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Full text of "Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Insturction of the Territory of Colorado"

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COLORADO STATE PUBLICATIONS LIBRARY 



3 1799 



00107 2768 THIRD 



Biennial Report 



OF THE 



upeiint^ieiit of liMIs |attnisUafi 



TERRITORY OF COLORADO, 



TOR THE TWO YEARS ENDING SEPT. 30th, 1875. 




DENVER, COL. : 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS STEAM PRINTING HOUSE. 



1876. 



^no 




PUBLIC SCHOOL, GREELEY, COLO. 



RECEIVED 

J UN 1 1995 

STATE PUBLICATIONS 

Colorado State Library 



THIRD 



Biennial Report 



OF THE 




TERRITORY OF COLORADO, 



FOR THE TWO YEARS ENDING SEPT, 30th, 1875. 




DENVER, COL. : 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS STEAM PRINTING HOUSE. 



1876. 



COMMUNICATION 



Department of Public Instruction, 1 
Denver, December 20, 1875. J 

To His Excellency yohn L. Routt, Governor of Colorado : 

Sir: — In compliance with the requirements of the law, I 
herewith submit the report of this Department for the 
Biennial Term, ending September 30, 1875. 

I am, Very Respectfully, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

HORACE M. HALE, 

Supt. Public Instruction. 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. 



STATISTICAL SUMMARIES. 

At the close of the last Biennial Term, September 30, 
1873, the condition of the Public School system was re- 
ported as follows : Total school fund, exclusive of bonds 
issued by the districts for building purposes, $137,557.61 ; 
Average rate of taxation for school purposes, 3 1-7 mills. 

EXPENDITURES IN 1 873. 

For sites and buildings $ l SS679 45 

For libraries and apparatus 1,800 00 

For salary of Superintendent : 1,200 00 

For salaries of teachers 71,258 28 

Miscellaneous expenditures 22,461 26 

Total $252,298 99 

The excess of expenditures over income, as above, was 
obtained from the sale of bonds, town lots, etc., the amount 
of which was not reported to this department. 

SCHOOL POPULATION. 

Number of male persons five to twenty-one years of age 7,617 

Number of female persons, " " " 6,800 

Total 14,417 

Number of pupils enrolled in public schools 7,456 

Number " " private schools 702 

Total attending school 8,158 

Average number of days schools were in session ill 

Number of school districts 243 

Number of schools , 180 



6 superintendent's report. 

Number of school houses 125 

Number of teachers — males, 107; females, 134 „ 241 

Average monthly salary paid male teachers $62 00 

Average monthly salary paid female teachers 51 00 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY FOR 1874. 

Average rate of county tax levied 31^ mills. 

INCOME. 

Amount from county and district tax $ I 93>5 I 3 99 

Amount from bonds, penalties, etc., estimated 12,251 39 

Total $205,765 38 

EXPENDITURES. 

■ 

For sites, buildings and furniture $ 77,044 47 

For libraries and aparatus 75000 

For salaries of Superintendents and Teachers 95,454 33 

Miscellaneous — fuel, light, rent, repairs, etc 26,516 58 

£199,765 3 8 
Value of sites, buildings, furniture, etc #337,894 64 

SCHOOL POPULATION. 

Number of male persons, five to twenty-one years of age.. 10,112 

Number of females " (( " " 9» r 97 

Total I9,3°9 

SCHOOLS. 

Number enrolled in public schools during the year 9,995 

Number enrolled in private schools during the year 803 

Total 10,798 

Average duration of schools in days 98 

TEACHERS. 

Number of male teachers employed 139 

Number of female teachers employed 168 

Total , 307 

Average salary of male teachers $60 00 

Average salary of female teachers 50 00 

PROGRESS FOR THE YEAR 1 874 — PER CENT. OF INCREASE IN THE 

Number of school districts 19 

Number of schools 33 



superintendent's report. 7 

Number of school houses 26 

Number of persons of school age 25 

Value of school property 30 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY FOR 1875. 
Average rate of county tax levied i> l A ix^ills. 

INCOME. 

Amount from county and district tax $240,718 72 

Amount from bonds, penalties, etc., estimated 6,460 35 

Total school fund . $247,179 07 

EXPENDITURES. 

For sites, buildings and furniture $ 76,215 04 

For salaries of Teachers and Superintendents 102,783 36 

Miscellaneous — fuel, rent, repairs, etc 3 1 >% I 5 46 

Total $210,813 86 

Number of school houses 178 

Value of school property .,. $414,008 66 

SCHOOL POPULATION. 

Number of male persons five to twenty-one years 12,264 

Number of female " " " .11,011 

Total 23,274 

SCHOOLS. 

Number enrolled in public schools during the year, males 6,639 

Number " " " " females 5,193 

Number enrolled in private schools 926 

Total . 12,758 

Average duration of schools, in days 1 16 

TEACHERS. 

Number of male teachers employed... 172 

Number of females " " 205 

Total 377 

Average salary of male teachers $60 00 

Average salary of female teachers 48 00 

PROGRESS FOR 1 875 — PER CENT. OF INCREASE IN THE 

Number of school districts 10 

Number of schools 18 



8 superintendent's report. 

Number of school houses 16 

Number of persons of school age 20 

Value of school property 21 

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

The earliest provision made for this was in Jarvis Hall, 
Golden City, a diocesan collegiate school for boys; and in 
Wolfe Hall, Denver, a diocesan high school for girls ; both 
established by the late Right Reverend S. Randall, D. D., 
Protestant Episcopal Missionary Bishop of the Territories. 
They still continue, under his successor, the work of im- 
parting a good English education, with Latin, Greek, 
French, and German. 

St. Mary's School, for girls (Roman Catholic), continues 
its operations at Denver, on the same plane and in nearly 
the same line. 

The Public High School, of Denver, a branch of the 
public school system, was established, one year ago, by the 
Denver Board of Education, being the first regularly 
organized high school in the Territory. Its course of study 
is comprehensive, embracing all the branches necessary to 
fit its graduates for entrance into the best American col- 
leges. The following is from the report of the Committee 
on High School : 

The general course shall occupy four years, and shall embrace the mathe- 
matics necessary for an accomplished engineer ; the Latin language, so far as 
is possible and desirable for general culture, and for more thorough acquaint- 
ance with our own language, and to facilitate the acquisition of modern lan- 
guages ; the reading and speaking of German and French ; and such studies 
in science and literature as shall best fit pupils for different departments of 
business and make them generally intelligent. 

The general effect of the institution upon schools of the lower grades is 
marked. As our schools serve the purpose for which they are supported, just 
so far as thev contribute towards making the intelligent citizen, so their 
effectiveness must be measured by the length of time the pupils are held in 
school, and we remark a favorable augury when the ambition of grammar- 
school pupils is so aroused that a fixed determination exists to " stick to " 
school and enter the High School to complete the course. The impulse to 
the lower grades is especially encouraging, when it is remembered that our 
school is in its veriest infancy, and that embarrassments in its progress have oc- 
curred the past year, owing to the protracted illness of the Principal, that are 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 9 

not likely to be repeated. The material for the school is abundant in the city. 
Your committee have frequently been consulted by citizens, who, having sent 
their boys and girls to the States because no provision for study in the higher 
grades existed here, now signify their intention of recalling their children. 

The financial aspect is of no small importance. Denver can ill afford to 
send wealth out of its pockets to enrich older but not abler communities. 
Our people are not doing well when, in addition to the annual school tax, a 
yearly bill for board and tuition is met. 

Again, when our boys and girls reach their teens, that precarious era in life 
when character is either made or blasted, and, too, when health is preserved 
or ruined, no parent needs to be reminded that the home circle, the mother's 
care, and the father's counsel and reproof, are the only assurances one can 
have of the safety of his children. It is not well for young people to be sent 
from home for school training, and for this reason are we doing our utmost to 
provide such advantages as shall make the exportation of students unnecessary. 

It has been that boys could not be prepared for college in our public 
schools. In obedience to your resolutions we have prepared a course which, 
when completed, under the direction of the faculty of the High School, will 
admit the boy to Harvard, Yale, Princeton or Dartmouth, unconditionally. 
Of this we have received assurances from proper authority. 

We have reason to predict a future for the Denver Public High School 
creditable alike to its founders and the city, and a deserved reputation equal 
to that of any city of free schools. 

In the course of instruction in the German language, your committee have 
made a few changes. Believing that the advantages of instruction in German 
should be given to all, American as well as German pupils, we have directed 
that all pupils above and including the sixth grade, shall receive daily instruc- 
tion in the German language ; the study to be made permissible, not com- 
pulsory. 

The chairman of your committee has given his personal attention to the 
supervision of this branch. 

Respectfully submitted, 

PETER GOTTESLEBEN, 
W. C. LOTHROP, 
\V. M. NEWTON, 
Committee on High School and German. 

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. 

Institutions for imparting superior instruction have not, 
until quite recently, been required ; but as the necessity for 
these has become apparent, it will not long remain un- 
provided for. Two Colleges, one Congregational, the other 
Presbyterian, outgrowths of the missionary as well as of the 
literary spirit, have been established — the former at Colorado 
Springs and the latter at Evans. Both sexes are repre- 

(2) 



IO SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 

sented in each. The curriculum has not yet, in either at- 
tained a degree much beyond that of a High School, but 
the prospects for a full collegiate organization in the early 
future are flattering. 

The University of Colorado, at Boulder, presents every 
appearance of having become a fixed fact. This is to be a 
State institution, supplemental to the public schools. A 
beautiful building is rapidly approaching completion, erected 
at a cost of $35,000, by the joint appropriation of the Leg- 
islature and the citizens of Boulder. The buildings will 
be ready for occupancy in the Spring, and it is the deter- 
mination of its friends that the institution shall rank with 
the highest. 

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION. 

The Territorial School of Mines, at Golden, was started 
about two years ago, as the scientific school of the pros- 
pective State University. The school is, in a measure, as- 
sociated with Jarvis Hall, but is under the control and 
management of the Territory, through a Board of Trustees 
elected by the Legislature. The present number of stu- 
dents is nineteen ; value of buildings, grounds and appa- 
ratus, $12,000. The school is open to either sex, and to 
any color. 

St. Matthews Hall, at Golden, also closely associated 
with Jarvis Hall, is a theological school, under the aus- 
pices of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. 

The Deaf Mute Institute, at Colorado Springs, was es- 
tablished two years ago. The Legislature of 1874 appro- 
priated $5,000 for immediate use, and levied a tax of one- 
fifth of one mill for its second year's maintenance. Dur- 
ing the first year there were twelve pupils ; at present the 
number is nineteen. Total appropriation by the Territory 
for the two years, $13,878.65. 

The Colorado Springs Town Company donated to the 
Institute, thirteen acres of land, valued at $6,500, upon 



superintendent's report. 



1 1 



which a comfortable stone building has been erected by 
the Trustees. The Institute is free, including board, 
washing and instructions to all deaf mutes in the Territory. 
The foregoing is a resume of what Colorado has done 
and is doing in the matter of providing the means for the 
instruction of her citizens. What Territory ever did more 
in this direction ? Moreover, nearly all this has been ac- 
complished during the past five years. The Territory is 
entirely free from debt, with a large surplus in the treasury. 
Unlike her sister Territories, she has not waited for gov- 
ernment lands to furnish the means of education, but 
whenever and wherever there has arisen a demand, it has 
been promptly met and paid. The most ardent educational 
enthusiast ought to be satisfied with the progress made. 
No more convincing evidence could be adduced to prove 
that the citizens of the Centennial State are carefully 
guarding and generously fostering education, than a 
glance at the progress made during the last half of the 
last decade : 

COMPARATIVE STATISTICS. 



Number of persons between 5 and 21 years of age... 

Number of School Districts 

Number of Schools 

Number of Teachers 

Amount paid Teachers 

Total School Fund 

Number of School Houses 

Value of School Property 




^Exclusive of University Building, School of Mines and Deaf Mute Institute, 
$60,000 



REMARKS. 

An examination of the foregoing summary of statistics 
will disclose the fact that there has been a constant increase 
in the school population, as well as in school appointments, 
during the past two years. A reference to former reports 
will show that this progress has been continuous through 
former years, reaching back even to the early settlement of 



12 SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 

our Territory. A critical inspection will, however, disclose 
the additional fact that our school advantages are not yet 
fully commensurate to the progress and demands of the 
age in which we live. 

Rather, therefore, than dwell upon the many excellent 
features of our system, I desire to call your attention to 
what, in my opinion, should demand the careful" considera- 
tion of our Legislative Assembly : 

First — I respectfully call your attention to the average 
length of time during which our schools were in session, 
to-wit: Ninety-eight days in 1874, and one hundred and 
sixteen days in 1875, or an average, for the two years, of 
one hundred and seven days. This low average results 
from the very short school term in every rural school district. 
While the city and village schools remain open during a 
period of from 150 to 200 days, the time of the country 
schools seldom exceeds 100 days; and in very many dis- 
tricts the school house doors were open but sixty, forty, 
and even as low as twenty days during the year, while there 
are some districts in which no school was opened. It is 
my opinion that every school district should maintain a 
school at least, during 1 20 days, each year. 

The remedy suggested is this: A larger school fund, 
and a provision in the law requiring the directors to keep 
the schools in session for the time mentioned, as a pre- 
requisite to their claims to any portion of the school fund. 

Second — It will be seen, also, that of the 23,274 school 
children in the Territory, but 12,758 attended school even 
for one day — 45 per cent, of our school children did not 
enter a school room! Of the number enrolled upon the 
school registers, not more than one-half were regular in 
attendance during the 116 days of school session. It is, 
therefore, a fact that not more than one-third of the persons 
between the ages of five and twenty-one years attended 
school 116 days during the past year. The fact itself is a 
sufficient argument that here is a wrong that calls for a 
remedy. I am persuaded that the attendance at school 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. I 3 

would be greatly increased if one-half of the school fund 
were to be apportioned among the districts according to 
the actual attendance at school, instead of, as now, accord- 
ing to the school population, irrespective of attendance at 
school. 

Third — There is a subject which is not manifest in the 
official report, the facts concerning which reach me, from 
time to time, incidentally. I refer to the misappropriation 
and embezzlement of school funds, by public officers, in- 
cluding District Directors, County Superintendents, and 
County Treasurers. During the many years that I have 
been connected with the public schools in this Territory, 
not a year has passed, that could not show a defalcation of 
this kind. Should it not be made as great a crime to steal 
from this sacred fund as from the merchant's till? The 
wrong certainly prevails; the wisdom of our legislators 
should supply the remedy. 

Finally, without enlarging upon the very many whole- 
some additions that may be made to our School Law, I 
desire to call your attention to some of the many palpable 
defects therein that demand attention. 

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 

First — By referring to Section n, of the School Law, it 
will be seen that the County Superintendent is required to 
render, annually, to the Territorial Superintendent a report 
for the year ending September 30th. The County Super- 
intendent is elected biennially, in September; hence every 
alternate year the newly elected Superintendent is required 
to make a report for the year preceding the commencement of 
his term of office. It is hardly necessary to remark that 
this provision requires a practical impossibility. 

Second — While the County Superintendent may divide a 
school district, or form a new one, at any time (same Sec- 
tion), there is no provision by which he may equitably 
divide the school property or apportion the school fund to 
the new district. The law permits but one apportionment, 
to-wit: On the first Monday of November (Section 12) in 



14 SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 

each year, therefore, a new district formed after said date 
receives no money until after the ensuing first of Novem- 
ber. A manifest injustice to new districts. 

Third — There is no provision requiring the County Su- 
perintendent to report annually to his County, the finan- 
cial condition of his office. This defect has been the 
cause of much trouble and no inconsiderable loss in many 
instances. 

Fourth — The County Superintendent is required (Sec. 1 1) 
to visit the schools twice each term. The law does not 
define a term, and superintendents have claimed that they 
complied with the law's requirements by visiting a school 
two days in succession. 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 

First — In the event of a vacancy in a Board of Direc- 
tors, by reason of death, &c, there is no provision for fil- 
ling the same. 

Second — The Secretary of each School District must, 
between the first and fifteenth days of each September, 
take a census of the school children, &c, (Sec. 28). There 
have been instances where children have been legally 
enumerated in two districts, thus working injustice to the 
other districts of the county. For instance — the Secretary 
of West Denver may take his census on the first day of 
the month, and the Secretary of East Denver, on the 14th ; 
persons then moving from West Denver to East Denver, 
in the meantime, would be enumerated in both ; and there 
is no remedy provided. Also, persons temporarily in a 
district, visiting, camping or attending private schools, may, 
by the law, be enumerated. This has been done. 

Third — Section 31 provides that a school district may 
levy a special tax. This provision requires the Secretary 
to post the assessment roll, &c, yet provides no remedy 
for persons who may have been unjustly or excessively as- 
sessed. 

The subject of the necessity of a revision of our School 
Law, has by no means been exhausted by the foregoing, 



superintendent's report. i 5 

yet the defects enumerated render it apparent that the mat- 
ter should receive some attention from our Legislative As- 
sembly soon to convene. The appliances necessary to 
render our school system effective while we remain a Ter- 
ritory, will be equally applicable when we shall have as- 
sumed the dignity of Statehood ; hence, whatever may be 
done now need not be undone then. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Much as may be said commendatory of the present school 
system, we do not think that the best and most desirable 
ends are to be obtained by devoting our entire time and 
space in eulogizing its excellent features, these will gener- 
ally take care of themselves. Few branches of our civil 
polity are so nearly perfect that no care need be given to 
their improvement. An experience of nearly a quarter of 
a century in public school work has convinced me that 
there is not sufficient rigidity in the American School Sys- 
tem to insure the best results attainable. Too much is left 
to the whims and caprices of parents ; too much is made to 
depend upon the turn of politics. Too often is it the case 
that a change of office-holders involves an entire change in 
the management of the Public Schools, and a radical change 
in this tends to retard their progress in a degree seldom 
appreciated by those who are not immediately connected 
with them. The time for attending school of a large ma- 
jority of American children is short, so short that, on an 
average, it is doubtful if it covers many more days than 
there are in two calendar years. How important, then, that 
all this time should be utilized ; that none of it should be 
consumed in futile experiments, and in becoming familiar 
with new adjustments of the working machinery ; that none 
of it should be wasted in acquiring facts and fancies that 
are of no practical use to the pupil, either in school, in the 
business world, or even in social life ! I am convinced that 
during the last decade, throughout the Puplic Schools of 
the United States, theory has been permitted, in a large 
degree, to supplant practice. Children have been required 



1 6 superintendent's report. 

to devote weeks and months to the acquisition of technical- 
ities of no earthly practical benefit to them as furnishing a 
step by which to reach a higher round of the ladder, and 
which, from having no use for the knowledge thus obtained, 
they forget soon after leaving the school room. This plan 
of conducting our schools may be likened to that of a 
builder who should consume all his time and material upon 
the first story of his house, attempting to finish the same, 
in all its details of ornamentation, frescoing, varnishing, 
gilding, papering and carpeting, before he begins his second 
story, and even before he has it secure from the elements 
by substantial frame work and roof. The most that can 
possibly be accomplished in our Public Schools, below the 
High School, is to lay a foundation, establish the frame 
work, put on the roof, and inculcate such a love for knowl- 
edge that our children will continue students all their lives, 
and never cease to add such ornaments and embellishments 
as may suit their fancies, and as they may find means for 
supplying. The object aimed at here should be to plant 
firmly, and in such a manner that it will be beyond the 
possibility of being uprooted, the germ of knowledge. 
Every possible means should be resorted to to create a 
thirst for it, and instead of cramming and stuffing, and by 
such means stunting the mind's growth, there should be 
such stimulating processes as will tend to develop and 
strengthen the mental and moral faculties from within. Let 
us cultivate mind as we cultivate plants, by applying the 
fertilizers to the roots, and not to the buds and flowers. 
We may, by artificial means, prematurely open the rose 
bud and thereby secure an early blossom, but we have at 
best but an imperfect and odorless flower. We may pre- 
sent an appearance of reality by pinning oranges and 
lemons to our sickly hot-house plants, but the conscious- 
ness that there is no reality there induces pain rather than 
satisfaction. So with our children; we permit a bud to be 
pulled open here, and some imported fruit to be tacked on 
there, and only become convinced that it is all shoddy and 
sham when they have occasion to use the fruit and flowers 
in practical life. 



superintendent's report. 17 

I can see nothing to hinder the establishment of a course 
of study, even for our country schools, that shall be founded 
upon practicality, and that shall be so fixed that it may not 
be changed to suit the convenience of each successive 
teacher in a district. Teachers should be required to adapt 
themselves to the prescribed course of study, rather than 
permitted to change such a course to suit their convenience 
or capacity. In districts where each successive term of 
school finds a new teacher in charge, there is invariably 
such a change in course of study, text books, and general 
school management, that the schools might about as well 
remain closed. This frequent change of teachers in small 
districts cannot well be avoided, but, if the County Super- 
intendent could be empowered to fix a course of study, and 
enforce the same, requiring each successive teacher to begin 
where his predecessor left off, much of the evil arising from 
the changes would be avoided. All this might be effected 
were school men permitted to exercise a greater influence 
in school matters. A little less of the popular American 
idea of permitting the people to rule, a little more of 
rigidity in matters pertaining to public schools, and a little 
more willingness to take advice from professional educators, 
would, I am certain, result in greater efficiency of the sys- 
tem, " Vox popidi, vox dei" is a popular American motto, 
but I am convinced that it is not always true. The voice 
of the people is not only not always the voice of God, but 
frequently quite the reverse. There are many cases wherein 
the judgment of an expert should prevail against the unan- 
imous opposition of an entire community; and to nothing 
is the adage better applicable than in school work, that 
"the shoe-maker should stick to his last." Let. architects 
superintend our edifices, mechanics our mechanism, physi- 
cians our health, and educators our schools, and as a result 
we shall have symmetrical and well constructed buildings, 
better health and more efficient schools. People seldom 
hesitate, after having made a choice of an architect, a doctor, 
a lawyer or a dressmaker, to intrust the particular matter 

(3) 



1 8 superintendent's report. 

for which the services were desired to the person chosen. 
Yet with school superintendents and teachers no sooner do 
they begin to operate than they are overwhelmed with 
suggestions, advice and demands usually founded upon the 
worn-out and obsolete theories of early years. 

A part of the difficulties herein suggested might be 
remedied by legislation, and a part by the moral influence 
of the friends of the school. Let our people cease to make 
the school offices objects for political barter. Whenever a 
County Superintendent proves himself to be fearless and 
efficient in the discharge of his duties, keep him in office ! 
Whenever a teacher proves to be capable and enthusiastic 
in the work, let not the matter of a few dollars salary stand 
in the way of his retention ! 

