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English cyclopaedia, a new dictionary 
I of universal knowledge, conducted 
by Charles Knight. 
Biography volume 1 

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Tit namei of theu Vitinj at Ike lime 0/ the etBlinuaut pvbliealion of (he ■ Enflieh Oyetopaiia of Siograpky,' are prettied fty an atleriet. 



A ARON, the first bigh-pricst of the Jews, lie wa4 tha elder bi-otber 
-^ of Moses, and was, by the express appoiotment of Heaven, asso- 
ciated with that illustrious legislator in the enterprise of delivering 
their countrymen from Egyptian bondage, and conducting them to 
the promised land. Under the direction of bis brother, Aaron, who 
was a ready and eloquent speaker, announced the command of Qod 
to I'liaraoh, and attested it by the series of miracles recorded in the 
earlier chapters of the book of Exodus. During the sojourn in the 
wilderness he was far from manifesting the st«ady confidence and 
undaunted disregard of popular clamour which characterised the 
conduct of Moses ; but, notwithstanding his timidity and weakness, 
in yielding to the demand of the multitude that he would make them 
a golden calf to worship, be was consecrated tu the priesthood, of 
which the highest office was made hereditary in his family. Having 
ascended the snmmit of Mount Mor, in company with Mosei and bis 
eldest son Eleazar, he died there, after Moses, as commanded by Qod, 
had stripped him of his sacerdotal robes, and put them upon his soa 
This event happened when Aaron was in the 123rd year of his age, 
forty years after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and, 
according to the commonly received chronology, iu the year B.C. 1451, 
or 25S3 years from the creation of the world. The history of Aaron 
is to be found in the book of Exodus, and the three following books 
of the Pentateuch. 

ABA'NO, PIE'TUO DI, or Peinu Ap6nu$, was bom in 1250 at 
Abano, the Roman name of which was Ap(3nus, a village which is 
54 miles from Pudua. He studied first at Padua, then went to Con- 
stantinople to learn Greek, and afterwards to Paris, where be devoted 
himself to mathematics and medicine. He travelled in England and 
Scotland, whence he was recalled to Padua, in 1303 or 1304, to take 
the professorship of medicine, then vacant His reputation was very 
great, and his charges for attendance very high. Ho combined astrology 
with astronomy, and perhaps made some pretence to magic. At all 
events he was regarded as a magician, and iu 1306 he was brought 
before the tribunal of the Inquiaition as a heretic and atheist ; but 
defended himself so well a^ to obtain an acquittal. In 1314 he 
removed to Treviso, in compliance with the invitation of the inhabit- 
ants. In 1315 another accusation was brought against him before the 
Inqwiiiition ; but he died before the inquiry was completed, in the 
year 1316, at the age of 66. His judges however continued the inquiry 
after his death, found him guilty, and ordered his body to be burnt 
Abano wrote several works on philosophy and medicine, and made 
translations of ancient and Arabic medical writers. In his expositions 
there is little of his own observation or of original thought ; but in 
the knowledge acquired from the works of others he was not surpassed 
by any physician of his time. 

AIJA'TI, or ABBA'TI, NICCOLO', was bom at Modena in 1512. 
He is more frequently called DcU' Abate, but erroneously according 
to the showing of Tiraboscbi, as his family name was AbatL Before 
Tiraboschi, Niccolo's surname was supposed to be unknown, and the 
name of Dell' Abate was given to him from the circumstance of his 
being lesa known for bis own works than as the assistant of Prima- 
ticcio, who wu called L' Abate by the Italians, after he was made 
Abbd of St Martin near Troyee, by Francis L of France. Abati 
executed in fresco the Adventures of Ulysses and other works from 
the designs of Primaticcio, for the palace of Fontainebleau, the decora- 
tion of which was entrusted to Primaticcio after the death of II Rosso. 
Prints from the Adventures of Ulysses, by Van Tbulden, were pub- 


lishcd in Paris in 1630 : the original works were destroyed with the 
building in 1738, to make room for a new structure. 

Abati's own works however, in Modena and Bologna, were produc- 
tions of the greatest merit, according to the Carracci ; and in a sonnet 
of AgOBtino, which is a sort of recipe for making a great painter, he is 
mentioned in conclusion as combining in himself all the required 
excellences. There are few of Abati's works remaining, and these ai-e 
chiefly frescoes; he seems to have painted comparatively little iu oil. 
It is not known who his master was, or whether he had any other 
master than his father Giovanni Abati, who was an obscure painter 
and modeller of Modena. From a similarity iu iiU works to the style 
of Corrcggio, some have supposed that he was a pupil of Correggio ; 
he is al.-o said to have studied under the sculptor Begarelli : if so he 
was probably well acquainted with Correggio, with whom Begarelli 
was intimate. 

His earliest essays upon his own account were in partnership with 

another painter, Alberto Fontana, a practice not unusual at that period 

in Italy, when there was little or no distinction between artists and 

artisans in the manner of employing them or estimating their works. 

In 1537 be painted with Fontana, at Modena, some frescoes in the 

'1 butchers' market, by which he obtained some reputation; and he 

j acquired great distinction by some frescoes in the Scandiauo Palace, 

} from Arioato and the .^neid of Virgil, which are still extant ; they 

have been engraved by GajanL These with some conversation-pieces 

and concertos in the Institute of Bologna, a Nativity of Christ under 

1 the portico of the Leoni Palace, and a large symbolical picture in 

I the Via di San Mamolo, in the same city, are the only frescoes now 

i extant by Abati ; and his oil-picturea are likewise very scarce. 

t Of the works in the Institute, Zanotti has written an account — 

'Delle Pitture di Pellegrino Tibaldi e Niccolo Abbiiti,' &c., in which 

there are engravings of them : Malvasia also has given a laudatory 

description of them : they have been compared with the works of 

Titian. The Nativity of the Leoni Palace, which has been engraved 

by Qondolfi, is mentioned in the highest terms by Count Algarotti, 

who discovered in it " the symmetry of Raphael, the nature of Titian, 

and the grace of Parmegiauo." Of bis easel-pictures in oil the most 

celebrated is the Martyrdom of St Peter and St. Paul, a largo picture 

on wood, which was painted for the Church of the Benedictines at 

Modena in 1546. It is now in the Dresden Gallery, and has been 

engraved by Folkema for the 'Rccueil d'Kstampcs npr53 les pluj 

C(!lebres Tableaux de la Galerie de Dresdc' 

From about 1546 until 1552, when he accompanied Primaticcio to 
France, Abati lived in Bologna, and his Bologneso works wero painted 
during this interval: he died in Paris in 1571. 

Abati's principal faculty was painting in fresco, in which he had 
surprising facility. According to Vasari he never retouched his works 
when dry, which cannot be said of many fresco-painters ; yet, says 
Vasari, the paintings of an entire apartment were executed with such 
uniformity that they appeared to be the work of a single day. Abati 
excelled in landscape, for his period ; there is a Rape of Proserpine 
in the Duke of Sutherland's collection, of which the background is 
an extensive landscape ; it was formerly in the Orleans Gallery, and 
was sold at the sale in this country for 1602. 

Several of Abati's relations also distinguished themselves as painters : 
bis brother Pietro Paolo was a clever horse and battle painter ; his sou 
Qiulio Camillo, his grand-on Ercole, and his great grandson Pietro 
Paolo the younger, were all painters of ability, especiSly Ercole, who 

ABAunr rnuov. 


la TTtI— Ib UtKmAikA fai leiS; b* mmsM wUh 

I ft«« M Anl^a BkfiMM, «te mMM •! TDtOooM ta 

■ whM b* WM only 
rlb*p«nMM of 

to (Map* uwl 

' to limati mwmj bnioeh of 

U Iri»k Im «Wto4 Otfomr. BolUsd, FV«ao^ 

IkA ortMBi of MMiy oottiMBt iMQ( finy>"g 

BnUmiHtwkm. Uw WUUmb wUod to nUio him ia 

, bM bo 4bd4od to rotoM to Omo w l Hmm b« took pMt in 

Mn'^iBJIillM «r «bo How IMmmmS vbkh apfawod in 17M. ud 
fMriiid Iho IhMks of «ho ohn far bb •MttioM. In 1717 the 
. i_ 111 of O— »« biotoiMd OM bis tbo tigbta of dtfioDobip. 

b c«* if Iko MMl iMmiilili JMlowo oa rtcoH of k oombii»' 

tiM of ■riniwHli Mrf 4(r<^ of loofBinc. Bmy man who tolkad 

I AboaA o« M o«F« Butiodar otodj, itnigiBod that, wbatavor 

I H biiaaaW atttoliao bad boto noorrad 

•aaa^ Xowtoa iddriwid biaiMlf to 

I m • tmmmt l imw to dii M a botoraao him and Uibniti. 

iw Iba fl^l I'lt^ - . lboi«bt ba bad pawd hi> life in the 

iMk KaMHM te^hMd Ibat bo bad dorolad himMlf to the study 

of aaaiwl Moiia. la bia taaipar ba waa ei^ularly mild and endariog 

toexaai^ For aona of bit aUaiaaMetowabaTauot much rrmaininc 

of Ahaoafc WMb Ika twililliai of adOM aaliqiiariao papen, in Spon'i 

llimti 4a b TMa 4* OtttW aad tbo < Joiinal HelrtftiqiM,' ba 

Boom tbooiogicalwaika wan pnbtttbod afUr 

k ef bla Maaoaeripta wara bunt by hit 

aa iBIfciiil fkotn bia own, which were 

ABBA TBOILB, kbi( of tbo Nov lalaadt, bteama known to 

liaaawaOMMaoftbowrtok of tbo Eaat India Compony't 

«■ Mm iriaad of OroolaB^ ooa of tbo gronp of the 

hmm% w (M IMk tf Aagart^ ITSt. Tbo mfortunata marinera were 
Wi tmtoi ^ Iba aall«<aik (B*! *■*• oooa booenrod with ■ ritit from 

tbokkc aAoI 




I ha4 aatar aaea a wbito man, nor any reaael larger 
, Ma a a i pa lta waa oabooadad ; but it wu the effect of 
lb awil aMnatod hit attention. It wat not long bafora 
be iaiaatj Wlbaa, Iba naiilalii of the Antelope, to grant him ataiatanoe 
la bit aaia vHb Iba aajg^YaBring lilaadara in four ttTeral expeditioni, 

id of Abba Thalia himielf. 
I «f Iba aliaacan prorad to effectitrc, that on 
ilo of AitininJl. the island tgainit which the 
lUtod witlwtit reaittanee to the king of Palew. 
tho real of the Antslope'i crew, and all at 
t aa| H » d ia boildiag a retarl, their own hariog gone 
a wWtb Owy baiMd to ba ablo to take pattaga to CUna; 
) ««ik Abba TbwUa, wbo took a (rati hilaratt in it, nndarad 
UMai mmf mUtmrn. Wbaa Iba Taaaal waa oomplatod, ba dodared 
bit liil Hill to aaa M a bla aagoad aoo, Ua Boo, to hU new (Honda, 
AMI ba BdabA i n iiM |a a y UMm aad aeo tba woodan of Europe. On 
Iba l»b af Kotwabtr, fm. the Oroolong (to eallad trom tbo bland 
«Wv> II waa baOl) pu aiai liJ on iu voytfa, in prMonoe of the king 
tMi abnaataMWtaef Ibapooob of Pebw, who took aa aflWtionais 
latoaTlMrftbad^a^faaMlbam wHh pnaanla. LtaBoo,aftar 
a tia i w pi rt i a t mm bta Iblbar, aeoompaabd thMn ; but a aaaman, 
. i WM ib l a d wMi bb prwwaala at the falands, Indatad 
' ' ~ bra aaill^ Abba Tbntb bad prodabnad 
a'a Uad,* aad It wat fonnally taken poaaaa- 
laflalbaMaaarKlBKOootialU. Captain WUwn brought Laa 
■ta to aa^fj. bm ba ■a hrtUBrt i ly dbd aooa aAarwaHt. In 17M 
Iba h« b* Ommmf mrt ait to ated out aa axpwlUioa to Telew, 
wliblbalil<li i M ill «f hliliiBbi Abba TboUa of Iba death of hia 
ati^ and «« I ^M> bn Iba OaaapamTa bmh of hb kindnatt to tha 
AiMaM't anrw, by priaialiaf bte wftb a qoaati^ of lira ito^ aad lua- 
Bslaasfcaad l a u liBi m i AatardbKiT Iba • PtaC 

Aatardbi|ly tba • Ptatbar ' aod • Eodaarour, 
!!**"2!*.. ^ r ' J ^** .**'<**'. •»<• bating amoag thair offieart 
« ■ ■* Wbito aad W a d n bata a di . wbo bad baao withCaplaln Wiboa, 

Abba TbaUa rteaired Iba aawt of 

[ for a lima, aad than 

', good, »a»y good). 

of Ibo Oroolong, 

lofPablew, witbtba 

eon, aad 

^tad with 

-, ^ . .. ^ . . ^. J bb aobiet : but it 

MiMM bb M^abfi«^ Mn^ to abW^fta aaiitlaooa of the 
'■•"*'■*■'• ^^'■'•■•MbaalH waa aaaatdad ibat Iba a«D«arano« 
il^..fl>.bi.l M n.ia f b.fawlbaaiyltol.^Siygr^ 

• towfttahMMUai WtarcralfBly tnia atlaabad. 

A fMibaMb^ baw faagbl riaaa Iba dapMai? 

!^T^!^1••^5!•.:' K"*" ^*' ■ ' ■ * ■»■* faaa of i 

I— «»»-«•*.«*» bta^* brolba *i« Bin, bb ald.^ ac 
■t ay yaaiaa a af M M t il l ■ a Abba Tbala waTb^bly <Mlght. 
Iba i t iiai^wartaf wbUb ba«MHb«la4aM7hbBobL: 

WM ilran np to Abba Tbulla without bloodahad. The expadiUon left 
FWlaw ia 1T»1, but returned in 1793. Abba ThuUa had died in the 
maanltma. about thret months after tha expedition had left Pelew, or 
la AiV**^'*'I- He waa tuppoaed to be nearly teventy yeart of age, 
tai waa aueooeded by hia only surriTing brother, who had been till 
Ibca "dow am kooker," or, general of the troopa. Abba ThuUe hat 
baaa ealled the IVUr the Great of Pelew, but it would be hard to tay 
for what laaaon ; bit tbotiglita ran upon war, and war only, and miioh 
of hit botpitality to WiUun and bia crew may be attributed to tha 
atfitjannt they gave him againtt his euemiei. (Keate, Account of tKe 
PtUm ItlamtU.) 

ABBAS THE GREAT, or, with bis full name, Skak ANxu Bahadtur 
Kkan, waa tba fifth King of the SuS dynasty which ascended tha 
throne of Persia In the year ISOl of our era. Duriog the Utt<-r part 
of tba reign of Shah If ohammed Khodabende, his father, ho filled tha 
tituation of goremor in the proWnca of Khorasan ; and on tho death 
ofthat prince in 1586 tuooeaded him in the govemmeut. Kborasan 
bad just then been occupied by the Utlwka, and it wat the first object 
of Shah Abbaa to rvoorer posteation of it. But bin eSbrts proved for 
a time ineffectual. Not being able to take Herat, the capital of ICho< 
rasan, from the Usbeks, he was obliged to content himself with leaving 
a garriton at Methhad, and even thit town, oontidered aa tacred by tha 
Sbiitea oo aocoout of the tomb of a celebrated Mohammedan aaint, 
Imam Ali Keca, fell again into tha hands of the enemy. About the 
same time the iotomia peace of Persia waa interrupted by a revolt at 
Istakhar, which wat however toon reprottad, and terminated with the 
execution of the prime mover, Yakub Khan. The year 1690 waa 
distinguished by victories in Qilon and Aaerbijan over the Turks, who 
ht<l collected a cousiderable force ou the banks of the river Kur, and 
threatened Persia with nn invasion. The Turks lost, through thia 
campaign, their infiuence in Gilan, but retained for the present poasaa- 
don of tha fortrasset of Nuhavend, Tebria, Tiflis, and almoat the 
whole of Aaarbijan and GeorKia. During thia time, one of the generab 
of Abbaa oonqnerad the province of Lar in tha south, and the Bahrein 
Islands in the Parsisn Qulf, important on account of tbfeir pearl 

The Usbekt ttill remsined masters of Khoraaan, and, owing to their 
deaultory mode of carrying on their attacks, many attempts at bringing 
them to a regular action had failed. At last however in the year 
IS97, they were totally defeated by the Persian troops, near Herat, and 
Khoraaan waa for a long time releasati from their predatory incursions. 

Two English knighU, Sir Anthony, and his brother Sir Robert 
Shirley, arrived about this time aa private travellers in Peraia. They 
were honourably received by Shah Abbas, whose eonfideuoe they aooa 

? lined to such a degree, that while Sir Robert Shirley remained in 
ertia, his brother Sir Anthony was sent as envoy from the Persian 
court to the Christian princes of Europe, to offer them the Shah't 
friendahip, ohi«fly with a view to tome future common undertaking 
igainat the Turk^ who were then the terror of Etiropa. [Sbirlkt.] 

Between Persia and Turkey hootilitiet were still carried on. Nuba 
vend, Tebrix, and Baghdad were taken ; a Turkish army of 100,000 men 
waa defeated by about half that number of Persians; Abbas recovered 
Axerbijao, Shirwao, part of QcorKia, and Armenia, and subsequently 
alto Kurdistan, Moiiul, and Oiarlwkir; and tha Turks were ever after 
tbb Tietory kept in oheok. They formed a league with tho Tartera of 
Kaptobak, but the united forces of both were vanquished in a battle 
fought betwoen Sultanieh and Tebric, 1618, the last memorable battia 
that ooctirred daring the reign of Shah Abbot. Negotiations were 
than oommanoed between Abbaa and the Sultan at Constantinople ; 
but inturractiooa and oonBioto in the frontier provinces, fomeuted and 
aeeretly inttigatod by the TuiUah government, still continued for 
soma tuna, 

Shah Abbaa encouraged tha trade of Europeans with Persia : ba 
protoctod the fuitoriea which the English, the French, and tho Uutoh 
had at Gombroon; but he looked with jealouny on the flourishing 
aatablishment of the Portuguese on the small island of Ormuz, situated 
near the entrance of the Persian Gulf, which h»d been in thoir posaea- 
sion ever tlnee 1607, when Albuquerque occupied it, and had now 
beoome the emporium of an extenaivo commerce with India, Peraia, 
Arabia, and Turkey. This settlement tho Persians and the English 
East India Company agreed to attack with joint forces. The Englith 
fnnithfd the naval, the Pertiant tha military, forces ; and tho island 
waa taken on tho 22nd April, 1622. For this service the Knglish 
"odvod part of the iiluuder, and a grant of half the custouis at the 
port of Gombroon ; but tlieir hoi>es of further advantages for their 
commerce in these parte were frustrated, and tha mission of Sir 
Dodmore Cotton from England to tha Persian court, in 1627, likewiie 
failed in procuring them. 

After a reign of upwardt of forty years. Shah Abbaa died at Kiuwln 
in 1628. Like most of the monarcbt of the Sufi dynasty, he was ezcet- 

Sbah Sufl. Abbas wat a aealoua Shiite, oud used to make frequent 
pil(rimagea to tho tomb of Imam Ali Rexn, at Ueahhed; but ho 
^.*"** tolarance to those that profetted other religions, and 
aepedally to Chriatiant. Hit belief in astrology was so firm that he 
oooe area raoatad the throne for a short period during which it hod 



been pt-edicted that danger menaced the life of the Shah. He made 
Isfahan the capital of the empire, and embellished that town by magni- 
ficent gardens and palaces. He favoured commerce, and rendered 
the communications in the interior easier by caravanaerais and high- 

(Malcolm, History of Periia.) 

ABBASIDES. The name of this family of sovereigns is derived 
rom their ancestor, Abbas ben Abti-al-Motalleb, a paternal uucle of 
the Arabian prophet MohammejJ. On account of their descent from 
so near a relation of the prophet, the Abbasides had, ever since the 
introduction of the Islam, been held in very high esteem among the 
Arabs, and had at an early period begun to excite the jealousy of the 
OmmaJiade kalifs, who, after the defeat of Ali ben Abi-Taleb, the son- 
in-law of Mohammed (a.d. 661), occupied the throne of the Arabian 
empire. The Abbasides had already for some time asserted their claims 
to the kalifat, in preference to the reigning family, when, in 746, they 
formed a strong party, and commenced open hostilities against the 
government of the Ommaiades in the province of Kborasan. Three 
years afterwards (749) the Abbaside Abul-Abbas Abdallah ben Moham- 
med, sumamed Al-Saffah, or 'the bloodshedder,' was recognised as 
kalif at Kufa. A battle on the banks of the river Zab, not far from 
Mosul (in the same neighbourhood where, more than a thousand years 
before, the battle of Qaugamela had made Alexander master of the 
Persian empire), decided (Jan. 7a0) the ruin of the Ommaiades. 
Merwan II., the last kalif of that linecige, fled before the advancing 
forces of Al-Safiah from Mosul to Emesa, thence to Damascus, and 
finally to Egypt, where he was overtaken and killed. So great was the 
hatred of the victorious party against the vanquished royal family, 
that not less than ninety Ummaiades were doomed to a cruel and igno- 
minious death, while even the remains of those that were already dead 
were taken out of their tombs, and publicly insulted. A survivor of 
the fallen dynasty, Abd-alrahman, a grandson of the kalif Hesham, 
escape<l to Spain, the westernmost province of the Arabian empire. 
There his name prqcured him a favourable reception ; he was saluted 
as king, and an Ummaiade liueage continued to reign for nenrly three 
centuries (756-1031) over the eight Mohammedan provinces of Spain. 

Al-SaGTah died in 753, and was succeeded in the kalifat by bis 
brother Al-Mansur (753-774), who removed the seat of government 
from Damascus to the new-built city of Baghdad. He was successful 
in wars with the Turcomans, and with the Orecian empire in Asia 
Minor ; but the internal tranquillity of his reign was often disturbed 
by insurrections in the distant provinces. In the reign of his sod, 
Mohdi (774-784), a Mohammedan army, under the command of the 
youthful Harun-al-Rashid, penetrated the Orecian provinces of Lesser 
Asia as far as the Hellespont. During the short reign of Hobdi's son, 
Hadi (784-786), an attempt at an overthrow of the Abbaside dominion 
was made at Medina by Hoasein, a descendant of Ali ben Abi-Taleb. 

Hadi was followed by the celebrated Harun-al-Rashid, a grandson 
of Al-Mansur, whose early military exploits hare already been alluded 
to. When called to the throne, he soon displayed a love of justice and 
peace, and a zeal for literature and the arts, which corresponded to his 
valour as a military commander. He opened friendly communications 
with CHiarlemagne ; the presents which he sent him (among others a 
curious sort of clock, a description of which is given by Eginhard), 
while they show the regard which he entertained for his great Euro- 
pean contemporary, afford at the same time an illustration of the 
progress which the mechanical arts must at that time have made 
among the Arabs. In conducting the internal affiurs of his empire, 
Harun was chiefly guided by his two ministen, Yahya and Jafar, of 
the ancient Persian family of the fiarmekides, whose ancestors had 
through many generation-s, previous to the introduction of the Islam, 
held the hereditary office of priests at the fire-temple of Balkh. But 
the high degree of popularity which the Bannekides enjoyed aroused 
Harun's jealousy, and the rashness and cruelty with which he indulged 
himself in his suspicion by putting to death not only the two ministers, 
but almost all their relations, form an odious exception to the praise 
of mildneu and equity with which his memory is honoured by eastern 
chroniclen. The epoch of his reign has, in the remembrance of 
Mohammedan nations, become the golden age of their dominion. The 
wealth and the adopted luxury of the conquered nations had given to 
social life that refinement, and to the court of Baghdad that splendour, 
of which such lively pictures are exhibited in many of the tales of 
tlio ' Arabian Night*!.' Flourishing towns sprung up in every part of 
the empire ; traffic by land and by sea increased with the luxury of 
the wealthy elasaw; and Baghdad rivalled even Constantinople in 

To wage war against the infidels was with the Arabs a matter of 
religion and of faith ; as soon therefore as a conquered nation embraced 
the Mohammedan belief, it wa.s no longer regarded as sift>ject to the 
victors, bat was raised to an equality with them, and formed an 
integral part of the same body. The different elements of the empire 
were thus held together by the tie of a common religion, and the 
language of the Koran (which the Mabommedans have always deemed 
it unlawful to profane by translations) became the medium of commu- 
nication for the nations from the banks of the Indus to those of the 
Tagus and the Ehro. The supreme pontificate and the secular sove- 
reignty, the two elements whose conflict forms the prominent feature 
in the history of the Christian world during the middle ages, were in 

the Mohammedan empire united in the person of the kalif, who, 
invested with the mantle, signet, and staff of the Prophet, and bearing 
the title of Emir-al-Mumenin (that is, Commander of the Faithful), 
wielded the supreme spiritual and temporal rule without any other 
restriction or control besides the ordinances of the established religion. 
The only formal recognition of the sovereignty of the kalifs (and sub- 
sequently of all other independent Mohammedan princes) was the 
prerogative of having the money of the state stamped with their name, 
and of having their name also introduced into the public prayers at 
the mosques. According to the ancient Pereian plan, the several pro- 
vinces of the empire were governed by delegates, with military and 
administrative powers. But this system soon proved fatal to the 
kalifat ; for the lieutenants in the distant parts of the empire would 
often revolt, and aspire to independent authority. On an expedition 
to Kborasan, undertaken against such a disloyal satrap, Harun died 
at Tus, in 803. 

The throue was for some years contested between his two sons, 
Amin and Mamun ; but in 813 Mamun came to the sole and undis- 
puted possession of it. His reign (813-833) forms an important epoch 
in the history of science and literature, the cultivation of which was 
conspicuously patronised by that kalif. The Arabs were avowed bor- 
rowers in science; they were chiefly indebted to the Hindoos and tho 
Qreeks; and even what they received from these nations seems often 
to have exceeded their comprehension. Their claims to originality of 
invention, and to the merit of having made real additions to the stock 
of our knowledge, are not great ; but they are entitled to our gratitude 
for having kept alive and diffused tho light of letters, and for having 
preserved a sort of scientific tradition from classical antiquity, during 
an age when science and literature in Europe lay buried under ignor- 
ance and barbarism. Mamun founded colleges and libraries in the 
principal towns of his dominions, such as Baghdad, Bassora, Kufa, and 
Nishabur. Syrian physicians, and Hindoo mathematicians and astro- 
nomers, lived at his court; and works on astronomy, mathematics, 
metaphysics, natural philosophy, and medicine, were translated from 
the Sanscrit and Greek into Arabic. Mamuu took personally a parti- 
cular interest in astronomy. He built observatories, had accurate 
instruments constructed, improved by their means the astronomical 
tables, and caused a degree of the meridian to be measured in the 
sandy desert between Palmyra and Racca oa the Euphrates. At his 
command, Mohammed-ben-.Musa wrote an elementary treatise on 
algebra, the earliest systematic work extant on that branch of mathe- 
matics, for their knowledge of which, as well as for much of their 
astronomy, the Arabs seem to be chiefly indebted to the Hindoos, 
The investigation of the structure of their own language, and the 
systematic development of the Mobammedaq theology and jurispru- 
dence, both founded chiefly on the Koran, atforded an opportunity of 
applying practically the principles of the Aristotelian philosophy. 

The period of prosperity which the Arabian empire enjoyed under 
Hamn-al-Rashid and Mamun was only of short duration. The chival- 
rous enthusiasm with which Mohammed had inspired his nation became 
soon extinguished under voluptuousness and love of enjoyment. Many 
provinces in tho west (Spain, Fez, and Tunis) had already shaken off 
their allegiance to the kalifat, and the attachment of others in the East 
was likewise doubtful. From the north the empire was threatened 
by the Turks, some tribes of whom had been compelled to adopt the 
Mohammedan religion. Turkish youths were soon brought as merce- 
nariea to Baghdad, and Motasem (833-842), the brother and successor 
of Mamun, formed of them a body-uuard, which, under the reign of 
Vathek (842-846), Motawakkel (816-861), and Montaser (861, 862), 
became to the kalifat what the praetorian guards had been under 
the Roman emperors. Mostai'n (862-866) was obliged to concede to 
them the privilege of electing their own commander, and thus lost 
much of his authority at home, while the provinces of his empire wore 
infested by invasions from the Greeks. Under his successor, Motaz 
(866-868), a native of Sejestan, Yakub-al-Laith, sumamed Al-Soffar 
(that is, the brazier), made himself master of Kborasan, Kerman, Persia 
proper, and Khuzistan, and united these provinces into an independent 
kingdom, with Nishabur for its capital, which continued in the posses- 
sion of his family (the Soffarides) till 917. 

The successors of Motaz were Mohtadi (868, 869), Motamed (869- 
892), Motadhed (892-902), Moktafi (902-907), Moktader (907-932), and 
Kahir (932-934). Under the reign of Radhi (934-940) the disorder of 
the empire had reached such a height, that the kalif, in order to 
restore public order and tranquillity, was obliged to call Mohammed- 
ben-Rayek, the governor of Wasith, to Baghdad, and to confide to him, 
with the title of Emir-al-Omara, or Commander of the Commanders, 
an almost unlimited authority in the government. From this time 
the kalifat became a mere nominal dignity; all the efficient power was 
in tho hands of tho mighty Emirsal-Omara. After tho short reign of 
Mottaki (940-943), Mostakfi (943, 944) came to the kalifat; but he was 
soon dethroned by Moizzeddaula the Buide (properly Bawaihide), 
who, in concert with his two brothers, had rendered himself master 
of a great part of Persia and Irak. Moizzeddaula conferred the kalifat, 
now limited to the mere pontifical dignity and to tho possession of the 
town of Baghdad, on Mothi Lillah (946-973), and reserved to himself 
the powerful office of Emir-al-Omara, which continued hereditary in 
his family during the kalifat of Tayi-lillah (973-991), and Kadir-billah 
(991-1031), till the year 1056, when, in the kalifat of Kaim-biamr-illah 


m 4mWm if «hi AMmUml Of Um In* kM mr 

Mi^ BMWii^ M« Q^mHtm, to IMt m< KhMMa; to (k* 
Mwi liiii<nli> tiliM I tW n I'l 1 Md Mm MfaiHw to 

AMm. MakkT* H^fSni^ OIM^IITO). •« w m iiil to Um 
katoltorMMtedUniro>nr»kMd KairniT»-lSM),4wtagwlMiw 
l«4aillwTto«MMfiir<hi«iiKto«totrBMr«irfik OaUrawni«d 
«b* kalMH «^T «» • fcv mmW HbMMMMor.llMtaaMrOm- 
\Ut\. ttmuA fcr • IhM • » k »fow mMmm to Ik* minam af tk* 
Tuw *MMMl : krt kti «■ HwtMM WHMtotod Md kfltod fay th« 
T*fter ■■hk«, «k* %Hk IWkifad, Md Ml M Md to Ik* goMnaMt 

AkaHd. • aw of Ik* kdtf DaUr. C«l to KriA. wdm SolUa Bifaara, 
llM Maatok (UHn, lirnitiil ktoi aa kalS Bat ha aooo mat kia 
dHik al Bwkdad to aa allMMl I* aaiahlkk kit rtaki to tka ttoxw* of 
kli Mliiaj aad Btea* iiafwul Ika iMa ef kaUf «■ aaalkar 
AkkMM% BitakWaHAtt, vVoa* dMaadaoto «adar tha BNtoetioB 
•r «ka Itofatoh^ ntolHd MMMrfM *r Ika atooH aaotoalkalUM to 

tm* *■ 1*IT. «kOT Ik* Ohmb ToAa aoa qu aaad BDpi. Solus 
Bdtoi toafc Um bai Akfaatoda kalii; Molawakkd. to OoHUMltoopU, 
wkar* ka kapl ktaa tor aaaa ItoM M a Biaooar. toll aftatwaida allowad 
kia to Ntw» to bnl, wkan ka Itoad at Ckire UU kb daatk, to ISU. 
ABBOT. CHABCK raeuanma. Uw&J 
ABBOT, CWBliM ft —iMBM , Loa&] 
ABBOT, OBOBOI^ m A«|BA aiihli aT tka I7ik eantafr. Ha 
«aa kats to Mtt, «* (toUdfMd. to Bonn, wimt kt* tollMr wm • 
■wai aiiinnl ef kii oatiT* town b« 
itord, to 157^ aad to 15»7 ebtotoad iiU 
lkgrkdii(*toctadllaatoror UaivanitvCoUwai Aftar 
aa Um* aafo to li d YlaM^peJIor of tka UniTanitT. 
IkakUialMltoKwkMrkaa^iajadkaabaM aMiitortad aa much to 
Ika a«r«r)lk wkhh ka affiid Bmt aad Aimtolaaiam a« to bii 
aaftor aMHlJI ar If lin Tkara aad alraady eoei in ai Kad ba t waan 
ktoi aad laadlfcalttohtappaa W aa of t baoltijkalaaatfaMnt, which. 
tovalvtos tkf* umImII/ fa poUlieal kaaUUtj aad In a oootcat of 
I i iaaJ l a i to llq , wmO* toaai ritab aad aaM l aa tor Ufa. ThalUtter 
af Oaii w Ul J 0*ltn» kovaaw.aoat totTa baaa to aoeaidanbla aataam 
for ktowalMiaiawrilaahrkhailkedoay.aaUag thai wa lad klM 
to \*H aaHag tka |iiiiiaa ctou«id with Um d*w traadattoo of Um 
Bikto H* *«a oaa ar ai(hl to who« tha whota of tba New Taato- 
Mat, wHh th* aMMltoa a( Um Kriattaa, wa« tolnutad. In 1608 ha 
■aaifiotolil dlMito to tka aatohltahiaaat of tha Bari of Dnnbar, 
al Ikto ItoM tha hto^a tUtt tovoarila. Sooo *A*r tb* owl waa 
~ " Itoaatortoanwiri that attaiDt to brii^ 

I whiea ao graaUj 
toto aT Um Itoa oT Btoari. Abbot 
aaaaafMtod hla aa thb into<im. aad (ara hiaaair to lu object with 
aa WMb aad aa to aacaia tk* hUMat approbaUoa and favour both 
fra« Iha Mri aad to* MaarA. Ha hadto l«0»ahtatoad UMdMnarr 

af Ol aa r. aad to Daaaabar of Um mbm Taar ka wa* mada Bbhop 

a< ItohMd aad Oaartn. la Um rwhraaf7.fcUoiHM ha «>a tna*> 
fOT«4tolhaata*IL*iria«,aad,tolilU*iaatathara aoath aftar 
wnrto. waa i l iialid to Um a i «h fa iA u|> h i aT Oalatbaty. Abbot, 
' waa aT a dt twwt aaaiptoitmi ttoa that of hU 
'•wad klM w I f acareUy Um iacUnad to 
> aB tka paw«* aad pcwofiUTai of hi* 
■toa hia aaadaat «M aa arbiinrr 
toUaaaaf daliavMBtoa* UmI of 

aifalAtolMr I 

tmm. laihaOaart*«B)|^( 
aad a a a rad f * lawd* aid 

"^ ^"> ■**• pnaaMa vrar iaa» aatHHMMai MiDaaai! aao 
laAad Um Mat aartad diapaaiUaa to aal ap Ito aatharitar a* 
to UWtaC haUiIha datato aad tka eaaiMeo Uw. ItUalao 

toiagkl aptod kla^toat>i 

. kal,aa*wkarli«haldaparo«hid 

fc* »* t* to to ia am a U ta «d aTartaarii* towafda 

alkir lamaH ka waaaeUraaad 

v«r wwktovdMar. Ii 




faaaa to Ikair Mateaarnhaadvaaad 
(Wk iwa. ffa«, iMaaiai, «k*a iliiwaliiiiiii phaad Um to 
tmlUm to th. i l X , to i a^M af kfa «M >lfawMy g jTaaM 

■md aa >r aa yaaftto kmt Uwia af ikd kafleiM aJSTrf 


hoar Tka aarta to whom Abbot wai oppoaad, employad arenr effort 
to tara ♦fi't ilidililrt to hia dindTantage, both with the poblie and 
with tha kiM: aad JaoMS dthoogb h« rerj leniibly remarked that 
■aa awaltoWit ha*a mkcarriad in thii aort," found it nec*iMi7 to 
aaaatal a iwaiintMinn to oooddar the eaae of the archbishop, and to 
^f ' , wkalhar he had not. by thii act of chance me<lWy, inca- 
Ua^df, m Land and hii partiaani aeeertod, for discharging 

doUae of Id* otte*. Tba a^jndioation of the oommiiuionera was, 
thai a*tkiM OMi* than aa in«Kalarito l>ad baen committed, but that 
^^ w«a|d b* a***^u7 for the anhbiihop to raceiTC the king'* pardon, 
•ad ate a rHwwwtlnn bafor* ha could reanme the exerciae of hia 
ftioUriM Thaaa fgnu wer* aooordiogty gone through ; but the 
f^^ MV« mat vanUoo aad diatraH to Abbot, boUi from the acandal 
to whidl it aabjeelad him, and from the feeliagi with which he natu- 
ibOv eaetmniated the cTent of which he had been uuinUntionally 
tlia'^aaaa It U nid that, throughout the remainder of hia life, ho 
uba«iiid a nonthly faat on the day of the week which had thua 
■«.i~~l Ui hand with blood ; and be alao aetUed a peneian of twenty 
poaada for lifc on Hawkina'i widow. Aftar thi« he withdrew for somo 
Sf py (koa hia attaadaaoe at tha ConncU Board, and took no part in 
paUie afldra. Tha following year, however, on hearing it reported 
Uiat tlM king iataaded to proclaim a toleration to the Papista, ha 
«toto a lattor to hi* mi^jaitT, diaauading him from that measure. He 
alao^ aooa after thia, atRnooualy oppoaad in parliament the projected 
BMteh b*tw*an th* Prince of Walea and the Infanta of Spain. On 
Um Sod of Fabraaiy, 1626, Abbot crowned Charlee I. in Weetininster 
Abbey, Land dBdating as Dean of Westminster. The new reign 
ecoftniMd the aaoaadancy of Laud and Buckingham, and left the 
aicbbithop and hia poUtie* lea inflnence at coort than ever. In these 
cireunastanoe* he aelacted and steadily petseTered in that independent 
nath in which done he waa now to fiind either honour or safety. In 
I6S7, whan Dr. Itanwating waa brought to the bar oT the Uouae of 
Lord% aad —ilwinnil to t>* fined, admonished, suspended, and im- 
pctomed, for a aariDoa to which he aaiattad that " the kini; is not 
bound to obaarra tha laws of tha radm oonceming the subject's rights 
and libertiea, but that hia royal will and command in imposing loans 
and taxea^ without common consent in parliament, doth oblige the 
sabjactaT oonadeoca upon pain of eternal damnation," Abbot, in 
reprimaodinc tba eulpnt, by order of the House, expressed in energetic 
tanas hia abhoiraoce of *o aodaeioua a doctrine. He also refused to 
Uoenaa another diioouna of a aimilar description, which bad been 
preached at Northampton by Dr. Sibthorp, and for this be waa ans- 
peoded from his aroniepiioopal functions, and ordered into confine- 
ment in one of his country houses. This most arbitrary and oppreadre 
treatment was mainly the work of hia Tiodictire enemy Laud, whoae 
eharaetar, accordingly, the archbishop has delineated with a pen dipped 
to call, in a nanative of the affair which he drew up in his own 
vinaicattoa, aod which Roahworth haa printed. It was found necea- 
aacy however, aoon aftar, to restore him to favour, and he received 
hia aommons as usual to the parliament, which assembled in March, 
1038. During tha rest of his life ho continued the same course of 
oppodtion to the arbitrary and oppresdve meaautes of the court. 
lie dird at hia pataoa of Croydon, on Sunday, the 4th of August, 1 633, 
and WM botiad in Trinity Church, Ouildford, where a costly menu- 
nMBt waa aractad to hi* memory. He was the founder of a well- 
eodowsd hoapital, which still exists in that town ; and other iustancea 
art recorded of his charity aud munificence. 

Arehbtabop Abbot is the author of several literary productions, 
among which are an ' Expodtion on the Prophet Jonah,' published 
to 1600, and 'A Brief DescripUon of the whole World,' pubUshed 

(MaradUa ^rifoaatca ; Wood, AOtena Oxonienta, by Bliss; Fuller, 
AifMsi WtrHUi; Ilayle, Dictumitoirt CrUique; Rushworth, Ool- 
tecfiMl ; Southey, Book of the Church.) 

ABDALLATIK. or, with hU full name, ifovaJpUeddin Aba Moham- 
mad Attatif Uh Yuuof hm iltkammei bat Ali hm Abi IMd, a 
d i ating n ls h ed Arabic writer, whoa name haa become familiar to us 
ohiaty throa|h an axoelleot deacripUon of Egypt, of which ho is the 
•other. Th* Baron Silvastr* do Sacy hu appended to liU French 
tfaaatoUca of Uiia tratiao, a noUoe of the Ufe of Abdallatif, token 
from Um Ubtb>fra{>hied work of Ebn-Abi.Osaibia, who knew AUlal- 
laUf penooally, and to a great extent quota an accouut of his life 
written by bimalf. 

We learn from this noUa Uiat AbdaUaUf wu bom at Baghdad to 

- 647 (*•»■ l'*})^ *''"'™ '>'» earliest years he received a lettered 
Agraably to the prevsiliog fahion of his age and country. 
«j ^**^ * tbctougb familiarity with the copious and classical 

**~*" ""Py •• the indiapenmble groundwork for every Uberal 
•MoirMM^ h* wa lad to oommtt to memory the Koran, the mudl> 
ad«ato»d Makamat, or novels of Hariri, and other compositions dia- 
_!S?^ t^ *^? •'"^'y '"'' elegance of their dicUon, bedda mveral 
»*nBiiWB»MS*dlir trattog on styl* or grammar. Next to these 
MUOtagtad dadi*^ h* had alraady batowed some attention on 
SLTTi i'™l*««'*«<». "ken the arrivd at Baghdad of Ebnal- 

Tatoll, a aatarsUst fron the weatam provinoa of the Arabian empire, 
aMnoted Us eortodto towarda natonl philoropliy aud alchemy, of 
to* Uto*a^ aatur* of which Utter pnr.uit he teems not till Ute, and 
•na nocb waste of tin* uid Ubour, to have convinced hiuiself. 




