Skip to main content

Full text of "Biennial Report of the State Forestry Department to the Governor and General Assembly of the State of Georgia"

See other formats




! i " 






BB I ■ j 

; i 


c, po & — 7671 

MAR 9 1983 




State Forestry 


overnor and General Assembly 





Looking north from Neel's Gap 
Georgia's First State Forest. 



State Forester 


State Forestry Board 





State Forester 

Georgia State 

Board of Forestry 



Hon. Clifford Walker, Governor. 


Hox. S. G. McLendon, Sec. of State, 
Vice President 

Hox. S. W. McCallie, State Geologist, 

Hox. J. Phil Campbell, Director of Extension, 
State College of Agriculture 


Bonnell H. Stone, Blairsville 

J. Leonard Kountree, Summit 

A lex. K. Sessoms, Cogdell 

C.'. B. Harm an, Atlanta 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton 

B. M. Lufburrow, Secretary and State Forester. 

Ex Officio Members Vcf . ^7 members Appointed bt 

\Arst*>^ the Governor 

Forestry Department 





5, * ,EBE0L05,ST B M. LUFBURROW State Forester 


Atlanta. Georgia wbs „ m f„ JUDO 

Letter of Transmittal 

To His Excellency, 

Hon. Clifford Walker, Governor, 

State of Georgia, 



In accordance with Section 2158 (jjj-5) Vol. 12 of the Supple- 
ment of the Code of 1926, and by direction of the Board ap- 
pointed under such Law, we have the honor to submit for trans- 
mittal to the General Assembly, the First Biennial Keport of the 
State Forestry Department covering the period October 15th, 
1925, to December 31st, 1926. 


S. W. McCALLlE, 

Chairman of Executive Committee. 


In-Qmcto Membem VJtsAc**!^' ™« Governor 


Forestry Department 


C B harman 

,«™«S*M.'. e T B.M.LUFBURROW State Forester .uxTsIVsomi 

J Phil CAMPBELL cogocll 

Atlanta. Georgia „.,.<>.. 

Letter of Transmittal from the State Forester 


Sirs : 

I herewith submit to you my report which covers the first 14 1-2 
months of our work, and the findings of the Georgia Forest Service 
within the period. 

The practise of forestry is becoming recognized throughout the 
State as a basic and economic necessity. In bringing about this 
recognition, the Board acknowledges the splendid cooperation, 
especially in an educational way, by many agencies, such as the 
Georgia Forestry Association, civic and business organizations, 
Federated Women's Clubs, Parent-Teacher Associations, Scout and 
Campfire organizations, County Officials, and the various DE- 

The newspapers of the State and the various press agencies have 
given valuable cooperation. The lumber and naval stores industries 
as a whole have given important information. Regional organiza- 
tions having a large membership in the State, such as the Southern 
Forestry Congress, American Tree Association, American Forestry 
Association, have cooperated closely with the Department. The 
Federal Forest Service has co-operated both financially and other- 

With the continued coordinated efforts of all these agencies, it is 
felt that every acre in Georgia will be producing that crop most suit- 
able and profitable, and that the timber crop, WHICH RANKS 
THIRD as a natural resource, will be conserved, restored and per- 

I wish to express my appreciation to each member of the Board 
for their assistance, interest and active support in the work of the 



State Forester. 

First Biennial Report 
Board of Forestry, State of Georgia 


General Assembly 



Forestry had its beginning in Georgia in the Forestry Act of 

1921 providing for a State Board of Forestry composed of five 
ex-officio members and four citizens appointed by the Governor 
from the State at Large. The duties of this Board were purely 
investigative, and to "report to the General Assembly of Georgia 
with whatever recommendations the said Board sees fit to make." 
However, there were no funds available for the work. The first 
official report to the General Assembly of Georgia was made in 

1922 in compliance with the Act of 1921. 

The splendid report of this Board received most favorable com- 
ment from all parts of the country. The limited number of 
copies printed was soon exhausted by the enormous demand for 
this information. The report gave a perfect picture of the forestry 
situation in Georgia and contained most valuable information per- 
taining to the forest industrial development of the State and its 
subsequent decline since 1909. 

Since the report of 1922 covers so completely the industrial 
phase of the forest problems, the present timber supply and the 
direct influence which this natural resource has had upon the 
development of the State, it will not be necessary to cover these 
vital points in this report except by reference. 

Administrative Act of 1925. 

The Forestry Administrative Act of 1925 was signed by the 
Governor on August 14th, 1925. This Act named the Governor 
as "ex-officio Chairman and President of said Board," the Sec- 
retary of State, the State Geologist, and the Director of Exten- 
sion at the State College of Agriculture as ex-officio members 
to serve with five citizens of the State who shall be appointed by 
the Governor, "as follows : One representing the Women's Civic 
Organizations of the State and four representatives of the farm- 
ing, lumbering, lumber manufacturing, and naval stores or 
timberland owning interests within the State of Georgia, who 
will be named with reference to geographical location." 

Duties of the State Board of Forestry 

The broad policies which have been initiated by the Board 
pursuant to the mandates of the Forestry Administrative Act of 
1925 are: 

I. To inquire into the forest conditions in Georgia, with 

reference to 

Forest Law 


(a) Preservation of the foresis Sec. 3 

(b) Effect of the destruction of forests upon 

the general welfare of the State Sec. 3 

(c) All other matters pertaining to : 

1. Subject of forestry Sec. 3 

2. Tree growth Sec. 3 

II. To make recommendations to the General 

Public, as to : 

(a) Reforestation Sec. 3 

(b) Approved methods of lumbering Sec. 3 

(c) Approved methods of turpentining Sec. 3 

III. To report to the regular session of the Legislature: 

(a) Results of investigation Sec. 3 

(b) Recommendations as to necessary legis- 
lation with reference to forestry Sec. 3 

IV. To give, as may be practicable, to Georgia land own- 
ers and forest users, when requested, such: 

(a) Advice Sec 3 

(b) Aid Sec. 3 

(c) Assistance Sec. 3 

(d) Cooperation Sec. 3 


V. To promote in Georgia among all classes of the 
population a proper appreciation of the benefit to be 
derived from: 

(a) Forest culture Sec. 2 

(b) Forest preservation Sec. 3. 

VI. To take such action as may be reasonable and practi- 
cable and apply such part of the funds as may be 
necessary to: 

(a) Prevent forest fires Sec. 3 

(b) Suppress forest fires Sec. 3 

(c) Establish fire control: 

1. Independently Sec. 3. 

2. Or in cooperation with Federal 

Government Sec. 3 

VII. To employ a State Forester, who shall: 

(a) Enforce provisions of the Forestry Act Sec. 4 

(b) Serve as Secretary of the Board Sec. 2 

(c) Be custodian of the books, records and 
papers of said Board Sec. 2 

(d) Perform all other duties that may be 
designated by the Board Sec. 4 

VIII. To recommend to the Governor, forest land to be 
acquired, or the acceptance of gifts of land, to be: 

(a) Held and administered as: 

1. State forests Sec. 5 

2. Demonstrating the practical utility 

of timber culture Sec. 5 

(b) To recommend to the Governor for 
appointment as Deputy Forest Wardens: 

1. Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs Sec. 8 

2. Constables and marshals Sec. 8 

3. Farm demonstrators Sec. 8 

4. Other persons who may be willing 

TION. Sec. 8 

IX. To meet: 

(a) Semi-annually in Atlanta Sec. 2 

(b) At such other times and places as may be 
designated by the Governor Sec. 2 

X. To perform such other duties as may be imposed 
upon it by Law Sec. 3 

Thus the Forestry Act of 1925 sets forth in brief terms the 
comprehensive program for the restoration of Georgia's forest 
resources. The State has approximately 23,000,000 acres of forest 
land. Any land that will show greater profits to the owner from 
the growing of timber than from the raising of any other crop is 
forest land. 

Board Meetings 

The first meeting of the Board under the Administrative Act 
of 1925 was held in Atlanta September 25th, 1925. At this 
meeting the preliminary work of organizing, the election of an 
Executive Committee, authorizing them to complete the details 
of the organization and to recommend a State Forester, was taken 

The second meeting was held on October 15th, 1925, when the 
State Forester was elected and directed to organize the office of 
the State Board of Forestry and to proceed with the performance 
of other duties prescribed by law. The recommendation of the 
Executive Committee as to an organization chart, the appoint- 
ment of Deputy Forest Wardens, the design for the badge of the 
Department, and many other details were approved. 

Organization Chart 
State Board of Forestry 

State Forester 

Education and 


Nursery and 
of planting 





District Wardens 
Rangers or Foresters 

State Forests 

Lookout Rangers Local Wardens 

or and 

Patrolmen Fire Crews 

*The above either independently or in cooperation with Counties 
or private owners who would share part of cost. 


The third and fourth meetings were held in the office of the 
Secretary of State in Atlanta on May 25th, 1926, and November 
23rd, 1926, respectively. 

Investigative work, under the Law, is rightly placed as a 
primary duty of the Board. In specifying that this shall cover the 
preservation of the forests, the effect of the destruction of the 
forests upon the general welfare of the State, and all other matters 
pertaining to forestry and tree growth, the Legislature included 
the entire field of technical forest research, statistical compilations 
and economic investigations bearing upon wood-using and forest 
industries and the interest of both the producer and the consumer 
of forest products. 

Fact Finding Survey 

Before any definite forest policy could be inaugurated, it was 
necessary to secure definite information as to the real forest condi- 
tions in the State through a fact finding survey. 

This survey included THE 161 COUNTIES IN GEORGIA, 
TEE OR A MEMBER OF HIS STAFF, and the following data 
was gathered: 

I. Facts about: 

(a) Area of forest land in each county; 

(b) 1. Condition of forest land, 

2. Kind of forest land (virgin, culled, cut- 
over, idle) ; 

(c) The forest industries; 

(d) Cause of forest fires and the attitude of the 

local people; 

(e) Information on the number of fires and esti- 

mates of damage; 

(f) Forest activities under way; 

(g) Names of timberland owners interested; 

(h) Native trees and some information on rate of 

(i) Values. 

II. The work of the Forestry Department was explained 
to as many of the county officials, newspaper editors, 
timberland owners, lumbermen, naval stores opera- 
tors, or dealers in forest products, and citizens as 
could be interviewed during the time allotted to 
each county, on these first visits. 


III. Literature containing information on forest fire 
damage, methods of control, State cooperation with 
private owner, and general forest information was 
left in each county. 

IV. A number of addresses were made before civic or- 
ganizations, schools, clubs, and public gatherings. 

Georgia's Timber Production Reached Its Peak In 

1909, But The Consumption Continues 

To Increase 

The large increased production of 1924-25, due to heavy de- 
mand resulted in the cutting of smaller trees, and consequently 
poor quality of lumber of less value to both producer and con- 
sumer, making heavy inroads into the future supply. 

i i ir 

i I c 

' i ~r 


i i i: 

i i c 

' i 

M. FT. B.M 

i ii 

1 . I I 

i ii : 

l i i 

• ii ii 

' i i 

I 1 3 

i I 1 


76 18 00 


\ i 












M.FT. B.M. 

~~ l I 
r i 

1 ! 

'■ l 

'I ' 


Forests under adequate fire protection will produce 50% more 
timber of the better quality for this ever-increasing demand. 


Results of the Survey 

The above survey shows that: 

1. Georgia has 23,000,000 acres of forest land which 
represents 60.7-plus per cent of the entire area of 
the State, (land not needed for agricultural or other 
purposes, and better suited for growing a crop of 

2. 47 Counties in Georgia have 60% or more of their 
area in forest land; 20 counties have 80% or more in 
forest land; 9 counties have 90% or more in forest 
land The smallest per cent of any county in forest 
land is 12%. 

3. Less than 1,000,000 acres of virgin timber land are 
left in Georgia. 

4. Approximately 9,000,000 acres are supporting a 
second timber crop. 

5. More than 6,000,000 acres are idle and unproduc- 

6. In 1925 the production of 1,130 sawmills in Georgia 
was approximately 1,356,000,000 board feet of raw 
material, valued at $6,780,000, on the stump, with 
the finished product valued at $27,120,000. 

7. The present rate of consumption is more than 1,600,- 
000,000 board feet, the value of the finished prod- 
duct being around $32,000,000. 

8. Georgia is an import State, more than $5,000,000, 
going out of the State annually for forest products. 

9. The 23,000,000 acres of forest land in the State, 
properly managed and under adequate fire control, 
are capable of producing more than 7,000,000,000 
board feet annually, worth approximately $40,000,- 
000, on the stump (raw material). The finished 
product would be worth more than $140,000,000, 


10. Records show that there were 65 counties in Georgia 
producing naval stores in 1925, which included 581 
operators with an average of 354 barrels of turpen- 
tine per operator, a total of 6,185 crops worked (a 
crop is 2,000 boxes or cups). The turpentine indus- 
try furnished employment to 12,458 people. 

11. Approximately 15,000,000 acres of the forest area 
of the State is in the Pine Be!t. 

12. The income from Georgia's Naval Stores industry in 
1926 was more than $23,000,000. 

13. Under adequate fire protection and proper forest 
management the income from Naval stores should 
be at least three times the present amount. 

14. There is an enormous demand by the citizens of the 
State for specific information that is applicable to: 

(a) Individual forest problems; 

(b) Local forest conditions; 

(c) A specific forest region; 

(d) The State as a whole; 

(e) Particular forest industries; 

(f) Reforestation; 

(g) Marketing of forest products. 

15. There is a vital need for research work in: 

(a) The lumber industry; 

(b) Naval Stores industry; 

(c) Forest fire damage; 

(d) Fungi and insect damage. 


Land Classification Data — By Counties 

Total Area 
County of County 

Appling 290,560 

Atkinson 211,200 

Bacon 173,440 

Baker 228,480 

Baldwin 196,480 

Banks 142,080 

Barrow 107,520 

Bartow 301,440 

Ben Hill 163,840 

Berrien 320,000 

Bibb 177,280 

Bleckley : 131,200 

Brantley 280,537 

Brooks 328,960 

Bryan 275,840 

Bulloch 427,520 

Burke 611,840 

Butts 129,920 

Calhoun 181,760 

Camden - - 455,040 

Campbell 135,040 

Candler 145,920 

Carroll 314,880 

Catoosa 108,160 

Charlton 563,840 

Chatham 236,800 

Chattahoochee 139,520 

Chatooga 209,920 

Cherokee 274,560 

Clark 72,960 

Clay 129,920 

Clayton 90,880 

Clinch 576,000 

Cobb 225,920 

Coffee 404,480 

Colquitt 338,560 

Columbia 224,000 

Cook 154,240 

Coweta 283,520 

Crawford 204,160 

Crisp 177,280 

Dade 119,040 

Dawson 138,240 

Decatur 526,720 

DeKalb 174,080 

Dodge 275,840 

Dooly -.- 254,080 

Dougherty 218,880 

Douglas 133,120 

Early 335,360 

Echols 231,680 

Effingham 286,720 

Elbert 231,040 




Forest Land 

Forest Land 











































































































Total Area Potential Percent 

County of County Forest Land Forest Land 

Emanuel 488,960 

Evans .. 183,680 

Fannin 256,640 

Fayette 149,760 

Floyd 321,280 

Forsyth 158,080 

Franklin 178,560 

Fulton 118,400 

Gilmer 281,600 

Glascock 108,800 

Glynn 280,960 

Gordon 240,000 

Grady 284,160 

Greene 266,240 

Gwinnett 281,600 

Habersham H 185,600 

Hall 279,680 

Hancock 339,200 

Haralson 181,760 

Harris 320,640 

Hart 167,040 

Heard 182,400 

Henry 207,360 

Houston 374,400 

Irwin 241,920 

Jackson 227,200 

Jasper 20 5,440 

Jeff Davis 192,000 

Jefferson 413,440 

Jenkins 218,880 

Johnson __■ 186,880 

Jones 241,280 

Lanier 123,428 

Laurens 515,840 

Lee 208,640 

Liberty 599,040 

Lincoln 186,240 

Long 244,598 

Lowndes 304,640 

Lumpkin 179,200 

McDuffie 183,680 

Mcintosh 300,800 

Macon 236,160 

Madison 181,760 

Marion 230,400 

Merriwether 317,440 

Miller r 161,920 

Milton 92,800 

Mitchell 350,720 

Monroe 373,760 

Montgomery 121,600 

Morgan 249,600 

Murray 218,880 

Muscogee 150,400 

Newton 167,680 

Oconee 110,080 






































































































. 60,435 












Total Area Potential Percent 

County of County Forest Land Forest Land 

Oglethorpe 322,560 196,637 61 

Paulding 207,360 128,447 62 

Peach 95,651 12,340 12 

Pickens 147,840 110,114 74 

Pierce 330,880 276,566 83 

Pike 196,480 80,906 41 

Polk 202,880 118,160 58 

Pulaski 165,120 83,356 50 

Putnam 231,040 135,086 58 

Quitman 92,160 51,234 56 

Rabun 241,280 219,354 91 

Randolph 263,680 142,443 54 

Richmond 204,160 118,161 58 

Rockdale 76,160 30,122 40 

Schley 98,560 48,673 49 

Screven 508,160 353,551 . 70 

Seminole 160,214 54,833 34 

Spalding 133,760 51,105 38 

Stephenson 106,240 69,918 66 

Stewart 263,040 153,878 58 

Sumter 291,840 111,553 38 

Talbot 199,680 125,022 63 

Taliaferro 135,680 87,536 65 

Tattnall 298,240 221,013 74 

Taylor .: 217,600 130,633 60 

Telfair 238,720 149,278 63 

Terrell 206,080 82,652 41 

Thomas 339,200 209,570 62 

Tift 155,520 82,474 53 

Toombs , 251,520 178,620 71 

Towns 115,840 91,932 79 

Treutlen 167,680 113,073 67 

Troup 278,400 149,425 54 

Turner 147,840 71,052 48 

Twiggs 200,960 118,170 54 

Union 207,360 169,565 82 

Upson 202,880 124,263 61 

Walker 276,480 164,876 60 

Walton 211,840 87,475 41 

Ware 493,440 452,066 92 

Warren 258,560 183,483 71 

Washington 428,160 226,532 53 

Wayne 504,320 446,524 88 

Webster : 193,280 132,329 69 

Wheeler .... 168,960 100,674 60 

White 156,800 127,798 82 

Whitfield 181,120 99,982 55 

Wilcox 257,920 139,525 54 

Wilkes 293,120 150,493 51 

Wilkinson _ 302,080 206,776 68 

Worth .' I 416,640 245,145 59 

37,583,900 23,970,960 63,75 


Summary of the Responsibilities of the Board 

S ' : s Res qs or : 

I. Police powers sufficient to cooperate with the owners 
oi 2^,000.000 acres of forest land in Georgia that 
are in need of fire protection, or an adequate fire 
control system, to insure a second crop of timber 
without the expense of planting. 

II. Determining the effect that the destruction of the 
forest has on the general welfare of the State. 

III. Aiding, advising, assisting, cooperating with Georgia 
land owners in the cultivation and use of the third 
greatest natural resource of the State in such wavs as 
will conserve the present supply and insure a per- 
manent supply of timber. 

IV, Assisting the forest industries in the closer utiliza- 
tion of the timber supplv, determining improved 
methods of cutting, operating and marketing their 

V. Establishing practical demonstration areas as ex- 
amples of the proper methods of timber culture. 

VI. Collecting and putting in graphic form such forest 
facts as will bring about the proper appreciation in 
Georgia of the value of her forests and how they can 
be handled as a timber crop, so that the next genera- 
tion will not be found with a timber shortage. 

VII. Encouraging the use of Georgia products by Geor- 


The inauguration of a State Forestry Department is distinctly 

a problem of administration. This problem involves : 

I. The establishment of the office, with the necessary 
administrative, technical and clerical personnel, and 
securing a permanent office with technical and field 

II. Formulating a definite work plan which wou!d be a 
safeguard against over-organization and an assur- 
ance that the projects undertaken were necessary to 
the proper development of Georgia's timber crop; 

III. Undertaking the work in such a way as to insure effi- 
ciency, accuracy and economy in the expenditure of 
both effort and funds. The work of the Board, 
however, must lead the way in Forestry. 

The administrative duties have received most careful study and 
consideration. The activities undertaken by the Board are of 
invaluable assistance to the State. The policy of laying a broad 
and sure foundation has been followed from the beginning. Pro- 
jects have been initiated in those localities where the people were 
ready for them, and yet the entire Svate is being given the facts 
and information necessary to develop the proper knowledge and 
interest in the growing of a crop of timber. 

The office of the State Board of Forestry was opened in the 
Chamber of Commerce Building, as the guest of the Georgia 
Forestry Association, because of the congested condition at the 
Capitol, but in May 1926, the Board moved to Eoom 334 in the 

The personnel of the Department consists of the State Forester, 
the Director of Management, the Director of Education, and a 
Secretary. The Director of Education is serving without com- 
pensation from the Sta.e. 






At the last meeting of the Board in 1926 it was decided to 
begin definite work in Forestry Education. The need of more 
accurate knowledge of the many phases of this subject and the 
simple requirements for beginners is essential to a forest policy 
in Georgia. The original Organization Chart of the Board pro- 
vided for this, so now that results were being secured in the work 
of Protection and Management, the Board made an allotment for 
educational work. Many other States have not only made their 
beginnings in forestry with purely educational methods, but some 
of the States continue to concentrate their efforts in this one 
field. The State of Mississippi recently enacted a forestry law 
under which the work is almost wholly devoted to education in 
forestry; and Federal Funds, as well as State Appropriations, are 
thus wisely applied in that State for a Forest Policy. 

Results are the aim of all business policies, although methods 
may vary. In Georgia, the present generation of timberland 
owners are receiving first aid in forestry, and the work of pro- 
tection and management will continue to be developed as rapidly 
as funds and expediency will permit. In the meantime, the 
Director of Education has begun work for the future generation 
of Georgia timberland owners now in the public schools of the 
State. Realizing that this foundation work for permanent results 
in timber production and perpetuation should not be longer de- 
layed, the Board approved an educational program for the boys 
and girls in High Schools and Grammar Grades which will give 
these future citizens a working knowledge of forestry by the time 
they must meet the problems of community builders and home 

In order that this work could make progress simultaneously 
with the first aid and relief of our present timber situation and 
not hinder the gratifying results in cooperative protection and 
management, the Director of Education is serving without com- 
pensation from the State and the Board has welcomed the aid of 
civic organizations thru this channel. A plan of introducing 
forestry studies in the public schools without overloading the 
present curricula with new text books is being worked out co- 
operatively with the State Superintendent of Schools. The com- 
plete project will correlate forestry with lessons in' history, english, 
arithmetic, etc., and finally the field work will require specially 
trained instructors in forestry to attend teachers' institutes and 
visit schools for demonstrational help. Illustrated lectures, 
motion pictures, colored charts, maps and other equipment will be 
supplied as the work develops. The Georgia Forestry Association 


is continuing its cooperation to the limit of its capacity. The 
Parent-Teacher Association and other organizations are inter- 
ested and some of their representatives are now actively sharing 
some of the responsibilities of this educational work in forestry. 
The Board has approved a prize essay contest now being con- 
ducted by the Georgia Forestry Association, and by the middle of 
April 1927, 5,000 Forestry Primers will have been distributed to 
Georgia school teachers for use in this contest. The Primers were 
furnished free by the American Tree Association and 10,000 addi- 
tional copies will be distributed for this purpose. 

The Board feels that the opening of this channel for private 
cooperation in educational work will undoubtedly help bring many 
consumers of wood to realize that forestry is everybody's problem. 
At the same time, the concentration of State and Federal funds 
available for forestry in Georgia may be more largely continued 
for immediate needs in proper protection and management of 
timbered areas and for the earliest possible rehabilitation of cut- 
over lands and waste areas. 


Georgia's Fire Control Plan 1926-1927 


State Board of Forestry- 

State Forester 

Assistant State Forester in Charge of Protection 

Timber Protective Organizations 


Individual Land Owners 

County Protective 

Deputy Forest 

Key Men 

Key Men 

Forest Wardens 

Fire Bosses 





Prevent forest fires here, and 

Prolong this industry (miles away) 

Forest Fire Prevention 

The Board recognizes the fact that forest fire is the greatest of 
all enemies to tree growth. The Legislature made this plain in 
the Law of 1925, and as an activity of the Board, Fire Prevention 
ranks first. 

The facts about Georgia's forest fire condition were indefinite 
and incomplete. Many citizens of the State were interested and 
had made close observations. The estimates (based on such obser- 
vations) of forest area burned over varied from 25% to 95%, 
depending upon the locality, and whether the weather conditions 
were favorable or unfavorable to forest fires during the season of 
high danger. Many forest fires were never reported, nor was any 
effort made to suppress them. 

The need for organization, or group effort on the part of all 
land owners and citizens, with systematic fire prevention as well as 
fire suppression methods, was most obvious. The Law makes it the 
duty of the Board to provide "such fire control, either independ- 
ently, or in cooperation with the Federal Government." Pursuant 
to this mandate of the Law, the survey as outlined on Pages 11 to 
14 of this report was made. From the information gathered, 
although very incomplete in detail, a definite idea that the para- 
mount need of the State at this time was a definite fire control 
policy, either independently or in cooperation with counties and 
private owners, or jointly with the Federal Government in co- 
operation with the counties and private owners. 

Conditions necessitated a very broad policy as the foundation 
on which to build for the future, and as the facts became known, 
they, together with the experiences of other States under very 
similar conditions to those in Georgia, were used as a guide or basi., 
for formulating the present fire control policy. 

With the small amount of State funds available for the work, 
independent cooperation with the private owners was out of the 
question, but through the Federal Law, known as the Clarke- 
McNary Law, and Section 3, Paragraph 4, of the Forestry Act of 
1925 of the Georgia Law, a cooperative agreement between the 
Georgia Forestry Department and the United States Department 
of Agriculture, Forest Service, was entered into on October 25th, 
1925, and a limited amount of Federal Funds made available for 
cooperation with private owners. 

The National policy in forest fire cooperation recognized the 
Federal Financial responsibility as 25% of the cost of protection. 
The Board recognized 25% as the State's proportionate share in 


the cost of protection, with the remaining 50% to be borne by the 
owner. This places the major portion of the burden of protection 
on the owner, who receives the greatest direct benefit or returns 
from the investment. But, forest fire control is of vital concern 
to both the State and the Nation, and is recognized by the people 
as a direct public responsibility. 

Georgia's 23,000,000 acres of potential forest land, if protected 
from fire and handled under forest management, are capable 
of maintaining an industry that should contribute at least $75,- 
000,000. annually to the wealth of the State. Probably 90% of 
this forest area will reforest itself, if fires are kept out, and the 
rate of growth will more than double that of the annually burned 

With these principles clearly in mind, the Board's cooperative 
fire control policy includes both large and small owners and offers : 

I. The service of the Chief of Protection in: 

(a) Fire prevention work; 

(b) A fire protection system, including both patrol 
and lookout systems; 

(c) A reporting system, including methods and 

(d) Method of transportation to fires; 

(e) Necessary tools and equipment; 

(f) System of fire lines — how, what and where to 
construct them; 

(g) Training men in fire suppression work, such as 
organizing crews, handling crews on fire, the 
best method or way to attack, completing a job 
or being sure the fire is out before leaving. 

II. The refund of from 25% to 40% of all money spent 
in fire prevention work, up to and including 10c per 
acre per annum, where there is a cooperative agree- 
ment between the organized owners and the State 
Board of Forestry. 

III. The expert advice, aid and assistance of forest officers 
trained in this line of work. 


Cooperative Protection 

It would be impossible for the man in the city to protect his 
home but for cooperative effort. Every individual in the city 
detects and reports fires to the Fire Department, and this coordi- 
nation of individual and collective effort gives him protection. 

The timberland owner has greater obstacles to overcome. He 
has not the authority to enforce the law, or to secure aid in pre- 
venting and suppressing forest fires, and the cost of protection on 
a small area is relatively high. However, the organized effort of 
a group of timberland owners in close cooperation with the State 
offers the most economical and practical method of forest fire pro- 
tection. The technical work and necessary supervision can be 
given by the State. The estimated average cost of cooperative fire 
protection is 2 l-4c per acre per annum, or less than 7-10 of 1% 
of the income from Georgia's forest land. The individual effort 
would cost at least four times as much as the cooperative work. 

Timber Protective Organization 

There are fourteen Timber Protective Organizations in Georgia. 

Any organized group of timberland owners representing 10,000 
acres or more is called a Timber Protective Organization, and is 
eligible for State financial aid. The officers of the organization 
are a President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer, .who 
serve without compensation and are elected by the members. The 
cooperative agreement is between the organization and the State 
Board of Forestry. 

The members of the Timber Protective Organizations pay 
forest fire insurance at the rate of 2 l-2c to 3c per acre per 
annum. This fund pays the salaries of the patrolmen, whose 
specific duty it is to : 

1. Prevent forest fires from starting on the organized 
area; ■ 

2. Suppress those fires which do start; 

3. Build up the fire department through personal con- 
tact, teaching and awakening the interest of the peo- 
ple living in or around the organized area. 

Every land owner is eligible for membership in the organization. 
Each member receives the same degree of protection in propor- 
tion to his participation, e. g., those who pay the per acre assess- 


ment receive patrol only, whereas, those who go still further and 
construct fire lines, telephone lines, purchase fire fighting equip- 
ment, etc., are allowed to match these expenditures through the 
Timber Protective Organization against State and Federal funds. 

The records and books of the Timber Protective Organizations 
are kept by the Secretary and Treasurer and are open for audit 
by both State and Federal officers. 

The field work, etc. receives the supervision, advice and assist- 
ance of the State Forester and his staff. 

So many owners want to cooperate with the State in protecting 
their forest lands, and some are spending as much as 35c per 
acre, that it necessitated the State Board fixing 10c per acre per 
annum as the maximum amount on which the Department would 
allow a refund. This amount is higher than was recommended in 
the beginning and can be materially reduced by efficient organiza- 

Bulletin No. 1, which is for free distribution, explains in detail 
how the organization is perfected and operated. 

There are 14 Timber Protective Organizations under cooper- 
ative agreement with the State Board of Forestry, covering 1,- 
355,270 acres. These organizations employ a total of 33 patrolmen 
for periods varying from four to twelve months in each year, and 
have constructed approximately 2,300 miles of fire line. Some 
organizations have purchased fire fighting tools and equipment and 
some have budgeted funds for the purchase of five steel lookout 
towers varying from 85 to 110 feet in height. 

County Plan 

Under the County Plan, cooperation is offered to the 42 counties 
in Georgia having county police organizations. Eleven of these 
counties, with a total forest area of 1,593,000 aqres, have had their 
county police appointed as deputy forest wardens, and in this 
way have an active law-enforcing organization. The wardens thus 
appointed are instructed to carry on both fire prevention and sup- 
pression work. 

This gives us a total of 2,958,207 acres of forest land under 
organized fire protection in Georgia, which represents 12 3-4% 
of the entire forest area and this has been accomplished in less than 
eleven months time since cooperation was made available under 
the Forestry Act of 1925. 


Deputy Forest Wardens 

Section 8 of the Administrative Act further authorizes the ap- 
pointment by the Governor of Deputy Forest Wardens, TO 

There are 196 men in Georgia who have received a commission 
from the Governor and a badge from the Department which gives 
them authority to make arrests for infraction of the Forest Fire 
Law. Many of these are patrolmen employed by the Timber Pro- 
tective Organizations, while a large number are prominent men 
vitally interested in forestry and are serving as a patriotic duty 
to Georgia. 

Summary of Protection Work 

I. Every County visited by the State Forester, or a mem- 
ber of his staff. 

II. 2,958,207 Acres, or 12 3-4% of the forest area of the 
State under fire control system in 11 months time. 

III. 196 Deputy Forest Wardens, SERVING GEORGIA 

IV. A definite fire control policy inaugurated. 

V. Eleven counties with law enforcement organizations, 
without any additional expense to the County or to 
the State. 



Unprotected and unproductive 

Protected and productive 


Fire Statistics 

Fire statistics in the past have been conservative, though in- 
complete. It is difficult to gather accurate information of this 
character without a protective organization. Estimates either of 
area burned or amount of damage by the untrained or inexper- 
ienced are subject to correction. In the same way, many fires are 
not reported. 

The drought of 1925 was the most serious in years. The forest 
fires which followed took an enormous toll. Only the actual 
damage could be estimated. Fire reports for 1925 were incomplete 
and exceedingly conservative. Many localities failed to report 
at all. 

The reports of 1926 from the protected areas are accurate and 
complete, but from the unorganized area, the data is still in- 
complete. The figures used are most conservative. 

In the summer and fall of 1926 the drought, which extended 
over middle and south (Georgia, resulted in a larger acreage 
burned in this (region than in 1925. 

The best information available for the unprotected areas and 
the investigations of the Board show the following data for the 
past two years : 

Area Burned Actual Damage 

2,200,000 acres #5,101,058 

1,896,637 acres 3,406,476 

The figures given in the damage column above cover direct losses 
only. The indirect damage, which cannot be measured by the 
dollar mark, are not included. These include young growth, fish 
and game, fertilizing values, erosion, influence on stream flow, 
recreational values, etc. 



of Fires 






Area Burned By Classes 


Total area protected 
by Timber Protective 
Organization in co- 
operation with Svate 


Dec. 31, '26 

. — 







. acres 

Forest Land 


Unprotected or 





NOTE: Entire forest area not included in reports. 



The Board is directed in the third paragraph, Section 3, of the 
Forestry Act to advise and cooperate with land owners and forest 
users. To facilitate carrying out this provision an application 
form has been prepared and distributed. Many applications have 
been received and responded to. These applications indicate that 
land owners are coming to understand the value of systematic 
management and also the value of technical assistance in formu- 
lating a system of management. The advantages of this form of 
assistance over general advice by publications are apparent; the 
advice is based on a study of the land and the local conditions, and 
the system of management recommended can be adapted to the 
local requirements. In this connection, attention is called to the 
nature of land ownership in Georgia. With the exception of the 
National Forests, a few acres that have been given to the State, 
and a few tracts owned by institutions, the forest lands of Georgia 
are in private ownership. They are owned by lumber and turpen- 
tine interests, mining interests, and farmers. 

The future timber and naval stores supply of the State depends 
on the extent to which these private owners put the principles of 
forestry into practise on their lands, as well as on the attitude of 
the State as expressed in its forest fire control policy. Realizing 
the importance of encouraging private owners to put their lands 
under systematic management, the offer of assistance has been ex- 
tended to all classes of owners. 

The Board has adopted the policy of requiring applicants to 
provide the travelling expenses incident to making the study and 
report that their applications call for, but makes no charge for 
the time of the forester while making the examination and pre- 
paring the report. It is felt that the small amount paid by the 
owner is an earnest of his purpose to put into operation the advice 

In addition to the individual advice referred to above, several 
projects have been undertaken for the assistance of forest owners. 

A leaflet on the loblolly pine, based on original investigation 
in this State, has been printed and placed in the hands of many 
owners in the range of the loblolly pine. The manuscripts for 
similar leaflets on the shortleaf, slash, longleaf and white pines 
are under preparation and will be issued as soon as the necessary 
field work can be completed. 

Before the creation of this Board, the present Director of 
Forest Management began an experiment to determine the response 
of young stands of second growth loblolly pine to thinning. The 


















































































Board has taken over this experiment, the Director of Manage- 
ment has re-measured the plots, repeated the thinning, and is 
preparing a progress bulletin for publication. This publication 
will place at the disposal of Georgia land owners information 
based on actual trial extending over' a period of fifteen years. This 
trial shows that, the removal of 23% to 27% of the medium and 
smaller trees from a young stand, or 15% to 18% of the volume of 
the stand, has resulted in thriftier height growth, larger diameters, 
a volume increase of 22% over the un thinned check plots, and 
a reduction of the fire risk. There was also an improvement in 
the quality of the timber, due to the elimination of limby and 
crooked trees. 

Some preliminary work has been done in thinning slash pine 
thickets to develop the trees for turpentining. It is known that 
crowding during the younger stages reduces the value of slash pine 
as a turpentine producer; but the cost of thinning and the response 
of the trees will have to be determined by experiment. The pre- 
liminary work indicates that thickets of slash pine can be thinned 
when from 5 to 15 years old at an outlay of $1.50 or less per acre. 

Attention is called to the importance of such work as the experi- 
ments in thinning loblolly and slash pine. Many owners hesitate 
about embarking on a program of forestry because exact, depend- 
able information is not available, and they haven't the time 
and technical training to get such information by private experi- 

The Board, acting under authority given in the third paragraph 
of the Forestry Act referred to above, is rendering a service to 
land owners by undertaking such experimentation. The value of 
such work will increase as time goes on and its findings are applied 
on a large scale. For example, the experiment in thinning lob- 
lolly pine shows that poles, firewood and pulpwood may in like 
condition be cut from young stands, and after producing these 
supplies the stands are in better shape to produce sawlogs later 
on, provided the cutting is done in accordance with the principles 
of forestry ; and the application of this knowledge on a large scale 
will save the needless drain made by the production of poles, fire- 
wood and pulpwood, and even convert the drain into an increase. 


State Forests 

Section 5 of the Forestry Act of 1925 authorizes the Governor, 
upon recommendation of the Board, to acquire land by purchase, 
and to accept gifts of land to the State, the same to be administer- 
ed by the Board as State Forests. 

Offers to donate land to the State as State Forests for practical 
demonstrational areas necessitated early action on this phase of 
the work of the Board, and a State Forest Policy. It was evident 

(a) A few acres scattered over the 161 counties of 
the State would necessitate prohibitive adminis- 
tration costs; 

(b) Any tract of land must be of value as a practi- 
cal demonstrational area and of sufficient size 
to form a workable unit and be accessible to 
the public; 

(c) The possibilities of the future purchase of 
additional acreage at a reasonable cost must be 
unusually good; 

(d) There is need of a demonstrational area in 
each forest region of the State; 

(e) These areas should provide a practical demon- 
stration of each phase of the many and varied 
forest activities. 

VWel State Forest Park 


In carrying out or applying the above fundamental principles, 
only one of three offers has been accepted to date. This offer by 
Pfister & Vogel Land Company, a Georgia Corporation with head- 
quarters at Blairsville, Ga., owning some 65,000 acres in North 
Georgia and who have been practising forestry on this area for 
fifteen years, is located on the Appalachian Scenic Highway at and 
near Neel's Gap in Union County. The deed, which has been 
accepted by the Governor, and title approved by the Attorney 
General's office, has been prepared and recorded. It conveys a 
total of 16 acres to be administered as a State Forest. 

This gift includes Neel's Gap, the highest point reached by a 
hard surfaced road in Georgia, and offers scenic views unequalled 
east of the Rocky Mountains. 



Forest research is another distinctive service which the Depart- 
ment can render. The great need of forest research work is felt, 
not only in Georgia, hut throughout the entire United States. A 
few of the important projects are : 

(a) Studies of fire damage in each of the eight 
forested regions of the State; 

(b) Rate of growth — by species and region; 

(c) Thinnings— how, when, cost and profit; 

(d) Volume and yield tables; 

(e) Fungi and insect control measures; 

(f) The effect of annual burning on the spread of 
fungi and insects; 

(g) Timber supply and improved methods of 
operation and utilization; 

(h) Naval Stores industry; 

1. Methods of chipping; 

2. Depth and width of face; 

3. Maximum production per acre from a 
given stand; 

4. Utilization of products, especially rosin 
and its unknown values; 

(i) Land classification survey, so that every acre 
will produce the crop most profitable to the owner. 

Before any of these projects can be undertaken by the Board, 
a most carefully considered and feasible plan must be worked out 
and necessary provision made so that the results will fill the most 
pressing need at that time. 



B. M. Lufburrow, State Forester 
Forest Type Map of Georgia, Showing Boundaries of Forest Regions 

| Appalachian, Limestone belt, 
[ Shortleaf pine type. 

Upper Coastal Plain, 
Longleaf — loblolly pine 

Blue Ridge Mountains, 
Hardwood pine type 

ED £ 

iddle Coastal Plain, 

Longleaf pine 

- " " I Ijongleaf — flash pine 

Tidal Marsh, 
_| No tree growth 

Regional Map 

The regional map is based on the soil survey map of Hugh H. 
Bennett; although the various forest regions, as shown by the map, 
may not conform to the exact boundary lines, still, the typical 
region or forest type does lie within these lines. 

A glance at this map shows that Georgia offers a wonderful op- 
portunity as a timber producer because of the many forest types 
which afford a wide range in the number of species, the fast grow- 
ing varieties, together with the long growing season, and the 
soil and climatic conditions most favorable to tree growth. 


Native Trees 

The forest flora of Georgia is rich. The wide difference be- 
tween the climate of the lowlands in the southern part of the State 
and of the highlands in the northern part, brings into the short 
compass of 320 miles most of the trees found from northern 
Florida to southern Pennsylvania. This great variety in tree 
growth, while enriching the timber resources of the State, com- 
plicates our problems of silviculture, management and marketing. 
Believing that the forestal practise of the State should rest on a 
full knowledge of the trees and their distribution, a compilation 
of the available information will be made, and this will be extended 
as rapidly as new information is obtained. Our work along this 
line has been facilitated by the work done by the Geological Survey 
in former years. The Geological Survey realized the importance 
of the State's forest resources years ago, and made an excellent 
collection of wood specimens which is on display in the Capitol 
where it is seen by hundreds of visitors during the course of a 
year. The informational value of this collection was enhanced 
by the distribution of maps made by Dr. Roland M. Harper. The 
collection would be still more interesting if specimens of the 
leaves, flowers and fruits accompanied the specimens of wood. 

The Director of Management has offered to donate his private 
collection of mounted specimens, and we are considering a way to 
place these on exhibition along with the specimens of wood. 

To convey an idea of the richness of the forest flora of Georgia, 
a list of trees found in the State is given below. The trees that 
are considered to be of importance are printed in heavy type, and 
those represented in the collection are marked with an asterisk. 
In deciding what trees are important, two things were taken into 
consideration, the technical value of the wood and the abundance. 

For example, white pine, although it is not abundant, has high 
technical value, and the scrub pine, although it is a poor timber 
tree, was included on account of its wider range and growing use 
as pulpwood. It will be observed that there are 163 species on the 
whole list and that 53 of them are regarded as important. 

There is no State except Florida that has so large a number of 
species, and no State in the Union has so many that may be re- 
garded as important timber trees. 

In preparing the list, the nomenclature of Sudworth'e Check 
List of 1898 was followed except in the case of the basswoods, which 
are given as in the 1926 edition of Sargent's Manual, and the alder 
which is given as in Gray's Manual. 


Trees Found In Georgia 


Pitch pine, Pinus rigida 


Pond pine, Pinus serotina* 


Spruce pine, Pinus glabra* 

Table Mountain pine, Pinus pungens* 


Carolina hemlock, Tsuga caroliniana* 


White cedar, Chamaecypai-is thyoides 


Torreya, Tumion taxifolium 

Cabbage palmetto, Sabal palmetto* 

Aloe-leaf yucca, Yucca aloifolia 

Butternut, Juglans cinerea 



Water hickery, Hicoria aquatica* 




Pale-leaf hickory, Hicoria villosa 

Max myrtle, Myrica cerifera 

Corkwood, Leitneria floridana 


Largetooth aspen, Pupulus grandidentata 




Yellow birch, Betula I idea* 

Sweet birch, Betula lenta* 

Alder, Alnus rugosa* 

Hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana* 

Blue beech, Carpinus caroliniana* 


Chinquapin, Castanea pumila* 







Swamp white oak, Quercus plantanoides* 

Myrtle oak, Quercus myrtifolia 




Turkey Oak, Quercus catesbaei* 


Georgia oak, Quercus georgiana* 

Blackjack oak, Quercus marilandia* 


Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia* 

Blue-jack oak, Quercus brevifolia* 

Shingle oak, Quercus imbricaria* 


Red elm, Ulmus serotina 

Slippery elm, Ulmus pubescens* 

White elm, Ulmus americana* 


Planertree, Planera aquatica* 

Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis* 

Sugarberry, Celtis mississippiensis* 


Osage orange, Toxylon pomiferum 


Sweet magnolia, Magnolia glauca* 

Cucumber-tree, Magnolia acuminata* 

Largeleaf umbrella, Magnolia macrophylla* 

Fraser umbrella, Magnolia, Magnolia fraseri* 


Papaw, Asimina triloba* 

Red bay, Persea borbonia 

Swamp bay, Persea pubescens* 


Witch hazel, Hamamelis virginiana 



Sweet crab, Pyrus coronaria 

Narrowleaf crab, Pyrus augustifolia* 

Serviceberry, Amelanchier canadensis* 

Cock spur, Crataegus crus-galli* 

Scarlet Haw, Crataegus coccinea 

Pear haw, Crataegus tomentosa 

Dotted haw, Crataegus punctata 


Green haw, Crataegus viridis* 

Summer haw, Crataegus aestivalis* 

Parsley haw, Crataegus apiifolia* 

Wild plum, Primus americana* 

Chickasaw plum, Prunus agustifolia 

Black sloe, Prunus umbellata* 

Choke cherry, Prunus virginiana 


Laurel Cherry, Prunus caroliniana 

Chalky leucaena (Mimosa)* Leucaena pulverulenta 

Redbud, Cercis canadensis* 


Water locust, Gleditsia aquatica* 

Yellowwood, Cladrastis lutea* 


Clammy locust,, Robinia viscosa* 

Prickly ash, Xanthoxylum Clava-herculis* 

Hoptree, Ptelea trifoliata* 

Loblolly bay, Gordonia lasianthus* 

Smooth sumach, Rhus glabi*a* 

Staghorn sumach, Rhus hirta 

Dwarf sumach, Rhus copallina* 

Poison sumach, Rhus vernix 

Ironwood, Cyrilla racemiflom 

Titi, Cliftonia MonopJiylla* 


Dahoon, Ilex cassine 

Yaupon, Ilex vomitoria 

Deciduous holly, Ilex decidua* - 

Waahoo, Evonymus atropurpureus 

Sugar maple, Acer saccharum* 



Boxelder, Acer negundo* 

Buckeye, Aesculus glabra 

Yellow buckeye, Aesculus octandra* 

Wild china, Sapindus marginatus 

Yellow buckthorn, Rhamnus caroliniana 


Tilia littoralis 



Tilia georgiana* 
Angelica-tree, Aralia spinosa* 
Blue dogwood, Cornus altei*nifolia* 


Blackgum, Nyssa sylvatica* 

Sour tupelo, Nyssa ogeche* 

Cotton gum, Nyssa aquatica 

Tree huckleberry, vacoinium arboreum* 

Andromeda, Andromeda ferruginea 

Sourwood, Oxydendrum arboreum* 

Mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia* 

Rhododendron, Rhododendron maximum 

Catawba rhododendron, Rhododendron catawbiense 

Tough bumelia, Bumelia tenax 

Shittimwood, Bumelia lanuginosa* 

Buckthorn bumelia, Bumelia lycioides* 


Sweetleaf, Symplocos tinctoria 

Silverbell-tree, Mohrodendron carolinum* 

Snowdrop-tree, Mohrodendron dipterum 




Water ash, Fraxinus caroliniana* 

Fringetree, Chionanthus virginica 

Devilwood, Osmaniluis americanus 

Catalpa, Catalpa catalpa* 

Fever tree, Pinckneya pub ens* 

Sheepberry, Viburnum lentago* 

Nannyberry, Viburnum prunifolium 

Rusty Nannyberry, Viburnum rufotomentosum* 


Financial Report 

Georgia State Board of Forestry 

In account with Atlanta & Lowry National Bank. 
FOR 1925, from Oct. 15th to Dec. 31st, inclusive: 


From State $1,825.00 

From Fed. Gov. _ None $1,825.00 


Salaries $ 1 ,058.96 

Supplies __. 28.00 

Printing 54.44 

Office expense 159.75 1,301.15 

Bal. on hand Dec. 31st, 1925, (State funds) $ 523.85 

FOR 1926 


From State $13,402.42 

From Fed. Gov. 4,185.15 

Bal. from 1925 523.85 $18,111.42 


Salaries $ 8,630.77 

Supplies 1,733.59 

Printing _, 1,522.77 

Office expense 3,239.15 

Refunds to Timber Protective Organiza- 
tions 429.74 $15,556.02 

Bal. on hand Dec. 31st, 1926, (Fed. funds) $ 2,555.40 

The Board has strictly adhered to its policy of economy and 

efficiency in the use of funds. The citizens and the commonwealth 
have materially benefited from the appropriation allotted to 
forestry work in Georgia. 

4 IV 


The magnitude of the work of this Department may be indicated 
by the fact that our conservative estimate for adequate fire protec- 
tion ultimately will be approximately $450,000, or 2 l-4c per acre 
on 23,000,000 acres of forest land in Georgia. 

The Forestry Board is not seeking an increase of present appro- 
priations at this time, however, for the Board realizes that the 
better plan of constructive policies based on a firm foundation can 
and should be developed gradually for highest efficiency and best 
results. The Board needs more funds immediately, but Georgia's 
program of forest protection and management is now designed to 
accomplish the desired results through coordinated efforts of 
private owners, the State and Federal aid which will bring perman- 
ent forest development. By taking a little longer time, Georgia can 
build slowly but surely. The Board does submit for the considera- 
tion of the General Assembly at this time a "Forestry Contract 
Act", which would begin producing revenue within five years from 
such private cut over forest lands as may be placed under coopera- 
tive agreements with the State, when tax values are standardized, 
over a period sufficient for maturing new crops of timber. If the 
General Assembly in its wisdom sees fit to enact this legislation into 
law, as a companion measure with our present Administrative Act, 
the Forestry Board feels sure that the forestry work of Georgia will 
ultimately be self-supporting and this economic problem will be 
finally solve^ through perpetuation and proper use of forest re- 


The deformity of this tree is due to thoughtlessness — cut with an axe 
when a sapling, by a careless hand. 


: ; 

Lmw copf 


OF THE Q l £ 

State Board of Forestry 

FOREST S£ • „- 

TO THE t^^^^'ll ■ 

Governor and General 






State Forester 



State Forester 


State Forestry Board 


State of Georgia 



State Forester 

Georgia State 
Board of Forestry 


HON. L. G. HARDMAN, Governor, 

Hon. George H. Carswell, Sec. of State 

HON. S. W. McCallie. State Geologist 

HON. J. PHIL CAMPBELL. Director of Extension, 
State College of Agriculture 


Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton 

J. Leonard Rountree, Summit 

C. B. Harman, Atlanta 

Bonnell H. Stone, Blairsville 

Alex K. Sessoms, Cogdell 

B. M. LUFBURROW, Secretary and State Forester 

Georgia Forest Service 5 



Members of the State Board of Forestry: 


I herewith submit report covering activities of the Georgia 
Forest Service for the period of 1927 and 1928. 

The two years of activity since the last biennial report have 
progressed favorably. The staff has been enlarged and the 
various lines of work outlined by your board at the beginning 
are now being carried on. 

Fire protection, one of the major projects, has progressed 
to the point where 996,790 acres are now under the intensive 
fire protection of the Timber Protective Organizations. Indi- 
vidual landowners in a number of places are also practicing 
improved methods of fire control under the advice and direc- 
tion of the staff. Besides, there is a widespread awakening 
among farmers to the importance of fire control as the result 
of various forms of educational work. In a word, there is a 
general improvement in the attitude of the public toward forest 
protection which it is believed will soon produce very notice- 
able results. 

The Georgia Forest Service has been able to prosecute its 
educational work on a more intensive and extensive basis which 
has met splendid cooperation on the part of the press, the schools 
and various civic organizations. Among the activities of the 
Educational Department may be mentioned the cooperation of 
150 agricultural high schools which are introducing forestry 
in their courses of study and are to have school demonstra- 
tion forests. This is the first project of the sort started by any 
state in the Union. 

Another achievement, the first of its kind, is the State 
Forest Fair which has met with signal success. 

6 Second Biennial Report 

State forest-parks are meeting favor and it is expected that 
the two now existing will be increased in number through pri- 
vate donations in the near future. 

The leaflets and bulletins issued during the past two years 
have sought to deal in a practical way with important prob- 
lems. The demand for these publications indicate that they 
have supplied a need. 

The Georgia system of administration, designed to give 
direct service at the lowest possible cost, is meeting expectations. 
Placing responsibility and local supervision on Timber Protect- 
ive Organizations supervised by the trained force of assistant 
state foresters and district foresters located over the state at 
advantageous points, is securing results at comparatively small 

In carrying out its program great help is being obtained from 
the Georgia Forestry Association and it is with pleasure that this 
recognition of assistance is here recorded. 

A cooperative enterprise known as the Southern Educa- 
tion Project which is employing forestry moving pictures with 
success, is participated in by the American Forestry Association, 
the Georgia Forestry Association, the Georgia State College of 
Agriculture and the Georgia Forest Service. Cordial relations 
are also being maintained with the American Tree Association, 
Southern Forestry Congress and various state organizations. 

I wish to express my appreciation to the members of the 
State Board of Forestry for their very active and intelligent in- 
terest in the work of this department. 



State Forester. 

Georgia Forest Service 7 


Board of Forestry, State of Georgia 



The First Biennial Report to the General Assembly of 1927 
gave a survey of the work of the State Board of Forestry up to 
and including December 31, 1926. This the Second Biennial 
Report, deals with work done for the past two years and out- 
lines the scope of the future work necessary to develop the forest 
resources of Georgia. 

Responsibility has been definitely placed upon the Georgia 
State Board of Forestry to direct the activities of the Georgia 
Forest Service so as to secure results beneficial to the owners 
of Georgia's 23,725,000 acres of forest land. A fact finding 
survey has been made in a more detailed way than was pre- 
viously undertaken, which has enabled the Board to direct the 
work with a better knowledge of the real needs of the State. 


The Georgia State Board of Forestry is composed of nine 
members, four of whom are ex-officio and five appointed. The 
Governor is ex-officio Chairman and President. The appointed 
members are chosen because of their knowledge of the needs of 
Forestry and their intense interest in the proper development 
of Georgia's great forest resources. The ex-officio members 
not only have the knowledge and interest, but are familiar with 
the procedure in carrying on the State's business. Therefore, 
this Board is quite capable of directing the work. 

The members of the Board serve without compensation from 
the State, deeming it a patriotic duty and an honor to render 


Second Biennial Report 

this service to Georgia. They are reimbursed for their expenses 
while engaged in the performance of their duties as members 
of this Board. The records show that it cost the State an 
average of only $205.32 per year for traveling expenses of all 
Board members since 1925, during which period they have set 
up and directed the work under the Forestry Administrative 
Act of 1925. The same amount of business transacted by the 
directors of a bank or private corporation would cost many times 
that sum. 

-#* i 



Proposed Legion Memorial Tower to honor Georgia soldiers who lost their lives in the 
World War — to he erected on Blood Mountain near Vogel Forest-Park, and serve as 

a lookout for forest fire control. 

Georgia Forest Service 9 

Activities since the 1926 report have been extended as funds 
have permitted. Additional projects have been launched, and 
the scope of the work now includes all projects set up in the 
organization plan adopted at the first board meeting. 

The personnel of the department consists of the State For- 
ester, the Director of Education and Utilization, two Assistant 
State Foresters, two District Foresters, a Secretary, and Assistant 
Superintendent of Forest-Parks. Headquarters for Assistant 
State Foresters are located at Albany and Gainesville, the Dis- 
trict Foresters at Waycross and Rome. 

The purpose of this form of organization is to render the 
most direct, efficient and economical service to the land owners. 
By reason of being located at strategic points over the State, the 
Assistant State Foresters and District Foresters arc enabled to 
keep in close touch with land owners and cooperators. Trans- 
portation costs and travel time are thereby reduced to a mini- 

On the left, a fire observation tower on the top of Ware Hotel at Waycross. On the 
right, a typical fire tower in the pine region of South Georgia, 100 feet high. 


Second Biennial Report 

mum. Overhead costs of the field men are kept low, since all 
field offices are rent free through the liberality of the cooperat- 
ing Chambers of Commerce at all headquarters towns. 

Forest Fire Protection 

Following the mandate of the Forestry Administrative Act 
of 1925, the Board recognized the forest fire problem as its ma- 
jor activity. 

It was realized in the beginning that facts regarding forest 
fires were incomplete, hence a broad survey was inaugurated. 
As information was secured, remedies were applied as far as 
possible to each situation which would produce the desired re- 
sult in the shortest possible time. 

A careful study of conditions proved the need for organized 
effort between the land owner, county, State and Federal Gov- 
ernment with the responsibility for fire protection definitely 
fixed upon the owner first and upon the State and Federal 
Government second. With this fundamental principle as a 
working basis, the Timber Protective Organizations, composed 
of land owners, were formed. These organizations have their 

Two demonstrations in construction of firebreaks. On the left, a road grader was used. 
On the right a tractor plow was employed. 

Georgia Forest Service 


own officers and each operates as a unit to carry out plans pre- 
scribed by the Georgia Forest Service. The State is giving 
supervision, aid, advice, and renders some direct financial assist- 
ance through Federal aid under Section 2 of the Clarke-McNary 

Administration expense is reduced to a minimum in that the 
officers, who are vitally interested, direct the local work of their 
units, supervise detail expenditures, collect data, keep records 
and make necessary reports without compensation. 

If done by the State Forester's office, the supervisory work 
would require additional employees and greater official over- 
head cost, to say nothing of the added impetus, interest and sup- 
port secured through local participation and local responsibili- 

During 1927 and 1928 new Timber Protective Organiza- 
tions have been formed, existing organizations have been en- 
larged, and the policy of grouping a number of small units to 
reduce cost of protection and promote the purchase of lookout 

Tree nursery at the State College of Agriculture conducted cooperatively by the Georgia 
Forest Service and the Forest School of the College. 


Second Biennial Report 

towers for detection purposes, have extended and made the 
protective system more efficient. Seven organizations have 
been enlarged, eight new organizations formed, and two con- 
solidations affecting some six organizations, are being completed. 

Steel lookout towers erected on the Suwanee and Satilla 
lands, in operation since 1927, have given results beyond ex- 
pectations. To bring the tower system into wider use, the con- 
solidation of five small organizations in four counties is under 
way. This consolidation will enable the units to purchase and 
erect six steel towers ranging in height from 100 to 110 feet. 
Already one of these towers has been erected on a city water 
supply tank of one town and another on the top of a new hotel 
at Waycross. When connected by telephone lines and properly 
manned, the towers will give an efficient fire detective system 
to half a million acres, about half of which is now organized 
and cooperating. 

Four Timber Protective Organizations have erected 1 2 look- 
out towers and others have been provided for in the 1929 bud- 
gets. In all, 16 Timber Protective Organizations have built and 

Demonstration in natural reproduction of pine forests where fire is kept out. 

Georgia Forest Service 


maintained 360 miles of telephone lines at an average cost of 
$37 per mile, 50 miles of fire trails at $20 per mile and 2,219 
miles of fire breaks at $10 per mile. They have purchased fire 
fighting equipment such as fire trucks, trailers, fire pumps, hose, 
axes, rakes and tools to the amount of $8,089. They employ a 
total of 53 patrolmen four to eight months in the year and 12 
towermen five to ten months in the year. 

These Timber Protective Organizations give adequate pro- 
tection, under State supervision, to 996,790 acres. 

Private protection is also increasing at a rapid rate due to 
the effect of observable results obtained by Timber Protective 
Organizations. These demonstration areas have probably in- 
duced owners of unorganized areas to protect an additional half 
million acres. The other forms of forest fire protection in 
Georgia are the county plan, the cooperative management plan 
on small units and the national forest plan. 

The interest manifested throughout the State and efforts be- 
ing made by large owners, and owners of the farm woodlot 
indicate that rapid progress is being made in forest fire protec- 

Demonstt ation of new pine growth in area protected from fire. 


Second Biennial Report 

tion. Favorable public sentiment continues to grow, and the 
requests that additional acreage be placed under the State's fire 
control system are increasing. The total acreage that can 
be placed under cooperative agreement is limited by the personnel 
needed for supervision of the work and the necessary funds to 
finance it. 

During 1927 and 1928 the State expended $19,584.86, the 
Federal Government $53,258.00, and private matching funds 
amounted to $48,587.78, a total of $121,430.64. The State 
Board of Forestry has secured $101,845.78 as matching funds 
against $19,584.86 State funds, or a ratio in matching funds 
of $5.20 for every dollar the State has expended. 

Georgia has 23,725,000 acres of forest land in need of pro- 
tection from fire, according to the best available figures. This 
forest area is a great responsibility on the State, as well as a 
great asset, in that this natural resource is capable of producing 
an annual income of $163,000,000 in raw material and fin- 
ished product if given adequate protection from fire and if 
proper forest practices are used. 