There is no one element operating so powerfully to retard 
the progress of the schools of Colorado as this one of 
frequent changes in the administration of school affairs. 
Yet this evil is not peculiar to our Territory, but prevails 
almost everywhere. Of the twenty-five County Superin- 
tendents recently elected for two years, twenty-two are new 
men. While they are probably as competent and zealous 
as were their predecessors two years ago, it is presuming 
too much to suppose that even under the most favorable 
conditions, they can be as efficient as they will be two years 
hence, when they, in turn, will step down and out to give 
place to a new set of tyros. But a greater evil, far greater, 
is wrought by the frequent change of teachers, particularly 
of principals. During the past year or two there seems to 
have prevailed an epidemic in this regard. One school, 
consisting of three departments, has had, within three 
years, fourteen different teachers. The principal has been 
changed six times. Of the present corps of teachers, not 
one was in the school last term. A similar state of things, 
though perhaps in less degree, is to be found in many of 
our large school districts. Schools that might become 
models are, by such a course, reduced to inferiority. Every 
change of teachers involves, to a certain extent, a change 
of text books, a change of base, a change of methods, and 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 1 9 

a general confusion of ideas in the minds of pupils, as to 
what constitutes a course of study. Meanwhile the time 
flies ; children get beyond the school age, and opportunities 
are forever lost. Seldom, or never, is a new principal 
willing to take up the school work as it was left by his 
predecessor, and continue it without marked modifications ; 
for in this calling, as in every ot 1 cr, it is a singular fact that 
there exists but one person who is able to do anything just 
right. Who ever knew an architect who could not improve 
his brother architect's design; or a painter who could find 
nothing to criticise on his brother painter's canvas ? Yet 
what symmetry would our buildings possess, were we to 
change architects and designs a dozen times during the 
progress of their erection, and what beauty our paintings, 
were they to pass through as many hands and ideals as 
they possess shades of color? 

There is such a thing attainable in our Public Schools as 
a comprehensive, systematic course of education. There 
is sufficient time for the average mind to acquire it; but, to 
acqure it, there must be systematic instruction. Every 
hour must find the pupil a step higher. There must be no 
tearing down ; there must be constant and continuous de- 
velopment. Frequent and unnecessary changes of school 
officers and teachers will not tend to the consummation 
desired. Good teachers should be retained during good 
behavior, and school directors must expect to pay salaries 
commensurate to the services rendered. 

Our schools could be rendered more efficient were the 
district boards elected for a longer time, and the term of 
office so fixed that the board would be continuous. Let 
the members be elected for three years, and one-third go 
out of office each year. It is impossible for any board, 
however competent and zealous, to adopt and carry into 
effective operation, in one year, any plan of school manage- 
ment ; and very seldom is any such attempt made. Success 
in school work can only be attained by steady, persistent 
and continuous work in one direction and to one end. This 
cannot be reached in districts wherein there is a change of 



20 SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 

administration every year, and wherein there is a change 
of teachers every term. We are aware that in small rural 
districts it is very difficult to avoid this change of teachers. 
Good teachers can command higher salaries than they can 
afford to pay. But in town schools, where the departments 
number forty to fifty pupils, there can be no good reason for 
the repeated changes. Such schools cannot afford to permit a 
first-class teacher to be drawn from them by a higher offer, 
in salary, from some other district. There always will be 
a class of incompetent persons, who are willing to keep a 
school for almost any weekly stipend, and I am sorry to 
say that there are school directors who are willing to 
employ them. A man who is so utterly worthless in every 
other business that he cannot command current wages as 
a day laborer has no business attempting to teach school. 
The tendency which prevails in many localities to let the 
schools to the lowest bidder is absolutely wicked. Better 
have a school for three months under a live teacher than 
six months under a drone.- This tendency has also the 
effect to drive from the profession talent and tact that 
would remain could it command the same compensation 
that other vocations give it. Reducing the salaries of teach- 
ers so that they average lower than that of bookkeepers, tele- 
graph operators, and dress makers, cannot but drive every 
person capable of learning the said business from the school 
room ; and we have left, to educate our children, those who 
are incapable of doing anything else. No wonder that 
people are often heard to remark that " school teachers are 
generally worthless outside of the school room." A teacher 
who is worthless "outside" of a school room is of very little 
worth "inside." We believe there would be less of this in 
Colorado if our school boards held office long enough to 
feel the responsibilities devolving upon them. 

Good schools cannot be maintained without some expense 
beyond that of employing a teacher. Machinery and tools 
are essential and economical in the school room, as they 
are on the farm or in the work shop. It is as unreasonable to 
demand from a teacher a first-class school without supply 



SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 21 

blackboards, maps, eharts, globes, etc., as it would be to re- 
quire from a journeyman carpenter a first-class job, giving 
him no tools to work with. Directors are too apt to regard 
these appliances as merely ornamental, whereas they are 
necessities; and no district, however small or poor, can afford 
to be without them. They should be supplied, even if, to do it, 
the length of the school term be shortened a week. A 
small expenditure each year would soon supply everything 
needed. 

At the session of the Legislative Assembly, in 1874, a 
bill was introduced for the purpose of remedying some of 
the evils now operating against the success of our schools. 
It failed to become a law, however, and another attempt 
will be made at the coming session, we trust with better 
success. It is a significant fact that all opposition to prog- 
ress in school matters emanates from the least cultured and 
most ignorant of our legislators. Verily 'tis true that "a 
little learning'is a dangerous thing." The friends of edu- 
cation in Colorado have reason to be thankful to his Excel- 
lency, John L. Routt, Governor, for his strong words and 
earnest endeavors in behalf of the cause. We believe, also, 
that they will have occasion to thank the incoming Legis- 
lature for wholesome and liberal enactments in aid of 
popular education. 

I cannot close these remarks without again urging, as I 
have urged in former reports, the importance of so plan- 
ning and arranging new school houses that the rooms shall 
be large, well ventilated, and properly lighted. Directors 
know not what cruelty and wrong they are perpetrating 
when they build a school room twenty feet square, and 
crowd into it forty or fifty pupils. It is admitted by all 
who have studied the question that there should never be 
less than fifteen square feet of floor space for each pupil in 
the room ; never less than this, and as much more as pos- 
sible. We hope that the last school room has been built 
which shall afford but ten feet to the pupil. Next to ven- 
tilation, it is important that the glass in the windows shall 
be of the best quality. Nothing is so trying to the eyes — 



22 SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 

nothing so soon injures them, as sitting and studying in a 
room, the windows of which are composed of uneven glass. 
One has but to try the effect of such a window upon his 
eyes to be convinced of this. May we not indulge the 
hope that the school houses hereafter built in Colorado shall 
be so built as to afford every means possible for promoting 
the health and comfort of our children. Let these be the 
first considerations; after which, put as much money in 
ornamentation and show as can be afforded. 



TATISTICAL TaBLES 

AND 

LIST 



County Superintendents. 



3Wad\fc 



/i'.'T'J f . i 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



25 



<*. o 
S 

s 



Female 



Male 



Total . 



Female 



Male 



+ mno> . m n fiano 



m t^ moo m« uin on 



t^ ^* m moo 



m m vo -«-oO +«" m f» 



n« inmn m m 01 



■*-00 t-~ M m 



N M HI t-s N ID 



m\o -t , Uld Ml 



•3' 



O\00 ->T HI IOIOO M IflS "<f 

« m -I- n ^ in u-i\o t^oo m 
in m r-^ m m N N -<a- cs ■*• 



in moo MfiOii 



m N N m m rt- 



t^ fO •*• ■*■ 



Total 



Female 



<0 10 ■*• in N 
Ol c^ n *-*-ooo 
f-» ►< hi in in in m 



Oim n o mm moo m t-» n in ci 

ts-t OlO\N N f^<N O OlOvN^O 

m\© •*• m hi 00 m 00 



m in n 



Male 



m m r^ on 00 -<J-vo ->*-oo 
vooo t^O rnoco inti in ON 
■*- inmmoH -«- n m 



Total 



-<»- m ■<»■ m t^ tj-oo 



Female 



Male 



mt^mw mo onOs" m 
t^O on t^ N -^-mmo 
h inn n a h m im 



r-» mt^w uinoitmm 
mvo in n on -i-00 ->*- m w 
m inNWOiM ■<*-«•*■ 



Total 



m m -"j- o m^o mcs m in m n so N On m -3- h inooo *io 

N OS •*" ON N Cs! OS H 00 m ON M hi N ON^N t^tMOO MOO t-» P-. 

inmooNtNOmNMMO h m •<*- M so n m m m m cm 



Female 



row oitiotw so in in 






Male 



IO Oim N M Oco -tN moo 
1000 Os (N ■*- hio OsO 
m m o inr-.mmw'O inm 



rj- c^so ^nh inn 
m r^ h t^ m w \o 



Total 



Os OS m in N N>0 hi so CO 

-*- N *OlN m-t-o M d t^ 

00 m mso m on m N moo on 
m h" m hP 



Female 



SO m OS m N ONW ON -<J-00 



Male 



mso * m hio 



m on m in on mi© 



moo nmio' 

m in h so m 1 

mvo 1 



MVO HI HI 



N0>cooo m moN moo ->i- csi 



on moo ■*• CSI OS 



(4) 



«<M«OOCjQWWfeOOKffi> 



Ih^hJi-Jh^h^KcOCO? 



26 



SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



H 



o 

o 

, W 
H ° 



Cost of school 
houses erected 
during the year. 




to 

00 


O . m Q . , N «« .0 . 
to * Ov VO ON ro 8 
VO . •*■ ro . , U1N N , J t 

vo* m" ro ro ro 00* 
ro • N • • § • m • 


6,ooo 
825 

300 
100 


. . 
. 0" 


«o 

a 

«4 




00 


Co . vo O . . Oi O "><n , . 
ro ■*■ vn * m 5 M cs 
vO^ . <0^ «_ . . ro ro m^ q\ . . 

N* n 0* m* m* m* 

u-> • M • • ■ « 

■8* ' 


. vo O . O •*■ vo Q ro 

ro ON lot- On ' * ' m 

. vo<5_ . . ro m_ vo ON , . . m^ 

♦ m m | 10 


ov 

VO 




[No. of school 
houses erected 
during the year 




vo 1 


ro mm co m vo m m 


• ww . . . . fT " H . . "*■ 1 ^ 


8 


Ov ■*• M IflM +t 


MM M rO M M I 00 
1 W 






Value of 
School houses. 







88£S • -88888 ■ 

^t" vo to * ' uo vo vo vo Q 
to oo^oo^ . qv ro ro rooo^ 
m •*■ vo . ! t « o w m . 

00 M CI M VO 




27,025 24 

1,025 °° 

5,421 50 

1,900 00 
1,405 00 
5,580 00 

750 00 

300 00 

41,675 00 


! 

i 




to 

00 


CO k (i * . Ov ' 

OOmO ' .fommmo • 
tovo m • * Nn O • 
ro ci ro . . to m ro o •*■ . 
VO tv> ■*- . . M m ro M •«• . 

•«- ro M m ■*• 


. 8 n 8 ■ vo 8 8 o\ 

. Ov O Q ' m vo ro 
ro ■* • vo O 

. Nn« • v> q> ■♦vq^ 
ro . ro m* m*no* 

M 


888 

O O VO 
VO VO to 
to CI 


* 

VO 

to 

ro 








o 

8 1 
2 3 

O </> 

« § 

_ u 
o _ 

i .2 

1 1 

"S 6 

-2 •« 
6 * 

3 


vn 
to 

00 


Total. 


to m m vo . n tooo m« s . 


. •*■ * . . .vOm . m to 

N M M M 


r« 


Adobe. | 


. . w . . n . . ro m . . 




M 




1 


Log.. | 


M m m m . . mm« a , . 


. fo ro ■>*■.♦ . .mm . . m I vo 
m I to 


Frame. 


VO . ■* ro . . ON" t , 


.">•+. .vo . . . 


•*S leg 


Stone. . 








to 






• • 


Brick. . 


to . M M MM. 


. . N M 


. .«.,£ 




Total. 


3\M MVO . . N ->*- N ON lO . 


. ro to m . o\« r«M 


M m ro 


to 


Abode. | 














• * 1 


rs 

00 


Log.. 


•hwcsm . . ro M m vo . . 


, ci nci . -*■ . to r» 


. « . « 1 vo 


Frame. 


cs .ro-*-. , NrnNH + , 


, M P) . . VO . . 


. M 00 1 00 


Stone. . 








Ov 






. . . . 


Brick. . 






. . M 


* 






.... 








Average Number 
of days Schools 
were in session. 


£ 


VO -<r-oo . . to m Q ro m . 
■* « « oo mo + 


.00 ■<»- .00 . .0-0-. OO 
to m mo\00m 


vO 


to 

00 


oo m to o , m\o "lins , 
rooo m m ro oo O\0 tovo 


. OO vovO . 00 M VO OWO •* . On 
vOOvO O to ' ov 


ro 

Ov 






j 


to 

00 


vOvO to 3 oo N Ov to -^t-vo NO . 

M Ci M M mm 


m ro 0\ vo m 10 -ij-vO *tulx n 
mm M M N 


M 


No. of Schools. . 


to 

00 


00 no to rooo -to lOOiMn . 


, mMo , m -«-vo ft M ro . 00 


ro 
uo 
M 




No. of Districts. 


to 

00 


to -*■ tooo ro rooo m n vo m 
m m ro N M N 


m 00 OvOO N VO 00 roNO <*- to M m 
mm m M ro 


ON 

ro 


00 


\0 to to tooo ro 00 m O vO . 
MM M N M 


m ■*• 1000 m rooo to to ro to m vo 

MM M M M 


1 




County. 








1 



H 






















Arapahoe . . 
Bent .... 
Boulder . . 
Clear Creek . 
Conejos . . 
Costilla. . . 
Douglas . . 
Elbert. . . 
El Paso . . 
Fremont . . . 
Gilpin . . . 


Hinsdale . . 
Huerfano . . 
Jefferson . . 
Lake .... 
La Plata . . 
Larimer . . 
Las Animas 
Park .... 
Pueblo . . . 


3 

U t u 



superintendent's report. 



27 



ss 

D 

o 
w 

H 

o 
w 

o 
Q 

CO 

W 
»-t 

< 
.J 

•< 

CO 

W 

K 
H 

O 

o 

CO 



c 

3 J 
O £ 

SfH 

biT 


s 

hi 

Cg 


3 

m 

8 

i 


388 -888 

J m • 06 ~ so 
"I so_oo . w •«■ 
■t m ■+• . n«" 


3 ; 


j 


: : 8 

; \& 


388 • • 

»)00 SO * • 
* N n . • 
D .°° * . ' 

N fn 1 . 


•88 -88 

• »n ■*• ' o «"« 

. in m m •«■ 

°^ °« ! " * 


8 

00 

B 


8888 

mONN 

00 00 00 


•88888 • -888 18 8 8 8 8 8 :8 

■ moo N0N ' ' mwiTi . N*0 « O . N 

00 mmmM ■ ino * o\«^CT> t^oo m m 

t*> C 00 00^0^ • CN ins© • 00^ "♦; t>. rn tsi SO . «N 

1 H M* "£ N ON '. . SO* . H N «" »0* .so" 


8 

m 


21 

-" 

c« u 

a 

> c 

«5H 


X 


Female . 


msO *-m . 


388888 • -888 -8 • 

n ■«• o •«■ >- • "miflO '°° ' 


•88 -88 

• t~. Oi ' ro 


8 

00 


Male . . 


8 8 8 8- 


•88888 • -888 -8 • 

" 00 m OsO * * ■*• ^ m "so * 

. -«-sO so •*■ ■*■ , . 10 ■*- in . ■«■ . 


•88 • -8 

: 5-vS : : a 


8 


CC 


Female . 


8888 • 


• 8 8 8 8 8 • -.8 8 ■ -888888 -8 

• m in mso t^ • *0n ' ' OiO nmo m 'in 
, tmt mso . ,•*■*• . , rtmminm* , •*■ 


8 

o 

8 


Male . . 


88888 

tn n roso 
t*» mso o\ M 


•88888 • -888 -888888 -8 

1 m*C N t>0 ' * ro t>00 * v ""> -** t^ * N 
, *^- *«*■ u"> ^J- ("O § , v© ■*■ m . Wl ^"NO u"J^O \0 . *J*l 


i 






s« 


ID 
X 


Female . 


8 S 8 8 '• 

mmmo " 


888888 • -888 -8 • 

intono * 'mmo " m " 


■88 -88 


8 

SO 


Male . . 


8888 • 
m • 


•88888 • -888 -8 • 

• mo "imio ' "i/ioui*" - !* 


•88 • -8 


5 
| 


X 


Female . 


8888 • 

in 3 * 


•88888 • -88 • -88888 • -8 

' <n0 m ' 'Ova' ' inO mo ' ' ifl 


8 

sr. 
N 


Male . . 


88888 

Q ro urO 

ro •*• o-, r> ih 


•88888 • -888 -88888 • -8 

'0000"">' 'incnin ' o mo mo ' "0 
, tmtti (i . , innm , tin *w>o . .Si 


B 

SO 




-OJ3 
11 

II 

M c< 

r 

1 


* 

00 


Female . 


8888 : 

^88,8 • 


888888.-888:8. 

OONOfOO . • mm o .0 • 


• 88 :88 
;8S> -8.R 


8 

*A 


Male . . 


8888 • 

&>8 8 a • 

N 11 11 • 

* 


• 88888 : : 8 8 8 \\l 

* SmcOsO ' 'sONsO * *>• " 


: 8 8 : : 8 

.mo . . t>. 

mso n 


8 

c 

H 

Ml 


00 
1 


Female . 


8888 : 

in 5 in . 


: 8 8 8 8 8 : : 8 8 : : 8 8 8 8 8 : : 8 

. m o «n irt . .0"i. .«no>nOO . . ro 
ui^-ir>r>.t> - •■*« ^-u-i r^oo in t-> 


8 

m 

(A 


Male . . 


88888 

so 

mso OlOui 

4% 


: 8 8 8 8 8 : : 8 8 8 : 8 8 8 8 8 : : 8 

.OOQinO . .mmo .mQOQO . .t^ 
mmOM m sonso t^so oo so n 


8 



tit 










>> 
a 

3 
O 

u 




t 

c 
X 
r 
i 

- 

< 


r? 

- 


i 

PC 


D 

u 1 

_ C 


ii 

1 j 


! 


: 


1 

! 


si 


Lsll 


c 
( 

! 

- 




V 


• 

i i 

: -. z 


■a . • . 

J o 5b S "5 





28 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



I 

B 

•j 
o 
o 

X 
u 

< 

H 
O 
H 

Q 
W 
h 
y 

w 

o 
y 

< 


H 

D 



< 

O 
E- 

o 

< 

< 

H 

o 

w 

H 

< 

O 

i 



.2 a 

J* 

« a 
a .a 

« h x - 



3 2 i 

"2 « 
SJSUg 

< 






fO fOOO o\ 
00 00 00 N 


• fflN r-» Os i-i SO 

•to "8m« 


•*• OssO 
■*■ TioO u-> 

Os ro w"oo" 


•no m m n 
oo 00 ■>*■ ir> N •<»■ 

■^ ro eT io ■* 



P8 3 



t-» m ioo\m t-. os ■* m t~-so 

t^ N OsOO 00 O N OXNf tf) 

i °^ °^ w « ""t N ■*■ °i. ^^ M « °jj 

] t m so tC m m~oo" in in 

VO M M 



rn so -^ 



• N l>. 

00 si 



H OS OS 

m t-» ■«• 



■<J-so N m 
Tt-so so OO 






•8R8' 



O to r^ + 



t^so OssO M 

n w Osoo m 
mtl 0> t^so 



gsS^ 



Ssj g jj !« 



1O00 



oo pi rnso ■* 



• ■ mm 


t-» ■*• 


. . ■*■ m 


m m 










. . m m 


ro t*» 






. . o 


SO 


• • M 





t~« OS 



■*• ro 

, M OS 

so"~ 



m m 



£ 



e<; 



o£Z g^ 



°ils 



i- t) OJX O o° — — u~ >-^:^o rt it rt rt rt 3 ■- « as. 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



2 9 



NO ro o t-» 

NO OnOO ro 

l£? N* d" M 

no Mm 



ro -<*-*0 On M .^O -t iom N 



■: 5 



6"° 



"1 o r» 



On -t 



DO t^NO t-» 

f»NO m on 
o cono «~» 



J S 
B * 






I- 



00 



ro ro 1 
S9, 



roNO 

-*-NO 



3" 

a y O 



3 8 
^8 



3.C 



a 3 

O o 

EH 
< 



o 1 



N NO ON 
On C\ 



N Q 
.O 



2 8 8' 



ro 
1 O no 00 ro 
roco -a-vo 



!^ 



NO NO M 

00 00 00 
* t^ ro 



fco 



1-w 
ro •*• to 

N 0\N 



U-1O0 

o" «-" 



t^ 
00 t-. 



2# 



# 



o t^ o o 
tx m 5 10 

■*• rooo NO 



8 8 



-^ 



v 2 

312 



S3 



^C.£ "nc^ 



(5) 



ctc3 « SS ?>gft„ . 

1- d o — O o O — — u~ >---~u rt -"i 



2.0 m§~ 



u 



$ J £ fS a; i>; 



30 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



CO 

H 

o 

CO 

an 

ooa 

(X 

<; 

s 

p 

CO 



>5s 
HI'S 

Uj bm 

T: - bo 

?|| 
< I* 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers, . . ! 


m m m " ' 


o - in • ^-m 

o > ,«a 

c . -r . vo ->r 

vO 


8 ft ! 

«n , 




?. : : 


m 

ON 


, O vo o m ' 
C =0 N .n . 

Total Fund. . . SSSs \ 


ONOOm owO ,0 ttm 

Qooompio'-iO ,o mNs 
Oino\f»inm.iO in 
pi_vo in m m m m pi . in rovO pi 
« m 


' m ' 

. Pi . 


8 s.: : 
**> + . . 

MM.. 


pn 

00 


0\ 


18 • • • • 

Amount raised in ' .... 
the Districts by Pft • • ■ « 

Special Tax . . i « • • • • 

m 


• • -8 -8 8 • 

■ " • in • in in " 

..«■».♦. . . .^ 
•J, 


8 • • 




8 

m 
O 

rn 

m 


! mvo "I 

BOO « Ul 

Amount received; r^ N ©Mn 
from CountySu- vo £ " S 
perintendents...!<T rC 


8^8 8 2^8 8 !8 8??S 

OooOOntj-oQ . «n in f^ 
OmoiOmoimo O ■*- m 
pivoinmm-«-i-ipi innmti 


' >n ' 
. . w . 

. N . 