Damascus, the residence of Saladin, had about this time, through 
the liberality of that celebrated sultan, become a rallying point for 
learned men from all parts of the Mohammedan dominions. It is 
here that we find Abdallatif commencing his literary career by the 
publication of several works, mostly on Arabic philology. But the 
celebrity of several scholars then residing in Egypt, among others the 
Rabbi Moses Maimonides, drew him to that country to seek their 
personal acquaintance. A letter from Fadhel, the vizir of Siladin, 
introduced him at Cairo, and lie was delivering lectures there while 
Saladin was engaged with the crusaders at Acca (St. Jean d'Acre). 
Soon, however, the news of Saladin's truce with the Franks (1192) 
induced Abdallatif to return to Syria, and he obtained from Saladin 
a lucrative appointment at the principal,mosque of Damascus. After 
the death of Saladin, which took place in the next year, we find 
Abdallatif going back to Cairo, where he lectured on medicine and 
other sciences, supported for a time by Al-Aziz, the son and successor 
of Saladin. It was during this residence at Cairo that Abdallatif 
wrote his work on Egypt. But the troubles of which Egypt now 
became the scene, induced Abdallatif to retire to Syria, and subse- 
quently to Asia Minor, where he seems to have lived for a long time 
quietly at the court of a petty prince, Alaeddin Daud, of Arzenjan. 
After the death of that prince (r22") he went to Aleppo, to lecture 
there partly on Arabic grammar, and partly on medicine and on the 
traditions, an important branch of Mohammedan theology and juris- 
prudence. Four years after this, Abdallatif set out on a pilgrimage 
to Mecca, and took Lis route through Baghdad, to present some of his 
works to the then reigning kalif Mostanser, when he died there 
in 1231. 

Ebn-A bi-Osaibia has given a list of the works composed by Abdal- 
latif, which, in the Arabic appendix to Baron do Sacy's translation, 
fills three closely-printed quarto pages. The description of Egypt, 
through which bis name has become so familiar to all friends of 
antiquarian research In Europe, and in which he displays an accuracy 
of inquiry, and an unpretending simplicity of description almost 
approaching to the character of Herodotus, is dedicated to the kalif 
Nasir-ledin-illah. It is divided into two books : the first treats, in 
six chapters, on Egypt generally, on its plants, its animals, its ancient 
monuments, peculiarities in the structure of Egyptian boats or vessels, 
and on the kind of food used by the inhabitants ; the second book 
gives an account of the Nile, the causes of its rise, &c., and concludes 
with a history of Egypt during the dreadful famines of the years 
1200 and 1201. 

The only manuscript copy of this work, of the existence of which 
we are aware, is preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. From 
this manuscript the Arabic text was edited for the first time at Tubin- 
gen, in 1787, by Paulns, and again, with a Latin translation, by Pro- 
fessor White, at Oxford, 1800, ito. The French translation published 
by Baron de Sacy, under the title 'Relation de I'Egypte,' Ac. (Paris, 
1810, 4 to), besides its greater fidelity, has through the copious notes 
added to it become one of the most important works that the scholar 
can consult on the geography, the history, or the antiquities of 

•ABD-EL-KADER (SididHadji-OuUdMakuldin), formerly Emir 
and Boy of Mascara, and celebrated for his protracted resistance to 
the French arms in Algiers, was born in the early part of 1807, in the 
neighbourhoo<l of Mascara, in what is now known as the province of 
Oran. [ALufeniK, L', in Geoohapuical Division of Exo. Cyc. vol. i. 
col. 206.] He was the third son of a marabout, of the Arab tribe of 
Hashem, named Sidi-el-Hadji-Mahiddin, who had acquired great infiu- 
encc on account of his sanctity as well as his rank. Over the early 
days of Abil-el-Kader has been thrown something of the romantic 
colouring which would seem of right to belong to an Oriental hero, 
and one who has figured so conspicuously in the annals of France. 
He had in infancy accompanied liis father in a pilgrimage to the birth- 
place of the prophet. From his boyhood he had been carefully 
trained in both the secular and sacred learning of his race. By open- 
ing manhood he had obtained the reputation of a scholar well instructed 
in the history and the literature of Arabia ; and he liad crowned his 
study of the Koran and its commentators by a second pilgrimage, in 
1828, to Mecca, and received in consequence the title of Hadji, or 
saint. At the same time, so far from neglecting equestrian and mili- 
tary exercises, though of small stature and little physical strength, he 
had rendered himself remarkable even in those arts in which all his 
countrymen excel — the management of the horse, the lance, and tlie 

When the French began seriously to push their conquests into the 
interior of Algiers, Abd-el-Kader was living in retirement with his 
wife and two children, distinguished by the austerity of his manners 
and bis strict observance of all the precepts of the Koran. But when 
the severe measures of the Duke of Rovigo caused a general rising of 
the native tribes, he joined his countrymen in arms. The father of 
A bd-el-Ka<ler bad for some time been exerting all his influence to 
effect a union of the tribes ; urging them to make a great and com- 
bined effort to drive the- French out of the country, as then, from the 
humiliated condition to which the Turks liail been reduced, the Arab 
might again with little trouble become the ruler of the land. The 
confederation of the tnbes was formed, and the chiefs besought 
Mahidiliu to take the dirrctiiui of it. He refuse<l however, plea'ling 

that his advanced age unfitted him to act as a military leader at such 
a juncture ; but he directed them to his son as one designated by 
nature and education for the purpose : and he repeated to them 
various omens which had marked his birth and childhood, and related 
how during the pilgrimage to Mecca an aged fakir had solemnly 
announced to him that he should become Sultan of the Arabs. The 
tribes acquiesced, and Abd-el-Kader was proclaimed Emir at Mascara. 

Accompanied by his father he at once began to preach a Holy War, 
and to call on the faithful to assist in tlie expulsion of the infidels. 
By the spring of 1832 Abd-el-Kader found himself at the head of 
10,000 warriors. His first blow was struck in May of that year 
against Oran, or Warran. The assault was several times repeated witli 
great impetuosity during three successive days, but was each time 
repelled with heavy loss to the Arabs. Abd-el-Kader thouijh un- 
successful as far as the capture of Oran was concerned, acquired great 
reputation by his personal skill aud daring, and the siege is said to 
have done much towards accustoming the Arabs to face artillery, 
from which they had previously shrunk. Before making another 
determined effort to dislodge the invaders, he resolved to extend the 
basis of his power, by persuading or compelling the tribes of the 
interior to acknowledge his supremacy ; and after some opposition he 
appears to have succeeded with both Kabyles and Arab?. The French 
on their pai-t were chiefly anxious to secure the cities and strong- 
holds along the coast, and left the Emir to take his own course in tho 
interior. So strong indeed was the desire of the French governor of 
Oran, General Desmichels, to obtain a respite from any further attack 
while carrying out this purpose, that he entered into a treaty (Febru- 
ary 26, 1834,) with Abdel-Kader, by which he agreed, on his acknow- 
ledging the French supremacy, to recognise him as Emir of Mascara, 
including the sovereignty of Oran, except such portions of the coast 
as were in the possession of the French. Along with the sovereignty 
was also ceded to him the monopoly of the commerce with the interior. 
This treaty was disapproved in Paris, but to Abd-el-Kader it was of 
great advantage, from the vast accession of consequence he derived in 
the eyes of the natives from this formal recognition of his sovereignty 
by the French authorities. But it also aroused jealousy and fear 
among the chiefs, and several of them refused to submit to his preten- 
sions. By one of these, Mustapha-Ben-Ismail, chief of the Dau'\ire3, 
he was surprised in a night attlick, and his forces routed ; the Emir 
himself only escaping with extreme difficulty. Other chiefs on 
receiving news of this defeat also rose against him, but he quickly 
collected a considerable body of troops, and General Desmichels having 
supplied him with muskets and powder, he soon forced them to 

It has been disputed whether the French or Arab general first broke 
the terms of the treaty. Probably each regarded it as nothing more 
than a convenient armistice, to be kept only as long as suited his 
purpose. Certain it is, that Abd-el-Kader having availed himself to 
the utmost of the opportunity to secure his influence over the tribes, 
and to put his army into an efficient litate — including the training for 
the first time among Arabs of a regular infantry corps, and an artillery 
service — crossed the Shellif and entered Medayah in triumph, announc- 
ing that he was about to expel the French. General Trdzel who had 
succeeded Desmichels, at once took the field against him. The armies 
met on the banks of the Sig. That of the Emir was much the more 
numerous ; but the superior discipline of the French amply com- 
pensated for the disparity of numbers, and Abd-el-Kader, aftur a 
resistance which extorted the admiration of his enemies, was compelled 
to fall back. TriSzel was however in no condition to pursue his 
success. He had lost 240 men ; and the army of the Emir thc.igh 
defeated, was still mucjh the larger and well kept together. Tr(5zel 
decided to retreat towards Arzew ; and the Emir followed him. At 
the Pass of Makta, where Tr<!zel, cumbered with wounded and 
bafgage, was at a manifest disadvantage, the Emir fell upon him in 
force (June 28, 1835), and it was only by the most desperate exertions, 
and with a loss of 500 men, that the French general was ablo to 
extricrte a portion of bis army. This, the first serious check which 
the French had suffered in Africa, produced the greatest excitement 
among the native population. In Paris, on the other hand, it caused 
much irritation, and Marshal Claueel was despatched with imperative 
orders to inflict a striking punishment on Abd-el-Kader. On arriving 
in Algiers the Marshal appointed a Bey of Oran, with a view to weaken 
the authority of the Emir by raising up a native rival. Clausel then 
marched with a considerable force upon Mascara ; but the Emir 
caused the inhabitants to quit the city, and when Clausel entered it, 
December 6, 1835, he found little more than bare walls. Unable to 
hold the city, Clausel completed the work of ruin by setting it on 
fire. Abd-elKader now made Tremecen, or Tlemsen, on the borders 
of Marooco, his headquarters ; but on the approach of Clausel he was 
forced to evacuate it, and retreat still farther into the interior. 
Clausel continued his pursuit, and the Emir was again compelled to 
break up his camp. Soon after a large auxiliary force, including 
several thousand'horsemen, who had come from Marocoo to unite with 
the Emir in tlie Holy War, was surprised aud di feated ; and Clausel 
returned to Algiers, boasting in his bulletins that he bad efiectually 
destroyed the puwer of the redoubtable Emir. But Abdel-Kader had 
continued to follow at a distance the moveniouts of the French, and 
he now showeil that he was still formidable, by attacking and 




J SBM^V flDHM pMHvC V^MWVik Mft Iwfly WMV HHBWBVB ^ bbo 

I fcr Ikt |MfiMir«r TlMHMb aMkb i n to y w fi t ir l MM 

' ' MNk IkMfcMk od Ab>UI-K«d«r Ml 

D •!?«■•• MMMiirtad •• fcr M Ik* |»« of 

t ; m !■ «>■> i « » t f t U ol ll>» Kilr i — I trf to 

«ta«4*«pM>«iUM<lkofJa|*.ltt«. ▲» in* lb* FMook 
»M M* «mIMm), M U« MW rtUM. Md tko^ AM- 
it Ik* kwl if hk MMlfy. wU* ka kud kip* Md«Mi oars 
I u I iwii. will iki will iHiiiiiniii aibrti *• iwofar tk« 

4n. k» «H «MifaM «• » nvU viXwii >«*i^ kaklwl kirn abo** 
UN* kflM mA ■■■lit Ba 4M M* Matai* •gaia to «Rem»tar 
*• fnmk hi Ik* •gm UU; i»i UMjr. mi Ibair part, kad fooad a 
wv Md hfldildi inwl ia Ika B^r of CoMttatiaa, wboa tnm 
kb iVHlirflr M Mi M*MMy to erMk vOkMrt dii^y. la ordtr to 

ii gi M I — i MM alW w* wMi diwit > wpwh to Abd^Kad«r for 
w asMliMMk A toiilliv •••M'I'rir t^k pbai o« tka bank* of 
IhatWtakaft «kkbbaltorMaadiaMHiMi.a Iiaat; vaadimwn op with 
aB iiWMWj. Md d«|r d|Md aad naUd. May SO, 1SS7, by wbi«b 
Akdatfiilif amad to a(too«M|o <ka iama i galy af FkaM^ awl to 
ra Irtbirt* i a iiftoia iiwlHy *f *wb aad eatU*; and.oa Ik* 
•r hMd. ka vw eMfliawd ki kk IM* af Mmk, and rMMirad a 
Uanbt* aaMMtoa af tai k ii j , Ui aavwa^ato a«w bdag axlaadad 
Ik* *b*li af Okaa aadTMitLaad a portfaa of Al(i«i; asoapt 
J Ona, MaM(MaiH, Ana*, aad aeaM oikan 
Jmm lb* aoart. obkk vara to mailii ia Ika kaada of Ika FVaaeb. 

Akdrigadw^a tn* «ai% oa Ufaif wliiiiil tnm Ik* aaeaMtty of 
■aliblaa Ik* |iiiiriillaii at Ik* n«a«k anqr, «m to raaaiT* tk* 
•vkatoMaa af tk* Mb** IkvaMkaat Ik* aBiiiilii Ma^atd to kiai. 
O aiial l y Ikay nadOr !•*• ialh*^ illntaiio^ bat ^da*» aooM b* 
•Had M aaaMaiyto Maart to mrtn ai — l ai ; aad aaa Iribih tbat 
tt OaWbitoaa. b* «Ba ahaisid by kk *aa«ka wbh ka*ii« 

Miiikat TaOd^ Ik* Pkaaak gnrtmnr gmmtl, took umbnye 
I BtMiodkHi; aad ia ocdw to orarava Ik* Bmir, aad to 
> Ik* Irikii la dWaaaa wtik rnam, wtoblkkii a aaaipof MM 
■« aaaa tka k*||kto of Kkaak. Ia «aM*qiMaea of lb* alm« 
ivwaiiiMMa «f Ika aafikal. «ka Aanad kia wttk a bNW* of tba 
lM|y(Abd«MCadwaMtaa lyal to ftwk. biaik» tkk 


.ad, Abd *t-Kad« addraatd hinwatf to tka 

!««•« *f idwtoktwrtea lot kk tafritorr. U* 

•to* af kk «»MiMMa«, pkek« H uadtr a kalif i 

•aaatiy tato i«* difMia» fai aaak of wkkk k* 

ckkf i aad lk*M difkkaa ka ^Oa bf«k* ap 

•aAcf vkkk k* pkaad aadar aa a(kfav wilk 

I *M1 aad ■tttaan iniaMiil; Ikaa ptoridb* m far a* 

I af aUiiai aat Ika atnavlk af kk Mibjaota, and 

A* Ika aaM Una ba k aaid 

la *awy wta to ■m«bi m * Ik* pi a »li«a of agrf. 

arta Uk*«laia kow*T*rltetk*a*r*r 

ia*«diMM(yaaa[l*e***Ui^ WilkaTkw.a* 
»— «*»i ■■■» ii H iaaMaaaawa Ika kMraariaf todaaaaa of 
*h» Itok^ a p * — < k l »HMt mmffWltk Ika Oak* *f Otkaaa at Ua 
kaU, M* aMMfcad M* Ik* k Hafw. aad Ik* priao* kmm1*«I wHk 
pia* II J Ik* la tw li rf iaaf W ii iai ddafc. TkkwaaMkwwl 

wftm aapaMMaa, to vkkb lhaan*ypaMad lki«i«k a aotad dadk 
•aM lb* Blkai^ *r li«a Oatai^ ikta^ wkkk Ik* Tarba ia Ik* kakbt 
•f Ik4r p*«wka4 BMW paaad wiikwrt paji^ Iribato to ika Aaba. 
. »r*« •*»"* *?• *•• ""^k ■• •" iataad*!, a proCgoad 
kMvitoa «■ Ik* a«M«a nai^ aad Abd*IKad*r a*ritod kLaalf af 



raald to ktv* 

I tokaaa 

VaDda. aBBMMiat Ikat k* aaaU a* kMtr lartnda kk paapki that 
^•g**** Aj ' JJ J^*^ T^J^t^ • H^r Waii^Uaat Ik* 
ri*a*i «d Ibat kk iddMp to Ik* K*(Ba •bW kki totok* kk 

lk*K*(Ba •Utoad kk 
•aa MadUy fcUawad bp a 
• a* ■■■* aaa aatoaka wan ivvaaad 
iaad aaalw af *n Ika aeoalfjr ooliid* 

r.lMH MawkalVaUd^lkoMfc 

> Vd il y adar mM atlL ma!j 

f ii | i k |.ba*lk*warWpawad**arwtifc. 

M*a^liar^diw IJk M i ka aiidaad daaal to r y 

« Urft axpoDdituTC of maa aad moDoy, and load 
ttiaii in Fnuwa i^iiatt Um inelBcicDt manner in which 
mA Tha goTtnimaat annouooad that it liad datarmined 
_^ I, }f0^ vitk Abd-al-Kadar, and iu Daoember 1 84 it replaced 

Manbat ValMa by Oaaual Bogaaud. I'rom thia time tlu war waa 
aairiad oa wMk Ika ntoiaat ylfour. A rery Urg* body of troopi waa 
aial Inm Fnae% aad a halfbidigMiou* oorpa, the ZouaTea, waa taiaad 
witk a Haw to Aaak tbe aolira iiragular Arabt by aoldiers p o aa n aa i ng 
all Ikak ptiw"" tivacity aod raoidity of motion, but more acientiti- 
eally taaioad. B^jaaud made it bli object in the campaign of 1841 to 
•aaaia ia aaaaaarioo aa many aa poaaible of tha atrongnoUla of the 
Emir, to datoA ftoai liim by promiara and threata the naUve tribea, 
aad wbararar any ivfoaad their adheaion to Fiance, to dcatroy their 
arapa aad raraga tbair rillagea. It waa a marcileaa, but it waa aa 
aflbiiliial aoaraai By tk* md of tbe year tbe general liad overrun a 
eoMidatabk portioo of th* Emir'a territory, and wherever the French 
anM had paoekmlad, th* oountiy had become an ally or a waate. In 
lb* apeeob to the Chamber*, February 1842, it waa formally announced 
that Algien waa annexed to the French crown; and from thia time 
tk* BbIt waa treated aa a rebel 

Hk oooditioii aeaiiuiil indeed to hare become utteily deaperate. The 
Fraoch ooeopkd all liia citiaa, meet of hia fortreiaea, and fonr-fiftlia of 
bia tarrilory ; hk regular army bad been nearly deatroyed ; and a large 
propotlioa of tha tiibaa had aabmittod to tbe enemy. But Abd-«1- 
kadar iaiiiiiail to gain energy from deepair. No longer venturing to 
meet tha Fraooh army in a regular encounter, he conatantlv haraned 
tliam by rapid daaoenU npon outpoata, detachmenta, and couvoya, 
and by deatrucUve inroada npoo the oountriea of tbe friendly tribes; 
while the rapidity and unexpeetedne« of hia movemeaU baffled aUlLe 
praoaation and puiauit. But the linea were being drawn ateadily 
more and mora aoeely about him. Hia camp of reaerve waa already 
on Iba edge of tha daaert; and the French had now an army of 
100,000 maa aowimulated in the country, beaidea a large body of 
auxiliariaa. The rauiaa of the French continually deatroyed lis 
reaouroea ; mora than onoe all hia preaenoe of mind and daring, and 
the devotion of bu foUowera, had aoarcely auffioed to prevent liim from 
falling into tha handa of lik opponent*. On one oocnuon, in May 
1848, the Duke of Orieaoa, at the head of a body of cavalry, had even 
aueeaaded, by a btiUiant imiUtion of the Emir'a tactica, in aurprisiug 
Ilia amala, or camp, duril^ tha abaanoe of the great body of bin Araba. 
Abd.el.Kader, aa uaual, eaoaped ; but with the loaa of almost every- 
thing. Ilia Arabe and Kabylea however quiclily rallied around iiim, and 
be oontrivad to inflict in numeroua deaultory attacks heavy blows upon 
the Fraaah, who indeed during thia aummer lost an unusual number 
of ofllcara. But he waa now unable to bring more than a email force 
into th* field at any one time; and a defeat which he Buffered at 
Oued-llalah, and in wliieh hia moat-trusted lieutenant, Kalif-ben- 
Allah, the Ona-Kyed, waa killed, completed hia ruin, tiwogh it did not 
put sn end to hk efforta. 

Forced to take refuge witliin the frontier of Maroooo, he aet aboot 
praaobing there a new outbreak of hoetilitiea againat the infidek. The 
emperor, if he did not directly eanotion, did not oppose hia proceed- 
iaga; aad acraral OMiabani of th* eoort entered with anlour into bis 
vkwb An army was aooa taiaad; but the French declared war 
againat Maroeoo, bombarded aavcral of ita coaat towns, defeated its 
army at laky, aad before Uia doae of 1844 bad compelled the emperor 
to agree to uaa hk baai eObrta to praveat Abd-el-Kader from again 
ann^riag the Franoh ia Algiaca. Abd-al-Kader onoe more took to the 
opaa oooatiT, Ua ocatiaoad for above two years longer to evade the 
parauk of Ika Fmohj but araty effort to make head againat hk foa* 
provad onavaiUagi TIm Kmparor of Haroooo waa at laat compelled 
by the Fraaah to pat in motion an army agaiiut him, aud aeiced hu 
kalif^ Itou Hamadf, whom he bad sent to endeavour to obtain tonus. 
Abd-al-Kadar in reprieal made a night attack (November 11, 1847) 
upon the Moociah camp, which by a daring stratagem he succeeded 
in Ibrewing into eoofoaion. But though be achieved a momentary 
•naoaa^ tk* OMaa of Iroopa waa too great for liim to produce a perma- 
aaat impfaaaiaa. A body of aativaa who attempted to prevent hk 
ralraat ha had little dilBoulty in dataatug ; but when he found tha 
Fraoak cavalry bad got between bim and tbe deaart, he acknowledged 
thai, eloaely pcaaaad aa be waa on every other aide, it would be uselesa 
to cAr f anbar raaktanoa, aod aant maaaaagara to Oenersl Lamorioi&re, 
Ika Fkaaok * n m in a it da r , off*riag to MiRaiMkr on oondition of being 
•Mt to Alaiaadck or Bk Jeaa-d'Aora. Lamoridire aoceded to the 
tonaa ; aad on tka SSrd of Daoember Abd-el-Kader yielded himaelf 
wllk kk bmiljr into tha handa of tha gaeanl. 

Tbe Daa d'Aamala, governorgeoeral of Algiere, in tlie doapatoh 
ia wUok b* aiuioaBC* rl to tli* French government tbe surrender of 
lb* £iak aad bk arrival at Algiers aaya, " 1 have ratified the promise 
givaa by OaaanI Laoiorioika, aod 1 firmly truat tbe government of 
kk a^My will add iu aaaoUon. I anaoonood to tbe Emir that he 
^^ eaibaik tbe neU day for Of»a with hia family : he aubmittad, 
b«t a*i without •atotion and n.-pugnanoo— it k tha laat drop in tbe 
■'■ ' Ito.- Mo* quite tk* laat drop. Tbe French govemmaat refuaed 
to ralUy Ika aagagamaot, aad the Kmir waa tnnafarrad, with hu 
>^^• ptkaaar to Fort Lamalgoa, at Touloa After the revolution 
ff » *«f «y ISIS^Abd-ol-Kad^r prs*eatod a formal requisition to 
Ik* i«|iiibU*aB goranuaaat for tha p«r(()nnance of the engagement 





upon which he had surrendered. His request was not acceded to, 
but he was removed to a healthier prison, first at Pau and then at 
Amboise, and his confinement was rendered much less irksome. 
When Louis Napoleon was elected president, Abd-el-Kader renewed 
his claim, and though he was not immediately successful, he received 
the most marked attention, and became a prisoner in little more than 
name. Finally, in October 1852, Napoleon granted him his freedom, 
on condition that he gave a solemn promise not to return to Algiers 
or to conspire against the French power in Africa ; and Bruasa in 
Asia Minor was named as his future residence. For that place he 
embarked in the beginning of 1853, and there he continued to reside 
until June 1855, when, in consequence of the destruction of that city 
by an earthquake, he received permission from the French govern- 
ment to remove to Constantinople. In the autumn of 1855 he paid 
a short visit to Paris to view the Exposition, and received from the 
Emperor a distinguished reception. He is said to have resigned him- 
self to his fate with true eastern calmness, but his health baa been 
permanently broken by his reverses and his imprisonment. 

Abd-cl-Kader is beyond question a man of remarkable ability and 
force of character. He has displayed many of the evidences of great 
military genius, self-reliance, activity, indomitable energy, marvellous 
reaouicea in defeat as well as in victory, power of wielding the wills 
of othera and of controlling his own ; and he seemed to possess much 
of that administrative ability which men of superior military power 
often exhibit But he had a nide and uncivilised people to govern 
and to employ, and he bad the first and most highly trained military 
power in Europe to contend with ; and all her greatest commanders 
were in succession sent against him, and all her resources called into 
exercise, and he failed where success was hardly conceivable. But 
for fifteen years he maintained this unequal struggle ; he has borne 
his reverses manfully, and his old opponents are foremost in render- 
ing homage to his great ability, and in testifying to bis honourable 
fulfilment of his share of the final engagement. 

•ABDU-L-MEJID, reigning Sultan of Turkey, was bom April 23, 
1823, and was the eldest son of Hahmud II., whom he succeeded on 
the 1st of July, 1839. As is customary with the sons of the sultan, 
the early years of Abdn-1-Mejid were spent in the har.'m, Hi« father 
is said to have desired that he should receive a European education, 
but the repugnance of the Mohammedan priests to such an innovation 
compelled him to give way. The education of AbdulMejid has 
therefore been necessarily very imperfect; but he has done what he 
could to make up for his deficiencies by surrounding himself with 
men of attainments, and seeking to acquire the information which he 
believes himself to need. 

Abdu IMcjid ascended the throne at a time when the affairs of 
Turkey were in a very threatening condition. The reforms of his 
father bad hanlly become sufficiently consolidated to withstand the 
strong tide of fanaticism which was setting in against them. Tiie 
battle of Nezib, June 24, 1889, which bad resulted in the total defeat 
of the Turkish army, by that of the Pasha of Egypt, had been 
followed within a week by the death of the Sultan, whoae determined 
character and unflinching will had eerved hitherto to keep in awe the 
opponents of the new order of things ; and these were now, it was 
believed, prepared to make common cause with Mehemet Ali, whom 
they, in common with the great bulk of the Mohammedan race, 
regarded as the true representative and champion of the ancient faith. 
The roarl to Constantinople was open to the Egyptian army; the 
inhabitants were in a disturbed state ; and the new Sultan, a lad of 
siitci^n, was scarcely seated on his throne when the Turkish fleet, by 
an unparalleled act of treachery on the part of its commander, was 
placed in the bands of the enemy. Fortunately the Paaha refrained 
from striking the blow which the weakness of the Sultan seemed to 
invite ; and the leading European powers stepped in to ofier their 
mediation, which Abdu-1-Mejid at once accepted. Mehemet Ali 
refused the terms proffered, and a treaty was signed in London, July 
15, 1840, in accordance with which an Anglo-Austrian fleet bom- 
barded several of the fortified towns on the coast of Syria, and com- 
pelled Mehemet Ali to submit. The ancient dynasty was saved, and 
the arrangement then made between the Sultan and the Pasha has 
not again been disturbed. 

The dangers which threatened the young Sultan from domestic 
treason, though fomented, as was thought, by Russian agents, were 
as effectu.illy averted. On his death-bed Mahmud had sent for his son, 
and earnestly entreated him to pursue the course of reform which he 
had commenced. The adherents of the old system, on the other 
hand, reckoned confidently on being able, under Mahmud's feeble 
Bucceasor, to uproot all which the late Sultan had so long laboured 
to effect. An end was soon put to .ill suspense. A hatti-aheriff, 
solemnly published at Oulhand on the 3rd of November 1839, gave 
to the civil reforms of Mabmud a definite and formal thape, and added 
somewhat to them. This measure guaranteed to all the subjects of 
the .Stdtan, without regard to rank or religion, security for person and 
property ; and promised to introduce a regular and impartial system 
of taxation, public administration of justice, the right of free trans- 
niission of property, and the removal of many of the hardships of 
the conscription, as well ■■ other improvements. Convinced that 
there w.-m to be no recession from the path of reform, bftt rather a 
great advance, the more determined zealots organised a powerfal con- 

spiracy with the view to effect an entire revolution; and by the aid 
of the priests set about exciting the populace by assurances that the 
concessions to the unbelievers were an assault upon the true faith. 
But the conspiracy was detected, several of the leaders were put to 
death, and tranquillity was gradually restored. In two or three years 
Abdu-1-Mejid had outlived the suspicion with which he had at first 
been regarded, and become, as he has since remained, exceedingly 
popular with all classes of his subjects. Partial revolts occurred in 
1840 and subsequent years in ISyria, Bosnia, and Albania ; but they 
were suppressed without much difficulty, and in their suppression it 
was that Omar Pasha first displayed his remarkable military skill. 
The tanzimat, as the system of reform is called, has been carried out 
in little more than name beyond the immediate circle of the capital ; 
but Abdu-1-Mejid has always evinced a strong desire to improve the 
couditiou of his subjects, though the general spread of rapacity and 
corruption amoug the ruling classes, and the progress of decay 
throughout the kingdom, have almost rendered it a hopeless task. 
Among the objects on which the attention of the Sultan is said to 
have been most fixed, is that of tho extension of education in Turkey. 
In 1846 he established a council of education, and he at that time, 
or subsequently, founded a university, extended the system of primary 
schools, and established military, medical, and agricultural colleges. 
The privileges conceded to Christians by the tanzimat, the Sultan has 
always firmly defended ; and when opportunity served he has shown 
his readiness to extend them. The Earl of Shaftesbury, speaking in 
the House of Lords, March 10,1854, as the representative of several 
of the leading Protestant relii^ious societies, bore warm testimony to 
the liberality with which Protesfcxnts have been, during the present 
Sultin's reign, on all occasions treated by the Sublime Porte ; and in 
the almost continual disputes between the Latin and Greek churches, 
the Sultan appears to have endeavoured to act strictly as a mediator, 
or arbitrator, aiming to satisfy the wishes of each party as far as was 
compatible with the demands of the other. Since the commencement 
of the war with Russia the Porte has directed that the evidence of 
Christians shall be received iu courts of justice, and issued other 
orders, which altogether have gone as far as the prejudices of his 
Moslem subjects would at present allow in the path of tolenince, and 
much farther than many Christian states have advanced. The army 
reforms and other changes, some of which, unquestionably, in the 
present state of the country, have been of very doubtful advantage, 
have also been steadily persevered in. 

We have not dwelt on the great historic events which have occurred 
during the reign of Abdul-Mejid, they having been already fully 
noticed under Tubket, in the GEoaRAPincAL Division of the 
Enousd CyoLOPiDiA, vol. iv., cols. 927-8. Here it may be enough 
to mention, that after having continually advanced step by stop 
towards reducing Turkey to the position of a dependent state, the 
Emperor Nicholas of Russia availed himself, in the early part of 1853, 
of a difference respecting the guardianship of the 'Holy Places' to 
claim tho protectorate over the Greek Christians in Turkey; and 
when this was refused by the Poite, though with every effort at con- 
ciliation compatible with the retention of sovereignty, the Russian 
troops were at once sent to occupy the principalities of Moldavia and 
Waliacliia as a ' material guarantee.' War was declared by the Porte 
on the 5th of October, 1853, with the full accord of the governments 
of England and France, whose assistance had been formally invoked. 
In November following the Turkish fleet in the Black Sea was attacked 
off Sinope by an overwhelmingly superior Russian fleet and totally 
destroyed. ISefore Silistria, however, at Giurgevo, and elsewhere, the 
Russian army was on several occasions defeated by the Turks. In 
March 1854, England and France, in order to "support the sovereign 
rights of the Sultan," declared war against Russia, and soon after 
despatched armies to the assistance of the Porte. On the 14th of 
September, 1854, an Anglo-French army landed in the Crimea, and, 
after winning the battle of the Alma on the 20th, proceeded to invest 
Sebastopol on the 26th. The army, strengthened by very large rein- 
forcemcLts from France and England, by a Turkish army, and by a 
Sardinian contingent (that power having joined the alliance in the 
early part of 1855), has continued the siege up to the end of 1855 • 
and during this time has defeated the Russians in every engagement 
in the open field, and, in September 1855, succeeded in compelling 
them to evacuate the southern side of Sebastopol, thereby inflicting 
on them an enormous loss of men and property. "The successes of the 
Anglo-French fleets in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azof, and the Baltic 
call only for a reference. In Asia, the Turkish army met, during the 
early part of the campaign, with several serious reverses, and endured 
much suffering, chiefly, as is believed, through the incompetency and 
peculation of the Turkish officers. Subsequently, chiefly by the skill 
and energy of an English officer. General WilHams, tho Turkish garri- 
son of Kara, about 12,000 strong, notwithstanding the most terrible 
privations, succeeded during several months in sustaining a close siege 
by a Russian army p{ 35,000 men ; and repulsed, in the most brilliant 
manner, a grand assault made by it, causing a loss to the Russians of 
more than 6000 killed. Somewhat later, Omar Pasha defeated a strong 
Russian force which opposed his progress towards the interior. But 
the garrison of Kars were compelled by famine to surrender in Novem- 
ber, 1855. 

However great may be the effect of this war on the future destiny 




w bM auk ar Mi •MdMl, ddwmiaatiao, or ptotabla 

Ik* dhaiMtaraf Ih* Soltaa. Wh« b* appmlod to 

nMW aod BicUa^ nd thqr MtbariMd in • war of 

jiikmia, to iiiii m '« » ' W » •• • nwMnry coom- 

Mir bawlt; bat HlMiy b* bopwl, that when it 

I to k ■Ihfcnlrirj tBBolMtea. m important reault of 

MM to Ite 8«toa wh«l tb* Wtotim Powen daolarad 

I aWMlarihrir latorfawwa bto t<^to m a toTardyi 

tonton: (!«• iMiiitfy baiof taken for tba MtabUab- 

Ml «f Ikoaa aqMl i^nti *bick harcbMn promia«d to all ola«M of 

AbJ«41l*JU h dMHibtd M aomwhiA aboro tko middla haisfat; 
~ ta aMlx andbaad, bat •owkMlininctoeorpaknee; digbtly 
I «Mi &• ■toll am. paK «Mi black beard and moiutaehe, 
htjM. fai MMarkab Mid to baoalm and mild, with 
ufaattladwAiiaboty. TU Eari of CuUiU (• DJarr ia 
TiMk mi Qnak Watoi^' p. <t) apaakiaK of ao ioUrriow with him 
In ItM. aayih "tV* impi—iw bW a^wek aonTajn i< of a man gantlo, 
■MaHiBfaii, InUi^ ntotmng, doonad ; no m mu of purpoa* glaamed 
U 1^* pMdm gUnaas no anniT of *iaton Ht on that atill brow." 
■to IktopkMWtodr btoriM •» an intorriaw, U th* Oral laaaoo in 
tototolto whiA wa |«aaB Taric baa to laaia, and through Ufa ha i* 
ahnya awiM to anhlilii U: to wblWlinn tbarafora at tha formal 
raaatoton of a llrtiimti>il Bs^iA aoblMBaa, whan thara wu 
•aiklag to moHi paMoa of aaj Uad, k oartainly ao eridenea of 
(aaUaaaaa of a wr poaa. It woold appear bowarar, from what ia laid 
b« Ik—* who bara bad oppnrlaniHaa of fairly aatimatinx hii eharactar, 
tt«t MM Sahan iaaf aa babitM% toild dirvo^tion, and prona to laar* 
i «f dkk» to Ua minialan and tk* rdali*** who aui^ 

k* «an diapby aoOeiant 

Tb* rafoal to aomndar tha Hun- 

r Ik* Hoatxian iwrolatioa of 1848, ii 

pmrnillt aaid to ha** to 

panMad ia that nftoal. daaaito Ik* impwioaa damanda of Kuiiia and 

" wtoa«f Aii l iis Mia Lard P a l m wt i^, timn feraign miniator, 

I y* aa ft i rt *f Ik* Saltoa'a waolattaa by noWog tha EngUah 

to naitoaJla^ and tkw artkUd lb* diqmtau Doling tha 

«f Ik* pnaaat war. ■* ttTiag to Um rasoaroaa of hi* 

M *aada*»«f tk* Saltaa ka* b*m inrariabir Arm, ftonk, 

rf l ii n a iaU i aUw toaarda ki* aalffaeto aad th* •lli*c 

ABIL. Ik* aaaand aoa of A^m. Hia hialory U oontain*d in the 

raf Oaaariai whara wa an iafomMd, that, ha being a 

«f Aaapk wrfciia Gbhi waa a tiller of the groood, th* two 

Mkaa mUmm mtMom tagalkar to th* Lord ; th* fono*r briogiog 
Ik* ftaM af Ik* Baaad far that parpoaa, and th* lattM' of tb* firat- 
■ «fkill**k. Tba n itol n g of Abri aloo* waa aoe*pt*d ; and tha 

«toaBM»af Wlk. 

•f tba WmU. 

i L*nl (Mali, xsffi. ») < 

Ik* aary of Cain, that, aa they wen 

t ap agaiaat hti brother and alew him 

tk* awtk with human blood. Abel'a 

(Bab., ii. 4.) It bad raepaot to tha 

t «f tka auffering and glory of tha 

Tkb eba d laae* of hiih prnradad hU life. 

daalaiialai hi 
aikdw*ai«toid<rj*bn.U.lS)lk*tO&abw Ua brothar ' 
Ui owa warfc* WW* ara. aad Ua bralkai'a r^btaoaa." 

ABBU CHAJUJa nUCCBUCK. a aaSr* of 0«nnaay, 
papa «f ■ a b aa l la a Baik, wat aMMk dieliaffaiakad aa a eonpoai 
M*«H«er to Ik* adddb aad towank tka «lo*a of tha Uat oa 

' rightaona Abel," 

_ _ Imthar * ^T1^pa^laa 

Ui owa aatfc* liwmrSi, aad Ua bralkai'a r^btaoaa." 

ermaoy, and a 

teonpoaer and 

Jia Uat oantory. 

I yaan ia tb* BeU hmt ad band of th* •lestoral king 

aadan; bat hi* talaato being v«y inadaqoauly 

k* aaittod lka» aarvio* fai ITiS, with only thiwdoOan in 

, airirMikad Karfaad tk* foUowiag year. wb*n he aoou 

wkk aM*anaitoMi» tkat dU not aad in aapty pnia*. When 

IIL kad kto Mtobikkmant flxad. Abel waa 

Ma •■ it, at • aakfy of JOOt par annum ; 

A«tly after k* aaitod ailk J. CkriiUaa Ba«k in forming a weekly 

■"*-•* la^ wbi*fc for Buay jreari eontinoad to ba highly 

Ubataqy aoppartod. HU chief ioitnimaot waa tha 

MKaaMU tiokaoalk with aU atringi, now iall«> into 

* wlto^itoib*piadaa*daa«C>*toa hi* BudUon which aoaroely 

•■•.■M* baa baM abl* to a«ki*t« en bowed inatrumanta, and 

by Maa* *f Ua adagio^ or alow moramenla. " Hia oom- 

Dr. liomer teUa a% " war* aaay and al^ianUy aimpU ; for 

H.'^I: 11 *L"?* "if^* *• *• •''"'• •»'n«?>in« with diffl 
a*i pkyta* wilk aU my mi«hf " In n^iog waa he ao 
r to dl aUMT moaiaiBai^ tha blitorian of mu«io addi, "aa io 
•^ rkfbwaa aditi*L ia wUob tb* nuat oleuii.. nt U.m^ 

H;ViK^*^'«>^ <• «i>>*>b tb* moat plaaaiog yH laamad 
tMiMfeartkanMaT, and tk* moat elegant and poliahad 
• an MpNMad wilk aaak feaUac taata. and aoSanoe. th^t 

. . • , ^ fcaUng, laMa, and acjenw^ that 

I*wa«llBo or parfbtnaaea with wbloh I waa then 
"^■•d to •PprMoh n*arar porfaaUoo." (' Hlat. of 
•'j ,."««BtJo bowarar of the praaaot day, who hoi 
- !. ' ^'■^.'" ■** •»~^klnd by Hardo, Uomui, BeethoTcn, Clo- 
yr *- "T*- **'??*■ **. few* in bl. mamonr, will not deny the 
*a« Hp.«tMUj af Ikaw UUm prodoctiana. Abel-judging him by 



.VT^l !."!*" **!*. **^ *•»« jn>Hi«««lon ; more knowledg* 
»!!?^ »""''"^''P^"*™»«. thanTigourof 
««• tk. Banay admiU that "hU kter produotlona. 

compared with thoae of younger oompoaari, appeared aomewhat Ian* 
guid and monotonoua." But we auapect the fact to be, that they wer« 
mora aeoorataly eatimated when oompared with the productions of a 
more adranoad age. Abel waa iotemperate in the liae of fermented 
liquon, and brought hia Ufa to a haaty cloae in the year 1787. 

ABEL, NIELS HENRIK. waa bom August Stb, 1802. in Norway, 
at Findoe, in the diooeee of Chriatiansaad, of which pariah his father 
waa than minister. He waa aent in 1815 to tba cathedral school of 
Chriatiaoia, where he did not show any remarkable aign of progreaa, 
until 1818, when H. Holmboe, a newly-appointed professor of uathe- 
matica, aflisrwarda the writer of Abel's life, and editor of his works, 
diaoorered hia talent for mathematics, and aided him in purs\ung 
thoae acianoea beyond the elemeuta. In July, 1S2I, he went to the 
UnireraitT of Chnatiania, whoie, his father having died and left him 
without the means of continuing his studies, he waa firat maintained 
by B subscription of the profeasors, and afterwards, for two years, by 
a pension from the gOTcnimeut. Hia earliest mathematical essay was 
an attempt at the old question of the solution of tha equation of the 
fifth degree, in which, after discovering his own failure, he determined 
either to find a solution, or to show the impossibility of finding any; 
and produced his celebrated paper on the last point, of which we shall 
presently apeak. In July, 1825, he obtiiued an increased pension 
nt>m the goverameut to enable him to tnivel. He first went to 
Berlin, where ho formed an acquaintance with Crelle, which became 
an intimate friendship. The mathematical journal, now so well known, 
which bears the name of the latter, was commenced in 1820, and 
Abel waa one of the earliest and principal contributors. Abel continued 
hia travels through Oermany, Italy, and Switzerland : ho arrived at 
Paria in July, 182(3, where he made aoqutuntance with the most distin- 
guished French mathematiciana. He returned borne by way of Berlin, 
in Jonuaiy, 1827, and continued his private studies (which bis journey 
had not iuterrupted) with an activity of whioh there is the most extra- 
ordinary evidence. In December, 1823, he went to the iron-foundriee 
of FroUnd, near Arenda], where resided the &mily of a lady to whom 
ha waa betrothed. He was there seized with illness, in January, 
18S9, and died of consumptioa on the Cth of April of the same year. 
II. Holmbo* gives the moat direct contradiction to the statement 
which baa aeveral timea been made, that Abel waa neglected by the 
Swadiah government, and died in extreme poverty. He was, when he 
died, pro tempora professor of mathematics, during the absence of 
Uanstean in Siberia, and would have succeeded to the first vacant 
chair. A few days after hia death, a moat honourable invitation 
arrived from the Pruaaian government, to remove hia residence to 
Bariin. In the obituary publiahed by Crelle, in his 'Journal,' he 
statoa diatinotly that the large number of important memoirs which 
Abel bad ready for publication was the immediate reaaon of the 
■ Joomal' being undertaken. 

