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Dairy and Food Commissioner 


For the Years 1895-1896. 


Dairy and Food Commissioner 


Dbmockat Pmntino Company, Statx Pkintkr 




H.C ADAMS, _ . . , 

T. \F. CHADTICK, ... - Dairy Expert. 

A. S. MITCtlliU, - . . . State C 



Madison, Wis., Oct. 1st, 1896. 
To his Excellency Wm. H. Upham, 

Govertwr of the State of Wisconsin: 
I have the honor, in compliance with chap. 3 09, laws of 1893, 
to submit herewith the report of this commission for the two 
year^ eading September 30, 1896. 

H. C. Adams, 


198998 '.""'Google 


Dairy and Food Laws 



1. Appointment, t«rm and compensation. [Sec. 1, ch. 
453, laws of 1889.] The office of dairy and food commis' 
sioner for the state of WiscoAsic, is hereby created, "^uch 
commissioner shall be appointed by the governor by and 
with the advice and consent of the senate, and his 
term of office shall be for two years from the date of his 
appointment, and until his successor is appointed and 
qualified; provided, that the term of office of the commis- 
sioner first appointed under this act shall expire on the 
first Monday in February, 1891, and vacancies occurring in 
the office for any cause shall be filled by appointment for 
the balance of the unexpired term. The salary of the 
commissioner shall be twenty-five hundred dollars per an- 
num and his necessary and actual expenses incurred in 
IbB discharge of his of&cial duties. 

S. Assistants, their qnaliflcations and salaries. [Sec. 2, 
ch. 452, laws of 1889.] Such commissioner may, with the 
consent and advice of the governor, appoint two assistants, 
each of acknowledged standing, ability and integrity, one 
of whom shall be an expert in the matter of dairy products 
and the other of whom shall be a practical analytical 
chemist. The salaries of such assistants shall not exceed 
eighteen hundred dollars each per annum and their neces- 


2 Dairy and Food Lawa of WiecongiTi, 

sary and actual expenses incurred in the discharge of their 
official duties. 

3. Commissioner's duties. [Sec. 3, ch. 453. laws of 
1689.] It shall be the duty of the commissioner to enforce 
all laws that now exist, or that may hereafter be enacted 
in this state, regarding the production, manufacture or 
sale of dairy products, or the adulteration of any article of 
food or drink or of any drug; and personally or by his as- 
sistants to inspect any article of milk, butter, cheese, lard, 
syrup, coffee or tea, or other article of food or drink or 
drug, made or offered for sale within this slate which he 
may suspect or have reason k believe to be impure, un- 
hoalthful, adulterated or counterfeit, and to prosecute, or 
cause to be prosecuted, any person or persons, firm or 
firms, corporation or corporations, engaged in the manu- 
facture or sale of any adulterated or counterfeit article or 
articles of food or drink or drug, contrary to the laws of 
this state. 

4. His powers— Sealing samples— Befnsin^ to sell for 
analysis. [Sec. 4, ch. 452, laws of 1889.} Said commissioner 
or any assistant shall have power in the performance of 
his officiai duties to enter into any creamery, factory, store, 
salesroom or other place or building where he has reason 
to believe that any food or drink or drug is made, prepared, 
sold or offered for sale, and Ui open any cask, tub, pack- 
age or receptacle of any kind coutaiDlng, or supposed »o 
contain, any such article, and to examine or cause to be 
examined and analyzed the contents thereof; and the com- 
missioner or any of his assistants may seize or take any 
article of food or drink or drug for analysis, but if the 
person from whom such sample is taken shall request him 
to do so he shall at the same time, and in the presence of 
the person from whom such property is taken, securely 
seal up two samples of the article seized or taken, the one 
of which shall be for examination or analysis under the 
direction of the commissioner, and the other of which shall 
be delivered to the person from whom the articles were 
taken. And any person who shall obstruct t^e commis- 


OS tli& Dairy on4 Food Commi^i'm&f, 8 

sioner or any of bis assistants by refusing to allow him 
entrance to any place which he desires to enter in the dis- 
charge of his official duty, or who refuses to deliver to him 
a sample of any article of food or drink or drug made, 
sold, offered or exposed for sale l^y such person, when the 
same is requested and when the value thereof Is tendered, 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a 
fine of not exceeding twenty -five dollars for the first offense 
and not exceeding five hundred dollars or less than fifty 
dollars for each subsequent offense. 

<{neBUoiiBor«TldeHeeMtOMallii^mDd ADaljsis. If there is oontra- 
diotory evideooe ooaoeminK tbe BufflcUnoj of the seal of a sample, and 
the credibility of the witnesses for the prosecution Is sabmitted to the 
jary, the defendant is not injured. If there is evidence that a few drops 
of carbolic acid was added to a sample of milk, and it Is submitted to 
the jary as a queatloa of faot whether this wonld change the character 
of the milk, make the analysis impossible or difflcolt, or in any way in- 
jarioosly affect the sample tor the purpose of analysis, the defendant 
has no cause of complaint. Conmion wealth v. Spear, 143 Mass., 172. 

It Is observed of a similar statute that it is intended to seoore a fair 
examination and analysis, by providing the defendant with the meaoa 
of making an analf sis of a portion of the same specimen which the 
state has analyzed. If the sample is not saved, or not saved in proper 
condition, he has no means of showing that his evidence, if any he has 
as to the quality of the milk, applies to that with reference to which the 
government witnesses have testified. It cannot be said that a portion 
reserved is sealed, within the meaning of the statate, when wax is 
merely placed on the top of the cork, and not extended over the mouth 
of the bottle, thus making it air-tight, if it is shown that the oharacter 
of the milk will be affected by the air. Commonwealth v. Lockbordt, 
141 Mass., 132. 

Where the article analyzed has not been taken ander the statute the 
competency of evidence is to be determined by the common law, and 
the testimony of any person who had soffloient skill to analyze it, and 
who has analyzed some which was proven to have l^een sold by the de- 
fendant, is admissible. Commonwealth v. Holt, 146 Mass., 3S. 

6. District attorneys to assist— Disposition of flnos. 

Sec. 5, oh. 452, laws of 1889.] It shall be the duty of the 
district attorney in any county of the state, when called 
upon by the commissioner or any of his assistants, to ren- 
der any legal assistance in bis power to execute the laws, 


4 Dairj/ and Food Lama of Wisconsin. 

and to prosecute cases arising under the provisions of this 
act; and all fines and assessments collected in any prose- 
cution begun or caused to be began by said commissioner 
or his assistants shall be paid into the state treasury. 

CAunsel mkj be employed. See paragrapli 23, wUob <tlso ptoridM 
that distrlot attorneTs shall assist the oomnussloner. 

6. Analysis of articles— Assistance at Institates,' etc. 

(Sec. 6. ch. 452, laws of 1889.] With the consent of the gov- 
emor, the state board of health may submit to the com* 
missionor, or to any of his assistants, samples of water or 
of food or drink or drugs, for examination or analysis, 
and receive special reports showing the result of such ex- 
amination or analysis. And the governor may also au- 
thorize the commissioner or his assistants, when not oth- 
erwise employed in the duties of their ofBces, to render 
sach assistance in the farmers' institutes, dairy and far- 
mers' conventions, and the agricultural department of the 
university, as shall by the authorities be deemed ad- 

7. Payment of salaries and expenses. [Sec. 7, ch. 452, 
laws of 1889,] The salaries of the commissioner and his 
assistants shall be paid out of the state treasury in the 
same manner as the salaries of other officers are paid, and 
their official expenses shall be paid at the end of each cal' 
endar month upon bills duly itemized and approved by the 
governor, and the amount necessary to pay such salaries 
and expenses is hereby appropriated annually. 

8. Laboratory, and materials for. [Sec. 8, ch. 452, 
laws of 1889.] The commissioner may, under the direc- 
tion of the governor, flt up a laboratory, with sufficient 
apparatus for making the analysis contemplated in this 
act, and for such purpose the sum of fifteen hundred dol- 
lars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby 
appropriated, and for the purpose of providing materials 
and for other necessary expenses connected with the mak- 
ing of such analyses, there is also hereby appropriated so 
much as may "be necessary, not exceeding six hundred 


Scde of Impure Mfife; S 

dollars aQDually. The appropriations provided for in this 
section shall be dra'wn from the state tieasury upon the 
certificates of the governor. 

9. Biennial report. [Sec. 9, ch. 452, 1869, as amended 
by ch. 109, 1893.] Said commiaaioner shall be furnished a 
suitable office in the capitol, at Ma,dison, and shall make a 
biennial report to the governor, which shall contain an 
itemized account of all expenses incurred and lines col- 
lected, with such statistics and other information as he 
may regard of value; and with the consent of the gov- 
ernor not exceeding twenty thousand copies thereof, lim- 
iled to three hundred pages, may be published biennially, 
as other of&cial rejiOFts are published, and of which five 
thousand copies shall be bound in cloth. 

818(1011617. Ch. 197, laws of 1395, aathorizes the commissioner to ob- 
tain stationery lot the use of bis office. 


10. Penalty for. [Sec. 1, ch. 425, 1889.] Any person 
who shall sell or offer for sale or furnish or deliver, or 
have in his possession, with intent to sell or offer for sale 
or furnish or deliver to any creamery, cheese factory, 
corporation, person or persons whatsoever, as pure, 
wholesome and unskimmed, any unmerchaotable, adulter- 
ated, impure or unwholesome milk, shall upon conviction 
thereof be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor 
more than one hundred dollars for each and every offense. 

Tallditj of gtitnte. A New York Uw (ch. 1S3 of 1885, ch. 202 of 1»3J), 
provldiDR that "no person or peraons shall sell, supply or briDg to be 
manufaotored, to anj butter or obeese man u factory, any milk diluted 
with water, or any nnolean, impure, unhealthy, adulterated or unwhole- 
some milk," has been sustained as a valid eiceroise of legislative power. 
People V. West, 106 N. Y., 293. 

Construct Ion— Indictment. The New York law does not make fraud- 
ulent intent a necessary ingredient ot the offense and it would not be a 
reasonable construction of it to apply it to a dairyman who owns and 


6 Dairy and Food Laws of Wisconsin. 

coaducta a batter or cheese factory for tlie manufacture of those arti- 
cle.'! from milk famished eKclnsively by himself, from Ms own oows. If 
the defendant ie saoh a pereoii, these faints are matter of defense, and 
their existence need not be negatived on the face of the indictment. 
People V. West, 106 N. Y., 293. 

Under a Massachnsetts law imposing a penalty for selling or offering 
to sell "adnlterated milk, or milk to nhich any foreign substance has 
been added," it is immaterial whether the substanca added is injurious 
or not. The indictment need not allege the quantity of such aab 
stance. Commonwealth t. SchaSner, 16 Northeast. Rep., 260; 14.6 

Under an act which prohibits the sale of milk which is not of a good, 
standard quality, the fact that the milk was delivered under a contract 
to furnish the person who bought it with the milk of one dairy, is not a 
defense if that furnished was not of such quality. The contract would 
be held to contemplate milk which should be bought and sold. Com- 
monwealth V, Holt, 14 Northeast. Rep., 930; H6 Mass., 38. 

Intent to sell, evidence of. Where one is charged with having in his 
possession, with intent to sell, milk which is not of a good, standard 
quality, the fact that he was upon a wagon which had his name painted 
on it, and that'therein were cans of milk, and that a sample was given 
from one of them to one employed by the milk inspector for analysis, 
is competent evidence to go to the jury upon the question of his Intent. 
Commonwealth v.Bowell, 15 Northeast. Rep., 154; 146 Mass., lL'8. 

Effect of the act ofl889upon previous laws. It seems reasonably 
clear that sec 1, of ch. 125, laws of 1839, paragraph 10, supersedes sec. 1, 
of ch. 157, laws of 1887, as to the offense of selling diluted, impure and 
unclean milk. Both the acts referred to cover the provisions of sec 
1607, B. S., and hence that section is not in force. 

11. Standard for pnre. [Sec. 2, ch, 425, 1889.] In 
all prosecutions or other proceedings under Ihls or auy 
other law of this state relating to the sale or furnishing of 
milk, if it shall be proven that the milk sold or offered 
for sale, or furnished or delivered, or had in possession 
with intent to sell or offer for sale, or to furnish or deliver 
as aforesaid, as pure, wholesome and unskimmed, contains 
less than three per centum of pure butter fat, when sub- 
jected to chemical analysis or other satisfactory test, or 
that it has been diluted or any part of its cream abstracted, 
or that it or any part of it was drawn from cows known to 
the person complained of to have been within fifteen days 
before or four days after parturition, or to have any dis- 


Sale of Impure Milk. 7 

eases or ulcers or other running sores, then and in either 
cases the said milk shall be held, deemed and adjudged to 
have been unmerchantable and adulterated, impure or 
unwholesome, as the case may be. 

Talldl'j of proTtslon as to standard of pnritf. The supreme court of 
New York has ruled that a statute which provides that milk nhich con- 
tBias less than three per ceutam of fat shall be declared adulterated 
is unconstitutional. The ^ound upon nhich this was held was that the 
statute deprived the defendant of his liberty and -property without due 
process of law, in that it barred him of the righ^ upon the trial of the 
accusation against him to have the issue determiaed according to what 
might be the proof, and compelled him to submit to the statutory decla- 
ration thereof without regard to the truth. People v. Cipperly, 37 Hun, 
317. This de[^•sion was not unanimous, and on appeal was reversed by 
the cou t of appeals, without opinion, and on the grounds giveu by the 
dissenting juJge of the supreme court. People v. Cipperly, 101 N. Y.,634. 

A law of New Hampshire (oh. 42, laws of 1883), prohibited the sale of 
adulterated milk, or milk to which water or any foreign substance has 
been added, or, as pure, milk from which the cream or a part thereof 
has been removed. It aathorized inspectors of milk to take samples 
and oanse the same to be analyzed, and expressed that in all proseon- 
tions under it it thn milk is shown by analysis to contain more than 
eighty-seven per cent, of watery fluid, or less than thirteen per cent, of 
milk solids, it shall be deemed for the purposes of the statute to be 
alulterated. It was contended that the clause Qxiug the standard was 
uDconstitutlooal. In answer the court said: "The statute tends to dis- 
courage the breeding of a certain olass of cattle for the supply of the 
milk market. The difflonlty of guarding against the adnltoratlon of 
milk may have influenced the legislature in fixing a standard of rich- 
ness. Practically it makes no difference whether milk Is dilnted after 
it is drawn from the cow, or whether it Is made watery by giving her 
such food as will produce milk of an inferior quality, or whether the di- 
lution, regarded by the legislature as excessive, arises from the nature 
of a particular animal, or a particular breed of cattle. The sale of such 
milk to unsuspecting consumers, for a price in excess of its value, is a 
fraud which the statute was designed to suppress. It is a valid exercise 
by the legislature of the police power for the prevention of fraud, and 
protection of the public health, and as such is oonstltutional." State v. 
CampbeU, 13 AtL Rep., 585; 64 N. H., 402. 

In Rhode Island a similar provision has been sustained against an ob- 
jection to its validity on the ground that it virtually confined the testi- 
mony to the analysis of the samples token by the inspector, which sam- 


8 Dairy and Food Laws of WiaconstrL 

ple« were destn^ed in maMng the uiBljrfliB, ho that the testimonT oonlil 
not be controverted. The court, however, was of the opinion " that the 
teatimonj, thongh it may not alw&TS be practicable to oontrovert> t di- 
rectly by another analysis, can be controverted by evidence of oollateml 
foots ffoinit to prove that the analyais is incorrect, and, therefore, that 
the act is not onoonstitutioaalfor the reason alleged." State v. Oro^ea, 
15 R I., a08; 2 Atl. Rep., 381. Shivers v. Newton, IS N. J. L., 469, Is to 
maoh the same effect. 

Intent imiBBterUI.— The doing of the aot oondemned by the law con- 
stitutes the offense, if it is silent as to the knowledge or intent of the 
person who is charged with violating It. People v. Eibler, 106 N. 7.,321, 
12 N. K Rep., 795. . 

13. Proof of adnlteratlOB, how made. [Sec. S, ch. 157. 
1887, as amended by ch. 344, 1889.] Proof of adultera- 
tions and skimming may be made with such standard tests 
and lacometers as are used to determine the quality of 
milk, or by chemical analysis. 

13. Sale, etc., of milk or cream containing antiseptics 
injarioQS to health. [Ch. 168, 1895.] Any person who 
shall sell or offer for sale, or consign, or have in his pos- 
session with intent to sell to any person or persons, any 
milk, creEim, butter, cheese, or other dairy products, or 
who shall deliver to any creamery or cheese factory, milk 
or cream to be manufactured into butter or cheese, to 
which boracic acid, salicylic acid, or compounds containing 
them, or other antiseptics injurious to health, have been 
added, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof be punished by a fine of not less than 
twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars for each 
and every offense. 

Intent to selL See note to paragraph UX 


Imitation Butter and Cheese. 


li. Filled cheese. [Sec. 1, ch. 30, 1893.] No person, 
by himself or by his agents or servants, shall manufacture, 
or shall buy, sell, offer, ship, consign, expose or have in 
his possession for sale any cheese manufactured from or 
by the use of skimmed milk to which there has been added 
any fat which is foreign to such milk. 

16. Size of skimmed-milk cheese. [Sec. 2, ch. 80, 
1895.] No person, by himself or by his agents or serv- 
ants, shall manufacture, or shall buy, sell, offer, ship, con- 
sign, expose or have in his possession for sale, within this 
state, any skimmed milk cheese, or cheese manufactured 
from milk from which any of the fat originally contained 
therein has been removed , except such cheese is ten Inches 
in diameter and nine inches in height. 

16. Imitation hotter. [Sec. 3, ch. 30, 1895.] No per- 
son, by himself or by his agents or servants, shall render 
or manufacture, sell, ship, consign, offer for sale, expos/, 
for sale, or have in his possession with intent to sell, any 
article, product or compound made wholly or partly out of 
any fat, oil or oleaginous substance or compound thereof, 
not produced from nnadulterated milk or cream from the 
same, and without the admixture or addition of any fat 
foreign to said milk or cream, which shall be in imitation 
of yellow butter produced from pure unadulterated milk or 
cream of the same, with or without coloring matter; pro- 
vided, that nothing in this act shall be construed to pro- 
hibit the manufacture or sale of oleomargarine in a separ- 
ate and distinct form and in such manner as will advise 
the consumer of its real character, free from coloration or 
ingredient that causes it to look like butter. 

Tklidilj'. Tbe foregoing section is almost an exact copy or so. 1, of 
ch 5, acta of MaasachnsettB, 1891. The words "ship, coDsiga," "and 
without the admiztore or addition of any fat foreign to said milk oi 


10 Dairy and Food Laws of Wisconsin. 

ra'eam," foiind in this section, are not in the Massachusetts act. Tu 
Commonwealth v. Huntley, 156 Mass., 236, 30 N. E. Rep,, 1127, the ques- 
tion of the validity of the act referred to came before ihe court. It was 
an agreed fact that the oleomai^rine sold by the defendant was brjaght 
to M asaacbusetts from another state, and was sold there in the original 
[ackbge, and assumed by the court that it was wholesome, palatable 
and nutritious. The validity of the act, so far as the state constitution 
was concerned, does not appear to have been queslioaed. On this 
branch of the subject, the court quoted from the opinion of the court 
of appeals of Missouri in the case of State v. Addington. 12 Mo, App., 
214, 223, language which had been approved by the supreme court of 
Pennsylvania in Powell v. Commonwealth, 114 Penn. St., 285, 295, a case 
which was carried to the supreme court of the United States, and 
there affirmed, Powell v. Pennsylvania, 127 U. S., 678: " If an article of 
food is of such a character that few persons will eat it knoiring its real 
character; if, at the same time, it i^ of such a nature thut it can be im- 
posed upon the public as an article of food which is in common use, 
and against which there is no prejudice; and if, in addition to this, 
there is probable ground for believlntf that the only way to prevent the 
pnblic from being defrauded inio purchasing Ihe counterfeit article for 
the genuine is to prohibit altogether the manufacture and sale of the 
farmer, then we think such a prohibition may stand as a reasonable 
police regulation, although the article prohibited is in fact innocuous, 
and although its production might be found beneficial to the public, if 
in buying it they could distinguish it from the production of which it 
is the imitation." The Massachusetts court also said that " in New 
Hampshire, Missouri, Minnesota, New York, New Jeraey, and Pennsyl- 
vania, statutes prohibiting the sale of oleomargarine made in imitation 
of batter have been upheld by the courts as valid. State v. Marshall, 
64 N. H., 5J9; State v. Addington, 77 Mo., 110; 12 Mo. App., 214; Butler 
V. Chambers, H6 Minn., 69; People v. Arensberg, 105 N. Y., 123; State v. 
Newtoo, 21 Vroom (50 N, J. L.), 531; Powell v. Commonwealth, 114 
Penn. St., 265." To the saise effect are McAllister v. State, 72 Md., 390; 
Weideman v. State, 56 N, W. Hep., 688; State ex rel, v. Horj^an, 55 Minn., 
1S3. The doubtful question in the Massachusetts case arose under the 
provision of the constitution of the United States giving to congress 
power to regulate commerce among the several states. On this point. 
Inasmuch as the statute only applied to oleomargarine which was de- 
ceptive, and authorized the sale, under restrictions, of that which was 
not deceptive, and did not forbid the transportation or storage of the 
former, a majority of the court held it valid. Commonwealth v. Hunt- 
ley, 166 Mass.. 236; 30 N. E. Rep., 1127. 

The ruling of the United Htates supreme court The validity of the 
Massachusetts statute, so far as it was affected by the clause of the 
federal constitution giving congress power over oommerce, came before 


Imitation Butter and Cheese. ll 

the aapreme ooart of the United States in Flamley r. Maasachiisette, 
155 U. S., ^1. It was there held, by a majority of the jadges (three dls- 
BeutlDg), that the federal statute imposiDg special taxes apoo^manafao- 
tnrers and wholesale and retail dealers in oleomargarine does not re- 
strict the power of the states over the manufacttire and sale thereof 
within their reepective limits. "The taxes presoribad by that act were 
Imposed for national pui-poses, and their imposition did not give 
authority to those who paid them to engage in the manufactare of sale 
of oleomaifCSrine in any state which lawfully forbade such manufac- 
tore or sale, or to disregard any regulation which a state might lawfully 
prescribe in reference to that article. , . , Nor was the act of con- 
gress relating to oleomargarine intended as a regulation of commerce 
among the states. Its provisions do not have special applicatioQ to the 
transfer of oleomargarine from one state of the union to another. They 
relieve the manufacturer or seller, If he conforms to the regulations 
prescribed by congress or by the commissioner of internal revenue, un- 
der the authority conferred upon him in that regard, from penalty or 
punishment so far as the general government is concerned, but they do 
not interfere with the exei:cise by the states of any authority they pos- 
sess of preventing deception or fraud in the sales of property within 
their respective limits." 

The opinion of the ooart then proceeds to discuss the validity of the 
statute of Massachusetts as affected by the commerce clause of the 
federal constitution. "It will be observed," said Justice Harlan, "that 
the statute of Massachusetts which is alleged to be repugnant to " that 
clause " does not prohibit the manufacture or sale of all oleomargarine, 
bat only such as is colored in imitation of yellow butter produced from 
pure unadulterated milk or cream of such millc. If free from colora- 
tion or ingredient that causes It to look like butter, the ri>iht to sell it 
'in a sepai'ate and distinct form, and in such manner as will advise the 
consumer of its real character,' is neither restricted nor prohibited. It 
appears, in this case, that oleomargarine, in its natural condition, is of 
a 'light yellowish color,' and that the article sold by the accused was 
artificially colored ' in imitation of yellow butter.' Now the real object 
of coloring oleomargarine so as to make it look like genuine butter is 
that it may appear to be what it b not, and thus induce unwary pur- 
chasers, who do not closely scrutinize the label upon the package in 
which it is contained, to buy it as and tor butter produced from un- 
adulterated milk or cream from such milk. The suggestion that oleo- 
margarine is artificially colored so as to render it more palatable and 
attractive can only mean that customers are deluded, by such colora- 
tion, into believing that they are getting genuine butter. If any one 
thinks that oleomargarine, not artificially colored so as to cause it to 
look like batter, is as palatable or wholesome for purposes of food as 


12 Dairy and Food Lotos of Wiacoruin. 

pun butter, he Is, as already obaerred, at liberty ander the atatate of 
MasaaohnBettB to maaafaotara it in tliat state or to Bell it then in such 
manner as to inform the castomer of its real character. He is onlj for- 
bidden to practice, in such matters, a fraod npon the general public 
The statate seeks to suppress false pretenses and to promote fair deal- 
ing in the sale of an article of food. It compels the sale of oleomarRar- 
ine for what it really is, by preveating its sale for what it is not." 

After rsTiewlng many of the oases deoided by the supreme coort of 
the United States and relied upon by counsel for the defendant to 
support his oontention that the statute was void, the opinion uses ttijs 
language: " In none of the above oases is there to be found a suggestion 
or intimation that the constitution of the United States took from the 
states the power of preventing dooeptiort aad fraud in the sale, within 
titeir respective limits, of articles in whatever state manufactured, or that 
that instrument secured to any one the privilege of committing a wroog 
aeaiuBt society. ... If there i>e any subject over which it would 
seem the states ought to have plenary oontrol, and the power to legis- 
late in respeot to which it ought not to be supposed was intended to be 
surrendered to the general government, it is the protection of the people 
against fraui and deception in the sale of food products. Such legisla- 
tion may, indeed, indirectly or iDCideutaily affect trade In such pro- 
ducts transported from one state to another state. But that oiroum- 
stance does not show that laws of the character alluded to are incon- 
sistent with the power of oongress to regulate commerce among the 
states. For, aa said by this oourt in Sherlock v. Ailing, 93 U. S., 99, 103: 
'In conferring apon congress the regulation of commerce, it was never 
intended to out the states off from legislating on all subjects relating to 
the health, life and safety of their citizens, though the legislation might 
indirectly a£Ceat the commeroe of the conntry, Legislatloa, in a great 
variety of ways, may affect commerce and persons engaged in it without 
constituting a regulation of it within the meaning of the constitution. 
.... And it may be sfdd generally, that the legislation of a state, 
not directed against commerce or any of its regulations, but rf latin to 
the rights, duties, and liabilities of citizens, and only indirectly and re- 
motely affecting the operations of commeroe, is of obligatory force upon 
citizens within its territorial jurisdiction, whether on loud or water, oi 
engaged in commeroe, foreign or interstate, or In any other oorsuits." 

The opinion of the court then proceeds to point out that the case of 
Leisy v. Hardin, 135 U. 8 , 100, in which it was held that ardent spirits, 
distilled liquors, ale and beer, were sobjoots of axonange, bari^er and 
traffic, and, being articles of commerce, their sale wnile in the original 
packages in which they are carried from one state lo another, oould not, 
without the assent of congress, be forbiddea oy ihe state into which 
they were transported, was not conclusive ol *he cose before it, because 


ImUation Butter and CkeesA. 13 

the articles sold In that case were what thej purported to be. The 
opiuloa of the majoritjr of the ooort on the Massaohosetts statate oon- 
olnded thas: "We are of npinion that it is within the power of a atate 
to exclude from its markets any compound manufactured in another 
state, which has been artificially colored or adulterated so aii to cause 
It to look like an article of food in general use, and the sale of which 
may, by reason of such coloration or adulteratiop, chest the general 
pablic into pnrchasiDd that which they may not intend to buy. The 
oonstitatioD of the United States does not secure to any one the priv- 
ilege of defrandlug the publio. The deception against which the stat- 
ute of Massachusetts is tdmed is an offense against society; and the 
states are as competent to protect their people against each offenses or 
wrongs as they are to protect them against crimes or wrongs of more 
serious character. And this protection may be given without violating 
any right secured by the oatioaal constitution, and without infringing 
the authority of the general goverainent, A state enactment forbidding 
the sale of deceitful imitations of articles of food in general use 
among the people does not abridge any privilege secured to citizens of 
the United States, nor, in any juat sense, interfere with the freedom of 
commerce among the several states." 

17. Sale of. [See. 4, ch. 30, laws of 1895.] It shall be 
QDlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale to any 
person who asks, sends or inquires for butter, auy oleo- 
margarine, butterine or any substaDce made in imitation or 
semblance of pure bulter not made entirely from the milk 
of cows, with or without coloring matter. 

18. Notice of sale of oleomargarine, etc. [Sec. 5, ch. 
80, laws of 1895.] It shaJl be unlawful for any person to 
expose for sale oleomargarine, butterine, or any similar 
substance not marked and distinguished on the outside of 
each tub, package or parcel thereof by a placard with the 
word "oleomargBTine," and not having also upon every 
open tub, package or parcel thereof a placard with the 
word "oleomargarine," such placard in each case to be 
printed in plain, uncondensed gothic letters not less than 
one inch long, and such placard shall not contain any 
other words thereon. 

FroTlslon valid. See note to paragraph 16. A statate which pro 

Tides that no person shall sell any lard, or any article intended for use 

as lard, which oontains any ingredient bat the pure fat of healthy swine, 

onder any label bearing the words "refined," "pure," "family," unless 


14 Dairy emd Food Laws of Wisconsin. 

ereiy paokage in which the sitiole ie sold Is marked ** compoond lard," 
has been BDstained aa talid b; the anpreme ooort of Iowa. State v. 
Snow, 17 N. W. Eep., T77. 

In MiUDesota a. statute whloh makes It a misdemeanor to mannfao- 
tore for sale within that state, or to sell or offer to do eo, baking powder 
containing alntn, nnlesa each package thereof is labelled, " tliis baking 
powder contains alum," has been soatained. Btoltz t. Thompson, 16 N. 
W. Rep^ 410. 

In Ohio it baa been held tbat it is " within the nndoabted power of 
the legislature to prohibit the sale of substances having the semblance 
of butter or cheese, bat not wholly made from pure cream or milk, un- 
less eaoh package of such anbstauce ahonld have printed, stamped or 
marked thereon in the manner prescribed br the 8latiite,the name of 
each article used in, or entering into,the composition of snob substance, 
and this power is possessed by the legtslatnre over the sale of articles 
protected by letters patent as well as of those not protected." Palmer 
v.State,39 0hioSt.,237. 

19. Same, notice, how given. [Sec. 6, ch. 30, laws of 
1895. ] It shall be the duty of every person who sells oleo- 
margarine, butterine, or any similar substance, from any 
dwelling, store, office or public mart, to have conspicu- 
ously posted thereon the placard or sign, in letters not 
less than four inches in length, "oleomargarine sold here," 
or "butterine sold here." Such placard shall be approved 
by the dairy and food commissioner of the state of Wis- 

20. Notice of sale firom rehieles. [Sec. 7. ch. 30, laws 
of 1895.] It shall be unlawful for any person to peddle, 
sell or deliver from any cart, wagon or other vehicle, upon 
the public streets or ways, oleomargarine, butterine, or 
any similar substance, not having on the outside of both 
sides of said cart, wagon or other vehicle the placard in 
imcondensed gothic letters, not less than three inches in 
length, "licensed to sell oleomargarine. " 

This section is not in the exact words of sec 1, oh. 112, acts of 
Mass., 1891, though It is modeled after it. That act does not use the 
words "Sin the outside of both sides," etc.. bnt contained the phrase "on 
both sides of the Tebiole." It was held that placing the placards on the 
inside of the cover of the wagon, wbiah was open at both ends, was not 
a oomplianoe witb tb« law, It was also ruled that the statute was not 


Imitation Butter and Ghees6. 15 

In cotkfllot with the act of congress authorizing th» licensing of the sale 
of oleomargarine. Commonwealth y. Crane, 158 Mass., 218; 33 N. K 
Rep., 388. 

21. Notice to guests at hotels, etc. [Sec. 8, ch. 30. 
1895.] It shall be unlawful for any person to furnish, or 
cause to be furnished, in any hotel, boarding house, res- 
taurant, or at any lunch counter, oleomargarine, butterine, 
or any similar substance to any guest or patron of said 
hotel, boarding house, restaurant or lunch counter, with- 
out first notifying such guest or patron that the substance 
so furnished is not butter. 

See notes to sees. 16, 18, 20. This section is similar to sec G, ch. 412, 
Mass. acts, ISDL 

22. Penalties. [Sec. 9, oh. 30, 1895.] Any person who 
shall violate any of the provisions of this act shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof 
Bhall be punished for the first offense by a fine of not less 
than fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars; and 
npon conviction of any subsequent offense shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of not less than one l|undred dollars or 
more than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the 
county jail of not less than ten days nor more than sixty 
days, or by both such fine and imprisonment, at the dis- 
cretion of the court. 

33. Duty of district attorneys — Special connsel. 
[Sec. 10, ch. 30, laws of 1895.] It shall be the duty of the 
district attorney in any county of the state, when called 
upon by the dairy and food commissioner of this state, or 
any of his assistants, to render &ny legal assistance in 
his power to execute, and to prosecute the cases arising 
under the provisions of this act; and the dairy and food 
c<$mmissloner shall have power to appoint, with the ap- 
jux)val of the governor, special counsel to prosecute or to 
assist in the prosecution of any case arising under the 
prOtvisions of this act. 

34. Butter and etiecsu, nse of in state institutions. 
[Sec. 7, ch. 165, laws ot 1891.] No butter or cheese not 
made wholly and direct'/ from pure milk or cream, salt 


16 Dairy and Food Laws oj Wisconsin. 

and harmless coloring matter shall be used in any of the 
charitable or penal institutions of the state. 

26. Penalty. [Sec. 8, ch. 165, laws of 1891.] Any per- 
son or persons violating any of the provisions or sections 
of this act, shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not 
H less than twenty-five nor more than fifty dollars for the 
first ofFenso, or for each subsequent offense not less than 
fifty nor more than one hundred dollars, or be imprisoned 
in the county jail not loss than ten nor more than ninety 
days or both. 

26. Disposition of flues. [Sec. 9, ch. 165, laws of 1891.] 
One-half of all the fines collected under the provisions of 
this act shall be paid te the person or persons furnishing 
information upon which conviction is procured. 

Tha other Eootiona of ch. 165, laws of 1891, are believed to be saper- 
Boded bf oh. 22S, laws of 1893, paragraphs 27-32, 


37. Sale of falsely branded. [Sec. 1, ch. 228, laws of 
1893. J No person shall offer for sale, sell, ship or consign 
cheese labeled with a false brand or label as to the qual- 
ity of the article. 

28. Uniform brand. [See. 2, ch. 228, laws of 1893.3 
The state dairy and food commissioner is hereby author- 
ized and directed to issue to the cheese manufactories of 
the state, upon proper application therefor and under such 
regulations as to the custody and use thereof as he may 
prescribe, a uniform stencil or brand, bearing a suitable 
devise or motto and the words "Wisconsin full cream 
cheese. " 

29. Brand, how used— Registration of factories. [Sec. 
3, ch. 228, laws of 1893.] Every brand issued shall be used 
upon the side of the cheese on the bandage thereof, also 


Branding Cheese, etc 17 

upon the package containiog the same, and shall bear u 
different number for each separata manufactory, and the 
commissioner shall keep a book in which shall be regis- 
tered the name, location and number of each manufactory 
using the said brand, and the name or names of the per- 
sons at each manufactory authorized to use the same. 

30. Fraadoleat use of brand, [Sec. 4, ch. 228, laws of 
1893.] It shall be unlawful to use or permit such brand to 
be used upon any other than full cream cheese, or pack- 
age containing the same. 

31. Brand for skimmed cheese. [Sec. 5, ch. 228, laws 
of 1893.] Every person who shall, at any cheese factory 
in the state, manufacture skimmed cheese, shall distinctly 
and durably stamp upon each and every such cheese, 
and upon the box, the words "Wisconsin skimmed 
cheese." All cheese not manufactured as in sections 
1, 2, 3 and 4, of this act, shall be deemed to be 
skimmed cheese under the provisions of this act. 
The brand herein provided by this section of this act, 
for designating the grade and quality of cheese provided 
by this section shall be such as to produce an impression 
not less than three inches in width and five inches in 
length, and shall be in full-faced capital letters of as large 
size as the space hereby provided for will permit, and the 
whole to be included within a pla^, heavy border. Ordi- 
nary stamping ink, either red, green or violet in color, and 
of such composition as not to be easily removed or wholly 
obliterated by moisture, shall be used in stamping as pro- 
vided for by this section. 

Sofaraa the oot of 1893 relates to branding skimmed cbeese, it is 
probably superseded by that part ot oh. 30, 1893, embodied in paragraph 
16. The provisions of tlio aot of 1893, relating to branding full cream 
oheeae, are in foroe, and supersede ch. 163, 18dl. 

83, Penalty— Dlsposlton of fine. LSec. 6, 228, laws of 
1893.] Whoever violates the provisions of this act shall 
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and for each and every . 
pacl^^e so falsely branded or omitted to be branded as 
herein provided, shall bo punished by a fine of not less 


18 Dairy and Food Laws of Wisconsin, 

than twenty-flve nor more than fiity dollars, o&e-haLf of 
which shall be paid to the person or persons furnishing 
the evidence upon which such conviction is made. 


83. Powers of dairy and food eommisBioner. [Sec. 1, 
ch. 257, laws of 1895.] The dairy and food commissioner 
or his agents shall have full access and ingress to any 
factory or building where any product of the dairy is 
manufactured or stored for sale or shipment of the same, 
and shaJl be empowered to enforce such measures as may 
be necessary for the perfect cleanliness of said factories, 
buildings and surroundings, also for the cleanliness of all 
the utensils necessarily used in the manufacture and gen- 
eral handling of the dairy product. Any person refusing 
the privilege of such access to the dairy and food com- 
missioner or his agent, or opposing him in any way shall 
be considered as having committed it misdemeanor. 

34. WaiTaQt for selznre of imitation products. [Sec. 
2, ch. 257, laws of 1895.] When complaint shall be made 
on oath to any magistrate authorized to issue warrants in 
criminal cases, that imitation butter or imitation cheese or 
any substance designed or intended to be used as a substi- 
tute for butter or cheese, is iu the possession or under the 
control of any person or persons contrary to the provisions 
of law of this state, and that the complainant believes 
that it is concealed in any particular warehouse, store or 
refrigerator for mercantile purposes, the magistrate, if he 
be satisfied that there be cause for such belief, shall issue 
a warrant for such property. 

35. Terms of the warrant. [Sec. S, ch. 257, laws of 
1895.] All such warrants shall be directed to the sheriff 
of the'couaty or his deputy or to any constable of the county, 
commanding such officer to search the house, building, 
store or other place where the imitation butter or imita- 


GondemTiation of Imitation Dairy Products, etc 19 

tioQ cheese or any substance designed or intended to be 
used as imitation butt«r or cheese for which he is required 
to search is believed to be concealed, which place and 
property to be searched for shall be designated and de- 
scribed in the warrant, and to bring such property when 
found and the person or persons in whose possession tbe 
same shall be found before the magistrate who issued tbe 
warrant or before some other magistrate or court having 
cognizance of the case. 

36. PreserratioDj analysis and confiscation of proporty. 
[Sec. 4, ch. 257, laws of 1895.] When any officer in the 
execution of a search warrant under the provisions of this 
act shall find any imitation butter or cheese, or any sub- 
stance designed or intended to be used as an imitation for 
butter or cheese and for which a search is allowed by this 
act, all the property so seized shall be safely kept by the 
direction of the court or magistrate, so long as shall be 
necessary for the purpose of being produced as evidence 
on any trial; provided, that it shall be the duty of the of- 
Beer who serves a search warrant issued for imitation but- 
ter or imitation cheese or any substance designed or in- 
tended to be used as imitation for butter or cheese and al- 
leged to be in his possession or under the control of any 
person or persons contrary to law, to deliver to the state 
dairy and food commissioner, or to any person by such 
commissioner authorized in writing to receive the same, a 
true and perfect sample of each article seized by virtue of 
such warrant, for the purpose of having the same analyzed. 
If any sample be found to be imitation butter or imitation 
cheese, or substance designed or intended to be used as an 
imitation for butter or cbeese and that the same, at tlic 
time of such seizure, was in the possession or under the 
control of any person or persons contrary to any of the 
provisions or requirements of this act, then and in such 
case the property so seized shall be confiscated and de- 
stroyed, under the direction of the court or magistrate; 
otherwise the same shall bo forthwith returned to the per- 
son or persons from whom it was taken. 


20 Dairy and Food Laws of Wiaoonsin, 

37. Penalty. [Sec. 5, ch. 257, laws of 1895.] Any per- 
son or persons violating any of the provisions or sections 
of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeaQOr and upon con- 
viction thereof be fined not less than twenty -five nor more 
than fifty dollars for the first offense, and for each subse- 
quent offense not less than fifty nor more than one tiun- 
dred dollars or to be imprisoned in the county jail not less 
than thirty nor more than ninety days in tbe discretion of 
the court before whom such conviction may be had. 

38. Disposition of fines. [Soc. 6, ch. 257, laws of 1895.] 
One-half of all fines collected tinder the provisions of this 
act shall be paid to the person or persons furnishing in- 
formation upon which conviction is procured. 


'89. Penalty . [Sec. 1494a, E. S.] Any butter or cheese 
manufacturer who shall knowingly use, or Edlow any of his 
employes or any other person to use for his or their own 
individual benefit, any milk, or cream from the milk, 
brought to said butter or cheese manufacturer, without the 
consent of all the owners thereof, or any butter or cheese 
manufacturer who shall refuse or neglect to keep, or cause 
to be kept, a correct account (open to the Inspection of 
any one furnishing milk to such manufacturer) of the 
amount of milk daily received, or of the number of pounds 
of butter, and tbe number and aggregate weight of cheese 
made each day, or of the number cut or otherwise disposed 
of, and the weight of each, shall for each and every of- 
fense forfeit and pay a sum not less than twenty-five dol- 
lars, nor mo>-e than one hundred dollars, to be recovered 
in an action in any court of competent jurisdiction, one- 
half for the benefit of the person or persons, firm or as- 
sociation, or their assigns, upon whom such fraud or neg- 
lect shall be committed, first having made complaint there- 
for, the remainder to the school fimd. 


Adulteration of Food, Drugs, Liquors, etc 


40. Adding bgarions substances to food, etc. [Sec 1, 
ah. 248, laws of 1879.] No person shall mix, color, stain. 
powder, order or permit aay ocher person to mix, color, 
stain or powder any article of food with any ingredient or 
material so as to render the article injurious to health, 
with intent that the same may be sold in that condition. 
And any person that shall sell any such article so mixed, 
colored, stained or powdered, shall be subjected to a pen- 
alty in each case not exceeding a fine of fifty doUarti for 
the first ofEense, and for a second offense shall be punished 
by imprisonment in the state prison for a period not ex- 
ceeding one year, with hard labor. 

As to the aoalTsia of articles parohased ander chapter 218, laws of 
1879, (paragraphs 40-i3), see psraKrapli 57. 

41. Same as to drngs. [Sec. 2, ch. 248, laws of 1879.] 
No person shall, except for the purpose of compounding, 
as hereinafter described, mix, color, stain or powder, or 
permit any other person to mix, color, stain or powder, 
any drug with any ingredient or material so as to affect 
injuriously the quality or potency of such d.'ug, with in- 
tent that the same may be sold in that condition. And 
any person who shall sell any such drug so mixed, colored, 
stained or powdered shall be liable to the same penalty or 
punishment in each case respectively, as in the preceding 
section, for a first and subsequent offense; provided, that 
no person shall be liable to be convicted under the fore- 
going section of this act, in respect to the sale of any 
article of food or of any drug, if he shows to the satisfac- 
tion of the justice or court before whom he is charged that 
be did not know of the article or drug sold by him being 
so ml^ed, colored, stained or powdered, as in that section 
mentioned, and that he could not, with reasonable diligence. 


22 Dairy arid Food Laws of Wisconsin. 

have obtAined that knowledge; or that such mixing, color- 
ing, staining or powdering was required for the produc- 
tion, extraction, preparation, preservation, consutuption or 
transportation as an article of commerce in a state fit for 
carriage; or where the drug or food is supplied in the 
state required by the specification of the patent in force ; 
or that the food or drug was unavoidably mixed with some 
extraneous matter in process of collection or preparation. 
Sec 4601, R 8., is probably superseded by the above. It was there 
provided that " any pereon who shalL fraudolently adulterate for the 
purpose at sale, any drugormedioine, in such amanDeras to render the 
same injurious to health, shall be punished by imprisonment in the 
coanty jail not more than one year, or by fine not exceeding three hun- 
dred dollara." See paragraphs il, 45. 

42. False labeling of food, drngs, etc. [Sec. 3, ch. 
248, laws of 1879.] Every person who shall compound or 
put up for sale any food, drug or liquor, in casks, boxes, 
bottles or packages, with any label, mark or device what- 
ever, so as and with intent to mislead or deceive as to the 
true name, nature, kind and quality thereof, shall be lia- 
ble to a penalty of not to exceed five hundred dollars for 
the first offense, and for every offense after the first of- 
fense shall be punished by imprisonment in the state 
prison for not less than one year nor more than ten years. 

The penalty imposed by this section for a first offense may be col- 
lected in a oivil action brought by the state. Such offense is not a 
misdemeanor, nor the penalty provided for a fine within section 3294, 
R, S. Stale t. Grove, 77 Wis., 448. 

It ia held In New York that " there is no rule of law whieh requires 
the plaintiff in a civil aotion, when a judgment against the defendant 
may establish his guilt of a crime, to prove his case with the same cer 
tainty which is required in criminal prosecutions. Nothing more is 
required iu such cases than a just preponderance of evidence, always 
giving the defendant the beneSt of the presumption of innocence." 
New York k Brooklyn Ferry Co. v, Moore, 102 N. Y., 667, fully reported 
in 18 Abb. N. C, 106. It is held in a late case, brought by the dairy 
oommissiouer of that state to recover the penalty fixed by the act to 
prevent deception in the sale of dairy prodacts, that the rule " stated 
ia the proper one applicable to the measure of evidence in civil actions, 
and such seems to be the weight of authority. (See cases collected la 


Adulteration of Food, Drugs, Liqiwrs, etc 25) 

note to Sprats t. Dodge, 95 Am, Dec., 52S.) And there Is no apparent 
reason for making anj dist>inction 'in that respect In behalf of a de- 
fendant in an action for a penalty, in which the people are the party 
plaintiff. It Is no less a civil action because so brought. The purpose 
of the Botion, is not the punishment of the defendant in the sense 
legitimately applicable to the term, bat enob action is brought to re- 
cover the penalty as a fixed sum by way of fudemnity to the public for 
the iujury suffered by reason of the violation of the statute. The effect 
of the recovery is merely to charge the defendant with pecuniary lia- 
bility, while a criminal proseontlon is had for the purpose of punish- 
ment of the accused." People t. Briggs, 111 N. Y., 56, 63. 

43. DeflDltlons. ["Sec 4. ch. 248, laws of 1879.] The 
term "food" as herein used shall include every article used 
for food or drink by man, other than drugs. The term 
"drug" shall include medicine for internal or external use. 

44. Adalteration of Hqaors, candies, etei [Sec. 4600, 
R, S.] Any person who shall fraudulently adulterate, for 
the purpose of sale, any substance intended for food, or 
any wine, spirits, malt liquor, or other spirituous liquors, 
or any other fluid, intended for drinking, or any candy or 
sweetmeat, with any substance, coloring matter, or any- 
thing poisonous, deleterious or injurious to health, or who 
shall knowingly manufacture, sell, or offer for sale, any 
such adulterated food, liquor, candy or sweetmeat, shall 
be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not more 
than six months, or by fine not exceeding one hundred dol- 
lars, and any article so adulterated shall be forfeited and 

The provisiona of this section so for as they relate to food, are prob- 
ably superseded by sections of the aot of 1879, found in paragraphs 10, 

46. liability of drnggigts for quality of drogs, etc. 

[Sec. 13, ch. 167, laws of 1882, as amended by sec. 11, ch. 
227, laws of 1895.] Every owner or conductor of a drug 
store shall be responsible for the quality of all drugs, 
chemicals or medicines, sold or dispensed by him, except 
those sold in the original package of the manufacturer, 
and except those articles known as patent or proprietary 
medicines. And should any owner or conductor of a store 


S4 Dairy and Food Laws of IHaconain. 

intentionally and fraudulently adulterate, or caose to be 
adulterated, any drugs, chemicals or medical preparations 
sold In such store, he shall, for any and every such offense 
forfeit the sum of one hundred dollars, and if such person 
shall be a registered pharmacist, or a registered assistant 
pharmacist, his registration and certificate of registration 
may be, by said board fstate board of pharmacy^ revoked 
and annulled; whereupon such person shall cease to be a 
registered pharmacist or registered assistant pharmacist. 

46. Adulterated honey, marking of. [Sec. 2, ch. 40, 
laws of 1881.] Every person, company or corporation, 
who shall sell or offer for sale, honey, or any imitation of 
honey, which is adulterated with glucose, or any other 
substance, shall mark the package or parcel with the 
words "adulterated honey," as required by section one of 
this act. 

Section 1, of chapter 40, laws of 1881, related to the mannfaotnre of 
imitatioD batter, and provided that eaoh firkin, tab, package or parcel 
thereof, should be marked on top of same in letters not less than one- 
half inch in length, and breadth In proportion, and in such manner that 
it may be plaioly Men. As applied to batter the eaid section was repealed 
by chapter 361, Uws of 1S8S. Section 3, of the act of 1881, related to 
imitation ofaeeae. It was also repealed by the act of 1885. 

47. Penalty. [Sec. 4, ch. 40, laws of 1881J Any per- 
son found guilty of any violation of this act, shall for 
each offense be punished by imprisonment in the county 
jail not less than ten days nor more than six months, or 
by a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than one 
hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court. 

48. Fines, how disposed of. [Sec. 5, ch. 40, laws of 
1881,] One half of all fines imposed by the enforcement 
of this act shall be paid to the person who informs against 
and prosecutes such offender to conviction. 

49. Imitation cider vinegar. [Sec. 1, ch. 394, laws of 
1891.] Every person who manufactures for sale, or offers 
or exposes for sale, as cider vinegar, any vinegar not the 
legitimate product of pure apple juice, known as apple 
cider, or vinegar not made exclusively of said apple cider. 


Adulteration of Food, Drugs, Liquors, etc. 2 5 

or vinegar into which foreign substances, drugs or acids 
have been introduced, as may appear by proper tests, shall 
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. 

50. Adding iQJnrloas ingredieDts to rinegar. [Sec. 2, 
oil. 394, laws of 1891,] Every person who manufactures 
for sale, or offers for sale, any vinegar, found, upon 
proper tests, to contain any preparation of lead, copper, 
sulphuric acid, or other ingredient injurious to health, 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. 

51. Adalteration and false lal)ellng of vinegar. 
[Sec. 3, ch. 394, laws of 1891,] No person, by himself, his 
servant or agent, or as the servant or agent of any other 
person, shall sell, exchange, deliver, or have in his cus- 
tody or possession, with intent to sell or exchange, or ex- 
pose or offer for sale or exchange, any adulterated vine- 
gar, nor shall he label, brand or sell as cider vinegar, or 
as apple vinegar, any vinegar not the legitimate product 
of pure apple juice, or not made exclusively from apple 

62. Standard of pare Tlnegar; marking of. [Sec. 4, 
ch. 394, laws of 1891.] All vinegar shall have an acidity 
equivalent to the presence of not less than four per cent, 
by weight, of absolute acetic acid, and, in the case of cider 
vinegar, shall contain in addition not less than two per 
cent by weight, of cider vinegar solids upon full evapo- 
ration over boiling water at 212"^; and if any vinegar con- 
tains any artificial coloring matter injurious to health, or 
less than the above amount of acidity, or in the case of 
cider vinegar, if it contains less than the above amount of 
acidity or of cider vinegar solids, it shall be deemed adul- 
terated within the meaning of this act. All manufacturers 
of vinegar in the stat« of Wisconsin, and all persons who 
reduce or re barrel vinegar in this state, and all persons 
who handle vinegar in lots of one barrel or more, are 
hereby required to stencil or mark in black figures at least 
one inch in length on the head of each barrel of vinegar 
bought or sold by them, the standard strength of the vine- 
gar contained tn the package or barrel, which shall, oe 

26 Dairy and Food Laws of Wisconttn. 

denoted by the' per centum of acetic acid. And any neg- 
lect so to mark or stencil each package or barrel, or any 
false markings of packages or barrels, shall be deemed a 

It is competent for the legislatare to make it a misdemeanor to add 
Bftifldal coloring matter to vinegar, regardless of wtietlier tlte matter 
added is injurioaa to tlie health of the oonsomer or not. People v. 
Glrard, 73 Hun (N. Y.), 457. 

5.t. Penalty for violation of law. [Sec. 6, cb. 349, 
laws of 1891.] Whoever violates any of the provisions of 
this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall 
be punished by a fine not less than ten nor more than one 
hundred dollars and costs. 

64. '?ale of nnwliolesome prorlslons. [Sec. 4599, R. S.J 
Any person who shall knowingly sell any kind of diseased, 
corrupted or unwholesome provisions, whether for meat 
or drink, without making the same fully known to the buyer 
shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not 
more than six months, or by fine not exceeding one 
hundred dollars. 

&&. Sale, etCjOf flesh of diseased animals. [Ch. 431, 
laws of 1891.] Chapter 187 of the revised statutes is 
hereby amended by incorporating therein a section to be 
known as section 4607g of said revised statutes, and to 
read as follows : Section 4607g. It shall be unlawful for 
any person to sell or expose for sale, or to give away for 
the parpose of food, or to can or pack for the purpose of 
transportation and sale to other markets any unwholesome, 
stale, emaciated, blown, tainted, putrid or measly meat or 
the flesh of any diseased animal or of any animal that shall 
not have been slaughtered for the purpose of food, Icnow- 
ing or having good reason to believe that such meat is un- 
wholesome, stale, emaciated, blown, tainted, putrid or 
measly, or that such flesh is the flesh of a diseased animal 
or of an animal that shall not have been slaughtered for 
the purpose of food. It shall t>e unlawful for any person 
or corporation owning or operating any slaughterhouse or 
packing establishment within the state of Wisconsin, to 


Of the Analysts of Food, Drugs, nnd Liquors. 27 

receive for the purpose of killing or to kill any diseased 
animal, or to render the carcass of any animal that shall 
have died by disease or through exposure, or that shall not 
have been butchered for food, knowing or having good 
reason to believe that such animal or animals were dis- 
eased or had died from disease or exposure, or that the 
same shall not have been butchered for food. Any person 
found guilty of any violation of this act, shall for each of- 
fense be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not 
less than ten days nor more than six months, or pay a fine 
of not less than ten dollars nor more than one hundred 
dollars, or both in the discretion of the court 

56. Coloring grain, [Sec, 4606, E. S.] Any person 
who shall fumigate any barley, wheat, or other grain, by 
the use of sulphur or other substance, or shall in any way 
or by the use of any chemical, material or process, affect 
the color or healthfulness of such grain, or who shall sell 
or offer for sale any such grain, knowing that the same 
has been so fumigated, or the color or healthfulness 
thereof so afEected, shall be punished by imprisonment in 
the comity jail not more than one month, or by flno not eic- 
ceeding fifty dollars. 

AffucI tbe color, Se« note to paragraph 52. 


67. State analyst, appointment of. [See. 1, ch. 252, 
laws of 1880.] The governor of the state shall appoint 
one of the professors of the state university of sufficient 
competence, knowledge, skill and experience, as state 
analyst, whose duty it shall be to analyze all articles of 
food atid drink, aud all drugs and liquors manufactured, 
sold or used within this state, when submitted to him as 
hereinafter provided. The term of office of such analyst 
shall be three years from his appointment, unless sooner 
removed by the appointing power, aud his compensation 


S8 Dairy and Food Laws qf Wiaconsin. 

Bball not exceed two hundred dollars, in addition to his 
annual salary as professor, and shall be paid by the board 
of regents of the state university from the university 

58. Who may submit articles for analysis. [Sec. 2, 
ch. 252. laws of 1880.] The state board of health and vital 
statistics, medical officers of health, inspectors of weights 
and measures, boards of supervisors of any town, boards 
of trustees of any village, aldermen or common council of 
any city in this state, or a majority of said corporate 
bodies, may at the cost of their respective corporations, 
purchase a sample of any food, drugs or liquors offered 
for sale in any town, village or city in this state, in viola- - 
tion of sections number one, two and four of chapter two 
hundred and forty-eight of laws of A. D. 1879 [paragraphs 
40-43, antej, or if they have good reasons to suspect the 
same to have been sold, or put up for sale, contrary to the 
provisions of said chapter two hundred and forty eight, 
may submit the same to the state analyst as hereinafter 
provided, and the said analyst shall, upon receiving such 
article duly submitted to him, forthwith analyze the same, 
and give a certified certificate to such person or ofBcer 
submitting the same, wherein he shall fully specify the 
result of the analysis. 

5y. Articles to be sealed. [Sec. 3, ch. 252, laws of 
1880.] Any person purchasing any article with the inten- 
tion of submitting it to an analysis, shall, after the pur- 
chase shall have been made and completed, forthwith no- 
tify the seller or his agent selling the same, of his or their 
intention to have the same analyzed by the state analyst, 
and shall offer to accompany the seller or his agent with 
the article purchased to the town, village or city clerk of 
the plEbce in which the article was bought, and shall forth- 
with remove the article purchased to the ofSce of said 
clerk, and in the presence of the seller or his agent, if 
present, divide said article into two parts, each to be 
marked, fastened and sealed np in such a manner as its 
nature wUI permit. The said clerk shall forthwith forward 


OS tfie Analysis of Food, Lmga, and Liquor. 21) 

one part to the state analyst by mail, express or otherwise, 
as he shall elect, and shall retain the other part or pack- 
age subject to the order of any court in which pro- 
ceedings shall thereafter be taken. The certificate of the 
state analyst shall be held in all the courts of this slate as 
prima facie evidence of the properties of the articles an- 
alyzed by him. 

60. ' B«fu8!ng to sell articles for analysis. [Sec 4, ch. 
252, laws of 18&0.] If any person applying to purchase 
any article of food, drug or liquor exposed for sale or on 
sale by retail on any premises in any town, village or city 
in this state, and shfdl tender the price of the quantity 
which he shall want, for the purpose of analyzing, not be- 
ing more than shall be reasonably required, and the person 
exposing the same for sale shall refuse to sell the same, 
such person so refusing to sell shall be liable to a penalty 
not exceeding fifty dollars. 

61. Analyst's report. [Sec. 5, ch. 252, laws of 1880.] 
The state analyst shall report to the state board of health 
and vital statistics the number of all the articles analyzed, 
and shall specify the results thereof to said board annually, 
with full statement of all the articles analysed and by whom 

62. State board of health may sabmit articles. [Sec. 
6, ch. 252, laws of 1880.] The state board of health and 
vital statistics may submit to the state analyst any samples 
of food, drugs or drink for analysis, as hereinbefore pro- 



Wisconsin contains 53,924 mlle» of territory according to 
the federal survey. This embraces the entire area of the 
state, including forests and prairie, improved and unim- 
proved lands and inland waters. There are 9,446,410 acres 
of improved farm lands, 3,835,991 acres of woodland, 
5,033,443 acres of unimproved lands, as shown by the 
state census of 1895. The cash value of these lands is 

The investment In manufacturing in this state, as repre- 
sented by real estate, machinery, stock and fixtures, 
amounts to $152,788,173. The total annual value of the 
agricultural products of the state is $149,690,087.82. The 
total value of the manufacturing output Is $218,132,973. 

The number of farms has increased in ten years from 
136,103 to 150.801. The value of the farms has increased 
from $393,556,146 to $488,754,021. The total value of farm 
products has dropped from $159,322,617 to 1149,690,001 — a 
result caused by falling prices in the face of increased 
production. The total value of farms and products, exclu- 
sive of farm implements, has increased in that period from 
$522,878,763 to $638,444,022. 

In the period of ten years mentioned there has been no 
material change in the value of the hog product, a decrease 
of 16 per cent, in the value of the cattle product; a decrease 
of 12 per cent. In the value of the sheep product; a decrease 
of 30 per cent, in the value of the horse and mule product; 
a decrease of 14 per cent, in the value of the hay product; 
the falling off in the wheat product has been enormous; the 
value of that crop in 1885 being $13,928,046, and in 1895 
$4,223,728, the area of land devoted to wheat having 


Dairy and Food Commissumer. 31 

diminished over 60 per cent. The value of the corn crop 
has diminished 16 per cent. ; the value of the oat crop has 
■ increased over 40 per cent. ; the tobacco crop which in 
1885 amounted to 29,594,625 lbs., in 1895 had dropped to 
3,283,552 lbs. In ten years the barley crop had only in- 
creasE>d in value 25 per cent. The wool product had 
dropped off 45 per cent. ; the production of cheese had in- 
creased from 83,478,900 lbs. in 1885 to 52,430,815 lbs. in 
1895. The total value of this product had increased SO per 

The increase in the butter product is the most marlied of 
all, 36,240,431 lbs., with a value of 15,850,402, having been 
produced in 1885, while in 1895 the product was $74,653,730 
lbs., with a value of $12,310,373. 

The figures above given indicate the development of the 
agricultural and manufacturing interests of the state. 
They show that although prices of farm products have 
gradually become lower, the total value of farms and their 
products has increased. In a marked manner they also 
show strongly the drift of Wisconsin farmers toward the 
dairy business and away from grain raising; the value of 
the wheat product having dropped from $14,000,000 in 
round numbers in 1885, to $4,000,000 in round numbers in 
1895. We find that the cheese and butter product in 1885 
amouuted to 69,719,381 lbs., with a total valuation of 
$8,835,215; while in 1895 the cheese and butter product 
amounted to 127,134,545 lbs,, having a valuation of 
$16,294,473. This shows an increase of nearly 100 per cent, 
in both the quantity and the value of this portion of the 
dairy product of the state. 

There are no reliable statistics indicating the amount of 
milk which is produced on Wisconsin farms and disposed 
of in the city and village milk trade. In round numbers, 
there are 650,000 people in the cities and villages of the 
state, or 130,000 families. Estimating the consumption of 
milk at IJ quarts per family, it would make the total daily 
consumption 195,000 quarts; which would require an an- 
nual milk supply of 71,175,000 quarts. The average price 

93 Beport of the Wisctmsin 

of the milk delivered in the cities and towns is 5 cents per 
quart, which would give to this portion of the dairy pro- 
duct of the state a value of 93,558,760. At least three 
times the amount of milk above named is consumed upon 
the farms of the state, where its use is much more liberal ' 
than in the towns. This would make the farmers* con- 
sumption 218,525,000 quarts. Estimating the average value 
at the farm for the year at 2 cents per quart, the value of 
the milk product so consumed is ^,270,500. These esti- 
mates are conservative and are below rather than above 
the actual figures. Reducing the quarts of milk, sold and 
consutaed in the state as milk, to a butter basis, we find it 
equivalent to 20,320,000 lbs. butter, considering that 14 qts. 
of milk will produce one pound of butter. Reducing the 
total milk product of the state to a butter basis, we obtain 
the following table: 

Butter equivalenf. 

Milk sold and consumed 281,700,000 qts. 20,320,000 lbs. 

Cheese product (3,180,815 lbs. 20,000,000 lbs. 

Butter product 74,653,730 lbs. 

Total mLk product of tbe state would produce.. lU, 973, 730 lbs. 

In 1895, an enumeration of the milch cows in the state, 
two years old and older, was made for the first time. The 
number is reported at 842,042. A large number of these 
were either farrow cows or heifers not giving milk. It is 
reasonable to assume that 750,00C' were productive in this 
way. Dividing the total butter product of the state by 
this number would give the average annual butter yield of 
the Wisconsin cow at a fraction over ISO lbs. In 1860 the 
average butter product per cow was 79 lbs. In 1880 the 
number of cows had more than doubled and the average 
production per cow was 100 Iba. In 1887 there had been 
an increase of 20 per cent, in the number of cows and the 
average yield per cow was 118 lbs. of butter. 

These figures have been given for the purpose of show- 
ing the growtb of the dairy business in Wisconsin. The 
census of 1890 gives Wisconsin a position as the seconc) 


Dairy arid Food CommieaUmer, 83 

largest cheese producing state in the Union, New York 
standing first, with a production in that ;earof 124,086,&24 
lbs., Wisconsin's product amounting to 54,614,661 lbs. The 
total cheese product of the United States for the year 1890 
is given as 256,761,863 lbs., Wisconsin alone producing 
more than one-fifth the entire cheese product of the United 

Butter production in this state is rapidly increasing, and 
it is probably true that Wisconsin stands in at least the 
fourth position among the large butter producing states of 
the Union. 

The rapid growth of the dairy interests in this state has 
been caused primarily by the greater profits which come 
from the dairy business as compared with other leading 
farm industries. Many infiuences have i>een at work teach- 
ing the farmers the value of dairying as a means of 
revenue and as a renovator of soils. Among these infiu- 
ences are the agricultural fairs, county, sectional and state, 
the State Dairymen's Association, the Farmers' Institutes, 
the Agricultural College and Experiment Station, and the 
agricultural and dairy press. Tbe agricultural societies 
have given the farmers powerful object lessons in the shape 
of improved stock and well finished dairy products. The 
State Dairymen's Association has been a strong agency for 
the distribution of dairy knowledge and the defense of 
legitimate dairy products from the competition of counter- 
feits and frauds. Organized in 1871 in the city of Water- 
town by seven men, with Geo. W, Burchard for president, 
W. D. Hoard, Stephen Faville, C. R. Beach, Hiram Smith, 
Chester Hazeti and H. F. Dousman as members, it has been 
from that day to this a compact organization, free from 
personal rivalries and ambitions, united for the single pur- 
pose of carrying to the Wisconsin farmers the best knowl- 
edge of the dairy business in all its phases. Its annual 
meetings have been held in different sections of the state, 
and have stirred the farmers of many grain raising com- 
munities to a keen realization of the value of the cow in 
the economy of the farm. Its annual reports, filled with 

3-D.4F. ,.. , 


34 B^mrt of (Ae Wisconsin 

practical discussioas of the many points is the dairy busi- 
ness, have been scattered by tens of thousands all over the 
state, and nearly every farm home in Wisconsin has been 
reached by it. The association has developed a trained 
band of dairy teachers, whose work has extended far be- ' 
yond the limits of the state. This work has been well sup- 
plemented by the Farmers' Institutes, which were organ- 
ized in compliance with an act of the legislature which 
became a law in 1887. A large portion of the work which 
was done in these institutes in the earlier years of their 
operation was performed by men who had obtained their 
training and their effectiveness as teachers in the work of 
the dairymen's association. The institutes gave these men 
a larger audience and carried them into every agricultural 
county of the state. The results of these meetings were 
immediiitety apparent in renewed interest in the dairy busi- 
ness, in the improvement of stock, in improved methods 
of handling that stock, in the better care of milk and the 
manufacturing of a better quality of butter, in the better 
preparation of all dairy products for market, and in a more 
intelligent study by farmers of the question of markets. In 
these meetiQgs a class of farmers is reached which can be 
reached in no other way. Men who have been so situated 
in life that the education of the schools was impossible, 
who have not seen fit to obtain that information which is 
conveyed in the columns of an agricultural paper, but 
whose curiosity was aroused by the novelty of the insti- 
tute meetings, and who, when drawn into these meetings, 
became interested in the practical discussions which were 
held there, were thus led to give to their business more 
careful and intelligent thought. 

The agriculutral department of the University and the 
Experiment Station under the enthusiastic and able man- 
agement of Prof. Henry, has been of great service to the 
dairy interests of the state, as well as to every other agri- 
cultural interest. In the experiment station guess work 
and opinion have been compelled to give way to actual, 
delinite e^perintents- Theories "iiavQ been tested tvnd 


Dairy and Food Commissioner: • 85 

either exploded or confirmed. The value of good blood has 
been definitely proved there by the feeding of thorough- 
bred and gr^e cattle upon the same fo6d and under the 
same conditions applied to common stock. The station has 
determined by tests of unq^uestioned reliability the best 
method of separating the butter fat from milk, and, 
through the agency of Professor Babcock, has given to the 
dairy world the only test adapted to universal application 
for the determination of fat in milk for the purpose of as- 
certaining the commercial value of milk which has ever 
been discovered. The dairy school of the University 
is one of the first in tae coantry. One hundred young 
men are taught there each winter the theory and the 
practice of dairying. They go to the University and ob- 
'ain definite knowledge about the dairy business and scatter 
to their homes, located all over the state, where each one 
>ecomes a center of dairy kaowledge as exact as science 
can make it. He takes with him not only the knowledge 
of books, but that practical application which comes from 
handling the theories of the business in the lecture room 
and the milk product itself in the laboratory and in the 

Dairy newspapers have had a wide circulation in Wis- 
consin. Their infiuence is constantly exerted in teaching 
V7isconsin farmers the best dairy methods. They furnish 
^ battle ground for argument, a constant vehicle for infor- 
ination,^-are clearing houses of knowledge. They afford a 
means for the exprassion as well as the development of 
lairy sentiment, and are steady and effective champions of 
the dairy interest. 

Wisconsin has become a great dairy state because of the 
educational influences enumerated. There are other rea- 
sons which have caused this development. The climate, 
soil, water, and the atmospheric conditions, make possible 
the manufacture of the best dairy products. All southern 
Wisconsin has been known to be a dairy country 
for thirty years. There is a broad sand belt running in a 
, northeasterly and a southwasterly direction, mainly along 


36 Report of Oie Wisconsin 

the valley of the Wisconsin river, averaging about sixty 
miles in width, which is not so well adapted to pasturage, 
and where the grasses so valuable in the dairy are not so 
easily grown. Nevertheless dairy interests have obtained a 
strong foothold in the townships and counties included in 
this portion oi the state. The light, sandy soils have been 
strengthened by the growing of clover wherever it can ob- 
taiu a foothold, and this is possible over nearly all of the 
area referred to, and through animal husbandry and the 
more general use of manures in connection with the rota- 
tion of crops and the improved modern methods of tillage. 
All througb this region it is possible to raise large crops 
of corn, — a product which stand next to, if not before the 
hay crop, in its value to the dairy interests. Southern 
Wisconsin, with its rich, black prairie soils, its clay loams 
which are among the strongest and most enduring of soils, 
has become the abiding place of the famous Kentucky blue 
grass, the most nutritious and valuable pasture grass in 
the United States, and produces enormous crops of the 
various kinds of clover, of timothy, and of all the cereais. 
Northern Wisconsin, which in this connection may be con- 
sidered as embracing the counties of Douglas, Burnett, 
Polk, Barron, Bayfield, Wood, Ashland, Sawyer, Price, 
Taylor, Clark, Forest, Vilas, Oneida, Lincoln, Marathon, 
Iron, Langlade, Shawano, Marinette and Oconto, and in- 
clude about oue-third of the area of the state, was originally 
covered with great forests of pine and hard wood. The great 
bulk of the pine has been removed. The major portion of 
the hard wood forests remain. The greater portion of the 
soil of th is region is adapted to the purposes of agriculture. 
ThR cutting down of the forests has left large areas of land 
wlii«!ti h IV ( i> jei put upon the market at very low prices, 
ranging from fifty cents an acre upward. 

