm with the possible exception of cottonseed meal. Results. — Tentative plans are just under way to inaugurate this work, and as soon as the cattle tick is eradicated in the county, which will be in December, this work will be started. COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION, WILLARD Charles^ Bearing, Superintendent Thomas H. Cameron, Herdsman 1. Permanent Pasture Studies (In cooperation with Mr. W. F. Pate, Agronomy Division) Object. — To determine the grasses which will grow best under Coastal Plains ' conditions, and to determine their carrying capacity with beef steers, later applications to be made with dairy cattle. Results. — Experiment outlined only and plans being made for its execution. Note. — This same work will be duplicated at the Blackland Station at Wenona. Meetings Attended The most important meeting attended during the year was the Soft Pork Conference held at Knosville, Tenn., during April. Twelve states were repre- sented at this meeting. The writer is also chairman of the Council of Live- stock Research for the Southern States. A report of the work conducted by this council was reported at the. meeting of Southern Agricultural Workers held at Montgomery, Ala. Numerous other meetings were attended throughout the State during the year. These pertained either to research or extension work. ANIMAIi INDUSTRY DIVISION Extension Projects OFFICE OF SWINE EXTENSION W. W. Shay, In Charge W. V. Hays, Assistant 1. Swine Feeding Demonstrations Owing to the fact that the present custom of feeding and marketing hogs as practiced by the farmers of North Carolina is not the most profitable possible, and that proof of the superiority of the methods advocated by the Office of Swine Extension is necessary to insure their adoption, the feeding demonstra- tion has been pushed as our major project. Proof that it does convince is frequently found in the remarks of cooperating farmers. One at Red Springs, while delivering his hogs for a cooperative car-lot shipment, said : "It seems strange that I should have fed hogs all my life and never learned how to do it properly until I was sixty-five years old." 4 50 Biennial Report Another at Bayboro, in Pamlico County, had nine hogs in a cooperative sliip- ment. He evidently qiaestioned the wisdom of parting with his property before receiving his money, but being something of a philosopher, as the car disappeared up the line, he said : "Well, there they go, and if I never see a dollar for them, what I have learned about feeding hogs is worth as much to me as they are." Needless to add that his check came promptly and was satisfactory. During the fiscal year just ended, ninety-five demonstrations have been started in twenty-one counties in cooperation with sixteen agents and four instructors of vocational schools. In these demonstrations 1,282 hogs were weighed, their initial weight being 75,045 pounds. When a lot of hogs are weighed a schedule is made out showing the varieties and amount of feed best suited to that particular lot of hogs during the ensuing five weeks, and an estimate of the gains which will result, all of which is based on the results of many experiments by various experiment stations. In this connection it is interesting to note that a recent computation cover- ing 91 periods of 48 such demonstrations, running an average of 63 days, and embracing 698 hogs, showed estimated gains of 50,360 pounds missed the actual amount of gains by less than two pounds per head, as the 698 head of hogs actually gained during the 63 days 51,714 pounds. At the close of each period, the hogs are reweighed and a new schedule made for the following five-weeks period. An analysis is made of the rate and cost of gains during the last period. This sheet is known as Form 10, and upon it is shown not only the rate and cost of gains, but variety amount and cost of feed consumed, also returns per bushel of corn and fertilizer value of the feed consumed. This form is mimeographed and the cooperating county agent is supplied with as many copies as he desires for distribution in the neighborhood where the demonstra- tion is being conducted. At the close of the demonstration some agents make it a practice to hold a field meeting, during which the final weighing of the demonstration hogs is done and a computation of results made. A special effort is made to stage demonstrations with hogs of an age and weight suitable to arrive at a final weight of slightly less than 200 pounds at a time when the seasonal price trend is near its highest points when the service of the Division of Markets is made use of in marketing to the best advantage ; their cooperation has been excellent and of great benefit. Such demonstrations, when properly conducted and persisted in, are in- variably followed by cooperative car-lot shipments, and such shipments con- tinue and expand because of the known and proven profit in the practice. No attempt is made to demonstrate profit from commercial pork production on a farm where the average yield of corn is less than twenty-five bushels per acre. The attached form is a condensed final report of all the work done in Lenoir County during the last fiscal year, and although this feeding was done during a period of low prices for hogs — the entire eighty head selling at an average price of $8.72 per 100 pounds at a local market, the returns per bushel of corn fed was $1.47, which was 47 per cent above the current local market price, which undoubtedly more than doiiMed the profit ahove the cost of producing the 554 bushels of corn eaten hy these hogs as compared with selling it as corn at the current market price of $1 per hushel, besides retain- ing on the farm its fertilizer value of approximately $85, or fifteen cents per iushel. Since the above hogs were sold the price has been as high as $12.25. During the coming year a special effort will be made to have carried to completion a larger percentage of demonstrations started, as it is the com- pleted demonstration that carries weight. Commissioner of Agriculture 51 Location and Summary of Results of Demonstrations Started During the Fiscal Year Ending October 31, 1924 Office of Swine Extension County County Agent or Vocational Teacher Number Started Number Periods Run Present Status or Cause of Discontinuation Alamance . . S. A. Allred, V. T J. W. Cameron B. E. Grant L. D. Thrash C. B. Farris A. H. Harris 1 1 1 2 20 11 14 4 1 2 2 1 2 4 8 2 1 11 4 1 1 1 No record Anson 1 lapsed 2 lapsed 1 lapsed 19 20 26-4 lapsed 2-1 lapsed Feed stolen from feeder Bertie Other hogs in field Buncombe _ One still running Craven* Nine completed Caswell V. C. Taylor, V. T.-__ W. R. Anderson Clay. Report incomplete Davie 1 lapsed 2-1 lapsed 1 lapsed 4 1 22 (7 completed) 4 2 4 8 2 2 4 Gaston L. B. Altman. .. One still running Hertford C. A. Rose - Owner taken sick IredelL . R. W. Graeber . Tt\'o completed Jones . . E. F. Fletcher . . Four lapsed C. M. Brickhouse A. R. Morrow Montgomery Both still running R. W. Galphin J. M. Henley, V. T..._ J. C. Anderson B. T. Ferguson A. H. Veasey, V. T.... Sampson Wake All completed Wilson Wayne Lapsed Completed 22 counties 17 county agents 4 vocational teachers 95 127 periods 37 completed 'Complete records not expected on such a large number. fComplete analysis of results attached. Same is issued on all completed work and furnishes in convenient form proof that hogs when properly handled are profitable. Result No. Completed 37 Still running 11 One or more successful periods 15 Incomplete or no records 2 Lapsed 30 Total started 95 Per Cent 38.95 11.58 15.79 2.10 31.53 100 .00 2. Ton Litter Contest This project has not been pushed, owing to the fact that it has been over- shadowed by the feeding demonstrations. To date there have been three litters entered, two of which failed to weigh a ton at 180 days of age — one by only 139 pounds. The third will be ISO days old November 20, and we have hopes that they will reach the required weight to win a medal. 3. Register of Merit for Swine For some time there has been a feeling on the part of the more thoughtful men interested in purebred hogs that a pedigree of good breeding and excellent bodily conformation to the requirements considered necessary to high classifi- cation according to the score card, still left something to be desired in the record of an animal to be used as foundation stock. 52 Biennial Eepoet Other questions arise, to illustrate, in the case of a sow: (1) What assur- ance have we of her prolificacy? (2) Does she come of a strain of good, careful mothers of ample milk production? (3) How does this strain of that particular breed function in the feed lot, both as to rate and economy of gains? (4) What dressing percentage may be expected of them, and what proportion of the various high-priced cuts? A little consideration will lead to the belief that here is an opening for a register of merit based on actual performance, but the question at once arises : How far can we go ? Believing that it is better to make a start in a small way and add as seems wise, rather than not make a start at all, or start more than can be continued, last year a Register of Merit based on prolificacy and the ability to raise to weaning age at exceptionally good weight a minimum number of pigs sufiicient to insure profit if properly handled, such a register was started. The requirements were those listed under "Class A" in the attached form 30-A. The failure of seven sows which were entered indicated the possibility that the requirements were too great. However, the fact that two of the seven sows met the requirements for one litter gave reason for a belief that they were not. Realizing that requirements too easy of attainment would take rank accord- ingly, and also that the winning of a bronze and silver medal might act as a stimulant to greater effort, and at the same time give recognition to com- mendable work, the two classes "B" and "C" were added. The next sow entered farrowed 16 pigs, carried ten to a total weight of 422 pounds at eight weeks old ; she was rebred, farrowed 14, and is now nursing nine, which are at present six weeks old, and will undoubtedly enable her to complete a record entitling her to a gold medal. 4. Consignment Sales Complete plans have been made for arranging for and conducting consign- ment sales of purebred hogs. These plans have been proven sound and satis- factory by use in one such sale. The plans guard against the holding of a sale where there is no existing demand for stock, also against sending one kind of stock when there is a demand for another kind. The interests of both the consignor and purchaser are guarded. Since the first sale was held under these plans, there have been requests for three more sales, but investigation developed proof that such sales would be held at too great risk to the consignors, and we did not feel justified in holding them. . 5. Cooperative Car-Lot Shipments As far as possible, plans are made for such shipments when feeding demon- strations are started in a neighborhood, and it is a usual stipulation that all hogs to be shipped cooperatively must be fed in accordance with instructions from this oflice. In this work the Division of Markets has given excellent cooperation. 6. Miscellaneous Help Under this heading might be classed an innovation in swine judging at the State Fair this fall which, so far as we know, was the first time that the reasons for placing an animal first in his class were ever given at a large show. A card was marked by the judge. As soon as placed the first prize winner was driven over the scales to a pen at one end of the ring. Over this pen a rack was arranged in which were slid the weight and reasons which were printed on heavy cardboard in four-inch letters. Information appeared on the bulletin board as follows : Commissioner of Agricultuke 53 WEIGHT 487 REASONS FOR PLACING Back — Shoulders — Heart Girth As for other work under this heading, it includes assistance in planning buildings and equipment, advice regarding the purchase of hogs, information relative to feeds and pastures, etc. ; in this connection we try to apply our slogan of the Office of Swine Extension : Not just noise, l)ut oxtion. Not simply action, hut properly directed action, tvhich is not only properly directed hut executed in a thorough manner. That is the requisite of success in Stvine Extension Work. Condensed Summary of Activities of the Office of Swine Extension for THE Fiscal Tear Ending October 31, 1924 Visits to - Meetings m a 3^ III III c o ii MUes Traveled Month < o B 12; o "S < '3 December 49 77 88 89 90 78 56 20 30 43 28 3 1 5 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 8 5 1 5 7 7 7 4 8 3 3 2 1 6 4 7 3 1 2 January February 2 6 1 8 2 3 1 6 4 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 7 24 2 9 2 3 2 7 10 2 6 13 1 4 143 1,148 30 153 196 936 70 176 50 215 134 51 225 504 846 563 April L 478 May.. . 271 June 296 July 1 4 60 455 275 August 229 September.. 404 October . . Totals- Shay 34 60 12 118 68 483 29 39 1,949 1,671 648 676 17 3 62 99 32 2,053 4,754 3,866 Hays 10,472 The office 94 130 551 68 3,660 1,324 20 161 32 6,807 14,338 *Extension Circular No. 143 OFFICE OF DAIRY EXTENSION J. A. Akey, In Charge A. C. KiMREY, Assistant W. Li. Clevenger, Creamery Manufacturing Specialist F. R. Farnham, Production Specialist H. L. Wilson, Cheese Specialist (Swiss) W. A. Graham. Cheese Specialist (Cheddar) 1. Herd Record Work In order to secure individual production and feed cost records on milk cows located in various sections of the State, records have been kept during the past year on eight herds scattered from New Bern to Canton. This work was undertaken because the dairy herds are scattered, making it very expen- sive to carry on regular Cow Testing Association work, and without feed and 54 Biennial Report production records it is impossible to do economical feeding. These herds are used as demonstrations and the data obtained will be used in our dairy schools and in news items for the press. During the early part of April I canvassed the sections around Greensboro, Charlotte, and Gastonia for the purpose of organizing regular Cow Testing Associations. The herds in this part of the State are fairly close together, and I was successful in perfecting two associations with all-time testers which started operation June 1st. One of these, the Piedmont Cow Testing Associa- tion, embraces a section of country from Pinehurst to Winston-Salem. It has thirteen members, six of whom do semi-official work. In this association records are being kept on 275 cows. R. H. Scott is doing the testing at a cost to the association of .$1,700 per year : The officers are : Leonard Tufts, Pine- hurst, president; Tom Pemberton, Greensboro, vice-president; and J. I. Wag- oner, Greensboro, secretary-treasurer. The Gaston-Mecklenburg Association is located in Gaston and Mecklenburg counties. There are twenty members in it, four of which are carrying on semi- official testing. The officers of this association are as follows : R. E. McDowell, president ; R. H. Martin, vice-president ; and Mr. Tom Sparrow, secretary and treasurer. Mr. C. G. Midyette is tester. The records secured in this work and furnished the herd owners by the testers will enable them to locate the cows in their herds which are capable of converting feed into milk at a profit. These cows will be fed grain according to production, while the unprofitable ones will be sold to the butcher. In addition to keeping feed and milk production records, the testers are encouraging home mixing of the grain ration and the purchase of feeds co- operatively in car lots. By purchasing feeds in large quantities and home mixing we have demonstrated by the record kept here in the office that the dairymen can save from eight to twelve dollars per ton. 2. Placing Purebred Bulls Our experience with the Federal plan of Cooperative Bull Association has not been satisfactory, so this year our efforts in placing purebred bulls has been largely with individuals and community groups rather than with an association made up of several community groups. Due to the fact that the members of some of the bull associations, which were organized a few years ago, have not worked together harmoniously, we feel that the average farmer is not fully convinced of the true value of a purebred sire in herd improvement. For the purpose of selling the idea of the importance of the "Good Sire" to the average dairyman and at the same time to replace on the farms of Bun- combe County scrub, grade, and otherwise inferior dairy bulls with purebreds of good type and out of dams with fat production records of not less than 400 pounds, a Purebred Sire Campaign was put on during the first week in September. Previous to the beginning of this campaign, a cattle census was taken on 1,282 farms by a committee of about fox'ty farmers. The large herds were not included, since I was desirous to obtain data representative of the small or average Buncombe County herd. The reports turned in by this committee showed the following number of cows per farm. 4.3, ration of purebred to grades. 4-1. Just previous to the campaign a county organization was perfected with the following committees : Finance, Publicity, Executive, Sales, and Trans- portation. By personal solicitation and through the help of breed field men I got five Guernsey, four Holsteins, and three Jersey bulls placed on exhibition in the CoMMISSIOiS^ER OF AGRICULTURE 55 county garage during the week of tlie campaign. The expense of their keep was borne by the Wachovia Loan and Trust Company. The campaign lasted five days. About 40 meetings were held in various sections of the county and a number of personal visits were made. The latter produced greater results than the former. Mr. F. H. Jeter had chai'ge of the publicity and received excellent cooperation from the press. Assisting in the campaign were the following workers : W. E. Wintermeyer and J. H. McLean, from the Bureau of Dairying. Washington, D. C. ; H. C. Bates and G. W. Humphreys of the Southern Railway ; Stanley Combs, Holstein representative ; W. W. Fitzpatrick. Guernsey representative; Charles Oliver, from the Jersey Cattle Club ; and J. W. Goodman. C. W. Tilson, L. D. Thrash. T. F. Arnold, F. R. Farnham, and J. A Arey of the State College Extension Service. All of the bulls were placed during the week, excepting two of the Holsteins. A number of pro.spective buyers were also located, five of which have pur- chased Jersey bulls since. The Baker Packing Company offered a premium of one cent per' pound on the first ten bulls that were replaced by purebreds. Before the close of the campaign a strong sentiment favoring the use of purebred sires was apparent over the entire county. Quite a number of farmers expressed the desire to purchase a few purebred females. We expect to supply this demand through an auction sale of purebred dairy cattle on November loth. 3. Cheese Factoky Development The low market for cheese during the past summer retarded the progress we should have made in the cheese-producing area. The price which the small factory could pay for milk after deducting operating expenses was not a sutficieut inducement to cause the farmers to milk their cows : therefore, several factories remained closed throughout the summer. The great need of all the factories is a larger volume of milk, and until the supply to some of the smaller factories is increased it will be impossible for them to operate at a profit. 4. Creamery Maxufacturixg The progress made by our creameries during the past year has been very satisfactory. The price for butter fat has been fair to good, which has acted as a stimulus to the work. No new plants have been erected, but the produc- tion in 1923 was sixteen per cent greater than that of 1922. There was also a marked improvement in the quality of the butter. I have discouraged the organization of creameries in two different counties during the past year, since there was not sufficient cream to successfully operate a plant on in either section. In Macon, one of these counties, about 3.000 pounds of butter fat is now being produced per month, and I think that a creamery can be successfully operated in this county after another year's work in production has been carried on. In Beaufort, the other county, no fat is now being produced for creamery purposes, but on account of the de- struction of the cotton crop by the weevil in this and adjoining counties there is a growing interest among the farmers and business men in livestock farm- ing. It is my intention to give considerable time to this section next year, with the hope that a sufficient number of cows may be brought in to make possible the operation of a local creamery. Special time has been given this year to the sections in which our smaller creameries are located for the purpose of increasing the volume of fat deliv- ered to the plant. Volume is essential in the economical operation of butter factories, and although I do not believe in centralized methods. I hope to see, in the near future, the production of each of our creameries increased to not less than 120,000 pounds of butter annually. 56 Biennial Keport . The following table shows the production and growth of the cream industry in this State from 1917 to 1923, inclusive. 1917 Butter Made in North Carolina 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 Totals 988,744 912,239 941,046 989,713 1,315,628 1,560,994 1,812,919 5. Dairy Schools During the year eleven dairy schools were held in four different counties, with a total attendance of 982 people. The subjects discussed were feeding and care of the dairy cow and the proper care of her products. 6. Special Meetings Attended In addition to the dairy schools, the following special meetings were at- tended : Kind of Meeting Place Number Meet- ings Subject Discussed Attend- ance World's Dairy Congress... Washington, D. C.- Philadelphia, Pa Syracuse, N. Y Hickory Hendersonville 6 1 3 6 3,440 Progress of Jerseys in N. C 100 65 Birmingham, Ala... Official Testing 300 20 45 Bricks. Raleigh Feeding the Dairy Cow 800 10 5 Snow Hill Dairy Development in N. C 300 50 10 20 10 Club Children Judging Demonstrations. Feeding Demonstrations In Charge Program and Feed- 36 200 Lenoir 3,000 300 States ville Perfecting Jersey Association... 150 Charlotte 250 Cheese Factory Picnic Delwood .. Feeding the Dairy Cow 500 Swannanoa Bull Trial .. 700 Salisbury Guernsey Progress in N. C Value of Pure Bred Sire . 350 Bull Campaign Asheville 123 Cheese Factory Picnic Cove Creek 250 Totals 45 11,034 During January several special meetings were held in cooperation with Mr. J. H. McLain of the Quaker Oats Company, Chicago. The county agents assisted in these meetings, during which about 1,500 people attended. Motion- picture machines were used illustrating the results on improving dairy cattle by the use of a good sire. Commissioner of Agkicultuke 57 7. Placing Cattle On November 9, 1923, Mr. Arey accompanied W. L. Smith and J. A. Boone to Orange, Va., where he selected three purebred and eleven grade Holstein cows for them. They were distributed among dairymen here at Raleigh. Mr. Arey purchased one purebred Jersey bull in Catawba County for farmers in Yancey County. As a result of the purebred sire campaign in Buncombe County fifteen purebred bulls have been placed up there. On November 8, 1923, Mr. Arey assisted in putting on the annual consignment sale of the N. C. Jersey Breeders' Association of 57 head. On August 28, 1924. Mr. Arey assisted in putting on the annual consignment sale of the North Carolina Guernsey Breeders' Association of 32 head. 8. Milk Utilization Assistance was given in organizing a county-wide milk campaign in Cleve- land'County, but no actual help was given in the campaign. 9. Fairs and Exhibits Exhibits were put on at the State Fair, Raleigh ; Mooresville, and Lenoir. In addition to this, the Dairy Cattle Department of the State Fair was under the direction of Mr. Arey. 10. Official Testing During the year Mr. Arey supervised official testing work in twenty-four herds of cattle, embracing about 135 cows. Seventeen men have supervised 213 tests during the past year at a cost of $2,832.66, or an average of $13.30 per test. A list of the State Class Leaders having completed records since last October first follows : Class Cow Owner Mature Pioneer's Country Lassie J. F. Diggs Milk, 11,986 ; fat, 747.52 Sr. 4 Peurs College Farm Tee N. C. State College Milk, 13.441 ; fat, 663.01 Jr. 4 State Jean Pogis N. C. State College Milk, 12.015 ; fat, 586.68 Sr. 3 Valley Forge Coleta Leonard Tufts Milk, 11,780 ; fat. 543.89 Jr. 3 Oxford's Noble Brownie ; R. E. McDowell Milk. 11.944; fat, 764.95 Sr. 2 Lass G's Ola N. C. Dept. Agr. Milk, 10,209; fat, 565.87 (Pender Herd) Jr. 2 Reynolda's May Queen Reynolda, Inc. Milk, 10,816; fat, 634.87 Under 2 State Warden Pogis N. C. State College Milk, 10,301 ; fat, 502.75 12 and over Allison's Beauty S. W. Miller Milk, 8.826 (11 years) Fat, 480.27 (349 days) 11. News Letter A News Letter is issued monthly giving the results of the official testing work along with other timely items of interest to dairymen. 58 Biennial Eeport 12. Special Work Mr. Arey. in cooperation with Mr. E. R. Raney. advised Mrs. J. F. Stephens and Dr. J. I. Foust, both of Greensboro, concerning bam plans. Both built according to plans furnished. During the year Mr. Arey has referred a number of dairymen to Mr. Raney for plans for barns and milk houses. In December, 1923, Mr. Arey assisted Mr. Clevenger in purchasing machinery for the College Creamery Laboratory. 13. Summary Number of official tests supervised 213 Total amount collected for testing. $2,832.66 Number doing official testing 24 Number of testers furnished 17 Number doing individual herd record work 8 Number of cow-testing associations organized....