The Swadiah government published the works of Abel in 1839, in 
two volumes, 4to, and in the French language. The first volume 
contoins all that he published bimaelf (in ' Crelle's Journal ' and else- 
where, mostly in Oerman), tranalated, as just remarked. The second 
volume oontaina all that he left in manuscript, fluidbed or unfinished. 
Nothing can be a severer trial to a mathematician's character than the 
publication of hia looae papers; but, however crude the speculation, 
Abel ia never lowarad. He had read comparatively so little, that all 
which ha has left beara the stamp of his own mo!<t original power. 

The great point to which Abel turned his attention was tbo theory 
of elliptic functions. Logendre, who bad devoted a large part of his 
life to tha development of these functious, and to the formation of 
tables by which to us* them, found himself, when his toil was just 
fiuished, completely distanced by the young Norwegian, of whom no 
one had ever beard. The frankness of the acknowledgment mode by 
Le^endrc, and the spirited manner in which the old mau aet to work 
to moorporate the new discoveries into his own books, will never be 
forgotten by any biographer of AbeL It is uuueces.-iary to specify the 
partioular mathoda of the latter ; all who study the subject of elliptic 
functiooa are fully aware how much ia due to him. 

The number of diOerent ways in which Abel turned aside from this 
subject into questioiu of development, definite integration, &o., makes 
the sum total of his labours an astonishingly large quantity, if the aga 
at which he died be considered. He ajjpcars to have fully developed 
in his own mind the subject of the separation of symbols of operation 
and quantity, not indeed to the extent of founding ita r«BuIts upon an 
algebraical theory, but to that of giving the theory a wider amount of 
application. Ho was a daring generaliAcr, and sometimes went too 
far : had he lired,',he would have corrected some of his writings. And 
yet ho appears to have been deeply impressed with the notion that a 
great part of mathematical analysis is rendered unsound by the em- 
ployment of divergent series. 

The celebrated attempt at the proof of the impossibility of repre- 
aentmg under one formula the five roots of on equation of the fifth 
degree involves some rather obscure considerations, it can hardly be 
aaid to be generally admitted ; perhaps it has not been generally read ; 
for proofs of negative propositions, when complicated, are not usually 
of a high order of interest Sir W. Hamilton ('Trans. K. I. A.,' 
vol. xviii.) has examined Abel's proof at great length, and arrives at 
the same cpnclusion, though with some degree of departure from his 




ABELARD, or ABAILARD, PIERRE, was bom in 1079, at Palais, 
in Brittany. His father was a man Of some rank and property, and 
spared no expense in the education of Abelard. He left Palais before 
he was twenty years of age, and went to Paris, where he became a 
pupil of Guillaume de Champeaux, a teacher of logic and philosophy 
of the highest reputation in those times. At first the favourite disciple. 
by degrees Abelard became the rival, and finally the antagonist of 
Champeaux. To escape the persecution of his former master, Abelard, 
at the age of 22, removed to Melun, and established himself there as 
a teacher, with great success. Thence he removed to Corbeil, where 
his labours seem to have injured his health ; and he sought repose and 
restoration by retirement to his native place, Palais, where he remained 
a few years, and then returned to Paris; the controversy between the 
two antagonists was then renewed, and the contests continued till 
Champeaux's scholars deserted him ; and he retired to a monastery. 
Abelard having paid a visit to his mother at Palais, found on his 
return to Paris in 1113, that Champeaux had been made bishop of 

The dialectic conflicts having now ceased, Abelard commenced the 
study of divinity, under Anselm, at Laon. Here also the pupil became 
the rival of his master, and Anselm at length had him expelled from 
Laon, when he returned to Paris, and established a school of divinity, 
which was still more numerously attended than his former schools 
had been. Ouizot says, " In this celebrated school were trained one 
pope (Celestine II.), nineteen cardinals, more than fifty bishops and 
archbishops, French, English, and German ; and a much larger number 
of those men with whom popes, bishops, and cardinals, had often to 
contend, such as Arnold of Brescia, and many others. The number 
of pupils who used at that time to assemble round Abelard has been 
estimated at upwards of 5000." 

Abelard was about thirty-five or thirty-six years of age, when he 
formed an acquaintance with Heloise, the niece of Fulbert, a canon in 
the cathedral of Pans. She was probably under twenty years of age. 
Abelard fell in love with Heloise, and got himself introduced into the 
house of Fulbert as the tutor of his niece. The result was a criminal 
intercourse between the two lovers, which was at length discovered by 
Fulbert, and Heloise was removed by Abelard to the residence of his 
sister in Brittany, where she gave birth to a boy. 

Fulbert insisted that the wounded honour of his niece should be 
repaired by a inarriage, to which Abelard assented willingly ; but 
Heloise with more reluctance, probably from a fear that his prospects 
would be ruined, the highest dignities of the church in those days 
being exclusively bestowed on unmarried ecclesi.istics. The marriage 
took place at Paris, and it was agreed to be kept secret ; but Fulbert 
took pains to make it public, while Heloise, who resided with him, 
denied it; the consequence of which was her uncle treated her 
with great harshness, and Abelard took her away and placed her in 
the convent of Argenteuil, near Paris, Fulbert, who seems to have 
thought that he intended to make her a nun in order to get rid of 
the incumbrance of a wife, vowed a cruel revenge, which he soon 
found means to execute. The valet having been bribed, admitted 
Fulbert and bis party into Abelard'a bed-room by night, when they 
performed a mutilation upon his person. The perpetratoni fled, but 
the valet and another were taken, and were punished by putting out 
their eyes and the infliction of a similar mutilation. The canon 
Fulbert was banished from Paris, and all his property was confiscated. 
Abelard recoven-d from the wound ; but as the canon law rendered 
him incapable of holding any ecclesiastical preferment, he entered 
the abbey of St. Denis as a monk, and Heloise became a nun in the 
convent of ArgenteuiL 

The abbot and monks of St Denis were dissolute, and Abelard 
reproved them in a course of lectures which he delivered in a cell 
detached from the abbey ; the monks got up a charge of heresy against 
a work which he wrote on the Trinity, and by a council held in 1121 
at Soissons, in which he was not permitted to defend himself, the book 
was condemned and ordered to be burnt. Abelard had also denied 
that the abbey of St. Denis was founded by Dionysius of Athens, the 
Areopagite, as the monks asserted. This enraged the monks and 
abbots still more, and by a series of persecutions and threats Abelard 
was compelled to fly from St. Denis and place himself under the pro- 
tection of the Count of Champagne. In a solitary spot of the territory 
of Troyes ho erected a small oratory of wickerwork and thatch, and 
commenced giving lectures, to which numerous scholars crowded from 
far and near ; the wickerwork was then changed into a building of 
stone and timber, and Abelard named it Paraclete, or the Comforter. 
But persecution still attending him, he left the Paraclete to become 
superior of the monks in the abbey of St. Qildas of Ruys, nearVannes, 
in Britanny. 

Heloise too was not without her share of troubles. The convent 
of Argenteuil, of which she had been made prioress, was claimed by 
an abbot as belonging to his abbey, and Heloise and her nuns were 
ordered to leave it. Abelard gave them the oratory of the Paraclete, 
and there they were established, Abelard himself, after eleven years 
of separition from Heloise, ofiiciating in the ceremony of consecration. 

Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, whose monastery was not far from 
the Paraclete, having objected to some of the forms of prayer used 
by Heloise and her nuns, Abelard defended them ; and this led to a 
controversy with the abbot, who eventually accused Abelard of heresy. 

BIOO. DIV. VO'.. I. 

Abelard appealed to a council, which was held in the year 1140, in 
the cathedral of Sens, in Champagne, where be defended himself. But 
the influence of Bernard was more powerful than the logic of Abelard ; 
he was condemned by the assembly ; but he appealed to the Pope, and 
set out on his journey to Rome, which however he never reached, 
having been induced by Peter the Venerable to remain in his monastery 
at Cluni, near Ma9on. The Pope confirmed the sentence of the council 
of Sens, and Abelard was ordered to be confined, all his works to be 
burned, and he himself was prohibited from writini; anything more. 
Peter the Venerable addressed a remonstrance to the Pope, Innocent II., 
and the sentence was suspended. During this suspension Abelard was 
removed to the priory of St. Marcel, neaf Chalons, for change of air, 
and there he died April 21, 1142, in the sixty-third year of his age. 
He was at first interred by the monks of Cluni in their monastery, but 
his remains were afterwards removed to the Paraclete. 

Heloise lived twenty years afterwards as prioress of the Paraclete, 
and when she died was buried, at her own request, in Abelard's tomb. 
The remains of Abelard and Heloise continued undisturbed for upwards 
of 300 years, till in 1497 they were removed to the church of the abbey, 
and were afterwards shifted to other places. In 1800 they were re- 
moved to the garden of the Musee Fran(;ais at Paris, and in 1817 were 
placed in the cemetery of Pfere la Chaise, where they still remain 
beneath their gothic tomb. 

Abelard was a proficient in the scholastic learning of the times, a 
dexterous dialectician, and a subtle thinker. His theological works 
gave an impulse to the age, and though his writings are of little value 
now, they belong to the history of philosophy and the progress of 
the human mind. The disputes of that age turn largely on verbal 
trifles, but these disputes form part of the eSbrt of philosophy to 
emancipate itself from the fetters of religious intolerance. Though 
Abelard possessed a large share of the learning of the times, it is 
probable that he knew little of Greek or Hebrew, aud yet Heloise, 
according to his testimony, knew Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. The 
personal character of Abelartl is best shown by his letters and those 
of Heloise. When he had once transgressed the bounds of his duty 
by his illicit commerce with Heloise, he lost all self-control, and appears 
a sensualist 'When his misfortunes drove him from the world, he 
became cold and unfeeling towards the noble-minded woman, whose 
passion and ardent attachment show that she was capable of the most 
unbounded devotion to him whom she loved. The most complete 
edition of their works is ' Petri Abelardi et Heloisaj Conjugis ejus 
Opera, nunc primum edita ex MSS. Codd. Francisci Amboe.^i,' Paris, 
1616, 4to. M. Victor Cousin has also published ' Ouvrages luddits 
d'Abailard,' Paris, 1836. There are several other editions, some of 
which have portions, such as the ' Letters,' translated. 

{Biographical Dictionary, published by the Useful Knowledge 
Society; Biographic UnivertelU; Bayle, Dictionary.") 

ABEN ESRA, or with his complete n&me, Abraham, hen Meir ben 
Esra, a celebrated Jewish scholar, was born at Toledo, probably iu 
1119, and died about 1194, at the age of seventy-five years. A con- 
siderable portion of his life was spent in travelling. He visited Mantua 
in 1145, aud the island of Rhodes in 1156 ; in 1159 he was in England, 
and in 1167 at Rome. His celebrity among his contemporaries, as a 
scholar and as an accomplished writer of the Hebrew language, was 
very great. Among ourselves Abeu Esra has become known chiefly 
through bis great commentary on the Old Testament, which it seems 
he wrote at diSerent periods, between the years 1140 and 1167. It 
has been printed in the great Rabbinical editions of the Bible, which 
have appeared at Venice, Bdle, and Amsterdam ; and there have been 
besides many separate editions of single parts of it. Abeu Esra wrote 
also on mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, philology, and 
astrology. His treatise in verse on the game of chess, translated by 
Thomas Hyde (Oxford, 1667, 1694), affords us a specimen of his skill 
in poetic composition. For an enumeration of the works of Abeu 
E^ra, which are still preserved in manuscript in several of the libraries 
of Europe, see the article Aben Esba, by Hartmann, in Ersch and 
Gruber's ' Encyclopajdia.' 

ABKNCERAGES {Bent fkrraj), is the name given by Spanish 
chroniclers and romance writers to a noble family in the Arabic king- 
dom of Grenada, several members of which distinguished themselves 
during the period itnmediiitely preceding the fall of the Mohammedan 
empire in Spain. The history of the Abencernges is intimately con- 
nected with that of the then reigning dynasty of Grenada. In the 
year 1423 of our era, died Yussuf III., a wise and valiant prince. He 
was succeeded by his son Mohammed VII., sumamed Al-Haizari, or 
the Left-Handed, who followed the example aud advice of bis father 
in maintaining friendly relations with the Christian court of Castille, 
and with the Arab princes on the northern coast of Africa, but lost 
the aSection of his subjects by his pride and tyranny. Tlie discon- 
tent which soon manifested itself against the youthful monarch, was 
for a time kept in check by the watchfulness of his principal chamber- 
lain, Yussuf-ben-Zerragh, then the chief of the noble family which 
probably derived from him the common designation of the Abencer- 
ages. But, in 1427, an open revolt broke out, which had been incited 
by ouo of the king's cousins, Mohammed-al-Zaghir. I'he royal palace, 
called the Alhambra, w.n3 invested by the conspirators. Moham- 
med VII., disguised as a fisherman, escaped to Africa, where the King 
of Fez, >lulri-ben-Fariz, kindly received him, while Mohammedal- 



a^U^ MMaM «k« «Vmm tl Ora^U. Yuw M wh n Hfc, with 
Tul If Hi fl^wi iij iL t«J tro» fck > ■ « » ■« — *» OMaU; uid 
HMi M«atan •! Ik* taailr «k» M iWHlMd at OrMMd^ ««• 
J«k«lL.ilMKii«<f CMIiiKytaUiaK l«tb«i«rr*- 

lte*«M^«tlhlh«Khw afTiMKI* mpIimm£mSv 

Iffr ji r • ' - ' " i^i^umOrt^ 

I TIL to (tiltt Mrtate «^K«B«** **>>•>> 

I IL HiiUmiii bcok* Mt, ud Joho 

a( YMWrfbwiAth>w>r. m ••pinuM to 

M«i aMn^l M^^^tlw UM|d4m of Orm^ 

VkfaoppMMto Bi* h* M !■ • JmUm )»MK 

Y^aaMi»AlhaBar oMsyiad OnMda, whS* 

I Vm>< to Mihy TkitWM^totanvptiooarilatMia- 

w M^ af ahart ihuatlan. Ha rcfltinad kia 

aAw Ika dMlh af YMaaf-baD^AUumar. whMi 

rtak hoalUMaa with OaKilta aaaa 

ItokMiiwwafiMaa arq w ii fa wtnmmk k t tu ti H 

to i an ti w af tka OMiain temmmimr OMariiL ▲ aaa of 

tor U» 

Y^af>MtiMt. aft «to Imk4 af a aabai bud af valiuik ka%l>ta, 
*«« <«» U» toaayafitoal OMaria, aod fdl iaatoMU(H88), in 
I Ika C'^itMiM aMiahait Maak Iom^ Vaw diatartaaa ta aoea 
larttolkatotariaraf ONMda. MohaauMd VIL was (la 1444) 
dalkMMdkjr aoa««UaMfha»^ ONDiiMa-Ahiiat Bat 
af «ka laMar to «ha Ikfoaa wan enw to Xa d hj anotkar 
ah«MBad-to»U«all, wh* vaa aaaratod b]r John IL, and 
■■Uly. to I4«». ywrailad awe lih ifjiMll. Boob afiarthU, Joho II. 
«w Maaaadad to Iba fiwi—1 «f ChaliUahy Baoiy IV., who ww 
«itana to Miliwinii Im H. aad lawwad tha baaliUtiaa, whiah. 
ftaaalkia Km^ toak a tan daaUMitr aatowwabla to tha Unadon of 
Otaaadk. Aa IpaaiA UrtartHa aaaMaa UmI, abaot thia Uma, an 
aMMBy« at a MvalaMaa waa aada to Of ><■ by tha AbaMMaM, 
I had teMaobfaattoaMArthaaavwaoMaMaf thairowa £»%. 
■ad-baaZOTJik. «d that tha OMtiUaa aoaunaDdar, Medina 
, toak adiaalagi «f Ikaaa itMarbaiiii to oaeopy <ka fartraai 
af Oihnlt«. Tha Anhto akMaWaa 107 maHhimt of aaeh an eraat, 
idaa htfti l If thora ha any trntb in tha 
.baarbi^ibat^AbaMM^MMada aaathar albft to pUoa 

aaoa tha tkraa^ whiah, fkma thair ataady 
aa tlMt wnCofftanato pftooai 


Ar Iha fcada af Ih* Abiaea n ^aa with tha ZwriMi, aaotbar nobis 
Anhfaa biBlly to Iha Uaflam af Oraaada, who txaaad thair daioaat 
fcaa tha HahMaMdaakS^ 
dM AkaaaMaHB^ aaaiad thMM 

laf Oaidoaa, of tha 

of thirty- 

af lUi 

Iha pmitj of th«ir oppaaMiti, and 

anbaaaad vm Chrialiaa 

Md of fWMIh. a highlj 

■ alary it tald to Iha • OaanM OtUm da Oraaada,' by Uine* 

Bjrta, a votfc whiih arif to ba a triMlatiini from an 

aaaaac ni il, bat ia af danMM aathantiaHjr. Tha work 
■nparif oaarirta af !•« tataaaa, to* to Maat adiliau only tb* Oral 
hiiliiiliiwdaaftw of thaaMnd mn arid tob* now astraBtal/ 
■M a««a to %ato. Aa tmllik Iwilatlria of tha Brat part, by 
t lw i ■ il t . m iiiiillwthatMaaf'ThaCWlWaiiefQnuiada,' 

(Oaadik ifttfarto d) fa Htmimatim d* Iw i rofaa an Sipm»a, toL iiL) 
JMaCmmna, JOHV, XJX, Frllow of Um Rojal Colle«aa of 
• MdloMNaaaf Idtohiusb,**.. waa bom oa tba lllh of 
I, 1»L Havw tha «a af Iha Hot. Mr. Abacarombio, for 
aM aT Iha liaa Mliliiiii «f Abanfaaa. Abrrarombia 
^.. Mm to Bdtob«|h, Mrf took hU d«rM tharo on tha 
«lb af Joaa, IM*. Ho arttiSd iato Maatioa aaSaoaaMly to Bdin- 

oaa U Uia 


ao li»r 

1 aran to 

totoJ Ih... ba MI i l l j I kj. —a aft, tha daeaiaaof'S; oaUbratod 
'^•"'f y L**.""-. "**• Ifcto too Dr. AbarwaaUa be^ to 
MMM too iMto iiiiakiai piriliiia at a araaiWag aad oooaiiltiiw 
l}r. * . ' * ' -**■*?'■ ' ^ I ' ^J ii l b ba> to all fathaTaad ha WoftIS 
*****g**»*y»'f*r w*li . Ha h i M i a lieaoUato of Iha 

. to Mia, aad to l»t4 wa. .dmittad a 

KM* iiMivtoc aatoaqaMi haaoaia bom hia 
to aAoHM* alaa wtoad (w Ua many 
la 1«M tha Udt^ 
I at hia ahaiaalir aad titaato 
. ^^JaafDoatorof Madidaa— a 
1 af i«9Mt to tha atoaai af niwltWi uairaniliaa. 
• fw im Or. AtoraKBto. waa alaatod LoidRNlw of thTT^t 
ji-J^^fc-Oriiyi-fAba.d-.. Of th.^ uSLSiSt^ 
«•>* ? ^r^J^f****** l>*«^«* Mad o^r aatf*. htol»tou 
to-dtoia itoafnrfC^af ATfeayal 8oal<yof ■dtobJjMSd 

to Iba aAaa of phyaieiaa in ordinary to bar M^jaaty for Sootland. 
In tha Bomarou* r*lt(ioua and banavolant looiatiaa of E<linburgb ha 
bald a hi^ and honoorabla podtioo. Dr. Aberorombie died lad- 
daaly, onTbarHUT, Noramber 14, 1844, at bU bouaa in York Piace, 
Edtobarfh. The Immediato oaoaa of liia death wa* the bunting ot 
tha ooranary aitary of tha heart 

Tht wriuMa of Dr. Aberorombie oootribatad no leaa to tiie aata- 
lilirfiniant aad nautaoanoa of bia fame than bii very uteful oaraar at 
a praotioal maotbar of bia profaetion. In tha early part of hi* ooun* 
h* oonflned hb literary labours to the ' E^inbur^h Medical and 
Suifieal Journal,' and other periodicals in hia own department of 
aaleooa. Hia ftiat diatinot work of moment, leaving oat of oouiidar- 
ation pnbliahad oaiaa of diiaaaii and limilar minor troatiiai, waa one 
entiUod ■ I>atboloKiaaI and Practical Kasearohaa on Dieeaaa* of the 
BraU aod tha Spinal Cord,' Edinburgh, 1828, 8ro. In thia work, 
which ia dMnotatiaed by no ordinary degree of purely acienti&o 
knowledge, be alio gare an indication of the bent of bii geniu* to the 
(tudy of mind and ita relationa to tlie body. He publiihed about 
tha Mma time another profeaaiooal volume, aod one which elevated 
him atill mora highly among the modern cultivator* of mediein<-, 
(tyled ' Pathologieal aad Praotioal Raeaarchas on the Diaeaie* of the 
Intestinal Canal, Liver, and other Viscera of the Abdomen,' Edin- 
boigh, 1838, 8vo. He now beno to throw together the medical facto 
aecnmulatad in the oonrse of hi* extensive experienoa and reading, 
aad to examine thair bearings on tha varioua metaphysical and moral 
aystams that have been esUbliahed. The result of his kbours is to 
be found in two works : the one entitled ' Inqnirias oonoeming the 
latollectoal Powara and the Investigation of Truth,' Edinburxh, 1830, 
Svo; aad tha other called 'The Philoaophy of the Moral Feelings,' 
Loodoo, 1833, 8ro. The latter is in some measure a sequel to tho 
first, and tba whole eompoaas a view of human nature intellectually 
aod morally, in wfaieh the (acta of science and the revelations of 
religion ars ahown to harmonise. Dr. Abercrombie also published 
aavaral traeU or eaaays ou religious topics, which manifest tho depth 
of hia piety aod bis aamestnsaa in tba promotion of the welfare of 
hia fellow-mao. In the disruption of tha Scottish Established Church, 
in 1848, Dr. Abercrombie took part with the Fi-ee Church, of whose 
eldership he was, as he had been for many years in tha Established 
Church, one of the most active and exemplary merabera. For range 
of aoquiramanta Dr. Abercrombie perhaps stood unequalled among 
the Scottish physieiaos of bia day. He earned by his writings a name 
that will not soon ba forgotten, and be will long be remembered, as a 
private individual, for hu piety aad benevolence, 

ABEKCROMBY, SUl RALPH, a British general, diatinguiahad for 
many gallant and important aervioea. H* waa the son of Oaorgo 
Abercromby, Esq., of TuUibodie, in Clackmannanshire, where he was 
bom in 1738. After receiving a liberal education, ho entered the 
army in March, 17S6, as a comet in the 3rd regiment of Dragoon 
Qusfda. By the year 1787 he bad reached the rank of msjor-genernl. 
Whan tha war with Franca broke out, in 1793, Aberoromby wns sont 
to Holland, with tba local rank of lieutonanlrgansral, in the expe- 
dition oommandad by tha Duke of York. Hia bravery during the 
proaparous oommanoamant of this attempt was not more conspicuous 
than the humanity with which he exerted hia best energies in the 
disaatious sequel to alleviate, as far as possible, the miseries of the 
liek aad wounded troops, whom ha wa* ohaiged to conduct in their 

Soon after hi* return to England, in April, 1795, he was made a 
Knight of the Bath ; and in Anguat of the same year he was aaat 
out to the West Indies, as commander-in-chief of the forces there, 
and by Februoiy, 1797, he bad taken iu succession Orcooda, Demerara, 
Ksaequibo, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Trinidad. He then returned 
to Europe, having been previously raised to the rank of licntenant- 
gsueral, and on reaching Knglond he received the command of tho 
Sooto Oreyi, aod tha apiwintment of lieuteuaut-goveraor of the Isle 
of Wight la 1798, oa the breaking out of tho rebellion in Ireland, 
Sir Rslph proceeded thither as commander-in-chief; but after a short 
time ha waa transfared to the chief military command in Scothmd, 
and the goveroorship of Fort Augustua and Fort Oeorge. He waa 
aoon however called again to active service abroad, on occasion of the 
saoond expedition aent against tha French in Holland, in August 
1799, with the conduct of which he was entrusted before the srrifiU 
of the Duke of York. It proved, a* is well known, equally unfurtu- 
nato with the former ; but it did not the less afford many oppor- 
tunitiea to Qenaral Abercromby of displaying his activity, intrepidity, 
aod high military talent In 1801 he was employed to command the 
English foroaa despatebed for tha relief of Egypt; and, in spito of 
the utmost exertions of the French to prevent bis design, be effsotod 
tba landing of bis troops, on the 8th of March, at Aboukir. thoogh 
not witbont the loss of ',2000 men. A few days after, the enemy 
made a general attack upon the invading forces, aa they lay encamped 
near Alexandria, but were apcadily repulisad. On the 21st was fought, 
oa tha same ground, tba mora obatinato and aanguinary engagement, 
uaually designated tha battle of Alexandria, in which the French 
war* agato driven back at all points. Sir Ralph was unhorsed and 
■ararely wounded at an early period of the action, by one of tho 
aaaay, whom notwithstanding ha disarmed, delivering his sword to 
Bir Sidney .Smith, whom he soon after met Then remounting bis 




liorse, he concealed his situation from those about him till lonp after 
the action was over, when be fainted through weakness and loss of 
blood. The injuries which he had received, and which he thus nobly 
bore in silence, were past the skill of surgery : he was immediately 
conveyed to the ship of the Admiral, Lord Keith, and there lingered 
till the 28th, when he expired. His body was interred in the burial- 
ground of the Commandery of the Grand Master, under the walls of 
the Castle of St. Elmo, near the town of La Valetta, in Malta. A 
monument has since been erected to his memory, by order of the 
House of Commons, in St. Paul's Cathedral. Sir llalph Abercromby, 
whose private character was as excellent as his public merits were 
great, left four sons. His widow was created Baroness Abercromby, 
with remainder to her issue male by her late husband. A pension 
of 2000?. a year was also settled upon Lady Abercromby and the three 
succeeding inheritors of the title, of whom the present baron is 
the last. 

bom January 28, 1784, and succeeded to the title on the death of 
his grandfather in 1802 : he was created Viscount Gordon in the 
peerage of the L^nited Kingdom in 1814, and it is by this title that he 
sits in the House of Lords. After completing his education, the Earl 
of Abenleen spent some time in travelling. Both in Greece and Italy 
he paid considerable attention to the study of the remains of anti- 
quity; and he was one of the original members of the Athenian 
Club. These circumstances gave the point, such as it was, to Lord 
Byron's notice, in his ' Hours of Idleness,' of " the travell'd thane 
Athenian Aberdeen." The result of the earl's antiquarian pursuits 
was given to the world in an 'Introduction' to Wilkins's transla- 
tion of Vitruvius'g ' Civil Architecture," 1812; and this ' Introduction' 
having been revised and extended, his lordship published as a distinct 
work in 1822 under the title of 'An Inquiry into the Principles of 
Beauty in Grecian Architecture." In 1813 the earl was sent to Vienna 
on a special mission, and he was instrumental in obtaining the adhe- 
sion of Austria to the alliance against France, the preliminary treaty 
for which he signed as the representative of England, at Toplitz, in 
October of that year. As the English Ambassador-Extraordinary to 
the Emperor Francis I., he shared in the negociations which preceded 
and followed the return of Napoleon to France from Elba. Subse- 
quently to his retirement from the embassy, the Earl of Aberdeen 
was known in politics as a steady adherent of the tory party, and on 
the formation of the Duke of Wellington's first administration in 
January, 1828, the earl accepted the office of Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, which he held till the resignation of the ministry in 
November, 1830. His first act in office was to express his disapproval 
of the policy which led to the destruction of the Turkish fleet at 
Navarino ; and the passage in the king's speech (January 29, 1823), 
which termed that an " untoward event," and expressed the deter- 
mination of the government to uphold the independence of Turkey, 
has been generally attributed to him. In this his first term of office 
it fell to the lot of the earl to assist in establishing the independence 
of Greece, and to acknowledge the " constitutional monarchy " of 
France as the result of the revolution of 1830 : and the prompt and 
frank recognition of both of these measures did much to secure the 
good-will of those countries. In the short-lived administration of Sir 
Itobert Peel (November 1834 to April 1835) the Earl of Aberdeen 
held the office of Colonial Secretary. When Sir Robert Peel was 
restored to office, September 1841, the Earl of Aberdeen again re- 
ceived the appointment of Foreign Secretary, and continued to hold it 
until the defeat of the ministry in July 1846. His administration of 
foreign affairs may be said generally to have been marked by a 
cautious pacific policy, but at the same time there is no other evidence 
than the heated language of political opponents to show that he was 
ever neglectful of the honour and dignity of the country. In the 
dispute with the United States on the Oregon question he took a firm 
yet conciliatory position, and the credit of the satisfactory settle- 
ment, of what at one time threatened to be a serious difficulty, is due 
to him. At a very early period, as is shown by bis despatch to Lord 
Heytesbury, the English ambassador at St. Petersburg, dated Oct. 31, 
1 829, the Earl of Aberdeen had suspected if he had not clearly pene- 
trated the designs of the Emperor Nicholas upon Turkey ; and it 
was probably with a view more effectually to counteract those designs, 
that he laboured, during his possession of office, to strengthen as 
much as possible the alliance with Austria. From his long connection 
with Sir Robert Peel, the Earl of Aberdeen had come to be regarded 
not merely as the exponent of that statesman's views on foreign 
policy, but as, next to the Duke of Wellington, his chief supporter and 
representative in the House of Lords ; and on the death of Sir 
Robert, the earl was selected ns the president of the great public 
meeting of his friends and admirers held at Willis's Rooms, July 23, 
1850. From this time the Earl of Aberdeen may be regarded as 
virtually the head of what was known as the Peel party ; and on the 
defeat of the Derby ministry, in December 1852, he was entrusted 
with the formation of the new administration. This he effected by 
inducing a number of the leaders of the whigs to unite with his own 
followers, thus fonning a coalition ministry wliich lasted rather more 
than two years, and is likely to remain long a theme of as much con- 
troversy as other coalition ministries, whose acta and policy have so often 
exercised the pens and tongues of political writers and debaters. As 

at every other period of his political life, the earl was as prime 
minister earnestly bent on the maintenauoe of peace ; yet, despite of 
his best efforts, " the country drifted into war," and a war, the mag- 
nitude of which few probably better appreciated than himself. But 
Lord Aberdeen, even after war was officially declared, clung to an 
early restoration of peace, and rested for that purpose on his favourite 
expedient of the Austrian alliance, more than was probably wise or 
justifiable — at any rate more than the public liked to see ; and this, 
with the general feeling that the war was not being prosecuted with 
the vigour which its importance and the character of the country 
demanded, deprived the Aberdeen ministry of all support, except 
from their immediate followers ; so that when the earl resolved to 
treat Mr. Roebuck's motion (January 29, 1855) for an inquiry into the 
state of the army before Sebastopol, as a vote of want of confidence, 
and Lord John Russell seceded from the Cabinet, the motion was 
carried by a majority greater probably than ever before defeated the 
most unpopular ministry. 'The earl at once resigned, and has not 
during the remainder of 1855 taken any prominent part in public 
affaii-s. The war overturned all the earl's calculations, and arrested 
most of those measures of social and political improvement, which he 
had taken an early opportunity of announcing as the basis of his 
system of policy. Yet his administration will be remembered as 
having effected an important change in the government of India ; 
largely and beneficially modified the exclusive system of Oxford 
University ; carried several measures tending to improve the con- 
dition of the people ; extended still further the principles of free 
trade ; and laid the foundation of a better system of admission to, 
and improved management of the civil service of the country. 

The Earl of Aberdeen has never been eminent as an orator. His 
influence in the House of Lords has been due to his high personal 
character, administrative ability, and social position. With foreign 
potentates, with whom he has been brought into contact as a ministei-, 
he has always been a favourite. Since the publication of his work on 
Grecian architecture, the Earl of Aberdeen has not publicly evinced 
auy partiality for literature or its practitioners; and his goverumeut is 
rather badly distinguished by his having appropriated to decayed 
members of aristocratic families the larger portion of tlie fund pre- 
viously set apart for the reward of persons eminent in literature and 
science. His lordship, however, holds various honorary offices usually 
bestowed on the patrons of intellectual pursuits : he is Chancellor of 
King's College, Aberdeen, President of the British Institution, and a 
governor of Harrow School and the Charterhouse ; and for some years 
he was President of the Society of Antiquaries. 

ABERNETHY, JOHN, a distinguished surgeon, bom in the year 
1763-4, either at the town of Abemethy in Scotland, or at that of 
Derry in Ireland, for each claims the honour of having been the place 
of his birth. He died at Enfield, after a protracted illness, on the 
18th of April, 1831, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. In early 
youth he removed from the place of his birth, and resided with his 
parents in London, in which city his father was a merchant. He 
received the elements of grammatical and classical instruction at a 
day-school in Lothbury, and also attended school at Wolverhampton. 
At the usual age he was apprenticed to Sir Charles Blick, surgeon to 
St Bartholomew's Hospital, under whom, and especially in the wards of 
that hospital, he had ample opportunities of aoquiriug a thorough 
knowledge of his profession, of which he availed himself with dili- 
gence. Competent judges, who observed at this early period the 
qualities of his mind and his habits of study, predicted that he would 
one day acquire fame, if not fortune. Though he appeared before the 
public early as an author, and though his very first works stamped 
him as a man of genius, endowed with a philosophical and original 
mind, yet he did not rise into reputation nor acquire practice with 
rapidity. In 1786 he succeeded Mr. Pott as assistant-surgeon to St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, and shortly afterwards took the place of 
that gentleman as lecturer on anatomy and surgery. For a consider- 
able time he had but few pupils, and he was at first by no means a 
good lecturer, his delivery being attended with a more than ordinary 
degree of hesitation. On the death of Sir Charles Blick, his former 
master, he was elected surgeon in his room ; and subsequently 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital obtained under him a reputation which it 
had never before acquired. Ou the 9th of January, 1800, Abemethy 
married Miss Ann ThrelfalL 

Abemethy was a pupil of John Hunter, and the earnestness and 
delight with which, at an early age, he received the lessons of this 
his great master, were indications of the soundness of his own judg- 
ment. It was from this profound and original thinker, who exercised 
an extraordinary inSuouce over the understanding, tastes, and pur- 
suits of his young pupil, that Abemethy derived that ardent love of 
physiology, by the application of which to surgery he was destined to 
convert a rude art into a beautiful science. He made himself 
thoroughly acquainted with anatomy, but it was that he miijht bo 
admitted into the then new world of physiology; he studied structure, 
but it was that he might understand function ; and the moment he 
had obtained a clear insight into these two sciences, he saw the appli- 
cations of which they were capable to the treatment of disease. 
From that moment he looked with contempt on the empiricism then 
almost universal in surgery ; he ridiculed its jargon ; he exposed the 
narrowness of its principles, if it be at all allowable to designato by 

AUMrsrar. mbv. 


UmI ikM am Id fa 

■ ■ - M Um 

--1 J ■ fclfalMMiwMMrthiaMir Wilk dMiliiM wfak 

Imb III I il MMiapl: fa Ud tfa huataUm of, ud miUDiy eoo- 
Wtilil to fatU «^ • ■•• adifa*^ B]r tfa dUicMU Mad* of natur*, 
«4 Vf «««iiMMl raiMliM M wfal fa toW. aad, >■ fa bimaslf u- 
■MBBd K tfa (MMtMllM «f wfa* fa Mw, fa nduotd to oHar 
•Wrt fa CmmI • «fa«. BMfarto Ifa nufwn fad lookad npoa tfa 
dMi af illiMi wlriA H WM hit pwi to traU, dbMMi wUoh almait 

■fai^a fat« • IomI Mrt. M iH wUeh fav* ■!•• • IomI erifia, 

I whkli an to fa oand by looU •ppuotr 

aarit ot flnt paroaiTlag, ia 

of thh Mtioa with tfa traa 

r, whM it aaaaad to fa 

M tfat mar oat of it lo 

uhwf lihoii, aad axhibitiac 

ititlad, 'Tfa CoDaUtoUooal 

af Leaal Diaaaaar^' fa Uj« dawn and aiUUiaha* 

: — Tfat loeal diaoaa* an ■rmptooi* o( a dia- 

Mt vAmtiy aad iadaoaediMit a ta l a d iaa ; aad 

rad bgr raiMd i aa aatealatod to nafa a Mlntaiy 

{■Mnl tnm», aat bj topioal draaiing, aor any 

af aai a ai j . Ttiia dagla priaaipU ohaogad tha 

fatd at aaif«nr, aad al«*atcd it from a maoual 

Ifa laak tt • wliaaa Aad to thi* firat priadpU fa addad 

af whkh ia parfa,-ia aom«what la* axtaiuiTa, bat 

laoa of which U aoaroai r iafarior to tfat of tfa 

tUa diaoidarMl ataU of tfa aoaatitation ailbar 

b licorauaijr alliad with danagaoMnta of tfa 

aad that it oui onl; fa naehad by ramadiaa 

a ««nti*a b t o »o e» opoa than arguu. Hm 

rir eeafairad opoa i—n»iad fa tfa aluddatioe 

af tfaaa two ptia c iplai^ both by tha praraatioa aad 

IMpliaM af diaaaaa aad iiilhiBj. it wan nia to attampt to 

Kaai It il aat aaiy to pay to tfafr aathar tfa Jabt of giatituda 


Vfa«far. tfa MMo pUloaopUaU viaw of tfa atraatora aad f oooUona 
*t Ifa fauaaa timm, whiA aaablad thU aaato phyriologiat ao graaUy 
to l wj ;r i >i Ifa Ih iar y aad pnotiea of aoisoy. aooaatad, and at tha 
aMW thaa aimal hhB with tfa eeaiaga to parfono, two oparmtiou in 
amMT haldar Ihaa a«y that had afar bafora bato aohiarad, aad tfa 
of wUah haadaaa baaa a tta odad with aplaodid aoooaaa— 
,lfa lyiat Ifa oafolid aad Ifa ostanal iliao artariaa. Tfa 
af Ifa p ii N aianiw «f tfaaa aapHal opantiona at onoa 
aa • aaisaoB, aad iae r oaaad tfa otaam of 



MMhliAad hia w a a il a l loa aaaaanaoi 
tfa Uriiah irfwa( throt^dhoot Earopa. 
Ofaai hawanr aa waa tfa lapotatioa 
M«<*«d aa aa a«a l airt n , a hy itotori rt , 
Ifat fa —ad Mi iilihrily alSaytohfa I 
■Hh«fa|«iMtoMi*ar aad atlMd k 

lapotatioa which thia dtatioguiihad man 

and mrgaoe, it it probaUa 

a eo ia a aa a taoobar. Qiftad 

hia iciwoa , fa waa aadowad 

of eoamaahaliag to othaia ia a elaar, 

. whalarar fa biiaaalf 

■ad taart, ya* act inalnanl afaiuiding with illojtn- 

yal to alh od l a a l lag i aal. yat oftoa witty, aad oooa- 

mmmg haw wn i ahnaal to eoanaoaaa— aaldom impaaaiooad, yat 
■iMi l i ^ Miiit aMi aof ar aUowi^ tfa attaatioa of hia andiaaaa 
fa lac Cwaitiila ■mb mI.-U waa lan^ iadaad. that. fa failml to 

Mm* af yi aaalar, chaa Ifa fcUowtac ao 
i md ii f ■dbi M wa hC aa to Ifa nhiSit 
«MlarUalaafaH«» - Ha aa aloawMly 

•aaviaaa wfaavar hai«d hfai, aad aa i«ra that fa bUad to nuka 
faidad partiaaa. Kavarthalaai, a highly 
. . J apiMiaally ftoaa a aaraf ol aad matora 
I af Ifa iMpnaaioa aaada apoa hia owa aiiad by tfa praiae- 

■eooal, whioh, if tnia, U 

raaolt of tfa uoda aad 

•loowMly axfooadad aooia of tfa 

Dr. I i U im; «fa •• aiaaly rHiitioglaJ Ifa 

■atlaalB; faoMda that ao aaty whieh 

■aa wfa haard bim faala parhapa 

^ „ .. . - „ , pottJoa of hU koowladga fa U 

.,»• .Me- AhamMfcy. B«t fa laaarrad all hia aathoaUam for 
U^iiMliHdillilaa: ^ to ■««■■■ ; i*. to aatodh. aad aodramatlaad 
&i***A'^.^'^^ ■" ^"^ ••»» * awaa); awllhao In 
^«!**4?»*?y'>"* * '' l" » t i*«>* towMwrtoaa aaarofataaftcr 
•aalto ip laaaaly 'Ifa Daoton^'aad ao ditporteJ 
.- „ '•'••*y«a!f~ ^» "••»% tfcrt wa aooaptad 
• toaU ito foW Wa ahoaU fara baaa athaoad todo 
Wa aaii j i u d h wkh aaalMMtiaa, aad rotod oonalTai by 

•faaafalMaw^laitewMlM. Tfatraa*Ufd<£ifaM.Uiaaaid,had 

r af laiptrlag aair^giBpiaaaaa* hito Ifa alada of olfariaaa. 

■aa waa o*w a ^aartar ar aa faar ia hia aaaaBaa* wilfaut 

g that UH Cfalfa. waa tfa »M muila vSioM^ 

tfaaansd; aad M i* vm with w poor oapila aad MrVAbai^ 

at all aranta in no mood to fa aatitfied with anything but tha entire 

Tba prirato oluraoter of lit. Abernethy waa blamelaw. He wu 
highly honourable in all hit trantaotiona, and incapable of daplicity, 
iiiaaninaa. artifioe, or tanrility. Hit niannen in the domaiUo cirole 
waro gaatla, aad even playful ; he gave to tboM about him a laiiga 
^rttVnn of what hia baart really abounded with — tendemeaa and affeo- 
lion: and on hit part be wat tenderly belored by liii children and by 
all tfa memfan of bit family. In public, and more eapeeially to hia 
patiaott, hit maanen were ooarae, etprioioui, churliih, and aometimea 
area brutaL It would not fa difficult to account for this anomaly 
ware thera any aaa in poraoing tfa invaatigatioo : bis conduct iu thb 
raapaet marita nnqvalifiad oaoaure. 

ror a liat of tfa Tarioua Traota publithed by Mr. Abernethy, aaa 
Watt'a 'Bibliothaea Britaomca.' A collected Edition of hit Surgical 
Worfca appaand in 1815, 2 toIs. 8to. ('Memoira of Abcmetliy,' by 
Oeorga Uacilwain. S Tola. Sra London, 1853.) 