Demonstration in forest thinning conducted by he Georgia Forest Service 

Georgia Forest Service 


The owners of 5,000,000 acres of forest land are ready for 
organized forest fire control with State cooperation as soon as 
funds are available. 

Education and Utilization 

A director of Education and Utilization for full time was 
appointed and began his duties November 1, 1928. Under his 
leadership, work was inaugurated for developing various lines 
of activity embracing publications, news service, school relations, 
contacts with civic organizations, fairs and manufacturers of 


Since the last biennial report, 12 publications have been is- 
sued, 7 of which were bulletins and 5 leaflets and folders. The 
subject, author and number printed of each bulletin issued are 
as follows: 

One of the Georgia forestry moving picture trucks at a rural school. 

1 6 Second Biennial Report 


Subject Author Printed 

Forest Thinning Alfred Akerman 3,000 

Highway Shade Tree Planting-Eitel Bauer 3,000 

Forest Planting Eitel Bauer 3,000 

Uses of Georgia Woods C. A. Whittle 10,000 

Georgia Forest-Parks C. A. Whittle and 

B. H. Stone 5,000 

Vocational Forestry C. A. Whittle 2,500 

The Cellulose Industry B. M. Lufburrow and 

W.W.Ashe 1,500 

The name of each leaflet, author and number printed are 
as follows: 

Subject Author Printed 
Report on Fire Line Demon- 
stration at Waycross B. M. Lufburrow 2,000 

Georgia's Forests C. A. Whittle 15,000 

Forests — A Waste Land Crop__B. M. Lufburrow 10,000 

Rural school children absorbed in the message of forest fire protection as presented 

by moving pictures. 

Georgia Forest Service 


Estimating Standing Timber ___.C. A. Whittle 
Reprint from Manufacturers' 

Record C. A. Whittle 


A number of posters designed to impress the public with 
the importance of fire prevention was distributed from stocks 
previously printed, mainly to schools. The two moving pic- 
ture units have placed many of them at schools, stores, filling 
stations and on county roads. A number have gone to county 
protective units, Timber Protective Organizations, boy 
scouts, etc. 

Cartoons have a universal appeal, being especially interest- 
ing to children. Cartoons with appropriate legends have been 
issued and widely distributed. 

Distribution of Publications — A mailing list has been built 
up, consisting of 25 or 30 leading land owners in each county, 
county agricultural agents, vocational agricultural teachers, saw 
mill operators, wood working establishments, lumber dealers, 

-.■- . , 

..» ■. '.•'■■■ _ -i- 

On the left, a demonstration of the French method of turpentining. On the right, 
turpentining started by American method on a virgin pine. 


Second Biennial Report 

city and county school superintendents, consolidated public 
schools, members of the Georgia Forestry Association, state for- 
esters and assistants, United States Forest Service, state cham- 
bers of commerce, members of the state legislature, naval stores 
operators, turpentine operators, women's clubs and civic or- 
ganizations, newspapers, deputy wardens, fish and game ward- 
ens, county commissioners, and individuals of various classes 
who have asked to be placed on the mailing list. The total 
mailing list numbers 10,000 names. Not all publications are 
sent to the entire mailing list. 

The two moving picture units are distributing some of the 
publications and are putting up posters. 

On request of school principals, county agents and others, 
packages of various publications are sent out for local use. 

News Service and Contributed Articles 

With the installation of the Director of Education and utili- 
zation, a systematic weekly news service was inaugurated for all 

Typical scene in the turpentine forest of South Georgia. 

Georgia Forest Service 


the newspapers in the state. The training and experience of the 
director in the publicity field equipped him for developing the 
news service. The results have been gratifying. The news 
matter is very generally used by the press of the state. 

Special articles have been contributed to the daily papers of 
the state, to the press association, to lumber trade journals, com- 
mercial publications, forestry magazines and farm papers. They 
have found ready acceptance. 

Through these avenues of publicity a large reading public has 
been reached frequently with messages that are timely and of 
public interest. 

School Relations and School Forests 

Vocational School Project — An outstanding development of 
schools relation work is that in connection with the rural high 
schools having vocational agricultural teachers whereby a 
course of study in forestry is to be introduced and a forest of 
ten acres or more is to be used by each school for forest demon- 
stration. This project is carried on in cooperation with the 

One of the steam turpentine stills in South Georgia. 





























or t 

& 8 

a: h 

5 a 





a O o 
a s 

• ui 

(0 Ui 












= < 

z < 
- 1 9 























ui ui 
or or 





£ ui 

£0 O 

"MgllMll-fcl©*'**'* ♦ *"♦ 










■*>>' Ps! &C V* / f ^k.r v \ *%< 


if ^ 1 II >< M 

Jji O jr~ r " 


£-" Jit ' r 

.CLl — l^^j 
Dh j / -mj 


*«A. i S "**,j>» — *^ 



it — '— 

V- If" - ~r ^N ^J — > ** j 

g; 77M¥M//f 







































■ " 




4— i 














O "O 















' M 
































Second Biennial Report 

Georgia State Board of Vocational Education. There are 100 
white schools and 50 colored schools of this nature in the state. 
The forest areas are to be obtained on lease for ten years or 
through outright donation. 

The Georgia Forest Service is to make a complete survey 
of these school forests and working plans for their management. 
Areas will be chosen for reforestation and schools will be as- 
sisted in operating tree nurseries for tree planting. 

Two or more times each year a representative of the Geor- 
gia Forest Service will visit the schools and conduct some form 
of forestry demonstration. 

A bulletin issued by the Georgia Forest Service will serve as a 
foundation of the course of study and mimeographed instruc- 

Winding mountain highway leading to Vogel Forest-Park. 

Georgia Forest Service 


tions for practical work will be sent to the schools from time 
to time. Cooperation is also being established with junior col- 
leges and degree colleges in forest demonstration work along 
more advanced lines than is being offered the high schools. 

The plan calls for a summer camp for students showing the 
greatest proficiency in forestry. Practical training will be given 
in these camps to increase their efficiency. With satisfactory 
completion of the summer camp work the student will receive 
a certificate of Vocational Forester, recommending him for non- 
technical forestry work. 

These summer camps are to be supported through scholar- 
ships of $75 each which it is expected will be provided by in- 
terested citizens, corporations, banks, etc. 

This is the first project of this kind to be launched in this 
country and it has received the commendation of some of the 
leading forestry authorities in the nation. 

The teachers are enthusiastic about the forestry project, 
and every indication is that the Georgia Forest Service will be 

Scenic approach to Vogel Forest-Park. 


Second Biennial Report 

in great demand to properly supervise this work to be carried 
on. At least two men are needed to carry on this important 
work but funds are not now available for this purpose. 

Moving Picture Project — The Georgia Forest Service is co- 
operating with the Georgia Forestry Association, the American 
Forestry Association, and the Georgia State College of Agricul- 
ture in carrying on the activity of the Southern Forestry Edu- 
cational Project in Georgia. 

Two well-equipped trucks, each manned by two foresters, 
showing pictures emphasizing the importance of forest fire con- 
trol are operating throughout the state and making public 
contact through the schools. The shows are largely attended. 
From September 1st to June 1st the records show that 139,183 
people were reached. The interest has been keen and it is be- 
lieved that the lessons the films teach have been impressive and 
will result in much good. 

This project is for three years. The first year has been 
concluded. Other pictures are to be made which are expected 

Balancing rock on the trail to Blood Mountain from Vogel Forest-Park. 

Georgia Forest Service 


to be more directly applicable to Georgia conditions and result 
in greater good to the protection of Georgia forests. 

During the period that the schools are not in session these 
moving picture outfits are scheduled to visit boy and girl scout 
camps, teachers' summer schools and other public gatherings. 

Contact With Civic Organizations 

It has not always been possible to meet the demands of 
various civic organizations for speakers, but a number of these 
organizations have been addressed. Women's clubs interested 
particularly in roadside planting of trees, school grounds and 
other public places have been helped with addresses, conferences, 
demonstrations and with literature as to what trees to plant 
and how to plant them. In some instances essay contests on 
forestry have been conducted among school children under the 
auspices of women's clubs. 

Boy scouts afford a field for useful cooperation and a 
number of contacts are being made with scout masters, and, as 

Lookout platform at Vogel Forest- Park. 


Second Biennial Report 

has been mentioned, scout camps are to have moving picture 
shows. Scout organizations in Augusta and vicinity have an 
annual awarding to Eagle scouts of a certificate from the Gov- 
ernor appointing them Junior Fire Wardens and badges pre- 
sented by the Georgia Forest Service. Each year this is made an 
important public occasion. 

Chambers of Commerce, Civitans, Kiwanians, Rotarians and 
other organizations offer opportunity for contacts which it has 
not been possible to develop fully because of inadequate force, 
but more of this class of work will be scheduled for the future. 

Forest Fairs 

Georgia has the distinction of being the first state to inau- 
gurate the State Forest Fair. In 1928 the first fair of this na- 
ture was held at Waycross, Georgia. The attendance was 
large and the interest gratifying. Many industries related to 
forest development and utilization had exhibits on display. 
Demonstrations of practical value were carried out. Moving 
pictures and addresses afforded interest and instruction. 

Neel Gap marker at Vogel Forest-Park. 

Georgia Forest Service 


The fair was such a pronounced success that other cities have 
sought it, and in 1929 the Second Georgia State Forest Fair 
will be held at Valdosta, Ga. The program includes forestry 
demonstrations which will be one of the features of the fair, to 
give very practical information to timber growers. 

Demands are being made by fair associations throughout the 
state for exhibits of the Georgia Forest Service. Insofar as pos- 
sible these demands will be met. 

Wood Manufacturers 

In connection with the work of utilization, the bulletin 
"Uses of Georgia Woods" was issued and given wide circu- 
lation. This bulletin has sought to awaken a greater apprecia- 
tion of the kinds of woods grown in Georgia, their various 
uses, and to show that there are woods as good or better for va- 
rious purposes than those shipped into the state from the far 
north or west. 

To make the publication as practical as possible, and estab- 
lish connections between the owners of forests and the wood 

All Trails of Vogel Forest-Park have signs. 


Second Biennial Report 

manufacturers, a directory of saw mills, wood manufacturers 
and lumber dealers of the state is given. 

Visits are being made from time to time to architects in 
Georgia in an effort to increase the use of southern woods for 
both exterior use and interior finishings. 

Additional work for promoting the uses of Georgia woods 
could be undertaken in making contracts with saw mills, manu- 
facturers and lumber dealers, and also with landowners, to in- 
struct them in the better utilization of their timber resources 
through proper forest management. This, of course, would 
call for increased personnel and expense. 

A questionnaire was sent out to leading landowners of 
southeastern Georgia to develop data on the amount of cord- 
wood that would be available for wood pulp manufacture. With 

View of Pavilion and Annex at Indian Springs Park. 

Georgia Forest Service 


the information thus obtained and other data, a basis was es- 
tablished for an estimate on the resources of cordwood in south- 
east Georgia. The estimate was made for parties interested in 
paper manufacture. The Georgia Forest Service is stressing 
for paper manufacture and for other cellulose industries the use 
of species of trees not desirable for lumber, the use of timber 
cut out for thinning purposes and the tops of trees cut for saw 
logs and mill waste. 

Various members of the forester's staff are frequently called 
upon to give advice to landowners about the best methods 
for cropping and marketing their timber. 

State Forest-Parks 

The Georgia Forest Service now has two state forests-parks 
under its management — the Vogel Forest-Park at Neel Gap on 

New entrance to the spring basin at Indian Springs Park. 


Second Biennial Report 

Blood Mountain in Union county, and Indian Springs in Butts 
county. The Indian Springs property, owned by the state since 
the Indian treaty of 1802, was turned over to the Georgia Forest 
Service by an act of the General Assembly, effective January 
1, 1928, which act carried with it an annual appropriation of 
$3,000 for a period of two years, to be expended on improve- 
ments and maintenance. This property consists of a mineral 
spring, casino, bath house and park area, all occupying approxi- 
mately ten acres. 

Both forest-parks are devoted largely to recreational pur- 
poses for which they are particularly well adapted. 

Vogel Park — Since the last biennial report the area of Vogel 
Forest-Park has been increased by an additional gift of land 
by Mr. Fred Vogel, Jr., of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, bringing the 
area up to 160 acres. 

Spring:, basin and new superstructure at Indian Springs Park. 

Georgia Forest Service 


Improvements have been made on the property that have 
added to its attractiveness and its conveniences. Two houses 
have been constructed near the highway for the accommodation 
of visitors. At one, refreshments are sold and a book for regis- 
tering visitors is kept. The other, a larger building, provides an 
attractive tea room equipped with electric lights and other con- 

Trails have been constructed through the area and to the 
summit of Blood mountain, with signs giving directions, in- 
formation and cautions about protecting the forest. A stone ob- 
servation platform has been constructed, overlooking the famous 
Blood Mountain gorge and camp sites and parking areas have 
been established. 

Approximately 10,000 visitors registered at this park in 

Children's playground at Indian Springs Park 

32 Second Biennial Report 

1928, representing 42 states of the Union and ten different 
countries. Quite a large number of visitors did not register. 

A proposition to erect a stone tower on Blood mountain 
to be known as the Legion Memorial Tower has received fa- 
vorable consideration. Plans for the proposed tower have been 
drawn by Dr. Charles Strahan of the University of Georgia. It 
is to be about 30 feet high, made of mountain stones, and will 
be an imposing, picturesque structure, appropriate to the sur- 
roundings and a fitting memorial to the Georgia men who lost 
their lives during the World War. The cost of the tower is 
estimated at $10,000 to $15,000, which the American Legion 
proposes to raise. 

The tower is to serve as a lookout for fire control on the 
state forest-park and the adjoining national forest as well as a 
lookout for the sightseers who visit the park in great numbers. 

In addition to assistance in erecting the tower, funds are 
needed to construct trails to other mountain peaks, to construct 
roads into other automobile parking spaces, to provide additional 
facilities for drinking water, camping facilities, to make a small 
lake, to construct an additional building and quarters for forest 
service men, to do some landscaping work, put up additional 
signs, etc. A budget of such improvement calls for an ex- 
penditure of $7,420.00. 

Indian Springs — The condition of the Indian Springs prop- 
erty when taken over by the Georgia Forest Service was poor. 
The State appropriation has been used to repair the buildings, 
improve the grounds and to protect the spring from the over- 
flows of nearby streams. Considerable additional improve- 
ment and beautifying of the grounds have been made possible 
through private subscription obtained by local parties. As a 
consequence, the Indian Springs property has been greatly im- 
proved in appearance and facilities since coming under the di- 
rection of the Georgia Forest Service, and is apparently becoming 
a more popular recreation center for the people of Georgia than 

Georgia Forest Service 33 

The growing popularity of the Indian Springs property 
renders it necessary to make other improvements to meet public 
demands. A retaining wall capable of protecting the lower part 
of the park from overflow and which at the same time could 
serve as a roadway to reach an area that would serve for addi- 
tional parking space for automobiles would greatly add to the 
facilities of the park, make it possible to beautify an unsightly 
portion of the grounds and also provide a place for seats, and a 
sunken garden for flowers and ornamental shrubs. 

This property is very greatly in need of improved comfort 
houses of the most sanitary kind. A number of other im- 
provements to make better play grounds for children and to 
make other parts of the property accessible and enjoyable to the 
increasingly large crowds are very much needed. 

An outlay of $10,000.00 during the next two years 
would help to meet these public demands. 

Forest-Park Plans — The Georgia Board of Forestry has ap- 
proved a plan to establish a system of forest-parks over the 
state, with one in easy reach of all population centers. Dona- 
tions of areas to the Georgia Forest Service that are suitable for 
forest-parks are expected in carrying out this idea. Two tenta- 
tive offers of forest-park areas are pending and others are ex- 
pected. The objects sought in establishing forest-parks are to 
provide recreational centers and forest areas for demonstrating 
successful forestry practices. 

Assistance to Timberland Owners 

The Forestry Act of 1925 says the Board "shall give such 
advice, aid, assistance and co-operation as may be practicable 
to Georgia landowners or forest users 

More than 98 per cent of the State's 23,725,000 acres of 
forest land is privately owned. This ownership represents a 
wide variety of interests including lumber, naval stores, farm- 

H Second Biennial Report 

ing. mining, manufacturing, water power, etc., and involves 
a natural resource, the product of which could be worth more 
than $150,000,000 annually. Hence, the importance of this 
resource to the State and the necessity for its proper care and 

The full development of the State's forest resources will 
depend upon the extent to which these owners of timber land 
practice the principles of good forest management. Realizing 
this, the Georgia Forest Service has pursued the policy of assist- 
ing private owners to make plans for the systematic management 
of these timber lands. More applications for this type of 
service have been received than our limited personnel could han- 
dle, showing a widespread awakening to the importance of 
proper care of forests. 

A technically trained forester has been employed by an 
owner as the result of service of this sort rendered by the Geor- 
gia Forest Service. A number of owners have co-operative agree- 
ments whereby the Georgia Forest Service gives advice in han- 
dling of their forest areas. Interest in this phase of the work 
has been state-wide, many applications coming from the more 
thickly settled areas. Those reached report that the forest man- 
agement plans given them have been of real value. Bulletins, 
leaflets, letters, inquiries, interviews, public talks on forest man- 
agement have also borne fruit in actual practice on many woods 
areas of the state. 

A large number of private owners are now protecting their 
forests from fire. They are thinning, planting and carrying on 
demonstrations and. in some instances, are doing research work 
on a small scale. 

Demands for this phase of forestry work will continue to 
increase as the fire control sentiment spreads and forestry edu- 
cational work progresses. 

Georgia Forest Service 35 


The Board of Forestry feels very keenly the need of compre- 
hensive research work. Many problems in handling woodlands 
in Georgia have little reliable data on which to base future 
work. Until the projects now under way and those awaiting 
funds to start are carried on over a sufficient length of time, we 
will be dependent upon the too meager information now 

In the projects undertaken, only as many were taken up 
as there seemed assurance could be carried to completion, the con- 
trolling factor being available funds and personnel. 

Thinnings of loblolly, slash, longleaf and shortleaf pine 
have been made with records of each. Studies of a few of the 
hardwoods are under way. Experiments in naval stores pro- 
duction are being conducted with relation to thinnings, plant- 
ings, weighing gum, chipping, per acre production and fire 
damage. Many other studies are needed, for the State is lacking 
in much desirable valuable information. 

Forest Fire Statistics 

Georgia is developing a "forest fire consciousness" to a 
greater degree than the accompanying forest fire statistics would 
seem to indicate. Not until the last year was it possible to ob- 
tain comprehensive data for the state as a whole. The larger 
fire loss reported for 1928 than for previous years is probably 
to be accounted for by the fact that the 1928 figure is more 
complete and more nearly pictures actual losses than the re- 
ports of previous years. 

Inquiries made of private owners for information on forest 
fire losses have been gladly answered and where checked the 
figures given have proven to be correct to a remarkable degree. 

Though the 1928 figures are estimates rather than actual 
measurements, the available information may be considered re- 

36 Second Biennial Report 

liable, particularly that from areas where organized fire con- 
trol is in operation. The figures on unprotected areas are con- 
sidered conservative and have been checked as far as possible. 

The fire statistics for the years 1927 and 1928 for the state 
as a whole and for areas under control of Timber Protective 
Organizations are as follows: 

For State 




No. Fires 


Area Burned 












For Timber Protective Organizations 

1927 55 722,180 9,542 $ 19,650 

1928 196 996.790 21,780 24,350 

The increase in burned over area under the Timber Pro- 
tective Organizations in 1928 does not mean that these or- 
ganizations were not functioning as effectively in 1928 as in 
1927 as the difference in the burned over area indicates, but the 
increase is attributable in part to the larger area under protec- 
tion in 1928 than in the previous year. There were 996,790 
acres under control of Timber Protective Organizations in 1928, 
whereas there were 722,180 in 1927. 

Georgia Forest Service 


Financial Report 
Georgia State Board of Forestry 



Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1927 (Federal funds) $ 2,555.40 

From State — Tax collected on Forest Industries 11,354.58 

From U. S. Gov. — Clark-McNary Law 19,991.60 

From individuals for examination of timber 152.09 $34,053.67 



Salaries $10,388.90 

Travel 2,974.43 

Office expense 346.43 

Teleph., Teleg. and Postg 366.04 

Printing 1,568.31 

Supplies and equipment 312.52 

Miscellaneous 15.00 $ 4,834.47 


Salaries $ 1,405.6 7 

Travel _____ 1,68 7.84 

Office expense 3 35.24 

Tel. and Tel. and Postage 412.74 

Printing 652.90 

Supplies and Equipment 325.08 

Miscellaneous 15.00 $ 4,834.47 

T. P. O.— refunds under agreement $ 9,682.16 

Balance, December 31, 1927 ...$ 3,474.14 $34,053.67 

State Auditor's Comments: 

"All records are full and complete." 

38 Second Biennial Report 



Bal. on hand Jan. 31, 1928 (Federal funds) __$ 3,474.14 

From State 18.360.90 

Appropriation Indian Springs Forest Park ... 3,000.00 

From U. S. Government — Under Sections 

2 and 4, Clarke-McNary Law . 43.949.64 

Individuals for examination of timberlands 399.17 

From Gainesville, Ga. Chamber of Com- 
merce for Vogel Forest-Park 275.00 

Interest on Bank balances 73.95 $69,532.80 



Salaries . ..$ 8,908.75 

Travel 1,683.26 

Office expense 5 54.30 

Printing 1,422.69 

Supplies and Equipment 6 70.2 7 

Telph., Telg. and Postage . 2 3 0.14 

Miscellaneous 64.30 $ 1 3,533.7 L 


Salaries L_._ $ 8,852.93 

Travel . 5,182.47 

Office equipment 1.347.03 

Supplies 175.59 

Telph., Telg. and Postage . 15 2.16 

Printing ... 28.00 

Miscellaneous 28.01 $15,766.19 

Sou. Forestry Educational Project $ 1,463.70 

Bureau of Education 1,3 27.46 

Nursery Project 1,462.50 

Vogel Forest-Park . 1.040.87 

Georgia Forest Service 39 

Indian Springs Forest-Park 2,399.65 

T. P. O. — refund under cooperative agreement— 16,851.03 


Balance, December 31, 1928 (Federal funds 

Under Clarke-McNary Law).. $15,687.69 $69,532.80 

State Auditor's Comments: 

"The records are neatly and accurately kept, and all disbursements cov- 
ered by proper vouchers." 


*r?*-\i p '. 

. '*" "N 




State Board of Forestry 



overnor an 



1 A 






• * '" 



State Forester 



Letter of Transmittal 5 

Introduction .... 


Personnel 8 

Forest Fire Control 9 

Assistance to Timberland Owners 13 

Fire Control Improvements 15 

Education and Utilization 15 

Publications 15 

Points of Activity (Map) 16-17 

Newspaper Service 18 

Public Addresses 19 

Work with Schools 19 

Summer Camp 21 

Roadside Forest Demonstrations 22 

Survey Mill Requirements 23 

Cooperation with Associations 23 

Forest Fairs 25 

State Nursery and Reforestation 25 

State Forest Parks . 27 

Forest Research 28 

Fire Statistics 29 

Financial Statement 30 

Auditor's Report 31 

Financial Statement Summary 32 



State Forester 


State Forestry Board 





State Forester 

Georgia State 
Board of Forestry 


HON. L. G. HARDMAN. Governor, 

Hon. George H. Carswell. Sec. of State 

HON. S. W. McCALLIE. State Geologist 

HON. J. PHIL CAMPBELL. Director of Extension, 
State College of Agriculture 


Mrs. M. E. Judd. Dalton 

J. Leonard Rountree, Summit 

C. B. HARiMAN. Atlanta 

Bonnell H. Stone. Blairsville 

Alex K. Sessoms. Cogdell 

B. M. LUFBURROW. Secretary and State Forester 

Georgia Forest Service 5 


Members of the State Board of Forestry: 

The Biennial Report covering activities of the Georgia 
Forest Service for the calendar years 1929 and 1930 is here- 
with submitted. 

The factors paramount in the rise or fall of public welfare 
are our natural resources and mankind's attitude toward them. 

During the two years that have elapsed since the last Bien- 
nial Report we have experienced a material change in the attitude 
of the public toward the forest resources of the State from gen- 
eral indifference to one of widespread active interest and con- 

During this period the technical staff, as planned in the 
organization chart of 1926, has been completed with the ex- 
ception of a district forester for District 3. 

Forest fire control continues as the major activity. This 
problem is being attacked both by organized effort through the 
Timber Protective Organizations and through stimulating in- 
dividual effort. Available federal funds under Section 2 of 
the Clarke-McNary Law have almost doubled since 1929, but 
State funds have not increased sufficiently to acquire full fed- 
eral aid, therefore, $25,000 of federal funds will probablv be 
lost to the State this year for lack of State matching funds. 

Georgia has received nation wide attention for its co-opera- 
tive educational work in forestry with the 150 vocational 
schools of the State, and much faborable comment has been re- 
ceived on our bulletins and leaflets. 

The demand for services made on each branch of our ac- 
tivities has increased and has been met as fully as possible. 
Our system of administration has made it possible to render 
this service at the lowest cost. 

The active interest and support of our program by the 
Georgia Forestry Association has enabled us to carry on more 
effectively and economically. The State press has been gen- 

6 Third Biennial Report 

erous in carrying forestry messages to the masses that would 
not otherwise be reached. 

The enthusiasm and intelligent interest of each member of 
the State Board of Forestry are not only very helpful, but an 
inspiration to the State Forester. But for the enthusiastic and 
intelligent direction of the Board the work could not have 
made such rapid progress, and for this I wish to express my 
sincere appreciation. 



State Forester. 

Georgia Forest Service 7 





Previous Biennial Reports covered the work of the State 
Board of Forestry up to and including December 31, 1928. 
This, the Third Biennial Report, gives a survey of the work 
during the two years 1929-1930, with plans for the future 
work necessary to develop the forest resources of the State. 

Definite and direct responsibility is placed upon the Geor- 
gia State Board of Forestry to conduct the State's forestry ac- 
tivities and secure maximum results to the owners of Georgia's 
23,725,000 acres of potential forest land. Because of its active 
interest and intimate detailed knowledge, the Board is able to 
direct the work effectively and efficiently, and since the Board 
serves without compensation, its service is rendered with little 
cost to the tax payer. In fact, Georgia's forest resources, sec- 
ond in size in the State, with possibilities of an annual income 
of $163,000,000 or more in finished products, are directed 
by a Board that merits the wholehearted support of all Geor- 


The Governor is ex-officio chairman and president of the 
State Board of Forestry. Three other ex-officio members who 
have the knowledge and interest, as well as experience in con- 
ducting affairs of the State, are on the Board. The five ap- 
pointed members are chosen because of their personal experi- 
ence and knowledge of various activities necessary to develop 
the forest resources of the State. Under this set up the Gov- 
ernor is in direct contact with the work and has the able 
council of eight other directors. 

8 Third Biennial Report 

The members of the Board serve WITHOUT COMPEN- 
SATION, being satisfied with the realization that they are ren- 
dering a service to Georgia. Each member is reimbursed the 
expenses incurred in the performance of his official duties. The 
total of such cost to the State for the five year period January 
1926 to December 1930, is $1,792.38, or an average of $348.48 
per annum, or less than $1.00 per day for the service of this 
group of able and efficient directors of the forestry department, 
a cost so small compared to the service rendered as to find no 
parallel in the cost of operating any private business. The ex- 
cellent record of attendance at board meetings is a criterion as 
to the interest and personal responsibility felt. 

All available funds are budgeted. Quarterly statements of 
receipts and disbursements are submitted to each member of the 
board in advance of the meeting and all expenditures are kept 
within the budget. This system, together with the fixed policy 
of the board — to adhere strictly to the budget — has enabled the 
department to operate without creating a deficit since its ex- 

Summing up, we find the work administered by — 

1. Fixed Responsibility : The Governor as president and 
chairman, with eight advisors, assume the responsibility. 

2. Low Cost: Members of the board serving without com- 
pensation, but receiving actual expenses while attending 
meetings, have incurred an expense that totals less than 
$1.00 per day for the past five years. 

3. Budget System: All expenditures are made under a bud- 
get approved by the board in advance of the calendar 
and fiscal years. 

4. Interest of Board Members: Attendance averages seven 
over the five-year period. Each member appointed by 
the governor has not only particular fitness to serve, 
but has been glad to render service to the State. 


The personnel of the department consists of the State For- 
ester, the Director of Education and Utilization, two Assistant 

Georgia Forest Service 9 

State Foresters, five District Foresters,* an Assistant Director of 
Education and Utilization, a secretary to the State Forester and 
a secretary to the Director of Education and Utilization. These 
employees were appointed because of the technical training and 
experience that fitted them to give Georgia timberland owners 
scientific information and assistance in handling their timber 

The headquarters for the Assistant State Foresters are at 
Gainesville and Macon, and the District Foresters are located at 
Rome, Columbus, Albany, Waycross and Savannah. The 
offices of the entire force, together with heat, light, water and 
in some instances office equipment, are furnished without cost 
to the State. The work of the staff is primarily with the tim- 
berland owner and therefore in the woods, approximately 80 per 
cent of the time being in the woods assisting the owners in solv- 
ing their forest problems. 

Forest Fire Control 
The forest fire problem constitutes the major activity of our 
work. Since the 1927-28 biennial report was issued, federal 

*As of March 1, 1931. 

Fire break in south Georgia. Note reproduction on right and lack 
of it on left wjhere subjected to fire. 

10 Third Biennial Report 

funds available under Section 2 of the Clarke-McNary Law, 
have increased from $39,000 to $69,750. This increase of 
$30,750 is due to a slight increase in the federal appropriation 
for forest fire control work, and to a federal estimate that Geor- 
gia has 23,000,000 acres of forest land, an area greater than the 
U. S. Forest Service had previously recognized. It is on the aver- 
age basis and at a cost of 4 cents per acre for State wide organized 
fire control that the increased allotment was made. 

These funds are to be matched on a 50/50 basis, but State 
funds available did not permit us to secure all the federal forest 
fire control funds allotted to Georgia in 1930. 

The Georgia Forest Service is the designated agency for co- 
operative work under Section 2 of the Clarke-McNary Law and 
is responsible for its administration. It received federal funds 
for forest fire control work, and the intent of the law is that 
all such funds should be passed on to the timber owner and that 
each State must carry all necessary administrative or supervisory 
cost. Georgia and one other State are the only ones that have 
failed to meet this requirement. State funds are not sufficient 
to carry the personnel required by approved nation-wide stan- 
dards for acceptable fire control practise, and part of this is now 
carried by federal funds. 

The basic principle of Georgia's forest fire control plan is 
organized group effort. The federal government, the State, the 
county and the private owner pool their funds for expenditure 
through co-operative organizations known as Timber Protective 
Organizations. This offers the most efficient, economical and 
practical basis for forest fire control work. 

The Timber Protective Organization plan — 

1. Reduces the administrative overhead to a minimum. 

2. Is elastic enough to allow the private owner the use of 
his labor and machinery for fire protective measures dur- 
ing periods when they would not otherwise be em- 

3. Places responsibility on the private owner, thereby in- 
suring active local interest at all times. 

4. Affords a channel through which assistance and advice 

Georgia Forest Service 


TOP Longleaf pine killed by fire near Cogdell, Georgia. 

MIDDLE Slash pine killed by fire near Cogdell. 

BOTTOM Longleaf reproduction killed by fire near Ocilla, Ga. 


Third Biennial Report 

of the specialists of the Georgia Forest Service can be 
effectively rendered to private timber owners. 
5. Enables public agencies to participate to the extent of 
their obligations and to handle affectively questions that 
extend beyond the province of the local organization. 
Individual effort in fire control has proved both expensive 
and unsatisfactory. Organized effort through the timber pro- 
tective organization system during its five years has proven prac- 
ticable and inexpensive and has secured good results (see table 
page 30) due to this form of co-ordinating the activities of 

TOP Forest protected from fire showing excellent growth and 

reproduction near Baxley, Georgia. BOTTOM — Across the road 
where fire has devastated the forest. 

Georgia Forest Service 1 3 

federal, State and private agencies. A visit to the timber pro- 
tective organization areas will prove convincing. Results are 
seen at a glance and the wisdom of expending public funds in 
this manner will be unquestioned, for returns amply justify 
the expenditures. 

The demand for co-operative forest fire control work con- 
tinues to increase, although the lumber and naval stores indus- 
tries have faced a serious depression during the period covered 
by this report. Private agencies have so fully realized the im- 
portance of growing trees and of forest fire control that they 
have made considerable sacrifices to keep organized fire control 
work up to standard during this period, and others have taken 
up protective measures. This is shown by the increased acre- 
age under protection. During 1929-30 the total area listed in 
the timber protective organizations reached 1,3 51,070 acres. 
It was necessary to protect 410,668 acres of land that was not 
contributing to protection cost, this area either being intermin- 
gled with organized areas, or constituted a hazardous boun- 
dary. Protected lands in or adjacent to national forests of 
North Georgia that are under protection amounted to 414,734 
acres, which, added to the State's protected area makes a total 
of 2,176,472 acres in the State under adequate organized fire 
control. In addition, there are 850,000 acres in farm wood- 
lots, game preserves, or tracts of less than 10,000 acres under 
fire protection which are not included in the organized area 

The grand total under the various forms of protection is 
3,026,472 acres or 12.7 per cent of the 23,750,000 acres in 
Georgia needing protection from fire. 

Assistance to Timberland Owners 

Ninety-nine per cent of the 23 3 4 million acres of potential 
forest land in Georgia is privately owned and most of this own- 
ership is in small holdings. Less than a million acres of the 
original timber remains. Five and one-half million acres repre- 
sent abandoned farm lands. What to do with this vast area 


Third Biennial Report 

of forest land is a problem confronting Georgians, and affects 
every citizen of the State. 

Forest fire is both an individual and a State problem, but 
the management of a tract of timber is the owner's problem. 
The Georgia Forest Service can only hope to reach many of the 
individual owners through its bulletins and leaflets which treat 
of almost every vital forest problem, and through demonstra- 
tional areas which all may visit and learn lessons to apply to 
their own timberland. 

The demand for individual advice during the two years 
1929 and 1930 has been enormous. Many owners now see 
a greater present and future value for their woods and w,ant 
help to make their forests produce at maximum capacity. In- 

Forest fire lookout tower, built of cypress, on 
Pine Island Timber Protective Organization, 
near Albany, Ga. 

Georgia Forest Service 15 

sofar as possible, we are glad to give advice to individual timber 

Fire Control Improvements 

Permanent and semi-permanent fire control improvements 
erected on the organized areas include 17 steel towers 80 to 110 
feet in height, 3 wooden towers, 187 miles of telephone line, 
3,844 miles of fire break, and 50 miles of fire trail. The pur- 
chase of fire fighting equipment such as trucks, trailers, fire 
pumps, hoes, axes, Texas swatters, rakes, lanterns, and tools 
amounted to $11,771 during 1929-30. 

Expenditures for forest fire control work during this period 
by the State amounted to $29,751.53, by Federal Government 
$87,110, and by private owners under co-operative agreement 
$65,210.08, a total of $182,071.63. It will therefore be 
readily seen that for every dollar the State has invested $5.12 
is received in return. 

Education and Utilization 

During the two-year period covered by this report, the Geor- 
gia Forest Service has issued six bulletins and six leaflets. The 
more popular bulletins and leaflets are issued in quantities of 
5,000 each. The demand for these publications is such that 
it has been necessary to reprint a number of them. The more 
technical bulletins have been issued in quantities of 3,000 each. 
These too have been much in demand. 

The bulletins issued since the last report are as follows: 

Subject Author Printed 
Planting Pines in South Georgia Fred B. Merrill 2,000 
Profitable Forestry in Georgia C. A. Whittle 7,500 
Proceedings of the Georgia Commer- 
cial Forestry Conference C. A. Whittle 1,000 
Forests and Waters _C. A. Whittle 3,000 


















^ to 

I uJ - 


w o 
o3 +J 




o> 'O 


C o3 

o R 


y c 

r— <L> 



X w 








ft o ^ 




CD . 


in th 


P c 

C X 

' bo 

r- O 

G o3 
3 QJ 

I 1 Cfl 

C T3 

° >> 

03 . 


3 ■ <J 
o> -t-> 

5h a» 


> o 


i — i 1/2 



BQ o 


•• u 

O S* 

O -i 

© g 













■ ph 







18 Third Biennial Report 

The leaflets issued since the last report are as follows: 

Regulations of the Timber Protec- 

time Organizations B. M. Lufburrow 1,000 

Why Prevent Woods Fires C. A. Whittle 20,000 

The South a Source of Wood Pulp_ C. A. Whittle 3,000 

Fire Break Construction C. B. Beale 3.000 

Forestry in Vocational Agricultural 

Schools _ C. A. Whittle 3,000 

Be Careful About Starting Woods 

Fires C A. Whittle 5.000 

Posters carrying messages of fire warnings are employed. 
Most of those distributed during the biennial period have been 
taken from stock previously printed. A large calendar carrying 
information to naval stores operators was issued and distributed 
in 1930. 

Some assistance has also been rendered to timber protective 
organizations in preparing and printing posters designed for 
their own use. 

Newspaper Service 

The educational department releases an article a week to 
the newspapers of the State. For the most part these articles 
have news value and are welcomed by the press as shown by 
clippings collected by a newspaper clipping service. Information 
has been supplied from time to time to news agencies which 
have sent out articles to daily papers of the State. 

Photographs and cuts have been provided for newspapers, 
some of them being used in rotogravure sections of Sunday 

It has been very gratifying to note many editorials on for- 
estry in the State press. These are contributing much to quick- 
ening public interest and in laying the foundation for organized 
effort particularly in forest fire control. In fact, much of the 
progress in developing forestry sentiment in the State is to be 
credited to the Georgia press. 

Georgia Forest Service 19 

Public Addresses 

A number of groups of land owners interested in forming 
timber protective organizations have been addressed by staff 
representatives. Talks have been made before civic organiza- 
tions such as the Rotarians, Kiwanians, Civitans, Lions, 
women's clubs, teachers' clubs, boy scout camps, colleges, schools 
and in county-wide school campaigns for forest fire prevention. 

Invitations to address a sawmill association, the Southeast- 
ern Waterworks Association and sections of the Society of 
American Foresters have been accepted by members of the staff. 

Five large groups of Georgia farmers allied with the Fed- 
eral Land Bank were addressed in 1930 by representatives of 
the staff on farm forestry, the invitations to participate in the 
program coming from the Federal Land Bank at Columbia, 
South Carolina. 

The demand for public addresses have, in fact, been greater 
than it has been possible for the staff to meet. 

Work With Schools 

The Georgia Forest Service has concluded its second year's 
co-operation with the Department of Vocational Agriculture 
in the State, assisting it to carry out a forestry educational pro- 
ject. There are 146 of these schools in Georgia, 106 being 
white and 40 colored. 

Of the white schools, 98 have school forests of ten or more 
acres, and of the colored schools, 12 have school forests. In a 
few instances one school forest is serving two schools. The 
use of these forests has been obtained under ten year leases from 
owners, except where the forests are owned by the schools. 

These school forests are used for teaching practical forest 
management. The work is conducted along lines recom- 
mended by the Georgia Forest Service. Field demonstrations 
are held at the school forests by representatives of the staff on 
periodical visits to the schools. The major forestry subjects 
taught and practiced are: 

(a) Tree identification, (b) gathering tree seed, making and 


Third Biennial Report 

operating a seed bed and planting, (c) thinning of forests, (d) 
estimating the volume of standing timber, (e) fire prevention 
measures, and (f ) uses of timber. 

An interesting demonstration to show the effect of fire on 
tree growth is carried out on each school forest. A quarter- 
acre plot is burned over annually and a similar area adjoining 
is left unburned. Annual growth measurements are recorded. 
Demonstrations are also being made to show how thinning 
affects the rate of tree growth. 

Beginning with the school year in 19 30, plans were in- 
augurated for having the high school students to make report 
on forest fires in the region of the schools. Vocational agri- 
cultural schools are rural consolidated high schools, with stu- 
dents brought by school busses from a wide region. There- 

Forestry Cabin and Students Who Built It. 
Georgia Industrial College, Barnesville. 

Georgia Forest Service 21 

fore, these fire reports cover, in some cases, as much as 100 square 
miles, but the average area is nearer 50 square miles. 

Cards are placed in the hands of students for making the 
fire reports. On the cards is a questionnaire calling for the 
name of the land owner who has suffered fire damage, the num- 
ber of acres burned over, cause of the fire, and severity of 

These fire reports are compiled in the office of the State 
Forester as a part of the forest fire records on unprotected areas 
of the State. The land owners having fires are mailed litera- 
ture on the importance of keeping fire out of the woods and are 
visited by district foresters. 

At the conclusion of the period covered by this biennial 
report, data on school fire reports was not complete. 

In 1929, 2,359 students took the forestry work; in 1930, 
there were approximately 2,500 students. Nearly all of these 
students live on farms. A number have taken up projects in 
forestry on their father's farms for which they obtain units of 
credit in school work. A number of them are also reforesting 
old fields. 

Georgia has the distinction of being the first State to in- 
augurate forestry in its agricultural or Smith-Hughes Schools, 
and as a result, nation-wide attention has been attracted to the 

Summer Camp 

Plans have been made for holding a summer camp for boys 
doing outstanding work in forestry. The first camp will be 
held at Young Harris College in the Georgia mountains this 
year, July 27 to August 15. A free scholarship covering ex- 
penses at the camp is awarded by competitive examinations to 
one boy in each county having vocational agriculture schools. 
Other vocational students who have done good work in for- 
estry and can arrange to finance their own way will be per- 
mitted to attend the camp. 

The work at the camp will consist of more intensive train- 
ing in the subjects given in the schools. Six weeks' training 

22 Third Biennial Report 

in camp will entitle the student to a certificate of Vocational 
Forester, and recommend him as capable of doing non-technical 
work in forestry. 

Through the liberality of the Georgia Forestry Association, 
one hundred dollars was offered in 1930 as a prize to the voca- 
tional teacher doing the best work in forestry. This prize went 
to Professor C. L. Veatch of Commerce. For 1931 the asso- 
ciation offered one hundred dollars to the white teacher and 
fifty dollars to the colored teacher doing the best work. These 
awards have not yet been made. 

The Georgia Forestry Association has also offered 15 
scholarships to the summer forestry camp. 

The Georgia Forest Service co-operated with the American 
Forestry Association and the Georgia Forestry Association in 
the Southern Forestry Educational Project for two years, end- 
ing July 1, 1930. Moving picture trucks carried the message 
of fire protection to the public schools. 

A worthy example has been set by the Chamber of Com- 
merce of Rome, Georgia, and schools of Floyd county, A 
week's campaign in fire prevention was conducted in all the 
schools of the county, the judges of the courts, Secretary W. H. 
Foster and representatives of the staff of the Georgia Forest 
Service participating. 

Roadside Forest Demonstrations 

Twenty-five roadside forest demonstrations have been es- 
tablished at as many points on leading highways of the State, 
The attention of the public is drawn to these demonstrations by 
attractive signs, telling how natural reforestation has taken place 
where fires have been kept out. Each sign bears the name of 
some local organization that is sponsoring the demonstration, 
usually a civic organization. Other demonstration forests are 
to be established. These areas consist mainly of young pines, 
properly thinned and with firebreaks constructed. Studies are 
being made by the Georgia Forest Service in a number of these 
forests to determine growth rates for various tree species on dif- 
ferent soils and sites. 

Georgia Forest Service 


Co-operation is also given by the Georgia Forest Service to 
private timber owners in establishing roadside demonstrations 
of pine plantings. 

Survey of Mill Requirements 

The staff of the Georgia Forest Service is making contacts 
with mills and wood manufacturers of the State to learn their 
needs in order to be of service in directing timber owners to 
where they can find a market for their various forest products. 
This survey has not been completed. The information is kept 
on record in answering inquiries of timber owners. 

Co-Operation With Associations 

An organization doing much to further the interest of for- 
estry in the State is the Georgia Forestry Association, made up 
of public spirited citizens, both business and professional, in- 
cluding leaders of the press. It has been the pleasure of the 
Georgia Forest Service to co-operate with this association. The 
valuable addresses at the forestry conference held under the 
auspices of the association at Savannah in 1930 were printed 

Twenty-two year old longleaf pine lchaway Plantation, Baker 
county. Thinned to 300 trees per acre. 


Third Biennial Report 

and widely distributed. Assistance was rendered in the prepara- 
tion of literature which the association has distributed to the 
public schools of the State. Exhibits and demonstrations have 
been presented by the Georgia Forest Service at the annual meet- 
ings of the association. 

It has also been a pleasure to co-operate with naval stores 
organizations. Attractive calendars have been supplied for dis- 
tribution to naval stores operators. On these calendars are mes- 
sages concerning improved methods of woods operations, ap- 
proved alike by leaders of this industry and by forestyr au- 

Fenn slash pine plantation near Cordele, 
Georgia, making rapid growth, planted 

Georgia Forest Service 25 

Forest Fairs 

The Second Georgia State Forest Fair was held at Valdosta 
in November, 1929. What is stated by forestry authorities to 
be the greatest strictly forest exhibit ever made in this country 
was that displayed at Valdosta. The numerous exhibitors took 
particular pains to make their displays interesting and instruc- 
tive. The co-operation of the United States Forest Service, the 
American Forestry Association, the State School of Forestry, 
Pine Institute of America, United States Bureau of Chemistry 
and Soils, and a number of industries related to forest protec- 
tion, wood manufacture, naval stores production, etc., partici- 
pated. Field demonstrations in firebreak construction, turpen- 
tining, fire fighting, planting and thinning were conducted in 
nearby forests. 

State Nursery and Reforestation 

Through provisions of the Clark-McNary Act of Con- 
gress, $2,000 is annually made available from federal funds 
for operating a State nursery for raising forest planting stock. 
The Georgia State College of Agriculture contributes an addi- 
tional $2,000 annually, making in all $4,000 for operating 
this nursery. Through co-operative arrangement with the Col- 
lege of Agriculture, operation of the nursery is placed in charge 
of that institution. This agreement calls for the sale of for- 
est planting stock to citizens of Georgia at cost. 

Not until 1929 was the nursery established on a production 
basis of any importance. During that year 400,000 seedlings 
were grown and sold; in 1930 the number was 1 ,05 7,000. The 
nursery is now, prepared to grow two million seedlings each 

The increasing interest in reforestation in the State indicates 
that this number of seedlings, or more, may be required annual- 
ly by Georgia land owners. 

Some of the large land owners of Georgia are raising plant- 
ing stock for their own requirements. Several vocational agri- 
cultural schools are doing likewise. A number of land owners 


Third Biennial Report 

are also transplanting seedlings that have come up naturally on 
their wooded areas to fields and open places in the forest. It 
is probably conservative to say that 3,000,000 seedlings are 
now being planted annually in Georgia. This number should 
increase and doubtless will as interest in reforestation grows. 

It is, however, recognized that the greater part of Georgia 
can be reforested without artificial planting. Wherever three to 
six good seed trees per acre are left by loggers and where fires are 
kept out, a good stand of pines will be established. Artificial 
planting, in fact, is needed only on abandoned fields or land 
bare of seed trees, or where undesirable species are stocking the 

Specific instructions as to methods of planting are given 

LEFT Seed tree where fires have prevented reproduction. 

RIGHT Good seed trees bearing 4 bushels of cones, capable of do- 
ing a good job of reproduction. 

Georgia Forest Service 27 

in bulletins issued by the Georgia Forest Service, and where these 
instructions are followed, land owners have been getting good 
results. These plantings are giving a more rapid rate of growth 
and will bring the trees to commercial size more quickly than 
trees grown under natural reforestation. 

State Forest-Parks 

Considerable impetus was shown in the public demand for 
forest-parks during 1929-30. This was demonstrated by the 
large number of visitors to the two State forest-parks — Vogel 
Forest-Park at Neel Gap in Union county, and Indian Springs 
Forest-Park in Butts county. These forest-parks are particu- 
larly well adapted to recreation, to which they are largely 

Vogel Forest-Park. This area of 160 acres was donated 
to the State in 1926 by Mr. Fred Vogel, Jr., of Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin. Present improvements are an attractive tea room, 
ranger's cabin for visitors to register and for information, both 
equipped with electric lights and running water; a rest room 
with lights and water, a water supply, drinking fount, obser- 
vation platform overlooking Blood Mountain Gorge, camp sites, 
picnic area, parking grounds and a number of trails with signs, 
pointing out places of interest and cautioning about protecting 
the forest from fire. 

Thousands of visitors from Georgia, all parts of the United 
States and from several foreign countries are registered at Vogel 
Forest-Park. These visitors are enthusiastic about Georgia 
mountains and express wonder why these potential recreational 
grounds have not been more fully developed, and why Geor- 
gia itself is not awake to its recreational possibilities. We feel 
the necessity of letting the world know more of the wonderful 
recreational possibilities the mountains of North Georgia offer, 
and for improving the facilities there as the demand increases. 

Indian Springs Forest-Park. The historic background of 
Indian Springs is unsurpassed by any in the State. This spot 
played an important part in the history of Georgia, and Indian 
Springs' reputation is national in scope. State ownership dates 

28 Third Biennial Report 

back to 1801. Today it is a very popular forest-park, visited 
by thousands every year. Twelve acres were added in 1930 
as a gift to the State from the Jackson Kiwanis Club. Recent 
improvements have added to its attractiveness and there has been 
a marked increase in the number of visitors in 1929-30. 

Recreational Demands. Georgia owes it to her citizens to 
provide public playgrounds sufficient in size and number to 
accommodate her people. This demand is increasing yearly. 
A number of State forest-parks will be needed to meet this de- 
mand. With proper administration, forest-parks will be self- 
sustaining, so far as maintenance is concerned. 

Forest Research 

Research workers continue to find new uses for wood. Re- 
cent research has opened up new channels of unlimited possi- 
bilities for southern timber. The South is recognized as the 
leading producer of wood because of its natural advantages, of 
tree species, rainfall, growing season and topography. Dr. 
Chas. H. Herty's work on southern pines has aroused thinking 
people of the State to an appreciation of industrial possibilities 
of Georgia in pulp and paper manufacture. He is pointing the 
way to more forest industries to utilize the forests that can be 
grown and harvested at such low cost to the owner here in the 

Besides pulp and paper possibilities, there are other fields 
yet untouched where wood is to play a vital part in the pro- 
gress and development of the South. Cellulose manufacture in 
the form of rayon, artificial leather, etc., is just as promising as 
the pulp and paper industry, but without chemical research to 
determine the adaptability of southern woods to these new pro- 
ducts, these promising fields must remain undeveloped. 

During the two-year period covered by this report we find 
some material progress in forest research. The Georgia Forest 
Service is co-operating directly with the Appalachian Forest Ex- 
periment Station and the Georgia Experiment Station through 
its branch at Blairsville in Union county in a research project 
started in 1930. The first bulletin on this work is now avail- 

Georgia Forest Service 29 

able. It contains much valuable information collected on types 
and rate of growth in the mountain hardwood section. 

Research work at the Southern Forest Experiment Station of 
the U. S. Forest Service in New Orleans and at Starke, Florida, 
has been of considerable value to the naval stores industry and 
to forestry in general. Direct co-operation of the Georgia For- 
est Service with Dr. Austin Cary of the U. S. Forest Service 
in practical demonstrations in South Georgia has been carried 
on. The studies of Dr. Ziegler of the U. S. Forest Experiment 
Station in New Orleans, and of Dr. Shingler in the Bureau of 
Chemistry have been of great value to forestry and the naval 
stores industry of Georgia. 

Fire Statistics 

During the two-year period covered by this report, there 
has been a small reduction in the total area burned over, both in 
1929 and 1930, although there is an increase in the actual 
number of fires occurring. This is a healthy sign in that it 
indicates that private owners are becoming concerned and some 
definite effort is being made by them to suppress fires. Other- 
wise, with the increased number of fires the total area burned 
over would be larger. 

The fire statistics on unprotected areas for the entire State 
are estimates. These figures are conservative. They were 
checked as far as possible and the results are believed to be fairly 

The figures for the protected areas — the timber protective 
organizations — are accurate. Here also we notice an increase 
in the number of fires in 1930 over 1929. This is due to the 
fact that there is a small increase in the total acreage under pro- 
tection and to a very unfavorable fire season; also to large fires 
on two new units which had just gotten under way and were 
not fully organized. 

The fire statistics for the State as a whole for the years 1929 
and 1930, and for areas under control of timber protective or- 
ganizations, are as follows: 

30 Third Biennial Report 

For State 

Year No. Fires Area Covered Acres Burned Total Damage 

1929 19,103 23,725,000 Acres 4,948,205 $4,048,205 

1930 21,734 23.725,000 Acres 4,605,193 $4,631,415 

For Timber Protective Organizations 

Area Covered Acres Burned Total Damage 

1,212,071 Acres 10,558 $13,205 

1,351,070 Acres 13,613 $25,674 


No. Fires 







1929 1930 

Balance (book) from previous year__ __$14,425.42 $21,107.23 

From State, allocated funds 23,508.52 26,937.90 

From State for Indian Springs 2,754.94 5,121.72 

From Fed. Government, Sec. 2 (fire control) 38,850.49 37,523.23 

From Fed. Government, Sec. 4 (nursery) ____ 1,616.44 1,670.52 

From Individuals 40.22 223.76 

Interest on bank balances 367.04 537.71 

$81,563.07 $93,122.07 


Administration : 

Salaries $ 6,300.00 $ 6,300.00 

Travel, State Forester 1,733.37 1,922.10 

Travel, Board Members 372.64 610.80 

Office expense, including porter._ 329.76 260.00 

Postage, telephone, telegraph 327.28 453.83 

Printing , 2,037.89 632.15 

Supplies and Equipment 234.84 704.71 

Miscellaneous, including express . 329.55 160.54 

$11,665.33 $11,044.13 

Salaries, 5 men and stenographers 9,268.92 12,228.00 

Travel, 5 offices 5,166.61 7,083.27 

Postage, telephone, telegraph 45.09 110.72 

Supplies and Equipment 657.56 1,058.31 

Miscellaneous 296.24 233.74 

Special (exhibits) 94.68 

$15,434.42 $20,808.72 

Georgia Forest Service 31 

Bureau of Education: 

1929 1930 

Salaries, Dir. Ed., Asst. & Stenographer.. _ 4,402. 4,749.99 

Travel, Dir. of Ed. & Asst 1,990.90 2,406.87 

Postage 372.00 500.00 

Printing 2,161.91 1,550.81 

Supplies and Equipment _.__. 494.52 792.48 

Miscellaneous, including express 80.51 146.77 

Highway signs 403.70 

$ 9,501.84 $10,550.62 
Forest-Parks : 

Improvements 2,594.50 3,154.34 

Indian Springs 2,920.51 4,973.17 

Southern Forestry Educational Project 3,057.94 2,473.51 

Refunds to Timber Protective Organizations.. 13,814.86 15,030.18 

Nursery Project .__!;: 1,466.44 1,811.34 

Research, North Georgia ■_ 500.00 

South Georgia ,. 414.25 

Total Disbursements . $60,455.84 $70,760.26 

Balance December 31 21,107.23 22,361.81 

$81,563.07 $93,122.07 


In 1927 — "All records are full and complete.'' 

In 1928 — "The records are neatly and accurately kept, and all 

disbursements covered by proper vouchers.'' 
In 1929 — "Payments are supported by proper vouchers. The 

records are being satisfactorily handled. The State 

Forester is bonded." 
In 1930 — "The records of the State Forestry Board are neat, 

accurate and full, enabling us to commend those in 

charge for their industry and efficiency." 








I— I 

















- — 

as . 















































" ut 






i— ! 

























































1 — ' 

4 e< 






































• c 






















^ c 












" cc 






























































































i— I 


























T— I 













































• rH 









































H P 

























— < 



• r- 
















r— H 











» 9 









• r- 

• r— 
















r— 1 















• rH 





























D C 




> £ 





1 £ 

















































« 2 



r— I 












I2 ^ fl 





• • 


Department of Forestry and 
Geological Development 




overnor an 

d G 


1 A 



%T> b 


State of Georgia 



^ i |i«iU »— Sep. Station I 
8CSW OfciWWNS, t-v- 

SEP &o T934 

■■ ■ - — * - 

. i -~ 







Survey Water Resources ___! 10 

State Parks i_. 11 

Work Educational Manager 14 


Forest Fire Control 21 

Forestry School Projects 22 

Publicity 25 

State Nurseries 26 

F'ire Statistics 30 

Map of Forestry Activity 32-33 


Activities of Staff 35-48 

Recommendations 48 

Georgia Water Resource — 50 


Historical 51 

Financial 53 

Operations 54 

Results obtained - 55 

Future Work 56 



January 10th, 1933. 
To His Excellency, 
Hon. Eugene Talmadge, Governor, 
State of Georgia, 

In accordance with Article 4, Section 23 of the Reor- 
ganization Bill enacted by the General Assembly of Geor- 
gia at its session in 1931, the Commission administering 
the Department of Forestry and Geological Development 
herewith transmits the following report to the Governor 
and General Assembly. 


Secretary of the Commission. 


January 10th, 1933. 
To the Members of the Commission of 
Forestry and Geological Development: 

Pursuant to your instructions, we have the honor to 
submit this report covering the activities of the Depart- 
ment under your control. 

Separate statements of the activities of the State 
Geologist, State Forester, Research Chemist and Develop- 
ment Agent reporting for the Main Office, are embodied 

Throughout the year the Development Agent has ob- 
served at first hand the energy, enthusiasm and economy 
with which the employees of the department have car- 
ried on their numerous activities under your control. Ser- 
vice has been the watchword. Results may be indicated 
but not fully recorded in this report. 

I am sure I speak for the personnel of the entire de- 
partment when saying we are grateful to the Commission 
for the great amount of time and thought it has given to 
the development of the department's program of work. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Development Agent. 



Organized as 


in 1925 


Organized as 


in 1889 


Organized in 1932 

Reporting to the 





President — Governor Richard B. Russell, Jr. 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton 

J. Leonard Rountree, Summit 

C. B. Harman, Atlanta 

Alex K. Sessoms, Cogdell 

J. M. Mallory, Savannah 
Secretary — S. W. McCallie, State Geologist, Atlanta 

President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt Appearing on the Platform at 

Warm Springs to Speak on Forestry Greeted by a Large 

and Enthusiastic Audience 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 


BONNELL STONE, Development Agent, Oxford 
C. A. WHITTLE, Educational Manager, Atlanta 
MRS. NELLIE E. EDWARDS, Treasurer, Atlanta 


Since January 1st, 1932, the Department of Forestry and Geo- 
logical Development has been vested with all powers, functions and 
duties of the former State Board of Forestry, and all powers, func- 
tions and duties of the former Advisory Board to the State Geolo- 
gists. The two former departments were abolished, but all laws af- 
fecting the two former departments were, therefore, made applicable 
to the new department by this merger and transfer of authority. 

This department, by virtue of the Reorganization Act, is under 
the direction of a Commission, consisting of the Governor of Georgia 
as Chairman, and six members who are appointed by the Governor. 

The General Assembly of 1931 made provision for the support of 
this department by appropriations from the General Treasury, thus 
changing from the former allocation to forestry of certain privilege 
taxes. A special appropriation was also made "for the purpose of 
developing the paper pulp industry in this State." 

At the first meeting of the Commission in January, 1932, three 
divisions of the department were set up for the proper handling of 
the work, as follows: The Division of Geology, the Division of Fores- 
try, the Division of Pulp and Paper Research. The experts placed 
in charge of these divisions were given the titles of State Geologist, 
State Forester and Research Chemist, while their duties were con- 
centrated in these broad fields of activities. 

The work of the Division of Pulp and Paper Reasearch is en- 
tirely new, as no other State has provided facilities and established 
a progressive program for the development of pulp and paper from 
the pine trees of the south. The outstanding progress made in proper 
forestry practice in Georgia since 1925 gives a logical background 
for such leadership in research by this State. The presence of practi- 
cally all minerals and other economic advantages required in the 
manufacture of high grade paper also gives Georgia an added incen- 
tive to secure a pulp and paper industry within her borders. Very 
encouraging results have already been obtained in the Research Pa- 
per Plant at Savannah in 1932. 



In addition to the further development of forestry and geology, 
therefore, this department has been given new duties of great im- 
portance to the State of Georgia. 

Section 24 of the Reorganization Act begins as follows: "It shall 
be the duty of the department to encourage the development of NEW 
MARKETS for Georgia forest and geological products, and use its 
efforts to bring NEW INDUSTRIES into the State." Also in Section 
23 of the same Act, the Commission is instructed to " . . . make pub- 
lic reports upon the geological and forest conditions in Georgia, in- 

These new duties have been undertaken by the Commission 
through its Main Office, which was set up for this purpose and for 
coordinating the work of the three divisions. 