The falling off in the lumber business coincident with the 
disappearance of the pine forests, has turned the attention 
of a considerable portion of the population in this part oF 
the state to agriculture. Many villages and cities which 
fifteen years ago were sustained entirely by the business of 


Dairy and Food OommissioTier. 87 

the saw mills, planing mills, the sash and door factories 
and the general business of the lumber trade, are now de- 
riving ^ considerable, if not the larger portion, of their 
business from the men who have come in and taken up 
the pine clearings and the hard wood lands and converted 
them into productive farms. 

■ Climate, soils, transportation facilities, market advant- 
ages, all these combine to make northern Wisconsin the 
natural home of a great dairy interest. The counties which 
bare been enumerated as constituting this section and con- 
taining one-third of the total area of the state are found 
by the census of 1895 to contain only 77,000 cows, indicat- 
ing a dairy interest of one-twelfth that of the whole state. 
Because it is nhe natural home of the dairy and because the 
development of the dairy interest in that section will add 
more to its real worth than that of any other agricultural 
interest, and because the cheap lands of this portion of 
the state are worth the serious attention of men with small 
means who wish to engage in agriculture, the following 
quotation is made from the elaborate report upon the dairy 
industry for northern Wisconsin compiled by ProfI W. A. 
Henry of the State Universisy, and published under the 
direction of the state legislature of 1895. 

"The settler coming to the newer portions of northern 
Wisconsin will find, as others have found in the past, that 
it is very profitable to sell hay, grain and other farm pro- 
duce to the lumber camps and milling centers, so long as 
the supply does not exceed the demand. For all farm pro- 
duce needed at these centers of consumption, the prices 
paid the farmer are nearly or quite equal to the price of 
the products in Chicago or other supply centers, plus 
freight to the point of consumption, 

"In places at the north where the country is consider- 
ably cleared up and many farms already established, and 
at other points where the lumber industry has moved on 
to new sections, the farmers are already finding a lessened 
demand for hay and grain by local consumers, and the 
question of proper markets for their produce is becoming 


83 Leptwt of the Wisconsin 

an important one. This difficulty will become more gen- 
eral over tlie north, year by year, as the country settles 
up," though there are still large regions where the home 
demand for farm produce will exceed the supply for many 
years to come. 

'■ Because of the excellent shipping facilities, the Wis- 
consin farmer located in the northern part of the state is 
as well off as those elsewhere, when it comes to selling 
his produce in distant markets, but If we may judge from 
experience obtained in other sections, they cannot afford to 
become producers of hay and grain which must find markets 
a long distance from home. If we examine the condition 
of the farmers of our country we find that those who pro- 
duce grain for a livelihood are not succeeding, as is shown 
by the unthrifty farms of the grain growers and the nu- 
merous heavy mortgages which are sapping the life blood 
of this class of people. Lack of space prevents any 
lengthy explanation, but our northern farmers should know 
that those sections of Wisconsin which are producing the 
most grain for market are the least prosperous, while on 
the other hand those which are producing grain but feed- 
ing it all to live stock are the most prosperous and pro- 
gressive. Let the farmers of northern Wisconsin then, 
from the very start, avoid the great error of trying to pet 
a living from growing grain to be sold at the railway sta- 
tions, and at once provide for the disposal of all the field 
crops on their farms by feeding to good, well improved 
farm stock. By this means they will avoid the heavy 
freight charge on hay and grain, and will only have to 
meet the relatively small one which must be paid when 
shipping mutton, wool, pork, butter, cheese or eggs. A 
car load of grain may be worth $200 and the freight on 
the same $100, or half the value of the material sold. A 
car load of butter or cheese is worth several thousand dol- 
lars, and the freight on this is but little more than that 
on the car load of grain. 

"There is another reason for animal husbandry. By 
feeding the hay and grain raised on the farm and selling 


Daii-y and Food Commissioner. 39 

only animiil products, like butter, cheese, mutton, etc., a 
large part of all the fertility moved from the soil by the 
crops is saved in the droppings of the farm animals, and 
can be returned to the fields again, thus keeping them fer- 
tile instead of impoverishing them as always occurs where 
grain, bay, straw, etc., are sold in the markets. A third 
reason for animal husbandry is that there is money coming 
in at short intervals throughout the year. The dairy farmer 
receives monthly payments for his milk, and is thus ready 
to meet all obligations at the store, instead of incurring 
debt while waiting for his crop to mature. Still another 
advantage is that there is steady employment throughout 
the year, and something is earned each day, which is not 
true with grain growing. 

"After careful study of all the conditions prevailing io 
nortbero Wisconsin, the writer of this article is firmly im- 
pressed with the belief that this will some day become one 
of the great dairy regions of America, if only the people 
will bend their energies iu the right direction and concen- 
trate their efforts upon the production of high grade dairy 
products. Let us look carefully into the requisites of a 
true dairy country; and see if northern Wisconsin meets 
the demand. 

" First of all there is that prime requisite for fine butter 
and cheese, namely, an ample supply of pure, cold water, 
everywhere accessible. Northern Wisconsin is unexcelled 
by any region in the great abundance of pure cold water in 
her thousands of lakes, her many rivers, brooks and springs ; 
indeed, the water supply will meet the requirements of the 
most exacting in its quantity, prevalence, purity and cool- 

"The second requisite is an abundance of wholesome 
stock foods, in good variety for summer and winter feed- 
ing. In summer time the dairy cattle of northern Wiscon- 
sin will find Id its pastures the finest of grasses and clovers, 
for the cropping. Red and white clover flourish, and timo- 
thy and blue grass pastures are as prevalent and produc- 
tJYQ a^ anywhere further south. The pasture season for 


40 Bepm't of the Wiaconain 

cattle is not so long in the far north by about one month 
as in the extreme southern part of the state, but while they 
last, these pastures are not excelled by those in any other 
part of our country, as we have ascertained by careful, 
close study of the turf of this regiop. For winter forage 
the dairyman can provide an abundance of fodder corn, 
clover and timothy hay, pea straw, oat hay, root crops 
and silage from corn and clover. This gives him a list of 
coarse forage equal in variety and quality to that possessed 
by dairymen farther south in the state, and the abundance 
of these crops is only measured by the ambition of the far- 
mer in producing them. 

"But dairy cows must have grain as well as coarse for- 
age; here the northern farmer suffers nothing in compari- 
son with dairymen elsewhere. Overmuch of the north In- 
dian corn will ripen, giving that feed in abundance. Then 
there are oats, which give a sure crop of fine grain, and 
barley yields an abundance of grain excellent for cow feed- 
ing. The yield of peas at the north is for in excess of what 
can be gathered fr6m this crop farther south, and pea meal 
•furnishes a cow feed of the strongest character. The 
numerous railroads crossing northern Wisconsin lead to 
the milling centers of Minneapolis and Superior, making 
ib an easy possibility for dairy farmers to secure bran and 
shorts to supplement the grains grown on the farm. 

" The northern dairyman must feed longer in the stable 
and less on pasture than his southern competitor. To the 
novice this may appear a serious disadvantage; to the ex- 
perienced dairyman it isnothingof the kind. Those dairy- 
men who have had large experience in the matter of 
managing dairy cows find that winter feeding is as 
economical as summer pasturing, all factors in the matter 
being talien into consideration. If pasturing is so much 
cheaper than winter feeding, our dairy districts would, 
from the force of competition, be located in the milder 
tempered regions of the world; instead of this we find the 


Dairy and Pood 'OommissUmer. 41 

finest dairy districts located not where the cattle can roam 
the fields the year round, but rather where, during a con- 
siderable portion of ttie year, the ground is covered with 
snow and the growth of vegetation stopped by cold more 
or less severe. The best dairy regions are found in the 
extreme northern portions of the United States, in Canada, 
Denmark, Norway and Sweden, Finland and the mountains 
of Switzerland, all districts where the summers are- com- 
paratively short and the periods of winter feeding' quite 
long. Let the farmers of northern Wisconsin immediately 
and forever dismiss the bugbear of long winter feeding 
being disastrous or a permanent drawback to successful 

"The final question of markets for dairy products re- 
mains to be considered. With good manufacturing towns 
located all over the northern part of our state, and great 
mining and shipping cities found on the lake borders and 
with trunk line railways crossing the region in every dir- 
ection, the dairyman of northern Wisconsin has nothing 
to fear concerning markets. Let him make the fine dairy 
goods his opportunity makes easily possible, in sufBcient 
quanties to invite buyers, and no trouble will come in 
finding markets at good prices for all he may produce. 

"After carefully examining the whole problem on the 
ground itself, studying the few dairy cattle found at the 
north, noting the possibilities of the pastures and the 
abundance of winter feed guaranteed by the fertile fields 
and good summer climate, the abundance of the water and 
the purity of the atmosphere, the writer believes that 
'there is no serious hindrance to northern Wisconsin de- 
veloping into a dairy country of the first magnitude. 


"The writer makes the prediction that some day north- 
ern Wisconsin will rank as the foremost cheese district in 
America, if not in the world. No one who has carefully 
studied the subject and observed what has taken place in- 
other countries, >uid what is occurring in a small way at 


42 Beport of the Wisctmsin 

present in our new north, will seriously deny this asser- 
■ tioo. The fine districts of Europe and America are 
not in the warm regions, but rather in those where the 
nights are cool, the waters pure and cold and the grasses 
possess a high nutritious value. Such regions as these are 
found in the' mountains of Switzerland and the cheese dist- 
tricts of Canada and northern New York and our lakeshore 
counties like Sheboygan, Manitowoc, also Pond du Lac, 
Outagamie, etc. While southern Minnesota, southern Wis- 
consin, and northern Illinois and Iowa will remain the 
great centers of butter production for this country, these 
districts cannot hope to compete with northern Wisconsin 
in the quality of the cheese which may be produced there, 
for the reascu that in this great butter region the summer 
days are hot and the waters which the cows must drink 
becomes quite warm; these conditions shut this region out 
forever from entering into serious competition with our 
new north in the manufacture of cheese of the highest 
grade. It is not asserted at this point that good cheese 
cannot be made in southern Wisconsin and even in Illinois; 
it is afSrmed with emphasis, that northern Wisconsin can 
and will some day produce enormous amounts of cheese, 
which for quality cannot be equalled- by that made further 
south. The most nutritious of grasses, the coolest of 
waters and the temperate sun of summer are all necessary 
for the production of milk which shall go to make cheese 
carrying the purest flavors, and northern Wisconsin has 
all of these in a marked degree. This adaptation of the 
production of fine cheese is a heritage to this region from 
which it can never be parted. It is as valuable to our new ' 
north as are the gold mines to Colorado or the coal beds 
to Pennsylvania, and when northern Wisconsin shall have 
been occupied by an intelligeBt people and its cheese indus- 
try properly developed there will millions of dollars flow 
into this section each year from the sales of this one line 
of dairy products. 


Dairy and Food Oommissioner. 


The others who understand the requisities for prime 
cheese manufacture believe in this can be ascertained by 
any one upon a little investigation. Here are two reports 
coming as the results of inquiries in this line. N. Simon 
& Co., Neenah, Wis., operating about 25 cheese factories 
about Neenah, and producing fine goods, the reputation of 
which is established at many points in this country and 
also in Great Britain, In reply to our inquiry on this mat- 
ter, write: 

" Oar Idea From the experience we have had this saaaon is that the 
northwestera portion of Wisconsin Is as good aoouatr^ as caa befoand 
for cheese making. * * Several years ago the writer, N. Simoo, spent 
two or three weeke about MarshBeld looking up the oheese business. 
At that time did not consider it worth much of anythin^f as the oows 
were raoniog through the timber and browsing, and the milk hod a rer; 
bad flavor, but since then the oountry has cleared up oonsiderably and 
they are getting as fine flavored milk as can be prodaoed, especially 
where they have tame pastures. We really believe this is a good coun- 
try for cheese making. 

Parliament & Espert, Chicago, HI., are farge dealers and 
exporters of cheese. Perhaps no one in this country 
understands the situation better than this firm. Here is 
from their letter 

"Chicago, ni., Deo 7, 18 6. 

"Ton asked our opinion as to the use of the lands in northern Wiscon- 
sin. In reply will s^ we think they are very well adapted to dairying. 
It is our opiuioQ that a fine grade of cheese could be made up there. 
Even now the further north we go for our cheese the finer quality we 
get It 1b our opinion that it is a wise move to develop that part of the 
oooutry more extensively with the dairy industry." 

"These opinions of our leading experts and dealers 
should not be passed over lightly by the farmers of north- 
em Wisconsin or those considering the agricultural oppor- 
tunities of that section; reports of this kind present eri* 
dence which has been accumulating for a long time, and 
are an index of possibilities which should be seriously con- 
sidered by all interested. Northern Wisconsin cannot pro- 


44 B^oat of the Wisconsin 

duce wheat or grain generally which can be sold at a profit. 
Prom the nature of the country, this region must remain a 
land of small (arms and here can be produced cheese which 
will stand unexcelled by any other country. 


"In 1895, Canada exported sixteen million dollars worth 
of cheese. The country of Denmark covers about h^lf as 
much area as that region which we are pleased to call 
northern Wisconsin. During the past year Denmark has 
received from Great Britain for butter alone about twenty- 
four million dollars, or two million dollars every thirty 
days. Canada and Denmark are shining examples of what 
is possible in the dairy line, when the people set about 
making honest high quality goods, and are earnest in se- 
curing good markets for them. Let the splendid results 
obtained by these two countries prove an example for our 
new north, which shall stimulate it to the highest and best 
effort possible. Our own nation with lis seventy millions 
of people stand ready to use the dairy goods from this 
region, provided only they are of high quality and known 
purity. With the passing away of the vast forests and the 
disappearance of the lumber industry, which has brought 
its hundreds of millions to our country, let there come to 
northern Wisconsin advanced methods of farming with 
dairying as the leading industry, and the prosperity of 
this region is assured beyond all question." 


The importance of the dairy business in increasing farm 
values, in adding to the productive capacity of the farms 
upon which the business is carried on, is clearly demon 
strated by the returns of the state census of 1895. 

The following table embraces some of "the leading dairy 
counties of the state, gives their area, cash value of the 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, 

. 45 

land, average valuation per acre, the butter and cbeese 
product, and the average yield per acre of wheat and corn. 
The averages of values and grain products are given in 
round numbers : 







yield per 



323. zra 






















The following table embraces a group of what may be 
termed, in comparison with the counties given above, non- 
dairy counties. Their dairy products form the lesser por- 
tion of the agricultural production. 

The table gives area, farm values, the butter and cheese 
production, and average yield per acre of wheat and corn: 




At. Talue 




yield pec 

yield per 




*, 529, 509 












iiaa Claire 


It will be observed that the average value of farm land 
per acre in the distinctively dairy counties runs from 
$37 to $59, with an average of $46 per acre. In the non- 
dairy group the average value per acre runs from $12 to 
¥2J, with a general average of nearly $17 per acre. It is 


49 Seport of the Wisconsin 

true that the counties which are selected as representiDg 
other interests in the main more that those of the dairy 
contain a larger amount of unimproved land and woodland 
than the dairy counties. While this materially effects 
average values, it is not a sufficient explanation for the 
marked difEerence of $17 per acre in the one case and $16 
per acre in the other. 

It afEords conclusive proof that dairying improves the 
average value of farm lands. 

The average yield per acre of wheat in the dairy counties 
is 20.3 bushels, while in the non-dairy counties the average 
yield per acre is 16^ bushels. 

The difference in the yield of corn is still more marked, 
the dairy counties averaging 30.6 bushels, and the non-dairy 
counties averaging 15 bushels per acre or less than one-half. 

The conclusions resulting from these comparisons are 
further emphasized by the change in farm values in those 
counties which during recent years have been turning more 
and more toward dairying. Dodge county during the last 
ten years has rapidly developed her dairy industry and 
during that time has increased the average of her farm 
values as shown by a comparison of the census report of 
- 1885 and 1895, over $7,500,000, an increase of over 25 per 

St. Croix county, which has made very little progress 
in the dairy business during the last ten years has suffered 
in that time a depreciation in farm values of nearly 

Numerous comparisons of this kind could be made, de- 
monstrating that an increase of the dairy industry in any 
community or county tends strongly to carry with it a 
corresponding increase in wealth. 


Dairy and Food Commiaaion^. 


Oleomargarine is a counterfeit of butter. The word 
originally covered a product made in imitation of butter 
and coDsisting mainly of beef fat. The manufacture of oleo- 
margarine in this country has largely given way to the 
manufacture of butterine, a compound similar in appear- 
ance, but containing as its principal element the fat ob- 
tained from hogs. 

The internal revenue law passed by Congress in 1886 
placed all counterfeit butter products containing fats foreign 
to milk under the general name of oleomargarine, and 
levied a tax upon it of two cents per pound. 

The total product of oleomargarine of the United 
States in 1895 was 70,000,000 pounds. Forty-one million 
pounds of this amount was manufactured in the city of 

It is claimed by the friends of the oleomargrrine inter- 
est l^at the national law providing for licenses and taxa 
tion has increased rather than diminished the oleomargarine 
business. The claim is hardly reasonable. The tax of two 
cents per pound is quite burdensome, and the licenses im- 
posed upon wholesale dealers, retailers and manufacturers 
is equally so. The manufacture and sale of oleomargarine 
is not only hampered by national law, but by restrictive 
legislation of nearly all of the American states as well as 
most of the countries of Europe. 

New Hampshire requires oleomargarine to be colored 
pink — a law which has been sustained by the courts of that 
state. The same requirement is made in Minnesota. Massa 
chusetts, New York, Ohio and Wisconsin require that oleo 
margarine shall not be made and sold coloied in imitation 
of yellow butter. The Wisconsin law upon this subject 
was part of the legislation of 1895. 

Previous to that time the law had simply required th: t 
oleomai*garine should be labeled and sold for what it was 
It was the judgment of the dairymen of the slate and of 


48 Beport of the Wisconsin 

the men familiar with the traffic in imitation dairy goods, 
that the law w»s ineftective and that oleomargarine was 
being sold for butter. The law was not only violated by 
tbe sale of unlabeled packages by grocerymen to custom- 
ers ignorant of their character, but it was also violated 
when purchasers of butterine bought the article for what 
it was and then placed it upon the tables of restaurants, 
boarding houses and hotels for the consumption of guests 
who supposed that they were eating butter. 

This traffic was an imposition upon two classes of peo- 
ple — the consumers who in 99 cases out of 100 will not eat 
butterine if they know it, and the producer of honest and 
costly goods who cannot afford to enter the market in 
competition with cheap counterfeits sold under false names. 

The oleomargarine act of 1895 passed the senate by a 
unanimous vote, and there were only two votes recorded 
against it in the house. It was claimed at the time by 
the friends of the oleomargarine interest that it was an 
unconstitutional law; that it interfered with the liberty of 
trade; that oleomargarine is a wholesome- product; that 
the manufacturers bad a right to sell it in any market if 
they paid the government tax, and that if the case should 
be appealed to the supreme court of Wisconsin, it would 
undoubtedly be declared unconstitutional. 

It was deemed best by this department to delay the ex- 
ecution of this law until the dealers in oleomargarine 
should have a reasonable time in which to dispose of their 
stock. For this reason no samples of oleomargarine sold 
were collected until .the 18th of May, 1895, when the as- 
sistant commissioner, Mr. W. W, Chadwick, obtained sam- 
ples of Gorry Bros,, and the Alexander Findlay Co., in 
the city of Madison. 

These samples were subjected to microscopic and chemi- 
cal examination and found to be butterine colored with 
• artificial coloring matter in violation of law. 

Complaints were sworn out against the parties named. 
Cpon their appearance in court they entered a plea of "not 
guilty." Under the auttiority given the commissioner an<J 


Dairy and Food ChmmiJisioner. 49 

the governor, Mr. J. M. Olio "of Madison was appointed as 
c mnsel for the state to assist the district attorney, Mr. A. 
W. Anderson, in the prosecution of the cases. 

It was the first test of the law, and upon its result 
largely depended the existence of the law itself. 

The defense obtained eminent counsel in the person of 
ex-Attorney General J. L. O'Connor, and a bitter legal 
contest resulted. One hundred men were subpoenaed before 
a jury of twelve was finally obtained. 

The first trial lasted three days and resulted in the dis- 
agreement of the jury, Alne voting for conviction and three 
for acquittal. 

This necessitated a new trial, and another hard-fought 
battle lasting three days which resulted in the conviction 
of the defendant after the jury had been out seven minulos. 

The attorney for the defense argued that the defendant 
should be discharged because Che sample of butterine pur- 
cbased by the state was bought with a full under-s landing 
of its quality and character, and that, therefore, no one 
was deceived in its sale. That the sale of the butterine 
was made iu ignorance of the fact that the law prohibited 
the sale of butterine colored in imitation of butter and that, 
therefore, there was no intent to deceive; that the law it- 
self was an infringement upon the rights of the people to 
make and of the people to buy a wholesome food product; 
that the article sold was not colored in imitation of yellow 
butter; that the law itself was passed through the legis- 
lature in obedience to the demand of a particular class, 
whose interests it strongly favored, to the prejudice of the 
interests of other classes, and that its enactment was 
against public policy. He also objected to the appearance 
of Mr. Olln as attorney in the case, for the reason that Mr 
Olin had assisted a committee of the State Dairymen's As- 
sociation in making the law under which the prosecution 
was begun. 

1'h'i court very properly held that Mr. Olln's work, what- 
ever it might have been, in making the original draft of 
the law, had nothing to do with the question of his appoar- 
4— D. & P. 


60 BepoH of the Wisconsin 

log as attorney for the state in its prosecution. He also 
held that no matter whether the purchaser of butterinc 
was fully acquainted with or ignorant of the fact that the 
article sold him was butterine, whether or not any decep- 
tion was perpetrated in the sale of the sample which was 
purchased, the letter and spirit of the law had been vio- 
lated in selling butterine colored in imitation of yellow 

It was further held that the question of intent, so far as 
defendant was concerned, could not be brought into the 
case, as an unbroken line of decisions was upon record to 
the effect that in questions relating to the violation of laws 
of this character the point at issue and to be settled was 
not one of intention but of fact In other words, that every 
man who sold butterine was presumed by the law to know 
its provisions. 

- The question of the wholesomeness' of butterine was de- 
termined by the court to have no bearing upon the case; 
that it was not a question of health, bat a simple question 
as to whether or not an existing statute had been violated. 

Andrew S. Mitchell, the chemist of the dairy commis- 
sion, obtained from the samples of butterine purchased a 
quantity of artificial coloring matter which was submitted 
to the jury, and upon oath declftred that such coloring mat- 
ter had been so obtained and that the butterine was colored 
in imitation of yellow butter. 

The defendant swore that the article sold was not an im- 
itetion of yellow butter, and in its sale he had no intention 
to deceive the public. 

Upon the question of color there appeared as witnesses 
for the slate Professors W. A. Henry and S. H. Babcock of 
the State University, besides several leading merchants of 
Madison. All testified strongly that the sample which had 
been purchased by the state and which was submitted to 
the jury in their presence was colored in imitation of yel- 
low butter. 

The attorney for the prosecution, Mr. Olin, stated that 
the question of state policy in the passage of the law which 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, SI 

had been violated wcs not one which could be properly con 
sidered in the discussion of the case, but that as long 
as it had been brought in for the purpose of influencing 
the jury the state had a right to be heard upon it. He 
called attention to the fact that the passage of the law in 
question had been demanded by the farm and business in- 
terests of every section of the state; that the state legisla- 
ture had been directly petitioaed by the State Dairymen s 
Association, by many farmers' institute meetings, by men 
who sold butter, by men who made it, by men who bought 
it, to have a law passed so stringent that it would be im- 
possible for the Chicago manufacturers of hog fat and beef 
fat butter to call their product real butter, send it into the 
state in competition with an honest and more costtly ar- 
ticle, superior in quality and produced by the labor and 
capital of the people of this commonwealth. He demanded 
that the defense should state some valid reason why a citi- 
zen of any state should be permitted to come into this 
state with a counterfeit, sailing under false colors and false 
names, discrediting and discouraging the honest produc- 
ing interests of our own people. He stated what has been 
distinctly true during the life of the dairy and food com- 
mission in Wisconsin, — that the law which provided that 
dealers in oleomargarine should place signs in their places of 
business and sell their oleomargarine from labeled boxes in 
labeled packages, was of such a character that it was almost 
impossible to execute it, and if that it was so sold, the great 
bulk of it was sold to the keepers of hotels, boarding 
houses and restaurants, who having complied with the law 
so far as its purchase was concerned, placed it upon their 
tables of their guests, imposing it upon them as butter, its 
use finally being the result of deception and a violation of 

It was farther argued that the manufacture and sale of any 
counterfeit was against public policy; that our exports of 
dairy products, butter and cheese, to foreign countries 
were being cut down by the fraudulent character of those 
exports; and that American butter and cheese, which be- 


52 - Report of the Wisconsin 

fore the development of the oleomargarine interest had 
stood at the highest point in the markets of Europe, were 
now dragging upon the bottom, falling below Denmark, 
Ireland, Holland and every butter producing country of 
the world; that the whole business of manufacturing but- 
terine under the form and color of butter gave an oppor- 
tunity for unlimited fraud and was an imposition, not only 
upon the honest producer, but also on the consumer who 
had a right to ,know from the appearance of an article 
which he bought the materials of which it was composed. 

The penalty inflicted by the judge in theCorry case was 
f50 and costs. An appeal was taken to the supreme court 
of the state, it being loudly claimed that the law was un- 
constitutional and would be so decided by that court. 
Messrs. Corry and their attorneys evidently changed their 
minds upon this subject, for the appeal was withdrawn before 
the court ever bad an opportunity to pass upon the case. 

In the Findlay case a plea of "guilty " was entered after 
the determination of the Corry case, and a fine of $50 and 
costs imposed. 

Under the direction of the commissioner, Mr. Mitchell 
and Mr. Chadwick, the assistant commissioners, obtained 
samples of the butterine sold by the retail dealers of Mil- 
waukee in May, 1895. Tests of these samples disclosed the 
fact that they were all colored like butter in violation of 
law. Warrants were sworn out and the following named 
dealers arrested: F. Thiele, J. Karker, Wm. SteinmeyerA 
Wm. Pieper, Joseph Krauss, P. P. Roland, P. Pehrer, A. 
J. Palmer, K. H. Mueller. Savage & Sons, F. Hesse and 
D. 0. Adams. 

The cases were first brought in the police court of Mil- 
waukee and-aiter numerous delays and postponements were 
transferred to the municipal court in Milwaukee, of which 
Judge Emil Walber is the presiding ofBcer. 

Here again delays were imposed in every possible way 
by the defendants' counsel and postponement after post- 
ponement were taken until the patience of the prosecution 
was exhausted. 


Dairy and Food Commissioiier. t'6 

In taking samples in Milwaukee it was found that In the 
stores of three dealers no butterine signs were exhibited 
as required by law, and the samples sold were not labeled, 
or were labeled in such a way as to deceive. One of the 
samples purchased was wrapped in paper upon which there 
was the picture of a Holstein cow and a churn. Another 
sample bore upon its enclosure the inscription " Golden 
Sheaf Creamery, "one, " Illinois Creamery" and one "Swifts 
Pure Jersey Butterine." 

The cases brought under the law that butterine should 
be labeled were tried first. The state proved by the testi 
raony of Mr. Chadwick, who purchased the samples, that 
in tbesecasesbutterinehadbeensoldhim in pound packages 
which were not labeled oleomargerine, as the law provides. 
The defense testified to the satisfaction of the court that 
the box and larger receptacles containing these pound 
prints were labeled, and the court held that in view of this 
fact, no violation of the law had occurred; thus ruling sub 
stantially that a tub or large box is a package. The cases 
against J. Krauss, J. Karker and P. P. Boland, therefore, 
resulted in their acquittal. 

It is not the business of this department to criticise the 
decision of the court, but it is proper lo state that the 
prosecution was astounded at Ihis ruling. 

The law says (Sec. 5, Chap. 30, Laws 1885): "It shall 
be unlawful for any person to expose for sale oleomargar- 
ine, butterine or any similar substance not marked and dis- 
linguished on the outside of each tub, package and parcel 
thereof by a placard with the word 'Oleomargarine,' and 
not having also upon every open tub, package or parcel 
thereof a placard with the word 'Oleomargarine;' such 
placard in each case to be printed in plain, uncondensed 
Gothic letters not less than one inch long, and such pla- 
card shall not contain any other words thereon. ' 

It seemed to be plainly the intention of this law to pre- 
vent the sale of any package which was not labeled. The 
construction which the court placed upon the law making 
a tub or box a parcel, would enable any retail dealers to 


54 Report of the WiMonsin 

have a large box of unlabeled packages behind his counter, 
and to take from that box, packages of oleomargarine un- 
labeled and sell them for butter. 

The determination of these cases emphasized the neces- 
sity for the law which had just been passed providing that 
butterioe or oleomargarine should not be colored in imi- 
tation of yellow butter. 

The first case which was brought to trial in Milwaukee 
under the anti-coloring law was that of A. J. Palmer. This 
trial consumGd several days, in a community which has lit- 
tle sympathy with laws of this (haracter because it has lit- 
tle knowledge of the real reasons which underlie them, 
and after a hardly fought contest in which the defense was 
conducted by two able lawyers, it was determined on be- 
half of the state shortly after the jury had retired to con 
sider it. 

The defendants in the remaining Milwaukee cases, upon 
the determination of this case, went into court and plead 

The attorney of the commission, Mr. Olin, who during the 
t;'ialof thesj cases had been actively and efBciently assisted 
by Assistant District Attorney Umbreit, stated that thebe 
defendant's should pay at least the minimum fine of $50, 
as provided by law. 

Judge Walber saw fit to fine the defendants the minimum 
sum named, and to suspend sentence, which simply meant 
that the state would be deprived of these fines in the dis- 
cretion of the court, while the defendants were to pay the 
remaining costs. It seemed as if the state could properly 
demand that these fines be paid. 

When the arrests were first made, there was a meeting 
of all the defendants, and this meeting was attended by the 
representatives of the butterine manufacturers of Chicago. 
It was decided- to fight the law, and in this decision the 
dealers had the backing of the outside manufacturers 
There was a well defined purpose to break the law down, 
or to destroy its force. The dealers had not been ignorant of 
the provisions of the new law. The columns of the Mil- 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, fiS 

waukee press and of the state press generally had been 
filled with discussions of this subject, and had printed the 
law in fall several times. In addition to this, it had been 
a matter of common discussion and objection among 
the representatives of the oleomargarine interest for sev- 
eral months. 

It was practically a conspiracy to break down a just and 
reasonable law, and no punishment within the limitation of 
the penalties imposed by the butt«rine law would have 
been too severe. 

The law of 1895 under which these actions were brought 
is as follows: 

16. Imltatinn bntter. [Sao. 3. oh. 30,1895.] No person, by himself or 
by his asents or Bervaats, sball render or manafacture, sell, ship, con- 
sign, offer for Bale, espose for sale, or have in bis possession with intent 
to sell, any article, product or compound made wholly or partly out of 
any fat, oil or oleaginous eubstanoe or compound thereof, not prodncod 
from unadulterated milk or cream from the same, and without the 
admixture or addition of anj fat foreign to stud milk or cream, which 
shall be in imitation of yellow butter produced from pure unadulterated 
milk or cream of the Bame,with or without coloring matter; provided,that 
nothing in this act shall be construed to prohibit the mauufaoture or' 
sale of oleomargarine in a separate and distinct form and in such man- 
ner as will advise the consumer of its real charaoter, free from colora- 
tion or ingredient that causes it to look like butter. 

This is substantially the same law that is now in opera- 
tion inIowa,_New York and Massachusetts. It has been 
passed upon by the courts of those states and declared to 
be constitutional. The Massachusetts law has been passed 
upon by the court of the United States and declared to be 
within the lines of the federal constitution iu a famous de 
cision rendered in behalf of the court by Justice Harlan, 
and published in part in another portion of this report. 

For tiie purpose of aiding the prosecuting officers of this 
state, upon whom rests the responsibility of the prosecu- 
tions under the oleomargarine act, for the information of 
our people, and for the information of people in other 
states who are writing to this department asking for in- 
formation about legislation of this character, the following 


66 S^mi of the Wisccmsin 

extracts are pi?blished from the brief prepared by John M. 
Olio in the cases already referred to. 

" The legislature has power to pass an act absolutely prohibit- 
ing tJie manufacture and sale, within this state, oj any oleagin- 
ous substance, or any compound of the same, other than tliat 
produced from unadulterated milk, or of cream from tlie same, 
and designed to take ihe place of butter or cheese produced from 
pure, unadulterated milk or cream from the same. 

The legislature of Pennsylvania passed an act May 21. 
1885, entitled as follows: 

" An act for the protection of the publio health and to prevent adul- 
teration of dairy products and fraud in the gale thereof. 

" Sec L That no person, firm, or corporate bod; shall manufacture 
out of an; oleagtnooe subaCauce or any oompouud of the same, other 
than that produced from unadulterated milk or of cream from the same, 
anj imitation or adulterated butter or cheese, nor shall sell or offer 
for sale, or have in his, her or their possession with intent to sell the 
same, as an article of food." * * • 

The constitutionality of this law came in question in the 
ease of Powell vs. Commonwealth, 114 Pa. St., 265; s. c, 7 At. 
Rep., 913, decided January 3, 1887. 

Tbis case was taken by writ of error to the supreme court 
of the United States, and is reported as Powell vs. Penna, 
127 U. S., 678. decided April 9, 1888. The opinion of the 
court was rendered by Justice Harlan, Justice Field writ- 
ing a vigorous dissenting opinion. 

After quoting the section of the statute above, the court 
at page 681, says: 

"It waaagreei for tha purposes of the trial, that the defendant on 
July 10, 1885, in the city of Harrisburg, sold to the prosecuting witness. 
as an article of food, two original packages of the kind desaribed in the 
first count ; that such packages Jiere sold and bounht as butterine, and 
not as butter produced from pure, unadulterated milk or cream from 
unadulterated milk ; that each of said packages was, at the time of sale, 
marked with the words, "Oleomargarine Butter," upon the lid and side 
in a straight line in Roman tetters half an inch long," 

"The defendant then offered to prove by Prof. Hugo Blanok that he 
saw manufactured the article sold to the proaeouting witness : that i 


Dairy and Fbod Commissioner. 57 

vras made from pure aaimal fats ; that the process of maaufaoture was 
clean and wholesome, the article ooataiDiiig the same elements as daliy 
butter, the only diSerenoe between them being that the manafaotured 
article contained a smaller proportion of the fatty substance known as 
butterine ; that this butterine existed in dairy batter in the proportion 
of from three to seven per oeat., and la the manaFaotured article in a 
^m^ler proportion, and was increased in the latter by the introduction 
of milk and cream ; that thlshavlng been done, the article contained all 
the elements of butter produced from pure unadulterated milk or cream 
from the same, except that the percentage of butterine was slightly 
smaller; that the only effect of butterine was to give flavor to the butter 
and that it had nothing to do with its wholesomeness ; that the oleaglii' 
ous substances in the mauufaotured article were substantially identical 
with that produced from milk or cream; and that the article sold to the 
prosecuting witness was a wholesome aud nutritious article of food, in 
all respects as wholesame as batter produced from pure unadulterated 
milk or cream from unadulterated milk. 

"The defendant also offered to prove that be was engaged in the gro- 
cery and provision business in the city of Harrlsburg, and that the 
article sold by him was a part of a large and valuable quantity manufac- 
tured prior to the 2let of May, 1835, In accordance with the laws of this 
commonwealth relating to the manufacture and sale of said article, and 
so sold by him ; that for the purpose of prosecuting that business large 
investments were made by him in the purchase of suitable real estate, 
in the erection of proper buildings, aud in the purchase of necessary 
□kacbinery and ingredients; that in this traffic in said article he made 
large proBtsi and, if prevented from continuing it, the value of his 
property employed therein would be entirely lost and he be deprived of 
the means of livelihood." 

The testimony offered was excluded by the court and the 
defendant was found guilty. 

The court, at page 683, further says: 

"The question, therefore, is whether the prohibition of the manufac- 
t'ire oat of oleaginous substances, or out of any compound thereof other 
than that produced from unadulterated milk or cream from unadul- 
terated milk, of an article designed to take the place of butter or cheese 
produced from unadulterated milk or cream from unadulterated milk, 
or the prohibition upon the maniitactnre of any imitation or adulterated 
butter or cheese, or upon the selling or offering for sale, or having in 
possession with intent to sell, the same, as an article of food, is a lawful 
exercise by the state of the power to protect, by police regulations, the 
public health," 


68 Rtport of the Wisconsin 

At page 685, the oonrt further says: 

** Whether the manafaotare of oleomargariQe, or imitBtion butter, of 
the kind described in the statute, is, or may be, ooudacted in aiioh a wa;^, 
or with each skill and seoreoj, as to baffle ordiaaiy laspeotlOQ, or 
whether It Involves eaoh daofter to the publia health as to reqatre, for 
the protection of the people, the entire suppreBsion ot the basinesa, 
rather than its regulation in each manner as to permit the manafaotare ' 
and sale of articles of ttiat clasa that da not contain noxiooe ingredients 
are qnestions of fact and of publio policy which i>eloDK to the legisla- 
tive deportment. And as it does not appear npon the face of the atatnte, 
ex from any facts of which the ooart must take jadlcial cognizance; that 
it infringes rights secured by the fandamental taw, the legislative de 
termination of those questions is oonolasive upon the courts. It is not 
apart of their innctious to conduct Investigations of facts enteringinto 
questions of public policy merelyi and to sustain or frustrate the legis- 
lative will, embodied in the statutes, as they may happen to approve or 
disapprove its di'terminatlon of such questions. The power which the 
leglBlaiure has to promote the general welfare Is very great, and the di-t- 
oretioQ which that part of the government has, in the employment of 
m'-ana to that end is very large. While both Its power and its discre- 
tion must be so exercised, as not to Impair the fundamental rights of 
life, liberty, and property; and while, according to the prineiples npon 
which our institutions rest, the very idea that one man may be com- 
pelled to hold his life, or the means of living, or any material right es- 
sential to the enjoyment of life, at the mere will of another, seems to be 
Intolerable in any oonntry where freedom prevails, as being the essence 
of ela ery itself; yet, in many oases of mere administration, the respon- 
sibility is parely political, no appeal lying esoept to the ultimate tri- 
bunal of the public jad^meot, exercised either in the pressure of public 
opinion or by memis of the suffrage. Yiok Wo. VB. Hopkint, 118 U. S., 
370, Tiis case before us belongs to the latter class. The legislature of 
Pennsylvania, upon the fulleet investigation, as we must oonolnslvety 
presume, and upon reasonable grounds, as must be assumed from the 
record, has determined that the prohibition of the sale, or offering tor 
sale, or having in possession to sell, tor purpose of food, of any arttole 
manufactured out of oleaginous subatanoes or compounds other than 
tho-e produced from unadulterated milk or cream from unadulterated 
milk, will promote the public health, and prevent frauds in the sale ot 
Buoh articles. If all that can be said of this legislation is that it is nn- 
wiee, or unnecessarily oppressive to those mannfaoturing or selling 
wholesome oleomargarine, as an article of food, their appeal most be to 
the legislature, or to the ballot box, not the judiciary. The latter can- 
not interfere without uaurpiDg powero pommift^ to anotlter depart- 
mettt of governmeott' 


Dairy and Food CcmmiasiOTier. B2 

We have quoted liberally from the above opinion be- 
cause it is by the highest court in the nation and under a 
law very sweeping in its terms. 

The legislature of Missouri enacted a law in 1881, very 
similar to the law quoted above from Pennsylvania; in fact, 
the Pennsylvania law seems to be quoted from and pat- 
terned alter the Missouri law. The constitutionality of 
the Missouri statute came in question in the case of Stale 
vs. Addington, 12 Mo. App., 214. The law was sustained 
and an appeal was taken to the supreme court, and the case 
is reported in 70 Mo., 110. The. facts of the case were 
that the defendant sold to the prosecuting witness an origi- 
nal package of an oleaginous substance, which was branded 
IS such, which package had been manufactured in tbe stale 
>I Illinois, and shipped to the defendant at St. Louis. The 
same kind of proof was offered as to the wholesomeness, 
etc., of the was offered in the Pennsylvania case, 
and it was excluded. It was argued that because the arti- 
cle was wholesome, that, therefore, the legislature could 
□ot prohibit its manufacture and sale. In answer to this 
contention, in 12 Mo. App., the court says:. 

"Tbe mere ract that experts may pronounce a maaaraotared article 
inteniled for human food, to be wholesome or harmless, does not render 
it incompetent for the legisiatare to prohibit the manufacture and sale 
of the article. The test of the reasonableness of the police regulation, 
prohibitin); the making and vending of a partloalar article of food, is 
not alone whether it is in part unwholesome and injorloua.. If annrtlole 
of food la of saoh a oharaoter that few persona will eat it linowluj; 1' s 
real character ; if, at the time, it Is of such a nature that it can be im. 
posed npoD the public as an article of food which is in oommon use, and 
against which there is no prejudice ; and if, in addition to this, there is 
probable ^ I ound for believing that the onl7 wa; to prevent the public 
from being defrauded into the purchasing of the coanterfeit article fur 
the genuine, is to prohibit altogether the manufacture and sale of the 
former, then we think that each a prohibition may stand as a reason- 
able police regulation, although the article prohibited is indeed Inoon- 
ons. and although its production might be found beoeflcial to the 
public, if in buying it they could distinguish it from the production ot 
which it is the imitation. 

'' Tbe manufacturer may brand it with its real name. It may carry 
that brand into the hands of the broker or commission merchant, and 


60 Report of the Wisconsin 

■ even into the hands oC the retail grocer ; but there it will be taken off, 
and it will be sold to the consumer as real butter or It will not be sold 
at alL The fact that in the present state or the public taete, the public 
judgment or the public prejudice with regard to it, it can not be sold 
except by cheatiag the altimate porchaser into the beliet that it is real 
butter, . . . stamps with fraud the entire business of making and 
vending it, and furnishes a justification for apolice regulation prohibit- 
ing the making and vending of it altogether." 

It is to be noted here that this decision was rendered be- 
fore what is now known as the original package decision, 
arising out of liquor legislation in Iowa and Kansas, being 
Leisey vs. Harding, 135 U. S., 100. 

The legislature of Minnesota passed an act in 1&85 (Ch. 
149, Laws of 1885) an act entitled, " An Act to prohibit or 
prevent the sale or manufacture of unhealthy or adulter- 
ated dairy products," section 4 of which was as follows: 

"No person shall manufacture out of anj oleaginous substance or sub- 
stances, or an; compound of the same, or any compound other than that 
produced from unadulterated milk, or cream from the same, any article 
designed to take the place of butter or cheese, produced from pure on- 
adulterated milk, or oream from the same, or shall sell, or offer for sale, 
the same as an article of food. This shall not apply to pure skim milk 
cheese, made from pnre skim milk." 

It will be noticed that this is practically the same as 
the Missouri and Pennsylvania laws quoted above. This 
law came up for construction in the coiirt of our state in 
the case of Butler vs. Chambers, 30 N. W. R., 308, decided 
Nov. 11, 1886. The court sustained the act as constitu- 

The doctrine laid down in this decision was approved in 
a later case, Stoltz vs. Thompson, N. W. E., 411, decided in 
1890, also in Weideman vs. State, 56 N. W. R., 688 (1893). 


Tlie legislature has power to prohibit the coloring of oleomar- 
garine in imitation of yellow butter. 

The legislature of Ohio passed a law entitled, " An act 
to prevent fraud in the sale of lard, and to provide pun- 
ishment for the violation thereof. " 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 61 

This act required that imitations of butter should be 
labelled ' Compound lard ' and the name and proportion in 
pounds and fractional parts thereof of each ingredient con- 
tained therein. 

This was decided constitutional by the supreme court of 
that state in the case of State va. Snow, 47 N. W. R., 777, 
decided on January 23, 1891. 

Minnesota passed a law in 1889 prohibiting the sale of 
baking powder containing alutn, unless upon each package 
of baking powder there should be the words, "This baking 
powder contains alum." 

The coDstrtutionality of this law was brought in question 
in the case of Stoltz v. Thompson, 46 N. W. R., 410, decided 
August 19, 1890. The supreme court of Minnesota held the 
taw constitutional, and at page 411 the court says: 

"This statute does not prohibit the Bale of such oompounds. The 
owner is not deprived of his property, nor denied the equal protection 
of the laws, by being reqnired to disclose the real nature or ingredfeuts 
of the commodity which he exposes for sale. No man has the right, pro- 
tected by the conatiLutiou from legislative luterference, to keep secret 
the composition of each goods in order that others may be induced to 
purchase and use what they would consider to be hurtful, and what 
they would not knowinjiily purchase or use. The owner of such prop- 
erty may be legally required, as a matter of proper police regulation for 
I he benefit of the people in general, to sell it for what it actually is.and 
upou its own merits, and is not entitled, as a matter of constitutional 
right, to the benefit of any additional market value which he maysouure 
by concealing its true character." 

The legislature of New Hampshire, Chap. 68, laws of 
1885, required that all substitutes and imitations of butter 
should be colored pink. 

The question as to whether this law requiring such arti- 
cle to be colored pink was constitutional, came up before 
the supreme court of New Hampshire in the case of State vs. 
Marshall, 1 L. E. A., 51, and wa3 decided July 19,1888. The 
law was held by the court to be constitutional, and the 
court at page 55 says : 

"The design of the act is to protect purchasers and consumers against. 
deception; and this is accomplished by requiring the article sold or 


62 Report oj the WiacoTisin 

offered for sale as a substitute for butter, to be a pick color, to show 
that it is not geDuine butter. The sale of oieo margarine is not pro- 
hibited. The iprohibitioQ is against the sale or exposing for sate of any 
article or compound made in imitation of batter or as a substitute for 
it, and not made wbolly fcom milk or cream, or of any other color than 
pink, to designate its trae character. Batter la a necessary artiole of 
food of almost nniversal consumption; and if an article compounded 
from cheaper ingredients, which many people would not purchase or 
use if they knew what it was, can be made so closely to resemble butter 
that ordinary persons cannot distinguish it from genuine batter, the 
liability to deception is such that the protection of the pablic requires 
those dealing in the article in some way to designate its real character. 
It being within the constitutional power of the legislature to establi^ib 
regalations for.tbe prevention of fraud in the sale of articles of food, it 
is generally tor the legislature to determine what regalations are needed 
for that purpose. Cooley Const. Urn., 3d ed., 169." 

The legislature of New Jersey passed a law in 1887 mak- 
iog it a crituinal offense to maaufactore or sell any oleo 
margarine product that was colored with so-called annotto, 
so as to make it resemble the color of butter. The consti- 
tutionality of this law was brought in question in the czuse 
of State m. Newton, 14 At. Rep., 604, decided June 7, 18t8. 
The Supreme Court of the state holds the law constitu- 
tional even as applying to inter-state commerce, that is, to 
articles shipped from other states and sold in the original 

The Massachusetts legislature enacted a law in 1891 
prohibiting under penalty the manufacture and sale of oleo- 
margarine made in imitation of yellow butter. The consti- 
tutionality of this law, which is almost an exact couuter' 
part of the Wisconsin law upon this subject, came in ques- 
tion in the case of Commoawealth vs. Huntley, 156 Mass., 
236. Decision was made May 7, 1892, and the law was held 
to be constitutional. 

It will be noticed that this is a leading case; that the 
decision is after that of the United States supreme court 
in the original package case of Leisey vs. Harden, li{6 
United States, 100, which case was commented upon and 
distinguished by the Massachusetts court; the Massachu- 
setts court holding that the supreme court of the United 


Dairy avd Food OommissUm&r. 63 

States (in the original package case) had not decided that 
it was unconstitutioiial for a state, in the exercise of its 
police power, to pass a law making it penal to sell an 
article within the state, though brought from another state, 
for aomethijig different from what it really loaa; in other words, 
thali it was lawful for the state to compel the article to 
assume its real character in the markets of the state. 

The legislature of Ohio made it a criminal oftense, imless 
the imitations of butter and cheese were sold in packages 
properly stamped to indicate their character. 

The constitutionality of this law caOie in question In the 
case of Palmer vs. The State, 39 0. St., 236, decided in June, 
1S83. The court sustained the law. 

The Maryland legislature in 1888, prohibited the color- 
ing of oleomargarine and butterine, and the law was sus- 
tained in. the case of McAllister V8. State, 20 At. Bep., 143, 
decided June 19, 1890. 

In 189 J the supreme court of Massachusetts sustained 
the constitutionality of the law of that state, which pro- . 
vided that butterine, oleomargarine, or any imitation of 
butter, should be colored a brig"ht pink. The laws of New 
York prohibited the manufacture of any oleaginous 
compounds in imitation of or semblance of natural butter. 
The law wag held to be constitutional by the supreme court 
of that state, and the court in rendering its decision, 
among other things said: 

"The prodaoers of batter from aniinal fats or oila, atthongh the prod- 
uct may be wholesome, autritioas and suitable for food, and so the 
manntacture and sale thereof may not be prohibited, have no oonetlta- 
tional right to resort to devices for the purpose of making their prod- 
uct resemble dair; batter, and the legislature has the power to enaot 
such laws as it may deem neoessary to prevent the simulated article 
being put upon the market in each form or manner as to be calculated 
to deceive." 

in its decision, on page 1^, in re Jacobs (98 N. Y., 98) and 
People vs. Marx, 99 id., 377, the court says: 

" Assuming, as is claimed that butter made from animal fat or oil 
{a as vflfolesome, qutritioqe ai^d suitabl* f^r food as dajr^ b^ftter; tl)at it 


64 Be^ort of the Wisconsin 

is composed of the same elementa and Is substaDtiall; the same artiole 
except as regards its origin, and that it is cheaper, aud that it would be 
a violation of the coast itutional rights and liberties of the people (.o pro- 
hibit them from manufacturing or dealing in it, for the mere purpose oC 
protecting the producers of dur; butter against competition, yet it can- 
not be claimed that the prodacersof butter, made fromanimal fat, or oils^ 
have any constitutional right to resort to devices for the purpose of 
taaking their produot resemble in appearance the more expensive ar- 
ticle known as dairy butter, or that it is beyond the power of the legi^^- 
lature to enact such taws as they may deem necessary, to prevent the 
simulated article Iwing put upon the market in such a form and manner 
as to be calculated to deceive. If it posBsssos the merits which are claimed 
forit, and is innocuous, those making and dealing in it should be protect- 
ed in the enjoyment of liberty in those respects, but they may be legally 
required to sell It for and as what it actually is, and upon its own merits, 
and are not entitled to the benefit of any additional marketvalue which 
may be imparted to it by resorting to artificial means to make it re 
semble dairy butter in appearance. It may be butter, but it Is not but- 
ter from cream, and the difference In cost or market value, if no other, 
would make it a fraud to pass off oue artiole for the other." 


What questions are immat^tial in prosecutions wider the oleo- 
margarine statute. 

Intent, or mistake of fact. 
Clark on Criminal Law, (published in 1894). 
»There may be statutes which make it a crime to do an act where a 
particular independent fact exists, and the legislature may have intend- 
ed that ail persons doing the act should do it at their peril In such a 
case, ignorance of the fact is no excuse. Examples of this are in case^ 
of illegal sales of adulterated food or liquor, or intoxicating liqaor, most 
of the courts holding that it is no defense for the seller to say that he 
did not know of the adulteration or intoxicating properties of the food 
or liquor. So, also, in the case of sales of liquor to minors and drunk- 
ards, it is usually held that ignorance that the vendee was a drunkard 
tr a minor is no excuse." 
Am. & Eng. Enc. of Law, Vol. 4, page 681 : 
"Where the stntute contains nothing requiring acts to be done know- 
ingly, and the acts done are not malum in »e, nor Infamous, bnt are 


Dairy and Food Oommiasoner. 65 

merely prohibited, the offender is boand to know the law, and a crimi- 
nal intent need not be proved." 

Id., page 689: 

"It ia A well established principle of law, that ignorance of fact la no 
defense where the statute makes the offense indictable ineepeotive of 
Builty knowledge." 

This ve^y point has been settled by our own supreme 
court in State vs. HartAeld, 24 Wis., 60. 

"Hartfleld was indicted for selling spirituous liquors to one Fennell, 
a minor, in violation of Chapter 36, L^wb at 1866, and Chap. 123, Laws 
of 1SG7. The evidence for the prosecutioa showed that he inquired of 
Pennell, before lettinK him have the liquor, whether he was of age, and 
received an answer In the atQrmative, and also showed that Pennell wse 
six feet and one inch in height. The jury were instructed that ignor- 
ance or mistake on the part of the accused, as to the fact that Feimell 
was a minor, was no defense. Verdict guilty." 

Prosecutions under Oleomargarine Statutes similar to our ovm. 
State vs. Newton, N. J., 14 AU. Rep., 604, 605. 

Syllabus: ''Under section 5 of the oleomargarine act, approved Itfarob, 
22, 1896 (P. li. 1886, p. 107) it is not essential to the guilt of a person 
selling oleomargarine colored with annotto that he should know 
that the oleomargarine was so colored." 

Dickson, N. J., p. 605: 

" Another objection Is that it was neither averred nor proved below 
that the plaintiff in certiorari knew that the oleomargarine was colored 
with annotto; and without such knowledge he oonld not, it is urged, be 
guilty of a penal act. In Halsted vs. State, 41 N. J. Law, 552, the court 
of errors laid down the principle that, in regard to statutory offenses 
Ihe defendant's knowledge ot all the physical facts which go to consti- 
tute the offense is not essential to guilt, unless made so b; a proper 
o^nstruction of the statute itself. The briefs in that case refer to many 
decisions illustrating the principle. 

On recurring to the statute now under review, it is plain that there 
are no vrords in the enactment showing a purpose to make knowledge a 
constituent ot the penal act. The prohibition is, in clear and simple 
terms, against the sale of oleomargarine colored with annotto. Unless, 
therefore, there may be discoverable, in what may be deemed the gen- 
eral design of the legislature, an Intention to limit this language to 
cases where the seller is shown to be cognizant of the character ot the 
article sold, the terms of the statute should be effectuated. This gen- 
eral design, as declared both in the title and the body of the act, is to 
5-D. & F. 


66 Seport of the WtsconMn 

prevent deception In the sale of oleonutrgarine; and. If we have regard 
to the pnbllo sentiment ont of which the law epmng, It was, we think, 
not only to avoid, tor the sake of the porchasers, the danger ot their 
buying oleomargariDe onder the belief thaa It was batter, but also 
thereby to secure to the manufaotnrera of batter those advantages which 
fair and open competition would afford. The object was not to punish 
acts intrinsically wrong, but to prevent acta which in their reanlts 
operated aajastly upon others. This object woald be thwarted if salei 
oould be made with impunity by those ignorant of the ingredients of the 
article sold. Tills interpretation of the law does nut savor oF undus 
severity. No doubt, it may impose some hardship upon some innocent 
vendnrs. Bat the means which dealers in these products generally have 
of informing themselves as to the sabstances of which they are oom- 
ponnded, are so ample that but tew will suffer save save through desifiQ 
or negligence, while no praoiloable degree of caution would protect pur- 
chasers and it is maoifest that the legislature has thought proper to in- 
our the slight risk of injustice to the few, in order to escape the greater 
risk of Injnstioe to the many." 

Commonwealth vs. Weiss, (Pa.) 21 Atl. Bep., 10. Jan. 5, 

Syllabus: " Act Pa., May 21, 1885, (P. L. 22) commonly known as the oleo- 
mar arine act, providing, among other things, that It shall be un 
lawful to sell, or offer or expose for sale, or have in posae^sion with 
Intent to s'-'ll, any oleaginous substance designed to twhe the place 
of butter or obeese. Is a police reguiation, and, in an action to re- 
cover the penalty for a violation thereof, it Is immaterial that de 
fendant was ignorant that the snbstance he sold as butter was of 
the prohibited compoBition. ' 

Clark, J., page 10: 

** Guilty knowledge or goUty intent is, la general, an essential element 
in crimes at the common law, but statutes providing police regulations, 
in many cases, make certain acts penal, where this element is wholly 
disregarded. The distinction Is thos laid down in 3 GreenL Ev., sec. 21: 
'The rule (i. e., that ignorance of fact will excuse) would seem to hold 
good in all cases where the act, if done knowingly, woald be malum in ae. 
But where a siatute commands that an act be done or omitted, which, 
in the absence of such statute, might have been done or omitted with- 
out culpability, ignorance of the fact or state ot things oomtemplated 
by the statate, it seems would not esouse Its violation. Thus, for ex- 
ample, where the law enacts the forfeiture of a ship having smuggled 
g'>ods oo board, and such goods are secreted on board by some of the 
crew, the owners and officers being alike innocently ignorant of the tact, 
yet the forleiture is incurred notwithstanding their ignorance. Such Is 
a)eo the case in regard to man^ other fiscal, police, and other laws mi 


Dairy jtnd Food Commissioner. 67 

regnlations, for the mere Tiolation of which, Irrespeotive of the motives 
'Or knowledge of the party, certain penalties are enacted; for the law in 
these cases seems to bind the parties to know the facts, and to obey the 
law at their periU' To the same effect, also, is Whart. Crim. Law, seos. 
83, 82, 412." 

"Even if. in the honest proseontion of any particular trade or bnsl' 
ness, conducted for the manufacture of articles of food, the product is 
healthful and nutritious, yet. If the opportnnlties for trand and adulter- 
ation are such as to threaten the public health, it is nadoabtedly in the 
power of the leRislatore either to punish those who knowingly traffic in 
the frauduleut article, or, by a sweeping provision to that effect, to pro- 
hibit the manufacture and sale altogether." 
Commonwealth vs. Warren, 160 Mass., 533. 

Under this law a simple collector of milk, in the employ- 
ment of the inspector of millc, called at a hotel linown as 
the Bay State House, in Boston, and ordered a breakfast in 
the dining hall of the hotel, which was a public bouse con- 
ducted by the defendant and his son on the American plan, 
no-called. Kelly called for a glass of milk with bis break- 
feast, which was furnished by him by the girl who waited 
on him. A part of this glass of milk was taken away from 
the hotel in a bottle, and subsequently analyzed by a chem- 
ist, and found to contain less than thirteen per cent, or 
milk solids. 

Kelly testified that he paid thirty- five cents for his break- 
fast; that he paid the clerk in the hotel ofBce; and that 
□either the proprietor nor the clerk knew that he had of- 
dered the glass of milk at the time he made the payment. 

The evidence on the part of defendant showed that he 
offered no milk of any kind for sale nor kept any 
for sale distinct from his regular meals and not a 
part thereof; that he knew nothing ol Kelly's call 
at his hotel until the commencement of the prosecution; 
that his regular price for breakfast was thirty-five 
cents ; and that Kelly would have been charged the 
same price if he had not called for milk. The defendant's 
bills of fare which were used in the hotel at the time of the 
alleged sale were produced, and no milk appeared thereon. 
It was contended further by tho defendant that he had or- 


69 Report of tlie Wiicmsin 

dered the milk of better quality to be put in certain cans, 
and that the milk in question was taken by the waiter girl, 
through mistake, from the wrong can, and the defendant 
asked the court to instruct the jury that by reason of these 
facts he was not liable. The court refused so to instruct 
the jury, but instructed the jury that if the defendant's 
servant, in the ordinary course of her employment, acting 
in good faith and intending to obey the defendant's in- 
structions, delivered to Kelly upon his order the milk in 
question as a part of Kelly's breakfast, for which break- 
fast Kelly paid thirty-five cents, and the milk was not of 
good standard quality, the defendant was responsible un- 
der the statute, notwithstanding the servant's negligently 
and by mistake taking the milk from the can which had 
been set apart for-^ise in the kitchen. 

The court sustains this instruction in the following Ian- 
gnage : 

"The statute m»kes a party liable for a sale by himself, or by his 
agent or sorvaat, of mitk not of staodard quality. No criminal intent 
on the part of the master or principal Is necessary In order to reader 
him liable for a sale in violation of the statute, and be may conse- 
quently be held liable for an inadvertent sale in the course of his 
employment on the part of his servant or agent in violation of tbe 

On the question as to whether, under the facts as stated 
above, there was a sale, the court says: 

"Tbe milk bought by the witness Kelly was purchased by and de- 
livered to him as a part of his breakfast, and was just as much a 
sate as if a speciBc pi ice had been pat upon it, or it had been boagli 
and paid for by itself." 

Citing Gommomeealth vs. Wooster, 26 Mass., 250. 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 

Holding United States License. 
Plumley vs. Mass., 155 TJ. S., 461 (Dec. 10, 1894). 

Syllabue: '1. The act of Austust 2, 18S6, c. 810, 24 Stat , 209, doea not 
giV6 aathority to those who pay the taxes prescribed by it, to ea- 
gage in the maoafacture or sale o! oleomargdriae ia any Biat<. 
vhich lawfully forbiils such manafactare or sale, or to disregard 
any regiilatioas whioh a state may lawfully prescribe ia refereucx 
to that article; and that act was sot intended to be, and ia not, 
a rw^lation of commerce among the states." 

Justice Harlan, page 465: 

"The learned coonsel for the appellant states that congress in the act 
of Augost % 1866, has legislated fully on the sabjeot of oleomargariae. 
Thla may be trae so far as the purposes of that act are concerned. But 
there is no groand to suppose that oougresa intended in that enactment 
to interfere with the eseroise by the states of aity authority which 
the^r oonld rightfully exercise over the sale within their respective 
limits of the article defined as oleomargariiie. The statute imposed 
certaLn special taxes upon manufacturers of oleomargarine, as well as 
upon wholesale and retail dealers in that compound. And it Is ex- 
pressly declared (Seo. 3) tha<; sections 3232 to 3211, inoluslre, and sec- 
tion 32(3 of the revised statutes, title Internal Revenue, 'are, so far as 
applicable, made to extend to and include and apply to the special 
taxes, "as imposed," and to the persons upon whom they are imposed.' 
Section 3213 of the revised statutes is in these words: ' The payment of 
any tax imposed by the internal revenue laws for carrying on any 
trade or business shall not be held to exempt any person from any 
penalty or punishment provided by the laws of any state for carry- 
ing on the same wlthtn such state, or in any manner to authorize 
the commencement or continuance of such trade or business contrery 
to the laws of such state or in places prohibited by municipal law; 
nor shall the payment of any such tax be held tu prohibit any state 
from placing a duty or tax on the same trade or basiness, for state 
or other pnrpo.>4e3.' 

" It is manifest that this section was incorporated into the aot of 
August 2, 18S!j, to make it clear that congress had no purpose to re- 
strict the power of the states over the subject of the manufacture 
and. sale of oleomftrgarine within their respective limits. The taxes 
prescribed by that act were imposed for national purposes, and their 
imposition did not give authority to those who paid them to engage 
iu the manufacture or sale of oleomarttarine in any state whioh law- 
fully forbids such manufacture or sale, or to disregard any regnla- 
tions whioh a state might lawfully prescribe in reference to that aiv 


70 S^iKni of the Wisoontin 

tide. Lioense Tax ohms, S Wall , 462, 474; Pervear vi. CotnmontoeaUh, 
5 WalL, 475; U. S. v». De Witt, 9 WalL, 41. 

"Nor was the act ut ooagresa relating to oleomargarine intended as 
a reKnlition of oommeroe among states. Its prorUious do not have 
special application to the transfer of oleomargarine from one state oE 
the Union to another. Tbe^ relieve the manufactarer or seller, if be 
conforms to the regulations prescribed by cwagreas or by the com- 
missioner of internal revenae under the authority conferred npou him 
1q that regard, from penalty or puniahmeut so tar as tbe general 
government is ooaoemed, bat they do not interfere with the exeroise 
by the state} of any authority they posse-is of preventing deceptioa 
or fraud in the sales of property within tbeir respective Itmita. 

"The vital question in the cose is, therefore, unaffected by the sot 
of congress or ' by any regulations that have been established la 
exebuUon of its proviMons." 

Immaterial that article was bought by a state ojjtcer, for the 
purpose of enforcing the law, without his being deceived as to Us 

People vs. Arenaberg, 105 N. Y., 123, 133. 

Syllabus: "The statutory prohibition is Mmed at a designed and Inten- 
tional Imitation of dairy butter la mannfaoturing the new prodncf, 
and not a resemblance in qualities inherent in the articles them- 
selves and common to both." 

"Accordingly held,that the sale of an article known to the vendor to be 
oleomargarine, to which a coloring matter, not iojurions to-healtb, bad 
been added, which was not essential to the manufacture of the article 
but resorted to solely for the purpose of makisg it resemble the most 
valuable Idad of dairy butter, was a violation of the act and jastlfled a 
conviction on an indictment under it ; and this, although the defendant 
offered it for sale and sold It as oleomargarine." 

Kapallo, J., page 133: 

" He further charged that it was not necessary to show that the article 
sold was calculated to deceive the person who bought It in this instance, 
but that it was in imitation and semblance of butter and calculated to 
deceive any person who might buy it." 

"Exceptions were duly taken to the charge, raising the question of the 
constitutionality of the act under which the defendant was indictei 
and also to refusals of the court to ctiarge, raising the points made on 


Dairy and Food Oommiesioner. 71 

tbe part of the defense that It was necessary that the porohaser from 
the defendant shoold have been deceived; that if the article sold was 
sabstantiallr Identical with batter, tfaer mnst acqait,and that the words 
'Imitation or semblanoe' meant a frsndnlent imitation or semblance, as 
to vrhioh the coart charged that the words meant an imitation or aem- 
btanoe, likel7 to deceive. 

The jury foand the defendant gallt;, and the conrt sentenced faim to 
pay a fine of tlOO. We tliintc that the evidence Justified the court in 
submittinK to the jury ttke question whether the article sold was an 
imitation calculated to deceive. It was snffloient to authorize a finding 
tliat it had been artifloially ooiored so ae to imitate the most valuable 
lEtQd of dairy butter ; that such coloring was not eesential or neoessarlly 
incident to its manufacture, and that its only object was to make it 
resemble dairy butter, and increase its market valoe." 

Commonwealth vs. Busatll, (Mass.) 39 N. E. R., 110. 

Sylliibus : "Under 8t, 1891, o. 58, sec. 1, prohibiting the manufacture or 
exposins for sale any compound made from fat In imitation of yellow 
batter, but providing that oleomargarine may be sold ' in a separ^e 
and distinct form, in anoh manner as will advise the consumer of its 
real character, free from coloration or ingredient that causes it to 
look like batter,' the sale of oleomargarine containing colori7g mat- 
ter in imitation of butter is Illegal, tnough the purchaser is advised 
of its real character," 

Holme, J., say9 on page 110: 

"Argument cannot make It plainer that the proviso only saves such 
oleooiargarine as is free from coloration or ingredient that causes it to 
look like butter. The statute did not intend to allow oleomargarine to 
be made or sold when so colored, whether the particular purchaser was 
advised of its real value or not. It easily could be sold again topersona 
who were not advised of it. See Com, vs. Huntley, 156 Mass., 226, 230, 
2*0, N. B. 1127." 

The fact that this law 'does not proyide compeDsation to 
parties having >utterine or oleomargarine on hand for sale 
at the time the law was passed, is n-bolly immaterial. 

Powell V8. Pa., 127 U. S., 678, 682. 637. 

In this case, to quote from the statement of the case by 
Justice Harlan, at page 682: 

"Defendant also offered to prove that he was engaged in the grocery 
and proviaioD business la the city of Harrisburg, and that the article 


72 Report of the Wisconsin 

sold by him was part of a large and valuable quantity maauFactared 
prior to the 21st of May, 1885, is. accordance witti the laws of tliis com- 
monwealth relating to the manufacture and sale of aaid article, and so 
sold by him, that for the purpose of prosecuting that business, large in- 
Tostments were made by him in the purohase of suitable real estate, in 
the erection of proper buildings, and la the purchase of the necessary 
machinery and ingredients; that in his traffic in said article he maJe 
large proQts; and, if prevented from continuing it, the value of bis 
property employed therein would be entirely lost, and he be deprived i f 
the means of livelihood. 

" To each offer the commonwealth objected on the ground that tLe 
evideaoe proposed to be introduced was immaterial and Irrelevant." 

The testimony was excluded. 

At page 687, the court says : 

"Itisalso contended that the act of May 21, 1885, is In confilct with 
th? fourteenth asuendment in that it deprives the defendant of his prop- 
erty without that compensSition required by law. This contention is 
without merit, as was held in Mugler vs. Kansas, 123 U. S , 623." 

Since the successful outcome of the prosecutions for 
the illegal sale of oleomargarine in Madison and Milwau- 
kee, there have been only five prosecutions of this charac- 
ter, — one in the city of Ashland, two in Marinette and two 
in West Superior. In all these cases the defendants plead 
guilty and were each fined fifty dollars and costs. 

The sales of oleomargarine in this state have been greatly 
restricted by the operation of the oleomargarine law. 
Previous to July 1st, 1895, there were seventy- three licensed 
dealers in oleomargarine in the eastern district of Wiscon- 
sin, which embraces the eastern half of the state. Sep- 
tember 1st, 1895, the number had been reduced to three. 
At the present time, I am informed by the collector of in- 
ternal revenue for that district, there is only one dealer 
who has a retail license, and no wholesaJe licenses have 
been issued in the district. 

Previous to June 30, 1895, there were in force in the 
western district of Wisconsin sixty-two licenses. In Sep- 
tember of the same year the number had been reduced to 
six. At the present time there are no licenses in force in 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 73 

the entire district. Iq a little over a year, the mimber of 
licenses in the state has been reduced from 135 to ope. 

The simple truth is that the people of this state will not 
bay oleomargarine uncolored, under its own name, color 
and character, in any very considerable quantities. A 
large sale of that article, during the entire life of the trade 
in it, has depended upon deceit. 

An effort has been made by the oleomargarine dealers to 
sell uQcotored oleomargarine. But it has met with so small 
success that they have not considered the traffic in the 
article a sufficient inducement to pay the government 

The agents of the butterine factories of Chicago since 
the passage and enforcement of the law of 1895, have been 
quite busy in Wisconsin working up a trade with private 
customers, without the intervention of a middleman re- 
quired under a national law to talie out a license. Some 
shipments have been made into some of the southern cities 
and towns of the state direct to private individuals. In 
northern Wisconsin similar shipments have been made upon 
orders sent by manufacturing establishments, mainly by 
lumber companies employing a large number of men and 
feeding and caring for them in lumber camps. The law of 
the state does not prohibit a private individual from ob- 
taining colored oleomargarine direct from the manufacturer 
in Chicago, if he so desires. It does not prevent a lumber- 
man from buying it for his own use. It does not prevent 
him from feeding it to his men, if he shall elect to give 
his men a certain amount of money per month as wages 
and throw in their board for nothing. In such a case there 
is no sale of butterine by the lumberman to his men — or, 
very likely, that is the construction which a jury in that 
part of the state would place upon the case. 

It is certainly true that these northern lumbermen who 
are buying supplies of this kind for their camps from the 
butterine manufacturers of Chicago are making a mistake. 
They are not regarding profoundly their own interests. 
With the cutting away of the pine forests, there is a new 


74 Beport of tJie Wisconsin 

development Id the northern part of the state of a large agri- 
cultural^ interests. No portion of that interest is more 
helpful in the development of a profitable farm business 
than the dairy interest. There is no portion of the state 
where it can be carried on with greater profit than in 
northern Wisconslii. The lumbermen are largely inter- 
ested in the building up of the towns and cities of that 
region, and in reclaiming the lands which have been 
stripped of their timber. They can help themselves and 
the communities in which they live by patronizing honest 
home industry by buying the products of their neighbors, 
instead of sending their money outside of the state and 
buying a cheaply-made counterfeit article to come into 
competition with the honest products raised upon their 
neighbors' farms, aod imposing that cheap counterfeit upon 
the men who feed at their tables and aid them in the accu- 
mulation of their wealth. 