ABINQER, LORD. Jama SearUtt waa a natire of Jamaica, where 
hia family waa wealthy and of long atanding. He wat the teoond ton 
of Robert Scailatt, Baq., and waa bom in or about the year 1769. Hit 
mother'i name waa Elutabeth Anglin. The family eatatei went, it may 
be praaumed, to the aldaat aon ; a third aoo, who alto rem^ed at 
home, and followed the profeiaion of the law in Jamaica, became Sir 
William Anglin Scarlett, and Chief Justice of Jamaica, and died there, 
after baring held tfat office for many yeara. Jamea wat at an eariy 
age aent to England. Having finithod hit elementary education, ha 
wat, about the year 1786, entered a Fellow Commoner at Trinity 
CoUega, Cambridge; and he waa alto, a year or two after, admitted a 
atadmt of tha loner Temple. He took bit degree of B.A. in 1790; 
waa oallad to the bar 8th July, 1791 ; and graduated M.A. in 179(. 
Hia anooaia at tfa bar wat very decided from the first, and every year 
added to hia reputation and hit emolumenta. It was soon discovered 
that, from whatever cauie, no young barrister gained so large a propor- 
tion of verdicts. Even while he wat still a junior counsel, he waa 
vonr frequently entrusted with the sole conduct of important rates, 
At laatt in 1816, fa rsoaived a ailk gown ; aud from that date fa was 
raoogniaed as the leader of his circuit (the Northern), and as occupying 
alto a foremoit place in Westminster Hall. 

He had made an attempt to be returned to parliament for the 
farongh of Lewea at tfa general election in October, 1812, but was 
defeated by Itr. Oaorge Sbiffiier, who was brought iu, as second member, 
by a minority of 164 to 154 ; and he failed also in a second attempt on 
the same borough whan a vacancy was occasioned in 1S16 by tha 
death of the other member, Mr. T. R. Kemp, being then defeated by 
Sir John Sfalley. He waa first introduced to the House of Commons 
iu 1818, aa one of tfa members for the city of Peterborough, under 
the patronage of Earl FitawilUam. He did not however make a figure 
in parliament corraaponding to his eminence at the bar ; nor was ha 
a frequent speaker, although ha supported fath Sir Samuel Romilly 
aad .Sir James Madntoah in their OBbrto to mttigato the severi^ of tha 
criminal law, and also ooeasionally took part in debates on financial 

Ha was ratomad aoain for Peterborough at the general election in 
1820 ; but ha reaigoad hia aaat in 1822 to stand for the University of 
Cambridge, whan, howevar, fa waa left at the bottom of the poll 
Upon thit ha waa re-alaotad for Peterborough, but not till altor a 
eontaat with Mr. Samual Walla. Up to thia time he had been const. 
darad a« distinotly belonging to the whig party, although to the most 
modaiato aa et ion of it ; but bis opinioot gradually assumed more of a 
OooatrvatiTa eomplexioo, and when the new Tory or mixed adminia. 
tration of Canning oama into power in April, 1827, Mr. Scariett, having 
baao a^ain ratunad for Peterfarough at the general election in tfa 
praoading year, accepted tfa office of Mtoney general Ho was at the 
aaaia time knighted. Having been once more returned for Peter- 
borough he retained his plaoa throughout tha administration of Lord 
Oodarioh ; waa auoosaded by Shr Charlea Wetharall when the Duke of 
W ellln gtoo baeama premier in January, 182S; but was reinstated in 
May, 1829, upon tfa diamiaaal of Sir Charles for his opposition to tha 
Roman Catholic Bmandpation Bill ; and, faving been returned for 
Maldon at the general aleotion in 1830, he remained attorney-general 
till tba aoosasion to offloe of the Whigs in November of tfat year, when 
he was suoooadad by Mr. (afterwards Lord) Danmau. 

At tfa general alsetion in May, 1831, Sir Jamea Scarlett was returned 
to parliament for Cookermouth. At the next, which took place after 
tfa paadng of the Reform Bill, in December, 1832, he waa returned, 
after a oootcat, for Norwich, along with Lord Stoimont (now Earl of 
Maaafield). When thia parliament waa diaaolved in December, 1834, 
OB Sir Robert Peel being appointed premier, Sir Jamea Scarlett waa 
made Chief Baron, and a peer by the title of Boron Abiuger, of Abin- 
gar, ia tha eounty of Surrey, and of the oitv of Norwich. 

Lord Abingcr died of a sudden attack of iUneas at Bury St. Edmunds, 
while 00 the circuit, on the 7lh of April, 1844. He had been twice 
married; firat in August, 1792, to the third daughter of Petor Camp- 
fall, Eaq., of Kilmorey, in Argyleahire, who died in Haroh, 1829 ; 
•aaoodly, ia Saptombar, 1843, to Elisabeth, daughter of Lee Steara 
Btoar^ Esq., of Jaya, Surrey, and widow of the Rev. H. J. Ridley, of 
OoUay. By hU firat wife fa had three aons and two daughters. Hia 
-'■*-' SOD auooeeded to his title and estotea; hia eldest daughter, the 





wife of Lord Campbell, was created a peeress in 1836 by the title of 
Baroness Stratbeden. 

Lord Abinger was a skilful and dexterous rather than an eloquent 
advocate, and while on the bench he was more distinguished for the 
clearness with which he summed up a case to a jury than for the pro- 
foundness or subtlety of his legal views. Yet he was considered also 
a sound and good lawyer. In the great art of gaining verdicts he was 
unrivalled ; and no practitioner at the bar had ever before received so 
large a sum in fees in any year as he drew in the height of his practice. 
His conduct as attorney-general under the Tories in 1829, when he 
filed a number of crimiuad informations against the opposition news- 
lepers, naturally exposed him to some severe animadversions from 
those who still continued attached to the more democratic political 
creed which he had originally been accustomed to profess, 

{Gent. May. for June, 1844.) 

ABINQTON, FRANCES, was bom in 1731, or, according to some, 
in 1738. Her maiden name was Barton, and her father, although of 
respectable descent, is said to have been only a common soldier. Early 
in life she obtained her liveUhood by running on errands, and one of 
her places happening to be at a French milliner's, she soon contrived 
to pick up the language. She was afterwards a flower-girl in St. 
James's Park, London. Her first appearance on the stage was as 
Miranda in the ' Busy Body," at the Haymarket Theatre, on August 2lBt, 
1755, Not making much impression on the public, she went to Dublin, 
previously to which she was married to Mr. Abington, who had become 
known to her as her music-master, and from whom she separated in a 
few montba. At Dublin she made her first step to fame, as Kitty, in 
' High Life below Stairs,' which was brought out for the benefit of 
Tate Wilkinson, who has left an animated account of her great success. 
The moro fashionable theatre in Crow-street was soon deserted for the 
obscure house in Smock Alley; the head-dress that Mrs, Abiugton 
wore was copied by every milliner, and the "Abington cap" in a;few 
days figured in evjry shop window, and on the head of every lady 
who had any pretensions to fashion. Mrs. Abington continued a first- 
rato favourite at both the Dublin theatres until her return to England, 
in 1765, when she was warmly welcomed by Garrick. In a few seasons, 
by the retirement of JIr.-». Pritchard and lli-s. Clive, the field was loft 
open to her, and she quickly became the first comic actress of her 
day ; a station which she lonj; retained. Her last public appearance 
was on the 12th of April, 1799. She died at her house in Fall Hall, 
Iiondon, 4tb March, 1815. She left a legacy to each of the theatrical 

ABLANCOURT, PERROT NICOLAS D', one of the most esteemed 
French translators of the classic authors in the 17th century, was 
bom at Chalous-aur-Mame, in Champagne (now in the department of 
Mamc), in 1606, and died at Ablancourt in November, 16ti4. Ablan- 
court commenced his career at the bar, but quitted it almost imme- 
diately for literary pursuits; and at the same time abandoned the 
Protestant creed, in which he had been brought up. He returned 
however to bia first belief; for six years afterwards he studied with 
the deepest attention, under the learned Stuart for three years, at the 
end of which time he abjured the Roman faith, and immediately 
after retired into Holland, to be near the learned Saumaise, and enjoy 
the society of that famous scholar ; perhaps also to let the scandal of 
his second abjuration die away. From Holland he repaired to England, 
and thence to Paris, where be became intimately acquainted with Patm, 
one of the most celebrated writers and distinguished lawyers of that 
day, and also with other eminent literary characters. In 1637 he was 
received a member of the French Academy, and gave his whole atten- 
tion to the translation of the works of Tacitus; but being soon 
obliged to quit Paris on account of the war which broke out, he went 
to reside at his seat at Ablancourt, in Champagne, for the remainder 
of his life, with the exception of the time he spent in Paris during 
the printing of his works. Of his numerous translations, those most 
known are, the whole of Tacitus, of which there have been ten 
editions; four orations of Cicero; Ctesar; the Wars of Alexander, 
by Arrian — the most esteemed of bis translations as regards the style ; 
Thucydides ; the Anabasis of Xenopbon ; and an imitation, rather 
than a translation, of Lucian. During his life he appears to have been 
held in general estimation as a translator, but his versions are very far 
from accurate, and are now obsolete. 

In 1062 Colbert proposed him to Louis XIV. aa the historian of his 
reign, but Louis would not have a Protestant to commemorate its 
events. However, be did not deprive him of his pension of 120/. per 
annum, which bad been granted to him as historiogapher. Ablan- 
court'a life was written by his friend Patru. 

ABRAHAM (originally Abram), the great ancestor and founder of 
the Jewish nation, and the first depositary of the divine promises in 
favour of the chosen people. He was the son of Terab, the eighth in 
descent from Sbero, the eldest son of Noah, and was bora probably at 
Ur, a town of Chaldxa, about 2000 years before the Christian era. 
His history occupies about a fourth part of the book of Genesis, 
namely, from tlie 11th to the 25th chapters inclusive. Having mar- 
ried Sarah (originally Sarai), the daughter of his brother Haran, lie 
accompanied bis father and his nephew Lot to Haran, where Terah 
died ; and then, at the command of God, taking Lot along with him, 
bo left Haran, and proceeded towards the south till he reached the 
plain of Moreb, in Canaan. The epoch of the commencement of this 

journey, which happened when he was 75 years old, is called by chro- 
nologists the Call of Abraham. Soon after, a famine forced the 
patriarch to make a journey into Egypt, from which country, when 
he had returned to the place of his abode in Canaan, he found that 
the increase of his own flocks, and those of his nephew, made it 
necessary that they should choose separate settlements ; and accord- 
ingly, by mutual consent. Lot withdrew towards the east, and 
established himself among the cities in the plain of Jordan, while 
Abraham removed to the plain of Mamre, in Hebron. He had reached 
his 99th year, and his wife (who had been hitherto barren) her 89th, 
when God appeared to him, and declared that there should yet spring 
from them a great nation — a promise which was confirmed by the 
birth of Isaac the following year. The severe trial of Abraham's 
faith, in the command given him to sacrifice this beloved son, so 
beautifully related in the 22nd chapter of Genesis, is familiar to every 
reader. Some time before this he had given another striking proof of 
his submission to the divine will and his implicit reliance on the 
promises of God, in his dismissal of his son Ishmael, whom he had by 
Hagar, the Egyptian bondwoman, on the assurance of his Heavenly 
Father, that of him too would he make a nation, because he was the 
patriarch's seed. The Arabs claim to have sprung from Ishmael, as 
did the Hebrews from Isaac. After the death of Sarah, at the age of 
127, Abraham married Keturab, and by her had six other sons. The 
venerable patriarch died at the age of 175, and was buried, by Isaac 
and Ishmael, in the tomb which contained his first wife in Mamre. 

ABU-BEKR, properly called AhdaUah-Atikben-Ahi-Kohafah, but 
better known under the name of Aba-Bekr (that is, 'Father of the 
Maiden,' in allusion to his daughter Ayeshah, whom the Arabian 
prophet married very young), was the first kalif or successor of 
Mohammed in the government of the new empire founded by him. 
Mohammed died in a.d. 632, without leaving any male issue. The 
succession to the sovereignty was at first contested between his father- 
in-law, Abu-Bekr, and Ali-ben-Abi-Taleb, his cousin-german, who was 
also, through marriage with the prophet's daughter Fatima, his son- 
in-law. Between the two rivals themselves the dispute was settled 
without an appeal to arms. Abu-Bekr prevailed, aud All, though 
disappointed, submitted to the authority of his successful opponent. 
But among the Mohammedans the respective claims of the two com- 
petitors became a point of perpetual controversy, and gave rise to 
the great diviBion of the whole Mohammedan community into Sunnitcs 
and Shiites ; the former asserting the right of Abu-Bekr and his two 
successors, Omar and Othman, while the Shiites condemn these three 
kaUfs as unlawful intruders, and maintain the exclusive right of Ali- 
ben-Abi-Taleb and his Uneal descendants to the commandership over 
the Faithful. [Aliben.Abi-Taleb.] 

After the death of Mohammed, only the three important towns of 
Mecca, Medina, and Tayef declared themselves for AbuBekr. It was 
the first and principal object of the newly-appointed sovereign to 
establish his authority in the other parts of AJ'abia, especially in the 
countries of Yemen, Tehama, Oman, and Bahrain. In reducing to 
obedience these refractory provinces, Abu-Bekr was powerfully sup- 
ported by Omar, afterwards his successor, aud especially by Khaled- 
ben-Walid, a military commander of extraordinary courage and 
presence of mind. Besides this rebellion of some of its members, the 
Mohammedan state had to encounter other difficulties fi-om several 
new pretenders to prophetsbip. Mosailamah seems to have been the 
most formidable of these enemies of the Islam. He was however 
defeated by Khaled, and killed in a battle near Akrabah, This con- 
flict is memorable on another account. The precepts promulgated 
at different times by Mohammed had till then been in a great measure 
preserved by oral tradition, or handed about in fragments written on 
palm-leaves, or pieces of parchment Many of the personal associates 
of Mohammed, who were from memory familiar with his doctrine, 
fell in the war with Mosailamah ; and Abu-Bekr, in order to obviate 
any future uncertainty about the genuine text of the ordinances, 
caused all the fragments to be collected, the passages remembered by 
heart to be written out, and the whole to be embodied in the volume 
known under the title of the Koran. 

Abu-Bekr, anxious to increase the Mohammedan dominions, dis- 
patched Khaled into Irak, where he subdued several of the frontier 
provinces along the Euphrates. Two other commanders, Yezid-ben- 
AbiSofyan and Abu-Obeidah, entered Syria and defeated the troops 
of the Grecian emperor Heraclius. After a decisive victory over a 
Greek army of 70,000 men, near Ajnaidain, the capture of Damascus 
by the united forces of Abu-Obeidah and Khaled established the 
dominion of the Arabs over Syria, and in fact over the whole couutrv 
between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean, 

On the day of the capture of Damascus (August 23rd, 034) Abu- 
Bekr died, at the age of 63 years. Not one of liis three sons, Abdallah, 
Abd-al-rahman, and Mohammed, survived him; and in his will he 
appointed Omar as his successor. Eastern writers praise the simplicity 
of his habits and manners, and his disregard of wealth and the luxu- 
ries or even comforts of life. Every FriJay he distributed all the 
surplus of bis income among such persons as be thought deserving of 
it. His short reign, of little more than two years, forms an eventful 
epoch in the history of Mohammedanism ; and oriental authors have 
vied with one another in recording details about tlie early conquests 
of the armies of the Faithful, The volume of the great Arabic 



MMl tnmtUuA bjr KoM|wtM (Otvlfbwald, 

ABULrABAtinTB (]N«|Mfly Afar Orftrim AM/anJ. Um oalted 
ffiijiitii timMrmm), WM M «(<««ia wrttar «f MMb edAritr, who 
IhSlatUtMMlwyafMrMS, iU wm boni to ISM. at MaktU, 
, • torn AhMmw Iba watani laak of tk* Baphntw io 
AiiM, wiMr* kb MUr. Aimo. foUowwl th« praCMton of m 
> Um aaiftfaHt of • J««1A (ubOv, b* •mbcM*d Um 
*. MtwTltelMdfawk ■ormiM ta Um Motrur, 
kt iiilhiii I tiltiil iMMi AmA. AkoUki^ itwIM tiMologr, philo- 
B« tpMl th* gvMtar lart of hb lifcfai Syru. 


Hrtr ■•• <' tawi^' iw WM ippaiatail biAop of Oalw, and 

Hllr •TAbMO. b ItM bo w» aiMtod MmUo of all U» 

to «• latL Ho dM at Marsha to Aaarb()an, 

AMIw^ waa Mm Mrtkor of • BMt 
vilfca, b«l iIm ooi | i g i iai» tivoo^ wl 


I nambar of Arabia and Sjriao 
wbiob bia aacM baa baaotna batt 
blitanr, writtoD to Syriae, bottnna- 
1 br (haMrtlMr htoMrif tola AraUe, to wbiob ba baa gtrao th* 
IWa «f ' M hto w of Iha P y i wHia ' It ia dirMad toto too aaotiou : 
Iha IfBt af wbiab glfw aoma aaae uut of tha patriaioba ; tba aeoood, 
rf <ba iawfab BawMowwaiMh aadar tba Jud^aa ; and tba thiH, of tba 
Bdar tha ktop: tba foattb eootatot Ifca UbIoit of tba Chal- 
tba Wk, of Um Fw^aiM ; tha rfstb, of tba Oreaki; tba 
, af tha Wifiiw ; tha tigbtb. of tha ChfMaa Qradaa ampira; 
tha atoth, of tho Moh i a i iiMd an Araba; and tba tantb, of tba Moffobi 
1b Iha aariy patt af tba woiic nany arron aro ofaaarvabla, toto wUeb 
Iha Mthor baa Wlao tbroofb bh ffDOfaaea of tbo aharinal laognagaa 
aad BtaralaraL The««b a ill la u bj a Chriatitii, tbii worii b bald to 
bbk aalaaai aaaoaa J«w< and Mobamwdaaa to tha Baat. To n* iti 
«Hif tolarHt BBu a M i to tha eoriooa dataOa wbbh it oontato* eon- 
aamtog tba bbtuij af aaia B oa amaos tha AnBa, paitbnbrly under 
tha thwa AtbaaMa kaltb, MaMur, Hara^al-Baabid, and Mamun. An 
iMMiaaf tha Arabia tait af tba 'DTnaatba.' aoeompaniad with a 
talto trai bUpB, waa pobUabad bjr Edward Poooeka, at Oxtord. to 
IMS. 4Iol; tba ajAte last, Ukawba with a Utto TanioD, wm editwl 
bj Bm aad Kineh. at Laijpob. to 1789, 4tow 
AmrUPAZU aoa of BMkb llobarOc, waa tba tUt of tba 
Monl a mp arat Akbar, who raifaod from A.D. ISSS to 

IMt. I* 1M( whaa ratmning ftoat an aspaditfon to tha Oaoean, he 
tna — w bta d to Iha dbbbi of Monrar bj baadltti, and, it waa aoa- 
paalad, bv tba aa B t ri f an ea of Akbar'a aoa BaUm, who afirrwarda 
aaaoaadaa bb IMhar oa tba tbrooa. nndar tba nam* of Jehanair. 

bb IMhar oa tba tbrooa, nndar tba oaoM of Jehangir. 
Ika artM a i ra and valnabto worita wbiab Abol-Fail foand leiaura to 
■ liH bava Inwuod biffl a ooaapioveoa pboa amoiM tba baat author*. 
aa waU aa ommk tha moat adMMMd MataaaaM. af tba Saat. Hb 
kbat^Haaah,' which eiiato aa jal only to 
• Uttorjr of tba raiga of tba aorwaicn 
I ba aarrad. and to whom ba waa moal davoladly attacbad ; tbb 
Atod-fbd eaniad dawa till rwrj oaar tba tiiaa of hb own 
aad it waa aflarwarda aoottouad by SbaiUt BaaiatuUab fa a 
aotitiad * Tklunibb-l-Akbai^RaBMb.' Bat tba worlc 
■DM w l ri b am to BMka bb aama iMoiliar to oa b tho 
'Ay tol Ah b ail,' «r iMMatoi of Akbar. a MaMatJaal and ixditieal 
Mmtfltm af tha llag«4 matb% aad afiha aaranl bnaahaa of 
ito a d wh rf^ ia ilw Abol-fM waa a ftbMi to Iba apiwaaaMl Htodaoa. 
b hb rmtm paaaa to aw h ri oa of tba (rial Saaaarit harak poaa, 
Iha 'Mababarala,- Abal-VM baa bfl aa a ooriooa oad yJhuMi 
at af tha paraarMtagdOiiaaea whbh a Mobammadaa atolaa- 
' b watth hb whOa to baalow oa Iha Utanton of tba 
. to tha in ■ ■ ■!■! «f whbh ha waa atllad to 
byhhiiiaiiili. l iMh a r «f hb warfa^ tow toto wa l lag to aa, 
ttoaph MHh adaabad to tha hal aa aaeaaal of ito iSad aad 
•attfalvH b Iha • Ayar4-DBabh,' or Toaohatoaa of btoUaal, a 
tba Anbto of tU waltkaown bbba of 

rmlm b iaab W oa froai tba Anbto ( 

a6^Un^'t,.wVk hb Mlaaais 

ftaa-AJi. waa tha I I iH af a aaSa 

af Iha 


bnaeh of tta Ayabito 

I) to IIM avMlatod to Um 

HaaMk, Maamh, aad Baria. to Hrrb. 

thai di(Blt* atoa altar Iha Baibrito 

IML had to ItM aolaa aad to tba Ayo- 

oMT *rHa aad bnl. AbatlMa waa boca to im at 

Wwaa mmmtti 
ad to im at *a 


toSyiblMlhaOnMMbra. b 1186 

of Haawh. oa aa aspaditioa againat the HogoU. After tho death of 
Modbaflbr, to ISM, tha Bahrite aiiltan Nanir deolarad tha fief which 
tba AyaMlaa bald under him to hare beoome extinot, and aiaigned a 
mmU panainn for their maintenanoe. Whan howerer, ten years after- 
ward*. Saltan Naair beoama peraonally aoqoaint«d with Abulfeda, ha 
not only raatored to him (1810) the former dignity of his family, but 
aoon aflor, aa an adcnowledgemant for hb lerrioe*, raised him to the 
rank of malik, or king. In 1816 Abulfeda waa obliged to giro up tba 
town oif Maarrah andito territory to the Arab Emir Mohammed-Ben- 
laa, who demanded thU boon aa a reward for hb defection from the 
HogoU ; but be retafaed Bario and Hamah, and with hi* troops often 
raodarad military sanrion to Sultan Nnsir. He oontinued on tlie most 
ftiaodlT term* with N*sir till he died in 1331. The numerous work* 
which he ha* left behind attaat the extent and variety of his informa- 
tion. Among them we find mentioned work* on medicine, )Ioliammedan 
jurbpmdanoe, matbamatioa, and philoeophy : thoaa most commonly 
known are — a treatiaa on geography, entitled ' Takwim-al-boldnn,' or 
'Dbpoaition of tbaCoontriaa;' and an hutorieal work called 'Mukhtaaar 
8 akbbar al-baabar,' that ia, ' A Compendium of the History of Mankind.' 
Tha gaograpbioal treatiaa eonaisto of an introduction and twenty-eight 
laotiooa on particular countria*, each containing, first, a tabl<', Bhowing 
tba latitodaa and longitudra of the moat remarkable places, and after- 
warda detailed atatiatioal and topographioal noticea respecting them. 
In the daaotiptioa of aoeb pUoea aa he had not seen bimaelf, he takes 
eara to name tba antboritiei from whom he draw* his information. 
Tba daacriptiona of aingle countries hare been edited by Oraviua, 
Raiaka, Rommel, Koshler, Miohaelis, and others. Tba liiatorioal work 
b a chronicle after the usual oomprebensive plan of oriental works of 
tbb kind. Iti main object b the hbtory of Mohammed, and of the 
Arahbn empire, which it earriea down as far as the year 1328. The 
aarliar eaatoriea of the Mohammedan power are but briefly treated. 
Fartbar on tba narrative becomea foliar and richer in interesting details. 
For the biatoty of tba Cnuadaa it b one of the most importnut oriental 
aoureea wbieb we poaaaaa. The latter part of the work, or the histet7 
of Mohammedanism, waa transUted by Reiake, and edited with the 
Arabic text bv Adier, at Copenhagen, to five volumes, 4to, 1789-1794 ; 
an edition and translation of the anto-Ialamitic part baa been published 
by Fleiacher, Leipiig, 1831, 4to. 

ABYDE'NUS ('A0vtvr6t), a Oreek historian who wrote a history of 
Aaayria {'Avmfuuti), of which some fragmenta are preaerved by Euse- 
bius, Cyrillus, Synoellus, and Moses of Chorene. Hb work was valuable 
for chronology, and a fragment found in the Armenian tranaUtion of 
the Chronioon of Enaebiu* aattlea some diffieultie* m Aaayrbn history. 
The time at which he lived u not certain ; he must however belong to 
a Uter period than Berosns, one of hu authorities, who lived about 
B.a 3(0. Tba foagmanto of bb hbtory are collected in Soaliger'a work, 
' Da BmandationeTemporum.' and more completely in J. D. O. Riohter, 
'Beroai Chaldni Hbtori» qua auperaunt,' ka., Leipxig, 182S, 8ro, p. 
3S, Ac, and p. 85, Aa 

ACHARD, FRANnoiS-CHARLES, a ohembt and ezperimenUl 
pbiloaopher, suppoaaa to have been of French extraction, was bom at 
Barlto to 1763 or 1754, and died in 18;.>1. He was the author of various 
wotka, written to tba Oerman language, on experimental physios, 
ebamblry, and agrieoltare ; and he waa long an active contributor to 
difltoant aeientiflo Joumala, partioularly the ' Memoin ' of the Academy 
of Berlin. In 1780 he publiahed at Berlin a work entitled ■ Ohymisoh- 
Phyaiache SchrifVen,' which contains a great number of experimenU 
oirtbo subject of the adhesion of dilTerant bodies to each other. Tablea 
ocatatoing the reaolta of these exparimenta, which aeem to have been 
ooaduated with great care, may be aeen in the ' Enoyclop(<die Metho- 
diqoe (ChimieV torn. L, p. 469. 

Aohard b however chiefly known for hb proposal to extract sugar 
llrom beat-root. Another l>nuaian chemist, Haiqgraff, had diaooverad 
Ibo azbtonoa of a oertain portion of sugar to thb root as eariy aa 1747. 
Ha eooimunieated hb discovery to the Scientific Society at BerUn ; 
bat be bimaelf thought it of littlo practical importance, aa he decbred 
he oovld not prodnea logar nnder 100 francs the pound. Achard, who 
to Ihb pattieobr appears to have bean somewhat of a visionary, on the 
aoatrary, dasoribad tba baat-root aa "one of tha most bountiful gifto 
wbiab tba divine mnnificaooa bad awarded to man upon the earth." 
Ha attnaad that not only sugar oonld be produoed from beet-root, but 
tobaooo. m nl aasii, eoibe, ram, arrack, vinegar, and beer. The Institute 
of fiaia, to 180^ aava Achard tha honour of a vote of thanks ; but alter 
a aatiaa of oarahd anatioMnto they raported that the resulte were so 
nMalfahi4ni7, Ibal tl troeld be unwiaa to establish any manufacture 
of aagar folia baal-roo l Bat Napoleon L to 1812 succeeded in forming 
aa imperial OMnafactory of sugar at Kambouillet, when his decreea 
bad daprivad Ftonca of the pnxlueo of the Weat Indiea. The sugar 
Boda ol boOM waa aold at a great price ; and oonaequenUy, after the 
paaoa, wboa foreign tugar waa once more introduced, ito cheapness put 
aa aad to tba baat-root ostablbhmenta. The government of France 
bowavaroboaa to lavyhigh duttea upon the augan of EnglUh colonies 
to pratat* tboaa of Mortiniqua, Quadaionpa, and Bourbon ; and the 
tox Bpoa Bq^Uoh eoloabl aogar, being 9S francs the 100 kilogrammes, 
y «w»«l bar a Afoao par poand, amounted to a prohibition. Tho 
boalraot nMimf aotnra Ibarsfora was revived, and, with some fluctu- 
atte aa, has aoal toaad to toeraaae. The samo duty b now levied upon 
bairtPDol logar as npon French colonial sugar, but the consumption of 




sugar in France is very limited in comparison with that of England. 
In 1850, 160.917,000 lbs. of beet-root sugar were made in France. The 
average yearly conoumption in France is less than 10 lbs. for each 
individual ; in the United Kingdom, in 1850, it exceeded 30 lbs. each. 
Beet-root sugar is also made extensively in Belgium, Russia, Prussui, 
and Germany. The improvements in the processes for the manufac- 
ture of beet-root sugar have led to attempts being made to introduce 
its use into the United Kingdom. A company carries on operationa 
in Ireland on a scale of some magnitude. 

ACHI'LLES, one of the most celebrated characters of the mythic 
iige of Greece ; a distinction due rather to his having been selected by 
Homer as the hero of the ' Iliad,' than to the number or wonderful 
nature of the exploits ascribed to him. He belongs to that interme- 
di.ite period between truth and fiction, during which it is generally 
hard to say how much is real, how much imaginary. In the cir- 
cumstiinces of his life however, as they are told by Homer, there is 
scarcely anything impossible, or even improbable, allowing for poetical 

The atory of Achilles, as we find it in Homer, is soon told. Ho 
was the son of Pcleus, king of Phthia, and the adjoining parts of 
Thessaly, and of Thetis, a sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus. He was 
educated l>y Phccnix, a refugee at his father's court. From his mother 
he learned that his fate was to gain renown before Troy, and die 
early ; or to enjoy a long but inglorious life. He chose the former 
alternative, and joined the Grecian army, in which he w.i8 pre-eminent 
in valoor, strength, swiftness, iind beauty. During the first nine years 
of the Trojan war we have no minute detail of bis actions ; iu the 
tenth year a quarrel broke out between him and the general-in-ohief, 
Agamomoon, which led him to withdraw entirely from the contest. 
The Trojans, who before scarcely ventured without their walls, now 
waged battle in the plain, till they reduced the Greeks to extreme 
distress. The Greek council of war sent its most influential members 
to soothe the auger of Achilles, but without effect. He allowed his 
friend and companion I'atroclus, however, clothed in the celestial arms 
which Hepba»his (Vulcan) gave his father, Peleus, to lead the Myr- 
midons, bis followers, out to battle. Patroclus was slain, and stripped 
of these arms by Hector. Ilago and grief induced Achilles to return 
to battle. Thetis procured from Hephajstus a fresh suit of armour 
for her son, who at the close of a day of slaughter killed Hector, and 
dragged him at bis chariot-wheels to the camp. Here ends the history 
of Achilles, so far as it is derived from Homer, except that we may 
infer, from a passage in the last book of the ' Odyssey,' that he was 
slain in battle under the walls of Troy. But the genuineness of the 
last book of the ' Odyssey ' has, on good grounds, been disputed by 
some excellent ancient and modem critics. 

By later authors a variety of fable is mixed up with this simple 
narrative. Thetis is said to have dipped him, while an infant, in the 
Styx, which rendered him invulnerable except in the heel, by which 
she held him, and he was killed at last by a wound in the heel. The 
centaur Chiron is made bis tutor instead of Phoenix, and feeds him upon 
the marrow of lions and other wild beast«, to improve bis strength and 
courage. From this singular instructor he learned music and a number 
of sciences, even before the age of nine years ; at which time Thetis, 
anxious to prevent him going to Troy, removed him, disguised as a 
girl, to the court of Lycomedes, king of the island Scyro^. Here he 
became the father of Neoptolemus, or Pyrrhus, by the king's daughter, 
Dfidamia, rather preoodoualy ; for he had not been a year on the island 
when Ulysses was sent by the confederate Greeks to seek him, in con- 
sequence of an oracle which declared that Troy could not be taken 
without the help of Achilles. Ulysses arrived at the island, discovered 
him among the females of Lycomedes's household, and carried him 
away to join the army. He was betrothed to Iphigenia, daughter of 
Agamemnon. The manner of his death is variously tohh Some make 
him fall in battle; others say that he was tre:)cherou8ly slain in a 
temple, on the occasion of his nuptials with Polyxi^na, daughter of 
Priam ; but it is generally agreed that he was killed by Paris, Apollo 
directing the arrow. He was entombed on the promontory of Sigcum, 
and a mighty barrow raised over his remains, which still rivets the 
attention of travellers ; though it must always remain doubtful to 
whose memory this mound of earth was really raised. Here Alexander 
of Hocedon celebrated splendid games in honour of the hero whom he 
aflSsoted to emulate. 

ACHI'LLE-S TA'TIUS, a Greek astronomer, who lived probably in 
the first half of the 4th century of our era, and wrote a treatise on 
the sphere. There is still extant a fragment of Achilles Tatius, entitled 
' An Introduction to the Phicnomena of Aratus ;' it may be seen in the 
' Uranologion ' of Petavius. Suida.'< confounds this Achilles Tatius 
with another, called by him Achilles St.itiu8, who wrote a Greek 
romance, ' The History of Leucippe and CUtophon.' This Achilles 
was a native of Alexandria, and must have been later than Ueliodorus, 
whose romance be imitated. He probably wrote near the close of the 
Sth century. His romance is in eight books, and is preferred by some 
of the earlier critics to that of Heliodorus. This latter, however, 
appears to us one of the most tedious stories that ever was written. 
Tbo Greek romance writers give us no vivid picture of their own times, 
but a 4i*torted image of earlier forms of society, without any of the 
■pint of historic truth. (Scboell, Uiil. Ort(k JAU. ; I'oreiyn Quarlcrl;/ 
RevUw, Ji'o. y.) 

ACOSTA, JOSEPH D', a Spanish writer of the 16th century. He 
was born at Medina del Campo in Leoa, about the year 1539 ; and, 
before attaining the age of fourteen, entered the Society of the Jesuits, 
to which his four elder brothers already belonged. He was remark- 
able for his rapid progress both in literature and science ; .and on 
finishing his course, he became professor of theology at Oraua. In 
1571 he went as a missionary to South America, aud became eventually 
provincial of his order at Peru. During his residence in South 
America, till 1588, he wrote fui account of that continent, which was 
published at Seville, in 4to, in 1590, under the title of ' Historia 
Natural y Moral de las Indias.' This work, which is highly esteemed 
as an authority on the early condition of South America, has been 
translated into French, Italian, German, Dutch, and English. There 
is a Latin translation of the work in Part IX. of De Bry's ' Collec- 
tiones Feregrinationum in Indiam.' Acosta, after his return to his 
native country, became a great favourite of Philip II., and had suc- 
cessively the dignities of Visitor of his order for Arragon and 
Andalusia, Superior of Valladolid, and Rector of the University of 
Salamanca. He died February 15th, 1000. Besides the work we have 
mentioned, he is the author of another on the same subject, published 
in 1589 in Latin, under the title of ' De Natura Novi Orbis Libri 
Duo,' which was translated by himself into Spanish, and inserted in 
his History. He is also the author of several theological treatises ; 
and, among the rest, of a volume of sermons, in Latin. (Moreri ; 
Jiiog. Univ.; Robertson, America; Biblioth, Scriplor. Soc. Jesv,, a 
lUbadencira Allegambe, et Sutvello.) 

ACTON, JOSEPH, the prime minister of the court of Naples for 
several years, was the son of an Irish gentleman who practised medi- 
cine at Besanfon, in France. He was bom in 1737. He was originally 
in the French naval service ; but subsequently obtained the command 
of a frigate from Leopold, Duke of 'Tuscany. In an unsuccessful 
expedition against Algiers, in 1774, in which the government of 
Tuscany co-operated with that of Spain, Acton commanded the 
Tuscan vessels ; and by his gallant conduct succeeded in saving 3000 
or 4000 Spanish soldiers, who must otherwise have perished. His 
good conduct here was the cause of his advancement. He was recom- 
mended to the service of the King of Naples. His intriguing disposi- 
tion secured him the favour of the King and Queen of Naples ; and 
ho was successively minister of the navy, of war, of finance, aud 
ultimately became prime minister. In his policy he was constantly 
opposed to the French party in Italy. Many of the persecutions for 
political opinions, and the violations of justice, which occurred at 
Naples subsequent to the period of the French invasion in 1799, aio 
ascribed to the power or the influence of Acton. He is said to have 
died in obscurity in Sicily, in 1808. 

ADAIll, SIR ROBERT, was the sou of Robert Adair, sergeant- 
surgeon to George III., by a daughter of the second Earl of Albe- 
marle, through whom he became connected with many families of 
political influence. He was bom in London on May 24, 1703, and 
was educated at Westminster school, whence he proceeded to Giittin- 
gen to complete his studies. On his return iu 1780 ho became 
acquainted with Mr. Fox, took his side in politics, and wrote a pamphlet 
or two, one of which, a letter to Mr. Burke, brought on him tlio 
ridicule of Canning in the Anti-Jacobin. But in February 1806, 
when Fox succeeded to power, he was sent os minister to Vienna, 
where he conducted himself ably, and of which mission he published 
a memoir in 1645 ; and in 1808, Canning, when iu ofiice, though he 
had rediculed his appointment to Vienna, selected bim for a special 
mission to the Porte, with Mr. Canning (now Lord Stratford do 
RedclifiTe) and Mr. Morier as assistants, where he negociated tuo 
treaty of the Dardanelles, concluded in 1809, and of this mission 
he has also published an account. On its successful termination he 
was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. In April 
1809 he was appointed ambassador at Constantinople, which ofljce he 
held till 1811. In July 1831 he was despatched by Earl Grey on a 
special mission to Belgium, where Prince Leopold, recently elected to 
the thrr>ne of that kingdom, was besieged in Liego by the Dutch 
troops under William Prince of Orange. Sir Robert urged Prince 
Leopold to fly ; but he declined, saying, that " flight ought nut to be the 
first act of his reign ; he v/ixa ready to fight, but would allow him to 
negociate," and Sir Robert, fastening a handkerchief to a ramrod, 
sought the hostile army, and in an interview with Prince William, 
succeeded in gaining his connivance for Leopold to withdraw to 
Malines, whither he accompanied him. In this port he remained till 
1836, when he retired with the rank of privy councillor, aud a pen- 
sion of 2000^ per annum. He died on October 3, 1865, after a short 
illness. .Sir Robert had represented Appleby in 1802, and Camelford 
in 1806 and 1807. Iu 1805 be had married Angelique Oabrielle, 
daughter of the Marquis of Hazinoourt, but left no issue. Sir Robert 
possessed a wide range of information, aud his views with regard to 
Russia have been remarkably confirmed by recent events. 

ADAM, the first man, and progenitor of the human race, whom 
God formed of the dust of the ground, on the sixth and last day of 
the creation, as related in the first aud second chapters of Genesis. 
The whole of the authentic Wstory of /\daiu is contained in the first 
five chapters of that book. His loss of the state of innocence aud 
felicity which he originally enjoyed, is commonly known by the name 
of ' The Fall.' It was after this event, and his expulsion from the 



Om4« «r Mm. or Um l«mliU FMdiM, thai Ut <U«» Ma Clio 
•w bm. Bb aMMHl HM «M Abd, ■a4 hb third 8«th. or Shrth. 
viMWMben whwhcwM lM7«M«al<L H* h abo aUtad to lure 
l^alharaaMMdda^riMankwheaa a*Mi araMtstim H« dUd 

^•bMMlimBtod. aad idla ouIIimh raiaad. by thanbUniml writen 
■id rtbati. liwinlli^ Adam, for vhioh tbar* b no warraat whateTcr 
Ik OliluUua Vha rinlrr wIm bu; ba onrioui to ■«• (oma of tbaie 
■» aaMah Iha artkba in Bajria, and ia Calmet'i * Dictionaiy of tba 
b5L* Tba word Adas naam ' to ba rad,' and it b rappoawl that in 
allwba to Iha rifaitalleB of thb Habtvw varb, tha aarth out of 
«hbh Adaa waa anda waa oalbd ' Adamah ; ' whib otbaca tbink that 
1^ aaaa ' Adaa ' «ini»-i'«» an allnaion to tba raddiib colour of a 
^MhhT paiaoak Baa tha oaa of tba word 'adom ' io tba ' Song of 
Bilnmni.' - 10. Accioidiw to Lndolf. • Adamah,' in the Ethiopie. 
■MM 'baaaliAU, al^puit,'^a. ; daooUng man to be tba chief work 
tt Ood. In tha Kew Taataaast tha asptaaaion* " the brt Adam," 
"Iha aaeead man.' art nacd to dwtenali oar Saviour, a* the bead of 
tha aav creatioo. ia lb« kioadom of bMvan. 