^ • 2 Number assisted in barn building 2 Purebred bulls placed 16 Pui-ebred cows placed 3 Grade cows placed 11 Exhibits placed 4 Butter made by creameries 1,812,919 Cheese made by cheese factories 132,448 Milk campaigns organized 1 Press articles written 30 Number of meetings held 50 Total attendance 8,576 Miles traveled by rail 11,504 Miles traveled by auto : 2,169 Personal visits and consultations - 412 Letters written 2,200 In addition to the report as given by Mr. Arey, each worker under him has submitted a detailed report for the year, at the close of which is a summary of the work of each. These are available for reference at any time. The following is a summary of the activities of all Dairy Extension workers : Number of meetings held 249 Attendance , - 27,651 Number of miles traveled by rail—. 35,765 Nvimber of miles traveled by auto 36,454 Number of letters written 3,745 Number of purebred cows and heifers placed 28 Number of purebred bulls placed 40 Number of grade cows placed , 110 Number of cow-testing associations organized 2 Number of official tests supervised 213 Total amount collected for official testing $2,832.66 Number doing individual herd record work 8 Number of exhibits placed 26 Number of cheese factory buildings erected 4 Cheese manufactured 132,448 Cheese factories assisted , 12 Creameries and ice-cream plants assisted 14 Butter manufactured , 1,812.919 Press ai-ticles written 63 Personal visits and office consultations 3,021 Milk campaigns held 7. 1 Commissioner of Agriculture 59 SHEEP EXTENSION G. P. Williams, In Cliartjc 1. Flock Improvement This work consists of instructing farmers where they can buy i^^iebi-ed rams at moderate prices and how they can secure the best results from them. Complete instructions are given how to feed and manage the flock throughout the various seasons of the year. 2. Development of Pastuees Instructions are given on providing a succession of pasture crops for lambs and sheep throughout the year. This consists of an explanation of the best kind of pasture to provide under various conditions. The use of catch crops for grazing sheep is especially emphasized. 3. Management and Feeding of Eakey Lambs Systematic methods have been outlined for saving young lambs, pushing them for the early market and good weights, and with quick cash returns. Definite plans have been worked out to do this and aid farmers in making cooperative shipments. 4. Docking and Castrating Lambs Demonstrations have been given on when and how to properly dock and castrate lambs for market or breeding purposes. The use of flocks throughout the State were resorted to in order to make this work as practical as possible. 5. Parasite Control Definite instructioiis have been given on the control of parasites, more especially of stomach worms, which are the chief antagonists of sheep produc- tion. Drenching fluids were prepared and demonstrations given, showing the proper and improper methods of administering. Explanation was made as to the condition the sheep should be in when the dose Is given, and also in regard to the frequency and the number of doses required. 6. Peepakation of Wool for Market More careful preparation of wool is needed in order that the highest market price be obtained. Lessons were given in managing the flock so as to elimi- nate all burrs and other foreign matter in so far as possible. Demonstrations were given in keeping the fleece intact by proper rolling and tying with paper twine. 7. Grading and Bagging Fleeces After the wool has been taken from the sheep and tied there still remains another important operation in the grading and bagging of the fleece. Assist- ance was given in purchasing regular wool bags and putting the wool up in attractive packages so as to attract the better class of buyers. 8. Summary of Activities Visits to county agents 59 Farm visits and demonstrations 77 Meetings addressed 31 Attendance at meetings addressed 596 Office visits — 72 Letters written 1.124 Extension press articles written 70 Miles ti-aveled by auto 1,746 60 Biennial Report Miles traveled by rail 7,042 Assistance buying and selling registered sheep 56 Assistance buying and selling grade stock sheep 360 Assistance in holding wool pools 11 Different counties visited : 38 OFFICE OF POULTRY EXTENSION AxLEN G. Oliver, In Charge E. G. Waedin, Assistant General Herewith will be found the report of the activities of this office for the past year, as proposed and outlined in my last annual report. It has been the object of this office to carry out the several projects in their proper seasons and to stimulate and encourage the work in every way. Marked progress has been shown as follows : In more purebred flocks on the farms, properly housed and fed, which has been shown by the increased egg production per fowl, and a larger number of chicks raised and properly prepared for market. Many new poultry and brooder houses have been constructed and old ones remodeled under our supervision. In fact, the whole line of work shows progress and better methods and conditions. In many counties communities have been organized into cooperative associa- tions, whereby the members are greatly benefited, not only by buying their supplies in bulk, but by selling their products in the same manner. During the year we assisted many farm agents in disposing of car lots of surplus poultry consisting of old fowls past their usefulness. By doing this, the farmer not only had more room for his younger fowls, but at the same time received a higher price than could be obtained on the local market for them, and as these buyers were from outside the State that much extra money was brought into it. The following projects have been stressed the past year, and we would suggest their continuance : Project No. 1. Standardisation of Farm Flocks. Organizing communities for the purpose of standardizing the poultry that the products — poultry and eggs — may be graded in standard grades to bring the highest market prices. The aim will be to keep but one breed in each community. Project No. 2. Cooperative Buyvng and Sellwig. The purpose of this is to market cooperatively that a higher price may be obtained and to buy supplies in large lots to save the poultry keeper money. Methods of assembling, grading, packing, and shipping eggs. Also market factors of live and dressed poultry. Project No. 3. Feeding Project. The campaign here will teach proper feed mixtures and methods of feeding for heavy egg production, chicks, range birds, and fattening for market. How, when, and what to grow for poultry. Project No. 4. Building Project. Proper methods of constructing farm poultry houses, commercial laying houses, brooder and range houses, also sitting and brooding coops and poultry-house equipment. Commissioner of Agriculture 61 Project No. 5. Breeding Project. Culling campaign, selection, and mating breeding birds. Judging classes and competitions. Pboject No. 6. Disease Control. In cooperation with the office and laboratory of Poultry Investigations and Pathology. Control of lice, mites, and contagious diseases. Sanita- tion, location of poultry houses. Peoject No. 7. Fairs. Exhibits of houses and equipment and other poultry educational features will be provided so far as possible at State, district, county, and com- munity fairs. Project No. 8. PuMicity. Aid and cooperation in general poultry problems in demonstrations, lectures, and articles will be given through county and home agents, local leader or secretary of community clubs, news and farm papers of the State. To encourage the writing and presentation at club meetings of the club members' results. The production and general poultry program is divided into seasonal sections representing spring, sumriier, fall, and winter. Principal Work Accomplished by Office of Poultry Extension Proper housing and home-made equipment for care of farm poultry. Furnishing models and blue-prints. Early hatching and keeping of all early-hatched pullets. Feeding mature birds for fall and winter egg production. Feeding of young growing birds that they may reach maturity in the short- est possible time. Culling and grading of eggs for market. Finishing young cockerels by milk feed, wherever possible, before shipping to market. Exhibit of purebred farm poultry raised by farm boys and girls at various fairs throughout the State. Holding culling and judging schools on farms. Assisting in organization of poultry associations in many counties. Purchasing of poultry feeds and shipping cooperatively. Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs sold over 40,000 purebred eggs for hatching purposes. Holding educational exhibits at various places. Practical demonstrations in many counties. Summary — Mr. Oliver Miles traveled by rail 9,582 Miles traveled by auto 4,875 Number letters written 1,488 Number farms visited : 428 Number demonstrations 762 Number meetings 264 Number in attendance 11,369 Community fairs .' 2 Other shows and fairs 16 Number members showing 645 Number birds shown 3,437 Amount of cash won $2,522 Poultry houses, new 30 62 Biennial Report Poultry houses, remodeled 48 Conferences 55 Office consultations 160 Local articles for press 41 Flocks culled 379 Number dozen eggs shown 52 Judging contests 6 Educational exhibits 35 Educational lectures 245 Summary — Mr. Wardin Miles traveled by rail 4,748 Miles traveled by auto - 6.192 Letters written 424 Bulletins mailed , 1,634 Farms visited 310 Demonstrations 545 Meetings 241 Attendance 10,900 Community fairs 6 Other shows and fairs 4 Number members showing 140 Number birds shown 1,072 Amount of cash won $425 Poultry houses, new 39 Poultry houses, remodeled 18 Conferences 19 Office consultations 32 Local press articles 85 Flocks culled 75 Birds handled 4,837 Number dozen eggs shown Judging contests - Educational exhibits 15 Educational lectures 241 Counties visited - 54 BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION R. S. Curtis, In Charge G. P. Williams, Assistant There has been no regularly organized beef cattle extension work done, although we have our projects on same. The time of the writer is consumed largely in handling administrative matters and in research work. Mr. Wil- liams has given some assistance in beef cattle extension when he could find time to do so. The administrative duties of the division consume considerable time, and from this viewpoint I wish to speak a word in regard to the splendid progress which has been made during the year. The morale of the Division has been fine, and I would not feel that I had performed my duty without making mention of the splendid cooperation effective among all workers. If there is any additional information which you may desire, I will be pleased to furnish it upon request. Respectfully submitted, R. S. CUKTIS, Ammal Industry Division. DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — In the report of this division two years ago attention was called, at the outset to two important developments: (1) That the boll weevil had virtually completed the invasion of all our cotton area, and (2) that the Mexican bean beetle, first invading our extreme southwestern county of Cherokee, had spread nearly to Waynesville and Hendersonville. It is fitting, therefore, at the outset of this report to sketch the present status in regard to these two prime insect pests. (1) That the boll weevil has invaded all our cotton area is proven by the fact that during 1923 we saw actual specimens of genuine boll weevil from such extreme outlying counties as Currituck, Caswell, and even Cherokee. In this last county the weevils were found on a few rows of cotton being grown for home use in a mountain garden some twenty or more miles from the nearest known commercial cotton fields across the line in Georgia. However, it was not until 1924 that our entire cotton area had been infested long enough for maximum damage to be possible over the entire area. We therefore watch the season with keen interest. As expected, the weevil damage was much heavier to the south and east, and much lighter in the Piedmont. The damage averaged very light on the whole, though it rapidly inceased toward the close of the season. Meantime, during the past several years we have been able to demon- strate repeatedly the profitableness of the standard dust-poison method of control, and information on this has been issued in printed form and widely distributed at meetings, to county agents, and to farmers. Our experience has shown the need of following the directions carefully, so as to make the applications when they will be profitable, and to avoid the useless waste of making them when they will not pay. Tarmers who merely get the one idea of "poisoning" in their minds are liable to spend as much as they gain ; but we have proven to the satisfaction of many that "proper poisoning" is virtually certain to yield profits. There is high heed for more ample test work, for continued biological studies, for observation of the effects of our weather conditions, and for study of the natural enemies of the boll weevil. These are the basis of a sound understanding from which to teach the public. (2) The Mexican bean beetle in 1923 spread nearly to the Blue Ridge in the counties of Ashe, Watauga, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey, and spread east of the Blue Eidge in the more southern counties of McDowell, Rutherford, Cleveland, Lincoln, and Gaston. In 1924 its widest spread has been in our northern counties ; its advance line at close of the season reaching approximately to Catawba River on the south and nearly to Mount Airy, Surry County, in the north. 64 Biennial Repokt A field station for the study of this pest was conducted at Bryson City during 1923 by Mr. J. C. Crawford of this division; and with the eastward spread, his studies in 1924 have been at the Mountain Test Tarni Branch Station at Swannanoa. Poison dusts have given a good measure of protection, and at this writing a publication by Mr. Craw- ford is in press and will soon be ready for distribution. There is basis for hope that this Mexican bean beetle will not be so serious in our Piedmont as in the Mountain counties, for since its ap- pearance in Alabama in 1919-20 it has shown a tendency to spread into and persist most vigorously in the cooler and more highly elevated regions. The course of events with these two insects (boll weevil, and Mexican bean beetle) illustrates the importance of studies of the geographical range and intensity of attack of insect pests. Both species invaded the United States from Mexico, yet in this State the boll weevil is showing preference for the lower warmer region toward our coast, while the bean beetle bids fair to be more severe in the higher cooler region of our mountains. Both of these insects are further discussed under their project head- ings later in this report. Inspection "Woek Mr. T. B. Mitchell does the greater part of the inspection work which is required under the regulations of the board. The scouting work to determine the spread of boll weevil and bean beetle has also been par- ticipated in by Messrs. J. A. Harris and "W. B. Mabee. Plant Nurseries : — All plant nurseries in the State are inspected each year and certificates issued, based on their satisfactory condition as to pests which would likely be introduced into new localities on shipments of plants. The number of these nurseries has increased considerably in recent years, especially since the war period, as shown by the following table : Nv/mber of Year Nurseries Licensed 1920 52 1921 62 1922 69 1923 78 1924 : 82 These nurseries are scattered throughout the length and breadth of the State, an average about eleven acres each in salable trees and plants. Outside Nurseries: — ISTurseries outside the State are required to file with us a copy of their certificate of inspection and to secure lIlTorth Carolina tags to attach to shipments in this State. Por these a nominal price is charged. Inspection of Imported Plants: — Working in collaboration with the Pederal Horticultural Board at Washington, an inspection is made of all Commissioner of Agricultuke 65 shipments of plants coming into this State from foreign countries, and findings are reported to "Washington. These constitute a considerable item of work during late winter. Scouting to Determine Spread of Boll Weevil : — As already indicated, the boll weevil completed the occupation of our cotton area in 1922-23. Our field examinations determined very accurately its spread each year, from the time that it invaded the State in 1919 until the entire area was occupied in 1922-23. Scouting to Determine Spread of Mexican Bean Beetle: — Since the invasion of our State by this pest in 1921 its eastward spread has been determined each year until at close of 1924 it is known to extend approxi- mately to a north-and-south line drawn from Catawba River on the South Carolina line to a point slightly west of Mount Airy in Surry county. Bee-Disease Inspection: — This work was undertaken under regula- tions adopted by the board in July, 1923, to provide a service which is not covered by the extension work in beekeeping. Seven queen-breeding apiaries were each inspected twice during the year, a total of fourteen such inspections. "Work on Definite Projects Potato Spraying : — At Swannanoa Test Farm, Buncombe County, tests have now been conducted through a ten-year period to ascertain and demonstrate the profitableness of spraying potatoes with standard poi- soned Bordeaux mixture. This work has been in charge of Dr. R. W. Leiby, assisted by Mr. S. C. Clapp, superintendent of the farm. For the whole ten-year period the average increase in yield of sprayed over unsprayed potatoes may be shown as follows : Ten-Yeab Test Potato Spraying, Using Standard Poisoned Bordean,x Mixture Average yield, unsprayed 117.3 bus. per acre Average shield, sprayed 170.6 bus. per acre Gain by spraying (46 per cent) 53.3 bus. per acre These findings furnished the basis of our advice to our western potato growers. We are pleased to know that especially in the case of persons attempting to grow seed potatoes, the practice of proper spraying i& becoming quite generally established. Other materials have also been used in comparison with the standard poisoned Bordeaux, and during late years dusting with a copper-lime arsenate mixture has done well. As this method is more expensive it is not yet much used. While the above tests relate to the late potatoes of our mountain region, the question of using this practice on the early crop which is largely grown in the eastern part of the State, has not been forgotten, 5 Q6 Biennial Report Tests conducted over a period of four years witk the early crop, and the average from six tests showed a gain of 74 bushels per acre (or 106 per cent) by spraying with standard poisoned Bordeaux mixture. Insect Survey : — For many years we have been carrying on a study of the complete insect life of the State, making records of the known occurrence, distribution, seasonal activities, etc., of every species found. Mr. C. S. Brimley is chiefly engaged upon this project, while various other workers contribute and participate as opportunity affords. This is necessarily a- permanent project, for the insect life of no locality in the United States is fully known, and even the status of known species changes from time to time. On several occasions there have been destruc- tive outbreaks of insects which our citizens believe to be "new" but which our Insect Survey records showed to be old residents which for some reason were abnormally abundant for the time being. In such cases we have been able to accurately infer that the outbreak would be only temporary, as contrasted with such pests as boll weevil and Mexican bean beetle which are genuinely new to our territory and bid fair to be permanent pests. We cannot too greatly emphasize the value of this Survey work in giving us an understanding of insect problems, and of their relation to other factors in our welfare. In this report of two years ago we re- ported that 6,344 species ("kinds") of insects were then on our records as occurring in the State. "We now report that our lists at present (N'ov. 25, 1924) show 7,047 species on record, a gain of 703 during (approxi- mately) the past two years. While some of these new records are gleaned from the publications of other workers, yet we more highly prize those which are derived from our own work and are represented by specimens in the permanent collections. The collections resulting from this Survey work are in constant use by our own workers in their studies, they aid us in identification of specimens sent by citizens; they are drawn upon for exhibits in our State Museum, at State Fair, at other fairs, and to illustrate discus- sion at various meetings. Also, specialists in other states and at Wash- ington frequently ask for such information as our records may supply. Boll Weevil : — During the past two years studies and tests with this insect have been conducted at the Field Station at Aberdeen, Moore county, by Messrs. E,. W. Leiby and J. A. Harris. Mr. W. B. Mabee has also been very active in work in cooperation with county agents and farmers throughout our cotton area. The studies and observations have given such information as the following : In 1924 over-wintered weevils invaded the fields from May 25 to July 1. Weevils of the next ("first") generation began to appear about July 10, — of these nine pairs laid an average of 102 eggs per female during their lives. In the latter part of the season seven pairs laid an average of 74 eggs per female. Commissioner of Agkicultube 67 Our studies indicate that in cases of moderately heavy initial infes- tation it is usually the progeny of the over-wintered weevils which emerge in first half of July, (i.e. the first field-reared generation of the season) that brings the square-puncturing up to the "dusting-point," for we find these weevils becoming abundant and active in mid-July, and in such cases we find the dusting point to be reached in late July or very early in August. In connection with these studies there have been tests of the standard dust-poison method advised by the TJ. S. Bureau of Entomology, begin- ning when the weevils have punctured from 10 to 15 per cent of the squares. In 1922 Mr. "W. B. Mabee of this office conducted four such tests on short-staple cotton in Scotland County, securing an average increase of 244 pounds seed cotton per acre, with profit (above computed costs) of $20.11 per acre; while in another test with long-staple cotton the gain was 402 pounds seed cotton with profit of $41.24 per acre. In 1924 Messrs. Leiby and Harris conducted four tests in vicinity of Aber- deen which gave an average increase of 198 pounds seed cotton with net profit of $17.31 per acre. County agents, the Virginia-Carolina Company, and Royster Com- pany, have all conducted tests during the past few years along this same line and have kindly reported results to us, until we now have data from a total of 58 tests conducted in 19 counties, ranging from Cleveland in the west to Onslow, Carteret and Halifax in the east; and the grand average of all these tests shows a gain of 246 pounds seed cotton per acre by the proper use of the dust-poison method. While the above data seems to abundantly prove the reliability of the dust-poison method when properly applied, yet many of our farmers have now passed through several seasons of weevil-infestation and have produced satisfactory crops without using poisons in any form, and we have ourselves had the experience of selecting a field in advance for "demonstration" and have had the weevil-injury be so light that it would not pay to poison. This has emphasized the economy of following the directions so as not to waste poison (and money) in needless appli- cations, and has led us to watch the effect of weather conditions on the weevil. Both in 1923 and 1924 there were periods of heat and drought which came at appropriate times to check the weevil, and if the farmer were watchful, they saved him from much waste of poison. The idea of early-season poisoning for the over-wintered weevils has had considerable attention throughout the south in recent years. While some of the tests have indicated good results, others have been less satisfactory, and no clear basis for a statement of the money-profit from it has yet been secured, so far as we know. Our own tests in 1923 indi- cated that fearly applications delayed slightly (but did not prevent) heavy infestation later. On the basis of all findings and opinions, an application of poison at the "pre-square" period, in case the weevils were abundant in early season, was included in our boll weevil program 68 Biennial Report for 1924, yet we do not know of a single instance in our State where the conditions were such as to call for its use during the year. Our studies have also shoMai that several species of native parasite- enemies of the boll weevil are at work. These presumably vary in their abundance in different fields and at different times in the season. In sum, it may be said that to date our studies, observations and ex- periences, all show the complexity and many-sidedness of the boll weevil problem; yet certain profitable methods of procedure are clear. The conditions of climate which favored us the past two seasons are not dependable for the future. "We feel the urgent need of continued studies through the next several years until the whole issue shall be- come more soundly stabilized in the minds of our people than it is at present. To this end we feel that field studies and careful tests should be made at two or more points in our chief cotton area. Peach and Plum Curculio. — At the field station at Aberdeen Dr. E. W. Leiby and Mr. J. A. Harris have continued their work with this pest, and have gained keen response and appreciation from the peach growers. By careful watching of the activities of the insect both in the insectary and in the orchards, these workers have been able to issue letter -bulletins to growers and local papers which clearly indicate the practices and when to apply them. This curculio is the common cause of wormy peach fruits, and in each year careful tests, with untreated "check" trees for comparison have demonstrated the high degree of control that has been secured by the methods of winter clean-up, spray- ing (or dusting), and gathering of "drops." Thus their data shows that in 1924 trees of Slappey variety which were not treated showed 22.2 per cent of the fruit to be wormy at harvest, while the same variety under the treatments which were advised showed less than 2 per cent wormy at harvest. Furthermore, as fungicide materials are commonly used in combination with the insecticide, the same tests showed bene- ficial control of rot and scab diseases. Not only do the data secured indicate that the findings in this work should be worth many thousands of dollars to our peach growers, but actual consultation with the growers themselves shows that they have used the findings, have procured the protection, and secured the profits. The work is in high favor among the growers, who greatly desire that it be continued. The work has also included some tests against peach borer and San Jose scale, both pests of long standing in the control of which there have been some fresh developments in recent years. Black Corn Weevil. — For the last several years this pest of maturing and stored corn has been complained of more frequently than formerly. Accordingly, Mr. T. B. Mitchell has devoted some attention to it at times when his other duties would allow. As its ravages are especially serious in our eastern section, the observations have been made chiefly at the Blacklands Test Farm at "Wenona, Washington County; and in view of the usual absence of storage houses suitable for fumigation on the COMMISSIONEK OF AGRICULTURE 69 farms o£ this section, the studies have been along lines of field practice and management which might lessen the weevil infestation. Mr. Mitchell's findings indicate that later-planted corn is much less subject to attack than corn which is planted early. They also indicate that corn grown at a distance from a corn-crib which has not been thoroughly cleaned out (in winter or early spring) is much less subject to attack than corn grown close to such a weevil-infested crib ; in other words, apparently an infested crib serves as a center for dissemination of weevils, which, however, are not inclined to fly very far away. It is also found that tight-fitting husk which entirely encloses the ear appears to lessen weevil attacks. These several facts offer their own suggestions, which,- so far as they may be followed, may help to prevent weevil damage.