On 


8s.: : 

in ■«»- , . 

ro m 


en 

■<i- 

t>. 

vO 

o^ 

rn 


Number of Days 

Schools were in 

! Session 


m -*■ m OvoO OOOO .00 -*00 
Ov oo oo m r-»vo snooo « ■«■ ^ pi o m 


' OWC 


in ■<»- 
ovo ' 





Average Salary 
per Month of 
Female Teach- 
ers 


oom''c'''SuiH - ' O't^O 
•"^ P~ . . vo . vO ■«■ *■ . . -w Ov v 
■9f* 


: 8 : 

:# : 


88 : 

in in " 




; Average Salary : £ 8 8 8 

per Month of] ^ ^ ^ 

;i Male Teachers.: ^?^ 


888 : 8 : S>8 : : 8888 : 8 

'OVOO '0 't^O * * O m ' c 

oo i/i ^ in . ■*• m , , uiio't ^ . vo 


88 : 

o o ■ 


8 

CO 


: Number Teach- 
ers Employed.. 


m 


N m . 


s 


! I 

n moo oo s *n irno m moo vo . m pi ■«- o Ovm n 
Average daily at-l g^ S M -^»^-«- _ * « h « wh 
! | tendance. . . . 1 m 


.COVO . 


Ov 
in 


Numb* ofpupilsj^R $^~*>™™~««« mmomc^c 
Enrolled. , . . 1 m 


. "*" W . 


vo 


Number of Per- c-r^ooo «*mM'tovO ■«• m -a-vo n w m m n on 
sons between 3 J o^ M 
and 21 years ofj n~ 
age 


. «•>• N 


> Ov 


Value of School, 1 §§§&!?§ J § mj> § §>l '.!?§§ J § E I 
Houses .... I m"oo" p>~ m m _ in rC 




8 : 


pT 

oo 


No. of Schoo 
Houses .... 


1 






VO 




No. of Districts/ M N ^ ^ 

1 


invo t'-oo OiO >• N w + invo t-« cv 


h n ro •<*■ mvo 
PI PI N CI PI PI PI 


P-. P> 







SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



31 






> 
. r- 

M Z 

* o 

K uj 
4 q 

o 

m 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers . . 



mooo * 



^£8^ 



oS- 



O inu-iQ m O oo t-»o C "10 Qoooo on O m O TO m n o 
M t-. r^co moo NNOO C "1«« r~« « CO N ^ * ir, ir, ■*■■>»- 



O mo "1 C 



Total Fund. 



|« *0\OlN 



r-~ m m o C •*■ f^ in 
t^CC mO 0\N*b\0 •*■ ON Ol •"• 



8 



Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax. . 


m m 


o> 


oo (> 

lOOO 


On moo 


m moo o ro 


* o ■*• m 
m 


s 


oo •<*■ 

M M 


N m 
m m m ►< 


n •*■ m « oo 

m ■>»■ o\ mo 

r-» m 



C m < 

«"» N 

COM' 



OOO00OOOO00QOOQ0O 



Amount received | 
from County | 
Superintend' ts L^ " 



2 883.S8<8 83 3*8S,S*8 

ooo n ■«■ o miocoo 
n d t-» o\ m o o oo >i 



O TOO OnO <-■ in 00 



M n n f Dave I OOOOOmmCOOO t^oo 00C000000C0 

jno. oi .uays | N „ oo M »5 r^vo 3 >c v£ o *». m -«-o oo n mo ooo o ■*■ 
Schools were i n j M '- M ^ M ~ " M M M H M 

Session .... 



Average salary! 8 8 8 8 
per month of 
female teachers 



8888 



888 



88 



Average salary 
per month of 
male teachers. 



8888K8 

U~) "") lO ON ""> 

r^ -if o>^0 W m 



88 

in O 



888 

mom 
t^o t-» 



o m 
o m 

o oo 



No. of Teachers j „ j, 
Employed . . 



N N « M 



Average Daily i 
Attendance. . 



mo m o m ca 



m 



Enrolled . . 



No. of persons 
between 5 and 
21 years of age. 



Value of School] ^1 § 1 1 1 §> || I 
Houses. . . o" m" cf 



No. of School; 
Houses . . 



Number of Dis- 
tricts 



m -*■ mo r^oo o\ o 



32 



SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



> 

K 
Z 
D 
O 

o 

k 

z 

UJ 

m 



1 

Amount remain- 1 
ing in thei 
hands of Dis-j 
trict Treasurers 1 


8 

acj 

i 


00 
ro 

I*. 

w 


00 ro 








10 




CI 






Total Fund. . . 


ft ro ■*• \Q 
w N rO 

ro ro O 
N ro \0 O 
w vO CO *■ 




<o 00 

00 ro 
« 
r» \r, 


ro 

% 

ro 


ro 
00 

ro 

ro 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax. . 




E 8 • 

M 
















m 

«% 


Amount received 
from County 
Supt's .... 


•8 % * 8 - 

a ■+ m c\ ' 

00 O 00 ro 

£ « « « 




M 00 

■*• ro 


ro 
O 

O 

ro 


i 

ro 


Number of Days *- in o fi 
Schools were in 1 2 2 2 S? 
Session. ... 







t-. 


\o 


\o 


Average Salary 
per month of 
female teachers . 


8 vS : a 








1 


£ 


Average Salary 
per month of 
male teachers . 




O U1 


















No. of Teachers 
i Employed. . . 


m €♦> H M 






* 


'. - 


00 


JAverage daily at- 
tendance. . . 


ro ro m 00 
ro N w m 






o\ 


O 


00 


No. of Pupils 
Enrolled . . . 


ro -<f 11 u-> 

-t- ro w w 








N 


XO 


I 

i No. of persons 
between 5 and 
21 years of age 


-T M 00 o\ 






-*- 


. <5 


ro 


Value of School 
Houses. . . . 






3 
















v8 


No. of School 
Houses. . . . 






« 
















H 


1 

No. of Districts. 


1 

i 

1 • 




ro « 


* 


r> v 


3 


>. 01 


) 


O 


3 






SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



33 



>- 

z 

D 
O 

o 

LU 
UJ 

OL 
O 

< 

Ul 

O 



(6) 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of District 
Treasurers . . 



in 

CI 

•7» 


CO 



CO 

8 






co 

CO 

3 


O 

•7. 


Total Fund . . 


■■o 
% 


■8 

m 


co N 
« m O 

co -*• m 

CO <M 

co^ m m 


m 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax . . 






CO 

t 

ro 


8 

0, 



CI 


N 

* 

'X. 


Amount received °* 
fromCounty Su- §^ 
perintendents . ^ 

1 



ON 

ON 


mo s 

N M CO 

co 10 ro 


Ifl 



i Number of Days 
Schools were in 
session. 








N Q 

co m 


00 
H 


i 
Average Salary 
per mo. of Fe. 
male Teachers. 


CO 

\n 


10 

00 


35 

t^ 


a 


Average Salary 

per mo. of male 

: Teachers . . . 

i | 









in <s ' 
ONON . 




IT 


1 No. of Teachers 
employed . . . 


H 


in 


M M M 


a 


Average daily at- 
! tendance . . . 


0\ 


o\ 


CO 10 


rn 


' No. of Pubils 
Enrolled . . . 


» 


O 

co 


n » 


in 
in 


No. of Persons 1 ^ o oo 
between 3 and;' "g, 
21 years of age.' 


m m o> 


O 

ON 


I 8 
Value of School g. 

Houses . . . . Ua 


8 
8 


c> 


_'0" 


'8 

» 

W 


m 

BO 


No. of School 
Houses .... 


H 


!« 




,H 


m 


No. of Districts. 






co ■< 


r- mvo r-» 


- 



z 

D 
O 

o 

CO 

O 

UJ 

Z 

o 
o 



>■ 
h 

z * 
D 
O 

o 

<i! 



(0 

o 
o 



34 



SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



. Z 

H D 
H O 

H ° 
hi w 
H < 

o 
o 



Amount remain- 
ing in the 
hands of Dis- 
trict Treasurers 


o>oo 

« mm 

-o t 
00 m r^ 


r» n p-» 

■*■ o> cooo 

ft M 


ON 

00 00 
t^ 10 

On PI 
co 


ro 


cV 

0-, N 


M . 
M P| 


8 8 











Total Fund. . . 


en Si CO 


00 uim + 
t^ o pi p~ 

PI PI in M 

m m om 


O 
00 its 

ro\5 
















m m 

pi pi 

N l*» 

in 00 

PI m 




m 

O 
00 
00 

i 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax. . 


mas 

O M 

cooo 






m 

t^ CO 




N 

P4 

ro 
M 


9 




»n 
SO 

* Ci 












pi 

00 


Amount received 
from County 
Supt's .... 


-*- >^> ■+ <^oo ■*■ 
*0 N !t O on 

^0-<J-PIOPI-*-in 
M «*• Pt M O M PTO 

« rOM « t« m n 


0"*"*- 
5 cov© •*■ 

88 S^ 

« n pi 


SO msO O . 
M 00 00 00 

SO CO 
PI in in pi 


m go . 

nO in ' 

m m n • 

0\ co m . 





Number of Days 
Schools were in 
Session. . . . 


OO *OiO O « O 
000 ci r^oo *oo (i 


US 



9s 




00 co 

ION 


■*• co . 


00 


Average Salary 
per month of 
female teachers. 








in 






Q 





ft 






*n . 




Average Salary 
per month of 
male teachers . 




•1 




g> 




LO 


en so 







3 3-5- 


co 






00 


No. of Teachers 
Employed. . . 


MMHMHHNrO 


MM 


pi 


M H CI M 


— : 


PI 


Average daily at- 
tendance. . . 


N « M M Ct 


M H 


n 


PI O M t"» 


SB-: 


PI 


No. of Pupils 
Enrolled . . . 


O O ♦»© 00 co t^00 
pipipipimhmco 


CO 00 

PI ■*■ 


JT 


miflOvN 


SO P^OO . 


CO 
CO 


No. of persons 
between 5 and 
21 years of age 


00 M MSNMOvN 
CI-^-plPITt-plM-*- 


vo pi c-»oo 
■*-vo m pi 


*8:?S 


co mvo co 




Value of School 
Houses. . . . 




8828S>E& 




§ 

• co 


.8 








u-) in 
co 


8 




IT) 


ON 


No. of School 
Houses. . . . 




MMM 


!—. 


!h 


!« 


I"* 


: m « : : 


m 


No. of Districts. 


l 

r 
1 


c 


r 


n • 




fM 


S * 


sC9 c 


h 1 


M C 




- 


j- 1 


i>i 


r^o 


1 1 


IS 1 




i m 


co 
pi 



superintendent's report. 



35 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers . . 


ON t"» CO ■♦ 00 * 

ci 00 vo ■*• r» 

m « ■*■ - 
vo m m « M 


* 


VO 

m 
vo 

in 

v. 


Total Fund. . . 


vo t>» o m >n 

t-» ON ■*■ vo rn t«. 
■v >- in 00 00 ■*■ 
f> t-» ro 00 ro rn 


m 
vc 


pi 




N 

rn 

v. 


Amount raised in; « . . • • . • 
the Districts byj !?•*•'•■' 8. • ■ 

Special Tax. . 1 %S, • • M 


eg 


vO 


ON 


Amount received 
from County 
Superintend' ts 


vo Q ro ■<■ Ov »n vo in 
m v£ m 00 00 mmvo 

t»vo m« f» 00 m 
•«- ON 00 c^m fino 
m •*■ pt mw mrow 


OO 


c« 

■a 

v. 


No. of Days 
Schools were in 
Session .... 


M CI •*■ C 00 

en •*■ 00 ■*■ 

CM M M MM 


00 


CV 


Average salary • • g § g, • 
per month of j • • m n ■«■ * 
female teachers • • 42 * N 




8 


Average salary 

] per moath of 

male teachers. 


8 8 8 8 

mo ' c< 
•* in m c~> 


8 


m 


8 

\o 

WW 


No. of Teachers; „ „ M „ m M 
Employed . . 

1 


i - 


s 


Average Daily « v c* o 
Attendance. . 1 M M 


: >o 


vo 


No. of Pupils in oo n C r- m 
Enrolled . . . j ■ H M M 


00 





No. of persons 
between 5 anc 
21 years of age 


♦ 00 m t^ m 
in m m m ►« c*5 


CO 




18 8 8 8 8 8 

Value of School g g g g g g 
Houses. • • | H * « « M 
j ** 


• 8 

ON 


8 

m 


No. of School _ M „ M 
Houses . . 


' " 


r^ 


Number of Dis 
tricts 


m n m •>«- in vo 


t-» 00 


cc 



36 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 





> 




H 


M 


Z 


H 
H 


D 


H 


O 


a 


o 


j 


o 




< 

Q. 



UJ 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers, . . 


W ON ON f» 
ON ■♦ t*» t~s 

m m co (5 

ON m CO N 

ft 


•28 

. co 

CO tO 


ON CO 

ON 

M lO 




to 

tO • 

tO ' 
CO ' 


ON tO . 

N 00 " 

co . 




ro 


m 


o 

p- 

m 


Total Fund. . . 


00 ON O . 
ip P- ON 
0^ CO CO . 


:S : 


88 >8 

w . ♦» 

CO P* M >o 
tO PI . ON PI 

to 


O o\ ' " 
•*• to . . 

co . . 
to CO 
0_ co . . 






I 




Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax . . 


CI M ' 

coo . 

•♦00 O 

roisin 
■♦mm 
•94 




tO ' ' P» O 

CO . , M g 

m" ' '% + 

pT 


!v8 : 
• pi • 

.tO . 


:8 : 

to . 
co 




cc 




to 

D- 
P- 


Amount received 
from CountySu- 
perintendents... 


r^-o O NO^O mininx O Q mO Q N to n co 
io to m r-« n m n to co n to co<£> o m oo r^oo 

■♦ Q N ■♦ ON to ON c>- t© ON CO ONtO •♦ "♦00 
N *'tNOl«00 ■♦ ON mvOOO P^ "♦ lO ON 
* N C( N N nconH H m« « r^ pimmm 




CO 

PI 

■*- 

<* 


Number of Days 
Schools were in 
Session 


■♦COO »0 00 t-» ON * 
■♦00 00 tO ON t-. ■«- N . 


QOOtOt-OMOOOO 
O tO 00 P~ ■♦ N ONIOOOO 


SO 


£ 


Average Salary 
per Month of 
Female Teach- 

' ers 

| 


0' 


• o o ' ' 


'oo o o o 
. to to ■♦ to 




Si 


:?n 


ft 


[Average Salary 
per Month of 
Male Teachers. 


8 S> : S*S : 

1*. 


a : 


. . . 


. ON 
tO N 


o 

lO 


• Si 


£ 


Number Teach- 
i , ers Employed.. 


■ ■ - : 


MtVMNMPlMMNM 


'.~ 


m 


- 1 : 

Average daily at- I^S 00 gooto ♦- ^ 
tendance. . . . 1 ° 


M CON ■♦•♦PN. *f~M 

M 00 M M M . M M 


' CO 


in 


i 

Number of pupils 
Enrolled. . . . 


1 

PI N M VO M 


* CO ■ 


1O00 P^ 00 00 IO00 ON ON 
MC-»MNN N COM 
CO 


">o 


on 


Number of Per- 

5nns hrrwren e <"> to on o M n mo n nntH own to m to on 
sons oetween 51 t^. e* n mvo co n nco« « *Mn« to m ■♦ •♦ m n 
and 21 years of. ""■ 
age j 


ro 

oo 
(J 


Value of School § £ § 
Houses . . . . <-T h 


O «0 


: 8 


8§8°o : 

N 


: : 88 : '■£ 

. . N tO . . M 


in 
m 

it 


No. of Schoo 
Houses .... 


1 H M H 


. N 


'« 


: — : 


::-«;:« 


CO 


No. of Districts.! H « <*> * "■>*> ^^ < 


> M N CO ■♦ lOO t^OO ON 


a m 

















SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



37 



Z 

D 

o 



h 

Z 
O 

2 

UJ 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers, . . 


"^ . . .00 . 

HI IO 

vo ' • ' r^ m • 
m pi 
N " • * 

«* . . . 


. •«- m Q . 

• mvO VO •*" M " 
. M O\00 M PI . 

PI PI 


• 'VO" h7 • 

* " PI HI • 

. . N . 




g" 
£ 


Total Fund. . . 


^888 

vO ^- On 8 00 
VO ■*• ro 


18 


• O\00 h h Q • 
. OnOO OnvO . 

t^vo moo vo 
" hi -*■ m moo ' 
PI 10 pi pi VO . 


\ !8 m ; 

• Ye- * 




* 


°« 

in 

M 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax . . 


3,8 « • • 

+ ■ ■ ■ 

£> "■> . . . 
** . . . 






. . . ""> . 

■ ■ -VO • 

. . . 00 . 




vfl 

O 
| 

m 

'7/ 


Amount received 
from CountySu- 
perintendents... 


Ep?888 
00 t^ 

NO\OvOoO 
ION m 


' m 




OnOO hi w O ' 
OnOO OnVO . 

t-^vo moo vo , 

m -*- m moo 

PI in p) p| vo . 


: : s 8 : 

. . VO 10 . 

• 00 




8 


Number of Days 
Schools were in 
Session 


0O\M00000000"-)0 .c 
00 m»o N vo vo nwOCO On -4-00 t 


- " vO O ' 







Average Salary 
1 per Month of 
| Female Teach- 
ers 


: 8 •' 8 •' 


8 
3- 


8 8 : : 8 : E 
00 • ' i© • > 


•h£ • • 

' m ' ' 






'Average Salary 
per Month of 
Male Teachers. 


8 : 8 : 8 

IN . S> . * 


8 



• 8 m 8 8 ■ 

• P) m " 

. m 1*- ^- m . 


: : 8 : 




Q 

CO 


1 

Number Teach- 

1 ers Employed.. 


- ..;.-.*.:> 


:«„ !h 




- 


Average daily at- 1^3 ^'oq *„ ^ +(0 ^"i^oo [v 
tendance. . . . I s8 M ^ H ' . M H H m M . " 


■> .« . . 




00 

CI 


1 
Number of pupils 
Enrolled. . . . 


*mp.H m ■«- moo vo 00 00 m to . t- 


-a*: 




- 


Number of Per- 
sons between 5 
and 21 years of 
age 


r^M , h h h ntia) 000 m ft , 
■<i-t~. to nmttNm r^oo m 


N . N •♦ . ^ 
PI N C 


;s^r 


in 


Value of School 
Houses .... 

1 


•8888 • 
:8&88 : 

ON M N 


■8 -8.888 • • 

' O * O "-> Q ' ' 

P) IT) 


•• 8 • 
• • • • 
. . "■> . . 




8 


No. of School 
Houses .... 


: — : 


MM.MH i i 


m .H : : 




m 


No. of Districts. 


m « co •*• u->vo txoo 


on m pi m it- mvo t^oo on 


N PI 











(7) 



38 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 







t-- 





N 


CO 00 


O 
m 




Amount remain- 


* 


?< 


Ov 


00 






ing in the 


■0 
00 


CO 


CO 


00 Ov 







hands of Dis- 


"2 




<? 


c» 


CO 




trict Treasurers 


•«. 








•t 






o\ 


in 


Ov 


■>»• 00 


vO 






m 


Ov 


t^ 


co 00 








w-i 


■3 


in 


Ov ■«- 


•«• 




Total Fund. . . 





Jf 


£ » 


t>. 




















r£ 


cT 


CO 




«& 






«ft 














m 


-i 


in 





00 






O 


(0 


co 





r^ 




Amount raised in 


£ 












the Districts by 


ft 

VO 


00 







Ov 




Special Tax. . 


£ 








£ 






<*> 


n 


^. 


00 


£ 






vO 







ei 00 




Amount received 


t^ 




M 








from County 


co 


8 
VO 


VO 


oo" 


m 




Supt's .... 


«% 




M 




«£ 




Number of Days 


in 


CO 




M IO 






Schools were in 


Ov 


2" 








••»■ 




Session. . . . 














Average Salary 


8 






in 


m 







per month of 
female teachers. 


in 




N 


in 


M 


• 


& 


K 


t^ 


m £ 


& 


>- 














h 




8 









m 


z 


Average Salary 




in 




ci 


per month of 


m 




t-» 




VO 


D 


male teachers . 


«. 




w 




*% 


O 

o 


























No. of Teachers 












z 


Employed. . . 










w 














a. 


1 












-j 

o 


Average daily at- 
tendance. . . 

1 . 







in 


O 


co 




No. of Pupils 


in 
vO 


cc 


co 
Ov 


CO 00 

CO M 


vo 
Ov 




Enrolled . . . 


CO 




N 




P~ 




No. of persons 


CO 


co 




CO 
CO 


in 00 


co 
5 




between 5 and 


in 


M 


CO 






21 years of age 
















8 


8 


8 


8 8 


8 




Value of School 
Houses. . . . 


I 

co 


1 

en 


| 


1 1 


m 




No. of School 










vO 




Houses. . . . 














No. of Districts. 


H 


- 


co ■< 


in vo 


O 





>■ 


>" 


1- 


H 


z 


Z _ 


D 
O g 


s 


O B 


5 


s 


w C* 


UJ ^ 


Q c 


-J c 


Z & 


< * 


< 


O 


tf 


CO 


O 


z 



superintendent's report. 



39 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers . . ; 



Total Fund. 



Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax. . 



Amount received 
from County 
Superintend'ts 



No. of Days; 
Schools were in 
Session . . . . i 



. .00 .0 



Average salary • g • • § 
per month of • »n • • m 
female teachers; -^ • • N 



Average salary 
per mopth ot 
male teachers. 


• : S : : : 8& -8 

• - 10 • • • Q N ' 

















•* 


























No. of Teachers _ „ 
Employed . . 


N « g , H (( M « n 












N 






























" C\ . . . . 


sa 








Average Daily 
Attendance. . j ' M 






ro 


| ; 














1 * 

No. of Pupils | ' u, 
Enrolled . . . \ [ M 


,noi , . « 




















in 
























No. of persons! S.5.^-«« J ■ • ^^ P.v^ ^ 
between 5 andj M m • • " M M 
21 years of age. • • 


■g£ ^ 


.0 



| 








: :s : 






Value of School 


I ::::::: 8 s 

1 £ 


1 


Houses. . . 


&* 








No. of Schoo 
Houses . . 






• • » • 










N N 


* 










Number of Dis-j „ „ „ ^. vno tvoo <> 


« O 


m ■*■ uto 


r~-oo 


BO 


tricts 











40 



superintendent's report. 



> 

M Z 

> o 

H O 



z 
o 

CO 

of 

LU 



Amount remain- g; g • o" ■ 
ing in the hands l^oo -ro- 
of District 3 2 • M • 
Treasurers . . **■ 


3%vS8 

■n in hi m 
n in in 
i N 


►t Ok . . . 

Ov M 

N O • • - 


>n ■*■ .m . 

O 0) ■*• t-» 

• Ooo M ' r. ' 
. , Oi«n .00 . 


:: 


O . . . 

» ' ' • 

O . . . 


8 

■i. 