ADAM. ALKX.VNOER, LL.D., an ambiMt taaoharof LaUn, who 
WW bora bi Jun», 174], at CoaU of Bornia, b> tba paibh of Raflbrd, 
MiiHjahiia. ffitir'b'M< Having aoqoirad tba ordinary knowledge of 
I^lia in tha parbh aebool, Im proorodcd to Aberdeen, in the bo|>e of 
iililaliiii^ ooa of Ilia banariai wlibh are open for annual oompetition 
at KiM'a OoUaaa. Diappoiotad in tbb azpoctation, be eotared him- 
hV al Iha UMaanity of Edinburgh in the winter of 1768. Hia 
1 privatbw wliib attanding ooUtge were very great; 
akhoaib aooatioMa radoerd to aaeb deatitation a« not to know 
(« to oMain a montbAtl of bread, lie manfully peraeTered till he 
gained Iha rapatatiaa of being om of the beat aobolan in the Uni- 
aaialty. Hb merila vera at iaogth rewarded tnr hb appoiutmont, in 
1T<I, to tha oOoa of ooa of tha taaoban in Wataon'a Hoapital, an 
JMrttntinii in Edlobogb for tha adnealion and rapport of the aons of 
daonad baia iaa. In 1787 ha wm ehooM aaabtant to the Rector of 
Iha High Sobool, tba ohbf daarieal aaminaiy of tba city. In 1771, 
€m Iha death of the Rector, Adam wai elected by the magistratea ai 
hb aaoeaoMir ; and in tlib honourable poet be rsmaioad throughout 
tha raat of hia Ufa. The flret yean of bis rectonhip bowerer wore 
MMewhal alonuy. In 177S he pnblbbed a UtUe work entiUcd, < The 
fll»r<|ilai of Latin and EagUab Grammar,' and introduced it into the 
whaol M a aubatMoto far ' Roddiman'a Orammar.' The four under- 
natalad thb ianoratiao, and, after repeated applicatiooB to 
aa patrow of the aobool. obtained, in 1786, a prohibi- 
tha Raetor'a book. It baa nerertbeleai gone through 
MMnTadiliaaa, and baa been to eome extant uaed in the other lehooU 
•f Saotbal Dr. Adam alao publiahed the following worka : — In 
17tl a volaaM aatitlad ' Botnan Antiqoitiaa.* wbiob baa gone through 
aarwal adiliaa^aDd baMtnmalatad into OonnaB,naoei>, aad Italian; 
ia ITVi, • 'Bommaiy of Oaogimpby and Hiatory,' alao aereral timre 
lapluiad! ia IMO, a Dbttooaiyof Cbnaioal Biography : and, in 1805, 
• LMli neliaaaty, uadar Iha tilia of 'Lasioon Linguas Utins Com- 
Ma4bfhuB,' beiac aa abiUgiaaBl of a Uner work on which be had 
taB bag MMa£ A aaeaad aditioo of Uib bat baa been publialKKl 
aiBM Iha mmiSft daalh, wUh Taiy eoaddarable altaraUona, both in 
Iha Wf of addHioa aad of dutailaiMt Both thb dietiooary and 
Iha 'BMaaa AnUfaHlaa* aia orach nacd in tba acboob of Sootknd. 
Ko panaa llUag a pobtte aitoation waa more uDireruIly respected 
ted la goolhnd than Or. Adam in hii Utter dayi. Hit 
«M oaa of ai aa t maaliaaai; ao mncb ao, aa to make him 
I iadbcw a U y bold in tba axp r eaalon of wbatorer be 
Ml. Hb poUtiaal oriaiaM mra of a atnmgiy Ubenl eomplazion ; 
mi ha hM baM aaMMd of aol a at miUm aoaiatimM to giro them 
't with iiiBiMilili waiibaib ia tha j»nmat of bb cbaa. Btit 
I waa tha gManl tafatd Mt for bin, that tbb charge, which, 
' " I it ana made^ would bare aerioiuly injured 

■earealy aflaolad bb influence or ate- 
r by apopbay oa Iha ISIh of Deoambar, 1800, 
la hbal H i alMh yoar, aad wot hoeo u rad by bb Mlow.citiaaos with 

. BawM 

la hb ai m alMh yoar, aad wot boeo u rad by bb Mlow.citiaaos wit 
• paMbfnaanL A maaia ir of hb life wm pabliahad to 8to, in 1810. 
Of Iha bar •atfca Jaal Maamatod. tha OMst yaluabla and the bei 
at oa luwnaa Aali^alt 
M broa a Mtaa of n 
■ M HkI* iagaaanl 
■ haML aad il b aaa wl 


Few booka In ao imall 

oseful information ; and the 

il Will d lg ea Ud and arranged. 

whieh narVadai many parte of 

to Iha aflbeto of Mbm ia ohaaging Iba 

X^ Iw rai l i iBg how the Tt| of tanna 

IM M l r ial mm, ho bM oAm wanaagad Iha paaH«oa 
by hha ttvm btla aathof* oa tbb rabjeoi aa aotlraiy to 
aih hkaialf aad hb raader. Bono oonvotioea and aiany 
ta Iha aaaUoa oa Iha Roaaaa year, partionUrly 
thaJalbaoorvMlioa. Mo litUa oanUon iliould 
<■ 'Mi B ag Iba laoMNha aa B bm m moaay, a MUeot of 
', ia «hbh b b olUa iMia pradMt to U aatbfled 
m %» adopt tha Mdbary la tar m al aUuM. Tba 
thaltotoaa ooIm wm oMMtaally ahawlBg, and 
ilatioa OMployed by 
In Iha BaaoaariliU ; 

and. aran where the toxt b not ooimpted, the ioterpretation U an- 
eertain. With all theaa drawbacks, tba work u of great Tslue to 
all who read the history or the literature of Rome, and does great 
credit to Dr. Adam. It ought not to detract from bis reputation 
that ha Iwa not anticipated the important disooTeriea made by the 
Oonnana ainee be wrote. 

The treatise on classical biography is intended chiefly for the illus- 
tration of Itoman history. It deeerres a much more extensive circu- 
lation than we believe it poesesses in EogUad. We mny say tlie same 
of Dr. Adsm's Latin dictionary, notwithttandini; its inconvenient 
arrangement, which often neglecta the alphabetical order to bring 
together words etymolMioally connected. The summary of history 
and geography, published by Dr. Adam, haa in parts great merit, but 
it aims at mudi more than can be fsiriy executed witliin the limits. 
We need only eay tliat it profeasea to give, — 1st, A summary of all 
history, ancient and modem, Qrecian, Roman, Persian, Englisli, French, 
German, Indian, American, &a Ac, with the manners and customs of 
those nations; 2ndly, the mythology of the Greeks; Srdly, the 
geography of all agea and all countries, not excluding even the local 
situationa of remarkable cities ; 4thly, an account of the progre&s of 
astronomy and geography, from the earlieitt periods to ibe present 
time^ with a brief account of the planetary system. Not saUsSed 
with all this, the publishers have added an extensive index of geography, 
and 13 maps of little value. When we look at all that Dr. Adam 
did, we can fairly say, that no writer in the British lalauds has ever 
done more to assist the young student of Latin, or, what is perhaps 
atill more important, to connect that study with the attainment of 
general knowledge^ 

ADAU, JAUeS, an architect, who u ebieSy known as the partner 
and aaaooiato of his brother Robert, the subject of the following 
article. Ha died in 1704. 

AD.\M, ROBERT, was bom at Kirkaldy, in Fifeshire, according to 
some authorities, and, ncoording to others, at Kdinburgb, in the year 
1728, and wns the son of William Adam, Esq., of Maryburgh, near 
Kirkaldy, who is said to have furnished the designs for Mupetoun 
House and the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh ; but whether be waa 
himself pttofessionally an architect or not does not appear. Robert 
received ma litorory education at the University of Edinburgh; and, 
from his father, William Adam, it seems most likely that be derived 
instruction in the principles and practice of bis future profession. 

When he was in his 26th year Mr. R. Adam went to Italy, and 
remained there several years. Hia contemporaries, James Stuart and 
Nicholas Revett, were, at the time of Adam's residence in Italy, en- 
gaged in exploring, and preparing for publication, the architectural 
remains of Athens ; but so little was Grecian architecture known and 
appreciated, that he went, instead, to Spalatro in Dalmatia, to measure 
and delineato the ruins of the palace of Diocletian there, a structure 
indicating alike the decline of civilisation and the progress of bar- 
barism. In this tour be waa acoompanied by CU'risscau, a French 
architect, whose name ia connected with a work on the remains of 
a Roman temple at Nismes, in Languedoc Mr. Adam returned from 
the continent about the year 1762, and settled in London, and shortly 
after published there, in a large folio volume, engraved representations 
and deacriptiona, with attempted reatorations, of the Dalmatian palooe. 

About the same time, 1763-4, Hr..R. Adam waa appointed architect 
to the king. In the course of a very few years he deaigned, and, in 
conjunction with his brother Jamea, executed a great many public 
and private buildings in England and in Scotland. In 1773 tha 
brothera commsnoed the publication of their works, in large folio 
engravings, with letter-preas descriptions and critical and explanatory 
notaa, in numbers, which were continued at intervals don-n to 1778. 
The principal deaigoa toeluded in tbesa are, the screen fronting the 
high road, and tba extonaive intaroal altarations of Sion House, a seat 
of the Duke of Nortbomberland, near Brentford in Middlesex ; Lord 
Mansfield'a mansion at Caen- Wood, or Kenwood, also in Middlesex ; 
Luton House, in Bedfordshire, erected for Lord Bute; the screen to 
the Admiralty Offloa, London ; tba Register Office, Edinburgh ; Shel- 
burae House, now Lanadowoa House, Barkeley-eqnare, Loudon ; the 
parish churob of Mlstley in liaaex, Ac Ac. At akter period the Messrs. 
Adam deaigned the In&maty at Glasgow, and some extensive new 
buildings in tba University of Edinburgh, though their practice, after 
the year 1780, Uy principally in London, where a great many of their 
productiooa still exist, and are easily recognised by any one accustomed 
to discrifflinato arobitaotttral design. Portland, Stratford, and Hamil- 
ton PUeaa, tba aouth and cut aidea of Fitaroy-square, and the build- 
inga of the Adelpbi, are the most axtonaire of their works. Their 
iatoraat to, and ooonaotion with, thb last-mentioned expensive under- 
taking, b totimatod by tho name Adelpbi, which is the Greek term 
for * brothers.' The Meaari. Adam ware among the first, if they were 
not themaelves tba Tery first, to make use to London of a stucco to 
imitotion of stone, for external architectural deooratiooa. 

The style of arcliitectura totroduced by the Measra. Adam waa 
paoaliar to tbeaMalvaa, and very faulty; but there is nevertheless 
u air of prMtiaaaa, and soma good taste in it ; and Oxe credit may 
eartatoly Im eblmod for ito authors of having done much to improve 
tha strvet arcbiteotore of Ixndon, for which apeciea of composition 
tbair styb was bcttrr adi4>tad than for detached and insulated 






Mr. R. Adam did not retaia the itppointtnent of architect to the 
king more thau four or five yeara, for he resigned it ou being returned 
to parliament for the county of Kinross in 176S. This latter circum- 
stance however does not appear to have interrupted his professional 
avocations, for we find that he continued to be actively engaged in 
business down to the period of his death, which took place in March 
1792. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, in the south transept of 
which is a tablet to his memoiy. 

As an aixhitect Mr. Adam displayed an original and independent 
mind ; for it required in his day no small degree both of originality 
and imiependence to break through the trammels which had been 
imposed upon architecture. This Adam did nevertheless, and though 
the result was that ho became a mannerist, after a very peculiar and 
not very elevated or classical style of his own, the effect on English 
architecture was on the whole good. With Mr. Adam we believe ori- 
ginated the idea of giving to a number of unimportant private edifices 
the appearance of one imposing structure, by external architectural 
arrangements ; and he certainly has the credit of having carried this 
principle extensively into effect in several of the instances we have 

ADAM (Sculptors). There were three brothers of this name, who 
all enjoyed some reputation as sculptors in France in the eai-ly part 
of the last century. They were the sons of a sculptor named Jacob- 
Sigisbcrt Adam, who lived at Nancy. The eldest, LambertSigisbert, 
was bom there in 1700, and made hia first appearance at Paris in 
1719. After remaining in that city for four years, he gained the first 
prize in the Academy, and proceeded to Rome on a pension allowed 
him by the king. Here he spent about ten years, and among other 
works furnished the design which was adopted by Clement XII., one 
of sixteen which were presented for the intended fountain of Trevi. 
The offer.< of the French government then induced him to return to 
Viith. On the 25tli Jfay 1737 he was admitted a member of the 
Acidemy, and he was afterwards appointed professor in that institu- 
tion. The two best known of this sculptor's productions are — a group 
of Neptune and Am|>hitrite, which he executed for the basin of Nep- 
tune at Veraaille, and on which he spent five years ; and a figure of 
St. Jerome, originally intended for the Hospital des Invalides, but now 
placed in the church of St. Roch at Paris. They are fair specimens 
of the French school of that age, which however was one of the 
least brilliant periods in the history of modern art. Adam published 
in 1754 a work entitled ' Recueil de Sculptures Antiques Qrecques et 
Romaines.' He died in 1759. Nicolas Sebastian, the next brother, 
was bom in 1705. He came to Paris at the age of 13, and went to 
Rome in 1720, where, two years after, he obtained one of the prizes 
at the Academy of San Luca. Having remained there for nine years, 
he returned to Paris; and after some time was also, like his elder 
brother, received into the Academy. Among the designs which he 
produced was one for the Mausoleum of the Cardinal de Fleury. His 
two principal works were a tomb for the wife of King Stanislaus of 
Poland, and his Prometheus chained to the Rock (which has been 
commonly assigned by mistake to his elder brother). For the latter 
work he had an offer from the King of Prussia of 30,000 francs ; but 
he declined accepting it, on the ground that the sculpture belonged to 
his own sovereign, for whom it had been at first intended. He died 
in 1778. The third brother, Franfois-Qaspard, was bom in 1710. 
He made his way, like his elder brother, to Rome, and also ou his 
return from Italy fixed his residence in Paris. He worked for some 
years at Berlin, in the service of the King of Prussia, and died at 
Paris in 1795. (Biographie Univerielle.) 

ADAMS, JOHN, a distinguished American statesman. He was 
bom in the town of Brainti-ee, near Boston, in Massachusetts, on the 
19th October 1735, of a family which had come from England at the 
first settlement of the colony. At the usual age he was sent to Har- 
vard College, in the neighbouring town of Cambridge ; after leaving 
which, he proceeded to study the law, and was in due time called to 
the bar. He soon raised himself in the profession which he had thus 
chosen to great reputation and extensive practice. In 1765, when the 
first opposition of the people of America was excited by the Stamp 
Act, Mr. Adams took an .active part in those measures of constitutional 
opposition which eventually forced the repeal of that obnoxious statute. 
An offer of the lucrative office of Advocate-General in the Court of 
Admiralty, made to him the following year by the Crown, with the 
view of detaching him from the popular cause, was instantly rejected. 
Ho was one of the select men, or state-representatives, deputed by 
the several towns of the province, who in 1770 met in convention at 
lioston, on the announcement of the intention of tbo British govern- 
ment to station a military force in that town, in order to control the 
populace, exasperated by the new Act imposing duties on glass, paper, 
tea, &C., which had been passed in 1767, and by the other measures 
which indicated a determination in the mother-country to maintain 
at least the principle of her late aggression. Soon after this however 
Mr. Adams gave a proof both of his intrepidity and of the modera- 
tion which was ugociated with his zeal, by undertaking the defence 
of Captain Preston and bis men, who, on the 5th of March 1770 had 
killed several of the people of Boston in a riot — a transaction which 
used to pass under the name of the Boston massacre. He delivered a 
very powerful speech on this occasion, when the jury acquitted all 
the prisoners of murder, and only found two of them guilty of man- 
Btoo. DIV. VOL. 1. 

slaughter. To the honour of his countrymen, the part he had thus 
taken did not diminish his popularity or influence ; and he continued, 
during the remaining first years of the struggle, to exert himself con- 
spicuously in the front rank of the friends and supporters of the 
colonial cause. In 1773, and again in 1774, he was returned by tho 
House of Assembly a member of the Council of the State ; but on 
both occasions the governor, General Gage, put his negative on the 
nomination. The latter year however he was elected one of the four 
representatives from the province of Massachusetts Bay to the General 
Congress, which met at Philadelphia on the 26th of October, aud 
which, among other proceedings, entered into a resolution to suspend 
the importation of British goods ; and he was also a member of the 
second assembly of the same nature, held some time after, which took 
measures to enrol the people in an armed national militia. In 1775 
he was offered the appointment of Chief Justice of his State ; but 
this he declined, feeling that he could better serve his country in 
another sphere. It had already become evident to many indeed that 
the contest with Great Britain must finally be decided by the sword ; 
and Adams seems to have been one of the first who adopted this con- 
viction. He was accordingly one of the chief promoters of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, passed on the memorable 4th of July 1776. 
The motion was made by Mr. Lee of Virginia, and seconded by Mr. 
Adams ; who, along with Mr. Jefferson, was appointed the sub-com- 
mittee to prepare the declaration. It was actually drawn up by Mr. 
Jefferson. In November 1777 Mr. Adams proceeded to Paris as a 
Commissioner from the United States to that court ; and after remain- 
ing for a short time in France returned to America, when he was 
elected a Member of the Convention for preparing a new constitution 
for Massachusetts. In 1780 he was sent by the United States as their 
ambassador to Holland; from which country, about the end of 17S2, 
he proceeded to France, to cooperate with Dr. Franklin aud his brother 
commissioners in the negociations for peace with tho mother country. 
In 1785 he was appointed the first ambassador from the United States 
to Great Britain ; and he had his first audience with his Majesty in 
that character on the 2d of June. He remained in England till 
October 1787. In 1789, when Washington was elected President of 
the Union, Mr. Adams was elected Vice-President, and he was re- 
elected to the same office in 1793. In 1797, on the retirement of 
Washington, he was chosen President ; but he failed to be re-elected 
on the expiration of his first term of four years, his competitor, Mr. 
Jefferson, who had also been opposed to him ou the former occasion, 
having a majority of one vote. The general tone of the policy of 
Adams had been opposed to that of the democratic party, which was 
represented by Jefferson ; but be does not appear to have given com- 
plete satisfaction to the other great party whose leading principles he 
espoused. On failing in being re-elected President, he retired from 
public affairs to the quiet of his country residence at Quincy ; 
declining, although nominated, to stand candidate at the next annual 
election for the governorship of Massachusetts. The rest of his life 
he spent in retirement. For some years before his death his health 
had become extremely feeble, and at last little more remained of the 
once active and eloquent statesman thau the mere breath of life. In 
this state he was when the morning arrived of tho 4th of July, 1826, 
the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Awakened 
from sleep by the ringing of bells and other rejoicings of that grand 
jubilee, the venerable patriot was asked if he knew the meaning of 
what he heard. " Oh, yes," he replied, the glow of old times seeming 
to return to him for a moment, " It is the glorious 4th of July ! — 
God bless it — God bless you all ! " Some time after he said, — " It is 
a great and glorious day, — adding, after a pause apparently of deep 
thought, " Jefferson yet survives." These were the last words he was 
beard to utter. About noon he became alarmingly ill, aud at six in 
the evening he expired. The same day also terminated the career of 
Jefferson, his fellow-labourer in laying the foundations of the inde- 
pendence of their common country, and afterwards his successful 
rival. Except for a short time, however, these two distinguished men 
were friends throughout life. Mr. Adams was the author of a work 
first printed in 3 vols. 8vo., in 1787, while ho was in this country, 
imder the title of ' A Defence of the Constitution and Government of 
the United States,' but afterwards remodelled and reprinted in 1794, 
with the new title of a ' History of the Principal Republics of the 
World.' It is designed to serve, by an ample induction from history, 
as a vindication of the federal principles of the American Constitu- 
tion, an attachment to which, indeed, has always been considered the 
distinctive characteristic of this statesman and his party. 

ADAMS, JOHN, sometimes called ' the Patriarch of Pitcaim'a 
Island.' When H.M.S. ' Bounty ' was seized by a part of her crow, 
in April, 17S9, John Adams was one of the mutineers. He had not 
been previously aware of the intentions of the ringleader, Christian, 
and was in his hammock when the mutiny broke out, wliere he 
remained until the distribution of arms among the men, when he 
joined the rest, and assisted in keeping watch over the officers on 
deck, while Captain Bligh was secured below. [BLian.] After Bligh 
and those who adiiered to him had been set adrift in an open boat, 
the cry was raised " Huzza for Otaheite ! " and the 'Bounty' shaped 
her course accordingly. Provisions having been obtained there, the 
mutineers sailed for the island of Toobooai, on which they intended 
to settle; but the hostility of the natives preventing this, they 




toOtiMlA IfaMcrtk* 

r«ol««l to iMMin at Uut 
taww BDch ihoald NMh 

tawa^M Ite JaifVi in «m* BD(h inoald iwcb 
to tt> J— rf>ii'lW»*»'«*y >" MO* of lb* 

iT Iha Boalh 8**^ eat of tU naoal tnek of 

iujMw«. ghA> rf hi* aamiMwinm, ■mom wham wm AtUa*. Jo" 
vfeTUia, ud Um wToiKfaw m ol!)M(iaa to thair tokioK 
«««d, iWr M« «fl fai Uw 'Boatf.' mntiat wJAlkw aJx . 
■b4 ««i tmmi* b>Km« of Otokrta Aiririaf •* FttoaifB'i Id 
vUik It to U* r n* H. hi, ISO* 8' »• W. Vmn^ «lMy found • 
ft^lM mA, *l«l|r of «oed Md water, and aoaatain f ia Hi iM H eapap 
Ua af ditaaa ayliMt mt DUBban; and ban tbajr Ttaotvad to Sx 
UMir shade TVt Uadad UMir atotaa, aad on tha SSrd Janoat^, 
17M, aal tia totM 'BooDtjr,' and thua evt off all oom m nnloatlon 
wiUt Ika vacid: avfll^a «aa boilt, and Um wboU land of tha ialand 
•M dblcihnlid aaoi« tha white man. Tha Otahaitana vara trtatad 
M iliiH TTIwwriiw aoaa braha ont aaaaag Iham, which ooaunanaad 
!■ MMMWMa of Iha wifc of ana of tha Otahaitana bctof aaiaad by a 
whlla MM, whoaa own wife hod diad. TUa lad to a i>lot anions tba 
Ot^hritoM for tha diatanaUon of thair naatera. which waa diaoorarod 
Md MM. and two of tha Otabaitaoa waia UDad. Tha oppraailon 
af tha wUtoi oootinoad to ba ao galUoc that a aaoood attempt to 
Jaaliaj than wa* mada, which naoltad in tba daath of Cbnitian 
and faor of hit aoaapanlone On thia oea aii on Adama waa ahot 
llHoa^ tha body, and othorwiaa daa p aa at a l y womidad, but ha caeapad 
to tha a»a<intaina,aBd only ratomad noon a promiaa of tha Otahaitana 
to apar* hia lifak H* aoon raooTttad of bla wounda. The men of 
tha two raoaa arara now aqnal in nnmbar, but tha white*, by taking 
«lTanti«a of qoanola aaiang tha Otahaitana, and by treaehary, tuo- 
eaadad at U^th in kaiii« tha Otahaitana, tha laat two baiog butobered 
in aotd blood by Adoan and aaothar white man, on tha Srd of Oetobar, 
ir*l Baaa altar thK tha daath of tha white men waa rapaatodly 
ptoMod by th« Otahaitaa woMao, bat without effect During 1798, ooa 

of tha man diaaorarad a method of dirtilling apirit from a root, which 
gaaa liaa to oontlnoal d i uiik an w iaa , and waa the eau>e of hia own 
death. Shortly after, ooa of tha threa ramainiog original aettlera 
tevi^mtaaptad tha Uvea of tha other two, they put him to death. 

Tha t«r» aiiiTi*oi% Adama and Tovnc, dl*gn*ted at the aoene* which 
lb«y had wilMaaad, and fotaatinc daeniT on their tituation, reaoWed 
to aAet a thoroogh «haiy» Durimc Chrblian'a lifetime divine aerrioe 
had been paribmed only onoa ; taay now determined to introduce 
daily iBoralDg and araning pnyera, with divine aarrioe every Stmday, 
aad to train up tha ehildran in babiU of piety and virtue. Young, 
who had been an ofleor on board the ' Bounty,' wui very uieful in the 
aiaaidlii of thia aehana, bat ba died one year after tba plan was 
wanataaad. John Adama bit tha daath of hia companion deeply, 
bwk H o«Iy eoaflnMd hia in hi* leoolotion. There were now nineteen 
ehOdran on tha ialand, many of tham be t ween eight and nine yeara of 
•gak lUa a ia i thm a ware a M aodad with great auooeaa : tha Otehaitan 
I dl a p l aj ad an unai ua c t o d docilil^ in looaiving tlia doetrinea of 
, aad tha ahibiraa ware ao ardent in the puraoit of aerip- 
tt§lt, that ho had aoca no further trouble than to anawer 
IMr^MaliaMi Thaargraw np in habite of itrict morality, and became, 
— dir *h> gnldanna of Adaai% a model of a well-regnlated aociefy. 

la 180S the AaMriaan wfaal»ahip ' Topai' aoddantelly touched at 
ritaalra'a Uaad ; hot tha aooonato which the captain, Polgier, gave 
of thia aoounonity attracted little attention, nnUl in 1814 the BnUib 
M ^m ' Briton' and 'Tagn* ' alee viaitad tha Ialand. In an Interview 
with tha aapteiai^ Adama a i p r aaaad a wi*h to b* taken to England, in 
order, aa ha w ^r iaiii H. to aae hia native land onee mora, although he 

Aonid ba haegad for hia ahare in tha mutiny ; and 
it waa only on aaalag tha pain whieh hia dotarmiaation oauaad, atpo- 

«to Ida daaghtar. that he gave up the daalgn. In Deoambar, 
Oaptola Baaahay, in tha • Blowom,^ andiortd at Ftteaim'a leland, 

wham ha I liii l iisteaa daya^ moet of whioh he paaMd on ahore 

wMi AdaoM Aa aeaooat of Adama aad Ui eoloay in the narrative 
«f B llihi / a miat ia tha moat eampMa that we pceaeatad Ull the 
apyia» a aii of Mr. Knmgr'a lateiaatiag littta Toloaa. A long graoe 
waa aaidbadm aad altar ovary moat by John Ba0M^ a aaaCulng man, 
who had laaiatly aetllad oa tha iaiMd, and tha ntaoat a?a wai 
aa« evaa a bM of bread ahonld ba aatea without prayer. 
wlaa aarrioe waa perf b rae d five timaa, the ptayen on 
haiacaMMdia^Jaa^aadthaaBhortatioa and hymn* 
■ ^aa Haw BaM Mtad aa aaortof dttphtia, and 
BiiAa y i H wii t laad tha aaeaon three tima over, to 
<f aakiag aa iapnario* s bat Adaaa himalf toad prayara, 
ra aalaatod turn tha bigUah Bitaal, aad iadudad^af tha 
pnymwhethar appn^idata or not Captain Baaahay 
the aMaaMoa of tha aoagngaliea a awiat aaemplarr : and 
aya that aava tha aaallatchikfaMahiwad tha mataat ^^ 
A*aaaa>aaaryaeaaiagaaTlawaaalao p ai faui ai l ,Md hymai i 

aad again at a later hear. IIa(rh«a waa alt(tt(y nfolated: tha 

!?* *y V flT'^'^rJ v. ^^''■■t. who had wiih wa ring united all 
«*••«•»»• »fc««««fc»ttMid. Bit owa ooaadaaea waTao tronblad 

to rtad the eervioe to 

... . ad, and who WM now 

ijg* y <»— to hit gnat aatJAction, and the 

»«MtaL«lytd],itr«ag,MidaaMalar: tha 

Ua tad thai 

aearealy lea to than tha nao, though feminine in appearance, and 
with oonaldarable pretawiona to beauty. They were fully occupied 
in attending to their cropa of yami and taro-root, on which they 
ehiefly tubeiatrJ, in fiahing, repairing their houaea, neta, ftc, and in 
their raligiooa dutiea. Adama tpent aeveial dayi on board the 
' Bloaiom/ the wind not aerving for hia return to land ; and among 
hia oountryman he diaplayed bit diaarfulneu without reatraint, joining 
with great ipirit in all tha eonga and dancM of the forecaatle. He 
atill ntaiaed the baUte of a man.of-war', itroking down his bald 
fbrahead whenever addreaaed by an officer, and showing much embar- 
raaament when apokan to ikmiliarly by thoaa whom he bad of old been 
acenatomed to eonaider so much above him. 

On leaving the ialand, pietente of useful artida were made to all 
the inhabitants, and Captain Beeohey became the beu«r of a request 
ftom Adama to the British government to give ite aid iu removing 
them to aoma larger ialand, a the population, then amounting to 66, 
bad aliaady begun to prea on the means of subeistence. The propo- 
aition WM favourably considered ; but before any determination could 
be ooma to John Adams died, in March 1829, at the age of 69. An 
EugUsbman named Kobba, who had recently coma to the island, 
became his sucoeaaor, and ia now a regularly ordained minister. In 
1884 the populaUon amounted to 200, neariy all desoend&nta of the 
ori^nal aettiera, and all speaking and reading English. 

niare ia a characteristic portrait of Adams in Beechey's ' Voyage,' 
with a fao-simile of bis hand-writing, as attached to liis own narrative 
of the mutiny and its conseqnenoM. The name John Adama, by 
which he is universally known, waa an assumed one ; his real name 
WM Alexander Smith. The change was made after Captain Folgier 
bad touched at the island, in onler probably to avoid recognition, 
although he teems never to have concealed his share in tha mutiny. 
The inddente of his life have been frequently made the subject of 
dramatic repreaentotion. The subsequent history and present con- 
dition of the island are noticed in the article Fitcairm's Island, in the 
Oeoo. Drv. Emo. Ctc. 

{BiografAicttl Dictionary of Ihe Society for Iht Diffusion of Uttful 
Knouledge ; Rev, E. Murray, Pitcaim, London, 1853.) 

•ADAMS, JOHN COUCH, one of the discoverers of the planet 
Neptune, was bom at a farm-house on the Bodmin Moors, Cornwall, 
about 1817. He entered at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1839, 
where he soon distinguished himself in those studies which have since 
placed him in the foremost rank of modem astronomers. In July, 
1841, ho formed a design of invwtigating the irregularitiea in the 
motion of Urauus, and commenced hia ta^ after taking his degree, 
in 1843. In September of 1845, and 1846, be communicated the 
results of his calculations to the astronomer royal, and in November 
of the latter year a paper to the Astronomical Society, entitled 'An 
Explanation of the Obaerved Irregularitia in the motion of Uranus,' 
Ac, in which the existence of the supposed remoter planet (Neptune) 
waa mathematically demonstrated. But as Le Vomer's investigatiou 
of the same aubjeet waa first made public, be it regarded as the first 
disooverer. There ia however no doubt that each ono made bis 
disooTefy perfectly ignorant of what the other was doing. 

Other valuable papera by Adams are printed in the ' Memotrt of 
the Astronomical Society.' In 1858 he sent to the Royal Society a 
paper 'On the Socuhir Variation of the Moon'a Mean Motion,' in 
which a queation left "etantially incomplete" by Laplace ia rectified. 
This paper appeal* in tha ' Philosophical Trantactiona.' 

In November, 1845, Adama was dected a Fellow of the Astrono- 
mical Sociatr, wu made Vioe-Presidont in 1848, and President in 
1851. In 1848 the lioval Sodety gave him their highest scientific 
award— the Copley medal. He wa elected a Fellow of that sodety in 
1849, and wa named of the Council the same year. He is a Fellow 
alao of other adantifio societiea. 

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, the ddat son of John Adams, the 
second Prwident of the United States, wu bom in Maasachuatto, 
June 11, 1767. Some of hia eariy yeara were spent in Europe, whither 
be accompanied hia father. In 1801 and 1S02 he was minister pleni- 
potontiaty from tha United Stata to Berlin, and during this time he 
travelled through Sileaia, which country, ite manufooturea, and more 
particularly iU educational eatablithmente, were deaoribad by him in 
a Mrios of letters addrasaed to his brother at Philadelphia. These 
letters, which were originally published in a journal called ' The 
Portfolio,' wrrs collected in a volume and published iu 1804. During 
tlia praaidanoy of Jefferson, Adama wu reoalled from his smbusy at 
Beriia. Upon bis return ha beoama a profeaaor in Harvard College, 
and wu rabaequantly elected a deputy to Congrea for Maasachuaetta. 
Having been previously attached to the federaUat party, he now allied 
himalf to the democratic party. Re wu next cbar^ vrith a 
mitalaa to Russia, and in 1814 Joined the Congrea at Vienna u 
plaaipotontiarr of tha United Stetea. In 1815 he wu ambassador at 
tha Ooart of St Jama's. In 1817 ha became aacretary of atate for 
tha interior ; and in 183S ba auoooeded Mr. Monroe u Praident of 
tlto Union. He wu not however re-elected, hia place being supplied 
by Oanaral Jackson. In 1830 he wu elected deputy to Congtvss, 
whtra ha dlatinguiabed himaelf until his death by hit advocacy of the 
abolition of alaven. Ha died at Wuhlngton, February 17, 1848. 

ADAMS, SAMUEL, a conspicuous actor in the American revolution. 
Ho wai bom at Boston on the 27lh of September, 1722, and received 





liU education at Harvard College. On the first outbreaking in his 
natire province of the irritation and diaturbances occasioned by the 
Stamp Act in 1 765, Adams threw himself with zeal and determination 
on the popular side. From that moment the forwarding and main- 
taining the cause of his country's independence became the business 
of hid life. His name appears subscribed to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in 1776. After the conclusion of the war he was nominated 
a member of the convention for settling the constitution of Massachu- 
setts ; and he afterwards occupied a seat in the senate of that state, 
and presided over it for some years. In 1789 he was elected to the 
office of lieutenant-governor, and in 1794 to that of governor, to which 
he was re-elected amiually till 1797, when he retired from public life. 
He died at Boston on the 2nd of October, 1803. Samuel Adams was 
one of the firmest and most active patriots of the revolution, and 
powerfully contributed to the happy termination of the great cause 
to which he devoted his life. But he was not a politician of very 
enlarged views ; and useful as he proved in the subordinate sphere in 
which he acted, there can be little doubt, from many parts of his 
conduct, that the national struggle would hardly have been brought 
to the successful issue with which it was eventually crowned, if it had 
not been guided by wiser heads than his. He was actuated in the 
whole course of his political career almost exclusively by one idea or 
feeling — jealousy of delegated power, however guarded. " Samuel 
Adams," says one of bis friends and admirers, " would have the state 
of Maasaobusetts govern the Union, the town of Boston govern 
Masaaobusetts, and that he should govern the town of Boston, and 
then the whole would not be intentionally ill-governed." 

ADANSON, MICHAEL, a French naturiUiat of high reputation, 
was bom at Aix in Provence, April 7, 1727. He was of Scotch 
extraction, but his family bad become exiles in consequence of the 
troubles that distracted Scotland in the early part of the 18th century. 
At a very early age he was placed in the University of Paris, under 
the care of the celebrated Reaumur and of Bernard de Jussieu ; and 
it is supposed that from these preceptors he imbibed that love of the 
study of natural history by which he afterwards became distinguished 
in so eminent a degree. His successes in carrying off the academical 
prizes from his competitors soon attracted attention, and Needham, 
the well-known microscopic observer, having upon one occasion been 
witness to his triumph, presented him with a microscope, accom- 
panied, it is said, by these prophetic words — " Young man, you have 
studied books enough ; your future path will be among the works of 
nature, not of man." At this time great originality of thought and a 
strong bias for systematic arrangement had already begun to develop 
itself. Emulous of the reputation of Linnajus, which had already 
found its way among the French, young Adanson is said, when only 
14, to have sketched out not less than four methods of classifying 
plants. His friends had destined him for the church, but a feeling 
that his pursuits, and perhaps his temper, were but ill adapted to the 
duties of the priesthood, induced him to resolve upon seeking some 
other employment, in case his slender patrimony should prove 
insufScient for his wants. 

The genius of Adanson was much too active to allow him to remain 
in the walks of quiet life. An opportunity occurring of visiting the 
country whence ivory, and gums, and frankincense were procured, he 
eagerly embraced the occasion, although at the expense of a consider- 
able portion of his fortune. At that time the natural history of 
Africa wag almost unknown, except from such of its commercial 
product! as wore brought to Europe. In 174S he embarked for 
Seo^al, being then 21. Five years were spent by him in this colony, 
during which time he succeeded in forming considerable collections 
in every branch of natural history. Not only were botany and 
zoology the objects of bis attention, but he amassed a large store of 
meteorological observations ; be made himself acquainted with the 
language of the native tribes, and carefully preserved their respective 
vocabularies ; he traced the river Senegal to a considerable distance in 
the interior, formed charts of the country, and finally returned to 
Paris in 1753, rich in knowledge, but impoverished in worldly means. 
His ' Natural History of Senegal,' published at Paris four years after- 
wards, is a mass of original views, and of valuable practical informa- 
tion. Among other thingi, it contained the first attempt upon record 
of classifying shells aeconling to the animals they contain, instead of 
their extemij forms alone. The opinions that Adanson had early held 
of the insufficiency of the classifications in natural history at that time 
received in Europe, had become confirmed by his discoveries in Africa. 
He saw that however easy and complete the systems of Linnscus and 
Touruefort might seem to those acquainted with the European Flora 
only, they were both essentially defective when applied to vegetation 
in a more extended manner. Ho perceived that the sexual system of 
LinnsuB was founded upon incomplete and partial views. To the 
raiethod of Toumefort the objections appeared fewer, and accordingly 
the determined to attempt a classification of his own, of which that of 
|Toumefort might serve as the basis. This appeared in 1763, in two 
»olumes 8vo, under the name of ' Families of Plants.' In this work 
lAdanson particularly insisted upon the indispensable necessity of a 
t^stem being so far in accordance with nature, that all those objects 
I whioh most re/iemble each other may bo classed together ; he demon- 
I itrated toat, to effect this, it is absolutely necessary for a system to be 
ifcunded upon a consideration of all the porta of the objects whioh it 

comprehends, and that it cannot be confiued to difierencee in the 
nature of a few organs only ; the artificial system of LiuniBus he for 
that reason most justly considered inferior to the method of Tom-ne- 
fort. In many respects this work of Adanson's deserves the eulogium 
passed upon it by one of his historians, who pronounces it a production 
not more brilliant than profound. Unfortunately for its author, and 
still more for science, his views were more advanced than those of his 
contemporaries; his perceptions of botanical truths, however just, 
were of a nature not to be valued by those who had less experience 
or acuteness than himself ; he also attempted to introduce a barbarous 
nomenclature, which, it must be confessed, was at variance with com- 
mon sense ; and what was worse than all, he had unceremoniously 
rejected that system of LinnDOus which had become the basis of the 
botanical creed of almost all Europe. For these reasons, notwith- 
standing the high character of Adanson's ' Families of Plants,' they 
have scarcely had any circulation beyond France ; and when, iu 1789, 
the ' Qenera Plantarum ' of Jussieu made its appearance, the utility 
of his work generally ceased. 

From this period we have little to record oonoemiug the scientific 
career of Adanson. A few miscellaneous papers, a chimerical project 
of a vast 'Encyclopaedia of Natural History' to contain 40,000 figures, 
and a portion of the early part of the botanical division of the ' Sup- 
plement to the French Encyclopjedia,' are all that he has executed. 
Up to the period of the French revolution, he appears to have been 
chiefly occupied in amassing collections for the stupendous work he 
had in contemplation, and in making experiments upon vegetable 
physiology. That political catastrophe overwhelmed him in the ruiu 
it brought for a time upon his country ; the little that remained of his 
fortune was annihilated ; he had the mortification to see his plantations 
of mulberry-trees, which had been long the object of his simple care, 
destroyed by a ferocious rabble ; and he fell into so lamentable a state 
of destitution, that when, upon the establishment of the Institute of 
France some years after, he was invited to become one of the earliest 
members, he was obliged to refuse the invitation to attend " because 
be hiod no shoes." In his latter days he enjoyed a small pension from 
the French government ; but his constitution was broken by the cala- 
mities he had undergone : a complication of maladies tormented him, 
a softening of the bones confined him to his bed, and on the 6th of 
August 1806 he was finally released from his afflictions by the hand 
of death, in the 80th year of his age. 

As a philanthropist, his name will always be respected by every 
friend of civil liberty ; for he was among the first to plead the cause 
of the slaves, and to insist upon the impolicy, as well as injustice, of 
forced labour. In 1753 a plan, very like that upon which the new 
American colony of Liberia has been established, was presented by 
him to the French government, for the whole of the French provinces 
in Africa. The ministers of such a sovereign as Louis XV. were not 
the men to listen favourably to a project of this nature, and it fell to 
the ground. Such was his love of his country, that, although his cir- 
cumstances do not seem ever to have been veiy good, he had firmness 
enough to resist offers from the Emperor of Austria, Catherine of 
Russia, and the King of Spain, to enter into their service. Under the 
cruel misfortunes that attended his latter days he is represented to have 
exhibited great patriotism and magnanimity, which was the more to be 
commended because he was of an impetuous and irascible temper. 

{BM. Univ., vol. i. ; Spreng., Hist. R. Herb., v. ii. ; Art. ' Adanson,' 
in Bees's Cycl. Suppl.) 
ADDINGTON. [SiDMorrn, Lobd.] 

ADDISON, JOSEPH. This eminent writer was the son of the Rev. 
Lancelot Addison, a clergyman of considerable learning, who eventually 
obtained the deanery of Lichfield, but was at the time of the birth of 
his son rector of the parish of Milston, near Amesbury, in Wiltshire. 
Here Addison was bom on the 1st of May, 1672. After having been 
put first to a school in Amesbury taught by the Rev. Mr. Nash, and 
then to that of the Rev. Mr. Taylor at Salisbury, ho was sent to the 
Charterhouse, at whioh seminary he first became acquainted with his 
afterwards celebrated friend Steele. From this school he went about 
the age of fifteen to Queen's College, Oxford, and removed to Magdalen 
College upon obtaining a scholarship two years afterwards. He is 
said already to have obtained considerable facility in the writing of 
Latin verse; and this talent, which he continued to cultivate and exer- 
cise, first brought him into reputation at the university. Several of 
bis Latin poems, most of which were probably produced before he had 
attained his 26th year, were afterwards published in the second volume 
of the collection entitled ' Musarum Anglicanarum Analecta.' Tho 
first composition which he gave to the world in his native language 
was a copy of verses addressed in 1694 toDryden, which procured him 
the acquaintance and patronage of that distinguished poet. He soou 
after published a translation in verse of part of Virgil's Fourth 
'Georgic;' and he had also the honour of writing the critical dis- 
course on the ' Georgics,' prefixed by Drydeu to his translation, which 
appeared in 1697. But before this Addison had made himself known 
to one of the most' enlightened and influential patrons of literature in 
that day, the Lord Keeper Somers, by a poem whioh he addressed to 
him on one of the campaigns of King William. He was also intro- 
duced byCongreve to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Montague, 
afterwards Lord HaUfax. Tho advantageous connections which he 
had thug formed seem, together with other considerations, to have 






I Ui wUmI iataDtiao of loiag iaio tb« chardi. 