* Mexican Bean Beetle. — Mr. J. C. Crawford of this division was located at Bryson City, Swain County, for the season of 1923, where he conducted a field station for the study of this new invader. For the season 1924 his work has been located at the Mountain Test Farm, Swannanoa, Buncombe County. At Bryson City (1923) the first over-vnntered beetles were found in the fields on May 23, and by June 6 most of them were in the fields. Two full generations of beetles were produced, and a partial third, be- fore the season closed. Some of the features in the insect's life were found by Mr. Crawford to be as follows : The yellow elliptical eggs are laid in clusters of about fifty eggs per cluster on the under side of the leaf. On an average each female may lay from ten to fourteen such clusters. At the end of from six to seven days the eggs hatch to the spiny yellow worms (larvae) which greedily feed on the leaf. On an average the larvae become mature in about eighteen to twenty days, and they then change to pup» attached to the leaf. The pupa stage lasts approximately six days, and it then emerges as a beetle, which also feeds ravenously upon the leaves. Table varieties of beans are preferred; while cowpeas and soybeans are attacked, this usually occurs after near-by table beans have been destroyed, and we have not seen serious damage to extensive plantings of cowpeas or soybeans. Two forms of dust poison which gave most satisfactory protection were: (1) Calcium arsenate 1 part (by weight), sulphur 1 part, hydrated lime 4 parts. (2) Calcium arsenate 1 part, hydrated lime 9 parts. Both the above gave good protection when applied often enough to keep new foliage covered, v-hich required three to four treatments. Lead arsenate (commonly used in orchard spraying) is not recom- mended for use against the bean beetle, for the reason that bean foliage seems especially susceptible to "burning" by it. While it is known that lead arsenate will kill the insect, and while plants treated are not always 70 Biennial E-epoet hurt by it, still tliere seems to be a greater risk to tbe plants from its use than from the use of the calcium arsenate. The Mexican bean beetle seems to be wary and fastidious; while it is apparently in no sense immune from poisoning, it seems to prefer not to eat a leaf which is coated with poison, hence it may seek parts of the plants which were missed in the application, or perhaps await new growth, or perhaps abandon the poisoned plants to seek others. Also, it has the habit of feeding much on the under side of the leaves which are not easily reached. These facts, together with the susceptibility of bean foliage, renders completely satisfactory results from the use of poison uncertain. The protection secured is no doubt partly due to the killing of the beetles and their larvae, and partly to the purely repellant effects in causing the beetles to abandon the plants. * In addition to the work on bean beetle, Mr. Crawford, at Swannanoa Test Farm during 1924, has begun work upon several other insect prob- lems of our mountain region. BeeJceeping. — In this work Mr. C. L. Sams has continued his activi- ties among the beekeepers in many counties, including all sections of the State. This work is done in cooperation with district and county agents, and the beekeepers themselves. The improved methods of man- agement and equipment are demonstrated at many local meetings each year. Many of our people find beekeeping to be a convenient source of additional income, in addition to securing honey for home use. Several local beekeeping clubs have been organized from time to time, some of these among boys and girls. Under the influence of this work our commercial beekeepers have considerably increased in number, and the production of honey by the ton by individual beekeepers is no longer a rarity. Several are now making beekeeping their sole business. Mr. Sams has also taken part in directing the exhibits of bees, wax, honey and equipment at the State Fair, and at this Fair and at others has given cage demonstrations in the handling of bees. Conclusion In concluding this report, grateful acknowledgement is made of the kindly interest and support of the Commissioner and board, as well as of the faithful and efficient service of each member of our divisional force. Respectfully submitted, Feanklin Sherman^ Chief in Entomology. DIVISION OF HORTICULTURE To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — I herewitli submit tlie biennial report of tbe Division of Horti- culture for the years 1923 and 1924, General Tbe greatest interest in botb commercial and home borticulture tbat has ever existed in tbe State bas resulted from tbe operation of existing agricultural conditions and conditions in different horticultural indus- tries, Tvbicb include tbe general economic need for diversification, boll weevil conditions, and a realization of advantages of tbe State for differ- ent horticultural crops. This great interest has resulted in increasing demands on tbe Division of Horticulture for service of both an exten- sional and investigational nature. Tbe division, through its extensional and experimental activities, is trying to improve its service to botb amateur and commercial horticul- ture. The main objects underlying both phases of the work are net profits for farmers, improved living conditions, and the production of home supplies. These objects are typified in the slogan of the division, which is : "Make Carolina Another California for Horticulture." Tbe work of the division consists in general administration, corres- pondence, work of a general horticultural nature, experimental work in pomology and vegetable culture, the extension work in pomology and vegetable culture. A notable event of 1923 was the winning of the Wilder medal of tbe American Pomological Society by the division for a display of named varieties of apples at the ISTational Horticultural Congress, Council Bluffs, Iowa. This was the only exhibit of named varieties that won the medal in 1923, which indicated tbe high quality of varieties produced in this State. As a result of the exibition at Council Bluffs much valuable horticultural publicity for ISTortb Carolina was secured, and many middle western growers were interested in ISTortb Carolina. Publications Under publications of 'the division should be mentioned "jSTorth Caro- lina : A Land of Horticultural Opportunity," which has had national distribution, and which has developed much interest in JSTorth Carolina horticulture. A second edition of the "Farm and Home Garden Manual" was pub- lished this year to meet the demand for this publication. Eesults of the investigation of thermal belts, conducted over a period of years, has been recently published as Supplement 19 of the "Monthly 72 Biennial Report Weather Review," under tlie heading of "Thermal Belts and Fruit Growing in ISTorth Carolina, and Thermal Belts from the Horticulture Viewpoint." Extension circular entitled "Growing Apples in JSTorth. Carolina" was published. Changes in Staff A number of changes have been made in the staff : H. R. ISTiswonger, formerly of Kentucky, was appointed to the position of extension horti- culturist to especially look after the development of horticultural indus- tries in the western part of the State; Mr. H. ISTeal Blair was appointed to part-time worker to assist in building and operating kraut factories ; Robert Schmidt of iN'ew Jersey was appointed to the position in vege- table culture; W. A. Radspinner of Indiana was appointed to the posi- tion of pomologist; Glenn O. Randall was appointed to the position of extension horticulturist to succeed R. F. Payne, who resigned. Administration A large part of the time of the Chief of the Division of Horticulture is employed with matters of the administration of the division. This work consists, for the most part, in planning and directing the experi- mental work at the branch experiment stations, and in planning for the various lines of horticultural demonstration projects; these duties are increasing each year. Correspondence The requests for information regarding different horticultural crops make extensive demands on different members of the division for hand- ling correspondence. Rruit Crop Estimate Reports To facilitate the compiling of the fruit-crop estimates, an arrange- ment was made with the Worth Carolina Crop Reporting Service to do this work on a cooperative basis. The fruit-crop estimates issued by this office have been in much de- mand by the agricultural press, by the secretaries of the State horticul- tural societies, and by marketing organizations throughout the country. To compile these fruit-crop reports, it has necessitated an extensive correspondence with growers and a large amount of work in tabulating figures. State Fair Considerable attention has been given to the horticultural work at the State Fair. Due to the efforts of the division the horticultural ex- hibits at the Fair were larger and more extensive during the last two years than previously. ISTearly two cars of fruit were shown during each year. In 1923 three important phases of the extension work in horticulture were illustrated at the State Fair. The work of the home beautification Commissioner of Agriculture 73 project was outlined in a very effective demonstration. This consisted of two small liouses constructed to be identical. The one set upon stone pillars situated in a barren yard all cut up with, ruts showing no order or arrangement, few or no trees and shrubs and no lawn. The other represented the same house after it had been tastefully painted and shrubs, trees, vines, and flowers were planted in an orderly, logical ' way about the foundation and borders of the green, well-kept lawn. The drives and walks were well arranged and well kept. This presented a decided contrast to the former. An exhibit demonstrating the results of the 18 demonstrations on the comparative value of "Western North Carolina and northern seed was very effectively made. This graphically showed the results of this work, as reported in another section of this report. The work in orchard management was very emphatically brought out iiT an exhibit of the actual fruit from a tree in the treated plat and from a tree in the untreated plat in the Walker demonstration at Hen- dersonville, mentioned under the heading of "Apple Work" in another section of the report. The Cooperative Eotundifolia Experiment Vineyard (Truck Station, Willard, ]^. C.) The rotundifolia vineyard established in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture at the truck station has furnished, through the work of Mr. Charles Dearing, Horticulturist of the United States Department of Agriculture, much valuable information regarding the training and management of rotundifolia grapes, and in the making of grape products. Mr. Dearing has made much progress in the deter- mination of the most desirable varieties, in the breeding of improved strains of existing varieties, and in the production of new varieties of economic importance. Experimental Work Erom the standpoint of station work, chief mention should be made of projects in apple pruning, cultural practices, variety testing and seed development with Irish potatoes; cultural practices, seed selection, storage investigation with sweet potatoes ; and variety tests and cultural practices with pecans. Pruning work with apples conducted at the mountain station is giving conclusive results in the value of training apple trees to the modified leader and the use of a light system of annual pruning. It has demonstrated further that the majority of our growers who do prune, cut their trees with the result that fruit bearing surface is greatly reduced and the trees are much later in coming into bearing. While only five years results have been secured in this work, it is clearly- evident that the results are going to be worth thousands of dollars to apple growers. 74 Biennial Report The project o£ dev eloping methods for producing seed Irish potatoes in the western part of the State that are superior or equal to Maine seed has given results that indicate that this is a practical proposition and opens up new possihilities in potato growing in Western Carolina. Investigation with improved cultural practices in growing sweet potatoes are showing the value of these practices in giving increased yields and at the same time more uniform potatoes. One of the big problems in the sweet potato industry is to secure strains which will produce a higher percentage of uniform sweet potatoes. Selection work in this connection which has been conducted for the last eight years is producing striking results. The main problem in connection with sweet potato storage has been very well worked out, but there are many minor problems which need to be solved, and which are receiving our attention at this time. As a result of the investigational work with pecans, it has been definitely proved that Schley, Stuart, Success, and Alley varieties are of immense value in Eastern Carolina. A number of points in connec- tion with the soil requirements and cultural practices of pecans have been worked out. Preliminary investigation with winter injury of peaches, which has been severe in the Sandhills and eastern part of the State in the last few years, has brought out many interesting facts and suggestions for future work in solving this problem. ExPEEIMENTAL WOEK IN PoMOLOGY 1. Variety WorJc in Pomology (C. D. Matthews and W. A. Rad- spinner). ISTotes and observations on the behavior of varieties of fruits in the different sections of the State are made from year to year. These notes and observations show the range of adaptability of the varieties in different sections. Much time and care is expended each year in writing, revising and checking descriptions of almost all of the important varieties of fruit grown in the State. These descriptions are to be used in future publi- cations, and are employed by the Division as an aid in identifying^ varieties of fruit sent to the oifice from over the State. 2. Native Fruits of North Carolina (C. D. Matthews). The place of origin, the history, and the description of a number of varieties of North Carolina origin have been secured. When oppor- tunity offered, the descriptions of varieties secured previous to this season were verified. Paintings and photographs have been made of the most important varieties. 3. Investigational Work with Peaches (Mountain Station, Truck Station, Piedmont Station, Coastal Plain Station — C. D. Matthews- and W. A. Radspinner). Commissioner of AGHticuLxuKE 75 (a) "Dehorning" Peach Trees. — ISTo active work done on this project during tlie period. (b) Peach Breeding. — It is the object of this project to produce improved commercial varieties that are more suited to ]Srorth Carolina conditions than are the present varieties. It is the purpose to produce varieties hardier in bud than the present commercial sorts. To provide working material for this project a variety orchard con- taining over 60 different varieties of peaches was planted at the Truck Station during 1917. These trees have made a very satisfactory growth since being planted. The last year nearly all varieties were killed by cold and consequently no work was done. Some very valuable preliminary work was done in regard to collecting data concerning the characteris- tics of the different verieties. (c) Hardiness of Peach Varieties in Western North Carolina. — Twenty varieties of peaches, comprising varieties adapted both to ex- treme northern and to southern conditions, were planted at the Moun- tain Station in the spring of 1919 to furnish material for work on deter- mining the relative hardiness of different peach varieties in "Western ISTorth Carolina. These trees have made a very satisfactory growth since being planted. (d) Phenological Studies ivith Peaches. — The practice of collecting phonological notes on the peach varieties in the varietal peach orchard at the Truck Station was started during the spring of 1920. These notes will be of immense value in handling the breeding project. (e) Variety Testing with Peaches. — ISTo active work was done on this project because the crop at the Truck Station was killed by late spring frosts. 4. Investigational WorJc with Pecans (Truck Station, Coastal Plain Station, and Piedmont Station — C. D. Matthews and W. A. Radspinner), (a) Variety Testing.— Thivtj-two of the most important southern varieties are included in this test which has been conducted for fifteen years. Gratifying results are being secured from this work, as certain varieties are showing marked adaptability to ISTorth Carolina conditions, while others are proving to be undesirable. At this time valuable recommendations regarding pecan varieties for planting in this State can be made. According to the results secured, the Schley, Stuart, and Alley varieties are the most desirable for Eastern ISTorth Carolina. (b) Individual Tree Performance. — The securing of performance rec- ords of the individual pecan trees in the experimental orchards at the several stations is being continued from year to year. Such a record affords a more detailed study of the behavior of the different varieties. As a result of the individual tree performance records it has been noted, that trees of the same variety under identical conditions are uni- formly heavy yielders, while others are very poor producers, that some produce uniformly large nuts and others uniformly small nuts. As these 76 Biennial Repokt individual performance records suggest the possibility of improving and standardizing individual yields by bud selection, work lias been started along this line. (c) Cultural Practices.- — The value of correct cultural practices, such as tillage and the use of cover crops, is clearly shown in the increased size and number of nuts produced when compared to trees and their products grown in sod. To detemiine the most desirable system of tillage and cover cropping to be employed in pecan orchards, work of this nature is being conducted at the branch stations. (d) Pecan Breeding.- — The seedlings, as a result of pecan breeding work, that were set in 1915 at the truck station are making a statisfac- tory growth. Some of these seedlings are of bearing size and should produce some nuts during the coming year. (e) Top-worhing Pecan Trees. — The investigations dealing with the methods of budding and grafting employed in top-working pecan trees was continued this year. It has been found that a combination of both grafting and budding should be used to secure the most satisfactory results. As a result of years of investigation it is the opinion of this division that top-working should be confined, as a general rule, to trees not over 8 to 10 years old to be entirely successful. (f ) CracMng Tests with Pecan Varieties. — The cracking tests of the different varieties is made each year. The cracking test is a necessary adjunct to the performance record of a given variety in determining its value in a certain section. Very often a variety is highly satisfactory from a productive standpoint, but the cracking test shows it to be nearly worthless from a utility viewpoint. The cracking test shows the number of nuts per pound and determines the per cent of unbroken halves the variety will crack out, the per cent of shrunken kernels, the per cent of physiological spot, the percent of faulty nuts, and shape and size of the kernels, the texture, quality and flavor of meat, the per cent of meat and the thickness of shell. As a result of these cracking tests conducted each year, certain varieties that were satisfactory from a productive stand- point proved to be totally unsuited to IN^orth Carolina conditions. 5. Investigational Worh loitli Strawberries (Truck Station — C. D. Matthews and Robert Schmidt). (a) Variety Testing. — This project was discontinued temporarily be- cause of lack of funds. The variety testing project with strawberries was initiated several years ago with the purpose of determining whether or not there were any other varieties more desirable as commercial market varieties than Klondike and Missionary, the two leading com- mercial varieties. For this State the most profitable berry combines the characteristics of productiveness, earliness, and shipping quality. ISTone of the varieties so far tested have shown themselves superior to Klondike and Missionary as commercial varieties. Several of the varieties have shown themselves valuable for home use. CoMMISSIOiSrER OF AGRICULTURE 77 6. Investigation's with Apples (C. D. Matthews and W. A. Radspinner^ Mountain Station, Piedmont Station, and Truck Station). (a) Pruning (Mountain Station). — Tlie pruning project was begun during 1919 with the intention of securing information on the desirable height to head apple trees, to determine the comparative value of the open head and the modified leader system of training, and to secure in- formation on the amount of annual pruning most desirable. To supply material for this work an orchard containing approximately 128 trees was planted at the Mountain Station in the spring of 1919. The trees have made a very satisfactory growth and the first four years work has been completed as planned. The results so far secured indicate that growers have been pruning too severely, thereby causing a reduction in fruit production. Light pruning is the most satisfactory. (b) Apple Thinning (Mountain Station and Piedmont Station) — Experiments to determine the effect of thinning fruits and leaves from the fruit spurs of the apple were initiated. "Work on this project has not been conducted a sufficient length of time to supply information on the subject. (c) Summer Apples (Truck Station).— The summer apple orchard at the Truck Station did not produce a crop this season because of frost injury. Experimental Work in Vegetable Culture 1. Investigational Work with Siveet Potatoes (Truck Station and Edgecombe Station — C. D. Matthews and Robert Schmidt). (a) Variety Testing. — It is the purpose of this work to determine the most desirable varieties of sweet potatoes for Eastern ISTorth Carolina from the standpoint of productivity, market value, keeping quality and quantity. There were 29 varieties under observation this year. The results were, in the main confirmatory of the work of previous season. ISTancy Hall and Porto Rico have proved their desirability, while others have shown, themselves to be undesirable. (b) Storage. — In connection with the variety work, storage tests are being made from year to year in the storage-houses to determine the behavior of the different varieties in storage. Certain varieties have proven themselves to be better keepers than others. Investigations to determine the relation of time of digging to keeping quality, the relation of proper harvesting to keeping quality, the proper method of curing, and the correct management of the house, have been continued this season. As a result of this work, the division can authoritatively make recom- mendations regarding varieties for storage and the most desirable methods to employ in the management of the storage-house. (c) Cultural Practices. — During the year, work was conducted to secure information on the following different cultural practices : (1) The comparative value of slips versus vine cuttings as regards productivity. 