1 
Total Fund . . 


w hi co •«■ r>. co co vo hi osoo n 

ano m" » ftffiti ovo 

r-» covo 00 n covo oo invo •*■ n ■*■ r-» 

» "IMS " OwO 00 « moo in n 

X^-^-M N hi •*■■«- CO ■«- N Mb - ■«- 

at 


CO VO 00 00 VO 00 . 
O hi Ov Ov OS t". 
30 'M HlfltflN ' 

O moo co n m . 

N ' II B «M ♦ 


CO H» 

VO coco " ' * 
N M . . . 

HI M « 


^0 

VO 



0^ 

A 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax . . 


u-> NO 

NO co 

co ' ' ' co ' N * 
h ro . m . co . 

t>. M HI M 
** ... '. \ 


.0 .»N 

ro ■*■ ■*- 

' * '00 N 


m f» 

' 00 m ' m ' 
. . . ""> co . co . 






"8 

A 


Amount received 
fromCounty Su- 
perintendents . 


vo m ro-^-t^M roo<0 hi Ovco N in 
momo N m m »o,o\Oiinm 

h» vO CO N Qv£>v£> invo Ov N u-> 0> 
SMnmn On coco Mifioo •<■ co 

Hl^NHlNHim-^-N-fNHIHIHim 


CO .vooooovo •>»• 
vo h owto: 

00 "oo co -vr m N 
vo . m N N CO 

N N hi CO M M 


CO (^ 
■«- Ov tv 

VO coco ' " ' 
N hi . . , 

M HI N 

. . . 


vi 


Number of Days 
Schools were in 
session. 


2^2 S^ ^ § S-S^S' 8 ' 


. . 5 *■*• M 

VO '♦vfi 00 -*-00 


£ ' • ' 


8 












Average Salary' • • 
j per mo. of Fe.j^^o • • 
1 male Teachers, h* 


.O .00 m O 
tj- n n in -«- in 


. .OOOOO 

co -*• n ■*• m 












m 






*» 


















[Average Salary 

! per mo. of male 

Teachers . . . 


in . . in 00 
t~ •«*■ in -*■ m 
«. . . 


2. • • • 


. . . .0 .000 

vt melt 


. . . 




No. of Teachers 
employed . . . 


mHlNMHlHIHlHlCMPlHIHIW 


. . Hi HI N W CI M M 


'.*']'. 


?, 


Average daily at- 
tendance . . . 


f^vo vo m m co 
00 N hi m N N M 


. t^CO hi «-» 


. . . vO N VO ON moO vo 


. O . . . 


CO 


No. of Pubils 
Enrolled . . . 


in moo m vo Ovco Ov 

co -*- n « n« n 


. M VO M ■«- 

N CO N N 


N ■*• "*• CO CO Hi 
h. N CO hi N hi N 


. N . . . 


S 1 


No. of Persons 
between 3 and 
21 years of age. 


00 ^h o» m« h hm oto« 
« vO ro n in vr* -t N mmmm r 

r 
1 


) hi moo nco N tintM o N t^O 
0-^-NNcocoNinHicviNmNHim 


N 


Value of Schoo 
Houses .... 




) .00 .mo 

J m in n 






Q 00 

8 "& h? 


888S>5- - 8 8 S 

00 CO M HI . CO M I 




m 




C 




r^ 




w 






No. of Schoo 
Houses .... 


• 
















8 












No. of Districts 


m n co ■*■ invo r^co 


HI N CO Tf 


nvo r-»oo ov m n 


co •*• mvo r^co Ov 

N N N N N N N 


-V 









SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



41 





1 

Amount remain- 
















ing in the hands 












10 




of the District 




* 








£ 




Treasurers, . . 



















to 


B 


E 


& 8 a & 8 


8 






di 








1 




Total Fund. . . 




CI 




N N 






«t 










». 




Amount raised in 
















the Districts by 
















Special Tax . . 


















S> 


n 


? 


Q 
to 3 t>» to < 




C* 




Amount received 


^ 










00 




from CountySu- 


<© 


fi 




M ro ro •*■ >o 






perintendents... 


«fc 










£ 




Number of Days 
















Schools were in 











■ v8 




"1 




Session 
















Average Salary 









8 : 




8 


> 


: per Month of 
Temale Teach- 


to 








t% 











00 


ers 


%» 










«* 


z 






























D 


Average Salary 
1 per Month of 


• 


8 




• 8 


8 


8 


O 
O 








: sS 




IT) 


Male Teachers. 




'O 






to 


LU 


Number Teach- 














* 


ers Employed.. 














< 

-1 
































Average daily at- 


' 


r^ 






00 






tendance. . . . 












to 




Number of pupils 








M 00 









Enrolled. . . . 








M M 




ON 




Number of Per- 
















sons between 5 


^. 




u- 


00 00 ■« 


00 f> 






and 21 years of 


H 


ro 


N 


n m m 


<*> 


Ot 




age 




















8 


8 


8 8 


• 8 


8 




Value of School 




n 


a 


J? 8 ' 


• 8 


to 




Houses .... 




•*. 


H 




• & 


■0. 




No. of School 
















Houses .... 
















No. of Districts. 


" 


- 


r~ 


♦ «o *o 


1^ 00 


00 


(8 


) 















42 



superintendent's report. 



> 
\- 

7L 
D 
O 
O 

LJ 

< 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers . . 


« «">vo O ci ' "*> en c* ' 
•*-vo O w vO vn . h ■*■ mvo . 

00 OvNM *« N , •«- S (1 IT) . 

■^nnmwmvo en\r> en 

M M U1M (1) , «M 








00 
O. 
°°« 


Total Fund. . . 


OOQ"l-*0-*-0 vivo N Q 
•^■N mvOvooovo m ro rovo O 

VO vnvC O •* ro 10 « N t^l^O O 

VO (Jim ON Ifl f~VO t~- t^OO Ov Ov 

» inroM n -*-vo *H\0 f) M HI 






VO 
00 

1/1 


1 ' o • m vo o o ' 
Amount raised in • ^ • N ^ ° ° • 
the Districts by • £. • < 2 2 N °^S • 
Specia! Tax. . •«% • M 


00 " • 

00 . . •*• 

H • • 






1 


Amount received 
from County 
Superintend' ts 


OOO Tt-00 O ■*• Q moo O N O 
■vl-vo C OvNvooovO 1-1 en ovo vO 

vo rovo winroOMNOt^-OPi 
vo N •- f^ O M mI-vo f- moo Ovoc 
•h 10 CO 11 CJ "4-VO ifH •tfOM 






00 




No. of Days 
Schools were in 
Session .... 


OOOOiONOOOvOONO 
Ov en N vo 00 ij-vo -*-vo M <M 






00 


Average salary 
per month of 
female teachers 


888 
>n 

en •+ f 


: : 8 : 

■ • in " 

. . en . 


8 : S>8 

O ' sco 

•>*■ . en en 






8 


Average salary 
per month of 
male teachers. 


•8 : 888888 : S, • 

'in 'o omO so " « ' 

, -*■ \r> t-» -^- -*■ ro •*• ^t- 








8 

vO 


No. of Teachers 
Employed . . 


wniitii-iMciriHi-iiiMM 






vO 


Average Daily 
Attendance. . 


CO Ov svo co CO m SvO GO m 

M<Nl-l(MVOC«>HW „ p| M M 






IT) 


No. Of Pupils Lr, jj rooo vo OVO ^00 -t vn Nvo 

Enrolled . . . \ m »« ** <*« • m <*>■+*«" 






co 

■ 


No. of persons! 

hrfwprn c and Mf « 0«J +N Ooooocomo 
Derwecn 5 anu , M stociMvo romnN ■«- n •*• 
21 years of age. M 




CI 

vo 


|888 

Value of School §S & 

Houses. . . ^ f 2 "> 


8888 
0000 

IT) LO M 

<N 1 H ■*■ 




000 

vo Q 

r» 

VO -*• N 








8 

CI 

10 


No. of School 
Houses . . 


«MH 


«W MM 














Number of Dis- 
tricts 


m « ro i 


► lovo t>.oo c 


IV O M N f 


■) 1 




jvO 


vO 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 



43 



z 

1 i 

< 

b 
< & 
a. 

< 



& 



> 
H 
Z 
D 
O 

o 
< 

z 
< 

(0 

< 



> 
z 

o 
o 

< 

Q. 



Amount remain- 
ing in the 
hands of Dis- 

i trict Treasurers 


OOOm ■ m " 


00 
00 


Total Fund. . . 


\r> Q moo . 
vo •*• -*-oo OO 


CO 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax. . 


. .<© m ■«■ . 
m inoo •*■ 

" * ci m O ' 
. . in in ■«• in . 


in 

I 


Amount received 
from County 
Supt's .... 


000 000 ■«• 

innoo Nino ' 
►< n >o -*- m . 





in 

V4 


Number of Days! £g 5-?c8^ • 
■ Schools were inl M M M " 
Session. ... 

• 


•«• 


Average Salary : • • 
per month of i ° & ££ £ ■ ■ 
female teachers. I** 1 • • 

• • 


O 

in 


Average Salary 

; per month of 

male teachers . 


. in . . 
in t-» f ^<- 

*% . . 


** 


i No. of Teachers 
i Employed. . . 


N M N N « M , 


O 


Average daily at- 
tendance. . . 


so tioo w>c . 

•■ 


ON 


No. of Pupils 
Enrolled . . . 


00 -«-co 10 moo . 


ON 


1 

No. of persons 
! between 5 and 
; 21 years of age 


m r^ tj- ■«- m n 


O 


Value of School 
Houses. . . . 


1 O m . 
! in m in in 

1 « m m m ro « . 

r 


in 
ft 


i 
No. of Schoo 
Houses. . . . 


„ (s H M N M . 


CO 


No. of Districts 


• 

| m N ro *- m>© 00 


00 



44 



SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



M h 
" l 

M o 

H LLi 

D 
Q. 



1 

Amount remain- Sj&o"^ 2 
ing in the hands w ^ ^ M 
of District^ g}^^ 10 
Treasurers . . ** 


■8. ; 

■ ■ 


co Ovm m . ,0 .Oc*mo . . 
CM w M CM in ov N «M N 

00 ro m co ' ' m ' covo co co ' ' 
. txvo moo co . . m . w cm ♦ , . 


' m 

. 

• 




CO 



3 


Total Fund . . 


♦ ^ 'Oinin'cooMOu-iQOO ' Q CM »n O "Ooom 
O vo m . txoo co . m m cm m Ov . 3 m co . cm ov t-» 

co t-~ w o\ >n , Ooo N , co m vo cooo in m . O Ov •*■ O . co m cm 
oih 01O Qoom vo ■*- m cm 00 r^o\"">o» vo 
ro covo tun , ( n m , n Mnro« n h . ■*- co ■*- cm . « m co 

♦ M m" 

«ft ... 


CO 

a 
| 

BO 

in 

ft 


Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax . . 


t : : 3 : : : : : : 
s • ■% 

DO . M 

*fc 


' ' ' Q co " O " ' 

. . . vo . M . . . . 

. . . 00 . t^ . . . . 

CM m ro 
. . . CO CM 


r^ 

n 


Amount received 
fromCounty Su- 
perintendents . 


OOt^Om.mmm.t^mmmQOO .Ommo .Omm 
OOOmt-»Mooro ooovNinOOOvOcOMCi nco n 

cm r-% m m vo ' r^oo cm ' 00 ♦vo rooo mm ■t + fo ' mmtt 
*!>m O , t-^oo m.Tj-ooOOCtco , Ntnm , O *0 
■*• rO>0 t( m MtOH M U1 m CO m CM M ■»»- N CO CM M CO 

A ' ' ' 


CO 

3 



Number of Days 
Schools were in 
session. 


Ov CO .ooomo 

♦ OO CM t-» VO CM VO f^vO 


• • hS 

. O O t>. Q q .mocM . .OOm 

NVO O NO VOCO N VO CO Ov 





Average Salary 
per mo. of Fe. 
male Teachers. 


.0 .0 . m . . m 

w vO t «*■ co 


. iflcn . . m . 
♦ co ♦ ♦ 


hS h£ • • 

CM O .CM . CO Ov 

vo ♦ m ♦ cm 


«4 


Average Salary 
per mo. of male 
Teachers . . . 


. m . m . .OO . 

m m -4- m 
.** ... 


.OmmN.m.m.m. . . 
10 ♦ m ♦ ♦ ' t>» ♦ 


** 


1* 


No. of Teachers 
employed . . . 


<<f M M M M MM H M M 


. H CO M HI M CM . M CM CO M , m 


M CO 


10 


Average daily at- 
tendance . . . 


in ci m h 


M 00 . . 


.« CON ts»« . M N N . . «1 VO t-» 
M « M Hi MNh M CO 


VO 
P» 


No. of Pupils 
Enrolled . . . 


O O m m m on mvo « 

->»--*-CMCMMMMMMM 


. «-» OWO N O VO , +OM « . -<«-vO t-» 

cm lo hi hi hi m mocMCO MCO 


CO 

eg 


No. of Persons 
between 3 anc 
21 years of age. 


vo 1^00 t-» CM NOcOvO cm u"> o> ON •*■ mvo co cm t^O cm Ov m vo ■*• 
^mtt ct mvo CM CM M M WO M M CM CO COOO CM •*• CO CM m m t~» 


m 

co 

ro 


Value of Schoo 
Houses .... 


i':U 






O . 
m 


Q m .mo . 
VO CM CM »■» m 

MM CO . VO . 


-888 : 

00 CM M , 



m m 



CO 

m 
10 


No. of Schoo 
Houses .... 








N • 


MM MM [MM '. 


: — : 


MM 


VO 


No. of Districts 


m n ♦ mvo t^oo 


Ov m cm co •+■ mvo r«.oo c 


NO m (i ro* mvo 


VO 









SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



45 



Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers, . . 



Total Fund. 



Amount raised in 

, : the Districts by 

Special Tax . . 

Amount received 
from CountySu- 
perintendents... 



> 

z 

D 
O 

o 

llj 
Q 
Z 
< 



Number of Days 
i Schools were in 
; Session 



Average Salary 
per Month of 
Female Teach 



Average Salary 

i per Month of 

Male Teachers. 



Number Teach- 
: ers Employed.. 



Q Average daily at- 
wmm j ! tendance. . . . 



1 ;Numberofpupils| 
! J Enrolled. 



o 

m 
t^ o 



88 



! Number of Per-j 

! sons between 5J o\ m >n ^ 

and 2i years of. M 2" ^^ 

age I 



* H ° 

-. i° 

o QJ 

hI O 
PQ < 

En (3 
< 
CO 



;Value of School 
: Houses ... 



i No. of School 
! Houses .... 



No. of Districts. 



(9) 



:::! 

• • ■ 


3 


If 








N 

CO 
ro 


!j&88 888ff ! 

: m m m rovo vO C-» 
In n CO M M M 




c8 


! 1 . 
1 * • «% 












c8 

co 


; . ©* o o o o o m 

•!IM d O O 5 N 

! i oo o 10 « <■» ■*■ 
Mm m oo m>© vo t>» 




NO 

o 


ii 

, oo O O 
j toco CI 

1 


vg 








o 


• o • 












8 

o 


8 : S 

O ' >0 


88 

O m 

■M-X5 









- 


-« 






« 


1 

H«. 

1 

1 


. f* 








f^ 


1 

! ! 1A O 00 

j |m ♦« 

!! 


.CO O 

11 f> 






rn 


! CO O <""> ■*• cm vO m 


' 1*1 


g 


1888 
|S 8 A 












8 
ft 

00 


1 












on 


m . m* 




rw 


r 


■.« 


5 O 


O 



> 

kZ 

Hh 

<1 

CO 



1 


CO 

^ ■ 


vi 


> 

» 




CM . 

Q ' 
c> . 

1 • 


■ 
.-<■ 

a 

l 

8 




; ; 








o ' 
o . 
n 

1 • 


■ 

? 
5 


■> 
i 




o . 

CO 


i 




. 

' 

1 ° ' 

1** ' 


8 

o 












1 • 








U : 




i 

»- 




"^ . 


•- 






t 




8 : 


8 

1 






- 




«-" «♦ 







46 



SUPERINTENDENT S REPORT. 





Amount remain- 
ing in the hands 
of the District 
Treasurers . . 


cm no minp 
t-% m m m 5 

Ox ' vo moo CO - 
m . in owo P~ w 
w o\ 


<n , 00 . cm Q 00 . . 
CM vo ■«■ 

O . 00 . vo Ov . . 


Q ^ ■* 

Ov 

vO>0 

M «M 


'vo ' 


cn 


;|8 

: ; : i 

. . . ** 




Total Fund. . . 

i 


CM Q M *"» x invO 

r^ en c\ •-« 00 in 

OO hi w vO Pi Ov m 
« f) ts rOO\* M 
W ON 


Ovoo pi P) 

mvo m me 

m TMn moo 
t~ cm « •<*- tn 


. •* O 
m m 

• ro f> ' 

o\ 


f» Ov m 
<*■ l^vo vO vo ' 
O w CM VO 11 

h t< h m 


' P~00 

•^?2 


• • • tC 

• ■ • "A 




Amount raised in 
the Districts by 
Special Tax. . 


O - N " O ONO " 

O . t-» . o» in . 
CM . vo invO 00 
. *» . t^ CM_ 


& :^8 : 

£ ■ p?S • 


■ p» • • 

. ON . . 

• po • ' 


• * • 


:8 : 
. . 


m cm 

Ov m 


... 00 

m 

... •♦ 

00" 




Amount received 
from County 
Superintend'ts 


2.888S&8 : 

O m o\ N pi «n ' 

t^ m m r^ ■«• po ov . 


E8m8 8S>Kmc?8£8 8 8 • 

h o\0 « h\o>0 SO a -»-vc ^ . 

O M W M t^VD KM >-> 


: 888 


Ov 
. . . 00 

: : : ^ 




No. of Days 
Schools were in 
Session .... 


O O O O 00 • 
c< 00 cm cm c^ 01 ■>»- . 


OCOCCOlT, tl«S 

Omo w m nois 


m 
mvo 


&% : 


\%$& 


. . . 


HO 

< hi 


Average salary 
per month of 
female teachers 


oow . >«- m 
mm'*- uim« 


35 • • 

. O O cm t*. in 


. "^ 


c . 

CM -vt- 


. >n 


... p^ 
... a 


Average salary 
per month of 
male teachers. 


in .0.00. 

CM + B t>1 
** . . . 


O . . . . 


cms 

» vo m 


•ft ' 




■ * % 


::::! 


No. of Teachers 
Employed . . 


«, *«, • 


H M N M N « (<)(| 


:«- 




. t* CM N 


... »n 


*% 


Average Daily 
Attendance. . 


en vo w m en pv 

W M M m cn-f 


Osm ■* " 


. **• c 


. o> m 


• 22 : 


.OOP 


* . . . vo 

rn 




No. of Pupils 
Enrolled . . . 


p~ cm mtOMto w 

PO 


■4-00 10 Cv m 

H M M M M 


. en •*• 


. 00 vo 


Svo 


;=?^ 


^ . . . p» 




No. of persons 
between 5 and 
21 years of age. 


p~. m r^ cm p* m coco woo ov O in « moo mm Nnc 

Mn«NintlMM(tMMNMinCI«MHNMMnN 


CM 00 M ► 


<oo -<mo m 

CM <H P^ 
CM_ 




Value of Schoo 
Houses. . . 












8888888 

in cm w m m\o m 

** M~ W* m 
CI 


• m 8 8 8 • 


%%■■%> : ::8 


. >" 


. 




OXM 








'. '. 3 




No. of Schoo 
Houses . . 


C« N HI W M H. H. 


















. . . . *^ 














Number of Dis 
tricts 


h « mt invo p«.o< 


) OiO h m* invo soo o\ 


m cm rn t( 
CM CM CM CM 


- mvo p~o 


3O0h k 













SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT. 



47 



LIST OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS— 1875-77. 



County. 



Name. 



Arapahoe \V. A. DONALDSON. 

Bent John Spiers 

Boulder !J. B. Groesbk;k... 



Clear Creek. 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Douglas 



P. E. Morehouse 

Juan F. Ruyvai 

Jose de la Cruz Martinez 

Charles E. Parkinson 



El Paso B. P.Anderson 

Bernard C. Killin, 



Elbert 

Fremont JJames M. Hoge 

Gilpin W. Edmundson 

Grand !\V. S. Chamberlin 

Hinsdale H. H. Wilcox 

Huerfano A. H. Qltllian 



Jefferson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 

Las Animas.. 

Park 

Pueblo 



Rio Grande 
Saguache ... 

Summit 

Weld 



R. L. Stewart 

A. S. Weston 

J. M. Hanks 

E. N. Garbutt 

James R. Brooking, Jr. 

Wm. E. Musgrove 

Theodore A. Sloane... 

D. E. Newcomb 

J. Ross Penntsten 

Geo. W. Wilson 

Oliver Howard 



I'm- I OFFICE. 



Denver. 

West Las Animas. 

Boulder. 

Georgetown. 

Guadalupe. 

San Luis 

Castle Rock. 

Colorado Springs. 

Middle Kiowa. 

Ula. 

Central City. 

Hot Sulphur Springs. 

San Juan City. 

Gardner. 

Jolden City. 

Iro City. 

Silverton. 

La Porte. 

Trinidad . 

Fairplay. 

Pueblo. 

Del Norte. 

3ismark. 

3reckinridge. 

Jreeley. 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks and Documents 

ACCOMPANYING THE 

REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 



(IO) 




°° K e A 

-r^s 3 

f §«« 

•75-1 8. 







The Broadway Public School, 

This structure, recently completed, is of brick with stone 
foundation and trimmings ; two stories above the basement, 
and contains seven school rooms and two class rooms, be- 
sides three living rooms in the basement for janitor, and 
three rooms for coal and storage. Each school room has 
two wardrobes. The building accommodates four hundred 
pupils, and is seated throughout with single seats and desks 
of the latest improved pattern. The floors are of southern 
pine ; the wainscoting of butternut, oil finished ; and the 
material and work in every particular first class. Nothing 
has been added to the building for mere ornament, and 
nothing that could contribute to the convenience and use- 
fulness of the interior, omitted. For the purposes for which 
it was erected, it is considered a model. R. S. Roeschlaub, 
the architect, is now duplicating the building in Pueblo. 
The entire cost of grounds, building and furniture was 
$29,000. 



:r,:e:po:r,t o:f 

Superintendent ofPublicSchools 

Of the City of Denver — Aaron Gove. 



To the Board of Education : 

Gentlemen: — I herewith submit my first annual report 
of the condition of public schools now under your charge. 

In September, 1874, by your direction, I assumed the 
duties of Superintendent. The pupils were then seated in 
two buildings — the High-School building and the Stout- 
Street building. I found much good work to have been 
done by my immediate predecessor. Organization had 
been effected and the system indicated ; sufficient time had 
not elapsed since the organization to give the greatest 
efficiency. The element of time in the maturing of any 
enterprise is an essential that is especially to be remembered 
in all things pertaining to schools. 