For many years the agitation in Wisconsin for the enact- 
ment of more stringent laws regulating the sale of oleo- 
margarine and compelling it to stand upon its own feet, 
has met the persistent opposition of the representatives of 
northern lumber interests. Every member of the senate 
and every representative in the lower house, except one, 
from northern Wisconsin, at the session of 1895, recorded 
his vote in behalf of the stringent law of that year. This 
indicates two things: the rapid growth of the agricultural 
interest in that portion of the state and the changed judg- 
ment which has come to their representatives. It is to be 
hoped that this change will go on. 

Public sentiment against the sale of oleomargarine as 
butter is manifesting itself more strongly each year in ad- 
ditional restrictive laws placed upon the statute books of 
the northern and western states. These laws vary in char- 
acter from a very simple requirement as to labels to an ab- 
solute prohibition of manufacture and sale. 

This commission has been in receipt of many letters from 
the dairymen of the southern states, inquiring about the 
Wisconsin dairy and food laws. A strong movement is be- 


Dairy and Food CkmanissUmer. 75 

Ing inaugurated in Kentucky, in Georgia, in South Carolina, 
in North Carolina, in Tennessee, and in other southera 
states, in the direction of securing legislation similar to 
that of Wisconsin and Massachusetts, which requires oleo- 
margarine and similar compounds to be sold under their 
own names and under their own colors. The indications 
are that the manufacture of oleomargarine which is infer- 
ior in character to genuine butter and costs for its manu- 
facture only one-half as much, will be much less of a factor 
in reducing prices of the honest dairy product in the years 
to come. * 


Filled cheese is cheese made out of skim milk and neu- 
tral oil (lard) in imitation of full cream cheese. Wiscon- 
sin factories were making it to some extent in 1886 and 
1887. The dairy commission, which was established in 
the winter of 1889, had behind it no efficient state law for 
the limitation or prohibition of the business. 

It was regarded as a fraud upon the public by the com- 
mission, and every possible effort was made to limit the 
amount manufactured. 

The law of 1891 prohibited the manufacture of filled cheese 
in its first section, but in section 5 made certain regulations 
with reference to its sale. The law appeared to be con- 
tradictory in that, while prohibiting the manufacture, it 
pe]^ibted the sale of imitation cheese. 

The manufacturers of filled cheese, extracting by the 
separator process all the cream, except a trace, contained 
in the milk brought to their factories, making that cream 
into butter and getting from the milk the entire butter 
value, taking the skim milk which was left and adding to it 
for the purpose of replacing the butter fat, neutral oil, 
costing only one fourth as much as the fat which it re- 
placed, were enabled to make large profits in the business. 


76 Eeport oj the Wisconsin 

The maaufacture of this article became so profitable and 
so attractive that in 1894 it was estimated by the repre- 
sentatives of the State Dairymen's association, by cheese 
factory inspectors, by commission merchants engaged in 
the purchase of cheese in Wisconsin, that there were in 
this state two hundred cheese factories making filled cheese. 

The State Dairymen's Association had been for several 
years thoroughly alive to the depressing character of this 
business in its influence upon the legitimate cheese inter- 
ests of the state. 

A coiJmitbee upon legislation was appointed at a meeting 
of the State Dairymen's Association in the winter of 1894. 
This committee was strengthened by the addition of the 
entire executive committee, and the joint committee, at a 
meeting in September, 1894, appointed the present dairy 
and food commissioner as a sub- committee to draw up a 
biU with the assistance of Mr. John M. OUn, an attorney 
of Madison, selected by this committee, which should pro- 
hibit absolutely in the state of Wisconsin the manufacture 
and sale of filled cheese. 

After an investigation of the subject a bill was drawn 
up, which met the approval of the State Dairymen's Asso 
ciation, and which was a copy, almost word for word, of 
the law of Canada upon the same subject. 

The multitude of evils which resulted from the develop- 
ment of the filled cheese Industry had become so great that 
there was great public interest in this measure, not alone 
among the farmers of the state, but among thoughtful men 
of all classes, who saw that the reputation that Wisconsin 
had previously maintained in the markets of this country 
and Europe for the manufacture «f good cheese, was being 
broken down and utterly destroyed by the sale in those 
markets of millions of pounds of a spurious article. 

The dairy and food law of 1895, which embodied this 
prohibition of the manufacture and sale of filled cheese, 
contained a section providing that oleomargarine should 
not be colored in imitation of yellow butter. It contained 
another section which provided that skim cheese should 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 77 

be made ten inches in diameter and nine inches in height, 
and empowered the dairy and food commissioner to appoint, 
with the consent of the governor, counsel to assist in the 
prosecution of the cases arising under the law. The only 
feature of this law which obtained the unanimous approval 
of the members of both the senate and assembly, was the 
section prohibiting the sale and manufacture of filled 
cheese. In the early days of the session, a lobby, repre- 
senting the filled cheese interest, appeared in Madison to 
ascertain the sentiment and temper of the legislature. The 
sentiment of the people of the state and their representa- 
tives was too pronounced and overwhelming to be changed 
or effected in any degree by any lobby which could be 
brought together. The filled cheese bill thus' practically 
passed without opposition. 

There was a general acquiescence in the law by the men 
who had been manufacturing and selling this article. 

Since the law became operative, the commission, al- 
though endeavoring in every possible manner to ascertain 
the facts, has not been able to discover that a solitary 
pound of filled cheese has been made within the limits of 
his state. But the passage and enforcement of a prohib- 
itory law, preventing the manufacture and sale of this ar- 
ticle, did not relieve the Wisconsin cheese makers from the 
results of its manufacture and sale in other states. Wis- 
consin and Illinois, previous to the passage of the Wiscon- 
sin law, manufactured nearly all the filled cheese made in 
this country. Even after our law went ■into operation, the 
Illinois makers of filled cheese continued the practice 
which they had previously adopted, of labeling their 
cheese "Badger Pull Cream Cheese," and shipping it into 
eastern and southern markets and to England. The effect 
of this traffic upon the reputation of our home and for- 
eign trade is indicated by the following communication: 
"To the Governor, Senate Bind Assemblr of the State of Wieconsin, 
U. S, A.: 

"We, the Liverpool Provision Trade Association, beg moat respe(!ttall7 
to oali your attention to the very serions, and, we fear, permanent in- 


78 Seport oj the Wisconsin 

jury which is beiag done to the trade here ia Wtsooasin cheese by the 
large arriTals from your state of filled or spurious cheese, made from 
akim milk mixed with lard, beef fat and other greases. 8o serions has 
this mat'^er beoome that we do not hesitate to say that unless immediate 
steps are taken to ^prohibit the mauufactare and shipment of thess 
goods, It will be quite Impossible to aeU Wisconsin cheese in this coun- 
try, owing to the great losi of prestige and the suspicion entertained 
against them by all honest dealers, many of whom have been prosecuted 
and convicted for selling what they bought as genuine Wisconsin cheese, 
but which, on analysis by the authorities, were found to be not cheese 
at all, bat a compound as above stated. Furthennore, we very much re- 
gret to say there are a large number of unscrupulous dealers here who 
are continnously forcing this product upon the public as genuine 
cheese, the proBtsbeing so large that they are content to mn the risk 
of beiog fined from time to time by the authorities. 

"We therefore most respectfully appeal to you to at once put a stop to 
this nefarious and dishonorable trade by making such laws as will stop 
the manofactnre of these goods, and by so doing remove the very great 
stain and suspicion attached to all cheese at present coming from your 

"Qiven under the common seal of the laverpool Provision Trade 
Association, limited, this twenty-eighth day of February, one thousand 
ei^ht hundred and ninety-five. 

<SEAii) "W. H, Challineb, 

"President Liverpool Provision Trade AMotiai-n." 

A similar commuiiication was received from the Glasgow 
Provision Trade Association and also from the Bristol 
Trade Association (jf England. 

The shipment from other states of filled cheese under 
the name of Wisconsin full cream, — a fraud upon an hon- 
est industry of this state, which its laws could not reach, 
made apparent the necessity of a national law which should 
regulate the filled cheese business and compel it to be sold 
substantially for what it was. 

Mr. S. A. Cook of Neenah, representative in congress 
from the sixth congressional district, of this state, intro- 
duced a bill which provided for a tax upon filled cheese of 
two cents per pound, and further provided that manufac- 
turers, wholesale dealers and retail dealers in that article 
be all required to obtain a government license. The bill 
was drawn upon the general lines of the oleomargarine act 


Dairy arid Food GommissUyner. 7a 

which had been declared constitutional in every court 
where it had been tested. 

Mr. Wilber of New York also introduced a bill upon the 
same subject. At a meeting of the National Dairy Union 
ia Chicago, at which were representatives of the dairy as- 
sociations, and dairy and food commissioners of many 
states, these bills received the careful attention of a com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose and of the union itself. 

Their general features met the approval of that associa- 
tion, and a committee was appointed to appear in Washing- 
ton in i>ehalf of the proposed measure. 

Hon. Wm. H. Kat^h of Missouri was made chairman of 
that committee, Mr. Jas. Hughes Of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, and the dairy and food commissioner of this state 
were the other members. An organized movement was. 
started to inform congress upon this subject. Petitions 
were circulated all over the United Stales. Both houses 
of congress were flooded with them. The Produce Ex- 
change of New York was actively engaged in pushing the 
filled cheese bill. The dairy and food commissioner of 
Iowa appeared 1>efore the committee, as well as the assist- 
ant dairy and food commissioner of Minnesota. There 
were petititions and memorials introduced from all the 
commercial centers of the south. The southern . people 
were stirred up to the fact that they had been buying 
millions of pounds of fllled cheese, shipped from Chicago, 
upon the supposition that they were purchasing genuine 
full cream cheese. 

The importance of the subject was not maguifled by the 
gentlemen representing the legitimate dairy interests. 
The question was not one of simply keeping out competi- 
tion in business, it was a question as to whether or not 
dishonest competition should l>e kept up. 

In 1880, Wisconsin cheese sold in the English market at 
IJ- and 2 cents a pound more than Canadian cheese. In 
1895, Canadian cheese was being sold in the English 
market at H and 2 cents a pound more than Wisconsin 
cheese. The reputation of Wisconsin cheese had lieen de- 



Report of the Wiaconsfn 

stroyed by the shipmeat of the spurious article along with 
good cheese. Canada, wiser than we. had prohibited the 
manufacture of imitation cheese, and by a careful syst 'in 
of govarnment inspection and education in cheese pro 
duction, had brought up the standard of her cheese and of 
her factory work to the highest point. 

The following table shows the diminution of American 
exports and the increase of Canadian exports to foreign 
markets since 1879: 



New York. 



New York. 


5'% cm 




,186, on 

,148, 8M 




The following report from the department of agriculture 
W^ presented to the committee on ways and means, while 
the filled cheese bill was under consideration : 

"United States Dbpabthent of AafiicDLTUEB, 
Bureau of Animal Industry, Dairy Division. 


Cheese production of th<e United States according to the oensns: 

1349 ■ 1C6,B35,893 pounds 

1859 103,663,927 pounds 

1869 162,927,382 pounds 

1879 243,167350 pounds 

1889..... 256,761,883 pounds 

Notes— Nine-tenths of this cheese is made in the states ol New York, 
Wiscouain, Ohio, IlliuoiB, Vermont, lowfi, Pennsylvania and Michigan, 
ranking in the order named. • 

The Neir York product alone is almost one-half the total, and this 
state and Wisconsin together make over two-thirds of all. The reputa- 
tion of these two states as to quality of cheese is about the same, and 
they have such a preponderating influence that they give cbaraoter to 
the entire cheese output of the country. 


Dairy arid Food Commissioner. 


It reqatres the entire milk of about one miUion cows to make the 
cheese anaoally pressed la the Uuiled States. 

The value of the anaual obeese product oF the United States varies 
from $20,000,000 to |25,000,000. 

Cheese imported annually into the United States, about 9,000,000 

Bate of consumption of cheese in the United States, about three 
pounds per capita per annum. Consumption apparently on the de- 
Composition; Good oheese is approximately composed of one-third 
water,one third milk fat, and one-third oaselo, with some eu^ar and ash. 


of Ghees 

oc single year 

from the 

and yearlj- a 

United States and Oa 

TBrages (oc five-yeac periods.; 



V. 3. 



V. 8. 



10,381, 1S9 


- n.inn 


20. 114. Ml 







Notes.— For the year ending June 30, 1895, value of cheese exported 
from United States, (5,497,539, or $9.09 per hundred weight; from Caa 
ada, »14,253.002, or (9.76 per hundred weight. 

Nearly 10,00 ',000 pounds of cheese made in the United States aonu- 
ally are exported to Canada to be re-exported to Great Britain. 

Since 1^ the Increase in quantity exported by Canada ia a thousand 
fold; tben Canada exported less than one-hundredth part of the quan- 
tity sent by tbe United States. Now, the cheese export of the former 
ia more than double that of the latter in quantity and nearly ten per 
cent, greater in value per pound. 

Canada prohibits by law the manufacture or sale of skimmed cheese 
and f Qlled cheese, and them[are no indications of efforts on the part 
of makers or merolmnts to evade or violate these laws. 

The reputation of Canadian cheese in the British markets has In- 
creased very greatly in consequence of a knowledge of these facts. 

The very best cheese made in the United States sells more readily in 
LfOndon if bearing a Canadian brand than under the names which bnt 
a few years ago were accepted as a guarantee of all that was honest and 
best in cheese. 

fi-D. A F. 


83 Report of the Wisconsin 

Filled Cheese. 

Factories luid product in the United States as estimated: 

18S3: Faotoriei in Wisconsin, 200; in Illinoia, 65; total annual product 
14,000,000 pounds. 

1896: Factories in nUnois, 90; elsewhere, 10; total anunal product 
12/KlO 000 pounds. 

Cost of manufacture: Raw materials, skimmed milk, neutral lard, 
rennet, salt and coloring; skimmed milk from creameries, 15 cents to 2 
cents per 100 pounds; neutral lard, variable in price, 1 to 7 cents, rennet 
salt and coloring matter, cost inconsequential. For 100 pounds skim 
milk, costing 20 cents, add three pounds " neutral," 12 cents, and snnd 
lies, 1 cents; total 36 c^ts. Result, 6 pounds filled cheese. Approxi- 
mate cost per pound 4}^ cents. 

E&HBi £. Altobd, 
Chief of Dairy Division." 

The effect of the filled cheese business upon our foreign 
trade is still further shown b; the following statemeut, 
. which I presented to the committee on ways and means: 

"Cheese Exports of the United iStates and Canada. 

18S0. lB9i. 

Cheese esports of the United States W2, 170,000 (7,180,01)0 

Cheese exports of Canada 3,900,0 16,500,000 

Decrease in the exports of cheese from the United States in fourteen 
fears, 10 per cent. Increase in the value of cheese exports from Can- 
ada, 400 per cent. 

In 18j5 the United States exported 112,003,000 pounds of cheese; 1893, 
81,000,000 pounds; 1391, 73,000,000 pounds; 1395, 60,000,000 pounds. Xhebe 
fig ires are given in round numbers and are for the fiscal year.' 

Cheese exports of the United States for the twelve months ending 
December 1st, 1891, 69,305,651 pounds; value 96,682,694. 

Cheese exports of the United States for the twelve montlis ending De- 
cember 1, 1895, 40,8j0,934; value, »3,40I, 117. 

The treasury statement recently issued shows that for the seven 
months ending January 1, 1396, the exports of cheese were 21,565,000 
pounds. For the corresponding months of 1895 they were 39,236,000 
pounds,— a dropping off in exports in a little over one-half of a single 
year ot 18,000,000 pounds in round numbers, having a valnation of nearly 
two million dollars. 

. A comparative statement of the batter exports for the periods above 
named show an increase in exports of the difference between 3,000,000 
pounds in 1891 to 12,000,000 in 1895, showing that the diminished foreign 


Dairy and Food GommissUmer. 83 

demand for cheese was not on aoconot of a eenerall; lessened demand 
tur the dairy prodacts of the United States, but was peouliar to the 
cheese product alone." 

After repeated hearings before the committee and the 
publicatioQ in the lower house of 226 pages of testimony 
and a lively contest upon the floor, the filled cheese bill 
passed that body by an overwhelming majority. It was 
bitterly opposed in the senate, the opposition being led by 
Senator Vest of Missouri. Every member representing 
Wisconsin in the lower house, and our two U. S. senators, 
Willian P. Vilas and John L. Mitchell, gave to the measure 
an active and efScient support. It became a law and was 
approved by the President June 6, 1896. 

The law provided that manufacturers of flUed cheese 
should pay $iOO per annum for each and every factory. 
Wholesale dealers were required to pay |250 per annum ; 
retail dealers a license of $12 per annum ; and provided for 
a tax of one cent per pound to be paid by the manufacturer. 

The law is printed in full in another portion of this re- 

It is only proper that some recognition should be given 
to the efficient services of Professor Henry, who spent 
some time in Washington, working with great enthusiasm 
and effect in behalf of this measure. Governor Hoard also 
appeared before the committee on ways and means and 
made a convincing argument. 

The filled cheese bill was introduced by a Wisconsin man, 
and pushed largely by Wisconsin interests. Our people 
have a right to congratulate themselves that this state has 
had greater influence than any other in bringing to its 
lowest point, by the intervention of national law, a gigantic 
evil which was threatening with destruction the foreign 
cheese trade of the nation. 

The law became operative September 1st. Only a very 
few of the manufacturers have taken out licenses. The 
representatives of the most important filled cheese inter 
esta have stated in the public press that-the law was sub- 


84 Seport of the Wiaconsin 

stantially probibitive, and that the business could not be 
cjirried on with profit if the law should be enforced. 

It is stated that an effort will be made to test the consti- 
tutionality of the law ; but, having been drawn in substan- 
tially the same way that the oleomargarine law is, which 
has been declared constitutional, the law is not likely to 
fall before such an attack. 


The state census of 1895 was taken in June. The secre- 
tary of state, Henry Casson, directed the census enumera- 
tors to take a list of the creameries and factories in their 
several districts, with the names of owners. No complete 
list of the creameries and factories in this state had ever 
been made, and it seemed as if this would be the most sat- 
isfactory way of making a list which would embrace the 
name of every factory and creamery in the state. This 
work was only satisfactory in part. Many of the enum- 
erators returned a list of creameries and factories, giving 
the townships instead of the post office addresses. 

This list was published from the advance sheets fur- 
nished by the secretary of state. Since its publication the 
list has been corrected, and in another part of this report 
will be found the corrected list, with the post otBce ad 
dresses of the various creameries and factories therein 
named. This listcontains 951 creameries and 1,571 cheese 
factories, making a total of 2,522 creameries and factories 


The greater portion of the time of the dairy- and food 
commission has been taken up with the work demanded 
by factories and creameries. The 2,500 creameries and 

. D.qitizeabyG00l^lc 

Dairi/ and Food Commissiojier. 85 

factories are scattered over sixty countieg in this state, and 
demands have come from nearly every county for milk in- 
spection and analysis by the commission. 

Il has been almost impossible to keep up with this kind 
of work. 


It is most emplatically true that every factory and cream- 
ery should buy its milk by the Babcock test, paying for it 
upon the basis of butter fat. There is no other element in 
milk the quality of which can be so easily ascertained and 
which is so absolutely the measure of its value. It is true 
that in every factory where the Babcock test is used, the but- 
ter maker or cheese maker ought to know how to use it, but 
it is also true that many of tbem do not, and it is also true 
and much to be regretted that quite a number of the cream- 
eries and a large number of the factories are still buying 
their milk by the old method, — a method which to-day has 
no possible defense or excuse, which has no more place in 
the factory and creamery business of 1896 than a dash 
churn has in the same business. The factorymau who buys 
his milk by the pound is either imposing upon himself or 
the man from whom he buys it. A pound of milk is no 
more a pound of milk than a horse is a horse. Each has 
its standard of value and ought to be bought and sold by 
that standard. 

It would seem hardly necessary, after the work which 
has been done by the agricultural and dairy press and by 
the farmers' institutes, to urge upon the farmers who sell 
milk or who pool it, and upon tb? factorymen who buy it, 
the necessity of buying it by a test which is now used all 
over the civilized world wherever there is a vestige of 
dairy knowledge, as a measurement of the value of milk; 
but there are hundreds of factories in this state where in- 
competency in the use of the test prevails, or else it is not 
used at all. 


86 Report of the Wiaconsin 

The commissioa has been called upon to seod one of its 
members to a factory which had been raQoing for years, 
maoaged by honest men who had studied their business, 
and yet we foand that they were running their Babcock 
machine at one-half the revolutions required to secure a 
satisfactory separation of the butter fat. In some other 
factories we find that they are being defrauded by the pur- 
chase of acid of insufficient strength for use in the tests. 

Where the Babcock test is used and used properly, it 
may be claimed that the dairy and food commission should 
not be called upon to inspect its work or to begin prosecu- 
tions against patrons for watering their milk, for the rea 
son that, no matter how much water there is in the milk, 
the amount of butter fat is the basis of its value, and when 
so measured there is no fraud upon anybody. 

It is not altogether easy to determine the motive which 
induces men to water their milk when it is delivered to a 
factory using this test; but it is a fact that this is done, 
and also that the milk is in many cases skimmed. The 
only motive that can be suggested is that the delivery of 
watered or skimmed milk enables the patron to obtain a 
larger percentage of skimmed milk from the factory than 
the amount of butter fat which he delivers would warrant. 

There is rapid improvement going on in the creameries 
and factories of the state in the matter of buildings, equip- 
ment, cleanliness, and the qualifications of the men selected 
o handle them. 


la the manufacture oC butter, there is a steady drift 
away from the farm dairy and toward the creamery. 
The farmer with a limited number of cons, the bulk of 
whose farm interests are other than those of the dairy, 
is rapidly learning that it is much more profitable to 
him to send his limited milk product to some factor^ 


Dairy and Food Commiaaioner. 87 

where it will be worked up through means of the hest 
modern machinery, by an expert, and said by a man who 
has made a study of the markets, than it is to handle that 
product himself, with more limited knowledge and less 
capacity and less time to make a finished product and sell 
it in the best market. 

There is one stumbling block in the way of the manufacture 
of the very finest quality of butter by any creamery which 
takes milk from a number of patrons. No matter how fine 
the location of the creamery may be; no matter how per- 
fect its machinery; no matter how complete the knowledge 
of the men who run it, it is absolutely impossible to make 
a strictly first-class article of butter unless the milk deliv- 
ered is as clean and free from the taint of stable odors or 
the odors of an ill-kept milk house as human care can 
make it. 

The discussions in d^rymen's associations, in farmers' 
institutes, and in the dairy press about the best method of 
removing bad taints from milk in order that passable cheese 
and endurable butter may be made out of an inferior milk 
supply, may be of some use in reducing the loss occasioned 
by the shiftlessness and ignorance or criminal carelessness 
of the man who supplies poor milk to the factory, but the 
time of these associations and of the students of the dairy 
business would much better be employed in endeavoring 
to convince farmers who furnish milk to factories or cream- 
eries, or who make butter themselves, that the first thing 
to be learned in the dairy business, is how they can pro- 
duce an absolutely clean, pure article of milk. 

That creamery or factory manager is the best who can 
not only handle the milk used as it ought to be, but who 
can handle the patrons who supply him with milk as they 
ought to be handled; who will not only give to them their 
just dues in dollars and cents, but who has sense enough 
and tact enough to be in a way a teacher of these men; 
who can make them understand, and yet retain their trade, 
that the golden rule for the factory demands the delivery 
of clean, wholesome milk. 


88 Report o/ the Wiaamsin 

Tq a classification of the different kinds of butter placed 
upon the dairy markets of the country, creamery butter is 
accorded the first place as generally bringing the highest 
price; but the butter of the average creamery has rarely 
the same excellent quality as that furnished by a strictly 
first-class private dairy, for the reason that in a private 
dairy the entire management, not only of the manufacture 
of the product, but of the production of the milk itself is 
under competent management 


Wisconsin now has an opportunity to regain her staiid- 
ing in the cheese markets of the world, since the filled 
cheese business has been obliterated in this state, and is 
likely to be extinguished in the United States by the oper- 
ation of the 'filled cheese bill recently passed by congress. 
We have suffered in reputation by the manufacture of spuri- 
ous products within our own borders and in other states, 
where those products have been labeled with Wisconsin 

We have also suffered, and the Wisconsin cheese makers 
as a class should be made to understand it, from the man- 
ufacture of cheese made from partially skimmed milk and 
from the manufacture of full cream cheese, which has 
been placed upon the market before having been properly 

The manufacture of skim cheese has been greatly re- 
duced during the last two years owing to the enactment by 
the legislature of 1895 of a law which requires that all 
skim cheese manufactured and offered for sale in this state 
should be ten inches in diameter and nine inches in height. 
The purpose of this law was to give an unusual form to 
this kind of cheese, so that it could be distinguished and 
readily known. Skim cheese, lika filled cheese, becomes 
more or less of a drug upon the market when put in such 


Dairy and Food Commisaioner. 80 

shape or under such labels that the oonsumer ih advised of 
its real character. 

.If there is any predominate evil in Wisconsin cheese 
making today that discredits the cheese product of the 
state and limits its coasumptiOD, It is the sale of unripe 
cheese by cheese makers eager to realize upon their pro- 
duct, when its place is in a curing room and not in a human 
stomach. There is nothing more palatable than good- 
cheese. These is nothing more abominable and indigestible 
than leathery, uaripe cheese. The Iwst Wisconsin cheese 
makers take time, trouble and money, and with Roud curing 
rooms ripen their cheese, which sells readily at home, 
while the leatherlike product of improper curiug rests un- 
called for upon grocery shelves. The poor cheese maker, 
always crazy to make money and make it quickly, sends out 
an unripe product, which has a limited sale, which causes 
diminished consumption because it is unfit to eat, sees be- 
fore him a constantly diminishing market, places upon that 
market an article of which he ought to be ashamed and 
still clings to the practice. In a considerable percentage 
of the cities and towns of Wisconsin, it is almost impos- 
sible to buy a piece of good cheese. 

This statement may not be relished by our cheese makers 
and it may be considered a slander upon the cheese-mak- 
ing industry of the state. It may be true that the best 
portion of our cheese product is exported. But Wisconsin 
has more than 2,000,000 people. There is no better market 
than a home market; there is no market so certain to con- 
sume a first-class product; there is no market where the 
returns are so quickly obtained; there is no market which 
can be so easily studied and understood; there is no marltot 
which in reality furnishes such an unlimited field as iho 
Wisconsin market for the Wisconsin cheese maker. 

The cheese maker is not altogether to blame for the sys- 
tem of conducting business in the cheese factories which 
has prevailed. The men who supply the milk are anxious 
for their returns. They need money, as farmers always 
do, and insist upon getting it as soon as possible. Tha 


90 Report of the Wisamain 

cheese maker wants to please thum, and often, against his 
own judgment, sends cheese to market which ought to be 
sentto the curing room. 

Wisconsin manufactures millions of pounds of cheese 
equal in quality to the best product of any country upon 
the earth. [ It also manufactures large quEmtities of cheese 
of such a character that it discredits the business. The 
poor cheese is manufactured at the same cost, substantially, 
that is required to make a first class article. The average 
of the entire product will be greatly raised when the cheese 
maker insists upoo the delivery of absolutely clean milk, 
when he keeps his factory in a condition of cleanliness be- 
yond criticism, when he has proper curing rooms and uses 
them, when farmers are made to understand that profit in 
the cheese business to them means the delivery of rich, 
wholesome milk, when they come to understand that the 
building up of large, not small factories, is to their interest, 
and that the demand upon their part, that a cheese maker 
shall be bouud by a contract that a certain number of 
pounds of milk shall produce a pound of cheese is apt to 
drive cheese makers to expedients that result in poor 
cheese, low prices and small profits. 


There is very little watered milk sold in the smaller cities 
and villages of this state. A large quantity of milk skimmed 
or partially skimmed is sold for whole milk in Milwaukee 
and some of the larger cities. The general character of 
the milk seems to be in an inverse ratio to the size of the 
town in which it is delivered. Country villages obtain 
milk as good in quality as that which the farmer uses upon 
his own table. 

In Milwaukee and Racine, where a considerable portion 
of the milk supply passes from the hands of the farmer to 
that of the manager of the milk depot, and possibly from 


Dairy and Food Gommiasioner. ' 91 

him to a milk man ruDDing a business on his own account, 
there seems to be a tendency for the milk to Icse some k 1 
Its cream in the course of business. 

The commission made a t«3t of the Milwaukee milk sup- 
ply Id April, 1895, taking samples from 198 wagons. The 
average percentage of batter fad in these samples was 3.*! 
per cent. Eight milk dealers were arrested for selling 
milk below the legal standard. One of them was fined 
150 and costs, one $25 and costs, and six were sentenced to 
pay the minimum fine of $10 and costs. 

The samples of milk taken by this commission, as de- 
livered by patrons to the factories and creameries of the 
state, average 3.8 per cent., which gives aboutthe average 
for tho, unadulterated milk product of the state. 

The difference of 0.6 per cent, in the Milwaukee milk 
supply and the milk supply of the state means that the 
milk received in that city wa- adulterated at the time the 
tests were made very nearly 16 per cent. 

Milwaukee has 50,000 families. The average daily con- 
sumption of milk is undoubtedly 75,000 quarts. This milk 
is retailed at five cents per quart. At this rate the total 
cost of the milk sold in Milwaukee in a year is$l,365,7o0. 
I the average richness of the samples tested by the com- 
mission held good throughout the entire supply, there was 
a loss by skimming or adulteration of 16 per cent, indicat- 
ing that Milwaukee, at the time the tests were made, was 
paying annually $226,125 for skimmed milk and water, and 
beiag defrauded to that extent. 

The effect of the prosecutions was marked, and the board 
of health of Milwaukee has reported that the character of 
the supply in that city has greatly improved. 

In Ashland the 31 samples taken averaged 3.74 x>er cent. 
There were four prosecutions and four convictions, the de- 
fendants being each fined $25 and costs. 

In Manitowoc we found the milk supply to be excellent, 
16 samples averaging 3.79 per cent. 

In Racine 62 samples were taken; the average test of the 
milk was 3.96 per cent.; there were four prosecutions and 
four convictions. 


02 Seport of ike Wisconsin 

At Oshkosh 22 samples were taken averaging 4.16 per 
cent., all being above the legal standard. 

la Wausau IL samples were taken, averaging 4.22 per 
cent. There was one prosecution, defendant being fined 
$10 and costs. 

Fourteen samples of milk were taken at Beloit from the 
delivery cans of peddlers in the act of delivery to houses, 
averaging 4.14 per cent. 

The JanesviUe city supply averaged 3.50 per cent upon a 
test of sixteen samples. 

In Neenah and Menasha eleven samples were taken, 
averaging 3.79 per cent- 


The law of 1895 provides that the dairy and food com- 
missioner shall have full access to any factory or building 
where any product of the dairy is manufactured or stored 
fur sale, and empowers him to take such measures as shall 
secure the perfect cleanliness of factories, buildings and 
surroundings. It is possible that this law could be con- 
strued so as to give the commissioner power to inspect 
cow barns audtlie milk houses of the dairymen who furnish 
the milk supplies of cities. But a more definite law is 
needed upon this subject. 

Ttie dairy and food commissioner of this state, as in Min 
nesota, should have full authority to inspect the cattle, 
barns and dairy buildings of all those dairymen who eiup- 
ply milk to factories, creameries and cities, for the pur 
pose of preventing the sale of milk from diseased animals, 
and for the purpose of compelling the proper care of cow^ 
and the absolute cleanliness of their miik product and the 
utensils with which that product is handled. This is the 
law of Minnesota, and its operUlon is effective iu securing 
the highest standard of excellence in the milk dairies of 
the state. 


Dairy and Food OommissioHer. 


The dairy and food commission was established pri- 
marily to prevent adulteration of dairy products. In ad- 
dition to this, it wa^ the purpose of the legislaturd to se- 
cure through the commission the enforcement of laws to 
prevent the adulteration of other foods. These laws are 
defective and inadequate. 

The laws relating to the manufacture and sale of vinegar 
are reasonably strong. A bill introduced into the last 
legislature prohibiting the coloring of vinegar not made 
from apples, in imitation of cider vinegar, was defeated. 
Its passage would have materially aided in stopping the 
sale of imicatioQ cider vinegar. During the last few 
months vinegar manufacturers of other states have been 
sending into Wisconsin an increased quantity of vinegar 
below the legal standard. The following circular was re- 
cently issued by this department and sent to the leading 
daily papers of the state for publication: 


Stale of WisconHn. 

Madison, September 18, IS9(>. 
To the grocers and dealers tn vinegar in Wisaonsin. 

The laws of Wisconsin relatinK to the manuCacture and sale of vine- 
gar provide: 

1st. That no vinegar shall be manafaotured or sold as cider TiDegar 
into which foreign substances, drags or aoids have been Introduced. 

2nd. That no vinegar shall be mannfactnrod or sold which contains 
iogredionta iujarions to health. 

3rd. That the sale of adulterated vinegar is prohibited and it is made 
a 1 offense to label vinegar, not prodaoed exclusively from apples, older 

4tb. That all vinegar shall have a,v acidity equivalent to the presence 
of not less than 1 per cent, by weight of absolute acetic acid, and in 
a ve of cider viae^ir, shall osaUia ia allitioa nst less than 2 per cent, 
by weight of cider solids apon full evaporation over boiling water at 

5tb. That all persons haadliog vinegar In lots of one barrel or more 
are required to steacil in black letters or flguresone inch in length upon 


fl4 Seport of the Wisctmsin 

the head of eaoh barrel the standard strength and percentage of acetic 
aoid of the Tinegar contained therein. 

6tti. The violation of any of these provisions shall be considered a 
misdemeanor and be paolshed by a flne of not less than ten or more 
than one hundred dollars in cost. 

I desire to call the attention of grooerymen and dealers in vinegar to 
the fact that adulterated vinegar and vinegar falsely labeled is being 
offered far sale in this state and is being sold. Merchants are beiDg 
received as well as their customers. 

The retail dealers In vinegar shoald require from the firm of whom 
they pnrshii^e written guarantees of the purity of the goods to be deliv 
ered and that such goods will conform In all particulars to the require 
ments of the state law. 

It is the purpose of this department to stop the fraud which is being 
perpetrated upon the people by the sale of vinegar below the legal stand ■ 
ard. That standard is not unreasonably high and has very properly 
been demanded by the state. 

A great majority of the merchants who sell vinegar wish to furnish 
their oostomersan honest article, but they often accept the trumped up 
testimonials of agents eager to sell, when they should demand reliable 
guarantees. As a rule, the manufacturers making the poorest vinegar 
show the most enterprise in selling it, probably because the profits are 
greater than upon a good article. 

In prosecutions brought under the law it will be no defense for a 
merchant to say that he is ignorant of its provisions or of the character 
of the vinegar sold. Every ^dealer Is supposed to know the law and to 
know what he is selling. 

This oommunioation is both a notioe and an appeal, — a notice 
tliat violation of the law will be punished, given because there is so 
mnoh ignorance of the law, and an appeal to the dealers in vinegar 
to aid this department in stopping a trafBo which discredits their 

H. G. Adams, 
Dairy and Food Commissioner. 


The laws relating to vinegar have not been as rigidly 
enforced by the commisBion as is desirable, because of eon- 
staat and imperative demands of creameries and factories 
for inspection. This class of work has taken nearly all 
of the time of the commission. 


Dairy and Food GommissUmer. 95 

There is more or less fraud perpetrated in the maaufao- 
ture and sale of cream of tartar adulterated with corn 
starch and alum, coffee adulterated with chicory, coffee 
beans with imitation pellets made of rye or other flour and 
artificially colored, baking powders of inferior strength, 
honey with glucose, buckwheat flour with corn meal and 
wheat flour, spices with numerous foreign Ingredients, 
jellies with salicylic and other acids, maple sugar with 
cane sugar and glucose, and lard with cotton seed oil. 

The law of ltf7y prohibits the false labeling of foods with 
intent to deceive. It is almost impossible to prove criminal 
or dishonest intention in actions brought under this law. 
The law, therefore, has small restraining force. 

A stringent law is needed which shall require all articles 
of food offered for sale to carry labels giving the formula 
of their preparation, and making a violation of tbe law a 
misdemeanor, punishable with fines. The hot competitions 
of trade burn out honesty in some places and cheap frauds 
take the place of honest goods. The people are swindled 
in health and pocket by fair but false names. The state 
can very properly demand that dealers in food shall so 
label their merchandise that the public shall know what it 


The law prohibiting false labeling of drugs is as defec- 
tive as the food law. The danger to health and life re- 
sulting, from the sale of adulterated drugs is too obvious 
to be stated. 

The character and quality of tbe drugs sold in this state 
would undoubtedly be greatly improved by the passage of 
a law requiring all drugs manufactured or offered for sale 
to be made and labeled according to the standard estab- 
lished by the United States Pharmaeopia. 


Beport of the Wisconsin 


Many inquiries have come to this otBce concerning the 
use of preservatives in milk. The legislature of 1895 
passed a law prohibiting the use of any dairy product con- 
taining boracic, salicylic acid, or other antiseptics injuri- 
ous to health. 

The preservative compounds or mixtures comnaonly 
offered for sale in this state contain boracic or saiicyl c 
acid. Each retards digestion when taken into the human 
stomach and each is injurious to health. 

The French government submitted to the Academy of 
Medicine an inquiry about the use of salicylic acid in food. 
An exhaustive investigation resulted and an elaborate re- 
port concluded as follows: 

, " 1. It is established by medical obserratioa that small doses of eall- 
cyllc acid repeated daily for loQg periods of time are able to cause not- 
able disturbances of health, in the case of certain impressionable per 
SODS, in the case of aged persons, and la the case of those whose kid- 
neys or digestive tract are not in perfect order. 

"2. Therefore, the addition of salicylic acid or Its derivatives, even 
in tie most minute amounts, to foods, solids or liquids, shonld not be 

The use of boracic and salicylic acid, or either, in milk, 
especially that fed to infants, is unquestionably attended 
with some danger to the public health. The dairymen 
who deliver milk to creameries, factories and to the city 
milk trade, will have no use for patent preservatives if 
they will make cleanliness the first law of their busi 


Dairy and Food Oommiss^iojici', 


The following changes and additions to ezistiDg laws 
affecting this department are submitted : 

1st. Sec. 8, chap. 248, laws of 1S79, prohibiting tlie falso 
labeling of foods and drugs should be amended by strikinir 
out the clause which makes intent to deceive a part of the 
offense, as intention cannot be proved in the majority of 

2nd. Section 5, chapter 40, laws of 1881, and sec. 6, 
chap. 257, laws of 1895, provide that one-half of all fines 
collected under the provisions of these acts shall go to 
informers. This provision of the laws named should be 
stricken out. It prejudices public judgment against the 
law and makes conviction before a jury difficult for the 
reason that the complaining witnesses are financially inter- 
ested in securing conviction, and their testimony is, there- 
fore, apt to be discredited to a marked extent. 

3rd. The term "food" should be defined by a law which 
should specify what adulteration means, and should require 
that baking powders, spices, coffees, flavoring extracts and 
articles of food and drink of a similar character should be 
labeled with the formula of their composition, 

4th. The standard of the United States Pharmacopia for 
drugs and medicines should be the legal standard in this 

6th. Dealers in preserved and canned goods should be 
required to have these articles labeled with the names and 
addresses of the manufacturers and the date of manufac- 
ture. False labeling as to qualities should be punished by 
adequate penalties. 

6th. For the purpose of obtaining accurate statistics of 
the dairy products of the state, owners of creameries and 
factories should be required by law to report annually to 
the dairy and food commission the amount of milk received, 
butter and cheese sold, and state such other facts relating 
to the creamery and factory business as maybe required by 


98 R&port of the Wisconsin 

the commissioDer, who shall furnish blanks for such re- 

7th. The dairy and food commissioiier should have au- 
thority, and it should be the duty of the commission to in- 
spect the stables, milk houses, utensils and stock of all 
persons furnishing milk for the supply of cities in order 
that the milk purchased by the public for household use 
shall come from clean, wholesome sources. 

8th. During the summer months the 2.500 factories and 
creameries of the state make frequent requests for inspec- 
tion. At times these requests are so numerous that they 
cannot have the prompt attention desired and require all 
the time of the commission, a portion of which at all 
seasons should be devoted to other matters. 

The dairy and food commission should have the authority, 
with the consent of the governor, to appoint special agents, 
whose expenses should be paid by the state and compensa- 
tion determined by the legislature, for the purpose of tak- 
ing samples of food products and aiding in the work of the 
commission whenever and during such times as the present 
force of the commission is not sufficient to meet the de- 
mands upon it. 


Dairy oTid Food Commi8si<mer. 


To THE Hon. H. C. Adams, 

Dairy a/nd Food Commissioner, State of Wisconsin. 

Deab Sir: — I herewith submit my report, commencing 
at date of my appointment, February 18, 1895, and ending 
Sept. 30, 1896. 

A portion of my time has been devoted to securing sam- 
ples of oleomargarine in various parts of the state, sold by 
wholesale and retail dealers. A plea of guilty was made 
in most of the cases, and, with a few exceptions, all the 
parties tried were convicted of having sold oleomargarine 
contrary to the laws of our state. But little, if any, oleo- 
margarine is now being sold contrary to law. 

Soon after the filled cheese bill became a law, I visited 
many factories in various parts of the state to ascertain if 
any filled cheese was being manufactured, but failed to find 
any evidence of such being the case. 

Many requests for inspection have been received by the 
department from creameries and cheese factories where 
adulteration of milk has been suspected. All these re- 
quests have been responded to with the exception of a few, 
which have come in recently and since the pressure of 
ofSce business incident to the making of the report of the 

The milk supplies of ten of the principal cities of the 
state have been examined at the request of the various health 
officers. The results of these examinations have shownthat 
the standard of the quality of milk consumed in the cities 
of the state is too low, being very much lower than the 
average of milk used in the manufacture of butter and 


100 Report of tlte Wisconsin 

I have takea about 3,0D0 milk samples, in the state dur- 
ing the present administration. Notwithstanding the lact 
that but one-seventh of this number were secured in the 
cities, twenty-five per cent, of the total number of arrests 
made were men supplying milk to the city trade. 

In West Superior, where the milk supply of the city is 
frequently subjected to the Babcock test, under the super- 
vision of the city health officer. Dr. Pillsbury, the standard 
is very high. Dr. Pillsbury has exercised the utmost vig- 
ilance in this regard, and the result is that Superior is 
supplied with the best milk of any city in the state. 

There is a growing appreciation among the farmers of 
the state of the value to them of the Babcock test as a means 
of determining the exact value of their milk product. Milk 
should be bought and sold on the basis of the value of the 
butter fat contained therein. It should no more be sold by 
weight than hogs should be sold by the dozen. 

Generally speakiog, I have found the creameries about 
the state in first class condition. With but few exceptions 
they have been under the management of men educated in 
the business of butter making, and maintained under good 
sanitary conditions. At the greater portion of the cream- 
eries the milk is purchased on the basis of the butter fat 
it contains, this being determined by the Babcock test. 

The cheese factories are not as a rule so well located or 
so well managed as the creameries. The buildiogs are not so 
good, and are often near stagnant water, and in some cases 
in close proximity to barnyards. The standard of clean- 
liness in many cases is very low. 

At many of the cheese factories the barrels into which ■ 
the whey is emptied daily are allowed to remain within 
a distance of ten to thirty feet of the factory during an en- 
tire season without being once renovated. Prof. Busseli, 
of the Experiment Station of the State University, informs 
me that in this way bacteria are developed and transqiitted 
into the factory. 

I would suggest here the use of galvanized tanks to 


Dairy arid Food CommissioTier. 101 

take the place of the barrels, and they should be cleaned 
thoroughly every day with hot water while in use. 

It would be productive of better results if the number of 
patrons to each factory were increased. 

It may be well to call attention to the method of deliver 
ing milk at the factories. Some of the patrons use a cloth 
over the mouth of the cans. This affords a chance for con- 
tamination and should not be allowed. The cans should 
have covers made to fit down tight. 

I have traveled over 25,000 miles by rail and 1,500 miles 
by livery in the interests of the dairy and food depart- 
ment, and have inspected 117 creameries and cheese fac- 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. W. Chadwick, 
AasistaTU Dairy and Food Commissioner. 


S^ort of t?te WiBconsin 


To THE Hon. H. C. Adams, 

Dairy and Food Commiaaioner of Wisconsin. 

Dear Sir: — I herewith submit the following 

report, embodying the chemical work done by me 

from February 14th, 1895, to September 30th, 



The reaction of fresh cow's milk is neutral or 
slightly alkaline. Milk sours as a result of fer- 
mentative change, part of its milk sugar being 
turned to lactic acid. The specific gravity of 
□ormal cow's milk ranges from 1023 to 1033, the 
weight of an equal volume of water being taken 
as 1000. 

The following table gives the average amount 
of the principal ingredients in milk, cream, 
separator skim milk, butter and cheese : 








BO. 12 

















Coloatram (BogUag) 


In addition to the principal substances con- 
tained in milk and given in the above table, there 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, lOiJ 

exists in milk substances in qaantities about as 
follows : 

Lact-albumin 45 per cent. 

Lactoglobulia Id varying amounts. 

Fibrin In minute quantities. 

Citric acid 10 per cent. 

lactochrome Traces. 

^t- In chemical compositipn the fat of milk is 

much like that of adipose tissue, but is charac- 
teristic in containing several aromatic acids; prin- 
cipally butyric and caproic. The ptoportion of the 
various fats according to Blythe is roughly as fol- 

Fats. Equivalent Adds. 

Olein, 4S.21 = oleic acid 10.40. 

Stoarin&Falmitin, 50 .00 = Stearic and palmitic acid 17.50. 

Butyrin, 4.67 = butyric acid, 3.49. 

Oaproin, 3.02 ^ caproic acid, 2.40. 

Capryiin & Rutin, .10 = caprylic and rutic acids, .08. 

Total 100. OC. Total 93.87. 

HinraaroptoBi Viewed with a microscope, the fat of milk is 

apiieatBDc*. ^^^ ^^ consist of many elastic globules floating 
in the serum. These fat globules have no con- 
fining membrane, but are surrounded by a film 
of casein, which has a surface tension or elastic- 
ity similar to that of a soap bubble. This film 
must be destroyed before the globules will run 

Bffoot of Anything that will rupture or destroy this fllm, 

as the addition of acid in the Babcock test, or se- 
vere shaking, allows the globules to run together- 
The fat globules remain melted for many hours 
after the milk is drawn, but they gradually con- 
geal and in cream many of these globules are 
fused and solidified into small masses. 

Coiorins The Coloring matter in milk is a bright orange 

red, fatty body, known as lactochrome. It is 
soluble iij ether and probably identical with 


Beport of the Wisconsin 

lipocbrome, the yellow coloring matter of mas- 
cle fat which predominates largely in the pectoral 
muscles or white meat of fowls. 
\. The principal albuminoid of milk is casein- 
ogen, generally termed casein, and into which it 
may be converted by rennet, 

Babcock has shown casein to be in an almost 
entirely insoluble condition and has succeeded 
in separating it from milk serum by centrifugal 
action. Only substances which are in suspen- 
sion and insoluble can be separated by gravity. 
For example, in milk the fat, casein and insoluble 
phosphates may be so separated. 

Casein is precipitated by acids, which accounts 
for the curdling of milk by the development of 
lactic acid through fermentation. These clots 
may be readily dissolved by the addition of a 
small amount of caustic potash or ammonia, thus 
enabling us to dissolve, evenly mix and test sam- 
ples of milk which have become sour and par- 
tially curdled. In this case ammonia is added to 
the milk in quantity equal to l-20th of the vol 
mne of milk taken and the whole evenly mixed 
and sampled as usual; l-19th being added to (he 
fat found as a correction for the ammonia add(d. 

Casein appears to be a nucleo-albumin; that 
is, a compound of albumin and nuclein, an albu- 
minous substance rich in phosphorus. 

This has been reported to exist in milk in mi- 
nute quantities. This probably constitutes a por- 
tion of the separator slime which collects upon 
the rim of the centrifugal separators. Though 
present in minute quantities, its condition has 
much to do with the viscosity of milk. Babcock 
has shown that milk shortly after being drawn 
becomes more viscous, and a substance unites the 
globules into clots. He has proven that this sub- 
stance is either fibrin or a similar proteid. (U- of 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 105 

"W. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 
No. 18). The presence and condition of the fibrin 
is of importance in cream raising, butter mak- 
ing, and in accounting for a change in the con- 
sistence of Pasteurized milk and cream. 

The heating of the milk during Pasteurization 
or sterilization destroys the fibrinous clots pro- 
duced and renders the milk or cream more Quid, 
so that the cream is slower to rise upon Pasteur- 
ized milk, and Pasteurized cream is difficult to 
t In Bulletin No. 5i of the U. W. Exp. Sta., 
Professors Babcock and Russell show how this 
difficulty may be overcome by the neutralization 
of the lactic acid present, by the addition of 
sucrate of lime. This process will obviate the 
difficulty most frequently met with in the use of 
Pasteurized cream. 

Milk sugar or Lactose exists in milk in quan* 
titles varying from 4 to 5 per cent. This sugar 
forms colorless crystals and has not as great 
sweetening power as cane sugar, from which it 
differs slightly in chemical composition. 

This does not exist in milk in the udder of the 
cow, but this substance increases in quantity 
from the time the milk is drawn until a point 
is reached where the acid formed curdles the 
n. Milk undergoes a conversion of a portion of its 
milk sugar into lactic acid through fermentation. 
This word was first applied to the conversion of 
sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid gas through 
the agency of yeast. The souring of milk, the 
development of acetic acid from alcohol and 
putrifactive changes are similarly produced 
through the growth of low forms of vegetable 
organisms. All these changes are the result of 


Report of the Wi^constn 

The germ theory of disease explains the de- 
velopment of infectious diseases by the growth 
of similar ferments known as microbes. Infec- 
tion is produced by the transference (similar to 
the planting of seeds) of specific microbes or 
spores (seeds) fioni one individual to another. 

The growth of these organized ferments may 
give rise to desirable products, as alcohol, acetic 
acid or desirable flavors produced in ripening 
cream ; or they may give rise to deleterious and 
even poisonous compounds, or the development of 
a tallowy taste to butter, which sometimes be- 
comes so pronounced as to cause suspicion of 
adulteration. One case came to my notice in 
which a factory owner accused the butter maker 
of adulterating the butter with tallow, where 
suspicion arose from the development of this 
tallowy taste. 

This has lately been proven to exist in normal 
milk. It is not known to have any bearing upon 
dairy processes. 

The ash of milk constitutes about .75 per cent, 
and consists largely of phosphates and chlorides 
of lime, potash, magnesia and soda. 

Babcock and Ducleaux have studied the condi- 
tion of the phosphates, and Babcock has shown 
that the phosphates of lime exist in milk both in 
a soluble and insoluble form. 

The watering of milk is frequently Indicated 
*■ by a decrease in the quantity of ash. Such de- 
duction however, is only suitable as corrobera- 
tive evidence. 

Colostrum, or first milk, contains twice the 
the amount of solids present in normal milk. 
It is characterized by the presence of microscop- 
ic corpuscles four times the size of milk glob- 
ules, and which do not contain fat. These serve 
as a means of identifying colostrum in milk. 


Dairy an4 Food Commissioner. 


The striking difference between the amount of 
solids of colostrum and milk is the result of the 
presence of albumin or globulin in the former in 
quantities about equal to the total solids of 
milk. Colostrum coagulates when boiled, be- 
cause of the albumin present. 
Anttoeptioa The use of antiseptics or preservatives for the 

prohibited. '■ 

prevention of fermentation in milk is prohibited 
by law and is not to l>e countenanced under any 

Where the enforcement of a law preventing 
the use of antiseptics which are "injurious to 
health " is required, there will always be chemi- 
cal experts and jurymen who will insist that the 
substance added must be absolutely poisonous in 
the doses given, rather than deleterious, as the 
law intends. 

pnrported go much is this the fact, that a physician and 
member of the Iowa state board of health has 
given a certificate of recommendation to an al- 
leged " discoverer " of a preservative of milk 
which has long been known, and which in con- 
centrated form will immediately destroy living 
cells, and whose only desirable property is that 
it is odorless, colorless, and was at that time 
almost beyond detection by chemical methods. 

Form-aidehyda Fortuoatelv, in milk the detection of this sub- 


stance, formic aldehyde (or formalin) has since 
been rendered comparatively easy. 

The distillate from milk preserved with formic 
aldehyde when mixed with a drop of aqueous solu- 
tion of phenol gives a crimson coloration when 
overlaid on pure sulphuric acid. If the aldehyde 
is sufficiently concentrate, a whitish cloud results. 

Permanganate reacts upon form aldahyde as 

SHCOH + KOH + K.Mn.O, = 2MnOiOH), + 3KC00H. 


Report of the Wisconsin 

In the examination of milk distill 25cc from 
100 c. c. of milk and add five drops of the reagent. 
Warm the mixture and a permanent green color 
results within a few seconds. 

Hehner's test for formalin has not given satis- 
factory results in my hands. A blue or violet color 
should be produced when the adulterated milk is 
poured upon concentrated commercial sulphuric 
acid, said to be due to a change in the firric 
chloride contained in the commercial acid. 

Romijn distills the aldehyde with ammonia, re- 
sulting in hexamethyline tetramine. He lets a 
drop of the distillate dry upon the microscope 
slide and adds a drop of mercuric chloride, 
which should give hexahedral crystals at once, 
changing into octahedral later on. 
' This method has been made quantitative volu- 
metrically as follows: 

For the estimation of formic aldehyde in a con- 
centrated solution, 20cc of normal ammonia solu- 
tion are added to 2cc of aldehyde solution and 
allowed to stand several hours in a stoppered 
fiask. It is then titrated with normal sulphuric 
acid, using methyl orange or cochineal as an in- 
dicator, 98 parts of sulphuric acid being equiva- 
lent, to 120 of formic aldehyde. 

As Schiff's reagent acts on all aldehydes, that 
test is not applicable for the detection of formal- 
in in wine, vinegar, or other fermentation pro- 

The use of borax and boracic acid as preserv- 
atives for dairy products is quite prevalent, and 
firms in various parts of the country have sold 
these preservatives under such titles as " Pre- 

servaline, " " Rex Magnus, " " Preserving 

Salt, " etc. There is also reason to believe that 
some brands of dairy salts owe their superior 
keeping qualities to the addition of these chem- 


Dairy and Food Commissions. 


All these compounds are guaranteed by the 
makers to be entirely harmless and, in some in- 
stances, are recommended as bein^ nutritious 
and as improving the wholesomeness of the milk. 
These statements are not borne out by the facts. 

Oae case of poisoning lr;m boracic acid in 
milk occurred in Madison last summer. In this 
case an infant was fed entirely upon the milk 
and it was some time before the cause of the 
symptoms was foand. It has been proven that 
the continuous use of milk preserved with 
boracic acid causes salivation, increased urina- 
tion, diarrhoea, and general emiciation. Re- 
peated cases of poisoning by the consumption of 
milk so preserved have been reported in Nor- 
way and Sweden. 

Concerning the effect of all preservatives upon 
digestion, the following may be quoted from Dr. 
Henry Leffmann: 

"Processes of digestion are allied to processes 
of decomposition in so far that the latter are fre- 
quently preceded by transformation under the 
influence of ferments. We may infer, therefore, 
that whatever prevents putrification must at 
least delay digestion. " 

The methods for the detection of liorax and 
boracic acid are well known and need not be re- 
peated here. 

Its quantitative determination, however, has 
always offered some difficulty. A methcd for the 
estimation of boracic acid in milk has l^en pub- 
lished by R. T. Thompson, in the Glasgow City 
Anal. Reports for 1895, page 3, of which the fol- 
lowing is an outline : 

After the removal of the phosphoric acid by 
precipitation, the boracic acid is freed with sul- 
phuric acid, the excess of which is titrated back 
with pheno'phtale'n of an indicator. 


110 Report of (M Wucjnsln 

i^r"* ^™'' ^*^'''^'o° ^as lately pointed out that 
boric acid or " PreservEiline " when added to milk 
seems to increase the acidity more than is due 
to the boric acid added and suggests this as a 
possible preliminary test for its presence. 


As an outgrowth of the acceptance of the germ 
theory of disease, many college bulletins have been 
issTted during the past four years upon the use oi 
Koch's Tuberculin, as a test for tuberculosis in ca( 
tie. In many quarters its use is gaining ground. 
Preparation. Tuberculin is a glycerine solution of the poi' 
soDous products resulting from the growth oi 
the tubercle bacillus. Tho tuberculin containi 
no germs and will not cause infection, as is fre' 
quently claimed, 
motnpon Injected under the skin of healthy animals 
generally does not produce much change, bu 
when the animal is tuberculous in any part, 
causes a marked fever (from 2 to 6 degrees' 
within a period varying from ten to twenty hours. 
Direotionatoc Directions for using the tuberculin tests may 
be found in Bulletin No. 40, U. of W. Agricul 
tural Experiment Station. It is desirable, how- 
ever, that such tests be made by experts. 

A few words regarding the efficiency of tuber 
culin may not be out of place. 

Ordinarily, when in expert hands, the tuber- 
culin test is exceedingly delicate and will indi- 
cate tuberculosis when ordinary symptoms are 
absent, and when no germs of comsumption can 
be found in the mucus. 

When properly prepared its use is not followed 
by serious or lasting ill effects. 

Upon certain conditions, tuberculin produces a 
suspicious rise of temperature in healthy animals. 

In some instances no marked reaction results 
in tuberculous aninals. ( OOqIc 

Da ry and Food Commissioner. 


In the purchase of thoroughbred cattle for ad- 
dition to a healthy herd, the tuberculin test will 
prove a valuable safeguard. Moreover, it is pro- 
bably the only effective method of exterminatiDg 
tuberculosis from a herd. 


The variations of the constituents of milk from 
the normal are the result of the combined action 
of several causes. The principal of these are: 
Breed, period of lactation ; the season of the year, 
change of diet; undue excitement or illness of the 
animal, and, finally, from the individual skill of 
the milker. 

The principal variation in the quality of milk 
is the increase or decrease in the quantity of fat, 
which generally ranges from 3 to 6 per cent. 

In milk from normal animals the remainder of 
the solids, collectively known as " solids not fat, " 
generally vary but a very slight degree, and usu- 
iJly range from 9 tO' lOi per cent. 

The following table, taken from J. F. Sarg's 
pamphlet, "A New Dairy Industry," shows in a 
general way the effect of breed upaa the quality 
and quantity of milk: 

J J 1 






















Average .... 









The variation as a result of the time during 
which the cow has remained in milk has usually 


Report of the Wisconsin 

a gradual increase in fat and a correspondiiig 
shrinkage hi the quantity of milk produced. 

The succulence of the herbage in the spring' 
of the year causes the development of a larger 
flow of milk, containing more coloring matter, 
but which is less rich in fat. For this reason, 
states which have a high standard for milk fa( 
generally lower the required amount to 3-0 pet- 
cent, during May and June. Dry summers seem 
to materially lessen the "solids notfat," which or 
dinarily do not fall below 9 per cent. 

Aside from thesucculenceof the herbage, chang- 
es in diet generally effect but slight change in 
the quality of the milk. 

The gradual increase in the richness of milk, 
beginning with May and Juue and eztendiDg 
until February is largely the result of the two 
causes previously given, as during these two 
months most of the cows are new milch and the 
herd is put upon succulent pasturage. As a 
result the law of Massachusetts relaxes its stand 
ard of 3.5 per cent, fat to 8 per cent during 
May and June. 

A suppression of fat may occur from undue ex- 
citement or illness of the animal. This variation in 
single animals is not likely to effect the herd mUk. 

In case a cow is milked twice a day at even in- 
' tervals, there will be little orno difference either 
in the quantity or the quality of the two milkings. 
On the other hand, when the intervals between 
the milkings are uneven, the milk following the 
longer period is greater in quantity and poorer 
in quality. 

Under ordinary circumstances in this country 
the longer period occurs in the day time, and 
herd milk in this state seems to differ about tV 
of the fat present, the morning's milk being the 
richer. In Germany, where cows are generally 
milked three times a day, all authorities report 
night's milk as the richest. 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 


PonnnUkBiid Milkmen are well aware of the richness of 
stiivtaav. strippings and the poorness of foremilk \a fat. 
Blythe states that many a fraudulent farmer 
has partially milked a cow before functionaries 
and formally turned over the sample to prove 
that the cow gave poor milk. This trick has 
been tried once in our experience, but was a fail- 
TeBtsmtd. In this laboratory the examination of milk has 
consisted in a preliminary estimation of the fats 
by the Babcock test. By this method the sam- 
ples are sorted and suspicious samples are fur- 
ther examined as follows: 

Duplicate tests are again made of the fat. 
About 10 gms. of the milk are evaporated, and 
the total solids determined by weighing the resi- 
due. The amount of solids not fat is determined 
by difference, and the total solids in the capsule 
incinerated and the ash weighed. 

In case of milk furnished for city supply, pre- 
servatives are looked for when suspected. 

The practical dairyman must restrict his ex- 
amination of milk to an estimation of the fat by 
the Babcock test, and to an estimation of the 
specific gravity by the lactometer. (In some 
cases it may be necessary to determine the acid- 
ity by the use of Farrington's tablets. ) 

Professor W. H. Henry has thus tersely stated 
the reliability and accuracy of the Babcock test 
for the estimation of fat: 

"The Babcock teat has now been critically 
studied by more than a score of able chemists in 
Bngland and on the continent, and thus far not 
one who has made a careful study has failed to 
pronounce it entirely accurate." 

At first a few chemists doubted, but soon found 
that it was because they did not understand the 
8-D. ft F. 


Btport of the Wieconsin 

apparatns or used a poor test machine or poor 
acid, both difficulties being easily obriated. 
"• The Pennsylvania State College, Agricultural 
Experiment Station Bulletin No. 83, contains the 
following simple direction for making the Bab- 
cock test: 

" The machine itself should be carefully made , 
so that the high speed that is essential to its 
working may be maintained with smoothness. 
A tester should be capable of revolving from 800 
to 1,SOO revolutions per minute, according to the 
diameter of the wheel which carries the bottles, 
so that a small wheel must make more revolu- 
tions than a large one. It should not be less 
than twelve inches in diameter, and need not ex- 
ceed twenty inches. The bottles should hang 
perpendicular when the wheel is at rest. Soft, 
rain or distilled, water should be used for boiHng 
water to fill the bottles after the first whirling. 
In taking the samples, great care must be used 
to get it as perfectly representative of the whole 
lot of milk as possible. Milk fresh from the cow, 
well mixed by pouring from one vessel to another 
before any cream has risen, and samples taken 
at once are best. But the mixing should not be 
carried so far as to chum the cream any. The 
measuring pipette is filled to the proper point by 
placing the end in the mouth and sucking till 
the milk rises to the proper point on the stem, 
and then quickly placing the moistened finger, 
over the end of the tube to hold it in place till 
transferred to the bottle. A little practice will 
enable the operator to stop the milk at the exact 
point. The point of the pipette is placed in the 
neck of the bottle, slightly inclined so as to 
allow the milk to flow freely, and is held till 
well drained. The pipette should be perfectly 
dry when used, and if not, should be rinsed with 
some of the same milk that is to be tested. " 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, 115 

"After the milk is in the bottles it is not im- 
portant that the test should be made at once, as 
it will make no difference if it stands for some 
time ; but it is best to proceed at once. The same 
volume of commercial sulphuric acid as of milk 
is about the right amount to add, or 17.5 cubic 
centimeters for the ordinary test. Too little acid 
results in an imperfect separation of the fat; too 
much will attack the fat itself. As soon as the 
acid is added to the milk the bottles are to be 
placed in the machine and whirled at once. A 
wheel twelve inches in diameter should be turned 
at a speed of 1,200 revolutions per minute for not 
less than five minutes. The cover should always 
be placed over before whirling, as this prevents 
cooling and protects the operator in case any of 
the bottles should break. The heat caused by the 
chemical action of the acid is suf&cient, if the test 
is made at once; but if the bottles coo! they should 
be placed in water heated to 200 degrees to warm 
them before whirling. After the bottles have 
been whirled five minutes, they should be filled 
up to the neck with hot distilled water and 
, whirled for one minute. The tat when measured 
should be warm enough to flow easily, so that 
the line between the acid llqaid and the fat will 
be well and accurately defined when held hori- 
zontally. About 150 degress is right. To meas- 
ure the fat, hold the bottle with the scale on a 
level with the eye, and observe the divisions 
which mark the highest and lowest limits of fat. 
The difference between, gives the percentage of 
fat direct. Read accurately from the point where 
the tat meets the glass sides and not from the 
center. Points to be observed are; (1) A thor- 
ough mixing of the milk. (2) The acid should 
have a specific gravity of 1.82. (3) When meas- 
uring the acid into the bottle, hold it at an angle 


Beport of the Wisconsin 

that will cause tlie acid to follow the inside wall 
to the bottom, and not drop through the milk 
in the center of the bottle. If properly done 
there will be a distinct layer of milk and acid, 
no black line between them. (4) Thoroughly 
mix the milk and acid as soon as in the bottle. 
(6) Add the hot water in two portions and whirl 
after each addition of water. (6) When the bot- 
tles are taken from the machine, set them in 
water heated to 140° to 160° to keep the fat 
liquid. (7) Too low results will be had if tl e 
wheel is turned too slow. (8) Keep the acid 
bottle closely corked when not using, as the acid 
absorbs the water from the air and becomes 
weakened. When testing skim-milk or butter- 
milk having a small percentage of fat, read it 
. immediately on taking the bottle from the ma- 
chine, otherwise it will be hard to read so small 
a percentage. Many bottles and pipettes are in- 
accurately graduated. It isimportant. therefore, 
to buy from reliable firms. " 

The determination of the total solids by the 
lactometer and the determination of fat by the 
Babcock test, is rendered simple by the use of 
the following table, arranged by Dr. Babcock. 

In the use of the lactometer, it must be borne 
in mind that the milk must l>9 warmed or cooled, 
as the case may be, to within 10 degrees of 60 
degrees F., and when the milk is not at just 60 
degrees, the lactometer reading must be correct- 
ed by reference to the following table of temper- 
ature corrections. The lactometer used must be 
kept clean and free from dried milk, and, above 
all, must be an accurate instrument. Moreover, 
the milk must be thoroughly stirred and tested 
before the cream has time to rise. 

The use of the fat determination and the lac- 
tometer reading for the determination of the 


Dairy ana Jtood Vommisaioner. 


amount of solids not fat may be best shown by 
aD example. If the appended table is consulted, 
if will be seen that the left hand column refers 
to the fat per cent., and the lines across the top 
of the page to the lactometer reading, 
la. If the milk has tested 3.6 fat and has a lac o 

meter reading of 82, the result will be found on 
the line corresponding to 3.6 per cent, fat, and in 
the column headed 32, viz: 8.73, and the total 
solids will be the sum of the solids not fat and 
fat, 12.33.- 
Correction table for Hpeoific gravity of milk. (Vibth.) 


Tektibatcbb or Uile (in 




















32. T 













31. D 































































30. S 






22. e 








30 9 














11 t 

the Brat vertical o 

obserrid. 31.0 at 87" F. ; 

Ln the first horizontal row of h^ i 

larang meet iB tlie correowd iao1g--,QQn |^ 

S^ort qf the Wisconsin 

Table shotting per eenl . of tolida not fat corresponding to Quevenne 
lactometer reading* at 6(f F. 






































































7. 88 






















8 18 





8 18 















8 43 












8. 78 





















9 16 


























Dairy and Food CommissUmer, 

Table showing per cent, ofiolids not fat corresponding to Quevenne 
lactometer readings at 6(f F. — Contioued. 



L*(froMK» RiAoniM at W F. 
















































































































9. 59 






a. 88 
























Beport of the Wisconsin 

When milk is watered, the approximtrte per 
cent, of water added to the original milli may be 
calculated by dividiag 900 by the per cent, of 
solids not fat found and subtracting 100 from the 
quotient. Thus, if the solids not fat in a sam- 
ple of millt were 7.5 per cent., then 900 -i-7.5 
= 120, and 120-100 = 20 percent, water added. 

When milk is skimmed, the fat will be low 
and the lactometer test high. The minimum 
amount of fat removed by skimming may be 
found by the difference between the fat found 
and the fat required by law (3 per cent.). As the 
the amount of fat required by law is extremely 
low during the greater portion of the year the 
amount of fat removed by skimming is gener- 
ally much in excess of this figure. 


Among the undesirable products resulting 
from fermentation through lack of proper care 
of milk, may be mentioned the rapid souring of 
milk, the development of a bitter taste in milk 
(usually laid to weeds), the development of a 
tallowy taste in butter, the development of 
noxious and malodorous gases, and the produc- 
tion of aetive poisons, as tyrotoxicon (cheese 
poison), and similar poisons. 

When the bitter taste in milk results from 
weeds, it is present in the milk when first' 
drawn; when developing from ferm'entation, its 
increase is gradual. 

' Ice cream poison, cheese poison, and similar 
cases of poisoning from dairy products result 
through the production of a ptomaine by the 
growing bacteria. These poisonous substances 
develop through filth in milk, cheese and vari- 

ed byGoOt^lc 

Dairy and Food OommiMioner. 


ous articles of food coDtaining them in uncooked 

The prevention of these various troubles in the 
manufacture of dairy products lies, first, in in- 
suring freedom from the presence of the microbes 
and spores, through scrupulous cleanliness ou 
the part of the farmers in the care of the cattle, 
their food, water, pails, stables, the hands of the 
milker, in fact, in every stage of the milking 
process and in the care of the milk until deliv- 
ered at the factory. 

Some of the so-called "milk diseases" produc- 
ing milk unfit for the manufacture of dairy prod- 
ucts, are the result of straining the milk in filthy 
stables and in allowing it to stand uncovered for 
an hour or more in such places. Bacteriologists 
have shown that milk drawn in stables contains 
many hundred times more bacteria than that 
drawn in the open air. 

Milk may also be contaminated by the use of 
dirty strainers and cloths used upon the can cov- 
ers with the intention of preventing slopping in 

By observing the following precautions many 
of these troubles may be avoided: 

Cows should be kept in a clean, warm but prop- 
erly ventilated stable. 

Sick and calving cows should be kept in sepa- 
rate stables from the milking cows. 

If tuberculosis is suspected, a careful ezamna- 
tion should be made by a competent veterinarian 
before the disease reaches an advanced stage 
and spreads throughout the herd. 

" Roughage " should not be fed while milking, 
as by that means the air becomes filled with 
floating becteria. 

Avoid sudden change in feeding. Feed no still 
slops, fermentino; grains, or swiil which pro- 


122 Report of the Wiscmsin 

duce an excess of acidity resulting in the quick 
souring of the milk. 

Bnforce cleanliness on the part of the milker, 
and carefully brush the udders of the cows before 
milking. In special cases it may be desirable 
to reject the first three strippings from each teat. 

No wooden or earthen dishes should be used 
as containers for milk, as these materials are 
porous and cannot be thoroughly cleansed. 