78 Biennial Report (2) The effect of ridging on productivity and type of potatoes. (3) Tlie effect of vine cuttings on yield. (d) Seed Selection. — The following lines of work dealing with, the •seed selection of sweet potatoes were conducted during the year : (1) To determine the relative value of seed stock from high-yielding and low-yielding hills as regards productivity and uniformity of potatoes. (2) To determine the relative value of vine cuttings as compared with slips for maintaining yield and type, commencing from the same hill. (3) To determine the comparative value of large and small potatoes for seed. (4) To determine the comparative value of seed from late vine cuttings and seed from main crop draws as regards productivity, type and keeping quality. Yery satisfactory progress should be reported on this project for this year. 2. Investigational WorTc with Irish Potatoes (Mountain Station and Truck Station — C. D. Matthews, Robert Schmidt, and S. C. Clapp). (a) Variety Testing (Mountain Station). — The testing of varieties of Irish potatoes to determine the most desirable varieties for Western ISTorth Carolina conditions was discontinued temporarily this year. The testing has been in progress for a sufficient length of time to afford this division with the necessary information to make reliable recommen- dations regarding the choice of varieties for the western part of the State. (b) Variety Testing (Truck Station). — Satisfactory progress should be reported on the work to determine the most desirable early varieties for Eastern North Carolina and the best varieties for the second crop. (c) Cultural Practices (Truck Station). — ^Work was conducted to determine the effects of different cultural practices on the yield of potatoes. Practices receiving consideration were: (1) "Width of rows. (2) Distance apart in the rows. (3) Freshly cut or stored cut seed. (4) Effect of sprouting on yield. (5) Cut versus uncut seed. (d) Testing the Value of Different Sources of Seed. — Experiments ivere conducted to determine the comparative value of Maine-grown seed, second crop seed produced in the Coastal Plain and Western North Carolina seed in different stages of maturity as the most desirable seed for the early crop of Irish potatoes in Eastern North Carolina. Results so far secured indicate that this is a practical proportion and opens up new possibilities in potato growing in Western North Carolina. (e) Investigation of Methods for Producing Seed Potatoes in Western -North Carolina for Use in Eastern North Carolina. — Two methods of Commissioner of Agriculture 79 attack are being used in this investigation — one consists in growing the seed at different elevations, while the other consists in planting the potatoes at different times in the spring and summer. In both cases it is intended to secure seed at different stages of maturity. At present results indicate that elevations over 2,500 feet will grow desirable seed for Eastern Carolina. 3. Investigation Worlc with Cabbage (Mountain Station — C. D. Matthews, Robert Schmidt, and S. C. Clapp). (a) Variety Testing. — The testing of varieties of cabbage to deter- mine the most desirable varieties for Western JSTorth Carolina was con- tinued this year. The testing has been in progress for a sufficient length of time to afford this division with the necessary information to make reliable recommendations regarding the choice of varieties for the western part of the State. » Extension "Work Extension work of the division has been conducted with the idea of developing both commercial and home horticulture. Outstanding among the home phases of this work "are home gardening, home beautification, and home fruit production, all conducted with the aim of improving living conditions on the farm. The workers of this division in coopera- tion with the home agents and the county agents have been stressing these lines of work, with very satisfactory results, through the means of meetings, instruction and demonstrations. In commercial horticulture special attention has been directed to the apple, Irish potato, cabbage and sweet potato industries. The value of this work is emphasized when the need of the western part of the State for money crops and the demand of the boll weevil section for money crops to supplement cotton is fully understood. Intensive and valuable demonstrational work has been conducted with the apple growers in proper methods of spraying, pruning, fertilization, and general orchard management. The seed Irish potato industry in the western counties is being rapidly developed. Seed growers associations are being formed, with those of Avery and Buncombe being notable examples. The division organized and conducted seed certification service with these organizations, in which the seed plats and stock of each grower was inspected with the idea of certifying his stock in regard to varietal purity, freedom from disease, trueness to type and grade. In connec- tion with this work the division is conducting demonstrations in the eastern part of the State to show the value of "Western North Carolina seed in comparison with Maine seed. Particular attention has been given to the development of the cabbage industry and kraut-making. In this connection a part-time kraut specialist has been employed to work with the growers, and in Watauga County the Watauga Kraut Growers Association has been formed. 80 Biennial Report The sweet potato industry was propably confronted with more prob- lems than any other horticultural industry, and consequently received m.ore attention from the division during the year than any other project. The activities of the workers were expended in behalf of improved varie- ties, better strains, better seed, uniform cultural practices, and building of storage-houses. Peojeots Apples. — The limiting factors in apple production in JSTorth Caro- lina are orchard management and pruning and spraying. Definite pro- jects and definite demonstrations with orchard management and with pruning and spraying have been conducted in cooperation with the county agents. In the orchard management demonstrations splendid results have been secured. The results secured in cooperation mth W. W. Walker, Hen- dersonville are illustrative of the effectiveness of the work. In this dem- onstration part of the orchard was treated by giving light dormant pruning, nitrate of soda, cultivation and six sprays — one dormant and five summer applications. The untreated portion of the orchard received no pruning, fertilization, cultivation or spraying. A tree from' each portion of the orchard was selected and actual yields measured. The trees were of the Winesap variety, twenty years old, and set a heavy bloom. The two trees were 25 feet apart. The treated tree gave 18 bushels of marketable apples and 3 bushels of culls, while the untreated tree gave a total yield of one-fourth bushel of culls. As an example of the spraying demonstrations in the same orchard six Winesaps were sprayed with the result that they yielded 126 bushels of apples. The checked tree of one Winesap yielded only one-fourth bushel. The statistical summary of the work for 1923 on apple projects shows 32 visits to agents, 71 demonstrations, 171 visits to others, 58 meetings, with attendance of 1,741 at meetings and demonstrations, 3,524 miles traveled by rail and 3,332 miles traveled by auto. Peach. — The division cooperated with the Hamlet Chamber of Com- merce in conducting the third annual Sandhills Peach Show. An in- teresting program was conducted with about 3,000 in attendance. General Fruit. — General demonstrations with pruning and. spraying the home orchard were also made throughout the State. The statistical summary of this work for 1923 shows 9 visits to agents, 9 demonstra- tions, 8 meetings, with an attendance of 360 484 miles traveled by rail and 184 miles traveled by auto. Sweet Potatoes. — The progress in sweet potato work is one of the outstanding features of the program of the division. This work consists in holding demonstrations, attending m.eetings and in supplying infor- mation in regard to the production, harvesting, storing and handling of Commissioner of Agriculture 81 sweet potatoes. Mucli assistance is given in the construction of sweet potato storage-houses and in the organization and management of local associations of sweet potato growers. The organization of local associations of sweet potato growers to con- struct storage-houses and to market their potatoes has been conducted in cooperation Avitli the Division of Markets. These locals were success- fully federated into a central selling agency. Counties that have be- come infested with the boll weeial have been advised to grow slowly into commercial sweet potato business, while every community has been urged to build" storage-houses to supply its local demand as a strictly conservation measure. A statistical summary for 1923 of this work shows 7 visits to agents, 23 visits to others, 9 demonstrations, 14 meet- ings, attendance 177 969 miles traveled by rail, 154 by auto. Irish Potatoes. — The work of the project consists of three important phases : First the development of seed-growers cooperative associations in the western part of the State; second, the development of the inspec- tion service for seed potatoes in the State and, third, the demonstration of comparative value of Western ISTorth Carolina seed with that of the Maine grown seed for Eastern Carolina. In organizing the seed potato growers associations the membership of nearly 300 growers was secured on a contract basis. Definite methods of production were worked out in cooperation with the associations, so that a very high type of potato production was secured. Inspection service was developed whereby three field inspections and one bin inspection were given to fields entered for certified seed. This work was done in five counties in Western ISTorth Carolina with nearly 200 fields. As a result of the inspection work a quantity of very high quality seed stock has been produced. Eighteen demonstrations in Eastern Carolina showing the compara- tive value of the Western ISTorth Carolina seed and the Maine seed were conducted. Erom the 18 demonstrations an average yield of 174 bushels of ISTo. I's and 48 bushels ISTo. 2's and culls from the mountain seed, and 150 bushels ISTo. I's and 51 bushels of ]STo. 2's and culls from the Maine seed were secured. This shows that the mountain seed outyielded ' the northern seed an average of 24 bushels per acre. In the conduct of the potato work the statistical summary for 1923 shows 46 visits to agents, 223 visits to others, 50 demonstrations, 16 meetings (total attendance, 379), 2,305 miles traveled by train, and 2,829 by auto. Cahhage. — The work on this project consisted in the organization of a cabbage growers association, the construction of a kraut factory, and giving demonstrations and supplying information in regard to cabbage growing and the operation of a kraut factory. Very successful results are being secured with the sale of cabbage through the associa- tion in the manufacture of kraut and in the sale of kraut. There are 90 cabbage growers in the association. Three hundred and fifty tons of 6 82 Biennial Eeport cabbage bave been delivered to tbe association, witb about 120 tons of it sold in tbe fresli state, and 230 bave been put into kraut. Cabbage bas been sold above tbe market price because of tbe superior grade of tbe cabbage of tbe association, wbicb is possible from tbe fact tbat lower grades can be put into kraut. Tbe statistical summary of tbe work on tbis project in 1923 sbows 45 visits to agents, 404 visits to otbers, 13 meetings (attendance 192), 1,616 miles traveled by rail and 838 traveled by auto. Home Garden. — Of f ar-reacbing importance was tbe work of tbe bome garden project, in wbicb efforts were successfully made fo increase tbe number and quality of bome and farm gardens and to empbasize tbe value of tbe "all-year" garden. Tbe circular "Tbe Farm and Home Garden Maimal" was reprinted to supply tbe demand for tbis publica- tion. Botb tbe county and bome agents bave been developing tbe work in otber counties. . Tbe work bas been conducted, witb tbe economic, tbrift, social, educational and public bealtb pbases empbasized. Mucb assistance bas been given to bome agents in tbeir project of growing vegetables for tbeir curb markets. A statistical summary for 1923 sbows 163 demonstrations, 49 meetings witb a total attendance of 2,486. Home B eautification. — The following types of demonstrations are given in cooperation witb tbe bome demonstration and county agents during tbe last year : 1. Transplanting Demonstrations: To teacb tbe bome owners bow to transplant trees, sbrubs and vines, especially native varieties, from tbe woods, to tbeir yards so as to save tbe wbole sbape or frame work of tbe tree or sbrub. 2. Variety Demonstrations : To acquaint tbe prospective planters witb flowers, sbrub and tree varieties and tbeir use in tbe landscape, witb empbasis on tbe native varieties — and improved exotic sorts. 3. Arrangement Demonstrations : To sbow bow plant materials can be arranged to really enbance tbe appearance of tbe grounds and to give serviceable comfort as well. 4. Lawn Demonstrations: To sbow tbe fundamental principles of lawn building and maintenance by soil preparation and fertilization, and tbe proper seeds and seeding. 5. Engineering Demonstrations : To sbow tbe proper metbods of drainage, yard divisions, arrangement of buildings and tbe construction and maintenance of drives and walks. 6. Maintenance Demonstration: To demonstrate bow to properly prune, fertilize, spray and otherwise maintain tbe plantings. The following method was employed: The county home demonstra- tion or farm agent, or both, had previously arranged to hold a "County Home and School Improvement Campaign." The bome garden spe- cialist was then called into conference and a definite plan or program for the landscape part of this cam.paign was determined. In some counties community meetings were held in which the proposition was Commissioner of Agriculture 83 presented in detail. Then a day or so was spent in this community giving demonstrations on home, yard and community grounds planning (the latter usually a school ground) . Definite plans were made, to scale on . a sheet of white paper, size 17 x 22. Carbons were made of this plan in triplicate. One copy to go to the demonstrator, one to the county agent and one to place in the files at the horticultural ofiice in Raleigh. Each plan shows in detail complete planting and arrangement plans. Also lists showing varieties suitable for each district, checking those plants to be used in the plan. Such plans were prepared for the actual demonstrations while merely rough pencil sketches were made and given to the owners often times where only a few suggestions were wanted. This work offered a variety of types of landscape improvement. Plans were prepared for eighty schools, seventy-nine homes, twenty- eight churches, one community park, two cemeteries, seven courthouse grounds, and one town community center. Rough sketches were made of seventy-one home grounds, five cotton mill grounds, three mill villages, and one whole town was replanned. The plan is to follow up these demonstrations for two full years in order that as far as possible the plantings and arrangements may actually become accomplished facts. Planting bees or arbor days are to be arranged at each school or com- munity demonstration, at which time each pupil and patron, of the school is to plant some permanent tree, shrub, or flower. It is the plan this year to hold one such day in each of the counties where such demon- strations have been started, others to follow as time will permit. A special course for home agents was given during the summer at the annual conference of home agents. Several demonstrations were prepared and presented to them in their annual state conference at Blue Ridge in early July. Each of these lessons was amply illustrated by graphic illustrations. The object of these lessons was to show in at least a general way the types of plants that are most suitable for home landscape; to acquaint the demonstration agents with the general plan of home and community landscape improvement; to familiarize the agents with the native plant materials; to show that each home is a specific problem and how best to handle it. These lessons were well received by the agents, who were very attentive, and many have since shown that much good was derived. State Fair Three important phases of the extension work in horticulture were illustrated at the State Fair. The work of the home beautification pro- pect was outlined in a very effective demonstration. This consisted of two small houses constructed to be identical. The one set upon stone pillars situated in a barren yard, all cut up with ruts, showing no order or arrangement, few or no trees, and shrubs, and no lawn. The other 84 Biennial Keport represented tlie same house after it had been tastefully painted and shrubs, trees, vines and flowers were planted in an orderly, logical way about the foundation and borders of the green, well-kept lawn. The drives and walks were well arranged and well kept. This presented a decided contrast to the former. An exhibit demonstrating the results of the eighteen demonstrations on the comparative value of Western North Carolina and northern seed was very effectively made. This graphically showed the results of this work as reported in another section of this report. The work in orchard management was very emphatically brought out in an exhibit of the actual fruit from a tree in the treated plat and from a tree in the untreated j)lat in the Walker demonstration at Henderson- ville, mentioned under the heading of apple work in another section of the report. General Truck Worh. — This project includes work with commercial truck crops. A statistical summary for 1923 shows 12 visits to agents, 9 meetings, 470 attendance, 235 miles traveled by rail, 121 by auto. Cooperative Packing Houses. — This division working in cooperation with the workers from the Virginia Extension Service formed the Vir- ginia Carolina Fruit Growers Association at Mount Airy, N. C. Seven orchards, comprising 40,000 bearing apple trees, were signed up. A central grading and packing plant has been equipped and this year's crop is being sold cooperatively by the Virginia-Carolina Fruit Growers. As a result of the central packing house a very high quality pack is being prepared. Respectfully submitted, C. D. MatthewS;, Chief, Division of Horticulture. DIVISION OF AGRONOMY To the Commissioner of Agriculture: SiK : — You will find enclosed a copy of the complete report of the Field Crop "Work conducted in the Division of Agronomy during the past year. This report includes hoth the work on the branch stations and on the Central Station farm. REPORT OF FIELD CROP WORK, NOVEMBER 1, 1923, TO NOVEMBER 1, 1924 R. Y. WiNTEES. P. H. KiME, and G. M. Gaeren The field crop work of the past year has consisted of seed improve- ment investigations, crop-culture experiments, and seed treatment tests. This work has been conducted on the Central and Branch Experiment Station Farms. The following is a brief account of the work done dur- ing the past year along with some of the important results secured. RESULTS ON MOUNTAIN STATION FARM Six field crop projects are in progress at the Mountain Station. These include variety tests of spring oats, soybeans and stock beets, and seed selection work with corn and soybeans. The severe winter in the mountain section limits the production of oats to spring plantings. Former tests with winter oats planted in the fall proved that this prac- tice was unsafe on account of winter killing. The recent work has had for its purpose the testing of local and improved strains of winter and spring oats. Seed of improved strains were secured from northern ex- periment stations. In these tests the Fulghum oat, an early southern winter strain, has yielded best. The soybean variety tests at this station have included eleven of the earlier varieties of this crop. This year, as in former years, the soybeans have attracted a large number of visitors and have had considerable influence in the introduction of the crop into the mountain section. The pedigreed strain of Haberlandt JSTo. 38 continues to lead in yield of seed at this station and is gradually being distributed to farmers of the mountain section. In order to better fit the Haberlandt to mountain conditions, plant-to-row selection work has been conducted during the past two years. The selections have shown considerable variation in earliness and ability to stand upright at the time of maturity. The selections from Haberlandt l^o. 38 soybeans at this station will furnish the mountain section with a productive soy- bean which fits the short season there. The testing of stock beet varieties was started by Mr. S. C. Clapp, superintendent of the station. Although this was started primarily to determine the best source of vegetable winter food for poultry, the re- sults will also be valuable for the small dairymen of the mountains who do not have sufficient cows to warrant the construction of a silo. 86 Biennial Kepoet The selection work with seed corn has been continued, a special ef- fort being made to save as much good seed corn this season as possible on account of the damage by early frost to the seed corn of portions of the mountain section. RESULTS ON THE PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION FARM The field crop work at the Piedmont Branch Station has consisted of small grain culture tests, small grain variety tests, cotton culture tests, cotton improvement, and corn improvement. The small grain culture tests, which have been in progress five years, include comparison of differ- ent dates and rates of seeding wheat and oats. The following table con- tains the average results for wheat. The results indicate that the period between October 15 and ISTovember 1 is the best time and 90 pounds per acre the best rate for seeding wheat in the section of the State repire- sented by this station. Table ISTo. II contains similar results for seed oats, showing that the best results are secured from seedings made between October 15 and ISTovember 1, with a seeding of three bushels per acre. The field work on this project has been discontinued and the results are being prepared for publication. Table I — Whbiat Culture Studies Average Yield from Different Dates and Rates of Seeding on Piedmont Branch Station, Statesville, North Carolina Dates of Seedings Rates of Seeding- -Pounds per Acre Average 30 60 90 120 for Dates 9.0 11.6 13.1 10.7 6.4 11.8 13.8 15.8 12.6 9.3 12.7 15.2 15.2 14.4 7.5 11.6 15.4 16.1 14.9 8.0 11.2 October 15 15.0 15.0 13.1 7.9 10.1 12.6 13.0 13.3 Table II — Oat Culture Studies Average Yield from Different Dates and Rates of Seeding, Piedmont Branch Station, Statesville, North Carolina Dates of Seedings Rates of Seedings- —Pounds per Acre Average 30 60 90 120 for Dates 18.7 16.1 29.2 30.9 32.1 19.2 20.9 22.5 31.4 35.8 37.6 26.8 21.6 25.2 31.8 42.0 42.4 32.0 20.4 25.3 32.9 41.0 38.3 35.3 20.4 22 2 October 1 31.3 37.6 November 1 37.6 28.3 24.3 29.1 32.5 32.2 Commissioner of Agriculture 87 The work witli small grain varieties has consisted of field tests with standard varieties of wheat, oats, barley and rye. In the wheat work Leap's Prolific and Fnlcaster continue to lead, though Alabama Blue Stem and Gleason are very promising varieties. The Alabama Blue Stem is particularly well adapted to the light soils of the Piedmont section and Gleason has been remarkable for its resistance to rust. The Fulghum oats has been the highest yielding oat, with Appier a close second. The oat variety tests have given splendid information in regard to the relative yields of ordinary commercial seed oats and oats of the same variety selected from high yield and properly handled. The pedi- greed Pulghum oats have averaged 17 bushels per acre more than the ordinary comme:?cial seed bought of seedsmen. The pedigreed Abruzzi rye improved at this station has continued to hold the lead in the rye variety test. This strain of Abruzzi rye has furnished a good source of seed during the past five y&ars. During the past two years this station has conducted work with barley varieties to determine their relative yield when compared with oats and to determine the best strain for the Piedmont section. In these tests the oats have produced the heavier yield during mild seasons, but are not as winter hardy as barley. On account of the custom of seeding all small grain, rather late barley will succeed better on land subject to winter killing. In the barley tests the pedigreed strain of Hooded Bar- ley jSTo. 6 from the Tennessee Experiment Station has yielded best. The cotton culture tests included studies of early bedding as compared with fresh bedding and close spacing of plants in the row compared with broad spacing. This project was started the past season and the com- plete results have not been secured. In the corn improvement project the modified ear-to-row method of selection has been practiced. This work has established a source of good seed for the Piedmont section. The field meetings of farmers and county agents held at these plats have stimulated interest in the field selection of corn in this section. CENTRAL STATION The field crop work at the Central Station has included two research or Adam's projects with cotton, seven research projects in cooperation with graduate students of the college, and eleven Hatch projects. The following is a list of these projects with a summary of the results : Cotton Research (Adam^s Project JSTo. 14) This study of the inheritance and association of economic characters in the cotton plant was started in 1913. The work has consisted of isolating from one variety of cotton several strains varying in earliness, habit of branching, amount of vegetative growth, size of boll, amount of fuzz, covering on the seed, length of staple, and yield. Careful data has also been taken on the temperature and rainfall during the growing 88 Biennial Report season, and particularly the reaction of tlie different types to seasonal conditions. The main portion of the field results were completed in 1921, but certain strains have been continued to check results that are at variance with other authors. Two papers have been prepared from the above material, one con- cerning the relation of rainfall at the time of blooming to the balance between fruiting and vegetative growth, and the other deals with the in- heritance of fuzz on the seed coat of cotton and its probable economic value. Place Effect Studies With Cotton In this work a study has been made of cotton plants produced from seed of the same pure line, part of which were grown in Mississippi and part in Worth Carolina. Certain growers of Mississippi were of the opinion that JSTorth Carolina grown cotton_ seed gave an earlier crop than their home-grown seed. Although the plantings were made for five years, only during three years was the stand sufficient to obtain reliable results. During two of three years the seed grown in Missis- sippi produced plants that were slightly taller at blooming time and at maturity. The Mississippi grown seed also produced slightly earlier maturity when measured by the percentage of crop opened at a given date. The data on rainfall and temperature taken at the two points showed practically no difference. Differences were found in the size and weight of seed produced in the two localities, the Mississippi seed being larger. A third comparison in which large seed were supplied from ISTorth Carolina gave slightly earlier plants in the I^orth Carolina plantings. This work has been discontinued on account of the difficulty of securing uniform stands at the two points the same year. COTTON RESEARCH PRO.JECTS CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH GRADUATE STUDENTS From time to time the cotton investigations have suggested problems of interest and economic value which could not be handled by the regular workers in this field. Seven such problems have been studied in cooperation with graduate students, who have chosen them as major problems. In each case the students have had a problem outlined and supervised with the understanding that the data thus secured could be used by the experiment station. The following is a list of the projects that have been treated in this way, along with a brief summary of the results : 1. A study of the diameter and tensile strength of cotton fibers from five varieties of cotton which were grown under the same conditions. This work was through the cooperation of R. Y. Winters, Plant Breed- ing Agronomist, and J. B. Cotner, graduate student. Results. — In the examination of fibers from five varieties of cotton, Cleveland Big Boll, Mexican Big Boll, King, Cook, and Rowden, con- Commissioner of x^gricitltitee 89 siderable differences were found in the average diameters and tensile strength. There was a direct relation between diameter and tensile strength, the varieties with the broader fibers having the greatest break- ing strength. Among the varieties studied Mexican Big Boll gave the greatest diameter, 22.576 microns, and the greatest strength, 54.54 deci- grams, while Cleveland Big Boll furnished fibers of the smallest diameter, 18.836 microns, and a breaking strength of 31.43 decigrams. The corre- lation tables for each variety show a direct relation between diameter of fiber and tensile strength, the broader fiber being stronger. The corre- lation between diameter of fiber and tensile strength for all varieties was .623 -j- .013, showing a positive relation. 