The original organization comprised nine grades, of which 
the ninth included the beginners, the first, the prepar- 
atory grade for the High School. I have not changed, but 
endeavored to adapt the schools to this gradation. The 
time has passed when any argument for a graded system of 
public schools is necessary, but it is possible that with the 
many movements for reform, earnest schoolmasters have 
carried classification too far — that the good of the pupil 
has been sometimes sacrificed to the end that perfect system 
may exist. Our boys and girls are not like so many blocks 
of metal run in the same mould, but each diners from the 
other. That there are great dangers menacing an inflexi- 
ble gradation is yearly becoming manifest. 



54 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

I have chosen to make for the present, the grade work a 
matter of acquisition rather than of time; the perfecting of 
our system and the increase in schools may compel a mod- 
ification of this plan. 

When a teacher has reported a class sufficiently proficient 
in the work of a grade to justify passing to the next higher, 
I have, after examination, directed the passing, deeming it 
unjust to delay because the end of the term or of the year 
was not at hand. 

Your teachers have been instructed to report promptly 
any marked cases of extraordinary ability or application, 
that such pupils might be lifted above and beyond their 
classes. These cases have been more in number than will 
hereafter occur, consequent on the imperfect grading at the 
outset. Care has been used to regard the physical as well 
as the mental qualifications of candidates for special pro- 
motion, and when over nervous or delicate children ap- 
peared, parents have been consulted before making a 
change. 

Our theory supposes that each class shall do the work 
each month and each term that is adapted to the average 
pupil. Some there will ever be who are above, others who 
are below, that average, and the class must lose them in 
either case — in the one to go on, in the other to go back. 

You will reasonably expect the average age of pupils to 
be greater than in corresponding grades of older shools. 
Our children come from all parts, having received their 
foundation training in schools of varied character. At this 
early day we can point to no examples of cultured youth, 
made so by our own schools. Nearly every State and 
Territory in the Union has been represented on our books 
the present year. The rapid immigration to the city has 
an effect to counteract good results which follow perma- 
nency. Our population is now more stable than ever before, 
and a corresponding increase in school efficiency may be 
expected. 

The discipline of your schools was good when I took 
charge. Owing to a population of so many and varied 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 55 

origins, the children that attend our schools include much 
greater diversity of character than is usual in a city of this 
size. While I believe our school children to be quite as 
lively and difficult to restrain as those of any community, 
I also remember that only bright, sharp, shrewd, able boys 
and girls are troublesome in school. Effort has been made 
to temper the conduct of our pupils out of school, in the 
streets and public places of the city. No surer signs of 
good schools can be, than that the children of a community 
be well behaved and polite. I am sure some advancement 
has been made in the direction of general deportment. 

The discipline has not been enforced by severe measures. 
Corporal punishment has been of very rare occurrence. 
Suspensions have been but five in number, and those tem- 
porary. One expulsion for the year is on record, and that 
would have been unnecessary had the parents used the 
authority which the people have a right to expect parents 
to use. 

I respectfully call your attention to the number of boys 
roaming about the city, whose names appear on the register 
of no school. I have no means of ascertaining the number, 
but when you contemplate the difference between the census 
figures and the number enrolled on our books and in daily 
attendance, making a proper allowance for those in private 
schools, you will realize that our schools are not doing the 
work and producing the results for which the people pay, 
while so many idle boys — sons of shiftless parents — are 
wasting time in idleness, or, worse, schooling themselves 
in vice. I am aware that your body has no power in the 
premises, but a united effort of the Board and of the city 
government might do much toward placing these vagrants 
in school, or in preparing a city reform school, which might 
be made, in time, through the work of its inmates, self- 
sustaining. 

The attendance for the year is shown in the tabular 
statement below. There is truly room for improvement 
here. No suspensions have been for irregular attendance. 
Too many cases of truancy have occurred, but I have 



$6 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

usually found the parents ready to co- operate with the 
teacher in reforming truants. 

Teachers have done much in the way of visiting parents 
of their pupils. Troubles in the management of a room 
often arise from misunderstandings on the part of parents. 
We have learned that a large part of such difficulties are 
easily adjusted upon personal contact with one or both of 
the parents, 

Punctuality with the children in school means promptness 
in meeting engagements in adult life. The pupil who is 
habitually prompt in attention to school is doing the 
best thing for himself, not so much on account of immedi- 
ate school results, as for the formation of such habits as 
shall cause him to be, ever after, in all his enterprises, "on 
tinie." Absence from school must sometimes occur. Tar- 
diness cannot often be properly accounted for. 

At the commencement of the year, the pupils of the 
ninth grade were in school but one-half the day. By this 
arrangement the seating capacity of the ninth-grade rooms 
was doubled, while the children remained in school three 
hours instead of the full time of four and a quarter hours. 
Under the present law, which admits pupils at the age of 
five, I believe a three-hour session to be sufficient time for 
the confinement of pupils of that age. The matter is, 
indeed, no longer one of experiment, but of actual experi- 
ence. Eastern schools have proved that very young pupils 
attain as high a grade of scholarship in a session of three 
as in more hours a day at school, while the physical devel- 
opment is not retarded. It cannot be denied that many 
of the objections to the three-hour session for children 
under six years of age come from those who look upon 
the school somewhat as they look upon the nursery. 

Seventh and eighth grade pupils are in school two sessions 
each day ; the first of which is three hours, the second, one 
and one-half hours. All other grades have the full day in 
school. 

The study of the German language is receiving its full 
share of time and attention. Some modifications in the 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 57 

course have been made under the direction of your com- 
mittee on German, to whose report you are referred for a 
more complete statement. 

The High School has completed the first year of its 
existence. The careful attention of your body to this young 
institution has already had a marked effect. 

I submit herewith the general statistics relative to the 
year's work. The showing is encouraging. 

Your frequent visits to the schools, your long and zealous 
discussions as to the proper management, your careful con- 
sideration and selection of teachers, and the unanimity 
which has characterized your action in the execution of 
every measure when once determined — these, added to the 
kindly and earnest support received by the teachers from 
your body, are some of the reasons that make a bright and 
cheering future for the public schools of East Denver. Add 
to these the oneness of desire on the part of our citizens 
and the daily attention from parents, and we can predict a 
school system superior to many that boast of much older 
birth. 



(II) 



58 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



TABULAR STATEMENT. 

SHOWING ATTENDANCE,. ETC., BY GRADES. 



5 =r 

Cl-CO 



H 



♦Enrollment, 



Boys . 

•! Girls . 

Total 



f Boys. 
Average age, < 

(Girls 



Average daily attendance 

Average number belonnging 

Average monthly per cent, of attendance 

Number of tardinesses 

Cases of suspension 

Cases of corporal punishment 

Visits by members of the Board 

Visits by parents and others 



53 



4 8 



37 

85 

51 M-7 



14.8 
87 
94 
9 2 -5 
220 



89 

65 
154 

13 

23-5 

95 
101 

94 

307 

3 



82 

59 
141 
12.9 
12.7 

89 

97 
92 

539 



"3 
I26 

249 
10.3 
io-5 

140 

151 
93 

373 



184 

141 

325 
9-2 
9.2 

178 

i93 
90 

797 



178 

176 

354 
7-7 
8.2 

197 

221 
92 

536 



171 
182 

353 

6 

6.2 
167 
285 
87 
753 



928 
841 
1796 



1012 

1212 

9 1 

3803 

6 

4 

306 

1890 



♦Omitting all received by transfer or re-enrollment. 



Board of Education, Denver, 



For 1875-7G. 



D. Hukd Term expires, 1876 



W. C. Lothrop, 
W. M. Newton, 
E, M. Ashley,... 
p. gottesleben, 
Albert Brown, 



OFFICERS: 

D. HURD, 

President. 

W. M. NEWTON, 

Secretary. 

W. C. LOTHROP, 

Treasurer. 



1876 
1876 
I877 
1877 
1877 



Aaron Gove, 



Superintendent. 



RULES ?m REGULATIONS 

— OF THE — 

Denver Board of Education, 



1 . The election of Directors and of President, Treasurer and Secretary of 
the Board, shall be at the time and in the manner prescribed by the special 
School Law of the Territory, approved Feb. 13, 1874. (See Appendix.) 

2. The President shall at the first regular meeting in May of each year, or 
as soon thereafter as practicable, appoint the following standing committees : 

1. Committee on Teachers and Text Books. 

2. Committee on Buildings and Grounds. 

3. Committee on Finance. 

4. Committee on High School and German. 

5. Committee on Supplies. 

3. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Teachers and Text Books to 
examine, or cause to be examined, applicants for positions as teachers, to 
make, with the advice of the Superintendent, transfers of teachers, to recom- 
mend changes in salaries, dismissals of teachers, issue of certificates, and 
changes in text books; to recommend, from time to time, such improvements 
in the course of instruction and the purchase of such maps, apparatus, etc., as 
may be deemed expedient. 

4. It shall he the duty of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds to ex- 
amine, frequently, all the real estate belonging to the Board ; to recommend 
such repairs and alterations of buildings and their appurtenances as they think 
proper. They shall have charge of repairs and alterations ordered. 

5. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Finance to recommend to the 
Board such measures of finance as shall seem to them expedient. They shall 
examine the accounts and financial papers and books of the Board from time 
to time, and see that they are properly kept ; they shall consider and report 
upon all financial claims referred to them by the Board and report thereon as 
soon as practicable. 

6. It shall be the duty of the Committee on High School and German, in 
connection with the Superintendent and Principal of the High School, to 
arrange proper courses of study and daily programmes ; to recommend teach- 
ers and text-books, and to give special attention to the needs of this branch 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 6 1 

of our schools; also to recommend such courses and methods of instruction 
in the German language as will, in its judgment, best serve the public weal. 

7. It shall be the duty of the Committee on Supplies to see that the schools 
are supplied with fuel, brooms, crayons, ink and all incidental needs, including 
janitor's supplies. 

8. The regular meetings of the Board shall be held at the office in the 
High School building on the Tuesday preceding the last Friday in each 
month. 

9. The President of the Board, besides exercising the customary duties 
pertaining to his office, shall have the authority to dismiss the schools tempo- 
rarily, when, in its judgment, it is desirable. 

10. The Secretary shall keep a correct record of all the proceedings of each 
meeting of the Board in a book provided for the purpose, and shall have 
charge of the records of the Board; shall give notice of all meetings ; per- 
form all the duties devolved upon him by the school law, and such other 
duties as may from time to time be directed by the Board. 

11. The Treasurer shall receive and keep all monies, bonds, insurance 
policies, deeds and valuable papers belonging to the Board, and shall make 
all disbursements in the manner hereinafter provided. 

12. All bills, before payment is ordered, shall be read at a regular meeting 
of the Board, and referred to the Committee on Finance for approval, provided 
any bill, by unanimous consent, may be allowed without reference. 

13. When a bill has been allowed by the Board, it shall be the duty of the 
Secretary to draw an order on the Treasurer for the amount, which warrant, 
after having received the signature of the President, shall be cashed by the 
Treasurer out of any proper funds in his possession. 

14. The following shall be the order of business at the regular meetings 
of the Board, and all reports of committees shall be written. 

1. Roll call. 

2. Reading and approval of minutes. 

3. Reading of communications. 

4. Reports of Superintendent. 

5. Reports of standing committees. 

6. Reports of special committees. 

7. Unfinished business. 

8. New and miscellaneous business. 

GENERAL RULES. 

15. No public school building or premises shall be rented or be permitted 
to be used or occupied for any other purpose whatever than for public schools. 

16. The houses and rooms shall be kept locked during the absence of the 
teachers, and no person except those who have charge of said houses shall 
have permission to remain in or enter them during such absence; provided, 
that, for good cause, the Superintendent may suspend the last clause of this 
rule. 



62 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

17. The hours of tuition shall be from nine o'clock in the forenoon to 
twelve o'clock, noon, including a fifteen-minute recess ; and from half-past 
one o'clock to four o'clock in the afternoon, including a ten-minute recess. 
The primary schools may be dismissed at an early hour in the afternoon. 
The hours of tuition in the High School shall be such as may be recom- 
mended by the committee and approved by the Board. 

18. The books used and the studies pursued shall be such, and such only, 
as may be authorized by the Board ; and no teacher shall require or advise 
any of the pupils to purchase or use in the schools any book, pamphlet, or 
publication not contained in the list of books directed and authorized to be 
used in the schools. 

19. New classes in the ninth grade shall be formed only at the commence- 
ment of each term. 

20. The schools in the charge of this Board shall be divided into nine 
grades and a High School. The first, second, third and fourth grades shall 
constitute the Grammar schools ; the fifth and sixth grades, the Intermediate 
schools ; the seventh, eighth and ninth, the Primary schools. 

21. Non-resident pupils shall pay, in advance, the following rates of 

tuition : 

High School — Five dollars per month. 
Grammar School — Four dollars per month. 
Intermediate School — Three dollars per month. 
Primary School — Two and a half dollars per month. 

DUTIES OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 

22. The Superintendent of Public Schools shall have his office at the High 
School building. He shall have regular daily office hours at other time than 
during school hours, to the end that consultation with teachers, parents and 
citizens may be convenient. 

23. He shall keep in his office a register of the names of all pupils enrolled 
in the public schools, together with the residences, names and occupations of 
parents, and such other data as may be directed by the Board. 

24. He shall not leave the city during school days, except by consent of the 
Board, through the President. 

25. He shall assist in conducting examinations of applicants for positions 
as teachers ; and shall issue certificates, as provided by law, under the direc- 
tion of the Board. 

26. He shall visit all the schools as often as his duties will permit ; and 
shall pay particular attention to the classification of the pupils in the several 
schools, and to the apportionment of them among the classes of the prescribed 
studies. 

27. He shall have authority to call meetings for the purpose of conferring 
with the teachers in respect to the best methods of discipline and instruction. 
He shall have the privilege of calling together, at those meetings, such classes 
of the schools as he may wish to employ in illustrating the principles pre- 
sented. 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 63 

28. He shall carefully observe the teaching and discipline of all the teach- 
ers employed in the public schools, and shall report to the Board of Education 
whenever he shall find any teacher deficient or incompetent in the discharge 
of his or her duties. 

29. He shall devise and report to the Board a system of blanks for registers 
and reports ; have charge of their distribution to teachers, and return by 
them ; and prescribe to teachers rules for keeping the same. These blanks 
shall be specially adapted to show the scholarship and actual attendance of 
each pupil in the schools, the number of those who are constant and uniform 
in attendance, and of those who are not, together with the degree of irregu- 
larity. 

30. He shall acquaint himself with whatever facts and principles may 
concern the interests of popular education, and with all matters in any way 
pertaining to the organization, discipline and instruction of public schools, to 
the end that all the children of this district who are instructed in the public 
schools may obtain the best education which these schools can impart. 

31. He shall attend all meetings of the Board of Education. 

32. He shall have power to fill vacancies, in case of the temporary absence 
of teachers, and to suspend pupils for neglect of the rules and for misconduct. 

^. All directions to scholars or teachers from the Board shall be commu- 
nicated through the Superintendent. 

TEACHERS. 

34. In order to obtain a legal certificate to teach, it is necessary that the 
applicant be present at the examination of teachers. The examination is 
both oral and written, and embraces Reading, Spelling, English Grammar, 
Physical and Descriptive Geography, Arithmetic, Elements of Algebra, United 
States History, English Literature, Elements of Vocal Music, and Methods 
and Theory of Teaching. 

35. The schedule of salaries of teachers is as follows: 
In the Primary, Intermediate and Grammar Grades — 

For the first three months (on trial), per month, $ 60 OO 

For the remainder of the first year, '' " 70 00 

For the second year " " 8000 

In the High School — 

For the first year per month, $ 80 00 

For the second year " " 90 00 

For the third year " " 100 00 

36. The Board reserves the right to increase, for special merit or extraordi- 
nary success, the salary of any teacher. This may be done at any regular 
meeting, by unanimous vote. 

37. Teachers are not engaged by correspondence. 

38. The tenure of office of all teachers shall be at the pleasure of the 
Board, and superior qualifications as to moral character, literary attainments, 
industry and practical skill shall be specially regarded in their employment 



64 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

and continuance. They shall have the right to resign only when two weeks' 
notice of such intention is given ; and the Board reserves the right to dismiss 
any teacher for violation of rules, unfitness or incompetence, at any time. 

39. Teachers shall be at their school rooms at least twenty minutes before 
the opening of school in the morning, and fifteen minutes in the afternoon. 
Teachers not present in accordance with this rule shall report themselves as 
tardy. 

40. They shall see that the school-room clocks are with the authorized 
school time. Principals will see that the clocks in the building are weekly 
adjusted to the time of the regulator in the High School building. 

41. They shall require the pupils to be in their respective school rooms 
punctually at the appointed hour, and all pupils not in shall be marked absent, 
or tardy, as the case may be ; a notice of which absence or tardiness shall be 
sent to the parent or guardian, at the close of the afternoon session. 

42. Corporal punishment shall never be inflicted until after consultation 
with and approval of the Principal. When practicable, the Superintendent 
should be consulted. 

43. Principals shall have power to suspend from the privileges of the school 
pupils guilty of gross misconduct or continued insubordination to school 
regulations. 

44. In all cases of corporal punishment or suspension, the parents and 
Superintendent must be promptly informed by letter, stating the case in full. 

45. No teacher shall read, or allow to be read, any advertisement, or 
allow any advertisement to be distributed in school or on the school premises. 
No agent or messenger shall be allowed to announce any public entertainment, 
nor shall any one take up the time of the school by lectures of any kind, 
without the special vote of the Board. 

46. Teachers are expected to enter upon the opening exercises of their 
respective rooms at the precise minute appointed, and on no account shall 
they dismiss their pupils earlier than the appointed time, nor for any day or 
part of a day, without permission of the Principal. They shall remain in 
their own rooms, and devote their energies to the discharge of their duties. 
Visiting each others' rooms, except on business of the school which cannot 
be postponed, all reading and writing not immediately connected with the 
school, and all work not tending directly to the advancement of the pupils, 
are strictly forbidden. 

47. Teachers are expected to conduct recitations- in Grammar, Arithmetic 
and Geography without the text-book in hand. 

48. Each teacher shall prepare a programme of daily exercises, and shall 
furnish a neat copy to the Superintendent within two weeks after the terms 
commence, and shall give him notice of any change made therein. 

49. Each teacher is required to have a copy of the regulations in his or her 
school room, and to read to the scholars at least once in each term so much 
of the same as will give them a just understanding of the rules which apply 
to them and by which they are governed. 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 65 

50. The Principals shall be held responsible for the general management 
and discipline of the schools, and the other teachers shall follow their direc- 
tions and co-operate with them, not only during the school hours, but during 
the time when the pupils are on the school premises before and after school 
and during the recesses. Each assistant shall be held responsible for the order 
and discipline of her own room, under the general direction of the Principal. 

51 The Principals of the different schools shall establish special rules for 
the purpose of securing uniform good order on the part of the scholars in 
passing through the halls and stairways, at the commencement of the school, 
at recess, and at dismissal. It shall be the duty of the other teachers to 
co-operate fully in securing this object. 

52. The Principal shall prescribe such regulations as shall ensure the good 
condition, neatness and cleanliness of the yards, basements and out-buildings. 

53. The Principal shall examine the class books and registers at least once 
a month, giving such directions as will insure their being kept in a proper 
manner. All records, except in the class books, must be made in ink. All 
the class books and other record books, when filled up, and at the close of 
each school year, are to be returned to the office of the Board of Education. 

54. Teachers shall send no pupil, during school hours, upon errands not 
pertaining to the business affairs of the school. 

55. The teachers may, for the purpose of observing the modes of discipline 
and instruction, take two days in each year to visit any of the public schools; 
but such visiting days shall not both be taken in the same quarter, nor till 
provision, satisfactory to the Superintendent, has been made for the proper 
care of the pupils under their immediate charge. 

56. It shall be their duty to practice such discipline in their school as would 
be exercised by a kind and judicious parent in his family, always firm and 
vigilant, but prudent. They shall endeavor, on all proper occasions, to 
impress upon the minds of their pupils the principles of morality and virtue, 
a sacred regard for truth, neatness, order, sobriety, industry and frugality. 
But no teacher shall exercise any sectarian influence in the schools. 

57. Teachers of Grammar schools shall have written examinations of the 
month's work at the close of each month. The rating of the papers must 
contribute towards the pupil's monthly scholarship standing. Papers notice- 
able for special merit should be sent to the Superintendent. 

58. Teachers of Intermediate and Primary grades will hold, in the same 
manner, the monthly examinations, except that most of the work should be 
oral. 

PUPILS. 

59. No pupil shall be admitted to the Public Schools until his name has 
been properly registered at the Superintendent's office. 

60. Principals will receive new pupils on Monday morning of each week 
upon presentation of a certificate of admission properly signed. [For ninth 
grade pupils, see Rule 19.] 

61. No pupil affected with any contagious disease, or coming from a house 
(12) 



66 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

in which such disease exists, shall be allowed to remain in any public school. 

62. Any child coming to school without proper attention having been given 
to the cleanliness of his person or dress, or whose clothes need repairing, 
shall be sent home to be properly prepared for the school room. 

63. No pupil shall be allowed to retain connection with any public school 
unless furnished with books, slate and other utensils required; provided, that 
no pupil shall be excluded for such cause unless the parent or guardian shall 
have one week's notice, and be furnished by the teacher with a list of books 
or articles needed. 

64. Whenever a pupil passes from one Ward School to another, he shall 
be required to present to the Principal of the school which he wishes to enter 
a certificate from the Principal of the school which he leaves, stating that he 
is in good standing at the time of leaving, and specifying the grade and class 
to which he belongs. Pie shall then be allowed to enter a class in the same 
grade as that which he left. 

65. Every pupil who shall be absent from or tardy to school, shall bring to 
his teacher a written excuse from his parent or guardian, stating the cause 
of such absence or tardiness. 

66. Six half-days' absence — two tardy marks being equivalent to a half- 
day's absence — in any four consecutive weeks, sickness alone excepted, shall 
render the pupil liable to suspension. 

67. Absence from any regular examination, or previously appointed exam- 
ination by the Superintendent, for any cause except sickness, shall he consid- 
ered sufficient reason for placing such absent pupil in the next lower class, or 
excluding him from school. 

68. Pupils shall not collect about the school buildings before a quarter after 
eight ; and pupils who desire to remain in the school room at noon shall first 
get permission from the Superintendent, and shall be subject to such restric- 
tions as he or the teacher may impose, and shall in all cases be held respon- 
sible for damage done to the room or its contents, and for any disorder or 
misplacement of books or furniture. 