■nAIb • pawiM otWtOLmymt from th* 

k ea a tour to IMr- Bwf ko i«Mla«l tttt 

Ik* dooik of lUv WaUMi, in Um (prteg 0(1701, doprivod him of Ua 

, aad •!» p«l M a4 to hk asMMte of iMiaK appoiaUd to 

• pmrni oT Friaao IiUHi. thwi o Bmm i wMn g tbo 

._ ta Itol*. MMBwkiU bo )uA MMnoMd from that 

r kb MO-kaen poUlkal ' Uttar' to Lord Halibi, which waa 
limliiJ hoik ia tiiliilil aad Italy, and wm tnadaUd into 
Iiyiw^lkoAhbalaaMiCanNkBniroanratnanaea. Soonaftor 
UaniM hoMo ka aha frtHifciil kb 'TiaTda,' whiek h* dodieatod 
toUviSammn, ffiifttedihriiHteat ofpowv, haaowramainad for 
aMM Nam wUkaal miilnmiiiTTVrt al W^ tb* Tiotory of Bl«n- 
kite, ia Awwl^ 1704, asoUad a wink in tha miniiton to And aoiiM 
Boal wka mkhi liniility oaMtato ila glarim; and Um Trsaaurar 
OaMrUi kMkw 1 mill II ml Ika matter to Lord Umlilax. tha Uttor 
tmmtmmhi kit UmJ Addfaoe aa tk* Bttert pemn to azooato Um 
li^ Ba «■* imM«diali(r •PP*'*' ^ ■"' **>* ooaa^ioenoe wm tha 
■MtaMM oT Ui poam aaWlad 'Tha Ounpaign,' which *pp«arwi 
hafcia Ik* ataaa a( Ik* yaar. Oodoinkia, opoo andag it wlieu littl* 
mot* tlMa half taiahiid, wa* *o moek P>*omd with tha performuioa 
Ikaft k* imiaiilalily mad* th* aathor a CommimloDer of Appwdi. In 
Ik* fcllawi*g 7*ar Addiaon acoomp»Bi*d Lord Halibz to Uanorer; 
mA ia ITM k* baoam* aadarateralary to Sir Oharlaa Hodgw, on tha 
I f 1 1 hfl of Ika Irttar aa amra tai y ofatato. Ha eoBtiniMd to hold 
Ik* iM** piM* ■ate' Ik* Sari oT SaadatUad, hj whom Sir Charles 
«M ia a tow Miatki aaoo»ad<d. Bat althoogfa he had thui furl; 
oa a politfeal earear, ha did act deaart litaratare. Hia next 
wao kia b^iah opota, aotitlad ' Koaamond ;' and he alao 
1 kia frted aiaal* ia kfa pky of th* • Tend«r Hoaband,' not onl; 

a p i ukf aa to Ika piaea^ bat with aararal of ita moat efftotiTe 

■. Ia ITOT aa abia aaeaymooa pamphlet appeared under the 

of tka War, aad the Neoeaaity of an 

1 able aaeajaHMa pamphlet 
'TiM rtoaaa* Slato of tka War, aad 
AagmMtolluB ooaridarad,' widek baa ainoe been printed among Mr. 
AdJdlana'a wotka, aad waa ao dooht tha production of bia pen. In 
1709 b* waat orar to Ireland aa aa e ra ta ry to tha new Lord Lieutenant, 
Ik* Maioafa af Wkartaa; Ik* Qoaan alao beatowed upon him the 
*Aa* of K aaaa i of Ika BMaadi ia tkat kingdom, with no inoreoMd 
a*l*f7 of MM. Ho wai ia Ireland whan tha fliat number of ■ The 
TM1«' appeared oa tko IStk of April (aai) to tkat 7*ar— the happy 
idea of Bliili, wboaa ooanaolion with tha publieatioa Addiaon ia aaid 
to baio dalaoled from aa obaerratioD on Yii^l which he had himaclf 
•aoamoakatad to Ida (head. The actira part which be immediately 
look ia Ika oeadool of tkiapariodioal work ia well iLnown. Theohange 

of miaiotrr ia 1710, by relaaaing him from hia offioial dutiea, and 
aUowiaf kim to ratoia to ffagirm-l. eaablad him to make hia contri- 
kolioa* olill aaco ftaqaaat la Ik* eourae of thia and the foUowing 
year ho ia ale* aad awt ood to batr* ooatributad aararal papera to the 
polilkal week, 'Tka Wkig Kiamlnw.' whiah waa ataited about UiU 
llaM iaomaiUoa to tk* fuaooa Tory print, ' The Examiner,' in 
«UA B*n anniaad Ua powatfol pea. Tliaee papeia, which are Are 
hi dUmoprialad among UaooUeelod wotka. ' The Tatler' terminated 
*« Ika Sad of Jaaooiy, 1711 ; but oa th* IH of March following 

■ pp a ar a d ila atiU aMM mlabtatad aoeeamor, 'The Spectator,' which 
«*• e o atia aa d tin Ik* Otk of Daeambw, 1711, and of which during 
Ika wkol* of tkat lime Addiaoa waa undoubtedly the chief aupport 
' Tko Bp oe t alo r ' waa follew*d by ' Th* Ouardiao,' of which the firat 
■mabor araa Dobliakod oa the 13th of March, aad the 175th and Uat 
oa Ika lalof Oatobar, 171S; aad to thU alao hia pen waa actively 
oankfod. Aa aaeaymooa pamphlet diioeled Mainat the oommeroial 
mB« of Iko mtoklry, aad boatiag Ike Utb of • The Uto Trial and 
OaaoMoa of OMm* TariO;' which appeared thia year, ia likowiae 
baiioTod to be Addiaca'a, aad baa been prtoted among hU worka. 
Tka aaoM yoar ke aoooirad alill graatar bma than any of hia former 
|ll Ja mi ai _ b*d broq^ him by kia oabbnud tragedy of < Cato,' which 
•oa loarfiad wilk ostaaoHioMy applaaee, both on the atage and when 
M tMNd b^m Ike pram. It waa pHyad thhrty-fiTO oigjbU in aucoeeaion 
•-aiaaof popuUrity for which Hwaa denbllem to part todebted to 
ila pB Mml aa watt aa to ita poetical merito; and it waa alao tranaUted 
aooa after into Fnacb, ItaUaa, Lotto, and Ctarman. On the 18th of 
Jmm, 1714, apciaarod th* flnt number of a oooUnuation of 'The 
Man^towkk* Addiaoa alao aaaiated till ita termination on the 

at the rata of two papen a week, tUl the 
mr. He had now todaad for aome time 
... , aAif*,k*Tiag on tbadeatbof Queon 

• T^ "{*• "* oppolatod their eaorataiy by tha Lorda 
L"^.!!?!L** ""I^ •^"' *** "^ "»*«»«*»1»» •«»*«« gone 
»d aa aecRtaiT to lkaLoid.Uoataaaal, Ihelari ofSSdXid. 
noeari wae eoen eAar reeallod. aad Addiaoa waa then made a Lonl 
!Lr2T_4f^l'iii^"'''^ "" Dowagwr CooBlem of Warwick, 
**■ ■*>"'»■* ; «■■■ % yo»» ho wa* aoinin a t e d on* of hia Maieatr'a 

SMk of Jaae to Ike MlowfiM y«r. 
k*M afite ■■■ ■ I to n^afl 
Aaaa, fa Aonat 171«, (aaa aapoi 
JoaUon: and afW lb> M—hJ^T. 



ill kaalth, but to reality, aa baa been generally underetood, in oonao- 
quaaoe oif hk eotira iaaptitod* both for debate to pariiameot and for 
tae onUaaiy buaiacM of lila oBon Hia bralth however had alao been 
for aooM time impairod by attaoka of aathma, the effeeta of which were 
ptobably in no ali^t degree agnarated by a habit of orer-todulgenoe 
la wine. He leftoflioe to Mai^ 1718. It waa hoped at fint that hia 

rr^rr.. :.". r ■'— • °o aooa aowowr roaad it n iciaa ai y to 

raaita tUa Ugh aaa ,ln yaat-wmriag pfotoaaoilly on Ik* ground of 

fhim bnainwa would bare brought alwut his reatoration, and 
for aome lime the azpaelad *(bat aeemed to follow. In the oourae of 
lb* year 1719 ha waa ao far reeorered aa to be able to engage in n 
aomawhat aorimoaiona ooatroreraT willi hia old friend Steele on the 
aubjoct of the hill for th* Umitatloc of the peerage, then under dis- 
cuaaion in parliament, wbidi Steele bad attacked in a paper called 
' The Plebeian.' Addiaon'a defence of the meaaure appeared in two 
auooeaaive anonymoua pamphlota, bearing the title of ' 'The Old Whig.' 
They are not printed among hia collected works, but are undoubtedly 
hia. Ha agato howarer fell ill, and after lingering for Konie time, at 
laat expired at Holland Houae, Kenaington, on the 17th of June, 1719, 
when Juat commencing hia forty'«ighth year. He left a daughter by 
th* Count«aa of WarwS^ 

Soon after Addiaon'a death hia works were collected and published 
in four volumea quarto by hia friend Mr. Tickell, upon whom he hod 
expreasly doTolred that duty. Beaidca the compositions already men- 
tioned, and aome tranalationa from Orid and other poetical pieces, 
thia edition oontaina a ' Treatiae on Ancient Medals,' in the form of 
dialcguea, which is understood to have been prepared by the author 
many years before his death ; and a portion of a work which he had 
commenced in defence of the Christian religion, being that which ia 
oommonly known by the name of hia ' Eridencea.' The comedy of 
' The Drummer, or the Haunted House,' which had been publiahed 
anonymously in bis lifetiine, with a preface by Sir Richard Steele, waa 
aoon after reprinted by Sir Uicbard, and declared to be Addiaon'a. 

Addison however haa been charged with having been the author of 
a poetical tranalation of the firat book of the ' llLid,' which was pub- 
lianed in 1715 by Mr. Tickell, then hia private secretary ; and by which 
it haa been said ha intended to aim a covert blow at the popularity 
and aucceaa of Pope'a ' Iliad,' the first volume of which had then juat 
issued from the press. The celebrated character of Atticus, now 
inserted in the ' Epistle to Ur. Arbuthnot,' is said to have been com- 
poaed by Pope after this, and sent by him to his former friend. The 
deareat examination which this story has received will bo found m a 
long and elaborate note in Dr. Kippis's edition of the ' Biographia 
Britannica,' (vol i. p. 86, tc) which is known to have been contributed 
by Sir William Blackatone. The learned judge haa undoubtedly auffi- 
ciently refuted many poiuta iu the common atatement ; but atill it ii 
certato that a oooluesa did arise between Addison and Pope not long 
after the appearance of Tickell's book, and there ia alao reason to 
believe that their separation tvaa not unconnected with that aomewhat 
injudicious and Ul-timed publication. As for tha authorship of the 
tranalation however, it waa probably Tickell'a cam. 

Aneodotea of Addiaon'a private life, and traita of hia babita and 
character, have been handed down in great abundance by Spence and 
othera. The atrongeat teatimony has been borne by those who knew 
him iatiuiately to the charms of his oonversation wheu he felt himself 
fn e from all reatratot " He waa," aays Steele, " above all men in 
that talent called humour, and enjoyed it iu such perfection that I 
have often reflected, alter a night spent with him apart from all the 
world, that I had had the pleasure of conversing with on intimate 
acquatotance of Terence and CatuUus, who had all their wit and 
nature, heightened with humour more exquisite and delightful than 
any other man ever poaaaaaed." (Prefiwje to ' The Drummer.') Lady 
Maty Wortley Montague told Spenoe that " Addiaon waa the beat 
company in tha world.^' ('Aneodotea,' p. 232.) Dr. Young'a account 
was, that, though be waa nther mute in society on some oocaatona, 
" when he began to be company, he waa full of vivacity, and went on 
in a noble atrcom of thought and language, ao aa to chain the attention 
of every one to him." (p. 835.). " Addiaon," aaid Pope, " waa perfect 
good company with intimates; and had something more charming m 
hia conversation thou I ever knew iu any other man." (p. 50.) But 
thia waa only wheu there waa no one by of whom ho waa afraid. 
" With any mixture of atrangara," Pope added, "and aometimoa only 
with one, he aeemed to preaenre hii dignity much, with a atiff sort of 
ailence." Young admitted that " ho waa not free with hia auperiora." 
Johnaon quotes Lord ChoaterAeld as somewhere affirmmg that "Addiaon 
waa the most tiuiorous and awkward man that he ever knew." Coataer 
mtnda, again, fnjm the formality and stiffness of manner in which ho 
wrapped himaelf up from their inspection, were led to set him down 
for a mere piece of hypocriay and cant. Mondeville, the author of the 
' Fable of the Beee,' after an eveniog'a converaation with hiui, charac- 
teriaed him aa "a parson in a tye-wig;" and Tonaon, who hated paraona 
to any ktod of wiga as much aa Maudevillo, and who, besidea, had 
quarrelli>d with Addison, and did not like him, used to say of him 
after he had quitted liis secretaryship, " One day or other you'll aee 
that man a biahop t I'm aure he looks that way ; and, indeed, I ever 
thought him a prieat in hia heart." (Spence, p. 200.) It must be 
acknowledged that thia caution and cowar^ce spoiled Addison's charac- 
ter to aome pointa of great importance ; be waa not a man on whom 
hia frienda omdd rely ; and the way in which he lost or olTeuded more 
than one of thera waa not to hia credit In hia conduct both to Pope 





and to Steele, there waa something underhand and treacherous — 
Bomething of the " willing to wound, but yet afraid to strike," which 
the former had imputed to him. To Gay, again, he seems to have 
behaved ill without having been either detected or suspected at the 
time. A fortnight before his death he sent Lord Warwick for Gay, 
who had not gone to see him for a great while ; and when they met, 
Addison told him " that he had desired this visit to beg his pardon ; 
that ho had injured him greatly ; but that if he lived he should find 
that he would make it up to him." (Spence, p. 150.) Here again we 
Bee the conscientiousness of the man struggling with, and, in the end, 
very nobly mastering, his more ignoble propensities ; for it would be a 
great mistake to conclude from these instances of deceit and littleness, 
that the regard he professed for virtue was not both real and deeply 
felt. The pious composure in which he died, as evinced by the anec- 
dote of his parting interview with the young nobleman, his stepson, — 
first told by Dr. Young in his ' Conjectures on Original Composition,' 
published in 1759, though previously alluded to by Tickell in his 
Elegy on Addison — is known to most readers. Dr. Young's words 
are : — " After a long and manly but vain struggle with his distemper, 
he dismissed hia physicians, and with them all hopes of life. But with 
hU hopes of life he dismissed not his concern for the living, but sent 
for a youth nearly related, and finely accomplished, but not above 
being the better for good impressions from a dying friend. He came ; 
but, life now glimmering in the socket, the dying friend was silent : 
after a decent and proper pause, the youth said, ' Dear Sir, you sent 
for me ; I believe and hope that you have some commands : I shall 
hold them most sacred.' May distant ages not only hear but feel the 
reply. Forcibly grasping the youth's band, he softly said, ' See in 
what peace a Christian can die.' He spoke with difficulty, and soon 
expired." Lord Warwick did not long survive his step-father. 

Addison's writings present something of the same struggle of opposite 
principles or tendencies which we find in his character as a man, re- 
sulting likewise in the same general effect, of the absence of everything 
offensive combined with some qualities of high, but none perhaps of 
the highest excellence. Notwithstanding all the hesitation and em- 
barrassment he is said to have shown on some occasions in the 
performance of his official duties, so that a common clerk would have 
to be called in to draw up a dispatch which could not wait for his 
more scrupulous selection of phraseology, he usually wrote easily and 
rapidly. " When he had taken his resolution," Steele has told us, 
"or made his pUn for what he designed to write, he would walk 
about a room and dictate it into language with as much freedom and 
ease as any one could write it down, and attend to the coherence and 
grammar of what he dictated." (Preface to ' The Drummer.') Pope 
told Spence however that, though he wrote very fluently, " he was 
sometimes very slow and scrupulous in correcting." " He would show 
his verses," said Pope, " to several friends, and would alter almost 
everything that any of them hinted at as wrong. He seemed to be 
too diffident of himself, and too much concemetl about his character as 
a poet; or, as he worded it, ' too solicitous fur that kind of praise, which, 
Qod knows, ia bat a very little matter after alL' " ('Anecdotes,' p. 40.) 

The literary greatness of Addison in the estimation of his contempo- 
raries probably stood upon somewhat different grounds from those 
upon which it is now usually placed. In his own day he was looked 
upon as a dramatist and a poet of a very high order ; and appears to 
have been not so much admired for anything else as for being the 
author of ' Cato.' That stately but frigid trai;edy has long ceased to 
give the same pleasure, by its sonorous declamation and well-expressed 
common-places, which it seems to have afforded to our ancestors. The 
taste which then prevailed in poetry was the most artificial which has 
distinguished any age of Knglisli literature. The quality which chiefly 
drew admiration was a cold and monotonous polish — the warmth of 
genuine nature was accounted rudeness and barbarism. The return 
of the public Diind to truer principles of judgment in such matters 
has been fatal both to the dramatic and to the poetical fame generally 
of Addison ; and although his verses are still read with pleasure as 
the productions of an elegant and accomplished mind, they are not 
felt to poases-s any high degree of that power which we now look for 
in poetry. His glory is now that of one of our greatest writers in 
prosrc. Hero, with his deUcate sense of propriety, his lively fancy, 
and above all, his most original and exquisite humour, he was in his 
proper walk. He is the founder of a new school of popular writing ; 
in which, like most other founders of schools, he is still unsurpassed 
by any who bave attempted to imitate him. His ' Tatlers,' ' Specta- 
tors,' and ' Guardians,' gave us the first examples of a style possessing 
all the best qualities of a vehicle of general amusement and instruc- 
tion ; easy and familiar without coarseness, animated without extra- 
vagance, polished without unnatural labour, and from its flexibility 
adapted to all the varieties of the gay and the serious. 

(Bioj/raphia Jiritannica; Life by Johnson; Spence's Anccdolct : 
Worki by Tickell.) 

ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, grammarian and universal 
linguist, was bom at Spantekon, a village near Anklam in Pomerania, 
on the 8th of August, 1732, Ho received his first education at the 
town school of Anklam, and at Kloster-Berge, near Magdeburg ; and 
afterwards visited the university of Halle. In 1759 he was appointed 
• profenor in the evangelical gymnasium at Erfurt : but he held this 
sitaation only till 17til, when, in consequence of a dispute with the 

Catholic town-magistrates about a point of difTercnce in religion, he 
found himself under the necessity of leaving Erfurt. Adelung now 
went to Leipzig, where he continued to reside till 1787. He supported 
himself by literary labours, and chiefly by translations of valuable 
works of foreign literature. The number of volumes which he thus 
prepared for the press and many of which he enriched with extensive 
additions of his own, is surprisingly great. The works by which ho 
is best known in this country, are ' Deutsche Sprachlehre fur Schulen,' 
Berlm, 1781, 8vo., and ' Umstiindlichea Lehrgebiiude der Deutsoheu 
Sprache,' Leipzig, 1782, 2 vols. 8vo., &c. In 1787 Adelung was called 
to Dresden, and appointed principal librarian to the electoral library 
there. Adelung died on the 10th of September, 1806. 

ADOLPHUS, JOHN, was bom in 1770 and died July 17, 1845. 
Mr. Adolphus was a barrister of high standing in the criminal courts, 
and at his decease was father of the Old Bailey bar. He was a keen 
advocate, a fluent speaker, and a good lawyer. His practice, previously 
very considerable, was highly increased by the manner in which ho 
distinguished himself as leading counsel for Thistlewood and the other 
prisoners charged with a treasonable conspiracy in 1820, though ho 
was retained on their behalf only a few hours before the trial. As a 
literary man Mr. Adolphus is best known as the author of the 
' History of England from the Accession of George III.,' originally 
published in 3 volumes in 1805, but which he subsequently revised 
and greatly extended. Of this enlarged edition the seventh volume 
appeared just before his death, but it left the work unfinished, and 
the conclusion has not been published. It is a work of considerable 
research and very carefully executed, but it does not exhibit very high 
historical powers. He was also the "author of 'Biographical Memoirs 
of the French Kevolution;' ' Political State of the British Empire,' 
4 vols., 1818 ; 'Memoirs of John Bannister' ; and some fugitive pieces 
and pamphlets. 

ADONIS, the name of a personage of considerable importance in 
Pagan mythology, of whose story the following is a brief sketch :— 
Adonis, son of Myrrha, daughter of Cinyras, king of Cyprus, was 
born in Arabia, whither his mother had fled in consequence of cer- 
tain transactions which it is not necessary to relate. Before the 
birth of her son she was transformed into a tree which produces 
the fragrant gum called by her name ; this however did not hin- 
der his being brought into the world in due season ; he grew up a 
model of manly beauty, and was passionately beloved by Aphrodite 
(Venus), who quitted Olympus to dwell with him. Hunting waa his 
favourite pursuit, until, having gone to the chase against the entreaties 
of his mistress, he waa mortally wounded in the thigh by a wild boar. 
After death he was said to stand as high in the favour of Persephone 
(Proserpine) as before in that of Aphrodite ; but the latter being incon- 
solable, her rival generously consented that Adouis should spend half 
the year with his celestial, half with his infernal mistress. The fable 
has been variously interpreted. One explanation makes the alternate 
abode of Adonis above and under the earth, typical of the burial of 
seed, which in due season rises above tlie ground for the propagation 
of its species ; another, of the annual passage of the sun from the 
northern to the southern hemisphere. In the time of Pausanias, in the 
2nd ceutury of our era, there existed an ancient temple of Adonis 
and Aphrodite, at Amathus, iu Cyprus. 

The story of Adonis appears to have been introduced into Greece 
from Syria. Accordmg to Pausanias, Sappho sung of Adonis; and 
his name, with allusion to his rites, occurs in a fragment of Alcajus. 
But it is by the Greek poeta of later date, Theocritus and Bion and 
their Latin imitators, Ovid and others, that his story has been expanded 
and invested with the elegance which ia the peculiar character of 
Grecian mythology. The Adonia are mentioned by Aristophauea 
among the Athenian festivals, and this is, we believe, the earliest 
mention of them, except some notice iu the poems attributed to 
Orpheus (the epoch of which is however too doubtful to be received 
as authority), and the songs attributed to Sappho and Aloasus. The 
rites begau with mourning for the death of Adonis — (thus Ezekiel, 
viii. 13, " He brought me to the door of the Lord's house . . . and 
behold, there sat women weeping for Thammviz") ; then changed into 
rejoicing for his return to life and to Aphrodite ; and concluded with 
a procession, in which the images of Adonis aud Aphrodite were car- 
ried, with rich offerings, in separate couches; after which the former 
appears to have been thrown into the sea. (See Theocritus, ' Idyll.' xv.) 
In the time of Pausanias, the women of Argos, in the Peloponnesus 
lamented Adonis. 

In Syria we know the worship of Adonis (if, according to the 
received notion, he be the same personage as Thamrauz) to be probably 
of much older date. We know, from the passage in Ezekiel already 
quoted, that the adoration of the latter was one of the abominations 
of Judah six centuries before Christ. Whatever resemblance there 
may have been between the early Syrian and Grecian rites, the former 
were far more deeply polluted by the atrocities of a brutish supersti- 
tion, to which the natives of Syria were unusually prone. 

Adonit (Nahr.el-Ibrahim) is also the ancient name of a river iu 
Syria, which rises iu the mountaiaa of Lebanon. Byblos, a town near 
the river Adouis, was one of the chief seats of tlie worship above 
mentioned, which was intimately connected with a peculiarity incident 
to the river. Its waters, at a certain period of tlio year, assume a 
deep red, and were said to be discoloured by the blood of Adouis. 




WlMM auaal v«n4 te Lataaaa altarad 
n* IjrttMl «MHd( •• lUMM kl* IM 
la la n iM «H1« an a ■■■■« t^ t»r, 
WUto MiiU A4wh «>«» M» aaUf lotfc 
Baa fWTta to Ika Ma, tappeaad wtth Mood 
OTTkaaaia jraartj vaaiAid.*' 


bat bMB olMHTtd hj tDOdum tniTtllan, and ia 

_ to Uw laioa, wbioh brioff a qaaoUty of rwl aarth into Uia 
(Bn lUoDdraU't 'TimvaU') ThU, which probably ia tha 
k«a aotDtko, «•• mifgmltmi •*•■ ia Um time of Luoian (' Dt Daa 

ADRIAX. [HAi>aiAn% Sun.] 

▲OAUH L, PofMv bora at BenM, nooadwl BtMiiM IIL in 772. 
Uka kit ii wdtaatM r , ba tiad to atninU ^ainat taa povar of the 
Ltoogobard^ lAio had inradad tba Esarebata and other proTiooae 
battowa d \n Fttpia, kiaf of tba Franks on tba Roman tea. baraital- 
bm wilk in tad aword SinigafUa, Orbino, and other oitiaa^ tber 
•dnaoad aa far at OteleoU, oo the liber, and thrtateoad Boom with 
iIm aHM Cilab I>aaid«iii% iciiif of tha Loogobarda, had taken ondar 
Ua ut a t it U B B the two aooa of Carkman, tlia daetaaed brother of 
ChanitHa*! and ha witbtd Adrian to oonaaorata tbam aa kinfi of 
tha Franka, in oppoaition to tliair nnda. Adrian reftued to do thia, 
aad haoee aroae the bitter tomitj of Oiaidcriui. Adrian applied to 
Chadaa^jBefbrairitkiBea. Tha king of tba Franka eroaaed the Alpa 
bv tha wtj oT Som. dafeatad Datidtnoa, and orertbtaw the Unsdom 
J tha lie«(obarda in Italy, in 7Tf . Charlemagne then went to Roma, 
when he trrired on K aa t er ore, and waa raoiiTed by Adrian with 
graa hooounk They rtpairad tocather to tha BaaOioa of St Pater, 
wh«a Adrian aeknowMgad Cbariea at king of Italy, and ' Patridau 
of Boaia,' and tha latttr laoewed the grant of the prorinoea bettowed 

I grant of the prorinoea 
OB tha Booan aae by Pepin. Charlemagne paid another viait to 
Adrian at Rome in 787 whan liit ton Papio waa ehriatened by tha 
Popak In 787 tha aaraoth gaoeral coonoil of tha ohuroh wat held at 

, fai Bithynia, where Adrian aent hia legatee, and in wbioh tha 

manieatad. Inrtl then wat a dreadful inundation at Roma cauted 


waa oonflrmfd, and tba Tcooodaata were excom- 

by the oterflow h y ct the Tiber, and Adrian exerted bimtelf in 
emiyiag tha inhabitanta with proriaioDt, by meant of boata, which 
pltMl to tha vaiiooa parte of the dty. He alto rabailt the walla and 
iowan of Baa>% and waa liberal to the poor. He died after a long 
pOBt ifc a t a of nearly S4 year*, on Cbriatmaa-day, 795. Cbarlemagne 
waa mnoh griared at the newt of hia death, and wrote bit epiUph in 
Latin Tertaa, in which bo afleetionately calU him ' father.' Adrian 
waa a nun of talent and dexterity. Under bim Rome began to 
bnatha again after the oontinual alarma oaoted by tha Loogobarda, the 
Itat at tha baibaiiaa inTadert of tha Weetem Empira. (See ' AnaaU- 
rfaa' la Mnratocfa Jttnnt InUiearum Seriptoru, torn, iil) 

ADRIAN II., bom at Roma, anooeedad Kiobolaa I. in the papal 
•hair, bi 847. Be had b«to married, and bad a daughter by bit wife 
H te jli aii i t, from whom be aftcrwarda aepanted in order to lire in 
ealiaa^. After hit election, hit wife and daughter eontiouod to lira 
at Bam in a teparata boute, when *n unprincipled man, called 
», aartiad off the giri by violence, and on tha pontiff re- 
hit child, forced hia way into the bouae and motdared both 
r aad daaghtar. Tha mordarar wat tried and tentenced to 
bj the imperial eommiatiooen, who ttill exereiied tha high 
at Bona. It waa dnriog Adrian't pontifioato that Photiut, 
of Coartantluople, withdrew from tha Cburoh of Rom^ 
farmiaK tha aghiim between the Oreek and Latin chutcbet, 
«Wah aootiaaaa to tkk day. Adrian died in 872. and wat tucoeeded 
by John VIII. 

ADRIAN IIL, bom at Boai% Mieeteded Marinut in 884, and died 
tha following ytar on bia JoatBar to attand the imperial diet at 
WofOM, after a pootifleata of only lutoen monthly 
ADRIAN IV- aa BngUihman, wboae name waa NichoUa Break- 
aoeeNdad Aaaataaiua IV., in 1 1 54. He had been a monk, and 

waa Made Biahop of Albaao by Kugtniut IIL, who tant him aa hU 
apaiUa, aa a legale waa than nailed, to Deamarfc aad Norway. On hU 

rttim ha waa eleated Pope mnoh i«iriatt bia ineUaatioo. Home waa 
Ihaa ta a »»rT dittofbad Matt^ Amatdo ct Braada, a monk and a 
r W l t l yl t of AbeJanL bad began io pnaeb a reform in the ohnrah at 
aafly at IIW, bat bttag driven oat of Roma by Pope Innooant IL, 
tedtakaanteftatZaiiah. In 1143 bower.r ha waa recalled by the 
I paepliL who had verallad agaiott 1 nooccut. and bad piadaimed 
in rnaUii^ wUah Analdo aontributwl to oontUtuta. Several 
^ --*7 "l?^ O imttm It, LMioa IL, tad Bogeniot III. kept up a 
•Mt af d atal i aiy Krania afaiaat tUa popular rafcrraer. Looiat in 
aa afcy waa patiad with ttooet, aa/ <fied of tha Injury raoaired. 
Hhia n iiti i. Ba g a aiM tb waa oWigad to leave Rome and ritin into 
laMa^ DotiMtkoaeaAMiea that prmilad in the city, tbepopa. 
Um ito Ji i il aad aflinnrda pollad dmm the bootee of many 
^?^r* ■ S!' - ^ ■**«' *'i wib aad aoMtolad other a««a «f vtohnei 

of thaM dliardtn. aad eaaMd aU nUgioaa Mrviaet to 

ltd tha eitiatna U> baaiah Analdo, who took 

banaa ti Oampaaia; aad AdiiM thaa oame to 

reaida in tba Latoran palaoa. Frederic of Hobenataufran, known in 
Italian biatory by tba name of Barbaroeaa, bad lately been elected 
emperor by the German Oie^ and waa on bia way to Rome to be 
erowaad. Tbe Pope'a legate* met him on tlw road, and among other 
ramonttraaec^ requeated that the boretio Amaldo ahould be given up 
by the Viaoouot of Campania, in older to be triad. Freduric attented 
to thit^ and ittaed orden in oonaequenoe ; otbert lay that Cardinal 
Gerald took Analdo priaonar, after an obatinate reaittanoe. He wa* 
brought to Rome, and delivered to tbe prefect of the city, by wboae 
ttnttPB* ha wat banged, bit body burnt, and the athat toattered to 
the windt, in the year 115S. Meantime Frederic approached Roma 
with hit army, and Adrian want to meet bim near Sutri, where, on 
the latter ditmountiog, Frederic refoaad to hold hia ttirrap, a oeremony 
on which the pope* idway* inaiatad, aa a mark of reapect for their 
•piritual tupremaoy. The Pope, on bit tide, refuted to aalute the 
Emperor with tbe 'kitt of peace,' upon which the cardinal* were 
temfiod and ran away to Civitik Caatallana. Tbe quoation of the 
ceremonial wa* debat«d for two day*, when Frtderio, having aaoar- 
taiaed that tuoh had been the practioa with hia predecotton, agreed 
to eonform to iU They met, tberefote, again at Nepi, and Frederic 
having held the itimip, Adrian gave him the ' oioulum p>icit,' and 
both prooeeded towardt Rome. Frederic with hit army took poaaea- 
tion of the Leonine city on tbe north bank of the Tiber, and of St. 
Petar'a church, where he wat crowned by the Pope on tbo following 
day. Tha Romana took no part in tbe oeremony, but after having 
hM a council in the Capitol, aallied out and attacked the Oerman 
•oldien unawarta. A general battle took place, and conUnned with 
great alaugbter on both aidai, till night aepanted the combatanta. 
The city continuing in a diatorbed atate, both the Pope and Emperor 
withdrew to Tivoli, whence Frederic returned towarda Lombiinty. 
Adrian want aftcrwarda to Benevento, where be made peace with 
William L, king of Sicily, whom be ha 1 exoommonicated ; and upon 
their reconciliation he agreed to give bim the inveattture of Sicily, 
Calabria, and Apulia, in 1156, on condition of the latter paying a 
yearly tribute to tha tee of Rome. The Pope returned loaded with 
rich preaonta of silka, gold, and ailver, and paaaiog through Rome, 
went to reaide at Orvieto, which waa tubjaot to tha Roman aee. 
Frederic now oomplained that tha Pope had violated hit faith, by 
receiving ambattadon and entering into treatiea with the King of 
Sioily and tbe Qnek Emperor, without hit participation. He alto 
retented the prttentioot of the Pope and bit legatee, who teemed to 
aaaume that Uie imperial crown waa granted aa a bmffieituit, or fee of 
tbe tee of Rome. Adrian, on bit part, complained of tha exactiont of 
tbe imperial committionet* who were lant to admioiater juatice at 
Rome without bia participation ; he maintained that the patrimony 
of the churob ahould be exempt from paying fodtrum, or feudal 
tribute to the Emperor ; and, laatly, he claimed the restitution of the 
landa and nvanuea of Countatt Matilda, of the duchy of Spoleti, and 
even of Corsica and Sardinia. Thua arote that tpirit of bitter 
hoatility between tbe popes and tho bouae of Uobeottauffen, which 
lasted until the utter extinction of tha lattef^ Adrian died in tbe 
beginning of September, 1169, in tho town of Anagni, and was luc- 
oeeded by Alexander III. From tbe above aketch it may be aeen that 
Adrian IV. atretobed tbe papal prerogativea at far at any of hi* 
predecetK>ra had done, Oragory VII. not exoapted. (See Floury, 
JlUMn Scelinaitique, and Raumer, Ouchichte <Ur ffohenttauffen und 

ADRIAN v., a Qenoeie, mcoeeded Innocent in 1276, and died five 
weeke after hit election. Ha wa* tucoeeded by John XX. 

ADRIAN VL, bom at Utrecht in the Netherlands, of tn obsonrc 
family, advaooed himself by hit talent* to the pott of vice-chancellor 
of tbe Univaraity of Louvain. The Emperor Maximilian chose him 
as preceptor to bi* grandaoo, afterwardt Charles V. Ferdinand of 
Spain gave bim the bishopric of Tortoin. After Ferdinand't death 
bo wat co-regent of Spain with Cardinal Ximenea. He wat elected 
pope in 1522, after the death of Leo X., chiefly through the influence 
of Charlea V. wboae authority wa* than apraading over Italy. Adrian 
endeavoured to reform tbe numerous abutei of the court and clergy 
of Rome, prnctited a teven economy, and lived frugally. Hy ao doing 
be diapleaaed the Roman*, who had been accustomed to the luxury 
and prodigality of Leo; and when he died, in September, 1523, after 
a short pontificate, the people could not conceal their joy. They 
styled bit phvaidan, < tba aaviour of hit country.' He wa* succeeded 
by Clement VIL Adrian appears to have been an boneat conscienti- 
ou* man, who fell upon evil times, and wa* unequal to the diflicultiea 
which he had to enoounttr. He waa deairous of maintaining peace, 
and of stopping, if possible, the schism of tbe Lutherans by reforming 
tha churab, but he did not live long enough to effect anything essential . 
Burmann publiahed hia life at Utrecht, in 1727. 

iEQINHAUlJ. rEounu.aa] 

^ eminent 8»xon preUte. Ho is laid to have boon tho 
ton of an Earl of Kent, but at an early age he embraced a devotional 
life, and aatumtd the habit of the BenedioUne*, in tho monaitery of 
▲bfaigdoa In iH3, when Atbelwold, tho abbot of tluit houte, became 
Bithop of Wiaohtater, he took iKlfric along with him, and mode him 
one or tha prieiU of hi* oatbedraL Hera he remained tUI 9S7, when 
be removed to Ceme Abbey. Next year he waa made Abbot of St. 
Albaaa, aad aooa after w«* promoted to the bi»hopric of Wilton. 




Finally, in 994, he was translated to the archbishopric of Canterbury, 
over which see he presided with great ability till hia death, on the 
16th of November 1005. iElfricwas one of the most learned eccle- 
siastics of that age, and distinguished himself throughout his life by 
a very praiseworthy zeal and activity in the diffusion of knowledge. 
The following are the principal works which have been attributed to 
him : — 1. A Latin and Saxon Glossary, printed by Somner at Oxford, 
in 1659. 2. A Saxon translation of most of the historical books of 
the Old Testament, part of which was printed at Oxford in 1698. 
3. A charge to his clerijy, in articles, commonly called his Canons, 
which was published by Spelman in the first volume of his ' English 
Councils.' 4. Two volumes of Saxon Homilies, translated from the 
Latin fathers. 5. A Saxon Grammar in Latin. There were however 
other Saxon ecclesiastics of his name, and it has been doubted if all 
the works enumerated were the productions of the Archbishop of 

.(ELIA'NUS. A person of this name wrote a book on the military 
tactics of the Greeks, which he dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian. 
There are several editions and translations of this work. A German 
translation, by A. H. Baumgiirtuer, appeared in his complete collection 
of the Greek writers on military tactics, Frankentbal and Mannheim, 
4to., 1779. There is an English translation by Lord Dillon, 4to., 1814. 

vELIA'NUS, CLAD'DIUS, a Roman citizen and a native of Praj- 
ncste (Paleatrina), probably lived about the middle of the 3rd century 
of the Christian era. Like Cicero, Atticus, and many other Romans, 
he made himself so completely master of the Greek language as to 
write it with ease and correctness. There is extant a work of his in 
fourteen books, entitled ' Various or Miscellaneous History,' which 
is a compilation or collection of extracts made by the author in his 
extensive reading. The value of it does not consist in what the com- 
piler has written, but in the passages of lost writers that he has been 
the means of preserving. An edition of this work was published at 
Paris in 1805, 8vo., with Heraclides of Pontus and Nioolaus of Damas- 
cuo, by the learned Greek Coray. Tliere is a French translation of 
-Elian's work, by M. B. T. Dacier, Paris, 1772, Svo., with notes. 