Warm morning's milk should not be mized 
with cool night's ntilk, as the bacteria which ate 
likely to have been developed in the night's milk 
are thereby warmed and their rapid develop- 
ment insured. 

The milk should be immediately strained and 
cooled and kept in covered vessels. 
FisTorin. If finely flavored butter or cheese is to be 

made, this care must be continued by the factory 
men and enforced at every point until the goods 
are packed for market or in the curing room. 

In the purchase of milk the weigher should 
ezamiue all milk brought as to condition and 
cleanliness. If the milk is bloody, dirty, or sour, 
it should be rejected, and no one careless farmer 
should be allowed to degrade the product of all 
of his neighbors by sowing the seeds of dele- 
terious flavors and putrifactive ferments in the 
whole tank. 
rratoiBciditr. Farrington, in this country, and Stokes, in 
England, have placed upon the market tablets 
containing a measured amount of alkaline car- 
bonate prepared for use by dairymen in testing 
the acidity or souring of milk. Directions for 
their use come with the tablets. The use of 
these tablets will conclusively settle alLcontro 
versies as to tfae -stage of the souring in milk 
brought to the factory, and will enable, factory- 
Qien to ezQlude partially spoiled mUk- 


Dairy and Food OommissUmer. 123 

Ib the ripening of cream for butter making, a 
change takes place in the casein and the fibrinous 
substance before mentioned. The bacteria 
developing during ripening set free certain 
aromatic acids and flayoring substEuices, some of 
which are mentioned under the head of fdt. The 
flavor and aroma of butter made from properly 
ripened cream is always better than that of 
butter made direct from onrlpened cream. This 
ripening process may or may not be accompan- 
ied by the development of lactic acid (souring). 

Cream is ripened, first to assist in churning, 
but principally to develop the desirable Savors. 
It is most important that only proper bacteria 
develop during the ripening. 

The use of pure bacterifil cultures for seeding 
Pasteurized milk is very successful in Europe, 
and they are used almost entirely in creameries of 
Denmark, Sweden and Holland, but to succeed 
the milk used must be kept clean and immedi- 
ately Pasteurized. Again tijie ripening must bo 
stopped at the proper time, for while desirable 
flavors are produced in the early stages, over- 
ripening produces disagreeable ones. 

Instead of using seed cream developed from 
the pure culture each time, the buttermilk may 
be used as a starter for perhaps ten days or two 
weeks until foreign germs begin grow and in- 
crease to a dangerous point. Then resort must 
be bad to a new seeding. 

Similarly, where desirable flavors have nor- 
mally developed in one lot of cream, the butter- 
milk may be used as a starter to aid in the ripen- 
ing of successive lots. 

Certain pure cultures for seeding have been 
placed upon the market which are recommended 
for use upon un-Pasteurized milk. Here the in- 
tention is to start a thrifty ferment which will 


124 MepoTt of the WUconain 

outstrip in growth the deleterious ferments which 
may be present and produce the desirable char- 
actistic flavor. 

Where proper care of the milk is enforced, this 
method is unnecessary, as no deleterious ferments 
gain headway. 

The agricultural department of the University 
of Wisconsin has published a bulletin giving re- 
sults of the use of several of these cultures both 
in Europe and America. Further information 
can be obtained by consulting the original bulle- 
tin. B. A. Ex. St, No. 44. 
Faioe of puce The great improvement in certain lines of 
manufacture through the use of pure ferments 
may be shown by the great certainty which has 
resulted in the manufacture of beer by the us» 
of pure yeast cultures and thus keeping out un- 
desirable bacteria. 

Whether cultures are used or not, the manu 
facture of good butter depends largely upon the 
cleanliness «f the milk delivered and its freedom 
from dust and germs. 


From the foregoing it will be seen that the re- 
moval of growing germs from milk is of great 
importance from a hygenic standpoint. This has 
given rise to two important methods known as 
sterilizing, or rendering barren of seed, and Pas 
teurizing, as it is named after its discoverer, 
Louis Pasteur. 

Neither of these processes, as usually carried 
out, destroy all of the germ life present, but they 
do destroy all the lactic acid bacteria, so that the 
keeping properties of the milk are greatly im- 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. I'lib 

Of much greater importance is the fact that 
disease germs produce no spores in milk at 
ordinary temperatures, and consequently thtse 
processes destroy all germs of typhoid, dtph 
theria or consumption that may he in the milk. 

With the advent of finer breeds of cattle come 
diseases like tuberculosis, that select them as 
their prey because of their delicate constitution 
and consequent greater susceptability. Hence 
the liability of the spread of disease through 
these animals is increasing. 

These diseases and various forms of cholera in 
bottle-fed infants may be largely obviated by the 
use of Pasteurized milk. 

Thus it is that consumers, especially in large 
cities, where milk is not promptly delivered, are 
coming to demand milk above suspicion. Lead- 
ing physicians and sanitarians advocate the use 
of Pasteurized or sterilized milk. 

The processes embodied under the head of steril- 
ization consist in heating the milk to the boil- 
ing point of water or higher' for varying lengths 
of time. The greater the heat used the shorter 
the time required. All germ life is destroyed 
and the milk is rendered -practically sterile. 

Sterilization is usually conducted by heating 
the milk in bottles from 170° to the boiling point 
of water for a varying period, generally longer 
than that required for Pasteurization. This may 
be done by placing the bottles in a steam-cham- 
ber upon shelves and heating the whole by live 
steam cautiously admitted until the required 
temperature is reached and the milk held at that 
temperature for the proper length of time. In 
determining the temperature, one bottle is gen- 
erally placed in such position that a bent ther- 
mometer may have its bulb submerged in the milk 
and its graduated stem projecting from the 


fieport qf the Wisconsin 

chamber. In this manner it is assured that the 
milk contained in the bottle reaches the tempera- 
ture required. The bottles must be capped by 
conical rubber caps which will allow of the 
escape of air daring heating and settle back to 
place, sealing the bottle hermetically upon 

Another method is to fill and seciirely fasten 
the covers upon the bottles, emersing the filled 
bottles in water in an autoclave and heating them 
under pressure. 

It will be seen that sterilizing is a process of 
cooking, giving the milk a cooked taste and 
producing more profound changes than result 
from Pasteurization. 

Pasteurization is more satisfactory for general 
use and will keep milk sweet for four to eight 

Pasteurization consists in heating fresh milk - 
for twenty minutes at 150" F., then cooling rap- 
idly to 55° or lower. 

To be successful the milk must be taken when 
freshly drawn and before germs have developed 
in large numbers. This precludes the shipment 
of nlilk to depots and subsequent Pasteurizing. 
The temperature must not be raised above 
155° P. or the milk will acquire a cooked taste. 
It must he sustained at a temperature of at least 
150°, as this is the death point of tubercle 
bacilli. The milk must be at once cooled and 
kept cool to preveat the development of spores 
or dormant seeds that are not destroyed by the 

Milk Pasteurized in bulk should be delivered 
in bottles sterilized by baking. 

A detailed description of the methods and out- 
fits necessary is given in bulletin No. 44, U. W. 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 


Dairy and Food Oommissioner. 

This is frequently sold for general 
" The centrifugal separator used in the process of 
separating the cream from skim milk collects a 
fibrinous slime upon its rim. This slime con- 
tains insoluble phosphates, dirt, barn-yard filth, 
and by far the larger part of the bacteria present 
in the milk. 

AdraDtagH The advantages gained in separating and re- 
mixing the milk are, freedom from filth, better 
keeping qualities, (when properly cooled this 
milk will keep from three to four days in the 
heat of summer) and that by simple calcutalion 
the mixed milk can be made of any uniform rich- 
ness in fat throughout the whole season or year. 
Parties vending milk prepared by this process 
have met with unusual success. Upon the whole, 
I believe it to be the most satisfactory method 
of treatment of milk for city supplies. 

Artifloiai A noveltv in milk supply for cities has just 

motber-imUlc. , * . , , . 

been brought to my notice ana seems worthy of 
mention. Jas. F. Sarg of Kempsville, Va., has 
published a method for the preparation of a close 
imitation of mother's milk for infants. The pro- 
cess embodies several good points worthy of 
mention. Milk from a properly fed and cared 
for herd is separated centrifugally as suggested 
in the preceding paragraphs; a portion of the 
skim milk is digested with rennet for a limited 
period of time until the casein is clotted and re- 
moved, thus removing the excess of albumen 
which exists in cows milk over that of woman's 
milk. It moreover digests and peptonizes por- 
tions of the albumen remaining. The sugar-bear- 
ing whey is then added to the portion of skim 
milk remaining, and milk sugar added to the 
amount normally present in woman's milk. To 
this the cream which was previously removed 
is a^ala tedded suf&cient to produce the amouqt 


Report qf the Wisconsin 

of fat Dormal to human milk, slightly over Z per 
cent. The whole is then sterilized in carefully 
cleaned bottles with hermitically sealing stop- 
pers and it is then ready for delivery. 

It will be seen that this process embodies the 
precautions for obtaining milk as nearly as pos- 
sible in its natural condition, and provides for 
the removal of pathogenic germs and foreign 
bodies in the separator slime. It removes the 
excess of casein and the increased indigestibili'y 
resulting from the ordinary method of pasteur- 
izing. It increases the amount of sugar to the 
normal in human milk. It brings the tat to a 
constant and unvarying quantity and furnishes a . 
sterilized and easily digestible milk. The pro- 
cess is certainly full of promise. 
' While the law in reference to the adulteration 
of milk is perhaps the most effective food law oE 
the state, there are two suggestions which, if 
adopted, might improve its efBcacy. The law 
fixes a standard for fats, but fixes none for the 
solids not fat or total solids. The residt is that 
if a milk contains three per cent, of fat, it is a 
hard matter to obtain a conviction in some cases 
where the mitk has undoubtedly been watered. 
For example, during nine months of the year, 
many herd milks test four per cent, in butter 
fat. If the four per cent, milk were diluted with 
one-fourth of its volume of water, such a milk 
would still test three and two-tenths per cent, 
fat, and an attempt to prosecute the seller would 
prove ineffectual. It is, therefore, desirable that 
a standard for total solids be fixed at perhaps 
12.5 per cent. 

The other point to which I wish to call atten- 
tion is that the addition of any mOistance to milk, 
whether injurious or nob, should constitute an 
f^u^teration unless such addition is made ^ith 


Dairy and F^wd OommisswTter. 


the intent of improving the milk or cream, in 
which case the name and amount of added sub- 
stance should be distinctly stated upon the label. 
This would prevent the use of so-called harm- 
less preservatives and the addition of coloring 
matter to improve the appearance of thin milks 
in city supplies. 

An amendment similar to the clause in the 
Massachusetts aw, Chap. 57, Sect. &, (1896, 
would remedy this defect. 

The appended table shows the standards fixed 
for the regulation of the sale of milk in the va- 
rious states. It will be seen that the Wisconsin 
law is as lenient as that of any state in the 
Union. England has a standard of 2.5 per cent, 
fat, and as a rule American milks are richer than 
the herd milks in Europe. 

Quotations from reports of European tests are 
frequently made in the courts to show the stand- 
ard fixed is excessive. 

MUk standard* in varioiu ttatea. 





Par ot. 





I8SB, 241 











£ Fat, at least 2G per osnt. ot solida 
t Specific sravitT ISeS-lSOB, at tO* W, 
9— D.4F, 


B^)ort of the Wisconsin 

Analysis of avtpeoted and adulterated milk. 


Owner-. »>»». 



not fat. 








11. 9S 

































Albert Hlnkforth, Uilvankea. .. 




Mra-D. Bom, Mllw«uli» 

H. HUdermaD, Walartown 

Aiiap»tNell, WatBTtowa 

B. ThompBon, SCsughbin 


Ur^ GaBUeburs (slshU mUb), 


Al f 1 

July 30, 



Wm. Marold, Howard's Grove . . 

Wm. UaroM (mom.), Boward'e 



T !!■ 

N. HandaJl, MauBWn, (btb^... 







B.J_Ke7iU. Winchester 











Dairy and Food Commissioner, 

Anatj/tis of Btiepeoted and adulterated mUk. — ContiDned, 


Owner's KamB. 





























C. C. Qaar, rfeeoah (ere.) 



ThnmBs Hehnr. Monroe. 





ID 81 



The following tests were made upon samples of milk five 
days old and soured,* These samples were tested to cor- 
roborate the work done by Food Inspector Sharp at Ash- 
land, October 3d, 1895, and at the request of Dr. E. D, Per- 
kins, health commissioner. The clotted milk was dissolTed 
by the addition of ammonia and correction made upon the 
fat found for the increase in volume. 

* RTieman (Analyst, March, "SG) has Bliown that potrif active organ- 
isma do nat efleot tha qoantity of fat in milk where the patrifloaUon ia 
not hi an advanced Bttig«. I^tOOQ I C 

132 Report of the Wijicojisin 

Conklin, plas 1-24 vol. ammonia. 4.1=s4.Sfat. 

Parmeter, plas 1-16 vol. ammoula. 1.5 = 1.6 fat, 

Parmeter, plaa 1-16 vol. ammonia. H.4 = 2.5 fat 

P&rmeter, plus ] IS vol. ammonia. 2.8 = 2.0 tat 

Parmeter, plus 1-16 voL ammonia. 1.5 = 1.6 fat. 

Second machine run. 

Parmeter, plus 1-21 vol. ammonia. 1.2^=1.25 fat. 

Parmeter, pins 1-24 vol ammonia. 1.2 = 1. 25 fat. (Daplicate.) 

P. Hanson, 1.21 to), ammonia 1.0 = 1.06 fat. 

P. Haoson, (skim) 121 vol. ammonia.... 1,0 = 1.03 fat. (Daplloate.) 

The table embodying the results of the fat tests of milk 
by the Babcock method will be submitted for use in another 
portion of the report of the Dairy and Food Commifisioner. 


<i At the commencemeat of our work the laws of 
the state regulating the manufacture and sale of 
spurious and adulterated cheese were weak in 
themselves and their effectiveness was weakened 
further by the fact that Out a feeble attempt at 
their enforcement had been made in the past. 
The entire energies of all of the members of the . 
commission were, therefore, directed to securing 
the passage of the bill drafted by the committee 
of the State Dairymens Association. This bill was 
passed and became effective at a time when the 
price of cheese, largely owing to a glutting of 
the market with low grade products, was ex- 
tremely low, and at the same time when neutral 
lard was in such demand as to considerably in- 
crease its price. Therefore, when the prohibi- 
tory state law went into effect, little filled cheese 
was being manufactured. As the couditioiiS 
gradually changed, allowing the manufacture of 
filled cheese with profit, it became a compara- 
tively easy matter for the commission to watch 
the suspicious factories and guard against a re- 
vival of the industry. i i !■ LiOOqIc 

Dairy and Food Commissioner. 183 

Film bnmdiuK. The next trouble which had to be met was the 
prevention of the use of the Wisconsin state 
brand by manufacturers of filled cheese outside 
of the state and beyond our jurisdiction. The 
passage of a national law has remedied this. 
Pomibio If in the future any changes are made in 

the state laws in reference to full-cream and 
skimmed-milk cheese, it might be well to fix the 
standard for the minimum amount of fat allowa- 
ble in full cream cheese. The per centage of 
fat fixed in such a standard should be based up- 
on the solids, that is, upon the dried cheese, 
rather than tbat in its natural state, because the 
water in cheese is constantly varying from the 
time of its manufacture to its consumption, 
small samples quickly loosing large amounts of 
water and thereby enormously increasing the 
fat per centage when calculated upon the cheese 
as sampled undried. 

Upon this basis the minimum amount allowable 
should be fixed at at least 40 per cent. 
Eiuniaation ^^he examination of cheese by this department 
oteiieeaoby ^3,3 consisted in the determination of the quan- 
tity of butter fat where skimming was sus- 
pected. In such cases the official method, as 
laid down in the report of proceedings of the 
Association of Agricultural Chemists has been 
used, the water being fixed during the extrac- 
tion of the fat by the addition of anhydrous 
cupric sulphate, as suggested by Short. 

Fortheprocuringof from6tolOGms. of fatfor 
further examination, it will be found convenient 
to grind and thoroughly mix an ounce (30 Gms.) 
of cheese with about three times its weight of 
anhydrous cupric sulphate. This can be macer- 
ated with ether for one-half hour or more in a 
volumetric fiask and an aliquot part of the liquoir 
filtered off representing aliout 5 Gms. of the ffkr-'-^Oglc 

134 Report of the Wioconsin 

The Gther may l»e recovered and this portion 
used for the delerminatiou of the melting point 
and the Reichert-Wollny number. Similarly 
another portioii of about one-tenth may be 
evaporated for the determination of the Koetts- 
torfer's number. By this method when the 
reagents are in stock a sitisfactory examination 
of the fat in cheese may be completed within 
two or three hours. 
SmmfSr'tti "^^^ estimation of batter fat in cheese is done 
S^S"* in a fairly satisfactory manner by several of 
the best cheese buyers in the state, by the 
use of the Babcock test. Where ordinary milk 
bottles are used, it is best to select those hav- 
ing the widest tubes for this purpose. Special 
bottles are made for the testing of cream, which 
are satisfactory for this purpose. These are bot- 
tles having a wide neck and no central bulb, and 
these are graduated into .5 per cent., not .2 per 
cent., as ordinarily. The error in the estimation 
of fat in chesso is greater than that in any other 
dairy products, because of the uneven distribu- 
tion of moisture. Hence, it is advisable, to pro- 
cure an even sample, to take thin, pencil-shaped 
strips from the wedge as usually cut to the cen- 
ter of the cheese, or, where a sampler is used, 
to take strips running the whole length of the 
B>HBi«tiontrf p^yg grams should be carefully weighed out 
upon a good prescription balance. The scale 
should weigh accurately to one-half grain, and 
gram weights must be used, as Babcock bottles 
are graduated in that system. . Tbe cheese weighed 
out must be slipped into the Babcock bottle, tak- 
ing care not to squeeze out or lose any of the 
fat. The bottle should then be filled with hot 
water to the same height that a similar bottle is 
filledby onepippette-fullof milk(17.6c. c). The 

Dairy and Food Commissioner. 135 

bottle should be placed in hot water and ehaken 
until the cheese is softened. 

In the case of tough skimmed- milk cheese the 
softening may be greatly hastened by adding a 
few drops of strong ammonia water. 

Acid is then added and the rest of the test Is 
carried out as for milk, 

To find the amount of fat multiply the per cent, 
shown upon the scale by 3. 6. 
' An objection has often been raised that while 
the purchase of milk by the fat test may be all 
right for butter-makers it does not tell the whole 
story, for Jersey milk might have six per cent, of 
- fat and nine per cent, of solids not fat while 
Holstein milk might have bat three per cent, of 
fat and nine per cent of solids not fat and ac- 
cording to the fat test one milk would sell for 
twice as much aa the other. This is but partly 
a fault, however, as the cheese made from one 
would be better and worth more than that from 
the other, under the same conditions. 
' It is but fair, however, that some allowance 
be made for the other solids for cheese making. 
By use of the fat tests in conjunction with the 
"float" or lactometer and reference to the fol- 
lowing table prepared by Dr. Babcock the milk 
can be paid for by the amount of cheese that it 
will make. The relative commercial value of 
these solids will be obtained by comparing the 
market prices of full cream cheese and separator 
skimmed milk cheese. Dr. Babcock has com- 
puted the relative values which are given in the 
small type in the following table. These figures 
may be used in dividing the payment for milk in 
factories, the same as the butter fat figures are 
now used. The large figures give simply the 
yield of cheQse from the milk: 


136 Beport ^ Ou Wimxmgia 

Table thawing yUld of i:he«»e frotn 100 tba. of mtU and relative cheese value 
of milla /!orre»ponding lo per cent, of fat and rvadiagt of Quvenne 
lactometer at Sff' P. 


= ■-■• 
























1 6.51 
j 2.» 






























1 :.» 







a. 12 

















2 i. 


1 1.2! 












3. as 






) l.X 



7. 53 








3. IS 


3 5l! 

2 4 


! i.i? 












3. SO 






X s.w 















i 8.71 








1. 77 










8,91 1 



1 ».» 



















2 8 


















1,12 5 



1 i.m 


















1,31 i 















1 4... 


























1,18 5 





















f 8.67 





















J 1 


Dairy and 
Table showing yield 

Food Comminsioner. 187 

of oheete from 100 lbs., e(c.— Continued. 









































































I 9.20 


9. 55 
















i ..n 











10. X 

























J 8.75 




















( 9.80 
























































( B.H 

10. i9 



























• 17 


6,19 S 














11 .'ra 




6,31 J 

















•,18 1 




i 8.3S 


















( t.w 







11. as 






6.67 S 




1 «.« 





■ .«7 















Jtepori 0/ the Wiaconain 
Table thowing yield 0/ cheese from 100 lb»., 

















(11. ID 
1 «.1l 


















8.91 S 



1 s.8e 



11 86 













7.03 1 




1 B.98 













13.01 1 




1 T.IO 

















i 7.23 













13, li 





7.40 S 




( 7.3& 


















13. 57 J 




I 7.(7 


















13 72i 






7. SI 





















X 7.71 

12. £& 




















Dairy and Food Commissioner. 

mt of SampUa of Cheese Examined. 

From V. BlmOD * Co., Msuuh. 

No.L SB-Sepereent-hntterfat. 
No. a. W.apwoent, batter (at 

Prom H. C. ChrtatlMU Co., JohMon'a Creek. 

38.88pereentbattMrst. No toreign fata present. Fnllcream 

8ii»piirfoi»d«»fln»d. No foreign (st« present QenniDB. 

WiseoDHin oheeeo bxim Htw Orlwna market. 

BoBid«ioned«.mW. No foreign (aW present Qennlne. 

Ffom Mr. Bricham. Colnmbnt 

38.8 per oBHtbnttar fat No foreign fata (onnd. FoUoreaa. 

From H. J. Qrell, Johmon'a Creek. 

(Sample not in good oondlldou.) 

M.Speroenthattorfat No foreign tata present Full oream. made inDlinols. Branded "Wlscon^n FnU Cream," Sample purcha^d h 
tills department 
Fat consisted almost entirelr of oeotrallard. Filled chesae. 

From BoBch k Seeber, Waterloo. 

BaepioiooedMrnied. No foreign faU prwent Qenoma. 

FremN Stoddard ft Co., Coral, lU. 

Bnspicionod as filled. No foreign (ata present, Genulna. 

From Woodard * Btooe. Watertown, 

Suapieionod as filled. No foreign fata prssent Gennine. 

From Dr. PUlabnrT, Health OEoer, Buperior. 

Sospieiooedaa filled. No foreign fata present Senoina. 

From Knrfte 4 Son, Beadfield. . 

Complaint entered aa to qnalit7. Contained no fore«n fate. Oenuuw. 

From a B. Moore. Apei. 

uBlled. NoforeigntatB present Oenoine. 

Prom Sohneider Broa., Lake Mills, 

BnaidoionedaaflUod. No foreign fats praaent 

Prom D. B. Croaa ft Bons, Amboy, Minn. 

8aapioionod a. filled. No foreign (ats present Oenui 

Taken by A. 8. Uitciieil at faoton- of Jolm Moerhl, SUver ■ 
S8.0O per cent bntter fat Part skimmed. 


Beport of the Wisconsin 


AdniterBtioD. The aduIteratloD of butter consists in the ad- 
dition of foreign fats, the addition of preserva- 
tives, '■ loading " with water, and the introduction 
of large amounts of casein, buttermilk and water 
by the use of rennet compounds, such as have 
been put upon the market under titles like "Black 
Pepsin. " 

oii-omargarins l^be addition of foreign fats to butter is regu- 

'*■■ lated by the United States law relating to the 

sale of oleomargarine, with the result that few 
venture to violate this law, as the penalty is a 
very heavy fine or imprisonment. 

A tallowy taste in butter, as a result of the 
growth of certain bacteria, frequently gives rise 
to suspicion of adulteratton of this nature. 

■'Loading." The loading of creamery butter with large 
amounts of water is practiced to a great extent. 
Our laws fix no limit as to the amount of water 
allowable in butter. It is desirable that the 
maximum amount of water allowable in butter be 
fixed at 14 per cent. Oregon already has a law 
to this effect. In England the limit is fixed at 
15 per cent. 

"BUck Several samples of patent butter, made by 

Papain." " black pcpsin " proccsses, have been received 
No legislation is necessary to prevent this form 
of fraud, as the butter is wholly lacking in flavor. 
abnormal in grain, and becomes exceedingly 
musty within a few days or even hours. The 
only trouble in the sale of this form of butter 
has tieen through peddlers who have made up 
and quickly disposed of a quantity of this stufT 
at half the price of ordinary butter. 

Method or teat. The examinations of butterine samples have 
been made principally for the enforcement of the 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 141 

new law requiring that butterine be placed on 
the market in an uncolored condition. The 
work, therefore, has consisted in a determination 
of the Reichert-Wollny number, and the exami* 
nation with a polariscope and selenite plate for 
the identification of the sample as a butter sub- 
stitute, and, second, in extraction of coloring 
matter, if present. 

The coloring matter, when found, has con- 
sisted in all instances of an oil soluble yellow 
coloring matter, proliably an analine derivative. 
In some cases, the orange color has been bright- 
ened up by the use of small quantities of a simi- 
lar red coloring. 

Annnotto and the old-time vegetable colors 
have been entirely displaced by the more power- 
ful and cheaper analine substitutes. 

The following table is a resume of the work 
done on this subject: 


Beport oj tlie Wieconein 





■ssRSisR snsn n ^Rusn 


J|||8||IJ iji 


• 2sll lis 



Pitaba Bsa « 



Dairy and Food I 



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Mii i i 

Mil i i 

Ml! i i 

ill! i i i 

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«««« Sim i 4 444 



iiii i i iii 

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111 1 i 111 #1 11 11 111 

liij i i ii 

iiiiii i i iii iiii iiaii i i ;i| 
iijiii I I iii iiii iilii i i :.1 



Beport of the Wisocmiin 


The varieties of vinegar upon the market ai'O 
cider vinegar, spirit vinegar and more rarely 
malt and glucose vinegar. Cider vinegars are 
the result of acetous fermentation of apple cider. 
Cider vinegar. In the old process of souriiig in the barrel the 
cider gradually became " hard" by the production 
of alcohol from sugai- and this alcohol was 
changed to acetic acid through the agency of tho 
" mother " and contact with the air. In this pro- 
cess the soluble apple solids, with the exception 
of the sugar, remain in the vinegar and the vine- 
gar contains an amount of malic acid, which 
varies with the sourness of the apple juice. It 
also contains other organic compounds which con- 
stitute the flavor and " bouquet " or aroma, hence 
it will be seen that the quality of good cider 
vinegar differs as greatly from dilute acetic acid 
(colored* or uncolored), as does diluted alcohol 
from good wine. 

The above analogy is a fair statement of the 
case. The true cider vinegar and the wine con- 
tain the flavor and aroma which enhance their 
value while the dilute acid or alcohol can be 
valued only by the amount of chemicals which 
they contain. 
OoDeMtarpro- By ^)hq newer process of making cider vinegar 
ri^sr. which is generally in use in larger works, in 
order to economize in time, the alcoholic cider is 
allowed to trickle through a generator. This gen- 
erator is a tank containing a substance which 
forms a place of attachment for a heavy growth 
of "mother" and which allows air to be in contact 
with it, while the cider trickles through it. 

The air vents in the bottom and top are regu- 
lated so that a constant stream of air circulates 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 145 

through the generator and is warmed by the 
chemicfil action taking place to just the temper- 
ature which is most favorable for the rapid 
growth of the "mother, " 

In this manner cider which is allowed to trickle 
through the generator in a short time takes on 
the acidity which would be the result of months 
standing, by the old barrel process, where the 
"mother" was not spread out and the only en- 
trance of air was through the bung hole. This 
has resulted in a great cheapening in the cost 
of production, but it is somewhat at the expense 
of the finer flavor which was produced by the old 
barrel process as a result of the formation of 
ethers through ageing. 

A portion of the malic acid is also removed by 
this process, and in order to get the desired 
amount of alcohol quickly and cheaply, vinegar 
makers are tempted to fortify the cider with low 
wines, which of course lessens the cider solids. 
„. This is produced by the Eu;etou8 fermentation of 
alcohol made from malted grains. This alcohol 
is distilled without the use of a "worm" and con- 
densed in water, producing low wines, thus 
avoiding the government tax imposed upon high 
wines. The resultant low wines are converted 
to acetic acid by the generator process and pro- 
duce wholesome and desirable vinegars which 
however, lack the aroma and flavor of cider vin- 
egar, and should be sold on their merits. 
,c Another departure from the customary and reg- 
ular method of manirfacture of cider vinegar, 
and one which is less to be commended, is tho 
production of a vinegar which complies with the 
state standard for cider vinegar by the addition 
of boiled-down cider, known as " cider stock " 
to spirit vinegar, in such proportion that the 
mixture shall contain just in excess of the mini- 
10— D. & F. 


146 Seport of the Wiaconein 

mum amount of acid aud solids required by the 
S(M!aUed There have lately been put upon the market 

tra^^*"'" and extensively advertised so-called "vinegar ex- 
tracts. " These are nothing more nor less than 
colored, concentrated acetic acid. The directions 
sent with the concoction read somethlsg as fol- 
lows: "Dilute the contents of this vial to one 
pint and it will produce a vinegar far more su- 
perior and healthful than any other vioegar. " 
i^'^iw^ Since ancient times vinegar of all descriptions 
Tinesu. has been produced by natural processes of fermen- 
tation and according to the best authorities noth- 
ing should be vinegar or sold or used as such 
except the article is produced by that process. 

Here is where the line must be drawn be 
tween dilute acetic acid pure and simple and 
a vinegar. The concentrate acetic acid upon the 
market is not produced by fermentation pro- 
cesses, but is extracted with other acrid empy- 
reumatic products from the condensed vapors 
produced by the destructive distillation of wood in 
the manufacture of charcoal. 

It is only with great difficulty and considerable 
additional expense that these poisonous products 
are removed from the crude acid ia its purifica- 
tion. Hence, in the cheaper, qualities of acetic 
acid which must necessarily be used to compete 
in price with spirit vinegars, these products are 
always present to a greater or less degree. 

It is time to call a halt in the use of anything 
and everything that contains the requisite amount 
of acetic acid in the manufacture of vinegars 
and thus to produce the 4 per cent, required by 
law in vinegar. It was obviously never the in- 
tention of that law to admit that the presence of 
4 per cent acetic acid in itself constituted the 
only requisite of a vinegar. 


Dairy and Food GommiasUmeri 147 

"■ Malt and beer vinegars are similarly made, with 
the exception that the alcohol is not distilled. 
These should be made withont distillation. 

The process in use for the examination of 
vinegar is similar to that described in previous 
reports of this commission, and consists in the 
titration of 20 c. c. of vinegar (diluted it colored) 
with normal alkali, using Phenol-phtalein as an 
end re-agent for the estimation of the acetic acid 

lid* For solids, approximately 10 grams are weighed 

and evaporated in a platinum capsule upon the 
water bath to constant weight. The residue are 
examined for malic acid, and for caramel and 
other coloring matters. The tests for mineral 
acids are made as usual. 
iiuintioD. The adulteration of vinegar has consisted (1) 
in the addition of caramel to spirit vinegars and 
their sEile as pure cider vinegar; (2) in the sale 
of vinegars containing less than 4 per cent, acetic 
acid, and (3) in the addition of caramel and aniline 
colors in .the production of the so-called wine 
vinegars supposed to be made from fruit juices. 
No samples containing mineral acids or poison- 
ous substances have been found, 
ras of It will be noticed in the appended table of 

*•* vinegar analyses made during the last two years 
that most, if not all, adulterated vinegars came 
from the manufacturers outside of our state and 
beyond the reach of the law. 
ertiflft. One of these firms has issued circulars bearing 

tensed to ^j^q names of several reputable chemists in the 
°^ state, among them Prof. Hillyar, University of 
Wisconsin, certifying to the purity of their 
goods. It will be noticed in these circulars that 
they refer only to the absence of mineral acids 
or other poisonous substances and not to their 
compliance with the requirements of the law. 








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iiii Iiiii iiii! 

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l!Ji llllutlsi 

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Dairy and Food Gommissioncr. 153 

a In the enforcGtment of tjie vinegar laws, the 
State Vinegar Makers Association has given us 
cordial support, and the manufacturers within 
the state have endeavored to comply with the 
requirements of our laws. 

In the preceding table the samples have bern 
sent to this department by the grocers Ihom 
selves in many cases, so that the names given in 
the first article by no means indicate in the case 
of adulterated vinegars, that the grocers are par- 
ties to the fraud. 


tnoreMBincoo- Th^ fact that beer has become the popular \>ev 

iumvtiuD at. eragc has forced itself Into recognition. This 

is best shown by the report of the president of 

the U. S. Brewers' Association, which makes the 

statement that, where 10,000,000 barrels were 

brewed in '76, the output in '90 reached 34,000,000 


OgiaisticHi -A-9 the consumption has reached this amount, 

•eedBi it demauds special restrictive legislation agaiust 

the use of injurious preservatives and fraudulent 


An attempt was made during the last session 
of congress to procure national legislation upon 
this subject, and there is, at present, a strong 
movement to procure special legislation for the 
prevention of adulteration of beer in New York 
AdnlteratltHi. Th^ most common adulteration of beer is by 
the use of preservatives. Prohibitive legislation 
upon this point is already in force in many coun 
tries. Franco prohibits the use of salicylic acid, 
as does also Germany, except in beers to be used 
for export. Wisconsin already has laws forbid- 


Report of tM Wiaconein 

ding the use *of tliis acid in dairy products and 
in my opinion this restriction should be extended 
to all food products. 

The antiseptics most frequently used in beer 
are bisulphite of lime, salicylic acid, and "anti- 
septic salt, " (containing about i hydrofluoric 
acid, an acid that will corrode and destroy 
glass ) These three substances are sold in enor- 
ouB quantities for this purpose. Saccharine and 
various substitute bitters may be occasionally 
used. "Antiseptic salt" and similar fluorine com- 
pounds have but lately come Into use and are 
exceedingly popular with the brewers, largely 
because they elude detection by ordinary chem- 
ical methods. 

The method for the detection of fluorine com 
pounds has been outlined by J. Brand, Chem 
Zeit. Rep. 95, 827. With a slight modification, 
the method is as follows: 

100 cc. of beer is made slightly alkaline with 
ammonium carbonate, heated, and 2 or 8 cc. of 
10 per cent, solution of calcium chloride added. 
The mixture is boiled for a few minutes and 
qniclily filtered. The precipitate is slightly 
washed, dried, and introduced into a S5 cc. plat- 
inum crucible; 1 cc. of contrated sulphuric acid 
is added and the crucible is covered with a piece 
of platinum foil, the edges of which are folded 
over a large square microscopic cover glass. 
The foil may have a slit or cross cut in the center 
and will protect the glass from contact with the 
hydrofluoric acid fuw^, except at the exposed 
slit. This does away with the use of ice for 
cooling the glass to avoid melting the wax coat- 
ing, as directed in the original process. The 
crucible is heated one hour at boiling point and 
the glass e^amiqed for etching. 



Dairy and Food Ckymmiaaioner. 155 

In the examination for the other preservatives 
named, ofQcial methods are used. 

It is still an open question whether the use of 
other grains in conjunction with barley malt is 
to be considered an adulteration. It is a well 
known fact that properly malted barley has the 
power of converting more starch into sugar than 
the malt contains. The converting power of 
this extra diastase is utilized by the addition of 
sufficient quantities of starch of other grains to 
make up the deficiency. 

The addition of various sugars for conversion 
into alcohol is open to more objection becau o 
the sugar does not contemn natural phosphates 
and proteids which would be obtained by the 
production of sugar from grain. 

Restrictive legislation which would prevent 
the use of preservatives, substitutes for hop bit- 
ters and sugar, is desirable and would not mept 
with violent opposition from the brewing in- 

The following samples of beer have been analyzed at the 
request of the purchasers : 

"TirolL" Sent by F. Eleia, Fort AlUuKUi. 

Contniaedalcobol 3.72 per oent.bTWb Balidaitiaet4.6a par oant. Salierlio loid 
and aulpbitos vers ftbaent. 

"Welaer." BentF. Klslu, Fort Atkiaaon. 

Contained BlcohoH.60 per cent, br vt. Solid «xlfMt, t.Ot peiocoit.' Ballajlto «oid 

and BolpMteB were absent. 

Jnhsna Boa's Uslt Eitroot. Sent br Dlat. IMj. AndanoD, tor Om dateimlnatloa ul 
tbe alcohol. 
Contained oloobol 3, Uper cant. brwt> 


H^ort o/ the Wiaamttn 


Work done. More work has been done upon this subject 
during these two years than preriously, as it 
was believed that more good would result to 
the people at large by a careful analysis of 
public water supplies which were suspected of 
being contaminated thau in an attempt to roga- 
late the sale of ground spices, etc., owing to the • 
inefScacy of by far the larger number of the 
laws relating to the sale of food products and 
drugs (the dairy and vinegar laws being the ex- 
ceptions to this statement). 
provUioD The law providing for the analysis of water 

bylaw. provides -that, "with the consent of the gov- 

ernor, the State Board of Health may submit to 
the commissioner or any of his assistants 
samples of water . . . for analysis." 

After consulting with Dr. U. O. B. Wingate, 
secretary of the State Board of Health, we have 
prepared suitable blanks and directions for the 
sampling of water, and, where these conditions 
have been complied with, we have made examin- 
ations of all the samples of water submitted to 
us by the state Board of Health or by city or 
town authorities. The result has been extremely 
gratifying. We have received thirty-seven sam- 
ples, the results of the examinations of which 
are appended. 
vjiusofwork. In the case of an outbreak of typhoid fever 
in several widely separated parts of a district, 
and which at first eluded the authorities, it was 
found that coutamiuation existed in a school 
well, and the evil was promptly corrected, result- 
ing, doubtless, in the saving of some lives. 

The state of Massachusetts has spent several 
hundred thousand dollars upon the examination 

Dairy and Food GommiaaUmer. 157 

of its public water supplies, and results have 
proved that the moaey has been well expended. 
Massachasetts has been thoroughly mapped, 
so that the DOrmal chemical coodition of pure 
water in the various counties is well known, and 
any deviation from this normal is quickly noticed. 
It is our intention to systematize the work done 
in this line, and in as far as is in our power to 
make a determiuatioQ of the normals of this state. 
The State Board of Health have at several 
times endeavored to obtain a special appropria 
tion for this purpose without success. 

Prom the tables before mentioned, Massachu- 
setts has been able to locate the collecting art a 
or ground on which the water falls, which sup- 
plies its various water supplies, and has taken 
legal measures to protect those collecting areas 
from pollution, thereby insuring purity of its 
water supplies and greater health to its commu- 

The time is soon coming when Wisconsin will 
be obliged to take simUar measures to protect 
the water supplies of its larger inland towns and 
cities. It is to be hoped that the pioneer work 
of this department will result in a fuller recogr.i 
tion of the benefits to be derived by the protec- 
tion of our public water supplies. 
ieg It is hoped that, in future, city and town 
authorities will avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity of testing all public water supplies in their 
vicinity; especially when there is indication of 
disease through water contamination. 

As these tests occupy much time and are of a 
delicate nature it will not be possible to extei d 
this offer to individuals for the examination sf 
private supplies. 
. The reliability of the results obtained by the 
chemical examination of water may be well de- 

Seport of the TVUconsitt 

monstrated by citing the work done upon the 
Elkhom water supply. 


This supply Is obtained from a deep well newly 
sunk and artesian in its character; but, as Elk- 
hom is situated upon a ridge in the southern 
central part of ttie state, the well is not a flow- 
ing one, the water having to be pumped from a 
depth of nearly 200 feet. 

Immediately upon sinking the well a sample of 
the water was sent to me for examination. The 
results showed extreme freedom from sewage 
contamination or surface pollution, but the water 
contained a large amount of free ammonia and 
acquired a peculiar, disagreeable smell when 
allowed to stand. The amount of ammonia found 
might lead to the conclusion that the water waa 
seriously polluted, but the chlorine being normal 
and albuminoid ammonia and nitrites low, it was 
at first suspected that the ammonia was the re- 
sult of cleaning the bottle with ammonia, and 
not thoroughly rinsing it out. 

Several weeks later a new sample was sent, 
which had the same peculiarity. Finally a re- 
port was made stating that the water was pure 
and wholesome, but that portions of it leached 
through limestones containing organic matter of 
a peaty character, whereby the water acquired 
its disagreeable odor and free ammonia. 

The wholesomeness of this "water has been dem- 
onstrated as the water has been in use nearly two 
years and no cases of typhoid or other water dis- 
eases have resulted. 

Several months after making my report I 
learned that in boring the well a layer of peat 
was reached and penetrated just before reaching 

, I Goo^^ Ic 

Dairy and litod Oom'tiiasioner. 159 

the porous -water-bearing stratum, thus corrobor- 
ating the conclnsion reached from the analysis. 

I have just learned that, owing to the frequent 
breaking of the long pump rod, a new pump has 
been substituted which, by the means of com- 
pressed air, forces the water to the surface, keep- 
ing a strong pressure upon the water seeping 
into the well. The result has l>een that only the 
deeper artesian water is raised to the snrface, 
the excessive pressure almost wholly preventing 
the influx of water derived from the layer of 

In other places where water supplies are de- 
rived from deep wells and contaminated from 
surface seepage, it may be possible to largely 
prevent the influx of contaminated water by 
this means. 

Elkhom City Well. (Artesian:) 

parts per IflO.CO 



Solid maicloe 

^^'^'" ::::;;:;:::.:::;":::;!'!:;:!;: ^.^ 

■ wo 

YoUlile niBidiw 

Nilzi>een as nttrltos.-. 

8aline ammonU 

ilbamlnoid ammonia . . . 

(Becansc of the enormous amount of aaiinonia present, s 
waa requested after the weU had been in use a few weeks.) 

Lawaoter City Supply. (Sent by Hon. C. H. Baiter.) 

Solid residoo 

Filed residne 

Volatile residas 

CW"i°« ;-"■ ;!.7.''.'.'.!Z .0000 

Nitrogen aa nitrites ^^ 

Nitroeen BBnitratea .','.'.'.'. .'.'.'"."! .003 

Salioo amnionia ^^ 

Albnminold ammonia 

(Thia water was recommended as aatisfaotory tor oity water supply.) 


160 Beport 0/ tke Wisconsin 

I^ymouth Booh Springs (Waukesha). (Seat by Dr. Brader 

No. 1 from bottling pump. 

parts per 1 

Solid raatdue i 

Fliad residoe 3 

TolaUlfl reatdae 1 

No. 2 (from spring.) 

Solid reBidne 90.10 

Fixed rsBidne ^.80 

Volatile Twldaa 12.30 

Chlorine 2,230 

Nitroeenas nltiite* tm 

Nitrogen M nltntei 

Salloa ammonia OlS 

Albnmiooid anunonia Oil 

(The reeulta of this esaminatioD show that this spring at least is c 
siderablj contaminated.) 

Oratiot City WaUr. (Sent by John Martott.) 

Solid reaidne ; 82, TO 

Fixed resldne 22,70 

Tolatile resddna 10,00 

Chlorioe SO 

Nitrosen ag nitrites ' ,0091 

Nitrosen as nitntea 

Saline ammonia OOa 

Atbnminoid ammonia OJ 

(This water was reported as satisfactory.) 

rrom Mo mt Calvary. (Sent by Dr. E. A. Bugsewitz, Health OJliier 

S,ilid residue 43. «) 

Filed reaidoe 30,80 

Volatile rositlne 13.00 

Chlorioe S,J0O 

Nitrogen BB nitrilea 0010 

Nitrogen as nitrates ; larse amount. 

Saline ammonia 0Z7 

Albnmlnoid ammonia 006 

(Beparted as filthy and unfit far use.) 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 1 

Riehltxnd Center. (Sent by Dr. Milchell, health officer.) 

parts per lat/om 

Solid rssldne Sl.QO 

Filed realdoB '. 3B.V0 

VolatUe nwidoe 17.80 

■ Clilorine 6.10!» 

Nitrogen as nitrilea ; CMOS 

Nitrogen as nitrates '. large amount. 

Saline ammoQl a 039 

Albamiooid ammiHiia OU 

(Reported of doubtful purity. Its use should be diacoatinued.) 

Icejrom Camp Douglas. {Sent in by quartermaater general.) 

Solid residue ; 

Chlorine ] 

N Itrogea aa nitribiB I 

Nicrogen aanitrateB ( 

Saline ammon is 

AlbnmiQoid ammonia : ( 

(Reported as unusually pure.) 

Milwaukee Oa. Asylum for Insane (viater supply.) (Sent by Hon. 
Chris. Wahl, director.) 
(Source, deep well.) 

Solid reaidne U,6S 

Fixed reaidne M.M 

Volatile residoe,, 8,12 

Chlorine 1,150 

Sullrfiurio anhydride 20.2(1 

, NltrOBenaa nitrites 0000 

(Reported as pure and wholesome, but excesaively hard and unsuitable 
for boiler purposes.) 

Af'jr.lrUo. (Sent by Dr. E. Bass, Health Officer.) 
No.]. (Wellon hill near graveyard. Suspicioned.) 

Nitrogen Bsnitra'cs present. 

Saline ammonia 012 

AltnimiDoid ammoiiia 014 

(Ri'ported m comparatively pure.) 

U-D, & D. *(.*— 


Beporl of Oie Wisconsin 

pKTU P«t 1110,000 

No. S. 


Nitn>g«i Afl nitrltM-... ■ 

Baliua ammoala 

Albnmliioid BmmoDta... 

(Reported as satisfactoir.) 

No. 3. (School honae well.) 

Solid reaidoe ll-tO' 

Filed residne 29-150 

Volatile reridae 11. « 

Chlorine B-OOO 

NitrogBQaa nitritoB present. 

Nitmgen B> nitratoo. large amoont 

Saline ammoaia OOS 

Albnmiaotd ammonia 014 

(This water was condemned.) 

Teste of waters made at DodgeviUefor location of fily sttpply. 
No. 1. 

Solid residue 

Filed ceaidne 

Volatile reaidne 


Nitrogeoas nitrites... 

Albninlnoid ammonia "* 

(This water was repotted as filthy, and proved to be stagnant water from 
an abandoned mine shaft.) 

No. 3. 

Bolid realdoa. 

Filed resldoe 

Volatile reaidno ■ 


Nitroeenaa nitrites. ■ 

Nitrogen aa nitrate* 

Ballne ammonia 

albuminoid ammonia 

ffhis wnter wna recontmended as desirable.) 


Dairy and Food Gommissiatier. t 

» „ p«rta pet 100,000 

Solid rmtdoe 81.30 

Fiind realdUB iZ.W 

Volatile rasidas 18 m 

Cbloriae 2_325 

Nitroseo aa DiUites Iraoe. 

Nitrogen aa nitrate* trace. 

Saline ■mmooia .Oil 

Albuminoid ammonia (08 

(This water wea from a mining sliaft and partial!; stagnant.) 

No. 4. 

Solid reatdae 

Filed reetdae 

Volatile residoe ; 

Chlorine gSB 

Nitrogen 88 nitritoa OOOt 

Nitn>geu as nitrates large amt. 

Saline ammonia 008 

Albuminoid ammonia .0(8 

(This water was deemed undeairabie.) 

Elktiorn, water from city well. 

iSecondsamplesof this water were reqaested because of fheenormou8l3' 
high free ammonia found when the well was new); bored. It was thought 
at that time that the bottles had been cleaned with ammonia.) 

Solid residue 83.30 

Filed residue a.OO 

Volatile reBiduo 

(A third sample was procured in a bottle cleaned and sent from this de- . 
partment. The results ot examination for ammonia were saline ammonia, 
.215; albuminoid ammonia, .009. Upon inquiry it was found that the 
borers had passed through a layer of semi-fossilized or^nic matter of a 
character akin to peat. This evidently yields the large amount of ammonia 
present, and imparts a peculiar disagreeable taste to the water. As far as 
known this water has proved entirely wholesome and otherwise satisfac- 


lleport 0/ the Wisconsin 

Montello water. (Samples sent by Dr. E. E 
No. 4. . 

Solid realdne 

Filed residue 

, Health Office 

Nitcogan aa nitratos... 

Filed rBBidue 19.80 


Nitrogen asnitrtM;... 

Albuminoid Bmmonia 

Residue discolored slightly upon ignition, (Reported s 
laminated and suspicious.) 

Solid residue 

Filed residue 

Tolatile residue... 


Nitrocen oa nitrate 


(Reported as very pure.) 

Appleton city water supply. (Collected by Dr. G. A. Ritchie, Health 

Solid residue 

Fixed residue 

Yolatile residue 9.4( 

Nitrogen asnltritee 

Saline ammonia 

Albuminoid ammonia 

Residue blackenedon ignition. Microscope showed the presence of large 
numbers of alg(e. (Reported as a surface water practically free from 
sowage contamination (shown by the absence of nitrites, low chlorine and 
free amiaonia). Subsequent events proved the water to b« reasonably 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, 165 

Juneau city water supply. (Source, deep well. Collected by Dr. W, 
E. Uallocti, Mayor.) 

parU per lCO.OI)a 


Fixed reaidae 

Vol atils residue 


Mitogen as nltrttea 

Nitrogen as nitrates . . 

Saline ammonia 

Allnuninoid ammonlk 

(Reported as badly polluted by surface sewage.) 

New Richmond. (Sent by Dr. F. W. Epley, Health Officer.) 

Solid residue 

Fixed residue 

Volatile reaidue 3. 

Saline emmODla OOJ 

Albommoid ammonia .'. 

(The high chlorine and nitrates indicate that water from a contaminated 
a'ea finds its way into this well, but as the organic matter was largely 
oxidized, it was reported as fairly sale.) 

Beaver Dam city water. (Sent by Hod. C. W. Harvey, Mayor.) 

Fixed residne 

Volatile reaidne 


Nitrogen aa nitrites .. . 
Nitrogen as nitrates .. 

Ballne ammoiiia 

Albummoid ammonia . 

(Reported as pure and wholesome.) 

ilauntoti city water works. (Sent by Dr.. T.H. Stalker, Health Officer.) 

Solid residue 2S,80 

Fixed residne W.TO 

Volatile reaidne 8.10 

Chloride IJiO 

Nitrogen aenitritoa 0000 

Albnmmoid ammonia.... 009 

(Reported aa exceptionally pure.) ^^ • 

. i:q,t7,:-rb;COO<^IC 

166 Bepwt of the WUconeln 

Juneau City water. {Sent by Hon. W. E. Hallock.) 

(This second sample was sent aftec an attempt to pack the pipe of the 
deep well so as to shut out surface contamination. The baga were newly 
placed and had not fully swelled. Hence the attempt was partially suc- 

parts pet 100,000 

Chlorine smo 

NitrogBU SB nltritea OOOi 

NtUogeD BB nitrates (£2 

Albnmmoid ammonia 001 

^Ceported as greatly improved. Further examination in process.) 

Mount Morris, Dahl's well. (Sent by L. N. Porter, Health Officer.) 

Sold reaidne 

Filed reaidne 

Volatile reaidne.-.- -.------'--- .-.--., -.-.--...-....,,,....--- --.... 

Chloriue ns 

Nitrogen aa nitrites 0000 

Nitrogen BB nitrates 008 

Balioe ammonia. 04S 

Albuminoid ammonia 003 

(Reported as free from sewage contamination. Insufficient quantity was 
sent for more complete analysis.) 

Kaukauna, new well. (Sent by C. T. Boyd.) 

Solid residue 

Filed reaidne 

Tolatlle residne 

Chlorine ; 610 

Nitrogen as nltrilM 0000 

Nitrogen as nitrataa 002 

Saline ammonia , 023 

Albuminoid ammonia OSS 

(Insufficient quantity was sent tor complete examination. The absence 
of nitrites and nitrates would seem to .preclude the possibility of sewage 

'Milwaukee city water. (Sent by Dr. W, Eempster, Health Com'r.) 

.Solid reaidne KM 

Fixed residue 10.B6 

YrfaUlB reaidne *.as 

Albaminoid ammonia 013 

(This examination was made at the request of the health department for 
corroborative purposes. ) ,' - i 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 

Milwaukee city water. (Sent bj Geo. H. Benzenberg, City Eiigineet.) 
parts per KM, 000 
Chlorine 3ZS 

Albaminoid ammoata 

(These waters are reported aa fairly pure.) 

Lake Qeneva, large open well. (Collected by C. LarsoD. loflufficient 
quantity sent) 

Solid naldiw 

FiiBd reeidae ; 

Yolatjle residoB 

Chlorine....; «0 

Nitnwenas nitraMB 

Saline ammonia........ , 

AUraminoid ammonia,.. 


^Reported as coutainiiiatod.> 

Virogua, fromreiervoir. (Sent by Dr. W. M.Trowbridge, Health Officer.) 

Sdid nsidoe. 23.60 

Tiisd rssldiie, U.W 

Tolatila reaidDe 8. TO 

Chlorine 1.025 

Nitrosen as nitrites 0000 

NltKiffun as nitrates 185 


(Reported aa coming from polluted collocting u 
dized and peifoctly safe.) 

L, but completely oxi- 

ifevt SoUtein wafer. (Sent by A. A. Paulson.) 

Solid nsidns. 

Fixed realdae 

Tolatila nsidne 


Hitroven a* nitrites 

Nltcogea as nitrates 

AllHimiDold ammonia 

(Reported as dangero 


168 Beport oj i/ui iVisconsin 

Cassville, artesian well. (Collected by D. WUliazns.) 

Solid residae 

Filed residae 

Volatile rodduo . . , 

' Nitrogen ea 
Baline ammc 

(Reported as pure.) 

Ifeenah city water works. 

Solid reaidas 187, 

Fixed residoe 

Volatile reaidae 


Nitrogen as nitrites -. „ 

Nitrogen aa nitrates 

Saline ammonia. 

Albuminoid ammonia 

(Repeated aa pure but eioesaively haid.) 


None of the laws relating to the work of this 
department are as ineffective as are those relat- 
ing to the adulteration of drugs and medicines. 

The responsibility for the sale of drugs and 
medicines, with the exception of proprietary ar- 
ticles and including all non-secret medicines, 
standard formulas for which are given in the 
National Formulary and compiled by the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association, should rest with 
the retailer. 

A licensed pharmacist is a person of certi- 
fied talent and ability to examine and pronounce 
upon the quality of drugs and medicines used 
by him. The public is entirely dependent 
upon him, and as the manufacturers and im- 
porters are frequently without the state, any 
law which releases the retailer from the respon- 
sibility for the quality and purity of drugs 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 109 

chemicals and the conteots of packages of non- 
secret medicines will prove entirely ineffective 
so far as those medicines are concerned. 

An instance of the entire unreliability of such 
medicines and the ineffectiveness of our laws to 
prevent fraud may be cited in the case brought 
by E. B. Heimstreet, as secretary of the Wiscon- 
sin Pharmaceutical Association, against an Osh 
kosh department store. 

Mr. Heimstreet had purchased at that store a 
bottle labeled "Leibig's Beef, Wine & Iron," and 
which the lal>el stated was manufactured by the 
"Dr. Scott Medicine Co.," giving an address 
which was identical with that of a Milwaukee firm 
of manufacturing chemists. The National Pormu 
lary, as authorized by American Pharmaceutical 
Association, fixes the amount of sherry wine, 
beef extract and tincture of citro-chloride of iron 
which is to be used in the preparation of this 

Up^n analysis it was found that no citro-chlor- 
ide of iron hal been used in this compound, and, 
moreaver, the sherry wine used had never been 
detannated, so that if a tincture of iron were 
added, it would produce an incompatible mixture 
and would turn inky black. 

Evidently the substance sold did not corre- 
spond with the label on the package, and lacked 
its principal tonic and medicinal components. 

This case was lost, it being held that the wit- 
ness for the prosecution had sworn that tincture 
of citro chloride of iron was a medicine and was 
absent from the compound in question that 
sherry wine was a commodity and not a medi- 
cine, and, therefore, that while the receipted 
bills showed that the intent of the defendant had 
undoubtedly been to violate the pharmacy law 
by selling a medicine without having a licensed 


Report of the Wisconsin 

piiarmacist in his employ, in point of fact he had 
not done so, as the subst&nce in ciuestion con- 
tained no medicine. The defendant was ac- 

Another serious question is, what shall be done 
to protect the public from the sale of poisonous, 
harmful and fraudulent proprietory or patent 
medicines. The country is flooded with goods 
of this kind and they are on saienotonly indrug 
stores, but in grocery and department stores, 
and, perhaps, even more frequently in 
country general stores. More than nine-tenths 
of those sold in Wisconsin are manufactured out- 
side of the state, and by far the larger part of 
of those sold are sold in stores other than 

Manufacturers guard the secrets of their prep- 
arations assiduously and In no cases publish 
formulae upon their labels. The evils occurring 
through this class of preparations are numerous 
and serious. 

Liquor Cures are numerous and frequently con- 
tain strychnine and other poisonous substances. 

Opium Cures are almost invariably found to 
consist of concentrated solutions of morphine, 
the active principle of the very thing which 
they are supposed to lessen the craving for. 

So-called Consumption Cures consist in some 
instances of opiates or exhilarating drugs such 
as extract of Cannabis Indica (Hasheesh.) 

Medicines supposed to aid nutrition are of two 
kinds, — those which are harmful, generally con- 
taining opiates, and those which are more or 
less efEective but are simple substances well 
known and sold at a price outrageous in pro- 
portion to the price of the material used. 

Soothing syrups are another class which are 
prone to contain opiates, and it is only a ques- 


Dairy and Food Ctommissfoner. 171 

tion in my mind who should be held amenable 
to the law, the manufacturers or the mothers 
who keep infants almost continually under the 
influence of morphine in this form during the 
first few months of their lives. 

In my opinion a national law is necessary to 
efSciently cope with this class of evil-doers, as 
no local legislation will prove effective, for the 
seller does not know the contents of these pack- 
ages and the manufacturer keeps them secret 
and the absence of injurious substances can only 
be proven at the expense of much time and 
j>egired A desirable drug law would define all sub- 

legisiatioa. stances as drugs or medicines for which defini- 
tions and tests for purity or directions for prep 
aration are given in the United States Phar 
macopcea and National Formulary. Substances 
not defined in these works should be required to 
comply with such tests and- standards of purity 
as are laid down in the Pharmacopcea of the 
country from which they are taken. 

The following drugs have been examined at the") request 
of purchasers and of Mr. B. B. Heimstreet Secetary of the 
Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association: 

Lttueed Oil, Sent br Thos. Atkinson, Uarkesan. Said to have been sold hj American 
. Lbueed Oil Co. CoDtaiued 30.5 per cent, paraffin oil. 

TarpenHne. Sentbr — ^. Pure. 

Cream of Tartar. Bought of Welch A Herriok, HadisoD, bj J. Scanlaa. Pare 
Cream of Tartar. Boocht of Sattsr, Vick h Co., Uadisou, b; J. Scanlaa. Contained 

much lialolniD tartrate. 
Cream of Tartar, Bought of Corrr Bma., Uadison, br J. Sconlan, Contained alnm, 

acid phoepbatos and starob. 
Beef. iBi'ie andiron. Bought bj B. B. Helnutreet at Solomon's Department Stoni, Oeb- 

kosh. Solids, 10. SBpei oeob Asb, -ZS per cenL Contained bnt traces ot iroD. 

Alcohol, by wt.. 9.tt8 per cent. Contained sherry vine not detaunated and no tdno- 

tare ot cLtnxhloride of iron. 
Wyeth'ilMef.v/i'ttaaairim. Bolide, U.tiS pet cent. Asb, .79 per cent. Alcohol, by wt 

16.19. Tlie wine vas detannatsd aod oitr&«hlorlde of iron present. 
ItiriigreiM. SeatbyF. A. Ssdswiok, CliatoaTille,WiB. Pun. 


B^ort of the Wisconsin 


The following samples of whiskey were examined upon 
request of the sender: 

Sent by W. O. Wooka. No. 1. L. OcmenlieimeT A Co., St. Ijoais, maker. Alcohol, by 

Three samples of flour have been examined with the fol- 
lowing results: 

eaastioa" brHQd, made by Wm. ListmsD, Superiot. Reported pure. 

, Pore. No.l Proctionllj' pare 

Two samples of lard were examined: 

Seat by Woodard t Stone, Watertonn. Free from forelsii lata, but with atearma 

lar^ly removed. 
Sent by McArthur, UadlBon. Cootaiaed no foreign fab. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. S. Mitchell, 
Sept. 30th, 1896, _ Chemist. 


Dairy and Food (Jommutsioner. 



The Dairy School, established by the University of Wis- 
consin, MadisoQ, is a natural sequence of the disinterested 
efforts of a loyal band ot dairy workers who came together 
for the first time in Watertown about a quarter of a century 
ago with the determination to make Wisconsin what she 
was evidently designed by nature to be, a great dairy state. 
We know of no instance where something has grown out of 
nothing; nor can we point to instances where great results 
grew from insignificant efforts. To such men as Dousman, 
DeLand, Hoard, Hazen, Pavill, Smith, Curtis, and later 
Beach and others, must be given the credit for originating 
the Wisconsin Dairy School, because it was due to the ef- 
forts of these workers that the machinery was set in mo- 
tion, which has brought about the present situation. No 
one can read over the early annual reports of the Wiscon- 
sin State Dairyman's Association, prepared and printed at 
the expense of its limited membership, without becom- 
ing deeply impressed with the marked earnestness, wise 
unselfishness and complete harmony exhibited by these pio 
neers laboring to bring Wisconsin to the standard of a 
dairy state. The leaves which crown the forest trees in 
spring-time are the natural result of forces working har- 
moniously in nature ; so our dairy school and all the good 
which may flow from it is but the natural product of the 
forces set in motion by this association. May the young 
da'rymen of Wisconsin learn a never-to-be-forgotten lesson 


174 Report of the Wisconsin 

from these pioneers in what can be aoeomplishGd when 
there is unanimity of purpose and unselfish devotiOQ to a 
giveo end. 

When the writer was appointed professor of agriculture 
in the state university in 1830, Hiram Smith wrote to him 
at once, advising that he come to the dairy districts ofWis- 
consin at the earliest possible date to study its dairy condi- 
tions and dairy needs. After a year or two a little dairy 
house costing not over $500 was built at the University 
Farm and some dairy investigations begun. In 1889 this 
building was made over at an expense of $1,000 into a small 
school room, with office attached. Our Short Course in 
Agriculture had been previously established. In 1889, with 
the completion of the larger dairy room, it was announced 
in our Short Course circulars that we were prepared to 
give instruction In dairy matters, and Mr. E. M. O'Connell, 
of Sheboygan county, was employed as instructor in cheese- 
making, while Dr. S. M. Babcock took charge of butter- 
making and the theory of dairying. Two students applied 
for this special line of instruction. 

In July, 1890, the University of Wisconsin announced to 
the dairy world in Bulletin 24 of the Experiment Station, 
the discovery of what is now known as the Babcock Milk 
Test, invented by Dr. S. M. Babcock, of the Agricultural 
College, and given to the world without patent or restric- 
tion of any kind whatsoever. This test proved at once a 
boon to dairymen, and lifted all branches of dairying to a 
higher plane, because it told the farmer just what his cows 
were doing and the factory operator just how his milk 
operations were proceeding. 

In 1891 we advertised that creamery and butter making 
would be taught with Mr. H. B. Gurler, the well known 
dairy expert of Illinois, in charge of that line of instruc- 
tion, while Mr. J. W. Decker was in charge of the cheese 
work. The great interest awakened by the Babcock milk 
test and the larger knowledge of what was taught by us 
brought more applicants than could be accommodated in 
our limited, inconvenient quarters. However, we accepted 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 175 

seventy students, who uncomplainingly made the best of 
tiie situation in the cramped quarters with the poorly ar- 
ranged dairy apparatus. Most fortunately for all concerned, 
our state legislature of 1891, was then in session and we 
were frequently visited by members who came singly and 
in groups to learn of the work in progress. Noting, as 
no one could fail to do, the lack of room and accommoda- 
tions, we were promised something better. The result 
was a dairy building costing over 130,000 .^beside equip- 
ment The one member of the Board of Reg:ents who had 
been zealous first, last and always for dairy advancement, 
was Hiram Smith of Sheboygan county, a man known to 
every dairy farmer in Wisconsin, as he was known to all 
the intelligent dairymen of America. Mr, Smith lived to 
see the Dairy School founded and its work well inaugura- 
ted, but died before the new building was erected. The 
regents of the University wisely decided to name the new 
building " Hiram Smith Hall" in honor of this veteran 
who was faithful to the interest so close to his heart up 
to the day of his death. 

The doors of the Hiram Smith Hall were opened for the 
first time in January, 1893, with an attendance of 100 pupils, 
its full capacity. From that time until the present it has 
been filled each winter, many applicants having been turned 
away for lack of accommodation. An examination of our 
records shows that seven classes have received dairy in- 
struction at the University of Wisconsin, including the first 
year when there were but two pupils. In all 574 different 
pupils have registered with us; 481 from Wisconsin and 93 
from other states and foreign countries. Illinois has sent 
us 18 students; Ohio 10, Canada 10, Iowa 9, and from each 
of 14 other states and Japan there have come from 1 to 7. 
These figures do not include several hundred young men 
taught farm dairying in the same building. 

For several years the milk required for dairy school in- 
struction was purchased at some outside point and shipped 
to the creamery by railroad; this method proving very un- 
satisfactory, in the sprincof J 894 the University Creamery 


176 Report of the Wisconsin 

was opened, receiving milk from the farmers in the vicin- 
ity of Madison. From that date on dairy products have 
been manufactured in Hiram Smith Hall each week day 
thr uohout the year. Prom 5,000 to 10,000 pounds of milk 
are received daily to be worked over into such products as 
Pasteurized cream. Pasteurized milk, fancy print butter, 
Cheddar cheese, etc. Cu&tomers for these products are 
found in Madison, Milwaukee, Chicago and at other points. 
Receiving milk daily, we have ample opportunity for in- 
vestigation at all times and for proper instruction in the 
winter-time when our students are present. 

In the fall of 1891, E..H Farrlngtoti, chemist of the Illin- 
ois experiment station, was appointed associate professor 
of dairy husbandry and given direct charge of the Dairy 
School, as well as the creamery. As now conducted the 
university creamery requires the constant services of five 
workmen; nearly always there are several factory pupils 
learning to become operators. 

From April until winter, investigations relating to dairy- 
ing are constantly in progress, With the opening of win- 
ter our pupils who can then best be spared from cheese 
factories and creameries, flock to us for instruction. Dur- 
ing the term there are required eight lecturers and nine in- 
structors to properly care for and guide the dairy classes. 
This large force is made necessary by our system of in- 
struction, which requires that the pupils shall themselves 
actually perform all of the operations of the creamery and 
cheese factory, under close guidance. It would be far 
easier and much more economical to have our pupils stand 
by and watch trained operators manipulate the milk and 
turn out the products, but any such instruction as that 
would leave a wide gap between theory and practice and 
would not be worthy of an institution bearing the name of 
the Wisconsin Dairy School, 

As to results in our investigational field we must point to 
the invention of the Short's Milk Test, a most ingenious 
method for analyzing milk; the Babcock Milk Test, which 
has become the common method of analyzing milk the world 


Dairy and Food Vo-itinissioner. 17? 

over; and the numerous later bulletins bearing on dairy 
matters covering such questions as The Power Test of 
Cream Separators, A Study of Bacillus 41 for imputing 
Flavors to Butter, The Alkaline Test of Acidity in Cream, 
The Restoration of Viscosity in Pasteurized Cream, etc., etc. 
Concerning results from the educational work, we can 
point to about 100 pupils now operating creameries in Wis- 
consin and another hundred conducting cheese factories in 
our state, besides scores sent to other commonwealths 
where they have positions as dairy operators; scores more 
are operating farm dairies. The Wisconsin Dairy School 
was tae first of its kind established in America. Prom its 
walls have gone forth young men who have taught dairy- 
ing in schools in Canada, Maine, Vermont, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, North 
Dalcota and Washington. Thus the little candle of dairy 
knowledge lighted by our dairy pioneers at Watertown a 
quarter of a century ago has shed its light not only all 
over our own state but has also thrown its rays of help- 
fulness and progress from the Atlantic in the east to the 
Pacific on the west. 
12— D. & F. 


178 Report oj the Wiaoonsin 



Cheddar cheese is one of the leading dairy products of 
Wisconsin, but a large part of it is inferior iu quality or 
not aniform in texture, because of improper methods of 
manufacture or poor equipment of factories. 

The state dairy school of Madison and the instructors 
sent out by the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association are en- 
deavoring to disseminate a uniform method of manufactiu'e 
with a view to the uniformity of product, and it is tho 
purpose of this article to give a short description of this 
method and at the same time give some suggestions about 
the equipment of our factories. 


A Cheddar cheese should be clean, neatly bandaged and 
smooth on the ends. It should give slightly to pressure 
by the fingers, but should not show soft spots or hoies. A 
plug drawn with a tryer should be uniform in color, — 
should not be cut in color by acids, — and should be trans- 
lucent when held up to the light. It should show no ragged 
nor pin holes, should bend slightly before brealiing, and. 
when it does break, should show a fracture like flint. It 
should begin to break down at about two weeks old and 
mould in the fingers like wax. A cheese that sticks to the 
fingers is said to be weak bodied, while one that is rub- 
bery or crumbly is said to be corky. 


First class cheese can be made only from first class 
milk. Any milk that has a bad flavor should be rejected. 


Dairy aitd Food OommiaaioTier. 179 

In many factories great trouble is experienced from gas 
ia the curd. The gas is produced by bacteria which find 
their way into the milk from uncleanly conditions. 

The cows should be Itept clean and milked in a clean 
place. The cans and strainers should be carefully washed 
and scalded. Old, rusty cans should be discarded. Sour 
whey should not be kept in the milk cans for it is a good 
medium for breeding bad flavors. The whey tanks should 
be above ground and cleaned every day. I believe the 
rotten whey tanks are the cause of thousands of dollars of 
loss every year. 


Milk should be areated by running through an areator 
in a clean place, and then cooled by running cold water 
around the cans. 


It is often impossible for a maker to tell just where the 
gas or bad flavor comes from, and for this reason we think 
it unjust for makers to warrant their cheese. By the use 
of the fermentation test such milk can be located. A de- 
scription of this test may be found in the Wisconsin Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, XII. Annual Report, page 149, 
and a bulletin on the subject is now in preparation. 

The patron whose milk causes the trouble should be 
obliged to stand the loss. 

Milk, as soon as in the vat, should have been heated to 
87" P. and a rennet t«st made. 

The Monrad test is largely used. The apparatus con- 
sists of a tin cylinder having a volume of 160 cubic centi- 
meters for measuring the milk, and a pint tin basin for 
making the test in; a 5 c. c. pipette and a 50 c. c. glass 
cylinder. To make a test a rennet solution is made by 
diluting 5 c.c. of strong extract (commercial) to 50 c.c. 

One hundred and sixty c.c, of milk at 86' P. is meas- 
ured into the basin and a few specks of charcoal scattered 
on the top of it; 5 c.c. of the dilate extract is then meas- 


IWO ll-'pfirt of the Wiaconsin 

ured into tho milk and set in a whirling motion by Stir- 
ling with a thermometer, and when the coagulation takes 
place, the specks stop moving instantly. Tho number of 
seconds required for coagulation is noted. 