2. A study of the density of cotton fibers on the seed coat and its relation to other physical qualities of the fiber. This work was con- ducted in cooperation between E. Y. Winters, Plant Breeding Agrono- mist, and L. I. Henning, a graduate student. Results. — In this Avork a new method of determining the density of cotton fiber population on the seed coat has been suggested. It consists of the use of a sharpened leather punch which cuts out a section of the seed coat of known area. By counting the fibers attached it is possible to determine the relative number of fibers on different portions of the seed and on seeds of different plants. In the material studied the follow- ing relations were found : As the fiber population increased, the diame- ter of fiber, the lint index and percentage of lint increased, and the length of fiber and weight of seed decreased. Decrease in length was associated with increased diameter. 3. A study of relation betw^een length and diameter of cotton fibers. Conducted in cooperation between B. Y. Winters, Plant Breeding Agron- omist, and P. J. ISTaude, a graduate student. Results. — The results from the material used show that as the length of fibers increase the per cent of lint and diameter of fibers decrease. The correlation between length and diameter of fibers is — 0.02929 + 0.03560. The correlation between length of fibers and percent of lint is — 0.2650 + .03621. Increase in size of seed was found to be slightly associated with longer fibers. The correlation between these two char- acters is +0.11303 + 0.03845. 4. A study of the density of fiber population on the cotton seed coat and its relation to the twist in fiber. Conducted in cooperation between E. Y. Winters, Plant Breeding Agronomist, and T. C. Chang, graduate student. Res2iUs. — Increased density of fiber population is definitely- associated with increased number of twists per inch. Increased length was found to be associated with decrease in number of twists per inch. When the fibers Avere divided in half and the number of twists per inch counted the end attached to the seed contained the smaller number of twists per inch. 90 Biennial Report 5. A study of the distribution of cotton fibers on the seed and its rela- tion to the veination of the seed coat. This project has been outlined and the material secured for cooperative work with J. H, Moore, grad- uate student. The project is to be completed in the spring. 6. A comparison of physical characters of cotton fibers from two varieties of cotton grown in states of the Southwest and ITorth Carolina. This project has been outlined and material secured for cooperative work with G. L. "Winchester. The project is to be completed by May 1, 7. In connection with the above project a cooperative project with the State College Textile School has been outlined. The work consists of spinning tests with inch and a sixteenth cotton produced in the south- west and in ISTorth Carolina. Hatch Projects The following are Hatch projects in progress at the Central Station. In recent years the division has had several inquiries regarding the treatment of cotton seed just previous to planting for the purpose of hastening germination. In order to answer these questions more intelli- gently, this project was started the past season. The seed were treated by the following methods, delinted with sulphuric acid, seed rolled in wood ashes, rolled in 15 pounds of nitrate of soda per bushel, and no treatment. Records were kept on length of time required to germinate stand, relative earliness and yield. The delinted seed were first to germinate, those rolled in ashes second, the normal seed third, and those treated with nitrate of soda last. The nitrate of soda delayed germina- tion approximately four days when compared with the delinted seed. The following table contains the results of stand, yield, and relative earliness of plants from seed treated by the above method. Cotton Seed Treatment Tests Treatment Number of Mature Plants per Acre Number of Bolls Open Oct. 9th per Acre Yield of Seed Cotton Oct. 23d, First Picking, per Acre Number Bolls per Plant Open Oct. 9th Delinted (acid)* Rolled in ashes No treatment (check) Rolled in nitrate of sodaft 12,751 13,571 11,029 10,660 23,411 20,370 13,694 13,243 676 594 512 1.84 1.50 1.24 1.24 *Delinted — Seed delinted with sulphuric acid, washed, and rolled in lime to neutralize acid. fNitrate of soda — Seed rolled in nitrate of Soda at the rate of fifteen pounds per bushel. Small Grain Improvement The small grain improvement work has consisted of increasing selec- tions from Leap's Prolific and Blue Stem Wheat, and testing recent selections from Abruzzi rye. The pedigreed strain N"o. 32 from Leap's Prolific has continued to stand well on soils that produce fifteen or more Commissioner of Ageiculture 91 bushels of wheat per acre. Seed of this strain is now being established among growers of Davie and Rowan counties. The Blue Stem is the earliest strain of wheat that has come to our attention. On account of its small growth and early maturity it has led the wheat variety tests on land that produce less than fifteen bushels per acre. The pedigreed strain of Abruzzi rye selected at this station has been a source of good seed during the past five years. It has been established in Forsyth, Eowan, and Guilford counties. The selection work is being continued to keep the strain up to standard. Crimson Clover Source of Seed Test Crimson clover seed from American and European sources were sown under uniform field conditions and the relative growth, earliness, and yield of hay determined. The local sources of seed included samples from ISTorth Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, and the foreign seed included six samples from France, one from England, and one from Czecko Slovakia. This work is being conducted in cooperation with the Office of Forage Crop Investigations of the Bureau of Plant Industry. The results of the past season indicate that regardless of source of seed, the earlier maturing strains are best adapted to this section of the State. The following table contains a summary of the results : Crimson Clover Soukce of Seed Test, Season 1923-24 Plat No. Source of Seed Relative Growth Condition Apr. 11th Yield Hay 60 1,760 70 2,000 65 2,040 30 1,360 40 1,320 65 1,360 60 2,120 65 1,812 70 1,850 80 2,500 50 1,800 Stage of Maturity May 15th 1 2, 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 North Carolina. Georgia, Tennessee English French French Czech o-Slovakia French French French French Blooms turning Blooms turning Blooms turning Full bloom Full bloom Blooms turning Blooms turning Blooms turning Early bloom Blooms turning Early bloom brown brown brown brown brown brown brown Note. — Harvested for hay May loth. This project has been continued. The results should be of value in finding strains best adapted to our State, and may furnish a source of seed with which to start the production of home-grown seed of this crop. Lespedeza Strains During the past few years lespedeza has become an important crop in the southern Piedmont section of our State. It is now being grown extensively in Union, Anson, and Stanly counties. In order to supply the county agents and farmers of these sections with reliable informa- 92 Biennial Report tion about the strains of this crop, comparisons have been made with the Tennessee, Kobe, and ordinary commercial lespedeza. In previous tests the Tennessee strain has proved superior in growth to the ordinary lespedeza. In the current year's test the Tennessee strain has given more upright growth than the Kobe strain and did not fail so soon in the fall. Vetch Varieties Plantings were made of Woolly Podd, Hungarian, and Purple vetches for determining their relative growth and earliness. All of these vetches were damaged by cold, though the woolly podded vetch stood up best. ISTew seed of the Hungarian vetch have been secured from x^lantings that were made under more severe winter conditions and the work continued this fall. Cotton Culture The spacing tests of cotton have been continued though the unfavor- able spring weather caused too many breaks in the stand to get a fair comparison this season. In last season's tests the eight-inch spacing yielded higher than plats having no thinning, twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four-inch spacing. Cotton Seed Improvement The cotton seed improvement work for the past season included studies of yield and lint characters of four strains isolated from Mexican Big Boll No. 6. Records have been kept of the time of blooming and relative amount of fruit set early in the season. In this respect strain 6 — 1 — 9 has been superior to the other three. Strain 6 — 1 — 9 has also given a more uniform length of 1%6 staple. Sufficient seed of this strain have been saved to plant thirty acres next year. Sorghum Seed Improvement The work, with sorghums was started during the war, when there was a scarcity of sugar. In the variety tests of that time the Honey or Japanese seeded Ribbon cane was the highest yielder of juice and syrup. Seed were secured and selection work was started with this variety. Last year the selections showed considerable difference in earliness and production. The lowest yielding strain produced at the rate of 84.4 gallons of syrup per acre and the highest yielding strain 147.5 gallons. Four of the best strains have been continued this season and one of this lot has been chosen for further increase. On account of the lack of interest in sorghums for syrup production, this project will be discon- tinued. On account of the high tonnage yields of silage from the best strain, it mil be established in the eastern part of the State for that purpose, and the strain perpetuated by saving small quantities of seed each year. COMMISSIOI^EK OF AGRICULTURE 93 Soybean Seed Improvement Tlie pedigreed strains of Mammotli Yellow 101, Virginia N'o. 11, and the Herman soybeans have continued to be leaders in their class. In a small way these strains are gradually becoming established among seed growers of the State. Soybean Varieties During the past season twelve standard varieties and thirty-five selec- tions from varieties and hybrids have been included in the variety tests. Among the new strains that have shown promise are: One of Laredo, and a yellow-seeded strain selected from a hybrid between Virginia and Haberlandt. This strain has plant characters like Virginia and the seed color like the Haberlandt. Soybean Selection for Increased Oil Content This work has consisted of comparisons of pure lines of Mammoth Yellow for yield of seed and oil content. The high oil strains proved to be so much lower in yield that they did not produce as much oil per acre as the high-yielding strains of medium oil content. The work has been narrowed down to the increase of two high-yielding strains of medium oil content and one strain having a high oil content. The results of previous v^ork are being prepared for publication. EDGECOMBE BRANCH STATION, ROCKY MOUNT, N. C. The following is a summary of the work and results with field crops at the Edgecombe Branch Station during the past season: Cotton Culture Experiments The cotton culture experiments have included spacing tests, date of seeding tests, and a comparison of early bedding with fresh bedding for cotton. Date of Planting Cotton Date of Planting April 9., April 19 April 30 May 10_ Number of Plants per Plat 198 272 375 Average Yield in Pounds Seed Cotton per Plat of 1/34 Acre 26.25 42 25 43.75 38.75 -During the past season plantings made on April 19 and 30 have given the highest yields. The stand of the early seedings was considerably reduced by unfavorable weather. The April 30 seeding yielded at the rate of 255 pounds of seed cotton per acre more than the April 9 seeding. 94 Biennial Eeport Peepaeation Test The preparation tests were started the past season with the hope of finding some method of securing a better stand of cotton and reducing the death rate of young seedlings during unfavorable spring weather. Eor this purpose plats were prepared two weeks before planting by breaking, running rows, applying fertilizer and bedding. These plats were allowed to stand until planting time, when other plats were pre- pared fresh by the usual method. The folloAving table contains the results from the current year's test. Peepaeation Test Time of Bedding Number of Plants per Plat Yield Seed Cotton, Pounds per 1/34-Acre Plat 352 340 37.50 31.75 For the past season the early bedding produced at the rate of 195 pounds of seed cotton per acre more than the freshly bedded plats. The results represent the average for three plats. Cotton Seed Teeatment The seed treatment tests included comparisons of graded and ungraded seed, seed delinted with sulphuric acid, and seed treated with varying amounts of nitrate of soda before planting. The following table con- tains the results of these tests. Cotton Seed Teeatment Test Nature of Treatment Yield in Seed Cotton, Pounds per Plat of 1/34 Acre Nitrate of soda, 6 pounds per bushel.. Nitrate of soda, 12 pounds per bushel Nitrate of soda, 18 pounds per bushel Check (no treatment) Delinted (sulphuric acid) Ungraded seed Graded seed 33.50 35.25 33.75 35.63 43.00 33.75 39.50 The nitrate of soda treatment delayed germination slightly and the heavier treatment reduced the number of plants per plat slightly. The average yield of the plats planted to graded seed represents an increase 'of 195.5 jDounds of seed cotton per acre more than those planted to ungraded seed. Commissioner of Agkicttlture 95 Cotton Spacing Test In this work plats of cotton liave been left without thinning and others thinned to 8, 12, and 18 inches between hills. The results this year do not quite support the results of other years in different sections of the State. On the average the plats that are not thinned have given the highest yield at the first picking. This season there was very little difference in yield and the early maturity was slightly in favor of the broad spacing. THE TOBACCO EXPERIMENT STATION Cotton Varieties This project was started the past season to supply reliable informa- tion to growers of the tobacco belt who have recently started the produc- tion of cotton. Previous results secured in their section of the State indicate that Cleveland Big Boll and Mexican Big Boll are best adapted. COASTAL PLAIN STATION This work consists of the selection of seed for the improvement of one variety of field corn and one early dent corn for roasting-ears. BLACKLAND STATION Corn Selection The selection of corn adapted to the muck lands of the section repre- sented by this farm. Miscellaneous On account of the seed improvement work of this Department on the Central and branch stations the following improved seed have been supplied to farmers of the State at a reasonable price: Cotton, 1,600 bushels; corn, 140 bushels; rye, 125 bushels; wheat, 80 bushels; soybeans, 80 bushels; barley, 20 bushels; and oats, 40 bushels. Through the cooperation of the Department of Plant Breeding and the State Seed Laboratory, 20,000 bushels of cotton seed intended for seed purposes were found to be very low in germination. The informa- tion was supplied to growers in time to prevent their being used for seed purposes. The condition is very much more serious this year on account of the very general damage of cotton seed by the excessive rains this fall. Unusual efforts should be made this fall and winter to test cotton seed from all sections of the State in order to prevent poor stands of cotton next spring, for the boll weevil at its worst could not cause more damage than is likely to come from the planting of the average cotton seed produced this year. Respectfully submitted, R. Y. "Winters, Plant Breeding Agronomist. REPORT OF THE SOIL FERTILITY WORK To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — I hand you lierewitli the report of the Soil Fertility section of the Division of Agronomy, from ISTovember, 1923, to ISTovember, 1924. The work in the Division of Soil Fertility has been carried out during the year along the following lines : Soil Chemistry, Soil Survey, and Fertility Experiments. Soil Survey. — During the year the following counties have been sur- veyed and typical samples of the different soil series taken: Polk, Rutherford, Greene, and Yadkin counties. About one-half of Wilson County and ISTorthampton County have been done. During the winter and spring it is hoped that Wilson and l^orthampton counties will be finished. Up to now 73 per cent of the State has been mapped and the soils classified in a manner so that the reports can be used to advantage by farmers, county agents, and other extension workers, teachers and busi- ness men. In fact, the reports as now gotten out are being used by the different agencies more than ever before. It is hoped that it will be possible in the next few years to have a fairly complete survey of the soils of this State. The soil survey work is being done in cooperation with the Bureau of Soils at Washington, D. C, and there is complete harmony in the work. As all of our soil chemistry and soil fertility studies are based on soil types, it is very necessary that the type be mapped accurately in order that correct information from fertility and crop lines can be given to the farmers in an intelligent manner. Soil Chemistry: Much Soils. — Studies of muck soils have been con- tinued and the characteristics of four different types observed. One type from the experimental farm at Wenona is being investigated to determine the effect of water content and other treatments on reaction and other factors affecting the growth of plants. The results of this investigation, while interesting, are not ready for discussion at this date. The amount of lime necessary to neutralize this soil is about ten tons per acre, though the exact reaction is influenced by other factors besides the amount of lime added. Corn grows best on this muck soil if it is kept distinctly acid. Lime mixed with the surface soil of the muck does not neutralize the acidity of the subsoil. In a test to determine the effect of leaching on the downward movement of the lime it was found that within four months of treatment liming did not alter the reaction of the soil or subsoil more than an inch below the depth of the application. This observation indicates the advisability of mixing lime in the field to as great a depth as possible. Commissioner of Agriculture 97 Tlie influence on tlie yield of corn o£ some fertilizer combinations with a green manure crop of oats was studied in tlie field. The outstanding indications of this test were: A. The soil responded to siaigle treatments in the following order from least to greatest: (1) Oats (green manure) . (2) ISTitrate of soda. (3) Lime. (4) Muriate of potash. B. All single treatments were beneficial and combinations generally increased the yield in comparison with the results of single treatments^ except where muriate of potash was used in connection with the green manure. This test was made at Terra Ceia, and is in line with other results on the same soil. The beneficial effect of the green manure crop suggest the possibility of improving these soils by means of a suitable crop rotation. The value of potash fertilizers on some of these extremely acid soils has indicated that potash had an influence in helping the plants to overcome the toxicity present. A series of solution cultures has shown that this property lies in certain potash salts but not in others, and inves- tigations are planned to furnish more complete evidence on this point. Corn grown in pots filled with soil taken from untreated plat of the lime-test field at Wenona gave the following significant results : 1. Liming was necessary in order to produce a crop. 2. With the surface soil limed the plants were injured by the acid subsoil. 3. The injurious effect of the acid subsoil is sufficient to mask the benefits of fertilization. 4. "With lime mixed throughout the soil and subsoil, fertilizing ele-. ments were beneficial in the following order, from the greatest to the least : (a) Nitrate of soda. (b) Muriate of potash, (c) Acid phosphate was injurious in three out of four tests. Conclusions. — Growth of corn on the "Wenona type of muck soils is limited by soil acidity. Application of lime to the surface soil is not fully effective as a remedy on account of the acidity of the subsoil. "With the acidity of the soil and the subsoil partly neutralized by lime, bene- ficial effects may be had from fertilization with nitrate of soda and potash. Acid potash seems to be injurious in most instances. The Availability of Organic !N"itrogenous Fertilizers Tests made with 16 organic ammoniates in comparison with nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, and nitrate of potash on a soil which is, in the field, deficient in nitrogen gave inconclusive results, the unferti- 7 98 Biennial Eeport lized soils yielding more tlian many of tlie fertilized soils. This is attributed to the effect of excessive rainfall, which doubtless leached much of the available nitrogen out of the soil, and to the fact that drying the soil in preparation for placing in pots undoubtedly increased its productivity. Treatments have been renewed and rape planted in order, if possible, to get additional results before spring. Availability of Soil Potash Studies of the availability of potash in soil minerals have been con- tinued, but no results obtained for the reason that the soil used when first placed in the pots did not show a deficiency of potash. Continued cropping has depleted the soil to some extent, and it is possible that further work will be more successful. Chemical Composition of Soil Types The analyses of samples of soil obtained from the soil survey has been held up for some time, owing to inadequate facilities for the work. About 300 samples have been received since the analytical work was discontinued. It will require several months work to complete the analyses of these soils if no other work is done. Soil Fertility. — During the year the soil fertility investigations have been continued at the following experimental farms : Central Station Farm, Ealeigh ; Mountain Branch Station Farm, Swannanoa ; Piedmont Branch Station Farm, Statesville; Blackland Station Farm, "Wenona; Coastal Plain Station Farm, Willard; and Tobacco Station Farm, at Oxford, ISTorth Carolina. Central Station Farm. — At this farm it has been found by experi- ments covering a series of years that nitrogen, phosphate and lime are the controlling factors in larger crop production. As the type of soil on this farm is one in which the supply of organic matter is very low, a series of rotation experiments have been started in order to show the value of different crop rotations and the turning under of summer and vrinter legumes at infrequent intervals. Mountain Branch Farm: — The projects on this farm are being con- tinued and valuable information is being secured for the farmers. At this farm nitrogen, phosphates, and lime are the controlling factors in increasing crop production. The value of lime stands out very clearly wherever red clover is used as a crop, but lime alone is not sufficient for a guarantee of a red clover crop, phosphate also has to be supplied. On potatoesi potash is showing up to some extent, and from the information secured we are advising farmers to use a higher-grade fertilizer than is their custom. Piedmont Branch Station Farm. — The fertilizer projects on this farm are being continued and some valuable results have already been secured. In these experiments the fertilizer requirements for the ordinary field COMMISSIONEB OF AgRICTJLTUEE 99 crops of this type o£ soil — and this type of soil occurs over a large area of the Piedmont section of the State — are nitrogen, phosphate, and lime, the same as for the mountain soils. "We have found that the farmers are not using probably enough nitro- gen for the best results, and we are advising them to secure fertilizers containing a larger portion of plant food per ton. It is found to be impossible to grow clover at this farm without lime and phosphate. Soft phosphate has been studied in comparison with acid phosphate and rock phosphate, and soft phosphate does not show as good returns as acid phosphate. At this farm, also, nitrate of soda has given a greater efficiency in crop yields than has sulphate of ammonia, or any of the organic sources of nitrogen. It is probable that farmers should use in their general crops not only more nitrogen than they have been using, but also in the form of nitrate of soda, or other equally available forms. Coastal Plain Station Farm. — At this farm a new project has been started, which includes many different crop rotations with legumes to furnish organic matter. It is hoped to learn from this project how to incease the crop production and have a greater diversified agriculture, especially as the boll weevil is beginning to effect the yield of cotton. In growing cotton under boll weevil conditions at this farm it is found, as a general rule, that the recommendations given for increasing cotton yields before the boll weevil came are still the best. It has been found that by using too much ammonia or too much potash that the maturity of the cotton is affected somewhat, causing a late crop, while formulses that are well balanced have effected the maturity advantageously, giving more early cotton than even where no fertilizer was used. Miscellaneous Experiments. — ^During the year we have carried out twenty-two miscellaneous experiments in cooperation with farmers in different parts of the State. Most of these experiments have been put out with the idea of determining the best fertilizer to use for cotton under boll-weevil conditions and to determine the most efficient carriers of ammonia for cotton under boll-weevil conditions. The experiments this year have shown, with one or two exceptions, that nitrate of soda was the most efficient carrier of ammonia to cotton. Also applying the nitrogen before the crop is planted or soon after it is worked out the first time is the best time to use it. The organic nitrogenous materials very seldom give as good results as the inorganic materials. The low-grade fertilizers will not give as good results as fertilizers of a higher analyses. In general, the farmers are not purchasing fertilizers containing enough ammonia for the best results. This is true in prac- tically all of the State and for most crops, as we have found that nitro- gen seems to be the greatest limiting factor in crop production in this State. 