69. Pupils shall walk quietly, and in single file, up and down stairs and 
through the halls ; make no loud noise at any time in any part of the build- 
ings ; shall not remain in the halls, or stairways, and at no time converse in 
passing in or out from school, or enter or rap at the door of any room not 
their own, without previously getting the consent of the proper teacher. 

70. Pupils must leave the school premises and go directly home after school 
is closed, both at noon and night, unless otherwise permitted by the Princi- 
pals, and must not bring to the school books or papers foreign to the purpose 
of study. 

71. Any pupil that may be aggrieved or wronged by another pupil, may 
report the fact to his teacher. No pupil, in any case, shall attempt to avenge 
his own wrong. 

72. Pupils are forbidden to throw stones, snow-balls, or missiles of any 
kind, upon the school grounds, or in the streets in the immediate vicinity of 
the school grounds. 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 67 

73. Pupils shall not mark, scratch, or break in any way, the furniture, 
casing, walls, windows, fences, or any of the appurtenances of the school 
premises. Pupils committing such injuries, accidental or intentional, shall 
immediately procure the necessary repair, or be assessed by the Superintend- 
ent a sum sufficient to cover the damage ; and, on refusal to comply with this 
rule, may be expelled from school. 

74. The promotion of pupils from one grade to another shall be made at 
such times as the interests of the schools may require. No pupil shall be 
promoted from one grade to another till he is able to sustain an examination 
satisfactory to the Superintendent on all the studies of the grade from which 
he is to be transferred. Pupils may be sent into the grade next below the 
grade to which they belong whenever their scholarship falls below the stand- 
ard fixed for admission to the grade, but such pupils may be permitted to 
regain their lost position within one month if their scholarship warrants it. 

TEACHERS' MEETINGS. 

75. A general meeting of teachers shall be held at half-past three o'clock 
in the afternoon of the first Monday of each school month, at which meeting 
every teacher in the employ of the Board is expected to be present. 

76. Weekly meetings, for consultation, shall be held as follows : High 
School — Monday afternoons; Stout-Street School — Tuesday afternoons; and 
Broadway School- -Thursday afternoons. The meetings commence at half- 
past three o'clock. Principals will cause the schools to be closed in time. 

77. Monthly meetings for instruction and drill in grade work shall be held 
as follows: Primary School teachers — first Saturday in the school month; 
Intermediate School teachers — second Saturday in the school month ; Gram- 
mar School teachers — the third Saturday in the school month. These meet- 
ings to be at the High School, commencing at nine o'clock in the forenoon. 

JANITORS. 

I. Janitors shall have sole management of the heating apparatus of the 
buildings, acting under direction of the Principal. He must attend, also, to 
the following duties : 

II. To sweep thoroughly every shool-room, corridor, and stair-way, at 
least once each day, the stair- ways and corridors oftener, if necessary; and 
with a cloth or feather brush to remove all dust every morning from the desks, 
tables, chairs, seats, etc. 

III. To keep the snow off the steps and all walks inside the school prem- 
ises. 

IV. To wash at least once per month the platforms or rostrums and the 
unoccupied space about them, also the stairs and corridors as often. To 
wash all the inside wood-work and the windows at least twice during the 
year — once at the spring vacation; once at the close of the summer vacation. 

V. To keep the privy seats and floors neat and perfectly clean, washing 
them as often as in the judgment of the Principal may be necessary. 

VI. To assist the Principal and teachers in maintaining proper police reg- 



68 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

ulations about the premises, and in carrying into effect the Special Rules. 

VII. To wind the clocks as often as necessary; to ring the bell at proper 
times; to provide water for pupils and teachers at recesses; to have the care 
of the school-house and grounds at all hours and times — during school hours, 
out of school hours and during vacations; to clean out the furnace flues and 
smoke ducts, and keep the furnaces in proper order; to take charge of the 
trees, flowers and shrubbery; to keep the premises in good order, and to at- 
tend to anything and everything that may tend to make the school-house and 
premises healthful, neat, attractive, comfortable and agreeable. 



Manual and Course of Study 



FOR THE 



Primary, Grammar and Intermediate Schools of District 
Number One, Denver, Col. 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS. 



The following synopsis of grade work is not the ultimatum for the teacher. 
Changes will be indicated from time to time as observation and experience 
suggest. In the absence of other instructions from the Superintendent, 
teachers will follow the exact course indicated here, and at grade examinations 
will be held responsible for this work, and this work only. 

It is not expected that all classes will complete the work of a grade in 
equal times, for teachers and classes are not of uniform ability. Whenever a 
class is ready to pass grade, the Superintendent should be notified through the 
Principal, and no pupil is to be permitted to pass grade until the permission of 
the Principal has been obtained. 

Teachers of like grades should make frequent comparison of methods and 
results. The two visiting days allowed by the Board will give opportunity 
for observation. 

When a new pupil enteres the grade unprepared in one branch, special 
effort should be made to bring him up, rather than to pass him to a lower 
grade ; most pupils will readily appreciate the position and exert themselves 
to attain the desired standing. 

Recesses are not for teachers; much can be learned then by careful obser- 
vation of the pupils that will aid in proper discipline. 

Oral spelling should include a distinct and proper pronounciation of each 
word and each syllable. 

Programmes should be conscientiously followed each day. 

Pupils who distinguish themselves on account of unusual ability or appli- 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 69 

cation, should be promptly reported; the tendency is to keep such pupils, for 
the teacher dislikes'to lose them from the room. 

Everything upon the printed page in the Reader should be understood, and 
every word spelled, including capitals, hyphens and apostrophes. Grammar 
schools should have frequent written recitations, and the pupils held for cap- 
italization and spelling in all written exercises. 

Monitorial and self-reporting systems are not approved. 

Pupils should not sit on desks or window sills. 

Pupils should not be permitted to leave the room for trivial reasons ; few 
should ask to go out — none in the upper grades. 

The teacher should make himself acquainted, as far as possible, with the 
parents of his pupils — in all cases where the pupil is troublesome. 

There should be frequent conversations with the pupils about proper 
deportment on the street, hanging on to vehicles, vulgarity, etc. 

Let the teacher frequently ask himself questions similar to the following : 
Is the floor clean ? Are the desks spotted with ink ? Are the lips moving 
during study? Are the pupils polite to the teacher and to each other? Do 
they stare at visitors ? Is the owner's name written legibly in ink in each text 
book ? Is the board clean, or are there any marks thereon that do not legit- 
imately belong to school work, and are all marks neatly and properly made ? 

Definite direction in methods will be given at the monthly meetings of 
teachers. 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

NINTH GRADE. 

Reading — Charts and the first seventy pages of Edwards's First Reader. 
Let the teacher read critically the author's remarks. Give attention to artic- 
ulation and natural expression. Name the punctuation marks, Roman and 
Arabic numerals as they occur in the reading lessons. 

Spelling — The words of the reading lesson by letter and by sound ; men- 
tion in every instance capitals, hyphens and apostrophes. 

Writing — The letters of the alphabet, short words and sentences from 
models on the board. Avoid flourishes; select the simplest forms of capitals. 

Number — Clear and ready perception of numbers from one to ten, to be 
developed by the use of objects; at every successive step all possible combi- 
nations to be learned. Roman notation to L (see Reading), Arabic notation 
and numeration to one hundred. 

Language — Cultivate the pupil's oral language bv frequent conversations 
in which he is led to repeat several original sentences in quick succession ; 
see that he has something to talk about before urging him to talk. 

General Lessons — Size, place, human body. 
Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 

Reference Books : Cowdery's Moral Lessons, Willson's Manual, Calkin's 
Object Lessons, Sheldon's Elementary Instruction. 
Recitations not to exceed in length fifteen minutes. 



70 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

EIGHTH GRADE. 

Reading — First Reader completed ; Second Reader to page one hundred. 
Everything upon the printed page to be understood by the pupil. Talk 
with the class about the subject matter of the lesson, at the beginning of 
the recitation. Read the preceding day's lesson in review each recitation, 
and develop the pupil's language in the conversation thereon. Give atten- 
tion to distinct articulation and a correct enunciation of vowel sounds. 

Spelling — As in ninth grade with frequent reviews. Teach the pupil to 
study the lesson by copying the words, ever remembering capitals, hyphens 
and apostrophes. Spell new words as they occur in recitation, and hold the 
pupil responsible for them thereafter. 

Writing and Language — On slates, write sentences from dictation and 
little stories from the pupil's life, teaching thereby the use of capitals, periods 
and interrogation marks. Each pupil taught to write with pencil his own 
name. Insist upon the omission of every meaningless or superfluous mark. 
Approbate neatness in execution. 

Number — Teach orally the subject matter contained in the Primary Arith- 
metic to the seventy-second page. 

General Lessons — Color, form, direction, time and weight. 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 

Recitations not to exceed in length twenty minutes. Teachers are cau- 
tioned to avoid many concert recitations. 

Reference books same as in ninth grade. 

SEVENTH GRADE. ) 

Reading — Second Reader completed ; Third Reader to page one hundred 
(see Reading eighth grade). The teacher should study the remarks of the 
author. 

Spelling — Four written recitations a week of not less than twenty words, 
each; oral recitations each day. (See Spelling eighth grade.) 

Writing — Nos. one and two with ink. P. D. & S.'s Primary short course. 

Arithmetic — Primary Arithmetic, from page seventy-two to the end. (See 
San Francisco report 1874, pp. 67 to 72.) 

Language — Continue eighth grade work. 

General Lessons — Written and oral statements on subjects connected with 
the pupil's out- door life, thereby cultivating habits of observation. 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 

Recitations not to exceed in length twenty-five minutes. 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 7 1 

INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

SIXTH GRADE. 

Reading and Spelling — Third Reader completed. Everything upon the 
printed page to be understood, and every word spelled. Written recitations 
in spelling four times a week. Oral spelling every day. All words spelled 
by sound. Learn to use the dictionary and to determine the meaning of 
phonic characters found therein. New and difficult words occurring in any 
lesson, especially in geography, arithmetic and general lessons, to be written 
by the pupils. 

Writing — Nos. two and three P. D. & S.'s. 

Arithmetic — Intermediate Arithmetic to page eighty seven. Teacher study 
the introduction. Give much original work. This work must be very fa- 
miliar before the pupil is permitted to pass grade. The class must be ready 
in the solution of all possible original examples within the limits of the grade 
work. 

Language — Continue the work indicated in the seventh grade (refer to 
Swinton's Language Primer). Learn and practice the use of period, interro- 
gation, exclamation, quotation marks, hyphen, and semi-colon. 

Geography — First twelve weeks, four lessons a week, oral instruction. 
Primary Geography to twenty-third page. Teach the estimation of distances 
on a map. 

General Lessons — Botany, the work to be illustrated directly from nature. 
How plants grow, names and uses of parts, names and uses of trees, kinds of 
trees in Colorado, altitudes in Colorado at which the various kinds cease to 
live, timber-line, deciduous, evergreen. Distinguish name of woods by 
studying specimens brought by the class, and by observing the joinery and 
furniture of the school house and home. Why so few kinds of trees in Den- 
ver ; causes and remedies of the death of trees : (a) drouth, (b) insects. 
How the latter effect injur)', illustrate by examples on the streets. That our 
boys and girls love and care for the trees of our city and regard any wilful 
injury to them a great wrong, should be one result of this work. 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 
FIFTH GRADE. 

Reading — Intermediate Reader. First half of book, first half of intro- 
duction. 

Spelling — Written and oral, by letter and by sound, all words used, from 
the text books and in conversation on school work. 

Writing — Nos. three and four. 

Arithmetic — Intermediate Arithmetic to page one hundred and forty-two. 
Much original work must be given. 

Geography — Primary Geography completed. Sketch the maps on the 
board from memory. Give attention to neat as well as accurate work; let 
every mark mean something. A careful descriptive and physical geography 
of Colorado (this work is not found in any text book). 



72 DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Language — Language lessons to page seventy-six. 

General Lessons — Physiology and Hygiene : bones, digestion. Zoology : 
mammals, birds, fishes, batrachians, reptiles. The likenesses and differences 
developed, commencing with the typical individual. 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 



GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

FOURTH GRADE. 

Reading — Intermediate Reader completed with second half of introduction. 

Spelling — As in fifth grade, the lessons to be written with ink, four times 
a week. Use National Spelling Blanks, number one, when practicable. 

Writing — Nos. four and five. 

Arithmetic — Intermediate Arithmetic complete, with review of the book. 

Geography — No. Ill, from page thirty-one to page seventy-four. Sketch 
the maps from memory. See that the class have an appreciation of distances 
on their maps. 

Languagt — Language lessons completed. 

General Lessons — Physiology: respiration, circulation, laws of health; 
Zoology : carnivora, herbivora, rodentia, likenesses and differences, adaptation 
of parts to habits, usefulness to map. Develope from the individual. 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 

THIRD GRADE. 

Reading — Fourth Reader. 

Spelling — As in fourth grade. 

Writing — Numbers six and seven. 

Arithmetic — The Complete Arithmetic to page one hundred and twenty-five 

Geography — No. Ill, page one to page thirty-one; four lessons a week; 
to include a careful drill in mathematical geography, of which only a small 
part is found in the text book. 

Language — Composition; first half of the book. 

General Lessons*) — Physics . (let illustrations by actual experiment, when- 
ever practicable, precede the development of general laws, in this as well as 
in the second and first grade.) I. gravitation and pressure (weight, pump, 
pendulum, barometer); 2. cohesion (glue, cement), adhesion, capillary at- 
traction (lamp-wick, sap, sponge, sugar) ; mechanical powers (lever, pulley, 
inclined plane, wedge and screw friction). 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 

Declamation once a month. 



*) W. T. Harris' Report, 1873. 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 73 

SECOND GRADE. 

Reading — Fifth Reader — first half. 

Spelling— Written, with ink, in No. 2. Spelling Blank; follow printed in- 
structions. The class is responsible for the correct spelling of all words used. 

Writing — Numbers seven and eight. 

Arithmetic — To page two hundred and forty-six. 

Geography — No. III. Four lessons a week; complete the text with a 
topical review of the entire book. 

Language — Composition — Complete the book. 

General Lessons — Physics: heat, (sun, combustion, friction, thermometer); 
light, (sources, reflection, mirrors, refraction, spectacles); electricity, (light- 
ning) ; magetism, (compass, telegraph); steam, (application to machinery.) 

Music and Drawing — See special instructions. 

Declamation once a month. 

FIRST GRADE. 

Reading — Fifth Reader. 

Spelling — With ink, in Blank No. 3. 

Writing — Numbers nine and ten. 

Arithmetic — The book completed ; topical review of Arithmetic. 

History — United States. 

Language — English Grammar. 

General Lessons — Physics: astronomy, (stars, some idea of size and dis- 
tance, sun; planets). General exercises on current topics of interest, includ- 
ing the composition and work of the National Congress and State govern- 
ment. 

Music and Drawing. 

Declamation. 

GERMAN LANGUAGE. 

All pupils in the sixth grade, and above, are permitted to study the Ger- 
man Language. 

The German teachers will visit each room for a daily recitation. All other 
work in instruction must cease during recitation in German. 

Grade teachers will assist the German teachers in securing the accomplish- 
ment of assigned tasks. 

TEXT-BOOKS. 

Primary Schools : 

Edwards's First, Second, and Third readers. 

Nos. 1 and 2, P. D. & S.'s Primary Writing Books. 

White's Primary Arithmetic. 

(13) 



74 



DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



Intermediate Schools: 

Edwards's Third and Intermediate Readers. 
Nos. 2 and 3, P. D. & S.'s Writing Books. 
White's Intermediate Arithmetic. 
Eclectic Primary Geography. 
Swinton's Language Lessons. 

Grammar Schools : 

Edwards's Intermediate, Fourth and Fifth Readers. 

National Spelling Blanks Nos. 1, 2 and 3. 

Nos. 4 to 10, P. D. & S.'s Writing Books. 

White's Intermediate and Complete Arithmetics. 

Eclectic Geography, No. III. 

Swinton's Language Lessons and Composition. 

Green's Grammar. 

Singing Book. 

Venable's United States History. 

Ahn's German Series. 

Worcester's Comprehensive, or 

Webster's Academic Dictionary. 

Text Books Used in High School. 



Ray's Higher Arithmetic. 
Greene's English Grammar. 
Mitchell's Physical Geography. 
Robinson's Algebras. 
Sewell's Hooker's Physiology. 
Hart's Rhetoric. 
Cooley's Philosophy. 
Gilman's History. 
Robinson's Geometry. 
Youman's New Chemistry. 
Gray's Botany. 
Steele's Geology. 
Robinson's Trigonometry. 
Haven's Mental Philosophy. 
Steele's Astronomy. 
Bowen's Political Economy. 
Shaw's English Literature. 



Ahn's German Series. 
Schiller's William Tell. 
Fasquelle's French Course. 
Putnam's Student's Atlas. 
Harkness's Latin Grammar. 
Harkness's Latin Reader. 
Arnold's Latin Prose Composition. 
Hanson's Latin Prose. 
Bowen's Virgil. 
Anthon's Classical Dictionary. 
Crosby's Greek Grammar. 
Crosby's Greek Reader. 
Arnold's Greek Prose Composition. 
Felton's Greek Reader. 
Boise's Xenophon's Anabasis. 
Boise's Homer's Iliad. 
Andrew's Latin Lexicon. 



Lindell & Scott's Greek Lexicon. 



EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS 



County Superintendents. 



ARAPAHOE COUNTY— W. A. Donaldson, Suft. 

The accompanying report is not full and complete, but 
it is the nearest approach that can be made with the items 
furnished by the District Secretaries. In most cases their 
reports to me were very meager ; the fault, not so much of 
the directors as of the electors of the districts for changing 
directors so often that the incumbents never become famil- 
iar with the duties of their offices. Taking the average 
attendance in the districts where that item is reported, for 
data, and but little more than half the pupils enrolled in 
the county were in daily attendance, and the average daily 
attendance is considerably less than one-third of the num- 
ber of persons between the ages of five and twenty-one. 
These results suggest the question as to whether our plan 
of apportioning the public funds could not be materially 
improved. As it is, the district that can enumerate fifty 
persons between five and twenty-one, and sends but ten of 
them to school, gets as much of the public money as the 
district that enumerates the same number between those 
ages and sends forty of them to school. If the law were 
changed so that the one with four times the aggregate 
attendance of the other, should receive four times as much 
money, there would be more interest felt on the part of the 
people of the district in placing their available urchins 



j6 ARAPAHOE COUNTY. 

where they would do the most good. Under the present 
system what is there to prevent a District Secretary from 
reporting to the County Superintendent fifty persons be- 
tween the lucky ages, in his district, and the District Treas- 
urer from coming regularly with an order for the amount 
to which the district is entitled by each apportionment, and 
in the course of the year from drawing somewhere near 
five hundred dollars from the treasury without ever having 
a month's school? In fact I know of one district that 
drew $130 from the treasury last year that did not have a 
day of school during the year. A teacher was employed 
for two or three months who managed to put in his time 
some way, but the only hard work he did was to draw his 
pay, as never a scholar put in an appearance during the 
term. The people of the district were at loggerheads over 
the building of a school house, the directors being bache- 
lors not favoring the enterprise, and the people having the 
children not proposing to send them to the house desig- 
nated by the directors as the place for holding the school. 
Whether or not the directors shared the spoils with the 
teacher, deponent saith not. It is not likely they did ; but 
who can deny that the teacher was an uncommonly ungrate- 
ful sinner if he did not feel a very strong impulse to reward 
his benefactors handsomely, after having such a soft place 
furnished for him ? 

There are at present twenty-six school districts in the 
county, two new ones having been organized last Summer. 
I have visited most of them, and find all kinds of schools, 
good, bad, and indifferent; though the good ones, I am 
happy to say, are considerably in the majority. A few are 
provided with excellent patent school desks and well supplied 
with blackboards. But the greater part of them have noth- 
ing to boast of in these particulars. In only five have 
I found either charts, maps, or globes. The reason always 
given for not having these things is that the districts are 
"too poor" — so poor, I am inclined to think, that they can 
not afford to do without such helps as school tablets for 
teaching beginners in reading. In the matter of text books, 



ARAPAHOE COUNTY. JJ 

if variety is at all desirable, then quite a number of dis- 
tricts are to be heartily congratulated, for nearly every pu- 
pil has a separate and independent series of his own. Di- 
rectors could insist upon having one series, and only one, 
used in the school ; but as a general thing directors do not 
so insist. The school is largely made up of children whose 
parents moved into the district recently from the States or 
from some other district in the County or Territory, and 
brought school books with them, and of course nearly all 
of them are different from all the rest. Many are unable 
and all are unwilling to pay out money for new books when 
the ones they have are just as good, and they can't see 
why their children can not just as well use the books they 
have as any others. And the directors, thinking it would 
be a great hardship to the parents to have to buy new 
books or keep their children out of school, allow the chil- 
dren to come with the old ones, and allow the teacher to 
do the best he can. A uniformity of text books in the 
Territory would afford no relief for those cases where the 
people have come recently from the States. And nothing 
will, except for the district to buy the books when parents 
are not able to do it. 

There is no question but that we have most excellent 
material here from which to select our teachers. That di- 
rectors always make a judicious selection, may not be quite 
so self-evident. There are, I regret to say, a few aspirants 
to the honor of holding an Arapahoe County teacher's cer- 
tificate, who would hardly shed lustre upon the profession ; 
but they generally come well armed with first class certifi- 
cates from the back settlements of some of the Western 
States, and manifest no end of chagrin when they find that 
their aspirations to enlighten these Rocky Mountain heath- 
en can not be gratified without further ceremony. It is too 
often the case that directors urge superintendents to give a 
license to favorite but unqualified candidates, seeming to 
be exceedingly desirous of paying their money, not for the 
best, but the poorest article in the market. It is doubtful 
whether they would act upon the same principle in the 
transaction of their own affairs. 



yS ARAPAHOE COUNTY. 

It would be an excellent thing if some plan could be de- 
vised to get the best teachers into the schools and the 
worst ones out, but under existing laws I see but slight 
prospect of such a result. There are too many competent 
teachers out of employment, and too many incompetent 
ones that ought to be but are not. The reason why they 
are not is because they will work for less pay than a well 
qualified teacher is willing to accept. The question natu- 
rally arises, will the time ever come when teachers will be 
selected according to value, and merit will have its reward — 
in other words, when all of the teachers of the County will 
be appointed by some central examining and appointing 
board, composed of persons above and beyond the pressure 
so often brought to bear by friends of unworthy candidates, 
and who will not advertise for bids, with no other object in 
view than finding the cheapest teacher in the market ? 

I append a few sample questions used upon recent occa- 
sions in the examination of teachers. 

HISTORY. 