If the milli is not ripe enough, it should be held longer 
to ripen. The ripening is a souring of the milk, and the 
rennet test is really a measurement of the amount of acid 

About sixty seconds is the point usually ripened to with 
Hausen's Extract, but the point is different in different 
factories. The milk should be set, not at just sixty sec- 
onds in every factory, but at such a point as will give one- 
eighth of an inch of acid ia two andahalfhoursfrom sotting." 
Without the rennet test, a maker is not certain how long 
his curd will lie in the whey before taking acid. If the 
milk is very sweet, a starter made from good, cloan milk 
should be added. 


jzJnough rennet should be used to coagulate the mi)k at 
86" P. in twenty minutes. The curd should bo cut first 
with a horizontal knife and then with a perpendicular 
knife to insure even cutting. After stirring for five min- 
utes the temperature should be raised slowly to 98",— one 
degree in three to five minutes. 

In two hours and a half from the time of setting there 
should one-eighth of an inch of fine strings on the hot iron 
and the whey drawn. 

The curd should be dipped, on to racks placed either in 
a curd sink or the bottom of the vat. A linen strainer 
cloth is spread over the racks to prevent the curd fall- 
ing through. It is then stirred until the excess of whey 
is out and allowed to mat. In ten or fifteen minutes it will 
be firm enough to be cut into blocks and turned. 

In the course of about two hours the blocks will be flat- 
tened down and become meaty, i. e., will tear like the meat 
on a chicken breast. It is then milled. I prefer either the 
Pohl mill, which picks the curd to pieces, or the Harris 
mill, which cuts it into uniform strips. 



Dairy and Food Commiesumer. 181 

After milling it should not be matted again, but stirred 
over with a large curd fork to air. When the curd gets 
meliow and the fat starts to run and the hot iron test shows 
an ii^eh or more acid, it is ready to salt, on the average 
about 2J lbs. per 100 lbs. of curd. But the amount of salt 
should be varied to meet conditions. A moist curd needs 
more salt than a dry one. The effect of salt on a curd is 
to expel moisture.* When the salt has been absorbed by 
the curd it is ready for the hoops. Card should be press'^d 
at £0 to 85 degrees F. If too warm the fat will run be- 
tween the pieces and prevent proper closing. If the room 
is cold, the curd must be warmer than otherwise. 

The use of dividers in cheddar hoops for mailing hoops 
cannot be too strongly condemned. The cheese pressed in 
such a manner cannot be of as uniform size and shape, nor 
be bandaged as neatly as in good flat hoops. 


The curing of the cheese is half of the making, and I 
must say that there are very few curing rooms in the 
state that are worthy the name of curing rooms. 

The room should be held at a temperature of sixty de- 
grees P., but how few are held at that point in hot summer 
weather? There should really be two curing rooms. The 
first one could be the smaller, should be fairly dry, and 
held at about 65 to 70 degrees F. In this room the cheese 
should be held for about ten days to form a good rind and 
start the curing process. It should next go into a room 
where the air is quite moist and where the temperature 
can be held at 60 degrees F. 

Because of the poor curing rooms, where the cheese can 
not be longer kept on account of the high temperature, it 
is sold at two weeks old, and in this partially cured leath- 
ern condition, it goes onto the market and the consumer 
does not like it 

Oar home consumption would be five times what it is 
if fully cured cheese were put onto the market. I know of 

* See page 220i Wis. Agr. Bsp Station XI. Annual Report. 


ISa ■ Report of the Wisconsin 

a factory in norihem WiscoDsin where the cheese is not 
sold till two months old, and there is a demand for the 
entire f roduct at a cent above the market price. 

The reader is referred to the Thirteenth Annual Report 
of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station for the 
effect of different temperatures and moisture on the curing 
of cheese. 

The proper place for curing cheddar cheese is a cellar, 
such as is used for brick and Swiss, and until we have such 
rooms, we cannot expect to be able to cure cheese prop- 

What applies to curing rooms will apply largely to the 
other factory conditions. The old heater vat is a snare. 
It cannot be under control as readily as a steam heated vat, 
and there is usually no other place to get hot water. The 
result is, there is not hot wator for scrubbing purposes. 

I have already mentioned that the whey tank should be 
above ground where it can be cleaned out every day. 

The matter of drainage is usually neglected. All slops 
should be carried away from the factory. 

If these things were considered and faetorymen would 
endeavor to help themselves along these very simple lines, 
there world be less loss of money and less need of calling 
on the state instructors for help. 


Da ry and Food Chmmissioner. 



On the subject of properly curing cheese, I will say 
that most of the cheese in this state a.Fe not properly 
cured nor are they properly made and colored. That 
is speaking of cheese as a whole as they run through- 
out the state. We have gone so far now that we have no 
competition with any filled cheese aud it is of the greatest 
impoftance that we should educate all of our cheese 
makers in the state, to make a nice uniform cheese, 
whether they are making them white or colored, in order 
to help our reputation and bring the cheese up to a'high 
standard. What is necessary is that many factories should 
be run in combination and be under one supervision, as is 
done in Canada and in New York state. I find the New 
York cheese are made and cured most uniformly. The 
same is true in Canada. The trouble is that most of the 
factories which are erected throughout the state are noth- 
ing but cheap, rough buildings with curing rooms exposed 
to all kinds of weather. What is necessary is to have a 
good substantial curing room built which will be under the 
control as to temperature. The cheese which are made 
aid marketed in our state are not held long enough to be 
properly cured. The factory men as a rule are too 
anxious to get rid of the cheese and to get their money for 
them. Therefore they are suffering a great loss in value. 
We cure our cheese mostly in dry basement curing rooms, 
well ventilated and we have them under control so as to 
have them cool in summer and warm in the winter time. 
Besides we give our cheese alrout. ten days more age than 


184 Report of the Wisconsin 

the majority of the factories do in our state and we find 
that cheese held on the shelves twenty days give much 
better satisfaction and will stand up, keep its flavor and 
have a better appearance than cheese which Is only held 
nine or ten days, practically green, boxed and put away, 
which is liable to hurt the flavor and also the appearance 
of the cheese. I think at the dairy schools these points 
should be impressed upon the cheese maimers, to make a 
uniform cheese and to cure them uniformly, as much as to 
teach them to make a good cheese. I am very anxious to 
see this thing brought into force very soon, as the time is not 
very far distant when if we cure our cheese properly Wis- 
consin will take her old position at the front in the world's 


Dairy and Food Commmioner. 


[Pdblic— No. 182.] 

An Act De&niDg cheese, and also imposing a tax upon and 
reo;ulailDg the manufacture, sale, importation, and ex 
portation of " filled cheese. " 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of Avierica in Congress assembled, That for ■ 
the purposes of this Act, the word " cheese " shall be un- 
derstood to mean the food product known as cheese, and 
which is made from milk or cream and without the addi- 
tion of butter, or any animal, vegetable, or other oils or 
fats foreign to such milk or cream, with or without addi- 
tional coloring matter. 

Sec I ION 2. That for the purposes of this Act certain sub- 
stances and compounds shall be known and designated as 
" filled cheese, " namely : All substances made of milk or 
skimmed milk, with the admixture of butter, animal oils or 
fats, vegetable or any other oils, or compounds foreign to 
such mltk, and made in imitation or semblance of cheese. 

Se:;tio;j 3. That spscial taxes are imposed as follows; 

Manufaiturers of filled cheese shall pay four hundred 
dollars for each and every factory per annum. Every per ' 
son, firm, or corporation who manufactures filled cheese 
for sale shall be deemed a manufacturer of filled cheese. 
Wholesale dealers in filled cheese shall pay two hundred 
and fifty dollars per annum. Every person, firm or cor- 
poration who sells or offers for sale filled cheese in the 
original manufacturer's package for resale, or to retail 
dealers as hereinafter defined, shall be deemed a wholesale 


186 B^>ort of (Ac Wiscorwin 

dealer in filled cheese. But any manufacturer of filled 
cheese who has given the required bond and paid the re- 
quired special tax, and who ^ells only filled cheese of his 
own production, at the place of manufacture, in the orig- 
inal packages, to which the tax paid stamps are affixed, 
shall not be required to pay the special tax of a wholesale 
dealer in filled cheese on account of such sales. 

Retail dealers in filled cheese shall pay twelve dollars 
per annum. Every person who sells filled cheese at retail, 
not for resale, and for actual consumption, shall be re- 
garded as a retail dealer in filled cheese, and sections 
thirty-two hundred and thirty-two, thirty-two hundred and 
thirty-three, thirty-two hundred and thirty-four, thirty-two 
hundred and thirty-five, thirty-two hundred and thirty-six. 
thirty-two hundred and thirty seven, thirty-two hundred 
and thirty-eight, thirty-two hundred and thirty-nine, thirty- 
two hundred and forty, thirty two hundred and forty-one, 
thirty-two hundred and forty-three of the Revised Statutes 
are, so far as applicable, made to extend to and include and 
of the United States apply to the special taxes imposed by 
this section and to the persons, firms or corporations upon 
whom they are imposed : Provided, That all special taxes 
under this act shallbecome due on the first day of July in 
every year, or on commencing any manufacture, trade or 
business on which said tax is imposed. In the latter case 
the tax shall be reckoned proportionately from the first 
day of the month in which the liability to the special tax 
commences to the first day of July following. 

Section 4. That every person, firm, or corporation who 
carries on the business of a manufacturer of filled cheese 
without having paid the special tax therefor, as required 
by law, shall, besides being liable to the payment of the 
tax, be fined not less than four hundred dollars 
and not more than three thousand dollars; and e?ery per- 
son, firm, or corporation who carries on the business of a 
wholesale dealer in filled cheese without having paid the 
special tax therefor, as required by law, shaU, besides be- 
ing liable to the payment of the ta^, be fined Qot le^? tbaq 


Dairy and Food Commimioner. 187 

two hundred and fifty dollars nor more than one thousand 
dollars; and every person, firtn, or corporatiou who carries 
on the business of a retail dealer in filled cheese without 
having paid the special tax therefor, as required by law. 
shall, besides being liable for the payment of the tax, be 
fined not less than forty nor more than five hundred doUar^j 
for each and every offense. 

Section 5. That every manufacturer of filled cheese 
shall file with the collector of internal revenue of the dis- 
trict in which his manufactory is located such notices, in- 
ventories, and bonds, shall keep such books and render 
such returns of materials and products, shall put up such 
signs and affix such number to his factory, and conduct his 
business under such surveillance of officers and agents as 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval 
of the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation re- 
quire. But the bond required of such manufacturer shall 
be with sureties satisfactory to the collector of internal 
revenue, and in a penal sum of not less than five thousand 
dollars; and the amount of said bond may be increased 
from time to time, and additional sureties required, at the 
discretion of the collector or under instructions of the Com- 
missioner of Internal Bevenue. Any manufacturer of filled 
cheese who fails to comply with the provisions of this sec 
tion or with the regulations herein authorized, shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdem&anor and upon conviction there- 
of shall be fined not less than five hundred nor more than 
one thousand dollars. 

Section 6. That filled cheese shall be packed by the 
manufacturers in wooden packages only, not before use,l 
for that purpose, and marked, stamped and branded with 
the words " filled cheese " in black faced letters not less 
than two inches in length, in a circle in the center of the 
top and bottom of the cheese; and in black- faced letters of 
not less than two inches in length in line from the top to 
the bottom of the cheese, on the side in four places 
equidistant from each other; and the package containing 
such cheese shall be marked in the same manner, and in 

188 Beport of the Wisconsin 

the same Dumber of places, and in the same description of 
letters as above provided for the marking of the cheese; 
and all sales or consignments made by manufacturers of 
filled cheese to wholesale dealers in filled cheese or to ex- 
porters of filled cheese shall be in original stamped pack 
aees. Jietail dealers in filled cheese shaJl sell only fi-om 
original stamped packages, and shall pack the filled cheese 
when sold in suitable wooden or paper packages, which 
shall be marked and branded in accordance with rules and 
regulations to be prescribed by the commissioner of internal 
revenue with the approval of the secretary of the treasury. 
Every person who knowingly sells or offers to sell, or de- 
livers or offers to deliver, filled cheese in any other form 
than in new wooden or paper packages, marked and 
branded as hereinbefore provided and as above described, 
or who packs in any package or packages filled cheese in 
any manner contrary to law, or who falsely brands any 
package or affixes a stamp on any package denoting a less 
amount of tax than that required by law, shall upon convic- 
tion thereof be fined for each and every offense not less than 
fifty dollars and not more than five hundred dollars, or be 
imprisoned not less than thirty days nor more than one 

Secfion 7. That all retail and wholesale dealers in filled 
cheese shall display in a conspicuous place in his or their 
sales room a sign bearing the words "Pilled cheese sold 
here" in black-faced letters not less than six inches in 
length, upon a white ground, with the name and number 
of the revenue district in which his or their business is 
conducted; and any wholesale or retail dealer in filled 
cheese who fails or neglects to comply with the provisions 
of this section shall be aeemed guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and shall on conviction thereof be fined for each and every 
offense not less than fifty dollars and not more than two 
hundred dollars. 

. Sections. Thatevery manufacturer of filled cheese shall 
securely affix, by pasting on eaeh package containing fiUed 
cheese manufactured by him, a label on which shall be 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 189 

printed, besides the number of the manufactory and the 
district and state in Which it is situated, these words: 
" Notice. — The manufacturer of the filled cheese herein 
contained has complied with all the requirements oE the 
law. Every person is cautioned not to use eiiher this 
package again or the stamp thereon again, nor to remove 
the contents of this pactiage without destroying said slamp. 
under the penalty provided by law in such cases." Every 
manufacturer of filled cheese who neglects to affix sucli 
label to any package containing fiUed cheese made by him 
or sold or offered for sale by or for him, and every person 
who removes any such label so afBxed from any such pack: 
age, shall be fined fifty dollars for each package in respect 
to which such offense is committed. 

Section 9. That upon all filled cheese which shall be 
manufactured there shall be assessed and collected a t^x 
of one cent per pound, to be paid by the manufacturer 
thereof; and any fractional part of a pound in a package 
shall be taxed as a pound. The tax levied by this section 
shall be represented by coupon stamps; and the provisions 
of existing laws governing the engraving, issue, sale, ac- 
countability, effacement, and destruction of stamps relat- 
ing to tobacco and snuff, as far as applicable, are hereby 
made to apply to stamps provided for by this section. 

Section 10. That whenever any manufacturer of filled 
c'leese sells or removes for sale or consumption any filled 
cheese upon which the tax is required to be paid by 
stamps, without paying such tax, it shall be the duty of 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, within a period of 
not more than two years after such sale or removal, upon 
satisfactory proof, to estimate the amount of tax which 
has been omitted to be paid and to make an assessment 
therefor and certify the same to the collector. The tax so 
assessed shaJl be in addition to the penalties imposed by 
law for such sale or removal. 

Section U. That all filled cheese as herein defined im- 
ported from foreign countries shall, in addition to any im- 
port duty imposed on the same, pay an intei-nal revenu 


190 Report of the Wisconsin 

tax of eight cents per pound, such tax to be represented 
by coupon stamps; and such imported filled cheese and the 
packages containing the same shall be stamped, marked 
and branded, as in the case of filled cheese manufactured 
in the United States. 

Section 12, That any person who knowingly pur- 
chases or receives for sale any filled cheese -which has not 
been branded or stamped according to law, or which is 
contained in packages not branded or marked according 
to law, shall be liable to a penalty of fifty dollars for each 
such offense. 

Section 13. That every person who knowingly pur- 
chases or receives for sale any filled cheese from any 
manufacturer or importer who has not paid the special 
tax herein provided for shall be liable, for each offense, 
to a penalty of one hundred dollars and to a forfeiture of 
all articles so purchased or received, or of the full value 

Section 14. That whenever any stamped package con- 
taining filled cheese is emptied it shall be the duty of the 
person in whose hands the same is to destroy the stamps 
thereon; and any person who willfully neglects or refuses 
so to do shall, for each such ofFense, be fined not exceeding 
fifty dollars or imprisoned not less than ten days nor more 
than six months. 

Section 15. That the commissioner of internal revenue 
is authorized to have applied scientific tests, and to decide 
whether any substances used in the manufacture of filled 
cheese contain ingredients deleterious to health But incase 
of doubt or contest his decision in this class of cases may be 
appealed from to a board hereby constituted for the pur- 
pose, and composed of the Surgeon- General of the Array, 
the Surgeon- General of the Navy, and the Secretary of 
Agriculture, and the decision of this board shall bo final 
in the premises. 

Section 16. That all packages of filled cheese subject to 
tax under this act that shall be found without stamps or 
marks as herein provided, and all filled cheese intended 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 191 

for human consumption which contains ingredients ad- 
judged as hereinbefore provided to be deleterious to the 
public health, shall be forfeited to the United States. 

Section 17. That all fines, penalties, and forfeitures im- 
posed by this act may be recovered in any court of com- 
petent jurisdiction. 

Section 18. That the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall 
make all needful regulations for the carrying into effect 
the provisions of this act. 

Section 19. That this act shall go into effect on the 
ninetieth day after its passage, and all wooden packages 
containing ten or more pounds of filled cheese found on the 
premises of any dealer on and after the ninetieth day suc- 
ceeding the date of the passage of this act shall be 
deemed to be taxable under section nine of this act, and 
shall be tiized, and shall have affixed thereto the stamps, 
marks and brands required by this act or by regulations 
made pursuant to this act; and for the purpose of secur- 
ing the afBxing of the stamps, marks, and brands required 
by this act, the filled cheese shall be regarded as having 
been manufactured and sold or removed from the manufac- 
tory for consumption or use on or after the day this act 
takes effect; and such stock on hand at the time of the tak- 
ing effect of this act may be stamped, marked and branded 
under special regulations of the Ckimmissioner of Internal 
Revenue, approved by the Secretary of the Treasury; and 
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue may authorize the 
holder of such packages to mark and brand the same 
and to affix thereto the proper tax paid stamps. 

Approved, June 6, 1896. 


Report oj the Wisconsin 


A Bulletin of tlie United States Department of Agricul- 
ture issued March 30, lSd6, gives the following list of state 
dairy commissioners and dairy associations in the United 
States and Canada. 


California. Wm. Vanderbilt, 113 Davis Street, San Fran- 
cisco. Secretary and Agent, State Dairy Bureau. 

Colorado. Mrs. Annie D. Clemmer, Denver. State Dairy 

Connecticut. C S. Burlingame, Hartford. Dairy Commis- 

Iowa. W. K. Boardman, Cas Moines. State Dairy Com- 

Massachusetts. Geo. M. Whitaker. Boston. Executive 
Officer, State Dairy Bureau (of Massachusetts State 
Board of Agriculture). 

Michigan. C. E. Storrs, Lansing. Commissioner, State 
Dairy and Food Commission, 

Minnesota. Berndt Anderson, Comtnis-sioner, St. Paul ; 
E. J. Graham, Assistant Commissioner, St. Paul, 
State Dairy and Food Commission. 

New Jersey. Geo. W. McGuire, Trenton. Dairy Commis- 

New York. Fred. C. Schraub, Albany. State Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture (includes dairy). Geo. L. Flan- 
ders, Assistant Commissioner, Albany. B. F. Van Val- 
kenburg. Assistant Commissifmer, 228 Greenwich street, 
New York City, 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. iy» 

North Dakota. A. H. Laughlin, Bismarck. State Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, and ex officio State Dairy 

Ohio. Dr. Frederick B. McNeal, Columbus. Dairy and 
Food Commissioner. 

Oregon. H. B. Luce, Salem. State Dairy and Food Com- 

PennsyWsnia. Levi Wells Harrisburg. Dairy and Pood 
Commissioner (of State Department of Agriculture). 

Washingcon, P. J. Smith, Issaquah. State Dairy Com- 

Wisconsin. H. C. Adams, Madison. Dairy and Food Com- 


National Dairy Union. Organized 1894. President, W. H. 
Hatch, Hannibal, Mo. Secretary, D. W. Wilson, El- 
gin, III. Annual Meeting, Chicago, 111., January 14, 1896. 

National Dairy Congress. Organized 1894. President (act- 
ing), A. R. Eastman, Waterville, N. Y. Secretary, 
D. P. Ashburn, Gibbon, Nebr. Annual meeting, Wash- 
ington, D. C, February 27, 1895. 

National Creamery Butter makers' Association. Organized 
1891. President, J. W. Segar, Pecatonica, 111. Secre- 
tary, E. Sudendorf, Elgin, 111. Annual Meeting, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, February 24-29, 1896. 

New England Milk-producers' Union. Organized 1881. 
President, Chas. A. Gleaeon, New Braintree, Mass, 
Secretary, Geo. M. Whitaker, P. O. Box 1332, Boston, 
Mass. Annual Meeting, Boston, Januuay, 1896. 

Alabama. Alabama Dairymen's Association. Organized 
1895. President, Isaac Ross, Opelika. Secretary, F. 
H. Bates, Hamburg. Annual Meeting, Montgomery, 
December 12, 1895. 

^?-°-^^' D,.„ze«.vG00glc 

Iflj Report oj llie Wisconsin 

California. California Dairy Association. Organized 1893, 
President, Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo. Secretary, 
Samuel B Watson, 113 Davis Street, San Francisco. 
Annual Meeting, San Francisco, September 11, 1895, 
Dairymen's Association of Southern California. Organized 
1894. President, C K. Sessions. Los Angeles. Sec- 
retary, R, R. Risdon, IjOS Angeles. Quarterly Meet- 
ing, January, 1896. 

Connocticut. Connecticut Dairymen's Association. Organ- 
ized 1882. President, S. M. "Wells, Wethersfield. Sec- 
retary, W. L. Bartholomew, Putnam. Annual Meeting, 
Hartford. January 21-23. 1896. I 

Connecticut Creamery Association. Organized 1890. 
President, J. E. Leonard, Jewett City. Secretary, 
Frank Avery, Wapping. Annual Meeting, Hartford, 

Georgia. Georgia Dairymen's Association. Organized 
1894. President, R. J. Redding, Experiment. Secre- 
tary, M. E. Duggan,.Sparfca. Annual Meeting, GrifGn, 
November 14' and 15, 1895. 

Illinois. Illinois Dairymen's Association. Organized 1874. 
President, Geo. H. Gurler, Dekalb. Secretary, E. E. 
Critchfield, 511 Rookery Building, Chicago. Annual! 
Meeting, Princeton, March 4-6, 189G. | 

Indiana. Indiana State Dairy Association. Organized 1691.; 
President, C. S. Plumb. Lafayette. Secretary, H. C; 
Beckman, Brunswick. Annual Meeting, Fort Wayne, 
December 28, 1895. | 

Iowa. Iowa State Dairy Association. Organized 1876. 
President, H. J. Metert, Walker. Secretary, C. L. 
Gabrilson, New Hampton. Annual Meeting, Waterloo, 
November 12-14, 1895. 

Kansas. Kansas State Dairy Assot^iation. Organized 18B7. 
President, H, M. Brandt, Canton. Secretary, J. L. 
Hoffman, Newton. Annual Meeting, Newton, Novem- 
ber 20-22, 1895. 

Maine. (Note; The State Board of Agriculture has charge 
of the dairy interests of Maine, there being no special 

Da,ry and totxi. OomhiUMioiit-r 195 

orgatiizatioD of dairymen.) iSacretavy. B. W. MuKonn, 
Augusta. Annual Dairy Meeting. Norway, December 
4-G, 1895. 
Massachusetts. Massachusetts Creamery Association. Or- 
ganized 1895. President, M. C. Bull, Springlield. Sec- 
retary, A. W. Morse, Balehertown. Annual Meeting, 
Northampton, February 21, ISOfi. 
iMichigan. Michigan Dairymen's Association. Organized 
1885. President, James McBride, Owosso. Secretary, 
S. .T. Wilson, Plinl, Annual Meeting, Lansing, Feb- 
ruary 4-6, 1896. 
tfiiiucsota. Minoesota State Dairymen's Association. Or- 
ganized 1878. President, Henry Ame.«, Litchfield. Sec- 
retary, T. L. Haockei', St. Anthony Park. Annual 
Meeting, Litchfield, December 10-12. 1895. 

Minnesota State Butter and Cheese Makers' Association. 
Organized 1894. President, B. D. White, Manchester. 
Secretary, John TurnbuU, Wells. Annual Meeting, 
Manchester. November 7, 1895. 

lissouri. Missouri State Dairymen's Association. Organ- 
'.::ed 1891. President. A. Dow, Georgetown. Secretary, 
Levi Chubbuck, Kidder. Annual Meeting, Columbia, 
January 13-15, 1896. 

ebraska. Nebraska Dairymen's Association. Organized 
1885. President, E. F. Howe. Fairmont. Secretary, 
S. C. Bassett, Gibbon. Annual Meeting, Lincoln, De- 
cember, 17-19, 1895. 

ew Hampshire. Granite State Dairymen's Association. 
Organized 1881. President. James M. Connor, Hop- 
kinton. Secretary, J. L. Gerrish, Contoocook. An- 
nual Meeting, Lancaster, December 27, 1895. 

ew Jersey. New Jersey Dairymen's Auxiliary Associa- 
tion. Organized 1896. President, J. W. Nicholson, 
Camden. Secretary, George Gillingham, Moorestown. 
Annual Meeting, . 

ew York. New York State Dairymen's Association. Or- 
ganized 1877. President, A. Chase Thompson, Owego. 
Secretray, B. D. Gilbert, Clayville. Annual Meeting, 
Syracuse. December 10 and 11. 1895. i:q,t7,:-rb/GoOglc 

196 Report of the Wisconsin 

North Carolina. North Carolina State Dairymen's Asso- 
ciatioD. Organized 1894. President, J. S. Carr, Dur- 
ham. Secretary, E. B. C. Hambley, Rockwell. An- 
nual Meeting, Hillsboro, February 19, 1896. 

North Dakota. North Dakota State Dairymen's Associa- 
tion. Organized 1891. President, J. B, Power, Power. 
Secretary, K. E. Kaufman, Fargo. Annual Meeting, 
Lisbon, February 18, 1896. 

Ohio. Ohio State Dairy Association. Organized 1894. 
President. T. F. Hunt, Columbus. Secretary, L. P. 
Bailey, Tacoma. Annual Meeting, Columbus, January 

16, 189G. 

Oregon. Oregon Dairymen's Association. Organized : 

President, Thos. Paulsen, Garden Home. Secretary, 
H. M. Williamson, 210 Second Street, Portland. An- 
nual Meeting, Salem, October 2, 18a5. 

Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State Dairymen's Associa- 
tion. Organized 1875. President, H. C. Crawford, 
Cooperstown, Secretary, G. H. St. John, Meadville. 
Annual Meeting, Meadville, March 4-6, 1896. 

South Dakota. South Dakota Dairy Association, Organ- 
ized 1889. President, A. H. Wheaton, Brookings. Sec- 
retary, W. F. T. Bushnell; Aberdeen. Annual Meet- 
ing. Huron, January 21, 1896, 

Utah. Utah Dairymen's Association. Organized 1894. 
President, S. C. Janes. Kaysville. Secretary, H. J. 
Faust, Jr., Salt Lake City. Annual Meeting, . 

Vermont, Vermont Dairymen's Association. Organized 
1809. President, J. O. Sanford, Stamford. Secretary, 
G. W. Pierce, Brattleboro. Annual Meeting, Rutland, 
January 7-9, 1896. 

Washington. Washington State Dairymen's ABSociation. 

^„ Organized . President, A. H. Meade, Auburn, 

King County. Secretary, E. S, Thompson, Sumner, 
Pierce County. Annual Meeting, EUensburg, January 

17, 1896. 

Wisconsin. Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. Organized 
1872. President, George W. Burchard, Port Atkinson. 

Dairy and Food (SMnmissioner. 197 

Secretary, David W. Curtis, Port Atkinson. Annual 
Meeting. Chippewa Palls, February 12-14, 1896. 
Wisconsin Cheese Makers' Association. Organized 1893. 
President, J. K. Powell, New Lisbon. Secretary, 
M. S. Baer, New Lisbon. Annual Meeting, Madison, 
Pebruary 18, 1896. 

Note. — Seven of these state associations are incorpor- 
ated and ten of them receive annual appropriations from 
their respective states, ranging from $500 to f5,CMX). These 
allowances are used to defray the expenses of annual con- 
ventions and to publish the reports of proceedings. In 
other states such proceedings are published in connection 
with the annual reports of the boards and departments of 

Several of the older organizations have published annual 
reports, and sets of these, which it is very difficult to 
now obtain, embrace much dairy information of a valuable 
and practical character. The same is true of the annual 
reports of the American Dairymen's Association (1866-80) 
and the Northwestern Dairymen's Association (1867-83). 
Both of these organizations were disbanded because their 
field of operations had become occupied by the younger 
associations in the several states. 

For the Dominion (or Federal) Government of Canada: 
Prof. James W- Robertson, Ottawa, Canada, Agricultural 
and Dairy Commissioner, Department of Agriculture. As- 
sistants and Members of StafF: J. C. Chapais, St. Denis 
(en bas), Quebec, Assistant Dairy Commissioner. J. A. 
Ruddiek, Kingston, Ontario, Superintendent of Dairy 
School. Thos. J, Dillon, Charlottetown, Prince Edward 
Island, Superintendent of Dairying. J. E. Hopkins, Nap- 
pan Station, Nova Scotia, Superintendent of DairylnigiOi^lc 

198 Bfport of the Wisconsin 

3. D. Leclair, St. Hyaciuthe, Quebec, Superintendent of 
Dairy School. 

NuTE. — in addition to these there are experts in the Do- 
minion Dairying service employed as traveling instructors 
during certain seasons of the year. 

For Provincial Governments. Prof. H. H, Dean, Gnelph, 
Ontario, Dairy Department, Ontario Agricultural Col- 
lege. John Robertson, Fredericton. New Brunswick, 
Superintendent of D^iirying. C. 0. Macdonald, Winni- 
peg, Manitoba Superintendent of Dairying. 

Provincial Dairy Associations: 

(1) The Dairymen's Association of Western Ontario. 

President, A, F. McLaren, Stratford, Ontario, 
Secretary, J. W. Wheaton, B. A., Loudon, Ontario. 

(2) The Dairy mens' Association at Eastern Ontario. 

President, Henry Wade, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Toronto, Ontario. Secretary, R. G, Murphy, 
Elgin, Ontario. 

(3) The Ontario Creameries' Association, President, D. 

Derbyshire, Brocliville, Ontario. Secretary, Mark 
J. Sprague, Ameliasburg, Ontario. 

(4) The Dairymens' Association of the Province of Que- 

bec. President, Rev. Father Monlmagny, St, 
Hyacinthe, Quebec. Secretary, E. Castel, St, 
Hyacinthe, Quebec. 

(5) The Farmers' and Dairymens' Association of New 

Brunswick. President, W. S. Tompkins, Middle 
Southampton, New Brunswick. Secretary, W. W. 
Hubbard, Sussex, New Brunswick. 

(6) The Farmers' and Dairymens' Association of Nova 

Scotia. President, John B. McKay, Stellarton, 
Nova Scota. Secretary, Paul C. Black, Falmouth, 
Nova Scotia. 
The Dairymens' Association of Prince Edward Island. 
President, Alexander Laird, Summerside, P. E. L, 
Secretary, D,q,t,zeabyGoOglc 

Dairy and Food Cmnmissioner. 199 

(8) The Diirymen Association of Maaltoba. Presi- 

dent, John Hettle, Boissevain. Manitoba. Secre- 
tary, Richard Waugh, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

(9) The Dairymens' Association of the Northwest Terri- 

tories. President, E. N, Hopkins, Moose Jaw, N. 
W. T. Secretary, J. W. Jowett, Eegina, N. W. T. 

District Dairymens' Associations; 
District of Bedford Dairy Association. President, H. S. 
Poster, Knowlton, Quebec. Secretary, Stephen Baker, 
Cowansville, Quebec, 
District of Huntingdon Dairymen Association. Presi- 
dent, Robert Ness, Howick, Quebec. Secretary, W. H. 
Walker, Huntingdon, Quebec 


Report of the Witcoitain 


Inquiries are frequently made of this department as to 
the procedure which should be followed in the organiza 
tlon of factory and creamery associations. The law pro- 
vides that a company can be incorporated by filing articles 
of organization, acknowledged by three adult residents of 
the state, with the secretary of state, and paying; the re- 
quired fee of ten dollars. 

The following blank articles of organization will be 
furnished upon application by the secretary of state: 

Enow ALL Meh Bj these presents, tbat the undersigned, adult residents 
oE the State of Wiscouaia, do hereby make, sign and agree to the follan- 

Article First. — The undersigned haye associated, and do hereby associ- 
ate tbemselTes together for the purpose of forming a corporation under 
chapter 86, of the Revised Stotutes of the Stateot WiscoDsio, for the year 
A. D. 18TB, and the acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto, 

the business and purposes of which corporation shall be , which said 

business is to be carried on withiu the State ol , and especiallly with- 
in the County of in said state. 

Article Second.— The name ol said corporation shall be , and ils 

location shall be in the Wisconsin. 

Article Third. — The capital stock of said corporation shall be and 

the same shall consist of shares, each of which said shares shall be 

of the face or par value of dollars. 

Article Fourth. — The general officers of said corporation shall be a 

President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, and the Board 

of Directors shall consist of atpckholders. 

Article Fifth.— The principal duties ol the President shall be to pre- 
aide at all meetings of the Board of Directors, to have a general 


, of the affairs of the corporatioi 


Dary and Fouc. Commissionei: 201 

The principal duties of the Vice-President ahall be to discharge thp 
dutiea of the President in the event of the abejace or disability, for any 
causs whatever, of the latter. 

The principal duties of the Secretary shall be to countersign all deeds, 
leases and conveyances executed by the corporation^ aSlk the seal of tho 
corporation thereto, and to such other papers as shall be required or 
directed to be sealed, and to keep a record of the proceedings of the Board 
of Directors, and to safely and systematically keep all books, papers, 
records and documenta belonging to the corporation, or in any wise per- 
taining to the business thereof. 

The principal duties of the Treasurer shall be to keep and account (or 
all moneys, credits and property, of any and every nature, of the corpora- 
tion, which shall come into his hands, and keep an accurate account of alt 
moneys received and disbursed, and proper vouchers for njonoys disbursed, 
and to render such accounts, statements and inventcs'ios of moneys r»- 
ceived and disbursed, and of money and property on hand, and generally 
of all matters pertaining to this office, as shall be required by the Board of 

The Board of Directors may provide for the appointment of such addi* 
tional officers as they may deem for the best interests of the corporation. 

Whenever the Board of Directors may so order, the offices of Secretary 
and Treasurer may Ije held by the same person. 

The said officers shall perform such additional or different dutiea as 
shall from time to time be imposed or required by the Board of Directors, 
or as may be prescribed from time to time by the by-la»^. 

Article Sixth. — Only ^persons holding stock according to the regula- 
tions of the corporation shall Iw members of it. 

Article Seventh. — These articles may be amended by resolution set- 
ting forth such amendment or amendments, adopted at any meeting of the 
stockholders by a vote of at least two-thirds of all the stock of said corpo- 
ration then outstanding. 

In WrmsaB WHSBBor, We have hereunto set our hands, this 

day of , A. D. 189—. 

Signed in preeeace of , 

Statb of Wisoobbin, > 

County of . ! ' 

Personally came before mo this day of , A. D. 189—, the 

above named and , to me known to be the per- 
sons who executed the foregoing instrument, and acknowledged the same 

Notary Public, Wisconsin. 


soil Report of titc Wisccmfiin 

Statb or WiBcoNsiH, ) 

County of . ( ^'^- 

, and , being each duly eworn, doth each for 

himBelf depose and say that he is one of the original signers of the above 
declaration and articles; that the above and foregoing is a true, correct 
and coniplete copy of such original declaration and articles, aod of the 
whole thereof. 

Subscribed and awom to, Ijefore me, thb . 

day of , A. D. 189—. . 

Notary Public, Wieconsin. 

New organizations of factory and creamery companies 
are being rapidly made in this state. By way of sugges- 
tion to those desirinp; to organize such companies and 
of possible instruction to those already organized the fol- 
lowing extracts are published from a special bulletin issued 
by James W. Bobertson, Dairy Commissioner of Canada: 


The basis, upon which a cheese factory or ciearaerymay 
be established and the business carried on, may be: — 

I. — A private enterprise whereby some individual or firm 
undertakes to provide buildings and to conduct the busi- 

Ih^The formation of a Joint Stock Company or Co-opera- 
tive Association. 


In this case, one of the four plans may be followed;— 
(1) The individual or business firm, who, for the pur- 
pose of this Bulletin, will be called the "manufacturer," 
may charge such a rate per pound of cheese or butter, as 
may be agreed upon with the patrons who furnish the milk 
or cream ; in consideration of which the manufacturer wilt 
undertake and agree to manufacture cheese or butter, as 
the case may be, of first-class merchantable quality, and to 
provide all furnishings required in the manufacture and 
boxing or packing of the same. 


Dairy and Food ComniisaUmer. 203 

(2) The mamifactwrer may carry on the business and 

meet all expenses incideab thereto, in the providing of 

furDishings, &c., for a stated per cent, of the product. 

Note. — The disposal of the by-producla, whsy, bulter-milk or skim- 
milk are matters for mutual agreement between me mamifaclurer and 
; atrona. That will be more fully discusged in a later paragraph. 

(3) The manufctcturer may purchase the milk or the 

cream from the patrons at such a price as may bo agreed 

upon. The price may be uniform per 100 pounds of milk 

or per unit of cream for the whole season, or it may vary 

for different months. 

Note. - This plan is not Tecommeoded as a prudent one, as the market 
for cheese or butter may advance to such high prices that the patronn 
Tvillberrim" dissatisfied with their bargain and loseinterest in the factory, or 
the market may go so low that the manufap.tureT will be unable to realize 
from the product as much as he has agreed to pay. In either case the 
factory business suffers. A fair equitable basis, with as little as possiL e 
of the element of speculation, is safe. 

(4) A price for milk or unit of cream may be fixed on 
a sliding scale, according to some recognized market quo- 
tatioQ for milk, cheese or butter from time to time during 
the season. 


A cooperative company or association may be formed 
to conduct business as a manujacturer in a similar capEicity 
and on similar lines to those mentioned under the heading 
of "private enterprise;" or it may may conduct business in 
a special way for tlie benefit of its shareholders who fur- 
nish milk or cream to the factory which it controls. In 
the latter case one or other of the subjoined sets of ar- 
rangements may be followed. 

(5) A certain charge per pound of product may be 
charged by the company, or association, called hereafter 
the manujacf-urer, similar to the plan mentioned in (1). The 
balance between the receipts and the expenditures of the 
Company or Association in its manufacturing capacity may 
be distributed as a dividend among the shareholders ac- 


204 Seport ofUie Wisconsin 

cording to the amounts of stock which they hold, or it 
may be disposed of otherwise as they may direct. 

(6) Each shareholder may be entitled to furnish to the 
factory a stated quantity of milli or cream for every share 
which he holds in the Company or Association. The pro> 
duct from such quantities of milk or cream may be manufac- 
tured at a fixed rate per pound, sufficient to cover the actual 
running expenses of the concern; and a slight additional 
charge — (say i cent per pound for cheese, or ^ cent per 
pound for butter) — may be made for all the quantities of 
milk or cream furnished in excess. 

A rate equal to or higher than the shareholder's excess- 
rate may be charged for manufacturing the product fur 
the milk or cream supplied by all non-shareholders. 

NoTs. — According to this arrangement (12 of shares in chee«e factory 
stock might entitle the holder to furoiab 9,000 pounds of milk anntiiUly 
at the lowest rate (or manufacturing, JIO in a cream gathering creamery, 
and $15 in a centrifugal separator creamery, might entitle the bolder to 
furniBh cream or milk sufficient to yield 350 pounds of butter at the lowest 
rate for manufacturing. 

(7) Under the arrangements set forth in (1), (2), (5) and 
(6), a general meeting of the patrons called for that pur 
pose should designate some individual as Salesman for the 
disposal of the products of the factory. The plan of ap- 
pointing one salesman has been found more satisfactory 
than the appointment of two or three with equal powers. 
The Salesman may have an advisory committee associated 
with him. 


The following forms of by-laws, rules and regulations, 
or as many of them as apply, may be filled up and modi- 
fied to suit the local or peculiar needs of any joint stock 
company or association for the manufacture of butter or 


Shareholders and Shares. 

I. The Company (or Association) shall consist of share 

holders, holding one or more shares of $.... each, who 


Dairy and Food Qymmissioner. 205 

have enrolled their names in a book kept by the Secretary 
of the Company (or Associatioa) for that purpose. 

IL The payment of shares shall be made in such a man- 
ner and at such times as the Directors of the Company (or 
Association) shall from time to time direct, but in each 
case the Directors shall give at least thirty days' notice 
in writing to each holder of a share or shares in the Com- 
pany (or Association) of such a call upon the stock, and 
not more than twenty per cent, of the value of the sub- 
scribed stock shall l>e called in at any one time, and not 
more than thirty per cent, shall be called for within twelve 

III. The Directors shall call in at least twenty per cent, 
of the subscribed capital stock of the Company (or Asso- 
ciation) at or tiefore the last distribution of the proceeds 
from the sale of products in each year, until all indebted- 
ness of the Company (or Association), which is not pro- 
vided for by mortgage, is paid and satisfied. 

IV. In default of payment of all or any such calls upon 
stock, the Directors shall proceed to enforce the payment 
of the same by an action at law; or they may, in the exer- 
cise of their powers, sell any such shares and apply the pro- 
ceeds of the same towards the payment of any unpaid call 
or calls due in respect of such stock or shares, and the 
surplus, — if any remains after the payment of such arrears 
and all expenses incurred by the Directors in such action, — 
shall be deposited in some chartered bank to the credit of 
the defaulting shareholder, and all liability of the Direc- 
tors shall thereby cease. 

V. No subscriber for stock shall be accepted as a share- 
holder or be entitled to hold stock in the Company (or As- 
sociation) until the same has l>een duly allotted to him by 
the Board of Directors. 

VI. Stockholders may sell or transfer their shares, but 
such sale or transfer must be with the consent and ap- 
proval of the Directors of the Company (or Association), 

V[I. The books of the Secretary .for the transfer of 
stock shall be closed during fifteen days preceding each 


206 Beport of the Wisconsin 

annual meeting of the shareholders. The Secretary shall 
register all transfers of stock Id the books of the Compaoy 
(or Association) when furnished with duty executed instru- 
ments of transfer, signed by both transferer and trans- 
feree. A fee of 25 cents for each share transferred shall 
be paid into the general fund of the Company (or Associa- 
tion). No transfer shall be considered valid until it has 
been made on the books of the Company (or Association). 

VIII. Eaeh shareholder shall be entitled to one vote for 
every share which he or she may hold, and shareholders 
may vote by proxy duly appointed. No person shall be en- 
titled to act as a proxy who is not himself or herself a 
shareholder in the Company {or Association). 

IX. No shareholder shall be entitled to vote upon any 
share or shares on which any regular instalment or call 
has become due and remains unpaid. No shareholder shall 
be entitled to vote on any stock unless the same shall 
have' been registered in his name in the stock book of the 
Company (or Association) at least 15 days prior to such 
general or annual meeting of the Company (or Association |. 

X. No person shall be entitled to subscribe for or to 

vote upon more than shares of the Companv, either in 

his or her own right or by prosy. 


XI. The officers of the Company (or Association) shall 
consist of a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treas- 
urer and .... Directors. The Directors shall be elected at 
the annual general meeting of the Company (or Associa- 
tion) and shall hold office for one year, and until their suc- 
cessors are elected. Shareholders only shall be eligible as 
Directors in the Company (or Association). 

XII. The President, Vice-President and the Directors 
shall constitute the Board of Directors. All the members 
shall retire every year and an election shall take place at 
the annual general meeting for the appointment of tbeir 
successors, and all the members of the retiring Board of 
Directors, if otherwise qualified, shall be eligible for re- 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. SO"! 

Xm. The President and the Vice-President of the Com- 
paoy (or Association) shall be elected at the annual gen- 
eral meeting of the Company (or Association) or they shall 
be elected frono the Directors at the first meeting of the 
Board of Directors which is held after the annua] general 
meeting of the shareholders. 

Powers of Directors. 

XIV. The presence of four Directors shall constitute a 
quorum for the ti'ansaction of business at a meeting of the 
Directors. The President, or in his absence, any Director 
who may be chosen by a majority of those present at such 
meeting, shall preside, and shall decide all questions oC 
order, subject to an appeal to the Board. 

XV. If the annual meeting of the shareholders and pa- 
trons has not appointed a Salesman then the Board of 
Directors shall appoint from their own number, or from 
the shareholders or patrons of the factory, a person who 
shall be salesman of the products of the factory. 

XVI. The Directors shall also appoint a Secretary and 
Treasurer, which two offices may be filled by one and the 
same person if the directors so decide. 

XVII. The President shall have a vote as a Director 
at all meetings, and in addition to that vote, in the event 
of a tie shall have a casting vote as Chairman. 

XVIII. The Board of Directors shall have full power to 
enter into agreements or contracts with any person or per- 
sons to carry on the business of the Company (or Associa- 
tion), and such person or persons shall have their salaries 
and remuneration determined by the Board of Directors to 
whom they shall in all cases be directly responsible. 

XIX. The Directors shall also have full power to deter- 
mine all salaries and remuneration to officers or employees 
of the Company (or Association), but the Directors shall 
not be entitled to receive more than for each meet- 
ing whicb they attend, unless the same be authorized at the 
annual general meeting of the shareholders. 


203 Report of the WwooTisin 

XX. The Directors may borrow money for the purposes 
of the Company {or Association) In any manner which may 
seem to them expedient, and their bond, promissory note, 
no other obligation shall bind the Company (or Association) ; 
and they are authorized to hypothecate, mortgage, or pledge 
the real and personal property of the Company (or Asso- 
ciation), in order to secure any sum or sums borrowed for 
the purposes of the Company (or Association). 

XXI. The corporate seal of the Company (or Association) 
and the signature of the President,— or other officer desig- 
nated for that purpose at a regular meeting of the BoarJ 
of Directors, — countersigned by the Secretary and Treas 
urer, shall be attached to all such instruments or docu 
ments pledging the credit of the Company {or Associa- 

XXII. The Board of Directors may appoint from their own 
number an Executive Committee which shall include, or to 
which may be added the Salesman and Secretary of the 
Company (or Association), to whom they may designate 
executive powers to be exercised under the direction of 
the Board; and they may also appoint standing commit- 

XXIII. The Directors shall also appoint one Auditor to 
act in conjunction in the auditing of the accounts of the 
Company (or Association) with an Auditor to be elected at 
the annual general meeting of the shareholders. 

XXIV. In the case of any vacancy or vacancies 'occur- 
ring in the Board of Directors between the annual general 
meetings of the Company (or Association), they may te 
filled from qualified shareholders by the Board of Direc- 

Duties of the Secretary. 

XXV. (1) The Secretary shall keep an accurate and true 
record of the minutes of the annual meetings, of any spe- 
cial meetings of the shareholders, and of the meetings of 
the Board of Directors. 

(2) He shall also keep an accurate account of all financial 
transactions of the Company (or Association). 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 209 

(3) He shall keep a stock book for the proper recordiDg 
of the owaership and transfers of shares in the Company (or 

(4) He shall render an accurate statement to each of the 
. prttrons of the Company (or Association) of his or her ac- 
count therewith from time to time as the President may 

(5) He shall prepare an annual statement for each of the 
patrons of the factory, and also an annual statement giv- 
ing an abstract of the business of the Company (or Asso- 
ciation) for presentation to the annual meeting, and he shall 
render an annual account of the affairs of the Company (or 
Association) to the otBce of the Dairy Commissioner for 
the Dominion, at Ottawa. 

Duties of the Treasurer, 

XXVI. (1) The Treasurer shall deposit all moneys re- 
ceived, by him, in Bank in his name as Treasurer. 

(2) He shall pay the same always and only on ihfe order 
of the President, duly countersigned by the Secretary. 

(3) He shall present vouchers for all his expenditures to 
t'le Auditors, and shall present a statement of the receipts 
and expenditures of the Company (or Association) to the 
annual general meeting of the shareholders. 

Duties of the Salesman. 

XXVTL (1.) The Salesman shall use his best endeavors 
to sell the products of the factory so as to further the in- 
terests of the patrons to the best of his judgment and 

(2) As soon fts practicable after the completion of any 
sale, he shall notify the President and Secretary of Ihe 
quantities sold, the price agreed upon, particulars of sale, 
date of shipment, and any other condition or element in 
the transaction which affects the patrons or the manu- 

14-D, 4 F. 


210 M^ort of the Wwcotisin 

Annual Meeting. 
XX VIII. The annual general meeting of the shareholders 

shall be held at or at such other place in as 

the Directors may determine, on the in each 


XXIX. Notice of the time and place for the holding of 
such annual general meeting shall be given at least ten 
days previously thereto, in two of the newspapers circu- 
lating in the neighborhood, and also by postal notice to 
that effect, mailed to each shareholder's address as last 
registered in the otBce of the Company {or Association). 

XXX. If from any cause the annual general meeting of 
the Company (or Association) shall not be held, or due and 
legal notice thereof shall not be given, then it shall be the 
duty of the Directors to cause a special general meeting of 
the shareholders to be called as soon as may be tliereafter, 
for the purpose of transacting the business of the annual 
general meeting, and at such meeting or meetings all mat- 
ters may, be dealt with and acted upon as if such meeting 
were in effect the annual general meeting of the sharehold- 
ers of the Company (or Association). 

XXXI. The rules of order for the annual general meet- 
ing shall -be: — 

1. The meeting called to order by the President or acting 

2. The reading and disposal of the minutes of the last 

3. The reading and disposal of communications. 

4. Reports of standing committees appointed by a gen- 
eral meeting of the shareholders. 

5. Reports of special committees appointed by a general 
meeting of the shareholders. 

6. Reports of the ofBeers, — including the report of the 

7. Report of the Auditors. 

8. Unfioi-shed business. 

9. Nomination and election of officers for ensuing year. 

10. Appointment of one Auditor, 

11. New business. 


Dairy and Food GomrnissUiHer. 211 

Special Meetivgs. 

XXXn. Special meetings of the shareholders may be 
called by the President or any four of the Directors, or on 
the requisition, in writing, of the shareholders of the Com- 
pany (or Association) who may hold one-fourth of the sub- 
scribed stock of the Company {or Association) ; and in every 
such call or requisition for a special meeting, a statement 
shall be made of the definite purposes for which such spe- 
cial meeting is called, and no other business shall he trans- 
acted at such special meeting than shall be mentioned in 
the notice or notices which have been given calling the 

XXXIII. At least ten days' notice of every special meet- 
ing shall be given by advertising the same in at least two 
newspapers circulating in the neighborhood, and also by 
mailing a notice to the same effect 'to the address of each 
shareholder, as last registered in the office of the Company 
■ (or Association). 

XXXIV., Any alterations in the by-laws of the Company 
(or Association) shall be made only by a two-thirds vote at 
the annual general meeting of the shareholders. 

XXXV, A copy of the by-laws shall be at all reason- 
able hours open for inspection by shareholders at the fac- 
tory where the business of the Company or Association is 
carried on. 


1. The Company (or Association) hereinafter called the 
manufacturer shall draw the milk, manufacture and care for 
the cheese during the curing, provide boxes and all neces- 
sary furnishings, at a charge of for every pound of 

cheese which is manufactured. 

la. The manufacturer shall charge each shareholder at 

the rate of per pound of cheese for the manufacturing 

of the milk furnished by him up to pounds per share 


21S Report of Uie Wisconsin 

of in the stock of the Company (or Association) held by 

him or her, and shall chEU-ge all non-shareholders a rate 

of per pound of cheese, in consideration of which the 

manufacturer will manufacture the cheese, care for itdur- 
ing curing, provide boxes and all necessary furnishings. 

2. Patrous who may be dissatisfied with the weights of 
their milk recorded at the factory, must report 'the same lo 
the Directors, that they may adjust and settle the matter. 

3. The milk of each patron shall be tested at any timo 
during the season; and, at the discretion of the Directors, 
a statement of the quality of the milk of all the patrons 
shall be posted up in the factory in a conspicuous place 
where it may be seen by all the patrons and shareholders. 

4. In case any milk furnished should be of such doubt- 
ful quality as to warrant the assumption that it has been 
adulterated, a committea appointed by the Directors shall 
visit the premises of the patron, see his cows milked morn- 
ing and evening, and have the quality of such milk com- 
pared with the record of the tests made of the milk which 
he was previously furnishing, and if a substantial difference 
in quality is evident, it shall be optional with the Direct- 
ors as to whether they shall (1) prosecute the patron ac- 
cording to law, (2) effect a settlement with him upon the 
payment to the funds of the manufacturer, of such a sum 
as may be agreed upon, or, (3) exclude the patron from the 
privileges of the factory for a stated number of years. 

5. Each patron upon being notified, shall convey in a 
wagon or otherwise, his or her share of the cheese which 
has been manufactured, from the factory to the point of 
delivery as agreed upon by the salesman, and failure to 
comply with this rule will subject the patron to a fine of 
$2.00, which shall be deducted from his share of the re- 
ceipts from the sales of cheese. It is open to any patron to 
find a substitute for himself for the drawing of cheese. 

6. If any patron should send to the factory upon the milk 
wagons engaged by the manufacturer, milk which is sour 
or unfit for use in cheese- making, such milk shall be re- 
turned to bis or her milk-stand and a charge sufficient to 


Dairy and Food Commissumer. 213 

pay the maDofacturer for the expense of drawing it to the 
factory, and to the milk drawer for returning it to the 
milk-stand shall be made in every such case. The decision 
of the directors in this matter shall be final. 

7. Each patron shall be entitled to the cheese required 
for use at his own table at the wholesale price; but no cuts 
shall be made in less than pieces of 5 pounds. 

8. In the case of any patron who does not continue to 
sumishtbe millf from his or her herd to the factory until 
the close of the manufacturing season, a sum equal to ... . 
cents per pound of all the cheese manufactured 
from the milk which they have -furnished during the 
season will be deducted from his or her share of the 
receipts, unless he or she shall first have obtained the con 
sent of the Directors to such discontinuance. 

9. The manufacturer shall insure the cheese in one or 
more Insurance Companies to any extent; but the manu- 
facturer will not be responsible for any cheese which may 
be destroyed, other than for the amount received by the 
said manufacturer from the Insurance Companies. 

10. Milk Bh^l be supplied from only healthy cows, which 
are fed upon wholesome food, with access to plenty of 
pure water and salt. 

11. The pastures, yards and lanes shall be kept free 
from carrion and all decaying matter which may cause 
noxious smells. 

12. Each patron shall furnish pure sweet milk, to which 
nothing has been added and from which no part has been 
removed or kept back; and if any be reserveed, it shall be 
of the average quality of milk given by the herd of cows. 

13. Milk must be drawn from the cow in acleanly manner; 
the udders should be brushed or washed, and milking with 
dry hands is preferable to the practice of dipping the 
fingers in the pail in order to moisten them, 

14. Immediately after the milk is drawn from the cow, it 
should be strained through a wire or cloth strainer. 

15. All pails and other utensils with which the milk is 
brought into contact must be of tin; the use of wooden pails 


214 Report of the WiaonMn 

tor milking or holding milk Is strictly forbidden; and any 
contravention of this rule will subject the patron to the lia- 
bility of being deprived of the privileges of the factory. 

16. The milk shall be aeraled by dipping, pouriDg or 
stirring, or by the use of an aerator; during hot weather 
after it has been aired, it should be cooled quickly to at 
least the temperature of the atmosphere; the milk can 
should never be left in a tub of wat6r over night, unless 
the milk has been previously cooled to below sixty de- 

17. The milk must be kept in a place where the at- 
mosphere is free from foul and injurious smells. 

18. Milk that is left without the protection of some rooT 
shall be protected from the failing of rain, either by turn- 
ing the lid of the milk can upside down over it, or any 
other efKcacious means; and if on any occasion when raio 
has fallen, the cheesemaker discovers by the use of the 
testing instruments that a per cent, of added water is pres 
ent, he shall deduct from the weight of the milk a number 
of pounds equal to the quantity of added water that is re- 
vealed by the use of the lactometer. 

19. The night's and morning's messes of milk shall be 
kept in separate vessels until the arrival of the milk wagon. 

20. The milk cans shall be kept clean and sweet; and 
when a cheesemaker shall discover the can of any patron 
in a state unfit for the carrying of .milk without detriment 
to its quality, he shall notify the patron of that fact and 
report the same to the Directors. After the first offense 
the patron may be subjected to a fine of 50 cents for every 
time that the can shall be sent to the factory in an unclean 

21. The Directors or any of the patrons may inspect the 
cans on any of the wagons or milk-stands at any time and 
report the same to the cheesemaker or other officers of the 

22. Each and every milk-can shall l>e washed with cold 
or tepid water and scalded with boiling water once a day ; 
they should afterwards be aired. 


Dairy and Foocf Commis^kmei: 215 

23. All milk to be conveyed to the factory on the public 
milk wagona shall be delivered on the side of the public 
highway (unless otherwise arranged by the directors, upon 
a milk-stand of convenieot height, and which will af- 
ford shade from the sun and protection against rain. 

24. The surroundings of the milk stand shall be kept 
clean and free from bad smells; and the feeding of swine 
within one hundred feet of the milk-stand is strictly for- 

25. The milk ahall be delivered on the milk-stand at a 
time to suit the convenience of the milk drawer, who shall 
not leave any milk-stand before 5:30 a. m., and who shall 
reach the factory with his loal not later than 9 a. m. 

26. The whey shall be disposed of, as the patrons de- 
termine at the annual meeting. 

27. The cheese maker shall reject any milk which he 
considers to be unfit for use in the manufacture of the 
finest quality of cheese; and his judgment in the matter 
shall be final. 

28. Each patron who furnishes milk to the factory is 
thereby considered as having agreed to the foregoing rules 
and regulations. 


For the erection of a cheese factory and the establish- 
ment of cooperative dairying, a location should be selected 
which is central and convenient to a section of country 
adapted for and inclined towards dairying. 

The site should be, 

(1) Suited for easy and effective drainage, 

(2) Supplied with an abundance of pure cold water, 

(3) Easy of access by good roads. 


Apparatus and utensils for a cheese factory of 500 to 
700 cow capacity: — 
1 steam boiler of 8 horse power. 
1 engine of 6 horse power. 


S16 ■ Beport of the Wiaconnin 

1 water injector, 

8 milk vats of 5,003 pounds capacity eac"h. 

24 cheese presses (upriglit or gang). 

3 cui'd sinks. 

1 curd cutter or curd mill. 

1 hoisting crane. 

1 weighing can of 500 pounds capacity. 

1 milk conductor. 

1 curd knife (perpendicular). 

1 curd knife (horizontal). 

Weighing scales: 1 pair for milk, 1 pair for cheese, and 
1 pair for salt. 

2 the;:mometers, 2 floating thermometers 
Milk testing instruments. 

1 Babcock milk-tester. 

1 graduated Measuring-glass 8 ounces, Jid 1, 16 ounce 

S4 press rings. 

3 rakes for stirring cord. 
1 curd flat-sided paiL 

1 bandager. 

2 floor brushes and rubber scraper 

3 tin pails, large dipper, and small dipper and strainer. 
Steam pipes, water pipes and hose connections. 
Stencils, stencil plates, and brush for branding 

1 cheese trier. 

1 water tank of 10 barrels .capacity. 

1 water barrel. 

1 whey tank of 55 barrels capacity. 

1 inspirator or pump for elevating whey 

For a cheese factory of 300 to >00 cow capacity a similar 
equipment is required; but the following changes may be 

1 steam boiler, 6 horse power. 
No engine. 

2 milk vats of 5,000 pounds capacity each. 
18 cheese presses. 

2 curd sinks. 
18 press rings. 


Dairy and Food Oommisswner. 217 

2 rakos for stirring curd. 
1 whey tank of 40 barrels capacity. 
All the othor apparatus and utensils, the same as for 
larger factory. 


The Bylaws have set forth the nature of the manage- 
ment and the duties and powers of most of the oflftcers. 
These notes concerning the duties of the cheese-makers 
and milk-drawers may be added. 

Duti£s oj Cheese-makera. 

1. It shall be the duty of the cheese- maker to use his 
best endeavors to manufacture an article of uniformly 
Que merchantable cheese 

2. He shall be responsible for and make good in money, 
any loss that may be sustained from the making of inferior 
cheese through carelessness, neglect or incapacity. 

S. He shall keep a correct record of the weight of milk 
furnished by each patron and deliver the same to the 
Secretary of the Company (or Association). 

4. He shall test the milk of each patron from time to 
time, to assure himself that it is pure, wholesome, honest 
and of good average quality. 

5. He shall inspect the milk cans and report upon their 
condition to the Directors. 

6. He shall inspect the milk wagons and report upon 
their condition as to cleanliness, etc., to the Directors. 

7. He shall enter in a pass book for each patron a record 
of the weight of milk received in his or her name. 

8. He shall keep the factory and its utensils clean. 

9. He shall care for the cheese until they are cured, or 
u 'til one month after the close of the manufacturing season; 
and he shall use every reasonable precaution to maintain 
the temperature of the curing-room at the points where it 
is most suitable for the curing process at different seasons 
of the year. 

10. He shall see that the whey tank is thoroughly cleaned 
at least once a week. 


218 Stport of t?te Wisconsin 

11. He shall see that the surroundlogs of the premises 
are kept free from bad odors. 

12. He shall use his best endeavors to advance the in- 
terest of the manufacturer and the patrons. 

13. In case any of the patrons or Directors shall Snd the 
weighing can, milk conductor, milk vats, curd sinks, curd 
cutter, cheese presses or any other utensil, or the ftoor of 
the factory, in a filthy state, whereby the quality of the 
milk or cheese is liable to be injured, the sum of $1.00 for 
every such offense and every such utensil shall be deducted 
from the monies coming to the cheesemaker from the 

• Milk Drawers. 
The agreement with the milk-drawers should stipulate: 

1. That they shall keep their milk wagons clean and 
free from all bad smells. 

2. That they shall protect the milk cans against damage 

3. That they shall use straps or ropes to prevent spill- 
ing or waste. 

4. That they shall be liable for all loss incurred through 
their negligence or fault. 

5. That they shall be liable to a fine of $1.00 for every 
time when they fail to reach the factory at or before the 
stipulated time of 9 a. m., unless thej furnish to the Direc- 
tors a good and suEBcient reason, 

6. In ease where whey is returned to the patrons, they 
shaU apportion to each patron and deliver upon his milk- 
stand such quantities as may be decided upon by the cheese- 

Milk pass-books should be sent to each patron once 
every week or once every fortnight, with a record of the 
quantities of milk which have been credited at the factory. 

When the distribution of proceeds is made, a statement 
should be furnished to each patron, setting forth the details 
and his or her account for the same. 

At the end of each season, an annual statement of the 
business of the year should be furnished the patron^. It 
^hoqld set forth ; — ■ 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 219 

(1) The number of days during which the factory was 
ia operatioD; 

(2) The number of patrons who furnished milk; 

(3) The total quantity of milk received; 

(4) The total quantity of cheese manufactured ; 

( 5) The average price for which the cheese of ea<!h 
month's make was sold; 

(6) The average quantity of milk repaired to make a 
pound of cheese during each month ; 

(7) The total value of the cheese sold; 

(8) The total amount of money distributed to the patrons ; 

(9) An abstract of the annual statement of the Treasurer 
of the Company (or Association). 



1. The Company (or Association), hereinafter called the 
"manufacturer," shall collect the cream, manufacture and 
store the butter, provide packages and all necessary fur- 
nishings, at a charge of for every pound of butter 

which is manufactured; 


la. The "manufacturer" shall charge each shareholder 

for the manufacturing of the cream furnished by him or 

her. at the rate of per pound of butter, up to 

pounds of butter per share of { in the stock of the 

Company (or Association) held by him or her, and shall 

charge all non- shareholders a rate of per pound of 

butter; in consideration of which the manufacturer will 
manufacture the butter, store it, provide packages and all 
necessary furnishings. 

2. Patrons who may be dissatisfied with the measure- 
ments of their cream must report the same to the Direc- 
tors, who shall adjust and settle the matter, 

'6. The cream of esich patron shall be tested at least twice . ^ , 

220 Report of the Wisconsin 

during each week of the seasoii; and the cream shall be 
valued according to its quality as revealed by such test. 

4. Each patron, upon being notified, shall convey in a 
wagon or otherwise, his or her share of the butter which 
has been manufactured, from the factory to the point of 
delivery as agreed upon by the salesman; and failure 1o 
comply with this rule will subject the patron to a fine of 
$2.00, which shall be deducted from his or her share of the 
receipts from the sales of butter. It is open to any patron 
to find a substitute for the drawing of the butter. 

6. Each patron shall be entitled to the butter required 
for use on his or her own table at the wholesale price, but 
no quantity shall be put up in less than pounds. 

6. In the case of any patron who does not continue to 
furnish the cream from his or her herd to the creamery 
until the close of -the manufacturing season, a sum equal 
to. . ..cents per pound of all the butter manufactured from 
the cream furnished during the season ehall be deducted 
from his or her share of the receipts, unless he or she 
shall have first obtained the consent of the Directors to 
such discontinuance. 

7. The manufacturer shall insure the butter in one or 
more Insurance Companies to any extent; but the manu 
facturer will not be responsible for any of the butter which 
may be destroyed, other than for the amount received by 
the said manufacturer from the Insurance Companies. 

8. The cream shall be furnished from the milk of only 
healthy cows which are fed upon wholesome feed with ac- 
cess to plenty of pure water and salt; they shall be pre- 
vented from eating any feed which will give an injurious 
flavor or taint to the butter. 

9. The pastures, yards and lanes shall be kept free f jom 
carrion and all decaying matter which may cause noxious 

10. The cream furnished by each patron shall be clean, 
pure and sweet; and, in case any grounds should exist for 
suspecting that the bulk of the cream as furnished by any 
patron is not in every sense similar to the sample taken for 

Dairy and Food (hmmissioiier, 221 

use in the test, a committee appointed by the Directors 
shall visit the premises of the patron and make examina- 
tion for themselves regarding such matter, and if any un- 
fair or dishonest practice shall be proven to have existed, 
it shall be optional with the Directors as to whether they 
shall (1) prosecute the patron according to law, (2; effect 
a settlement with him or her upon the payment to the 
funds of the manufacturer of such a sum as may be agreed 
upon, or (3) exclude the patron from the privileges of the 
creamery for a stated number of years. 

11. Milk must be drawn from the cows in a cleanly man- 
ner; the udders should be brushed or washed, and milking 
with dry hands is preferable to the practice of dipping the 
fingers in the pail in order to moisten them. 

12. Immediately after the milk is drawn from the cow, it 
should be strained through a wire or cloth strainer. 

13. All pails and other utensils with which the milk is 
brought into contact must be of tin; the use of wooden 
pails for milking or holding milk is strictly forbidden ; and 
any contravention of this rule will subject the patron to 
the liability of being deprived of the privileges of the 

14. The milk must be kept in a place where the atmos- 
phere is free from foul and injurious smells. 

15. Vessels in which the milk is set shall be kept clean 
and sweet, and the tank into which the vessels are set 
jhall be kept free from badodors; and if a cream collector 
shall discover the setting vessels or water tank of any 
patron to be in a state unfit for the keeping of milk with- 
out a detriment to its quality, he shall notify the butter- 
maker of that fact who shall report the same to the patron 
and Directors. After the first offense, the patron may be 
snbjected to a fine of 50 cents for every time that a setting 
vessel or tank shall be found in an unclean condition. 

16. Buttermilk at the creamery shall be disposed of as 
the patrons determine at the Annual Meeting. Tbe cream 
collector under the instructions of the butter-maker shall 
reject any cream which he considers to be unfit for use iiLi , 

222 Bipwt of the Witcmisin 

the manufacturing of the finest quality of butter, and the 
butt-er- maker's judgment in the matter shall be final 

17. Each patron who furnishes cream to the creamery is 
thereby considered as having agreed to the foregoing rules 
and regulations. 


utensils for creamery under the cream gathering plan of 
700 to 1,000 cow capacity:— 
1 steam boiler of 8 horse power, 

1 steam engine of of 8 horse power. 
Water injector. 

2 cream vats of 800 gallons each. 
1 cream conductor. 

Strainers for cream vat, for chum, and hair sieve for 
1 churn of 200 gallons capacity. 

1 butter-worker. 

Weighing scales : — 1 pair platform scales for butter, 1 
^alr of counter scales for butter, 1 pair for salt. 

2 butter spades, 1 butter paddle, 2 butter ladles. 
Oil-test churn with cream collectors' cases complete. 

2 thermometers, 2 floating thermometers. 
Butter printer. 

Graduated measuring glass, 8 ounces. 
Stencil plates and brush for branding. 
Butter trier. 

3 tin pails. 

1 large dipper, 1 small dipper, 1 strainer dipper. 
Shafting, belting, steam pipes and water pipes connected 
with hose. 
Floor brushes and rubber scraper. 
1 water tank of 20 barrels capacity. 
1 cold water and 1 hot water tank. 
1 butter-milk tank. 


Dairy and Ihod Commissioner. 223 


Besides these apparatus and utensils it will be necessary 
that every patron should have conveniences for the separa- 
tion of the cream from the milk. Where a large herd 
is owned, the use of a small hanv separator may 
be found economical. In other cases the deep 
setting system will give the best returns, considering the 
cost of the utensils, the labor involved, and the quantity 
and quality of the cream obtained. The ordinary deep-set- 
ting pail is 20 inches deep and 8i- inches in diameter. It 
holds 35 pounds of milk conveniently. Any dairyman can 
reckon the number which he will require from that data, 
bearing in mind the fact that enough vessels should be 
available for holding both tbe morning's and evening's 
messes of milk. An extra pail or two should also be avail- 
able for holding the cream. Two inches in depth of a can 
8^ inches in diameter contain 113 cubic inches, which quan- 
tity has been called a standard "creamery inch. " 

Sometimes a foolish rivalry arises between the patrons 
who furnish cream to creameries in the effort to furnish 
cream which will yield a lafge test of butter per "inch. " 
The attention of the patrons should be directed to secur- 
ing the largest possible quantity of butter from the milk 
which has been set, and that in conjunction with fumish- 
iag cream in the best condition for the making of fine butter. 
It is but seldom possible to obtain these, viz. : the largest 
quantity of butter from the milk and cream in the best 
condition, if the cream which is sent to the creamery is ex- 
ceedingly rich in butter-fat. 

The milk should be set as quickly as possible after it is 
drawn from the cows. The pails or setting vessels should 
be placed in cold water, in order that their contents may 
be cooled quickly to 45 degrees or lower, A'ter they are 
set they should be left undisturbed iintil the skimming is 
commenced. Ordinarily they should be left at perfect rest 
for over 20 hours. When the cream has been removed 
f foq) the milk, it should be kept as cold as possible until 


224 Report of the Wisconsin 

the collector receives it or until it is delivered to the 


The By-laws, Rules and Regulations have set forth the 
nature of the management, and the duties and powers of 
most of the officers. These additional notes coucerDlDg the 
duties of the butter- makers and cream collectors may be 

Duties of Butter Makers. 

1. It shall be the duty of the butter maker to use his 
oest endeavors to manufacture an article of uniformly fine 
merchantable butter. 

2. He shall be responsible for and make good in money 
any loss that may be sustained from the making of inferior 
butter through carelessness, neglect, or incapacity. 