100 Biennial Eepokt Soil Acidity Work. — During tlie year we liave received and reported on several hundred samples of soil sent in by farmers and county agents. In tlie examination of these samples of soil we have found in practically every case where the soil has not previously received lime that the soils were acid, taking from 1,000 pounds to 3,000 pounds to neutralize the acidity. When writing to the farmers regarding these soils we have called attention to how to best use lime, the proper crop rotation, and the intelligent use of fertilizer for the crops they are growing. "We feel that this work has been of immense value to the farmers and that in the future this kind of work will be on the increase. Correspondence. — During the year there has been a very large request from farmers asking for information along the intelligent use of ferti- lizers for specific crops and definite soils, also the home mixing of ferti- lizers. In this correspondence we have taken occasion to call attention to the value of high-grade fertilizers compared to lower-grade fertilizers, also the value of soluble nitrogeneous materials in comparison with the organic nitrogeneous materials. Publications. — ^During the year many special articles have been pre- pared for the newspapers of the State on some phases of soil fertility work, and a bulletin is now in the press on the "Results of Fertilizer Ex- periments with Cotton and Irish Potatoes on the Principal Soil Types of North Carolina." Pespectfully submitted, W. P. Pate, In Charge Soil Fertility Investigations. DIVISION OF BOTANY To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir : — The Division of Botany is charged with the following lines of work: First, the examination and testing of field, garden, and flower seeds. Second, the manufacture and distribution of nitrocultures for inocula- tion of legumes. Third, the placing of market grades on grain. Fourth, the identification and control of pestiferous weeds. Fifth, the supervision of the lime properties belonging to the State. Seed Labokatoet Greatly increased demands have been made on our seed laboratory the past two years. Some idea of this increase may be gathered from the fact that the number of samples submitted from farmers and seedsmen during January, 1923, was 52, while the number submitted in January, 1924, was 331, or over six times as many. There have been received in the seed laboratory the past two years a total number of seed samples amounting to 4,732, of which we have been able to complete 3,464. Tobacco Seed The months of December, January and February are largely given over to the recleaning of tobacco seed sent to us by the farmers. The past two years we have received 287 pounds and recleaned 226 pounds. Seed Tags The past two years we distributed 253,723 seed tags to ninety-three licensed dealers. JSTlTRO-CuLTURES The distribution of pure cultures for legumes the past two years was 6,587 acre bottles. Plant Identification A great many plants have been identified the past two seasons, some persons sending in as many as twenty at once. We have had to give con- siderable time to this phase of work. G-EAiN Grading Since our grain-grading service was established we have had 172 cases of disputed shipments of wheat, corn, and oats submitted to us. Some 102 Biennial Kepoet of these cases involve large sums of money, and before our service was established the millers of the State sustained much loss in the accep- tance of inferior grains from distant shippers. Lime Distribution During the past two years we have distributed 517 tons of agricul- tural limestone. We have secured this on contract as our plant in Tennessee has not had enough business for the last two or three years to justify us in operating it. EespectfuUy submitted, James L. Burgess^ Botan/ist DIVISION OF FOOD AND OIL INSPECTION To the Commissioner of Agriculture : Sir: — I beg to submit the following report of the work of the Divi- sion of Food and Oil Inspection for the two years ending June 30, 1924. The work is authorized by and carried out under the following in- spection laws : Pure food, bleached flour, standard weight meal and flour, sanitary bottling plant, sanitary bakery, creamery, ice-cream plant and cheese factory, linseed oil, illuminating oil, and gasoline. The object of the work is to prevent the making or sale of food that is deleterious to health and the fraudulent sale of any and all foods, beverages, linseed oil, illuminating oil or gasoline. The food law forbids the manufacture or sale of adulterated or mis- branded food or beverage. The law makes it the duty of the Depart- ment to enforce same without providing any funds for the purpose. The bleached flour law requires all flour that has been artiflcially bleached to be labeled "Bleached," so that the whiteness of a low-grade flour bleached white to appear like a high-grade will not be misleading and cause the flour to pass as a high-grade flour. The law carries an inspection fee for its enforcement. The soft drink and sanitary bottling plant law, the sanitary bakery, creamery, ice-cream plant and cheese factory laws requ.ire that these food producing plants be operated under such clean, sanitary conditions that the food produced by them will be clean and wholesome, and not deleterious to health. These sanitary laws all carry inspection fees for their enforcement. The linseed oil law requires all linseed oil and substitutes for same to be plainly labeled with the name of the material, with the name and address of the manufacturer, jobber or wholesaler stated on the label of same, and must meet the standard requirement in quality. The illuminating oil law requires that illuminating oil must meet the standard requirement of safety and illuminating quality. The gasoline inspection law requires that all gasoline sold in the State must meet the requirements of the State standards of quality. The oil and gasoline laws carry inspection taxes for their enforcement. The funds from the oil and gasoline laws are kept as separate funds and all such funds, not required in the enforcement of the laws, are turned into the general fund of the State Treasury. Food "Wokk The work to prevent the manufacture and sale of adulterated or mis- branded food which may be either deleterious to health or a fraud is, because of the effect of food on health, the most important inspection 104 Biennial Repokt work done by tlie State, but this most important work is greatly handi- capped for lack of funds. ISTotwitbstanding tbe importance of tbe food inspection work, more tban five times as mucb money is spent by tbe State to protect tbe quality of tbe gasoline used as is spent to protect tbe food supply of tbe State wbicb is so vital to buman bealtb. This is not consistent and sbould not be tbe case. Tbe food work sbould be expanded and made more extensive and more effective tban is possible witb tbe funds available for tbe purpose. During tbe two years sucb inspections of grocery stores and otber places wbere food and foodstuffs are made and sold, as bave been pos- sible under tbe circumstances, bave been made, wbicb bave amounted to about two general inspections a year vdtb a large number of special inspections of many products and places tbat needed special attention. During tbe time 1,613 samples of food and foodstuffs bave been ex- amined. More or less adulteration and misbrandings were found in many samples. Tbe manner in wbicb a product is labeled determines wbetber it is misbranded, or even adulterated, or not. For instance, tbe sale of coffee containing cbicory is legal if it is labeled "coffee and cbicory," but if it is labeled "coffee," or sold as coffee, tben it would be adulterated and misbranded. Some sbrewd manufacturers, witb able attorneys and cbemists to advise tbem, try to evade tbe law, but do it in sucb a way that tbey ap- pear to be complying, or trying to comply, witb tbe requirements of tbe law. Tbe most serious trouble found lately was in adulterated and mis- branded molasses and syrups. "When tbe adulteration was detected, as it was in interstate shipments, we reported the facts to the courts through the Federal authorities. Tbe defendants plead nolo contendere and were fined. "We are now having trouble with a new process of bleaching flour. They claim that while tbe process bleaches the flour somewhat, that bleaching is not tbe object of the treatment ; that the object is to age or ripen the flour to improve its baking quality, as is done by natural age- ing, and that tbe bleaching is incidental, and is no more than flour is bleached by natural ageing. They have able chemists and attorneys to defend their position, and are therefore hard to deal with, and have so far refused to have their flour labeled "bleached." The matter will probably have to be determined by the courts. Because of a scare produced by the death of about fifteen persons caused from botulinous poison in ripe canned olives broadly distributed over the country during the summer of 1924 a rapid investigation of the ripe olives in the State was made. It was largely on the advice of the Federal authorities who advised that the situation was serious and that the use of certain brands and possibly other ripe olives would be dangerous because of the botulinous poison that they might contain. The wholesale trade was called upon as promptly as possible to stop the Commissioner of Agriculture 105 sale of the olives in question, but fortunately none of the bad olives had been received in the State, and the investigation possibly prevented any of the olives being sold in the State. An investigation of self-rising flour is being conducted. Self-rising flour is flour to which a leavening agent, baking powder, has been added by the mill when the flour is made. The principle question involved is whether the leavening agent, or baking powder mixed with the flour by the miller, will retain its leavening power such time as will be ordi- narily required for the flour to be consumed. The demand for self-rising flour has grown to the point that more than 85 per cent of the flour sold to consumers in the State is self -rising. It seems to be satisfactory to the consumers, but all the baking powder added to flour by mills deprives the baking powder makers of that much business. The same baking powder costs the consumer much less in self -rising flour than when sold at retail and added to the flour by the cook. The question is, will it serve the same purpose? Our investiga- tions are to determine this fact, and while not conclusive yet the indica- tions are that baking powder in self -rising flour serves the purpose as well as if added by the cook. The Sanitary Food Work The sanitary bottling plant law was passed in 1919, and the sanitary bakery, creamery and ice-cream plant laws were passed in 1921. Dur- ing the two years 619 inspections have been made of bottling plants, 512 of bakeries, and 476 of creameries and ice-cream plants. When these laws were passed many of these food producing places were in very dirty, insanitary condition, and were therefore a menace to health. But while many were in bad condition many others were in good condi- tion. Great improvements have been made in the condition of many of them. It was necessary for some of them to move to more suitable quarters, and some others that could not or would not make necessary improvements had to close up. Many of the smaller plants of this nature changed hands and are in and out of business so often that they are hard to deal with. While all of these plants are not up to standard, yet the general improvement has been gratifying. Miscellaneous The Department is often called upon and urged to do chemical work of a very varied nature. Some of this work is very difficult because there is little or nothing known on the subject and the chemist must do research or original work on it. ISTew things are being discovered by commercial chemists, and for commercial purposes and benefit no in- formation is published about them, and as there is no public information about them the official chemist must study and work his way into them. 106 Biennial Report Under "Miscellaneous," 135 samples were examined, not many of whicli, however, were of a difficult nature. Many of them were simple^ but some were very difficult. Linseed Oil Tlie requirements of tlie linseed oil law are being complied with, reasonably well, but it requires close attention to see tbat tlie inspection tax is paid on all oil coming into tbe State. During tbe time 431 samples of linseed oil were examined, about 30 of wbicb were sent in by farmers and others using the oil. Compara- tively little adulteration was found. A few samples were found to con- tain either mineral, fish or other vegetable oils. Illuminating Oil and Gasoline The illuminating oil business in the State during the past two years has increased tremendously, the volume increasing from 46,069,344 gallons during two years ending 1922 to 66,417,040 gallons during two years ending 1924. During the time 6,531 samples of oil were collected and tested. These samples were taken from tank cars, delivery truck tanks and retail tanks all over the State. Gasoline is not intentionally left in oil by the refineries. Neither is dangerous oil intentionally sold by oil com- panies, but oil and gasoline being handled as they are there is great danger of the accidental mixing of the two by employees delivering them. The detection of gasoline in oil by the Department and stopping the sale of the oil which was dangerous has doubtless prevented much damage from explosions and fires. But, due to accidental mixing at the time of delivery into the retail tanks and with the endless number of these tanks, it is impossible to make the protection from such danger perfect. The increase in the oil business has been great, but the increase in the volume of gasoline used in the State has been much greater, of course. During the two years of 1921 and 1922, 146,677,152 gallons of gasoline were sold in the State. During the same period ending June 30, 1924, 250,454,792 gallons of gasoline were sold in the State, which is more than a hundred million gallons in excess of what was sold during the last two years ending June 30, 1922. Had it not been for new processes developed in the making of gaso- line the demand could not have been supplied at a reasonable price, but the new processes have increased the volume of gasoline from the crude oil tremendously. Taken from tank cars, storage and retail tanks all over the State, 14,803 samples of gasoline were collected and analyzed. Of these, nearly all samples from original containers met the State standard re- quirements, but good many samples taken from delivery tanks and re- Commissioner of Agkioultuke 107 tail tanks contained kerosene oil. A few samples contained oil in rather large amounts, but in most of tliem the oil was in small amounts, in- dicating accidental mixing. In these cases great effort was made by the officials to impress the dealers of the great danger that exists in the careless handling of oil and gasoline. Where there was any cause to suspect intentional mixing oil with gasoline as an adulterant, the matter was properly followed up and the law enforced. The results obtained under these inspection laws have been reasonably satisfactory. The inspection fees and taxes under these laws are collected by this division. Except from oil and gasoline, the funds are turned over, when collected, to the Department bookkeeper. Funds from oil and gasoline are kept as separate accounts with the State Treasurer. The number of samples examined and inspections made are as follows : Food, including bleached flour 1,61.3 Miscellaneous 135 Linseed oil 431 Illuminating oil 6,531 Gasoline 14,803 Bottling plant inspections 619 Bakery inspections 512 Creamery and ice-cream plant inspections 476 Total 25,120 Funds collected and turned into Department treasury: Bottling plant inspection fees $2,540.00 Bakery inspection fees ^ 2,070.00 Creamery and ice-cream plant inspection fees 2,265.00 Bleached flour inspection fees 16,215.00 Linseed oil inspection taxes 3,956.73 Total collected $27,046.73 Amount expended in enforcing the above inspection laws, except oil and gasoline 13.600.00 Oil and Gasoline Funds Funds from oil and gasoline inspection taxes are collected by the Food and Oil Division and deposited in State Treasury, where they are kept as separate funds. Statement from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 Account With State Teeasureb gasoline inspection fund Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $59,687.23 Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 626,136.98 Total $685,824.21 108 Biennial Repokt Disbursements Expenses from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 $78,755.00 Transferred to General Fund - 584,500.00 Total expenses and transferred 663,255.00 Balance in treasury Gasoline Fund, July 1, 1924 $22,569.21 ILLUMINATING OIL INSPECTION FUND Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $16,192.02 Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 166,042.60 Total $182,234.62 Dishursements Expenses from June 30, 1922. to July 1, 1924 $58,106.59 Transferred to General Fund 115,000.00 Total expenses and transferred 173,106.59 Balance in Treasury Oil Fund, July 1, 1924 9,128.03 KespectfuUy submitted, W. M. Allen, Chief, Division Food and Oil Inspection. DIVISION OF MARKETS To the C om.missioner of Agriculture: Sir:- — -I submit herewitli tlie biennial report of tbe Marketing Divi- sion for 1923-1924. Tbis report for tbe two calendar years 1923-1924 covers tbe activities of tbe Division of Markets, some work of "wbicb bas been in cooperation witb otber agricultural agencies, Federal and State, but only tbose activi- ties wbicb bave been directly supervised by tbe Division of Markets are bere included. Tbe question of marketing is now receiving more attention tban in tbe past and rigbtly so because of tbe cbanging conditions in metbods of marketing and transportation and tbe uneven and ever-increasing production. In tbis swing to greater activity in tbe marketing work, let us not be unmindful of tbe underlying principals of all agriculture and tbeir relation to orderly and successful marketing. I sbould say tbat in tbis great question of marketing we migbt place marketing as tbe central link witb economical production at one end and tbe buying public at tbe otber. Successful marketing depends upon : 1. Economical production, tbat is to say we must grow a crop for wbicb a market can be bad. Tbe soil must be suited for tbat crop. Tbe seed for tbat crop must be free from diseases ; must be of tbe rigbt variety to mature at tbe rigbt time, and for wbicb tbere as a known demand. Cultivation and barvest must be tborougb in order to produce tbe best crop, but tb6 cost must be low in order to compete witb any market, and tbereby bave a profit on tbe favorable markets. 2. Efficient marketing agencies wbicb can only be bad by tbe use of standard packages. State grades and brands, tbe proper advertising before tbe time of sale, news service and proper distribution witb selling and buying agents of proven good repute. 