The personnel of the Main Office cooperates with the heads of 
the three divisions for the proper development of the department a^ 
a whole. It also serves the Commission as a central agency for con- 
tacts with other State departments and institutions and with the 

The four employees in the Main Office are the Development 
Agent, Educational Manager and Editor, the Treasurer and the Of- 
fice Assistant. As these titles imply, their various duties include the 
development of markets, industrial surveys and commercial relations, 
all educational programs and projects, editing publications and news 
service, and all accounting and bookkeeping for the department. 


It was necessary in the beginning of the year to make adjust- 
ments for the new department and establish an organization plan. 
This the Commission handled through special committees consisting 
of its members and the Development Agent. The Educational Mana- 
ger and Editor was transferred from the forestry office to the Main 
Office for uniform service to the entire department. The former As- 
sistant Educational Manager was made District Forester with head- 
quarters at Augusta, thus completing an original program to or- 
ganize the State into eight forestry districts. Through the District 
Foresters the State Forester can supervise to best advantage the 
decentralized plan of administration. 

State nurseries were needed for larger production of forest tree 
seedlings at lower prices than had ever before been offered in Geor- 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 9 

gia, so with Federal and State funds available for this purpose, the 
Commission secured splendid local cooperation and selected sites at 
Albany and in Union county, after very careful investigations of sev- 
eral other sites offered in other sections of the State. When these 
two State nurseries were established on lands leased for 99 years at 
a nominal figure, they were turned over to the Division of Forestry 
for operation. This year the seedlings were sold at half the former 
prices and at actual cost of production. With a greatly increasing 
demand for these seedlings, larger quantities will be planted next 
year, so that many acres of abandoned farm lands, marginal and 
waste areas may be planted cheaply for future revenue from tree 
crops. These State nursery sites are so located that thy will grow all 
species of forest seedlings indigenous to the State. 


Cooperation with the Vocational Agricultural schools through- 
out the State in the study of the rudiments of practical forestry has 
brought most gratifying results. Students taking the course learn to 
identify trees, the commercial uses of wood and the propogation and 
care of forests. 

The Pulp and Paper Research Division through its head has joined 
in educational work with prizes to students and talks to students 
who visit the plant in Savannah. 

We also propose to acquaint the students in these schools with 
the varied and enormous mineral resources of Georgia; enable them 
to identify at least the common minerals, and have general know- 
ledge of their uses and value. 

As this cooperative project now heads up in the Main Office, a 
complete program for the department calls for each division to ren- 
der its particular service to the schools. 


It is well known that Georgia soils in every county will produce 
abundant crops of trees when protection from fire and proper man- 
agement plans are made effective. According to best authority we are 
fast approaching the time when the annual reproduction of southern 
pine will equal the lumber cut. 

The per capita consumption of lumber decreased from 500 feet 
in 1906 to 300 feet in 1925, and to 120 feet for 1932. The Naval 
stores industry is suffering, not only from the world-wide depression, 
but from strong competition of synthetic substitutes. These condi- 
tions make it urgent that we find new markets and uses for naval 
stores and other timber products. The coming of pulp and paper mills 


would be a step in that direction. We believe that systematic re- 
search would widen the use of naval stores. 

Too many of our mineral products are shipped from Georgia in 
their raw state and processed elsewhere. The Georgia School of Tech- 
nology, at its ceramic department, through research and semi-com- 
mercial tests, is making progress to correct this situation and it has 
been the pleasure of your Development Agent to keep in constant 
contact and cooperate in these efforts. 

Chambers of Commerce, city governments and individuals are 
frequently called upon to prepare industrial surveys for prospective 
manufacturers, mine operators, or for publicity purposes. The For- 
estry Division and the Geological Division have on file much data 
bearing on the forest and mineral resources of the State and this in- 
formation is available to anyone who may be interested. 

Accentuating the depression, producers of lumber, pulp, paper, 
minerals and many other products have suffered severe competition 
during the year from Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Japan, 
Russia and other countries by the change in the money standard 
from the gold to the silver basis. These products and the ocean 
freights are paid by the American importers in the money of the 
producing or exporting country. In round figures it has amounted to 
35 per cent reduction in the former prices. 

Among others, Congressman Vinson introduced a bill in the last 
Congress which would equalize the difference and prevent the dump- 
ing of these foreign products, and there were hearings before the 
Ways and Means Committee of the House on the bills. The Develop- 
ment Agent accompanied a delegation of citizens of Georgia to 
Washington and assisted in the preparation of evidence for the com- 

Some relief was granted in the cases of lumber and coal and it 
is hoped the present Congress will pass the Vinson Bill which will 
help the producers of kaolin, fullers earth and other products of 


A special committee consisting of two members of the Commis- 
sion and the Development Agent has recently completed a study and 
report on the cost of a survey of Georgia's water resources. 

We do not consider stream gauging necessary in Georgia for 
either navigation purposes or for power development, because such 
uses are confined to the larger streams and are gauged by the Fed- 
eral Government, or have been developed or surveyed. What is 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 11 

needed is the flow or capacity of smaller streams of sufficient volume 
for municipal or industrial purposes, upon which there is now no 
data. Besides the flow of these streams we should have the chemical 
analyses and temperatures of all streams in the State, so that the 
proper development of Georgia may be speeded up through general 
industrial use of its waters. 

Streams with a daily minimum flow of 25 million gallons can be 
used for municipal and industrial purposes. Even streams of a smal- 
ler flow are available where it is feasible to impound them. A glimpse 
of a map of Georgia will show scarcely any, if a single county, but 
has streams of these classes. 

The manufacture of pulp and paper requires a large quantity of 
water, 25 million gallons being the minimum. Roughly speaking, a 
stream 15 feet wide with an average depth of 2 feet and flowing 60 
feet per minute will furnish that amount, but obviously the supply 
must be constant, 

If the water is turbid, or carries an excess of lime, sulphur and 
other minerals, it must be treated. Bleacheries and plants manufac- 
turing rayon, chemicals and other products are also large consumers 
of water of certain purities. 

Pulpwood and pulp can be transported a considerable distance, 
but usually at the expense of the seller. Paper and pulp plants must 
be near the water supply, as pumping is expensive. Generally speak- 
ing, Georgia is blessed with both surface and underground supplies 
of water, but little is known of the capacity of our smaller streams 
and the chemical analyses or temperatures of the waters of any 
streams. Other southern states with second growth pine and advant- 
ages similar to our own, have been collecting this information for 
years. Manufacturers from distant states seeking mill sites in the 
south have little choice as between states. Water, raw materials, la- 
bor, power, fuel and transportation are the controlling requirements. 
The cost of surveying available streams, including chemical analyses 
and the recording of temperatures is comparatively a small outlay as 
the Geological Survey of the United States will share half the cost. 
We urge the consideration of this work. 


The Department of Forestry and Geological Development, 
through its Main Office, has spent judiciously the limited funds 
available for park development and maintenance. We anticipate the 
receipts from concessions and other sources at these parks will in 
time make them self sustaining. 


Few states embrace as many points of historical, scenic and re- 
creational value as does Georgia. Ancient mounds and artifacts here 
and there carry evidence of the prehistoric Mound Builders. On the 
coast are remains of ancient Spanish mission buildings established a 
hundred years before those in California. Indian Springs, where the 
State owns a beautiful park, and other sites represent the occupancy 
of the Indians. Many locations attest Georgia's struggle and coopera- 
tion for American independence. 

"Liberty Hall", the home of Alexander H. Stephens, recently do- 
nated to the State, and other shrines, represent the period of the 
War Between the States. 

Vogel Park at Neel Gap illustrates the wonderful scenic beauty 
of our Georgia mountains. 

Parks representing the Spanish pioneering and the American 
Revolution period would be very desirable acquisitions. We hope the 
owners of some of these sites will, through their generosity and pub- 
lic spirit, donate them to the State and that we may be able to ac- 
cept and preserve them. 

As the beginning of a system of State Parks, Georgia has ac- 
quired to date the three areas without cost to the State — Vogel State 
Park, located in Union county where the Appalachian Scenic Highway 
traverses the Blue Ridge Mountain divide; Indian Springs State Park, 
located in Butts county on highway No. 42 midway between Atlanta 
and Macon; Alexander H. Stephens State Park, located at Crawford- 
ville in Taliaferro county on State highway No. 12. 

Vogel State Park was very generously presented to the State by 
Mr. Fred Vogel, Jr., one of the owners of large timber holdings in 
northeast Georgia. The State came into possession of Indian Springs 
State Park through the treaty of 1825 with the Creek Indians. Ten 
acres of this unit are the remnant of a much larger area ceded to the 
State by this treaty. The citizens of the town of Jackson recently 
made the State a gift of 12 additional acres, which have been added 
to this unit at Indian Springs. The Stephens home, "Liberty Hall", 
and some adjoining property were given to the State by the Alex- 
ander H. Stephens Monumental Association and the United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy. 

VOGEL STATE PARK — This park embraces an area of 166 
acres and has within its boundaries some of the most interesting 
picturesque scenery of the mountain section of the State. It includes 
the summit of Blood Mountain with an elevation of 4463 feet, one 
of the finest of our mountains. The area also contains a picturesque 
waterfall, and occupies Neel Gap, one of the principal gaps in the 
Blue Ridge. This area with its wonderful topographic features, great 
variety of trees and shrubs is admirably suited for recreational pur- 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 13 

poses, and compares favorably with such areas anywhere in the 
United States. The Department has made this area accessible by the 
construction of trails and other improvements which add greatly to 
its usefulness. 

An adequate sanitary water supply has been developed through 
the construction of a cement reservoir. Comfortable rest rooms with 
modern conveniences have been constructed, and picnic and camp 
grounds, as well as adequate parking areas, have been developed. 

A restaurant service is provided under a concession lease, and 
a limited number of overnight quarters have been provided in the 
same manner. The area is kept under observation during the fire 
season and adequate provisions have been made for its protection 
from forest fires. 

The park has been visited by approximately 20,000 persons each 
year, and an analysis of the guest register maintained there shows 
that in 1929 visitors came from 42 states, and from 313 towns and 
communities in Georgia. 

INDIAN SPRINGS STATE PARK— This park embraces an area 
of 22 acres, surrounding the mineral spring, the water from which 
was used by the Indians and by white men ever since their discovery 
of it in the 18th century. The park area is situated at the conflu- 
ence of two streams and a large part of the area is well wooded. In 
addition to the curative properties of the waters of the mineral 
spring, the area is a very attractive one and lends itself to develop- 
ment for recreations. 

Owing to the famous treaty of 1825, at which time the Indians 
gave up their title to a large part of what now comprises the area 
of Georgia, the park has considerable historic interest. Perhaps no 
other spot in Georgia is known to so many people. This with its his- 
toric background adds greatly to its desirability as a state park. 

The Department has done considerable improvement work on 
the area, which includes the construction of a stone shelter over the 
spring itself and covering the spring so as to insure its waters against 
pollution to which it was subjected before this improvement was un- 
dertaken. A concrete restroom and complete water system has been 
installed, as well as facilities for taking mineral water baths. The 
dilapidated elevated walkway from one entrance to the property and 
spanning one of the streams mentioned has been replaced with a suit- 
able cement structure. 

Adequate parking areas have been provided for automobiles, 
and picnic and camp grounds have been developed and are main- 
tained in keeping with the demand for their use. The area has 
been made accessible through the construction of trails, and con- 
siderable planting of trees and shrubs has been done in an effort 


to restore some of the original forest setting around the spring it- 
self. A wading pool and other playground equipment have been pro- 
vided for the many youngsters who visit the place every year. Elec- 
tric lights have been provided for the playground and area immedi- 
ately around the spring, which makes it possible to use the area by a 
large number of people who visit the spring after dark. The bath 
house and restaurant are maintained as a concession, and the State 
employs a caretaker to look after the property and give it proper 

During the past year more than 50,000 people visited the area, 
this being considerably more than the number during the previous 
year, and it is believed that with the improvement of roads in that 
section that still larger numbers of people will take advantage of the 
recreational facilities provided there. 

taining 18 acres on which is situated the former home of Alexander 
H. Stephens and upon which he is buried, has only recently become 
the property of the State and no improvement work has been under- 
taken. The Stephens home is in a fairly good state of preservation 
but some repair work is needed on the building and also on some of 
the furniture which was formerly the property of Mr. Stephens. Al- 
though this place has been given very little publicity, it has been vis- 
ited by a comparatively large number of people during the past ten 
years. The register contains the names of many thousands of people 
from many parts of the United States. 

This historic shrine came into the State ownership at the in- 
stance of the Alexander H. Stephens Monumental Association and 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy through the good offices of 
Judge and Mrs. Horace M. Holden of Atlanta. With the continued co- 
operation of these organizations and their members, "Liberty Hall" 
will soon be visited by the American people under more favorable 


Under the reorganization plan, the educational and publicity 
work hitherto functioning under the Division of Forestry, was trans- 
ferred to the Main Office to serve all divisions. 

The Educational Manager is in charge of forestry work in voca- 
tional agricultural schools; the vocational forestry camp; is editor 
of the monthly publication of the department; edits bulletins, leaf- 
lets and posters; prepares news items released to the press, and as- 
sembles and organizes reference literature for use of the depart- 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 


Work with Vocational Agricultural Schools — Georgia is the first 
state to introduce a forestry project in its agricultural Smith-Hughes 
schools. This step was initiated by the Division of Forestry, which 
found the Division of Vocational Education of the State willing and 
enthusiastic in its co-operation. 

School forests of ten or more acres were leased for 10 years. 
Each white and several colored vocational schools obtained school 
forests which were surveyed and mapped by representatives of the 
Division of Forestry. The Division also outlined a program of job 
work in the management of the forests, embracing the growing of 
forest seedlings, planting, thinning, fire protection, timber cruising 
and wood utilization. 

The educational manager, in company with district foresters, 
visits from time to time the schools having the forestry projects to 
assist in promoting the work. 

Two or three times each year the district foresters visit the 
schools and conduct practical demonstrations supplementing the 
work of the vocational teachers who instruct their students in the 
rudiments of forestry by using State and Federal bulletins as texts. 
The teachers have also encouraged boys to conduct forestry demon- 
strations on their home farms with considerable success. 

Three years of work of this nature have amply justified the un- 
dertaking. It has resulted in training thousands of rural boys in the 
principles of practical forestry. Those in position to judge have stated 

Group of Agricultural Vocational Students Receiving Certificates of 

Vocational Forester in 1932. 


that no school project has proven so popular nor received more en- 
thusiastic support than the forestry project. 

Some vocational schools drop out, but others take their places 
so that the average number of schools carrying on the full forestry 
projects is about 115 annually. The average number of students tak- 
ing the forestry work in the schools is between 3,000 and 5,000 an- 

Vocational Forestry Camp — For two years a vocational forestry 
camp has been conducted at Young Harris College in the mountains 
of North Georgia. One boy from each county having vocational 
schools is entitled to attend camp. The award of a camp scholarship 
is made on the basis of a competitive forestry examination, home for- 
estry demonstration, general scholarship and character. A scholarship 
entitles the holder to attend two camps of three weeks each. If the 
six weeks camp work is satisfactorily carried out, the student re- 
ceives a certificate of Vocational Forester. 

The school work at camp consists of more intensive training 
along lines taught in the schools, the teaching being carried on by 
the educational manager and district foresters. The control of stu- 
dents, athletics, etc., is under the direction of an assistant state 
supervisor of vocational agricultural teaching, assisted by vocational 
teachers he selects. 

In addition to the class and field work, students are taken on 
trips of interest into the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and 
to points of interest in the national forests. Lectures by prominent 
speakers, and moving pictures relating to forestry are nightly fea- 
tures of the camp. 

The Vocational Forestry Camp has undoubtedly stimulated a 
great deal of interest in the school forestry work throughout the 
state, and each boy who has been fortunate enough to attend the 
camp will be a missionary in promoting forestry in his section of the 

Thirty-nine students received certificates of Vocational Forester 
in 1932 and around 50 will receive certificates each year the camp is 
held. This means that about 100 students will attend camp each year,, 
half of them completing the two summers work each year. Eight to 
ten vocational teachers also attend on scholarship provided by the 
Division of Forestry. 

Forestry-Geological Review — With the reorganization, the "For- 
est Lookout", previously issued by the Division of Forestry, was en- 
larged and its name changed to the "Forestry-Geological Review" to 
serve the entire department. The publication is issued monthly and is 
distributed to leading land owners, civic and business leaders, county 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 17 

agents, vocational schools, mine and quarry interests, naval stores 
operators, lumbermen, etc. The little publication is serving a useful 
purpose in stimulating interest in forest fire protection and othev 
good forestry practices; in bringing to the public information about 
the progress of work at the paper research plant; in acquainting 
Georgia with its mineral resources; in promoting the interest in for- 
estry in schools and in creating interest in state parks. 

News Service — The Educational Manager sends out weekly news 
releases touching various activities of the department. They are es- 
pecially acceptable to weekly papers, while press agencies and daily 
papers accept articles especially prepared for Sunday editions. These 
items contain news or timely information and are quite generally ac- 
ceptable as shown by clippings obtained through a clipping bureau. 

Contributions are made by district foresters and geologists of 
the state to newspapers, trade journals and magazines. The number 
of contributions accepted show a gratifying interest on the part of 
the state press in the resources represented by this department. 

The number of editorials in state papers and technical journals, 
especially regarding forestry and the use of southern pines for mak- 
ing paper, is numerous and reflects strong sentiment in promoting 
these interests in Georgia. 

Bulletins, Leaflets, etc. — In line with its policy of rigid economy, 
the Commission considered it advisable to restrict the publication of 
bulletins and leaflets as much as possible. The department, therefore, 
issued no new publications in 1932 and only reprinted new editions 
of old bulletins and leaflets that were exhausted and were in de- 

Fire posters were much in demand in the spring of 1932, also in 
the fall. New posters were printed and distributed to supply this 

Exhibits — It has not been found feasible with present funds and 
limited personnel to do extensive exhibiting at state, divisional and 
county fairs, but exhibits have been made at the annual meeting of 
the Georgia Forestry Association and at a few county fairs. District 
foresters have placed exhibits at fairs and assisted in arranging for- 
estry features of school exhibits in a number of places. Occasionally 
the Educational Manager is called upon to explain the forestry fea- 
ture of the state museum to visiting school groups and individuals, 
also to address schools and civic clubs on the subject of forestry. 


All accounting and fiscal duties of the department are performed 
by the treasurer located in the Main Office. This includes the book- 


keeping of all divisions, the receipt and disbursement of funds and 
the preparation of monthly and quarterly financial statements for the 
State Auditor and each member of the Commission. In addition, the 
treasurer also acts as secretary of the Main Office. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 19 


B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester, Atlanta, 
W. D. YOUNG, District Forester, Rome, 
EVERETT B. STONE, District Forester, Gainesville, 

C. N. ELLIOTT, District Forester, Augusta, 
W. G. WALLACE, District forester, Columbus, 
H. M. SEBRING, District Forester, Macon, 
JACK THURMOND, District Forester, Savannah, 

C. BERNARD BEALE, District Forester, Waycross, 
H. D. STORY, JR., District Forester, Albany, 
EITEL BAUER, Nurseryman, Albany, 
MRS. R. S. THOMPSON, Secretary, Atlanta. 


(From data of State Forester Lufburrow) 

The three previous biennial reports to the State Board of For- 
estry covered activities of the Georgia Forest Service since 1925 
when the Administrative Law creating the department was passed. 
This report covers the calendar years 1931 and 1932, except for de- 
tails, explained herein. 

The bill reorganizing state departments became effective on 
January 1, 1932. This report, therefore, will combine the work for 
1931 and 1932 in so far as is practicable. 

The progress of forestry in Georgia along all lines has been 
rather remarkable during the past two years. All activities have in- 
creased in scope and effectiveness. Cooperative work with new agen- 
cies has been established and that already undertaken has been con- 
tinued and, in many cases, increased. 

Forest fire control work continues as a major activity. Forest 
fire fighters organizations of small landowners have been added to the 
cooperative work, and the timber protective organizations continue 
to increase in number and the acreage protected to be enlarged. Fed- 
eral cooperations continues on a very satisfactory and pleasant basis. 

The cooperative work with the Department of Vocational Agri- 
culture in 115 vocational agricultural schools completed its second 
summer camp in August, 1932. Thirty-nine certificates were awarded. 
This cooperative work is a most valuable asset to the forestry cause 
in Georgia. 

Our cooperative relationship with all other agencies has been 
most gratifying. 

The intelligent direction of the work by the Board and Com- 
mission has made the two years' results possible, and my sincere ap- 
preciation is hereby expressed. 



Previous biennial reports have covered forestry work of the 
State to January 1, 1931 and this report covers work of the past two 

The forest resources of Georgia represent a possible annual in- 
come of approximately 163 millions of dollars (reproduction). This 
enormous natural resource is being directed by a State organization 
that merits the wholehearted support of the citizens of the State in 
order to attain its objectives. 


All available funds of the Division of Forestry are budgeted. 
This division has maintained its record of living within available 
funds, having completed the year 1931 with a surplus. 

Federal aid, under Sections 2 and 4 of the Clark-McNary Law 
for fire control and nursery work, respectively, is the source of the 
greater portion of funds supporting the Division of Forestry. 



• *98.659 ■ 



The personnel of the Georgia Forest Service during 1931 con- 
sisted of the state forester and a staff consisting of a director of edu- 
cation and utilization, two assistant state foresters, five disrict for- 
esters, an assistant director of education and utilization, a secretary 
to the state forester and a secretary to the director of education and 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 21 

Technical training and practical experience prior to entering 
the forest service fitted this personnel to give scientific and practical 
information and assistance to Georgia's timbevland owners. 

In 1932, the personnel of the Division of Forestry consisted of 
the state forester, a secretary, and a staff of eight district foresters. 

The headquarters for the district foresters are Albany, Augus- 
ta, Columbus, Gainesville, Macon, Rome, Savannah and Waycross. 
These offices are provided, together with heat, light and water, with- 
out cost to the State. 


A major activity of the division from the beginning of our work 
has been forest fire control. A greater portion of this work is sup- 
ported by Federal funds under Section 2 of the Clark-McNary Law. 
The Georgia Forest Service has never had sufficient State funds to 
match the Federal allotment to Georgia for fire control work al- 
though during the fiscal year 1932 the State received more Federal 
funds than in any previous year. In this same year, Georgia was one 
of very few states to increase the area under organized protection 
and cooperative expenditures. The intent of the Federal Law is that 
these funds must be spent for fire control work only, and not for ad- 
ministrative purposes. 

The timber protective organizations represent organized grouped 
effort in fire control. This plan offers the most economical and prac- 
tical basis of pooling funds of the Federal government, the State, 
county and private owners for expenditure on fire protection. The 
administrative cost is reduced to a minimum and the method provid- 
ed is sufficiently elastic to meet local requirements. It places respon- 
sibility on the local landowner and permits him the use of available 
local labor and equipment. It insures active local interest at all times 
and affords a channel through which the personnel of the Division of 
Forestry can render effective service. 

The Forest Fire Fighters' organizations, which were inaugurated 
at the July meeting of the Commission, represent group effort of 
small landowners throughout the State. They receive service from 
the personnel of the Division of Forestry similar to that received by 
the timber protective organizations, and receive Federal aid in the 
purchase of fire fighting equipment where funds are pooled for its 

The Forest F'ire Fighters' organizations not only emphasize the 
importance of group effort and provide community leadership but 
form the basis for building up community sentiment. 


The special patrolmen who were used during the 1932 lire sea- 
sons promoted an extensive protective undertaking covering 10,306,- 
600 acres with remarkable results. This undertaking disclosed the 
possibilities of forming the Forest Fire Fighters' organizations men- 
tioned and thus enabled this division to respond to a demand for co- 
operation in fire control work and to render a real service to the 
small landowner. 

The land listed in the timber protective organizations during 
1931 and 1932 reached a total of 1,405,347 acres. This area is under 
intensive protection and contributes to the cost of same. Within or 
adjoining organized areas, are lands which it is necessary to protect 
because of the fire hazard they create to the organized lands. These 
areas amount to more than 500,000 acres. Land in or adjacent to the 
national forests in north Georgia under intensive protection that 
must be kept free of fire to protect national forests from invading 
fires amount to more than 482,318 acres. It is estimated that an ad- 
ditional 700,000 acres in farm woodlots, game preserves and small 
ownership are under protection and not included in the above, mak- 
ing a total of approximately 3,087,665 acres within the State that 
are under intensive protection. A total for areas which are under both 
intensive and extensive protection is about 13,394,265 acres. 


An important forestry problem of this State, which has 23,750,- 
000 acres of potential forest land, 99 per cent privately owned and 
the greater portion of which is in small holdings, is forest manage- 
ment. This is now largely a problem of the owner, provisions having 
been made for the State to help only in solving the fire problem. 

Georgia's future development will depend upon how her forest 
areas are managed. It is a land-use problem affecting more than 63- 
2/3 per cent of the land area of the State, and assistance from the 
State to the private owner is an essential part of a program of full 
development and proper use of forest areas. 

Each of the eight district foresters are covering from 17 to 23 
counties. They are helping the landowners on their forestry manage- 
ment problems in so far as their time will permit and are glad to do 
so, but it is apparent that they can do very little of the great amount 
of work needed in directing individual landowners in their forestry 
management problems. 


The forestry project of 115 vocational agricultural schools of 
the State made satisfactory progress in 1931 and 1932. These schools 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 


are for the most part rural consolidated high schools, to which stu- 
dents are assembled by school buses from a wide territory. 

Every white school of the State, having a full time vocational 
agricultural teacher, has a school forest of approximately 10 acres 
leased for a period of 10 years. A few colored vocational schools also 
have forests. 

These school forests are surveyed and mapped and have manage- 
ment plans made by members of the forestry staff. Each district for- 
ester visits the schools in his district two to three times a year and 

Awarded by 


Department of 

^r of Georgia q 

li^tB is in rprtiftj, that^lcLAA^&&ymmM/_ 

having made an acceptable record in Forestry in a Vocational Agricultural School, has 
now successfully completed six weeks of intensive work under trained foresters of the 
Department of Forestry and Geological Development of Georgia at the Vocational 
Forestry Camp, which certification affirms that the person here named has a know- 
ledge of the fundamentals of Forestry Practices and is recommended as qualified to 
do non-technical forestry work. 

In witness whereof, we affix hereto our signatures and official titles on this the 
12th day of August, 1932. 



Chairman, Commission of Forestry 
and Geological Development 

State Forester 

Educational Manager 

Fig. 4 Reproduction of Certificate of Vocational Forester given to 

rural high school students completing course at Vocational 
Forestry Camp. 


gives demonstrations in growing tree seedlings, planting, thinning, 
fire prevention, estimating the volume of standing timber and wood 
utilization. Upon each district forester rests responsibility for the 
school forestry project in his district. 

The vocational agricultural teacher gives a definite period of 
time each year to teaching the rudiments of forestry, using for this 
purpose State and Federal forestry bulletins. Under the direction of 
the teacher, students conduct home forestry projects in which plant- 
ing, thinning and fire protection are carried out. 

A feature of the school forestry project that has stimulated a 
great deal of interest is the vocational forestry camp held for three 
weeks in July and August of 1931 and 1932 at Young Harris College 
in the mountains of northeast Georgia. One hundred boys and a few 
vocational teachers attend. The selection of one boy for each county 
for the camp is by examination, each contestant also being required 
to have a home project in forestry and a good general scholarship 
and character certificate from his teacher. In this way, a high class 
of boys is assured. 

The expenses of the camp are paid from forestry funds. Each 
student is entitled to six weeks' camp work, three weeks each sum- 
mer for two summers. If the camp work is successfully performed the 
student is awarded a certificate of Vocational Forester. The first 
class received certificates at the camp in 1932. These boys have been 
taught the fundamentals of forestry and will undoubtedly be enthus- 
iastic advocates of good forestry practices in their home communi- 

The camp is in charge of the educational manager with the dis- 
trict foresters acting with him as a faculty. The course of study at 
the camp has been worked out by the state forester, the educational 
manager and the district foresters, and is designed to give intensive 
practical training, mainly by the job method of teaching, in the 
fundamentals of forestry. 

Discipline, recreation and activities aside from teaching, are in 
general charge of M. D. Mobley, assistant state supervisor of voca- 
tional education, assisted by a group of vocational teachers selected 
by him each year. 

The state forester believes that this forestry school work, which 
the Georgia Forest Service originated, is very valuable and recom- 
mends its continuance. 

In this connection, it is a pleasure to say that the heartiest coop- 
eration has been received from the heads of vocational education in 
the State and the vocational teachers, and to them an important 
share of credit is due for the success attained. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 25 


Monthly Publication — During 1931 a 4-page monthly publication 
entitled the "Georgia Forest Lookout" was issued by the Georgia 
Forest Service. With the reorganization, this publication, enlarged 
to eight pages, is now issued under the name, "Forestry-Geological 
Review", and is in the charge of the main office. 

The publication has met an important need in keeping people 
who are interested in forestry and forestry products and civic lead- 
ers informed about the progress of forestry in the State and its 
needs. Articles appearing in the publication have been widely copied 
in the State. 

News Service — In 1931 a weekly forestry news service for the 
press of the State was conducted by the Georgia F'orest Service. In 
1932 this service was transferred to the main office and continued. 

These items have been quite generally accepted by the press of 
the State as shown by clippings received. They have been the means 
of getting before the great body of the State's citizens timely and 
important information about forests and parks. For the cooperation 
of the press, the state forester is very grateful. 

Special Articles — Special articles have been prepared by mem- 
bers of the staff for the Associated Press, various newspapers, trade 
journals and magazines. District foresters have contributed more to 
newspapers and magazines than heretofore. 

In some instances, district foresters have been solicited to pre- 
pare a series of articles on forestry for local papers and have made 
such contributions. 

Clipping Service — A state newspaper clipping service was ob- 
tained by the Georgia Forest Service for 1931 and is still used. This 
service makes available once or twice a week the information appear- 
ing on forestry in the papers of the State, and affords a check on the 
use of news items sent out. 

It is gratifying to note the space given by the press of the State 
to matters pertaining to forestry. Favorable editorials on forestry are 
growing in numbers in many of the Georgia newspapers. 


The Division of Forestry is receiving numerous requests for ad- 
dresses before various civic and business organizations on forestry. 
It is often necessary to regretfully decline some invitations because 
of the pressure of other duties. 


Dr. Charles H. Herty has rendered valuable service to this divi- 
sion by speaking before gatherings arranged by district foresters. 

A notable address at a district forestry meeting, arranged by 
the district forester and the Meriwether Timber Protective Organiza- 
tion was that made November 29, 1932, at Warm Springs, by Presi- 
dent-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. Governor Roosevelt is a member of 
the Meriwether Timber Protective Organization and is an enthusiastic 
advocate of forestry. 

The growing demand for addresses on forestry in the State may 
be taken as an indication of a growing interest in forestry. 


The Georgia Forestry Association, composed of public spirited 
citizens in all walks of life, has given real assistance and cooperation 
to the Georgia Forest Service and its successor, the Division of For- 
estry in all of its undertakings from the beginning of the work. 

The cooperative work with the Federal government under Sec- 
tions 2 and 4 of the Clark-McNary Law has been conducted on a 
very high plane and the best of relationships exist. 

We have also enjoyed the cooperation of the following bureaus 
and stations of the United States Forest Service: The Bureau of 
Chemistry and Soils; the forest experiment stations at Asheville, 
North Carolina; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Starke, Florida. 

We have also cooperated very closely with the director of the 
Georgia Experiment Station at Griffin, in forestry research work; 
with the director of extension of the State College of Agriculture at 
Athens; with the Forestry School at Athens and various State de- 


The Commission of Forestry and Geological Development, at its 
first meeting in January, 1932, authorized the establishment of two 
state nurseries and the use of Federal aid funds for the growing of 
forest planting stock. 

One nursery was established at Albany, consisting of 11.5 acres 
of land on the county farm under a 99-year lease, the Chamber of 
Commerce of Albany donating the equivalent of $300 for a water 
supply for the nursery. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 


Because of a late start, only loblolly, longleaf and slash pine 
seed were planted in this nursery. We expect to produce approxi- 
mately three-quarters of a million seedlings from this nursery in 

The nursery in Union county on the Georgia Experiment Station 
grounds contains 3.4 acres. The director of the station has granted 
this division the use of this land under a 10-year lease. Black walnut, 
black locust, yellow poplar, white pine, shortleaf pine and loblolly 
pine were planted at this nursery in 1932. 

The demand for planting stock of both nurseries this year has 


: .■«:;;::¥«:::',;■; :>;.'■:• 

Fig. 5 View of State Tree Nursery at Albany, April, 1932. 

been most gratifying. At the present time the orders for seedlings 
have exceeded the supply with the exception of slash pine, and before 
the planting season ends, we expect to receive orders for all of the 
slash pine. 

On account of an obligation assumed in accepting Federal aid 
funds for operating the nurseries, the planting stock is sold at cost 
to farmers and timberland owners. Only forest tree planting stock 
will be grown at these nurseries. Commercial nurserymen are not 
interested in producing forest tree stock because of the small amount 
of profit to be made. Farmers and timberland owners can not afford 
to buy this stock from an investment standpoint unless the cost is 
very low. The Division of Forestry, is, therefore, conferring a real 
benefit on the landowner and the State by making it possible to 



cheaply plant those areas that are now idle and are not within reach 
of seed trees where natural reforestation can take place. 


An offer of 100 acres of land in Richmond county near Augusta 
by Mrs. Eliza H. S. Nixon to be used as a state foreat was accepted 
by the Commission at its meeting on July 8, 1932. The deed was pre- 

Fig. 6 View of pine seedlings at Albany State Tree Nursery in 

November, 1932 

pared, the title examined and approved by the State Attorney-Gen- 
eral's office on October 5, 1932. 

The Gwinn Nixon State Forest will be used for demonstration 
and experimental purposes. This forest is typical of a considerable 
forest area of middle Georgia. It will be administered on a business 
basis and will be put on a self-supporting basis as soon as practicable, 
so that it will be of very little cost to the State. On this area we 
hope to solve some of the forestry problems of middle Georgia. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 29 

The need of state forests in other sections of the State is obvious 
if the Division of Forestry is to give, through demonstrations and 
practice, similar service to the remaining area of Georgia's 23,750,- 
000 acres of forest land. 


There are many problems confronting the users of southern tim- 
ber. Georgia, with the largest forest area of any State in the Union, 
and with natural advantages, has barely touched the various possi- 
bilities in which wood can play a vital part in the State's develop- 

This division is cooperating with the Georgia Experiment Sta- 
tion at Griffin through its mountain branch in Union county in an 
effort to develop plans of management of farm woodlots of the prin- 
cipal types of north Georgia. Studies are being made of various 
phases of forest growth as influenced by its past usage. We are also 
cooperating with the station in a study of forest nursery seed bed 
problems and problems that deal with methods of harvesting and 
storing tree seed, treatment of seed to prevent attacks of diseases 
and promote higher germination, management of seed beds for in- 
dividual species including spacing and cultural and fertilizer re- 
quirements of the seedlings. 

This division is also cooperating in research with the United 
States Forest Service Experiment Stations in New Orleans, Louis- 
iana; Starke, Florida; and Asheville, North Carolina; and with the 
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils in naval stores research. 


Considerable interest in growing tung oil trees exists in the 
lower counties of Georgia. Planting in that region seem to be making; 
favorable progress. How far north tree will grow has not yet been de- 

This division is watching with interest experimental plantings of 
a hary species from north China, at the Georgia Experiment Station. 
Thus far these trees have survived winters of middle Georgia but 
they have not been grown sufficiently long to justify definite recom- 

Those contemplating investing in tung oil trees should make a 
thorough investigation, especially of results in Florida where several 
years of experiments have been carried on. 


In cooperation with a committee from the University Board of 
Regents, several state departments have selected old Milton county 
as an area in which these agencies will concentrate and coordinate 
their respective work in an effort for the betterment of rural life. 


The Division of Forestry has made a survey of the 83,394 acres 
included in the project. The survey map gives a complete picture of 
the entire area, showing the farm land, forest area by type and age 
classes, pasture land, abandoned areas, improvements, roads, streams, 
settlements, and so on. 

The report covers the economic history of the old county's land 
uses, the present condition of its farm lands, amount and kind of 
standing timber, history of forest fires, and recommends methods of 
organized fire protection with estimated cost. 

The report also recommends a detailed management plan for 
the forest area. A possible annual growth of some ten million board 
feet on a sustained yield basis is estimated which would provide suf- 
ficient timber to keep a community mill operating the year round. 

Forestry work will be coordinated with other state agencies 
through a local committee composed of land and home owners in the 


The summer, fall and winter of 1931 and spring of 1932 were 
recorded as the longest drouth in 20 years or more. The forest fire 
situation became serious in midsummer of 1931 with increasing in- 
tensity until April, 1932. The entire personnel of the Georgia Forest 
Service was assigned to duty in south Georgia during November and 
part of December, 1931. Many state and county agencies were called 
upon to assist and the response was most gratifying. The State 
Highway Commission and many county commissions rendered valu- 
able assistance through road crews, machinery, maintenance crews 
and instruction to their personnel. The press of the State was untir- 
ing in its effort to assist, for all of which the Georgia Forest Service 
is thankful. 

The acreage burned in 1931 was held to a very low figure con- 
sidering conditions. In the early part of 1932 losses were the heaviest 
on both protected and unprotected lands. In some counties 90 per 
cent of the forest areas burned over, while in others where timber 
protective organizations functioned for four or more years, the 
burned area was held as low as 3 per cent, including both protected 
and unprotected lands. 

The special fire patrolmen assisted materially in both preven- 
tion and suppression, as shown by the record of areas burned in the 
localities they covered. 

Conservative estimates tabulated from limited records or surveys 
cover the unprotected areas. The figures for the timber protective 
organizations (organized protection areas) are, however, accurate. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 31 

The records under prevailing fire conditions are considered encourag- 

Area covered (in acres) 




• i— i 

P. 0. c 








• r-4 

O -H 

C3 O 






H £ 

£ ^ 

£ fe 










.017 + 


Figures for 1932 could not be compiled until after the first of 
the year and, for this reason, are not included in this report. 


• I— I 










• fH 

m O 0> 

PS -+-" X, 


u <u 

w >> 

fi (tfr^ 

5m C £ 
O c o 


c - 

T3 <K s 

s s ° 

ht h 



oD+-> a 

v ri 
s c 

<v o> 




s£ o 

re w 



c £ 92 


g e3 <U 


3 <v o 



o >' a 


O rO +-> 



T3^ C 

-f— I 

c Q " rt 


o> w <i> 



+3 <o n 


5h •>- 1 



-— r^ "^ 



w o P< 

• 1— ( 

C > to 
o ^ 




O oj 

•• K £ 


W £ 


H w o> 



4= ^ 


t) 5-i 



REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 35 


S. W. McCALLIE, State Geologist 
RICHARD W. SMITH, Assistant State Geologist 
GEOFFREY W. CRICKMAY, Assistant Geologist 


(From data of State Geologist McCallie) 

The personnel of the survey, in addition to the State Geologist, 
is at present as follows: Richard W. Smith, Assistant State Geolo- 
gist; Geoffrey W. Crickmay, Assistant State Geologist; Miss Marg- 
aret Gann, clerk; porter. Both of the assistants are highly trained 
geologists. Mr. Smith holds degrees from Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology and Cornell University, while Dr. Crickmay holds de- 
grees from the University of British Columbia and Yale University. 


The equipment of the survey consists of an up-to-date chemical 
laboratory (now in storage) ; two Ford coupes for field work; a geo- 
logical library, consisting of several thousand volumes; a museum, 
one of the most complete and best-arranged of its kind in the south- 
ern states; field equipment consisting of cameras, aneroid barometers, 
Brunton pocket compasses, collecting bags, geological hammers, etc. 



S. W. McCallie: During the year my time has been taken up in 
general routine office work, such as answering correspondence, iden- 
tifying specimens, making an occasional visit to the assistant geolo- 
gists in the field, and visits to oil prospect wells being put down in 
south and northwest Georgia. I also spent considerable time in col- 
lecting and compiling statistics on the mineral resources of the 
State, which work was carried on in cooperation with the United 
States Bureau of Mines and the Federal Bureau of Census. The min- 
eral and water power data are as follows: 


FOR 1931 

Asbestos, Ocher :;: $ 5,839 

Barite, Bauxite 264,001 


Cement, Lime (mostly cement) 1,336,457 

Clay 1,656,433 

Clay Products 1,194,371 

Coal, Granite (mostly granite) 2,076,505 

Fullers Earth 844,917 

Iron Ore 51,513 

Limestone 658,544 

Manganese . 78,824 

Marble 3,350,351 

Mica, Chlorite, Gold... 20,761 

Sand and Gravel... 204,593 

Slate, Talc 169,326 

WATER POWER 11,235,312 


The value of the mineral resources of the State for 1931 shows 
a decrease of $3,221,339 compared to the previous year. 

:|: When there are less than three producers of any one product, its 
value is reported in combination with some other product, as As- 
bestos and Ocher. 



Asbestos is a fibrous mineral, somewhat resembling wood in 
physical appearance. It is non-combustible and is extensively used 
for insulation purposes. Only one company reported the production 
of asbestos in the State in 1931: namely, the Clayton Paving Com- 
pany, located in White county near Cleveland. The total value of the 
output of asbestos for 1931 was approximately only 38 per cent of 
that of the previous year. 


Barite is a very heavy mineral, usually of a white color. It is 
known to occur in the following counties of the State: Bartow, Whit- 
field and Murray, but only in the first named county has it been ex- 
tensively worked both during and subsequent to the World War. At 
present only two plants are operating: the Paga Mining Company and 
the Riverside Ochre Company. The latter company ships its product 
in raw state after washing, whereas the other company grinds and 
otherwise treats its ore before placing it on the market. Barite is 
largely used in the making^ of lithophone, a variety of white paint. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 37 

It is also used in the manufacture of paper, rubber, barium salts, as 
well as for refining sugar, glazing pottery, and in enameling iron. 
The total amount of barite put on the market in 1931 was practi- 
cally the same as that in 1930; the value per ton, however, was 
slightly greater, the average price per ton being approximately $5.30. 


The ore from which the metal aluminum is made is called baux- 
ite. It is a hydrated oxide of aluminum. Bauxite was first discovered 
in America near Rome, Floyd county, Georgia, in 1887. The first ship- 
ment of the ore was made in 1888. The following counties of Georgia 
have produced bauxite in commercial quantities: Floyd, Polk, Bar- 
tow, Gordon, Chattooga, and Walker, in northwest Georgia; and 
Wilkinson, Sumter, Macon, Stewart, and Meriwether, in middle and 
south Georgia. 

Only two producers reported production of bauxite in 1931; 
both plants being located in Sumter county, near Andersonville. The 
average price, on boards cars, dried, was approximately $6.00 per 
ton. All of the bauxite produced in 1931 was consumed in the chemi- 
cal industry. 


The total value of Portland cement produced in 1931 was $383,- 
906 less than in 1930. The plants reporting production are as fol- 
lows: Pennsylvania-Dixie Cement Corporation, Clinchfield, Houston 
county; Southern States Portland Cement Company, Rockmart, Polk 
county; and Georgia Cement and Products Corporation, Portland, 
Polk county. The price per barrel of Portland cement in 1931 was 33 
cents less than in 1930. 


Eight counties reported production of clay in 1931 which, named 
in the order of the value of their output, are as follows: Wilkinson, 
Twiggs, Glascock, Richmond, Houston, Hancock, Taylor, and Bald- 
win. Most of these clays were used in the paper industry, although :i 
considerable amount was used in refractoring potter and other indus- 
tries. The total value of the clay in 1931 was $1,656,433, which was 
a decrease of $304, 776 compared to the production in 1930. The 
value of the clay put on the market was approximately $6.00 per ton. 
Georgia still remains the leading state in the production of high 
grade clays. 



The value of clay products in 1931 was $1,194,371, which is 
$279,740 less than that of the previous year. 


Only one company, the Durham Land Company, whose mine is 
located on Lookout Mountain in Walker county, about 12 miles south 
of Chattanooga, reported production of coaL The value of the coal 
produced by this company in 1931 was $26,757 (55 per cent) great- 
er than that of the previous year. 


Fullers earth is a variety of clay used mainly in refining- mineral 
and vegetable oils. Four counties reported production in 1931, which, 
named in the order of production, are as follows: Decatur, Twiggs, 
Wilkinson and Stewart. The value of production in 1931 was over a 
million dollars less than that of 1930. The average price of fullers 
earth in 1931 was approximately $11.00 per ton. 


The value of the gold output in 1931 was limited to a few 
thousand dollars. The main activities, which consisted chiefly of pros- 
pecting and development work, were confined to Lumpkin, McDuffie, 
Cherokee and Hall counties. 


Eight counties reported granite production which, named in the 
order of the value of production, were as follows: DeKalb, Elbert, 
Warren, Madison, Henry, Greene, Hancock, Oglethorpe. The three 
leading uses to which the granites are now being put are for build- 
ing stones, concrete, and monumental purposes. Granite is also being 
extensively used for paving blocks, curbing, road material, etc. The 
total value of granite produced in the State in 1931 was $2,031,845, 
which was an increase of $34,911 over that of the preceding year. 


Only two counties reported production in 1931 of iron ore: 
namely, Polk and Floyd. The total production of 20,745 tons was 
valued at $51,513, a decrease of approximately $100,000 from that 
of 1930. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 39 


The only plant reporting production of lime in 1931 was the 
Ladd Lime and Stone Company. The plant of this company is located 
in Bartow county, near Cartersville. The entire output was used 
mainly for building- purposes. 


Six counties reported limestone production in 1931, which, nam- 
ed in the order of the value of their production, are as follows : Hous- 
ton, Gilmer, Bartow, Pickens, Polk, Crisp. The value of the total 
output was $658,544, an increase of $280,484 over that of 1930. 
This increase is mainly accounted for by an increase in the use of 
limestone in road surfacing. In addition to road construction, the 
stone is also used for tarraza (floor covering), poultry grit, rubber 
filler, paint, paper mills and agricultural purposes. 


Four producers, all of Bartow county: namely, J. T. Thomasson r 
H. C. Simpson, F. D. Smith, and Manganese Corporation of America, 
reported production of manganese in 1931. The total value of the 
production was $411,124 less than that of the previous year. 


Three counties reported marble production in 1931: namely, 
Pickens, Randolph, and Cherokee. The main output was from Pickens 
county, and was produced by the Georgia Marble Company. The total 
value of the marble produced in the State in 1931 was $3,350,351, 
which was an increase of $528,391 over that of the previous year. 
Georgia marble is largely used for monumental purposes and for 
structural work. Many of the most magnificent buildings now be- 
ing constructed in the United States are made of Georgia marble. It 
is indeed gratifying to know that Georgia's greatest mineral indus- 
try, the marble industry, increased in 1931 the value of its output 
approximately 18 per cent over that of the previous year. 


Both mica and chlorite schist were produced in 1931. The main 
output of the former was from the following' counties: Rabun, Up- 
son, Monroe, and Elbert, while the sale of chlorite schist was confined 
to Cherokee county. The value of these two mineral products was 
approximately 2 per cent less than that for 1930. 



Only two companies reported production of ocher in 1931; 
namely, the Riverside Ochre Company and the Cherokee Ochre Com- 
pany. Both of these companies operate in Bartow County, near 
Cartersville. The value of the output of ocher was less than one- 
third of that of 1930. Ocher is made up largely of iron oxide and is 
used in the manufacture of linoleum, oil cloth, coloring for mortars, 
etc. Its value per ton ranges from $10 to $15 or more when pre- 
pared for market. 


Nineteen counties reported production of sand and gravel last 
year. These counties, given in order of the value of production, are 
as follows: Crawford, Muscogee, Dougherty, Effingham, Talbot, Bar- 
tow, Thomas, Telfair, Chatham, Warren, Echols, Wheeler, Coffee, 
DeKalb, Taylor, Mcintosh, Jasper, Richmond, Emanuel. The total 
value of the production was $204,593, a decrease of $23,803 below 
that of the previous year. 


Slate was produced in Bartow and Polk counties in 1931. The 
main output was from Bartow county. It was marketed in the form 
of granules, and used in the manufacture of composition roofing. 
The total value of the production in 1931 was approximately 43 per 
cent less than that of the preceding year. 


Only two companies reported talc production in 1931; namely, 
the Cohutta Talc Company and the Georgia Talc Company. The 
mines and plants of both of these companies are in Murray county, 
near Chatsworth. The value of the output of these companies was 
less by approximately 26 per cent than that of the previous year. 


The total water power of Georgia for public use in 1931, as re- 
ported by the United States Geological Survey, was 680,928,000 
kilowatt-hours, which was 179,809,000 less than in 1930. Rating the 
value of water power energy at an average of 1.65 cents per kilo- 
watt-hour generated, the gross value of the output of Georgia water 
power development for 1931 was $11,235,312. 


R. W. Smith: Mr. Richard W. Smith, Assistant State Geologist, 
makes the following statement concerning the mica, feldspar and 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 41 

primary kaolins which he has been investigating during the present 
year's field work ; 

The first geologic work on the mica and feldspar deposits of 
Georgia was begun in 1912 by the Geological Survey of Georgia and 
resulted in the publication in 1915 of Bulletin 30, "A Preliminary 
Report on the Mica Deposits of Georgia", by Dr. S. L. Galpin, then: 
assistant state geologist. This was a most timely and useful report, 
for the World War, already begun, greatly increased the demand for 
mica for electrical insulation and at the same time cut off the supplies 
of mica from India and Brazil. Prospectors demanded the report in 
such numbers that the entire edition has long/ been exhausted. The 
mining activity of 1917 and 1918 resulted in the discovery of many 
deposits of mica not previously known and not described by Galpin. 
A need has long been felt for a new report that would describe not 
only the new deposits but also the old ones in the light of modern 
mining and marketing methods. 

The commercial deposits of mica, often called isinglass, are 
found in the Piedmont Plateau and mountain sections of Georgia in 
tabular and lens-shaped deposits called pegmatite dikes or veins. 
Pegmatite is largely made up of the same minerals that are found in 
granite — quartz, feldspar, and mica — but usually in very large rath- 
er than small crystals. It is probably one of the final phases of a near- 
by intrusion of granite. The pegmatites, in addition to quartz, feld- 
spar, and mica, often contain comparatively rare minerals such as 
tourmaline, beryl, apatite, columbite, tantalite, rutile, and the radio- 
active minerals, some of which are of commercial value. 

Mica was first mined in Georgia by the aborigines who used it 
for ornaments and looking-g'lasses. The early white settlers knew of 
the mica deposits and perhaps occasionally dug out sheets for glaz- 
ing the few windows in the more primitive cabins, but it was many 
years before they were commercially mined. Several mines were 
opened in the mountains of north Georgia between 1880 and 1885 
and furnished large sheets of mica for glazing the windows of stoves. 
The industry declined with the importation of mica from India, in 
spite of a growing demand for mica as an insulator in the electrical 
industry. A protective tariff limited the imports of the smaller sizes 
of mica about the beginning of the present century and increased 
the demand for domestic mica. Considerable mica was mined in 
Georgia from 1900 to 1907, but following the panic of 1907 practi- 
cally none was mined until 1914. 

The wartime demand for domestic mica resulted in prospecting 
all over middle and north Georgia. The greatest activity took place in 
some of the Piedmont counties which had received very little atten- 
tion in the earlier mining. Upson and Monroe counties, which were 


only briefly described by Galpin, furnished considerable mica of ex- 
cellent quality. The height of the mining took place in 1918 when 
208,200 pounds of sheet mica and 40 tons of scrap mica with a to- 
tal value of $80,050 were reported. Since that time the demand for 
and price of domestic mica has greatly declined and with it the 
mining of mica in Georgia. 

North Carolina and New Hampshire produce the greater part of 
the mica mined in the United States at the present time, with minor 
amounts reported from Maine, Connecticut, Virginia, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, South Dakota, New Mexico, and Colorado. An increase in the 
price of mica would result in more activity in the states, such as 
Georgia, that are now minor producers. This will probably gradu- 
ally come about as the cheaply-mined deposits of North Carolina and 
New Hampshire are exhausted. 

Feldspar, a silicate of aluminum containing varying amounts of 
potash, soda, or lime, is used as a flux in the manufacture of glass, 
white ware, glazes, and enamels, and as an abrasive in scouring soaps 
and window-cleaning compounds. It is mined from pegmatite dikes 
in the following states, named in order of their production in 1930: 
North Carolina, Maine, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Virginia, 
California, New York, Colorado, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land and Arizona. It has never been mined in Georgia. 

The feldspar of pegmatite dikes is often weathered near the 
surface to a very white clay called kaolin, or primary kaolin, to dis- 
tinguish it from sedimentary kaolin such as is found in the Coastal 
Plain of middle and south Georgia. These primary kaolin deposits, if 
present in large enough quantities, can be washed and used in the 
manufacture of white ware. 

Quartz or flint, when absolutely pure and finely pulverized, is 
used in the manufacture of glass and white ware. Beryl is used as the 
ore of beryllium, a metal that is nearly twice as liglit in weight as 
aluminum and is finding uses in alloys where l'ghtness and strength 
are desired. Occasionally beryls of gem quality are found. The various 
radio-active minerals are used as ores of radium and uranium. 

The task of getting up a new report on the mica deposits and 
associated minerals of Georgia was assigned to me in 1931. One 
month of 1931 and seven months of 1932 have been spent on field 
work in 24 counties. It was decided to make this report as compre- 
hensive as possible rather than a reconnaissance report, as was the 
previous one. The method of investigation followed in each county 
was to obtain advance publicity in the county newspapers, telling of 
the nature of the survey and asking the owners of property with out- 
crops of mica, feldspar and primary kaolin to notify me of their lo- 
cation. These outcrops were then visited and examined as well as 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 43 

possible without actual prospecting. Hand samples of the mica or 
feldspar were often taken to supplement the notebook descriptions. 
In a very few cases it was possible to take fairly representative 
samples of feldspar or primary kaolin. Ceramic tests should be made 
of these samples at the end of the entire field work. In this way nearly 
all of the outcrops of mica, feldspar and kaolin, as well as the old 
mines, were visited, including a few mines that were operated pre- 
vious to 1912 but not described in Bulletin 30. 

I also visited a number of deposits of cyanite, an aluminum sili- 
cate mineral closely related to sillimanite. Recent experiments have 
shown that cyanite, although not suited for making the sillimanite- 
type of spark plug 1 cores, can be used in the manufacture of high- 
grade fire brick and other refractory shapes where long service under 
high heat with little or no shrinkage or expansion is necessary. (See 
article Cyanite in Georgia; A Museum Mineral Becomes Commercial, 
in the December issue of the Forestry-Geological Review.) 

The field work to date indicates that there are a large number 
of pegmatite dikes or veins in Georgia. Many of these contain mica, 
and some possibly feldspar and primary kaolin, in commercial quan- 
tities. Many others, however, are too small to be worked except dur- 
ing times of exceptionally high prices. 

The value of mica greatly increases with the size of the sheets, 
The deposits of sheet mica are by nature very pockety and are sel- 
dom continuous for any great distance in either a horizontal or verti- 
cal direction. The vein may pinch out or may change in character, the 
mica disappearing or changing to small or twisted pieces. A promis- 
ing 5 outcrop may, therefore, lead to a large deposit or only a small 
pocket, and a large deposit may have a very meagre surface showing. 
Nearly every mica outcrop is, therefore, of interest and should be 
prospected to a depth of three or four feet by a trench at right angles 
to the vein. At this depth the width and character of the vein should 
show and it can be determined whether or not further prospecting 
would be justified. Deposits containing mostly the small or twisted 
and broken blocks of mica suitable only for grinding are of value 
only if large enough or numerous enough in the immediate vicinity 
to pay for the investment in a grinding mill. 

The commercial mica has by no means been exhausted from all 
of the abandoned mica mines in Georgia. Many of them have been 
worked by miners with no capital or knowledge of the proper mining 
methods. These men "ground-hogged" their way down, skimming out 
the cream of the sheet mica and wasting the smaller sizes and scrap 
mica. As soon as the sides of the untimbered pit started to cave in 
or they struck water or hard rock, off they went to rob another out- 
crop, too often failing to pay the owner his expected royalty. Such 


methods often result in an outcrop so cut up that future mining must 
be done from a shaft in the firm ground on either side of the vein. 

Feldspar and kaolin, having a low value in the crude state, must 
be in large deposits close to railroad transportation to be of commer- 
cial importance. The majority of the Georgia deposits visited thus 
far are too small to be worked. A few of possible commercial im- 
portance have been sampled or described. The growth of the mica in- 
dustry will undoubetly bring to light commercial deposits of feldspar 
and kaolin in Georgia. The feldspar industry of North Carolina, which 
now surpasses the mica in annual value, did not begin until long after 
the mining of mica there. The time spent in visiting the small deposits 
is by no means lost, for the information recorded may prevent un- 
wise investment later. 

It is estimated that at least 15 months more work will be re- 
quired on this report. It will take a long and busy field season to 
visit the remaining 41 counties that may contain outcrops of mica, 
feldspar or primary kaolin. Some of these counties probably contain 
few deposits of interest and can be visited in two or three days, but 
others contain many old mines and prospects and will require a week 
or ten days apiece. The mountain section of the State, in which the 
work was necessarily slow, because of lack of roads, has largely been 

The large representative samples of feldspar and kaolin which 
are collected should be given chemical and ceramic tests. The chemi- 
cal analyses will have to be made outside. The ceramic tests could be 
made by me at the Ceramic Laboratory of the Georgia School of Tech- 
nology under a cooperative agreement similar to that by which the 
ceramic tests on the sedimentary kaolins, brick clays, and shales were 
made. This would probably add about two months to the time esti- 
mate previously made. The writing of the report and its preparation 
for the printer will probably take three or four months after the last 
field work is done. 

G. W. Crickmay: Dr. G. W. Crickmay, Assistant State Geologist, 
makes the following statement concerning the mapping of the crystal- 
line rocks of Georgia: 

The area of crystalline rocks in Georgia at an early date at- 
tracted the attention of geologists, but it was not until 1913 that the 
first detailed geological map appeared in the form of a folio descrip- 
tion of the Ellijay quadrangle. The most detailed mapping to date is 
that of W. S. Bayley on the Tate Quadrangle, an area containing the 
important marble deposits of the State. In addition to these maps, the 
reports of the Georgia Geological Survey which deal with mineral de- 
posits of crystalline rocks, add valuable details in areas that have not 
been mapped. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 45 

More recently a need has been felt for a general geological map 
•showing all the published knowledge, supplemented by new informa- 
tion in intervening areas, and correlating all the information avail- 
able on the crystalline rocks. Such maps have been prepared for the 
states of Alabama, Tennessee and Virginia in the Southern Appa- 
lachian region. In August, 1930, the writer, in company with Dr. W. 
S. Bayley, started a reconnaissance survey of portions of northern 
Georgia. During the field seasons of 1930-32, most of the area under 
consideration has been surveyed in preparation of a State geological 
map. The following report outlines the present status of the geologi- 
cal mapping and the purposes of the work, together with comments 
•on field and office work. 

During 1932 my time has been distributed between field and of- 
fice work as follows: 

Jan. 1 to April 1 — Office work 3 months 

April 1 to Nov. 1 — Field work 7 months 

Since the start of the present project, I have spent in the office 
7 months, in the field 26 months. In 1932 thirty counties were 

A geological map embraces features which are economic, scien- 
tific and educational. The economic features are two-fold. In the first 
place, the map shows the location and areal distribution of valuable 
rocks, particularly granite, granite gneiss and marble, which together 
.yielded in 1931 nearly one-half of the total mineral production of 
the state. 

Marble is found in Georgia in two belts: the Murphy marble belt 
and the Brevard schist belt. In the former the marble form discon- 
tinuous masses from the North Carolina line to near Canton, Chero- 
kee county. Marble production of the state is limited to this area. A 
small area in Haralson county, near Buchanan, probably represents 
an extension of this same belt. Marble deposits in the Brevard schist; 
occur near Gainesville, Alto, and east of Clarksville, but their physi- 
cal nature is such that these deposits cannot be used for structural 

Granite and granitic gneiss are most common in the Piedmont 
and production is limited to that area. In the thirty years since the 
publication of the last report on the granites of the state by T. L. 
Watson, production of this stone has greatly increased. One of the 
latest developments is the quarrying of pink granite at three quarries 
in the Elberton area. This stone combines the textural qualities of the 
ordinary grey granite with a fine pink color. 