3. He shall keep a correct record of the quantity of 
cream furnished by each patron and of the quality of the 
same, as revealed by the oil-test churn or other testing ap- 
paratus, and deliver the same to the secretary of the Goay- 
pany (or Association). 

Note. — A testing apparatus ought to be in every creamery operated 
upon the centrifugal-aeparator plan, whereby the quality ol the milk for 
butter making may be determined. The uho of the Babcock Milk Tester 
is an eScacious, exaut, simple and cheap way of discovering the per cent 
of butter-fat in milk. 

4. He shall test or cause to be tested the cream furnished 

by each patron at least times every week during 

the season. 

5. He shall inspect the cream-collecting wagons and the 
cream collecting cans or tanks, and report' upon their 
condition as to cleanliness, etc., to the directors. 

6. He shall keep the creamery and its utensils clean. 

7. He shall care for the butter until the close of the 
manufacturing season; he shall see that all butter which is 
not in air-tight packages is brimed at least once every fort- 
night and he shall use every reasonable precaution to maii)- 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 225 

tiin the temperature of the store-room at a point which is 
most suitable for its preservation. 

8. He shall see that the surroundings of the premises are 
kept free from bad odors. 

9. He shall use his best endeavors to advance the inter- 
ests of the manufacturer and the patrons. 

10. In case any of the patrons or Directors shall find 
any of the utensils or the floor of the creamery in a filthy 
state, whereby the quality of the butter is liable to be in- 
jured, a sum of $1.00 for every such offense and every such 
utensil shall be deducted from the moneys coming to the 
butter-maker from the manufacturer. 

Oream Oollectors. 

The cream-collectors should be furnished with cream- 
collecting cans or a cream-gathering timk. Besides the 
inside tin of these, they should be finished with some non- 
conducting sides in order to protect the cream against the 
influences of hot weather while in transit. Double sides 
with a hollow space of J of an inch between, will suffice in 
the case of circular cans. Wooden sides with hollow spaces 
made by the use of paper should surround the tin lining 
of the gathering tanks. In both cases a float should rest 
on the top of the cream, to prevent agitation from effect- 
ing any churning. 

Each cream- gatherer should also have a tneasuring can 
12 inches in diameter. One inch in depth in a 12-inch can 
contains practically the same quantity of cream as 2 inches 
in an SJ^ inch can; that is a standard "creamery inch." 

He should also be furnished with a set of cream- 
testing tubes to be used in an Oil Test Churn. 
These tubes are numbered. After the cream has 
been properly measured in a pail 12 inches in di- 
ameter, its whole volume should be properly mixed 
by pouring from one vessel to another not less than three 
times. After that treatment, a sample of the cream should 
be taken in one of the test tubes and the number of the 

>=^°"''' D„.zM.,Google 

226 B^ort of the Wisconsin 

same recorded opposite to the number or name of the 

Note. — When these aamplea are truly repreBentative of the cream 
which is turaished bj any patron the butter-maker can discover and 
calculate the quantity of butter which that particular cream will pro- 
duce, in order that an equitable distributioD of the proceeds may be ef- 

The cream-coUector should also enter into a pass book 
to be retained by each patron, the number of Inches of 
cream with which he or she has been credited; and a 
monthly statement should be furnished to each patron 
showing the quantity of butter which the cream he has 
furnished has produced per " inch. " 


The disposal of the buttermilk can be arranged accord- 
ing to the preferences of the patrons and the manufacturer. 
For pig feeding it may be estimated as having a value 
equal to the production of five poundes of increase in live 
weight, per ICX) pounds of buttermilk. 


Statements to each patron of the particulars of his ac- 
count. with the manufacturer should be furnished to every 
patron, when a distribution of the proceeds from a sale is 
made. An annual return should also be made to the ofBce 
of the Dairy Com mi ssioner at Ottawa. It sh ould se t 

(1) The number of days during which the creamery was 
in operation; 

(2) The number of patrons who furnished cream ; 

(3) The total quantity of cream received — in inches or 
other units of measurement; 

(4) The number of these required to yield one pound of 
butter during each month; 

(5) The total quantity of batter made; 

(6) The average price for which the butter of each 
month's make was sold; 


Ddiry and Food Commissioner. 22" 

(7) The total value of the butter sold ; 

(8) The total amount of money distributed to the pa- 
trons ; 

(9) An abstract of the Annual report of the Treasurer 
of the Company (or Aesociation). 



1, The Company (or Association), hereinafter called the 
n:an ifacturer, shall draw the milk, manufacture and store 
the butter, and provide packages and all necessary furnish- 
ings at a charge of for every pound of butter which 

is manufactured; 

la. The manufacturer shall charge each shareholder for 
the manufacturing of the milk furnished by him or her, at 

the rate of per pound of butter, up to pounds 

of butter per share of, I in the stock of the Com- 
pany (or Association) held by him or her, and shall charge 

all non-shareholders a rate of per pound of butter; 

in consideration of which the manufacture will manufac- 
ture the butter, store it, provide packages and all neces- 
sary furnishings. 

2. Patrons who may be dissatisfied with the weights of 
their milk recorded at the factory, must report the same to 
the Directors, that they may adjust and settle the matter. 

3. The milk of each patron shall be tested at any time 
during the season; and at the discretion of the directors, a 
statement of the quality of the milk of all the patrons shall 
be posted up in the creamery in a conspicuous place, where 
it may be seen by all the patrons aud shareholders. 

4. Unless milk is being tested and valued according to 
its percentage of butter- fat, the following shall be in force: — 


228 SepoTt of tlie Wisconsin 

In case any milk furnished should be of such doubtful 
quality as to warrant the assumption that it has been 
adulterated, a comtnittee appointed by the Directors shall 
visit the premises of the patron, see his or her cows milked 
morning and evening, and have the quality of such milk 
compared with the record of the tests made of the milk 
' which he or she was previously furnishing; and, if a sub- 
stantial difference in the quality is evident, it shall be op- 
tional with the Directors as to whether, they shall- (1) 
prosecute the patron according to law, (2) effect a settle- 
ment with bim or her upon the payment to the funds of 
the manufacturer of such a sum as may be agreed upon, or 
(8) exclude the patron from the privileges of the creamery 
for a stated numi)er of years. 

5. Each patron upon being notified shall convey in a 
wagon or otherwise his or her share of the butter which 
has Iwen manufactured, from the creamery to the point of 
delivery as agreed upon by the salesman; and failure to 
comply with this rule will subject the patron to a fine of 
$2.00. which shall be deducted from his or her share of the 
receipts from the sales of butter. It is open to any patron 
to find a substitute for the drawing of the butter. 

6. If any patron should send to the creamery upon the milk 
wagons engaged by the manufacturer, milk which is souror 
unfit for use in butter- making, such milk shall be returned to 
his or her milk-stand and a charge sufficient to pay the manu- 
facturer for the expense of drawing it to the creamery, and 
to the milk-drawer for returning it to the milk-stand, shall 
be made in every such case. The decision of the Directors 
in this matter shall be final. 

7. Each patron shall be entitled to the butter required 
for use on his or her own table at the wholesale price, 
but no quantity shall be put up in les than pounds. 

8. In the case of any patron who does not continue to 
furnish the milk from his or her herd to the creamery until 

the close of the manufacturing season, a sum equal to 

cents per pound on all the butter manufactured from the 
milk which they have furnished during the season, will be 


Dairy and Food Chmmiasioner. 22t 

deducted from his or her share of the receipts, unless he 
or she shall first have obtained the consent of the Direc- 
tors to such discontinuance. 

9. The manufacturer shall' insure the butter in one or 
more Insurance Companies to any extent; but the manufac- 
turer will not be Tesponsible for any butter which may be 
destroyed, other than for the amount received by the said 
manufacturer from the Insurance Companies. 

10. Milk shall be supplied from only healthy cows, which 
are fed upon wholesome food with access to plenty of pure 
water and salt. 

li. The pastures, yards and lanes shall be kept firee from 
carrion and all decaying matter which may cause noxious 

IS. Each patron shall furnish pure sweet milk, to which 
nothing has been added and from which no part has been 
removed or kept back; and if any be reserved, it shall be 
of the averse quality of milk given by the herd of cows. 

13. Alilk should be drawn from the cows in a cleanly 
manner; the udders should be brushed or washed; milking 
with dry hands is preferable to the practice of dipping the 
fingers in the pail in order to moisten them. 

14. Immediately after the milk is drawn from the cow, 
it should be straiued through a wire or cloth strainer 

15. All pails or other utensils with which the milk is 
brought into contact must !» of tin; the use of wooden 
pails for milking or holding mUk is strictly forbidden and, 
any contravention of this rule will subject the patron to 
the liability of being deprived of the privileges of the 

16. The milk shall be aerated by dipping, pouring or 
stirring, or by the use of an aerator; during hot weather 
after it has been aired, it should l>e cooled quickly to at 
least the temperature of the atmosphere; the milk can 
should never be left in a tub of water over night, unless 
the milk has been previously cooled to below 60". 

17. The milk most be kept in a place where the atmos- 
phere is free from foul and injurious smells. 


230 Eeport of the Wisconsin 

18. Unless milk is being tested and valued according to 
its per cent, of butter fat, the following shall be in force:— 
Milk that is left without the protection of some roof shall 
be protected from the falling of rain, either by turning the 
lid of the milk-can upside down over it, or any other effica- 
cious means; and, if on any occasion when rain has fallen, 
the butter-maker discovers by the use of the testing in- 
strmuents that a percentage of added water is present, he 
shall deduct from the weight of the milk a number of 
pounds equal to the quantity of added water that is revealed 
by the use of the lactometer. 

19. The night's and morning's messes of milk shall be 
kept in separate vessels until the arrival of the milk wagon. 

20. The milk-cans shall be kept clean and sweet, and 
when a butter-maker shall discover the can of any patron 
in a state unfit for the carrying of milk without detriment 
to its quality, he shall notify the patron of that fact and 
report the same to the Directors. After the first ofifense 
the patron may be subjected to a fine of 50 cents for 6V6tj 
time that the can shall be sent to the creamery in an un- 
clean condition. 

21. The Directors or any of the patrons may inspect the 
cans on any of the wagons or stands at any time, and re- 
port the same to the butter-maker, or other officers of the 

23. Each and every milk-can shall be washed with cold 
or tepid water and scalded with boiling water once a day; 
they should afterwards be aired. 

23. All milk to be conveyed to the creamery on the pub- 
lic milk-wagons shall be delivered on the side of the pub- 
lic highway (unless otherwise arranged by the directors) 
upon a milk stand of convenient height, and which will 
afford shade from the sun and protection against rain. 

24. The surroundings of the milk-stand shall be Jrept 
clean and free from bad smells; and the feeding of swine 
within 100 feet of the milk-stand is strictly forbidden. 

25. The milk shall be delivered on the milk-stand at a 
time to suit the convenience oC the milk drawer, who shall 

Dairy and Food Commissioner. 231 

not leave any milk-stand before 5:30 &. m. and who shall 
reach the creamery with his load not later than 9 a. m. 

26. The skim-milk and butter-milk shall be disposed of, 
as the patrons determine at the annual meeting. 

27. The butter-maker shall reject any milk which he con- 
siders to be unfit for use in, the manufacture of the finest 
quality of butter; and his judgment in the matter shall be 

. 28. Each patron who furnishes milk to the creamery is 
thereby considered as having agreed to the foregoing rules 
and regulations. 


utensils for a creamery under the centrifugal separator 

plan of 500 to 700 cow capacity: — 
Steam boiler of 10 horse power. 
Steam engine of 10 horse power. 
Water injector. 

1 weighing can of 500 pounds capacity. 
1 milk conductor. 

1 milk receiving vat of 3,000 pounds capacity. 
Centrifugal cream separators of total capacity of 3,000 

to 4,000 pounds per hour. 
1 Babcock milk tester, or one Fjord's controller. 
Strainers for cream vat, for churn, and hair sieve for 

1 churn of 200 gallons capacity. 

1 butter worker. 

Weighing scales — 1 pair platform scales for butter, 1 pair 
of counter scales for butter, I pair for salt. 

2 butter spades, butter paddle, 2 butter ladles. 

2 thermometers, 2 floating thermometers. 
Butter printer. 

Graduated measuring glass, 8 oz. 
Stencil plates and brush for branding. 
Butter trier. 

3 tin pails. 


28S Report of the Wisconsin 

1 large dipper, 1 small dipper, and 1 strainer dipper. 
Shafting, belting, steam pipes and water pipes connected 

with hose. 

2 floor brushes and rubber"scraper. 
1 water tank of 2u barrel capacity. 

1 cold water tank, 1 hot water tank, and 1 buttermilk 
1 skim-milk beater and cooler. 
1 skim-milk tank of 6,000 pounds capacity. 
1 inspirator or pump for elevating skim-milk. 


The By-Laws, Rules and Regulations have set forth the 
nature of the management and the duties of most of the 

Statements to each patron of the particulars of his or her 
account with the manufacturer should be furnished to 
every patron when the distribution of the proceeds of the 
sale is made. At the close of the season, an annual state- 
ment of the business of the year should be furnished to the 
patrons. It should set forth: 

(1.) The number of days during which the creamery was 
in operation; 

(2.) The number of patrons who furnished milk: 

(3.) The total quantity of milk received; 

(4.) The tottJ quantity of butter manufactured; 

(5.) The average price for which the butter of each 
month's make was sold; 

(6.) The average quantity of milk required to make a 
pound of butter during each month; 

(7.) The total value of the butter sold; 

<8.) The total amount of money distributed to the 


Dairy and Food Commisekmer. 


Creameries 961 

Cheese FfictorieB 1,571 

Total number ol Creameries and Factories.. 3,622 



DaT4fl OoTflws Oheese and Butter Co Uttle Bock 

Frlendffhip Cheeee Factory Frieivdanip 

G. W. Fletoher Gramd Majah 

L. C. <Msteiiaon Big Plato 

C. J. Foot Oxford 

J. J. Zwlcky Ptolnt Blufl 


Gi«M<m I>alT7 Oo Oratbon 


H. F. Meyer Greenleaf 

JoOrn Ooniad Bolaad 

D. Beneoke Fontenw^ 

F. Watttg Fontenoy 

A. C. Anudt Tontenoy 

New Denmark FarmerB' CO-op. Aea'n Fontenoy 

EJaet WTig^itabowa Ohe^e Factory East Wrlgibtstowii 

ATiton NaugMaway Glemnore 

Wintam Potk Glenmore 

Tell. OharMer Scliill«r 

H'SQry Naugih.ta'way ft Co Pine Grove 

Rh. Fateh Shirley 

F. H. Uamge Pine Grove 

H. Bucbiaiu Askeaton 

F, C. Saenger Lark 

H. S. Beyer Denmark 

Tnheo. VamToy LodgevHIe 

A. T. Saeager ■ Ixtdgeville 

Dian. Falok Morrison 

Blxcelslor Oheeee Faiotxar Morrison 

'Ma.'uiidiCA Brennan Morrleoii 

Ivonils Falck Morrison 

Borcdrardt Broe WaysMe , 


284 Beport of the Wisconsin 

BKOWN COUNTY— Continued. 

Cbaa. F. Mason Suamioo 

'WiBoonitlii Butter £ Cheese Oo ■Wriglktstowii 

Frank ifiuytiers Wriglitslown 

Victor Saeijch. New Frajikeii 

Silver Vtm Drew New fVanken 

Mr. Duqiiane New Franken 

Botils Orlaa Neiw Franken 

'Mike Brunmer New Franken 

(Lewis Go^dchild MIIIb Outer 

J. H-'Osterlolh Henrysville 

ioba OuaraA Henrysyille 

A'libant Ueoker K-unesh 

J, R. Meyiers Forks 

Geo. Drexler ■■•"--.S 

Jacob Reiatacdcer Midway 


Mondiovl Creamery amd Oheese Oo , Mondovi 

Seyf orth, Bros Mondovi 

Cochrane Oheeee Oo Coehrane 

iBillnMiiam & Tasson Cheese Co Oocfliraine 

Mil'I Creek Cheeae Factory AJana 

BelvMere Oheeae Factory Alma 

John Hberle Cheese Factary Alma 

Pine Creek Obeese Faotory Alma 

Tell Creek Cheeae Factory Alma 

August J. HeroM Cheese Factory Herold 

Tlberle & Moeer Cheese Factory Gilmain.ton 

JiiarmerB' Cheese Factory Gllman-ton 

A. R. Pierce Cheese Factory Gilmanton 

Itudolph Pfund Cheese Factory Gil!ma,iit(m 

Herman Scjul-tz Cheese Factojy Gilraainton 

Henry Deerkop Cheeae Factory Gilmanton 

Jolm JioiSt Oheeee Factory Gilmanton 

Levi Deeta Cheese Factory Gilmanifon 

T«)ut Creek Cheese Factory Tell 


Peter Sdhumacker & Oo Jericho 

JoBln AotoT Jericho 

Nile. Orth DarWy 

John Snyder Chilton 

John R, MioCaft»e Obtlton 

J. & D. Ryan Chlltwn 

H. A. Alibea ChllMn 

m C. Plmgel Chiltom 

Jake K'al'b ChlMon 

JloOm Piper Chilton 

JcQin P. Welns Chilton 

T. J. Haj^er Chilton 

JWhn Mtoard Chilton 

Pat MoOole Braot 

Maedke & Junker Brilllon 

J. B. Junker Brilllon 

Wm. Litatner Brllllom 

Ohaa. Feuesten/berg BriUlon 

Job. Wolfmeyior Brillion 

Dundas Butter & Cheese Factory Dundas 

Mrs. Tbeo. Runte Hiib^ierl 

L. P. SchuTna«ker Hibbert 

J. A. Herake Hlbbcrt 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. . 236 


August BraFnni^e Hibbert 

PMn»p Reds Hibbert 

JiOliii A. HorBt Haytim 

Wm. Lintner Forest JtincbliMi 

John Wolfm«yer Forest Junction 

Fred. Llndow Forest Junction 

Henry Schley Foreet Junction 

0*to Freud ijraveaviiie . 

J. P. Wems Gravesville 

F. W. R'iedel Potter 

■Herman V'trfgh.t Potter 

Wan. Becker Potter 

Peter Meyer N«w Holetein 

Wendel Burg New Holstein 

Matjii. Kraemeir CQiarlesburg 

■ReiB ft lAaddler St. John 

J. J. Holzachut ■- : Slierwood 

Carl Medenwold Brilllon 

John Amlien Briltlon 

Phillip Meyer BfiHlon 

Henry Adhter BrothertawD 

Phillip Kiea LaJte Park 

Joe. Bodrae Laie Park 

Ohrlst. Hargord Lake Park 

Johu Heinar Stockbrldge 

Fred. Bauer St. J<ftn 

Joihn W. Bruker..." St. John 

John Holsbue St. John 


S. E. Case Anson 

A. Butscher Boyd 

F. L. Monroe Cadott 

Snyder Bros Cook's Valley 

H. G. St. Louis Cook's Valley 

John Batea Eagle Point 

Albertville Butter and Cheese Co AlbertvjHe 

Kelley ft Cass Liddell 

Snyder Bros _ Bloomer 

H. D. CuuMnlngs Bloomer 


SteiUiwand Cheese Co '. Colby 

Otto Docker Hemlock 

■Henry JaooM Abbotstord 

S. R. Davis Gronton 

Banners' -Oheese Co '. .Dorohetrter 

Distelhorst & Oo Dorchester 

Sherman Dairy Co Veefkind 

DelaraateT & Pahns Greenwood 

Herman Laabs Green Grove 

S. D. Gibson Wilcox 

Holshauser Cheese Faobory Reseburg 

H. F. Thiel Snow 

Josepih Frame Unity 


A. E. Chlvers Columbus 

G. W. Soott Columbus 

E. E. Brlgbam Columbus 

Lodi Creamery Co Lodl 


236 Beport of the Wisconsin 


atmons & Hutson Lodi 

M. W. 9pear Wywcena 

■WTWcena Cheeee Factory Wyocena 

A. J/Bak«r Ttiunnan 

L. H. Dates Thurman 

H. R. Moldenihauer & Bro Caimbrla 

. F. Groasman Lewiston 

Port Hlope Butter and Cheeee Asso'm , Port Hope 

JoTra Wooteey Lewistom 

iFred. Mantihy Paoiflc 

H. J. Ewasell Portage Okty 

Oust. Schurtbar RandolpQi Center 


Ootdsmlng Cbeeee Co Millet 

B. Oppreoht Seneca 


Myrlaiul & Oo ^ Prlmr<oee 

O, S. Bngen ft Co Primrnwe 

C. Bnglond & Oo Prlmroee 

Holland & Co PrimTooe 

iWaHen & Oo R-ftnroae 

'Lyle Cheeee Paoboty ; .'.Dyle 

Thomas Kumdred Lyle 

Connor Co l^le 

Basoo Cheese Factory Asso'n Baeoo 

Montroee Cheeee Factory Asso'n Montroee 

PiimTOse Cheese FaeSory ABSo'n Mi>iitrose 

Sand Hill Ob.eese Faetni-y Fijrward 

Engen Oheese Factory > Forward 

Perry Center Cheese Factory Forward 

Pleasamt Valley Cheese Factory Forward 

Perry Southera Cheese Factory Forward 

KelMher Chewse Factory Elvers 

M. Miohelao'n Cheeste Factory Elvers 

P. Lyn'ih Cheese Factoiy Elvers 

Swnnyside Cheese Paotory Perry 

■Perry Cheese Faiotory Perry 

Nortih Perry Cheese Factory Perry 

Indian Hill Cheese Factory Perry 

Spring Valley Cheese Pacbory. , Perry 

Allengrove Cheese Factory Grit 

Central Cheese Factory Paoll 

CM Mount Horeb Oheeae Factory Mount Horeb 

Swansco Oheeae Factory Mount Horeb 

Bangs Mount Horeb 

Geranan Valley Mou'nt Horeb 

BPhey Mount Horeb 

Dlamon.d Cheese Factory Blaclt Earth 

Vermont Cheese Factory Rlaclt Earth 

S(fliled Cheese Factory Blue Mounds 

Banher Cheese Co Blue Mounds 

Souni Blue Mounds , Blue Mounds 

C. Bwlcfcy Belleville 

J. Volley 'Bellevilie 

H. Klassle Bellertlle 

B. Sahall'er Verona 

Town Hall Fartory Mount Vernon 

Fa^er Factory Mounrt Vernon 

Connor Factory Mount Vernon 


Dairy and Food Commisaioner. 237 


Town Ume Dairy Asao'n Lowell 

DndMm Garden Oheese Factory Hlchtwood 

ShieMa Butter and Cheese Co RJcbwowi 

Home CTieese FactoT? Rlchwoo>i 

Baeler proa Randolph 

Ortli BroB , -Rolling Prairie 

Second Ward Cheese Facbory Mayvllle 

'Itople GroTe Oheese Factory Mayvllle 

'Bock River Cheese Factory Mayvllle 

Northwestern Cheese Fact-ory Mayvllle 

Koepeol Cheese Factory Mayvllle 

Fred. Baertachy Cheese Factory Mayvllle 

Portland Oheese and Butte* Asso'n Reesevitle 

Leader Cheese and Butter Asso'n Reeseville 

F. Setet (3) Iran Ridge 

H. Bfllgiran (4) Iron Ridge 

Cnian. Hen.plein Iron Rk^e 

Imohereteg Bros Knowles 

BoeStmOT & Meyer Oheeee and Creamery Lomim 

Joinely Bras. Cheese and Creatmery LoMira 

SwaKz & HoFFmain Cheese and Creamery Lomira 

Jonely Bfob. Oheeae and Creamery Bwywnsvillle 

J. N. Wigeinbon Pox Lake 

Martin Huebellen Fox LtUte 

Ame] Dermel Fos Lake 

Herman Lefeld Theresa 

Michael Murphy Neo^a 

I*me Ledge Cheeee FaotoTy Neo^a 

Mike Fitzgerald (4) Neo^a 

Jdhn Peters Cheeee Factory ■ Neoeta 

John Ivey Cheese Factory HuilBburg 

F, O, Sohuiahn Cheese I^actory Hulteburg 

Th-omae Canmody Cheese Factory Alderley 

Amlel Kun^ Cheese FaotoiT Aldwley . 

Amlel Winkelman Cheese Factory Aldertey 

Aflhlppun Cheeee Co Ashlppum 

Nortih Sftar Cheese Co Ashlppuo 

Cherry Hill Ch-eeee Co Aahtppun 

Sugar Isten-d Cheese Asso'n Aahippun 

Lhne Ledge Cheese Asso'n A^lppun 

J. T. Peters Woodland 

Chris. Gaasner Woodland 

Peter Peters WoDdland 

Dukesrihlen Cheese Factory Juneau 

Shaw Creek Cheeee Factory Beaver Dam 

OhriB. KohW KektD^kee 

Emil Roll Kekoekee 

Bock Cheese Factory Herma-c 

Ohaa. Christian Herman 

Herman Koepeel, Jr Herman 

Job. Aufdenmann.! Hermara 

Christian I-ndermueil Oalt Grove 

Westside Factory Oak Grove 

Oak Grove Village Factory Oak Grove 

tPnlon Cheese Factory Co Huetlsfoid 

Ryder Cheese Co H-ustleford 

F. Tlhlrlhe & Oo Hue-tlsford 

Burr Oak Cheese FnoBory Oo HusMsford 

AuKuet Koehler & Oo Hwstlsford 

Gust. Garcke & Co Hustlsford 

John Jrsai Hiistlstord 

C. T. NeBia Bustlsfora 


238 Beport of the Wisamsin ■ 

DODGE COUNTY -Continued. 

Gottlteb KlossiMir Hustiatord 

Hax. Radloff Hustlaford 

J. F. Leitzke & Co HuslJsfarii 

Wege & Oo HustiaJord 

J. E. Darcrfeld Hustisfjrd 

Ernest Bramer Hustisford 

Nenrttm Cheese Factory HuaCiBfOTd 

Rubicon River Factory HasiiefOTd 

WalBh & Laffy (2) Clymaa 

P. Canagih.m Ciyman 

B. 0. Keefe (2) Clymra 

Clyman Center Ciyman 

Orth BroB Jwneau 

S. Schneider Juneau 

Mai'tin Vollmar Juneau 

Union Cheese Factory Juneau 

■BBsmana C&eeee FactDry , Juneau 

Essmainn Cheese Factory Juneau 

Duhescihien Cheeee Factory Juoeau 

Prairie Vlem Cheese Factory Beaver Dam 

CalEini'aB Oheefle Pactwy ; Beaver Dam 

Weatford Cheese Factory Beaver Dam 

I^ke Shore Inc. Cheeoe Factory Beaver Daeo 

Rock River H'ortcon 

Gottlieb G-aBBsner Hiricon 

White Oak Horicora 

Biwwn'B OcM'nera Horicon 

Sumet German Swiss Cheese FoyCtory ..Horiooo 

Jacob Baehler Mlnnesoto Junction 

H. R. MoMetthauer (5) Leljanou 

E. Brieoementer Lebanon 

J-acab Jossi ■ Lel>anon 

Xndemiuttiie Brt>s. (2) Le Ray 

Charles Mll]«r Le Roy 

ChrlH, Kcihli, 9t Le Roy 

North El'ba Clieese Factory Danville 

Northrweet Cheese Factory Danville 

Hancock Oheese Fawtory Watertoiwin 

R'ook Cheese Factory Watertown 

Nortih Hood Factory Wiatertoiwn 

Star Ohee«e Factory , Watertewn 

Globe FactcTy Watertown 

Ames* Factory Waterlown 

Schlleve Factory Watertowc 

Obaa. HeS<ftiow Faatory Rubicon 


R. F. Buchols Foreatville 

August Busse Porestvllle 

loa, Ullsberger Poreetville 

H, J. Teske Carnot 

Ersklne & Leanine Jaakso^nport 

Weiterman & Yokes Voaeville 

A. Weltse Sister Bay 

Wenzel Biwwia ". Sil&ter Bay 

A. Anderson Ephraiim 

Torger Topgersoin Badley'a Harbor 

Albert leke Elliaou Bay 

Mathew Ny'gard Vlgnes 

Chas. Jenqui.nne Little Sturgeon 

Jos. N«aisse Sturgeon Bay 


Dairy and Pood CommU 

DOOR COUNTY— Continued. 

Also. Pierre Namur 

Evrard Bros Namur 

G. Gu'Hh & Son Kolberg 

Ernst Ha^ele Kolba^ 

Hwmian Schussell , Kolberg 

Merre Verlee Co Brussels 

Jaftiii Henqulnet .,. Gardner 

Madodhe & MoDeirmott Solona 

John Shugton Stokes 

■Wirilam StonenMsi Stofees 

Herman Nimus Stokee 

WliWam Goetz Stakes 

Wttn. Kreaiger Stakes 

John Barrman Maplewood 

■Wm. M. Goetz •«iwood 

Hermuii Ninloe Tornado 

Conrad Guth Steveneon'e Pier 

Chaa. BaasPopd Sevastoiwl 

A. W. Lawrence Sevaatapol 

Jolm W. WoTachek Egg Harbor 

Waah. iBfand Cheese Factory Asso'n Detroit Harbor 

Chas. Jesa & Co Wasdiingtos Harbor 


Dawning M'ft'g Co. Cheese Factory Downing 

iRusk & Op. Creamery Co Ru»k 

L. B. Schuare , Red Cedar 


G-arfield Cheese Factory Augusta 

Seidel Bpoe Augusta 

Star Btttter and Cheese Factory Augusta 

Beaver Creek Co imeaburg 

Tbomas Johnston Boaz 

r. J. Bender Boaz 

C. B. Cornwall Boaz 

C. W. Davis Ithaca 

Henry Schaup Neptune 

C. L. Staustourgh Ijoyal 

Maple Greive Factory Vinla 

Hull Bros Viola 

O. E. Miles Twin Bluffs 

WaddeH & Flamme Twin Bluffs 

James Walden Yuba or Hub City 

O. B. Cornwall Yuba 

Westford Cheese Factory Caaenovla 

G. E. Miller Sextonvllle 

J. P. Fulmer Byrd'a Creek 

Buck Horn Oheeae Factory ' Balm'oiral 

Eagle ciieese Factory Baimoral 

PYed. Bender Basswood 

H. J. Noyea Basswood 

jJoihn Donner Basswood 

<aiarle8 Berritt Tavera 

Union Faetoiry Keyeeville 

Arnold Yenenbeok Bear Valley 

Frank Wert^eli Bear Valley 

Prank Heesler Eagle ComeirB 

C. L. Jones Eagle Oomera 


240 Report of the Wisconsin 


Mr. Rjce Amwtrong 

John Mun^an Armstrong 

Beiutley Van Blaroon New Prospect 

James Gllboy Dundee 

R. J. Ronnaln Dundee 

Wm. Zwlcky ._ , Vandyne 

Albert Schimidt .' Vandyn* 

C. Pfeiffer & Son Vajidyne 

C. ScMller Vaiwiyne 

Aug, HebeneFT New Fine 

Behle Bros Calvary 

Porrln Bros Mount Calvary 

Mathlaa Wagner , Mount Calvary 

Joseptti Wagner rMount ualvary 

C. Heustgen M^ount Calvary 

T. J. KeHey Eden 

Geo. Gorjde EJden 

N. P. Kellogg Eden 

P. O'Brien Edeo 

H. F. Saoh-et Waucoaster 

C. Roper & Sona Waucoaster 

DenniB Daley WauooaBt«r 

Beftile Bros Summit Station 

J. W. Dillon Dotyvllle 

M. M. Dillon Dcityvllle 

Baldorf Carty Leonard aod h<iirs Dotyville 

Wooirgram (W. W.) Dotyrllle 

John Bast Dotyvllle 

B. A. Galloway Dotyville 

Simon SiteH«i Wolf Lake 

George Hlnn Banner 

C. F. G. Wernicke * Banner 

Bohtoan Banner 

A. Letwiaird. Jr Banner 

Prank McKinnisy Kirkwood 

Leith Brothers Kirtowood 

Tlieod'ore Flck New Casael 

John Krabsdh Johnsbiirg 

Guligg Bros JoUnsburg 

Peter Weralles ,, JoTinsbure 

CJnas. Flei'Stmainn Elmore 

Jvjhn Welchlie Elmore 

Orth Bros Blimore 

H. Prfenenger Bosendale 

Henry Sacket Oampbellspart 

Peter Aimmoa Braindon 

Peter Stephainy Pecibles 

T. H. Koepka Peebles 

Peter Weinrela ; Peebles 

F. GoesBling St. Cloud 

6. Stefles St. Cloud 

Henry Blonien „ St. Cloud 

Jo(hn Kdhlman St. Cloud 

O. M. Knowlea St. Cloud 

Perrten BroB Marytown 

Michael Plkart Malone 

Martlba MoeraCh Calumiiet Harbor 

J. M. MicHiiaels Calumet Harbor 

Fanoers' Co Ladoga 

Ennlson Bros RogerBvllle 

Mts. Brayton Fond du Lac 

Amel Warnkee Fond du Lac 


Dairy and Fbod C'ommi^stojie?-. 2U 


H, EBtaibrooks FVmd du Lac 

Jaoab SbellflftKioker Byrcm 

Jonely Byron . 

H. FlelscAoianin Ch««ee Co Saint Kellltm 

I^ber Bros New Prospect 

E. Korb Marytonrn 

Job. Stats bamartlne 

J. H. Quick Lamardne 

Bacont Hobertfl Waupun 

C. A. Atwood Waupun 

Jomee Elrwin Waupun 


Blake's Pialrie Cheese Factory Glen Haveo 

Wil«lher'a Cheese Factory PlatteTille 

Dbna Cheese Pactiwy Plaitevllle 

Swles Cheese Paetory Monbfoit 

Oak Grove Factory McmWort 

Wim. Wame LlTingstoa 

Phutte Cheese Factory Stitzer 

Jiaooib Regez Annaton 

Caetle Rock Dairy Aaao'n Caatk Rock 

Fennimore Bramih Dairy Aaeo'n Caatle Rock 

Wanek & Dieter Ot> Castle Rook 

MajTion Cheese Factory Boecobel 

Rleli'wood Cheese Factory Boscobel 

Sander's Creek Oheeee Factory Doecobel 

Oai Ridge Oteese Factory Bo«cal>el 

Muscoda Butter and Cheese Asso'n Muacoda 

Oak Grove Cheese Factory • Muscoda 

Buchflrorn Cheese Factory (Richland Co.) Mu«coda 

Walnut Grove Cheese Factory Muscoda 

■Badge City Cheese Factory Muscoda 

DbmocJi Cheese Factory (Iowa Co.) Muscoda 

Star A Star Cheese Factory (lov i Co.) Muecoda 

Carl St^lman CasaviHe 

Homer Oheeee Co Homer 


Fianaffao Cheese Factory Farmer's Grove 

Blumer & Co : Farmer's Grove 

Aaton NyCroten Farmer's Grove 

H. Wild Fu'iner's Grove 

Jolm Bany Parmer'a Grove 

Thos. Duerst Parmer's Grove 

Mrs. W. MonteiUh Parmer's Grove 

M. S. Casey Parmer's Grove 

James Scott Farmer's Grove 

Pat MoHugh I Farmer's Grove 

Syver Moen ' Fanner's Grove 

John Comway Farmer's Grove 

Christ Bleiter Parmer's Grove 

Sprlmg Valley Cheese Co New Glarus 

Kubley Bros New Qlarua 

Poplar Qm>ve COieeae Co New Glarus 

Ztoimerman Obeeee Manufacturing Co N^w Glarus 

Heary Aultman Oheeee C» New Glarus 

New Glarus Cheese Maniifacturlng Co New Gtarua 

Deuret Bros. Cheese Co Now Glarus 

Conrad Babler New Glarus 

16— D. A F. 


lieport 0/ Ihe Wisconsin 

GREEN COUNTY— Continued. 

Ward Cheese Factory New Glariu 

Hueter CilieeBe Co Now Giarus 

Wim, Engle-r Now Glarua 

J. N. Babler New GlaruB 

J. L. SlensBy , N*jw Glarua 

Matt. Elmer New Giarus 

Fred Segler ft Co N«w Clams 

Paul Kundert New Giarus 

David Hefty New Glairus 

John Segler New Qlarua 

Samuel Cbrtetian New Q-lajTie 

Con. Stiaffachcv' New Glarua 

Pedee Cheeee Factory .I'edee 

Jamea Aleia;nder Pedee 

A. PuVman Pedee 

Fanmera' Stock Co Pedee 

Zwedfel Bros. Pedee 

Hermaa Geise Pedee 

Joa. Mathers Pedee 

B. Blaser Jordan 

Jacob Kundred Jordan 

J. Veogli Jordan 

Emil Hafen Ji>rdan 

Bottle Tollefaon J.orda'n 

Abralbain. StatFacber Jordao 

JOBt Attman Jordan 

Matt HofBmelBter Jordan 

Baltz Sdhlnder Jordan 

. Jaodb Greenwood Jordan 

LiOrenzo Ault Jordan 

C. L. BaurJiofter . . . .' Jordan 

Barbara Blmer Jordan 

Blelder, GSbbon & Co Jordan 

Milton Keller Twin Grove 

J. M. Berry Twin Grove 

J. C. Ula a Co Ula 

York Center Cheese Factory Ula 

Saw Mill Cheese Factory : Ula 

HooSher'e Grove Pamnera' Co Tyrone 

Jacob Karleln Cedli 

Mary A. Dlnan Cadiz 

Henry Elmer Csidiz 

Geo. Liaiwrence Cadiz 

Fred Blum Oheeoe Co Monticello 

Shyner & Clark Montlcello 

D. Stauffadher Montlcello 

WLttenimeyaier & Barker Obceae Go Monticello 

T. O. Silver Mimticello 

Rudy Freitaig Montlcello 

Jaoab StaufTer MontlceHo 

Martin G«lgel .Montlcello 

J. ft J. Marty MontlceHo 

Wm, Heinee Manticello 

M. Moeer Montlcello 

J. Slillter OaJiley 

H. Dayer Oakley 

Farmer's Grove CheeBe Factory .- Stewart 

Marks Hoesly ptewart 

Conraid E. Bhner Stewart 

Fred Kundert , Stewart 

Ezra Wild Stewart 

Vteegar Stewart 


Dahij and Food Commissioner. 2i3 

GREEN COUNTY— Continued. 

Nylrater - Sxcwtw-t 

Jmxtb Ht>e8ley St«i*-art 

Jacob Blu.m Stowait 

N«l8 Nesaa Stewart 

T. Hennonson Stewart 

Olirls. Joumeby Stewart 

Arne A. Ba.rger Stewart 

Marlanna Strahm Stewart 

Hana Bntbereon Stewart 

Henry Legler Stewart 

Anton EiQ&more Stewart 

Henry Bidsmore Stewart 

G. F. Lenherr Dayton 

Exeter Cheese Co Dayton 

'Rosa Cheeae Flactory Co Dayton 

Casper Zwiekey Dayton 

Henry Kloaay Daytoli 

Matt Scbmid Dayton 

Henry Freltag Dayton 

Gottlieb Lenn'herfl Dajton 

Jost Voegley Dayton 

Henry Ruatl Martintown 

Clisey Factory Martintown 

WiHiam Lang Martintown 

■Manger Factory '. Brod'head 

Christ Joea Brodlhead 

Zweifel Bros ; Brodhead 

August Crause Brodlaead 

H. C. Atherton Brodh-ead 

August Zenlow Brodhead 

P. Wohl-wend Brodhead 

Joe. Ruber & Co Clarno 

JcOin Ruble Clarno 

F. Liich ten waller Olarna 

Eugene White ClaJTio 

David Karieu Clarno 

Wm. Bechman. Jr Clarno 

W'in. Tion Clarno 

Geo. PBffer Clarno 

Samuel Raym^er Clarno 

Henry Kleebner Clarno 

Austin Davis Clarno 

David Haren Clarno 

Otis Schaffer Clarno 

Polk Cheese Factory Polk 

John Schulti Polk 

F. Grunert & Co Monroe 

Jacob Regez Monroe 

Jacob Kaj-len £ Son Monroe 

John C. Weuger & Co Monroe 

Fred Thenne Monroe 

Chris. SUuffer Mjnroe 

John BelB Manroe 

O. Lwohsinon & Co Monroe 

Roth & Sitau(f««*iw Monroe 

JcAin A. Fraeser Monroe 

John G. Faioaer Monroe 

John Bautell Monroe 

Anton Trottman Monroe 

R. Benlfrt Minroe 

Joabua Rlaasy Monroe 

W. A. I>arwrenee & Son Monrtw 


244 Sep'ort of the Wisconsin 

GREEN COUNTV-Continued. 

J. Speich Albany 

Fred Kundert Albany 

Stauftaciier Broe Albany 

Oonmd Elmer Albany 

Fred Stauffaotier Albany 

Cbrls. El.iner Albany 

Jacob Rdmman Albany 

Pred Spruz Albany 

Ohrlfl. MarM .-, Albany 

aylv-eeber Clbeeee Factory Sylvester 

J. Specks Sylvester 

E. & J. StauKaCbe*- Sylvester 

Peter Stauflacther Sylvester 

J. J. Stauffacher Sylvester 

M. W. Sylv^eter Sylvester 

Adam Luobsdnger Sylvester 

Jtunee Martin , ^Iveater 

a. H. Harman SylveBter 

M. M. Hulber.t Sylveeter 

A. Ediwards Sylvester 

David Mani Browntown 

Joibn Leidennan Browntown 

'Henry Johnson Browntown 

JocQib Templ&:f Browntown 

Jofl. Aokeranan. Browntown 

Daniel Keen Juda 

G. H. & W. A. Penera Juda 

C«orge Dawaon ; . .Juda 

S. Hutzel Juda 

J. W. Blackford Juda 

P. P. Malikea Juda 

A. Preston Juda 

Davis ..Juda 

Friabee Juda 

Wm. MatsheB Juda 

John Detninger Juda 

H. Babler Juda 

B. South Jwdft 

M. T. Gaipen Juda 

John Pfund Juda 

Thleler Bros Sohultz 

Jas. Welsmlller Scihulti: 

J. C. Mar.T (2) SdhuUz 

Karlen Bros Sfibultz 

J. H. Thellor Schultz 

Fred. Blum, Jr SchulU 

M. Beddlhigmeyer Schultz 

James Dolan Schultz 

M. Zurabrunmer ScTiultz 

O. Woeffler Sehultz 

David Hefty Sohultz 

John Benkert : Sdhultz 

Andrew Harper Schultz 

JtiOm Wlttenvit^ler Sohultz 

Mel. Sohlitter Schultz 

N. & H. Freltag Sdhultz 

JtAn Morftz Sohultz 

G. Wittwer Schultz 

Wamer Bloom Schults 

Joihn Beoker Schultz 

Jos. Schwaraentoerger Brooklyn 

S. Freifag Brooklyn 

1. Grouse, Sr Brook^n 


Dairy and Jbod OommiSBioner. 245 


J. J. Clark Berlin 

Town Line Oheese Factory Berlin 

Page Bros Berlin 

Sen«oa Choeee Factory Berlin 

Black Oreelc Cheeee Factory St. Marie 


Btg Springs Union Mills 

Union Mills Cheese Factory Union Mills 

Hollenibeclc Oheese Co Cly«ie 

Bigelow Oheese Factory Clyd* 

-Mlddlebury L-eesa Co Middtebury 

Tlieaboltl Cheeee Co Middlebury 

Adamsoiler Cheeee Co Middlebury 

Jacob Urben jJiddlebury 

John Rlker Middlebury 

Walter Thomas Mi-aiebury 

John Ingoid Middlebury 

Rcdbert Sdheiid Middlebury 

Zim. Zlnnnerman Middlebury 

Joflin Havley Middlebury 

Arcflier Campbell MJddlebury 

Syvert Ch«atleBon Middlebury 

Jcihn J. Morris Middlebury 

J. M. Osbrander Waldnvick 

Waldwi<A WaldwicK 

Dorman Waldpwick 

Uren Waldwlck 

Oak Park Cli«e»e Co Mineral Point 

'Buck Orove Cheese Factory Co Mineral Point 

Barrelton Cheese Factory Co Mineral Point 

Foreet G-len Cheese Factory Co Mineral Point 

Lavefly Cheese Factory Co Mineral Point 

Jewell's Cheese Factory Co Mineral Point 

RoBedale Cheeee Factory Co Mineral Point 

Mount Hope Mineral Point 

G. Klootgla Mineral Point 

E. C. Spooner Mineral Point 

Jacob RotOi (2) Mineral Point 

Jciin Deitrlffh Mineral Point 

W. Haetinge Mineral Point 

Henry Tucrker Mineral Point 

Schlndler Oheeae Factory Moecow 

Edward Berg's Ok&eae Factory Moscow 

Brager Cheese Factory Moscow 

iRettrwn Olieaie Factory Moscow 

Bajiber Cheese MCg. Co Barber 

High Point Factory Hirliiand 

WftH Cheese Factory KteHiland 

L. E. Jones Hillsdale 

E. Zwelgel Avoca 

Myron Mclntyre Avoca 

PVed. Delaney Avoca 

H. Hansalter Avoca 

F^ank Stork Avoca 

Hound Vailev Rarneveld 

Mitchell & Grlffltlhs BarneveM 

Blue Grass Valley Ch«eee Factory Rarnevelcl 

■nockw«ll Millfl Rarneveld 

mdgeway Cheese Factory RIdgewaj 


246 Beport of the Wisconsin 

IOWA. COUNTY -Continued. 

Garrison Grove Cheese Factory Rldgeway 

MIH Creole Oheeae Factory Rldg«way 

Crystal ^ring Oheeae Factory Rldgeway 

Arena Cheese Factory Arena 

John G. Vogal AreBa 

Theorlore H-ottman Arena 

•Mill Creek CHeeae Factory Arena 

S. W. Wlgtnlng Wyomin'g 

Cold Spring Oheeee Factory Jonesdale 

Joneedale Oheeae Factory Jonesdale 

Caoner Cheese Factory Jonesdale 

Glen Cheese Factory Co Hollan-dale 

Liong Valley Choeae Co Hollandale 

Bonner Cheese Co Hollandale 

Adamaville Cheese Co Hollandale 

PecatxMiIca Oheeae Co Hollandale 

H. Ballenid Cheese Co. Hollandale 

River Porks Cheese Factory Hollandale 

Jcihn Aahelman Cheeae Factory Hollandale 

Jcilin Siliberger Cheese Factory Hollandale 

J. L. L.eutenegeer Cheeae Factory Hollaniiale 

Caaper Meyer Cheese Factory Hollandale 

JacDb Leggea Cheese Factory Hollandale 

J. R'eigez Rewey 

J. Regez No. 7 Cheeae Factory.. .; Linden 

Thomt: & Co Linden 

Jacob aegez Cheese Factory (3) Mifflin 

Drybone Cheese Factory Drybone 

Pine Knoib Oheese Factory Pine Knob 

Hyde's Mill Cheese Factory Hyde's Mill 

Nofth H'ill Cheese Factory Adamaville 

K. Knutean AdSimsville 

Sandy Rock OhessB Factory ■ Adamsville 


Garfleid Cheese Factory Afiso'n. Price 

Hough tonibwrg Cheese Factory MerllloD 

W. G. Hyslop Alma Center 


TiWen Cheese Factory Watertown 

Glctoe Oheese j?'actorf Watertown 

Dmmet Orovo Cheeee Flactory Watertown 

Rock Cheese Factory. . *. Watertown 

John Slangier Cheese Factory Watertown 

G. Kuenzl Oheeee Factory Watertown 

County Line Oheeae Factory Watertown 

GoDiier Hill Cheese Factory Watertoiwn 

iMain Street Cheese Factoiry Watertown 

Hancock Oheeae Factory Watertoiwn 

Sam. Kuenzi Oheeae Factory Watertown 

Sihieids" Butter and Clueese Factory Hubbleton 

Cold Spring Butter and Cheeee pWtory Waterloo 


Warren, Kiim'ball & Co Unitm Cent«r 

H. L. Ashdciwn Blroy 

Farmers' Company Elroy 

J. K. Rowell New Lisbon 

Twin Bluff Oheeae and Butter Co New liabon 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 217 

JUNEAU COUNTY— Continued. 

Lone Bock Ohe«ee and Butter Co New Idsbon 

H. E, Elmer OHe^ae and Butter Co Hustler 

Lone Rock Cheeee Oo Camp Douglas 

J. W. Orosa MauBton 

Geo, Wineor Mauaton 

Jcttm Stelner MauBton 

August Sterner Mauston 

■Frank Stelaer Mauston 

J. W. Post Caimp Douglas 

James Larson Wonewoc 

John FroeliOli Wonowoc 


Nick. Sparta Parla 


Joa. Dellaln Oasno 

Joe. Adams Oaeco 

F. W. Ouradntck Casco 

A. Klrohman 'Rto Creek 

Wenzel Slab Rio Creek 

A. & J. Ripley Slovan 

Joa. F. Adams Slovan 

Fred. Plinike Rankin 

Joeeph Werg Dartellay 

Obaa. RubenB Roslere 

Eugene Naze ." Rosiere 

Victor Braus Rosiere 

BruBsela Farmers' Co.. Roelere 

G. Paul Kodan 

W. UUsperger Kodan 

F. Oeischow Kodan 

Farmers' Cheese Co Lincoln 

Armand Ntwl Lincoln 

Jos. Della'ln : Lincoln 

Anna Walledika Krok 

Geo. Dottkol & Bro Eutmi 

Louis Baueher Thlry Daeme 

Joa. Dellain Thiry Daems 

Frank Storzer Cuman 

Geo. Ko^lna Sbangelvllle 

Allbert Kutamactier StangeMlle 

Baci, Klrvey & Poaer Oo Cariton 

Frank A. Plansky Carlton 

Carlton Farmers' Dairy Aseo'n Carlton 

John Waiegli Carlton 

Anton Bourll Cariton 

A. W. Teake Alas-ka 

Andre™ Roth Alaska 

Peter Altmeyer Alaska 

Atbert Kretsmacher Elllsrille 

Joa. Roth Bliisvlile 

Bemhart Loet EHi8vilie 

Andreiw Mahlek Pllsen 

Jacob GaBOhe Pllsen 

V<«al Bros Sandy Bay 

Chas. Rutoens Duvail 

D. Boulonger Duvail 

Barrett & Son Duvail 

M. Muellw .Nohnaa 


248 B^oH of tfie Wiscon»k^ 


Jdbn Slppl« Nomnan 

Wenzel Sipirle Norman 

Frank A. PlauBky Norman 

A'bnaftee FBjrmers' Co Ahnapee 

Fred, Walter, Jt ." Atonopee 

Julius Beirg Abnapeie 

Geo. Paul Atiiiape« 

John Bush Alhnape« 

J. Q. Paolat Ryan 

Kozkia Factory Bolt 

P, Lyoae Bolt 

John Goflin Luxemlwure 

Viek Boiig«tui Tonet 

Fred. Heavers Walhain 

G«o. Kuekel Walhain 

Joa. Plla Walhafln 

Victor Ooodeoui Tonet 

Alvan Staihl Luiembourg 

Antolne Bredeel Dykeavllle 

August Noel « Bykesville 


Cairper And'Tegg Slgel 

Bangor Siwlaa Oheese Co Bangor 

Bathan Rot>ert8 Burr Oak 


J. P. RoOknrell & Co South Wayo* 

O. B, EHte..... SouBh Wayne 

M. Johnson South Wayne 

8. Murphy & Oo South Wayne 

Hall Cheese Factory Soutih Wayn« 

Graham Cheeee Factory Soutli Wayne 

Trmnan Cheese Factory Truiinan 

Succees Cbeeae Factory Truman 

lA^tA House Oheeae Factorr Truman 

TJU'Ioii Cheese J^aciory Calamine 

Palooe Cheese Factory Darli'ngton 

O'Connor Oheeee Factory DarWnigton 

Otter Creek Obeeee Faotory Darlington 

Lamont Central Cheese Factory Darlington 

. 'Fraternal Ohoeae Factory Darlinigrton 

A. HerShbrunner Darlington 

Alex. Bolle Darlington 

ThoB. Viewers ; Darlington 

Fred. Leicht Darilngton 

Teltowstono Factory Tel i ow«tone 

LyooH Factory YeilowBtone 

McCUntock Factory YeMowstoce 

John Drcdinger Apgyle 

Jake Hahlen Argyle 

John Tbieller Argyfe 

Jake BurUhart Argyle 

Pred. Tomao Argyle 

Fred. Benjffriggor Argyle 

Heniy Peterson Argyle 

Ehn41 Aumititz Argyle 

Samuel Uhert Argyle 

Peter Olson .^ Argyle 

Chris. Marty Argyle 

' Saanuel Armltlti Argyle 


Dairy and Food Ckmimissioner, 240 


Wm. Carey Argyll 

J. S. Wells Woodtwd 

A. S. Hansen Woodford 

J. Mlll«r Woodford 

Bh«lltMs FacUWT Fayette 

Cook Factory Fayette 

Conley Factory Fayette 

Oleen Factory ....Fayette 

9prlnsbroo4[ Wiota 

Oherry Bnanch Wlota 

Wiota Factory Wiota 

Soiflson Paetory Wlota 

Sposer Factory Wlota 

B. Regez Blanchardville 

J. GrunwaJd Blanchardville 

iBokhard Blanchardville 

J. Marty Blaiacthardvllle 

Co-C5>eratlve BlantihardvlUe 

East liaammt Ohee»© Co Jjammt 

M. Hefty Oheese Co iiomont 

SanderBon Cheese Co Lamont 

lAmont CentraJ Cheese Co Lomont 

Dak«'e Prairie Calamine 

Mount Pleasamt OalBimlne 

Peter Melcb < Calamine 

Willow Springe Oalamlme 


Matteb ft Beiiie«b«fc Deerbrook 

Albent Bottb Antlgo 


JVtn Hertwl Meeme 

Q. A. Danlorth Me<eine 

F. Stmers Meeme 

M. Wid*BD«n Oato 

AdoLph Mllhauo ., Reedsvllle 

C. M. Krueger. Reedavllle 

B. C. e<fli-wanlce ReedsvUle 

Au«. A. Sohley Reed«vllle 

Henry H. Meyer Reedsville 

Wm. Hue«e ReedsTllle 

Albert Bellbe Reedsburg 

Ohas. Diokert R«ed8burg 

John SOlunelteT Reedebwg 

Fred. Bauch Reedsbnrg 

Robert Manke R«edBburg 

Wm. Fedding Newtoniburg 

H. Bargenbruch Newtomburg 

Lewis KeelTiurBt Newtonburg 

Albert Wage? Nenrtonburg 

Jacob Behrlmger Newtoniburg 

Uartin Rhode Newtoniburg 

H. Scbnlz NeTrtonburg 

Jos. HiBliizen Wbltelanr 

J. D. N&te Maple Gi'Dve 

Wtn. MeyiBTB , Maple Grore 

MaVtzke Maple Qrove 

Moedkfl JuDKer Ma^le GroTS 

F. Brttzel Maple Oron 


250 Beport of the Wisconsin 


WllUattn R-odiewald Thnotlhy 

Robert Naunnan Manitowoc 

Herman Ackerman Manitowoc 

Peter Bl«ser Manitowoc 

Henry Mey^r , Manitowoc 

Chas. F. Meinert Manitowoc 

Henry Plueea Maraitowoc 

J. Moillmaon St. Nazkanz 

Herm. Spedlit Manitowoc 

Olias. Lutzliy St. Nazians 

Chaa. Weinfarther Mleliicott 

Jfflin Bac'hhaua Michicott 

Au'g. Feihrman Micltieott 

Wm. England Mloliicott 

Chaa. Fleutge Miclilcott 

rred. Wilde Mictlootl 

Adolph Zeddles Michlcott 

Obas. Mend«nwald Kasaon 

Pred. Fetter Alvemo 

S. Bremer Alveroo 

H. Pleua Alverno 

Herman Riscli X-arrabee 

Frank Fenner & Bro Larrabee 

Peter Griemer Bast Gibson 

Fned. Wilde Shoto 

Robert WauinanTi Shoto 

Anton NaUonltz Shoto 

Joe. Hayerlieh Shoto 

Gibson Farmers' Co Meinik 

Herman Schroieder Rosecrajis 

Emii Munetz Rosecraoe 

Job. Froellcli Rosecraos 

Fred. G, Meyer School Hill 

H. Banteubrusb Rube 

B. Wirfiausen Rube 

J. Kasbaum Rube 

Otto KoTHtedt Loula' Corners 

Louie Volffht Louis' Camera 

Frank P. Thielke liouia' Oornera 

Aug. S<4hleune3 Milihome 

JoBoph Rappel Olark'a Mills 

iRockland Dairy Aaao'n Clark's Mills 

Ohas. Swertlng Clark's Mills 

M. Sabel Clark's Miila 

Victor Vog.e Range Line 

Ole B. Gegetad Baton 

Wm. Busflie E^too 

John B. Job'DSOD Baton 

Farmers' Dairy Aeeo'n Oalo 

Strangel & Mawbalen Tisch Mllla 

Herm. 0!m Nlles , 

Ohas. Sohwalbe Nilea 

Wm. BuBcher Nilea 

Albert Kairsted Nilea 

F. H. Wftpeuknecbt Kiel 

William Zillman Kiel 

James Pimith Start 

W. A. KrKih Nero 

A. P. Erdic^nn Nero 

Albert Svaclna Taos 

Wm. Damm Taus 

J. J, Hayliciliek :Franci« Creek 


Dairy and Jood Commissioner. 251 


Francis Creek Fariners' Oheeee Co Francis Creek 

Jjjhn StEiber Frajncls Creek 

P. C. Blelaer Praaola Creek 

Kel jner & Pollfka. Kellnersville 

Michael Sc'bel Kelln'Sirsvllie 

O. W. SwaMng KellneraviJle 

■R. C. B»lmk« W«lls 

Peter Biaaeir King's Bridge 

Jt B. Jolmaooi Clark's Mills 

Mike Kelley Clark's Mills 

Henry Hinges Hlha 

Oscar Bai-.mel Hlka 

Joe. Scliiiber Cooiperstown 

Hepman Spedit Bran<fli 

Adolph Klemm Branoli 

H. WiBhaTinB Northeini 

H. Strodthofl : . . N;rth ;im 

GuBtave Kl-emm Two Rivers 

Olias. P!©iit]« Tw.3 Rivere 

Henry Redker Two Rivers 

Rabert Newman Two Rivers 


Fred. Ml<ftiler Weln 

Herman Halwi Nutterville 

Henry Jacobl Denny 

Jacob KeeM , Denny 

Ferdinand Olm ■RozellvUle 

Joseph Frane Unity 

Briglitoii Oheesie Fact-ory U&lt^ 

Wm. B. McPheraott Spencer 

Anton Log Stettin 

Ed. O. PlelBOh Naugart 

Andrew Flaig Colby 

Adolph Hlntoe HoRarty 

JtiHub Kodi McMillan 


Ne^koiro CDieeee ajid Buttw Go NeshkOTO 


John Mehl Soulih Side 


Valley Junction Cheeae Factoiry Valley Junction 

Martin Pfyle St. Kirys 

Ia J. Schubert Clifton 

B, Kimball Glendale 

J. K. Powe... , . ; Onlolale 

Cotdspring Oo-op«'atlve Wilton 

Hokon Anderscm Melvina 

Fred. Lu-tlier Nopwalk 


Joe. Brooks Peshtlgo 

John Hoganson Porterfield 


252 Report of the Wicconain 


Schood SiecCimi Cb«eae FaxOarj Oconto 

Warner & Moodr Brookeide 

R. H. Birr Morgan 

John Sotinulcr Limwotxi 


John Cannod Da!« 

Albert Dr«wa Dale 

Blrdell Nelooo ..t Dale 

P. Miller Dal-i 

H. Boyw ; Dale 

A. Ntteon Dale 

A. BricAiman .Dale 

C. HotzsOhii}! ft Gclen«r Erb 

F. Zomw AM>leton 

D. W. Dean & Oo Appleton 

NI«t Hties Appleton 

Nick. Sfmon Appieton 

W. H. Verity Ax»pleton 

A. L. Wai^y..... Hortwn'vdlle 

P. 01k Horboavillle 

M. Li, O'Hailly Hortonvllle 

Chaa. West^iW HortonTille 

Chae. aclianck H^rUwiville 

Mlasling a«» Blflcfe Creek 

W. N. Bergman Black Creek 

G. acfliinke© Black Creek 

A'Vbert Carter Black Ore^ 

E. P. Strasaburger Black Creeft 

Bred. Ladhftl Black Creek 

D. 8. Oiweby ft Oo (3) Seymour 

Ed. Klelst Seymour 

Anton Kolb Seymour 

A. W. HieAtz Seymour 

H. C. Burm^»tier Seymour 

pieter Dooley Shlocton 

Frank Homry '. Shioottm 

C. W. Staeffer Wittlln 

P. Q. Berry .' Mackvilk 

J. H. S*eBen Mackvllle 

C. Preld-t -. Mackville 

Job. SeJwald* Mackville 

Caillan, Qrtint ft Smith Oo Stephen »v4!le 

WHl H. Manley Steiphensvllle 

Peter Dooley Stepheneville 

A. P. Decker Steiphensvllle 

Peter Fasbbinder SteilheneTllle 

WieooDsJn Battier and Oheese Co Medina 

W. L. Boot Medina 

Oliias. Breltrlck (2) Sapole 

H. T. Nabbe*elt - Sago^e 

Navarlno. Dairy Co Leeraaa 

Town of Maine Dairy Co Leeman 

O. A. Joihns«i Sugar Bnsh 

O Faley La-wrence^Tle 

C. Hfthn £ Oo ■ La-rorenceTllle 

G. Llphtfoot I>ii.'w™iioev111e 

L C Ovitt Bina^amtoo 

ChM. Steeffler mngihamttm 

R Orieee Blnshamton 

Nick Orth ■ ■ -■ ""le Ohote 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 253 


K. Hoffman Bear Creek 

Theo. Wisler Bear Oreek 

T. Young Bear CreeH 

Jobn Armstrong Bear Creek 

John Grwbe (2) , GrenvlUe 

C. Schneider Greenville 

Jobn Faatbinder Greenville 

Jamea Truck Greenville 

E. Hutoer N«w Lomdon 

Sohanall BiTos New London 

C. J. Brodierioh South Osbi>m 

H«nrr Ot^b ....6outlh Osbcvn 


H. Scl»ellen*eirg Horn's OornerB 

Jacob MerW Ho!y Cross 

Melchior Weeter Holy Oroea 

OhBS. MinUlaff '. Grafton 

Giuata,ve Sehroeder Orafton 

F. Kohiwey Grafton 

August Loeoh GmifUm 

August Hsjdler Grafton 

A'Ured Lange Drirecker 

Joh'n Temes (4) Belgium 

H. P. Mueller (2) Belgium 

A. Aato4De Belgium 

Gautuer & Antrtini© Belgium 

Joseph Yantner Betgluin 

Niek Portth Lake Obu«* 

H*njT Walter , Lake Church 

Jno. Tennee Lake Ohurch 

Frank W«llensteln Lake Ohureh 

A. Antcrfne Laike CMu^ 

Antoine & Gartner LaJce Church 

J. 8. KlesslR (2) Fredomla 

C. H. Witt (3) Fredomla Station 

Al. Pens FredoDla 

John De Preeae Fredonia 

F. Kue^nper Saukville 

CSiaa. Lau(er Saukville 

P. Miner ". SaiikvHle 

Daniel WttlPTlgiar Kdhler 

Peter P. Mueller Oedarburg 

J. P. FleaOhlnger Pont TWaeMnRton 

John Pauley Port W-^ehlneton 

j..ibert CoonDman Port WiaShiiigton 

taaac 9mMh Port Wafphingtom 


ChamlbHrlalii. Hakee & Oo EaM Peptn 

Adam ElTickaoin, et al Durasd 


I,. Qlneer Martell 

A'lola Grwpfer Plum Cftr 

Trbobelle Butter amd Cbeese Co Trlmtoelle 

S. SoranfloD Olivet 

Oi^pMa Creameirv Co Olivet 


254 Report of the Wisconsin 

PIERCE COUNTY- Continaed. 

G«o, Hoeeely Herbert 

Bd, Kopp Ono 

Hods C. TaiKberg :... Viking 

Roch Blm Creamery and Cheese Co Rock Ehn 

L. A. Hees SUnnrmtd 


Wm. F. Koch East Farmlngton 


P. S. HoJman AmlheTst 

Josepii O. Esterly Pohmla 

G. T, Bowlaad &, Co Bueii& Vista 


N. Spurts Union Grove 

Pred. Jacqultta Burllng^n 

Norway Buiter and Oheeae Co Union Churoh 


A. & D, Beckwith Dison 

W. J. Davi* Dixon 

WaUer Gr«nibeck Dixon 

E. F, Haaniiton Excelsior 

H. J. Noyee n. ihlano CU 


Weetem Newark Creamerr Oo Beloit 

Star Creamery Beloit 

Thompaon & Rasey. .■ Bekiit 

A. Bngebretaon Belodt 

Leo. WilMaime Beloit 

J. Speicti Orf ordville 

Geo. Bernath Ortordville 

H. J. Bullock Milton 

G. Augatoerger Evajisville 

A. Woodward Clin.ton 

J. fl; F. Nfiiwhall Jolinat»wn 

C. B. Palmer Ltma Center 

Harvey & Godfrey Lima Center 

Godfrey & Kurtz Lima Center 

James NewhaU Liana Center 

EJdgerton Creamery Co Mlltoii 

Avon Ob s&*e Factory Co Avon 


Spencer & Davis New Richmond 

Spencer & Teal New Richmond 

Hersey Cheese Co Hersey 

Pine I-ake Cheese Co Baldwin 

GrasBlte Oream & ciieese Co Baldwin 

Boardman Oheeae Factory Boardman 

J. A. Henderbere Cheese Factory Pleasant Valley 

Itoberts Creamery Co Hammond 

Julius Beer Houtton 


Dairy and Food Comtn-issioner. 255 

ST. CaiOIX COUNTY— Continued. 