Another work of .lEliun's, in seventeen books, also written in Greek, 
is entitled ' On the Peculiarities of Animals.' Though the author 
cannot claim the merit of being a scientific naturalist, he has pre- 
served a number of curious facts, collected from the works he had 
read. Some critics are of opinion that the two works belong to dif- 
ferent authors. (Sohoell, vol. ii. ' Greek Lit.') J. Q. Schneider 
published an edition of the work on animals in 1784 ; but the latest 
edition of the Greek text is by F. Jacobs, Jena. There are also 
twenty Greek letters extant attributed to jElian. 

jEyLl'Lll, the name of a patrician gens, or clan, in ancient Rome, 
who pretended to derive their origin from Mamercus, the son of 
Pythagoras. Of the families included in this gens, the most distin- 
guished were the Pauli, or PauUi, the Lepidi, and the Scauri. [Lepidi ; 
ScAURCS.] Among the PauUi the most worthy of notice was Lucius 
jEmilins Paullus, the son of the consul bearing the same name, who 
fell in the battle near Cannm (b.o. 216), after using his utmost efiforta 
to check the rashness of his colleague. Young .i^milius was a mere 
boy at the death of his father, yet by his personal merits and the 
powerful influence of his friends he eventually attained to the highest 
honours in his country. His sister Emilia was married to Publius 
Cornelius Scipio, the conqueror of Hannibal, who was consul for the 
second time D.C. 104 ; and this very year .^milius, though he had 
held no public office, was appointed one of three commissioners to 
conduct a colony to Croton, in the south of Italy, a city with which 
he might claim some connection on the ground of his descent from 
the Pythagoreans. Two years after, at the age of about thirty-six, 
he was elected a curule tedile, in preference, if we may believe Plu- 
tarch, to twelve candidates of such merit that every one of them 
became afterwards consul. His todileship was distinguished by many 
improvements in the city and neighbourhood of Rome. The follow- 
ing year, ac. 191, he held the office of prcetor, and in that capacity 
was governor of the south-western part of the Spanish peninsula, 
with a considerable force under his command. The appointment was 
renewed the year after, with enlarged powers, for he now bore the title 
nf Proconsul, and was accompanied by double the usual number of 
lictors. In an engagement however with the Lusitani, 6000 of his 
men were cut to pieces, and the rest only saved behind the works of 
the camp. But this disgrace was retrieved in the third year of his 
government by a signal defeat of the enemy, in which 18,000 of their 
men were left upon the field. For this success a public thanksgiving 
was voted by the senate in honour of .^milius. Soon after he returned 
to Rome and found that he had been appointed, in his absence, one of 
tlio t'Mi commissioners for regulating affairs in that part of western 
Asia which had lately been wrested by the two Scipios from Antiochus 
the Great. .iCmilius was a member also of the college of augurs from 
an early age, but we do not find any means of fixing the period of his 
election. As a candidate for the consulship he met with repeated 
repulses, and only attained that honour in B.C. 182, nine years after 
holding the office of pnntor. During this and the following year ho 
commanded an army in Liguria, and succeeded in the complete reduc- 
tion of a powerful people called the Ingauni, who have left their name 
in the maritime town of Albenga, formerly Albium Ingaunum. A 
public thanksgiving of three days was immediately voted, and on his 

return to Rome he had the honour of a triumph. For the next ten 
years we lose sight of ^milius, and at the end of this period he is 
only mentioned as being selected by the inhabitants of Farther Spain 
to protect their interests at Rome, an honour which at ouce proved 
and added to his influence. It was at this period, B.C. 171, that the last 
Macedonian war commenced, and though the Romans could scarcely 
have anticipated a struggle from Perseus, who inherited from his 
father only the shattered remains of the great Macedonian monarchy, 
yet three consuls, in three successive years, were more than baffled by his 
arms. In B.c. 168 a second consulship, and with it the command against 
Perseus, was entrusted to -^Smilius. He was now at least sixty years 
of age, but he was supported by two sons and two sous-iu-law, who 
accompanied him to the war in Macedonia, and contributed iu a marked 
manner to his success. Perseus was strongly posted in the range of 
Olympus to defend the passes from Perrliisbia into Macedonia, but 
he allowed himself to be outmanceuvred. ^milius made good his 
passage through the mountains, and the two armies were soon in view 
of each other near Pydna. On the night before the battle an eclipse 
of the moon occurred. The Roman soldiers, forewarned of its ooour- 
rence, regarded it with amusement rather thau fear. In the Mace- 
donian camp, on the other hand, superstition produced the usual effect 
of horror and alarm ; and on the following day the result of the battle 
corresponded to the feelings of the night. In a single hour the hopes 
of Perseus were destroyed for ever. The monarch fled with scarcely 
a companion, and on the third day reached AmphipoUs. Thence ho 
proceeded to Samothrace, where he soon after fell into the bauds of 
the conqueror. The date of the battle of Pydna has been fixed by 
the eclipse to the 2'2d of June. After reducing Macedonia to the form 
of a Roman province, jEmilius proceeded on his return to Epirus. 
Here, imder the order of the senate, he treacherously surprised seventy 
towns, and delivered up to his army 150,000 of the iuhabitants as 
slaves, and all their property as plunder. On his arrival in Rome 
however he found in this army, with whom he was far from popular, 
the chief opponents of his claim to a triumph. This honour he at 
last obtained, and Perseus with his young children, some of them too 
young to be sensible of their situation, were paraded for three succes- 
sive days through the streets of Rome. But the triumphant general 
had a severe lesson from affliction in the midst of his honour. Of 
two sons by a second wife (he had long divorced Papira), one, aged 12, 
died five days before the triumph ; the other, aged 1 4, a few days after ; 
so that he had now no son to hand down his name to posterity. JEmi- 
lius lived eight years after his victory over Perseus, in which period 
we need only mention his censorship, B.C. 164. At his death, B.C. 160, 
his two sons, who had been adopted into other families, Fabius and 
Scipio, honoured his memory in the Roman fashion by the exhibition 
of funeral games; and the 'Adelphi' of Terence, the last comedy the 
poet wrote, was first presented to the Roman public on this occasion. 
.(Emilius found in hia grateful friend Polybiua one willing and able to 
commemorate, perhaps to exaggerate, his virtues. Few Romans have 
received bo favourable a character from history. (Polybius ; Livy ; 

.iENE'AS, a Trojan prince of the royal blood, son of Anohiaes and 
Venus. According to Homer he commanded the Dardanians, and his 
name occurs frequently in the ' Iliad,' but not in the first rank of 
heroes. He owes bis celebrity to those stories which make him the 
founder of the Roman empire in Italy, and to hia being the hero of 
Virgil's poem. According to the Latin poets, on the night when Troy 
was taken, or, as others say, before its capture, .iEueas quitted the city, 
bearing on hia shoulders his aged father, and the images of hia house- 
hold gods, accompanied by his wife Creusa, who perished by the way, 
and his son lulus, alao called Ascanius, The older authors do not 
speak of the multitude of followers and number of ships with which 
Virgil has adorned his narrative. According to them he quitted the 
Trojan shores in a single ship to seek hia fortune in the unknown 
regions of the west. After many wanderings he readied the coast of 
Latium with 100 followers, and was favourably received by Latiuus, 
king of the country, who assigned a small tract of ground as a settle- 
ment for the Trojans. But war soon broke out between the strangers 
and the natives. Tumus, prince of the Rutuli, joined Latinus to 
expel the foreigners ; but the allied princes were defeated, and Latinus 
was slain in the first battle. Lavinia, his daughter, became the bride 
of the victor, and the citadel of Laureotum fell into his hands. jEneas 
now built the city of Lavinium, which was hardly completed when 
Tumua again appeared in arms, a.i"si8ted by Mezentius, king of Caere. 
Another battle ensued, in which Tumus fell; but tlie Latiua were 
defeated, and ./Eneas was drowned, or at least disappeared in tlie river 
Numieius. He was afterwards adored as Jupiter ludiges : a temple 
was raised to him on the bank of the river ; and the Latins, and iu 
later ages the consuls of Rome, offered yearly sacrifices to him under 
that name, lulus, hia son by Creusa, succeeded to the throne, and 
founded a city, celebrated in the history of Latium, called Alba Longa. 
He was succeeded by Sylvius, son of .^neas and Lavinia, from whom 
a long line of Latin kings descended. Such is a sketch of the chief 
traditions about this reputed Trojan prince and his settlement in Italy, 
(Niebuhr, Roman HUlory, voL L p. 176. Hare and Thirlwall's 

The only allusion in Homer to the history of iEneas after the Trojan 
war, is a prediotiou that he and his children shall reign for centuries 



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•r kbMrfnllMtto IlalT ia MtirdT J«rtiteto «< f iwiil allwi 

Mnnma, rfUNCIS MARIA OUUC THSODOBB, a ecbbntod 
daaMriaa of Iht 18(h Maturr. who waa bats at Hortoek in L«war 
taMtmj, Piiiitw IS, 1724. W of whoa* Ufa fav paitieolan baTo 
' ba aiad at Dorpat ia Uf«^ ia laol 

bjr .iSpiaaa, labMaa la iitlnMatfaal and pbtlo- 
aia priaM in tka Tth, Sib, Mb, and lOtb Tolnniaa 
•K«*i OaaMawtarii P*«r«|ioL,' and in tba •Uivaoixm' of tba 
ayHgrlTHaadlTM. la tba Toloma forlba latter y«ar, 
wa alM ia a '^Haaaafl da MteoinB,' pabBriiad at St Pa«««buiv U 
17«1 ii bii mw aaMlM 'Da 9«ibaadam BtpariaMetit Baetrida,' Ac, 
wbkk rmtilii tka dhaeiwy of tba alaolriaal polarity of toonnaliDr, 
a aiaafal mVtk baa liaea baaa •« mnab aotiead on aoeount of iu 
liioparttii wilfc mpaat to palaiind Ufbi, .£piau« found Uut ou 
H|initaahaaaftba»laataltoabaatbatwaaoWfand218' Fahr. 
aaa aili— hi af it aaqnitad Iba vitraooa and tba other tba rvatnoui 
•ImM^^. Ia tba lOth voloma of tba ■ Nori Commant' i« hii paper 
•■■aMaiac tba «*at af paiaUaz oo tba duration of a traniit of Venui 
a«w tka dfaa af tba •nn. in o o nw q na pea of tlia poaition of tba 
obaHW aa tba aailb'a loHaoa ; and in tba nme Toliuna i« one on 
Um ■aeMw t al aoloaia |wodaead b^ tooUaf diraetly at the ran. Alio, 
ia IIm IMi «aia»a of tba aama worit tbara ia eootainad an aoeount of 
tka aiaaMad rmfwrtiaaof tka Bniilian amarald, a etraUl which hu 
baaa riaaa faaad to ba moral/ a variaty of tonnnaliaa. In 1758 he 

a* 8k Patanban aa a»md«nl>iil diaooone oonoeming the 

7 uf i l i uliiii i tj aad magnartMn; and in 1761, at the uma 
traatin wtitM • Oogilatiooat de Diitributioue Calotu per 

^EffanM ia eUaflr diotinxniihad by his 'Tentamen Tbeoriic 
at lfa(aa«iaoi.' wbiab. in 17S9, wai publiabed al«> at 
_ la tUe wctk ka aata out by aaraming that there 
I ia all bodlaa a laid wboia pa rt j ei ea mutually repel one another 
d io r ead ni aa the distaneaa batwaeo them increaae, and, 
to tka aaiM law, attract tba partiolea of the bodie* with 
wUak tkaj aio in oombination. Ha awimea alao that the cleotrioal 
laid p wa tt a t ai with diOeulty throogb tba bodiaa oaUed electrios, aa 
* ' * . and that it maetowitb no aamibla obatrootion iu 

t tbraogb looh as aia eallad noo^laotrioa or oondnoton^ as the 
, aabakad wood, Ao. ; and ha haa nioeeaded in shoiring. by the 
atriot pi OHMS of w a th a a a tie al analysis, that the pbenomana of clec- 
tiWta dapond chisdv on the tendency of tba fluid to attain a state of 
oqaiUbriaa, by p aw hn ftom a body which contains an ex' 

•Mat it wbieb amy baro leas than the natural quantity. 
r tka diaMbalioB of alactiieHy aad 



to those 
The intricate 
on thasurboaa 
. b bowarer laft nn- 
tkooib tba taaalto of tba inTsa>i|^>lous, so far as they 
aeeord satisfactorily with phenomena, yet there ramaina an 
iiasaiBiiia nl ii l difflcttlty in the (act that, whsn a body is deprirad of 
Iko ila rtri cal laid, lis psiticles are held togatbar by cohesion, while 
tko Ik iory laqains that in such a sUU the parliolas should exert on 
••a aaotbar rapaUtra tbnaa 

la tka 'f h OosoiiMaa l IVvMaatioBs ' for 1771, there U an eUborata 
i th s m a ti oa l Uieory of electricity, on tha same 

, jsume.! by jKpinus, wbiab waa written by 

Mr. OMandiab witboot any knowledge of what liad baaa prarionsly 
doaa by tlM n a ntlnaat a l philoaopliar ; and an Bbridgemant of the 
Tksoty of .Saiaaa waa pobliibad by IL Ilauy in 1787, ondar tha title 
' Kill a iHiaa Ja k ndoria da fEbotriaitA' 

Mrhm dbaotsra d tka mbbo of ohaiiing a plate of air with 
alaalfieity, wkaa it b ooodaed botwaaa two boaids. lie aopean to 
kaaa dlraeiad kb all aati u a to manhanlcal sabJecU ; for ba disooTeiad 
Ikat wbsa a«y fgraa^ aetiait upoa tba aims ofa balance, keep them in 
aqaiUIitio, tka Mia of tba faresi^ dsoonposod in tha diraotion of the 
anan b a maTiwam. 

(MsfrqpUs tWasrssUa. Tba brisf aotioss of tbs discoreriea of 
JKflmm an takaa <k«a tko works aaaod abaroL) 

^*BCHIVBS> tka Fkiloaopbar, was ooa of tba aobolara of Soeratas, 
aa4 aa tba story goM, tba son of a lausagainaksr. Tbiw dJalognaa, 
iifll aslaal, that bavo oanally gone under hta nana, aflar paadna 
tbiw^ tka foraaoa ofmodara oritidsm, bars baaa dadarwl' not t3 
ba ■illliu kjr him. Tka bagnags of thasa dblogoes ptoTss tham 

Orask was sUU writUn wiUi gnat 

Tka bagnags 
kswTOt to b ilsag to aa ago whoa ( 

aeMS. Tba BMs of iSatkiaos's fiuksr was Atrometns. Aoooidhig 
totboayoantof kdi •aambs, ba bad baaa a sbra, and had obtainoS 
M a ftasd oai} bat Ms aon mmtU that he wa. a tntabom Athenian. 
•towoiartols may ba, be waa poor enough to bo a aeboolmaster, with 

"^ apbralds bb riral as if it wers a low an<l sordid 

-# ^-- .!> * '^ Iw was » httle older, if we trust the 
**'■'"■■•■••. kooama a kind of clerk to aome of the 
•••^H"""* "tap was somewhat bolder : baring a 
^^.. . * ■ ** P««»oa, ba triad bis fortune on the stage. 

Wbalta ko Mopped ftom tka stage direet into the more bus* theatre 

iimr^Jri "Vi.*^ ^'^'' >»»»•»<»<» ««>»Uj come forward, 
lkaagkMtaloBflwlyaga,aaapabU« BMW. By baring dbcbarga^ 

bb (iuieiions as a olatk, and baring boon in tho aarrioa of the orators 
Atbtopkoa aad Eabolus in soma simiUr oapaoity, ho had aoquirad 
aoao ItBowlodM of the Uws of his country. In short, he was a bold 
adraatursr, giftad with many of those quidities that are oaleulated to 
insure success in the dubious game of political warfare. 

Only three orations of ..Ksehines are oxtant, all of which relate to 
imporUnt eranta in bis public life. He was accused by Demosthenes, 
one of hu fallow ambasatdors, of malversation and corruption in hb 
saeond embaasy to King Philip, the object of which was to obtain 
PUlip's ratification of the treaty of peace, and to this attack he 
rapliod in hb oration eutitled ' On Malversation in his Embassy.' 
Timardius, a friend of Demosthenea, bad joined in the attack on 
^Gsebinea ; but the orator speedily rid himself of this adrersary by 
prosecuting him for a disreputitble course of life. ^^cUinea gained 
bis oauae, and Timarchus, according to some accounts, concluded the 
affair by hanging himselC The oration on this subject is called 
' Against Timarohus.' The deby caused by the prosecution of Timar> 
chus defended the prosecution of ^schiues till about three years aftor 
hb return from the seoond embassy, which was no doubt favourable 
to the aoeuaed, as it tended to destroy the popuLir feeling against 
iEschines, who finally escaped from a verdict ngaiost him. Tho third 
oration b entitled ' Afnunst Ctesiphou,' but is iu fact an attack on 
Demosthenes, who replied in hu famous oration called * The Crown.' 
The pretext on which .£sohines attacked Cteeiphon waa this :— For 
some public services which Demosthenes had reudered to the state, it 
was proposed by Ctaaiphon that ho should rereire a goldun crown, 
but tius proposition was considered by ^ICschines to cuutoiu clauses 
contrary to existing bwa He also denied the claim of Demoathenea 
on the ground of public servioes. As early as ao. 338, .^schiuea had 
dedared hb intantion to prosecute Ctesiphon, but the cause was not 
tried till B.C. 380, aftor the deatli of Philip, whilst Alexander was in 
the midst of hb Asbtb oonqneste. ./Esohines lost his cause, and not 
having obtained one-fiftb psirt of the votes of the jury, he was com- 
pelled to leave Athens, being unable to pay the pmuilty in that oass 
required by the bw. He retreated to the island of Ithodes, where, it 
u said, he resumed the profession of his earlier days, by opening 
clsisas for instruction in elocution, and became the founder of a 
oohool of eloquence. He u said to have died at Samos, B.C. 817. 


The Oreek and Roman critics considered the Rhodian school of 
eloquence, of wliich ^^Ischines was the reputed founder, to be charac- 
terised by a happy mean between the florid Asiatic and the dry and 
more sententious Athenian style. The style of .iSscliines is distiu- 
guuhed by great perspicuity and correctness of buguage. HU 
narrative and descriptive powers deserve high praise, nor ore we 
duposed to undervalue his powers of abuse, though in this he falls far 
below hb great rivaL We have the strongest tentimuuy to his per- 
sonal qualincationa aa an orator, in the reluctant but unambiguous 
manner in which Demosthenes acknowledges his own inferiority. 

There are numerous editions of ,£schines : the latest and best, as 
fsr as the mere text b oonoemed, b included in Brkker's edition of 
the 'Attic Orators,' Oxford, 1822. One of the best editions of 
,£schines alone b by J. H. Bremius, 1824, 2 vols., 8vo. The Abb^ 
Auger tranibted the orations and letters of .£schines into French, 
and inaertod them in the second volume of his ' Demosthenea' Tho 
oration of JEaohines against Ctesiphon, with the reply of Demosthenes, 
was transbted into Latin by Cicero, and into German by Fr. Raumer, 
1811. The oration against Cteaiphon has been translated into EngUsb 
by Portal and Lebnd. 

There arc twelve letters extant attributed to .Machines, the gonumo- 
ness of which, we fear, would not stand the test of a thorough 
e x a min a t ion. It waa usual, in the bter ages of Greek literature, for 
toaohaci of rhetoric to employ themselves on fictions of thin kind. 

iE'SCHYLUS, the son of Euphorion, and a native of KInusia iu 
Attica, was bom about B.C. S25, and died iu Sicily probably about 
ac 456. As the great father of the Athenian drama, .^cjiylus 
occupies ooa of the moat prominent pieces in the history of tho lite- 
rature of hb country. The particulars of his life that have come 
down to us are however few and unimportant, with the exception thnt 
bo fought bravely in the battles of Marathon and .Salauiis. At 25 
yean of aga he contended fur the prize uf Tragedy. In his 4Ut year 
he gained bb first rictoiy, which was followed by twelve similar 
triumphs. In hb 57th year, indignant at the price being awarded to 
hb younger rival,_Sophocles, he retired to the court of Hiero, king of 
Syraoose, who, being a patron of poeb and learned men, hod collected 
around him the most illustrious writers of that day. such as Pindar 
and Simonidea. An odd stoiy b told of the causa of the poet's death : 
an esgla carrying off a tortoise let it fall on the great dramatbt's head, 
mbtakiug tha bald pato for a stone. 

i^aren tragodias of iEschylus, out of a very large number that ho 
wrote, still remain, entitled respectively, 'The Prometheus Bound,' 
• Tha Seven against Thebes,' ' The Persians,' ' The Female Supplionte,' 
' The Agamemnon,* 'Choiiphori' (libatiou-bearers), and ' Eumenides,' 
or ' Funss.' Tha throe last form a continuous drama or action, which 
contains (I) the return of Agamemnon from Troy, and hu murder by 
hb wife CIvtemnestra ; (2) tha revenge of Orestes, the son of Aga- 
memnon, who kilb his mother and the adultersr i£gisthus ; and (S) 
tha poraooution of Orestes by the Furies, and hb release therefrom by 




the sentence of the high court of Areopagus, and the casting vote of 
Minerva. It was usual with the candidates for the dramatic prize at 
Athens to write three tragedies on some connected subject, to which 
they added a fourth, called a satyric drama, on some subject treated 
in a tragi-comic style. The ' Prometheus Bound ' of .(Eschylus belongs 
to a set of this description, for we know that there was a play entitled 
' Prometheus the Fire-stealer,' and a third named ' Prometheus 

The Qreek drama, in its origin, consisted simply of a chorus or 
company, who celebrated the festivals of a deity or hero by appro- 
priate songs and dances. The introduction of a personage to tell 
some story or history was an innovation, and the connecting this 
narrator more closely with the chorus was another step towards the 
drama, a Greek word, which signiBes an action, or, in its more 
technical sense, the representation of a series of events ending in 
some striking catastrophe. But jEschylus carried improvements still 
further, by introducing a second speaker, and thus making the 
dialogue, as it really is, the essential part of tragedy. To the chorus 
however iEschylus still allowed a great degree of importance, as we 
may see from his extant plays, in which the choral songs occupy a 
large part. Ho adds also to stage effect by improving the dress of the 
actors, and giving them masks. Thespis, his predecessor, went about 
the country in a waggon, and daubed the faces of his company with 
lees of wine. 

The plot or plan of his plays is exceedingly simple ; the personages 
are few in number, and the events follow one another without any 
complexity or occasioning any great surprise. His language is always 
forcible, and the dialogue clear where tlie Greek text has escaped 
damage ; but unfortunately few works of ancient writers have suffered 
more serious injury from frequent copying than the plays of .iSschylus. 
In consequence of this the choral parts are often exceedingly ob'^cure, 
and this obscurity is increased by the wild and gigantic conceptions 
of the poet, which often seem as if they strove with the imperfections 
of language, and endeavoured to find utterance by a heaping together 
of strong epithets and the use of long compound words. In spite of 
these defects, which make the poetry of ..•Eschylus at times border on 
bombast, and afforded a fair subject of ridicule to Aristophanes in his 
play called the ' Frogs,' we may often admire a real sublimity of con- 
ception, a boldness of imagination, and a power to paint what is grand 
and terrific, in language which for force, simplicity, and truth, has 
never been surpassed. 

The play of the ' Persians ' derives a peculiar interest from being 
the only extant Greek tragedy which treats of a subject contempora- 
neous with the age of the writer. It was written or acted probably 
about eight years after the battle of Salamis, and may be considered 
as the most durable monument of the defeat of the Asiatic invader. 
The poet writes as he fought, with a noble spirit of patriotism. 

There are numerous editions of the works of jEschylus. The first 
was printed at Venice in 1518, 8vo, at the press of Aldus, after his 
death; but the 'Agamemnon' and 'Chocphori' are both incomplete 
in this edition, and what there is of the ' Agamemnon' is oddly enough 
tagged to the ' Chocphori," which baa lost its beginning, consequently 
this edition contains only six plays. The best recent editions are by 
Wellauer,Lipe., 1823; W.Dindorf, Lips., 1827; and Scholefield, Camb., 
1880. There is an English poetical version of /Eschylus by John 
Potter, and also several poetical versions of the 'Agamemnon.' A prose 
version it published in ' Bohn's Classical Library.' The Germans have 
several poetical translations of v£schylus ; the latest is by Voss, 1826. 
There u a translation of the 'Agamemnon' (1816) by AVilliam 

.lESCULA'PIUS, or, according to the Greek form of his name, 
AuUpiot, was the god of medicine in ancient mythology. Several 
.ilCsculapii are said to have existed ; and it would not be easy to deter- 
mine whether tradition pointed to so many distinct person!^, or merely 
handed down different versions of the parentage of the same man. 
Cicero mentions three : the first, son of Apollo, invented the probe, 
and the art of bandaging wounds : the second, son of Mercury, was 
struck dead by lightning ; the third was of mortal parentage, son of 
Araippus and Arsinoe, and first practised purging and tooth-drawing. 
The Egyptians also had their .^sculapius (as the Greeks call him), 
the son of Hermes. Of the most important of these we proceed to 
give a brief sketch. 

Asclepios was the son of Apollo by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas. 
His mother, having succeeded in concealing her pregnancy, exposed 
the child upon Mount Myrtium, afterwards called Titthium, in At^olis, 
ntar Epidaurus. A shepherd, missing bis dog and one of his goats, 
sought the wanderers throughout the country ; and at last found them, 
the dog keeping watch over a child enveloped in flames, which the 
goat waa suckling. The herdsman, " thinking that it was something 
divine," and being frightened, went away ; but he spread the marvel 
abroad, and it waa soon noised over all the globe that Asclepios could 
heal every disease, and besides bring the dead to life. 

Another version of the story says that Apollo, in a fit of jealousy, 
having caused the mother's death, the unborn child was snatched by 
Mercury (or, according to Pindar, by Apollo liimself) from her funeral 
pile. This circumstance may be connected with the other story, which 
assigns the parentage of .lEsculapius to Mercury. 

According to Pindar, Apollo sent the child to be educated by the 
BIOO. DIV. vou I. ' 

Centaur Chiron, who instructed him iu medicine, as at au after-pcrioil 
he did Achilles. Having reached manhood, he went with Castor and 
Pollux on the Argonautio expedition. Keturaiiig to Greece, he prac- 
tised with eminent success ; not merely curing all diseases, but recalling 
the dead to life. Among others, he did this service to Hippolytus, sou 
of Theseus. The gods regarded this as an invasion of their privileges, 
and at last Zeus (or Jupiter) struck the bold practitioner dead with 
lightning, in consequence of a complaint lodged by Pluto, that the 
infernal regions were depopulated by these new proceedings. Apollo 
revenged tlie death of his son by killing all the Cyclopes, who forged 
thunderbolts for Zeus. Finally, Asclepios was raised to heaven, and 
made a constellation, under the name of Ophiuchus, the serpent- 
holder; though some say that Ophiuchus is Hercules. 

In the latter ages of paganism, when scepticism was very prevalent, 
and it waa the fashion to see allegory in every mythological story, the 
whole was thus explained : — yEsculapius signified the air, the medium 
of health and life. The Sun was his father, because the sun, shaping 
his course agreeably to the changes of the seasons, produces a healthy 
state of the atmosphere. The same spirit is visible in the names given 
to his daughters, which all but one bear reference to the father's art : 
— Hygieia, health ; Panakeia, universal remedy ; laso, healing ; Aigle, 

In Greece, the original seat of Asclepios'a worship was in the neigh- 
bourhood of his birthplace at Epidaurus, where a splendid temple was 
erected to his honour, adorned with a chryselephantine (or gold and 
ivory) statue. He was represented sitting ; one hand holding a staff. 
the other resting on a serpent's head ; a dog couched at his feet. In 
coins and other ancient remains he is commonly seen with a long beard, 
holding a staff with a serpent twined about it. Often he is accompanied 
by a^ cock ; sometimes by an owl. The cock was commonly sacriliced 
to him. These animals seem meant to typify the qualities which a 
physician should possess ; the owl being emblematic of wisdom, the 
cook of vigilance, the serpent of sagacity, and, besides, of long life. 
The serpent was especially sacred to Asclepios. At Epidaurus there 
was a peculiar breed of yellowish-brown snakes, of large size, harmless, 
and easily tamed, which frequented the temple, and in the form of 
which the god was supposed to manifest himself. In this shape he 
was conveyed to Sicyon, and at a later period, about B.C. 400, to Kome, 
when that city, being afflicted by pestilence, sent an embassy, at the 
command of an oracle, to fetch Asclepios to their help. On the 
ambassadors being introduced into the temple, a serpent came from 
under the statue, and glided thi-ough the city, and on board their ship. 
Arriving in the Tiber, he swam ashore to the island upon which his 
temple afterwards was built. A few inscriptions have been found in 
this island relating cures, and the means employed. The means are 
of such a nature that the cures must have been impostures, or have 
been wrought by the force of imagination. It was customary to place 
similar inscriptions in all temples of Asclepios. At Epidaurus there 
were stones in the sacred precinct erected in commemoration of cures 
performed by the god, recording in the Doric dialect the names and 
diseases of the patients, and detailing the methods of cure employed. 
Six of thfse remained when Pausanias visited the place, and, besides, 
an ancient pillar, commemorating the gift of twenty horses by 
Hippolytus, in gratitude for his restoration to life. 

Of the extent of Asclepios's knowledge, and of his method of practice, 
or rather of that which prevailed in the early ages before the Trojan 
war, we know little. His sons, Machaou and Podaleiiios, who fought 
before Troy, and are often mentioned iu Homer, seem only to have 
meddled with external injuries. Pindar, in a passage of rather doubtful 
meaning, seems to confine the father's skill within the same liiuits, 
when he speaks of him as healing those afflicted with self-produced 
ulcers, wounds from brass or stone, or injuries from summer heat or 
cold. His remedies, on the same authority, were incantations, soothing 
drinks, external applications, and the knife. There is a remarkable 
passage in which Plato ('Rep.,' iii. § 14), inveighing against tho 
effeminacy of his own times, contrasts the attention of physicians to 
diet, erercise, Ac, with the negligence of the sons of Asclepios in 
these respects ; quoting a passage from Homer, in which Machaon, 
returning from battle severely wounded, jiartakes immediately of a 
mesa of meal and cheese, mixed up in strong Pramnian wine. (' II.,' 
xl 639.) 

For some centuries after the Trojan war medical science, if it deserves 
that name, seems to have been confined to the temples of Asclepios, in 
which his descendants, the Asclepiada;, who formed the priesthood, 
were alone allowed to practise ; until in later times pupils were admitted 
into the brotherhood, having been solemnly initiated, and sworn to 
conform to its rules. The most celebrated temples, besides that at 
Epidaurus, were those of Rhodes, Cnidos, and Cos, where Hippocrates, 
a native of the island, is said to have profited by the records preserved 
in the temple. Croton and Cyreno also possessed schools of medicine. 
The practice seems to have been intended chiefly to work on the 
imagination. The god often gave his own prescriptions in dreams and 
visions, and the patients were to bo prepared by religious rites for this 
divine intercourse. 

^ESO'PUS, now commonly called .^sop, aGreclan author, who lived 
about the middle of the 6th century before Christ, contemporary with 
Solon and Pisistratus. He is usually acknowledged as the inventor 
of those short moral fictions to which we CBpeoially appropriate tho 




•■4 bnAsmI to ■ t Mll « aH« 

«f Um u« telmd (rom ■ ' Ufa,' 

ornUiSbMriai th* duim of 

ky lUkiMMM Pkawla^ • Cioi*— UlipnlHiB OMok, about th* 

of iIm lllh umtan. TUt onnlihl * dtrtortod «i*w of th* 

is kU IM«T «U«h ou b* hU to b* known, mUad 

of 4aU bnflbooar*, mkI laprobnbU or impotdbl* 

Jtmp hmmtt m • aoMtor of iwaookl 

ft* Iha Mki oT MotrMUi* Ui wit and MotaeM* 

TUi Ml i« iww (hMB vp, by gM*nl ooniMit. 
tolnQr aavMlky of or*^ Tbit* b no aUiiaioa to tbaot ptnoiua 
" I ia My otiMkil aatiior, aod atrong noptiT* naooM bar* 
wlWtlac Ibrt WW* iiMb oziftKL Sea B«tl«7'a 
Aopb aabMaad to tbat npoo riudarit. 
n«|«Ma or'UiMiU.Uko tbUof UooMT, to nattarof qoaatlon; 

^■MNl^ Oatiaua fai PbiTI^ ■■' ^■**"''"^ '" ''''""^ '*'^'°( 
■Uka to thai hoooar. "Kit aariy part of bk Ufa waa apoat in 

\i 1km nHMa of tbiM of bia nuatan bave baan praaarrad :— 

, aa Albawhn. in wboaa aarrioa ba ia aid to bato aoqnirad a 

I and poia knowladfo of Oraak : Xaotboi, a9ami<n,wl>oflgoraa 

inPtanodaaaaa pbiloMpbor; and Udmoo, or Idmoo, aootbar Samiao, 

bv vImm ba waa anftwMbia<d. Ua aeqairad a higb reputation in 

Wtaaa (or Ibat apaaiaa of eoapoaition wbiob, after liim, wm called 

Ae|daa, and in eooaaqaanea waa aoUeitad bj Crowui to take op bit 

abodo ai tbe Ljdiaa eourt. Har* lie ia aaid to bare met Solou, Mid 

to baf* rabokad tba aif* for bia imeoartly way of inculcatiog moral 

^Caap ia aald to bava yfadtad Atbana during tba uaurpation of 
riiiiliiliia. and to batra eonpoaad the fable of ' J upiter and the Froga ' 
far tba iaameiioci of tba dtiiank (Pbsdnu, i. 2.) Being cbai^pd 
by Ctoaoa witb aa aiiihawy to Delphi, in tbe ooune of which be waa 
to dialrilmto a aam of moaaf to ercty Delphian, a quarrel aroae between 
Liaa and tba eiiiaaaa, in eoaaaquaaoa of which he returned the money 
to fcia palna, alleging that tboae for whom it was meant were unworthy 
of it. Tb« diaappointad party in return got up a obarge of aaorilege, 
npea wbicb tbey put him to death. A peatilenoe which ensued waa 
altribotad to tbia crime, and in cooaaqnaiioa th*y made proclamation 
at an tbe imbUe aasambUca of the Oraeiaa nation, of their williDgnaaa 
to m a t e nn a ip aiaa lliiM for JCaop'a daatb to any one who should appear 
to da tm it A grandaoa of bia master ladmoo at length claimed and 
raeaifad it, no ponon more doaaly connected with the siifferer baring 
appasred. Tbia singaUr tale raats on the authority of Herodotua. 

Tbrs time of iEaop'a death ia uncertain. Some plaoe it as early aa 
tba Mti Olympiad, about a c. 6iS. If howerer there be any truth 
ia tka a wM a mt aoliaaa wbieb we bare oombined, be waa at Athena 
dariag tba waniraHoa of FUatratus, and met with bis death in the 
asrriea of Cr aas u s , aad tbarafara before tbe oapture of Sardis and fall 
of tbe Lydian kingdoo. Tbis^ according to Newton'a obrooology, 
wonld As bia death ia tba S7tb or 58th Olympiad, between the years 
ax. &&0 aad Mi. The Athenians areotad to his honour a statue from 
tbe band of tbe ealebntel aenlptor Lyaippoa, 

Tbva iaabaadant proof that (ablaa paasing under tba name of .£aop 
ware antraat aad popolar ia Atbana during tbe moat brilliant period 
of iti tttarary birtoty, aad aot maeb mora than a eeatory after the 
deatbof tbe supposed aotbor. Tbe 'drolleries of JSsop' (AlnnuA 
'>«Amb) are maationed by Arirtopbansa ia tanas whioh lead us to 
aoppoee that thay wara oomuooly repcatrd at eonTivial parties. 
Socntea, ia priaaa, toned into versa " tboae that he knew ;" and 
nato, wba l aa i ikai tba Aetigna of Homer from hu ideal repnblio, 
■ I lata wMfc bkb piaiaa of tbataaaacy of tboee of .iBeop. Demetrius 
Pa al waa a aada a aoilaatioa of iBaop<an fablea ; and we bear of two 
lasdtoal vstaioaa of tbem of adll later date, one by an aaonyuious 
uaA^f, tba othar by Dabria& PbnHnii published a eolleetion of 
faMaa ia Latin earaa hi the time of Tiberius, the oiaterials of which 
ba laufi BBia to have taken fhwi iBsop ; and it ia not improbable that 
tbe aaaraat approaab to tba anbalanoo of the original apologuaa may 
tbefo ba boad. Aaotbar eeltoetisa was written in alagiae Tana, in 
tbe 4tb osataty, by Aviaana. 

, J*T» .■•,■• Vovad whatwrar for baliaving that the Oreek proae 
bUaa whiab pa« aadar tba aasM of Jbop are rvally of his compo- 
^iaa-at least, Ibat tbey came Una bis bands in their pre»»nt sUte. 
Tbaae wbicb are eabslantUlly tbe same with the fab|.s of Ph«drus, 
Iba atdatt to whiab wa aaa assign a oertain dale, mv be boliercd, for 
■• "" ■' V *''^ ■■ %■ ■ '' . *o bare originally emanated from the 
Oiaiiaa aatbar. Tba total anabar of them ia about 300 or 300, and 
tbey aqr U divided iato two priaoipal pareeU: those published 
by Haaadaa, to aaabar 14<, wbicb contain internal cTidenoe that, aa 
Ur as esapoalliM is oooemed, they are of Uto date, and probably 
Z!^!iyjyT:^ S^^"' "^ ' •*»«• oollsction. of m, first 
P.- J* . "'" "."y ■aralatoa hom nsnuscripU at Heidelberg. It 

^Jf . .?'S ""i "at aaa of tbeea BianuMripU conuius t)>e fabla 
!? *** ' .? "T^ ! •»«> »l>rt tba editor espneesa bU beUef that 
tt^. a»a tbe work ^ dkOMt haHk. Some *ba attribuUa to^e 
■'"li "n?r*5!.f"™»,*0"*« *« »»>• nionasUo life, wbioh U 
a* tsat saSciaat fvidaoee of tbeir Uto dale. Thta «liUoo whioh U 

i*jf y^*" '^** ^fr^ '^:^^. "^>. ^ M oenturyj 
aaiMa fanwH aatrital faMeaa in Qreak aad Latia. 
Tbe s.ito> pin«o«l.^,Bd fabnllat Lokaaa U aapposad by many 

to have been tbe same person u J&uof. The formsr, by tbe Hobam- 
medaa autiioritiee, ia made oontampormry witb David and Solomon ; 
but bis history is too uncertain for us to spoeuUto upon it The uma 
fabla are to be found current under tbe nama of each, and the oor- 
leapoadaooe between their personal histories, u oommouly told, is too 
clow to ba eotiialy aeoidentaL [Babbids ; Lokxak.] Many transla- 
tiooa of tbe hbia attributed to .i«sop have been made in most modem 
Uagui^a : tba most reoent Englisb tronalation in by tbe Uor. Thomu 

AISTIOV ('ArrW), a celebrated Oreek painter, and, aocording to 
Luoian, one of the bat aadent oolourlsts. That writer meotiona 
Aiition, Apellea, Euphranor, and Polygnotus, as tbe most auco-ssful 
of the anotent Oreek painters ia the mixing and laying on of coloura. 
Atftion'a exact time is uncertain, although, from the manner in which 
be is mentioned by Luoian, notwithstanding the namm he ia associated 
witli, he lived probably in Lucian's own time, or at most very shortly 
before hioL He speaks of him as tbe most distinguished painter of 
hia time, and describee a very celebrated picture by liim of the marriage 
of Alexander and Roxaaa, wbioh the painter exhibited at the Olympic 

games, and which pleased Proxenidas, one of tbe judges, no much that 
e gave Aiition his daughtor in marriage. " It may be asked," uya 
[rfioian, " what ww there ao marvellous in that painting, m should 
indues a man of such high rank to reward the painter, who withal 
was a stranger, by bestowing on him his daughter 1 Tbo picture ia 
still in Italy, and I am able to spoak of it from per^nal inspection. 
It repraaenta an extremely msguifioent bed-chamber with a nuptial 
bed. In it is aan sitting Uoxana, tbe most beautiful virgin that can 
be conceived. Her eya are modestly fixed on the ground before 
Alexander, standing near bar. She is surrounded by several smiling 
Cupids. One of tham behind her lifts up the bridal veil from her 
forehead, and shows it to the bridegroom. Another, iu the attitude 
of a slave, is ofBoiously employed in drawing olT ber shoes, that she 
may no longer be detained from lying down. A third baa bold of 
Alexander's robe, pulling him witb all bis might towards Koxoua. 
The king presents the maiden with a crown, and baide him litauds 
HephoMtion M a bridoman, holding a lighted torch in his hand, sup- 
ported by a wonderfully fine youth, whom I guess to represent the 
god of marriage, for the name is not beneath. On tbe other side of 
the piece are drawn Mveral more Cupids, playing with the arms of 
Alexander. Two of them carry his xpear, and seem almost overbur- 
dened with the weight of it. Another couple take his buckler, witb a 
figure like the king stretched upon it, trailing it along by the bandies. 
Another creeps backwards into tbe coat of mail, where he eeems to 
lurk in order to frighten the two little porters as they come on." 
" Thew collateral incident*," continues Lucian, " are by no mwna 
the mare wantonness and idle sport of the artist's fancy ; tbey are to 
show the martial disposition of the bridegroom, and that bid love for 
Boxana had not elEtced his pasaiou for anus and military glory." 
(Tooke'a Traoslatiua) 

From this description Raphael ia aaid to have mnde a daign, of 
whioh there are duplicata or copies, and it wu executed in fresco in 
the aOKjalled Villa of Uapbael, in the garden of tbe Villa Borghen at 
Borne ; but tbe compoaition is puerile, and docs not at all merit the 

firaisa which Luoian nas given to the ancient perfomiauco of Aetion : 
t ha been Mveral tima etched or engraved by J. CaragUo, Volpato, 
and others. 

Lucian in the above description remarks, that he gnessa a fins 
youth to represent tbe god of marriage, u " the name is not benmth." 
He alludes to an ancient custom which prevailed among the Qreeks, 
of attaching the nama in their pictures to tbe figures rcpraented ; 
the nama in most caaa were probably wricieu below the fat of the 
figure. In the piotura on vases we find tbe name sometimes written 
by the aide of the figure, but tbe practice was not universaL In this 
case^ from Lucian'a remark, it would seem that some of the figures 
had namea attached to tbem, u ho speaks of the other oharaoters with 
certainty, aad guesses only at tbe god of marriage, bccaua there was 
no name attached. It was a practia however seldom if at all hail 
recoura to in later times, and in oaa of ita employment the name waa 
probably a placed a not to disturb the pictorial eQ°eat, Sometimes 
sentenoes were inscribed on piotura, a for instana Zeuxis wrote 
upon his picture of Helen thra lines from Homer, alebratiog her 
extraordinary beauty. ('Iliad,' iii. 16(5-158; Valerius Maximus, iiL 7 
8 8.) Then are similar exauipla on works of tbe middle aga, and 
also of much later tima : inariptions below allegoria ore very 

The circumstance that Pliny has not mentioned Action is an addi- 
tional reason for oonoluding that ho lived about Lucian's own time, or 
in the early half of the 2nd ccutury of our era, sub.-equent to Pliny. 
Some however have auppoad that the Kcbion of Pliny aud Cicero is 
the Action of Lucian, apeoially u the former wu celebrated for a 
picture of a bride distinguished for the modaty of her expression ; 
but this implia a grat blunder in Lucian, who speaks of him as a 
painter of his own time, and there ia no sufficient reason for such a 

(Lndan, Jlendotut or Anion, DeMeretde Condnctit, i% and Imag. 7; 
fliny., ■""* Nat. xxxv. 10, 36 ; Cioero, Srutui, 18 ; Parad. v. 2.) 

AE'TIUS ("AVtioi), of Amida in Mesopotamia, a Oreek writer on 
medicine, who probably lived about the end of the 5th and the begin- 





niDg of the 6th century of our era, as we may infer from the persons 
whom he mentions in hia work. He studied medicine at Alexandria, 
then the seat of the moat celebrated medical school, and afterwards 
he went to Constantinople, where he appears to have been raised to a 
high office at the court, since Photius (' Biblioth. Cod.' 221) calls him 
Kti^tji 6^f/lKlou, comet obaequii, a title belonging to the principal officer 
attending on the emperor. Aetius was a Christian, but not free from 
the supcr.-titions which at that time were introduced into Christianity 
from Egypt, and which were connected with his profession. His work 
contains some curious examples of the pretension to cure diseases by 
means of superstitious ceremonies. The work of Aetius which has 
come down to us entire bears the title of Bi0\la larpixi or ^t^Kiov 
laTpM6ii, and consists of 1 6 books. The whole however was afterwards 
divided by some editor into four sections, each of which contained 
four books, from which the work is also called Tetrabibli (Tf Tp(£fliflAoi). 
According to Photius (1. c), who gives a brief summary of the work, 
it is a compilation made from the writings of Oribasius, Oalen, Archi- 
genea, Rufus, Dioscorides, Herodotus, and other eminent medical 
nuthora; but the compilation is made with judgment, and Aetius 
appears to have introduced into it some original matter. The book 
is a kind of aystematic encyclopaedia of medicine, embracing the whole 
range of medical and surgical knowledge of the ancients. A complete 
edition of the Greek original haa never been published. The firat 
eight books appeared at Venice (1534, foL), and particular chapters 
have been edited at different times. Complete tranalations of the 
whole work appeared at Venice (1534, 4to., 1643, &o., 8vo.), Basle 
(1534 snd 1539, fol.), Lyon (1549, fol.), and at Paris (1667, fol) 
among H. Stephens's 'Medic» Artis Principea.' — (Fabricius, 'Biblioth. 
Once' ix. p. 228, &o., where a full account of the modem literature 
on Aetias is given.) 

AFFKE, DENIS AUGUSTE, archbishop of Paris, was bom nt 
St.-I{ome, in the department of Tarn, Sept. 27, 1793. At an early 
age he evinced a desire to devote himself to the Church, and he 
became a student at the seminary of St.-Sulpice. He was ordained 
priest in 1818, and discharged a variety of ecclesiastical functions till 
he became archbishop of Paris in 1840. Although a man of ability 
and learning, and the author of several treatises (amongst which was 
one on Egyptian hieroglyphics), he would scarcely have found a 
place in the history of hii times, but for the lamentable circumstance 
of his death on the 27th June, 1843. Paris was then the scene of a 
fearful contest between the soldiery and a vast body of insurgents. 
The archbishop was induced to apply to General Cavaignac, proposing 
to stand between the contending bodies as a messenger of peace. 
The general told him that the course was full of danger. " My life," 
he replied, " is of small consequence." Some hours afterwards the 
firing of the soldiery having cea.sed at his desire, the archbishop 
mounted a barricade erected at the entrance of the Faubourg St 
Antoine : he was preceded by H. Albert, a national guard, wearing a 
workman's dress, carrying in his hand a green branch as an emblem 
of peace ; and he bad nt hia side a faithful servant named Pierre 
Sellier. The devoted ecclesiastic was not received with the confidence 
that he expected to inspire. Some indeed of the combatants stretched 
out their hands, but others remained silent, while others groaned and 
hooted. The prelate endeavoured to speak a few words; but the 
insurgents, fancying themselves betrayed, opened a fire upon the Garde 
Mobile, and the arshbishop felL Then a cry of horror went up from 
the crowd, and many, even of the insurgents, rushed to his aid, 
Albert and Sellier were leading him away, when Sellier was also 
struck by a ball. The insurgents who surrounded the archbishop 
cried out that the Garde Mobile had inflicted the wound, and that 
they would avenge him. " No, no, my friends," he rejilied ; " there 
has been blood enough shed ; let mine be the last that is spilt." He 
WHS carried to the arohiepiscopal palace, and died the same day. The 
National Assembly issued a decree announcing its profound grief at 
the event of his death, and his public funeral took place on the 7th 
of July, amidst the deepest feelings of popular regret. {NouveUe 
Biogra-phie UnivertelU, 1852.) 

AKRICANUS, LEO. [Leo, Jonji.] 