All the varieties of granitic rocks were included by Watson un- 
der a common designation on his maps. Now the different varieties of 


granite are used for different purposes. A strongly gneissic rock, like 
the Lithonia granite, is not suited for monumental work. The texture 
determines to a large extent the use to which any granitic rock is 
particularly adapted. It would be a decided improvement to have a 
map showing the areas where each type of granite occurs. On the 
state geological map which is now near completion, the granitic rock? 
are divided into four types based on texture, and each type is desig- 
nated by a distinctive symbol. 

The second economic feature of the geological map is that it 
shows the distribution of rocks with which particular mineral depos- 
its are associated. For example, the gold deposits of the Dahlonega 
area occur in a belt of certain fine-grained schists and gneisses. On 
a map of small scale it is not possible to show the location of actual 
ore bodies, such as gold-quartz veins, but it is possible to show the 
rocks with which the veins are associated. When this is done, it is 
found that the gold-bearing rocks of Dahlonega form a belt more or 
less continuous from Lake Burton in a southwesterly direction to 
near Tallapoosa and this belt, as shown on the map, embraces the 
principal gold deposits. The gold deposits of McDuffie county also 
occur in a belt of distinctive rocks. The association of talc and asbes- 
tos with basic rocks is another case in point. There is some indication 
that the pegmatite deposits, now being studied by the Geological Di- 
vision, show a preference for particular types of rock as host, so that, 
when these relations are fully worked out, prospecting for these de- 
posits can be restricted to the areas where such rock types occur. 

A geological map is prepared in accordance with scientific meth- 
ods; all the known facts are collected and presented, even though 
many of these facts may offer no other benefit to mankind than satis- 
faction of a natural desire to understand the composition and geologi- 
cal history of the state. In the struggle of mankind upon the earth 
for useful products, science is the advance spy system, industry the 
captured territory. Scientific curiosities of yesterday are economic 
necessities of today. Mineral deposits, that yesterday belonged in the 
sphere of science, find themselves today in the realm of industry. 
The following is illustrative of countless examples that could be cited. 
With the development of the aeroplane engine, it became necessary 
to make spark plug porcelain that could withstand far higher tem- 
peratures than in the ordinary internal combustion engine. Research 
showed that such a porcelain could be made from the orthosilicate of 
aluminum, which occurs in nature as the minerals andalusite, kya- 
nite and sillimanite. And these minerals, which were known to science 
two decades ago simply as minerals peculiar to certain metamorphic 
rocks, were at once sought after and became essential to the progress 
of aviation. 

It is only by correct interpretation of obscure rock types that the 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 47 

geological history of the crystalline rocks can be fully understood. 
The result obtained from the present work does not profess to be a 
final dictum; new mineral deposits will be discovered, new informa- 
tion will come to light. As Sederholm said of his geological map of 
Finnland, a geological map of any area of pre-Cambrian rocks must 
represent a summary of existing knowledge rather than a final analy- 
sis of the subject. 

Of the 73 counties in which crystalline rocks occur, there remain 
10 to be mapped. The plan for the following year is to complete the 
mapping of these counties. It will also be necessary to examine in de- 
tail certain crucial areas to obtain data for which a reconnaissance- 
survey does not allow time. 

Up to the present time I have spent but one month in the office 
following my field work of 1932, and in all my field work since 1930 
I have spent but 7 months in the office for 26 months in the field. 
This length of time has been far too short to assemble all my field 
notes or to describe all the specimens that have been collected. This 
is particularly true in so far as my office work must include a sur- 
vey of past reports of the Geological Department so that all published 
information can be correlated and incorporated in the State Geologi- 
cal map. 

The collections of the Geological Division have been sorted out 
and arranged. A representative suite of samples of each mineral or 
rock studied by the Survey has been preserved in our collections. A 
card catalogue of thin sections has been started, the immediate pur- 
pose of which is to systematize the records, to facilitate reference to 
sections, and to avoid duplication of the work of others. 

We now have a map of most of the counties covered in the pres- 
ent project. It is my aim to place the geology on these county maps 
and keep them in the office as a permanent record. Included will be 
a short description of each county, its geology and mineral deposits, 
compiled from my own field notes and supplemented by information 
already published in our bulletins. 

In July, 1933, a section of the International Geological Congress, 
made up of about 75 geologists from all parts of the world, will visit 
Georgia. During 1931 a route was mapped out and a description pre- 
pared of mineral properties for this excursion. This description is now 
in press and will be published as part of the Geological Congress 
Guide book covering the mineral deposits of the southern states. In 
Georgia the congress will visit the Cartersville mining district, mak- 
ing a study of manganese, ochre and barite. It is possible that they 
will also visit the marble quarries at Tate. 



An appropriation sufficient to permit the survey to employ a 
competent state geologist, two well-trained assistant state geologists, 
a reliable chemist, a clerk and janitor, and pay field and office ex- 
penses with a sufficient balance for printing the economic and scien- 
tific reports issued by the Survey, is essential for effective mainte- 
nance of this division. 


The unit for topographic maps adopted by the United States 
Geological Survey is a quadrangle bound by parallels of latitude and 
meridians of longitude. These quadrangles, or sheets, are published 
in uniform size about 16 Mj by 20 inches. The scale varies from Vz 
inch to 2 inches per mile, the most common scale being one mile to 
the inch, with 20-foot contours. 

Each quadrangle or sheet is designated by the name of some 
well-known city, town, or prominent natural feature situated in the 
quadrangle. The maps are printed in three colors. The cultural fea- 
tures, such as roads, railroads, cities and towns, as well as the letter- 
ing, are in black; the water features — streams, lakes, ponds, etc. — 
are in blue; while the features of relief — hills, mountains, etc. — are 
shown in brown contour. 

Federal Survey Map: The outline map herein shows the area, 
indicated by parallel ruling, that has so far been mapped by the 
Federal Survey, which area constitutes approximately 41 per cent of 
the entire area of the State. It will be seen from the illustration that 
the topographic maps so far completed are confined to the northern 
and eastern part of the State, little having been done in the central 
and southwestern part. Many of these maps in the northern part of 
the State made 20 or more years ago are largely of a reconnaissance 
nature and are badly in need of revision. 

Mineral Resource Development: Topographic maps probably 
reach their maximum value in the development of the mineral re- 
sources of the country. The topographic map forms the base map on 
which the geologist lays down the various geologic formations and 
traces out the distribution of the commercial minerals and rocks. 
Without such a map it is impossible for him to work out any satisfac- 
tory report on the mineral resources of a section or to suggest trust- 
worthy plans for their commercial development. It is a notable fact 
that the states which are leading in the development of their mineral 
resources are those which are well advanced in topographic work. 
This is well illustrated in the case of New York, Pennsylvania and 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 




Shaded Part Shows Areas of Georgia that have been Topographically- 

West Virginia. These states are now wholly or largely supplied with 
topographic maps. No state can expect to attain the maximum devel- 
opment of its mineral resources until it is supplied with up-to-date 
topograhpic maps. 

All topographic maps of Georgia up to the present time have 
been made by the United States Geological Survey without any ex- 
pense whatever to the State. This policy, however, has recently been 
changed so that topographic maps at present are only made in the 
states which pay 50 per cent of the cost of the maps. This means 
that topographic mapping by the Federal Government in Georgia is 


now at an end unless the legislature sees fit to provide means to have 
the work continued. 

A large number of the northern and western states and not a 
few of the southern states have adopted this plan in topographic map 
work. Tennessee appropriates $16,000; and Kentucky, formerly, 
$75,000; while Georgia, the Empire State of the South, makes no ap- 
propriation whatever for this important line of work. 


Georgia's rivers and streams are among the State's greatest 
assets and as yet there is little known in the way of definite facts 
concerning many of them. Rivers, in their natural state, are subject 
to wide variations of flow. There is a great surplus in wet seasons 
and a corresponding deficit in dry seasons. In times of flood they are 
a menace, while controlled and utilized they are a source of great 
wealth. The streams should be made to serve the people constructive- 
ly instead of destructively. 

Water for municipal, domestic and industrial uses, the develop- 
ment of power, the control of floods, the improvement for naviga- 
tion and for all other purposes, require continuous records of river 
discharge over a period of years sufficient to establish the maximum 
and mean flow conditions. 

Together with stream gauging, we should have chemical analyses 
and temperatures and study the decrease of the flow of artesian wells 
in such cases as at Savannah and other communities along the Sea 
Board. ! 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 51 




Chas. H. Herty, Research Chemist 

Geo. C. McNaughton, Assistant Research Chemist 

Bruce Suttle, Plant Engineer 

W. F. Allen, Chemist 

Geo. Lindsay, Chief Mechanic 

J. B. Osborne, Jr., Plant Assistant 

F. W. Hendricks, Plant Assistant 

Spencer Noble, Volunteer 

Frank W. McCall, Volunteer 

Jos. Fox, Volunteer 


(From data of Research Chemist Herty) 

Four factors led to the establishment of the pulp and paper re- 
search laboratory located at Savannah, Georgia: 

First, a quantitative determination of the resin content of young 
slash pine, the most prolific producer of oleoresin for naval stores, 
established the surprising fact that the young pine as it stands in 
the woods contains approximately the same amount of resin as the 
spruce pine of northern climates, the tree most largely used through- 
out the world for paper production. 

Second, small-scale laboratory experiments proved that this 
young slash pine could be just as readily pulped by the sulphite pro- 
cess as spruce, the resultant pulp being bleached with equal facility 
as that from spruce ; and experiments pointed favorably to the prep- 
aration of groundwood, mechanical pulp, from the same young pines, 
thus indicating the possibility of the manufacture of newsprint, 
which consists of approximately 80 per cent of groundwood mixed 
with 20 per cent of sulphite pulp. 

Third, the reforestation program already well under way in the 
State through intensive fire control over approximately two million 
acres necessitates the thinning of such new timber tracts, an expense 
to the timber grower who needs a market for such thinnings unsuited 
to the ordinary uses of wood. 



Fourth, the existence of some twenty-three millions of acres of 
cut-over pine lands and five millions of acres of abandoned farm 
lands constitute a serious economic waste. Such lands are well suited 
to the development of pine growing and there appeared a possibility 
that through utilization of these waste lands for this purpose there 
could be developed large quantities of raw material for supplying 
many white paper mills, thus indicating the prospect of a new indus- 
try in the State that would offer pay to the farmers and timberland 
owners, would increase employment among our people, bring in capi- 
tal, create new taxable values, and would tend toward a general in- 
crease of prosperity of the State. 

With these points before it the last Legislature made an appro- 
priation of $20,000 a year for the fiscal years 1932 and 1933 for the 
maintenance and operation of an experimental pulp and paper labora- 
tory, provided a fund of $50,000 should be contributed to the State 
for the purpose of equipping such a laboratory. This conditional ap- 
propriation was made available through the gift of $50,000 by the 
Chemical Foundation, Inc., of New York City, an organization whose 
profits are devoted to education and research in chemistry and the 
allied sciences and their application to industry. 

Fig. 7 Interior View of Pulp and Paper Research Laboratory at 


The problem of housing and of obtaining additional contribu- 
tions for operation remained to be solved. A number of cities were 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 53 

desirous of obtaining the location of the laboratory; accordingly of- 
fers were solicited from any interested city and after a careful re- 
view of the details of these offers the Commission accepted the offer 
of the Industrial Committee of Savannah, Georgia, which offer in- 
cluded without charge to the State for five years, the use of a build- 
ing well adapted to the purpose, of unrestricted electric current for 
both power and lighting, of an abundant supply of suitable water, 
ample wood for all experimental needs, and fuel oil for the steam 
used in the digester and in drying paper. 

Orders were then immediately placed for the equipment, and the 
organization of a technical staff begun. The material began to reach 
Savannah the last week in December, 1931, and the staff reported 
for duty on January 1, 1932. Installation was immediately com- 
menced and was completed by the middle of May, 1932. (It is a 
pleasure to make acknowledgment here of the generous assistance, 
without cost, of the engineering staff of the Central of Georgia Rail- 
way in this work of installation and of the contributions by this rail- 
way and by the merchants of Savannah of all the material used in 
the foundations for the machinery.) 


It soon became evident that to fit up this laboratory so as to 
carry logs through to finished paper a larger sum would be required 
than was first thought. This situation was frankly laid before the 
manfacturers of equipment who, foreseeing the possible new open- 
ing on a large scale for their equipment, generously made extra dis- 
counts, which made possible the installation of complete equipment 
for making newsprint on a semi-commercial scale. 

Nothing was left, however, for equipping the testing laboratory 
so essential in guiding the course of research and for informing 
manufacturers of the exact quality of the product turned out from 
the laboratory. This situation was laid before the Chemical Founda- 
tion, Inc., which under authorization of its president, Mr. Francis P. 
Garvan, made a further contribution of $7,000, thus enabling the 
outfitting of a first-class testing laboratory. Here again completion 
of the outfit was made possible by further discounts by manufactur- 
ers of testing equipment. 

Some manufacturers both of the operating machinery and of 
the testing equipment made their contributions in the form of in- 
definite loans of the material they manufacture. With the exception 
of these all the machinery and testing apparatus has by formal 
transfer become the property of the State of Georgia. 

With the work of installation completed we were about to lose 
a valuable mechanic and an assistant mechanic because of the lack 


of funds. This situation was saved by a contribution of $4,000 by- 
Mrs. E. T. Comer, which allowed the services of these two men to be 
continued for a year. 

As the work proceeded the need of further funds made itself 
evident and this was relieved by a contribution of $1,000 by the City 
of Savannah and of $767.50 which the Industrial Committee of Sa- 
vannah raised from private citizens. 

This staff has worked in complete harmony with the utmost zeal 
and is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of research. Attention is 
specially called to the spirit of the three volunteers, all young Geor- 
gians and graduates of technical schools, each of whom has agreed 
to work for the period of a year without any remuneration. They 
keep the same hours and give just as devoted service as the paid 
members of the staff. Their hope is that through this year's exper- 
ience they may fit themselves for good positions in southern white 
paper mills, in the future existence of which they have full confi- 

On December 15, 1932, Mr. J. B. Osborne, Jr., resigned because 
of an offer of a far more lucrative position. It was with great regret 
that Mr. Osborne's resignation was accepted for he had given ener- 
getic and loyal service throughout his connection with the labora- 


Thirty-two (32) shipments of wood have been received, total- 
ing seventy-seven and a half (77 1 /2) standard cords. 

The first run of the grinder for mechanical pulp was made on 
May 5, 1932. Seventy-three (73) runs have been made to date. 

The first cook for mechanical pulp was made on May 12, 1932. 
Forty-two (42) cooks have been made to date. 

The first paper machine run was made on June 10, 1932. Thirty- 
eight (38) runs have been made to date. 

Earlier shipments consisted of 4-foot logs peeled in the woods. 
More recently the shipments have consisted of the entire length of 
the tree trunks with the bark on, peeling being done in the labora- 

Through the courtesy of a number of manufacturers of news- 
print the laboratory has been furnished with commercial samples 
of sulphite groundwood and of newsprint. These have been carefully 
tested and serve for comparisons with the products made in the 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 55 


As a result of the seven months of systematic research in the 
laboratory it has been established: 

First, that the young pines free of heartwood (under twenty- 
five years of age), regardless of species, can be pulped by the sul- 
phite process, and can be ground for mechanical pulp. 

Second, that the sulphite pulps from seasoned woods of all spe- 
cies can be bleached readily. 

Third, that in seeking to avoid "blue stain", an inherent danger 
in hot humid seasons, green sapwood pines can be pulped or ground 
readily with the production of even lighter colored pulp than that 
from seasoned wood. 

Fourth, that pulps from green wood have shown no signs of 
pitch in the digester, on the pulp stone, in the beaters, or on the paper 

Fifth, that the pulps so prepared are remarkably light colored 
proving admirably adapted to newsprint manufacture and indicating 
a low requirement of bleach in experiments on book and bond papers, 
which will be taken up later. 

Sixth, that by mixing sulphite and groundwood in the propor- 
tions characteristic of newsprint, sheets of good formation have been 
produced, such mixed pulps having a freeness and wet strength 
which indicate clearly the possibility of very successful use on mod- 
ern large-scale fast machines. 

Comparisons are constantly being made with sulphite and 
groundwood pulps and with samples of stock newsprint furnished us 
by manufacturers and publishers. A comparison of Run Number 23 
with that of a paper used by one of the leading metropolitan dailies 
shows figures that are strictly comparable, the bursting test being 
somewhat higher on the experimental paper while the gloss is a bit 
lower due to no weights being used on the calender rolls: 


(Wood: Loblolly pine, fast growth, av. age 13 years, av. diam., 

peeled 5.75 inches) 

Georgia Newspaper 
Newsprint Samples 

Weight 31.58 1b. 32.00 1b. 

Thickness 0.00343 in. 0.00353 

Burst ... 8.40 points 7.30 points. 

Burst Ratio 0.266 0.228 


Tear — Across 19.30 gr. 20.0 gr. 

Length 20.80 gr. 22.0 gr. 

Tensile — Across 1.29 kg. 1.17 kg. 

Length .__.__. 1.88 kg. 2.27 kg. 

Gloss 32.66 % 34.86 % 

Porosity (Gurley 100 cc.) 30.34 sec. 26.4 sec. 

Oil Penetration (Av. both wire and 

felt sides) 60.80 sec. 66.0 sec. 

Specimens of newsprint manufactured in the laboratory have 
been furnished the secretary of the Southeastern Newspaper Pub- 
lishers' Association and the director of the Newsprint Service Bur- 
eau. These officers in turn have distributed the samples to each mem- 
ber of their respective organizations, the Newsprint Service Bureau 
including in its membership all the manufacturers of newsprint in 
the United States, Canada and Mexico. As a result of this, wide- 
spread interest has been developed in the possibilities of this section 
and every new development in the work attracts immediate atten- 

The laboratory has been visited by numerous paper manufac- 
turers, paper consumers and by organized groups who through their 
visual inspection of the work have been enabled to get an idea of the 
direct bearing of the work on reforestation and on the future pros- 
perity of the state. 


The limited funds for equipment made necessary a set-up of the 
laboratory in such a manner that a number of pieces of equipment 
serve a double function in different types of work. This necessarily 
slows down the research output of the laboratory. It is hoped that 
each type of work can be made perfectly independent so that the 
work may go forward as rapidly as the staff can handle it. 

Real progress has been made in the manufacture of sulphite 
pulp but much work remains to be done to enable a determination 
of those conditions of operation which will bring out the full strength 
of the fiber and make it thoroughly competitive with those now in 
use in the paper industry. 

While there has been decided progress in increasing the length 
of fiber of the groundwood manufactured much work remains to be 
done on the numerous variables that are inherent in this work. There 
are real difficulties which must be overcome because of the wide dif- 
ference in the structure of the cells of the spring and of the sum- 
mer wood so characteristic of wood grown in warm humid climates. 
Furthermore, attention must be paid to the difference between rapid- 
growing wood characteristic of open stands as compared with the 
narrower ringed wood of the slower growing trees where rate of 
growth has been retarded by overcrowding and by fire. 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 57 

Now that paper approaching commercial standards has been pre- 
pared, more attention will be given to the surface finishing of the 
same and studies will be undertaken of the behavior of the various 
runs of paper as to fitness for printing, especially the matter of 
opacity and printing ink consumption. 

Approximate quantitative records have been kept during the 
progress of the work on the properties of the fibers, but from now 
on more attention will be given to quantitative yields, power con- 
sumption, etc., with a view to enabling an accurate determination of 
the cost of manufacture. 

To date the work has been confined to newsprint because its 
development promises the use of large volume of logs, thus aiding 
the reforestation program and giving, it is hoped, employment to a 
maximum number of people in the woods. However, when this prob- 
lem has been carried to an extent where it is felt that we are justi- 
fied in urging the establishment of newsprint mills in Georgia work 
will be shifted to other lines, the first of which will be a thorough 
study of the bleaching of fibers. For this work the purchase of addi- 
tional equipment will be necessary which will be somewhat expensive 
because of the destructive action of the bleaching agent on ordinary 

It will then be necessary to study the retention of fillers by these 
fibers for paper used, for instance, in the manufacture of books and 
magazines. Nothing is known on this subject and this work will offer 
an interesting joining-up of two Georgia industries, one an already 
existing industry, for Georgia produces the greater part of clay 
(kaolin or china clay) used as a filler in paper manufacture; the 
other the potential and hoped-for industry of white paper manufac- 
ture from young Georgia pines. 

The application of coating clays on the paper manufactured in the 
laboratory must also be studied. Additional equipment must be 
bought for this but it will be well justified, for it will join work with 
the coating clay industry, another Georgia industry. 

There is a third Georgia industry which must be associated with 
the work, viz. the use of rosin size as in the manufacture of writing 

Finally, it is highly desirable that as soon as possible thorough 
studies of alpha cellulose from the chemical pulp of these pines 
should begin. This product goes into a large number of modern in- 
dustries such as rayon, smokeless powder, celluloid, artificial leather, 
etc. The time of the present staff is completely taken up with the 
manufacture of paper and its testing. An additional chemist exper- 
ienced in alpha cellulose work will be necessary in order to initiate 
this work. 



On December 31, 1931, the State Forester was relieved of the 
duties of treasurer by the Commission under the reorganization set- 
up, and this statement covers only the year 1931: 


Balance from previous year (Fed. Funds) $ 22,502.63 

From State, allocated funds 28,659.41 

From State for Indian Springs 4,912.58 

From Fed. Gov't, Section 2 (fire control only) ... 45,484.44 

From Fed. Gov't, Section 4 (nursery) 1,397.73 

From F. G. Varner, concessionaire at Indian Springs . 250.00 

From petty cash fund, Ind. Springs Park 7.33 

Interest on bank balances 386.30 




Administration $ 11,907.95 

Education and Utilization 14,224.94 

Field Offices 26,760.54 

State Forest Parks: 

Vogel $ 993.95 

Indian Springs ._. 5,057.61 6,051.56 

Forest Fire Protection 23,830.70 

Total Expense Payments $ 82,775.69 


Transfer to State College of Agriculture Nursery 

Project 1,397.73 

Transfer to Georgia Experiment Station Forest 

Research Project 1,200.00 

Transfer to C. A. Whittle, Treasurer, Dept. For- 
estry & Geological Development _ 18,224.39 

Total Payments 103,597.81 

Balance — December 31, 1931 

Petty Cash — Indian Springs Forest Park .. 2.61 


REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 59 


The comments of the State Auditor during the entire time that 
the State Forester was treasurer for the Georgia Forest Service are 
as follows: 

In 1927 — "All records are full and complete." 

In 1928 — "The records are neatly and accurately kept and all 
disbursements covered by proper vouchers." 

In 1929 — "Payments are supported by proper vouchers. The 
records are being satisfactorily handled. The State 
Forester is bonded." 

In 1930 — "The records of the State Forestry Board are neat, 
accurate and full, enabling us to commend those in 
charge for their industry and efficiency." 

In 1931 — "The books of the State Forestry Board were well 
kept and accurate and reflect credit on the account- 
ing personnel; every aid was given the examiner in 
making this examination." 



Balance in Treasury Jan. 1931 $ 646.96 

Balance in Bank Jan. 1931 275.83 

Appropriation for 1931 20,000.00 



Geologists' Salaries: 

State Geologist 1 year .$4,500.00 

1st Asst. State Geol. 1 year.. 3,000.00 
2nd Asst. State Geol. 1 year. 2,583.33 


Office Salaries: 

Chemist, 3 months $ 325.00 

Clerk of Dept., 1 year 1,327.00 

Custodian of Museum, 1 year.. 300.00 

Porter, 1 year 525.00 

Secretary of Board, 1 year.. 83.33 



General Expenses: 

Postage $ 93.14 

Freight and Express 10.61 

Telephone and Telegraph 104.93 

Printing and Stationery 4,366.85 

General Expenses 1.00 

Library 67.29 

Travel Mileage 462.03 

Travel Expense 2,032.39 

Laboratory Expense 7.00 

Laboratory Equipment 500.00 

Field Equipment 119.46 

Museum Expenses 15.45 

Office Expenses 470.61 




State Appropriation .$15,000.00 

Less 11V 2 % Deficit ... 1,725.00 

Total available for 1932 $13,275.00 


Personal Service $11,515.83 

Travel Expense 1,407.58 

Supplies 368.25 

Tel. and Tel. and Postage 190.38 

Subscriptions 16.00 


Expenditures in excess of appropriation $ 223.04 


Appropriation by the State of Georgia for 

maintenance and operation for 1932 ... $20,000.00 

Contribution by the City of Savannahs 1,000.00 

Contribution by Industrial Com. of Savannah 767.50 


REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 61 

Contribution by Mrs. E. T. Comer for salaries 4,000.00 


OPERATION 1932 __ $25,767.50 

Contribution by Chemical Foundation, Inc. for equipment 57,000.00 

TOTAL $82,767.50 


Cost Plant equipment installed $58,767.50 

Personal service . $19,433.31 

Travel expense 163.32 

Unskilled labor 784.75 

Telephone, telegraph, postage 115.41 

Freight and drayage 146.16 

Supplies 531.93 

Equipment and installation 2,851.40 $24,026.28 $82,793.78 

Expenditure in excess of income $26.28 


State appropriation $5,000.00 

Less 11V 2 % 575.00 


Received from concession 300.00 

Balance 1931 appropriation unexpended 863.55 $5,588.55 


Personal service $ 425.25 

Travel . 269.94 

Supplies 436.74 

Electric current 203.47 

Repairs and alterations 427.33 

Drayage 4.50 

Insurance 219.50 

Equipment 442.20 

Permanent improvements 2,493.26 4,922.19 

Unexpended balance available for 1933 $666.36 




State appropriation $25,000.00 

Less 11%% deficiency 2,875.00 $22,125.00' 

State balance from 1932 appropriation 63.09 

U. S. Section 4, Nursery matched funds 2,699.08 

U. S. Section 2, Fire control matched funds 17,456.36 

Interest on bank balances 220.42 

Fire pumps sold 122.16 

Cash balance Georgia Forest Service, 1931 18,224.39 

Cash used out of Federal T. P. O. funds 5,028.38 


Total receipts ...$65,938.88. 


Forestry Division: 

Personal service $25,855.84 

Unskilled labor 657.39 

Travel expense 10,825.71 

Supplies 2,719.10 

Equipment 2,661.06 

Telephone, telegraph, postage 638.03 

Electric current 129.05 

Printing and subscriptions 420.19 

Freight and express 142. 8# 

Rent North Georgia Nursery 13.60 

Refund to Nursery, Athens 402.88 

State Forest, Augusta 62.95 

Miscellaneous 30.00 

Summer School Camp 1,953.50 

Cooperative enterprises: 

Ga. Experiment Station _.$300.00 

Naval Stores Tests .__. 338.14 

Alpharetta Project _ 240.50 878.64 47,790.80 

REPORT FOR 1931 AND 1932 63 

Main Office 

Personal service $10,450.00 

Travel 2,178.29 

Postage, telephone, telegraph 1,228.17 

Printing and publicity 1,393.55 

Supplies 715.74 

Freight and express 45.04 

Photographic service and 

subscriptions 37.00 

Office furniture ... 77.50 

Insurance and bonds 92.74 

Repairs and alterations 108.00 

Miscellaneous 1.50 16,327.53 

Vogel Park: 

Personal service $ 1.00 

Repairs and alterations 449.53 

Freight and hauling 20.50 

Insurance 78.00 

Equipment 50.25 

Permanent Improvements 1,121.25 1,820.55 

Total Expenditures $65,938.88 


Received from U. S. Treasurer, Sec. 2, Fire Control 

Total receipts $58,636.61 


Reimbursement on State expenditures.— __. 17,456.36 

Reimbursement to T. P. O. members. _. 18,202.42 

Paid rewards 400.00 

Spent for Special Fire Control.—. 8,504.42 

Used for Forestry expenditures make up deficit 5,002.95 49,566.15 

Cash in bank in Federal Fund account $9,070.46 


Chairman Finance Committee, 
Commission of Department of Forestry 
and Geological Development. 

J. ■ 


Library Copy 




Department of Forestry and 

Geological Development 


Governor and General Assembly 


State of Georgia 

I 933~ I 934 







Needs, Division of Forestry 6 

Administration 6 

Forest Fire Control 7 

Emergency Conservation Work 8 

Educational Work 11 

Publications 13 

State Parks 15 

Tree Nurseries 17 

Cooperation in Extension Forestry 18 

Cooperation with Civic Clubs 19 

Map Showing Location Forestry Activities 20-21 

Fire Statistics 22 



Functions, Division of Geology 24 

Personnel , 24 

Nature of the Work 25 

Work Accomplished in 1933-34 26 

Cooperative Work with U. S. Geological Survey 26 

Projects Under Way 29 

Status of Mineral Industry of Georgia 29 

Recommendations for Future Work 30 



Atlanta, Ga., February 1, 1935. 

To His Excellency, 

Hon. Eugene Talmadge, Governor, 

State of Georgia, 


In accordance with Article 4, Section 23 of the Reorganiza- 
tion Bill enacted by the General Assembly of Georgia at its ses- 
sion in 1931, the Commission of the Department of Forestry and 
Geological Development herewith transmits the following report 
to you as Governor and to the General Assembly. 



Secretary to the Commission. 



Chairman — Governor Eugene Talmadge 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton 

Alex K. Sessoms, Cogdell 

J. M. Mallory, Savannah 

L. L. Moore, Moultrie 

Perry Middleton, Brunswick 

T. G. Woolford, Atlanta 
Secretary — B. M. Luf burrow, State Forester, Atlanta 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 5 


By B. M. Luf burrow, State Forester 


Forestry activities in Georgia during the biennial period of 1933-34 
were influenced by the unusual, chiefly by the emergency measures 
launched by President Roosevelt to give thousands of young men em- 
ployment in the woods. 

In an effort to obtain for Georgia its full share of the benefits, the 
Division of Forestry assumed a burden that taxed its force to the utmost. 
While some of the state's regular forestry work has suffered, its major 
enterprise, that of forest fire control, has found a welcomed oppor- 
tunity for advancement to a point many years ahead of what could have 
been expected through state effort alone. In fact, more forestry work 
was done in Georgia in 1933-34 than ever before. 

By energetic planning, Georgia was able to qualify for and obtain a 
greater number of Civilian Conservation Corps camps in forest conser- 
vation work than any other state in the South. For this accomplish- 
ment credit is due members of the state forestry force who gave en- 
thusiastic, loyal and unstinted efforts that called for long hours and 
willingness to go the limits of endurance. 

A basis for CCC work on which the federal authorities looked with 
favor in establishing camps in Georgia is the existence of the Timber 
Protective Organization. In fact, this land owners' timber protective 
organization, which originated in Georgia, made it possible for the 
state to get so many camps on privately owned lands. It is therefore 
suggested that any community desiring a CCC camp in the future 
would do well to form a timber protective organization as the first step, 
not that this step will guarantee a camp, but that it is one of the pro- 
cedures that give promise of consideration by the federal authorities. 

During the biennial period the Department of Forestry and Geo- 
logical Development has witnessed rapid advancement in carrying out 
its state park program. From three state parks the number has grown 
to six, and arrangements were practically concluded in 1934 for estab- 
lishing two others. Federal aid has enabled the state to carry on ex- 
tensive plans for developing and improving these parks. 

Forestry educational work with 192 rural consolidated high schools, 
carried on in cooperation with the Division of Vocational Teaching of 
the State Department of Education, continued with gratifying success. 
The vocational forestry camp, which is a part of this project, has also 
been continued with increasing efficiency. 

The monthly publication, the Forestry-Geological Review, has 
been a means of stimulating interest and promoting plans of forestry 
development in the state. 


The demand for literature dealing with Georgia forestry has been 
greater than the financial ability of the Division of Forestry to supply. 

Service to timberland owners continues to the extent of the Divi- 
sion of Forestry to render it, but it has been restricted in considerable 
measure for several months to developing the timber protective or- 
ganizations and in planning CCC work. 

Forestry has an important part to play in the solution of the land 
use problem of Georgia. The state should not leave the planning to 
federal agencies, but should be in position to at least cooperate and 
give direction to such undertakings. 

The State Forester expresses appreciation of the splendid coopera- 
tion of many civic organizations of the state in promoting forestry. 

Tribute is paid and gratitude expressed by the State Forester to 
the Commission of Forestry and Geological Development for the ability 
it has displayed and the generous gift of time and talents of its mem- 
bers in dealing with the many forestry problems arising in a state that 
has the largest forest acreage of any in the union. 


While marked progress has been made in those lines in which emer- 
gency Conservation Work aid has been obtained, other established 
lines of forestry work on which federal funds cannot be used have suf- 
fered. It has been impossible to maintain a full force of district fores- 
ters. The demand for forestry bulletins and leaflets cannot be sup- 
plied for iiack of funds with which to print them. Necessary funds 
for traveling expenses of district foresters in meeting demands for aid 
to timberland owners and for conducting forestry demonstrations at 
vocational schools have been lacking. In fact, many regular lines of 
forestry activity have been restricted and rendered less efficient for 
lack of adequate funds. 

Other important lines of work which this Division hoped to develop, 
such as a forest survey to reveal the state's forest resources ; research 
work to answer many questions of a practical nature for which there 
is a lack of data ; assistance to farmers in forestry phases of land uses ; 
a number of forestry demonstration areas, all await sufficiently large 
appropriations from the state. 


The funds appropriated to the Department of Forestry and Geo- 
logical Development were allotted and budgeted by the Commission 
in charge, to the forestry and geological services. The Division of For- 
estry has kept strictly within the income available to it from the state. 
Federal aid, under sections 2 and 4 of the Clarke-McNary Act, for fire 
control and nursery work, continues to provide the greater portion of 
funds supporting the Division of Forestry. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 7 

Administration duties have been greatly increased by federal emer- 
gency conservation work represented by OCC activities, and by the ex- 
penditures of funds in equipment and buildings on forest areas and 
parks. An office personnel for handling the details of this emergency 
conservation work was organized. While the services of the added help 
are paid for out of Emergency Conservation Work funds, the staff of the 
forest service is carrying on its part of the ECW administration without 
increase in its force and without additions to its salaries. 

Personnel : The personnel of the Division of Forestry consists of 
a state forester, educational manager, assistant state forester, seven 
district foresters, treasurer who is secretary to the state forester, and 
bookkeeper who is secretary to the educational manager. All members 
of the staff are technically trained. 

The staff membeis are as follows : 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Foiester, Atlanta 

C. A. WHITTLE, Educational Manager, Atlanta 

H. M. SEBRING, Assistant State Forester, Atlanta 

RUSSELL D. FRANKLIN, District Forester, Rome 

W. D. YOUNG, District Forester, Gainesville 

C. N. ELLIOTT, District Forester, Augusta 

W. G. WALLACE, District Forester, Columbus 

JACK THURMOND, District Forester, Savannah 

C. BERNARD BEALE, District Forester, Waycross 

H. D. STORY, JR., District Forester, Albany 

MRS. R. S. THOMPSON, Treasurer and Secretary, Atlanta 

MRS. N. N. EDWARDS, Bookkeeper and Secretary, Atlanta 

The personnel of the Emergency Conservation Work in Atlanta 
consists of the following : 

For Forestry camps, an office assistant, bookkeeper-accountant, 
senior clerk, two stenographers and a messenger. 

For Park camps, an office assistant, superintendent of state park 
construction, landscape architect, senior clerk, secretary and stenog- 

Office space, heat, light and water are provided by cities or counties 
in which the district offices are located, without cost to the state. 


As a major activity of the Division of Forestry, great progress has 
been made in bringing forest areas of the state into timber protective 
organizations. This has been attained by enlarging the holding of old 
protective organizations and by the formation of new. At present there 
are 3,274,902 acres of forest land of Georgia included in the holdings 
of these timber owners cooperative organizations. 


The fact that only forest units belonging to the timber protective 
organizations were considered eligible for CCC work has resulted in 
materially stimulating interest in these organizations. 

Such TPOs as have been fortunate in receiving CCC work have 
received material benefits in the development of fire protection plans, 
such as the construction of primary firebreaks, the elimination of fire 
hazards, the construction of truck trails to facilitate quick access of 
fire fighters and equipment to forest fires, and in the complete mapping 
of TPO areas. 

The aid thus received has been met on the part of timberland owners 
with the construction of secondary firebreaks, the construction of 
TPO telephone lines, the erection of lookout towers, as well as the re- 
newal of CCC firebreaks and maintenance of other improvements. For 
authorized expenditures made by timberland owners belonging to 
TPOs, the usual federal reimbursement is allowed under the Clarke- 
McNary law, not to exceed 50 per cent of the cost. 

The timber protective organization method, which originated with 
the Division of Forestry of Georgia, has not only made it possible to 
obtain a large number of CCC camps on privately owned timberlands, 
but it has proven the best means of assuring that the CCC work will 
be maintained. The TPO is a self-governing, cooperative local organiza- 
tion on which responsibility for the success of the undertaking centers 

In addition to the 3,274,902 acres belonging to the TPOs, about 
550,000 additional acres are also under effective fire control. Included 
in this estimate are the national forests, national parks, national mili- 
tary reserves, state parks, game preserves, town forests and school 
forests. Other forest lands, mainly unorganized farm woodlots, are 
given a measure of protection by their owners. 

Taken as a whole, it is probable that 14,000,000 of the nearly 
27,000,000 acres of timberland in Georgia are receiving some form of 
forest fire protection. 


The aid received through the Emergency Conservation Work of the 
Federal Government has enabled the Division of Forestry to develop 
its program of forest protection and state parks far beyond expecta- 
tions, for which, of course, the state is grateful. 

The benefits of this work could not be distributed all over the state. 
Certain qualifications for obtaining CCC camps were required by the 
federal government. Many counties were not prepared to meet these 
qualifications, and were therefore automatically eliminated. Others 
having timberland units that could meet the conditions had to take 
their turn since there were not enough CCC camps to supply all at once. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 


It is pertinent to say here that the Georgia Forest Service had noth- 
ing to do with establishing the qualifications to be met to secure a CCC 
camp, nor had it anything to do with the final determination as to 
where each camp would be located ; neither was it within the power of 
the Georgia Forest Service to prevent the removal of a camp from one 
section to another of the state, or from Georgia to another state. These 
administrative acts were in the hands of the federal agencies. 

A clear statement of conditions determining the location of CCC 
camps, as set forth by Federal Inspector Charles F. Evans, is given 
herewith : 

"The Federal Forest Service states the policy on CCC work on pri- 
vately-owned forest lands broadly as follows : The camps are supported 
by Federal funds and therefore are Federal projects. While the State 
forestry agency, representing the Government, submits recommenda- 
tions as to location and purpose of all projects in the states, the entire 
set-up of each proposed camp is closely scrutinized by the United States 
inspectors whose decision is final in the matter and must be followed by 
State forestry authorities. 

"It is not enough that there shall be large areas of private forest 
land badly in need of the kinds of work authorized under the Presi- 
dent's direction. From the beginning the President has demanded 
that the State must guarantee continued maintenance of the CCC work 
done on pri vate lands. 

"In some forest regions, especially in the Northeast, the State itself 
assumes all responsibility for maintenance of protective improvements. 
In other forest regions, such as the Southern pine area, the State and 
the private landowner jointly assume the maintenance obligation. 

View of CCC Camp, located at Homerville, Ga. 


"Generally in trie South, therefore, the Federal Government will 
not accept as a basis of a reliable guarantee the fact that the owners 
of the private lands have undertaken, vei bally or in writing, to main- 
tain the improvements constructed. However, if such owners have back 
of them a record of consistent care, protection, and development oftheir 
forest lands for several years, in cooperation with the State and Federal 
Government, it is assumed that the required maintenance will be done. 
Past performance of this character by landowners is recognized by the 
Government as strengthening such guarantee as the State may make. 

"Federal foresters point out that the best guarantee lies in the 
amount of State forestry funds available lor cooperative work with tim- 
berland owners. Such State forestry funds must be suiiicient in 
amount to justify a State's guarantee that the protective improvements 
completed by the CCC camps will be continuously maintained. Excep- 
tions exist where the past performance of the landowners, plus the 
amount of State funds that properly may be spent in cooperative pro- 
tection work in their locality, together give assurance or future upkeep 
of the forest improvements." 

A summary of ECW activities on private lands, state parks and 
other state owned lands, which the Division of Forestry administered 
from the beginning of the work on April 1, 1933 to January 1, 1935, is 
as follows : 

Miles of telphone lines constructed 777.7 

Miles of new firebreaks 4,657 

Miles of firebreaks maintained 1,470 

Acres reduction of fire hazards 86, 223 

Miles roadside and trailside clearing 563 

Lookout houses constructed 4 

Lookout towers constructed. 39 

Man-days fighting fires 30,622 

Miles of truck trails constructed 671 

Miles of maintained truck trails <__ 701 

Miles of new foot and horse trails 139 

Miles of maintained foot and horse trails _ _ 41 

Buildings and other permanent structures com- 
pleted or partially completed 37 

Miles of lineal survey _ 6,487 

Acres type-mapped 3,937,397 

Topographic mapping (parks) acres 1,079 

Bridges constructed 926 

Acres cleaned up for fire protection... 699 

Acres forest stand improvement 400 

Water control, dams, lakes, etc. (parks) 3 

Acres landscaped (parks) 210 

Acres planted (parks) 166 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 11 

Apparently, Emergency Conservation Work by the Civilian Con- 
servation Corps camps is to be continued. Georgia should share in 
it as fully as possible. The extent of the State's participation will 
depend largely on the private land owners and the cooperation of other 
local citizens, for only a small portion of the forested area of the State 
is in national forests and parks. 

The conditions to be met by private land owners will be defined in 
the future as in the past by authorities in Washington. Satisfactory 
assurance will be required that work done by CCC men will be main- 
tained. The future of CCC work in Georgia is, therefore, largely up 
to the land owners themselves. 


The Division of Forestry is cooperating with the Department of 
Vocational Education of Georgia in carrying on a forestry project with 
192 rural consolidated high schools in 94 counties. Georgia was the 
first State to inaugurate this type of work, having begun it in 1929. 

The chief objective of the forestry project is to teach boys on the 
farm how to get the greatest returns from their forest lands, just as 
they are taught how to get the most from their agricultural crops. 

To make the school work as practical as possible, a school forest 
of ten or more acres is required. On these areas students are taught 
by doing forestry jobs. The practical subjects taught in the classroom 
and applied in the forest are : The collection, care and marketing of 
tree seed ; making and operating a tree seedbed ; planting of trees ; 
methods of fire protection and fire fighting; identification of tree 
species ; uses of woods ; harvesting and marketing of timber ; thinning 
and. improvement cutting and estimating the volume of standing tim- 

As often as a representative of the Georgia Forest Service can do 
so, he visits the schools and conducts demonstrations along these 
various lines. Keen interest is shown by the students and abundant 
evidence is provided that the boys are obtaining a grasp of the prac- 
tical phases of forestry that promise to yield results in school terri- 

One of the requirements of each boy is that he have a home forestry 
project, just as he has a home project in crops or livestock. On these 
projects the student is required to plant trees, thin stands and con- 
struct firebreaks. 

As a result of the vocational school project, there is already evidence 
of better fire control, better handling of forests and a movement toward 
tree planting of abandoned fields and open forests. Thousands of 
vocational students remaining on the farm are the foundation for 
progress in forestry in a large part of Georgia. 




When the school forestry project had been in progress one year, a 
vocational forestry camp was inaugurated, the object being to bring 
together annually outstanding boys showing particular interest in 
forestry, to take six weeks of intensive training in practical forestry 
under the guidance of the staff of trained foresters of the Georgia 
Forest Service. The camp course of six weeks is conducted in two sum- 
mer camps of three weeks each. 

Those who successfully complete the six weeks course obtain a cer- 
tificate of vocational forester, which recommends them as equipped 
to perform several non-technical jobs in forestry. 

As evidence that this training does equip the young men for fores- 
try work, three vocational foresters qualified as assistant technicians 
in the forest survey now being conducted by the United States Forest 
Service in the south, and the director reports that they have met every 

Other evidence is that the vacational foresters have obtained posi- 
tions as foremen in the CCC woik and in spite of their youth have made 
good. A number of vocational foresters have become relief teachers and 
are rendering excellent service in promoting interest in forestry, mainly 
in conducting adult classes. 

Group of Students Receiving Certificates of Vocational Forester, Vocational 

Forestry Camp, 1934. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 13 

Quite a number of other vocational foresters have entered the 
University of Georgia to study forestry. 

Prizes: An incentive that is proving very helpful in developing 
interest in the forestry project is that provided by the Georgia Forestry 
Association. Each year at the vocational forestry camp a cash prize 
of $75 is given by the association to the vocational agricultural teacher 
doing outstanding work in forestry, and $50 is given to the student 
making the best record in two sessions of camp. These are designated 
"Herty prizes" in honor of Dr. Charles H. Herty. The prizes of the 
1934 camp, held at Abraham Baldwin College, Tifton, were presented 
by T. G. Woolford, president and Judge Ogden Persons, Forsyth, vice 
president of the Georgia Forestry Associaition. 

The teacher winning the prize in 1933 was T. G. Walters, Moultrie, 
and in 1934, P. L. Elkins, Alpharetta. The student winning the prize 
in 1933 was Herman A. Braddy, Pavo ; and in 1934, Elmon Vickers, Nor- 
man Park. 

Permanent Camp Needed : The vocational forestry camp has been 
held at various colleges that have lent their hearty cooperation. Ef- 
forts are being made to obtain the use of the abandoned forestry camp 
in Towns county, a few miles from Hiawassee. It is hoped that 
as soon as possible a permanent vocational forestry camp may be estab- 
lished, not only to save in camp expenses, but to provide a forestry area 
on which work plans can be laid out for years to come. 

School Work Increases : As additional funds from Federal sources 
are made available, the number of schools having vocational agricul- 
ture increases. The present school year has shown an increase of over 
50 schools, with others in prospect. This increase has enlarged the 
opportunity for forestry, and entails a greater amount of work on the 
Division of Forestry to carry on the project. 

In this connection, it is befitting that credit be given to the State 
Superintendent of Education, M. D. Collins, and to the officials in 
direct charge of vocational agricultural teaching, L. M. Sheffer, Athens ; 
M. D. Mobley, Atlanta; and Geo. I. Martin, Tifton, for their excellent 
cooperation and encouragement in carrying on the school forestry pro- 


Forestry- Geological Review : This monthly departmental bulletin 
is serving an excellent purpose in promoting the activities of the timber 
protective organizations of Georgia; in fostering the school forestry 
project; in providing timely information for county agents, as well as 
forestry workers of the State ; in providing timberland owners, lumber- 
men, naval stores operators with a digest of current forestry information, 
and in keeping leaders of the State informed as to the progress of fores- 


The publication also serves the Division of Geology. The timely 
articles on mineral resources of Georgia have attracted wide attention 
and created a greater demand for copies of the publication than it has 
been possible to supply, making it often necessary to reprint separates 
of such articles to meet the demand. 

Constant requests are being made by interested persons to 
be placed on the mailing list to receive the Forestry-Geological Review. 

Bulletins and Leaflets : The demand for bulletins and leaflets 
on forestry has been far in excess of the ability of the Division of For- 
estry to supply. Editions have been quickly exhausted, reprinted and 
again exhausted. Funds have not been available to reprint all the 
publications needed, nor for putting out new bulletins contemplated. 

While a steady demand for literature has naturally come from schools 
cooperating in the forestry project, it is gratifying that many requests 
come from teachers in other schools for literature to use as teaching 

It is also gratifying to receive requests for literature from women's 
clubs and various men's civic clubs to use in preparing for forestry 

The Division of Forestry is in need of reprints of several bulletins 
and leaflets, and new publications dealing with harvesting and market- 
ing timber, a text book for use of vocational agricultural teachers in 
presenting forestry ; on parks and other scenic and historic places in 
the State, to answer requests of prospective tourists ; a leaflet on tree 
planting to supply an increasing demand for information of this nat- 
ure ; a series of posters ; a series of lecture charts on forestry. 

Press Publicity: As a measure of economy, it was deemed neces- 
sary to discontinue periodic state-wide press releases on forestry, which 
a clipping bureau service revealed had been very acceptable to news- 
papers of the State. Newspaper contributions have since then been 
confined to news items released at the office to press representatives. 

Contributions to a number of forestry, lumber, industrial and trade 
publications have been continued. A large amount of publicity has 
dealt with the use of southern pine for paper, a work inaugurated under 
the Department of Forestry and Geological Development. Considerable 
State publicity was also devoted as information incident to launching 
the CCC camps in Georgia. 

Tourist Information: Requests for information from prospec- 
tive tourists about location, camping facilities and regulations of State 
parks, and for suggested routings to visit historic and scenic spots of 
Georgia come to the Department of Forestry and Geological Develop- 
ment for attention. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 15 

In view of the fact that the department does not have a publica- 
tion dealing with these matters, considerable correspondence — less 
effective than illustrated printed matter — is necessary. A tourist guide 
for Georgia is a much needed publication. 

Wood Industry Information: Several inquiries have come to the 
Division of Forestry for information about supplies of timber for var- 
ious manufacturing. The greatest number have come from those in- 
terested in the pulpwood supplies of Georgia, looking to establishing 
paper mills. A number have sought information about hardwood for 
staves ; a few about pine stumps, charcoal material, billets for handles, 
and for veneer. 

The inquiries have been given courteous attention and as full 
information as possible. 

Cataloging Literature: All bulletins, scientific journals and re- 
ports dealing with forestry are cataloged and filed in bulletin cases for 
reference. In this manner, the Division of Forestry has established 
a small, but rather complete reference library. Lack of funds has ad- 
mitted the accumulation of only a few standard books on forestry. The 
addition of a number of authoritative works on the subject is very 
much needed. 

Exhibits : The demand for forestry exhibit material at state, sec- 
tional and county fairs continues. Assistance is given by district 
foresters in preparing local exhibits, but in many instances we have 
been unable to cooperate because of the lack of funds to provide the 

A number of vocational schools over the state have prepared their 
own forestry exhibits, and have been instrumental in spreading the 
cause of forestry by this as well as by other means. 


Within the period covered by this report, Georgia has made rapid 
progress in establishing state parks. Up to 1933 the state had only 
three state parks — Indian Springs, Vogel and Alexander H. Stephens 
Memorial Parks, the latter being donated to the state late in 1932. Since 
January, 1933, the state has acquiied by donation additional land? at 
Indian Springs, Vogel and Stephens Memorial Parks, and new state 
park areas designated Santo Domingo State Park near Darien and 
Brunswick; Fort Mountain Park, between Chatsworth and Ellijay; 
Pine Mountain Park, near Warm Springs. 

The present area of each park is as follows : 

Indian Springs Park 157 acres 

Vogel Park 259 acres 

Alexander H. Stephens Memorial Park 216 acres 

Fort Mountain Park 800 acres 

Santo Domingo State Park 350 acres 



Park Donors — The state is indebted for all its park lands to the gen- 
erosity of private citizens, since no land for parks has been purchased 
by the state. The entire area of the Santa Domingo Park was donated 
by Mr. Cator Woolford, a public spirited citizen of Atlanta, to memo- 
rialize the earliest settlements of Georgia. 

The crest of Fort Mountain, 106 acres, is an outright gift of Mr. Ivan 
Allen, Atlanta, another public spirited business man, who desired to 
preserve and make accessible a unique historic spot of great scenic value. 
Donations of public spirited citizens have increased the area at present 
to 800 acres. 

View of Indian Springs Park after Improvements by CCC Workers. 

A number of citizens in Harris county and vicinity combined in 
tendering to the state an area comprising Pine Mountain Park, a site 
well suited to serve the park needs of a western central section of the 

The original gift of the home of Alexander H. Stephens and 18 acres 
has been generously supplemented by citizens of Taliaferro county and 
citizens of other counties to a total of 216 acres. 

The Vogel estate, which made the first contributions for a state 
park in Georgia, of 160 acres at Neel Gap on the Blue Ridge Mountain, 
has generously increased its donation to make a total gift of 259 acres. 

Through gifts of citizens of Butts county, materially aided by citi- 
zens of adjoining counties, Indian Springs Park property has grown 
from 12 to 157 acres. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 


Federal Aid : The Department of Forestry and Geological Develop- 
ment has been fortunate in obtaining the services of the CCC workers 
and ECW funds for developing these park areas. Federal aid has put 
Georgia forward many years in its state park program, and for this ma- 
terial assistance theie is occasion for a deep sense of gratitude. 

The Commission of Forestry and Geological Development has in 
mind other state parks, so that every region of the state may have one 
easily accesible. Steps have already been taken to locate one in Tel- 
fair and Dougherty counties. 

Plans are materializing to provide each state park with club houses, 
camp quarters, lakes, boating, fishing, play grounds, trails for hiking 
and landscaping to bring out the natural beauty of each park. Several 
of these parks are of rare and legendary interest. Museums and arbore- 
tums are included in the plans for some of these parks. 

Since Emergency Conservation Work funds have been made available 
for state parks, the Division of Parks of the U. S. Department of In- 
terior has a supervisory relationship, and is cooperating in carrying out 
the state's park plans. 

The park develpment work already carried out has added gieatly 
to their appearance and recreational facilities. When the plans for im- 
provements have all been carried out, the state will have a system of 
state parks of which Georgians may well feel proud. 


The two nurseries of the state forest service, one at Albany and the 
other at Blairsville, have been unable to meet the demand for planting 
stock, so great is the interest in reforestation in the state. 

View of State Tree Nursery, Albany. 


These nurseries are operated in cooperation with the federal gov- 
ernment by a refund of 50 per cent of the cost. Both were established in 
1932 and were ready to supply seedlings the same year. The plant beds 
have been extended and an increase in the production of seedlings has 
been hastened as rapidly as seemed practicable, but apparently it will 
be impossible to catch up with the demand for some time. 

At the Albany nursery, special attention is given to growing slash, 
longleaf and loblolly pines. At Blairsville, attention is directed to grow- 
ing black locust, black walnut and white pine, the species most in de- 
mand in the mountain part of the state. The Blairsville nursery is 
located on lands of the mountain branch of the Georgia Experiment 
Station, which cooperates in handling it. 

With the assistance of CCC labor and ECW funds, a much needed 
house for the nurseryman has been constructed at Albany. 

In accordance with terms of the Clarke-McNary Law, all seedlings 
are sold at cost, making it possible for the land owners to reforest their 
lands cheaply. 

The number of seedlings grown and distributed in 1933 was 766,953 
and in 1934, 593,313. 


From April, 1933, to July 1, 1934, the Division of Forestry main- 
tained cooperation in extension forestry with the State College of Agri- 
culture. This ielationship was discontinued by mutual agreement. 

Under the cooperative arrangement, three extension foresters were 
employed and direction of the work was given by a state leader in the 
office of the state forest service. One extension forester was located in 
upper Georgia, one in middle Georgia and another in south Georgia. 
By the cooperative arrangement, it was possible to so direct the activi- 
ties of the extension foresters as to coordinate it with the activities of 
district foresters, and thus effect the greatest efficiency. 

It is readily apparent that there should be a coordination of the 
activities of extension foresters of the State College of Agriculture with 
the activities of the state forest service, to obtain the best results. An 
agreement with this in mind is being considered. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 19 


The Division of Forestry has been called upon by the Tennessee 
Valley Authority for information respecting forest resouices of that part 
of Georgia on the Tennessee river watershed. Information has been 
given and the ground work laid for cooperative work in forestry develop- 
ment of the area. 


A large number of civic organizations are giving attention to forestry. 
The most prominent and efficient of these is the Georgia Forestry Asso- 
ciation, the membership of which is made up of a number of prominent 
citizens of Georgia who are giving their time and means to promoting the 
state's great forestry resources. 

The Georgia Forestry Association was instrumental in creating the 
state forest service, and has fostered it in every possible way, sponsoring 
legislation, securing appropriations and aiding in developing plans and 

It is therefore appropriate to here express the gratitude of the state 
forest service for the great assistance rendered it by this boyd of far- 
seeing, public spirited, unselfish men and women of the Georgia For- 
estry Association. 

Special recognition is due the Kiwanis Clubs of the state, which, 
under the leadership of the chairman of the committee on forestry, 
L. M. Sheffer, Athens, put on a forestiy program in every club in the 

Other similar organizations, such as the Rotaiians, Lions and Civi- 
tans have put on special local programs devoted to forestry. In some 
instances these organizations have sponsored county-wide forestry 

Women's civic clubs of various kinds have their committees on 
forestry and their conservation programs each year. Staff members of 
the Division of Forestry are frequently called upon to address the wo- 
men's clubs. 

Chambers of Commerce are manifesting a keen interest in forestry 
and are sponsoring every forestry movement in their respective terri- 
tories, donating office space, heat, light, water, etc., for district for- 
esters' offices. 

Boys' and girls' clubs of various kinds are making forestry one of 
their studies and in their camp work, forestry being featured. 

These and other public activities are creating a strong sentiment 
favorable to more exacting requirements for forest protection. 













O >° 'O 








<D aJ 

Jj H |> Ol 

3 aj > CD 

cd g <u xi 

•l-H O 


5 ,1 

rt o « 

M aj -M 

, & >> 

,_, 73 cd 

8 ® ' 






73 Pi 


cd a> 













+-( CD 
° & 





*» o 

S > 

ft p 

CO ^ 

+-> O 

° *S 

03 « 








o 2 

+j £1 

ss t! 

73 >» 

§ 1 

H o 



Forest fires in Georgia for the period of 1933 and 1934 were less pre- 
valent than in the previous biennial period. The public is gradually 
developing a sentiment against burning the woods. Fewer are purposely 
burning their woods, but it takes only a few people to spread fire over a 
wide area. The most encouraging feature is that more people are willing 
to fight fires, and more people are careful about starting fires. 

During the period of this report, CCC camps have been established 
in some of the best timber areas in the state and are constantly subject 
to call for fire fighting. During the period more than 30,000 man days 
were spent by CCC men in fire fighting. Their services have saved land 
owners of Georgia many thousands of dollars of property loss. 

The possibilities of using young pines for making paper has become 
widely appreciated in Georgia, and has materially contributed to the 
greater willingness to protect the forests. 

A report of forest fire losses for the year 1933 and 1934 are given 

Fire Statistics for 1933 : Number of fires 15,222 ; total acres burned 
over 6,600,548. 

Number of fires on areas of the Timber Protective Organization, 
1,261; acres covered, 188,560; damage, $306,175.00; percentage burned 
over 11. 

Number of fires on unprotected land, 13,953 ; acres covered, 6,210,000 ; 
percentage burned over 29. 

Number of fires on national forests, 8; acres covered, 126; damage, 
$51 ; percentage burned .06. 

The total damage to protected land is $306,175 and to unprotected 
land, $7,141,730. 

Fire Statistics 1934 : Number of fires 25,761 ; total acres burned 
5,469,409. Number or fires on acres of the Timber Protective Organiza- 
tion 1,711 ; acres covered 345,409 ; damage $413,571 ; percentage burned 
over .08 per cent. Number of fires on unprotected areas 24,050 ; acres 
covered 5,124,000 ; percentage burned over 27. 


The Pulp and Paper Laboratory, located at Savanah and directed 
by Dr. Charles H. Herty, concluded its connection with this department 
at the end of 1933, and since then has been wholly supported by funds 
from othei sources. Satisfactory arrangements were made with those 
now in charge to perpetuate the state's equity in the plant. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 23 

The laboratory rnaae splendid progress in its paper research in 1933 , 
and it can be stated that the main object of the state's appropriation 
to the plant — the making of paper from southern pines — was achieved 
before the state's support was discontinued. 

The gratitude of the state is due Charles H. Herty and his coworkers 
for their accomplishments, and to the Chemical Foundation, Inc., of 
New York ; to the City of Savannah ; to the General Assembly of Georgia ; 
to Mrs. E. T. Comer, Savannah, and to numerous industries for con- 
tributions of money and service in establishing and maintaining the 

As is well known, the pulp and paper laboratory has continued to 
function, extending its research into the cellulose field with the result 
that announcement has been made of the discovery that rayon can be 
made from pine pulp. 



By Richard W. Smith, State Geologist 


The primary function of the Division of Geology, formerly the De- 
partment of Geology, is the survey and development of the State's min- 
eral resources. This results in the creation of more taxable property, 
thus adding to the prosperity of the State. This is accomplished by 
investigating the mineral deposits of the State and disseminating the 
information obtained where it will do the most good, and by collecting 
the fundamental geological and physiographic information necessary 
for an intelligent search for new deposits or new minerals. Georgia is 
recognized as a state containing a wide variety of mineral resources, 
many of which are undeveloped. The people of the State must be 
taught to recognize this wealth that lies buried under their feet and to do 
theii part in bringing it to the attention of those having capital to estab- 
lish industries within the State that would use these raw materials. 
The prosperity of Georgia demands and its resources deserve a better 
balance between agriculture and industries based on local raw materials. 