B, T, Jepson Bmorald 

Cyton CtMeae Factory Cyloai 

Ole JeneoE Brookviile 


A. Scboenman Plain 

Jodiii Audieireon Plain 

farmere' Cheeee Co Plain 

Popl&r Grove Gheeee Factory Plain 

Jannes O'Maltey White Mounds 

Henry Poole Lime RMge 

Ohae. Schumaiiz Black Hawh 

Oeo. H. Holmee IjOganTille 

J, K. Powell Ironton 

Hutohina & Yunk Valton 

Shea-wood Factory Spring Green 

EUlerfiaoin FactOTy Spring Green 

Ikizwell Fairtory Spring Green 

B, & H. Staples Mercef 

Edward C. Bweert AMeman 

W. H. Plah Reedsburg 

John Dlehl Spring Grove 

Wm. Mieede '. Sanduoky 


P. R. Wllacm WhitcomJ) 

P. Koenlng LeoDOlls 

Pella Oheese Factory Pella 

Henry Grab Caroline 

Herman Mevda Co. Caroline 

Belle Plalne Cheese Jlactorr... Belle Plain 

Jobn KrlckaQimithB Roee Lawn 

Edward Rohen South Osbom 

J. S. Brumimel Pulciter 

Jaimee Dickson Pulclfer 

Fred Zueblke Bonduel 

Mike Pelton Bondnel 

F. Jaske Brlarton 

Navarlno Oalesburg 

John Leonard Laney 

A, Tbompaom Laney 

Johnson Bros. & Co Frazer 

ADiton aigllnBkle Wellbaven 

F. Oowlng Tllleda 

P. JwhinBon Hofa Park 


J. B, Curtis Plymouflh 

H. A. OhaDlin Plymouth 

Jdhn Stecker Plymouth 

H. Roehrig PlyroouHi 

H. Sobeibe Plymouth 

H. Schulz Plymouth 

Wm. Bdler Plymoath 

Louis Helmer ^Plyraouth 

Frank Gowln Plymouth 

Ferdinand SiemeiB ...Plymouth 

Wm, Jo9lln , , Plyjnouti 


Bi6 Report of the Wisconsin 


JObn Devlne Pam«ll 

J. P. Burke Pamell 

L. GcerlDg Pameli 

J. F. Murray Pantell 

Aug. Wolff Cascade 

Albert SuemmictLt-Wbiooskl Cascade 

O. B. Glover Cascade 

0. H. Buohen Oascaiie 

Frank Hughes Cascade 

B. J. Keyes Caaoade 

Mugan Bras. (2) Cascade 

Henry P, Mitw Daoada 

John ToJ-nes Dacada 

H. A. Rehm Franklin 

Aug. Rielneklng Franklin 

Wm. F. Ganbroann Saint George 

Chas. Gartmann Saint Oeorge 

J. H. Thackray Glenbeulah 

F. GoesflUng Glenljeulah 

C F. F. Karattedt Mosel 

«. B. Buoohel Mosel 

Sobreiber ft Oo Moeel 

Wm. Ooha Mosel 

Frank Theman .Brdman 

Bmll Wilder Brdman 

F, Otm ft Co Edwarde 

H. Kamrann E)dwards 

Frank Hugbes : Cascade 

F. Boldt Gibbaville 

Jdhn Baiwerdlnk GibbsTille 

Ctu-iat StrawbuTger Howard 

Ed. Sohnedder Howard 

Ed. Brbstoeeer Hoiward 

Wm. Ochs HoTvard 

Wm. Sienrera Howard 

Wm. Kohl ft Co Howajd 

Geo. Homeck Etlne 

Henry Horneck Rhine 

1. De Snide Cedar Grove 

GrootenliauB & lie Ronde Cedar Grove 

T. Walvoord Cedar Grove 

E. Hemer Cedar Grove 

GrootenhauB ft Wisslnk Oedar Grove 

A. C. Kioehler Waldo 

Lemkuehl ft Menbenk Waldo 

Bar Te Henoepe Waldo 

C. W. Gates Waldo 

Geo. BrlckbauCT Elkhart 

Henry Relneck Elkhairt 

Jac Striib Elkhart 

F. A. Mehlos Adell 

E. SpiekOT Aden 

W. Grasbom Adell 

Prank Kuepper Handom Lake 

Albert Penz Random T^ke 

Pfttllp Pfeilfer Random Liake 

■ESmll Sporcker Randara Lake 

Oarl Britton Sheboygan 

Prank Themnar Slieboygon 

EJmll WiMer Shfte^san 

3. F. Moehrl Silver Creek 

Krank Straus SUver Ore* 


Dairy and Food CommtasUm^. 257 


F. J. MulTW Hlngham 

Mentlnk & Scnnklel Mlngbaon 

tlxAiL Donatb Soott 

Cairte. SproBh Scott 

Goo. Baum Soott 

A. M. Buobmaa Saint Anna 

Wiandfil Burg Saint Anna 

P»t«r Me7«r Saint Anna 

G. C. Mayhaw Greeabush 

Geo. Webb Gfeenibueli 

ThoB. H. Ijamb Hoard 

E, Veo Dewall Hoard 

JoOiii Coegiwe RAthbitn 

F. MoNMhoIaa Plufl 

Tier MaJs JahoaonvMle 

H. Schulz Jobnaonville 

J. Oeesert Johnsonville 

Joibn Daafww Sbeboygan Falls 

Hugih Aloee Shebc^gan Falls 

Kohl & Peanw Sheboygan Falls 

J. H. DaBBOw Sbeftfoygan FYiJIb 

Obris. Relneck« Sheboygan Falls 

August Helbegboret Sbeboygan Falls 

Geo. Ba«k ; Sheboygan Palls 

Dassow ft Widder Sbeboysan Falls 

IT. Snann Random Lake 

John L. MaiKTiCz Adell 

Kimz & Oo OoBtJburg 

Frank M«yer Oosbburg 

Fred Gartmann Ooabbuig 

F. W. Gartmftnn Ooebburg 

OXTomnell BroB Scott 

John Auppelle Soott 

Jos. Lensenk Daoidor 

Ant»n Drlefurst GreenbuBh 

C M. Kncrwl«B Greenlbush 

R, Rickmkir Glentbeulalh 

G. Krutkoraemev Ada 

Jacob Splndler lEMwandB 

J. HersdoirF Qdiwards 

Fred Iiiicker Ed-wards 

Wja. Huenink Jo^sbui^ 

Jacob D&nne Ootaburg 

J. B. Ruenlnk & Bro Dajcoda 

Evam D. Wall Cedar Grove 

G. J. Dulioea Cedar Grove 

JoAm Le Ronde Cedar Grove 

J. Peihren St. George 

H. Tuttschell at. George 

E. B. Melendy GibbHvllle 

Otto Boldt GIbbsvllle 

Otto EaurMeh GlMwrllle 

A. Humiphrey RIWwvIHh 

John DasBon Wlnooskl 

A. Blenke Winooski 

W. Zelme Hathbun 

L. Goehilng Pamell 

Joseph Hetnmes Mosol 

C. H. Lieecke P'ymouUi 

Jack Wolff Plymouth 

J. G. Geesert RWne 

August Bartete t .Scott 

n— P, * F. ,^. , 


Report qf the Wisconsin 


Fflrmen' CbeeBe Oo Hedford 


Fuller & Johneon Oeaeo 


EdWBTd Llpley HtumfiiK 

Adams & Milla Dell 

ATalanohe Oheeee Factory ATatsnche 

Davlso-n Raaldii^mat Newton 

Newton Butter and Cb«e6e Factory Eesfea 

Joe. H. M. IjeeB Springrllle 

C. C. Olaon ReiTcait 


Otto Scli«rer Uttle Prairl« 

A. Woodard ADan'B Grove 

Elgin Cr^onnery Co Sliaron 

Sbaron Daliy Co '. 9h&roii 

8tsite Line F&ctiory Sharon 

C. H. Stubbfl Lyons 

Maa-tatt ft Kat&el ..Heart Prairie 

Troy Co-aporatlTe Oheeee and Crwimary Aas'n Trc^ 

B. MabcomBon (3) WbltewatM- 

Wm. Wiright Whlbewniter 

J. G, amltb WSiltewatw 

BPltJiorn Dairy Go Blk^hom 

AdamB Olieeae Pa^ctory Tniy 

Ltttle Prairfe Cheese Factory Troy 


J. H. Steln«r H«eb«r 

E. Teoobendorf Saint Ulchaele 

Joiha Aupperle BDltanTllle 

Joa. Eiiidreas Scllil«rlelng«rvllle 

L,. Quth ft Co Ackervllle 

Edward Knife Ackerrllle 

P. G. Hamaban Kewaskum 

Jotan Daniel Kewaskum 

R. S. Demereet Kewaetum 

Obaa. A. MOCormack W«st Bend 

Geo. Kopv 1 West Bend 

L. A. LandToter West Baid 

Erneet von GrueneBDii Riolifield 

Ed, Kuenzl Richfield 

C. F. Rlffhrnan Hairtford 

Joe. Auftermann HarUOrd 

Myra Cheese Factory Myra 

Wendel Petri Batarte Wayne 

Jack Hahn Wayne 

Wayne & Amdereon Wayne 

T. A. Jordan Bookfleld 

Ph. KuhQ Rockfield 

P. P. Baet Bockfl«fld 

R. Tlce & Son Aarora 

Qbafl. ataneke ft Oo.,,, ,..,...,,.,,..,. SqMer 


Dairy and Food Grnimiasioner. 25fl 


R. A. Gruilile FillimOT« 

B. W. Wlttlg ft Co FlltaWPO 

ReinhoM Gern«r FMllmore 

AuguBtln Oheeee Factory Newburgh 

Erin 0!i«ese Factwy Thompson 

Fred Settle Addlaon 

Geo. W. Tie« St. IJawI^en«e 

Joa. AuTdermann St Lawrence 


Wlaoonal'ii Butter & Cbeeae Co Uukwanseo 

WiBDonein Butter ft Cheese Co New BwMn 

waupaoa county— 

Otto Kroolw Readfield 

Jake VertiiilBt Readfleld 

Anbon Portman Readfleld 

Wm. Sohtader Readfleld 

Fred Mvtndinger Manawa 

Silver Ldike Oo-opemtlve Creamery AeB'n Scandinavia 

Mre. F. L. Olbson Und 

Batdvln Creamery Co Weyauwega 

Henry Pope Weyauwega 

Nick Zwn Cimtonvllle 

ChaB. BpowDBcliwege ClIntonTllIe 

C. T. Wilda CMntonville 

Robert RoloH CllntonvUle 

John Zehren CUntonville 

ChaB. Hackman Bear Creek 

Ohas. Delo Symco 

P. H. Kasper Nloholaon 

B. I/. AdeUhold Now Iiondon 

O. A. J«0ine3in New London 

A. R, HlUs New London 

E. A. Hueboer New Lonidon 

Schmal BiK)B New London 

Chas. Schoenrock New Looalon 

Tola Cheese Factory lola 

J. H. Raloff Symoo 

J. J. Slelger Fremont 

J. M. Hickman Fremont 

E. Roman ft Co Baldiwlna Mills 

Fleece BroB Ostpander 

Phil Kissinger Waupaca 


BorCh Cheese Fiaotary Borth 

Fountaiii Valley Factory PoyelppI 

Moffat & Deiwey Factory PoyelppI 

Warren Cheese & Butter Co Fargovllle 

SaiTllle Oheese PactoiT West Bloomflefld 

Herman Koehler West Bloomfleld 

Jitfhn N. Seaver Weat BloomQeld 

Terrlll Cheeee Factory TerriU 

Oasifi Cheese Factory PlMlnfle'd 

Mount Morrla Oheeee & Butter Co Mount Morria 

Wauflhaira Dalrvmen's Aae'n Wau^ara 

White Clover Cheese Paotory Tustln 


2(50 Heport of the Wisconsin 


John Llnd Tustln 

Marlon Cheese ft Butter Go SpTing Lake 

SpringlHwA Clieeee Factory ^rlng Late 

W. Wallers Auroraville 

J. J. Clark Aurorawille 

Pine -Rivw AsBoclation Pine Blv«r 


Wm. Prlbrbernow fflttom 

Ed. Newmaji lulttan 

Fred Splegeltierg Zittan 

Adolpih Grfanm Zlbtan 

Christ Boss Clemansvlll* 

Saim Boes Clemansvdlle 

C. Rutlier ClemaiiBVille 

Elder Creek Cheeee Factory OrWiula 

Woir Hill Olieese Facbory Oribula 

Krenke & Co. dbeeee FaotOTy Orihula 

Adoipb Grlnua Oh«BSC Fbctory Butt^a dea Marts 

Chas. Kuettel Butee des M'onts 

D. Stelner Buttes dee Morts 

Saon Boes WinitcAmgo 

Aii'gua ft HumpbT«7 Oshfco&h 

R. E. Aibrams Oehkoeh 

John Ryf Osbkoelb 

Ohas. Perrin OShkoe.'h 

Wnn. Greewwald Oehkoali 

M. Kuttell OehkoBb 

Robert SmtUe, Sr Oshkosb 

Henry Scheller OSbkosh 

OaEper Pteiffer Osbkocdi 

Wm. Schmitt Oahkosh 

Wm. L. Jones r.WinObeeter 

■Rasmus HanBOn Winchester 

Ed. Newmann Wlnflheeter 

Isaac McKlnley Wincbester 

J<is. Schneider Winneoonne 

Cbas. Marin Wlnnecyni'De 

G. Shultz WlnnecoDUie 

G. Shultz (2) 1 Poy^an 

G. W. Washburn Omro 

Wm. MoKLaley Neenah 

Wm. Elde Neenah 

N. SlmiOD ft Co Neenah 

Ooldsprlng Obeeee ft BiUt«r Co Uena^ia 

Dempai^t MlHer .- Henaaha 

Benjamin Ab lard . Neklmi 

Jacob Nohld NekimI 

W. P. Greenmaa Neklml 

'Ltuabert ft Scanlar Ptsk 

Allenv^lle Chieeee Factory AllenvlHc 

VaabuTEer Cheese Factory Altenvllle 

Rabie Cheese Factory Vinland 

Dewbajd ft Mills Vinlnnd 

Faber Cheese Factory Clemensrille 

Jacob Scibmaker Wionecoane 

L. Miller Wt^naeconne 

J. W. JelFers Winneconinc 

J. J. Tucker Wlnneoonne 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 26] 


Anton H>HiBter BakersvlUo 

John Ro*li«abOTg«r .-..Bakerevllle 

Orand Rtaplds Cheese Ftxtoiy Smyrnfl 

Hewitt Co-oiperatlve Co Hewitt 

Pour Mile Creek Oheeee Factory Qirand Rapids 

Sherry Limnber Co. Cheese Factory SUeTry 

Geo. Koenig Centralla 

Farmers' Oheese Fact^vy Aubumdale 

Sicklee Co. Oh«eee Factory Pltt»¥411e 

A. J. Bmpey Millodore 

jH«nnan H^ler V«»per 

Herman Theel Granit« 

John Blenker Blenker 

Aimiel Niacht Altdorf 



„ FOtl-Office. 


fikirtaic Creek Craamerr Spring Oroek 

Uoonoe and atiung's Pralrte Creanmy Ass'n Monroe Oentw 


Artiland Oomrtr t^^eamery Bottemnt 


Banm Co-operatiTe Oreaiuery Co Bamn 

B. W. Hlaee & Co Cumberland 

Cunabcrlood Creamery Co Cumu«4and 


Orecn Bar Qreomary Co Green Bay 

Jobn Oometeeon De F«re 

JAuthi KHmtine Little Baiplds 

Jaoot) Lb,w & Sons Oreen Bay 

WllUa«n Deotane Green Bay 

Anguit Mutake Wayside 

O. F. Grlese Waystde 

Horrte Bra«meau W^rtde 

August Kiokhaetfer Wayrfde 


MoDAovi Greaimery ft Cheeee Co Uondovl 

Holmee laaiding Creamery EV>uiitadn City 

Otover Leaf Oreamwy Ahna 

Bumsfde Oo-opera'tlTe Creamery Co MiBlia Uokwa 

Geo. Tarrant & Son, Skinuning Station Ume 

A. O. Dee Modena 

P. TrttMb ft Bro Oreaim 

Jdbn Holgb Cream 


Trade Lake Creamerr Trade Lake 


Heckert ft Albert Chilton 

Nagle ft Geiger BrllBon 

A. N. Zelke BrlUlon 

Dundas Butter ft Ctaeeae Co Dundas 

OTBAom ft Ai^bert New Holatcdn 

1/itM. jMoeraoh Biyitliertoiwn 

J. D. G«indiD« Sbeiwood 

Ednrtm Fmllou Oo Shepwood 

Henry SkMmore Stocbtnidge 

H. U. Belli Stockbridge 

John L. W«rf)ier Stockbrtdge 


Dairy and Food Commissions. 263 


Snyder Bros Cooks Valley 

Snyder Bros Bloomer 

H. G. St. Lou'lB Cooks Valley 

D. J. Corlwrlglit Cooks Valley 


Colby CreameiT Co Dolby 

A. Albert Trhorp 

Clark County Cream'ery Co.,, Glob6 

Gmaton Oa-tvperative Creamery Ass'n Granton 

NeillflviUe Creamery Co Nelllsvllle 

Clark County Butter Oo Nelllsvllle 

Geo. A. Austin NeilisTille 

Loyal Seporaibor Creamery Ass'n Loyal 

J. C. Marsfli Loyal 

OhirteUe Creamery Oo Chrtetle 

Longwood Co-operative Creamery Oo Longvood 

J. C. Marsfli Spokevllle 

W. F. M«yer Greenwood 

W. F. iTTin, Agt LoogWiioil 

Solon Davie Wilooi 

John Kubat 'Wilcox 


Mts. Wm. Cuff '.Rocky Rue 

F. W. Heniy Rocky Run 

F. C. Curtis R«oky Run 

Portage Creamery Co Portage 

Port Hope Portage 

Keyeser Creames? Co Keyeaer 

8. Sampson Otsego 

Slmmona & riutson Arlington 

H. VL MoldenhaueT & Bro Cam!jrta 

'Wm. Me41kie Rio 

8. Sampson Rio 

Dodge & Campbell Pall River 

Bmeat Britzmaa.. Fall. River 

Hi^land Grove Creamery Poynotte 

'Ward & BuBsard PoyneMe 

CoQumbus Cheese Factory Columbus 

O. A. Trowbridge Columbus 

"Wm. Hamann Colu'mbus 

Fred. Hamann Oolumtms 

A. B. CMevers ColumtMis 

Spring BrooK Creamery ' Columbus 

Henry Laag, Jr ..Columbus 

John B. Haneon Columhua 

O. W. Scott Columbus 

Lodi Creamery Co Lodl 

StawHiB & Hutson Lodi 

Spring Valley Cheese and Butter Oo .Ijodl 

Crystal Ijake Creamery Co .' Lodi 

George L. Chafflo Lodl 

'Wm. Mllkie Owlnne 

G. A. Kimball Arlington 

Mr. 'Wortih — Skimming Station Cambria 

South Hampden Creamery Co Hampden 

Pord &. Oihler, House & Co Hampden 

F. A. Fields Kilboum City 

Leeds' Creamery Leeds Center 


284 Report of the WiMonaia 


Bt H. Smitlb -HvoeiloD 

Ifolcomb Bros Pardeerllle 

~ e Taylor Randolph Center 

A tt HtUflOD West Point 


EJaattnan Butter Htg, Oo KaBtman 

Star Valley Creamery Tonrerville 

Seneca Dairy Aesoclatlon S«neca 

Kickapoo Vall^ Creamery Co Stuben 

Bamum Creamery. Co Bamum 

Wauzeka Butter Co Wausefaa 

Belle Center Creamery Co Belle Center 

Soldiers' Grove Croamery Co Soldiera' Grove 

Gay's Mill Creamery Oo Oay's Mill 

Mt. Sterling Creamery Oo Mt. Sterllne 

Frolrte du Oiien Creamery Co I^-airie da Gblen 


Roach ft Seet)er (2) Son Pr^rle 

J. V, Starker -. Sun Prairie 

Roach ft Seever Co Burke 

Burke Creamery Burke 

Nel«on Creamery Co Burke 

D. B. Wood A Co Elgin, HI. 

J. I.. Colby, Sec Story 

Hdleide Creaoiery Oo Anvis 

FanneTB' Butter Paetory Han«rrtlle 

Dodge ft Dod^ Tokem 

J. P. Keef ft Co Cottage Grove 

A, C. Kretlow Cotta^ie Grove 

Green, Wood ft Co Cottage Grove 

W. Blair Oot&iee Grove 

Kataohena Bros Pine B4uft 

Oaik Hall Creamery Co Floyd 

M, Lindas, Sec Adrtt 

Dodge ft Drake pierceville 

C. Graak Springfield Cornere 

Oryetat Lake Creamery Oo Roibury 

Henry Ruben Roxbury 

Henderson Creamery Hendwson 

Hoard's Creamery Caukbrldge 

Cliflstlaiia. Cheese and Butter Co Cambridge 

nal^Tllle Creamery Perry 

Indian Hiil Creamery Perry 

Dahlby ft Co Perry 

H. B. Dahle Creamery Elvere 

Blue Valley Creamery (DaJile A Meyera) Grit 

PaoU Oreamery Oa Paoli 

DaJile BroB Mt. Horeb 

Black Eartii Cs-op. Dairy Asso'n Block Eartb 

Maple Grove Creamery Black Eairtli 

Blue Mounds Opeamery Blue Mouoda 

D. E. W^ood ft Co Bellvllle 

Ohas. Vernon Verona 

Maslott ft Clark Creamery Mt. Vernon 

George German Mlddleton 

Parman & Hunt MIddQeton 

House & Tyler , MWdl^ton 


Dairy and Food Oommissioner. 265 

DANE COtJNTY-Con.inued. 

Frank Rider MWdleton 

H. Berktoli MiddleUm 

Ghaltee & Zleglw Dame 

W. F. Febock Mendota 

Rockdale Greamery Rockdale 

Oboe. Tellofeon Rockdate 

Oddland FaetM-y R«*dale 

J. R. Ellis & Soub Oregon 

Oak Hall Oregon 

Christiana Cheeae and Butter Oo Utica 

Edgerton Oreamciry -Co McFUrlaDd 

iMarxville Creamery Oo MarxviUe 

Roach £ Seeber Co Nora 

EcWpee Creamiecy Windsor 

Ideal Creamery Co Wlndaoff 

J. Visehon Wtodsor 

C. J. DodBfl Windeor 

Mareball & Steel Waunokee 

Svrtos Valley Creamer]' Waunakee 

Kflfww Bros. & Slrehtow De Foreet 

North Windeor Creamery Co IX Forest 

Edgerton Ci-eamery Ck> AlbloD 

CtioB. Jackeit & Co Riley 

Bo*rt. Marehall Marnhall 

Medina Butter and Oheese Co Miar^all 

Kanonr Bros & Strehiow Stouglhtom 

Edgerton Creamery Co Stoug^hton 

Rioadh & Seeber Iiondon 

Roach & Seober Deerfield 

Dodge ft Crump Deerfield 

Deansvllle Creamery Co Deansville 

H, 3, Rlpp & Bros Croee Plains 

Hy. Soheele ft Sone Cross Plains 

Mazomanie Creamery Co Mazomanle 

Hounds Creek Creamery Go Mazomanle 

Halfway Prairie Creamery Oo Maaomanie 

John Starker East Briatol 

Bdgerton Creamery Co Clarkson 

Auguat Soper Roxbnry 

Hutsoo ft Simons Rosbury 

C. J. Browne Mt Vernon 

6. Hiitson (2) AsBiiton 

P. HoTBt Aahton 

W. A. Strafrtnirg Norway Gpove 

Yoit Center Creamery Oo Columbus 


HatAher ft Oo Aimaier 

ChrlMkui & PuMner (4 li^actorles) Atwa«eir 

W. F. Jones (3 {factories) Burnett Junctlbn 

Tolamd Creamery Oo Toland 

Clearwater Springe Dairy Factory Lowell 

North Lowell Center Butter and Cheeae Fliiotory liowell 

Welsh Road FaoUicy iRiohwood 

Posey Creamery Rlcihwood 

Lean Bros.' Oreamerr Randolph 

L. G. Woodworth Randoliyh 

nolUsiK ftalrie Jei«ey Creamery Rolling; Prairie 

lUTerslde Creamery Mayvillo 

Upland Cnaowry li^Tllle , 

280 Report of t/te Wiaconsin 

DODGE COUNTY— Continued. 

Oodi 'Medal Creamery 'ReeaeTilto 

H. Heck & Co iTom Ridge 

M. & D. Bhrliaeidt Butter and Cheese Pactory Knowles 

Fox l£Jie Creamery rPox I^e 

Frank Downey Fox Lake 

A. QraJbam jiioi Laitg 

A. W. Dahniaii Creamery Neceha 

HtghJamd Oreamery Tiereea 

Rex* River CreameTy Theresa 

Rock Island Creamery Tihereea 

Upland Creaanery "Hhereea 

BeavfT Dam Creamery Beaver Dam 

Lake Shore Creimery Beaver Dam 

Tremtoo Oreamery Beav«r Dam 

H&tch^ CpeaimOTT Beaver Dam 

C. Gra^on Beaveir Dam 

'Lost Lake Creamery Loet Lake 

Ohrmundt & Groneudt Loat Lake 

■Mansfield Oraaon^ry Juneau 

Baebler & Homlein CreamMy Horloon 


Fred. HaaaKi Jacftsonpoirt 


IRusk Co-oq)6raaiv« Dreamery Oo RuBk 

O. W. MBBBoe Creamery Co Louisville 

Colfax Creamery Associajtion Coltax 

Geo. Tammt & aone Bau Galle 

Hudson Read Creamery Menomitmie 

The Roberta Creamer? Co Knapp 

DowDiliig Uifg. Co Downing 


Vlotory Dairy Co Aiignata 

iRoeedale Creamery Au^sta 

Falrchlld Creamery Co Falrdblld 

Fall Creek Creamery Co Fall Creek 


iMattaew HBobael CalnmetvlUe 

J. H. Quick Lamarttne 

A. J. Amend -West Rosesdala 

H. Friday PalT>w«ter 

Hobbe Bros. (2 Factories) Metomen 

A. J. Amend Metomen 

J. B3. Anwd Ripon 

Democrat Prairie Rdpon 

OhelOT & House Alto 

B. KlooBtert»er AMo 

Que. Keeseman AHo 

H. C. Downy Alto 

H. D. Stetael AHo 

Pmnk Meyers Bing 

W. J. Stahlhury Sotrtih Byirom 

Louta Jjoabi Joihnsburg 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 267 


M. J. Miehflna , JcAinabarg 

Prank March Ebmore 

R. D. Sill Waupun 

C. A- Atiwood Waupun 

W. Hatcher &. Co Wauptin 

Bristcrl & Moj-gaa Waupan 

A. E. Hill Ropcuilalo 

Cieo. KreLtsiager Canipbells^ort 

HobbB Bros Brandon 

S. B. Ftlday Brandon 

. fountain Creomery Oo Peeblea 

Anton DreWuerst & Co St Cloud 

Ed. Koab Moryto^n 

A. Stephany Malone 

Louie Locihr MaUme 

Matt. Michele Calumet Hartwr 

C. A. Atwiood Ladoga 

J. A. Stnatz , WoodhuH 

D. S. Orosby RogerevUle 

Block River Co Oai Center 

OebelJ & Kolentes^ ; Oak Center 

Boemffl* Sc Meuer Asliford 

D. D, Jones Byron 

Amel Warnkee FV>nd du Lac 

J. E. Knitrtt & Co.... Pond du Lac 

J. A. Bmeraon Lamartine 

C. S. Niasb Lamortine 

Arnold Petri Calvary 

Anton Boelin Calvary 

Erietol, Morgan & Co Oakfteld 

Hlgihlamd Creamery Co Oakfleld 

J. B. Neat Ladago 

B. Paraona Ladago 


Mount Lkm Creamery Oo Cornelia 

Dyffl- & Oo. (2 Pactoriea), Cometia 

BdChliand & Vaimattl Cornelia 

Kleler Butter and Okaese Fatcory Kieler 

Georgetown Cream-ery Co Georgetown 

Hozel tireen Creamery Oo Hazel Green 

Ellen'bopo Creamery Oo Ellenboro 

Elgin Creamery Oo Lanoaster 

Hunt ft Da«k Potoert 

NopKhfweatem Creamery Oo Elmo 

Elgin Oreaimery Co '. Preatim 

Htno, Hilderbraiid Co. (Limited) PenninM^re 

'P. A. Ohandler Fennlmore 

Big Patcfti Skimming Station Big Patcli 

Louleburg Butter and Cheeae Co Louisburg 

H. P. Stagman £ Oo ■. Bagley 

Hnnt & SchaaJ Burton 

Mt. Hope Dairy Aseoelatlion Mt. Hope 

MilllvHle Creamery Oo Millvllle 

Brodtville Creamery Oo '. Brodtville 

BlooimlinBton Creamery Co Bloomlngton 

A. R. Allen Patch Grove 

PlattevlHe Gheeee and Produce Paotory Plabtevllle 

Bwnfcer Hill Creamery Oo Plattevllle 

Wlhttchwr's Creamery Platterille 


268 B^ort of the Wisconsin 

GRANT OOUMTY— Continued. 

Elgin Greeimery Oo Montfoird 

Elgin Or«aim«ry Co lilyfneetoii 

Elgin Creamery -Oo Stltzer 

Kllndt G«d6er & Oo Cawvllle 

Geo. B. Qrooim CasSTille 

Ohas. atephenB Blleniboro 

Geo. ^ringer &. Oo. (2 Fachwf e«) EUenlboro 

Norti Andover Dairy AsBoclatlon Norfih Andover 

Cuiba Oltr Butter and Cheeae Co Cuta Olty 


Monttoello Creamery Co Attica 

G, A. T^epp Brooklyn 

J. R. Ellis & Co Brooklyn 

H. Zlaameranan ; Broo^dyn 

J, Specks &. 3. Marty Sylvester 

A. Specks Sylvestej- 

Juda CreamwT Juda 

A. Sperfdh .Juda 

D. E. i/ood & Oo \ Browntown 

Stearns Oreamery Co Stearns 

D. E. Wood & Co Albany 

Pnmfe Gesser Monroe 

JtuX* Speoh Monroe 

D. E. Wood & Oo Monroe 

Polk OrBflmery Polk 

H. Trumpy & Son Clamo 

A. Notting & L. 0. Knudeen Brodhead 

C. W, SinglehuTst Brodikead 

Joihn Newman Miairtintiown 

Fred. Hetty Schultz 

John Newman Snihiiltz 

Iteiytoo Dairy Aeaoeiatlon Dayton 

Jolm Newman Oo Stewart 

W. H. Manser Oakley 

Monttoello Oreajnery Do. (2 Factorlea) MonticeQIo 

E. South Creamery Polk 

JOimes P. Younger Polk 

Pred. Knudert Cretumery New Olarus 

F. R. Mole« Oreamery Jordflm 

RoW, Steele Albany 


Groose & Hiaas Kingston 

H. P. Friday Markesan 

Ma.ckEord Prajrie Oil Markeaan 

Berlin Oreaimery Co Berlin 

HadgBOn'B Creek Butter and Cheese Co Berlin 

Seneca Butter and Cheoae Oo Berlin 

J. F. Grooae Manobaster 

Amend Oo DartTord 

Lake £]m'1ly Stamford 

Henry Friday Or«ea Dake 

F. Hbar -. MarkeBan 


Otter Greek Creamery Oo Union Ullla 

Union Mille Creamery Oo Uuton Mills 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 269 

IOWA COUNTY- Cod tin ued. 

J. P. YouUEer Vnicta Milla 

Mitchell & Grifflti'a Creamery Co Hyde 

Blue MoTindfl Valley Creamery Co Mazomanie 

Spenaley & Oo Minearul Point 

Hlshlajid Grfajmery Co Highland 

J. P. Younger Rwftory Hlghlajid 

nid«eiway Creamery Oo Ridgeway 

J. P. Younger Cobb 

Otter Creeib Creamery EJdmund 

J. P. Youngw i^reamery Edmund 

Dry Bone Creamer Dry Bone 

P. J. ^^obstroii JoneBdale 

HollandflJe Oo-op. Creamery Co Hollandale 

Mitchell & OrifflthB' Dreamery Oo Dodgeville 

Dodgeville Go-op. Creamery Oo Dodgevllie 

SpeoBeley &. Co., Creamery Linden 

Mound Greek Creamery Arena 


J. R. Seohler & Son SecWerrlUe 

W. G. HyBlop MelTOBO 

North Bend Co-op, Cre«meiT Co Nortli Bend 

W. G. Hyslop Atana Centw 


Bollman A Co BeirnOiard 

Albert Teich Navan 

Alfred Wiiman : Navan 

W. M, Itewe Weiner 

Hintz &. MeCrlder Co Pipersville 

Hobertfi & Reese Plperavdlle 

A. R. Hoard Oakland 

Oakibill Oo-ep. Oheeee and Butter Co OaUilli 

Wm. Dawe Oaifchill 

Karow Bnoe. & Co Ebenezer 

C. B. Dodge Lake Mllla 

G. J. Millard Lake KiUe 

Oreeaiwood & atrasbnrg Lake Mills 

Haiberman A Breitzman Lake Mills 

Union Creamery Lake Mllla 

Looila Woelfter Lake Mills 

Favlll Grove Creamery Lake Mills 

R>ock Lake Creamery Ijake Mills 

Rome Da4ry Oo-op. Creamery Rome 

C. L. Calkins Paimyu. 

Albert Kooh , Palmyra 

Fountain City Creamery Palmyra 

Tom. Sanders Palmyra 

Com«r Grove Creamery Co Palmypa 

Wllbe & Oook Creamery Co Palmyra 

A. G, Haag Factory Heienvine 

C. F. Pohlman Helenvllle 

A. R. Hoard K^ebkonrMig 

Maple Leaf Creamery Co Jetferaon Junction 

B. Oeetricfti SuDlvam 

Milter & Zahn Sullivan 

O. F. Greemwood ft Go Milford 

Hennan Teich Milford 

James Campbell Jefferson 


270 Seport of t?ie Wisconsin 


Harvey Creamery Oo '....Jefferson 

Hdverelde Creani«ry Co Jefleracm 

U«i|>l« Ileal Creamery Co Jefferson 

Henry Schemp Sumner 

Hoard's Creameir Hetoron 

Bm«m k Marshall Hebron 

Scbempf & Godfrey (2 Faobories) Hebron 

Bark River Oieeee Co Herbron 

H. C. Christians Co Azlalan 

Jahnke Bros. AllceUm 

Roberts & Reese Oooom^ 

C. KautaX Concord 

Wm. Yamdery Cold Springe 

Sobimp. KuU & Oodfry Cold Sjwlnga 

F^lrvlew Creamery Co Harvey 

Elgin Bii«t«r Oo Ixonla 

Izonia Butto- ana Oheese Co Ixonla 

WaterUrwn Oreemery Oo Watertown 

C. May & Sioos Watertcwn 

North Road Factory Watertown 

Weat Road Creamery Co Watertown 

Jos. Brooba Creamery Watertown 

South Road Creamery Co Watertown 

Lake View Creamery Co Waitcrtown 

Bleecker Grove Creamery Hubbleton 

Union Creamery Hubbleton 

Rypkie Grove Creamery Hubbleton 

Roaoh & Seeder Co Waterloo 

York Center Creamery Co Waberloa 

Waterloo Butter and Cbeese Co Wajterloe 

Geo. C. Manaflelu Oo. (7 Factories In the county),. JohnBom's Greek 

H. C. Chrleblana Co. (4 Factories) Johnson's Creek 

Johnson's ■jreee (H. J. Groll Butter & Egg Co.) . .Johnson's Creek 

Greilton (H. J. Grell Butter ft Egg Co.) Watertown 

Manz & Holentterg Jolbns^a's Creek 

A. R. Hoaird (5 Fiact<M-iee> Ft. Atkinson 

H. Scbempf (3 FWitoriea) Ft. Atkinson 

Geo. Hartel Ft. Atkinson 

South Koetikontmg Ft. Atklneon 

C. Kotloll Faimington 

L. Paiman ^ Farmingtod 

Duck Oreek Cretunery Jefferson 

J. P, Galloway KosJikouoog 


W. P. Doonett Wonewoc 

Uokm Center Creamery Co Union C«ntor 

Arbor Creamery Co Union Center 

C. F, Muti^ ESroy 

J. K. Rounds New Uabon 


Oatman Bros.' Factory Salem 

Cyrus oeneddot Brlgiitoa 

Wm. Kloemeyer Brighton 

OtUnan Bros Wilmot 

M© Creamery Burlington 

S. D. Slade Blade's Oomwo 

Eomes' Corner* Creamwles Woodwortb 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 271 

KENOSHA. COUSTy-Cantinued. 

Wowtiwapth Creamery ■ . ■ ■ ■ Wood worth 

■Noirtai Oreamery Woodwortih 

fiarmwe' Dairy Aesoctatton Baeaett 

H. B. K611ogg RaiiBey 

Oaitiman Bros. (2 Factories) Brisfal 

Trueedell Creamery Co Pleaaant Pralrte 

F. R. Snyder Pteaflant Prairie 

Wm. Peteraon Wheatlflaid 

Attguet Bae^ke Tevor 

Brjyhton Star Oraamery Sliver Lake 

Truesdell Dreamery Co Tpueadell 

Mt. Pleasant Butter Co Scnnera 

Kenoalia County StAr Creameiry ...Somers 

Somers' Oreaanery SomerB 

Fair Ooraewi Creamery Paris 

Kenosha County Star Cream^y Paris 

C. B. McKiasna Wtaeattemd 


Albert Hoppe Rdo Creek 

Green Bay Creamery (SWroming Station) Caeoo 


H. H. Boeahard Bume 

flolmaD Creamery Association Holman 

West Salem Co-op. Cre&meiry Abbo'u West Salem 

A. C. Htmeon Mlndoro 

J'amee Bairoiay Mlndoro 

Jobn H. Dahle Burr Oak 

Obas, Ltnee Sigel 

Bangirr Go^ap, Dairy AsBoclatiom Bangor 

Mrs. SaimuBlB Barre Mills 

Rocktojid Creamery Rooklaad 


Whiteoak Datry and Peed Asso'n Wbiteoak 

T. Isaaci Vlckers (Skimming StaCion) Meeker's Orove 

lEIk Grove Creamery Elk Orove 

Geo. Meyera Red Rock 

WardBville Separating Creamery Co Shullsburg 

Shullstonrg Creamery Co ShuUaburg 

Dodge GTOve Oreamery Leadmlne 

ColwmiMfl. Oreamery Benton 

iRud<^l>h Miller Dumbarton 

Krogg & Dettlmer Belmont 

GrwiKrt Croaimery Gratiot 

Town Line Creamery GnftitlQ>t 

New Diggioee' Dairy and Feed AflS3'n New DlsRings 

D. E. Wood £ Go South Wayne 

J. Newman South Wayne 

Avon Cresmery Co :: Darlington 

WacdBvilie Creamery Co Darlington 

Pleaaant Vleiw Creamery Oo DarllniRton 

Otter Creelc Oreaonery Co Darlington 

TeiloiwsboTie Creamery Yellonvstome 

Argyle Oreamery Argyle 

J. Newman Aj-gyle 

P. R. Moier Woodford 


272 Seport o/ the Wiscmisin 


(Payertte Creamwy Co Fayette 

Wiota Oreamei-y Wlota 

John Newman BlanohaTdviHe 

Bethel Grove Creamery Truman 

Albert Poo! LamDnt 

J. H. Clarkaon New Diggings 


ABitlgo Cheeee amd CreemeiT Co Antlgo 


Tbe RusseU Creamery Oo Dudley 

J. A, Young,. Merrill 


Adolpli Kleealg OMnao 

Martin iMiode NorCheim 

L, H, Kleaaig & Co St. Wendel 

Henry Htogias St, Wendel 

P. H. Peaoook Eaet GlbBon 

Jae. Maltmaa Rube 

F. Shnera Meeme 

Ohaa. Weinfatiier Tisch Mills 

Joihn Ba^khaue Mlshloott 

Cleveland i^reamery Co Clevelana 

Oscar Bartel Cleveland 

Frank Fenner & Bro Lairabee 

H. Stralhott i^lverno 

R. C. Belnke , WellB 

64'mon Geger Kasaon 

B. Bruokeahew & Co Thnothy 

H. Werner Maple Grove 

Fnv^ii Kolbeek. Whltela-w 

Henaan StFodihoff Newtoaberg 

Wisconsin Butter and Cheese Oo Reedeville 

Manltwwoc Creamery Oo Cato 

Herman S. Scnuta Manitowoc 

Manitowoc Creamery Co Manitowoc 

Jacoib B«4irhiger Manitowoc 

Fr»d. Bremer Manitoiwoo 

Alex. MoAdam Meinltcuwoo 


Anton Braun PoinatowBkl 

Aug, Rltger & Co Marathon 

Gotlleb Koehler Hamburg 

Ludwdg Mootz., Barney 

Henry Belike Stottln 

Andrew Ilalg Colby 


John Hoguwoo Poaterfleld 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 273 


Germranla Creamery Co Germania 

Jioain Ellta Mmmdvalla 

P8ckwB.utee CroBjniOTy Aeeo'n Packwaukee 

Lakevjew BrlBe«vllle 

B. D. Brigtitum Westfield 

W. N, Johmson Osford 

Stocteholdera" Creamery Co DouglBfl Center 


OabmBjn Bros Starganl 

OomelluB Taylor Wauwatoea 


T. L. Martin Wilton 

F. J. KvabaabuliI Milvlna 

Atez. Roal Nor-walk 

Tunnel City Creamery Co Tunnel OHy 

CasMon Creannery Co Oashton 

Kendall Creamery Co Kendall 

Leon k^reaimery Aasaiclat'iOTi • Lean 

B. DrowBitzky Tamaih 

The Waorens Creamery Co Waireos 

A. C. Cole & Son Cataract 

A. I. Sensee & Son Cataract 

Aingelo Creanaery Co Angelo 

Wm. HunUinger '....,.. St Marys 

J. J. Menn Oil City 


Uttle River Creamery Oconto 

Maiple Valley Creamery Co Marple Valley 

An»oa Eldred Co Stiles 

Jabn P. Bchul'lz Abrama 

Lena Creamery Co Lena 

Qlllett Co-operative Co Gillstt 

John Theade <BrookBlde 

Mapl« VaJtey Creamca-y Co ; Claywood 


Kaukauma Creamery Co Kaukauna 

Bungert Creameor Co ■. Bungert 

Bear Creek ComerB Oreannery Bear Creek 

Welcoane Creamery Bear Creek 

Aug, Gerllck Apple Creek 

John Oainnon Dale 

Koehn & Potter Appteton 

Dengler & Son Appleton 

Jolwi«bon'B Creamery Appteton 

L. Dabaj-etnies- & Co Horbomville 

Hogaboom Bros Black Creek 

iLoubenliimer & Stein ' Black Creek 

SeyimoTir Creamery Co Seymour 

Tlheo. Markfl Black Creek 

18-D. & F. 


274 Report of the Wisconsin 


E. I* Eastman Saukvllle 

Arthur Beger Kotiler 

Q«>rge Mint Kohler 

Wm. Sohoeseoiw Freistadt 

Five Comers Oreamery Oo Cedorburg 

John Pauliis Bel^um 

Nlok. Knepper Fredonla 

CUwe, Gkrlacii Gralton 


Plummer M«TcarntU« Co Artejieaw 

Geo. Tftrrant & Son {3 Paotorlea) Tarreat 

V. W. Dorwln Mill Co., Cheese and Oreamery Tappa«it 

George Tayrrant & Sera Durand 

V. W. Dorwln MH Cb.... Durand 


AlBtrtell Creamery Co Hartell 

Itook Elm Oreajnery AssMloitlon .Rock Elm 

TrimlbeUe Butter & Cheese Oa Trlmbetl 

Cre««wnt Oreamery Co Bllawortih 

jioihnecm & Ijareon River Falls 

Bock Elm tJutter & Otieeee Ass'n Exile 


A. C. Rnwdholdt Patterson 

CiBBMog Co-operaitlT« Creameiry Cuablng 

H. J. HJoat ■. West Denjsark 

Balaaim Lake Co-operative Creaan«ry Co Balsam I«ke 

Co-operative Creamery Co Clear Lake 

Wan. Kent & Oo. Creajnery Oaceala Mills 

HJort BroB West Sweden 

-iLakotoiWin Creamery Alabama 

W. b^tteeoD & Son Jenaeu 


OhTiertian Mayer. PhlllipB 


MoCanna, Flrasier Oo Waterford 

MoOanoa, Prasler Co Caldwell 

MoOaiwia, Frasier Co Burlington 

(MoOanna, Fraflier Co Kaneasvtlle 

MoOa-nna, Fraslor Co R^cheste^ 

McDamia, Frasleir Co Beaumont 

Karcey £ Wu^rterHng Kneeiond 

Mit PteasaiiLt Butter Co Sylvaola 

W. V. Creamery Sylvanla 

Spellum & Tboanps;™ North Cape 

Thompfwnvllle Creamery .' Thompsonvllle 

Raymond Creamery Oo Raymond 

C, Otto 

Clumlie Oreaanery Union Grova 

Huaher Croamear Caledouta 


Dairy and Food Commissioner, 275 


Cftrswell Broe Dtxcrn 

Moptln & Harbor .RlChliaiid Cantor 

J. R. Mansfield Riolilan<i Center 

J. S. Winn Biohl-aiid CemMr 

Henry Pleanme Rlohland Center 

Sylvan Creaimery Oo Sylvan 

Ithaca U'nii>n Cheese Co Ifhaca 

Richwood Creamery Oo Westport 

Bloom City Creamery Co BLcHnn Oity 

Elgin Creamery Oo Bear Valley 

Andrew Harter 'lJon« Rock 


Ottwrtlaiid lacfcner Indian Ford 

CBiaB. D. Fittili Emenald GOTwe 

llehllrag & Brinlcmain Shopiere 

F. O. Ueftiling & Go Hanover 

R, R. Oarlfiton .Hanover 

Eagle Oreamiery Co Fulton 

Taylor & Marsbon BeloJt 

Egbert Stair Betoit 

'W. S. ittoimps»n 

EJdgertcin Orearoery Cx (G factories) Edgerton 

Elgin Creamery Oo Olinton 

Nora Creamery Co Clinton 

P. 0. Ufehling & Co Orfordville 

B. H. Skinner Orfordville 

Wim. Brinlanian Aftom 

Tiffany Co-oiperative Creain>ery Asa'n Tiffany 

R. R. Oairlson (14 creameriea) Footville 

CSiaa. Haittwn FootviUe 

D. iE. Wood & Co Magn.otla 

D. E. Wood & Oo CookfiviUfl 

Oomley & Gaary Fairfield 

G. D. HaW Jolinslown Center 

"Harmony" — J. C. Htiibn. Prop JanesvlUe 

"Janeevdlle" — F. W. Bceteher, Prep Janesville 

■ "Wiliawdale"— B, BriQlnmam, Pn>p Janeevllle 

'La Prairie Creamery Co Jamcsville 

Henry Sohumip Milttai 

Godfrey & Kutz Lima Cenior 

Kaotael & M'airleCt Whltawater 

A. D. Oomkey Milton Junotloii 

Geo. K. Nelson Milton Junction 

D. E. Wood S Oo Evansville 

JcllMwtawTi Oreamery Co Johmstowji 

Fred VankiT'k Ceniter 

Sands & Co Clinton 

L J. FletcluOT JoHmatown 


Rnsli River Creamery Oo Baldwin 

T. E. Hawkins ...Baldwin 

Raberta OreaHLery Oo Baldwi-n 

Roberts Croamery Co Wilson 

■Robert* Creaimery & Oheese Oo Roberts 

C. F, Freeman & Co Eioiberts 

James J. Graslle New CenlireT^lle 

Deer Park Oo-operativ* Creamery Oo Dees' Park 


276 Report of the Wisconsin 

ST. CEIOIX COXnJTy— Continued. 

OlcavwoDd Orexumery Co Oleofwood 

OtTto Jcineen Croaimery Co Eb^>okviU« 

Cylcm Oreaanery Co Cylon 

WoodvUIe Butter & Cbeese Oo WoodviUe 

Star Prairte Croajnery Co Star Prairie 

Haugen & Crrassllfi Palmer 

N«Ia Jjorensen ^nokTiUe 

Hill & Hawklne Hammoad 


Troy and Honey Creek Factory Wilton 

Durward & QuerliamineT. . ." Black Hawk 

Sumpt«r Oreamery Co Prairie du Sac 

Wieoanein Co-operative Oreamery , Sauk City 

Riverside Creamery Sauk City 

Barker Broe BacBiboo 

W. P. Dennett Reedeburg 

Saniboni & Bamett Oo La Valle 

Ijogainviite Butter & OUeese Man utactu ring Co Loganyille . 

Merrimack & Caledonia Creamery Co Merrimaick 

Co-o!>OTatlve Creamery Co Spring Qr«en 

Durward ft Quertiommer Leland 

J. B. Ward Sandusky 

Sumpter Creaimery Co King's Comers 


Butiter ft Cheeee Aes'n Shawano 

O. A. Risum Pulclfer 

AnrtKMi von Heitnburg Bonduol 

Anton yoa Heinuburg : Cecil 


G&rlling & Co Glmbeulab 

WuniA Broe Moeel 

A. BuemnlcQit X Wlnoosiil 

Andrue Bros Wlnooakl 

CConnell Broe Ueechnood 

Haenemke Bros Cedar Grove 

J. B. DcMiie Cedar Grove 

Dulmes £ Kremmer Oostbiirg 

P. Spnavgers Ooettourg 

Demkuel & Suleling Ooabburg 

J. P. Bhren Oosbburg 

Job. Leinsenk OoebbuTg 

William Reineck Ooetburg 

O'Oonnel] Broe Adell 

Framk Bartaer ShelioygBn 

Herbert Bldas S)i<eboygan 

C. H. P»pe eiheboygan 

Sheboygan Milk Co Sbeboygan 

T. M. ^juampeny Plymouth 

C. H. Len«k« Plymouth 

Wm. Skeltom Pamell 

Geo. Krautkraemer Frajikiiu 

C. P. G. W«a-nlcke Gfeenbush 

rrhoB. Allam Aden 


Dairy and Food CommiBsion&r. 277 


Z. Halil«ii : 3h«boyg»ji FaJlB 

M. McKinnon. Sh«boy^ii Falls 

McGqran & Evans Sbebi^gan RaillB 

J. F. Moilirl Silver Creek 

trempeiajLejau county-^ 

C. M. Levis Osseo 

ATOtlc Springs Creamery Co Galesville 

N. I. Gilbert Bleva 

Unity Oo-operatlve Creamery Co Strum 

P. E. Kem Pigeon Flails 

Blair Trading Ass'n Blair 

Badger Store Oo , Blair 

Arcadia Creamery Co ." Arcadia 

IndependeTice Creiaanery Co Indeptairieiice 

Bumeide Butteir & Chease Factory Trempealeau 

Whitehall Creaimery A&s'n Whlit*ihall 

Elk Creek Oreaanery Asa'o Klk Creek 

D^dge Creamery Dodge 


Ooon Valley Creaimery Ccmn Valley 

A. B. Elde ChasebuTg 

Arbor Creamery Co DiHy 

Thcimipsan Bros. & Co Brietow 

C. C. Olson Brlstjow 

nh'ompsian Bros Purdy 

Koken, Anderson, Butter & Olieese WesUby 

A. B. Mutch HlllBlKMX> 

Wernlck & Hanwuer Hillsboro 

C. V. Wemick HillBboro 

John Waroer Boss 

Ontario Creamea'y Aes'n Onjtarlo 

Newtom Oreaimiery Co Nwrtwi 


J. Watts iRl<*oiiand 

Wlsooosin Butter & Cheese Co Millard 

Farmers' Creamery Co Walworth 

Columbia Oreamery Co Allen's Grove 

HaprlB & West Darlen 

Wlaconsin Butiter & Cheese Co Fayetteville 

Oonley & Oomroy Darien 

Alvln Stone Darteii 

C. R. Glbba WhitcwAter 

H. Jud'ke Whltewat3r 

Jcihn Kaohel. Creamery and Cheese Whltewatw 

George Cowles Whitewaitw 

C. Q. Boncii WJiitewiater 

Tho8. Dryer Cheese Faetory and Oreantery Whitewater 

Elkhom Dairy Co Blkhoro 

Wiiseonsln Butter & Cheese Oo BIMiom 

Lake Tonvn Creajmery EHohorn. 

Sioitth Sugar Creek, Buiter & Cheese B^lkh.orn 

East Troy Oo-openative Butler & Obeeee Ass'n Hllbum 

Adams Butter and Cfaeese Co Adaims 


27y Report of the Wisconsin 


Co-operative Troy Creamery Co Mayliew 

Bilver Lake Creamery Co TlbbeU 

Oatunaji B*>ob Siwijig Prairie 

Ht>buni Oreamery Oo Lake Buelaih 

MoCamna & FYalBer Iiake Bu«lali 

iM«tkwee Oreamery East Delavas 

Daat Delavan Oreamery Co Elaat DelaFam 

Honey Greet Co-opemtive Oreamery Honey Creek 

MoCaJma, Frazler & Co Honey Creek 

Spring Creek OreamCTr Aea'n Blssell 

OaAman Bros Genoa Juncton 

J. B. Vosburg Genoa Junction 

Elgin Batter Oo Geinoa JiinoUon 

Lake View Creamery LaJie Geneva 

North Blooimfloid Oreamery ., Lake Geneva 

Maple RMge Creoanery Lafce Geneva 

Kayee Pork Crearmery Lake Geneva 

Geneva Oenljer Oreanrery Como 

MelUxwe Butter Factory — Island Deiavaji 

Delavian Prairie Co-operaUve Creamery De'.avan 

H. MaiT La Grange 

La Grange Butter and Cheese Factory La Grange 

Harris Broe Ti-oy Center 

Cabman Broe Svr^ingfield 

WlBoonsin Butter & Oheeee Factory ^rlDgfleld 

McAdam Bros Bast Troy 

Eest Tpoy Butter & Cheese Ass'n Hast Troy 

NewliWl BroB Hichmond 

Blgln Dairy Co Sbaron 

Sbaron Dairy Co Sbaron 


Boltonvllle S. & C. ABsociaitdon BoltooylUe 

M. N. Gehl South Germantown 

Dow Mason & Co Sohleislngerviille 

L. Roseniheiiiier Kewaakum. 

Weat Bend Creamery Co West Bend 

Jackson. Butter i« Cheese Co Jac^on 

Dorw Maxon Cedar Creek 

J. B. A, Keirn ft Son Aiiontorsm 

John Bepiinger & Oo Allento>wn 

Gilt Edge Butrter Oo Barton 

Nerwbu-rg Creamery Co Newburg 

Jackaon Butter & Cheeae Co Kirchliayn 

Thonipson Creamery Thompson 

J. L. Bertscber Clear Lake 

MMiael Gelil Anrora 


C, J. Bente Got den Lake 

MenooKmee Falls Oo-operajtive Creamery Co Idenomonee Falls 

Harris Broe Calhoun 

Prince of Wales Creamery Wales 

Wisconsin Butter & Cheese Co Mukwooago 

Ferry Schuchart Merton 

T. M. Ohaimpeny Uonohes 

Harttend Creamery HarUend 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 279 


Sa.yl'eavllle Creooneoy G«nn«eBee 

Nortli Prairie Bwter & Oheeee Co Nwtb Prairie 

Delafield Oo-operatiTe Creamery Co /Delafl&ld 

Morcy Elgin Co Maicy 

Boacu & Seeber Summit Cemter 

Herman Benite Summit Center 

'Miller & Zaha Su'mmlt CemFtetr 

H. Damea Moaterey 

■Wteoomein Butter & Oheeae Oo V^mon 

VeBTion Co-opera'tive Factarj Vernon 

T. M. Ohampeny Sussex 

Wifloonaia Butter & Ohfteae Co Waukeflha 

Wm.Miller & Oo Dousm^n 

Plynn & Wiheian Merton 

iWm. Miller Waterville 

iPewftuhee Creamery Oo Pewaukee 

T. M. Champeny CoIsait« 

Ohrie. Glana, CrMimery and Hand Cheese T«fia Cornara 

VWDon Co-operaitiv-e Oraamery Prospeet 

MflCanna & Pimaler Oo Proepect 

JMcCainia's Butter & Cheese Paotory Big Bend 

Ottawa Co-operative Cheese & Butter Co Ottawa 

■H. J. Roberta Oomtomiowoc 

Patrick King Ooomoiaowoc 

Summit Oreaimery Ooonoiatrwoc 

~- • Creamery Burlln^on 


Oprtog Hill Creamery Waupaoa 

Ed. R. Tmeger Oldmbonvllle 

Baldwin & SamdeTH Weyaurwega 


EureAca Creamery Co . , Bortli 

D. J. Jenne & Soe Auroravlile 

Oryatal vountalm Creaanery. . ." Auroraville 

Ii>>unjtal'n Va..«y Oreamery Aiiroravllie 

Ruly, H«Lle Broe AuroraTllle 

Poyaippi Oreamery Co Poysippi 

D. J. Jerme & Oo FargovlUe 

PteJnifleld Butter Factory Plainfleld 

Pin* River Dairy Afwooiatlon AuroTOTlUe- 

C. W. WaWar, Butter and Cheese BruBhviile 

Star Oreamors' Oo Tustdn 

Ernest MiaUhews Terril] 

Heal BroB Terril! 


AilenvlVle Spring Oreamery Co AUenyille 

Rush Lake Creamery Co Rush Lake 

iWubert & SooQlan Pickett 

LaimitieTt & Sconlan../ Fiek 

Sureke. Oreamery ; Oahkoeh 

Koro Co-operative Creamery Oo Koro 

Florai Creamery Aea'n Zloin 

Fkxral Oo-operaitive Creamery Waukan 


280 Seport of the Wisconsin 


Floral Creamery Omro 

Oak Hill Creamery Co Lbmbii 

Guss Kreptke Neenah 

Wm. M. Bobinscm NeenaOi 

Eurelia Creamery Co Poygan 

J. W. Jeffera Winnecoane 

Chris. Veke Zitlan 


Geo. HlteB Land & LuTober Co Dexterville 

M. A. aickels & Oo PlttaTille 

Grand Rapids Creamery Smyrna 

H»w4tt Oo-operaitlve Creamery Oo Hewitt 

Farmer's Oreamery Co , Grand Rapids 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 


March 6.— Randolph 

Per ct. of (at 

J. P. Shtwiian 5.1 

March 14.— Randolph 

Mrs. Phoebe Davis, 4.45 

Ed. Roberts, 3.75, 

T.Tobaski,.... 3.60| 

R, L Roberta below standard 

Thoa. Davis, 8.8 

Wm. DaviB, 3,8 

K Salzman, 3.9 

Jim JotiB, 1.5 

C. V. Carew, 4.0 

ThoB. Davis, 3.4 

March SS.— Johnson Creek 

— Orahlman, 4.0 

— Johoke, 3.5 

— Kroegger, 3,6 

Wm. Sietim, 4.1 

— Wittneble, 4.6 

— Haman, 3.9 

— Kohl, 3 6 

— Behattsn icier, 3 8 

— Trabbrir, 4,1 

— MHrsaiiles, 3.9 

W. Cbristiao, 3.9 

E-Suliwab. 3.7 

Wm. Lini^ei 4,2 

HeErySteihti 3.7 

Henry Koddke, 3.8 

Nick Hiedemau, 3.8 

Siedler Bioa 4,0 

A. Voeltz, 3 5 

Aug, Naatz 3.4 

Loui'* Schamaker, 4,2 

R, Boese 4.0 

Aag. Marlow, 3,6 

FVedHamuck, 4.0 

Wm. Vnglo 4.2 

JohnBartel, 3 

Wm, Kelliog, 3,6 

Aug. Gohr, 4,4 

JohnGahler, 5,0 

Henry Kanack, 4.1 

Geo Seltz 4.2 

C. Maatz, 3,5 

P. Adler 3,6 

J. Wandessee, ....,.,.. 4.1 

Fee ct. of (at. 

Wm. Wilder, 

C. Else 

C. Krichberg, 

C.J. Mills 

Wm, Senkle, 

C. F. Boechert, 

i L, Schaejbert, 

C. Wolff, 

A. Lasch, 


C. Moldeobaaer, 

C. Schroeder, 

H, Weiseraan, 

A. Kopp, 

A. Krueger, 

March SO. — Walerloton 

G. Eicbman, 

T. C. Sydow, 


H, Trachte, 

G. Yaeck 

W, Wiegant, ; 

G. Rabbach, 

E, Platz, 

C. Straus, 


C Oestrich, 

A. Ziebel, 

E, Bottler, 

H. Gillis, 


Rob. Schenick 

E. Sydow, 


H. Hohmsn, 


J. Gillis 




H.Petig, , 

Auff. Starck, , 

H. Razir, 

A Kelpap, 

J, Witte, 

A.F, Wilke, 

F. Flath, 


^, Soboechert, ,...,.... 


Seport of the Wisconsin 

F. Lehman, 

J, KopiemuB, 

F. Brack, 

Wm.Baohaoh, 1.2 

March £9. -Milford 

— MsDafleld, 

— PanchlU, 3.3 

— Shafer 3,1 

A.Krull, 4.0 

C. Rogeitz, '. 4.(1 

F. UameaD 3.3 

H. Sander, 3.1 

F. Wecdt, ; 4.-/ 

H. Ruege, 3.3 

CVandre, 3.8 

F.Rea, 3.4 

C. Rhoeh], 3.6 

C. Graunke, 3.3 

A. WoUin 3.1 


C.F. Wendt, 


— Wegner, 

P. Uenlcp, belovr standard 

F. Strasber?, 3 8 

C.H. Wollin, 3.4 

P.WolUn, 5. 

A-Wilke, 3.5 

Mre. Stageman, 1.1 

C. TrelofE, Jr., 4.8 

C. Hohn, 3.0 

April i—MonrOe 

A. Bomgardner, 3.7 

A. Bomgardner, 3.3 

A. Homgardner, 3.3 

C. E. Holloway, 3.1 

Kichard Smith, 3.5 

Bi chard Smith, 1.0 

Amos Hammond, 1.3 

Amca Hammond, 3.3 

FredElmer, 3.3 

Pred Elmer, 3.6 

Wm, Kniegger, 3,1 

Wm. Leman, 3 3 

Wm. Lemon, 3.2 

Andrew Harper, 3.5 

Andrew Harper, 3 1 

ELCheesbro, 3.5 

El. Uheesbro, 3.3 

Ed. Cheeibro, 3.4 

April S. — Teaa Corners 

A. Schallander, 3.8 

HenryKurth, 3.5 

Henr^Boldt, 1.0 

B.Philips, 3.5 

J, Bama, 4.3 

Mm AnnOoff,.. 4.1 

Per ct o( (at. 

Wm. Wohlman, 3.2 

J. fiuehle, 3.3 

A. Riese, 3.8 

J. Nieman, 3.8 

A. Laughnej, 4.3 

Philip Cross, 3 4 

Fred Repke, 3 8 

Jas. Smith, 3 m 

Chas. Shields 3,1 

Peter Weinhoff. 1.2 

IrvinCobb, 3,8 

Wm. Martin 3,5 

The rollowing tests were taken 
from samples sent b; express. 

April 6.—Te»8 Corners 

R.Wallmer. 3.1 

Chas. Friede, 3.1 

y has.Kurth, 3.7 

Wm. Ladwig, 3.8 

Ernet Baas, 3.7 

8. Baas, 3.3 

L Pellmann 3.4 

K. Holz, 1.0 

Chas. Schmidt, 4,2 

John Schmidt 3.3 

H Muehl 3,5 

Wm. Bleicamm, 1.0 

April 8. — Monroe 

FredSlubbe, 3,6 

H-Trevitt, 3,5 

T. Hanser 3,6 

G. Pfifler, 3 1 

J. N. Davis and Son, 3.3 

J. N. Davidson, 3.9 

Robt. Maske, 3.3 

Wm. Stnbbe 3.6 

Otis Schafer, 3.6 

GMeCoog, 3 2 

John Meyer, 3 8 

K.Kublie, 3.6 

E.Kubiie 3.8 

Pat. Grady, 3.1 

O.Dehaven, 3.4 

Thos. Smith, .1.2 

O.Walters, 3.1 

H. Outran, 3 5 

Thos. Murphy, below standard 

CHartzel 3.8 

Jas. Haghes, 3.8 

O'Conner Bros., 3.7 

F. Cramer, 1.0 

H. Liichtenwalner, 3 

A. Kundert 3.3 

V. Uohtenwalner, 3,8 

G. Bailey 3,0 

J.Hoffman, 4,3 

Ed, Ruegger,... 3.8 


Dairy and Food Gommiasioner. 

Per ct, of fnt 

Jo9. KlecUner, 

Heary Kleohner. 




3 5 

4 7 















And. iUaehart, 

A, Drake, 

April 14.— Milwaukee 

B.M Daddaon. 

J Rogers, 

E L,.Tracey, 

H. liair 

M. U. Byms, 

J. L.Ivena, 

Wm. Lansing, 

Geo. Seyboldt, 

P.B BarthoJd 

N.Schmidt and Co., 


Willie Wurmer, 

-las. Nowotny, 


Jos. NowotAy, 

Jos. Nowotny, 

John Kuchelein, 

M.L. Kiihen, 


Andy Erdmao, , 


Otto Grueawald andBio .,.. 
R ' aorger, 

■^ 7 

tied Schultz 

4 41 

.. of t 

J. Gengler, A 8 

Qust. Uardman, 3.4 

W.Krueger, 3, a 

JoeMueach 3.0 

Henry Stuease, 3 2 

Ix Bensle, 4.0 

M.aMozinsky, 3.0 

A. Hangartaer, 2.9 

ChriaSpetb, 3.3 

Geo. ^mber, 3 4 

K-Kooh, 3,6 

Chris EUfeldt, 3.3 

R-WUdo, 3.0 

H. Loescher, ^.3 

P. MUdenstf in 4,2 

P.I. Buver, 3 9 

Li. BranD, Jr 4 i 

Chas. Gunther, 4.0 

Henry Keabler 3.4 

Jaa, Sohenkeniaok, '^ ■* 

JohnNackor, 2.!) 

Anton Backman, •'14 

Jos. Nowotny, 5 8 

Mrs. Ida Ollenberg, 3 6 

Chris Johnson, 3.7 

Ueo. Wolf, 4.2 

Bookfleld Dairy Co 4 r> 

Bockfleld Dairy Co. 4 2 

KockBeld Dairy Co. 3 « 

Roekfleld Dairy Co., 4.0 

Bookfleld Dairy Co 3.8 

F. Klumb, (Nowotnj ) 4.0 

P. Klumb, (Nowotny) 3 

0, Rogers, 3.5 

P. Klumb, (Nowotayj 3.9 

A. Hangartner, 36 

Kroeger Bros., 3.0 

H. Agnea, 3 3 

Wm. Knesor, 3.6 

1. J. Finger, 4.3 

H. Barloge 3.5 

H.Luedcke, 3.2 

J.O'Hara, 3.2 

A. Nolte,. 3.6 

P.L,.Bell 5.0 

P. C.Wood, 3 2 

Wm. J. Tillman, 3 2 

SeyboldBroB. 3.6 

SeyboldBros 3 6 

Seybold Bros., 3.3 

SeyboldBros., 3.4 

SeyboldBros 3 6 

A. Hangartner, 4.0 

J.Klnmb 3.4 

J Klumb, 3 7 

Seybold Bros., 3.4 

Jacob Berg, 32 

W. J.Enwright, 3.3 

W. J. Enwright, 3.8 

Geo, Ehr. 2 8 

Seyboldt Bros., 3.6 


Report of the Wisconsin 

Per ot. of tat 

Rockfleld Dairy Co., 3.4 

J. Nowotny, (C. N. W. E.R). . 2.8 

Qeo.H.Ehr, 4,2 

Seybold BrOH., 3.4 

Seybold Bros. 3.6 

Rockfleld Dftiry Co., 3.8 

Geo. H. Ehr 3.0 

Seybold Bros 3.5 

SeyboldBroa 3.6 

Seybold Broa, 3,6 

Kookfleld Dairy Co., 3.3 

SeyboldBroa 3,6 

SeyboldBroa 3.4 

SeyboldBroa., 3.4 

Geo.H.Bhr, 3.4 

C-Eogerd, 3,4 

JaoobJoDg, 3,1 

JicobJunK, 3,8 

Jos. Nowotoy, 3 9 

Jacob Jong, 3,2 

Jacob Jung, 3,6 

JaeobJong, 3.2 

Rockfleld Dairy Co., 3,4 

W.Eohdft, 4,0 

Waukesha MUk Co., 3,2 

Hutohiaon Milk Depot, 3,6 

Rockfleld Dairy Co.,, 4.0 

HutchiDBon Milk Depot, 3,5 

MU.MilkCo 3.1 

P. Grogao, 4 .0 1 

P. Grogan, 3,5 

P. Grogan, 4.5 

HutcbiaoD Milk Depot, .... 3.4 

P. Grogan, 3.8 

P.Grogan, 3.7 

B.M. Davidson 3.4 

Seybold Bros. 3.6 

G, Clawson, 3.8 

Hutchinson Milk Depot, 3,3 

Seybold Bros., 4.9 

Wm. McCormaok, 3.9 

M.CMoeUer, 3.4 

P.Hsertlein, 3.4 

H.8. Davia 3.8 

H.S. Davis, 4.2 

Seybald Bros, 4,0 

Waukeaha Milk Co, 3.4 

P.Grogan 3.9 

Seybold Broa., 3,3 

Seybold Bros,, 8,6 

Hulchiso MilkDepot, 3,75 

I. R Hadfleld 

Jobn Hage, 

John Hage, 



John Rogers, 

John Rogprs, 

C. P. Dlemann, 

C. P. Diemann, 

— Bc^rd, 3.8 i 

, Per ct. of mt. 

— Baird, 4.0 

S.S.Hage, 5 1 

8. S. Hage, 4.0 

G. Henderaon 4 4 

G. Henderson, 3.6 

J. W. Shearer 3.9 

J.W.Shearer, 3,8 

Herbert Eigaud, 2,45 

Albert Hinkforth, 2,75 

Wm. McKowan, 2.35 

A,Kepse] 2,5 

Vincent Brant, 2.45 

H. Neuhaua 2,95 

Mre.D.Koss 2.6 

April SO.— Steanu Siding 

MattZentner, 3.8 

Jacob Boss, 3 5 

D Nafzgar, 36 

Jobn Dougherty 3.5 

Jas. Elmer, 3.5 

Mrs. J. A. Staffaoher, 3.0 

Prank Clark, 3.5 

Stearns Broa., 3,4 

Chris Marty, 3,3 

Jac. Detweiler, 3.7 

Jac Detweiler, 4.2 

8. Haney 3.4 

Fred Kundert, 3.4 

PredKundert, 3.5 

i'red Walter, 3 C 

GodfriNelty, 3,4 

Nefski and Bragg, 3,6 

J.Mahar, 3.7 

J. Mahar, 3.4 

Jfaj/ 1.— Genesee 

E. S. Jones, 4 

O.Roger, 2,3 

May 3.— Oregon 

RC. Jones, 3.7 

G.O.Niel. 3,2 

Jullielke, (badly churned) .. 2.8 

A. E. RaBmussen, 3 6 

Peter Hendrickson 3.4 

H. Anderson, 3,2 

D. Scanlan, 3.8 

P.Newton 3.2 

S.Chandler, 3.4 

C. Black 3.4 

N. Rasmnssen, 3,6 

l->ank Wallace, 3.4 

8 O.Y.Gurnee, 4,6 

W.P.Wright, 4.2 

A.Sweeney. 3,0 

James Wbalen, 3.1 

JohnWhalen 3.4 

F.Burk, 2.2 

Chris Hansen, 3,2 


Dairy and Food Commissioner. 

Nel^ Peterson, 

Gallluer and Phil. Pos,. 

E. Gilley, 


Prank Ayera, 

W. Bancroft, 

Charley Cross, 

Giles Pierce, 

H. G. Welsh, 

Patrick Barns, 

R. Peterson 

Peter Clenbon, . . 


W. Kelmau, .... 

A. Allison, 

H. Farasworth, 

May 14. — Spring Qreen 

Andrev Ringolstetter, .. 
John Kingalstetter, .... 

Knad Knudson, 

Henrv Ellefson, 

0;e Erereon, 

Ben Anderson. 

Martin Hanson, 

Ole Kittleson, 

T. Anderson, 

EHif Ellefson, 

G. D Dewey 

Prank h'rtel, 

Sample taken from cheese vat 

May 15.—DeerJleld 


a 8. Hue, 

A. Brlotion, 

Gus Rerkholtz, 

I. Bre'Bon, 

John Redman, 

C. C. Johnson, 

J. Kroneman, 

P. B. Grinde, 

John Severson, 

F. D. Field, 

E. UiQgur, 

Ole Simonson, 

G. Anderson, 

H. B. Howe, 


N. Nelson, 

J. Nelson, 

N. A. ]jee, 

H. K. Bnimborg 

Urs. Swenson, 


Per ct. of (at- 

A. Fadnes 3.8 

H.O. Padnes, 42 

H.O. Fadnes, 4.U 

J.Omstead, 3.5 

John Kleberg, 3.5 

J. A. Presoot, 4.3 

M. Miukelson 3.G 

OleDahle n 

Nelson Anderson, 4.1) 

Ed. Nelson, 3.3 

iBattermilk,) 0.1 

May 16.— WateTtown 

John Slight, 3.6 

D.Morris, 3 n 

ChriHWahl, 3.5 

E. Krueger, 3 .") 

F. Buohert, .3 n 

P Bartez 3.G 

Wm Happe, 3.4 

D. Flavin, 3,4 

J.Burke, 3.0 

A.Taitz 3 4 

H. Hildeman, below standard 

P.Caughlin, 3.8 

Wm. Berger, 3 3 

H. Brandt, 3.C 

Thos. Harrnly, 3 5 

Aug. Netl below standard 

Henry Badieo, 4.1 

Aug.Ebert, 3.5 

Mrs. Brooks, 3.4 

Mrs. Brooks, 3.5 

May 17. — Fox Laha- 

Prank Smith, 3.7 

8. Zenlo 3.4 

RKoleU, 3 5 

P. Brann 3 6 

W. Rllsberry, 3.6 

F.Wetzel, 4 2 

F.BIossfeid, S.4 

W.Borst, 3,4 

S, Mochkoveeh 4 2 

Uhris Schuitz, 3S 

Aug. Walder 3,8 

J. R, Bass, 3 1 

F.Buss, 3,6 

A. Bliss, 4 1 

J. Miller 3,8 

*. Frank, 8,5 

C.Haas, 3,5 

W. Vanloenen, 3.7 

C.Happner, 3 G 

A. Berice, 4.6 

John Armstrong, 3 1 

C. Porter, 3.7 


Report of the Wicconain 

June It. — Edgerton 

aWStookton, 35 

Soren Peterson, " ~ 

John Qoge^ 

A. Harrid, 

J. CaiTieoa 

E, Qarten, 

John Wel-h, 



Wm. Kinnej, 4.0 

Tom Jehu, 

Chris Hau^n, 

H. Hanson, 


O. Swan, 

Per ct. o( fat. 