3. Educating tbe public is perbaps a new field for State agencies in- terested in a better return from tbe farmer, but altbougb new, it is of first importance because, after all, tbe purpose of production and market- ing is to sell for a profit, tbereby bringing gain to producers of crops in order tbat tbey may in turn purcbase tbeir necessities, tbeir better living and tbeir luxuries. We must tben educate tbe public to buy wbat we bave to sell from tbe farms, and we must jealously maintain tbeir confidence by giving to tbem in our grades and brands bonest packages witb good food tberein. Various industries may bave tbeir protection from time to time. Agri- culture bas none and must expect none except tbat protection wbicb it provides for itself tbrougb intelligent production and efficient marketing. It is witbin tbe bounds of reason to expect tbat l^ortb Carolina, witb a proper development of warebousing facilities, canning and preserving no Biennial Kepokt factories, cold storage and refrigerating plants, can eliminate any over V production which, after all, is a lack o£ distribution, or the facilities for handling one crop to its final consumption, or until another crop of less proportions can be produced. While orderly marketing depends upon orderly production, it is likewise true that profitable crops can only be grown when there has been established a market for them. At our present stage of development in I^orth Carolina agriculture, we would as agricultural agencies be very foolish to advise a farmer to quit growing cotton or tobacco, or some other staple crops, for which a ready market is always available, and grow in place of them crops for which we have not yet found a stable market. However, it is so important that variety of crops be produced upon many of the farms in l^orth Carolina, it becomes the duty of the State Division of Markets to greatly enlarge its service to the scattered production of a nuuiber of crops. This is simply another way of saying that the State Division of Markets will have to foster largely at our expense the marketing of many of the minor crops until they can be produced in sufficient quan- tity to eliminate much of the time and expense from the State Depart- ment in more or less detail marketing work. A striking example, which ^ amounts almost to a tragedy in this situation, is the scattered produc- tion of apples in Western ISTorth Carolina, which do not bring a price sufficient to encourage the further planting of orchards, because the pro- duction is scattered and moves in small volume. This can only be remedied by increased production and I do not believe that we can expect an increased production until the enterprising individuals who now have apple orchards and the State agencies promoting good agriculture, bring about the sale of North Carolina apples, under North Carolina brands that will return a better profit to the grower. Placing agriculture upon a more stable and business-like basis has been the purpose of the State Division of Markets since its creation "ten years ago. And the fundamentals upon which we will go forward in our standardization, inspection and grading work, in order to bring about the best marketing conditions, include warehousing, and credit facilities through rural credit organizations that meet with the demands of agriculture. These are the principals worked out by Dr. W. K. Camp, first Chief of the Division of Markets, and his successor, Dr. B. T. Brown, who is now Dean at State College, and was my predecessor. I consider the work done by Dr. Brown and his assistants, which largely brought about the organization of the cotton and tobacco associa- tions, of not only great value to the State, but the beginning of at least another, and I think a safer method of selling farm commodities. I cannot conceive of a more gigantic task than the organization of the sale of tobacco when there had not been established any Federal or State grades, but this has been done successfully by the tobacco coopera- tives and definite grades have been established, which no doubt sooner Commissioner of x\griculture 111 or later will be certified as Federal and State grades, because tbey were largely worked out with the assistance of this Division and the Bureau at Washington. State Warehouse System The changing conditions brought about in the marketing of cotton by the organization of the Cooperative Cotton Association, also the de- velopment of the textile industry in ISTorth Carolina, has made for the development of large central warehouses and has practically eliminated any further development of small community warehouses for the stor- age of cotton only. It, therefore, will become necessary for the smaller cotton warehouses to develop other commodity storage other than cotton in order to pay their stockholders a dividend and to relieve their in- debtedness to the State Warehouse Fund or the local banks, as the case may be. The State warehouse system has been a large factor in the develop- ment of cotton marketing in jSTorth Carolina and no doubt has made it possible for the Cotton Association and large dealers in cotton to handle with the greatest possible safety this valuable crop. The supervision of the operation of these warehouses continues in the hands of Mr. J. P. Brown, who is also supervising inspector under the Federal Law and a joint employee of the State and Federal departments. A detailed report from him has been filed in your office. Cotton Classing The joint arrangement between the Federal and State departments for the Federal supervision of the classing of cotton has been continued up to this time, and is now being discontinued because there is not suffi- cient demand for its existence. It has served a useful purpose and will be continued only in so far as a purely State service is concerned — that is, the cotton for the State Warehouse System will be classed in order that the State Warehouse receipts may show the proper grade as re- quired by the State Warehouse Act, also farmers living throughout the State who desire may continue to send in cotton in order that the grade may be determined for their benefit in marketing. This work, which has heretofore been under Mr. P. H. Hart of the Federal department, will be handled by Mr. J". I. Johnson, of the State department. Warehouse Construction and Organization As the demand for new warehouses are very few, and the promotion of more community warehouses at this time not advisable, the work in this connection has been left in the hands of the warehouse superinten- dent without any special assistance in this work. Livestock At the beginning of this fiscal year Mr. V. W. Lewis, who had been a specialist in the marketing of livestock jointly between the Extension 112 BiENisriAL Eeport forces and the Division of Markets, was taken over as a full-time division of markets specialist in tke marketing of livestock. He lias kad no regular assistant. In tke marketing of carlot shipments of poultry, hogs and cattle he has from time to time had the assistance of different imembers of tke Extension force, and during this fall, in tke marketing of beef cattle in "Western North Carolina for either slaughter or feeding purposes, he has had, through a special arrangement from the Division of Markets, the assistance of Hon. T. L. Gwyn, Canton, IST. C. The wool pools have been conducted successfully for three years in Eastern and "Western ISTorth Carolina. The development of the cheese industry as to its manufacture and marketing has continued as a joint work with the Extension forces. The result of these several projects have brought about more or less of the following general plan. "Whereas poultry and poultry products are State-wide interest, and the conditions in this State offer the best opportunity for immediate results to producer and consumer, we are now entering upon a program for this development. This work is being conducted by Mr. Lewis with such assistance as is available until a regular man can be had. The success this year mth adverse marketing conditions in handling beef cattle would indicate the opportunity for the organization in "Western ISTorth Carolina of a cattle shipper's association to be handled largely upon the basis of grades worked out by Mr. Lewis and Mr. Gwyn this year, bringing together a sufficient number of cattle at the different shipping points to enable 'them to send the different grades of cattle to the market best suited for that type and size animal. A more detailed report of the activities of Mr. Lewis has been filed in your office. Eeuits and Yegetables On the first of September this year Mr. Gorrell Shumaker resigned as Specialist in the Marketing of Fruits and Vegetables. During Mr. Shumaker's connection with the Division of Markets he had worked out many of the grades and standards that are now in use in ISTorth Caro- lina for fruits and vegetables, and the work of this year has been largely carrying thpse standards and grades into use with the farmers and their organizations along with the police and shipping point inspection work as provided for in the State and Federal laws. The Division of Markets has now made permanent a temporary con- tract with the Department at Washington, whereby we have stationed here Mr. Albert E. Mercker to supervise the point of origin inspection and to conduct schools in which special agents appointed by the Division of Markets may be issued licenses whereby it is possible for our certifi- cates, when issued on a package or carload of fruits or vegetables, to be acceptable as evidence in not only the State courts, but also the Federal courts. Mr. Mercker will also, in connection with the Extension forces- Commissioner of Ageiculture 113 tlirough. their county agents, instruct groups of farmers in tlie proper types of packages and grades of fruits and vegetables. Herein lies our greatest opportunity to bring into Nortli Carolina vast sums of money by tbe proper standardization of fruits and vegetables and shipping them out under State brands, each bill of lading bearing Tvith it a certificate setting forth not only the grade of the fruit it con- tains, but also the condition of the car in which it is shipped. This makes it possible for the commission men handling the product to sell it while in transit and prevents the unreliable commission merchants at the other end of the line turning down shipments on his own judg- ment as to its condition and quality. It is our purpose to greatly in- crease this activity throughout the State. A large proportion of the irish potato crop, with some other vegetables from Eastern North Carolina, practically all of the peach crop from the Sandhill section, and most of the apple crop from the Mount Airy section, were marketed on these certificates this year. Farjm Crops Mr. R. B. Etheridge has taken up the work as Specialist in the Marketing of Farm Crops. This much neglected field is rapidly be- coming one of the most important activities of the Division of Markets. At the present soybeans are being marketing out of Eastern ISTorth Caro- lina to Piedmont and "Western ISTorth Carolina, and also outside the State. Orders are being filed with the Farm Crops Department for the pur- chase of cotton seed. Irish potatoes from Western ISTorth Carolina are being marketed in southern territory and Eastern ISTorth Carolina. All this work is being done with the Specialist of Farm Crops being the intermediary agent to assure confidence between the buyer and seller that he is getting an honest product true to variety and assure a germina- tion test for samples drawn by our marketing agents and tested by the Botany Department of the Department of Agriculture. It will be pos- sible within a few weeks for our Marketing Specialist to issue certifi- cates that will be good outside the State on these farm crops, as is being done on fruits and vegetables. We have also met in this Department what I think is the solution of the hay question as a product that is imported very largely in this State. Mr. Etheridge attended the Government School on Hay In- spection, and having passed a successful examination was issued a license whereby his inspection of a car of hay would be the final deter- mination of its grade. We are therefore instructing the buyers of hay to specify in their orders that it be U. S. Fancy, or U. S. 'No. 1, and that will naturally bring to them a certificate issued at the point of origin; and upon the arrival in this State, if the buyer is not satisfied. Mr. Etheridge can settle the dispute, and will do so by the payment of the actual expense involved in transportation. It is not so much that 8 114 BiEisrisriAL Kepokt this service will be used as it is that, by having it available, the buyers of hay can protect themselves if they will only specify in their purchas- ing orders that it must meet the standards of the Federal-State grades. ' Publications The several publications of the Division of Markets have now been combined into one weekly issue of the "Market IsTews," to be edited by Miss H. M. Berry, with such supplementary issues as may be necessary from time to time on the different commodities. Market ISTews Service was furnished from this office this year daily in their respective seasons to the growers and commission merchants of strawberries, dewberries, lettuce, beans, cucumbers, peaches, watermelons and cantaloupes and Irish potatoes. Some reports issued twice a week on poultry and eggs and livestock and wool. This service was possible due to the Federal leased wire connection and the assistance of a man from the Market JNTews Service of the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Agricultural Statistics Mr. Frank Parker, a joint employee of the Federal and State depart- m.ents, has continued the Crop Reporting Service and the publication of the "Farm Forecaster" and the compiling of the farm census reports. A more detailed report of his work is filed in your office. Credit Unions Since the employment of Mr. A. V. Anderson a year ago, the credit unions have been brought to a more business-like basis without any special attempt to organize new ones, except during the last few months. Of the twenty-five credit unions in the State, located in twelve counties, there are 1,040 members, 334 depositors, representing in total resources about $100,000. These credit unions have loaned to 392 farmers. There appeark to be two difficulties in the development of the credit union as heretofore operated. The banks have not interested themselves in the credit unions and, therefore, money has not been available for their development. The credit unions themselves have not had any earnings that, would justify the payment of a secretary to keep the credit union affairs in active business-like condition. But in spite of these shortcom- ings they have been as a whole successful and every thought of rural credit would seem to justify their existence and their further growth. Mr. John Sprunt Hill has agreed to pay a large part of the expenses to promote the credit union organization in the State, and Miss H. M. Berry is now working on the promotion of credit unions, giving a large part of her time to that work. It is, therefore, our purpose, with Miss Berry as a promoter of credit unions and Mr. Anderson as the Super- visor of credit unions, to attempt in the next few months to organize Commissioner of Agricultuke 115 enough credit unions so that it will justify the establishment of a cen- tral credit union which will be as a central bank or its discounting agent between the local credit union and the intermediate credit banks. The credit unions, as is generally understood, handle no deposits in the sense of being a regular banking business and they deserve the support of every bank in the State and when the relation of the credit union to the bank as a depositor becomes more generally known, I believe that it is possible to expect a great development to the advantage of the credit union and to the country bank. Rural Organization In so far as we have given personal aid and furnished copies of by- laws and contracts to different organizations throughout the State, practically covers the work in rural organization up to this time, I think that there should be a Supervisor of Cooperative Societies similar to the Supervisor of Credit Unions, because cooperative societies enjoy special privileges under our State laws and for that reason should be supervised. The general question of rural organization cannot be further developed until other matters of a similar nature are clearly defined as activities of the College or the Department of Agriculture and for that reason no attempt has been made along this line. Respectfully submitted, Geo. R. Ross, Chief, Division of Markets. DIVISION OF STATISTICS To the Commissioner of Agriculture: Sir: — The cooperative relations between the ]Srortli Carolina and TJnited States Departments of Agriculture through the forming of the Cooperative Crop Reporting Service was begun in the spring of 1919. The present statistician was appointed Chief of the Division of Statis- tics without salary. Two years later the work had grown remarkably and had achieved considerable publicity. This was largely in a boosting sense concerning Worth Carolina's crop and livestock values, diversifica- tion and comparisons with other states. The high mark in the present service was reached in 1921-22 when it was united with the Division of Markets. Since that time the appropria- tion has been steadily decreased with a consequent essential curtailment in results. It should be recognized that in order to interpret and fore- cast economic and current farm conditions, field travel into the various sections of the State and printed publicity reports of the field and re- porters' results should be made monthly. At the present time there is not nearly enough appreciation of the meaning and value of economic farm statistics as there should be. While North Carolina farmers have distinctly advanced ahead of other Southern states in this regard, we are still greatly behind many other progressive western states. While almost every industry and business profession has found it essential to secure and study statistical results of supply and demand in their various lines, farmers are still largely holding to the idea that what they do is no one else's business. Thus, their haphazard, blind business methods are continuing to hold them in a dark and hard way. A special committee of three suggested that a study of the Crop Re- porting Service be made by Dr. C W. Forster, and that his recommen- dations be outlined. This was done and the results indicate that much valuable information is going to waste. An enviable opportunity for developing valuable research work is lying dormant. If. Dr. Forster's plans were half carried out, double the present funds would be needed. He emphasized the need of a research specialist, who would be entirely free from any detail work and encouraged to ferret out and assemble into tangible form much more of the basic facts available. Statistical Work Now Developed and Operating The Crop Reporting Service is getting its frequent information from many classified lists of reporters, aggregating about 9,000 voluntary re- porters and surveys of about 150,000 farms annually. The Farm Forecaster, a monthly publication, has helped probably more than any other agency for holding together the favorable relations COMMISSIONEE OF AGRICULTURE 117 between tlie Federal and State departments and tlie thousands of re- porters Avho serve without corapensation. The tobacco warehouse sales reports have resulted in the kindliest feelings between tobacconien and the Department. Incidentally, they have recently shown a closer trend in prices in the different markets than was shown prior to this development. The Farm Census, begun voluntarily in 1918, has grown steadily in completeness and in State-wide appreciation, but is going backward for lack of adequate funds. The Crop ISTotes service is developed semi-monthly from a large list of bankers, farmers, supply merchants and others familiar with the economic features of farm work. That this is appreciated is evident from the press publicity and from the hearty cooperation of reporters to get the results in exchange for their voluntary aid. For the first time, the Department of Agriculture is having a promi- nent hand in the United States Census enumeration which is being made this December and January. It has long been felt that the farm part of the census should be in charge of agriculturally interested officials. "With our previous several years experience in census work favorable data is expected under our supervision. Statistical "Woek ISTeedhstg Better Development Through the Cooperative Crop Reporting Service, the two depart- ments are securing very valuable information, but not nearly complete usage is made of the data. Some of it might be compared to the farmer who goes all of the devious and expensive ways to produce and house his crops and then lets most of it decay for lack of usage. He has the satisfaction of making good crops, but comes out at the short end in profits. For this reason it is highly essential that the Farm Forecaster be issued regular throughout the year as a medium for presenting in a comprehensive and acceptable form a maximum of the current informa- tion collected each month through this service. This much is due the aids in exchange for their voluntary services. The State Farm Census likewise is not utilized nearly to the extent that it should be. For the most value, the work should be tabulated in a most speedy manner and the results published before the crops are marketed. To stimulate the friendliness and most valuable relations between this office and the various other divisions, extension workers and college specialists, oppor- tunity for research work should be encouraged and promoted. Agencies ISTeeding our Statistical Economic Information Agricultural extension workers. State and ISTational bankers, colleges for economic studies, agricultural high schools, State and county offi- cials. Libraries and civic organizations. All those who are interested in the farmer's welfare. 118 Biennial Eepokt The Puepose of the Crop Reporting Service The scope of information covered by this office includes acreages, yields, production, quality, stocks, prices and values, shipments, cur- rent trends, etc., of crops; also, the numbers and values of livestock, wages, labor supply and demand, land values, and many other features on special crops like peanuts, cotton, fruit, vegetables, pecans, etc. It cannot be presumed that this service is in the least confined to the usage of any one phase of agricultural endeavor. While the Division of Markets might use it advantageously, entomologist, horticulturist, agron- omist, veterinarians and others could use it quite as well. Its maximum usefulness can only be gained when all divisions and agricultural agencies enjoy its services and cooperate in its endeavors on an equal basis. This can only be done as an independent organization. Statistical work has its peculiar problems, difficulties, unpopularity and lack of appreciations. There are few who really understand or like statistical work. This type of worh embraces long procedures to simple results. This service aims for results of performance rather than pro- paganda publicity. It might be compared with the business service of Babson, Brookmires or other business economic agencies, each costing subscribers from $100 to $300 per year. !N^0RTH Carolina's Agricultural Situation The data on the accompanying sheet is self-explanatory and presents in a simple way what it has required many weeks, months and years to compile. The reliability of the government methods is well recognized by brokers, business agencies and farm organizations. They are better than any private estimates. The State budget of this Service is also attached, and your careful examination is respectfully requested. ™ Commissioner of Agkicultuke 119 North Caeolina Crop Statistics 1900 1910 1915 CoRX, bushels — Acreage Yield per acre Production Value Wheat, bushels — Acreage Yield per acre Production Value CoTTOX, pounds — Acreage harvested. Yield per acre Production, bales.. Value Tobacco, pounds — Acreage Yield per acre Production Value Tame Hat, tons — Acreage Yield per acre Production Value Wild Hat, tons- Acreage Yield per acre Production Value Oats, bushels — Acreage Yield per acre Production Value Potatoes, bushels — Acreage Yield per acre Production... _ Value Livestock — Horses Value Mules Value Other cattle- Value Milk cows Value Swine Value- Sheep... Value. ,482,515 12.0 ,790,180 ,980,403 620,917 9.6 960,803 ,887,858 119 S 1 1,143,000 199 477,269 2,431,643 193,329 618 ,504,625 ,096,164 125,305 1.41 176,680 978,816 2,650,000 18.6 49,290,000 S 37,460,000 598,000 11.4 6,817,000 S 7,499,000 1,478,000 227 706, 142 S 49,782,870 200,000 600 ,120,000,000 i 12,720,000 315,000 1.50 472,000 S 6,891,000 2,900,000 21.0 60,500,000 S 46,893,000 900,000 10.9 9,810,000 S 11,772,000 1,282,000 260 699,494 I 39,172,000 320,000 620 198,400,000 $ 22,221,000 350,000 1.85 648,000 5 10,692,000 363,030 13.9 ,046,117 ,270,753 17,434 61.0 ,063,474 691,258 221,000 18.2 4,022,000 2,413,000 33,000 89.0 2,937,000 2,144,000 350,000 23.0 8,0.50,000 S 4,991,000 35,000 SO.O 3,150,000 S 2,300,000 2,428,000 22.5 54,630,000 $ 61,732,000 680,000 11.7 7,956,000 S 16,708,000 1,587,000 275 824,761 S 67,045,000 * 625,000 694 433,750,000 $109,739,000 640,000 1.05 672,000 S 15,456,000 43,000 1.20 52,000 •S 967,000 154,000 22.0 3,388,000 S 3,252,000 46,000 91.0 4,186,000 $ 5,944,000 2,603,000 22.5 58,568,000 $ 59,739,000 544,000 11.1 6,038,000 $ 7,729,000 1,678,000 290 1,020,000 S 157,080,000 552,000 700 386,400,000 S 81,144,000 784,000 1.20 941,000 $ 18,820,000 100,000 1.00 100,000 $ 1,550,000 231,000 22.0 5,082,000 $ 3,761,000 1910 166,151 S 18,428,134 174,711 $ 23,699,687 760,861 S 12,550,054 1,227,625 4,638,046 214,473 559,217 1915 182,000 ? 23,660,000 194,000 S 29,294,000 369,000 $ 6,273,000 315,000 $ 11,498,000 1,525,000 S 12,505,000 177,000 S 584,000 1920 183,000 ? 27,999,000 236,000 S 44,840,000 394,000 S 13,908,000 328,000 $ 25,584,000 1,575,000 S 31,500,000 144,000 S 1,368,000 1923 166,000 14,490,000 260,000 33,286,000 274,000 4,685,000 365,000 14,235,000 1,271,000 16,904,000 81,000 454,000 1924 163,000 16,789,000 260,000 33,280,000 266,000 4,602,000 365,000 15,695,000 1,159,000 14,488,000 82,000 525,000 Total crop value Total livestock value. $202,079,000 $ 83,820,000 $412,374,000 $145,000,000 $415,737,000 $ 86,000,000 85,000,000 120 Biennial Eeport STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA Obops — Field Recommendations, December, 1924. Revised, 1923. Peeliminaby, 1924 Instructions in F. A. 1,000 Crop and Unit Acres (Thousands) 1923 Yield per Acre 1924 Production (Thousands) 1923 1924 Corn, for grain, bu _. Corn, for silage, tons Corn, for forage. Corn, all (ex. sweet, pop), bu -. Winter wheat planted. .."._ Winter wheat harv., bu Oats, bu Barley, bu Rye, bu Buckwheat, bu Grain sorghum, bu Cotton, planted Cotton, harvested, lbs Tame hay, all, tons Sorghum for forage, tons. Wild hay, tons Potatoes, Irish, bu Potatoes, sweet, bu Tobacco, lbs Sugar cane, tons Sorghum for syrup, gals. . Clover seed, bu 2,526,000 11,000 30,000 2,667,000 560,000 544,000 310,000 4,000 95,000 9,000 1,000 1,632,000 1,625,200 805,650 20,000 170,000 50,000 100,000 552,000 750 32,000 8,600 2,450,000 11,000 50,000 2,500,000 495,040 489,600 280,000 7,000 90,000 10,000 1,000 1,950,000 1,822,000 771,900 18,000 167,000 59,000 99,000 497,000 750 30,500 22.5 5.5 4.4 22.5 18.0 5.4 3.6 18.0 56,835,000 60,500 132,000 60,007,500 44,100,000 59,400 180,000 45,000,000 11.1 22.0 24.0 10.4 22.0 18.0 12.0 18.0 23.0 12.0 21.0 16.0 6,038,400 6,820,000 96,000 988,000 198,000 18,000 875,200 040,000 161,000 080,000 210,000 16,000 300 1.1 1.5 1.0 86.0 105.0 700 5.0 92.0 3.2 200 1.0 1.2 1.0 101.0 92.0 560 5.5 87.0 2.8 *1, 020, 000 886,215 30,000 170,000 4,300,000 10,500,000 386,400,000 3,750 2,944,000 *762,343 771,900 21,600 167,000 5,959,000 9,108,000 278,320,000 4,125 2,653,500 22,400 *Bales. Respectfully submitted, Frank Paekek^ Agricultural Statistician. REPORT ON DRAINAGE To the Commissioner of Agriculture: ' Sir: — I liereby submit the biennial report on drainage conducted under a cooperative agreement between the ISTorth Carolina Department o£ Agriculture and tbe United States Department of Agriculture. Tbis report covers the two crop years from December 1, 1922 to Iv'ovember 30, 1924. Mr. J. A. Bropby, who bad been acting as Junior Drainage Engineer of tbe ISTortb Carolina Department of Agriculture resigned on February 1, 1923. Mr. Alfred Ogram, Junior Drainage Engineer, of tbe United States Department of Agriculture, was detailed to tbis State as tempo- rary assistant on March 26, 1923 but was recalled on May 19th of that year. Since that time, tbe writer has been carrying on the work without assistance. On July 1, 1923, the work of the Drainage Division was placed on a research basis; the plan being to carry on projects along experimental and research lines exclusively from that date on. However, a large num- ber of approved extension projects remained uncompleted on July 1st, and the major portion of the work of the division up to the spring of 1924 was devoted to the clearing up of these unfinished projects. Since that time, the extension activities of the Division were limited mostly to the lands of State, Public or Semi-Public Institutions, though in certain approved instances aid was rendered to individuals. Requests for infor- mation or advice on subjects related to drainage and soil erosion coming in to the Department were answered in the correspondence of the Divi- sion and news articles and the results of investigational work given to the press from time to time. These projects were, however, incidental to research work during the last nine months of the period under considera- tion. Extension The extension work has been conducted along the same lines as in previous years. In general, this part of our program consisted (1) in assisting farmers in the improvement by drainage and terracing of lands now under cultivation and (2) in making preliminary and recon- naissance examinations for drainage districts and other cooperative asso- ciations desiring to make drainage improvements. Upon request, either from the county agent or from the farmer, the Drainage Engineer made preliminary examinations, surveys, designs, estimates, specifications and reports for tile drainage projects on the farm. A blueprint was sent to the farmer, showing the complete system of drains. When the farmer was ready to install the tile certain drains were staked out in the field and instructions given in the proper methods of construction. 