The personnel of the Division of Geology at the beginning of 1933 
consisted of S. W. McCallie, State Geologist ; Richard W. Smith, Assist- 
ant State Geologist ; Geoffrey W. Crickmay, Assistant State Geologist ; 
and Miss Margaret Gann, Secretary. 

S. W. McCallie: Samual Washington McCallie, Assistant State 
Geologist of Georgia from 1893 until 1908 and State Geologist from then 
on, died, as he would have wished to, at the end of a day's work on 
October 26, 1933. His years of earnest, painstaking and thorough work, 
many of them spent in the field, resulted in a large number of authorita- 
tive reports on the mineral resources of Georgia. His personal service 
as State Geologist won for him the confidence and admiration of people 
in all walks of life. Governor Eugene Talmadge, ex-officio chairman of 
the Commission of Forestry and Geological Development under which 
Mr. McCallie held office, paid him the following tribute : "The State has 
lost the services of an efficient geologist and the devotion of one of the 
most earnest workers I ever knew. He was a high type man, able and con- 

State Geologist : Richard W. Smith, a graduate of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and Cornell Univeisity, was Assistant State 
Geologist from 1926 until the death of Mr. McCallie. At that time he 
was appointed Acting State Geologist and in December, 1933, was elected 
to succeed Mr. McCallie as State Geologist. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 25 

Assistant State Geolgists: Geoffrey W. Crickmay, who has been 
Assistant State Geologist since 1930, is a graduate of the University of 
British Columbia and of Yale University. 

Lane Mitchell, of Atlanta, a graduate of the Georgia School of Tech- 
nology, the University of Illinois, and Rutgers University, was appointed 
Assistant State Geologist in June, 1934. 


Investigations of Mineral Resources and Geology : The major work 
of the Division of Geology is the investigation of the mineral resources 
of the State. It is necessary to keep in touch with the mines and min- 
eral industries to learn what they are doing and to see if they can be 
assisted in any way to increase their output and markets and to lower 
their costs. Newly discovered deposits of minerals must be investigated 
to ascertain if possible their commercial value. Technical reports and 
popular articles must be prepared, published, and distributed. One 
mineral at a time, or a group of related minerals, is selected for intensive 
investigation of the deposits throughout the State. The resulting re- 
port describes the geology and occurrence of the deposits, gives indivi- 
dual property descriptions, and makes recommendations as to the best 
means for developing the deposits. General reports on the geology or 
physiography of the State and geologic maps, the basic information 
necessary for an intelligent search for undiscovered mineral deposits, 
must be published. The series of 45 such reports or bulletins of uni- 
formly high standard which have already been published has done 
much to increase the development of Georgia's mineral industry. A 
series of timely popular articles has been published in the department's 
monthly paper, the Forestry-Geological Review. Several of these have 
been reprinted as information circulars. 

Clearing House for Mineral Information : The Division of Geology 
serves as a clearing house for geological and mineralogical information. 
People within the State write, call, or phone for advice in developing 
their mineral deposits, digging or boring water wells, or investing in 
mining companies. The mineral producers ask for help in developing 
new mining or treatment methods and finding new markets for their 
products. The Georgia Securities Commission often consults the State 
Geolgist on the advisability of allowing mining companies to sell stock 
within the State. Thousands of letters are received from all over the 
country asking for information on Georgia's mineral resources. Some 
of these can be answered by sending the printed reports, others by per- 
sonal letters based on the experience of the Division's personnel. Hun- 
dreds of rocks and minerals from all parts of the State are sent in for 
identification and advice. In the past the personnel of the department 
included a chemist who made assays and chemical analyses of important 
samples sent in for identification or collected by the State Geologist 
and his assistants. Lack of finances has caused this service to be tem- 
porarily discontinued. 


Publicity : Nation-wide publicity on Georgia's undeveloped min- 
eral resources is obtained in several ways. The bulletins and informa- 
tion circulars and the Forestry-Geological Review are distributed to the 
principal public libraries and universities throughout this country 
and abroad and are reviewed in the principal trade journals. News 
items prepared by the Division of Geology on new developments i n Geor- 
gia's mineral industries are sent out by Associated Press and Interna- 
tional News. The growing interest of the public in such news is shown 
by the steadily increasing collection of clippings on Georgia minerals 
from papers in Georgia and elsewhere. Lectures and addresses on the 
State's mineral resources are frequently given to civic organizations 
and schools. The personnel of the Division are encouraged to write arti- 
cles on Georgia geology and minerals for both popular and scientific 

State Museum : The State Geolgist is the cuiator of the State 
Museum, now housed on the fourth floor of the capitol. This museum 
includes not only specimens of the rocks and minerals found in Georgia 
but displays featuring forestry, agriculture, birds and animal lite, 
entomology, and Indian relics. The museum is now badly crowded and 
needs revision, modernization, and room 101 expansion, as recommended 


The work 01 the Division ox Geology ior the past two years was greatly 
handicapped by a large decrease in available appropriation. The expen- 
ditures, in round numbers, weie $10,500 for 1933 and $12,750 for 1934 
contrasted with $20,000 each tor 1931 and 1932. The Division of Geology 
was able to operate under these reduced funds only by cutting all sala- 
ries 20 per cent, including a voluntary cut by the State Geologist, by 
granting one of the Assistant State Geologists a year's leave oi absence 
without pay, by cutting out the services ol the chemist for the division 
and the guide to the State Museum, by cutting down on the field work 
of the division, and by publishing only one small bulletin. Chemical 
analyses and assays are a very necessary part oi the work of the division 
and this service should be restored as soon as possible. 



The United States Geological Survey in 1934 received a grant from 
Public Works Funds for mineral and geological investigations in the 
southeastern states. The work in Georgia was in cooperation with the 
Division of Geology of the Georgia Department of Forestry and Geolo- 
gical Development. It included investigations of the gold deposits, the 
kyanite and vermiculite deposits, the bleaching clay deposits, and a 
study of the geology and underground waters of the Warm Springs 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 


Gold : The funds available for the gold Investigation were not 
suiiicient to make a detailed study of all of the gold mining sections. 
The Dahlonega area was selected for detailed study of the relations be- 
tween the geology and structure of the region in reference to the gold 
deposits because an adequate topographic map of this section was avail- 
able and because there was more mining activity there at the time the 
investigation was made than in any other section. All other active mines 
and prospects in the State were visited however. The general results 
of this investigation were printed in a series of five articles in the For- 
estry-Geological Review, later reprinted as an infoimation circular. 

Stevenson Gold Placer Mine, Bear Creek, Walker county. The gravel from 
the drag-line excavator passes through a revolving screen, from which 
the coarse gravel passes out on a conveyor belt to a dump pile. The 
finer sand and gravel, containing the gold, go through the sluice box. 

The detailed report will be printed by the United States Geological 

Kyanite and Vermiculite : Kyanite and vermiculite are examples of 
minerals long known to science for which commercial uses have been 
developed in recent years. Kyanite is an aluminum silicate used in the 
manufacture of fire brick and other refractories to enable them to with- 
stand extremely high heat. Vermiculite is a hydrous mica that has the 
property of expanding when heated to p. very light, fluffy powder used 
as a heat insulator and in the manufacture of acoustical wall-board. 
Two kyanite mines were opened in 1934 in Habersham county and vermi- 
culite was mined just across the State line in North Carolina, but the 



extent of the deposits in Georgia was not known. The investigation of 
these minerals by the United States Geological Survey was undertaken 
at the request of the State Geologist. It resulted in finding large quan- 
tities of kyanite in north and middle Georgia. The publication of the 
detailed report (now in print) as a bulletin of the Division of Geology 
will be followed by a steady increase in the mining of this mineral. 
Small deposits only of vermiculite were found, but the published de- 
scriptions of these deposits may result in the discovery of deposits of 
more commercial value. 

Bleaching Clays : Bleaching clays have long been one of the majo- 
mineral products of Georgia. They include the fullers earths of southf 
west Georgia used in refining mineral oils and the bleaching clays or 
middle Georgia used in refining vegetable oils. The investigation by 

Massive Kyanite from Fannin county and Kyanite Crystals from 

Habersham county. 

the United States Geological Survey revealed sizable extensions of 
these deposits and in addition located undeveloped deposits of several 
types of bleaching clays in south and northwest Georgia. There is 
every indication that Georgia's production of these clays will continue 
to increase. 

Warm Springs Investigation : The United States Geological Survey, 
in cooperation with the Division of Geology of the Georgia Department 
of Forestry and Geological Development, made a topographic map and a 
geologic and mineral resource study of the Warm Springs district, em- 
bracing parts of Meriwether, Harris, Talbot, and Upson counties. G. W. 
Crickmay, Assistant State Geologist, was loaned to the federal survey 
to make the geologic investigati ons. An intensive study, still going on, 
was made of the ground water conditions of the part of the area 1m- 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 29 

mediately adjacent to Warm Springs in an effort to determine the origin 
ol the warm and cold springs. The lesulting report, to be published by 
the United States Geological Survey, will be a guide for the future de- 
velopment of Warm Springs, now used for the therapeutic treatment of 
infantile paralysis. 


Geologic Map and Report : Mining men have long been asking for a 
detailed large- scale geologic map of Georgia showing the various types of 
rocks that underlie the State, together with a report describing the 
rocks, their structural relations, and their relation to the commercial 
minerals. Work on this was started in 1930. At the present time the 
complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and Mountain sections of 
middle and north Georgia have been mapped and the section of the re- 
port on them is being written. Further work is necessary on the Coastal 
Plain and the sedimentary rocks of northwest Georgia. 

Mica and Feldspar : The State Geologist has nearly completed the 
field work for a report on the mica and feldspar deposits of Georgia. 
Minor studies that have been made on various other minerals have re- 
sulted in articles in the Forestry-Geological Review. 

School Museums : The collection of rocks and minerals in the State 
Museum at the capitol attracts hundreds of visitors daily, including 
many school children. It is impossible, however, for school children 
from all over the State to come to Atlanta to see this museum. The 
Division of Geology has, therefore, undertaken the tremendous task of 
collecting a large number of specimens of some 70 common rocks and 
minerals found in Georgia for distribution as local museums in selected 
high schools throughout the State. Each specimen will be properly 
labeled and will be displayed on a painted wooden block. The only cost 
to the school will be that of a locked glass case or cases for the display 
and the transportation charges for shipping. 


The relative and total values of the principal minerals mined in Geor- 
gia from 1924 to 1933 are shown in Figure 1. The depression has been 
particularly hard on the building industries. This is reflected in the 
great decline since 1929 in the production of granite, marble, clay pro- 
ducts, Portland cement, sand and gravel. The production of Georgia 
kaolin has shown less decline. This is due to the fact that Georgia 
kaolin has largely replaced the white clays formerly imported from 
England for use in filling and coating white paper and for ceramic 
uses. Georgia now furnishes over 60 per cent of the domestic consump- 
tion of white clay. Preliminary figures indicate that the production in 
1934 will surpass all previous years. 





Graph Showing Georgia's Mineral Production, 1924-1933. 

Metallic ores include iron, manganese, gold and silver. With barite and mica are asbestos, talc, 
soapstone. slate and coal. Figures for ochre and clay products, which together average about $3,500,000, 
are not given. Prepared by G. W. Crickmay. 

The production in 1934 will probably show a slight increase in sev- 
eral othei minerals. The gold mining industry is having its greatest 
revival in some 20 or 30 years. The greatest need of the mineral industry 
in Georgia is for industries located within the State to manufacture 
for local markets the products for which the raw materials are now 
shipped elsewhere. 


Geologic Map 

The work on the geologic map of Georgia and its accompanying 
report, described above, should be pushed forward as rapidly as pos- 
sible in order that it may be ready for publication as soon as funds 
are available. The need for this map and report cannot be over-empha- 

General Reports 

The two most popular bulletins of the Geological Survey have been 
the general one on the Mineral Resources of Georgia and the educa- 
tional one on the Physical Geography of Georgia that shows the origin 
of the physical features of the State and their relation to distribution 
of population, industry and agriculture. Supplies of these bulletins 
are low, and new and revised editions should be published as soon as 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 




in Washing Plant, Edgar Brothers Company near Mclntyre, Wilkinson county 


No report has been issued on Georgia granites since 1902, although 
granite quarrying is one of our major mineral industries. Many im- 
portant deposits are not described in the early ieport. The Division 
of Geology has received many requests from the granite producers for 
such a report. 

Guide to Scenery in Georgia 

The varied scenery of Georgia is a potential natural resource that 
has long been neglected. Thousands of tourists annually pass through 
Georgia on their way to and from Florida. They should be induced to 
visit the points of scenic interest in Georgia rather than to hurry 
through along the shortest route. The Division of Geology has ma- 
terial on hand to prepare a Popular Guide to the Scenery and Geology 
along and close to the Dixie Highway, brief but well illustrated. Pub- 
lication awaits necessary funds. Requests for popular guides of this 
type were made to the State Geologist by the secretaries of a number of 
Georgia Chambers of Commerce at their annual convention in Savan- 
nah in May, 1934. 



Geology of Georgia for Schools 

The State Geologist has long desired to write an Earth History of 
Georgia for high school students. This will be a popular and non- 
technical illustrated story of geology as applied to Georgia for use in 
the schools and for adults with no knowledge of geology. It will be 
similar to the popular educational handbooks put out by several states. 

State Museum 

The State Geologist is the custodian of the State Museum on the 
fourth floor of the capitol. This museum includes exhibits of rocks 
and minerals, forestry, wild animal life and birds, agriculture, entomol- 
ogy, and archaeology. The Museum is viewed each year by thousands 
of visitors, both Georgians and people from other states who are pass- 
ing through Atlanta. Its educational value is shown by the hundreds 
of school teachers who annually bring their classes to study the ex- 
hibits. The exhibits, while superior to many state museums, are 
crowded and poorly lighted. Many of them have not been changed 
for years. As soon as possible they should be modernized. Indirect 
lighting within the cases should be installed as soon as funds are avail- 
able. The State Geologist suggests the appointment of a Museum 
Advisory Committee composed of the State Forester, the Commissioner 
of Game and Fish, the Commissioner of Agriculture, and the State 
Entomologist to aid him in bringing the exhibits up-to-date. 

The State of Georgia will probably in the future build a capitol 
annex office building on the state-owned property facing the capitol 
on Capitol Square. When and if this is done provision should be made 
to devote an entire floor, preferably the ground flooi, to a modern State 
Museum. This should contain adequate room for the expansion of 
the museum. The fund for equipping the building should contain 
provision for modern display cases. Provision should be made for a 
curator and for guides to show visitors through the museum. 

Vermiculite from Lemon's Gap, Towns county. 

REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 33 

Branch museums featuring the products of the region should be 
installed at the various State Parks. A start in this direction has been 
made with the Indian Museum at Indian Springs and the aquarium 
planned bj the Game and Fish Department at the State Fish Hatchery 
at Macon. 

Cooperative Stream Gaging 

The measurement of the flow of the streams of Georgia will give 
information necessary for the proper development of the State. The 
information is necessary before any hydro-electric power developments 
can be planned. Most industries need large quantities of water and 
can be induced to locate in Georgia only if we have the information to 
furnish them of the supply of water that they can expect from any 
stream during times of low water as well as normal and flood-water 
times. For example, the Aluminum Company of America located their 
plants at what is now Alcoa, Tennessee, instead of in North Carolina 
as originally planned, because the State of Tennessee had for years 
been carrying on stream gaging measurements and could furnish them 
information on the flow of the streams, whereas North Carolina had 
no such information. The taxes from this industry to the State of 
Tennessee has been many times greater than the cost of this stream 
gaging and North Carolina is now carrying on such work. 

Stream gaging information will save the Highway Department of 
Georgia many times the cost of such work. At present all highway 
bridges and culverts are designed with a very large safety factor to take 
care of possible floods. If the flow of the streams in flood time were 
known, this safety factor could be cut down and the bridges and cul- 
verts would cost less. Attempts in the past to cut down this safety 
factor without this information has resulted in costly replacements 
of bridges and culverts washed out by flood waters. 

Such work to be of value must be continued over enough years 
to cover extra high floods and extra dry seasons. Georgia should start 
this work at once. The amount appropriated by the State will be 
matched by an equal amount from the United States Geological Survey 
and the work will be done by their experts under the supervision of the 
State Geologist and a federal engineer whose office would be located 
in Atlanta. 

Cooperative Topogiapbic Mapping 

The topographic maps made by the United States Geological Survey 
are in great demand for all sorts of purposes. These maps are made on 
the scale of one inch equals one mile and very accurately show every 
stream, road, house, as well as the elevation and slope of the ground 
by means of contour lines that represent points of equal elevation. 
By means of these maps highways can be relocated in the office, eliminat- 



Sewerpipe Plant near Flintstone, Walker county — Uses Georgia Clay. 

ing all but the final stake-setting surveys : city and town water sup- 
plies and sewers can be planned; areas of stream valleys flooded by 
dams can be estimated ; and all kinds of engineering, mining, and in- 
dustrial projects can be laid out. Less than half of Georgia has been 
thus mapped, mostly in the northern part of the State, and many of 
these maps were made years ago on a different scale with poorer methods 
and need revision. No accurate maps of any kind have been made of 
many counties in Georgia. 

So great has been the demand throughout the country for these 
maps in recent years that the United States Geological Survey has been 
forced to limit this work to States that will cooperate by paying half of 
the expenses. The only topographic map made in recent years in Geor- 
gia is that of the Warm Springs area, financed by a grant from Public 
Works funds. Georgia should appropriate enough, to be matched by an 
equal amount from the Federal Government, to map at least one or two 
areas each year. The work will be done by trained topographers under 
supervision of and in areas picked out by the State Geologist. 

Increased appropriations for 1936 and 1937 will be necessary to ac- 
complish all of this important work. The Division of Geology is anxious 
at all times to render service to the citizens of Georgia. 





Federal Government, matched funds, fire con- 
control $36,398.79 

Federal Government, matched funds, nurse- 
ries 1,433.29 

Donation by Mrs. E. T. Comer, Savannah, Ga., 

for research 1,000.00 

From State Treasurer on appropriation, for 

operations 46, 625 .00 

F. G. Varner, rent on concession at Indian 

Springs for 1933 450.00 

Sale of automobile 159.00 

Sale of fire pumps, and miscellaneous 81 .07 

Sale of seedlings (Savings account) 729.24 

Interest on Savings deposits 21 .73 

Balances on hand : (from 1932) 

Federal funds 7,917.06 

Comer fund 824.53 

Savings account 275 .39 



Division of Forestry $61 , 156 .70 

Division of Geology 10,438.79 

Division of Research 15,738.35 

Division of Parks 2,736.83 

Withdrawal from Savings 993 .32 


Balances on hand, Dec. 31 : 

Operations account $ 4, 818 .07 

Savings account 34 .04 

Comer fund 0.00 





Personal service $24,770.40 

Travel, Division personnel and Commission 

(pro rated) 5,726.24 

Supples and materials 754.19 

Communications 1, 545 .55 

Printing, including Review (pro rated) 773 .12 

Repairs 85.37 

Freight, express, hauling 43.99 

Sub scriptions 11.00 

Bond of Treasurer (pro rated) 19 .50 

Cooperation with Georgia Experiment Station, _ 25 .00 

Vocational Forestry Camp 1,521.69 

Reward 100.00 

T. P. O. Refunds 20,675.50 

Cooperation with Extension Service 2, 799 . 18 

Equipment 108.48 

Miscellaneous .50 

Nixon Forest Project 83 .50 

Alexander Stephens Memorial Project 11 .70 

Nurseries : 

Personal service 675 .00 

Unskilled labor 511.31 

Supplies ._ 752.06 

Electric current 129 .48 

Rent 13.60 

Express 8 .67 

Equipment 2. 00 

Miscellaneous 9. 67 



Personal service $ 8,606.33 

Travel, Division Personnel and Commission 1,016.19 

Supplies 259.16 

Communications 306 .58 

Printing (pro rated) 223.97 

Freight and express 2.06 

Bond for Treasurer (pro rated) 11 .50 

Subscriptions 13 .00 


REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 37 


Personal service $12,951.26 

Travel 311.45 

Supplies 1,643.42 

Communications 90 .93 

Printing, Review (pro rated) 145 .53 

Freight and express 71 .46 

Electric current 2. 10 

Bond for Treasurer (pro rated) 15 .50 

Miscellaneous 1.43 

Common labor 505.27 



Indian Springs : 

Personal service $ 1,148.00 

Travel 98.33 

Supplies 57.54 

Communications 23.82 

Electric current 174.53 

Printing, Review (pro rated) 67. 15 

Repairs 6.35 

Bond for Treasurer (pro rated) 3. 50 

Equipment 171.00 

Permanent Improvements 906 .76 

Miscellaneous 1.95 

$ 2,658.93 

Vogel Park : 

Equipment 77.90 


Withdrawals from Savings account 993 .32 

Total Expenditures for Year $91,062.99 





Federal Government, matched funds, fire control $47,124.91 

Federal Government, matched funds, for nursery 1 , 240 .27 

From State Treasurer on appropriation 38, 150 .00 

From F. G. Varner , concessionnaire, Indian Springs 100 .00 

Miscellaneous 79 .37 

Sale of seedlings 2,762.57 

Balances on hand from 1932 : 

Operations account 4,818.07 

Savings account 34 .04 



Division of Forestry $71,550.65 

Division of Geology 12,759.89 

Division of Parks 3,158.98 

Savings account 957 .35 

Balances on hand Dec. 31 : 

Operations account 3,974.54 

Savings account 1,907.82 


Personal service $28,833.27 

Travel, Division personnel and Commission 

(Prorated) 3,979.14 

Supplies 434.87 

Communications 1, 039 . 80 

Printing including Review (pro rated) 659 . 63 

Repairs and alterations 66.75 

Rent 1.00 

Freight, express, hauling 18.46 

Subscriptions and dues 21.00 

Cooperation with Georgia Experiment Station.. 100 . 00 

Cooperation with Georgia Extension Service 1 , 900 . 00 

Equipment 15.48 

Bond of Treasurer (pro rated) 67.00 

Unclassified 165.35 

T. P. O. Refunds 33,794.43 


REPORT FOR 1933 AND 1934 39 


Unskilled labor 128.48 

Seed and supplies 204.30 

Electric current 73.26 

Rent 13.60 

Communications 1.21 

Repairs to equipment 3.75 

Equipment 26. 31 

Miscellaneous 3. 56 



Personal service $ 6,885.16 

Travel, Division personnel and Commission 

(pro rated) 934.58 

Supplies and materials 1,144.05 

Communications 327 . 23 

Printing including Review (pro rated) 1, 231 . 56 

Repairs and alterations 173 . 96 

Rent of equipment for library project 94.00 

Freight and express 47.83 

Subscriptions 38. 52 

Bond of Treasurer (pro rated) 22.00 

Equipment 1,732.00 

Unclassified 129.00 



Indian Springs $ 781.00 

VogelPark 669.54 

Miscellaneous park expenditures 1,708.44 


Disbursements from savings 957.35 








Department of Forestry and 

Geological Development 



Governor and General Assembly 




1 1> ' 

State of Georgia 







Needs, Division of Forestry 6 

Administration 7 

Forest Fire Control 8 

Emergency Conservation Work 10 

Summary of CCC Activities on Private Lands 12 

Educational Work 12 

Tree Nurseries 16 

Fire Statistics 18 

State Parks 18 


Functions, Division of Geology 28 

Personnel 28 

Nature of the Wo rk 29 

Work Accomplished in 1935-1936 30 

Cooperative Work with U. S. Geological Survey 31 

Projects Under Way 32 

Status of the Mineral Industry in Georgia 35 

Recommendations for Future Work 36 

Cooperative Stream Gaging 38 

Cooperative Topographic Mapping 40 

Cooperation with Georgia Engineering Experiment Station 40 



Atlanta, Ga., February 13, 1937. 

To His Excellency, 

Hon. E. D. Rivers, Governor, 

State of Georgia, 


In accordance with Article 4, Section 23 of the Reorganiza- 
tion Bill enacted by the General Assembly of Georgia at its ses- 
sion in 1931, the Commission of the Department of Forestry and 
Geological Development herewith transmits the following report 
to you as Governor and to the General Assembly. 



Secretary to the Commission 



Chairman — Governor E. D. Rivers 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton 

Alex K. Sessoms, Cogdell 

J. M. Mallory, Savannah 

H. C. Kimbrough, Chipley 

Perry Middleton, Brunswick 

T. G. Woolford, Atlanta 
Secretary — Richard W. Smith, State Geologist, Atlanta 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 5 


By Elmer E. Dyal, State Forester 


Much progress has been made in forestry along many lines during 
the past two years. This advancement is due in part to the help and 
cooperation of the CCC Camps in Georgia. These camps have aided 
materially in the cause of forestry, reforestation and conservation. 

The Division of Forestry has been taxed tremendously during these 
two years to carry on the expanded program called for in cooperating 
with the Federal Government, to the extent that the entire personnel 
has had to devote a great portion of their time to the additional activi- 
ties in the carrying out of this program. 

During the past two years, Georgia has been fortunate to the ex- 
tent that only a small reduction has been made in the number of CCC 
Camps. This has been due largely to the fact that the number of acres 
in organized fire protection on privately owned lands, which was the 
basis for securing these camps, has not decreased but has increased 
each year. The reduction which has been made has been due solely to 
the normal reduction of camps throughout the United States. 

During the biennial period, the state park system, which is under 
the supervision of the Division of Forestry, has expanded from six to 
eight parks. Federal aid has been secured in the enlargement of this 
program, to the extent that much development has been made in each 
of the eight parks. 

The educational program with the vocational forestry schools has 
been continued during the past two years, with much more interest 
being shown by both the students and teachers. At the present time, 
the Division of Forestry is cooperating with more than 200 rural schools 
in carrying on an educational forestry program, whereby students are 
taught better practices pertaining to forestry, conservation, protection 
and reforestation. 

The vocational forestry camp conducted annually has been carried 
on during the past two years with increased efficiency and a larger num- 
ber of students participating than ever before. 

The Forestry-Geological Review, published monthly by the depart- 
ment, has been published each month. It is being sent to every state 
in the Union and to twelve foreign countries. The mailing list has in- 
creased during the past two years from less than 3,000 to more than 3,500. 

The demand for literature dealing with Georgia forestry has con- 
tinued to increase. The supply has been practically exhausted and 
those asking for this type of information have had to be informed to 
this effect. 


The Division of Forestry has continued services to the private land- 
owners throughout the State, as far as has been practicable, in the 
development of timber protective organizations and the planning of the 
CCO program. 

With the importance that forestry is playing in the land use problem 
of Georgia, it should receive much more consideration that it has in 
the past. The State should not leave the planning to the Federal 
agencies but should be in position to at least cooperate and give direc- 
tion to such undertaking. 

The State Forester expresses appreciation for the splendid coopera- 
tion of the Federal agencies, the many civic organizations and the voca- 
tional schools of the State in promoting forestry. 

Tribute is paid and gratitude expressed by the State Forester to the 
Commission of Forestry and Geological Development for the guidance 
and cooperation, as well as the time given in dealing with the many 
problems that have arisen from time to time and their increased interest, 
in helping to promote a better forestry program for the entire State. 


It will be absolutely necessary that more funds be provided if the 
Division of Forestry is to cooperate with the Federal Government and 
private landowners in forest fire protection. Funds should be provided 
by the State in order to meet one half of the expenses incurred for fire 
protection, as the Federal Government is doing at the present time. 
This will enable us to cooperate with the timber owners on a 50-50 basis. 

The educational department should be expanded quite a bit, to the 
extent that funds should be provided for the publishing of a great many 
bulletins, leaflets, posters, etc., for distribution to those who are seek- 
ing this type of assistance from us. 

It is also imperative that two additional men be employed in order to 
carry on certain types of work and activities in the future that have not 
been carried on in the past. 

The Division of Forestry has never been able to meet the demand 
for seedlings. In order to more nearly meet the demand in the future, 
it will be necessary to enlarge both of the State nurseries. To do this, 
additional funds will have to be provided. 

In 1936, approximately five million seedlings were sold to the land- 
owners of the State, orders for these seedlings coming from 78 different 
counties. More than ten million seedlings could have been sold if facili- 
ties could have been provided for the raising of them. It is our aim to 
grow approximately ten million seedlings during the coming season if 
additional funds can be provided. 

In 1936, there were approximately five million acres of timberland in 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 7 

organized fire protection. It is our aim to increase this amount by at 
least one million acres per year; but to do this, the assistance of another 
person specializing in this work will be necessary. If this additional 
person is not employed, it will be almost impossible for us to increase 
this acreage to any great extent, due to the fact that the entire personnel 
of the Department now has as many duties as it can supervise. 


The Commission of the Department of Forestry and Geological 
Development allots and budgets to the different divisions the funds 
appropriated to the Department. The Division of Forestry has never 
exceeded the amount allotted to it. 

The Division of Forestry receives the major part of its money for 
operation from the Federal Government under Section 2 and 4 of the 
Clarke-McNary Law, receiving in 1936, $69,620 from Section 2, and $1,600 
from Section 4. 

Personnel : The personnel of the Division of Forestry, at the pres- 
ent time, consists of a State Forester, Educational Manager, Assistant 
State Forester, eight District Foresters, Bookkeeper-Treasurer who is sec- 
retary to the Educational Manager, Clerk who is secretary to the State 
Forester, three clerks in district offices, one nurseryman and one Super- 
intendent of State Park construction. 

The staff members are as follows : 

ELMER E. DYAL, State Forester, Atlanta 
C. E. BOGGS, Educational Manager, Atlanta 
JACK THURMOND, Assistant State Forester, Atlanta 
T. P. HURSEY, District Forester, Rome 
W. D. YOUNG, District Forester, Gainesville 
R. R. EVANS, District Forester, Columbus 
S. L. McCRARY, District Forester, Augusta 
H. C. CARRUTH, District Forester, Macon 
W. G. WALLACE, District Forester, Savannah 
H. D. STORY, Jr., District Forester, Albany 
R. D. FRANKLIN, District Forester, Waycross 
MISS HAZEL E. NICHOLAS, Bookkeeper-Treasurer, Atlanta 
MRS. JOHN Y. ROBERTS, Clerk, Atlanta 
MRS. W. L. DAVIS, Jr., Clerk, Albany 
M. E. MURPHY, Nurseryman, Albany 

E. H. SIMS, Superintendent of State Park Construction, 

The personnel of the Emergency Conservation Work in Atlanta 
consists of the following : 


For Forestry camps on private land, Director of ECW who is Assist- 
ant State Forester, a Principal Clerk, Senior Clerk, Clerk-stenographer, 
under Clerk-stenographer, Assistant Clerk, Junior Clerk-stenographer, 
and under Clerk-typist. 

For Park camps, a Superintendent of state park construction, 
Landscape Architect, Senior Clerk, Secretary and Stenographer, Assistant 
Clerk, and Typist. 


The major activities of the Division of Forestry have been on forest 
fire protection. Much progress has been made in bringing forest areas 
of the State into timber protective organizations during the past two 

At this time the State of Georgia has 4,251,000 acres under intensive 
and extensive fire protection. The protective activities are administered 
by the Division of Forestry through the various timber protective 
organizations throughout the state. 

The forest area of Georgia is the largest of any state in Region 8, 
which includes eleven states. The total forest area of Georgia, exclu- 
sive of national forests, military reservations, and bird sanctuaries is 
23,100,000 areas. 

On January 1, 1937 the Division of Forestry had under its super- 
vision ten CCC camps, nine of which are located in the Naval Stores 
belt in South Georgia. The one North Georgia camp is located in the 
Floyd County Timber Protective Organization area near Rome, Georgia. 

The fact that only forest units belonging to timber protective or- 
ganizations are considered eligible for CCC camp work has resulted in 
materially stimulating the interest in these organizations. ' 

The timber protective organizations that have been fortunate 
enough to secure CCC work have received wonderful benefits in the 
development of their protection plans in that improvements put in by 
CCC camps on protected units have advanced the State's protection 
program beyond any expectation. 

Improvements received consist of primary firebreaks, truck trails, 
which are used to facilitate quick access of fire fighters and equipment 
to forest fires, the construction of an adequate tower and telephone 
system to be used in the detection of fires, reporting and dispatching 
men for fire suppression. 

Due to this condition, and also due to the fact that there 
has been a general reduction from time to time in the number of CCC 
camps in the United States, camps that were located on inactive timber 
protective organizations have been abandoned. There will be a further 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 

Constructing Firebreak on Timber Protective Organization Land. 

reduction in the number of camps, but organizations that are active 
and are carrying on their part of the protection program may avail them- 
selves of the services of CCC camps as long as any camps remain under 
the supervision of the Division of Forestry and as long as there is justi- 
fied work remaining to be done. 

In addition to the 4,251,000 acres of land under organized protec- 
tion, administered by the Division of Forestry, there are approximately 
1,600,000 acres of timber land under the protection of national forests, 
national parks, military reservations, game refuges and biological survey. 
Other forest lands, consisting largely of unorganized farm woodlots, 
are given a measure of protection by their owners. 

There are twenty-nine active timber protective organizations in the 
State engaged in fire protection work on 4,251,000 acres of forest land. 
The largest of the organizations are located in the Naval Stores belt of 
South Georgia. 

The timber protective organizations working under the supervi- 
sion of the Division of Forestry and with limited funds have made much 
progress in their protective program. 

During the period January 1, 1935 to January 1, 1937 the twenty- 
nine timber protective organizations have purchased 17 tractors, 17 
firebreak plows, 10 road machines and 15^ ton trucks. With this equip- 


ment they have constructed 22,550 miles of 8-foot random firebreaks, 
and have maintained 1,850 miles of primary firebreaks and truck trails 
that were constructed by the CCC camps and turned over to them for 

Several timber protective organizations have funished the material 
and the CCC camps have constructed permanent TPO offices and 

The Suwannee and Consolidated Timber Protective Organizations 
have installed radio transmitters and receiving sets for use in forest 
fire protection. Suwannee Timber Protective Organization installed 
their radio system in 1933 and they now have 14 receiving sets on patrol 
trucks working admirably in connection with their tower and telephone 
system. The Consolidated Timber Protective Organization, with head- 
quarters at Homerville, installed their radio system during the winter 
of 1936 and it is also proving a success in their fire protective system. 

The Division of Forestry through the Timber Protective Organiza- 
tion, has accomplished much in placing four and one quarter million 
acres under protection. However, there still remains nineteen million 
acres in need of adequate protection. 

The Division of Forestry has gone a long way with its limited funds 
and stands ready to cooperate with the owners of the nineteen million 
acres in need of fire protection when the funds become available. 


Aid received through Emergency Conservation Work during the 
past two years has enabled the Division of Forestry to still further 
advance its program of forest protection. In addition to the aid re- 
ceived during the past two years, the State is grateful for aid received 
from ECW during the first two years of the program. 

Work standards have changed since the beginning of Emergency 
Conservation Work in 1933. Higher standard truck trails and struc- 
tures are now being constructed and more emphasis is being put on 
the construction of roads rather than fire breaks. As a result of the 
many miles of truck trail constructed by CCC Camps large inaccessible 
areas have been opened up and made accessible to fire fighting crews. 

The Federal Forest Service states the policy on CCC work on 
privately-owned forest lands broadly as follows: "The Camps are sup- 
ported by Federal funds and therefore are Federal Projects. While 
the State forestry agency, representing the Government, submits rec- 
ommendations as to the location and purpose of all projects in the 
states, the entire set-up of each proposed camp is closely scrutinized 
by Federal officials whose decision is final in the matter and must 
be followed by State Forestry officials". 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 


Type of Fire Tower Constructed by CCC Enrollees. 

All work projects on private land are recommended by State 
Forestry officials: however, approval for construction is given by the 
office of the Regional Forester. No projects can be authorized by 
State officials until after approval is secured from the Regional Forester. 

When the State obtained Emergency Conservation Work Camps 
at the beginning of the ECW program the Federal Government re- 
ceived assurance that all improvements resulting would be maintained 
by the State or cooperating private organizations. 

Federal foresters point out that the best guarantee for mainte- 
nance lies in the amount of State forestry funds available for cooper- 
ative work with timberland owners. Such State forestry funds must 
be sufficient in amount to justify the State's guarantee that the pro- 
tective improvements completed by the CCC Camps will be continu- 
ously maintained. 

A summary of ECW activities on private lands, which the Division 
of Forestry administered from January 1, 1935 to January 1, 1937 is as 
follows : — 



From January 1, 1935 to January 1, 1937 

Bridges constructed 405 

Bridges maintained 13 

Lookout towers constructed 36 

Lookout towers maintained 17 

Other buildings constructed 11 

Miles of telephone line constructed 775 

Miles of telephone line maintained 642 

Signs erected 177 

Tool boxes constructed 31 

Miles of truck trail constructed 750 

Miles of truck trail maintained 724 

Acres planted in trees 277 

Acres of forest stand improved (thinning) 285 

Man-days on nursery work 680 

Bushels of cones collected 4 , 076 

Man-days fighting fires 17,647 

Miles of fire breaks constructed 2,707 

Miles of fire breaks maintained 1,420 

Miles of roadside and trailside fire hazard reduced, 317 

Acres of other fire hazard reduction 40,515 

Man-days on fire presuppression and fire preven- 
tion 4,240 

Acres of tree insect control 395 

Acres of carpet grass planted 8,915 

Man-days searching for missing persons 63 

Man-days emergency work on flood protection 1 ,537 

Number of experimental plots developed 7 

Man-days drafting timber type maps ... 661 

Miles of grade lines surveyed 47 

Miles of linear surveys 8,088 

Acres of timber type survey 5,280,757 

Rods of fence erected 560 


The educational program of the Division of Forestry is in charge 
of an Educational Manager. It is his dutj to cooperate with the Depart- 
ment of Vocational Education in carrying on cooperative forestry pro- 
grams with the schools where vocational agriculture is taught through 
out the State of Georgia. 

The Educational Manager is also in charge of a Vocational Forestry 
Camp that is held each summer ; is editor of the monthly publication 
known as the Forestry-Geological Review ; edits bulletins, leaflets and 
posters ; prepares news items for release to the press and assembles and 
organizes other educational material for the Department. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 


Vocational Education Program : The Division of Forestry and the 
Division of Vocational Education entered into a cooperative program 
eight years ago for the purpose of giving practical forestry training to 
boys throughout the State on jobs dealing with the conservation and 
development of our forest resources. The Division of Forestry fur- 
nishes teaching material and supervises the instruction given by the 
teachers of vocational agriculture, pertaining to forestry. This co- 
operative program includes the following: 

Group of Vocational Students. 

1. Leasing of 10 or more acres of forest land by the school, on which 
correct forestry practices are carried out under the supervision of dis- 
trict foresters, in cooperation with teachers of vocational agriculture. 

2. Teaching practical forestry to all farm boys enrolled in voca- 
tional agriculture. 

3. Preparing and furnishing to teachers and pupils teaching 
material dealing with forestry. 

4. Conducting a vocational forestry school camp. Free scholar- 
ships are given to one boy in each vocational school throughout the 
State for outstanding records in forestry work. 


The camp is held each year in order to extend, under practical 
conditions, the teaching which has been carried on in the agricultural 
class rooms of the high schools. Instruction in the camp is conducted 
by members of the staff of the Division of Forestry, assisted by teachers 
of vocational agriculture. 

As a result of this cooperative program during the past eight years, 
approximately 16,000 farm boys have been given practical training in 
many of the more common forestry problems with which farmers are 

In order to assist in carrying out this program, teachers of voca- 
tional agriculture have been given practical forestry training by the 
district foresters and through special courses at the Agricultural Col- 
lege. Each year through this cooperative program thousands of trees 
are planted by boys on their home farms and thousands of acres of 
forest lands are protected from fire. A strong sentiment for the pro- 
tection and preservation of our forest areas on the part of a large num- 
ber of farm boys is being built. In fact, the boys being reached through 
this program are the farmers and foresters of the future. 

The accomplishments of the vocational schools during the 1935-36 
school year are listed below : 

1936 1935 

Number of students studying forestry 2 , 972 1 , 253 

Number of hours devoted to forestry per student- . _ 18 14 

Pounds of seed collected 391 

Number seedlings planted by adult farmers 463,294 12,848 

Seed beds made 48 35 

Number of students with Home Pro j ects 872 529 

Teachers assisting with T. P. O. work 12 4 

Number of column inches in newspapers 1, 428 600 

Miles of firebreaks constructed 2, 620 592 

Number schools having forestry exhibits 25 10 

Seedlings grown on school forests 41,544 14,560 

Seedlings grown other than on school forests 979 , 777 

It is the plan during the coming year for the teachers of vocational 
agriculture to increase their accomplishments along certain lines. More 
seed beds will be established. More seedlings will be planted by the 
students and by the adult farmers. More students will study forestry. 
Consequently, the cause of forestry will be advanced in a large measure. 
More can be accomplished toward the conservation and protection of 
the forest lands of our State through this type of educational program 
than in any other manner. The students studying forestry in the 
vocational schools have expressed themselves, that they had rather 
have any other part of their educational program discontinued than 
that part which deals with forestry. Of the more than 200 vocational 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 15 

schools, in which this forestry program is being carried on, 45 are negro 
schools. Realizing that the negro as well as the white man can set 
fire to woods, the Division of Forestry thought it well not to neglect 
the negro children of the State and have cooperated with them on the 
same basis as the white schools. The negro teachers and students 
appreciate the cooperation and consideration that the Division of 
Forestry has shown them during the past several years. These teachers 
have been instrumental in planting a large number of seedlings and 
reducing the number of forest fires in their local communities. They 
have shown a splendid spirit and have been willing to carry out the 
suggestions in every detail as have been given them by the Educational 
Department of the Division of Forestry. 

Vocational Forestry Camp : Each year a vocational forestry camp 
is conducted. The students attending this camp are selected on the 
basis of a competitive examination in forestry. The object of the camp 
is to bring together, annually, outstanding boys showing particular 
interest in forestry to receive more intensive training in practical 
forestry under the guidance of a staff of trained foresters of the Divi- 
sion of Forestry. Those who successfully complete the camp are given 
a vocational forester's certificate. Many of the students attending 
the vocational forestry camp have been given non-technical jobs by 
different forestry enterprises. Some have been assistant technicians 
in the forest survey conducted throughout the South by the U. S. 
Forest Service and others have obtained positions as foremen in several 
of the CCC camps in Georgia. In every instance, these students have 
proven themselves to be well qualified and have shown more ability 
than those who did not receive the vocational forestry course. 

Forestry-Geological Review : The Forestry-Geological Review is 
published monthly by the Department. It gives the various activities 
of the Department and includes information that will be of interest 
and educational value to those who read it. Efforts have been made 
to include information in this publication that will be of material bene- 
fit to the readers along the various phases of forestry and geology. 
Of the 3,100 copies mailed monthly, 2,913 copies are distributed within 
the State, going to a number of timber owners in EVERY county. The 
publication is also mailed to every State in the United States and to 
twelve foreign countries. Those included on the mailing list are lead- 
ing landowners, civic and business organizations, county agents, voca- 
tional teachers, mine and quarry interests, naval stores operators, 
lumbermen and others. Anyone wishing to receive the publication 
may do so free upon request. It is stimulating a great deal of interest 
in fire protection and other forestry practices, in bringing to their 
attention the best practices along these lines. It is also acquainting 
the people of Georgia, and others, with Georgia's mineral resources 
and is creating interest in the development of a system of state parks. 

Prizes : As an incentive to the teachers of vocational agriculture 
and students in vocational schools, the Georgia Forestry Association 


offers cash awards annually to the teachers and students doing the 
most outstanding work in forestry education. A prize of $50 is of- 
fered to the teacher doing the most outstanding work and a prize of 
$25 is offered to the teacher doing the second most outstanding work. 
An award of $5.00 is offered for five consecutive months to the student 
of vocational agriculture who writes for publication in the Forestry- 
Geological Review the best news article pertaining to his forestry pro- 
gram or the forestry program in his school. Much favorable comment 
has been received on the articles that have been written by the voca- 
tional students. These prizes are designated as the "Herty Prizes," 
in honor of Dr. Charles H. Herty. 

Bulletins, Leaflets, Etc : Due to the lack of funds, scarcely any 
bulletins, leaflets, and other material have been published during the 
past two years. More requests have been received during this time 
for material and information pertaining to the better practices of 
forestry than the Department could supply. These requests have 
come not only from citizens of Georgia but from citizens of the entire 
United States. People throughout the United States have become 
interested in the type of forestry program being carried on in Georgia 
and are anxious to receive material from our State in order to incor- 
porate part of the practices, as are being carried on in Georgia, in their 
forestry program. It is quite unfortunate that we are unable to meet 
all of these requests. 

Exhibits : Many request have been received from civic organi- 
zations, fair officials, and individuals that the Division of Forestry 
prepare or assist in the preparation of an educational exhibit pertaining 
to forestry. The Educational Department has cooperated with these 
just as far as has been possible. Exhibits have been prepared and 
shown in many of the vocational schools, at the Macon State Fair for 
the past two years and at the Slash Pine Forestry Festival, held in 
Way cross, for the past two years. Funds have limited very much the 
number and size of these exhibits. Much good can be accomplished 
through this type of educational work in that it brings to the attention 
of those seeing the exhibits, in a manner that could not be done other- 
wise, new ideas and methods pertaining to the better practices of 

Much credit is due the Department of Vocational Education and 
the State Superintendent of Schools for their cooperation and assis- 
tance in carrying on the school forestry program. 


The Division of Forestry, in cooperation with the Federal Govern- 
ment, operates two nurseries for raising seedlings of different species, 
to be distributed to the citizens of the State. One of these nurseries 
is located in north Georgia and the other one in south Georgia. They 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 


are located in different sections of the State in order to raise different 
species of trees more successfully. 

The demand for seedlings has increased from year to year and at 
no time has the Division of Forestry been able to supply the demand. 
Plans are being made to increase the facilities at both of these nurseries 
Equipment has already been installed at the South Georgia Nursery to 
make it possible to raise an additional two million seedlings during the 
next season. The nursery in north Georgia will also be expanded and 
equipment installed to make it possible to raise a larger amount of seed- 
lings during the next season than has ever been raised at any previous 

State Tree Nursery, Albany, Ga. 

Requests for seedlings have come from 78 counties in Georgia. 
These counties are distributed throughout the entire State, showing 
that people in every section of the State are becoming interested in the 
reforestation program. A total of 176 orders has been received, varying 
from a small number of seedlings to several thousand in some instances. 
These seedlings are sold, in accordance with terms of the Clarke-McNary 
Law, at cost, making it possible for the landowners of the State to re- 
forest their lands very cheaply. 

The number of seedlings distributed has increased every year. 
The amount distributed for 1933 was 766,953 ; for 1934, 593,313 ; for 1935, 


3,110,500 ; and for 1936, 4,376,200. These seedlings are distributed upon 
application to the State Forester and may be secured by any citizen in 
the State who places his order before the supply is exhausted. 


Forest fires in Georgia for the period of 1935 and 1936 were less pre- 
valent than in the previous biennial period. The public is gradually 
developing sentiment against burning the woods, fewer are purposely 
burning their woods. Still there are some landowners who still burn for 
cattle, but this practice as well as burning in naval stores operations is 
gradually decreasing. 

During the past two years much valuable assistance has been given 
to the landowners of the State in fighting forest fires by the CCC boys. 
During the period covered by this report a total of 17,647 man-days were 
spent by enrollees in fighting forest fires. Their efforts saved the 
timber landowner of Georgia many millions of young trees and many 
thousands of dollars of property loss. 

A report of forest fire losses for the years 1935 and 1936 is given 

Fire Statistics for 1935. 

Number of fires, 12,452 ; total acres burned over 2,423,630. 

Number of fires on areas of the Timber Protective Organizaton 
2,401 ; acres covered 284,726 ; damage, $405,454 ; percentage burned ; 6.2%. 
Number of fires on unprotected land, 10,141 ; acres covered 2,423,630 ; 
percentage burned 13%. The total damage to protected land was $405,- 
454 and to unprotected land $4,377,000. 

Fire Statistics for 1936. 

Number of fires 26,051 ; total acres burned over 5,741,623 acres. 

Number of fires on areas of Timber Protective Organizations 1,411; 
acres covered 87,623 acres. 

Number of fires unprotected land 24,640; acres covered 5,654,700 

Total damage to protected land $89,824. 
Total damage to unprotected land $6,331,700. 
Percentage burned protected land 2.6%. 
Percentage burned unprotected land 30%. 


A system of State Parks located within easy reach of the citizens of 
the State of Georgia has been the goal of the Department of Forestry 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 19 

and Geological Development for many years. This goal has been par- 
tially reached in the establishment of eight State Parks, namely : 

Indian Springs — Butts County 

Vogel— Union County 

Alex. H. Stephens— Taliaferro County 

Fort Mountain — Murray County 

Pine Mountain — Harris County 

Chehaw — Lee-Dougherty counties 

Little Ocmulgee— Telfair-Wheeler counties 

Santo Domingo — Glynn County 

In the selection of the site of each of these parks, much thought 
was given to the suitability of the areas as to their forest growth, nat- 
ural beauty, proximity to main highways, population to be served, 
historic, archaeologic and geologic interest, and the possibility for the 
development of out-door recreation. 

The State Park System is being developed through the cooperation 
of the Department of Forestry and Geological Development of the State 
of Georgia with the Branch of Recreational Planning and State Coopera- 
tion of the National Park Service, Department of The Interior, United 
States Government. Since January 1st, 1935, two new parks have 
been added : Chehaw State Park in Lee and Dougherty counties 
with 800 acres, and Little Ocmulgee State Park in Telfair and Wheeler 
counties with 1,000 acres. Between the years 1933 and 1936 the number 
of State Parks in Georgia has been increased from three to eight. Of 
the eight State Parks, seven are Recreational areas, and one — Santo 
Domingo — is a State Monument. 

The attendance in State Parks has increased from approximately 
160,000 in 1933 to 605,000 in 1936. Following is a tabulation showing the 
attendance at Georgia State Parks for the year 1933 : 

Indian Springs 100,000 

Vogel 50,000 

Alex. H. Stephens 10,000 

Total 160,000 

Following is a tabulation showing the estimated attendance for 
the year 1936 : 

Indian Springs 250,000 

Vogel 100,000 

Alex. H. Stephens 75,000 

Fort Mountain 25,000 

Pine Mountain 100,000 

Chehaw 25,000 

Little Ocmulgee 25,000 

Santo Domingo 5,000 

Total 605,000 



All of Georgia's State Parks are still incomplete, and all except Indian 
Springs and Santo Domingo still under construction. The increase in 
attendance is indicative of a still larger increase as additional recre- 
ational facilities are completed for use by the public. 

The acreage in State Parks has increased from approximately 200 
acres in 1933 to 5,000 in 1936. This 5,000 acres does not include 3,000 
acres which are being donated to the State at the present time, nor 7,000 
acres being acquired by the U. S. Government at Alex. H. Stephens and 
Pine Mountain State Parks. Below is a tabulation showing the status 
of the acreage in State Parks as of January 1st, 1937 : 

Land Additional 
Park Name Owned Land Being Remarks 

by State Acquired 

Indian Springs. ._ 158 Acres .5000 Acres.. .Proposed for acquisition by 

U. S. Government, but tem- 
porarily dropped. 

Vogel 257 " 5000 " State proposes to eliminate 

private holdings within mas- 
ter plan and to secure land 
use permit on about 4,800 acres 
within master plan from U. S. 
Forest Service. 

A. H. Stephens.. _ 220 " 3000 " By U. S. Government. 

Fort Mountain.. _. 725 ." 2000 " Being donated to State. Deeds 

being made as fast as titles 
can be cleared. 

Pine Mountain. __ 1458 " .5000 " _. .By U. S. Government. 

Chehaw 800 " .3000 " __ .Proposed for acquisition. 

Little Ocmulgee... 1000 " .1000 " __ .Acquisition of additional area 

to make possible the develop- 
ment of a large lake at this 
park is being rapidly com- 

Santo Domingo. __ 350§ " _ 20 " __ .Being acquired by State. 

The TJ. S. Government has made available to the State, through the 
National Park Service, ECW and RDP funds from 1933 and 1936, as fol- 
lows : 

1933 $ 225,000 Approximately 

1934 1,350,000 

1935 1,500,000 

1936 1,000,000 

Total $4,075,000 

The above funds were expended under the supervision of the Na- 
tional Park Service and all bills were paid by Finance Officers of the 
U. S. Government. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 21 

Despite the fact that the State has provided practically no technical 
personnel for design and supervision of construction, preliminary 
master plans have been completed for the above eight (8) State Parks. 
Tentative construction schedules and estimates have been submitted 
to the National Park Service for their approval on the work necessary to 
complete these eight State Parks. 

A brief description of the work completed in each State Park fol- 


Trails and roads have been built throughout the Park; picnic 
grounds provided; a stone arch entrance bridge constructed; the old 
wooden casino replaced by a new stone building ; a stone museum build- 
ing erected ; the water supply system extended and improved ; the com- 
fort station remodeled; parking areas provided, and much landscape 
work and planting done. 


A large stone Inn is nearing completion at Neel Gap. In the Nottely 
Falls area, just north of Neel Gap open air fireplaces, picnic tables, com- 
fort station, picnic shelter, parking areas and complete facilities for 
picnics have been provided. This area has been landscaped and planted 
with many thousands of trees and flowering shrubs. A trail shelter 
cabin has been constructed on the top of Blood Mountain on the Appla- 
chian Trail. Three and a half miles north of Neel Gap a large dam has 
been constructed, creating a 30-acre lake. In the Lake Area roads and 
trails have been constructed, and a bath house, caretaker's house and 
six vacation cottages have also been built. Water supply and sewerage 
disposal systems have been constructed and much planting and beauti- 
fication work done. The lake has been stocked with rainbow trout. 


Liberty Hall and its out-buildings, grounds and furnishings have 
been restored. A bath house, lake, observation and water tower, and 
comfort stations constructed. Three picnic areas with parking areas, 
shelters, open air fireplaces, barbecue pits, picnic tables, etc., have 
been completed. Several miles of trails and park roads have been con- 
structed. Much landscape work and thousands of trees and flowering 
shrubs have been planted. Water and sewerage facilities have been 

An organized camp for 100 campers and a large lake are under con- 



Spring House 
Indian Spring State Park, Butts County. 

View Blood Mt. Gorge, Vogel State Park, Union County. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 23 


A park road from the State highway to a point near the top of Fort 
Mountain has been constructed. A parking area on Fort Mountain 
and picnic shelter built. Several miles of trail have been constructed 
and much clean-up work has been done. Investigation and plans for 
further work are now in progress. A stone observation tower has been 
erected on the top of Fort Mountain. 


A large stone Inn has been completed on the top of Pine Mountain. 
Pine Mountain parkway from Tip Top to the Inn is rapidly nearing 
completion. Construction is in progress on the section of the parkway 
east of the Inn. A parking area, water supply and sewerage system for 
the Inn have been constructed. Six vacation cabins, custodian's 
house, water and sewerage systems have been constructed in the Lake 
Area. A large dam, creating a20-acre lake is nearing completion in this 
area. A play area is also nearing completion. Several miles of roads 
and trails in the park have been constructed. Seven fish-rearing pools 
have been constructed. Much clean-up work and planting have been 

An organized camp for 100*campers and a large lake are under con- 


An entrance road has been constructed, picnic area, picnic shelter, 
open air fireplaces, picnic tables and seats have been provided. A 
sewerage and water supply system is under construction. Several 
miles of trails have been constructed. Snags have been removed from 
the boat channel of Muckalee Creek. Much landscape work and plant- 
ing have been completed. 


A main park entrance road has been constructed. A recreational 
building is rapidly nearing completion. A parking area is under con- 
struction. Much clean-up work, landscaping and planting have been 
done. Plans have been completed for a dam to create a large lake. 


An entrance gate, a Spanish type Inn, foot trails, park road, water 
supply and sewerage disposal system have been constructed. Much 
landscape work and planting have been done in the Park. Trails have 
been marked with signs, directing visitors to points of interest. Large 
lagoons have been constructed and planted with water plants. An 
underground power system has been constructed. The ruins on this 
park have been preserved and marked. 



Liberty Hall 
Alex. H. Stephens State Park, Taliaferro County. 

Picnic Shelter 
Fort Mountain State Park, Murray County. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 25 

The Federal Government's cooperative arrangement with the various 
States to assist them in the creation of a system of State Parks, State 
Monuments, and Recreational Areas is based upon each State having 
an adequate administrative organization competent to administer and 
maintain their developments. During the construction period, the 
States must have sufficient technical help to properly design and 
supervise the construction of all improvements. The State must have 
sufficient funds to purchase equipment that the Federal Government 
will not purchase, and also to furnish some of the materials necessary 
in the larger jobs. The Department of Forestry & Geological Develop- 
ment has been severely handicapped in taking advantage of Govern- 
ment aid due to the small amount of State funds made available dur- 
ing the years 1933 to 1936, inclusive, for this work. 

Unless a large increase in State appropriations for State Park work 
is made, there is grave danger that all CCC activities on State Parks 
may be stopped by the Federal Government. The small contribution of 
State funds to this work, shown in the financial statement for 1935 
and 1936, should be contrasted with the $2,500,000 spent by the Federal 
Government for permanent improvements that must be maintained. 



Vacation Cottage. Lake Area, Pine Mt. State Park, Harris County. 

Lake Scene 
Chehaw State Park, Lee-Dougherty Counties. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 


Woodland Trail 
Little Ocomulgee State Park, Telfair- Wheeler Counties. 

Santo-Domingo State Park, Glynn County. 



By Richard W. Smith, State Geologist 


The primary function of the Division of Geology is the survey and 
development of the State's mineral resources. This results in the crea- 
tion of more taxable property, thus adding to the prosperity of the State. 
This cannot be done by mere enthusiastic statements that Georgia con- 
tains a wide variety of mineral resources, but b& presenting the FACTS 
as to the location, extent, and commercial possibilities of these un- 
developed mineral resources. The Division of Geology collects and 
publishes as many of these facts as its finances will allow. Reports 
are also published on the fundamental geological and physiographic 
information necessary for an intelligent search for new deposits and new 

Far too much of our mineral wealth is now being shipped in the 
crude form to industries outside of the State that fabricate the raw 
material into finished products. When the people of Georgia realize 
the wealth that lies buried beneath their feet, they will be willirg to 
furnish the capital to establish industries within the State that will 
convert the raw mineral wealth into more valuable finished products. 
The prosperity of Georgia demands and its resources deserve a better 
balance between agriculture and industries based on local raw materials. 


The personnel of the Division of Geology consists of the State 
Geologist, two Assistant State Geologists, a secretary, and a porter. 

State Geologist: Richard W. Smith, a graduate of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology and Cornell University, was Assistant 
State Geologist from 1926 until the death in October, 1933, of the late 
S. W. McCallie, former State Geologist. At that time he was appointed 
Acting State Geologist and in December, 1933, was elected by the Com- 
mission to succeed Mr. McCallie as State Geologist. 

Assistant State Geologists : Geoffrey W. Orickmay, who has been 
Assistant State Geologist since 1930, is a graduate of the University of 
British Columbia and of Yale University. 

Lane Mitchell, of Atlanta, a graduate of the Georgia School of Tech- 
nolcgy, the University of Illinois, and Rutgers University, was appointed 
Assistant State Geologist in June, 1934. In September, 1936, he was 
granted a year's leave of absence to teach ceramics at the Georgia School 
of Technology during the absence of Dr. A. V. Henry. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 



Investigations of Mineral Resources and Geology : The major work 
of trie Division of Geology is the investigation of the mineral resources 
of the State. It is necessary to keep in touch with the mines and mineral 
industries to learn what they are doing and to see if they can be assisted 
in any way to increase their output and markets and to lower their 
costs. Newly discovered deposits of minerals should be investigated 
to ascertain if possible their commercial value. 

Technical reports and popular articles should be prepared, published, 
and distributed. One mineral at a time, or a group of related minerals, 
is selected for intensive investigation of the deposits throughout the 
State. The resulting report describes the geology and occurrence of 
the deposits, gives individual property descriptions, including thick- 
ness of deposits and overburden, and makes recommendations as to 
the best means for developing the deposits. General reports on the 
geology or physiography of the State and geologic maps, the basic in- 
formation necessary for an intelligent search for undiscovered mineral 
deposits, should be published. 