Jos. Hofeka, .s.i 

Wencle Purst, below standard 

Michael Myer, 3 2 

Geo. Kuska, 3 5 

.4nton Uinish, 3.6 

John Starral, 3 8 

Chaa. Walter, 2.7 

John SohlLse, 3 6 

Jos. Scharren 3.3 

Adam Scharren, below standard 

Joa. Vesitzer, 3.8 

Frank Meieanek, 3 j 

John Sipple. Sr., 3 9 

Anton Scharan, 3.5 

John Liblah, 3,8 

John Hanna, 4,4 


M, A. Matson, .; 

S. Bakkeo, 3,5 

K Thompson, below standard 

8. W. Graves, 3,9 

P, O. Shurley, 3.3 

E. Gilbertson, 3,4 

01i£ JiricksoQ, 3.2 

W. Carrison, 3 .T 

H, Peterson, 3,7 

Otto Peterson, 4 

H. UarHson, 3,4 j 

SamHoftan, 3,1 

Chas. HUdredtb 3,2 

Lansing Hildredtb, 3.2 

J. Larum, 3,4 

A. Thorson, 3.8 

E. .A llanesee 3.3 

J, Biehardson, 3,7 

A. Olson, 3.9 

A. Aspetbian, 4.1 

S- Larum, 3,6 

Chas.Hanson, 3.0 

Peter Hanson, 3,4 

C, Johaaon, 3 7 

C. Han an, 3,5 

H.Matsen, 3,7 

D. Stevens, ;.. 3,5 

F. Gninup, 3,6 

H. M. Johnson, 3,4 

C. A. Petersen 3.4 

E Frickson, 8,5 

W.Carter 3.6 

B. .lohnson, 3,1 

P. HeRgelstad, 3,1 

W.Galley. 3 8 

J. W, Hunt, 3.7 

N.Ladd 3.6 

June 3!0.~Norman 

3. Huber, 3.8 

Chas Wachal 3.0 

Frank Sweda, below standard I 

Prank Hamtuacheck, 

Stephen Piotum, 

Albart Knadlo, 

June SS.—Soulh Wayne 

Aug. Kmpke, 

Sam. Usher, 

Aug. Neeseman, 

Wm. Taufmen, 

Chas. Pember, 

L. Franks 

Frank Graham, 


Wm. Erapke 

John Usher 

June IS. — Highland 


July 1. — Monroe 

McCoog Bros., 

Frank Pank, 

Wm Stubbe 

Frank Preston, 

Mrs. Sam WeismlUer, 


B. P. Raymond, 


R. Moske, 

Mrs, Lehnherr, 

David Ohli, 

Homer Phelps, 

Geo, Pfeiffer, 



Sam Weismiller, 

Olivsr Walters, 

Thos, Hauser, 

Ed, West, 

M, Murphy, 

Mrs. K, Alleman, 

Thos. Smith, 


Dairy and Food GommiasioTier, 

Jbs. Hnghee, 3 

John Uyera, 3 

Wm. Wood, 3 

Chos. Mouston, 3 

A. Aokennan, 3 

B.Kubli, 3 

Oscar DeHaven, 3 

Mrs. Emma Clai'k, 3 

P. Cramer, 3 

O'Connor Bros., 3 

Jos, Kaipschield 3 

O.Kubli, 3 

Ed.Baegger, 3 

July S- — Hustwford 

John Ke7 4 

Chris Key, 4 

Thos. Gatzel, 3 

Pat Moher 3 

Bobt. Rnppreobt, 3 

RRabke, ,. 4 

Herman Steffen, 3 

John Lovell, 3 

Ed. Dehne, 3 

Ed, Nehls. 3 

Charlie Erdman, 8 

Frank Calabam 3 

PrankSmith 3 

Herman Nehls 3 

July 8,—ClamQ 

Michael Herron, Jr., 3 

Geo. Kuehner, 3 

Mrs. Heintzleman, 4 

Henrj Kleokner, 3 

P.Rothe, 3 

Wm. Bnmmerfeldt, 3 

I'hos. Drake, 3 

Charlie Kleckner, 3 

Mrs. Andrew Dinges 3 

Henry Trumpy, Jr. 3 

Con, Dougherty, 4 

July 10, — Chippewa Falls 

Bnrr. Kenyon, 4 

FraukMelvin, 3 

H.K.Ward 4 

Thos. Ladelle, 3 

H. MoPhee, 4 

Jeffrey Maapas, i 

W.W. Williama, 3 

Oeo. Konechma, 3 

Geo. Melvin, 3 

Jonn McGill, 3 

Aug. Bub e, 3 

John Eooney, i 

H. K. McDonald, 4 

A.N. Calkins, 4 

Arthur Ford 3 

Pet at of fat. 

D. 8. Douglas, 4.1 

J.W.Thomas, 4.3 

C. Ii. Turner, 4.0 

Bam.01son, 4.0 

John Melvin, 4.0 

PeterlAuue, 4.2 

July 16.— Prospect 3ill, Wauke- 
sha County 

John Iiennen, 3,4 

FredDeland, 3.6 

A.Wice, 3 6 

NickOrth, 3.3 

Chris Saleantine, 3.» 

Herman Krahn, 3.4 

Herman Kiaim, 3.5 

Ang, G^rlach 4.5 

Chas. Thiesenhnsen, 3.6 

A. C. Draper, 4.6 

Peter Pitzer, 3.4 

Tbeo. Bourbach, 3.4 

Jos. Kan, 3.4 

Qeo-WoiruU, 3.6 

Wm. Graiser 3.5 

Thos. Carpenter, 4.3 

E. F. Boettcher,.... below standard 

MikeStigler 3.3 

Jacob Philips, ,. 3 2 

John Casper, 3.0 

Henry Zahn, 3 3 

H. Casper, 3,8 

HmryKem, 3.4 

A.Graser 3,8 

J. P. Graser 3,7 

William Punch, 3.6 

Henry Schriver, 3.7 

Jacob Korn, 3.4 

H, Keikhefer, 3.6 

A. Fibber. 3.8 

Matthew Pierce, 3,4 

A.Verbrick 3.6 

Mrs Snyder, 3.1 

Pat. Regan, 4.1 

P. H Salentine, 3 9 

J A, Monroe 3,2 

Frank Battendorf, 3.9 

Wm^ Thiesenhusen, 41 

Jos. Philips 3.6 

Matt Pitzer 4.1 

Salentine Bros, 3.8 

Fred Sohuliz, 3.2 

Matt Foolman, 3 6 

C. C. Vanderwalker 3.8 

Martin Young, 3.4 

Chas. Boeticher, .... below standard 

Geo.Zahn 3.4 

KenryKorn, .: 3.7 

A. L. Casper, 3.8 

Jos. Soyder, 33 

i\ Alb. Vonwerben, 3-1 


f the WiaamBin 

Per c 

of taL 

Abram Kem, 3^ 

A. P. Schalz, a9 

Frank Tbomas, ao 

Pred Jacobs, 3^ 

Wm. Mo»«U, i2 

J.KUUps, a6 

Boyd Bros., 4.8 

A Raher, 3.7 

July 11.— Alma. 

John Leabardy, 3.4 

Mrs. Muy Cas'leberg, 3.8 

Mrs. Mary Castleberg, 2.8 


P. Mathys, S.8 

P.Mathys 3.2 

M. S. Katiepolt 4.0 

M. 8. Katiepolt, a9 

M. a. Katippolt, 3.3 

Mrs. Thoemy, 38 

Mrs. Thoemy, 3.5 

Sam. Glauzmann 4.1 

Sam. Glaozmaaa, 3.i> 

Sam. Qlaazmsnii, 2.7 

C, Jost, 3.6 

c. joat, as 

J.Timn, a9 

J-Timn, a4 

July IS.— New Mufxtter 

Theo. Kerhoff, 3.7 

Fraok Kersting, 4.2 

Ben. Lohous, 4.0 

Joa. Elbert, ,'.... a4 

P.W. Ebbing, 3.2 

Ben 1*18, 3J 

John Heiderman, 4.5 

H.M Schtiz, 5-3 

AuK' Newman, 3.6 

Overcamp Bn^ 4.1 

A. J.Kirchman,Sr^ a5 

H.Sorg 4.2 

H.E-ssling, 30 

Prank Althoff, 36 

Peter Kramer, bolow atand^d 

Wm. Hoef mer, 

Chas. Fonke 

I'^ank Schuerman, 1.2 

I >. Marks, (bottle broken) 

John Hunsbusher, 

Herman Epping, 

Herman Late, 

Kenry Laia, 8r., 

E. a PoBdiok, 

John KretBchner, 


Peter Lambert, 

Wm. Somerfeld, 

Mrs, Wm. Beimer, 

^ohn Kerckman, Jr^ , . 

Per c 

A. Hann, 

Henry Bienmann, 

Elenry Lohona, 



Voss Bros. 

John Tanking, 

Mra. Shraner. , 

Wm. Lohoua, 


Frank Kubo, 

G. Pelcamp, 

Fred StefEen, 

E P. Bo3(>[ibiiuer, 

H. Tanking, 

E. Tiddle, 


W.C. Croak, 

B. A.Higday 

M P. Finnerin, 

F. Dawson, 

D, Pinanne, 

J. W.Cteak, 


July SO.— Cold Spring 

J, Swaocutt 3,7 

P, AemaB, 34 

W.WUilama, ac 

H, AsmuB, 4. 1 

H. Asmus 3.6 

J McDermott, 4 1 

T.M.Croak, 3.6 

C. Jones, 3.5 

W.M.Keeso 36 

W.M.MUes. as 

CGibba, 3.8 

J.MUes, : 3.8 

W.E Steele a4 

R. Buss, 3.8 

R. Buss 3.7 

Croak 3.4 

C. Rnsaell, 4.2 

H, Patterson, »J0 

L. Patterson a3 

J. Winters, 38 

L, Evans, 3.4 

U.Trow, ao 

L.1YOW, a2 

I i Ponton 3.9 

G. Larmer, 3.7 

M. C.McCrady 3,7 

H. Smith 4." 

G. Lockwood, 3 1 

Pred Oraenioher, 3 6 

W. Hope....: 3.6 

P.Mftlov, 3.8 

Mrs. Tho . Croak, ■■•••:■ 3.fl 


July Si 

Dairy and Food Commlsaioner. 


Per ct. of (at 

Aug. GUtz, 

Geo. Best, 

N.D.Nagel, ._ 

Aug. Rahn below teat 

Pred firaaer, bottl» brokeo 

Wm. Piper, 3.7 

Julius Kalk, 3.ti 

Louis Kammer, 3.4 

Louis K&nuner, 3,3 

Henry Hallwaoh 3.3 

Prel Werthmaa, 3.2 

Fied Werthman, 4.4 

Pred Meves, 4, fi 

Pied Mevea, 3.9 

Herman Strssburger 3 4 

Herman Strasburger 4.0 

Wm. Marold below test 

Wm . Marold, 4.0 

Geo. Dichman, 4.5 

Gej Dickman 3.5 

HermaQ Saebald, below teat 

.Albert Karmmer 4 

Henr/ Harms 3. 

Henry Heyer 3. 

Hear; Heyer 4„ 

Dau Leahy, 35 

Dan Leahy. 3.7 

Jvly SI. — Manitowao 

H. Horstman, bottle broken 

OltoKasten, 4.7 

Otto Hasten, 

Conrad Albrecht, 

Krank Kersher, 

Prank Kereber, 

J.ihn Stuek, ^8 

Mrs. E. Winter, 36 

Henry Sohultz, 4.0 

Henry Scbultz, 3.5 

A. Rutz, 4.7 

JuhnSchnlts, 3.9 

John Schultz, 3JJ 

K. Johnarud, , 3.9 

Cbris.Hopp 4.2 

Pred Raatz, 3.9 

Wm. Schroeder, Z.0 

Joe. Meyer, 3.7 

Aug. AbreuB, 3.0 

tloury Ni ihoff, . , 

Louis Vom< 

Gusia? Hammel, 

Wm Keubii 

Michael Marks... 

Aug. I—Horicon 

a. Beacber 4.8 

Cbas. Schrneder, 4.3 

Otto Neihoff, 3.6 

Henry FliReman, 4.0 

Aug-. Albert 38 

HeiryOehl, ■, 4,1 

Louis Sobperling, 3.5 

Wm Zueleger. 4.O 

19-D. k V. 

... 3.9 
Aug. S.Srodhead 

Ji'hn JohiBOD, 4 2 

W. Mann, '^^ 

Robt. Wichelt ','.', 4'i 

AndrewLaube .... 47 

Si. HortoD, .■;.'.".■.■ 42 

David Colby, 45 

Albert Su'Jnsoo '. 4.5 

Pctt r Erioksm, 4.5 

Truman Clark, ,... 4.3 

Geo, P. Zimmtiman 3.7 

Abraham Allen, 4.3 

Geo, Doogea, 33 

L, J. McKioley, 4.2 

Orin Clark, .'.' 42 

Aug. s.~3(onroe 

John Tnesoher, 44 

BernhardEorn 4.2 

John Passer, Jr 4.2 

Aug. Spimhirn 38 

Fred Kuerenacht 3 8 

Henry Ruetter, 5,0 

John Casny, 3.8 

Jacob Bolliger, 4j 

Jocob Grimm, 4.0 

Ed. Condon, 30 

Ed. Condon, ag 

Aug. 17.— Steam's Siding 

Jacob Bobs 3.8 

J. Haoey, ',',', a^ 

M. Zentner, 4.2 

J. Dougherty, '. i\ 

Godfrlt Nelty, gg 

P. Feldt, 38 

F. Kundert, 40 

P. Kundert " 40 

P. Kundert, 3*5 

Stfarus Bros., 34 

Steares Bros., 3^4 - 

D. Nafz>ier, 39 

Mrs. J. A. Stnuffacher 3.5 

B. Detweiler, 4.0 

J. Elmpr 3.9 

Jamea Mahar 3,8 

J'mes Mahar, 4.4 

N»rzger Bros., 8.8 

Sfeim milkseperator, 1, 0.2 

Skim milk sepetator, 2, 0.05 


Seport of me fVisconnin 

Aug. ]9.~Argyle 

Per ct o 

John BeiTT, 

Walter Dud lavy, 

Toos. Menehan, 

B. Hong, 

Ed. Tobin, 

Ed. Rod, 

Maria Severeon, 

Aaton EricksoQ, 

Patrick Casey, 

Wm, Monahan 

Mich. Monahan, 

Aug. eo. — Brodhead 

Holdfin Chns Johnson, 

Mrs. Ella Severson, 

Ole Berg, 

'i'hoa. Everson, 

Frank H. Brandt 

Thos, KDndsOD, 

Thoa. Gardner, 

Andrew Everson, 

M.L. Vagdal 

J. Diky 

Ole LottBguard, 

Alec Larson, 

Mra. Carrie Keeeey, 



Aug. SS. — Colwmhua 

W.H. Jones 

O. R Jones, 

C. Thcide, 


P.. Heraberg, 

M '3. Sophia Lange, 

O K. Owens, 

J. v). Owens 

K. Madouse, 

J. B.Grifflthg 

Koherts & Bracklin, 

EiifeertsA Bracklin, 

M. E. Roberts, 



J. J. Pritehard, 

Aug. *7. — Montieello. 

John Ludder 

H. Dish 

L. Lynn 

L. Lyon 

Wm. Arnot 

J.D. Wallace 

D. Monahan 

Henry Stussy 

Henry Stussy 


Per ct. of tat 

. J.C. Frietag 3.B 

Q J. C. Frietag 3.9 

\ Wm. Wallace 3.7 

g J. G. Mahar 3.0 

1 Mary Mahar 3,1 

Q Joa. Eoealy 3.4 

\ Joa.Hoealy 3.4 

^ Aug. SO.— F-iofville. 

B D.Haating 3.8 

2 A. Tolifsou 4.1 

3 Thos.Plynn 4.2 

T.O. Wee 4,0 

J.H. Heath 4.2 

G. C. Roberts 4.1 

9 BertTaylor 4.2 

i iiobt. Harper 4,5 

1 Patrick Conley 4.3 

i P.Dohl 3.8 

I O.H.McNett 4.2 

i Thos. Harper 3.5 

1 Thoa.Ryan 4.2 

i W.H. Gibson 4.0 

I C.F.Bernstein 4.4 

1 Mrs. Ann Flynn 4,0 

' O. ToUefstrud 3,7 

3 Michael Scott (bottle broken,) 

3 Ed.Oaple 4,8 

1 WillHarper 4 5 

J J.Blisa 3,7 

L, N. Bowles 4.4 

W. Bowles 4,1 

j CRamey 3,6 

i C.Eoberts 4,5 

; Sept. S — Eacine. 

[ W.R. Taylor 4.0 

I M,Sewell 3,4 

i C. Tangs 4.1 

: Gjifflth Bros 4.7 

J A.P.Hansen 3.4 

, JohnFazen 4.0 

I Nela Christenson 3.6 

MatDaniela 3.6 

1 Gottlied Heinrieh 3.6 

U.Nelaon 4.0 

Wingoren 4.3 

Jacob Christofferson (depot) . . 2.3.) 

J. H. Crane 3.8 

Chae. Theake 4.2 

J Ed.Daviaon 3,8 

) S. B. Walker 2 7i) 

i C.P.Hanson 32 

i J. L. Walsh 4.2 

) B. Raiser 4.4 

I Fred Johnson 4,1 

5 George Mantz 3.6 

J HenryBeix 3.7 

I F. Bjrenzke 9.8 

3 Fred. Schroeder 3.6 


Dairy and Pood OommiSBtoner, 


J. L. Welsh 

3. Kitnpel 

D. VanWie 

G. C. Lield 

John WilsoD 

N. L. GrBKeraon 

Mrs. BIythe 

Christ. Kroeger 

W. C.Smith 4, Sao.. 

William Koafod 

Otto Olson 


O. Banks 

J. Ghristoffersoa (waKon) 

R. M.Walker 

Gleorge Van Wie 

G. Hagerer 

W. H. Holden 

Christ Kroeger 

C. C.Beebe 

L. K. Sears 

D. Koudaen 

M. P. Hanson 

William Bier 

A. Williamson 

William Pahl 

J. Chriatofferson (depot) 

William Bail 

H. P. Hftlegard 

Arthur Murray 

S. Anderson 

Louis Johnson 

Henry Beii 

John Kohlman 

Bobert Bosmaii 

Sept. 4.— Sheboygan. 

Wm. Gritzmaber 3.4 

Fred. Torke 3.6 

Fred Torke 4.3 

Mrs. Augusta Torke i.'' 

A.Schriber 4.1 

L. Weinhold 3.: 

L Weinhold 4.: 

W. Ludwig below standard. 

W. Ludwig 3.( 

Mrs. E.Shafer 4.1 

J. Bates 3.i 

P. Sweeney 4.* 

H.Kruschke 4.2 

H. Agin 4.r 

H. Agin 4.! 

A. Kruschke 3.( 

A.Kruschke 3.( 

F. Krause 3.3 

W. Hintz below standard. 

W.Hintz...: 4.< 

Pec ct. of (at. 

F. Profrock 3.8 

G. Krause 4.1 

G. Krause 4.5 

M Popp 4.3 

G. Torke 3,7 

G.Tojke 4.3 

G.Pollard 3.4 

A. Cassin 3 

A. Cassin 4.4 

G. Weinhold 3 

G. Weinhold 4,0 

T. Weinhold 3.1 

tivn. Margaret Curtis 3 8 

Mrs. KateRock 4 

Mary Milbaure 4.3 

Sept. .B—Mau»ton. 

Peter White 3.0 

Peter White 4.6 

L. Tied man... 
L. Tic 



N. Ranilall below standard. 

N.Kandall 4,5 

J. Wells 3-II 

J. Wells 4.3 

J.Dalton 4.8 

J. DaKon 3.0 

0. L.Pfaff 3.0 

C. L Pfaff 4,;- 

Wm. Wells 3.i! 

Wm. Wells 

A. Bimell 


Louis McMillan 3 Ti 

A. Suszj-cke 3.2 

A. Suszyeke 3.9 

F. Wright 3 

F. Wright 4.1 

G. A. McCafferty 3 5 

V. Alton 4 2 

W.Franki 3 4 

W.Franki 4.;i 

C. Dachstader 3.3 

Sept. IS. — Monroe. 

Geo. Durgen 3 

Geo. Durgen 3.4 

Geo. Durgen S.'' 

October l~Lindcn. 

Ijink Becker, 4,0 

Wm. Stevens 4.2 

Thos. Kissling, 4.3 

Gilman &. Son 4.9 

P. Treval^, 4 2 

S.Grible 4 4 

H. Pollard, 3-6 

Trelor, 4 

Hughes, 4 8 


Beport of the Wisconsin 

G. WilliamB, 






3 8 




Wm. Carrew, 


A. Parmeter, (cream) 

S. S. Heckeack. 


Wm. Smith, 

A. Parmeter, 

October l.-l£ineral Poin 


D. Peterson, 

C.P. Chalfant, 

October 4— Center. 


W.Jewell, Sr. 

P. Vivian, r... 

W. Jewell, Jr. 

Chris Zickert 



J. Vivian, 

Thoa. Kelly, 

J. Bennett, 

October e.— Waldwiek. 

Fred. Nightingale 

Fred, Schultz 

Ijouia Shroder 

T. McGinty, 


John Welsh, 


Bark Snyder 

Wm. Thompson 


Wm. Shackly, 

Alec. McHatton, 


Albert Kuelta 

Mrs. Amelia Butt 

W^^ff. Ur^enr''. ^'.V.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

October S.— Random, Lak 

Fred. Gunlock 

Geo. Apfel .,!!!".!!".'.'.".;"! ! 
Fred. VanKu-k 

October 4.— Ashland. 

Chris. Thompson, 

J. Kittinger, 

D. Peterson, 

J. Groff, 

Pred. Schunamau 

October 7~Monroe. 

P.Hansen, ,... 


J. Hansen. 

4,01 B. L. Montgomery 

4.6IB. Pengra 


Dairy and Food Ocmmisaioner. 

Henry Zweifel 

Henry Zweifel 

Perd. Aainua 

Ferd. Agmus 

Peogra Btoa 

Peogra Bros 

Fred. Butts 

Fred. Butta 

Aug. Stachsl 

Aug. Stachel 

Herman Mauerman 

Geo. West 

Sam. West 

Sam West 

F. Johnson 


Geo. Nil 

Wm. Sehultz 

Fred. Mitt 

Jas. Sbafer 

Jaa. Shafer 

Peter Speich 

Peter Speich 

O. Edwards 

Ferd. Mons 

G. JjBwis 

Henry Nix 

E. H. Barmore 

B. H. Barmore 

Wm. Baird, Jr 

Wm. Baird, Jr 


Fred. Miller 


Wm. Kaefer 

October IB— Marshall. 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

Robert Marshall 

October is— Otter Creek. 

1 B.M. Tucker 

[ Henry HaU 

> John Moran 

Peter Boyle 

1 Henry Helm 

Matt. Helm 

: Chris. Ward 

I Mrs. Elizabeth Blaur 

t Thos. Moran 

I ThOB.SowlB 

' Otto Keorns 

! Alvin Martin 

I Isaac Newton 

' Alvin Diion 

L. Barton 

J John Douglas 

I Job. Deary 

S Jno. Deary 

Oct. es. — Arena. 

I Nick Pfanker 3.6 

1 NickPfacker 4.4 

I Wm. Stebutz 3,8 

J C.S.Whitt 3,6 

i Jas. Gorse 4,4 

I Chris. Hottman 4.7 

' Rude Hottmann 5.2 

I John Anderson 8.3 

Peter Olseh below standard 

, Chas, Dodge 3.3 

Geo. Goizendahm 4 2 

; H.E.Jones 5.4 

i T, F, Hottman 4.8 

r 0. Hottman 5.8 

I Geo. Hottman 4.6 

R. Ray 4.1 

Oct. SS. — Milwaukee. 

' It.H.MeiBner 3.6 

; O.A.Brown 6.2 

' A. Urban 3.75 

Oct. ee.—Juda. 

J Philip Kilwin 

I Herman Wendtland . . 

( CharlieFleek 

J Fred Mann 

; Jac. Roderick 

; Geo. Dawson 

i JohnEnfield 

5 Harvey Mitchell 

[ Ai^.Sillnow 

Fred Coldren 4.1 

Frank Mitchell 4.0 

Fred. Thompson 4.2 Sam'l Roderick 4.1 

JohnGrimm 4.7 | Conrad Elmer 4.2 


JiejM/rt oj the WwcoTisin 

Ooi. eg.— Sichfteld. 

Per ct. of fat. 

Geo.Knaab 4,3 

Val. Fisher below standard 

Anton Theilmann 1.3 

Franz Wittenberger 5.3 

Fred. Borchert 5.3 

Henry Wettmeyer i,6 

Henry Gruen 4.1 

Wm. Lofy 4.4| 

a. Janzer 4.0| 

J.J. Lofy below standard 

Mrs. Hoeltz 4.0 

Fred Becker 4.0 

Fred Becker (miied) 3.6 

Nick Sohmitt 4.4 

JotmKedig 5,0 

Phillip Klein 4.1 

Mrs. Ktoeler 4,7 

Ernst Zeiger 4.5 

Herm. 6chulteiss (eve.) 4,6 

Herm. Schulteiss (mom.) 4.8 

Oel. S9.—F>iyetie. 

Henry Smith. 

Knud Peterson 

Oliver Olson 


Geo. C. Stout 

Chris. Hanson 

Joho Andrews 

T. B. McGranahan 


Oc t .30.— Madia on. 
Hans Da via 

Oct. si.-Neenah. 

Wm. Wieckert 

Michael Woods 

Michael Wooda 

I. Tippler 

I. Tippler 

John Schiebter 

G. Luebben 

Wm. Schwab 

Wm. Schwab 

Albert Mass 

John Law 

John Law 


Fred Smith ". 

Louie Pingie 

Charlie Schnttler 

Dan McGinnis 

Nov. 6.—Adell 

Per ct. 0* Ui. 

Wm. Gritzmacher 1,6 

Wm. Gritzmacher 3.8 

Louis Weinhold 4.6 

FredKrause 4,6 

Louis Weinhold 4.5 

A. Schriber 4.2 

A.Schriber 4.0 

A. Schriber 4,6 

P.Torke 4.6 

F.Torke 4.6 

Aug. Weinhold 3.6 

Pred Prafrock 4.4 

Jos. Bates 3.8 

Wm, Hintz 4.4 

D. Weinhold 4.5 

Anthony Caasin 5.0 

Anthony Cassin 4.8 

Henry Agin 4.0 

Henry Agin 4.4 

Gustav Erause 5.2 

Gottlieb Torke 4,4 

Gottlieb Torke 4.2 

Gottlieb Torke 5.0 

Mrs, Katie Rock 3.9 

Mrs. Mary Milbauer 6.1 

Nov. 7.—MackviUe 

Jos. Wallheim 4.6 

John Boyfeld 4.6 

John Thiece 4.0 

Matt. Miller ,■ 4.2 

FredStoldt 4.5 

Charlie Bohmlow 4.8 

Geo. Longlads 4.2 

John Kern 4.0 

John Berg below standard 

NickRoyland '... 4.8 

Charlie Schraeling 3.8 

Herman Lecker 4.6 

P. Demel 3.6 

Nick Bllenbecker 4.4 

AlecPreaton 3.2 

Peter Gingler 4.8 

Lee Olesch 3.4 

Aug. Leder 4.0 

FredSchabow 3,8 

S.Hoffman 4.0 

Chris Fetting 4.8 

FredTeokland 5.0 

John Kramer 4.4 

John Birg below standard 

Henry Smith 4-2 

Fred R«stin below standard 

Louis Jarchow 4.8 

John Schwartz 3.9 

Chris Smith 4.1 

John EUenbecker 4.8 

Chas. Summer 4,4 


Dairy and Fwd Cbmmisaioner. 

Nov. SO. — Milwaukee 
Per ct. o: 

J. V. Starker 

Sent by J. P. Shcahan, 1-J. . . 
J. P. Sheahan, 2-G.. 
J. P. Sheahan, 2 B.. 

Jon. 8— Albion. 

CM. Williams 

W. A. Delancy 

J. Bublitz 

F. Mawhinney 

M. Hajea 

E. Thomas 

L. H.T^aberg 

C. R Green 

Head & Emerson 

£. Amuodaon 

Uartin MasoD 


M, Palmiter 

J. Wescott 

O.N. Veddere 

W. Brown 

D. L. Babcock 

0. I. Babcock 

C. J. Palmiter 

E. Palmiter 

J. Q. Emery 

J. M. Dates 

P. Atwood 

T. Langworthy 

H. Knoll 

H. Kooach 


E. Crandall 

C. P.Saundera 

Jan. S4. — Oehkogh. 

G. H. Hotchkiss 

Gieo. Harmon 

Jac. Shafer 

Wm J. White 

Philip A. Faust 

John Wood 

Pred Gunning 

Wm, Hinds 

Gus. Gruodmann 

Frank Doemel 


Jesse Goky 

A. Sweet 

Fred Jenke 

Jesse Goky 

Jas. Peterson 

L. Faust 

John Dougherty 

John Dougher^ 


L. Faust 

J.R. Washburn 

Jan. SS.^Winneconne. 

Per ct. of fat 

> H. A.Gilbert 4.0 

H.Ginnow 4-6 

C. Bennett 4.4 

J.H.Miller 4.3 

B. Quigley 4.2 

James Broderick 3-3 

I J. Miller 4.4 

I Pat. Dolan 3.9 

[ A. Goggins below standard 

J Fred Rosen mater 3.5 

; Theo.Korn 4.0 

F. Leader 5.0 

i E. Quigley 4.4 

; J. Miller 4.3 

; Pat. Dolan 3.7 

) Jan. £9.— Winchester. 

\ G. Salewjski below standard 

, J. D. Hough 3.8 

Frank Lloyd 4.7 

, E. J.Kevill 3.8 

I H.O.Johnson 4 

J John Uvas 4.2 

1 Geo. Loved o 3.6 

1 Frank Lloyd 4.1 

{ E.J.Kevill 3.0 

[ H. O. Johnson 3.6 

J John Uvas 4.0 

J John Jones 4.1 


i February/ 6. 

* Sentby D.J.Vincent,No.l.. 3.2 

' SentbyD. J.Vincent,No. 2.. 3.3 

February 5.— Richfield. 

) Geo.Oole 4.4 

) Frank Houser 3.8 

) PrankHouser 3.8 

) Frank Houser below standard 

} Benedict Schuster 4.4 

i Aug. Knaack 4.6 

i Auk- Knaack 3.7 

) Mrs. J.Dickel 4.4 

I John Zoeler 3.4 

5 JohnZoeler 3 4 

! JohnZoeler 3.0 

I -lohn Wierl 3.6 

3 Theo.Hannes 4.6 

I Edw. Schuster 3.6 

i Edw. Schuster 3.7 

i Edw. Schuster 3.6 

t Edw. Schurter 3.6 

i Edw. Schuster 3,6 

i Wm. Felsing 3.7 

) Wm. Felsing 4.4 

J Wm. Felsing 3.6 

I Julius Grabe 3.8 


Report of the Wisconsin 

Per c 

Goniad Schmidt 

Conrad Schmidt 

Endelberg Neiberger 

Geo. Maricle 

Geo. Haricle 

G«o. Maricle 

i\vig. Zemke 

UetH7 Frank 

Henry Frank 

John Begner 

David Klumb 

David Klumb 

David Klumb 

Geo. Qreulich 

February It.— Allenville. 

. Prank Croaa '. 

H. Halverson l 

A. J. Hough { 

John JergerBOU i 

J. S. CrosB i 

Conrad Eckstein i 

P. Q. Furman i 

Frank Cross '. 

H, Halverson ; 

Albert Newman i 

E. A. Manuel ! 

James Christionson : . . . i 

Geo. Lindsej i 

Feb. IS.—Neenah. 

Henry Race i 

F.Sauer '. 

C. Olson • 

C.Werth '. 

C. Jorgenson. ; 

C. Derby ! 

J. C Sorenson ; 

A. Peapenburg i 

H. P. Larson '. 

J. Jacobson i 

3. Peterson '. 

A. ChriBtianaoQ : 

C. Soreson '. 

Geo. Hanson ; 

J. NicholBon '. 

C. Olson ( 

VL HathersoD < 

C. Worth ' 

G. JorKeneon 

C. Derby. . 
A. Peape ' 
H. P. La 

C. Jacobson 

A. Ohristianson . . 

M. Peters 

Qeo. Hiv°8"if'..,> 

Feb. I4.—Sur&e. 

Pec c 

of Ii 

N. Bacon 5.3 

N. Bacon 4.4 

A. P.Ii^alts 3.8 

O. H. Ombelen 3 8 

C. Schoeder 3 6 

C. Rosenberg 3.8 

E. Speracher 3.8 

Henry Reiner 4.0 

Wm. Droster 4.6 

N. R. Bailey- 5.1 

C. Smithback 4.0 

A. Brawden 4,1 

John Brigham. 5.0 

C. Rosenberg 4 . G 

A. Homburg 3 6 

J. A.Shadle 4 

H. Olson..: 3.9 

W.E.Bailey below standard. 

C. Addo 5.2 

H. GUIroan 4.2 

Feb. IS.—Brodhead. 

N. K. Smith 4.9 

Aug. Selno 3.4 

T. P. Stevens 4.2 

Thos. Smith 3.9 

L. A. Smith 3.8 

FlahorAPehl 3,4 

OleEngan 3.4 

G.R. Roflter 4 B 

Wm. Smith ; .8 

R. J.Day 4.6 

W. C. Leng 4.2 

Wm. Springstead 5.0 

Chas. Mcffiiir 3.8 

Pred . Beaaert 4.0 

J. B.Oliver 4.1 

L. J. Adams 3.8 

Die Norman 3.9 

B. S. Howard 3.2 

Chris. Earleywine 4.2 

Wm. Berhardt 3.5 

H. B. Mitchell..... 4.4 

Pat. Lyon 4 8 

Wm. Pleek .-. 5.0 

John Murdock 3.B 

Iiou Kammeren 5.6 

Elijah Wheeler 4.7 

Emma Lindsay 4.8 

A. L. Folaomb 3.8 

Betsy VanSIyke 4.2 

Sterl Richards 4.5 

Taylor Swan 4.0 

C. O-Louton 5.1 

Robert Jack 3.2 

Chas. Schlimm below standard 

W.J. Tracy 4.3 


Vah'V and Pood Commissioner. 

March 12.^Marghalt. 

Per ct. of fnt. 

W.H. Porter 3.t 

H. H. Beebe 3.0 

H. fripjiernow 3.' 

A. C. Martin 3, 

H. H. Beebe 3. 

F. I^ippernow 3. 

Mareh SO. — Neenah, 

Wm. Schwab 

Wm. Schwab 

Win. WJKgert 

Fred Smith 

John C. Eiaw 

Isaac Tipler 

Isaac Tipler 

Michael Woods 

Paul Buckholtz 

Mra. David Hawloy 

Dan McGinnis 

Charlie Schutler 

Charlie Schutler 

Lous Friugte 

Ed. Mass 

Ed. Masa 

Wm. Hiller 

Wm. Hiller , 

Fer cL o( fat. 

Matt. Fonk 3.6 

Matt.Ponk 3.6 

Wm. Gunter 3.7 

Wm. Gunter S.6 

April IB. — Dale. 

Wm. Meyera 3.4 

Wm. Meyers 3.8 

Wm.Moj-ers 3 9 

Wm. Gretamar 3.6 

Wm. Gretamar 3.4 

JohnMcHugh 3.4 

John McUugb below staodard 

JohoMcHugh 3.6 

FredLeek 3.2 

Geo. Boyor 3.6 

Frank Seiford 3.0 

March t4— Union Orove. 

John Jonea 3.6 

Matthew Thom 3.0 

Matthew Thorn 8.8 

Matthew Thom 3.5 

PeterThom 3.8 

PeterThom 3.8 

Mrs. Harriet Powell, below standard 

GrifflthBroe 4.2 

Mrs. Maggie Fonk 4.0 

Mrs. Maggie Fonk 3.ii 

Edward Stevens 2.9 

Edward Stevens 2.9 

Wm. Schreiber 3.7 

Wm. Schreiber 3.8 

Chris Karow 3.6 

Chris Karow 3.8 

Henry Wagner 3.2 

Henry Wagner 3.6 

Wm. Crane 3.6 

Wm. Crane 4.0 

Richard Jones 3.6 

Richard Jones 3.2 

Richard Jones 3.0 

Gunter Bros 3.5 

Gunter Bros 4.8 

Wm. Sheen 3.8 

Wm. Sheen 4.2 

April I6.~0akfield. 

Wm. Steinhouse 3.3 

Henry Kaufman 3.8 

F. J. Brislal....-" 3.6 

D.N. Hoeg 4.2 

W. Kaulman 3.6 

D. B. Town 3.5 

H. A. Bums 3.6 

J.F. Steen 3.7 

J.Ehrling 3.6 

0. Amhnno ' 4.2 

C.E. Merrill 3.6 

C. Doenberg 3.4 

CM. Hubbard 4.7 

L. C.Gordon 3.8 

N. Carlson 3.6 

Mre-S-H. Smith 4.2 

J. Hammil 3.6 

PfoiSer 4.6 

las. Smith 3.8 

Fred Miller ^ 3.7 

J.S.Susan 4.8 

Jas. H. Bieme 3.8 

John Bierne 3.7 

John Veilbig 3.2 

Mrs. Whitmore 3.8 

Thoa. McDonald 3.8 

S. A. Smith 3.5 

Edgar Wilcox 4.0 

Fred Colleen .^ 3.4 

P. H. Messner 3.8 

John Smith 4.0 

Theo. Weasel 3.2 

Ludwig Berg 3.9 

Walter Worthing 4.1 

Geo. Taylor 3.5 

FredJ. Smith 3.7 

Julius KoUman (botUe broken > 

Jas. Lamb 3.6 

H. D. Hitt 4.8 

, h Goo<^lc 

Report of t/te Wiscoriain 

Per c 


Grant Poole 


Delos Hatch 

David Bichardaon 

Fred P. Smith 

B. B. Brooktua 


Jo8. Floyd 

ApHl n.—Sun Prairie. 

P. Thomas 3.4 

J.Blaaehka 3.5 

W. Birkrabine 3.7 

J.Norton 4.2 

C. G. Grose 4.9 

J. Hoepker 3.6 

F, Stenmiller 3,4 

J. B. Wheelock 3.5 

R. Betlach 3.5 

W. Auatin 3.8 

J. S. Philpot 4,2 

A.Thoinaa 4.1 

F.Shadel 3.6 

J, Alderson 3.6 

M. Dumphy 3.7 

P.Mayhew 3.4 

J. Brictaon 4.0 

C. Weisman 3.0 

Geo. MeUter 3.6 

W. McCoy 3.4 

J. C. Philpot 4.5 

F. Cook 3.6 

J, Loehmeis 3.0 

A. Drumasque 3.4 

O. Roberts 4.0 

E.Krause 3.1 

C. Buehler 4.4 

H.Thompson 3.8 

Geo. Thompson 4.0 

D. H, Bigelow 4.4 

F. Ritchie 3.6 

Geo. Pine 3.8 

P. Beaver 3.6 

J, Brandstein 3 9 

H. Baiter 3.7 

W. W. Corcoran 4.1 

F. WMel 4.1 

T. Howe ', below standard 

T. Howe below standard 

J.Howe below standard 

J. Howe below standard 

L. Gemeiivier 3.0 

April 17— Eagle. 
Sent by H. M. Iioibl 3.2 

April S7— Union Orove. 

Sent by 0. Otto. 

Orlo Urich 


April S9—Dalf!yvitle. 

Carl Sanderson 

Sam. Anhaua 

Sam. Anhaua 

H. Vahldahl... 

O. Huserr 

A. Grimatoedt 

S. Sanderson 


J. Halvoraon 

H. Anderson 

J, Haaverud 


Mrs. O. Sundom 

B.T. Daley 


O. Peterson 



K. Syverund 

M. Johnson 

Geo. Paulson, Jr 

A. Haaden 

Geo. Paulson, Sr 

A. Grinder 

L. Haag 

P. Sybtastad 

April SO—Neenah, 

H.E. Huxley 

Thompson Btoa 

Ole Anderson 

Pioneer Co-operative Cream. 


Pioneer Co-operative Cream. 


April SO — Menasfia. 

Henry Poth 

C, O.Gear 


Jno. Bayer 

Jno. Bayer 

Fred Weber 

Jtfay 34Seloit. 

Burt Royce 

Burt Eoyce 4 

Chas. lAthers ' 



Dairy and Food Chmmissioner. 

Per cL of fat 

E.I.Gayton 3.95 

Housed McMakin 3.9 

Chaa. Peterson 4.8 

Champion Dairy 3.8 

G.L.*urQer 3.4 

G. L. Turner 4.4 

Chas. Perkins 4,6 

C.H. McCall 4.05 

E. CWilkins 4.1 

O.M.Haugen 4.25 

May SB— Monroe. 

Frod Benkert 4.6 

Fred Benkert 3.4 

Aug. Eupnow 3-2 

Mich . Murphy below standard 

Mrs. 'Weianiiller below standard 

Mrs. Weismiller 3.0 

Wm.Stubbe 3,2 

Robt. Matzke 3.4 

SUufifacher Bros 3,2 

PaulDisch 3.4 

Patrick Grady below standard 

Thos. Smith 3.5 

Henry Wagner 3,6 

George Pleiffer 3.2 

Homer Phelps 3.2 

Ed. West 3.8 

Geo. Durgin ■ 3,4 

Geo. Durgin 3.6 

JohnMeyera 3,5 

Thos. Maher 3.6 

Thos. Maher 3.0 

Peter Melvio 3,4 

Oliver Walters below standard 

Chaa. Hartzel 3.1 

Mrs. L, Lenhaar 3.6 

A. Heintzleman 3.4 

May es.— Cambria. 

Peter Heidt 

Jacob Burback 

W. Bauman 

Philip Kumba 

Jacob Heinz 

Julius Stemick 

Henry Kohn 

Conrad Mohr 

Christian Sauer 


Pred Heidt 

C. Umbreit 

Peter Blochwitz 

H. Bender 

H. Sauer 

W.P. Sauer 

John aohreiber 

Per ct. of fat. 

AugQst Ulrich 3.9 

P. Krestetter 4.8 

W. Sauer 4.4 

W. Scharf 4.0 

Henry Scharf 4.0 

May S7. — Sun Prairie. 

E.Bedlock 4.2 

J.Weigen 4.8 

W. Birkenbine 3.7 

W. H. Angel .'.. 4.2 

J. Daubraw 3.1 

J. S.Philpot 4.2 

J.Norton 4 i 

P. Thomas 3.8 

C.G. Cross 4.3 

F.Sbadel 3.8 

J. Alderson 4.1 

L, Drauoasky 4.6 

J. Springer 4,5 

0. Weiensale 4,1 

R. Pratt 3 9 

A. Tliomaa 3.8 

A. Draunasky 3.6 

George Wolf 3.8 

P. J&yhew 4.0 

F. Stenmitler 4.2 

J. Hoepket 3.8 

E. Krause 3,5 

O.Eoberts 3.6 

J.M. Straus 3.7 

N, Hanley 4,2 

W. Austin 3.8 

E. Olson 3.6 

E.H.Bigelow 4.6 

G.Richie 4.2 

George Thompson 4.1 

H. Thompson 4.1 

J. Lohnesis 2.7 

J. Lohnesis (duplicate) 2.8 

C.Buehler 4.8 

J. C.Philpot 4.6 

C. Weisman 3,6 

W.McCoy 3.8 

J. Brictson 4.4 

George Meister 4.6 

M. Dumphey 4.1 

George Pipe 4.0 

P. Beaver 4.2 

Ii. Gmeinder 3.8 

P.Shuster 3.9 

J.Howe 3.6 

T. Howe 3.6 

J. Blaschka 3.8 

H. Baxter 3.8 

W. W. Corcoran 4.6 

F.X. Wedel 3.8 

P.Wedel 5.2 


Beport of the Wiaconein 

May t9.— Silver Lake. 

J.T.Bartlett 4.0 

Louis Johnson 3.4 

W. A. Jones 

W.S.Gibble 3.6 

W. B. Pay 4.2 

O.P. Chubb 

J. Glrabow 

P. HendereoD 4.6 

M.M.Hill 4.0 

Anthonj Stone 4.5 

Ed. Barnard 

W.H.Bradley 4.6 

A. A. Eastman 4.2 

W.E.Bailey 4.2 

Prank Prolloff 

E.S.Stone 3.2 

Isaac Denton 3.5 

J. Begullar 

A. Channell 3.0 

Thomas Breakfield 

Pred Fiedler 

J.E. McDonald 

Bartlett Estate 4.3 

June 5. — Albany, 

Carl Heyn 3.0 

J. Klausner 3.4 

John Lewis 3.1 

Thoa. Francis 3.8 

Tho9. Burton 3.4 

David Jones 3.6 

John Davis 3.2 

J. Kiaugner 3.2 

R. Smout 3.6 

Thoa. Harner 3.7 

Geo. Jones 3.6 

Fred Lockwood 3.0 

Mrs. Walter Tait 3.4 

Wm. Williams 3.8 

June e.—SvansviUe. 

JohnTomlin 3.2 

Wm. Krause. Jr 4.0 

Chria Tomlin 3.8 

Wm. Larmer 3.1 

Chauncy Miles 3.3 

Auguat Keehn 4.2 

Ferd.Galz 4.2 

Fred. Hess 3.9 

Edward Stevens 4.4 

Chas. Bus3 4.0 

Ferd. Lange 3.6 

Wm,Miles 3.8 

Wm. Krouse, Sr 4,2 

Wm. Eosa 3.8 

Wm. Lange 4.0 

Cbris. Hesse broken bottle. 

June 8. 

-Twin Orove. , 

Per ct. of fat. 

Milton Keller 

E. Grenzow 4.0 

L. Keaster 3.2 

S. Benage 3 4 

IraEmerick 3.2 

Fred. Raether 4.4 

S. Holmes 3.6 

JohnOht ASon 3.5 

June 18. — Janetville. 

Ed. McDermott 3.7 

Valentine Bier 3.2 

Geo. Stevens 3.4 

B.W.Fisher 3.6 

Chaa. Brown 3 1 

<;. Knudaon 3.r> 

M.M.Phelps 3,0 

W, H. Campbell, Sr 3..^ 

Laurence Cronin 3.6 

W.H. Hughes 3.0 

A.F.Rice 3.1 

W.H. Hughes 3 8 

Walter 8. Rice 3.6 

Chas. J. Bings 4.0 

Thomas Anderson 3.4 

W.H. Hughes 4.0 

June Si. — Monroe. 

J. Kubli 3.8 

John Halpin 4.6 

Mrs. Kate Crotty 4.6 

A.Mythaller 4.2 

Wm. Mythaller 4.0 

JacobKubh 4.8 

JohnKcight 4.3 

Wm. Menehan 4.0 

June e4.—KarlfoTd. 

T. B. Emliog 4.1 

Wm.Nue 4.5 

Fred Broae 3.3 

John Licht 3 6 

Ferdinand Buhrow 3.7 

John Kelly 3.8 

Reuben Barney 4.0 

Carl Benke 3.7 

Joseph Schroeder. 3.8 

Daniel White 3.7 

Wm Klink 4.4 

CarlTeach 3.6 

Joseph Gulden 3.8 

Conrad Pusch 3.9 

Casper Horst 4.1 

Mat Greenwald 3.6 


Vairy and Fooi CcmmiasioTier, 


Per ct of fat. 

Henry Horst 3.5 

John Beuhlow 3.5 

Wm Ssll 3.0 

Jamea Uaanan below staDdard 

June ss.Soricon. 

William Marquard i.i 

William Marquard 3.5 

Albert Miller 3.4 

William Scliield 3.6 

William Schield 3.7 

ChriaEbert 2.9 

A.Rei 3.6 

Charley Zuehike 4.2 

F. Rausmao 4.0 

A. F.SchulW 3.7 

Albert Buettner 3.9 

James McDonald 3.3 

M. Mieacke 3 6 

William Poy 3.5 

Charley Henker 3.6 

Charley Henker 4 

August Poehl 3.4 

August Poehl i.O 

F. Lusben 4.3 

William Luedke 4.1 

Ed. Calliea 3.8 

CGiehne.... 3.3 

Charley Albert 3 6 

MikeMeHandly 3.7 

WilliamSmith 3.3 

William Smith 4.2 

A. Snhoeppe 3.7 

William Peglow 3.2 

F. Webber 3.9 

P.Webber 4.2 

George Winter 3.7 

George Winter 4.4 

William Sehulz 3.5 

Ed. Cody 4,1 

C. HasBe 3.7 

Paul Mueller 3.6 

William Getzman 3.8 

C. Ruchkack 4.2 

C. Ruchkack 3.1 

Mrs. M. Lewreoz 3.5 

William Luedtke 3.6 

June S9— Monroe. 

Albert Utiger 4.1 

JohnSterSii 3.9 

Chris. Strauas 4.0 

John Faeser, Sr 3.8 

B. Speich 4.6 

William Kennigon 3.6 

William Holmes 3.8 

Fred Aioa worth 3.9 

L. Feldman 4.0 

Pet ct. of fat. 

William Picket 3 8 

Peterjenny 3.8 

August Beyer 4 2 

i. Makepeace 3.8 

Ed. Underwood 3.7 

Fred Keen 3.5 

July l—Hu»li»Jord. 

CarlKabow 4.4 

August Hoefs 4.8 

Wm. Steffen 4,2 

L. C.Erdman 4.0 

Mrs. liouisa Stewart 3,2 

F. Khielke 4,0 

Ohas. Mackar 3 8 

Charley Schmeling 3.8 

C. Erdman 4.3 

July g— 

Sent by S. Seller 2.8 

July e — Union Orove. 

Peter DeGroot 4.1 

John DeGroot below standard. 

Wm. Smith 3.8 

Frank De Line 3.4 

J. P.Nelson 4,8 

Chas. DeGroot 3.4 

Andrew Johnson 3.5 

John Beyer 3.8 

Chas. Meredith 3.6 

Henry Oleson 3.9 

Peter Lareon 4.0 

Chas. Motley 3.2 

Nela Nelson 3.4 

C. a.Hallet 4,2 

Frank Kiddle 3.8 

Frank Dunkirk 3,2 

Henry Rosendale 3.4 

Henry Barnes 4.2 

Frank Adams 4,1 

Henry Monroe 4,2 

Wm. Minton 4 2 

C. T. Dovis 3,6 

George Hardy 4,3 

Geo , McFarlaud 3,6 

John Dextra 3.2 

Geo. Nelson 3,6 

Elmer Barrows 3,7 

Gus. Buyer 3.7 

Peter Maurice 3.6 

John Maurice 3,4 

FredSwartz 4.2 

Herman Swartz 3.2 

Wm.Savage 8.4 


Report of the Wisconsin 

Pec ct. of fst. 

Jo Whitley 3 1 

Chaa. Drinkwater 3.2 

C. Hanson 40 

O. P. Johnson 3.C 

James Mothy 3.2 

AdamWeb»r 3 3 

Wm Freitag 3.9 

T.Biickiey 4.0 

Wm. Drinkwater sample spoiled. 

E. Roberts 3.6 

Geo. Blackburn 42 

July S— Monroe. 

John Pfund, two cans 3.4 

JohnPfuod 3.6 

John Kadderly 3.4 

Frank Otl 3.0 

Chris. Henne 3 4 

JohnE. Pfund below standard. 

Wm. Timm 3.8 

John DiBher 3.2 

Peed Block 3.4 

Fred HailJinger, two cans .. 3.2 

Fred Haddioger 3.4 

July 6— Monroe. 

Jacob Elmer 3.8 

John Thomas 3.6 

Henry Brown 3.8 

P. N >fzirer, two cans 4,0 

P.Nofz-ier 4.6 

Peter Uolan 3.4 

John Puchs 4.4 

Nelson Rust 3.4 

Wm. Wood 3.7 

Wm. Wood 4.1 

Eudi Kubli 3.8 

Rudi Kubli 3.4 

W. Schneider 4.0 

John OUcman 3.1 

HenryElmer 3.9 

Mrs.Bjirbary Elmer 3.8 

Joshua Klassy 3.9 

Joshua Klassy 3,4 

Joshua Klassy 3 6 

A J, Keen 3.4 

Calvin Grifath 3.6 

Weis&Regez 3.4 

CoDQer Itros 3,6 

Conner Bros 3.G 

Fritz Kramer 3.8 

July 7 — Spring Orove. 

Mrs. T. Douglas 3,9 

William Coldrien 4,0 

JohnFrank 3,2 

William Moore 

Robert Stahlnecker . . 

John Stuebler 

August Roublow 

August Gieae 

August Giese 

Chris. Staebler 

Herman Gioae 

Walter Douglas 

Walter Douglas 


July 9 Beaver Dam 

Frank dinger 3.8 

Da>klRo93 4.2 

Charles Greger 3.7 

Polin Williams 4,0 

William Ziinmrirman 3.1 

William S.:haEer 3.8 

H Freilich 3 8 

Godfred Lind spoiled 

Anton Bach 3,9 

Fred Bartel .1.9 

Fred Rojenthall 3.8 

Lawrence Piechekoski 3.0 

Lawrence Piechekoski 4.5 

Louis Rush low 4.3 

P. Zastsow 4,8 

ChrisBruBk 3,9 

Oonrad Haass 3,7 

Gustav Zimmer spoiled 

JohnParshen 3.8 

Fred Schafer 3,6 

Henry Korplain 3 7 

John Warber 4,0 

Godfred Lind 4.6 

Mrs. Grifleths 4.4 

Frank Hupp spoiled 

Charley Rosenthall 3.4 

F. Weckworb 3,0 

P. Weckwerb 5,0 

F. Zastrow spoiled 

Joseph Hammer spoiled 

Joseph Hammer 4,6 

July 11 —Monroe. 

Henry Sweney 4.0 

Henry Sweoey 3,6 

Godfrit Woolf 3.3 

J. VanMatre 3.1 

J. Stiete 3.0 

L.Baker 3,0 

K.RTdde 3 2 

Chaj. DoVoo 3.2 

G.Mormon 3,6 

G. Mormon 3.4 


Dairy and Food (,'ommiisioner. 

Per ct. o* (at. 

W. Buyshen 4.1 

A. Neifnicker beiow standard. 

A. Neif nicker below standard. 

Chester Smith 3.0 

Chester Smith 3A 

O. Ausberger 3.3 

Jul}/ I4—Waua<w 

R. E. Parcher, Owner, H. 

Boberson, driver 

GJeorge Klein, from delivery 

George Klein, from hia delivery 

G. W. Witter, large can 

G. W. Witter, delivery can 

Henry Meuret 

J. T. Winkley, bottled milk . . 

C. BrowD, morning's milk 

O. Brown, night's milk 

A. Dreher, below standard.... 
A. Dracher 

July IS— Palmyra 

John Hann 3.4 

Prank Crasser 

R.H. Turner _ _ 

James French 4,0 

H. young 3. 

Thomas Hitch 3. 

Thomaa Hitch 3. 

J. J. Summers 4. 

E. Hooper 3. 

R.H.Turner 3, 

H.Bucha 3 

F. Van Rueden 3. 

W.Uglow 3.. 

W. Uglow 4.0 

H. Bucha 4.2 

E.Whittam 3, J 

P.Eeed 3.9 

J. Steinhofi 3.9 

N. Peardon 3 7 

JohnStacey 4.3 

G. Lean 4,0 

J. G. Spaulding 4.] 

F. Van Ruerdon 3 8 

P. Burton 4.0 

R. Charley 3 7 

W. P. Gates 3 

J. J. Summers 3.8 

William Karlin 3,4 

John Steinhoff 3,C 

W.Peck 3,6 

E. Whittam 3,2 

Jfli/ IS—Monrnc. 
Sent by H. Harper, 

J. Baumgartnor .. 
J. BaumKartner , . 
D. HcEtv 

D, Hefty 

C. Marty 

C, Miirtv 

E. Zumfemnnon . 

E, Zumbrannon . 

D. Theilor 

D. Theiler 

Richard Bros 

Richard Bros 


U. Rufer 

F. Leibundgent.,. 

F. Leibundgent... 

J. Ru/er 

3. Rufer 

G. Zumbrannen .. 
G. Zumbrannen .. 

M. North 

M. North 

July Ifi —Oshkoah. 

Ed. James 

Herman Ziclke , . . 

Oscar Guhl 


John Smith 

David lioeshaar..! 

B. J. Rrss 

Ed. Perry 

Wm. Slmm 

Herman Helm 

Prank Morgan . . . 
Chas. Abraham... 

Jaa Simm 

Fred Nolte 

James Fitzgerald. . 
John Gtasenapp. . . 

Oscar Guhl 


John Smith 

Dauid Boeshaar.. 

John Ross 


Herman Holm 

Prank Morean 

Chas. Abraham 



July 20 —Monroe. 


Jteport of the Wwconnin 

July eo — Otter Creek. 

J. Qraham 


Jas. Ooloy 

M. Linaicum 

Thoa. Murphy 

Thos.' Murphy 

J. B. Morria 



Thtw. Moore 

Mrs. Nanie Blair 

Joseph Deary 

H. Helm 


Arthur Keama 

H. Campbell 

A. W. Hawe 


John Ward 

John Douglas 

NetsoD Thompson 

July tS— Sheboygan Falls. 

John Badder 

Mw. Mary Walter 


Ai^m HoizBchuh 

0. Born '■ 

Wm. Meier 

Peter Vandeloo • 

John Groenfeldt '■ 

John Groenfeldt 

Henry Tohl : 


John Wonder 

John Wonder ■ 

Henry Kroeger ■ 

Henry Kroeger ■ 

Mrs. Mary Walter 


John Frerk 

Adam Holzschuh 

C. Born 

Wm. Meier 

M. Miley 

J. Daane 

William Martin 

B. B. Melendy 

E. B. Melendy 

A. Mitwede 

A. Mitwede 


Fer ct. of tat. 

J. Erdmann 3.8 

FrankStimley 3.5 

Eobt. Goodwin 3.4 

Jul;/ S4 -^Randolph. 

William Hayer 4.2 

Charley Wlchman 3.7 

Albert Bork 3.4 

G, KaboBki 4.5 

R.Jj. Roberta 3.G 

Henry Anson 4.8 

William Borth below atandaril 

William Baiker aample spoiled 

Will Thomas 3.0 

John Bradley 3.8 

Mack AlIcD 3.6 

Robert Anton 4.6 

Ferd.Smith 3.4 

JohnStark 3.8 

Mrs. John W. Davis 3.3 

John Kiefenbach 3,4 

A. L.Bonnott 3.1 

Wm. Waterwood 3.6 

H.Stamni 3.6 

C. W. Huff 3.C 

J. Popanz 3.6 

Charley Auchterberg 4,0 

J. Fuhring below standard 

J. Puhring 4,1 

John Kennedy 4.0 

Thomas Green 3,6 

John Straseski 3.8 

Charley Coulter 5,) 

WilliamReul 3.0 

Tbos. King bek)w (ttandard 

Ed. Czamanski 3,8 

Martin Willenaki 4,4 

C. V. Garew 3.7 

Chris. Litacher 3.1 

August 11 —Hawthorn. 

Jerry Price 4.9 

T. Whitehead 4.8 

Fred Dahme 3.C 

John Hawthorne 4.4 

Jas. Hoffman .4,6 

JohnVogle 4.4 

Dan Herron 5.7 

Perry Divan 6 

Jac. Hoffman 4.6 

Adner Drake 4.6 

Z. Beech 4.8 

Actoine Jenne 5.0 

G.Sehadawold 7.3 

Peter Gmagi 4.9 

H. CampbeU 4.0 

Geo.Eaton 4.4 

I Americus Adams 4.0 


Dairy and food Jommiasvynet. 

Augugl 13 —Brighton. 

Per ct. of (at. 

J. Hanoeman 4.3 

J. Morin bottle broken 

M. Zeihen 4,0 

A.. Braodt 3.6 

S. SorenBBn 3.9 

E. Carroll 3.7 

J. Weissman 3.8 

M. Ludwig 4.1 

Z. Lizzenburg 4.0 

M.Daniel8 3.8 

F.Ehlen 4.2 

W. Kemen 5.2 

W. Kemeu 4.8 

N.Pettea 4.0 

N.Pettee 4.3 

J. Daniels 3.8 

J. Daniels 4.6 

V. Jackley 4.1 

V. Jackley 3.8 

J. Menher 4,0 

J. Propp 3 2 

J. Propp 3.0 

F. Seitz below atandard 

P.Seitz 4.0 

Chaa.Seitz 3.7 

E. Newman 4.0 

J. Epperea 3.8 

J.Foi 3.1 

C. Walker 3.8 

J. Meyers 3. 7 

N, Daniels 4,4 

W.Seara 3.8 

W. Carr 1.0 

H. VeAalen 3.7 

N. Weber 4. 7 

N. Weber 4.0 

J, May 3.9 

J. May 5.2 

W. Bppers 3.6 

W. Eppera 4.4 

J. P083 3.8 

J. Posa 4.8 

W.Haco.i 4,0 

W.Havea 4.1 

Mrs. Wm. Ludwig 4,0 

R. Robertson 4.0 

'f. Molitor 4,1 

T. Molitor 4,9 

M. McDonald ; 3 5 

M. McDonald 4,4 

P. Jacket ■. 3,4 

P. Jacket 4 . J 

W. Wagner 4,2 

W, WagDOr 1.9 

W. Wagner skim milk l.Oj 

C. Jacket 1,8 

C. Jacket 4.2 

M. Eppera 3.6 

N. Wb& 3.5 

20-D. A F. 

Augiut IB—ffuatis/ord. 

Per ct of fat 

H, Greening 4.2 

T. Aestrieck 4.1 

Thos. Sullivan 3,7 

Michael Bock below standard 

Michael Bock 3,8 

Wm. Bischoff 3.6 

(Jeo. Meyer 4.0 

W.J. Lehman 3.6 

Peter Thauer 3.9 

Peter Tiiauer 4.0 

W.Grooning 4,2 

Wm. Bicksteadt 3.5 

Wm. Bicksteadt 4.3 

Dick Irvin 4.7 

G. Holstein 8.9 

Fred Klinger 4 2 

JohnSullivan 3.5 

John Sullivan 4.6 

John Burger 4.1 

C. BreatzmaD 4.2 

August 19-WUUin. 


John Otto ' 

John Otto 

C Kruger 

C , Kruger 

Pi-ed Briebow 

Fred Briebow 

Pi-ed Pingel 

Fred Pingel 

Andrew Dorn 

Andrew Dorn 

Will Pingel 

John Raymer 


Chas. Mayer 

Geo. Roll 

Geo. Roll 

Pren Hartsworm 

Fred Hartsworm 

C. Maylahn 

Wm. Mayer 

Wm. Mayer 

Wm. Mayer 

L, E. Nichols 

L. E. Nichols 

J. Jankel 

J.Jaokel .' 

J. Fieataedt 

J. Fiestaedt 

M. Pisher - 

C. A. Haneiet 

0. A. Haneiet 

O. A.Hanolet 

A. Piaher 

Henry Kahler 


Report of the Wisconsin 

rer ot. of 

P. Schultz 

P. Schultz 

J. Ehm 

J. Ehm 

M. Winter 

John Wittlin 

John Schwammer 

C. Schnammer , 

C. Schwammer 

Auguit £0—Oak Orove. 

H, Warsonake 

Wm. Warsonake 

A ug. Waraonske 

Mre. Anna Foley 

F. Mecklenburg 

Geo. Wilaon 

Carl Aliiack 

Fred Nell 

Aug. Rohrechneider 

Aug. Boldt 

L. Somerfeldt 

P. Prenzlow 

0. Corroith 

■ A.Rupnow 

H. Rupnow 

August SI— Neosho. 

Guetave Uhlman 

Mrs. W.Greeler 

Patrick Laey 

Mrs. R. Kuhrovj 

Per ct of fi 

i Mrs. Chaa. Uhlman ! 

Henry Silky i 

3 John Greeler i 

G Josiah Timeriion i 

2 Luda Lehman i 

3 JohnWendorf i 

'} Nelaon Timerson ' 

3 Mra. Michael Lnckea 3 

3 ChriaChafer 4 

Mike Burchert i 

Auguet S9 -MontforL 

> G.AIcott i 

i G. Muender 4 

( G.Muender 3 

i C. Wepkin 4 

i Theo Millerd 4 

! E. Waahburn i 

V H.Fahabender 4 

! S. Hird 4 

! J, C^ase 4 

1 MrB.Frye 4 

! J. Wihtich 4 

J Mra. Alvinia Stiveriue 4 

i Mrs. Amanda Durnen 4 

J John Cameron 4 


September T—SteamB. 

Coprad Elmer 4 

1 Patrick Ward 4 

2 Mathias Zentner 4 

) Mathias Zentner 4 

I John Dougherty 3 


Ikiiii/ and Food Gommissioner. 


Milch Cowb 2 

Years Old 













4, IK 










' 10,393 










■" 870.' 617 




Buffalo .... 





















Chippewa . . 






3, .333 





128, 83J 









. 10,332 

Crawford . . 








46, aM 


5,521, ais 






























Eau Claire. 







Florence . . . 






Fond du Lac 


'269,' 186 



574, 119 














Green Lake. 













Jackson .... 





"is '506 


Jefferson. . . 











414, 133 


Kenosha . . , 







Kewaunee. . 



































Manitowoc . 






Marathon . . 





51, 111 


Marinette . . 



179. 170 


Marquette. . 



Milwaukee . 













7; 311 












Outagamie . 



































Portage .... 













JSeport of the Wiaeonsin 


Richland. . 


St. Croix.. 

Sheboygan . 





Walworth . 
Wood , 


MiLOH Cows 3 
YBAtia Old 

Namber Valae. 

717, 871 
183, 791 







350, IK 






Pounds. Valua. 













1, 185, 164 


104, 8f" 

194,561 13,133 

692,441 42,167 

1,190,281 ftg,962 

1,590,586 126,769 

57,095 4,600 

842,039117,442,144 174,653, 730 $12310,373 162,480,61513,984,103 

1,877,625 ) 



Da&y ond Food Commissioner. 


Caose of Aetioii. 


Phil. UoMaboD . 

Thos. Murphj... 

. Adulterated milk 
. Adnlleratedniilk.. 

kdulte rated milk . . 

10 and costs. 

A. Kepselr.... ... 

- Lftuit 

B. HUdemaon . . . 

Ang. N. 

. Howard's Grove 

, Adulterated milk.. 
. Adulterated milk., 

'. Adtilteratedmilk^! 

. Adulterated m 
. Adulterated m 

Sapt. i 

Sept. S 
Sept. 3 

Sspt 3 

SBPt. 3 

Wm. Ludwig 


N. Randall 



jurPkg. Co... 

. SUverCreelE... 



. Adttlteratedmilk.. 

. Adulterated milk . . 

10 and costs. 

, Skim . 

, AdallorBtedmilk.. 

, Adolterated mi 

, Adulterated mi 

. Colored oleo... 

. Adulterated mi 

. Adulterated mi 

. Adulterated m 

. Color 
. Colored o 

10 and costs. 

and costs. 
BO and costs. 

. Adulterated milk.. 

U. Schwartz ft Co. 
3. Harriet PowelL. 

Union GroTO... 
8an Flairie 


Beport qf the Wisconsin 

ENDING SEPTEMBER 30. 1896— Continaed. 




Cause of Action. 

Amt. of Fiues. 

Apr. IT 

Colored o'eo 

Colorod Ij™: :::::: 

Colored oleo 

Colored <deo 

Colored oleo....... 

Adulterated mUk., 

Adu toraterlruitk.. 

Adulterated milk.. 

Adulterated milk.. 



Ma, 57 


Ma, Z3 
Hay 2S 

PatQrad, . 






Fred Harlaworm 

it plead guilty as oluujced and se 

» was mspended by tlie oc 


Dairy tmd Food Oommissioner. 


Diibiiriementg for the year ending September SO, 1895, 



West! W.AV.B.nenses 

HiMtand. W. D., rauUltrpentr 










ISO 00 




Dairy and ^od Commissioner. 

Disbursements for year ending September SO, 1896. 



17, BIS 6» 


in 13 

■ is 


250 00 

bSHS. *(CspSi~r;^.^t!^::'"'^^^ 


Respectfully submitted, 

Itairy and Food Commissioner. 



Daibt akd Food Laws ot WiaooNsnt 1-28 

Office and duties ol Dairj and Food Commission 1-5 

MUk 5-8 

Standard ftapore 6-7 

Proof ol adultraatioD 8 

Antiseptics prohibited 8 

Cheese and butter 9-17 

Filled choMB prohibited 9 

Skimmed-milk cheese specifications 9 

Imitation butter, manufacture -. 9 

Imitation batter, sale - 13-15 

Imitation butter, prohibited in state institutions 15 

Cheese, branding laws 16-17 

Factory inspection 18 

Confiscation of imitation dairy prodncts 18-19 

Fraud in dairy factories SO 

Adulteration of food and dmgs 21-24 

Liability of drng^ts 23 

Adulteration of honey 24 

. Adulteration of vinegar 21-26 

Vinegar standard 25 

Diseufled meat 26 

Grain coloring or bleaching 27 

Whoah&ll submit samples for analysis 28-39 


Development and magnitude of dairy industry 30 

Value of dairy products to state 31-32 

Educational influences aiding dairying 33-35 

Adaptability of unsettled portions of state for dairying 36-14 

Professor Henry's report on northern Wisconsin 37-14 

Effect of dairying upon farm values 41-16 

Comparison of values in dairy and afcricultural counties 15 


S14 Index. 

Report of the Commissioner — continued. Page. 

Oleomargariue 47-75 

Amount iinnnall7 produced 17 

Where consumed .' 48 

Oleo act of 1895, popular demand for 48 

EsecutioD of the law, resum^ of initial cases 18-54 

Emplojment of special counsel 49 

Besum6 of Milwaukee caaea 53-^ 

Deceptive labels used 63 

Decision upon marking law, showing need of anti- 
coloring law 63 

Citations from brief of special counsel, John M. Olin, con- 
taining decisions upon points involved 56-72 

Evasions of the oleo law ti 

Public sentiment 73-75 

Salutary effects shown by the adoption of similar laws in 

other states 75 

Filled cheese 75-84 

Prohibited by law of 1895 76 

Need of national supervisoa 77-78 

■ Filled cheese bill introduced by Hon. 8. A Cook 78 

ElEfecfs of filled cheese industry upon Wisconsin products 79-83 

Passage of bill 83^ 

CreamerieB and factories 84-86, 92 

Butter making 86-88 

Cheese industry , . ' 88-90 

Milk supply of cities 90-92 

Dairy and food legislation 93-98 

Changes suggested 97-96 

Report of the Assistabt Oohmissiohsb 99-101 

Report of the Chemist 102-172 

Chemistry of milk 102-107 

Detection of antiseptics 107 

Causes of variation in milk 111-112 

Valuation of milk by test 113-119 

Babcock teat 114r-115 

Use of lactometer 116 

Table for correction for temjierature 117 

Table showing per cent, "solids not fat " 118-119 

Calculation of adulteration ISO 

Care of milk 120-122 

Use of cultures 123-124 

Pasteurization and sterilization 124-127 

Artificial mother's milk 127 


Index. 815 

Report of the Chemigt — continned. Page. 

Tuberculin Test 110-lU 

Milk fltaudarda in various states 199 

Table of milk analyses 130-131 

Table sboning yield of oheeao from milk teat 1% 13-i 

Cheeae examined, table of 139 

Butter analyses, table of 142-143 

Vinegar ; 144-117 

Vinegar analyses, table of 148-153 

Beer 153-155 

Public water supplies 15C-159 

Water analyses, table o( 150-168 

Drugs 168-171 

UiBcellaaeous articles examined 172 

Milk tests, table of 281-306 

Wisconsin Daibt School — Fbof. W. A. Henri 173-177 

Chebsb Making, Pro?. John W. Dbckbb 178-182 

Curing CHKKaE, N, Simon 183 184 

National Filled Chbesb Law 18o-191 

List of State Daibi Comiiibbiohbb8 192-193 

List of Dairi Associations and Oikcers 193-197 

List OP Canadian Dairy Officials 197-199 

BoaaEm'ioNB ro» Oboanizatioh of Crxahkry and Factort As- 
sociations 200-232 

List OF Cheese Factories IN Wisoonbui 233-261 

Lifft OF Creameries IN Wisoonbin 262-280 

Dairy STATiffrics 307-308 

List of Convictions and Fines 309-310 

Financial Statement : 311-312 

Index 313-315