122 Biennial Eepokt Terraces were laid off in entire fields, and instructions given in the use of the farm level, and in terrace construction. Various methods of construction were demonstrated at terrace-building demonstrations, the completed terrace serving as a model for the community in which it was built. County agents in those counties needing terraces were in- structed in approved methods of terrace location and construction and the levels used in this work were tested and adjusted by the engineers of the division. The engineer also made preliminary examinations of drainage dis- tricts. The proposed district was visited and from all available data that could be secured a report prepared, accompanied by a map, copies of which were furnished to interested parties. The methods of organizing a district under the State Law were also outlined. The following summary gives a brief account of the work accom- plished along these lines : Faem Drainage During the past two years, 63 farms situated in 26 counties, ranging in location from Mountains to Coast, have been visited for the purpose of giving assistance in tile drainage. The areas of these tracts covered by surveys and for which plans and reports for tile drainage were pre- pared covered an area of 1,439 acres on 27 farms. This does not include areas examined of which no survey was made or map prepared. States and grades for tile drainage construction have been given on 15 farms in 11 counties for the installation of 26,800 feet of tile. The amounts on individual farms ranged from 225 to 7,000 feet, the tile installed run- ning from four to eighteen inches in diameter. Considerable correspondence was carried on with tile manufacturers in regard to the establishment of a tile factory in the State and an in- spection trip made to two tile plants. Sixty-eight farms in 16 counties have been visited for the purpose of giving assistance in the loctation and construction of terraces to prevent hillside erosion, the total length of terraces laid out being approxi- mately 108,040 feet or 20l^ miles, an average of 1,590 feet per farm. Drainage Districts Fourteen examinations of a preliminary or reconnaissance nature have been made covering an area of 262,000 acres. The land covered by these projects is located in 15 counties in both the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of the State. Addresses were made at several meetings of landowners in which the State law and methods of organi- zation were outlined. In this connection, the Convention of the North Carolina Drainage Association held at JSTew Bern was attended, and a number of drainage districts throughout the State visited and a memo- randum prepared on the conditions noted. Commissioner of Agkiculture 123 Experimental Work Prior to the inauguration of a research program an inspection trip was made in which the staffs of the Divisions of Agricultural Engineer- ing of Ohio State University, Purdue University, the University of Illinois and the University of Missouri were visited and consulted. An examination was also made of the steam gaging work of the United States Department of Agriculture in the vicinity of Girardeau, Mo. Plans were prepared and the work of construction undertaken for an experiment in soil erosion on the Experiment Station Earm at Raleigh. Construction was completed during the latter part of May, 1924, and » records of rainfall, runoff and erosion kept since June 1st. The experi- ment consists essentially of the measurement of soil loss on plots of the same length under different crops and of varying length under the same crop, on a Cecil fine sandy loam soil. The seriousness of the erosion problem to the southern farmer is evidenced by the records already ob- tained, which show that during one thirty-day period last summer, erosion from one of the test plots took place at the rate of twenty-five tons per acre. Studies of the height of the groundwater level in a muck soil in Beaufort County and on a typical Coastal Plain soil in Pender County have been continued. Similar studies formerly carried on at the Black Land Station of the Department at Washington County have been dis- continued. Considerable time has been devoted to the compilation of the data obtained from these experiments, although the material has not yet been put into the form of a report. These data will give a comparison of groundwater conditions in soils of different types, in soils drained by tile lines spaced at varying depths, and between the effect of open ditches and tile drains. About 400 feet of experimental concrete drain was installed on a farm in Wilson County, for the purpose of studying the action of concrete tile in the acid soils of the Coastal Plain. Treated and untreated tile as well as tile manufactured under different conditions, methods and mater- ials were used. The location is one where difficulty had previously been experienced through the disintegration of concrete tile. The tile is to be examined and specimens tested at intervals to determine its condition. Respectfully submitted, E. O. Bartel, Associate Drainage Engineer. DIVISION OF FARM ENGINEERING To the Commissioner of Agriculture: SiK : — Tlie division has been devoted entirely to extension work cover- ing three main projects as f ollo-n^s : 1. "Water supply, water power, sewerage disposal, lights and other home conveniences. 2. Farm buildings and concrete construction. 3. Farm machinery and motors. This work was easily covered by one man in its beginning, but has grown now to where it is simply a matter of taking care of as many of the calls as possible. Building work alone has increased from just a few designs from which the commercial printers were paid to get out prints, to 153 designs at this time from which have been mailed out over 3,000 sets of plans during the past two years. These are all being made on our blue-print machine, which is now too small for the demands, for 10 cents per sheet less than we were paying the commercial printers. In carrying on this work trips have been made to A^arious sections where a number of people were interested in one or more phases of the work, their locations gone over and recommendations made. This included furnishing plans, getting up bills of materials and estimates of cost, and in many cases making an extra trip later when an actual working demonstration was put on. At these demonstrations all the interested parties from over the community were invited and discus- sions usually arose regarding various other locations and conditions. In case of some of the larger buildings it is usually only necessary to lay out foundations and then familiarize the carpenters with the plans. It has been a very great help to be able to refer interested parties to some building, water supply outfit or other propositions that had been installed in his county or community that was similar to what he wanted. The greatest number of our calls have come from sections where the practical demonstrations had been put on. It is the plan to use standard sets of building plans as far as possible, but, of course, there are always cases that call for individual plans. We have designs now for all the various houses for poultry, colony hog houses, central hog house, self-feeder for hogs, breeding crates for hogs, sheep, mule, dairy, beef cattle and general-purpose barns, bull pens, calf pens, implement sheds, dipping vats, lime spreaders, water towers, lime storage bins, clover seed savers, dwellings, septic tanks, water sys- tems, milk houses, concrete sterilizers, special storage warehouses and a number of plans for special barns. One hundred and thirty x^ractical demonstrations have been put on including 10 dairy barns, 6 mule barns, 18 self-feeders for hogs, 8 breed- ing crates for hogs, 6 poultry houses, 5 brooder houses, 9 hydraulic rams, Commissioner of Agriculture 125 « ' 7 water supply outfits operated by engine, 5 water towers, 4 septic tanks, 33 silos, 9 demonstrations in the use of explosives, and 11 other small buildings of various kinds. A silo man has been put on during the summer months, and in this connection 86 bills of materials and plans have been mailed out in addition to the 33 silos constructed. The 3,071 sets of plans have gone to 87 counties and a good many to outside states. Visits have been made to 78 counties where 22 water-power proposi- tions have been investigated; 37 meetings, Avith a total attendance of 1,898 ; 322 farms were visited where either some of the above work was put on, or investigations made for home water supply, building, lights or machinery. ISTine hundred and fifty-three consultations were held and 2,088 letters written; traveled 6,348 miles by automobile and 11,209 miles by railroad. A paint campaign was put on in Mecklenburg County in cooperation with the county and home agents, together with the paint manufacturers and dealers. During the campaign 210 people signed up to paint the outside of their homes, 178 to paint the inside of their homes, 52 to paint barnes and out buildings and 44 to paint all farm machinery. From later trips through the county and reports of paint sales by dealers a good majority have kept their promise. Two other counties have since put on similar campaigns. A survey of soybean harvesters being made and used in the State was made, and showed that the machines were getting on the average of about 75 per cent of the beans, each machine would take care of about five acres per day or forty acres per season. A survey was made covering a number of counties in various sections of the State to determine the estimated damage done by rats and weevils in stored corn. These estimates ran from 1 per cent to 25 per cent in each case with an average of 5 per cent damage by rats and the same for weevils. The weevil damage was much worse in Eastern Carolina while that for rats was fairly well distributed. jSTineteen thousand feet of terrace were laid off for 12 men. Sixty-five new designs have been added to our list during this time and we always have a list waiting that time and help does not permit getting out although we need them to take care of requests. Respectfully submitted, E, E. Eaney, Extension Farm Engineer. REPORT OF FEED INSPECTION WORK To the C ommisdorher of Agriculture: Sik: — As per your request, I am presenting a report briefly of the Feed Inspection Control "Work for the years 1923 and 1924. Our laboratories are now equipped and we will be able to handle work with more dispatch from now on. In the past two years this work has been greatly handicapped. Only by the most persistent efforts has the feed laboratory been kept intact and running. This has been done, notwithstanding that twice it was suggested that we close down. In 1923 we moved the feed laboratory about in the museum. The past June we again moved out of there into our present quarters. The illness of our inspector the past spring somewhat cut down the number of samples received, as also did moving into and equipping the new labora- tory. However, the fact we kept our inspection and analytical work going has had a good effect. The past two years, the uniform Wheat Mill Feed Standards on the amount of bran allowed in wheat feeds has been in force with apparently good success. These standards prevent over- loading of shorts and middlings Math bran, a cheaper feed. In the year 1923, cheap, poor, horse and mule feeds, overloaded with molasses and "hulls and chaff as fillers," were seized on the Virginia border in the vicinity of Norfolk, and their sale prevented. During the present year this practice at Wilmington, Fayetteville, and Charlotte has been gone after and stopped. These "low-grade" feeds were crowd- ing the licensed legitimate horse and mule feeds off the market by under- selling. Several firms have been compelled to withdraw from this State. Twenty-one feeds were examined for poison, several by actually feed- ing them to animals. Two alone contained poison. The following work has been published: 1. The Bulletin, "Commercial Feeds," 1923. 2. "Onion Milk Investigation with 'Mrs. Lea's Milk and Butter Purifier,' " a proprietary preparation, by Stanley Combs and J. O. Halverson. 3. "The Calcium Requirements of Farm Animals in Relation to the Calcium Content of Dairy Feeds, Hog Feeds, and Poultry Feeds," by J. O. Halverson and L. M. Nixon. Summary of Work — Years 1923-24 Forty-four refunds (feed below guarantee) made to the dealers, approxi- mately 200 tons (year 1923, 95.5 tons), $290. 77. Thirty-five lots of feed withdrawn from sale, 145.9 tons. Eleven additional notification of shortages given the manufacturers. Commissioner of Agriculture 127 1923 192.'f Official samples 322 244 Unofficial samples 68 59 Experiment station samples 46 132 Total 436 435 Grand total 871 Eespectfully submitted, J. O. Halverson, In Charge. DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS To the C omviissioner of Agriculture: Sir: — In submitting a report for the Division of Publications, I would first call to your attention that this work has been conducted jointly with the agricultural extension service work of the State College of Agriculture. The Department of Agriculture has paid part of the salaries of three of the workers connected with this office, has furnished office space, some equipment, and paid the cost of publishing bulletins prepared by workers located both at the College and in the Department building. Bulletins During the biennium from December 1, 1922, to December 1, 1924, the Division of Publications has edited, published, and distributed for the Department of Agriculture twenty-one issues of the official bulletin with a total edition of 67,500 copies. The office has prepared, also, in addition to these bulletins, 1,000 copies of the Commissioner's report for 1920-22 and 5,000 copies of a poster, ''The South, the ISTation's Greatest Asset." Publications giving the analyses of fertilizers were issued as bulletins and supplements in January, March, June, July, August, and December of 1923, and in March, July, and August of 1924. Reports of seed tests prepared by J. L. Burgess were published February, 1923, and January, 1924. Reports on the analyses of commercial feeds were issued in April, 1923, and June, 1924. In addition to these strictly departmental bulletins, eight popular bulletins, prepared by department and experiment station workers, were published. These, in accordance with the month of issue, are as follows : March, 1923 — "The Plum Curculio on Peaches in North Carolina." by R. W. Leiby, Ph.D.' May, 1923 — "Farm Credit in North Carolina," by Fred R. Yoder. November, 1923 — "Fertilizer Experiments with Wheat on Piedmont Red Clay Loam Soils," by C. B. Williams and others. March, 1924 — "Habits and Control of the Cotton Boll Weevil in North Caro- lina," by R. W. Leiby and J. A. Harris. April, 1924 — "Cost of Clearing and Seeding Cut-over Lands in Western North Carolina," by R. S. Curtis and F. T. Peden. August, 1924 — "The Culling and Feeding of Poultry," by Dr. B. F. Kaupp. September. 1924 — "Results of Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton and Irish Potatoes," by W. F. Pate and Dr. J. J. Skinner of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. November, 1924 — "The Mexican Bean Beetle in North Carolina," by J. C. Crawford. Commissioner of Agriculture 129 These eight publications were distributed to 43,600 residents of the State and to libraries and specialists engaged in agricultural work in other states. We also have a supply on hand with which to answer requests. Fifty-four thousand copies of the Farmers' Market Bulletin, prepared by the State Division of Markets, have also been mailed to the various lists in charge of this division. In our service work we have supplied an average of thirty-seven requests per day for departmental bulletins. Many of these are for copies of former issues and, in all, a total of approximately 164,000 bulletins have been mailed to residents of the State in the past two years. Service "Work In addition to answering requests for general bulletins of the Depart- ment, the Division of Publications also gives assistance in mailing out the informational matter prepared and distributed by other divisions. We are called on nearly every day to address envelopes to the various mailing lists, to mimeograph letters, and to fold them for distribution to farmers of ISTorth Carolina. Our service work for the Department of Agriculture, alone, shows that we have mimeographed and multigraphed a total of 107,360 letters during the past biennium. Most of these letters were folded and prepared for mailing in this office. This, of course, does not include any of the work done for the workers rated as extension specialists. The division has also prepared a considerable amount of small print- ing, such as letterheads, envelopes, and blank forms, for the different departmental workers. In addition to these duties, a complete record of all tag transfers is kept by Mr. A. O. Alford, assistant editor. ]SrEws Service One of the big items of the Division of Publications is maintaining a news service about better farming and improved agriculture to the papers of N"orth Carolina and the agricultural journals. The division maintains a regular service each week to all weekly papers circulating in the State, a service to the dailies through the Associated Press, and a monthly service to large agricultural papers circulating in ISTorth Carolina. A service is also maintained for Monday papers, and some of the papers, notably the News and Observer of Raleigh, carry a regular farm page on which these Monday releases are featured. In this work of supplying news material to the press of ISTorth Caro- lina, an effort is made to credit to the Department of Agriculture the work done by the specialists in the Department, and to credit to the State College of Agriculture the work done by the agricultural extension 9 130 Biennial Kepoet specialists. Credit for tlie work of tlie experiment station organization is given to tlie two institutions according as it appears liow the work is supported. I need not call your attention to the importance of this editorial work and the way in which it is received by the press of the State. In it we make no attempt to advertise anybody or anything. We simply give the facts and try to put them in such shape that they will show their news value. The response by the press of the State has been truly remarkable. Recently, one Associated Press representative told me that he did not know of another Southern State where as much agricul- tural material was being used by the press as in the State of J^orth Carolina. Conclusion In handling the large amount of work which passes through the Division of Publications, there has been a fine spirit of cooperation in the office, and it would not be possible for us to handle the amount of work that is handled if it were not for improved machinery and this spirit of loyalty which characterizes each worker in the Division. In an office such as maintained by this Division, none of us are ever entirely off duty. It has been necessary for us at times to work overtime and on holidays. However, this has been done with a fine spirit of service, and I believe the results which the division has secured in the last biennium will amply speak for themselves. Respectfully submitted, F. H. Jeteb, Editor. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Balance, July 1, 1922 $45,671.92 Receipts, July 1, 1922-June 30, 1924 774,376.51 Legislative appropriation 50,000.00 Total $870,048.43 Expenditures, July 1, 1922-June 30, 1924 768.797.12 Balance, July 1, 1924 $101,251.31 Receipts July 1, 1922-June 30, 1924 Distribution 1923 1924 Total Fertilizer tags $216,362.36 $237,862.95 $454,225.31 Cottonseed meal tags 21,754.57 23,525.12 45,279.69 Feed tags 52,442.01 57,165.35 109,607.36 Test farms 24,088.82 36,664.48 60,753.30 Hog cholera serum 19,283.54 20,756.14 40,039.68 Bleached flour licenses 7,800.00 8,415.00 16,215.00 Oil and gasoline divisions 3,000.00 9,165.87 12,165.87 Seed licenses 2,225.00 2,375.00 4.600.00 Linseed oil stamps 1,961.25 1,995.48 3,956.73 Animal Industry farm 2,206.34 1,010.12 3,216.46 Legume inoculation 1,378.48 1,270.39 2.648.87 Bottling plant licenses 990.00 1,550.00 2.540.00 Lime plant 1.874.50 525.20 2.399.70 Ice-cream licenses 930.00 1.335.00 2.265,00 Bakeries 1,210.00 860.00 2,070.00 Seed tags 873.60 1,094,37 1,967.97 Condimental feed licenses 900.00 1,040.00 1.940.00 Refunds 848.81 290.94 1,139.75 Irregularities 409.50 552.56 962.06 Tobacco sales 162.46 203.55 366.01 Grape work, Pender Farm 56.62 234.69 291.31 Maps and bulletins sold 247.92 6.14 254.06 Furniture sold 50.00 10.00 60.00 Testing and cleaning seed 8.30 20.60 28.90 Protested checks made good 4,485.50 4,485.50 Permit tags. Entomology Division 413.65 413.65 Marketing Division 20.35 20.35 Interest on deposits 450.39 13.59 463.98 Total $361,514.47 $412,862.04 $774,376.51 133 Biennial Eepokt FINANCIAL STATEMENT Summary op Disbuksements for Last Two Fiscal Yexajss. Ending June 30, 1923. and June 30, 1924 Distrihution 1923 1924 Total Executive Office : Salaries $8,897.65 Expenses 17,302.82 Inspection : Salaries 6,484.50 Expenses 8,993.08 Analytical : Salaries 21,909.89 Expenses 4,031.78 Animal Industry : Salaries 21.045.58 Expenses 15,715.51 Markets and Rural Organizations : Salaries 28,272.65 Expenses 11,766.80 Agronomy : Salaries 13,352.64 Expenses 5,752.24 Entomology : Salaries 12,860.89 Expenses 3,571.34 Horticulture : Salaries 7.490.85 Expenses 2,826.68 Veterinary- — Sanitary : Salaries 9,216.62 Expenses 1.908.86 Quarantine : Salaries 11,711.73 Expenses ' 900.75 Tuberculosis Work : Salaries 7.484.23 Expenses 3,554.04 Hog Cholera Work: Salaries 1.616.62 Expenses 814.44 Serum : Salaries 351.50 Expenses 18,822.99 Cooperative Demonstration : Salaries 14.141.42 Expenses 3,413.05 $9,274.35 15,122.37 $18,172.00 32,425.19 8.580.77 10,550.49 15,065.27 19,543.57 23,085.57 4,025.68 44,995.46 8,057.46 19,829.72 15,696.58 40,875.30 31,412.09 31,710.55 7,127.86 59,983.20 18,894.66 15,061.36 6,462.00 28,414.00 12.214.24 15,906.01 5,118.55 28,766.90 8,689.89 8,716.67 1,767.55 16,207.52 4,594.23 9.800.00 1,874.37 19,016.62 3,783.23 591.50 1,543.57 12,303.23 2.444.32 1.586.34 1,543.58 9.070.57 5,097.62 1,616.62 159.77 974.21 11.00 19,487.77 362.50 38,310.76 12,714.11 2.291.29 26,855.53 5,704.34 Commissioner of Agriculture 133 Distribution 1923 1924 Total Pure Food : Salaries 5,162.81 Expenses Botany : Salaries 1 Expenses Museum : Salaries Expenses Lime: Salaries Expenses 1,263.76 Drainage : Salaries Expenses Salaries Farm Engineering: Expenses Plant Diseases : Expenses Test Farm Directors and Agricultural Editor : Salaries Custodian : Salary 5,162.81 852.45 5,300.00 1,325.20 10,462.81 2,177.65 7,900.00 855.44 8.500.00 1,058.99 16,400.00 1,914.43 6,850.00 273.49 6.310.00 1,362.92 12,660.00 1,636.41 1,724.13 1,263.76 48.45 709.13 1.772.58 1.972.89 358.28 177.67 243.64 601.92 177.67 2,166.62 2.000.00 4.166.62 660.08 128.94 789.02 249.78 339.63 589.41 7,233.37 7,900.00 15,133.37 1,500.00 1,500.00 Multigraph : Salary 575.00 575.00 1,150.00 Janitors, etc. : Salaries 1,884.85 2,376.97 4,261.82 Test Farms : Buncombe 20,776.46 Pender 22.6-39.76 Edgecombe 11.751.44 Iredell 11,115.53 Granville 7,378.47 Washington 7,052.80 Miscellaneous 162.28 Miscellaneous : To cover protested checks 101.25 Refunded for paint stamps 4,281.55 Work on serum plant 2,550.00 State Fair 1,238.36 Handbook 138.05 Farmers' convention Pictures rural schools 5.00 17,807.75 38.584.21 20,877.27 43.517.03 15,233.70 26,985.14 11.678.54 22,794.07 9,349.99 16.728.46 7,585.86 14,638.66 365.98 528.26 4.487.05 4.588.30 93.84 4,375.39 2,550.00 509.06 1.747.42 138.05 400.00 400.00 5.00 Total : $391,089.83 $377,707.29 $768,797.12 134 Biennial Repoet DIVISION OF FOOD AND OIL INSPECTION Financial Statement from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1924 GASOLINE INSPECTION FUND Account With State Teeasurek Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $59,687.23 Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $261,737.51 Receipts from June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 364,399.47 Total receipts 626,136.98 Total $685,824.21 Disbursements Expenses June 30, 1922, to July 1. 1923 $37,404.98 Expenses June 31, 1923, to July 1, 1924 41,350.02 Total expenses $78,755.00 Transferred to General Fund : From June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $260,000.00 From June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 324,500.00 Total amount transferred 584,500.00 Total amount expended and transferred 663,255.00 Balance in Treasury to gasoline account $22,569.21 ILLUMINATING OIL INSPECTION FUND Account With State Treasurer Balance in Treasury, July 1, 1922 $16,192.02 Receipts from June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $75,423.24 Receipts from June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 90,619.36 Total receipts $166,042.60 Total - $182,234.62 Disbursements Expenses June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $30,000.66 Expenses June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 28,105.93 Total expenses $58,106.59 Transferred to General Fund : From June 30, 1922, to July 1, 1923 $55,000.00 From June 30, 1923, to July 1, 1924 60,000.00 Total amount transferred 115,000.00 Total amount expended and transferred 173,106.59 Balance in Treasury to Oil Fund $9,128.03 "W. M. Allen, Chief of the Division.