The series of 45 such reports of bulletins of uniformly high stand- 
ard that have already been published has done much to increase the 
development of Georgia's mineral industry. A series of timely popular 
articles has been published in the Department's monthly paper, the 

Air photo of Stone Mountain, DeKalh County, showing one of the 
large granite quarries at its foot. Photo bv Pereival Cobb, Candler 


Forestry-Geological Review. Several of these have been reprinted for 
wider distribution as information circulars. Papers on Georgia geology 
and mineral resources have been presented at national scientific so- 

Clearing House for Mineral Information : The Division of Geology 
serves as a clearing house for geological and mineralogical information. 
People within the State write, call, or phone for advice in developing 
their mineral deposits, digging or boring water wells, or investing in 
mining companies. The mineral producers ask for help in developing 
new mining or treatment methods and finding new markets for their 
products or new deposits of the minerals in which they are interested. 
The Georgia Securities Commission often consults the State Geologist 
on the advisability of allowing mining companies to sell stock within 
the State. Municipalities ask advice on possible sources of a city water 
supply. Thousands of letters are received from all over the country 
asking for information on Georgia's mineral resources. Some of these 
can be answered by sending the printed reports, others by personal 
letters based on the experience of the Division's personnel. 

Hundreds of rocks and minerals from all parts of the State are sent 
in by property owners for identification and advice. In the past the 
personnel of the division included a chemist who made assays and 
chemical analyses of important samples sent in for identification or 
collected by the State Geologist and his assistants. Lack of finances 
has caused this service to be temporarily discontinued although in the 
most urgent cases samples are sent to outside chemists when funds 
are available to pay the cost. 

Visitors to the office bringing in samples for identification and 
inquiring about Georgia's mineral resources have averaged 125 monthly. 
An average of 200 letters a month have been answered and an average of 
100 bulletins a month have been distributed. No check was made on 
the number of inquiries answered by telephone or the number of copies 
of Review articles and information circulars distributed. 


The work of the Divisicn of Geology for the past two years was 
greatly handicapped by lack of appropriations. The expenditures, 
in round numbers, were $13,500 for 1935 and $13,600 for 1936 contrasted 
with $20,000 each for 1931 and 1932. The Division of Geology was able 
to operate under these reduced funds only by cutting all salaries 20 
per cent, including a voluntary cut by the State Geologist for most of 
the time, by granting one of the Assistant State Geologists a year's 
leave of absence without pay, by cutting out the services of the chemist 
for the Division and the guide to the State Museum, by cutting down 
on the field work of the Division, and by limiting the output of pub- 
lished reports. Chemical analyses and assays are a very necessary 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 31 

part of the work of the Division and this service should be restored as 
soon as possible. 


The United States Geological Survey in 1934 and 1935 received 
grants from Public Works Funds for mineral and geological investi- 
gations in the southeastern states. The work in Georgia was in co- 
operation with the Division of Geology of the Georgia Department of 
Forestry and Geological Development. It included investigations of 
the gold deposits, the kyanite and vermiculite deposits, the bleaching 
clay deposits, and a study of the geology and underground waters of 
the Warm Springs region. 

Gold : The gold investigation included visits to every known gold 
mine and prospect in Georgia, and detailed geologic studies of certain 
important mines and mining areas in Cherokee, Dawson, Lumpkin, 
and White counties. The general results of this investigation were 
printed in the Forestry-Geological Review and reprinted as an infor- 
mation circular, of which 3,000 copies have been distributed. The 
U. S. Geological Survey offered the detailed report for publication by 
the Georgia Division of Geology but, as much as a detailed gold report 
is needed, the offer had to be refused because of lack of printing funds. 

Kyanite and Vermiculite : Kyanite and vermiculite are examples 
of minerals long known to science for which commercial uses have 
been developed in recent years. Kyanite is an aluminum silicate used 
in the manufacture of fire brick and other refractories to enable them 
to withstand extremely high heat. Vermiculite is a hydrous mica that 
has the property of expanding when heated to a very light, fluffy pow- 
der used as a heat insulator and in the manufacture of acoustical wall- 
board. The investigation of these minerals by the United States 
Geological Survey was undertaken at the request of the State Geolo- 
gist. It resulted in the finding of large quantities of kyanite in north 
and middle Georgia. The report of the investigation was published 
early in 1935 as Bulletin 46 of the Division of Geology and has already 
resulted in a considerable increase in the amount of kyanite mined in 
Georgia. Further interest in the kyanite deposits of Georgia was 
aroused by a paper given by the State Geologist at a joint meeting in 
September, 1936, of the American Institute of Mining Engineers and 
the American Ceramic Society. The investigation of the vermiculite 
deposits was incomplete and the deposits should be further studied 
as soon as funds are available. 

Bleaching Ciays : Bleaching clays have long been one of the major 
mineral products of Georgia. They include the fullers earths of south- 
west Georgia used in refining mineral oils and the bleaching clays of 
middle Georgia used in refining vegetable oils. The trend of the 
petroleum industry is towards the use of activated bleaching clays, 


not at present mined in Georgia, and the production of fullers earth 
in Georgia is gradually declining. The investigation by the United 
States Geological Survey in 1934 and 1935 revealed deposits in middle 
and south Georgia of the activated clays, but was not in sufficient 
detail to show the size or extent of the deposits. Funds are urgently 
needed to make a study of these deposits if Georgia is to maintain her 
place as the leading producer of bleaching clays in the United States. 

Warm Springs Investigation: The study of the geology, under- 
ground waters, and mineral resources of the Warm Springs area be- 
gun in 1934 was continued in 1935. A topographic map of the area, 
embracing parts of Meriwether, Harris, Talbot, and Upson counties, 
has just been published. The geologic report, including a study of 
the origin of the warm and cold springs in the area, will be published 
by the United States Geological Survey. 


Geologic Map and Report : Mining men have long been asking 
for a detailed large-scale geologic map of Georgia showing the various 
types of rocks that underlie the State, together with a report describ- 
ing the rocks, their structural relations, and their relation to the com- 
mercial minerals. Work on this started in 1930. The State Geologist 
has made a cooperative agreement with the United States Geological 
Survey whereby the State of Georgia will map and write the report on 
the northern half of Georgia and the United States Geological Survey 
will do the same for the southern half of Georgia. The Division of 
Geology has mapped the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and Moun- 
tain section and the section of the report on them is completed. It is 
hoped that funds will be available to map the sedimentary rocks of 
northwest Georgia this Spring. The United States Geological Survey 
has remapped the geology of the Coastal Plain and is preparing this 
section of the report. Unless a further cooperative agreement can be 
made, the State of Georgia will have to bear the cost of printing the 
map, which will be about $5,000, and the cost of printing the report 
on the geology of Georgia, which will be about $2,500. 

School Museums : The collection of rocks and minerals in the 
State Museum at the capitol attracts hundreds of visitors daily, in- 
cluding many school children. It is impossible, however, for school 
children from all over the State to come to Atlanta to see this museum. 
The Division of Geology has, therefore, undertaken the tremendous 
task of collecting a large number of specimens of 75 common rocks and 
minerals found in Georgia for distribution as local museums in the 
schools of the University System and in high schools throughout the 
State. A set has been offered to at least one high school in every county 
and approximately 165 of these sets were placed during 1935 and 1936, 
as shown in the accompanying map. Each specimen in these school 
museums is labeled and is displayed on a painted wooden block. The 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 


A typical school museum in its cabinet- 
Columbus, Georgia. 

-Columbus High School, 

only cost to the school is that of a locked glass case or cases for the dis- 
play and transportation charges for shipping. Many enthusiastic 
letters have been received from school superintendents telling of the 
value of these school museums in teaching the mineral resources of 
Georgia. The State Geologist hopes to place one of these museums in 
every high school in Georgia. 







• ; • 


\ ) 

i-J- ! 

- <_ 

..- y-. 

-J f 





PJ *~ 



IN / 


Showing Distribution of School Museums 
• High Schools (installed) 
O High Schools (unaccepted) 
A University System (installed) 
A University System (unaccepted) 

..- ■*•- ■ 

v - -\ 

\ • \ 


\ v. — 

• • 


i _ ~ i 


I i 

\ .' 

' 1 

v j v 

\- 1. 

T\:>- - 



»• > 

* o 

\ VL 

i o 





,- -i 

> 1 

c- — 

•_ I 

/ i 

) • ■ 


v- \ 


O I 
O i 

! I 


o \ 

Map showing distribution by the Division of Geology of 
school museums containing 75 common rocks and minerals of 

Well Logs and Cuttings : The Division of Geology has recently as- 
sembled on standard forms the logs of all deep wells on record and is 
making a determined effort, through cooperation with well drillers, to 
get a complete log and well cuttings from all new deep wells drilled in 
the State. Through this information it is often possible to predict the 
depth necessary to drill for water and the amount and quality of the 
water that may be struck. The people of Georgia are asked to report to 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 35 

the State Geologist any new wells that are being drilled. Report blanks 
for recording the log of the well and cloth sacks for keeping the well 
cuttings will be furnished the well driller free of charge. Such infor- 
mation on file where it is available to future drillers will be of invaluable 
service to the community. 


The value of the mineral production of Georgia slumped from a peak 
of nearly $14,000,000 per year in the years 1927 to 1929 to a low of less than 
$8,000,000 in 1933. Since that time the value of Georgia's mineral pro- 
duction has shown a slow but steady increase, the figures for 1934 be- 
ing slightly more than $8,000,000 and for 1935 nearly $10,000,000. The 
details for the 1934 mineral production were given in the Forestry-Geo- 
logical Review for February, 1936, and the ones for 1935 will be given in 
an early issue of the Review. The State Geologist expects that the 
figures for 1936, when assembled, will total over $11,000,000. 

Kaolin: The Georgia kaolin industry is especially flourishing 
and the 1936 production will be the largest on record. Recent im- 
provements in processing the kaolin have greatly improved the product, 
allowing Georgia kaolin to largely replace the white clays formerly im- 
ported from England for use in filling and coating white paper and for 
ceramic uses. Georgia now furnishes over 60 per cent of the domestic 
consumption of white clay. The manufacture of refractories from 
Georgia kaolin is also increasing. 

Building Stones : The production of Georgia granite and marble 
was especially hard hit during the depression, but is now staging a 
good recovery. The monumental granite industry of the Elberton 
district is especially flourishing and the stone is being shipped all over 
the United States. 

Gold : Georgia's gold mining industry is having its greatest revival 
in some 20 or 30 years. The greater part of Georgia's gold production 
in the past has come from the stream placer deposits and from the 
weathered free-milling portions of the gold veins. Attempts to re- 
cover the gold from the deep unweathered sulphide portions of the veins 
have met with but little success, largely because the veins are generally 
low-grade, except for pockets and streaks of high-grade ere, and the 
recovery processes are expensive. The greatest boon to the gold mining 
industry in Georgia would be a centrally located custom milling plant 
and smelter to which the property owners of the many small veins could 
send their sulphide ore for recovery of the gold during the process of 
exploring the veins and blocking out tonnages sufficiently large to 
justify erecting a mill of their own. The assistance of the Federal 
Government should be sought in building and operating this custom 
mill and smelter. 



Head frame of the Battle Branch Gold Mine near 
Auraria, Lumpkin County, one of the most successful underground 
gold mines now being operated. 


Geologic Map and Report 

Very little additional work is needed to complete the manuscript 
of the geologic map of Georgia and its accompanying report, described 
above. The necessary funds should be provided to publish it as soon 
as possible. The need for this map and report cannot be over-empha- 

Bleaching Clays 

Sufficient funds should be provided as soon as possible for a 
thorough investigation, including prospecting and bleaching tests on 
the samples, of all types of bleaching clays in Georgia. As stated above, 
the petroleum industry is gradually turning from the use of fullers 
earth, in the production of which Georgia has led the United States, 
to other types of bleaching clays of which Georgia may have large de- 


No report has been issued on Georgia granites since 1902, although 
granite quarrying is one of our major mineral industries. Many im- 
portant deposits are not described in the early report. The Division 
of Geology has received many requests from the granite producers for 
such a report. The investigation should include a study of new uses 
for the wastes of the industry, particularly the fine granite dust. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 37 


A comprehensive investigation of the gold deposits of Georgia was 
made in 1934 and 1935 by the United States Geological Survey, who 
offered to furnish the Georgia Division of Geology a complete detailed 
report ready for publication. Such a report is badly needed as both 
of the old bulletins on the gold deposits of Georgia are out of print, 
but the Division of Geology did not have the funds for printing 
such a report. Funds should be made available to the Division of 
Geology at once to revise this report and print it. 

General Reports 

The two most popular bulletins of the Geological Survey have been 
the general one on the Mineral Resources of Georgia, and the educa- 
tional one on the Physical Geography of Georgia that shows the origin 
of the physical features of the State and their relation to distribution 
of population, industry and agriculture. Supplies of these bulletins 
are low, and new and revised editions should be published as soon as 
possible. The popular Handbook on the Mineral Resources of Georgia 
is out of print and a new and revised edition should be printed in suf- 
ficient numbers to distribute to the schools of the State. 

Guide to Scenery of Georgia 

The varied scenery of Georgia is a potential natural resource tha 
has long been neglected. Thousands of tourists annually pass through 
Georgia on their way to and from Florida. They should be induced to 
visit the points of scenic interest in Georgia rather than to hurry 
through along the shortest route. The Division of Geology has material 
on hand to prepare a Popular Guide to the Scenery and Geology along 
and close to some of the main highways, brief but well illustrated. 
Similar guides to other tourist routes in Georgia could be prepared. 
Publication awaits necessary funds. 

State Museum 

The State Geologist is the custodian of the State Museum on the 
fourth floor of the capitol. This museum includes exhibits of rocks 
and minerals, forestry, wild animal life and birds, agriculture, entomo- 
logy, and archaeology. The Museum is viewed each year by thousands 
of visitors, both Georgians and people from other states who are pass- 
ing through Atlanta. Its educational value is shown by the hundreds 
of school teachers who annually bring their classes to study the ex- 
hibits. The exhibits, while superior to many state museums, are 
crowded and poorly lighted. Many of them have not been changed for 
years. As soon as possible they should be modernized. Indirect light- 
ing within the cases should be installed as soon as funds are available. 
Some modernization of the geological exhibits has already been ac- 
complished, including a very popular exhibit of fluorescent minerals. 


The State of Georgia will probably in the future build a capitol 
annex office building on the state-owned property facing the capitol on 
Capitol Square. When and if this is done, provision should be made to 
devote an entire floor, preferably the ground floor, to a modern State 
Museum such as exists in other states. This should contain adequate 
room for the expansion of the museum. The fund for equipping the 
building should contain provision for modern display cases. Provi- 
sion should be made for a curator and for guides to show visitors through 
the museum. 


The water flowing in Georgia's streams is her largest natural re- 
source and one about which she knows little. In spite of popular 
belief, artesian water supplies are not always dependable. Georgia is 
the only state in the Southeast and one of only five in the whole United 
States that is not gaging the flow of her streams. Yet this informa- 
tion is a vital necessity for locating any large industry, for the planning 
of municipal water supplies, for designing bridges and their approaches, 
for controlling stream pollution, for planning any hydro-electric power 
development, for flood prediction and control, for soil erosion control 
for drainage of agricultural lands, for navigation control, and for the 
settlement of disputes concerning riparian rights. Chemical and 
bacterial analyses of the water flowing in the streams at various stages 
are also necessary for many of these uses. 

Dr. Charles H. Herty, Georgia's well-known industrial chemist' 
says : "Georgia should be taken out of GUESSDOM into FACTDOM* 
Daily inquiries come into this office as to the volume of flow of our 
streams and the quality of the waters of the various sections of the State 
Unfortunately, I have to reply that we have practically no information 
on this subject. Yet to the paper-maker it is absolutely essential in- 
formation. A great industrial development in the South is just ahead. 
Georgia should be prepared to get its share of this development. This 
is a matter of vital interest to every section of the State, for the records 
show that seventy per cent of the papermills in the United States and 
Canada are on locations not suited to navigation." 

A minimum annual appropriation of $15,000 is necessary to start 
this work. The amount appropriated by the State will be matched by 
an equal amount from the United States Geological Survey and the 
work will be done by their experts under the supervision of the State 
Geologist and a Federal engineer whose office would be located in At- 
lanta. Such work to be of value must be continued over enough years 
to cover extra high floods and extra dry seasons. Georgia should start 
this work at once. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 




Georgia's largest natural resource and the 
one about which she knows least is the water 
supply in her streams and underground. The 
volume of water that a stream carries 
varies from day to day, month to month, 
and year to year. Daily measurements over 
a per'iod of years are necessary to g"e+ 
the FACTS about +he flow of our streams 




(1) INDUSTRIAL water supplies 














Dr. Charles H Herry has shown that paper of all kinds 
nd rayon can be made from Georgia pine and gum. 
tater in large quantities is just as necessary as wood 
i locating a paper mill. Georgia is not now gaging 
he flow of her streams, adjoining states are. 




lead on and see what Dr Herty has to say about this 



Tennessee has 100 stream gaging stations. 
Virginia has 85 stream gaging stations. 
North Carolina has <oQ stream gaging stations. 
Florida has 45 stream gaging stations. 
South Carolina has 2 1 stream gaging stations. 
Alabama has 39 stream gaging stations. 






Four of the 64 posters of the new exhibit in the State 
Museum showing the need for measuring the flow of Georgia's streams 
and analyzing their water. 



Accurate maps are necessary for many kinds of agricultural, in- 
dustrial, and engineering activities. The most accurate maps made in 
this country are the topographic maps made by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, and they are in great demand for all sorts of purposes. 
These maps are made on the scale of one inch equals one mile and very 
accurately show every stream, road, house, as well as the elevation and 
slope of the ground by means of contour lines that represent points of 
equal elevation. By means of these maps highways can be relocated in 
the office, eliminating all but the final stake-setting surveys ; city and 
town water supplies and sewers can be planned ; areas of stream valleys 
flooded by dams can be estimated ; and all kinds of engineering, mining, 
and industrial projects can be laid out. Less than half of Georgia has 
been thus mapped, mostly in the northern part of the State, and many 
of these maps were made years ago on a different scale with poorer 
methods and need revision. No accurate maps of any kind have been 
made of many counties in Georgia. 

So great has been the demand throughout the country for these 
maps in recent years that the United States Geological Survey has been 
forced to limit this work to states that will cooperate by paying half of 
the expenses. The only topographic map made in recent years in 
Georgia is that of the Warm Springs area, financed by a grant frcm 
Public Works funds. Georgia should appropriate enough, to be 
matched by an equal amount from the Federal Government, to map at 
least one or two areas each year. The work will be done by trained 
topographers under supervision of and in areas picked out by the 
State Geologist. 



In addition to finding the location and extent of Georgia's mineral 
resources, much needs to be done in finding new uses for these minerals 
by carefully supervised experimental research work on them. The 
State Geologist recommends that this be done by establishing a mineral 
fellowship, under the direction of the State Geologist, at the Georgia 
Engineering Experiment Station located at the Georgia School of Tech- 
nology. The Division of Geology should pay the salary and part of the 
expenses of a research man at the Engineering Experiment Station who 
would devote his whole time to research on working out new uses for 
Georgia minerals. By this method new industries using local raw 
materials could be induced to locate in Georgia. 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 41 

All of this very necessary work toward developing and advertising 
the mineral resources of Georgia cannot be done on the small appro- 
priations that the Division of Geology has received in recent years. A 
budget has been submitted asking for an appropriation for geologic 
work in 1937 and 1938 of $65,000 per year, exclusive of cooperative Federal 
funds. Twice this amount could be spent with great advantage to the 

The Division of Geology has accomplished much in 1935 and 1936 
with its very limited funds. It has answered thousands of inquiries 
about the State's mineral resources and has published and distributed 
a number of articles, information circulars and bulletins on various 
minerals. It has distributed 165 museums of common rocks and 
minerals of Georgia to schools all over the State. Other projects under 
way will bear fruit in later years. 







Grants from U. S . Government $ 67 , 758 . 76 

Gifts for Operations 500 . 00 

Interest on Savings Account 20 . 65 

Rents 65.97 

Fees 20.00 

Sale of Nursery Seedlings $ 1 , 806. 19 

Refunds 48.00 1,758.19 



Transfers from State Treasury 

for Operations $ 41,750.00 

. Outlay (Alex. H. Stephens 

Park) 2,500.00 

Transfer from Nursery Seed- 
ling to Maint enan ce 1 , 000 . 00 

TOTAL-NON-REVENUE 45 , 250 . 00 

TOTAL-RECEIPTS $115,373.57 


For Regular Maintenance Account. 3 , 974 . 60 

For Nursery Seedling Account 1,908.20 5,882.80 

TOTAL $121,256.37 



Personal Service . $ 38,563.69 

Travel Expense 6,914.87 

Supplies and Materials 1 , 621 . 86 

Communication 1, 598. 17 

Heat, Light, Power and Water 301 . 62 

Stamping, Printing, Binding and Publicity.- 1 , 888 . 63 

Repairs and Alterations 225 .45 

Rents 45.50 

Insurance and Bonding 100.00 

Grants " 51,929.31 

Equipment 2,001.60 

Miscellaneous 310 . 98 

TOTAL $105,501.68 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 43 


Land-Alexander H. Stephens Park $ 1,500.00 

Equipment 77.45 1,577.45 

Transfer from Nursery Seedling to Maintenance 

Account 1,000.00 


Outlay $ 922.55 

Maintenance Account 10 , 254 . 82 

Nursery Seedling Account 1 , 867 . 29 

Santo Domingo Park Accoun t 132 . 58 13 , 177 . 24 



Personal Services $ 26,164.05 

Travel Expense 5,368.93 

Supplies and Material 442.92 

Communication 1, 214. 20 

Heat, Light, Power and Water .00 

Printing, including Review 817 . 28 

Repairs and alterations 6.25 

Rents 18.50 

Bond for Treasurer 67.00 

Grants : Georgia Experiment Station 25 . 00 

Vocational Fore stry C amp 720 . 73 

T. P. O. Refunds 51,183.58 

Equipment 84 . 17 

Miscellaneous 29. 35 

$ 86,141.96 

Personal Services $ 1,008.90 

Supplies and Material 491 . 31 

Heat, Light, Power and Water 141 . 52 

Printing 34 . 50 

Repairs and Alterations 50.35 

Rents 1.00 

Equipment 1,073.67 

Miscellaneous 95. 36 

$ 2,896.61 



Personal Service $ 9,860.00 

Travel Expense 1,261.04 

Supplies and Material 603.47 

Communications 355. 62 

Printing including Review 523 . 36 

Repairs and Alterations 166.50 

Rents 26.00 

Equipment 519.03 

Freight and Express 41.95 

Subscriptions . 91 . 65 

Bond for Treasurer 22 . 00 

Miscellaneous 50.92 

$ 13,521.54 

Personal Service $ 1,530.74 

Travel Expense 284.90 

Supplies and Material 84.16 

Communications 28. 35 

Heat, Power, Light and Water 160 . 10 

Printing including Review 513 .49 

Repairs and alterations 2.35 

Bond for Treasurer 11.00 

Equipment 324.73 

Miscellaneous 1.75 

Lands-Ste phens Memorial Park 1 ,500.00 

Equipment " " " 77.45 

$ 4,519.02 

REPORT FOR 1935 AND 1936 45 





Federal Government, matched funds, fire 

control $ 65,812.50 

Federal Government, matched funds, for 

nursery 1,573.66 

From State Treasurer on appropriation 48,750.00 

From concessionnaires, Indian Springs & 

Alex. H. Stephens Parks 399.15 

Miscellaneous 356 . 76 

Sale of Seedlings 6,344.50 

Interest on Savings Account 28.39 

Balances on hand fiom 1935 : 

Operations account 8,266.25 

T. P. O. Reserve Fund 2,889.15 

Savings Account 1,866.91 



Division of Forestry $ 91,821.92 

Division of Geology 13,637.77 

Division of Parks 6,037.20 

Savings Account 1,731.73 


Balances on hand Dec. 31 : 

Operations Account 14 , 912 . 65 

T. P. O. Reserve Fund 6,295.91 

Savings Account 1,850.09 



Personal Service $ 26,643.60 

Travel, Divn. personnel and Commission 

(Prorated) 7,900.92 

Supplies 579.14 

Com muni cations 1, 533 . 71 

Printing including Review (prorated) 1 , 909 . 79 

Repairs and alterations 155.02 

Rent 38.00 

Freight, express, hauling 45.47 


Subscriptions and dues 33 . 50 

E quipment 1 , 088 . 63 

Bond for Treasurer (prorated) 36 . 85 

Miscellaneous 1 , 143 .72 

T. P. O. Refunds 45,807.59 

$ 86,915.94 


Personal Service $ 1,410.00 

Unskilled labor 1,677.14 

Seed and supplies 500.25 

Electric current 171 .90 

Communications 59. 74 

Repairs to equipment 92. 28 

Equipment 2,647.80 

Miscellaneous 78.60 

$ 6,637.71 

Personal Service $ 9,886.75 

Travel : Divn. personnel and Commission 

(prorated) 1,045.74 

Supplies and material 939 . 64 

C ommunication 341.80 

Printing including Review (prorated) 637 . 48 

Repairs and alterations 19.82 

Rent of equipment for library project 30 .00 

Freight and express 51 . 92 

Subscriptions and dues 103.32 

Bond for Treasurer (prorated) 12. 10 

E quipment 461 . 76 

Miscellaneous 107 .44 

— ■ $ 13,637.77 


Personal Service 1,849.67 

Travel : Divn. personnel and Commission 

(prorated) 1,267.94 

Supplies 270.19 

Communication 65 . 65 

Electric current 259 .61 

Repairs to equipment 13.93 

Rent 50.00 

Equipment 921.80 

Equipment- Alexander H. Stephens Park 922.33 

Miscellaneous 416 . 08 

$ 6,037.20 




1937-1938 J/ti/y/ 






January 9, 1939 
To His Excellency 
Honorable E. D. Rivers 
Governor of State of Georgia 

Dear Governor Rivers: 

Herewith I respectfully transmit to you as Governor of Georgia, 
the first Bi-ennial Report of the Commissioner of the Department of 
Natural Resources. 

The period covered by this report extends from the date this de- 
partment was established, March 5, 1937, to January 1, 1939. 

This report includes a statement by the Commissioner, and re- 
ports of the activities of the four divisions of this Department. 

As Commissioner, I express my sincere appreciation to you for 
your keen interest and great service in launching and promoting the 
development of this new Department. 


R. F. Burch, 


Letter of Transmittal 2 

Commissioner's Statement 5 

Introduction 5 

Function of the Divisions 6 

Natural Resources Reserves 7 

Research in paper making 9 

Cooperation 10 

State Natural Resources Museum 11 

Personnel of the Commissioner's Office 12 

Report of the Director Division of Parks 13 

Purpose of creating Division of State Parks 13 

General objectives 16 

Work performed 16 

Requests for information 18 

Publicity and publications 18 

Public meetings 19 

Historic markers 20 

Cooperation with other State agencies 20 

Improvements on State buildings 21 

Park program expansions 21 

Recreation in Natural Resources Reserves 22 

Organization of the Division 23 

Parks in operation 23 

Financial statement 25 

Report Division of Forestry 27 

Fire protection 28 

Forestation 31 

Management and forestation 34 

Demonstration forests 34 

Education 35 

Publications and Exhibits 36 

In memoriam 36 

Cooperation 36 

Personnel of the Division 37 

Financial Statement 38 

Ieport Division of Wild Life 41 

Introduction 41 

Fish hatcheries 41 

Expectancy of hatcheries 42 

Reducing casualties 43 

Quail hatchery 43 

Dove season 44 

Deer and Bear Survey 44 

Game law changes desired 45 

Records of game taken 46 

Coastal Georgia 46 

Wild life protection 47 

Education 50 

Cooperation 50 

eport Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 51 

Functions of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 51 

Personnel 52 

Separations 54 

Nature of the Work 54 

Studies and Surveys of Mineral Resources 54 

Clearing house for mineral information 55 

Work Accomplished 55 

New business 55 

Geologic map of Georgia 56 

Chemical and assay work 57 

Mineralogical and Petrographical Work 58 

Industrial development 59 

Kaolin — New plants 59 

Fullers Earth 6(3 

Bauxite 60 

Petroleum 62 


Report Division of Mines, Mining and Geology — Continued 61 

Industrial development — Continued 

Whiteware Industry 62 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Plants 62 

Educational Work 62 

School museums 63 

Capitol displays 65 

Motion pictures 65 

Lectures 66 

Exhibits , . 66 

Georgia Mineral Society 66 

Publications Issued 67 

Work in Progress 69 

Mineral Resources 69 

Kaolin 69 

Fullers Earth 70 

Bauxite 70 

Rock wool 71 

Limestone 71 

Flagstone 72 

War materials 72 

Reports in Progress 73 

Report upon Geology and mineral resources of Northwest Georgia 73 

Reports upon Geology and mineral resources of Middle Georgia 74 

Geologic Report on the Coastal Plain 74 

Publications Planned 74 

Gold 74 

Other reports 75 

Cooperative Work with the U. S. Geological Survey 75 

Underground water survey 75 

Surface water investigators 76 

Works Progress Administration Projects 77 

Mineral resources of Georgia counties 77 

Geographical dictionary of Georgia 78 

Technical laboratory assistance 78 

Library program 78 

Mineral description files 79 

Bibliography 79 

Well logs 79 

Catalog of Museum specimens 79 

Photographs 79 

Status of the Mineral Industry , 79 

Barite 80 

Bauxite 80 

Cement 80 

Clay products 81 

Coal 81 

Flagstone 81 

Fullers Earth 81 

Table-Mineral production of Georgia for 1937 82 

Gold & Silver 83 

Granite ^ 

Graphite S^> 

Iron ore 84 

Kyanite 84 

Lime and limestone 84 

Manganese 84 

Marble 84 

Mica and sericite schist 85 

Ocher 85 

Sand and gravel 85 

Slate 85 

Talc 85 

Water and water power 85 

Financial Statement 86 

Half a Century of Service ^ 

BI-ENNIAL REPORT, 1937-1938 


R. F. Burch, Commissioner 


The Georgia Department of Natural Resources was established 
March 5, 1937 by an act of the General Assembly. Under this act 
the office of Commissioner of the Department was created and four 
integrate divisions of the Department were established as follows: 
Division of Forestry; Division of Mines, Mining, and Geology; 
Division of State Parks, Historic Sites, and Monuments: and the 
Division of Wild Life. Each of these divisions is headed by a director, 
and the directors, with the commissioner, comprise the Adminis- 
trative Staff. 

The new Department of Natural Resources is the realization of 
plans to which Governor Rivers gave much thought and effort. To 
him grateful acknowledgment is made for valuable advice in launch- 
ing the new organization. 

The Department immediately created much public interest, evi- 
denced by numerous demands made upon it, indicating a growing 
appreciation of the importance of the value of Georgia's natural 
resources, and a realization of the State's increasing dependence on 
their development. 

Georgia's wealth in forests, minerals, water power, wild life, and 
opportunities for recreation are indeed great. This state ranks among 
the first in variety and abundance of commercially important min- 
erals. No state has a greater number of tree species, nor greater 
acreage of forest and potential forest land. None holds greater 
possibilities for developing wild life of fields, forests, streams, and 
:oastal waters. Nowhere are there richer possibilities for recreation 
:han extend from Georgia's mountains to the sea. 

The full development of these resources presents a great oppor- 
unity and involves a great task. Plans have been laid and develop- 
nents are under way for carrying out a long-time program. The 
lature of the work varies widely. Not only between the divisions, 
>ut within the divisions. Much of the work requires the services of 
echnically trained men. 

The first step in developing natural resources must be to ascertain 
heir nature and extent. But little progress would result if this De- 
artment stopped at that point. Progress must be made to the point 

6 Report Department of Natural Resources 

of revealing the various practical uses to which the natural resources 
can be put, hence the importance of research even to the extent of 
showing how production problems can be solved. A notable example 
of this type of service is the work of Dr. Charles H. Herty in solving 
production problems of making paper from southern woods. 

Though all information about the State's natural resources may 
be ascertained, if the knowledge is not widely disseminated and made 
available to those who may be interested in their development, the 
task is incomplete. Education, or dissemination of information is, 
therefore, essential for the development of resources. 

The impetus given conservation in the state and nation within 
the last few years, resulting from a more general realization that con- 
servation is a social as well as economic necessity, necessarily increased 
the need for adequate public relations and educational efforts. In 
seriously attempting to meet this obligation the Department en- 
countered a severe tax upon its financial resources which rendered 
the fulfillment of some essential activities impossible. 


The Commissioner has endeavored to coordinate the work of the 
various divisions of the Department, as required by statute, to en- 
hance their efficiency and has succeeded to the extent that coopera- 
tion has been tendered — without cooperation there can be no 

Briefly outlined, the Division of Forestry has as its chief objective 
the growing of wood and the promotion of its various uses. To this 
end reforestation, forest fire protection, forest management or culture, 
and marketing, must be promoted. Lands no longer needed or suited 
to producing agricultural crops should find their chief use in growing 
timber, and when so employed, much of the state's most destructive 
soil erosion will be stopped. 

The Division of Mines, Mining, and Geology has as its chief func- 
tions the location of commercial deposits of minerals, their explora- 
tion, their adaptation singly or in combination to producing useful 
products, and developing prospects that are inviting to miners and 
manufacturers. Georgia's deposits of clay, granite, marble, cement, 
iron, gold, barite, copper, talc, bauxite, shales, asbestos, coal, graph- 
ite, kyanite, manganese, mica, ocher, pyrite, flag stone, marls and 
other minerals present a great array of useful deposits for development. 

Of great importance to Georgia is that these minerals be processed 
as far as possible within the state. It is gratifying to note that one 

Report Department of Natural Resources 7 

of our divisions has been able to convince manufacturing companies 
of the economy of establishing treating or manufacturing plants in 
Georgia in preference to shipping ores elsewhere to be treated. 

The Division of Wild Life carries the responsibility of enforcing 
laws governing hunting and fishing, and of operating six fish hatch- 
eries, one quail hatchery, and game reserves. The 94 game protectors 
are undertaking to enforce game and fish laws in Georgia's 159 coun- 
ties. More than 100 fish and game clubs have been formed to build 
up public sentiment favorable to law observance and for increasing 
the supply of wild life. 

The essential purpose of the Division of Parks is to provide whole- 
some, outdoor recreation under pleasant environment, to the end 
that human values may be enhanced. Rapid progress has been made 
in recent years in establishing state parks, and judged by the park 
patronage, these recreation centers are meeting a public need. 

This Division has also undertaken to survey and designate the 
many historic sites of Georgia to be suitably marked. Being one of 
the original colonies, Georgia is rich in history, but it has been slow 
to mark its many historic sites where treaties have been signed, 
battles fought, notables have lived, where historic buildings and pre- 
historic structures, including mounds, are located. Setting apart 
such sites and making them accessible, will not only develop a greater 
appreciation of Georgia by Georgians and pride in the state, but will 
attract many visitors who also will obtain greater appreciation through 
greater knowledge of the state's historic background. 


Early in your administration the Commissioner suggested for 
/our concurrence, state acquisition and ownership of outstanding 
irchaeologic, historic, and scenic beauty spots before they were 
•xploited and completely destroyed, in order that they might not 
>nly be enjoyed by present-day Georgians, but also might bless 
uture generations. The Commissioner has met with marked success 
n this endeavor. Through his efforts more of these sites have been 
I onated the state for restoration and preservation than were acquired 
:>r the period from the founding of the State to the advent of your 
An unusual tract, Kolomoki Mound site in Early County, of 1000 
cres was donated by public-spirited citizens and municipal and county 
uthorities. Archaeologists tell us this is one of the key sites in the 
ation, and one of the few that has not been disturbed. 

8 Report Department of Natural Resources 

One thousand acres along historic Shoulder Bone Creek in Hancock 
County was donated for park purposes, by two philanthropic Geor- 
gians, Hon. Wiley Moore and Hon. Preston Arkwright. An important 
adjunct to this park site is the Indian mounds on a tract donated 
by public-spirited citizens of Sparta, Georgia. 

An historically important tract of 800 acres was deeded the State 
by the Macon County Commissioners. This is the famous Miona 
Springs site, consisting of six springs of enormous flow of health 
giving waters, each containing entirely different minerals. 

The Sittons Gulch site, a veritable little grand canyon in Dade 
County was donated the State by Dade County authorities. There 
are 1500 acres in this tract. 

Black Rock Mountain site, a scenic masterpiece in Rabun County 
was donated by county authorities — a 700 acre tract. 

St. Marys River State Park site was donated by county authori- 
ties in Charlton County. This tract contains one thousand acres 
valuable as a state forest, and has great recreational possibilities. 

Crooked River Park site in Camden County gives the state its only 
water front park and, as such, possesses unusual recreational facili- 
ties. This tract of 600 acres was deeded by county authorities, and 
as a supplement, we have the old Santa Maria Spanish Mission site 
deeded the State by Rayonier, Inc., pulp mill, Fernandina, Fla. This 
is a dual purpose site — scenic and historic. 

A thousand acre tract in Wayne County near Jesup was deeded the 
State by its county commissioners. This is primarily a state forest 
and wild life area. 

A thousand acre state forest tract was donated by the county 
commissioners of Appling County. This is being developed as a forest 
demonstration project and is the hub of the Division of Forestry's 
activities throughout Southeast Georgia, being headquarters for the 
district forester. 

A site of historic importance — the Governor Troupe home site — 
in Treutlen County, was donated the State by Hon. James Fowler 
of Soperton, 780 acres being in this tract. 

Deeds to the famous Old Magnolia Springs site in Jenkins County 
are being held in escrow for the State, pending some compliances by 
State officials. 

The magnificent and awe-inspiring erosion canyons in Stewart 
County are being purchased for donation to the State for park sites. 

In addition to these, a contest of several months to have the De- 
partment of Natural Resources designated as the future manage- 

Report Department of Natural Resources 9 

ment agency of a 40,000-acre Coastal Flatwoods tract near Waycross, 
culminated successfully. The Department has signed a contract for 
fifty years with the privilege of a forty year renewal, which is tanta- 
mount to ownership. This is a fine timbered tract and has unlimited 
wild life and recreational possibilities. All proceeds from the sale of 
anything from the tract accrue to the Department without any limi- 
tations. This tract will be held inviolate as a wild life refuge until 
it is thoroughly stocked, then hunting privileges will be granted on 
a portion of the area. The Commissioner procured five deer of the 
Virginia White-tail variety, same as our native deer, from the Nation- 
al Forest Service from the Pisgah Forest Reserve, for the purpose 
of crossing and introduction of new blood on this refuge. Twenty 
German Fallow deer have also been procured by the Commissioner 
out of the Little St. Simons herd of Philip Berolzheimer, for release 
on the Coastal Flatwoods area this spring. 

The Coastal Flatwoods area and all the smaller state owned areas 
will be demonstrations of forest multiple use practices, closely link- 
ing forestry, game, fish, and outdoor recreational activities, and bring- 
ing these several conservation practices close to the home, the school, 
and the local people. 


The General Assembly appropriated $10,000 in the special session 
ji 1938, to the Herty Laboratory and allocated $10,000 of the ap- 
propriation to forestry for the laboratory, for furthering the in- 
vestigations of Dr. Charles H. Herty in making paper from south- 
ern woods. The death of Dr. Herty has not stopped this work. Plans 
vhich he had made are being carried out. On foundations, which he 
aid, the project can safely proceed. His great work should be carried 
m to the ultimate goals he sought. Already many millions of dollars 
lave been invested in Georgia as the result of his work, and this is 
>robably only the beginning. He has established the fact that all 
pecies of southern pines, and some of the hardwoods, are adapted 
o making newsprint, book paper, and rayon. His pulp and paper 
iboratory at Savannah, now known as the Herty Laboratory, has 
een the scene of momentous discoveries of new wealth of southern 

Dr. Herty would want no greater monument than a pulp and paper 
, iboratory dedicated to continuing his research into new uses of 
| )uthern woods. It is, therefore, to be hoped that appropriations 
j iay be made through years to come to materialize all his dreams of 

rest wealth. 

10 Report Department of Natural Resources 


Grateful acknowledgment is made of the assistance given by the 
State Department of Education in financing the publication of a 
booklet entitled "Georgia's Natural Resources", edited by this De- 
partment, and subsequently inaugurating a program of Conservation 
Education in the Public Schools of the State for the first time in its 
history. This should be supplemented with a visual education pro- 
gram, for it is self-evident that until the public opinion of over three 
million people comes to parallel the regulations established for proper 
use of natural resources, and correct conservation practices, these 
regulations can not serve the full purpose for which they were created. 

With much gratification, it can be stated that harmonious, and 
effective cooperation has been maintained with various federal 
agencies. The United States Forest Service, the National Park 
Service, the U. S. Geological Survey, the Civilian Conservation Corps, 
the Biological Survey, and the Soil Conservation Service are among 
the federal agencies rendering valuable service in numerous ways. 

State agencies have assisted this Department, which in turn has 
helped to carry out cooperative programs. 

The Department of Vocational Education is also cooperating in 
conducting a forestry project. The Division of Forestry has pre- 
pared a bulletin designed for the special teaching this department 
requires, and rendering technical service in the management of 
school forests. 

The Department also cooperates with the State Department of 
Education in providing the schools with samples of minerals, and in 
giving moving pictures and lectures covering various subjects in the 
natural resources' field. 

The Commissioner has cooperated with the University of Georgia 
in establishing the Chair of Archaeology at that Institution, by pro- 
curing gifts from Hon. Wiley Moore and other interested parties 
to assist in defraying the expense. 

Cooperation with branches of the University of Georgia in which 
in many instances federal agencies are also included, is carried on. 

Information developed by the Planning Board has been quite 
helpful to this Department, and assistance is received and given 
whenever needed, by the State Department of Agriculture, the Board 
of Entomology, the Highway Department, and other state agencies. 

Numerous communities have aided this Department in developing 
local enterprises such as parks, recreation centers, monumental sites, 
natural resources reserves, etc. Nor has cooperation been limited to 

Report Department of Natural Resources 1 1 

state, federal, and local agencies, but individuals have been quite 
generous, notably in donating funds for erecting historical markers, 
and in providing land for various uses, such as forest demonstrations, 
and wild life propagation. 

A generous contribution which the Commissioner secured from 
Hon. Wiley Moore enabled us to inaugurate a program for marking 
historic sites in Georgia, which had been too long neglected. 

Through the Commissioner's efforts, Mr. Bell, Commissioner of 
United States Bureau of Fisheries, was induced to accept a site for a 
Federal Fish Hatchery, in North Georgia, which will be maintained 
and operated at Federal expense for the purpose of restocking lakes 
and streams of that area. The site for the hatchery was donated by 
citizens of Rabun and Habersham counties and a gift was obtained 
from the Georgia Power Company to aid in developing the project. 

The Department has furnished speakers to the schools of the State, 
all civic organizations, and other agencies interested, acquainting 
them with the conservation and development of our natural re- 
sources, endeavoring to enlist their aid and at the same time, to make 
Georgians more conservation-conscious. 

Innumerable minor services to the Divisions of this Department 
have been rendered, such as procuring poles and materials for power 
line from Baxley to Forestry Headquarters two miles from town, also 
a similar service to Santa Domingo State Park. These services 
were vital inasmuch as the Divisions did not have money to defray 
expenses involved. 


The Natural Resources Museum, quartered on the fourth floor 
of the State Capitol Building, presents specimens of minerals, trees, 
wild life, artifacts of prehistoric people, agricultural products, ento- 
mological life, soil conservation, mineral products, and the Herty prod- 
ucts of paper and rayon. The Museum is impressive, educative, and 
a credit to the State of Georgia. 

Annually thousands of people from all parts of Georgia, from other 
states, and from foreign lands visit the Museum. Many reveal 
keen interest and appreciation, even prolonging their visits to learn 
more of the natural resources there displayed. 

Throngs of students and their teachers come from various parts 
of the state to see the exhibits and learn something of the state's 
wealth of natural resources. 

12 Report Department of Natural Resources 


The personnel of the Commissioner's office consists of six em- 
ployees: The Commissioner; a publicity director who serves all four 
divisions as well as the Commissioner's office; attorney; an educational 
manager who handles school projects and publications of the De- 
partment; a curator of the Natural Resources Museum, and a 

From April 1, 1937 until the end of the fiscal year June 30, 1938, 
the expense of the Commissioner's office was $14,878.55. This 
covers salaries, traveling expenses, office equipment and supplies. 


Charles N. Elliott, Director 

The Division of State Parks has the responsibility of administering 
state parks, developing the recreational possibilities of the State, 
marking historic sites and creating wide appreciation of these at- 
tractions to the end that Georgians may enjoy them, and people of 
other states and nations may be attracted to them. 

This Division was created by legislative act effective March 5, 
1937, and began operation April 1, 1937. Previously the state parks 
were administered by the State Forest Service. Except for one 
park at Indian Springs, the state park movement is of recent origin, 
and coincident with the formation of the Civilian Conservation Corps 
which provided assistance much needed by the State in developing 
a park program. 



The creation of the Division of State Parks is primarily due to 
Governor E. D. Rivers. The reasons actuating the existence of this 
division as one of those comprising the Department of Natural Re- 
sources are best given in an address of Governor Rivers to the 1939 
session of the General Assembly from which the following is quoted. 
''When the Division of State Parks was created in March, 1937, 
and made a part of the Department of Natural Resources, the Gover- 
nor and General Assembly had several purposes in view. 

"One of those was the establishment of some branch of State 
Government which could fully cooperate with the National Park 
Service, Civilian Conservation Corps, and other agencies toward the 
development of an adequate park and recreation system for the State 
}f Georgia. At that time the number of State Park CCC Camps in 
Georgia was being decreased for the simple reason that in this State 
10 agency had been created to assume responsibility for the develop- 
nent, maintenance, and operation of State Parks, and for the ex- 
>enditure of federal funds on those parks. Up to that time the de- 
-elopment of parks had received supervision of a State Department 
/hose many other duties prevented it from devoting much attention 
D park development. Consequently, the National Park Service had 
t its own expense maintained an office in the State Capitol for the 
jpervision of Georgia's state parks. Fortunately, the National 
ark Service had been able to assume this expense but with the de- 
fease of its personnel this burden fell upon the shoulders of the State. 

14 Report Department of Natural Resources 

"Because there was no state parks department, state park CCC 
camps were being taken away from this state and placed in adjoining 
states where the National Park Service was receiving proper and 
adequate cooperation. Georgia was in danger of losing its state park 
camps, each of which, in dollars and cents, was worth approximately 
a quarter of a million dollars each year to the State, and of sustaining 
the greater loss of its state park program, the value of which to the 
future welfare of Georgia could not be estimated in any terms. 

"Another important reason involved in creating the Division of 
State Parks was to provide the State with authority and power to 
set aside and preserve its areas of scenic splendor. While not de- 
ploring a wise use of our natural resources, some beauty spots of 
Georgia should be preserved. Eventually they may mean more to 
our people than the small amount of commercial products which 
could be derived from them. These beauty spots will not only pro- 
vide some place for our own people to visit and enjoy, but it has 
been proved that they will bring large numbers of visitors from other 
states and other nations, and will mean financial gain to the State. 

"Another purpose for establishing the Division of State Parks was 
to provide an organization authorized to locate and properly mark 
historic sites of this State. There had never been any organized effort 
to do this. Many markers of various kinds and descriptions, spon- 
sored by various organizations, had been erected in Georgia, but there 
was not even a complete list of the marked historic sites of this state. 
Nor did the markers have any uniformity or conventional design. 
There was definite need for uniform markers along our highways for 
designating or directing travelers to historic or scenic sites. The 
roadside markers erected by some of the states had brought an in- 
flux of tourists which meant millions of dollars. As an example, the 
United States Tourist Bureau recently published figures showing that 
the tourist industry in Georgia in 1937 was worth approximately 
58 millions of dollars to the State. In such states as Pennsylvania, 
New York, and Massachusetts, where the principle attractions are 
the historic sites, the tourist trade in 1937 amounted respectively 
to 327 millions, 846 millions and 204 millions. Even New Jersey, 
a state far below Georgia in scenic values and in size, had a tourist 
year valued close to 183 millions of dollars. 

"One of the most serious considerations in the establishing of a 
parks division of State government was to provide adequate recrea- 
tional facilities for our people. Year by year, as highway and trans- 
portation facilities improved, more and more people sought some place 

Report of the Division of Parks 15 

to go, some pleasant and beautiful spot where family and friends 
could enjoy their outings without trespassing or being disturbed. 
The Legislature realized too, that many of the larger towns and cities 
in Georgia had no way of providing adequate recreation for their 
people. Some parks and playgrounds were provided, but there was 
definite need for some place where children could be taken and kept 
for a week or two weeks, where they could be taught organized work 
and organized play; taught the value of clean minds and bodies. 
All children who are a part of future Georgia are entitled to these 
privileges, just as much as those who have the financial resources 
to enable them to enjoy a private summer camp. Many civic organ- 
izations in many of the larger cities are attempting to do for the boys 
and girls of their cities what we want to do for the state as a whole. 
We felt that if we could aid in some small way by giving some boy 
or girl inspiration to make of himself or herself a successful citizen, 
or to keep boys or girls out of our prisons or eleemosynary institutions, 
then the creation of any division of state government would be jus- 

"With those purposes and ideals in mind, we wrote the Division of 
I Parks into the law creating the Department of Natural Resources. 

"Many of you know already that when the parks division was 
created, only one state park legally belonged to the State. That was 
Indian Springs State Park, of twelve acres, which, in 1825, had been 
ceded directly from the Creek Indians to the people of Georgia, and 
which had been later placed by the Legislature under the supervision of 
the Department of Forestry, at the time the Department most 
closely related to recreation. 

"With the advent of the CCC, when the National Park Service 
was making an effort to distribute their allotted quota of camps 
geographically and equally among the states, the Forestry and Geo- 
ogical Commission began to accept land for recreational purposes. 
*>ome of these lands, all in small tracts, were outstanding in scenic 
ittractions; others were important historically. The movement was 
i favored one. 

"Although deeds were accepted and Civilian Conservation Corps 
Tamps were established, the State could not legally accept the land, 
"here was no provision in the law to allow the forestry department 
o take land for any purpose other than for forestry, Therefore, 
I he deeds could not be accepted by the attorney general's office, 
"hey had not even been recorded in the counties where the land 
as donated. 

16 Report Department of Natural Resources 

'Therefore one of the first jobs of the newly created Division of 
Parks was to rewrite all deeds in a form approved by the attorney 
general's office, have them signed again and recorded. The total 
acreage of these lands for which new deeds were drawn was 4,9733^2 


The general objectives of this Division are defined in the act creat- 
ing the Department of Natural Resources, approved March 5, 1937, 
and found on Page 264 et seq. of the Georgia Laws of 1937. 

Briefly stated, they are as follows: (1) To control and manage all 
parks and recreational areas acquired by the State. (2) To survey, in 
cooperation with other agencies, the State's present park and re- 
creational resources and facilities, the need for them, to what extent 
the need is being met, and to determine lands suitable for inclusion in 
the state park system. (3) To acquire by purchase, lease, agreement, 
or condemnation such land as it deems necessary for proper inclusion 
in the system. (4) To accept gifts of land, money, or other property 
to be used in extending, improving, or maintaining the state park 
system. (5) To make expenditures for the care, supervision, im- 
provement, and development of the state park system. (6) To co- 
operate with other agencies in matters relating to acquiring, plann- 
ing, establishing, developing, improving, or maintaining any park, 
parkway, or recreational area. (7) To contract and cooperate with 
other groups or agencies to protect, restore, preserve, mark, main- 
tain, or operate any historic, scientific, or archaeologic site. (8) To 
construct and operate suitable public service facilities in the areas 
in the system. (9) To provide and maintain recreational facilities 
and conduct programs in connection therewith. (10) To appoint 
local or regional councils to advise with the division upon certain 
areas. (11) To establish and enforce rules for protection of peace and 
property in areas in the system. (12) To plan and conduct a pro- 
gram of information and publicity as to scenic, recreational, historical, 
archaeological, or scientific places within the State. (13) To cooperate 
with the State Highway Department in the establishment and main- 
tenance of roadside parks and development for enjoyment of the 
travelling public. 


Work performed and results obtained during the 21 months since 
the creation of the Division of State Parks is presented briefly. To 
go into details of organization and operation is unnecessary, except 

Report of the Division of Parks 1 7 

to say that the operation and maintenance funds from the State 
have been very limited, being only a portion of the $50,000 set up in 
the 1937 appropriation bill. This, together with the income from 
the various parks has been used for personnel, purchase of necessary 
equipment for 20 cabins, three inns, bath houses, boathouses, nec- 
essary swimming and safety equipment for lakes, for publication of 
booklets and pamphlets to acquaint Georgians with their scenic, 
historic and recreational areas and to bring visitors from other states — 
all too inadequate to accomplish results in proportion to the real 
merit of the plans outlined by the last regular session of the State 

Within twenty-one months, five parks, scattered throughout the 
State, have been opened to the public. These parks, which offer a 
fine cross section of the scenic, historic, and recreational advantages 
of Georgia, in two summer seasons attracted well over a million 
visitors from Georgia, from every state in the Union, and from some 
foreign nations. 

The facilities offered were far from being adequate to meet the 
demands made upon them. Within two weeks after Vogel Park, in 
the Blue Ridge, was opened for the summer, every one of the seven 
cabins available had been reserved until the middle of September. 
This was in spite of the fact that no cabin was reserved for longer 
than two weeks or a shorter time than one week during the summer 
months. The picnic tables and benches at Indian Springs State 
Park, with enough space to accommodate one thousand picnickers, 
were usually completely occupied on Sunday afternoon and people 
stood in line waiting for tables on which to spread their lunches. 
Liberty Hall, the home of Alexander H. Stephens, had registration 
from surprisingly distant points, and the tavern on the crest of Pine 
Mountain had gratifying success in the number of visitors. Santo 
Domingo State Park on the coastal highway was a stopping point 
for many of the travelers who came through from north to south. 

By dint of borrowing equipment and supplies from other state 
agencies and government agencies, and buying much bargain and 
second hand equipment, which was entirely good, the cost of equip- 
ping the five state parks was approximately $20,000. 

The gross returns from the operations of two seasons of four parks 
during the summer of 1937 and five parks during the summer of 1938, 
was approximately $33,000. Santo Domingo State Park produced 
.ess than $20.00 of this amount, due to lack of adequate facilities. 
This gross income went into the purchase of supplies, maintenance 
)f buildings and other park equipment, payment of salaries for nec- 

18 Report Department of Natural Resources 

essary seasonal personnel and other expenditures to make the parks 
operate smoothly, safely, and for the pleasure and convenience of 
those who sought recreation. 


In 1937 the United States Tourist Bureau designated the Division 
of State Parks as the official Information Bureau for the State of 
Georgia. All requests for information about Georgia which came in 
to the Tourist Bureau, were forwarded to the Division of State Parks. 
All letters and cards addressed to the State Tourist Bureau, State 
Publicity Department, and all other official designations which most 
states maintain to promote travel, are referred to this Division. Most 
of the other southern states make large appropriations for promoting 
tourist business. The State of Tennessee, for instance, spends $50,000 
each year in the preparation and circulation of state publicity and 
promotion of tourist travel. Requests for information about the 
scenic and historic interests of the State also come to this Division. 

The Division received letters from persons wishing to buy old 
colonial homes, or plantations. Such letters were mimeographed 
and sent out to all Chambers of Commerce and Boards of Trade in 
the State, with the request that information be supplied to the in- 
terested parties. Requests for data on agricultural problems, the 
number of rooms in the State Capitol, Georgia species of snakes, sites 
for camping and health resorts — all were handled directly or referred 
to the proper agencies for answer. 


To meet the demand for literature about Georgia's historic and 
beauty spots, thirteen publications were prepared for distribution. 
Many requests for literature came from such far away places as 
Honolulu, London, England, and Sidney, Australia. The Atlanta 
Journal Rotogravure Section ran a full page of pictures of Georgia 
Parks each week for eight weeks and carried additional pictures 
from time to time. A thousand extra copies were given to the Divi- 
sion of Parks, and were mailed over the United States. The Atlanta 
Journal magazine section carried a number of stories on the parks 
of the State. The Atlanta Constitution carried several feature 
articles on the parks, one series of stories by Elmer Ransom, well 
known author, and a number of pictures in its rotogravure section. 
The Atlanta Georgian promoted a contest in naming the Vogel State 
Park Lake, besides providing additional features dealing with the 

Report of the Division of Parks 19 

State's beauty spots. Other papers of the State carried feature ar- 
ticles of historic and scenic interest, prepared by the Division. 

Among the articles appearing in magazines of national circulation 
and describing Georgia's state parks, were "Liberty Hall", published 
in "Tours and Detours", the Standard Oil Company Magazine; 
"Home of Nunehi", a story of Vogel State Park, published in "Ameri- 
can Forests"; an article on Santo Domingo State Park, in "Architec- 
tural Concrete", published by Portland Cement Corporation; "Geor- 
gia State Parks" published in "Builder", issued by the Junior Cham- 
ber of Commerce of Georgia, and a story of the state's parks, which 
appeared in "Behind the Wheel", an American Automobile Asso- 
ciation publication. 

Seven radio programs were prepared and given by the Division of 
State Parks. Outstanding among these, and ones which brought 
letters from listeners in many parts of the nation were the Easter 
vSunrise Service, a devotional from a mountain top in northern Geor- 
gia; a dramatic sketch of the life of Alexander H. Stephens; and an 
international broadcast in three languages, given from New York. 

A colored film of the state parks and other scenic areas, was made 
and distributed to many of the schools of the State, and used in 
connection with lectures by members of the Division. 

A contest for amateur photographers was sponsored by the Division 
for the three best photographs of scenes in state parks submitted, 
and prizes were given. The pictures were published. 

Auto bumper strips advertising parks were donated by interested 
citizens for Indian Springs and Alexander H. Stephens parks. Ap- 
propriate highway signs were erected at advantageous points, in- 
cluding approach, directional, and entrance signs 

Splendid cooperation of the State Department of Education has 
enabled this division not only to contribute to a bulletin entitled 
"Georgia Natural Resources", but to reprint separately that portion 
contributed by this Division, into an attractive pamphlet profusely 
illustrated and entitled "Thy Woods and Temple Hills". 


Every invitation to appear before a civic club, garden club, school, 
or other organization, to tell the story of Georgia's park system has 
been accepted. Some seventy-five such engagements have been filled. 
Several annual banquets and meetings of such organizations as the 
Georgia Federation of Woman's Clubs and the Georgia Park and 
Recreation Association have been held in one of the state parks. 

20 Report Department of Natural Resources 

Two organizations have been effected as a result of the efforts of 
the Division of State Parks. The Butt's County Historical and 
Archaeological Society was organized in May, 1937, to cooperate 
with this Division in operating the museum at Indian Springs State 
Park. The Georgia Park and Recreation Association to bring to the 
people of Georgia a truer appreciation of the beauties of their state, 
was organized in February, 1938. 

Close cooperation has been maintained with governmental agencies 
and societies in the promotion of recreational work. In June, 1938, 
the Director of the Division was elected to the Board of Directors of 
the National Conference of State Parks. 


The historic marker program is well under way. To meet the need 
of a complete inventory of the state's historic sites, both those which 
had been marked as well as those unmarked, the Division secured a 
WPA project to study the historic sites, select the most important 
ones in each county, and prepare inscription for a series of markers 
which would be comparable to those of some of the well marked 
states. Sufficient WPA personnel was assigned to this work and 
placed under the division historian. Well over two thousand sites 
have been studied and the ground work is being laid for a real system 
of markers for Georgia. Since each marker will be lettered for the 
highway, and numbered on that highway, a comprehensive plan is 
being worked out whereby each marker will fit into a related system. 
The cost of these markers would ordinarily be around $50.00 each. 
The Division of State Parks has worked out an arrangement whereby 
Georgia Tech will furnish its own foundry, the WPA, skilled labor, 
and the State Highway Department, transportation, which reduces 
the cost to be borne by the sponsoring organizations and counties to 
less than $7.00 per marker. Several counties and organizations have 
already agreed to donate sufficient funds to provide materials for the 
portion of the marker system in their counties. Massachusetts, New 
York, and Virginia have appropriated several hundred thousands of 
dollars for their historic marker systems, but by this arrangement 
Georgia can have an equally fine system without great cost to the State. 


The Division has cooperated with the Vocational Department of 
the State Department of Education in erecting a camp in Newton 
County for the Future Farmer's organization in Georgia. Three or 

Report of the Division of Parks 2 1 

four thousand boys will use this camp each summer, after the com- 
pletion of adequate buildings. Services of the Division have been 
offered to help teach these farm boys about the natural resources 
and natural advantages of the State. 

The Division collaborated with the State Highway Department 
in the preparation of the new colored scenic and pictorial maps of 
the State of Georgia. 