1. When, and by whom, was the first permanent English settlement made 
in New England ? 

2. Where, and by whom, was the first permanent colonization of New 
York begun ? 

3. What caused the Pilgrims to come to this country ? 

4. How, and where, was Negro slavery first introduced into the English 
Colonies in America ? 

5. When, and where, did the first Legislative Assembly convene in 
America ? 

6. When, of whom, and for how much, was Louisiana purchased ? 

7. State what the Alien and Sedition Laws were ? 

8. What was the cause of the Mexican war ? 

9. Give briefly the causes of the Southern rebellion. 

10. Give the names of the Presidents in order, from Washington to Grant. 



GEOGRAPHY. 



What motions has the Earth ? 



What are the causes of the change of Seasons ? 
What are the Tropics, and how far are they from the Equator ? 
Name the Zones, and give the width in degrees of each. 
How do you account lor the difference in the length of days at different 
seasons of the year ? 

6. What are tides, and what cause them ? 



ARAPAHOE COUNTY. 79 

7. How can a vessel of light draughts make its way from Charleston, S. 
C. f to Lake Superior ? 

8. To sail from St. Petersburg to Odessa, through what waters would you 
pass ? 

9. Name the countries of South America. 

10. Name the grand divisions of the land surface of the globe, and give 
the largest city in each. 

ARITHMETIC. ' 

1. A man gave $150 for a watch and chain, and the chain cost three- 
sevenths as much as the watch ; what did each cost ? 

2. If to five-sixths of a man's age 15 years be added, the sum will be five- 
fourths of his age ; how old is he ? 

3. From six and one-fourth tenths, take eighty-seven and one-half ten- 
thousandths. 

4. Divide twenty-four thousandths by sixteen millionths. 

5. A bin is 8 ft. long, ■$% ft- wide, and 4 ft. deep; how many bushels of 
grain will it hold ? 

6. The longitude of Cincinnati is 84 26 v W., and San Francisco is 122 
26 N I5 NV W.; when it is noon at Cincinnati what is the time at San Francisco ? 

7. A man sold a watch at $180, and lost 16^ per cent.; what was the 
cost of the watch ? 

8. A factor sold $15,000 worth of goods at 10 per cent, commission, and 
invested the proceeds in cotton, first deducting 5 per cent, commission for 
buying ; how much money did he invest in cotton ? 

9. If it cost $110 to dig a cellar 40 ft. long, 27 ft. wide and 4 ft. deep, 
how much will it cost to dig 36 ft. long, 30 ft. wide, and 5 ft. deep ? 

10. A ladder 45 ft. long just reaches to the top of a house 35 ft. high; 
how far is the foot of the ladder from the house ? 

GRAMMAR. 

1. Define an abstract, a collective, and a verbal noun. 

2. Give the rules for forming the plural of nouns. 

3. How is the possessive case of nouns formed ? 

4. Define a personal pronoun, and give a list of personal pronouns. 

5. Define a relative pronoun and give a list of relative pronouns. 

6. Give the synopsis of the verd " rise." 

7. Give the principal parts of the verbs "sit" and ''set," and state in 
what respects one differs from the other. 

8. State how many parts of speech the word "that" may be, and give 
examples of each. 

9. "That they were foreigners were apparent in their dress; " correct and 
give reason for correction. 

10. " That we differ in opinion is not strange ; " analyse and parse all the 
words. 

ELOCUTION. 

1. Define articulation. 

2. What are oral elements, and how are they produced ? 



80 BENT COUNTY. 

3. What are the principal organs of speech? 

4. How is voice produced ? 

5. State into how many classes oral elements are divided, and define each 
class. 

6. Make a table of tonic elements. 

7. Make a table of subtonic and atonic elements. 

8. Make a table of cognates. 

9. What is the difference between a dipthong and a digraph, and give ex- 
amples. 

10. How will you teach the alphabet? 



BENT COUNTY— John Spiers, Suft. 

Herewith I have the honor of enclosing School Report 
of this county. Owing to dilatoriness on the part of Dis- 
trict Secretaries, I have been unable to complete my report 
sooner. I regret its incompleteness, which is caused by 
meagerness of district reports. Having been elected to 
this office at last election, I am unable to speak personally 
of the condition of schools in outlying districts, but under- 
stand they are as prosperous as circumstances will permit. 
In District No. 1 (West Las Animas) no school has been 
held since January, owing to lack of accommodations. A 
school house is now in course of erection, at a cost of 
about $5,000, which, when complete, will amply supply all 
requirements. A school, I trust, will be continued through- 
out the year, without intermission. 



BOULDER COUNTY— J. B. Groesbeck, M.D.,5^7. 

Boulder, Col., January 1st, 1876. 
Hon. H M. Hale, Supt. Public Instruction : 

Dear Sir : Herewith I enclose an article written pur- 
suant to your request of the 14th inst. You then desired 
me to prepare a written article for your printed report, of 
from three to eight printed pages, so as to transmit to you 
by January 1st, 1876. Therefore I send this, endeavoring 
to comply as best I can with your request. If it will 

(14) 



BOULDER COUNTY. 8 I 

answer the design, you are at liberty to use it. If it does 
not, please return to me, and "all is welL" 

A few words about the article which I read before the 
Teachers' Association, and which, on motion of Mr. Orr, 
was ordered printed among the proceedings, and as the 
sense of the Association. I handed it to Prof. Gove, but 
he may have handed it to Mr. Rapp, of the Tribune. I 
would like to have the Mss. returned to me, especially if it 
is not printed: 

" Only a little child ; oh ! masters and teachers of men, 
Here is the sheet as white as snow, for which you hold the pen ; 
The pure, unsullied page, to take the impress of your touch, 
By which a life shall happy be, or suffer overmuch ; 
In spotless innocence it waits and watches at your feet, 
This matchless mechanism of mind, so perfect and complete ; 
Fresh from the master-mind itself— committed to your hand, 
To be led up the rugged heights — where wisdom crowns the land. 

" Only a little child — but the child grows into the man ! 
Here is the noblest work of life — to counsel and to plan ; 
The future of these little ones, whose trusting faces show 
How willing are their feet to tread the way you bid them go; 
The sunshine here, the shadow there, the unknown land afar, 
And yonder in the ebon sky, one solitary star — 
The star of knowledge, shining down upon man's dwelling place, 
To lead him on to higher planes, to richer gifts of grace." 

Pabor. 

" The amount of latent and dormant power ; of wealth- 
discovering and wealth-producing energy ; of beauty-lov- 
ing and beauty-inspiring taste and skill, that lies concealed 
and slumbering in the brains and hearts and hands of the 
keen, shrewd, capable, but untutored millions of our youth, 
is beyond computation." u As in the material world the 
wonderful resources of the soil await but the labor and 
skill of the agriculturist; so in the intellectual, the forces 
and possibilities inherent in the mind of the race are latent 
and dormant, awaiting but the summons of the moral hus- 
bandman, -the sunshine of opportunity, ready to respond to 
the touch of the true educator. Harvests of ideas will not 
spring from the brain without culture, any more than wheat 
from the desert or the swamp." Who shall estimate the 
loss sustained by the world in neglecting to educate prop- 
erly the common people, or by unjust, ill-contrived or abor- 
tine schemes of education ? If the tillage of the ground 



82 BOULDER COUNTY. 

is defective, what shall be said of that of the schools, and 
who shall fix the ratio of the truly and properly educated 
to the aggregate population? Who does not feel that 
there are powers and possibilities within him that have not 
been reached, and that an earlier, wiser and better culture 
could have made him a stronger, nobler and better man ? 
The range of possibilities for the race is grand and illimit- 
able; but there can be no second or succeeding step with- 
out the first, and the free common schools open the way 
that all may take that first step. Nature is cosmopolitan. 
Regal gifts of intellect are found to belong not alone to 
the children of opulence and station. By the free common 
schools hundreds of the sons and daughters of the poor 
and the lonely are found to possess talents worthy to adorn 
and to bless the world. Here and there, from many a humble 
district school house, flames out the light of genius, and 
" prophecy writes on our national tablets another name that 
will never die." Our free common schools have proven that 
beneath the coarse homspun, or buckskin of the brave 
hunter or backwoodsman's boy, a heart may beat respon- 
sive to the loftiest inspirations of heroic manhood. They 
have proven that not alone from halls of universities and 
colleges have come those whose names, in science, in art 
and letters, are household words, and whose lives are grand- 
est in history. " Not from Oxford or Cambridge went 
forth Ferguson, to astonish the scholars of England in the 
realms of physics and mechanical philosophy ; nor Miller, 
to build for himself a monument as a student in geology, 
that will endure till the 'Old Red Sandstone' itself shall 
have passed away. Neither Harvard nor Yale can claim 
as its foster-child the son of the Boston tallow-chandler, 
whose wonderful wisdom, unstudied frankness and encyclo- 
pedian knowledge of his country overmatched the subtlest 
diplomacy of Europe; nor the great commoner of Ken- 
tucky, whose dust reposes beneath the shadows of Ash- 
land. And when the Great Republic shall have passed 
away, will not the muse of history linger long and lovingly 
upon the epoch made illustrious by the names of Lincoln 



BOULDER COUNTY. 83 

and Douglas ? " The district school was their only col- 
lege. And more abundantly will such fruits be reaped in 
the future if we properly care for our common schools. 
Year after year and age after age, from the countless num- 
bers gathered into our common schools, then will go forth 
those destined to become inventors, discoverers, machin- 
ists, manufacturers, engineers, agriculturists, chemists, bo- 
tanists, geologists, jurists, commanders and statesmen, to 
develop the resources, add to the wealth, stimulate the en- 
terprise, lead the armies, adorn the history, and add fresh 
lustre to the glory of the nation, of whom it may be said 
that but for the district schools their latent energies and 
capacities might never have been aroused, and their useful 
lives given to the country and to the world. To aid these 
vast and inestimable interests, by making the public schools 
better — better in what they teach and in what they inspire, 
better in their methods and processes, more thoroughly 
practical in their application, is the immediate duty of all 
true friends of education, of our country and of the human 
race. To this end, more care, more thought, and better 
supervision must be given to our common schools. Our 
teachers must be those, and those only, who are truly in- 
structors ; capable, honest, faithful, with a heart in their 
calling. They must understand correctly, the principles of 
physiological and hygienic development, more especially 
during the period of childhood and youth, that they may 
in conformity therewith carefully and tenderly guide, guard 
and develop the youth mentally, morally, and physically. 
The laws of life, in their essential sanctions and exhibitions, 
should be taught early and earnestly to our children in our 
common schools, for they are within the comprehension of 
children, and should be learned and obeyed by them, for it 
is God's will that His children should be healthy as well as 
holy and intellectual ; and a sound and vigorous mind can 
not possibly exist in an unsound body. No teacher of ig" 
noble character, depraved principles, or corrupt practices 
should be admitted into our common schools. They should 



84 BOULDER COUNTY. 

be pure and noble — such as we would wish our children to 
imitate and emulate, for 

"As from an Alpine height a chance spoke word is like a shock, 
To loosen and to overturn a mighty mass of rock ; 
And send it down the craggy side with ruin in its path, 
So can a teacher's careless words lead down a soul to wrath ; 
Only a word in thoughtlessness dropped from your open lips, 
But sinking in your pupil's soul, until, like an eclipse, 
Its shadow falls upon the wall where sunshine ought to dwell, 
And life is darked by regrets that tongue can never tell." 

The wild folly, almost crime, that thinks anybody can 
teach school, must be eliminated from the thought and 
practice of our people. There must be more scholarship, 
more learning, more intellectual discipline, more culture,' 
more breadth, and life and power in the body of our teachers. 
Our people must more thoroughly recognize and acknowl- 
edge the grave and high responsibilities of our teachers. 
" The teacher's platform must be attainable only through 
gates as straight and ways as narrow as those that lead to 
the pulpit, the bar, the office of the physician and the 
editor's chair, for the science and art of instruction demands 
talents, capacities, knowledge and culture as great, if not 
greater than is exacted for any other calling in the world. 
It is the science of sciences, for it lays under contribution 
every department of knowledge and every realm of thought. 
Dealing from the first, and always, with the intellectual and 
moral nature, it is impossible to succeed well without a 
clear conception of the constitution of the human mind, 
the laws of mental and moral growth, and the fixed con- 
ditions of healthful development and progress." When our 
people recognize these facts, as essential, then, and then only 
will our schools fully answer the requirements of the race, 
then, and then only will the education of our children be 
worthy of the day and age in which we live. 



CLEAR CREEK COUNTY— P. E. Morehouse, Suft 

My inception in the office of County Superintendent was 
most unfavorable, as within a few days thereafter I was 



CLEAR CREEK COUNTY. 85 

compelled to go East on urgent business, which detained 
me two months, and since my return have been so 
pressed with other duties that I have not been able to de- 
vote the time to the subject that was necessary to insure a 
full and satisfactory report. I have, however, visited all the 
schools once, and most of them tivice, and am in a general 
way prepared to state as to their condition at present, 
while I am not so prepared as to their progress in the past. 
I must, if I speak my honest convictions on the subject, 
say that, all things considered, we have in a majority of cases 
poor schools in this county. One needs only to look in 
upon most of the schools for a few minutes to discern 
the fact that they are running themselves, entirely free 
from all restraint from the care of patrons or local offi- 
cial oversight. The character of many of the school 
buildings, in structure and condition, the almost total 
freedom in furnishing, from anything like embellish 
ment and necessary common apparatus, such as globes, 
maps, blackboards, time-pieces, teachers' desks, etc., etc., all 
betoken the need of a revival, deep and thorough, on the 
school question. All these things are a natural outgrowth 
of simply letting the schools alone, on the part of those who 
ought to take the deepest interest in them, viz : parents. 
One school visited revealed the fact that in eighteen months' 
teaching in that place the teacher had been visited but twice 
by persons living in the district, and then by parties who 
had no children in school. I found this school in the most 
deplorable condition imaginable. I have never, in fifteen 
years' experience in schools and with teachers, seen a school 
that would compare with it : no plan in its conduct ; no 
spirit of teaching : no order in anything — consequently, a 
" little hell " on earth. (Excuse the expression, but it is so 
appropriate that I could not refrain from using it.) The 
calling and hearing of a reading class will illustrate how it 
was done there: " Third-reader class take their places !" 
Up jumped seven boys and girls, so called, and made with 
one accord, or discord, for a corner, each bent on having 
the first place in the class. A few "yelps " from the teacher 



86 CLEAR CREEK COUNTY. 

(?) like, " Quit that fooling ! " " Get still," etc., accompanied 
with a few empJiasized cuts from the three-foot stick, always 
in hand, resulted in a sort of lull, and the class work com- 
menced. Teacher- -»" Where is the lesson ? " Class — in 
varied chorus — " Page twenty-one," " Tain't !" " Torn out 
of my book ! " " We didn't read that further ! " " Left my 
book home ! " " Tom won't let me look in his book ! " etc., 
etc. Teacher — " Stop your noise, all of ye, and open your 
books to the piece we read yesterday — about the ' Little 
Mourners.' Jane, read ! " And Jane did read, and so did 
all the others — the teacher, in every case, starting the pupil, 
by reading the first few words, and the pupil repeating after. 
When the u and " was called " but," or " by " " in," the 
teacher chimed in the correction. This part of the exercise 
reached a climax, when, after quite a pause by the reader, 
from an effort to study out his lesson, the teacher discovered 
a boy standing in his seat, near where I was setting, and 
called out, " Tom, set down." " Tom, set down!" came 
from the puzzled pupil. That was where the laugh came 
in for me, and I did not attempt to suppress it. 

All the exercises witnessed in that school were on a par 
with this, and I might, but for occupying too much space, 
give others in detail, but I forbear. That school don't 
" keep " any more with that teacher. I am glad to be able 
to say that the case cited is one extreme, and that in some 
of our schools we are approximating to the other, as, for in- 
stance, in the Georgetown public school, now under the 
charge of Frank Carpenter, assisted by an excellent corps 
of teachers. In this connection, if I am allowed to be per- 
sonal, to such an extent, I wish to make mention of Miss 
Washburn, who devotes one-half of her time to the First 
Primary Department, and the remainder to the highest 
department, thus relieving Mr. Carpenter from the care of 
that department, exclusively, and allowing him to do gen- 
eral work. I have never met a person in the school-room 
who seemed to be more in the spirit of a true teacher, and 
better qualified by nature and experience for the position. 
I do not by this mention intend to detract from the real 



CLEAR CREEK COUNTY. 87 

worth of any teacher, or to institute any undue comparison, 
but I cannot help wishing that we had a host of such or 
similar teachers. 

Among the improvements that I note in school facilities 
during my residence in the county of nearly eighteen 
months, is the erection at Idaho Springs of a good-sized 
addition to the former school building, thus giving the citi- 
zens of that very pleasant town the advantages of a graded 
school. The cost of said improvement was about $800. 
I am proud to mention, also, the completion in Georgetown 
of a public school building, at a cost of about $25,000, that 
does credit to the community that built it, and will, with 
proper attention from those who have given so freely of 
their means for its erection, become and remain a mine of 
mental and moral value, beyond computation. To every 
community in Colorado I feel like sounding loud the in- 
junction, " Guard well the Public School ! " 

I shall, I trust, have the courage to do my whole duty as 
County Superintendent in the matter of selecting persons 
to fill the positions in all our schools. And I promise 
through the medium of examinations, personal observation, 
advice, reproof, and commendation to elevate the standard 
at a rate commensurate with all the circumstances of mate- 
rial, and proper patience joined with all possible co-opera- 
tion with parents and school officers. 

I am heartily in favor of a u Compulsory Education " 
clause in our new Constitution. I know that such an 
avowal invariably calls out such expressions as this : " Too 
much like monarchy;" "Not consistent with our boasted 
freedom," etc., but the case strikes me something like this : 
I am poor and unable to give my children the advantages 
of even a common education. My next door neighbor is 
rich and able to provide in every particular for all the 
mental and physical advantages and necessities of his ; but 
the law says he must do more — he must do his share to- 
ward providing to a reasonable extent for mine. Now it 
strikes me that there is less abridgment of liberty in requir- 
ing me to avail myself of this provision, drawn from my 



88 CLEAR CHEEK COUNTY. 

neighbor, than there is in requiring him to make it, for my 
neglect to avail myself of this provision may, and as a rule 
will necessitate another draft on my neighbor's means to 
maintain my children as criminals or paupers. This leaves 
entirely out of the question the present and future moral 
status of the subject of such a law. I cannot but believe 
that in the near future, all over this glorious land of ours, 
there will spring up a sentiment in favor of just such an en- 
actment as will place and keep within the influence of our 
public schools thousands, who are to-day, for lack of care 
and interest on the part of parents and guardians, learning 
in the street schools and haunts of vice lessons that crush 
out all that is noble in the soul, and cut off from usefulness 
many who might otherwise be a power for good in the 
forces that are marshalled as helps to our fallen natures, 
toward a higher manhood and womanhood. I think, too, 
that no one, who has given the matter any thought or at- 
tention, can feel otherwise than that the office of County 
Superintendent should be a salaried one. Certainly the of- 
fice- will not be "magnified" into just proportions until such 
is the case-. Even in as small a county as ours the largest 
portion of a competent person's time could be profitably 

spent in working op these interests-, and the expense of such 

service come back in double ratio to all the real interests 
of the people. The majority of teachers need so much a I 

sistance and advice as to methods of instruction and man- 
lent, school officers need so much spur and whip to 
, them Dp to duty, parents need to be so much remind- 
ed of their relation and duty to the schools, etc., etc., that 
it is not hard to see how a Superintendent could employ all 
hi, time in such a way a - to be profitable. No doubt the 
time vvill come when such trill be the case, and the sooner 
ee it. the better. 

Our examination . are both oral and written. If a small 

number of applicants are in attendance I prefer the oral 
method, if otherwise, we facilitate matters by making them 
partly oral and partly written. I forbear lists of questions, 
fearing thai thi - report i i already too Lou 



5 A* - . I am - Sc 



We have IM 
be able to report one ... 



C0XK1 >S AND COSTILLA ,WN V. ■■ > 

possible I t has been made b\ . 

my predecess these counties re- 

- of the c i of tiie schools Letters ha . been 

bo County Clerks and Count S 
plies have been 

ice, I succeeded in . the 

name of the Superintendent of Costilla count} . Jose de la 

Mart no 
in his count] has been received Who is Count] Si 
ent of Con< - county 1 knou not Fi me p 
.•os 1 learn that the schools interests in thes; 
are sadlj aeg ected Cb dentiful enoi 

they a d to gfQ* up in uttei ignorance A com 

\ law, Strictly enforced in this portion oi' vV./..:.o 



would re 



H. M 



DOUGLAS COUNTY. 

Douglas county has been very forti the selection 

of County Superinten earnest and et v 

men. The reports are complete M\d in accordance with 
law. while there are no large .- in the county, and 

HO expensive school houses, yet nearh even d strict has a 
comfortable house. M\d facilities ai tor a cor.i 

school education to all the children rhe present Suj 
tendent, Charles E Parkinson, is a practical teachei a 
earnest and conscientious in his endeavors to build up the 
schools of his count)'. 

Sup't Pub, Instruction 



QO ELBERT COUNTY. 

ELBERT COUNTY. . 

Elbert county is a new county, having been organized 
from a portion of Douglas county in 1874. The school 
facilities are similar to those of Douglas. Every district 
has a school house, and the people are interested in their 
schools. This county was unfortunate in the selection of 
a Superintendent in September last, Charles S. Dewey, he 
having recently absconded, taking with him the school fund 
which he had in hand. This must prove a serious loss to 
the many small districts wherein schools were commenced, 
the sustenance of which wholly depended on this fund. 
The present Superintendent, appointed to fill the vacancy 
thus made, Bernard C. Killin, is a man who takes an in- 
terest in his office, and who will do all in his power to 
remedy the wrong wrought by his defaulting predecessor. 

Sup't Pub. Instruction. 



EL PASO COUNTY. 

El Paso county is doing thorough and satisfactory work 
in the school line. Colorado Springs completed, last fall, 
a beautiful and commodious school house, at a cost of 
$23,000. More than half of the rural districts have com- 
fortable school houses ; and the county is settled with a 
class of people who believe in schools, and who also pos- 
sess that knowledge of American human nature which tells 
them that they may not expect intelligent people to immi- 
grate to a section of country in which public schools are 
neglected. Nothing can be more evident to intelligent, 
philosophical people than the fact that to those counties in 
this new land of ours which offer the best facilities for 
educating their children will the enterprising and thrifty 
emigrant drift. It should be a matter of policy, as well as 
of pride, therefore, to provide every means for maintaining 
the public schools. The present superintendent of El Paso 
county, Dr. B. P. Anderson, will doubtless see that the 
schools under his charge are kept in full blast. 

Sup't Pub. Instruction. 



EL PASO COUNTY. 9 1 

Manitou is building a comfortable stone school house, 
which will be ready for occupancy in the spring. 

DEAF MUTE INSTITUTE. 