The State Capitol and Governor's Mansion were turned over to 
the Division of Parks for operation and renovation. Two special 
appropriations were provided by the General Assembly for this 
purpose. The mansion, which was in a condition both disreputable 
and a discredit to the State of Georgia, and also dangerous because 
of faulty gas furnace connections and rotting timbers and beams, 
was repaired and painted. A WPA project was secured and the 
Capitol painted inside. Upon examination, the Capitol roof was 
found to have three layers of roofing material and the accumulated 
weight was so much that it was breaking the timbers which held it 
up. This was removed and a new roof put on. The House and 
Senate chambers were renovated and adequate light and ventilation 
systems installed. A new project has been submitted for the painting 
of all office space in the Capitol. 


In addition, the parks program is expanding. In 1937, when the 
Division of State Parks was created, the State owned eight parks, 
containing less than five thousand acres of land. Today the Division 
of Parks owns, is operating, seeking to develop, or is collaborating 
with the other state and government agencies, in the development 
of eighteen state park and recreational areas with a total acreage of 
32,000 acres. Negotiations are under way at the present time for 
eight additional areas, having a total of some 31,000 acres more. All 
state parkland has been, and will continue to be donated to the State. 
As fast as possible, the Division is developing recreational facilities 
which are so much in demand by our people. Development work has 
been slow because of lack of funds with which to purchase materials 
to go into the construction of cabins, bathhouses, lakes, picnic tables, 
benches, outdoor fireplaces and shelters, as well as to provide water, 
sewerage and lights. Progress is being made, but not to the extent 
demanded by our people. 

22 Report Department of Natural Resources 

The National Park Service advises that new CCC camps may be 
secured if the State will furnish the money with which to supply 
sufficient materials to keep the CCC enrollees busy. If Georgia can 
not furnish the money for materials, then those camps will be placed 
in states which do have enough interest to furnish materials to match 
CCC labor. The Division is informed that with each $10,000 per 
year that the State appropriates for construction material that the 
federal government will give us a National Park Service CCC Camp, 
worth exactly $250,000 per year to the state. In other words, our 
share in all projects of this kind would amount to 4 per cent of the 
total cost. To date, the State has not contributed that much, or 
even a fraction of that much. The State must do its share if it ex- 
pects to continue to participate in the program of providing recrea- 
tion for our people. 

The surface is barely scratched in establishing public parks and 
playgrounds in Georgia. It must be realized that there is a big job 
ahead in teaching Georgians more about the history of their own state, 
more about the background of their heritage. If the job of provid- 
ing sufficient clean recreation for our children as well as our adults 
is properly done then we will develop clean bodies and clean minds 
in the generation now on its way to maturity, and in so doing, jails 
and asylums will be depleted and the charity wards of our hospitals 
less needed. 


Land is now being accepted from some counties of the State as 
Natural Resource Reservations. On this land three purposes are 
to be served. (1) Forestry demonstration, to show the landowner 
of the section how trees may be planted, the species which should 
be used, and how they may be managed after being planted to pro- 
duce the greatest profit. (2) Protection of the game of the reserva- 
tion, in order that it may multiply and overflow into the county 
and into adjoining counties, and always afford an abundance of 
game in those areas in which the reservations are located. (3) The 
reservation of the most attractive spots on the areas for recreational 
facilities, for the use of those who come for an outing, and for those 
who come to see the forestry demonstration work or the game man- 
agement activity. Revenue taken in from the recreational features 
will partially pay for the upkeep of the reservation. 

Report of the Division of Parks 23 


The Division commenced active operation on April 1, 1937. In 
assuming control of the areas already acquired and partially developed 
as state parks many problems were met. First, it was found that the 
state's title to many of the areas was unsatisfactory, inasmuch as 
land had previously been acquired under an act authorizing the 
state to accept land for forestry purposes only. New deeds were 
taken in some cases and in other the original deeds revised. Each 
park was found in great need of improvement and additional faci- 
lities before it could be opened to general public use. The cabins 
and inns were incomplete and unfurnished; water, light, fire pro- 
tection, and sewerage facilities were inadequate. The parks had 
depended for maintenance upon the efforts of park caretakers and 
concessionaires. Consequently, the developed areas had suffered 
and required much renovation to be brought into attractive condition. 

Under the Director were formed two branches; one, the branch of 
plans and designs, responsible for planning all construction work 
and for preparation and submission of the plans to the National 
Park Service for park development to be carried out by the Civilian 
Conservation Corps and Emergency Relief Administration. The 
other, the branch of operations, consists of a chief under whom work 
park superintendents and rangers in the parks ready for operation. 

Four parks were opened to the public for the summer of 1937. 
These were Indian Springs State Park, near Jackson; Vogel State 
Park, near Blairsville; Alexander H. Stephens Memorial State Park, 
at Crawfordville; and Santo Domingo State Park, on the coastal 
highway near Darien. Pine Mountain State Park, near Chipley, 
was opened for the summer of 1938, and its inn, as well as the inn 
at Vogel were opened to the public for the first time. 



Vogel State Park is located on U. S. Highway 129 and Georgia 11, 
approximately one hundred miles from Atlanta. It lies within the 
boundaries of the Chattahoochee National Forest, in the heart of the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, and contains approximately three hundred 
acres of wooded mountain slopes and valleys. The park has a forty 
acre lake, with swimming, boating, and fishing facilities; cabins 
available for renting; a boathouse with concession facilities; an inn 
affording hotel accommodations; picnicking facilities; several miles 
of trails; and many points of scenic and historic interest. 

24 Report Department of Natural Resources 

At the present time, there is an outstanding need for the following 
additions to the park: Staff quarters, servants quarters, superin- 
tendent's residence and office; twelve additional cabins and a tele- 
phone system. 

Indian Springs State Park is located on U. S. Highway 42, ap- 
proximately sixty miles south of Atlanta. It contains the site of 
the famous health-giving mineral spring, known as Indian Springs, 
and covers an area of approximately one hundred and sixty acres. 
At the present time the park is equipped with a museum for Indian 
relics, a casino, facilities for medicinal baths, a playground for chil- 
dren, picnicking facilities, and several miles of attractive trails. Hotel 
accommodations adjoin the park. 

The present needs include a swimming pool, a water and sewage 
system, superintendent's residence, and additional picnicking facilities. 

Alexander H. Stephens Memorial State Park is located on the Au- 
gusta Highway, Ga. 12, approximately one hundred miles from Atlanta. 
The park area includes around two hundred and seventy-five acres 
and contains the home of Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of 
the Confederacy. The park facilities include a three-acre lake for 
swimming and boating, tennis courts, children's wading pool, lookout 
tower, baseball diamond, picnicking facilities, several miles of trails 
for hiking, and convenient hotel accommodations. 

In order to advantageously operate this area, there is a need for 
rest rooms at Liberty Hall, a pavilion, a superintendent's residence 
and a telephone system. 

Santo Domingo State Park is located on U. S. Highway 341, ap- 
proximately three hundred miles from Atlanta, near Brunswick. 
The area of the park is approximately three hundred and fifty acres. 
The site of famous disputed ruins, the origin of which has not yet 
been determined, is located in the park. Facilities include a Spanish 
inn, picnicking accommodations, several miles of trails for hiking, 
and wide opportunities for nature study and for the study of Geor- 
gia's early history. 

Needed facilities at this area include a superintendent's residence, 
extension of the water system, a telephone system, and four cabins 
of slave quarter design. 

Pine Mountain State Park is located on Georgia Highway No. 18, 
near Chipley, approximately seventy-eight miles from Atlanta. A 
park tavern and four stone cabins are located at the top of the moun- 
tain, affording hotel accommodations to tourists. In the valley is a 
twenty-acre lake with fishing, swimming and boating facilities. A 
group of log cabins is located around the lake. These are available 

Report of the Division of Parks 25 

to vacationists. Several miles of mountain trails are available for 
hiking. Lying on the crest of the mountain range is the famous 
Pine Mountain parkway, affording extensive views of the surround- 
ing country. 

At the present time, there is a great demand for a swimming pool; 
a day use area with picnicking facilities, bathhouse, comfort sta- 
tions; a boat dock, and additions to the tavern. 

Chehaw State Park lies on Georgia Highway 3, near Albany, and 
approximately one hundred and fifty miles from Atlanta. This park 
is a day use area with facilities for picnicking and hiking. A superin- 
tendent's residence has been erected and comfort stations are avail- 
able. In an attractively landscaped area is located a large lagoon 
with rustic bridge and trails on the several small islands. 

This park requires a museum, a boathouse and dock, a swimming 
pool and a casino for adequate service to the public. 



Transfers from State Treasury 

Appropriation $37,000.00 

Emergency Fund 4,000.00 $41,000.00 

Rents and Concession and Sales 

Indi an Springs 7, 480. 18 

Vogel 3,977.72 

Pine Mountain. . 210. 00 

Santo Domingo 9.61 

A. H. Stephens 576.97 

Capitol Square Soda Company 1,243.37 

Telephone (U. S. Gov't) 98.00 13,195.85* 


Indian Springs 42.00 

Pine Mountain 200.00 242.00 

Total Income Receipts $54,437.85 

Transfer from Forestry Division 195. 12 

Total Receipts $54,632.97 

26 Report Department of Natural Resources 

Governmental Cost 

Personal Services 30, 720. 28 

Travel Expense 3,698. 18 

Supplies . 7,216.82* 

Communication 735. 94 

Heat, Light, Power, Water 428.17 

Printing 721.38 

Repairs 506.41 

Rentals 300.04 

Insurance 131. 70 

Equipment 3,950.83* 


Subscriptions and dues 29. 60 

Laundry 165.39 194.99 

Total Governmental Cost Payments $48, 604. 74 

Non-Governmental Cost 

Transfers to Commissioner's Office 2,503.50 

Total payments 51, 108.24 

BALANCE, JUNE 30, 1938 3,524.73 

Total 54,632.97 

*Net earnings — much needed equipment and supplies were purchased 
by the park concessionaires from maintenance and operation funds 
at the park. 

*These figures do not include the purchase of equipment and supplies 
by the park concessionaires. 


Frank Heyward, Director 

On March 5, 1937, the bill creating the Department of Natural 
Resources in which the Division of Forestry was included, was signed 
by the Governor and became a law. State Forester Elmer Dyal 
resigned and was succeeded on March 22, by Frank Heyward, Jr. 

In order to increase the efficiency of the field personnel a radical 
change was effected by closing or relocating several of the district 
offices. Formerly, district offices were located at Rome, Gainesville, 
Augusta, Columbus, Macon, Albany, Waycross, and Savannah. 
According to the new organization plan the state was divided into 
four districts thereby reducing by half the former number. District 
offices were retained in Gainesville, Macon, and Albany and a new 
office was opened at Baxley. Instead of being located at one extreme 
or another of its specific district, under the reorganization each dis- 
trict office was located as nearly as possible at the geographical cen- 
ter of the district. A district forester, who under the new law creating 
a Department of Natural Resources, must hold a college degree in 
forestry, was placed in charge of each district, and depending upon 
the amount of work centering in that district, assistant district for- 
esters were appointed. Thus, the present field personnel consists of 
the following: Gainesville — District forester and one assistant; 
Macon — District forester and one assistant; Albany — District for- 
ester; Baxley — District forester and two assistants. 

The four districts into which the State is divided are approximately 
delimited by a line separating Carroll and Heard, Newton and Jasper, 
and Lincoln and Columbia Counties; another line separating Chatta- 
hoochee and Stewart, Bleckley and Dodge, and Burke and Screven 
Counties; and finally by a north and south line between Pulaski and 
Dodge, Irwin and Coffee, and Lowndes and Echols Counties. Thus 
the Gainesville and Macon Districts roughly include the Piedmont 
and mountainous portions of the State whereas the Albany and Bax- 
ley districts include the Coastal Plain. 

Although each district is not in itself a homogenous unit from the 
standpoint of topographical and forest conditions, these and other 
conditions determining the problems of the technical staff assigned 
to the district are not so diversified as to warrant subdividing the 
districts into smaller units. From the standpoint of supervision from 
the Atlanta office having only four districts headquarters is ideal. 
As the Division of Forestry increases in size it is proposed to sub- 
divide each district into units each under the supervision of an assist- 

28 Report Department of Natural Resources 

ant district forester. The number of district foresters, each directly 
accountable to the Atlanta office, would, however, be unchanged. 


In spite of the fact that Georgia's forests constitute one of her most 
valuable resources the wanton destruction by fires each year con- 
tinues to run into millions of dollars. However, increased interest 
of the public in fire protection is evident each year. Unquestionably 
the most far reaching event in the history of Georgia's forestry de- 
velopment was the ratification by a majority of 4 to 1 in the Novem- 
ber general election, of a Constitutional Amendment giving to the 
individual counties the right to appropriate funds for forest fire 
protection. At least 10 counties are now planning to avail themselves 
of the provisions of this amendment in a determined effort to pre- 
vent further destruction by forest fires. 

Another event of much importance to the fire program in south- 
eastern Georgia was the completion of the district headquarters on 
the Baxley Demonstration Forest. A residence, office building, ware- 
house, and machine shop were erected with CCC funds. Coming into 
the telephone exchange in the office are trunk lines connecting the 
Baxley office with the majority of the fire protection organizations 
widely distributed over about 5 million acres of land. The district 
forester is, therefore, able to contact over the state's own metallic 
circuit telephone lines the various fire organizations throughout the 
district. A probable development in the near future, pending only 
the construction of one additional line, will be the distribution over 
telephone to all fire organizations daily weather reports received from 
the U. S. Weather Bureau at Jacksonville. 

The Coastal Plains TPO with headquarters at Brunswick, installed 
during 1938 a 500 watt radio transmitter for the purpose of con- 
tacting all fire trucks in Glynn, Mcintosh, Brantley, and Camden 
Counties. The transmitter is controlled by a licensed radio operator 
who is on duty or available for call, 24 hours out of the day. Test calls 
are broadcast to all trucks at 30 minute intervals throughout the day 
and fire calls at any time a fire occurs. 

The Camden Protection Unit with headquarters at Colesburg, 
broadcasts fire calls to its trucks through the transmitter at Bruns- 
wick by remote control. The two headquarters are connected by a 
metallic telephone line and a microphone is attached to the telephone 
switchboard at Colesburg. When a fire occurs, the dispatcher at 
Colesburg rings the dispatcher or radio operator at Brunswick and 

Report of the Division of Forestry 29 

the Brunswick operator plugs Colesburg into the radio transmitter 
through the telephone switchboard. The fire call is then broadcast 
directly from Colesburg through Brunswick and to the trucks back 
in Camden County. 

Including the Coastal Plains TPO there are now three radio broad- 
casting stations in South Georgia whose sole function is forest fire 

Of further significance in the State's fire control program is the pur- 
chase of six firebreak units. Each unit consists of a crawler type trac- 
tor and two plows, one for constructing new breaks and one for re- 
newing old breaks. These units which have plowed 5,175 miles of 
new firebreaks to date, are financed by charging the landowners on 
a mileage basis the actual cost of construction which amounts to 
approximately $2.00 per mile. These units, being self liquidating, 
will cost the State nothing. 

In north Georgia outstanding progress has been made in organizing 
protection units on a county-wide basis. Five of these counties were 
the first in the State to attempt fire control on a county-wide basis. 
The number and size of fires have been materially reduced in the pro- 
tected areas and plans are now being completed for operation of these 
county units on a more adequate budget, inasmuch as the units have 
been poorly financed in the past. 

At the present time there are 18 fire protection units in the State 
representing 3,363,441 acres. This comprises only about one-sixth 
of Georgia's total forest land. Nine of these units consist of counties 
protected on a county wide basis. This is important inasmuch as it 
is generally recognized that an entire county can be more economic- 
ally and effectively protected from fire than groups of individual 
properties distributed over one or more counties as is the case with 
the Timber Protective Organizations. Now that counties have the 
legal right to appropriate funds for fire protection, there is a general 
movement in most of the Timber Protective Organizations to re- 
organize on a county basis. This movement will without doubt 
greatly increase the area under protection in the State and will also 
increase the effectiveness of fire protection. 

In December, 1937 the State assumed its first full responsibilii y 
in fire protection on any specific area. In Camden County the old 
TPO requested the State to assume responsibility for detecting and 
suppressing all fires on about 175,000 acres. The Camden Protection 
Unit is now functioning smoothly and is on a par with any other or- 
ganization in the State. The organization functions on a 12 month 
basis and is well equipped with an excellent telephone and tower 

30 Report Department of Natural Resources 

system as well as fire trucks with short wave radio. At the present 
time there are 9 fully equipped fire trucks in this unit. Four of these 
are owned by the State and the remainder by private landowners. 

In addition to the Camden unit the State is now responsible for the 
fire — organizations in Emanuel, Jeff Davis, and Appling counties 
and the portions of Bacon and Pierce formerly comprising the Hur- 
ricane Creek TPO, a grand total of slightly less than 1,000,000 acres. 

In all counties operating under the state's supervision on a county- 
wide basis there exists an advisory board consisting of representatives 
from the Board of County Commissioners, the landowners, and the 
Division of Forestry. 

Another development forming an important step in fire control 
during the past two years, has been the construction of fire organi- 
zation headquarters for the Grand Bay TPO at Lakeland, the Wayne 
County TPO at Jesup, Coastal Plains TPO at Brunswick, and the 
Camden Protection Unit at Colesburg. 

In addition to the six firebreak units mentioned above the Divi- 
sion of Forestry has purchased 16 fully equipped fire trucks. Each 
truck is equipped with a pressure pump and water tank, back pumps, 
in addition to rakes, fire flaps, axes, and other hand tools. These 
trucks are operated in the fire protection units under state supervision. 

Second only to passage of the Constitutional Amendment permit- 
ting counties to participate in fire control, was the sustained drive 
participated in by every agency and individual interested in forestry 
to have Congress increase, the federal appropriation for fire control 
from $1,655,000.00 to $2,500,000.00 for the country as a whole, the 
amount authorized by the existing law but never appropriated. The 
State of Georgia played an important part in the movement which 
resulted in the Congress appropriating $2,000,000 of the $2,500,000 
requested. It is fully expected that the 1939 Congress will appro- 
priate the full amount authorized by law and take further action by 
increasing the authorization to $9,000,000. 

Undoubtedly the greatest need in connection with Georgia's fight 
against fires is a substantial state appropriation earmarked for use 
in counties who wish to organize on a county-wide basis. A sum 
of at least $100,000 to be used at a rate of 1 cent per acre for each 
acre of forest land in the county would enable dozens of counties 
not now able to finance fire protection to organize immediately. A 
sum of 5 cents per acre would be needed for counties in the Coastal 
Plain and lesser amounts for counties further north. At 5 cents per 
acre, the county would raise 2 cents, the federal government 2 cents 
cents and the state 1 cent. 

Report of the Division of Forestry 31 

The backbone of Georgia's fire protection activities is still the 
Civilian Conservation Corps. During the past bi-ennial period two 
camps have been removed leaving a total of 6 camps whose activities 
are confined to fire control on privately owned forest lands. These 
camps, supported with federal funds, have completed the following 
activities since January 1, 1937. 

Bridges constructed 266 

Lookout towers constructed 21 

Other buildings constructed 9 

Miles telephone lines constructed (metallic trunk 

circuit) 228 

Miles telephone lines constructed grounded circuit. . 340 

Rod fence 2 , 600 

Miles foot trails constructed 17 

Miles truck trails constructed 724 

Acres planted in trees 400 

Acres of forest stand improvement (thinning) 385 

Pounds tree seed collected 10 , 205 

Mandays on nursery work 580 

Mandays fighting fires 16 , 864 

Miles of firebreaks constructed 1 ,268 

Acres of carpet grass planted 4 , 210 

Mandays searching for missing persons 150 

Mandays drafting timber type maps 1 ,687 

Acres timber type survey 3 , 802 , 306 

Acres general cleanup 860 

Of outstanding importance are the fire organization and district 
headquarters already mentioned. These buildings are evaluated at 
approximately $22,000.00, and would have been impossible without 
CCC funds 

Fire control improvements, particularly headquarters buildings, 
towers, and telephone lines resulting from CCC activities have ad- 
vanced the state's program in fire protection into a far more efficient 
organization than would have been possible for many years had the 
State alone been compelled to finance this work. 


One of the most important activities of the Division of Forestry is 
producing tree seedlings and distributing these to landowners through- 
out the State. In 1937-38, 15,000,000 seedlings were distributed. 

32 Report Department of Natural Resources 

With the creation of the new Division of Forestry, immediate plans 
were made for a great increase in nursery production. Through the 
fine cooperation of the citizens of Albany, Dougherty County turned 
over to the Division of Forestry 65 acres of land, under long term 
lease, to be used in increasing the size of the Albany nursery now 
called the Herty Nursery. New overhead irrigation equipment 
costing approximately $6,000.00 was installed placing a total of 25 
acres under irrigation. 

As a result of this expansion, the nursery output of 3,225,000 for 
1937-38 was increased to 13,000,000 seedlings for the planting season 
of 1938-39. 

At the end of the 1937-38 planting season, the small nursery at 
Neel's Gap in north Georgia was permanently abandoned and a new 
site was selected at Flowery Branch, Hall County. The town of 
Flowery Branch and the officials of Hall County turned over to the 
State on long term lease basis 75 acres of fine land to be developed as 
a nursery. During this, the first year of operation, the output was 
1,750,000 seedlings. 

At the Flowery Branch Nursery the following species of trees are 
grown: Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, slash pine, black locust, and 
black walnut. These species, with the exception of slash pine are 
native to north Georgia. At the Herty Nursery slash and longleaf 
pines are the only species grown. 

Interest in slash pine has increased tremendously following the late 
Dr. Herty's experiments showing the suitability of this tree for the 
production of white paper. Slash pine is a hardy tree which has 
proved to be adaptable to all sections of the State with the possible 
exception of high mountains. Plantations of slash pine from five to 
seven years old are growing well in many sections of north Georgia. 
After giving the matter much study the Division of Forestry has 
decided upon a policy of recommending the planting of slash pine 
in many portions of the State; provision is made, however, for the 
planting of this tree in admixture with loblolly pine in the northern 
sections. Thus, in those portions of the State considerably north of 
a line approximately through Augusta, Macon and Columbus, the 
Division recommends that slash and loblolly pines be planted on the 
same area in alternate rows. When the seedlings have developed into 
trees large enough to be thinned, which they will in 12 to 18 years 
after the establishment of the plantation, the species which has de- 
veloped the better will be left to compose the residual stand and the 
inferior of the two will be removed in the thinning. This policy has 
several advantages because loblolly pine, although native to north 

Report of the Division of Forestry 33 

Georgia, is frequently attacked by a tip moth, whereas slash pine has 
so far proved to be immune to this insect. On the other hand, slash 
pine with its heavy foliage would appear to be in some danger from 
sleet storms which occassionally visit north Georgia. Thus, if the tip 
moth materially damages the loblolly pine the entire stand is not 
impaired; similarly if sleet materially damages the slash pine, the 
loblolly pine will probably remain to form the residual stand. 

At the present time there is a tremendous state-wide interest in 
the planting of pine trees. The Division of Forestry has records of 
at least one pine plantation having been established in each county in 
the State with the exception of Lincoln County, since 1933. As 
further evidence of the great interest in tree planting although the 
State increased its last year production of tree seedlings from 3,225,000 
to approximately 15,000,000, the present supply has been found to 
be entirely inadequate to supply all of the demands within the State. 
Further large expansion is planned. 

An interesting fact pertaining to Georgia's forest tree nurseries is 
that after the present year the nurseries will be entirely self-sustaining, 
and no funds from the regular Division of Forestry appropriation 
will be used for developing nursery facilities. 

The trees are sold to the public at cost of production. This year 
the price is $2.00 per thousand trees delivered to the nearest shipping 
point. This very low cost is possible on account of large scale pro- 
duction and the use of mechanized equipment. All operations from 
bed forming to lifting the seedlings are carried out by means of 
equipment motivated by tractor. After the beds are formed, a 
mechanical seeder plants the seed in drills which run lengthwise of 
the beds. After the seedlings have attained the height of a few 
inches, the beds are weeded by a gang plow having seven small 
plow blades each about 3 inches wide and each of which passes be- 
tween the rows of seedlings. The use of mechanized equipment has 
effected a tremendous saving in labor and has meant the saving oi 
thousands of dollars to the landowners in the cost of seedlings they 

Plans are now being formulated for the development of the Flowery 
Branch nursery through the cooperation of the Soil Conservation 
Service CCC Camp at Buford and by means of a WPA project. 
After its completion, this development will be one of the most aes- 
thetic in the State. Winding trails and picnic grounds will be pro- 
vided in the ravine and among the hills which adjoin the actual 
nurserv site, on which a beautiful forest growth is already present. 

34 Report Department of Natural Resources 

The Division of Forestry has received excellent cooperation in the 
distribution of planting stock from the State Agricultural Extension 
Service. Both of the extension foresters and many county agents 
have been instrumental in selling millions of trees throughout the 


In 1938 a technically trained forester was employed full time for 
the purpose of working with landowners and giving them specific 
information regarding the management and utilization of their 
forests. This forester has made suggestions to a large number of 
land owners regarding thinning, methods of cutting, and the most 
remunerative methods of harvesting their forest crops. Although 
these services are frequently afforded by district foresters, this is the 
first time that the State has employed a full time man for this parti- 
cular field of work. 

Another important activity in the field of forest management has 
been the inspection throughout the State of various pulpwood cut- 
tings. The Division keeps in close contact with the woods operations 
of various pulp mills drawing upon Georgia's forest resources. The 
increase in the standards of cutting practices employed by pulpmills 
during the past year has been highly encouraging, although there 
still remains much to be desired in this respect regarding not only 
pulpwood cuttings but cuttings of sawmills and of landowners them- 


Of much importance to the Division of Forestry was the acquiring 
of 980 acres of high quality forest land in Appling County for the 
establishment of a demonstration forest. The City of Baxley and 
Appling County donated to the State in fee simple this fine acreage 
of land. This property, on which is located the office of the District 
Forester already described, is to be used as a demonstration ground 
of various forest practices including firebreak construction, methods 
of planting, thinning, and timber stand improvement. 

More recently the Division of Forestry was authorized to assume 
responsibility of the development and management of the 33,000- 
acre resettlement area tract which was turned over to the Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources. This large area will also be used for 
demonstration purposes. The main activity, however, to be conducted 
on this property for a number of years will be fire protection in order 
to build up the growing stock. Most of this area is devoid of growing 

Report of the Division of Forestry 35 

stock and a number of years must pass before the trees will be old 
enough to be used for demonstration purposes. 


For ten years the Division of Forestry has cooperated with the 
State Department of Vocational Education in conducting a forestry 
project with schools having teachers of vocational agriculture, of 
which there are now 380 located in 142 of the 159 counties, and 275 
of which are white and 105 negro schools. 

School forests are required for the project. The Division of Forestry 
advises vocational teachers in the selection of woodland for school 
forests and makes management plans to be followed for their develop- 
ment. Ten-acre tracts are obtained for school forests usually with a 
ten-year lease. 

As a result of this forestry project, thousands of rural boys annually 
learn to identify trees; the various uses of their woods; how to collect 
and care for tree seed; how to operate a tree seed bed to produce 
planting stock; how to plant tree seedlings; methods to use in fire 
control; principles of thinning and pruning; how to estimate the 
volume of standing timber, and how to harvest and market timber. 

As a means of intensifying and broadening student knowledge of 
forestry, this division conducts an annual forestry camp, allowing 
one student to attend from each school carrying on the forestry 
project. The camp has proven very popular and rivalry among 
students for camp scholarship is keen. 

Valuable assistance in promoting school forestry has been rendered 
by the Georgia Forestry Association. Each year this citizens or- 
ganization awards cash prizes to both white and colored vocational 
teachers for doing the best work in forestry. 

The Georgia Forestry Association has also sponsored an essay 
contest in both high and elementary public schools of Georgia, the 
subject of which was "Why Georgia Counties Should Support Forest 
Fire Protection". In this contest, the Division of Forestry parti- 
cipated by deciding the winners. 

The service rendered by the Division of Forestry to vocational 
schools, constituted practically the only public school forestry ac- 
tivity until 1938 when the State Department of Education took steps 
to provide teaching material for a required course in natural resources 
for all public high schools of the State. To this end a bulletin en- 
titled "Natural Resources of Georgia", treating of forestry, minerals, 
wild life, and parks, was issued by the State Department of Edit- 

36 Report Department of Natural Resources 

cation. The Division of Forestry prepared material on forestry 
for this publication. 

As a result of this forward step by the State Department of Edu- 
cation all high schools in the state are now in position to give in- 
struction in the elements of forestry. 


Because of the limited funds available, few publications have been 
printed. An urgent need for teaching material for use of teachers 
of vocational agriculture has been met by issuing a bulletin entitled 
"Vocational Forestry", a publication designed primarily for teaching 
forestry jobs. 

A bulletin entitled "Georgia's Forests and Their Resources" was 
issued as a reprint from the bulletin "Georgia's Natural Resources". 
Manuscripts for other bulletins have been prepared but for lack of 
funds have not yet been printed. Timely information has been 
issued as mimeographed circulars dealing with pulpwood cutting 
and small sawmill operations. 

Many requests for forestry exhibits have been received, but in 
only a few instances was the division able to comply, usually cooperat- 
ing with the U. S. Forest Service in setting up joint exhibits. 


Forestry in Georgia suffered a tremendous loss by the death of 
Dr. Charles H. Herty. Dr. Herty's inspiring leadership in the field 
of fire protection and reforestation was to a great extent responsible 
for the increase in public interest in forestry throughout not only 
Georgia but the entire South. It was largely through Dr. Herty's 
efforts that the Constitutional Amendment pertaining to county-wide 
participation in fire protection received such universal support by 
the public. The Division of Forestry feels that it has lost its best 
friend by the passing of Dr. Herty. 

This Division also suffered the loss of Joel Rice, an efficient district 
forester at Baxley, by auto accident. His untimely death deprived 
the Division of the benefits of a capable and conscientious forester. 


One of the high lights of the work of the Division of Forestry has 
been the close cooperation with the various forestry organizations 
throughout the State particularly the Regional Office of the United 

Report of the Division of Forestry 37 

vStates Forest Service, the Extension Service in Athens, the Georgia 
School of Forestry, Georgia Forestry Association, and the Slash Pine 
Forestry Association. The Division of Forestry is glad to acknowl- 
edge the great help which it has received on various technical matters 
particularly fire control, nursery production, and forest management 
from the Regional Office of the United States Forest Service. The 
close cooperation with the U. S. Forest Service has enabled the Di- 
vision of Forestry to broaden the scope of its work materially. 



January 1, 1939 

Frank Heyward, Jr Director 

R. D. Franklin Assistant Director in charge of Fire 


H. D. Story, Jr Assistant Director in charge of For- 


H. C. Carruth Assistant Director in charge of Forest 

Products and Management 

T. P. Hursey District Forester, Gainesville 

W. D. Young Senior Asst. District Forester, Gaines- 

W. G. Wallace District Forester, Macon 

L. C. Hart, Jr Asst. District Forester, Macon 

J. S. Cross District Forester, Albany 

G. M. Mosely District Forester, Baxley 

J. E. Phillips Asst. District Forester, Baxley 

W. W. Hood Asst. District Forester, Baxley 


C. A. Whittle Educational Manager 

M. E. Murphy Nurseryman, Albany 

A. D. King Nurseryman, Flowery Branch 

D. H. Hammond Mechanic 

Miss Hazel E. Nicholas. . . .Secretary to Director 
Mrs. Mildred Manheck. . . .Clerk 

Lister W. Harrell Bookkeeper 

Miss Fannie Lee Kenimer. .Stenographer, Gainesville 

Mrs. Virginia Pirkle Stenographer, Macon 

Mrs. Franklin Jefferson. . .Stenographer, Albany 
Miss Madeline Culbreth . .Stenographer, Baxley 

38 Report Department of Natural Resources 


Balance on hand January 1, 1937 $23,058.65 


From Federal Government Section 2. . 42,585.39 

From Federal Government Section 4. . 1,128.73 

From Sale of Seedlings 5 , 442 . 68 

From Miscellaneous 185 . 10 

From State Appropriation 7 , 307 .83 56 , 649 . 73 

Disbursements for Jan. 1 thru June 30, 1937 58,444.39 

Balance on Hand July 1, 1937 21,263.99 

Detail of Disbursements Jan. 1 - June 30, 1937 

Personal Service 13,990.88 

Travel 4,219.40 

Supplies 254.94 

Communications 809 . 14 

Printing 388.43 

Freight and Express 7.58 

Ice 4.00 

Miscellaneous 255 . 99 

Exhibit Material Expense 50.00 

T. P. O. Refunds 34,315.75 

Refunded to State Treasury 265 . 59 54 , 561 . 70 

Personal Service: 

Salaries 1 , 047 . 33 

Unskilled labor 1,960.59 

Power, Light, etc 75 . 88 

Supplies 355 . 42 

Miscellaneous 172.57 

Refunds on seedling orders 270 . 90 3 , 882 . 69 


Report of the Division of Forestry 39 


Grants from IT. S. Government 75 ,898 . 28 

Transfers from State Treasury 91 ,522.00 

Earnings of Agency: 

Sale of Nursery Stock 6,824.34 

Plowing Service (Fire Breaks) 8,604.77 15,429.11 

Total Income Receipts 182,849.39 

Balance, July 1, 1937 21,263.99 

Total 204,113.38 


Personal Service 41 ,983.37 

Travel Expense 14,919.09 

Supplies 2,894.80 

Communication 1 , 830 . 66 

Heat, Light, Power, Water 17 .63 

Printing 529.46 

Repairs 2,311.21 

Rents 164.50 

Insurance 45 . 45 

T. P. O. Refunds (Timber Protective Or- 
ganizations) 61 , 488 . 48 

Equipment 15 , 706 . 32 

Miscellaneous: Freight, express, drayage, 

subscriptions, dues, etc 442.94 

Transfers to: 

Herty Foundation 27,400.00 

Parks Division 195 . 12 

Geology Division 2 , 178 . 90 

Commissioner's Office 5 , 186 . 66 34 , 960 . 68 


40 Report Department of Natural Resources 


Personal Service 7 , 893 . 1 

Travel Expense 146 . 96 

Supplies 1,217.08 

Communications 93 . 87 

Light, Heat, Power and Water 258.26 

Printing 60.92 

Rent 59.40 

Repairs 278.05 

Insurance 71.01 

Equipment 9,946.08 

Miscellaneous 209.12 

Total 20,233.84 

Balance, June 30, 1938 6,584.95 

Total 204,113.38 


Joe D. Mitchell, Director 


The duties of the present Director of the Division of Wild Life 
of the Department of Natural Resources began March 5, 1937 and 
this report covers that part of the biennial period ending with Dec- 
ember 31,1938, which I respectfully submit. 

This Division is endeavoring to conduct its affairs on sound prin- 
ciples, applying the same economy practiced by any well regulated 

When entering on the duties of Director of this Division, it was 
found that there was an indebtedness of approximately $42,000, 
and in order to function in any manner it was necessary to obtain a 
loan of $30,000. Available funds for the purchase of equipment 
for introducing higher standards of efficiency were, therefore, very 
limited and many improvements and plans for enlarging the service 
have had to wait for financial assistance. 

The Division of Wild Life has the responsibility of developing the 
State's game and fish resources, and to this end, it is empowered to 
enforce the laws designed to protect and regulate the take of wild 

Georgia has very favorable natural conditions for developing wild 
life of the forest, fields, streams, lakes, and coastal waters. The 
public attitude is becoming increasingly favorable to conserving 
and developing the State's wild life. Only adequate funds are needed 
to make rapid progress. 


This Division has six fish hatcheries located at the following places: 
Magnolia Springs Hatchery, Millen; Bowen Mill Hatchery, Fitz- 
gerald; Tufts Spring Hatchery, Macon; Ways Hatchery, Ways 
Station; King's Ferry Hatchery, King's Ferry; Summerville Hatchery, 

The hatchery at Summerville is devoted to the propagation of 
speckled and rainbow trout and is a cold water hatchery, while the 
others are warm water hatcheries. 

The Division's records for 1938 reveal that 1,014,460 fish were 
released in streams of Georgia. These were obtained from state 
and federal hatcheries and from inactive waters. In addition, 700, 000 
shad were hatched by the joint activity of the Division and the U.S. 

42 Report Department of Natural Resources 

Bureau of Fisheries at a newly established hatchery on the Ogeechee 

At the outset the Director considered it necessary to know the con- 
dition of the several hatcheries and the possibilities of increasing 
their production. Through the cooperation of the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries, Mr. C. B. Grater made a study of the plants at Ways, 
Millen and Fitzgerald. His suggestions were very helpful. From 
these and other studies it developed that there is much room for im- 
provement at many of the hatcheries and there is doubt of the econ- 
omy of undertaking to continue some of them. 

Through the period of present operations with little funds avail- 
able, attention has been given to the hatcheries in the. following 

Henry Ford Hatchery, Ways — Three rearing pools have been com- 
pleted at an approximate cost of $500. Each is about one-half acre 
in size. 

It was found that the depth of the water in the larger ponds was 
only 12 to 18 inches, and that they had a rank growth peculiar to the 
section. It was found that this vegetation had no food value and that 
thick scum formed in the shallow water killed fish when it was lowered. 

To meet this situation in both of the large ponds, Mr. Henry Ford 
gave assistance. It is estimated that at an expenditure of not over 
$1,000 this condition can be corrected. 

Magnolia Springs Hatchery, Millen — A spillway has been built, 
following which rearing pools should have been constructed, but the 
work is being deferred awaiting developments of a proposed transfer 
of adjoining lands to the Department of Natural Resources. 

Bowen Mill Hatchery, Fitzgerald — Improvements consisting of a 
better distribution of the water to the rearing pools and other recom- 
mended improvements have been made through the cooperation 
and assistance of the Ben Hill County Commissioners. 

Summerville Hatchery, Summerville — With little other than main- 
tenance cost this hatchery with splendid cooperation of the Bureau 
of Fisheries allotting 250,000 rainbow and brook trout, successful 
production was obtained. 


In order that those interested in propagating large-mouth bass 
may have an authoritative statement on the possible yield of a 
hatchery, the following statement by C. F. Culler, District Super- 
visor, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Lacross, Wisconsin, if given: 

Report of the Division of Wild Life 43 

"It is believed that if some of the information could be had, the 
average production of black bass per acre, which is now approximately 
6,500, could be increased to double this number." 

The warm water hatchery acreage in Georgia is approximately as 
follows: Ways Hatchery, 25 water acres; Bowen Mill Hatchery, 30 
water acres; Magnolia Springs Hatchery, 35 water acres, a total of 
90 warm water acres. 

According to Mr. Culler's estimate of expectancy there should be 
1,170,000 fish produced under favorable conditions in Georgia's 90 
warm water acres, but under normal conditions there would be 


Believing that the casualties can be materially reduced, which in 
the end results in increased production, the direction of this Division 
is encouraging the community wild life clubs to construct small 
rearing pools about 50 by 120 feet in size, at an estimated cost of 
$150 each. Properly fertilized, the pools will produce enough food 
to bring the small fry, during the period of four or five months, to 
5 or 6 inches in length, and be in better shape to protect themselves 
from their natural enemies when released into the streams. It is 
advised that the pools be constructed as close to a stream as possible 
thereby lessening the cost of transportation. 

In addition to reducing casualties, this method has another distinct 
advantage. When transporting the fry to the rearing pools, from 
ten to twelve thousand can be handled, while if held in the hatchery 
until 5 to 6 inches long the average load would be only nine to twelve 
hundred, so that it is apparent that a short haul from pool to stream 
is an economical measure. 

Unsolicited letters from different sections of the state give en- 
couragement to this Division by their reports of increase of fish 


At the quail farm at Doraville, a modernly equipped quail hatchery 
is operated. During the period of the present supervision, 10,705 
birds have been distributed from the hatchery over the State. From 
figures assembled for 1937, it was revealed that casualties at the 
hatchery ran about 30 per cent and the cost per bird distributed was 
about $1.25. 

Operation of a quail farm is, therefore, a somewhat expensive meth- 
od of restocking and is adopted by some states only as a necessity. 


Report Department of Natural Resources 

An error made by the former Game and Fish Department, in 
locating a hatchery building on land not obtained for the purpose. 
The land-owner has agreed to sell the land occupied by the build- 
ing, but lack of funds has thus far prevented the consummation of 
the deal which involves $500. 


At a meeting of the Chief of the Bureau of the Biological Survey, 
and wild life officials of the southern states, held at Jacksonville, 
Florida in March of 1938, a discussion centered around a question of 
changing the open season for the mourning dove. The Director of 
this Division presented the viewpoint of local sportsmen who had 
requested an extension of the season. 

It was held by Dr. Pearson of the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey 
that the season from November 20 to January 31 would interfere 
less with early breeding, and at the same time insure the taking of 
birds of desirable size than would any other period of similar dura- 
tion. In substance he stated that from the biological point of view 
it would not be advisable to open the season on mourning doves dur- 
ing the month of February, and recommended the most nearly ideal 
season from the standpoint of the birds themselves to be December 
15 to January 15. 


An effort has been made by the field men of this Division to obtain 
the approximate deer and bear population of the State. The number 
of each animal shown by counties is as follows: 

Deer and Bear Population for 1937: 


Baldwin . 
Banks. . . 
Ben Hill . 
Bibb... . 
Bryan . . . 
Bulloch . 





























Report of the Division of Wild Life 


Deer and Bear Population for 1937, Cont'd. 



Dawson . 
Decatur . 
Early . . . 
Echols . . 
Fannin . 
Gilmer . . 
Grady . . 
Irwin . . . 
Jasper. . . 

Jeff Davis 
Jenkins. . . 
Liberty . . . 


Lumpkin . 
Marion. . . 
































Richmond . . . 


Seminole . . . . 











Wilkinson . . . 

















This information was assembled for use of the U. S. Biological 
Survey. In the absence of data prior to 1937 no comparison can be 
made with previous years. 


Numerous sportsmen and others interested, desire certain changes 
or amendments to existing laws which would provide that the turkey 
and deer season open the same date, to wit, November 15. 

Another suggested change is that the open season for taking shad 
be advanced to January 1 or 15th. This would more nearly conform 
to the season now in effect in Florida and South Carolina, where by 
reason of early catches they are able to obtain top prices not possible 
in Georgia. 

As Director, I concur in both the suggested changes. 

46 Report Department of Natural Resources 


Based on the records of the field men of this Division, the animals 
on which the law requires reports, the number of deers killed during 
the season of 1937-38 was 71. The number of marsh hens killed dur- 
ing the season of 1937 was 38,230 and for the year of 1938 up to and 
including September 27, the number was 33,304. 

While no records of the total number of quail killed are kept, based 
on estimates of field men, the quail population has increased to a 
very noticeable extent, this being in part attributed to better con- 
trol of forest fires. 


It will be noted from the auditor's report that during the twelve 
months ending December 31, 1936, as compared with the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1938, there was a slight decrease in coastal fish- 
eries revenue, of less than $500. 

The coastal section offers wonderful opportunities from the stand- 
point of commercial fisheries. 

With our limited equipment consisting of two motor-driven boats, 
the problem of patrolling Georgia's 100 miles of coast line and 1000 
miles of sounds, tidal rivers and creeks, is difficult. To properly 
patrol these waters the Division should have at least four crafts such 
as the smaller of the present type, one to be stationed at each of the 
following points: Savannah, Darien, Brunswick, and St. Marys. 
To acquire such a fleet would mean an outlay of some $4,800. The 
Director has no doubt that it would be a profitable investment. Ne- 
gotiations are in progress, looking to assistance from the Department 
of Commerce in supplying necessary equipment. Should this fail 
the State it will be proposed that the State supply the same as a ne- 

Our coastal area has great possibilities for oyster production. A 
start has been made toward establishing new oyster beds and in re- 
storing old ones to productivity. This has not progressed rapidly. 
Investigations of probable cost and method of financing have not been 
completed. In June of 1938 the matter of restoration of oyster beds 
was taken up with the Bureau of Fisheries of the Department of 
Commerce and a preliminary survey was released through the bureau's 
publication "Oyster Investigations of Georgia". 

According to the publication the following localities were designated 
as particularly suitable for oyster culture: Oyster Creek, Tybee 
Island, Black River, Burnside Island, Neville Creek, Ossabaw Island, 

Report of the Division of Wild Life 47 

Sunberry Creek, Midway River, Blackshear River, Sapalo Island, 
Dead River, Folly River, and surrounding marshes, and Doboy 
Island and vicinity. 

The East Georgia Planning Council mapped poluted areas as lying 
north of Tybee, around Savannah, Thunderbolt, and an area be- 
tween Jekyll and Saint Simons Islands, and up Turtle River above 

With limited equipment, the first step toward oyster bed restora- 
tion being taken is to enforce the provisions of the leases which re- 
quire the lessee to deposit each year the number of bushels of shells 
equal to 25% of the number of bushels of oysters taken from the 
leased ground. The report of the Bureau of Fisheries states that if 
this provision is reasonably enforced it will be of great benefit in 
maintaining the natural beds and preventing their depletion. With 
the proposed additional equipment this division will be in better 
position to enforce the provision. 

Improved methods of oyster culture require setting aside sufficiently 
large areas suitable for cultivation of oysters; improving the bottoms 
by dredging out the accumulated debris and reinforcing them where 
necessary, by planting shells and gravel; establishment of spawning- 
grounds; collection of seed oysters on suitable bottoms below low 
water marks, and protecting the beds from attacks of oyster enemies. 

Having looked into the probable cost, the conclusion has been 
reached that at this time the funds of the Division will not permit 
it to qualify for an allotment which federal authorities are willing 
to grant. 

Relative to the needs of coastal waters, the following is taken from 
the report of the East Georgia Planning Council : 

"1. Regulation of seasons for commercial catch with the object 
of reducing the drain on the supply. 

"2. Systematic replanting of oysters, restoration of depleted beds, 
and establishment of new beds in suitable localities. 

"3. Thorough patrol of all fishing waters in order to rigidly en- 
force conservation laws and regulations, and that adequate funds be 
provided therefor." 

In concluding this discussion of coastal fisheries, it is gratifying to 
report every indication of increased poundage of shrimp this season 
compared to the previous one. 


Georgia's 159 counties are patrolled by 94 protectors, or field 
men, at a cost of $8,586 per month. These men have been selected 


Report Department of Natural Resources 

not only because of their qualifications as protectors, but because 
of their love of nature and their desire to be helpful in protecting 
Georgia's wild life. 

As a result of their efforts, the number of prosecutions is 620, 
listed by counties, as follows: 


Appling 4 





Banks 8 


Bartow 10 

Ben Hill 4 




Brantley 6 


Bryan 27 

Bulloch 10 

Burke 4 

Butts 4 

Calhoun 1 

Camden 3 

Candler 1 

Carroll 1 


Charlton 4 

Chatham 5 

Chattahoochee ... 



Clarke 8 


Clayton 2 



Coffee 4 

Colquitt 5 






Crisp 3 


Dawson 6 

Decatur 4 

DeKalb 14 




Douglas 1 



Effingham 9 

Elbert 1 

Emanuel 7 

Evans 1 


Fayette 6 

Floyd 1 



Fulton 20 





Grady 2 

Greene 14 

Gwinnett 10 


Hall 2 


Report of the Division of Wild Life 




Harris 1 

Hart 2 

Heard 1 

Henry 12 

Houston 5 

Irwin 11 

Jackson 7 


Jeff Davis 

Jefferson 11 

Jenkins 11 



Lamar 1 


Laurens 12 


Liberty 12 


Long 77 

Lowndes 1 

Lumpkin 14 


Mcintosh 4 


Madison 3 

Marion 4 

Meriwether 6 




Montgomery 4 

Morgan 23 



Newton 11 

Oconee 1 

Oglethorpe 2 

Paulding 2 




Pierce 2 

Pike 5 

Polk 6 




Rabun 3 

Randolph 1 

Richmond 11 

Rockdale 1 


Screven 25 


Spalding 10 



Sumter 6 



Tattnall 12 

Taylor 4 


Terrell - 


Tift 19 

Toombs 1 

Towns 1 


Troup 4 



Union 3 

Upson 1 





Washington 5 

Wayne 4 


50 Report Department of Natural Resources 


Wheeler Wilkes 

White 10 Wilkinson 3 

Whitfield 1 Worth 22 

Wilcox 10 

TOTAL 620 


Every agency at our command for disseminating information on 
wild life is being employed. Through the splendid cooperation of 
Mr. C. A. Whittle, Educational Manager of the Department of Nat- 
ural Resources, the Division is distributing his excellent booklet deal- 
ing with Georgia's wild life. It is also gratifying to report that the 
State Department of Education is using the publication as teaching 
material in the public schools. 

This Division has displayed exhibits at fairs, winning several blue 
ribbons, and as often as possible lectures have been delivered and 
motion pictures shown on wild life over the State. 


This Division gratefully acknowledges cordial cooperation with 
other state agencies and the many courtesies shown. The Director 
of this Division gladly offers each state agency his full support and 

This Division is grateful to the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, the United 
States Forest Service, and the Bureau of Biological Survey for their 
friendly and cooperative attitude. This Division expends approxi- 
mately $7,000 in connection with cooperative agreements between 
this Division and federal agencies in promoting wild life. In fact 
there is assurance of cooperation in every activity related to the 
welfare of wild life in field and stream. 


Captain Garland Peyton, Director 


The following principal functions of the Division of Mines, Mining 
and Geology are based on an interpretation of the wording and spirit 
of the Act creating the Department of Natural Resources of which 
this Division is a component: 

1. To initiate and conduct studies and surveys of the mineral re- 
sources of the State and their commercial utility. To conduct a min- 
eral survey of the State and to catalog each and every mineral oc- 
currence and deposit, together with its location, production, method 
of working, name of owner and agent, and other detailed informa- 
tion capable of being tabulated and published for the use, guidance, 
and benefit of the mineral industry of the State and the people in 
general and deemed necessary in compiling mineral statistics of the 

2. To conduct as a continuing project, a geological survey of Geor- 
gia, either as a department undertaking or in cooperation with other 
designated agencies. 

3. To cooperate with Federal or other agencies for the performance 
of such work in Georgia as shall be deemed of value to the State of 
Georgia and of advantage to the people of Georgia and under such 
rules, terms and conditions as shall be arranged between the Com- 
missioner of the Department of Natural Resources and these agencies. 

4. To serve as a bureau of information concerning Georgia geology, 
minerals, and mineral industries. To encourage and actively coop- 
erate in educational programs which have bearing upon the charac- 
ter and importance of the natural resources of the State. 

5. To collect specimens and samples for deposition in the State 
Museum or for exhibition elsewhere; to collect photographs, models, 
drawings of appliances in the mines, mills and metallurgical plants 
of the State, and to file in such a manner as to be readily viewed or 
used by the people of Georgia. 

6 To maintain a library of literature describing the geology and 
mineral deposits of Georgia. 

7. To make qualitative examinations of rocks, specimens, and 
mineral samples. 

8. To make quantitative determinations of ores and minerals, when 
submitted for the purpose by citizens of the State. 

52 Report Department of Natural Resources 

9. To study minerals and ores, additional uses for the State's min- 
erals to meet the ever-changing and increasing demands of modern 
industry, to explore the possibilities for their beneficiation, and for 
improved treatment and processes so that otherwise low-grade ores 
may become of commercial value; and to devise new, different, or 
more appropriate mining procedures. 


The personnel of the Division is composed of the following groups 
or classifications: Regular technical staff, regular office staff, special 
part-time employees, who render services common to all divisions, 
W. P. A. personnel assigned to the Division and U. S. G. S. personnel 
participating in the cooperative water investigation in Georgia, and 
a prorata share of whose salaries and expenses is paid through the 

Regular Personnel 

The regular personnel of the Division consists of the Director, 
three Geologists, one Assayer-Chemist, a Secretary, a Librarian and 
a Porter as follows: 

Captain Garland Peyton Director 

Captain J. Thomas Adair Assayer-Chemist 

Doctor A. S. Furcron Geologist-Mineralogist 

Mr. A. C. Munyan Geologist-Stratigrapher 

Mr. Richard W. Smith Economic Geologist 

Miss Margaret Gann Secretary 

Mrs. Ella J. Watkins Librarian 

Willie Cliett, (colored) Porter 

The individuals composing the technical staff of the Division are 
professional men of the highest type and with many years of diversi- 
fied training and experience in the arts and sciences — especially in 
the fields of chemistry, minerals, metallurgy, and geology. Their 
versatility and adaptability are attested by the unusually varied list 
of activities participated in successfully by them. They, individually 
and collectively, possess imagination and perspective necessary to 
the proper appreciation and understanding of the broad economic 
pictuie of the practically unlimited possibilities of Georgia's mineral 
resources, and to encourage and facilitate their development and 
exploitation along lines consistent with good business practices. 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 53 

Departmental Personnel 

The following persons render valuable services common to all 

Mr. C. A. Whittle Educational Director 

Mr. Jere N. Moore Public Relations Counsel 

Miss Annette McLean Curator of the Museum 

U. S. Geological Survey Personnel 

The following technical personnel of the U. S. G. S. are engaged 
in the surface ground water investigation now in progress in Georgia 
and financed cooperatively by the State of Georgia and the Federal 

Mr. Francis M. Bell District Hyd. Engineer 

Mr. Melvin R. Williams Assoc. Engineer 

Mr. Raymond F. Conard Jr. Engineer 

Mr. John L. French Jr. Engineer 

Mr. Jack M. Carns Jr. Engineer 

Mrs. Effte T. Workman Sr. Clerk 

Mr. Theron Z. Chastain Recorder 

Mr. J. Edwin Heatherly Recorder 

Federal W. P. A. Personnel 

The following persons who are paid by the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration have been assigned by that Agency to the Division of 
Mines, Mining and Geology to carry on a most worth while and 
somewhat varied project in connection with minerals and mineral 

Miss Willie P. Hardy Stenographer 

Miss Opal A. McClain Clerk 

Miss Ruth Rockmore Jr. Clerk 

Mrs. Isla Philen Sr. Stenographer 

Mrs. Kate Jarrell Typist 

Mrs. Ruth Kirby Research Assistant 

Mr. Leonard Loyd Research Assistant 

Mr. Roscoe E. Bachellor Research Assistant 

Mr. H. H. McHan Supervisor 

Mr. Byron Clough Draftsman 

Mr. Jacob Goldstein Research Assistant 

Mr. Lee O'Bannon Research Assistant 

54 Report Department of Natural Resources 


Dr. G. W. Crickmay. formerly Assistant State Geologist with the 
Division resigned September 1, 1937, to accept the position of Asso- 
ciate Professor of Geology at the University of Georgia, Athens, 

Mr. Lane Mitchell, formerly Assistant State Geologist, who was 
granted a year's leave of absence in September, 1936, resigned during 
the interim to accept a position as Assistant Professor of Ceramics 
at Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. 


Studies and Surveys of the Mineral Resources of the State. The 
major work of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology is the in- 
vestigation of the mineral resources of the State. It is considered 
both desirable and well worth while to keep in touch with the mines 
and mineral industries, to learn what they have been doing, and to 
see if they can be assisted in any way to increase their out-put and 
markets and lower their costs, as well as to examine new mineral dis- 
coveries with view to determining their commercial availability. 
Unquestionably thousands of dollars have been made or saved by 
investors who have sought and acted on our advice in this connection. 

In the past, too many commercial operators failed to keep records 
of their operations, with the result that much valuable information 
and data are not available. One of the aims of this Division is to co- 
operate with mineral producers with a view to obtaining such records 
and data and preserving them for future reference in the files of this 

Technical reports and popular articles should be prepared, pub- 
lished, and distributed. One mineral at a time, or a group of related 
minerals, is selected for intensive investigation of the deposits through- 
out the State. The resulting report describes the geology and occur- 
rence of the deposits, gives individual property descriptions, includ- 
ing thickness of deposits and overburden, and makes recommenda- 
tions as to the best means for developing the deposits. General 
reports on the geology and physiography of the State and geologic 
maps, the basic information necessary for an intelligent search for 
undiscovered mineral deposits, should be published. 

The series of 47 such reports o: bulletins of uniformly high standard 
that have already been published has done much to stimulate interest 
in the development of Georgia's mineral industry. A monthly paper, 
formerly published by the Department of Forestry and Geological 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 55 

Development and which usually contained timely popular articles 
on Georgia's mineral resources, was discontinued in March, 1937. 
A number of such articles have been reprinted from time to time to 
meet the popular demand for them. Special scientific papers on dif- 
ferent phases of Georgia's geology and minerals have been prepared 
and presented at various scientific societies. 

Clearing House for Mineral Information. The Division of Mines, 
Mining and Geology serves as a clearing house for geological and min- 
eralogical information. People within the State write, call or phone 
for advice in developing their mineral deposits, digging or boring 
water wells, or investing in mining companies. The producers ask 
for help in developing new mining or treatment methods and finding 
new markets for their products or new deposits of the minerals in 
which they are interested. The Georgia Securities Commission 
often consults the Director on the advisability of allowing mining com- 
panies to sell stock within the State. Municipalities ask advice on 
possible sources of a city water supply. Thousands of letters are 
received from all over the country asking for information on Georgia's 
mineral resources. Some of these can be answered by sending the 
printed reports, others by personal letters based on the experience 
of the Division's personnel. 

Literally hundreds of rocks and minerals from all parts of the 
State are sent in by property owners for identification, analyses and/ 
or advice. For a number of years past it was found impracticable 
to maintain a laboratory and to employ a chemist to make assays 
and chemical analyses on samples of rocks, minerals and metals sent 
in by the citizens of the State or collected by the members of the staff 
of the Division. We are pleased to announce that this service has now 
been resumed. The Division has a laboratory fairly adequately 
equipped and an assayer-chemist to make quantitative analyses. 
Supplementing this with additional equipment, a research technol- 
ogist, or one or two assistant chemists would enlarge the scope of our 
services to the public. 



During the biennium 1937-1938 the Division of Mines, Mining and 
Geology aided in the establishment of six new manufacturing plants, 
at least forty-one new mining operations, and in the attraction <>i an 
estimated total of 810,115,000 in new investments to Georgia. It is 

56 Report Department of Natural Resources 

not our desire to detract or in any sense to depreciate the cooperation 
and efforts exerted by other organizations or individuals toward the 
accomplishment and realization of these new industries. It is be- 
lieved, however, that we might be justified in making a comparison 
between the value of this new business and the total net appropria- 
tion made available to this Division during the period in which this 
new money was brought into Georgia. Such a comparison indicates 
that for each dollar of appropriation spent by this Division $179.00 
of new investment accrued to the State. It is certain, in this con- 
nection, that the foundation and groundwork for an appreciable 
amount of additional money has been laid and that much of it is 
bound to be realized sometime in the near future. 


Mining men have long been asking for a detailed large-scale geologic 
map of Georgia showing the various types of rocks that underlie the 
State, together with a report describing the rocks, their structural 
relations, and their relation to the commercial minerals. This geo- 
logical map of Georgia was completed in 1938. The map, when 
published, will be the first modern geological map of the State. At 
present the map is being drafted for publication in the offices of the 
U. S. Geological Survey in Washington. 

The new map will portray, for the first time, the geological features 
of middle and northwestern Georgia. The geology of the Coastal 
Plain has been revised and the formations mapped. The map is to 
be published on a scale of 8 miles to the inch; its dimensions will be 
approximately 42 by 36 inches. All formations will be printed in 
color. A total of 69 formations have been recognized "for the State, 
each of which will be portrayed on the map by a separate color and 
name. Twenty-six formations are mapped in the Coastal Plain, 
twenty-five in the middle and northern section, and eighteen in 
northwest Georgia. These figures may be compared with those of 
the old geologic map of the State published in 1908. On this map 
nine formations were recognized: five from the Coastal Plain, one 
in the middle and mountain section, and three in northwest Georgia. 
It is obvious that the old map has long since been useless. 

The large amount of geological work necessary to the completion 
of this map was done by members of this staff in cooperation with 
members of the United States Geological Survey. 

The geological work upon the Crystalline Area of middle Georgia 
and a part of the work upon northwest Georgia was completed by 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 57 

thib Division. A member of this staff spent three months in the 
fall of 1937 and one month in the spring of 1938 working in coopera- 
tion with a geologist from the Federal Bureau upon the geology of 
the Coastal Plain. 

In middle and north Georgia, rock types, such as granites, gneisses, 
marble, quartzite, and other rocks are portrayed; their distribution, 
locality, geologic age, and other features are shown. In northwest 
Georgia, the folded sedimentary rocks, such as limestones, shales, 
sandstones, and other rocks, useful in the manufacture of Portland 
cement, bricks and tiles, glass, and other products, are described and 
accurately portrayed on the map. 

The geology of the Coastal Plain has been revised and the forma- 
tions remapped in greater detail. The map for that area will show 
the positions of each rock type such as limestone, sand and gravel, 
kaolin, fullers earth, and marls which can be utilized for commercial 
purposes. It will provide a means for the future prospecting of the 
above minerals in a more intelligent manner. Then, too, it also 
furnishes a basis for subsurface geology in the search for oil and gas 
and in the investigation of the underground water resources. 

The new map of the State of Georgia will serve as a base for wide 
varieties of detailed studies. It will be of particular value to those 
engaged in the development of our mineral resources and industries. 
Structural interpretation, which may be read from this map, will 
serve in many ways, particularly in the drilling of wells or in following 
the distribution of valuable formations. 


A total of 2,031 assays and analyses were made by the Assay Office 
and Laboratory during the period from its establishment in July, 
1937, through December 31, 1938. This period includes the time 
spent in setting up the necessary apparatus as well as time lost in 
moving the laboratory to its present location at 196 Central Avenue. 
During the period from February 1 to December 31, 1938, 1090 
assays were made. These assays represent approximately 950 different 
samples of ore from many different localities upon which the quantity 
of gold and/or silver in value or amount per ton was determined. 

There were 941 determinations made upon approximately 265 
different samples of Georgia minerals and waters from every sec lion 
of the State. These chemical determinations according to the total 
of the separate analyses made are as follows: Lime (CaO), 154; 
Magnesia (MgO), 118; Iron (Fe 2 3 ), 105; Alumina (Al 2 (),), 103; 

58 Report Department of Natural Resources 

Titanium (Ti0 2 ), 19; Moisture (H 2 0), 38; Loss on Ignition, 51; 
Phosphorous (P 2 5 ), 9; Free Carbon Dioxide (C0 2 ), 3; Sulphur 
Trioxide (S0 3 ), 5; Manganous Oxide (MnO), 14; Ferrous Oxide 
(FeO), 2; Sodium Oxide (Na 2 0), 6; Potassium Oxide (K 2 0), 8; 
Lead (Pb), 3; Zinc (Zn), 2; Nickel (Ni), 1; Chromium (Cr), 5; Carbon 
Dioxide (C0 2 ), 12; Silica (Si0 2 ), 153; Ferric Oxide and Alumina 
(Fe 2 3 and A1 2 3 ), 31; Manganese (Mn), 29; Dissolved Solids, 
17; Barium Sulphate (BaS0 4 ), 9; Chlorine (CI), 6; Volatile Matter, 
2; Ash, 2; Specific Gravity, 4; Copper (Cu), 18; Bromine (Br), 3; 
Sulphur, 3; Bicarbonate, 12. 

In addition to the above analytical work the laboratory designed 
and built the equipment for the experimental production of fused 
silicates and particularly of the insulating material, rock wool. The 
laboratory facilities for experimental investigation of our natural 
resources have been exceedingly meager and it is believed that re- 
sults of economic importance can be obtained by access to more 
adequate equipment to carry on the work in progress. From time 
to time we have been called upon to verify certain phases of new metal- 
lurgical and ore dressing processes. In so far as ouf facilities and 
equipment would permit we have complied with these requests. 


It is estimated that members of the staff have identified, in the 
field and laboratory, around 10,000 specimens of minerals, ores, and 
rocks during this period. This work has ranged from routine identi- 
fication of hand specimens to detailed optical studies carried out in 
the laboratory. 

Within the last year the two petrographic microscopes have been 
supplemented by the addition of a good binocular microscope, and a 
metallographic microscope. The binocular is of special use in the 
examination of mineral grains, such as pan sands from gold or other 
mineral deposits; well log samples, where a study of mineral grains 
or foraminifera is necessary to identification or correlation of rocks, 
etc. The metallographic microscope affords opportunity for the study 
of polished ores under reflected light, which type of study is often a 
necessary prerequisite to the development of proper methods of flo- 
tation or milling of ores. 

The wide variety of technical problems which are met in the min- 
eralogical laboratory may be illustrated by the following examples: 
A certain granite had been eliminated in a northern market because 
it is said that it is a "gneiss." Mineralogical studies and analyses of 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 59 

physical properties show that it has all of the properties of a true 
granite so that the term is a misnomer. This work proved that 
Georgia granite is equal to any granite from the North. 

Before testifying in the Governors' Freight Rate Case on tale and 
soapstone, a member of the technical staff made a detailed petro- 
graphic study of the materials. To do this, it was necessary to study 
rock thin-sections under polarized light. He carried the evidence 
with him to Washington in the form of five small glass thin -sections 
carefully wrapped in an envelope. Had his testimony been disputed 
by any other technical witness while on the stand, he was prepared 
at any moment to pull out the envelope and face them with the source 
of information. 


Examination of Mining Properties. It is estimated that members 
of the technical staff have examined at least 800 mines, mining prop- 
erties and prospects within the last two years. This involved work 
ranging from that of preliminary inspection to thorough geological 
study of the deposits. It has been necessary to advise methods of 
prospecting and mining, and to suggest suitable machinery and mill- 
ing methods. Many specimens of minerals, ores and rocks were col- 
lected for laboratory study during the course of the work. 

Kaolin — New Plants. The results of investigations dealing with 
kaolin have been very gratifying to the Division. Bulletin 44-A, "A 
Supplement to the Sedimentary Kaolins of Georgia," was welcomed 
by the Georgia producers and by the kaolin consumers of the United 
States. Even before its publication, some of the contained recom- 
mendations were acted upon by out-of-State producers who have now 
constructed a new kaolin processing plant at Sandersville, Georgia, 
at a cost of $175,000. This plant will process kaolin so that a finished 
product will be manufactured in the State instead of in the North 
as formerly. 

Another large kaolin refining plant has been erected and a new mine 
opened just south of Macon since the publication of Bulletin 44-A; 
they are now in full production. The Division of Mines, Mining and 
Geology can, therefore, claim exclusive credit for bringing to the State 
more than $300,000 in new investments in kaolin alone. 

Innumerable samples of all types of kaolin have been submitted 
to the Division for examination and testing. The best of these have 

60 Report Department of Natural Resources 

been investigated in the field and recommendations made to the owner 
cr prospective operator for the most economical methods of mining 
and producing the kaolins. A great deal of money has been saved 
prospective operators of such deposits by advising against opening 
them up when the technical staff believed that the value of the ma- 
terial or size of the deposit did not justify the investment. Since new 
properties are being discovered continually, this service should be 
extended and enlarged at every opportunity in order to save the 
citizens of Georgia much money, and to guide them to the best in- 

Fullers Earth. The production of bleaching clay, of which fullers 
earth is the foremost representative in Georgia, has been more or less 
static for the past few years because of the increased use of a new 
material for this purpose. However, the newly discovered process 
does not produce a better bleach than does fullers earth. Recogn- 
izing this to be fact, the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 
has undertaken to contact the consumers, past, present and potential, 
in order to show them that Georgia's fullers earth is the equal of any 
in the world. This activity has been more or less hampered because 
of a lack of sufficient funds to advertise the value of the mineral. 
Nevertheless, the Division has aided in obtaining at least $10,000 
worth of new business for the producers of the State. 

Bauxite. Members of the Division's technical staff have prepared 
a preliminary report on the bauxite reserves of Georgia. Bauxite, 
from which the metal aluminum is obtained, occurs in the three geo- 
logic provinces of the State. A large tonnage of this ore has been pro- 
duced in Georgia in the past, but at present the production is very 
low. The study of the bauxite reserves was undertaken in order to 
try to determine why production has fallen off so greatly, and also 
to determine whether there still existed in the State sufficient amounts 
of bauxite ore to warrant a renewal of mining operations. This re- 
port was a statistical study of bulletins and mining records preserved 
in the offices of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology. It 
involved very little new field work, without which complete information 
cannot be accurately obtained. 

The result of the investigation demonstrates that there are vast 
reserves of good bauxite ores still remaining in Georgia, and that it 
is commercially feasible to mine the material. However, much field 
work on the actual deposits is necessary before definite recommenda- 
tions can be made for mining the richest and most extensive prop- 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 61 

The figures compiled by this study show that there are a minimum 
of 5,683,912 tons of bauxite containing less than 50 per cent of alu- 
mina, and that there are a minimum of 2,319,935 tons of bauxite 
containing more than 50 per cent alumina remaining in Georgia as 
an untouched reserve. Many properties known to contain high grade 
ore have not been prospected, thus the number of tons in them would 
greatly increase the above figures. 

It can readily be seen that Georgia possesses an extremely valuable 
mineral which so far has been virtually untouched. A complete in- 
vestigation of the bauxite deposits of the State is urgently needed so 
that the State may acquire full value from its mineral resources. 
Before any industry will consider an investment, as great a knowl- 
edge as possible of the situation is required beforehand; this service 
can be rendered by the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology if 
funds are provided with which to do the work. 

Petroleum. The first important and progressive step toward sci- 
entific and adequately financed oil prospecting took place in 1937 
and continued actively until the summer of 1938. One of the major 
petroleum companies made a detailed geophysical study of the 
Coastal Plain area, where it obtained results satisfactory enough to 
justify the drilling of the first deep test well two miles east of Offer- 
man in Pierce County, Georgia. The officers and technical staff 
of the company making the survey and drilling the test well requested, 
and received, the full cooperation of the Division of Mines, Mining 
and Geology. A member of the State's technical staff was on hand 
during all operations > working with the company officials to obtain 
the most complete and detailed information possible. When the well 
proved to be a dry hole, the company turned over the scientific data 
secured from it to the State for its files, but has required that this 
information be kept in confidence until the company gives permission 
to release it. 

The fact that the well information cannot yet be published leads 
to the belief that additional prospecting will be undertaken in the 
future. It is hoped that several more wells will be drilled for this 
purpose very soon. The type of rocks found in the Coastal Plain of 
Georgia are known to contain commercial quantities of oil and gas 
at other localities where they occur; consequently, there is a possi- 
bility that similar conditions may be found in Georgia. 

The information obtained from the recent test well in Pierce Count v 
will not only be valuable to future petroleum prospecting but will 
also be of great use in the underground water survey now being 
carried on by the Division. The well penetrates all of the formations 

62 Report Department of Natural Resources 

of the Coastal Plain and therefore can be used as a sort of "yardstick" 
for the correlation of strata occurring in other wells in that area. 

The Division of Alines, Mining and Geology, therefore, should 
be given much credit for securing for the State not only many valu- 
able scientific facts but also an enormous investment of new money 
in Georgia. It is estimated that Georgia has received at least 
$3,000,000 in outside money brought in to the State by these activi- 
ties. This figure will be materially increased by the payment of 
rentals which are being maintained at present. 

Whiteware Industry. The Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 
has been interested in helping two new whiteware and pottery plants 
establish themselves in Georgia. The whiteware factory is now being 
erected in south Georgia, while the pottery plant is already under 
production in north Georgia. It is estimated that the initial in- 
vestments required to start these businesses is about $600,000. This 
figure does not include the overhead expense of purchases, main- 
tenance, or salaries which are necessarily quite large and which would, 
therefore, increase the sum shown above. 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Plants. The Division has been 
requested to furnish a great deal of information to the managements 
of two new industries wishing to establish plants in Georgia. One 
of these, a large insulation concern, asked for and received a prelim- 
inary market survey, together with a raw mineral resource report 
before it would consider the first steps toward building a plant in 
the State. The other concern, which manufactures a high grade 
roofing material, has received aid from the Division in locating and 
testing those minerals required in its manufacturing process. The 
insulation plant is estimated to represent an investment of $5,000,000, 
while the roofing plant probably amounts to around $1,000,000. 


School Museums. The collection of rocks and minerals in the 
State Museum at the Capitol attracts hundreds of visitors daily, 
including many school children. The Curator of the Museum reports 
that between three and four thousand adults and school children 
per month inspect this exhibit. 

It is impossible for school children from all over the State to come 
to Atlanta to see this museum. The Division of Mines, Mining and 
Geology has, therefore, undertaken the tremendous task of collect- 
ing a large number of specimens of 75 common rocks and mineral 
found in Georgia for distribution as local museums in the schools of 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 63 

the University System and in high schools throughout the State. 
Four hundred and forty-six sets have been accepted in 1935-1938. 
These sets are also available to grammar schools. Some sets have 
been accepted by Chambers of Commerce, Boy Scout and Girl Scout 
Camps, libraries, museums and other worthy organizations. The 
distribution of school museums by years is given below: 





The sets were distributed as follows: 

College and Universities 14 

High Schools 338 

Grammar Schools 56 

Camps, Libraries, etc 38 

Total 446 

Since the needs of the high schools are gradually becoming ful- 
filled, grammar schools will be encouraged to install this exhibit. 
The accompanying map illustrates the distribution of museum sets 
in the State. 

Each specimen in these school museums is labeled and is displayed 
on a painted wooden block. The only cost to the school is that of a 
locked glass case or cases for the display, and transportation charges 
for shipping. Many enthusiastic letters have been received from 
school superintendents telling of the value of these school museums 
in teaching the mineral resources of Georgia. 

Capitol Displays. The Division has added greatly to its fine mu- 
seum which is maintained on the fourth floor of the State Capitol 
building in Atlanta. This museum attracts many thousands of 
visitors each year, thus is one of the main points of interest to tour- 
ists, school children, and citizens of Georgia. 

The Division desires to express its appreciation for the valuable 
cooperation it has received from Miss Annette McLean, Curator 
of the Museum. Her knowledge of minerals and her understanding 
of the services performed by this Division, together with her keen 
interest and friendly attitude, have been most helpful in stimulat- 
ing interest in and promoting greater appreciation for Georgia's 
mineral resources. 


Report Department of Natural Resources 


\ r .. 



\ 1 K 


\ s 


\ # s^~ 




Grammar and Highschools 
O Colleges and Universities 







Map showing distribution by the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology of school 
museums containing 75 common rocks and minerals of Georgia 

One of the most educational and interesting exhibits is the Fluores- 
cent Display which has been greatly augmented by the addition of 
more Georgia minerals than formerly. Also new ultra-violet lamps 
have been installed in the cabinet in order to increase the brilliance 
of the fluorescent phenomenon. This permanent exhibit has proved 
to be so successful that a portable display has been constructed for 
use at Fairs, both State and National, and at other gatherings where 
such displays can be of educational service to the public, and where 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 65 

Georgia mineral products can be advertised to the advantage of the 

Two displays of mineral resources of Georgia were constructed 
during 1938 for use in the museum and have been received with great 
interest on the part of the museum visitors. One of these shows the 
actual mineral mounted on a large board with colored ribbons leading 
from the specimen to localities spotted on a large outline map of Geor- 
gia. The regions possessing commercial quantities of minerals now 
being mined in the State thus are graphically shown to the observer. 
The other display has been constructed on a similar board on which 
a large outline map of Georgia has been painted. Mounted on the 
map are 125 small electric-light bulbs which, in turn, are connected 
to push-buttons near the base of the board. The electric bulbs are 
placed on the map to correspond to the State-wide occurrence of the 
commercial minerals. The 20 push-buttons each have a separate 
label such as Bauxite, Kaolin, Gold, etc., and when they are pressed, 
one at a time, light up the bulbs on the map to show the location of 
the various minerals in Georgia. These two displays are in the office 
of the Curator of the Museum. 

A series of colored, transparent photographs depicting the mineral 
resources and mining operations in Georgia have been mounted in 
glass cases in the museum for display purposes. These pictures cover 
a wide variety of operations, and it is planned to change them at 
intervals in order to keep them always up-to-date. 

Motion Pictures. The Division of Mines, Mining and Geology, 
following the modern trend of visual education, has begun a collection 
of a series of motion pictures on the many different types of mining 
now practiced in Georgia. These pictures show the mining methods 
used in each industry, as well as the finished products manufactured 
during the process. It is hoped that the different reels can be em- 
ployed for a wide variety of purposes, including such items as gram- 
mar, high school and college lectures, advertising the advantages 
of establishing new industrial plants in Georgia, attraction of tourists 
to the State, and for safety programs for the miners themselves. 

The pictures have been taken on negative strips so that as many 
positive prints as necessary can be made from the original, thus per- 
mitting a wide distribution of the films through the State and over 
the Nation. It is believed that this program will emphasize and 
draw attention to the economic opportunities now existent in Georgia 
and will be a direct cause of materially increasing the wealth ot the 
State as a whole. Additional funds should be added to the appropria- 
tion so that this project may be expanded and enlarged. 

66 Report Department of Natural Resources 

Lectures. The Director and members of the technical staff are 
called upon to make explanatory talks about the mineral resources 
of Georgia on many occasions. This service is performed willingly 
because it is felt that such discussions are of educational value to the 
groups before which the speech is presented. It also affords an op- 
portunity to advertise the mineral resources of the State. During 
1937 and 1938, lectures were given before: Radio, Rotary, Kivvanis, 
Chamber of Commerce, High School, University, Chemical, Engineer- 
ing, Geological, Mineral, Vocational, Technical, 4-H, and Forestrv 
groups; and the following scientific societies: The American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, The American Association 
of Petroleum Geologists, The American Institute of Mining Engineers, 
The American Ceramic Society, and The Geological Society of 

Exhibits. The Division of Mines, Mining and Geology prepared 
and built a series of exhibits for the Southeastern Fair, and for the 
Rural-Urban Convention held in Atlanta. This exhibit consists of 
a portable fluorescent box, a "Chest of Gold," various mineral speci- 
mens, and the two boards now on display in the Capitol Museum 
showing the state-wide distribution of commercial minerals. There 
have been many favorable comments on this display and many re- 
quests for its use in other places. Using these articles as a nucleus, 
it is hoped that a larger and better display can be assembled for the 
New York World's Fair beginning in 1939, because of its great ad- 
vertising value to the State. 

Georgia Mineral Society. The staff of the Division has taken 
pleasure in fostering and helping the organization of the Georgia 
Mineral Society outside of regular office hours. This society is com- 
posed of persons having an interest in the collection and identifica- 
tion of all Georgia minerals; it counts among its members many suc- 
cessful mining operators of the State. There are regularly scheduled 
meetings once a month at which eminent speakers are presented to 
talk upon the minerals of the State and mining problems confronting 
the operators. An all-day field trip is also conducted once a month 
so that the members will have the opportunity to collect new mineral 
specimens and observe mining processes all over the State. The 
technical staff of the Division aids the members in the identification 
of minerals and in search for new minerals. This activity, while 
strictly extra-curricular, is believed to aid in the solution of problems 
facea by the operators of mining properties, and in the mineral de- 
velopment of Georgia. 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 67 

List of Publications. In December, 1937, the Division printed a 
revised list of its publications which have been issued during the 
fifty years of its service to the State. Forty-seven regular bulletins 
upon the minerals and rocks totaling 11,000 pages have been issued 
during this period. There have been also nine information circulars, 
and 61 articles published in the Forestry-Geological Review. This 
excludes many articles published in scientific journals by members 
of the technical staff. 

For the convenience of the public the Division of Mines, Mining 
and Geology keep for sale a stock of topographic maps on sections 
of Georgia. These maps are published by the U. S. Geological Survey 
and the U. S. War Department, 89 such maps being listed. 

Directory of Georgia Mineral Producers, December, 1937. This 
mimeographed report lists the names and addresses of the mineral 
producers in the State, type of minerals produced, and location of 
the mine or mines operated. It contains outline maps of the State 
which show the location of mineral properties; it also contains a 
statistical summary of mineral production which shows tonnage 
and values. 

This report at the time of its publication (December, 1937) showed 
that there were at that time 306 individuals or companies actively 
engaged in mine development and mineral production. The Division 
is now engaged in a revision of this report for 1937-38. 

Mineral Resources of Georgia, 1938. The Department of Natural 
Resources, in cooperation with the State Department of Education, 
prepared in 1938 a bulletin on ''Natural Resources of Georgia." 
This publication was published by the State Department of Education 
as a part of the Georgia program for the improvement of instruction 
in public schools. A section of this work relating to Georgia's mineral 
resources (pages 121-222) was prepared by the Division of Mines, 
Mining and Geology. 

Two thousand copies of the section on mineral resources were 
later printed by this Division for free circulation. 

One of the most useful and popular of the series of technical bulletins 
issued as a Geological Survey of Georgia has been Bulletin 23. A 
preliminary Report on the Mineral Resources of Georgia was first 
issued in 1910 and entirely revised in 1925. This report was sup- 
plement by a short Handbook of the Mineral Resources of Georgia. 
The need has long been felt for a publication on this subject that 
would be less technical than Bulletin 23 and yet would contain more 

68 Report Department of Natural Resources 

information than was given in the Handbook. The Division of 
Mines, Mining and Geology, therefore, welcomed the opportunity 
offered by the Department of Education to write the section on the 
mineral resources for a school text on the Natural Resources of 
Georgia. The entire staff participated in the writing, each member 
covering the minerals with which he is most familiar, and freely 
criticizing and helping with the other sections. This book has proven 
so popular that the edition may soon become exhausted. 

Bulletin 44- A, A Supplement to the Sedimentary Kaolins. Kaolin, 
which is a white clay used for filling and coating high-grade paper, 
rubber, and linoleum, and which is also used in the manufacture of 
excellent firebrick and other refractory products, constitutes the 
largest single mineral industry of Georgia. 

Since 1929, when the Georgia Geological Survey issued Bulletin 
44, complete and detailed information concerning the status of this 
industry had not been compiled until 1937, when a survey of the 
business was made by the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology. 
The information secured from that investigation was assembled in 
the form of a bulletin and was issued in September, 1938, as Bulletin 
44-A, entitled "A Supplement to the Sedimentary Kaolins of Georgia." 

Bulletin 44-A, when used in conjunction with Bulletin 44, will 
serve as an accurate guide to ownership of properties underlain by 
deposits of kaolin; to companies and individuals mining and process- 
ing kaolin; and to the names and types of products manufactured 
by each. The bulletin also makes recommendations for areas to be 
prospected. An addenda lists the more recent changes in the pro- 
duction and ownership of bauxite deposits of South Georgia. 

Bulletin 44-A has been mailed to a large percentage of the libraries 
of the United States and is in the hands of the present and potential 
users of kaolin in this country. By this means Georgia kaolin is 
advertised to the consumers with authentic facts and figures. 

Recent Petroleum Activities in Coastal Plain of South Georgia. Dur- 
ing the year of 1937 and half of 1938 there was a great deal of activity 
in south Georgia on the oil and gas possibilities of that area. Many 
of the major petroleum companies sent representatives to the State 
to investigate the chances of production and, in addition, to lease many 
thousands of acres. The Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 
can take direct credit for bringing to Georgia many firms and investors 
dealing in oil properties by means of the paper "Recent Petroleum 
Activities in Coastal Plain of Georgia." That paper was delivered 
before the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, annual 
meeting in the spring of 1938 by one of the Division's staff members. 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 69 

The paper includes a discussion of the underground structures of 
the Coastal Plain and lists possible areas for drilling and geophysical 

Stratigraphy of Coastal Plain of Georgia. The United States 
Geological Survey and the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 
have been cooperating to map the geology of south Georgia. A 
preliminary paper on the geologic conditions of the area was pre- 
pared jointly by the two agencies for presentation at the annual 
meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in 1938. 
This paper accompanied the one on the petroleum activities in Geor- 
gia and was intended to give some of the more important geologic 
relationships as affecting the search for oil and gas in the State. 

Tripoli Deposits of Georgia, Information Circular No. 9, January, 
1937 . This report describes the tripoli deposits of northwest Georgia. 
This study shows that the current impression that Georgia tripoli 
is inferior to tripoli from other states is not true. The development 
of these deposits is suggested. 

The Warm Springs of Georgia, Their Geologic Relations and Origin: 
U. S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 819, by D. F. Ilewett 
and G W. Crickmay. This study of the several warm springs near 
Warm Springs, Georgia, was done in cooperation with the U. S. 
Geological Survey. This report, done at the request of President 
Roosevelt, was published by the U. S. Government. Methods are 
pointed out whereby the flow of the main spring at Warm Springs 
could be increased. 

Map of the Okefenokee Swamp. A map of the Okefenokee Swamp 
was published as a special supplement to the Forestry-Geological 
Review in 1937. This great swamp is one of the most unique natural 
features of the State. The area has been of special interest since 
it became a wild life refuge. 



Kaolin. The recently completed work on Bulletin 44-A, "A Sup- 
plement to the Sedimentary Kaolins" brought out the fact that 
additional research on kaolin was advisable. Consequently the 
Division has begun a study of methods for improving the quality 
of kaolin for its present uses in the manufacture of paper, rubber, 
ceramics, and refractories. This research work includes the bene- 

70 Report Department of Natural Resources 

ficiation of the kaolin, and in addition, the utilization of the waste 
material for some purpose. Great quantities of stained, or discol- 
ored kaolin must be discarded at present because of the lack of suit- 
able means for bringing it up to the required color standards. If 
the Division can succeed in discovering some method or process for 
such beneficiation of the waste kaolin, it will have added many thous- 
ands of dollars to the State's income. 

Another project on kaolin is also under way in cooperation with 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines at the Electro-Technical Laboratory of 
the Tennessee Valley Authority at Norris Dam, Tenn. That labor- 
atory has tested kaolins from several States in the vicinity of Norris 
Dam. Georgia kaolin, however, has not been used in the investi- 
gations until just recently, when an arrangement was made by the 
Division with the U. S. Bureau of Mines to conduct an exhaustive 
series of tests on the use of Georgia kaolin for whiteware, and china- 
ware products. This work, it is hoped, will eventually lead to the 
establishment of additional whiteware and chinaware plants in 

Fullers Earth. The use of fullers earth for bleaching purposes 
has long been known. Georgia produces some of this ore for this 
purpose, but there are vast deposits of high-grade fullers earth which 
cannot be mined at present chiefly because the market does not 
exist. Therefore, it is logical to conclude that what is needed is a 
new type of market, or use for the material. Consequently, the 
Division has started an investigation to search for absolutely new 
uses for fullers earth. The most important one, which may prove 
of considerable value, is the use of the light-weight fullers earth for 
insulation purposes. The final form of the insulation has not been 
determined yet, for a great deal of work is required to find the most 
suitable binders, matrices, and combinations of the fullers earth 
with other insulating minerals and substances. This research work 
has a chance to succeed only if sufficient funds are provided to ade- 
quately finance it. The results will fully justify any expenditures 
of this kind. 

Bauxite. The Division has made a beginning towards the use of 
bauxite, the ore of aluminum, for other purposes. Large quantities 
of low-grade ore exists in Georgia but at present it cannot be mined 
because of economic reasons. Nevertheless, the Division staff be- 
lieves that there is a cheap method for beneficiating this ore, and 
raising it to commercial standards. It is also believed that several 
new uses may be found for the material not heretofore considered. 
A great deal of careful study is required for this problem which is 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 7 1 

thought to be of prime importance to the economic future of Georgia. 

Rock Wool. Rock wool is a heat insulator produced from a certain 
type of impure limestone. It may also be produced from other 
materials. Actually it is a glass which has been spun into fine threads. 
The material is prepared by melting a suitable type of rock in a cupola 
furnace, that is, a type furnace used in ordinary iron manufacture. 
This material escapes from a small orifice in molten condition where 
it is blown into a fine wooly product by steam or air. 

About a year ago, this Division began a study of the rock wool 
resources of Georgia. No rock wool is at present manufactured in 
Georgia, although we have large potential markets. This material 
is imported to Georgia from such states as Ohio and New York, thus 
adding considerably to its purchase price. It is not manufactured 
in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina or South Carolina. 
Georgia is the ideal location for such a plant. In our investigation 
we find that rock wool can be manufactured in northwest Georgia, 
probably in certain localities in middle Georgia, and most certainly 
in south Georgia. Northwest Georgia, with its large undeveloped 
deposits of limestone and shale, close to such markets as Atlanta, 
Chattanooga and Birmingham, and near our own coal deposits, is 
an ideal location for such a plant. Certain marble deposits of Piedmont 
Georgia also afford possible locations, and this Division is consider- 
ing the possibility of preparing rock wool by combining waste marble 
with granite waste. 

South Georgia is an excellent location for such a plant, thus we 
should have the Florida trade. In this part of the State, it may be 
prepared from impure limestones and fullers earth. . 

We believe that this industry could have a great future in our 
State. We, therefore, urge that plants be erected at proper local- 
ities for the manufacture of this product. 

Limestone. The term limestone is a very general one, including, 
as it does, both consolidated and unconsolidated rocks composed of 
a greatly varying amount of lime intermixed with sand, clay, and 
magnesium in various proportions. The material is used for many 
purposes, among which are: a source of lime, for riprap, railroad 
ballast, road metal, concrete aggregate, furnace flux, and fertilizer. 
Some special kinds of limestone will form rock wool (See above). 

Recently the attention of the members of the technical staff of 
the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology has been directed toward 
the development of the vast limestone deposits which exist in the 
State for use as fertilizer. Inquiries made of agricultural author- 
ities indicate a rich potential agricultural lime market in Georgia. 

72 Report Department of Natural Resources 

The three main areas of the State are all well supplied with large 
limestone deposits, yet much lime is purchased from without the 

The northwestern section possesses, perhaps, the most easily ac- 
cessible and largest limestone deposits. Samples collected from 
that area indicate the occurrence of many varieties of limestone 
which can be used for almost any agricultural purpose. 

Limestones and marbles occur locally in middle Piedmont Georgia. 
The deposits will grind or burn to good agricultural lime, and this 
section is in great need of lime for that purpose. 

The Coastal Plain of Georgia also has large, widespread beds of 
limestone thought to be suitable for use by the farmer, and for many 
other purposes. The limestone samples collected so far indicate 
that the material of this area will probably be easier to grind than 
that of other areas since it is considerably softer and less consolidated. 

A great deal of additional field work in locating suitable deposits, 
and many more chemical analyses are needed before this work can 
be successfully completed. The Division is collecting all possible 
information on grinding and pulverizing machinery in order to be 
able to determine the amount of capital investment required to 
start such a business, and thus to make such material available 
to the farmer at lowest cost. 

Flagstone. The Division is actively engaged in the development 
of the flagstone industry. This industry has a promising future. 
There is now considerable demand for flagstone in every city in 
Georgia. In former years, flagging was used for paving purposes 
only, but in modern building its principal uses are as stone veneer- 
ing and as decorative walks in the construction of residences. 

The use of flagstone as a veneer is increasing rapidly in popularity, 
thus the demand for this type of stone is now much greater than the 

The Division is gathering data on quarry locations, quality, and 
variety of flagstone. Because of cost of transportation, the industry 
will be a decentralized one; for this reason, many producers will 
not be in direct competition with each other. 

War Materials. In the event of war all mineral industries are 
revived; thus production is greatly increased. Certain minerals 
known as war minerals are in great demand at such times. Should 
this country become involved in a war, or should a European war 
break out, very many minerals present in Georgia would be in great 
demand. We plan to particularly investigate in 1939 the following 
minerals in view of the additional demand for them in the event of war: 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 73 

Chromite, used to make hard stainless steel for steel plating; 
manganese, used to manufacture hard steel, batteries, etc.; iron ores; 
tin used in plating iron, etc. Pyrite, mined during the World War 
will be mined again in Georgia if we become involved in war; its 
particular use will be in sulphuric acid manufacture. Copper, used in 
the manufacture of shells, detonators, wire for generators and motors, 
etc.; coal, found in northwest Georgia and used in the manufacture of 
coke and as steam coal would increase in value; petroleum, used by 
modern battleships because it has been found to have greater fuel 
value than coal, thus the cruising area of the ship is increased 40 per- 
cent or more; fullers earth, used as a filler in the manufacture of dyna- 
mite and explosives; talc and kaolin, used as fillers in the manu- 
facture of rubber; bauxite, a source of aluminum. Aluminum is 
essential in the manufacture of airplanes, automobiles, shell casings, 
etc. Japan is now making her shell casings out of aluminum. Mica, 
barite, asbestos, and other products also have important war uses. 

Sub-surface Structural Map of South Georgia. The oil and gas 
activities of 1937 and 1938 have shown the great need for a map 
of the structural geologic conditions of the Georgia Coastal Plain. 
The search for petroleum depends, to a large degree, upon the at- 
titudes of the rock formations in which oil and gas are thought to 
occur. That is, domes, terraces, and stratigraphic traps are likely 
places for the accumulation of oil and gas. Therefore, a structural 
map showing these features is very desirable and necessary to in- 
telligent prospecting. Consequently, the technical staff of the Di- 
vision of Mines, Mining and Geology has undertaken to prepare 
such a map. This work is progressing satisfactorily and should be 
completed sometime during 1939. The finished map will be of great 
use not only to future oil and gas operations but also to persons wish- 
ing to locate private or public water wells. 


Report upon the Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwest 
Georgia. A geologic report upon the rocks and minerals of North- 
west Georgia is being prepared. This area of the State includes the 
Paleozoic formations of Polk, Bartow, Floyd, Chattooga, Gordon, 
Murray, Whitfield, Catoosa, Walker and Dade counties. These 
counties contain much of the limestone, shale, and sandstones of 
North Georgia useful in cement, brick and tile, and lime manufacture; 
the large ore deposits of Bartow, Polk, and other counties; and the 
commercial coal deposits of Dade and Walker counties. This report 

74 Report Department of Natural Resources 

will be particularly useful when used in conjunction with the new 
geological map of the State. 

Report upon the Geology and Mineral Resources of Middle 
Georgia. A report upon the rocks of middle Georgia between the 
Coastal Plain and the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of northwest 
Georgia has been prepared and is now in type-written form. This 
report was prepared by a former member of the technical staff of this 
Division, who is now at the University of Georgia. It is practically 
ready for publication, embracing about 150 typewritten pages. 

The report discusses at length, and for the first time, all of the 
25 formations and rock types of the area. These formations 
include valuable marble deposits, quartzites, granites, and building 
stones, flagstones, and include a wide variety of ore deposits. This 
report, when published, accompanied by the new State geological 
map, will be an important contribution to the geology of Georgia. 

Geologic Report on the Coastal Plain. The Division of Mines, 
Mining and Geology has been co-operating with the U. S. Geological 
Survey in the preparation of a geologic map of the Coastal Plain area. 
This map has now been completed, and a report written in full ex- 
planation of the map. The report covers in detail each of the 26 
geologic formations. Each formation is discussed concerning the 
location of its outcrop, its lithology, paleontology, correlation with 
other formations in the United States, and for the mineral resources 
which it may contain. There are approximately 250 typewritten 
pages in the report; there will also be illustrations of the more impor- 
tant subjects. This report has been completed and now awaits funds 
for its publication. 

These reports are very important to Georgia because they will 
act as a good advertising medium for the mineral wealth of the State. 
It is anticipated that they will be more popular than any others ever 
issued by the Division. Therefore they should be published as quickly 
as possible. 


Gold. Bulletin 4-A, on the gold deposits of Georgia, was pub- 
lished in 1896 but is now out of print. A later publication, Bulletin 
19 on gold deposits, is likewise out of print. The first gold report 
proved to be the most popular publication of the survey. Because 
this publication is no longer available for distribution, and because 
of the great renewal of interest in our gold deposits, a third report 
on the gold deposits of Georgia is planned. Considerable work has 
been done by members of this Division upon the subject, much new 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 75 

information having been gathered within the last year. The opening 
of many new mines has exposed many features of practical and tech- 
nical interest. The many recent assays of our gold ores also has in- 
creased our knowledge of these deposits. 

The new report will repeat the best features of the publications 
that are not now available, discuss the many new mining operations, 
and rediscuss the geology of the gold deposits in light of recent sci- 
entific developments. 

Other Reports. Reports on glass sand, rock wool and ground water 
also are planned. 



Underground Water Survey. The Division of Mines, Mining and 
Geology inaugurated on July 1, 1938, a program, in cooperation with 
the U. S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Division, for the joint 
study of the underground water resources of Georgia. Funds set 
aside by the State Bureau are matched dollar for dollar by the Fed- 
eral Bureau; thus making it possible for the State to obtain at least 
twice as much information per dollar as could be secured otherwise. 

This survey has been started in two separate critical areas in south 
Georgia, which are believed to constitute the most pressing need 
at present. These areas are those along the eastern seaboard and in 
the west-central portion of the Coastal Plain. Both are regions in 
which flowing artesian wells occur. They were selected because they 
act as a focal point for the investigation, and also are the areas in 
which the major industrial developments are taking place. The study 
is directed so that complete information will be finally obtained on 
reserves; and so that quantity, quality, and availability may be 
predicted with almost positive certainty. The Director has asked for 
and received complete cooperation from those persons and companies 
now engaged in drilling water wells or in developing the water re- 
sources of the Coastal Plain. These individuals have agreed to fur- 
nish complete logs and well samples for investigation. Therefore, 
much detailed information will materially aid final knowledge of 
these resources. 

The cooperation of the Division has been requested in many in- 
stances by State agencies, County agencies, and cities of Georgia. 
The State Board of Health and the Division work hand in hand for 
the development of better and safer public water supplies. Many 
new wells have been located at public request and adequate water 

76 Report Department of Natural Resources 

supplies have been obtained in almost every instance. One out- 
standing example of the services, which have been and are now being 
rendered to the municipalities, is in the case of Albany, Ga., which 
has requested the Division to supervise the technical construction 
of additional wells for its public water supply. 

The underground water survey in middle and north Georgia rep- 
resents a new field in water study. Hundreds of towns and small 
cities in this section of the State must derive their water supply 
from deep wells or from surface streams. Proper location of wells 
is necessary in order to reach an abundant supply of pure water. 
Although many deep wells may cost around $2,000, the proper 
location of those wells may reduce that figure. Much money is lost 
where wells are drilled in improper locations and thus turn out to be 
dry holes. It is believed that this Division has saved local towns, 
cities and private individuals thousands of dollars within the last 
year through its assistance in proper well location. 

This investigation, when completed, will supply the people of 
Georgia with a report of inestimable value for health and industrial 

Surface Water Investigation. The need for intensive study of 
the water resources of Georgia was apparent many years ago. Geor- 
gia was one of the first States to recognize the potential value of her 
water resources; efforts have been made spasmodically to initiate a 
comprehensive program for this purpose. It was, however, only 
within the last five years that the pressing need for such a program 
became greatly apparent. Information about quantity, quality, 
use, control, or removal of water for activities related to water power, 
steam power, navigation, drainage, flood control, bridges, highways, 
municipal water supplies, sewage systems, soil erosion control, for- 
estation, wild life sanctuaries, flood predictions, and public build- 
ings became more urgently required. All indications point toward 
a period of great industrial expansion and economic progress for 
Georgia, consequently basic information of this type is necessary. 

The General Assembly in 1937, passed a small appropriation for 
a co-operative water investigation, which, when matched by an equal 
amount from the U. S. Geological Survey, permitted work to begin 
March 1, 1937. As it was evident that the funds available were not 
adequate to undertake all of the broad program outlined above, it 
was necessary to modify the work to some degree. Therefore it 
was decided to establish stream gaging stations only on the largest 
streams, confining the quality of water studies to these same streams. 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 77 

Accordingly, 53 river measurement stations have been established 
and continuous records of stage and discharge are being obtained. 
As funds permit, staff gages are being replaced by automatic re- 
corders to increase the accuracy of the results, thus reducing the 
annual operating cost. Discharge records have been computed 
through the year ending September 30, 1937, and are now being 
prepared for publication. Records for the year ending September 
30, 1938, are now being computed. Provisional records have been 
furnished to Federal, State, and many private agencies. 

Complete mineral analyses of the water at each gaging station 
have been made and are now in course of publication. Daily samples 
for a one-year period at six gaging stations were collected and an- 
alyzed. Sixty-six public water supplies have also been analyzed. 

The establishment in Atlanta of an office of the Water Resources 
Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey has brought unexpected, but 
advantageous, results to the State. For example, the U. S. Army, 
which is charged with studies for flood protection and navigation 
on the Coosa, Chattahoochee, and Flint Rivers, has transferred a 
total of $3,200 to this office for obtaining additional stream flow in- 
formation. Likewise, the Federal Emergency Administration of 
Public Works, realizing the need for such information, and the need 
for the contruction of permanent recording stations, made an allot- 
ment of $21,000 to this office for that purpose. These funds are 
not available for normal operating expenses, but serve to illustrate 
the numerous advantages accruing to the State of Georgia even with 
only the small State appropriation of $15,000 set aside for the water 
studies. This money would not have been available had not the co- 
operative program been in effect. 


The Division of Mines, Mining and Geology is cooperating with 
the Works Progress Administration upon a project organized to 
collect, develop, and distribute knowledge upon the mineral re- 
sources of Georgia. 

This project, which includes a number of workers, is under the 
direct supervision of the technical staff of the Division. A great 
deal of valuable work has been accomplished to date. This work 
has been honored by officials of the Works Progress Administration 
who have recognized it as a model project. 

Mineral Resources of Georgia Counties. This work consists of 
checking the records of the various mineral deposits of the State 

78 Report Department of Natural Resources 

which, when complete, will show the mineral resources of each of the 
159 counties in detail, as well as describe such deposits. It is the ob- 
ject of this work to plot these deposits on a map of each county. 
It is hoped that this data will be fully assembled in book form where 
it may be either mimeographed or printed. 

Geographical Dictionary of Georgia. This project involves the 
compilation of a geographical dictionary, or gazetteer, of the State of 
Georgia. This work will list and locate all mountains, towns, ele- 
vations, creeks, branches, fords, ferries, and other geographic features 
of the State. It will discuss the origin of names, the meaning of In- 
dian names, with such legends relating thereto as will be unearthed. 
This involves the study of a vast number of maps, reports, and other 
sources of information in the library of the Division. Although this 
work is still incomplete, the U. S. Board of Geographical Names 
has already had occasion to make use of it, accepting information 
from this work as authentic and as such has entered it in its report. 

Technical Laboratory Assistance. During the last year, an appre- 
ciable amount of assistance has been given to the laboratory of the 
Division of Mines, Mining and Geology by members of the Works 
Progress Administration staff. This work has enabled us to handle 
a larger amount of analytical work which has been demanded of us 
by the public. It has permitted additional surveys of the possibili- 
ties for new industries within the State. Initial data has been ob- 
tained to substantiate the belief that Georgia offers every opportunity 
for the manufacture of rock wool. The investigation of every new 
deposit of both metallic and non-metallic ores was accomplished 
through the availability of the cooperative assistance. 

These workers have also assisted in the preparation of school mu- 
seum sets. They receive bulk samples of Georgia ores and rocks 
which are collected by the staff geologists from typical occurrences 
in the State. They break the specimens into convenient sizes, num- 
ber them, wrap them in mimeographed labels, which correspond with 
the additional printed labels, and pack them for shipping. One worker 
is engaged in the correspondence and other technical work necessary 
for the distribution of these museum sets. 

Library Program. It is not possible in a small space to completely 
describe the large amount of additional and valuable work done on 
this project. Examples would include the copying of old and some- 
times rare reports which have not been printed. Sometimes but a 
single copy of such reports may be in existence. Many operators 
and other individuals have cooperated with this Division by lending 
us their copies which may be typed and preserved in files for future 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 79 

use. The Division's library of some 15,000 volumes has been cata- 
logued and cross-indexed by the Dewey Decimal system. This in- 
cludes the reports of the U. S. G. S., the U. S. B. M., the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey and of the Smithsonian Institute; most of the 
States' geological publications and miscellaneous geological, and min- 
eralogical works. Duplicate and want lists are mimeographed and 
sent out to the geological libraries all over the country and some 
1,700 volumes have been added to the library in this manner. At 
the present time a fourth want list and duplicate list is being prepared 
to send out for further exchange of books. Many publications vital 
to the Division are out of print and can be obtained in no other way 
except through these exchange lists. 

Mineral Description Files. A card-catalog file, cross-indexed by 
minerals and by counties, has been made on all recorded mineral 
deposits in Georgia. Chemical analyses and assays are filed on sep- 
arate cards. This enables one to locate immediately any known 
mineral deposit by name or by location. 

Bibliography. A cross-index file or bibliography has been made 
of all mineral publications which describe the geology and mineral 
resources of Georgia. 

Well Logs. Copies have been made on printed forms of all avail- 
able logs of deep wells of Georgia. These are filed for information on 
deep wells; they are available for ground water studies, stratigraphic 
work, oil prospecting, etc. 

Catalog of Museum Specimens. A card catalog indexed by min- 
erals and cases has been made for the minerals and rocks exhibited 
in the State Museum on the fourth floor of the Capitol. 

Photographs. Members of this project assist in the mounting of 
our large collection of photographs of mines, mining properties, etc. 
These mounted photographs are filed under subject and counties. 
With this system one may now find all the pictures of any subject 
or from any county. 


Introduction. The mineral production of Georgia for 1937, ac- 
cording to incomplete returns made by the producers to the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, the U. S. Bureau of Census, and the Georgia Di- 
vision of Mines, Mining and Geology, was valued at $14,268,281, an 
increase of about 11.5 per cent over that of 1936. If we add to thih 
the value of the water produced at municipal water plants and of 
electricity produced by hydro-electric plants we get a total of $29,- 

80 Report Department of Natural Resources 

871,233. The individual figures, as far as it is possible to reveal 
them, are shown in the table below. 

These figures show that Georgia mineral producers are well on 
the road to recovery from the Depression, during which Georgia's 
mineral production reached a low of $7,695,583 in 1933. Georgia 
ranked first among the states in 1937 in the value of its production 
of raw clay (kaolin) and fullers earth; second in the production of 
monumental granite and ground mica; and third in the production 
of barite, bauxite, and marble. 

The mineral production of North Georgia, although noteworthy 
for the variety of minerals produced, is exceeded in value by the 
clays, clay products, fullers earth, and sand and gravel of South 

Barite. Barite is a heavy white mineral used in the manufacture 
of lithopone for use in paint, blanc fixe for use in paint and as a filler, 
and barium chemicals. Ground barite is used as an inert filler in 
many industries and as an ingredient in glazes and enamels; granu- 
lar barite is used in the manufacture of glass. A comparatively 
recent and important use is as a heavy medium in mud used in drill- 
ing deep oil wells in areas of high gas pressure. All of the 1937 pro- 
duction came from the Cartersville district of Bartow County. 

Bauxite. Bauxite, the oxide of aluminum, was first discovered in 
America in 1887 near Rome, in Floyd County, Georgia. Since that 
time it has been mined in Floyd, Bartow and Polk Counties in north- 
west Georgia, and in Wilkinson, Macon, Randolph, Schley, and 
Sumter Counties in middle Georgia. The production in 1937 came 
from two mines in Macon County and one each in Bartow and Floyd 
Counties. It was largely used in the manufacture of alum salts for 
use as a water conditioner. 

Cement. Portland cement was manufactured from limestone 
and either shale or clay at two plants, one in Polk County and one 
in Houston County. 

Clay (kaolin). Georgia produces over 66 per cent of the kaolin 
mined in the United States for use as a filling and coating clay in 
the manufacture of paper; as a filler in the manufacture of rubber, 
oil cloth, and other products; and for use in the manufacture of 
china and other white ware. Its use in these products is largely re- 
placing the English clay formerly used. It is also used in the local 
manufacture of high-grade fire brick and other refractories. This 
sedimentary kaolin was mined in 1937 in the following counties, 
named in order of the value of production: Twiggs, Wilkinson, 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 81 

Washington, Richmond, Baldwin, Glascock, Houston, Taylor, and 
Hancock. The 1937 production was the largest in history. 

Clay Products. The production of brick, sewer pipe, tile, and 
pottery from Georgia clays showed an increase in 1937 of more 
than 27 per cent over that of 1936. Common and face brick and 
structural tile are manufactured from the alluvial clays of middle 
Georgia. Sewer pipe, structural and roofing tile, and common and 
face brick are made from the shales of northwest Georgia. Fire 
brick and other refractories are manufactured from kaolin. Jugs, 
churns, and art pottery are made at some 16 small potteries scat- 
tered throughout Georgia. The State is gradually waking up to 
the opportunity to manufacture pottery on a large scale in Georgia 
using Georgia kaolin and other raw materials from the Southeast. 
A whiteware floor- and wall-tile plant has been in successful oper- 
ation for several years at Macon. Local capital is being raised for 
a dinner ware plant at Gordon, and a California pottery has built 
a branch at Atlanta to manufacture luncheon and kitchen ware, 
flower pots, and garden pottery. 

Coal. Only one coal mine is reported in operation in Georgia: 
that of the Durham Land Company on Lookout Mountain in Walker 

Flagstone. The production of the small but growing flagstone 
industry, shown in the table as miscellaneous stone, comes mostly 
from Pickens County, where a thin-bedded quartzite with micaceous 
partings can be quarried in large thin sheets showing a variation in 
colors that makes it admirably suited for use as steps and walks in 
gardens and for paving outdoor terraces and porches. 

Fullers Earth. Although Georgia is still the largest producer of 
fullers earth, a variety of bleaching clay used mainly in refining oils, 
the production has been declining for several years until 1937, when 
it showed a sizable increase. The production from Decatur and 
Thomas Counties is used with mineral oils, whereas that mined in 
Twiggs and Wilkinson Counties is used mainly with vegetable oils. 
A new use for fullers earth that may develop into considerable im- 
portance is for aiding in the clarification of water in municipal and 
industrial water conditioning plants. 


Report Department of Natural Resources 



Clay (Kaolin) : 

Paper & China 
Clay, etc 

Refractory uses___ 

Clay Products 


Monumental and 
building stone _._ 

Other uses 


Bauxite* ] 

Fullers Earth* 

Portland Cement*- 



Miscel. Stone*. 

Mica and Sericite 


Sand and Gravel_ 


Manganese ore: 

Iron Ore 




Gold and Silver: 



423, 065 
80, 667 

64, 750 

1, 141, 290 

24, 810 

518, 974 

25, 922 

540, 392 

71, 944 

(long tons) 




(long tons) 

14, 593 


14,470 \ 

(fine oz. ) 

521. 43 
221. 29 






+ 15. 2% $3, 332, 851 

+0. 1% 


+32. 9% 

+ 10. 

+9. 8% 

+7. 1% 


— 70. 6 ( 

+4. 5% 

+83. 4% 

+72. 1% 
+87. 2% 

81. £7 y 

+48. 8% 

+154. 5% 



+20. 0% 

213, 208 
3, 641, 371 

987, 344 
1, 015, 787 

1, 041, 124 


2, 293, 994 

614, 980 

240, 562 

295, 823 
404, 404 

11, 423 

19, 668 


19, 130 

101, 788 

+ 71. 070 

+52. 2% 

+ 109.0% 

+52. 9% 

25, 995 





+20. 6% 
+36. 6% 

+27. 2% 

+ 15.7% 
+10. 3% 

+21. 0% 

+2. 4% 

+ 11. c-/ 

+36. 8% 
+63. 0% 
+30. 3% 

31. w/o 
+ 14.3% 

+ 111.0% 
+95. 9% 


+77. 4% 
+844. 5% 

+66. 6% 


+9. 6% 

+30. 0% 

+65. 1% 

+80. 9% 0. 78 


Per Ton 






(per bbl. ) 












(per fine 

oz. ) 


Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 83 

Total Value of Mineral Production $14,268,281 +11. 

Value of produc. of Municipal Water 1, 725, 102® 

Value of Water Power (hydro-electric) 13,877,850* +7. 

GRAND TOTAL $29,871,233 

*-Less than three producers so production and value cannot be shown 

®-Valued at $0. 065 per thousand gallons at the plants. 
*-Valued at the source of production at $0. 01 per kilowatt-hour. 

Gold and Silver. The increased interest and activity which was 
manifest in connection with mining and prospecting for gold and 
silver, following the increase in the price of gold from $20.00 to $35.00 
per troy ounce, continued to gain momentum during 1937-38. This 
inducement, together with the fact that modern mining and treat- 
ment methods, such as drag-line excavators, froth flotation and jig- 
ging, has rendered certain previously worked placers and other low- 
grade gold deposits valuable commercially which were not commercial 
prior to the advent of these modern facilities. 

The production of gold in Georgia in 1937, the last year for which 
definite figures are available, showed a gain of 65 per cent over that 
of 1936. It is expected that 1938 will show a corresponding gain over 
the year 1937. All together a total of more than 50 gold mining and 
prospecting operations were conducted in some 20 counties in Geor- 
gia during 1937-38. Of this total approximately 40 were new opera- 
tions and resulted in the expenditure of approximately $130,000 for 
labor, machinery, mining rights and materials. The only silver pro- 
duced was that associated with gold. 

Granite. Georgia's production of granite continued to increase 
in 1937. Georgia is second among the states in the production of 
monumental and building granite, which comes mostly from the 
Elberton, Stone Mountain, and Lithonia districts. Curbing stone 
and paving blocks are produced principally in the Lithonia and 
Stone Mountain districts. The several large, and many small, pro- 
ducers of broken and crushed granite are widely scattered through- 
out north Georgia. The twenty-four counties producing granite in 
1937 were, in order of the value of their production: Elbert, DeKalb, 
Warren, Madison, Fulton, Habersham, Henry, Dawson, Lumpkin, 
Oglethorpe, Banks, Union, Towns, Stephens, Coweta, Rabun, Cobb, 
Dawson, Greene, Columbia, Bartow, Carroll, Morgan, and White. 

Graphite. No graphite had been produced in Georgia since 1928 
until, late in 1937, the Southern Mining and Milling Company, .it 
Clarkesville, Georgia, began to experiment with the recovery of 

84 Report Department of Natural Resources 

graphite from a kyanite-mica-graphite schist from which they had 
been producing kyanite and mica for several years. They made no 
commercial production of graphite in 1937 but have produced a con- 
siderable amount in 1938. 

Iron Ore. Georgia was for many years a large producer of iron ore 
and pig iron, but in recent years has not been able to compete with 
the Birmingham District in Alabama, where iron ore, coal> and lime- 
stone for flux are found in close proximity. Since pig iron ceased to 
be manufactured in Georgia, a very small amount of iron ore has been 
mined in northwest Georgia and shipped to Birmingham. The pro- 
duction of iron ore in 1937, most of which contained a small amount 
of manganese, came from 12 producers in Bartow County and nine 
producers in Polk County, and showed a considerable increase over 
that of 1936. 

Kyanite. Kyanite, an aluminum silicate used in the manufacture 
of high-grade refractories, was produced in Georgia for the^first^time 
in 1933. An investigation in 1934 by the U. S. Geological Survey, 
in cooperation with the Georgia Division of Geology, resulted in the 
discovery of a large U-shaped body of kyanite-mica-graphite schist 
in Habersham and Rabun Counties. The Southern Mining and 
Milling Company of Clarkesville is now operating several mills pro- 
ducing kyanite from this schist, with by-products of ground mica 
and graphite. 

Lime and Limestone. The only plant reporting a production of 
lime in 1937 was in Bartow County. The production of limestone 
(including crushed and ground marble) in 1937 came from the fol- 
lowing ten counties, named in order of the value of their production : 
Houston, Gilmer, Bleckley, Pickens, Fannin, Twiggs, Bartow, Polk, 
Whitfield, and Catoosa. The larger part of the production was used 
as a road material, but limestone, both crushed and ground, was used 
for many other purposes. 

Manganese. The production of manganese and manganiferous 
iron ore, used principally in the production of alloy steels, came from 
16 producers in the Cartersville District of Bartow County and one 
producer each in Floyd and Wilkes Counties. The 1937 production 
of high-grade manganese ore was considerably less than that of 1936, 
but the production of low-grade manganese ore and manganiferous 
iron ore showed a large increase over that of the previous year. 

Marble. The Georgia Marble Company, with quarries in Pickens 
and Cherokee Counties, was the only producer of marble in 1937. 
The production included a small amount of serpentine or verde 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 85 

Mica and Sericite Schist. Only a very small production of sheet 
mica was reported from Georgia in 1937, but the production of ground 
mica recovered as a by-product from the mining of a kyanite-mica- 
graphite schist in Habersham County and of sericite schist from 
Pickens County showed a considerable increase. These are used 
principally as a filler and for the manufacture of artificial roofing. 

Ocher. Ocher, a hydrated iron oxide used in the manufacture of 
linoleum, oil cloth, and as a coloring for mortars, was produced by 
three companies in the Cartersville District of Bartow County. 

Sand and Gravel. Sand and gravel are produced at several large 
pits in middle and south Georgia and a large number of small pits 
widely scattered throughout the State. Most of it is used for struc- 
tural and paving purposes, but blast sand is produced by three com- 
panies, molding sand by two companies, filter sand by two com- 
panies, and glass sand by one company. The production figures re- 
ported in the table are by no means complete because much of the 
production comes from small pits that are intermittently operated 
and of which no records are kept. 

Slate. Slate granules for use in the manufacture of artificial 
roofing were produced by one company in the northern part of Bar- 
tow County. There has been no recorded production of roofing slate 
in Georgia for several years. 

Talc. Three companies near Chatsworth in Murray County 
reported a production of ground talc and talc pencils used for mark- 
ing iron and steel. The talc pencils from Georgia are said to be the 
best manufactured in the United States. 

Water and Water Power. Water, although not often thought of 
as a mineral, is in reality our most important mineral resource, 
without which our civilization would not be possible. It differs 
from our other mineral resources in two ways: first, it is liquid at 
ordinary temperatures; and second, its supply is not exhausted by 
use, as is the case with all other minerals, but is continually being 
renewed. Not only is water itself an article of commerce, as do- 
mestic and industrial water supplies, but it is a source of energy for 
the manufacture of electricity (hydro-electric power). 

The Georgia Department of Public Health estimates that the 
municipal water systems of the State in 1937 produced 17,544,637,500 
gallons of water from surface supplies and 10,533,900,000 gallons of 
water from deep wells, a total of 28,078,537,500 gallons of water. 
The average cost of production is probably about six and a half 
cents per thousand gallons, which would give a total value at the 
plants of $1,725,102. 

86 Report Department of Natural Resources 

The amount of electricity for public use generated by water power 

in Georgia in 1937 increased slightly over that reported for 1936. 
The value was figured at one cent per kilowatt-hour, the approxi- 
mate value of the electricity at the source of production. 


January 1, 1937 to June 30, 1937 

Balance on Hand January 1, 1937 $ 860.81 

Receipt from State Appropriation 7,089.15 

Total Receipts % 7,949.96 

Total Disbursements 7,932.41 

Balance operating account June 30, 1937 $ 17.55 

Stream Gaging Account: 

Balance on Hand January 1, 1937 None 

Received from State Appropriation $ 7,500.00 

Total Receipts $ 7,500.00 

Total Disbursements 5,338.65 

Balance Steam Gaging account June 30, 1937 $ 2,161.35 

Disbursements January 1, 1937 to June 30, 1937 

Geology : 

Personal service $ 5,789.70 

Travel and subsistence 1,200.94 

Supplies and materials. . '. 282.18 

Communication 194.60 

Printing. . 234.40 

Freight and express 33.62 

Equipment 21.13 

Miscellaneous 175.84 

$ 7,932.41 

Report of the Division of Mines, Mining and Geology 87 


July 1, 1937 to June 30, 1938. 

Balance on hand July 1, 1937 $ 17.55 

Receipts from State appropriation 33,300.00 

Refund from Public Service Commission 

one-half expenses A. S. Furcron 37.10 

Total Receipts 33,354.65 

Total disbursements 31,525.05 

Balance operating account July 1, 1938 1,829.60 

Stream Gagtng Account: 

Balance on hand July 1, 1937 2,161.35 

Received from State Appropriation (regular) 12,180.66 

Special Appropriation 2,000.00 

Total Receipts 16,342.01 

Total Disbursements 16,297.86 

Balance Stream Gaging Account July 1, 1938 44.15 

Disbursements July 1, 1937 to June 30, 1938. 


Personal Service $ 18,319.26 

Travel and Subsistence 3,536.12 

Supplies 2,243.38 

Communication 356.56 

Printing 427.44 

Freight and Express 63.20 

Equipment 1,964.17 

Repairs and Alterations 1,003.30 

Miscellaneous 386.62 

Commissioners Office 3,225.00 

$ 31,525.05 



The Geological Survey of Georgia will observe its fiftieth 
birthday this year. On November 23, 1939, the Survey will 
have completed fifty years of continuous service. This is 
indeed an unusual and enviable record — one which surely is 
deserving of fitting and proper observance. Such a means 
of observance is available in the form of the first real geo- 
logic map of Georgia which has just been completed. The 
publication of this map with the various geological formations 
portrayed in colors would be most appropriate as a memorial 
to half a century of uninterrupted service, as well as filling a 
long-felt need for geologic information in this form. The 
map should be accompanied by the report which gives the 
details of the geology shown on the map. 

In this connection it might be interesting to point out the 
fact that many of the functions now performed by other 
divisions of the present Department of Natural Resources 
were originally performed by the Division of Geology. In 
other words, the present Department of Natural Resources 
has evolved from a nucleus, or beginning, which originally 
consisted of only one agency — the Geological Survey of 




3 ElDfi D 


3flT0 5=13