The Deaf Mute Institute may properly be classed among 
the institutions for public instruction, it being wholly sup- 
ported by the Territory, and no charge made to the pupils 
either for tuition, text-books or board. This school was 
established by act of the Legislature, approved February 
13th, 1874. The school was organized under the principal- 
ship of J. P. Ralstin, with J. R. Kennedy, Steward, and 
Mary Kennedy, Matron, March 3d, 1874. The pupils 
numbered, at the opening, seven. The number increased 
to twelve during the term. Each successive term brought 
new pupils. There are now nineteen pupils attending. 
There is connected with the institution a printing office, 
from which is issued, monthly, " The Deaf Mute Index," 
and, annually, a report of the " Institute," all the compo- 
sition and press-work being done by the pupils. A com- 
fortable stone building has just been completed on the 
grounds donated by the Colorado Springs Town Company. 
It is amply furnished with desks, maps, charts, text-books, 
slates, etc. The officers of the Board of Trustees are : 
R. G. Buckingham, Denver, President; A. Z. Sheldon, 
Colorado Springs, Secretary; and J. S. Wolfe, Colorado 
Springs, Treasurer. 



FREMONT COUNTY— James M. Hoge, Supt. 

You will observe, by reference to my statistical report, 
that there are three districts in my county from which I 
have received no report. I am inclined to attribute this 
neglect on the part of the district Secretaries to ignorance 
of the school law, there being an inadequate supply of the 
same. There is considerable difficulty experienced in 
getting efficent and permanent school boards in several 
districts. This difficulty is owing to the fact that members 



92 FREMONT COUNTY. 

elected — particularly those who have no families — move 
out of the district, and return again after an absence of from 
three to six months. "Few of them die, and none resign." 
They are frequently absent when most needed, and there 
seems to be no remedy provided by law. Will you please 
advise me what to do in such cases. I think we shall have 
good schools in most of our districts during the ensuing 
year, our Commissioners having levied a tax of five mills 
for their support. I have but recently entered upon the 
duties of this office, and shall gladly receive any advice and 
suggestions that you may be pleased to offer. 



GILPIN COUNTY— W. Edmundson, Suft. 

Little Gilpin is progressing in matters relating to public 
schools. Although our county is the smallest in the Terri- 
tory, there seems to be an ever increasing tendency of the 
population to concentrate more and more around the busi- 
ness centers, so that all, except sixty-three, of a school 
population of one thousand and ninety-three live within an 
area of less than three square miles. The following table 
exhibits the increase for five years, in the number of per- 
sons between the ages of five and twenty-one years in the 
five school districts of Gilpin county from which reports 
have been received: 

1871. 

District No. i — Central City, - 341 
« " 2 — Nevada, - - 162 
" " 3 — Black Hawk, - 207 

" 5— Russell Gulch, 52 

" 6— Lake Gulch, - 33 



1873. 


1875. 


384 


534 


159 


163 


220 


333 


44 


45 


21 


18 



Total, - - - - 795 828 1093 

It will be seen by the above that we are not quite at a 
stand-still. Our schools are keeping pace with the increas- 
ing population. All of the districts have comfortable and 
commodious school houses, and competent teachers; and 
we still continue to regard our schools as being among the 
very best in the Territory. 



HUERFANO COUNTY. 93 

HUERFANO COUNTY. 

Accompanying the report for 1874, the Superintendent, 
for that year, W. M. Allen, says : " Please excuse the de- 
lay in forwarding my report. There were no reports sent 
to me at the expiration of the time required by law; and I 
have been waiting upon and working with district officers 
since that time, in order that my report might be as full as 
possible. The reports received are very imperfect and un- 
satisfactory; items of great importance are omitted in all 
of them. Although we had very few schools last year, 
and very few pupils in school, the prospects are good for 
the present year. Our people are awakening to a realiza- 
tion of the importance of providing the means for educat- 
ing their children ; and do not intend that the neighboring 
counties shall excel us in this particular. Our county 
fund is too small, the rate being only two and three-fourths 
mills. Most of the districts, however, make up the defi- 
ciency by levying a special tax, or by contributions. We 
expect soon to organize a Teachers' Institute. I consider 
them of great value in building up our school system. 
Our teachers unanimously favor the project, and express a 
willingness to participate in the work." 

The report of 1875, of the present Superintendent, A. H. 
Quillian, indicates considerable improvement in school at- 
tendance. There is abundant room, however, for still 
greater improvement. Any community which permits 
ninety per cent, of its school children to grow up in utter 
ignorance needs to be spurred a little. According to the 
report sent in, but ten per cent, of the number of persons 
of school age attended school one hundred and eight days 
during the last school year. 

Sup't Pub. Instruction. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY— M. C. Kirby, Suft, 1874. 

The system of public education does not seem to be 
understood — or, rather, it is misunderstood — by the law- 



94 JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

makers of Colorado ; and it does not appear from past 
legislation that it has commanded that attention which it 
deserves. If our school law could receive the especial 
attention of our legislators, and be so amended and revised 
as to meet our immediate wants — keeping in view the 
building up of the cause of education — instead of acting as 
though the system were complete and perfect, we should 
have, at least in this county, a much better prospect of 
success. Our County Commissioners act very much as do 
our law-makers — that is, upon the supposition that the 
system, now being complete, needs only a moderate suste- 
nance — hence they fail to give the necessary financial help. 
Under the law, schools are required to be in session three 
months, or they may forfeit their portion of the public 
money ; yet, under the assessment of this county, very few 
districts could have three months of school without special 
taxation. 

The Secretaries have failed to make accurate reports. 
The failure has arisen from a change of officers each year, 
and their neglecting to keep a full record of the work done. 
This continual change of administration is very detrimental 
to the work, and the wrong should be remedied. I would 
recommend that the pay of the Secretary and Treasurer be 
fixed at five dollars per day for the time actually devoted. 
This would insure accurate reports. I would recommend, 
also, a repeal of the law by which a special tax may be 
levied, for the reason that, in my experience, its working 
has proved detrimental to school interests; would also 
recommend that there be a uniform series of text books 
adopted. At present, we have all kinds of books ; and every 
teacher has some new plan and some favorite publisher 
to favor. 

Our college, Jarvis Hall, at Golden, now under the care 
of Bishop Spaulding and his competent faculty, is in a more 
prosperous condition than ever before, and is worthy of the 
patronage of our people. 

The School of Mines, also at Golden, is under the charge 
of an able and efficient gentleman, Prof. E. J. Mallett. This 



JEFFERSON COUNTY. 95 

institution will become one of the most important in our 
Territory, as affording an opportunity for the acquisition 
of a practical knowledge of metallurgy. 

Notwithstanding the many disadvantages which we have 
had to contend with, we are advancing, step by step, to 
success; and, before the close of the present decade, we 
expect Jefferson county to rank equal in the great cause cf 
education with any county in the Territory. 

R. L. Stewart, Supt. 1875. 

At the close of the year 1875, Jefferson county reports 
twenty-eight school districts and thirty-two schools ; also, 
a school of mines, a divinity school and college. Most of 
the schools are in session at the present time, and seem to 
be giving satisfaction. Some of the districts prefer a sum- 
mer school, and have made no arrangements for a winter 
term. Twenty-five, out of the thirty-two schools reported, 
are provided with school buildings. The majority of these 
are comfortable. The minority, however, of uncomfortable 
and insufficient ones, is larger than it ought to be. A new 
building of cut stone has been erected at Morrison, during 
the year, at a cost of $6,000, which is "an ornament to the 
place, and admirably adapted to the wants of that growing 
town and community. The graded school at Golden is 
increasing in numbers, popularity and usefulness, and is 
now in excellent condition. It has been found necessary to 
add another to the corps of teachers since the term com- 
menced, making five in all. 

When we consider the difficulties which have been sur- 
mounted, and the recent settlement of the country and the 
hetereogeneous character of our citizens, it is a matter of 
congratulation that our educational advantages are on as 
good a basis as they are. While this is admitted, it is 
equally evident that the time for better things has undoubt- 
edly arrived. The make-shift expedients, the mistakes and 
hasty legislation which seem to be inseperable from all 
recent undertakings of this nature, should not be perpetu- 
ated and stereotyped. Now that we are about to emerge 



96 JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

from a condition of nonage to claim the rights of State- 
hood, it is time to put away childish things. With so many 
excellent systems to select from, it would be a shame if our 
system should not be a model one. The action of the 
recent educational convention at Denver with reference to 
this matter, if endorsed by our Legislature, will remedy 
most of the crudities and deficiencies of our present system. 

Legislation, however, is of little importance if its enact- 
ments are not rigorously enforced. So far as my knowledge 
extends, this, rather than imperfections in the laws, has been 
the great hindrance thus far to the cause of education in 
Colorado. To disregard the law in its most essential fea- 
tures, seems to be the rule, rather than the exception, in 
many, if not in a majority, of cases. Much of this, in my 
judgment, is due to a wrong impression which is prevalent 
in regard to the real duties of the County Superintendent. 
If the duties of his office are (practically) limited to the 
disbursement of funds and the examination of teachers, the 
office itself is a farce — a useless expense to the County. 
If, as some openly affirm, he may not visit the schools, even 
once in a year, for fear of adding expense to the county, it 
is high time either that the office should be reconstructed or 
abolished. To see that the law is enforced and its provis- 
ions are faithfully carried out; to visit the schools, and 
strengthen the things that are ready to die; to advise, 
encourage, and assist — in short, to personally superintend 
the schools — is the special work of the County Superin- 
tendent : and the people should be satisfied with nothing 
less than this. Until we recognize this fact, and act upon 
it, we cannot expect that efficiency and perfection which 
characterizes the workings of this system in other States. 
We should strive to make this office what it was designed 
to be and what it really is elsewhere, or else dispense with it 
altogether. The County Treasurer could disburse the funds 
as well as he ; and a capable man at the county seat could 
examine all applicants at a very trifling expense to the 
commonwealth, if this were all. 

In view of the fact that the average attendance on our 



LAKE COUNTY. 97 

public schools is less than thirty-three per cent, of those 
between six and twenty years of age, a very determined 
effort should be made by the friends of education, not only 
to place our schools on a firm, substantial basis, but also to 
arouse the public interest on this subject. It is one of vital 
importance; and, if need be, the attendance should be made 
compulsory. There are other ways, I believe, in which the 
same results can be reached, and it is time that we should 
realize our deficiencies in this respect, and apply the 
remedy. In the New England States, the average attend- 
ance of those between five and fifteen years is more than 
seventy per cent.; but this has only been reached by long 
and persistent efforts. Ignorance and crime are twin sisters; 
and it is a matter of history that, the more perfect the 
schools, the less costly are the prisons and almshouses. 



LAKE COUNTY— A. S. Weston, Suft. 

I regret very much my inability to make a full report on 
account of the failure of district secretaries to make any- 
thing like a complete report. I commenced in August to 
" drum them up." Notwithstanding this, they came in too 
late. The County elerk did not notify me of the total 
amount of tax levied by the County Commissioners, but it 
was about $1,250. % 

I have a suggestion to make in regard to the school 
law. No money should ever pass through the hands of 
the County Superintendent. In this county we have rarely 
had a Superintendent who settled his accounts promptly at 
the close of his term. I think the proper way would be 
for the Superintendent to draw on the County Treasurer, 
in favor of the District Treasurer, for the amount due the 
district. By this course the risk of loss to the school would 
be much reduced ; and I think it would be as convenient, 
in every way, for the district officers. I find no provision 
of law requiring the County Superintendent to settle with 
the County Commissioners. If the law is not changed as 

(16) 



98 LA PLATA COUNTY. 

to the manner of drawing funds from the County Treasurer 
it is very important that the County Superintendent be re- 
quired to settle with, or at least report to, the County Com- 
missioners, at least twice each year. It seems to me that 
it would also be wise to have him report to them annually 
the condition of the schools of the county, that the tax- 
payers may know something of the workings of our sys- 
tem. Our population is so widely scattered that many 
children are unable to attend school at any time during the 
year. There seems to be an increasing interest in the pros- 
perity of the schools of the county. 



LA PLATA COUNTY— J. M. Hanks, Sufi 

This is one of the new counties organized in 1874. The 
Superintendent says : " I have no official and full report to 
make. I have made every reasonable effort to organize 
schools in this county, but owing to the nature of our 
country — the major part of the people leaving every fall — 
I have made but little progress. I have organized one 
district in which twenty-eight children of school age are 
enrolled. There is a private school in operation here. A 
fine schoolhouse has been built at Silverton, and I hope to 
be able to make a good report next year." 



LARIMER COUNTY— E. N. Garbutt, Sufi. 

My report is not as full and complete as I could desire, 
owing to the carelessness or ignorance of the district sec- 
retaries in making out their reports — some neglecting one 
item, others, another, so that very few of the reports are as 
complete as they should be. 

Within the past year three new districts have been formed, 
and the number of persons of school age has increased over 
thirteen per cent. In no district has school been held for 
a less term than sixty days, and the average for all the dis- 



LARIMER COUNTY. 99 

tricts in the county has been one hundred and eighteen 
days. 

Nearly all of the districts have good schoolhouses, and 
those that have none are so situated that they can rent 
suitable buildings for school purposes until the wealth of 
the districts will warrant their building. 

We have a very fair corps of teachers — some of them 
being graduates of Eastern Normal schools and colleges. 
The people are beginning to believe, and to act on the be- 
lief, that a good teacher at a fair price is better than a poor 
teacher at any price. 

The grade of examinations here is on a par with that of 
other counties — the point aimed at being to have none but 
thoroughly qualified persons for teachers. So far as the 
education of an applicant for a certificate is concerned, the 
Superintendent can judge very easily, but this is only one of 
the required qualifications of a good teacher. The power of 
governing, the faculty of imparting knowledge to others, 
and of keeping the pupils interested and full of enthusiasm, 
knowing what to teach, and when, and how to teach it, are 
quite as essential to success as scholarship. To a person 
possessed of all of these qualifications a certificate should 
be given for life. The Superintendent should visit the 
schools as often as possible, so as to be the better able to 
judge as to who are fit to be kept as teachers, and who are 
not. One disadvantage that teachers have to contend with 
is the great variety of text-books in use in the different 
schools. If this could be remedied, there would be a bet- 
ter and more satisfactoy advancement in the scholars. One 
great need in every well-organized school district is a good 
library. A good book is better company for a child than 
it is liable to meet with on" the streets. There is not a 
school in this county that can boast of a library, and as the 
law does not provide for the purchase of books, I would 
suggest that a certain per cent, of the school fund be ap- 
portioned to each district for this purpose. In conclusion 
I would suggest that if the County Superintendent could 



IOO PUEBLO COUNTY. 

report at the close of his term, instead of the beginning — 
it would be better and more satisfactory. 



PUEBLO COUNTY— Theodore A. Sloane, Suft. 

In sending you my annual report, I have very little to 
offer concerning school interests in this county in addition 
to what is contained in the report itself. Coming into 
office only a few weeks since, I have not had time to 
learn a great deal about school matters. My knowledge of 
the subject has been gained chiefly from the reports of the 
District Secretaries, and these have not been as full and 
complete as would be desired. Very few of the schools 
have opened, and, of course, my visitations have not yet 
been begun. In consultation with members of several of 
the District Boards, I find that in general the school inter- 
ests are in the hands of intelligent, careful men : that the 
school funds are judiciously usecl. During the coming 
year, the terms of a number of the schools will be longer 
than last year ; and there is a tendency toward grading the 
schools and building them up, to a greater degree than 
heretofore. 

It will be seen that three of the districts have built new 
school houses during the year. 

District No. I, which includes the principal part of the 
city of Pueblo, has taken steps toward the immediate erec- 
tion of a new school building. The present facilities have 
long been inadequate, a fact which has proven a drawback 
to the efficiency of the schools of this important district. 
The voters of the district, by a large majority, have author- 
ized the issue of bonds to the amount of $30,000 ; and 
these have been negotiated in such a way that a central 
school building, worth about $20,000, will be built. The 
plans for the building are nearly matured. Work will 
begin in a few weeks, and be pushed ahead so that the house 
can be occupied next spring. 

Districts Nos. I, 19 and 20 are now pretty well supplied 
with maps, charts, globes and other school-room facilities. 



WELD COUNTY. IOI 

I might make suggestions as to how the school law 
should be amended, and especially with regard to teachers' 
examinations, County Superintendents' duties and salary, 
etc., but think it unnecessary. You are familiar with all 
this, I suppose, from former reports ; and the probable 
speedy change of our Territory to a State will, doubtless, 
in good time, see the school law so modified by our State 
Legislators that most necessary corrections will be made 
in this regard. 

On the whole, I think the schools of Pueblo county 
growing in efficiency and excellence ; and I believe it to be 
the aim as well as desire of teachers and district officers — 
as I know it is the case with the County Superintendent — 
that this state of affairs shall continue. 



WELD COUNTY— Alvin J. Wilber, Snpt., 1873-4. 

[From a Report made to the People of Weld County.] 

When I received the office of County Superintendent of 
Schools, it consisted of a soap-box containing a few books 
and loose papers. Very little could be learned from these 
of the condition of the districts or the schools. Nor did I 
have an opportunity to see the former Superintendent, as 
he had left the County when I received these papers. The 
older districts had been described by claims, before the 
survey, and could only be found by hunting along the 
streams among the old settlers. No. 12 was not found. It 
was necessary to find and re-describe these. Also to be- 
come acquainted with the people and the needs of the 
schools, as every new officer must, and much time was thus 
consumed. The County Commissioners furnished such 
record books as were needed, and a desk suitable for the 
office. There were no blanks in use, and enough to last 
three or four years were printed, in accordance with the 
forms of the Superintendent of Instruction. The wisdom 
of using blanks, being questioned, is well illustrated by the 
teacher's certificates, which cost fifteen cents apiece to write 
out, and two cents when printed and filled. Beside, there 



102 WELD COUNTY. 

is the neatness, dispatch and accuracy obtained in transact- 
ing business with the district officers. 

The law requires the Superintendent to visit each school 
twice during a term; but it seemed to me that the intention 
of the law would be better met, where districts are so far 
apart, by making a complete examination of books, papers, 
officers, registers, teachers and schools, and only visiting 
once a term, or at longer intervals. At least, expense 
would be saved. After becoming acquainted, I learned 
there were some districts whose people were so attentive to 
their schools, and the teachers so capable, that they did not 
need the Superintendent's aid, and I deemed it right to 
neglect the requirements of the law for the purpose of 
saving expense. Also, those districts down the Platte, be- 
cause they were remote and cost so much mileage, were 
neglected. This should not be any longer. 

After a year's experience, I concluded that here, as well 
as elsewhere, an Institute would be more powerful for good 
than any other equally cheap agency. As the people of 
Greeley were willing to board the attendants and the Com- 
missioners voted $25 to pay lecturer's expenses, one was 
held with most gratifying success. 

Now, as I am closing my connection with the Weld 
County Schools, a connection that has been very dear to 
me, and for which I am deeply grateful to the people of 
Weld, let me give you some advice. It is based on a 
somewhat extended connection with Schools and the ex- 
perience of the past two years. I am very sure it is cor- 
rect. You have just selected for your Superintendent a 
man who seems every way suited to fill the office well. 
During the next year he will learn the duties of Superin- 
tendent at your expense. He will learn still more of them 
during the following year, and when his term of office has 
expired he will just be well fitted for the position. If his 
work has been reasonably satisfactory, do not let any knot 
of petty politicians cheat you out of his services when you 
have educated him for them. Rotation in office does no 
good work here. The schools are too sacred to allow per- 
sonal, local or party considerations to affect the choice of 



WELD COUNTY. IO3 

officers and teachers. All this is doubly important now, as 
we are about to form our school system as a State. 



WELD COUNTY— Oliver Howard, Sufi, 1875-7. 

Our educators are more enthusiastic in the good work 
than ever before, and those of our people who now visit a 
school at all are as ready as ever to declare that our schools 
are not what they should be. 

Some men have claimed that it is a work of folly for a 
County Superintendent to report upon the labors of his 
predecessor, as the law now requires. Men who make 
such claims are certainly in error. On the contrary, is not 
the intention of our legislators quite plain ? Did they not 
intend to give one Suprintendent the opportunity to point 
out a predecessor's virtues, in a manner that no man could 
or should ever do for himself? This being admitted, it be- 
comes my pleasant duty to report upon the labors of A. J. 
Wilber, Esq., the most careful and painstaking school of- 
ficer the county has yet known. This gentleman had the 
honor of inaugurating the first Teachers' Institute ever held 
in Weld county. This Institute was opened in Greeley, 
and continued in session one week, the members from a 
distance being entertained by the citizens. The day ses- 
sions were attended by one hundred persons, mostly those 
eager to improve in methods of teaching ; and the evening 
sessions by several hundred. At these latter meetings 
some of the best talent of the Territory was enlisted in 
giving lectures upon educational topics. An impulse was 
given to the minds of many persons, the beneficent effects 
of which we have no power of measuring. 

It is evident that the best educational force of our county 
moves toward the establishment of literary societies, in 
which select readings, essays, declamations, and debates 
are prominent, and music is not forgotten. It seems to be 
believed that the power to think vigorously while standing 
before an audience is greatly to be desired. Erie, Platte- 
ville, Evans, Greeley, and School District No. 3 each has 



104 WELD COUNTY. 

one or more of these societies, in which school officers, 
teachers, and the oldest pupils participate. 

Greeley and Evans have fine brick school buildings, 
worth many thousand dollars ; and it is a noticeable fact 
that each of the towns named has quite recently employed 
a principal teacher who is a university graduate. Thus we 
see the foreshadowing of graded schools of the highest 
order. 

In the Greeley schools, which include one-third of all 
the pupils in Weld county, a first-class professor of music 
has been employed. Following the Boston plan, the little 
ones are thoroughly drilled in the elements of music, rather 
than in the exclusive singing of pretty songs. The Hon. 
J. C. Shuttuck, who is the soul of this new movement, as 
well as an officer of the School Board, asserts that he is as 
anxious that his children should know how to read ordinary 
music at sight as he is that they should know how to read 
the printed page. 

It is much to be regretted that some of the farmers of 
our county have so little opportunity to send their children 
to school, the distance often being four or five miles, even 
in organized districts. In some districts, only few can 
attend school, and the cost of schooling each pupil ranges 
from eight to twenty dollars per month. I mention now facts 
of which I have knowledge. Within a few miles of Gree- 
ley, a school has been taught for weeks with only two 
pupils, the teacher receiving $35 per month. I ask, Why 
this shameful waste of the school fund? Would it not be 
far wiser to send those pupils to some other district, and 
pay for their transportation from the County school fund ? 
It is no uncommon thing to see men paying heavy school 
taxes while living so far from schools that it is impossible 
for them to reap any benefit for their children ; and yet we 
talk glibly of compulsory education. Would it not be wise 
— nay, would it not be just — to allow such children to be 
taken to and from school by the person who would take 
them cheapest and best, such person to be paid from the 
public school fund of the district ? 



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