AFRICANUS, SEXTUS C^ECILIUS, a Roman jurist. Many 
excerpts from his Nine Books of 'Qusestiones' are contained in the 
'Digest.' He was a pupil or friend of Salvius Julianus, whose 
opinions he often cites. ('Digest' 25, tit. 3, s. 3.) This fixes the 
I'criod of Africanus to the reign of Hadrian, who died a.d. 138, and 
to that of bis successor Antoninus Pius. As Julianus belonged to 
the legal sect of the Sabiniani, it is probable that Africanus also 
<Hd. Aulus Gellius (xx. 1) has given the substance of a discussion 
lietween '^Hextus Ciecilius, a distinguished jurist, and Favorinus, a 
philosopher, on the Twelve Tables; and the date of the Twelve 
Tables is fixed in this discussion as near 700 years prior to the 
time of Oellius. As Gellius prob.ibly was not living later than 
A.D. 170, and the Laws of the Twelve Tables were finally enacted 
EC. 449, the nnmher of 700 is too much by a century for the age of 
Oellius. This error is no objection to our concluding that the Sextus 
Csocilius m°ntioned by Gellius is Sextus Caeciliua Africanus. Xaxa- 
pridius ('Alex. Sev.' 68) makes Africanus a disciple of Papinian and 
a friend of Alexander Severus, but Cujacius exposes the anachronism 
by an extract from Africanus founded on a legal maxim which was no 
lunger in force in the time of Papinian. The Excerpts of Africanus 

treat of many subtle legal points, and have been well illustrated by 
Cujacius {' Opera,' torn, i., tract 9). 

AFRICANUS, SEXTUS JULIUS, a Christian writer of the 3rd 
century, is considered by some authors to have been a native of 
Africa, and was, according to Cave, bishop of Emmaus, a.d. 232. 
Clavier, in the 'Biographie Uuiverselle,' makes him the descendant 
of an African family, and born in Palestine. Between 218 and 222 
Africanus was employed in an embassy to the Emperor Heliogabalus 
for the restoration of Emmaus, which city, in conseqiieuce of his 
entreaties, was rebuilt under the name of Nioopolis. He atteuded the 
lectures of Bishop Heraclius at Alexandria before the year 231. 

Eusebius ascribes to Africanus a work which contains, under the 
title 'Kesti* (embroidered girdles), a collection of passages from 
various authors, chiefly on physical and mathematical questions, and 
topics which belong to domestic economy ; medicine, botany, minera- 
logy, and the military sciences. Fragments of this work are printed 
among the 'Mathematical Veteres,' Paris, 1693, folio, and reprinted 
in the 7th volume of the works of Meursius, Florence, 1746, but it is 
not quite certain whether this woi'k contains the real ' Kesti ' of 
Africanus. The section on the military art haa been translated by 
Guiachardt, in his ' M(5moires Militaires des Greos et des Romains,' 
1758, 4to. There is a translation by Africanus of the book of Abdias 
of Babylon, under the title ' Historia Certamiuia Apostolici,' 1566, 8vo. 

Africanus wrote a chronological work in five sections under the 
title of ' Pentabibloa,' containing, as some learned men think, an 
abridgment and a continuation of Manetho's work. The ' Peutabiblos ' 
was a sort of universal history, composed to prove the antiquity of 
true religion and the novelty of paganism. Fragments of this chro- 
nology are extant in the works of Eusebius, Synoellus, Malala, 
Theophanes, Cedrenua, and in the 'Cbronicon Paachale.' The ' Penta- 
bibloa' commencea with the creation, B.C. 5499, and oloaes with A.D. 
221. The chronology of Africanus places the birth of Christ thioe 
years before the commencement of our era. But under the reign of 
Diocletian ten years were taken from the number which had elajised, 
and thus the computation of the churches of Alexandria and Autioch 
were reconciled. According to Fabricius, 'BibL Gr,' ed. nova, viii. 
p. 9, there exists at Paris a manuscript containing an abstract of the 
' Pentabiblos.' Soaliger has borrowed, in his edition of Euscbiu?, the 
chronology of Africanus extant in ' Geo. Syncelli Chronographia ab 
Adamo ad Dioclesianum, h Jao. Goar, Gr. et Lat.,' Paris, 1652, fol. 

Africanus wrote a learned letter to Origen, in which he disjiutes the 
authenticity of the apocryphal history of Susannah. This letter haa 
been printed at Basle, in Qi-eek and Latin, 1674, 4 to. A great part 
of another letter of Africanus to Ariatides, recoaciliug the disagree- 
ment between the genealogies of Christ in Matthew and Luke, is 
extant in Eusebiua's ' Ecclesiastical History.' lu order to reconcile 
the difi'erence between the genealogies, he has recourse to the law of 
adoption among the Jews, by which brothers were obliged to marry 
the wives of their brothers who died without children. 

The fact of a man so learned and intelligent as the chronologor 
Africanus being a Christian, refutes the error of those who think that 
all Christians in the first centuries of our era were illiterate. The 
criticiams of Africanua upon the apocryphal booka seem to attest that 
he did not receive the canonical writings of the New Testament 
without previous examination ; and from his manner of reconciling 
the different genealogies of Christ, it appeal's certain that he recog- 
nised the authenticity of the Gospels in which they occur. 

AGAMEMNON, king of Mycenai, and commander-in-chief of the 
Gracian army at tho siege of Troy. According to the fabulous 
genealogies of tho poets, he was fourth in descent from Jupiter, and 
grandson to Pelops, who came from Asia into Greece, and laid the 
foundation of a new dynasty of princes, which soon supplanted the 
older race of the DanaL Pelops acquired the kingdom of Pisa by 
marriage. Atreiu, son of Pelops, being banished from his father's 
house for having slain hia brother Chrysippus, fled to Myoenaj, where 
hia siater'a aon Eurystheus, grandson of Perseus, then rei^-ned. He 
ingratiated himself so much with the people, that he was chosen king 
on the death of Eurystheus, and left the sceptre to his eldest son 
(or, some have said, grandson) Agamemnon. The dominion of 
MycensB comprehended the northern part of Argolis, Corinth and 
Sicyon, with the territories annexed to them, and .iEgialos, afterwards 
called Acliaia ; thus including the whole northern coast of Pelopon- 
nesus. Menelaus, second aon of Atreua, obtained the kingdom of 
Lacedamon by marriage with Helena, daughter of Tyndareus and 
Lcda. The southern and larger portion of Argolis, though governed 
by a monarch of ita own, was probably dependent to a great degreo 
on ita more powerful neighbour of Mycena). It does not appear who 
inherited tho kingdom of Pisa after Pelops ; none of the four ehiefa 
who led the Eleians to Troy were of his family, so that the degreo of 
influence wliioh thePelopid princes possessed over Elis can hardly be 
ascertained. A large portion of Measenia, according to Stiabo, was 
occupied by colonists who followed Pelops from A»ia. Thus, in at 
leiist four, probably in five, of the six principal divisious of Pelopon- 
nesus (Arcadia being the one excepted), the house of Atreua had a 
direct family interest and influence. 

The history of Agamemnon, before tho Trojan war, is comprised in 
two sentences : he was the son of Atreua, whence he and his brother 
wore called Atrida:; and he married Clytemnestra, sister of Helen. 




TImIMu nraraMMleT lh«abdiiclioa of H«Im by Puis oUmt 
vi* «aM AktMdrgn^ mo of Priua. kiag of Tror. 1i i* eommonly 
hU. IW* • wnater of Um iwinoM of Orcoo* Iwviiig bMO drmwo 
ti^lfcir w Milan by Um utnonlinsnT bMoty of Halm, TyotUrtu* 
kjlmImI *a oaOi from tbaa. Out oa «boiaaoa*<r Um eboio* (bould 
faU. if U>« maid dMiold b* cWTi«d off all Iha roik (bouM unit* to 
i<Me*cr Imt ; and thtfl, in vitto* of Ibi* eatb, Um eonfadwata prinoM 
■mamtilid iwdar tba oommand of Agaaamaoo. la raftmiM to tbia 
•tefjr, Tbaoydidaa bat w pi iwid bb baUc( ' tbat AxamamDaa got 
li^albir ttel tmi, not ao moeb for tbat ba bad witb him tba saiton 
of Hilaiii, bound tbarato by oath to TjnOmtm*, a* for tlii«, tiiat ba 
•saaadad tha rvit is powar.** In oontinaatioa, tba biatorian Uyi 
fjtmt itnm upon bia oaral powar, a* avinoad by hi* b^ng, In Homar'i 
aradia, " Utf of maay ialawla,'' and b« bia leading aixty abipa to tba 
AioidiaM^ hwMH oosdiMtiaK a bondrod filled with hit own foUowera, 
a knnr ■aaibar Ihaa «■• lad bj any otlicr chief. 

Tba Miartlid iaat wm datatoad at AnlU by contrary winda. The 
aaar OUaka^ baiag cooanltad bow tba anger of the goda might be 
afartad. nad Um delay obrtated, doelared that Ipbigenia, daughtar of 
(Vgamamann. who bad ineurrad tba diaplaacora of Diana by killing 
bar fcTooilU atai^ moat b* aacriflcad to the gnddaaa. The natural 
nlaslaaoa af tba Crtbar waa oratoooM by importunity and ambition ; 
aad Um iaiaadad vietim waa aummoned to Aulia, under pretence of 
b>faolliia| bar to Atibillaa At tba point of death aba waa mimeoloualy 
aavad by Uiana, wboaa priaatoaa the afterwarda became among a laraga 
[aopla of Aaia, eallad tba Tauri Thia itory it related neither by 
llooMr aor Haiiod ; it raat* however on tba early authority of Pindar 
(' ^rUt^t' it) awl iEaefaylua ; and ia pregnant witb too important oon- 
aaqafota to ba omitted, ainoa the aliaoation of Clytemnestra from 
bar baabaAd ia aaid by tlwaa autbora to have originated in her horror 
of tbia oaaatuial aetioo. TIm iiage of Troy waa protracted for ten 
yaanL Tha moat memocabi* arent of it ia tba quarrel between 
AfuiannoQ aad AobiUaa, tba anbjeot of the ' Iliad, in which Aga- 
inaaiaon plaead bimaalf oomplataly in the wrong. Homer tepreaeuta 
bim aa braTe, aod aipert in arm*, inaomueh, tbat when a Ortoian 
warrior waa aalteted by lot who tbould contend with Haetor in tingle 
<iBiBha>, it waa Um gaoanl pnyer tbat the lot might fall on Ajax, 
ntoiaadai^ or Aaaaoiaoo. Still it ia aa the commander, rather than 
aa tba aoidiar, that ba ia praaantod to our notice, and uiually with 
aooM ra f artaea to bia wealth and power : ' king of men ' it the diatin- 
giiitbliy apitbat oooalaoUy added to bia name, aa ' awift-footed ' ia to 
tha Ban* of Acbillec Hrtiod alao {'Fngm.,' 48) aayi that the 
dympiaa god bat given itreogtU to tba detoandanta of .<£acua, 
waalla to tbota of Atnua. Returning from Troy, with Castandra, 
Um daagfatar of Priam, ba waa murdarod by bit wife, who bad formed 
aa adoltarooa attaofamaot to ./Egiatbua, aon of hi* uncle Thyettea. 
Tbia ottaatropbe it tba aal^jact of tba ' Agamemnon ' of .faohylut, 
ooa of tha moat tablime oompoaitiooa in the range of the Qredan 
drama. Orattoa, aon of Agamemnoo, that a child, wat aaved by the 
cart of bia tator. After paaaing aaran yeart in exile, he returned in 
acan^ avangad iUa btlMr't death by tha tlaughter of bit mother and 
«t MMbwt, tad racora i 'a d bia patamal kingdom, which ba ruled 
with MBoar. Thaaa bganda of Um boute of Agamemnon formed a 
CKTOarita aubjaet witb the Creek tragediant. 

AOASIA8, a Qreck tcalfitor of Epbatut, wboM age it not accurately 
kaowa. Tba tUtua now at Roma called tba Borgbeaa Fighter, which 
ia a toe apeeiawn of tkill in rapreaenting a figure in action, and alao 
tbowa a canful atodv of eztemal anatomy, ia tba work of tbii Agaaiaa. 
Oa tba aappoft bablad tiM ftgnra ia tha following inaeription in 
Qraak :— " Anaiaa tha aon of Doaitbaut of Ephaaui made iC 

•AQAaSl£ LOUIS, ooa of Um moat diitinguiabed naturalirta of 
the praaaol day. He waa born about the beginning of tba preaent 
rmtoiy. ia Switaariaad, and wat for many yeara Profaeaor of Natural 
Hiatory at NaoilghAtaL About UMyaar 1847 ba aooepted an iDvitatiou 
U baeaaM profaaaor ia aa AaMiioaa ooUaga, and he it now Profeitor 
of Mataial Bbtory at Cambridgt^ Maaaadioaatta. HU public career at 
a a a >i«W^ datea from 18S8, ia wbiob year ba publUbad deacripUoni 
ef two aaw Ithaa ia tha ' Ua' aad ' Unaaa,' two foreign pariodicala 
daaotod to aatoial biatocy. In 1889 ba aiaiatad Spbt and Martiut hi 
deaeritrfag tha gaaan aad apaeiaa of flabaa found in tba Brazilt. In 
thaauae year alto wa Bad Um great tiantorodental anatomUt, Oken, 
bwwpy i^gimya diaeovaiiaa bafera the lleriin meeting of Qerman 

"^w* thii UoM tUl now hit publioationt upon Tarioua 
dayattMla of iahtbyoi«gy ha?a bean oonttaot aod moat important 
AaMapt Iha BMa* vaiaafala of thaaa aontributiont to Uie knowledge of 
•ake^, rnqr b* raduioed bia ni aaa r eliaa upon fcaail fiabaa. Tba raaulu 
of thaaa r aaaa wh aa have baea poblitbad in rariooa forma in tba natural 
W«*»y jwuaab of Um day, and in Um Trtamctiona of tcianUfic aodetiaa. 
TheM^tapaflaat of theaa kboon have been diraeted to tlia ttrato of 
*«M« Mlati, aa May of which are riob in Um ramaiaa of fithca belong- 
lag to tka aaat Mrtedt of the worU'a biatory. In 1834 be publiabad a 
Wf.* *^. T«-fl Wl* ot SooUMrf.' fai Uia • TimnaaoUont of Uia 
St? tSTli"" ** ^ Ad»aaoa«MBt of Sdcnoa.' Since Uiat time 

tI.. '^izi?? T*" •^""'^ I*P^ '■*»'•"«»• T«»n«cUon»- In 
IMS aWM^ ><» Ih* aaaM piaae bit • Synoptioal TabU of BriUtb Fiabaa,' 

I? , J^.^!**. "^ *^ •«>l«i*««l foimaUon*. [Fun, in Nat. 
. JV Jl^-i!?*.** J?**- ' •»P°»* fP-fA on Uio ' Fitbea 
«»M Bad- ai afctaa^ aad ia 1841 a rvpMi upon Uwaa found in 


of Um 

tba Loodae CUy. Agaatiz wat the firtt to propote the diTiaion of 
foaail fiabaa aecording to the fonui of their tcalea, and hat thua placed 
in tba bandt of tba palieontologiit a ready meant of diatiuguiabing, by 
their aoadea alooe, fitbea belonging to the Cartilaginoua and Oaaeout 
tribei. Hit paper* on tbia eubject will be found in the ISth and 14th 
▼olumei of the leeond eeriea of the ' Annalct dee Sciencei Naturellea,' 
in the 'Comptea Rendut' for 1840, and in the 28th volume of the 
■ Edinbor^ New Philoaophioal Journal' Hit reaearobea have not 
however been oonfined to foatil fiaboa ; and numeroui papers acattered 
through the adaotific periodiaJa of Europe and America attett bia 
knowledge of recent aa well aa foaail forma. 

Another family, in both their recent and foatil forms, has attracted 
tha attention of Agaaaiz, and theaa are the Star-Kiihet, ur Eckino- 
dtrmala. Hit retearchet upon thit family hitvo refiult<!d in a groat 
work containing illuttiative figure*, entitled ' Monographea d'Echino- 
dwmea Vivana et Foaailaa,' and publiihed in parta, from 1S37 to 1842. 
Several papera on tbia family attest the zeal and care with which he 
baa itudied these aninult, which have through aucoeaaive periods of 
time played on important part amongat the organic beinga of the globe. 
Although the attention of Profeaaor Agastiz hot been chiefly directed 
to objeota not requiring microscopic inve8ti«ation, he hat tucoosRfuUy 
inveatjgated many of the forms of In/iuoria, which are only seen by 
meant of this instrument Ho waii not only one of the earliest to 
confirm Mr. Shuttleworth'i curious discovery of the existence of 
animalcules among the red snow of the Alpa, but alao to )x>int out 
the exittence of higher forma of animal life (such as the Jtolifera) 
than bad been suspected by that observer. [Snow, Red, in Nat. 
Hist. Div.] In some recent researches upon the habits and structure 
of animalcules, he has even proposed to abolish the class of Infutoria 
altogether, endeavouring to show that all these beiugs may be placed 
amongst the Polypifera, Mizopoda, pUuts, and ova of higher animals. 
[InrosoBiA, in Nat. Hist. Div.] 

His researches upon foaail animals would naturally draw bis attention 
to the circumstances by which they have been placed in their preaent 
position. The geologist has been developed at the result of natural 
history studies. Surrounded by the ice-covered mountains of Switzer- 
land, his mind waa naturally led to the study of the phenomena which 
they presented. The moving glaciers, and their i-esuUiug moraine, 
furnished him with facts which seemed to supply the theory of a large 
number of phenomena in the post history of the world. He saw in 
other parts of the world, whence glaciers have long since retired, 
proofs of their existence in the parallel roads and terraces, at the bases 
of hills and mountains, and in the scratched, polisbeil, and striated 
surface of rocks. Although this theory has been applied much more 
extensively than ia consistent with all the facts of particular coses by 
bit disciples, there it no question in the minds of the most competent 
geologittt of the present day tbat Agassiz has, by bit researches on 
this subject, pointed out the cause of a large series of geological pheno- 
nema. His papers on this subject are uumerout, and will be found in 
the 'Transactions of the British Association' for 1840, in the 3rd 
volume of the ' Prooeedingi of the Qeological Society,' in the 1 8tb 
volume of the ' Philosophical Magazine ' (third series), and in the 6th 
volume of the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' 

In bis writings Professor Agassiz shows a strong tendency to gene- 
ralisation ; and if a suspicion has growu up of the unsoundness of bis 
views in certain departments of natural history inquiry, it bos arisen 
from this peculiar mental disposition. He has embraced the doctrine 
of the successive creation of higher organised beings upon the sur- 
face of the earth, and a paper of bis on this subject will be found 
in the tiiirty-tbird volume of the ' Edinburgh New Philoi>ophical 
Journal.' A more detailed account of bis views on this subject will 
be found in the ' Outlines of Comparative Physiology,' written by 
Professor Agassis in conjunction with Mr. A. A. Gould. This work, 
originally published in America, has been republished in England, with 
notes and additions by Dr. T. Wright. It is unnecessary to say here 
tbat these viewa have upholders and oppooenta in England. Amongst 
the most distinguished of the former are Professor Owen and Professor 
Sedgwick, whilst the latter number amongst them the late Professor 
Edward Forbes and Sir Charles Lyell. Both parties are equally 
opposed to tho theory of organic development, as proposed in an 
anonymous work called 'The Vestiges of the Natural History of 
Creation.' Professor Agassis baa written in this controversy with 
great sagacity, and brought bis researches on the ' Embryology of the 
Salmonido) ' to bear ui>on the argument This work was published at 
NeufchAtel in 1842. 

Another general subject on which Professor Agassiz has eutcred with 
hi* usual enthusiasm, is the q\ie8tiou of the origin of the human race 
from a tingle pair. Although the doctrine of a multiplicity of stocks 
must always be received witb more than usual suspicion when coming 
from persons living in oommunities whero slavery is legalised, it is 
only fair to Professor Agaseiz to say that, before his residence in 
America, he maintained the theory of the creation of the same species 
in several distinct centres, both in time ami space. It is therefore not 
to be wondered at that be should uphold the same theory with regard 
to man. His views on this subject will be found most distinctly 
enunciated in a paper formiug part of a volume published in America 
in 1854 under tho tiUo of ' Types of Mankind,' and edited by Dr. Nott 
and Mr, Oliddon. 





Amidst all his original labours, Professor Agassiz has found time to 
devote himself to the general literature of natural history. In 1842 
he published hiii ' Nomenolator Zoologicus,' which contains the syste- 
matic names of the genera of animals both living and fossil, with 
references to the authors and the books in which they are described. 
He also laid the foundations of the great work entitled ' Bibliographia 
Zoologise et Geologise,' which has been published in England, edited 
by the late Hugh E. Strickland and Sii' W. Jardine, Bart., in the scries 
of works issued by the Ray Society. It consists of four volumes, 
comprising an alphabetical list of all writers on Geology and Zoology, 
with a list of their works. We must refer to this work for a com- 
plete list of Professor Agaasiz's own writings up to the time the first 
volume was published in 1818. 

When the chair of natural history in Edinburgh became vacant by 
the death of the late Professor Edward Forbes, it was offered to 
Profesisor Agassiz ; but he declined accepting it, preferring his honour- 
able and wide sphere of UBefulness in the New \Vorld to returning to 
Europe, where he won the firft triumphs of his great reputation. 

AGATHAKCHIDES, a Greek writer on geography, a native of 
Cnidos in Asia Minor. He lived in the time of Ptolemy Philometer, 
king of Egypt (who reigned from B.C. 181 to 145), and wrote 
numerous works on geography, and among them one on the 
Erythraean Sea. 

Thia work is only known to us by extracts from the first and fifth 
books preserved by the Greek patriarch Photiua, and some extracts in 
Diodorus. The works of Agatharchides contained a great deal of 
•seful information, as we may fairly infer from the fragments which 
remain. He is the earliest writer who attributes the annual rise of 
the Nile to the periodical rains in the upper regious of that river. 
(Diodorus, L 41.) He has left a very minute account of the mode of 
working the gold-mines which lay between the Nile and the Red Sea ; 
and he is the first writer who mentioned the giraffe, n quadruped 
peculiar to the African continent. His remarks on the mode of 
hunting elephants, and ou the inhabitants of the Red Sea coasts, 
prove him to have been an inquisitive and careful writer. 

What remains of Agatharchides may be seen in Hudson's 'Minor 
Greek Geographers,' vol. L The description of the gold-mines is also 
to be found in Diodorus, iii. 12. 

AGATH.\RCHUS, a Greek painter, who apparently, from a passage 
in Vitruvius, may be considered, if not the inventor, at least the first 
artist who applied the laws of perspective practically in painting. He 
painted a dramatic scene for .^Escbylus in perspective, which was the 
first work of the kind exhibited to the Greeks ; as the contemporary 
of iGschylus therefore, he was a man of mature years about u.c. 480. 

The words " scenam fecit," in the passage in Vitruvius referred to, 
liavebeen interpreted, "he constructed a stage," but this interpretation 
is shown by the context to be incorrect The whole passage is as 
follows : — " When .^Eschylus was exhibiting tragedies at Athens, 
Agatharcbus made a scene, and left a treatise upon it With the 
assistance of this treatise, Democritus and Anaxagoras wrote on the 
same subject, showing how the extension of rays from a fixed point of 
sight should be made to correspond to lines according to [natural 
reason, so that the images of buildings in paiuted scenes might have 
the appearance of reality; and although painted upon flat vertical 
surfaces, some parts should seem to leoeda and others to come 

This kind of scene-painting was termed Scenography {antyoypeupla) 
by the Greeks, and was sometimes practised by architects ; Diogenes 
Laertius mentions Clisthenes of Eretria as soenograph and architect 
Aristotle gives Sophocles the credit of introducing sceue-paintiug ; he 
may have firet treated it as indispensable in a dramatic representation, 
and rendered the practice common, or Vitruvius may have erroneously 
ascribed its introduction to iGschylus instead St Sophocles. 

There was another Greek painter of the name of Agatharcbus, who 
lived about half a century later than the above. He was contem- 
porary with Zeuxis, and Plutarch relates an anecdote of the two, how 
Zeuxia reproved Agatharcbus for boasting in company of the rapidity 
with which he painted, by quietly observing that he (Zeuxis) painted 
very slowly. This Agatharcbus is the painter whom Alcibiades shut 
up in his house untU he had painted certain pictures in it The 
circumstance is noticed by Plutarch and by Andocides, but they give 
different accounts of the conclusion of the affair. 

(Vitruvius, rii., Prtef.; Diogenes, ii. 125; Aristotle, Poetic., iv. ; 
Plutarch, Pericla, 13, Alcib., 10 ; Andocides, Oral, in Alcib., 1.) 

AOAIHEMERUS, a Greek writer who lived about the middle of 
the ard century, and wrote a short treatise ou general geography, 
ills work, as we possess it, is a collection of heads, or rather a kind 
of syllabus for a set of lectures. There are two books extant, of 
which the second is so confused and contradictory, that critics are 
disposed to assign it to a pupil of Agathemerus. His first chapter 
contains a sketch of the history of geography, with the names of 
those who had rendered the most eminent services to the science. 
His sixth chapter treats of the spherical figure of the earth, and what 
is now called the doctrine of the sphere, &c. (Hudson, Minw Cleo- 
ijrapheri, vol. ii.) 

AOATIIIA-S, a Greek historian and poet, who lived under the 
cmperuiB Justinian and Justiniis the Younger. lie was a son of 
Meninnnius, and born at Myritin in Asia Minor, about a.d. (iSO, but 

he received his education at Alexandria, whence he went in a.d. 554 to 
Constantinople, where his father seems to have settled during bis son's 
stay at Alexandria. Agathias now commenced studying the law, and 
afterwards distinguished himself as a speaker in the courts of justice. 
The title of Scholaaticus (Sxu'iao-Ti/tiis), which some writers give him, 
and which appears in the manuscripts of his work, refers to his pro- 
fession of advocate, for Scholaaticus at that time signified an advocate. 
But notwithstanding the great reputation he acquired, he never liked 
his profession, which he practised, according to his own account, only 
for the sake of gaining a livelihood : his favourite pursuits were poetry 
and history. He was esteemed by many of the most distinguished 
men of the time, and seems to have been rather given to courting the 
great Some of his epigrams contain incontrovertible proofs that 
Agathias was a Christian. He died a short time before the death of 
Tiberius Thrax and the accession of Mauritius, a.d. 582. 

Agathias was the author of the following works : — ' Daphniaca ' 
(Aw^viKKa), or a collection of erotic poems in hexameter verse. It 
consisted of nine books, but is completely lost He calls it a juvenile 
production. 2. 'Cyclus' (KukAos), a poetical anthology, in which he 
collected the poems of his contemporaries, especially of his illustrious 
friends, and also many of his own. The collection is lost, with the 
exception of the introduction. His epigrams, which are still extant 
in the ' Greek Anthology,' may have formed a part of the ' Cyclus : ' 
they show that Agathias had considerable poetical talent and wit. 
3. ' History of his Own Time,' is the most important among his works, 
and is complete. It breaks off abruptly in the 25th chapter of the 
fifth book, probably in consequence of the author's death ; for he states 
that this history was commenced at a late period of his life. It con- 
tains the history of the short period from a.d. 553 to 559. He appears 
throughout this work as a good and honest man, and as a faithful 
writer, but wanting in historical and geographical knowledge, especially 
with regard to the West of Europe. His language is a compound of 
nearly all the dialects of ancient Greece, in which however the Ionic 
predominates. Among the editions of this work the most important 
are that of Bonaventura Vulcanius (Lugdun. 1594), those in the Paris 
and Venice collections of the Byzantine writers, and above all that of 
B. G. Niebuhr, which forms the third volume of the ' Corpus Scrip- 
torum Historiao Byzantina>' (Bonn, 1823, 8vo.), and contains a good 
account of the life of Agathias, and also his Epigrams. 

AGATHOCLES, a Syracusan of low extraction, who became ruler 
of Syracuse and great part of Sicily. The principal events in his life 
range between B.c. 330 and 289. He was the son of a potter, and is 
said to have worked at his father's trade. He was remarkable for 
beauty, strength, and capacity for enduring labour. In the outset 
of life he belonged to a band of robbers ; afterwards he served as a 
private soldier, and in that capacity gained the favour of a patron 
named Damas, who, being chosen general of Agrigentum, advanced 
him to the rank of chiliarch, or commander of a thousand men. Ou 
the death of Damas, who bequeathed his great wealth to his wife, 
Agathocles married the widow, and became one of the richest citizens 
of Syracuse. In this state of his fortune he distinguished himself by 
his eloquence in the assembly of the people. But his conduct now 
was as seditious as his former life had been profligate. 

The constitution of .Syracuse, as established by Timoleon, was 
democnitical ; but in the outset of Agathocles' political life, the 
aristocratical party, headed by Sosistratus, a personal enemy of his 
own, drove him into exile ; and he retreated into Italy, where for some 
time he lived as a soldier of fortune. The restoration of democracy, 
and the banishment of Sosistratus and his friends, enabled him to 
return. The Carthaginians interfered in behalf of these new exiles ; 
and a war ensued, in which Agathocles bore a distinguished part : but 
he was suspected of aiming at the tyranny, and was a second timo com- 
pelled to quit Syracuse. In banishment he collected an army which 
overawed both Carthage and Syracuse. After frequently defeating the 
troops of the former, he was recalled, under the pledge of an oath 
that he would attempt nothing against the democracy; and he was 
chosen general and protector, for the ostensible purpose of reconciling 
or putting down faction. Strong in the support of his own mercenary 
troops, united with some of the poorest and most desperate of the 
citizens, he proceeded to arrest and execute by military process the 
leaders of the aristocratical party, and gave up their adherents to the 
fury of his soldiery. Four thousand persons are said to have been 
murdered, and six thousand to have fled. The wives aud children of 
the latter, those of them who were unable to accompany the fugitives, 
fell victims to the soldiery. 

Agathocles now declared his intentiou of retiring into private life ; 
but he knew that the partners of his crimes could not maintain them- 
selves without his countenance. At their call he consented to retain 
his office, on condition of holding it without a colleague (b.c. 317). 
He did not assume the state of a monarch, but exercised the powers 
uf the most absolute king, with the title of ' autocrator ; ' that is, 
ruler according to his own pleasure. He had risen as the champion of 
the poor; and he-fulfilled his promises by the abolition of debts and 
the distribution of lands. He aimed at the dominion of the whole 
island ; and succeeded in reducing all except the subjects of Carthage. 
But the Carthaginians made a strong effort to crush him. He was 
defeated with great slaughter (n.c. 309), his subjects nearly all revolted, 
aud be was obliged to shut himself up in Syracuse, In the following 




lMt4afrMlk«bdd |4m ot mnjbm *>>• w«r IntoAMw: but 

•T wm w a ml wJ fcr tlib | >uii» «t> ; wid hU eontriritnc* far raldng 

bafnM4 ften Mm LmIs of ld> Mrly liik H* o8M«d to 

rf ■ i<*g» wWf» ftom gj ww— «. Md 

4w Md aoHar thoM who tTtUcd 

of tk* parmWMk Bjr thk •trooioiM kct b* at onot gatntd 

■Mplto^ aad iifw^id blmolf upon bit oombIm. 

Om hk kadbc li AAka b« bunit bU tbip*. tlitt bii toldUn might 
IwM ae hep* bat to tUtorj. Ht took WTonil towni, drfcotod » pown^ 
M flMllmlilii Ibioo arat to oppoM bim, luid tbraw Cu'Um(o itaolf 
tot» ynal afena. BdI a now daoKer tbrwtoMd lb* rnU of Afrtboolw, 
ftaa IM pMTtfM eUy of Agricootom, wbiob proflled by tbo ■xbwi*- 
Ika of Cutk^• and ByiaettM to ioTito tba Sieiliani to ibako off tha 
daoilaioB of botb. Ajpttboolca retamad in baato, and radnotd aoma 
of tba wfohaJ aitiab But tba foreaa of tba reat under tba oommand 
of Dataooimta^ ft BTneoaaa, prorad too atrong for htm. Moreorrr, 
Ua prvaaoa wm afHa raqnfarra In AfHoa, wbera the Carthaginiana had 
MdM thiir laai«S od rattiood tbeir aaoandanoy. He aaw the pro 
Iwdlllj Ibil tlw Bftteomat might eall in Deioocntea in bia abaeuce. 
la titia dBaaaaft h» took adraataga of a puUio faaUval to aaoertain 
who wm» bla aaaatai^ and pnt to death the chief men of the party to 
tba Baabtr of SOO. 

He vaa rtotivad oa bia retDm to Afrioa bj a mutiny among bia 
Iroon bi aoaaaqwfa of bia eon Arohairathaa baTing been dilatory in 
AmiStiaf IMr pw. Ha banuigaod tha aoldieiy, aaying that tbey 
moal gal iMr pay rtmb the anemy, and that the booW abould be in 
•MHtoa. Bat tba aaetatity of recotaring the good will of bia army 
batiaiad Mm iato impcvdrnoea. He attacked de Cartbaginiana unad- 
vMDy. aad loat tba battle, and a huge portion of hia men. He waa 
aaa»patlad lo ratrtat to Ua eamp^ whara be aaw that hia tsahneaa bad 
aat tta aoidiaaaagatoat bim ; and be had raaaon to fear that they would 
renew tba mutiny on aooount of the arreara of pay. He therefore fled 
la tba aigbt, aeeompanied by Arehafratbua. They were puraued, and 
tka aoa waa taken : tbo fithar, with better fortune, reached the abipa 
ia wbieh ha had retanMd from Sicily, and eacaped. All hia eons were 
maidarad by tha aaragad aoldier*, who then made terma with the 
OlHhaflBlana Agatbodaa avenged himielf in kind on the murderers 
of bia aoM, byaUying tbakindtvJ of thoae who had aenred with him 

Ob bia taton to Sloily, be found that a large portion of the troops, 
aad aaveial of tba dtiaa, bad gone over to Daioocratea, who himaeU 
aapind to tba torareignty. He therefore made peace with the Cartha- 
ginians, and eommenml a war sgainst tha exiles, whom he defeated, 
and trracheroualy slew to the number of 7000, after they had laid 
down tbeir arms under aunranoe of safety. But he received Deino- 
e irt aa with fsTour, and appointed bim hia general After thia he 
aatotook aa axpeditioo into Italy against the Bnittii, laid the Lipari 
lahadi aadar eoattibotioo, aad made himaalf master of Crotona, but 
araa eUigad by aarara lUncaa to leaTe bia main deaigna uncompleted. 
Hia aaUtiaa araa to reader Sicily a great naval power ; and he had 
adraaead (sr la tba proaeentiAn of this attempt when he died, by one 
•eeomt of a miaefable and wasting sickness, by another of poison 
admiuisteRd by Msoon, one of bia aasoeiatea, in concert with his own • 
fnadaon. Hia death took phua in the year ac. 289, at the age of 72, 
after a ^^ of U yearn 

AOATHODiKMOlf , of Alexandria, a map-maker, and apparently the 
•olbor of tha BMpa (imad in the oltleat manuacripta of the geography ' 
of Ckadioa Ptola— a*. There can be no doubt that the work of 
F lnl a w— a waa aaeompanied br mape; if indeed it ia poasible that a 
labalar tyatam of gaognphy Uke bia could be without them. Maps 
*m pfelaa «f oopptr ai* mentiooad by Herodotus, who wrote above 
•00 yaara bafot* P t nl a wa a. Bat aa wa know nothing at all about 
tiM aga of AgathodMaoa, tpa eaaaot eooelade, as aome do, that tha 
ampa of P inlwM W W ««• adartfOOM by him. It Is mora likely that 
b* waa a hiar aditar or Mnaader af tbem. In the ^'ienna and Vane- 
tiaa HaaaacHp4a tba following note lo Greek is found at the end of 
tba BM|av-''Aoeonling to tha aigbt booka of the Oeograpbical works 
af Claadiaa Ptalamaa^ Agatbodmooo of AlaxandrU delineated tha 
whelasarth." It baa baas iaiiwm) from this, that Agathodcmon waa 
• aaatrmponry of Plolcnwaa. Bat thte doea not aaem to be quite 
Tba abapa which Agathodmnoa gara to tha different 
I of tbo aaitb m al nt a h i a dlu ground on modani mapa till the 
1 ef regolar aarvaya became in use : and indeed till of late year*, 
maay fcalaraa of oar mapa were only the traditional delinestiona of 
Iha aid BM|KBttkani of Alexandria. (Schotll, roL il; Bearan, Dt 
nrntOmPlaUmai: ftoLMMMV, ClAVDtvt.) 

AQATHOir. a aattva of BldBy, aueeaadad Domnui In the see of 
HMaa an. «78. Tba Emperor CeaalaatiBa Pogonatus having con- 
»akad a geaaial eooacii at CoaateatiMqida, *.». MO, Agathon sent 
taataa to it, wheaeaanmd ia eoodaaraiDg tba bcraay of the Mono- 
tkeUtas, *bo Mvtaadsd that, h ao u aa qu a u ea of tba onion of the two 
*** *?-*." * f'T. ** Cbriat, there waa in him only one will and 
aaa oparaMea, aa opMoii which appear* to have been till then coun- 
" " by Popa HoDoriua I. These 

, to whidi ttia miada of the Orientals 
^-^ __,:__,^ i.- »:;z-J^«»»lB»aa tha mora aobar and matter- 
aMHtdMBai«r«a1Kaat CooataatJaa raBlttad tafkroorof Agathoa 
Ito aaaal laa whhk th. ata of Roma prid to tha ampttwr Siaw^ 

aaw alaatioe prarioaa to obtainiiw tba imparial confirmation of tba 
bishop olaot Tba eoofirmation itself bowarar continued to be ra- 
oolrad for a eonaidarabla time after, if not from the emperor, at leaat 
mwa tba axarob of Ravenna, who was the emperor's repreeentative in 
Italy. Agathon died a.d. 082. He is numbered by tha Church of 
Roma amoag ita sainta. (Sandini, Vila Pontifiatm itoaaaor a i a «x 
Antiiptii MoHumentU CoUeeta.) 

AUESILA'CS, younger aon of Arohidamua, king of Laeedvmon, 
aueeaadad hia brother Agis, &o. 898, to the exclusion of bit nephew 
Laotyehidaa, who labonred under the stigma of bastardy, being believed 
to be the aon of Aloibiadas, and not of Agis, his reputed father. As 
thaerovm deaoanded in direct line from father to son, the sucoeaaion of 
AgeaiUus seemed, in his youth, to be barred ; and hia education was 
conducted as that of a private person, in all tha strictness of Spartan 
discipline. He was lame, and advantage waa taken of this to excite a 
prejudice against him; yet ao high waa bia personal character, or so 
general tha belief in the apurioas birth of Leotyohidaa, that by a 
vote of tha general aaaembly, the heirapparent waa poaaad over, 
and AgesiUus was appointed king. 

In the first year of his r«ign a plot waa formed to effect a change of 
government. The political constitution, established by Lycurgas, bad 
degenerated into an olisarcby of a peculiar kind. Almost nil political 
power, with Uie exclusive right to hold lii^h civil or mtlittry offloe, 
waa cngroaeed by those families who boostod to bo of pure Spartan 
blood, the term Spartan being opposed to LacedtemoDian. The Laoe- 
dnmonians are coujactureil to have been the progeny of eufranchised 
Helots, strangers associated into the citizenship, a remnant of tho 
Aohoii, and In a word, all who could not trace an unblemished line of 
Spartan daacant to the early ages of the monarchy. Foreigners might 
become members of the community aud LacecUomoniana ; but they 
could never become Spartans ; at least, Herodotus only knew of two 
instancea up to this time (ix. 88, 85). The object of Cinadoii's con- 
spiracy, who complained that he counted only forty Spartans in the 
agora, or place of aaaembly, and that these were all official peraons, 
was to extend the right of holding their high ofBoea to all citizena. 
The plot was discovered before it waa ripe ; Cinadon, the author and 
ringleader, was executtrd, and the Spartans held fast their monopoly. 

In order to prosecute more effectually the war with Persia (B.C. 
396), Agesilaus waa sent to command in Asia. At setting out, he 
pledged himself either to conclude an honourable peace, or to disable 
his enemies from giving any further disturbance to the Qreeks. His 
first object was to conciliate the Asiatic cities by prudent manage- 
ment and liberality ; and he auoeeeded in reconciling their factious. 
It may be doubted whether the design of Agesilaus was limited to 
tho protection of the Qreek states of Asia. But the war that broke 
out in Greece, aft t ho hod been about two years in Aaia, did not 
allow him to follow up his suooassaa. 

The intriguea of the Persiana and the hatred of the Spartan influ- 
ence hod ooeaaloned a dangerous league to be formed against Sparta. 
Tbobes, Argos, and Corinth declared against the Laoedaimonians, and 
Athens followed the example st the pressing instance of the Thebana. 
The ephori ordered Agcailaus home ; in the height of his glory, and 
with the prospect of victory, he instantly obeyed. Tlie lrftcedB>- 
monians and their euemiea met near Coroneia in Uoeotia, and a fierce 
battle took place (August, i>.c. 394). The Thehona alone made a 
gallant reaistanca. The Spartan king was wounded, and obtained only 
a doubtfiil victory. He returned to Sparta, not importing with him 
the luxuriea of Asia, but adhering to the temperance and frugality 
characteristic of his country's discipline. Tho probability of Athens 
recovering her former power after her walls were rebuilt (B.C. 892), 
induced the Spartaua to aend Antalddas (b.c. 887) with proposals to 
Persia, favourable to themaelves, but disadvantageous to the rest of 
Greece. The bearer of these offers waa the peraonal enemy of Agesi- 
laus, and was supposed to have a mean pleasure in lessening hia 
power and tarnishing his glory. The Persians dictated tho treaty 
in the language of conquerors (Xen. ' Hellen.' ▼., i. 31 ), and Artaxerxea 
coucluded with denouncing war ogiiinst those who sliould not submit 
to hia terms. The Tlicbans refused ; but their steadioeaa was shaken 
by preparations for coercion on the part of the ephori, invidiously 
recommended by Agesilaus, in revenge for a former affront. Sparta 
had now, though not worthily, recovered her power in Greece. Her 
virtues, indeed, were to be found rather in adversity than prosperity ; 
nor did she profit by her own experience, that tynuuiy leads to tlio 
destruction of the tyrant Phoobidos, one of her gonenils, on hia 
march into Thrace against Olynthus, vros enoampcd in the neighbour- 
hood of Thebes, whue parties woro to nearlv balanced, that Ismcnioa 
and Leontiades, the heads of opposite factions, exereised tho chief 
magiiitracy together. Leontiades, who courted tho friendship of 
I^acednmon, acoretly introduced Pbcobidas and his troops into the 
Cadmeia, tho citadel of Thebes (B.a 882). This at once gave 
the superioritv to that party of which be was the head ; Inmenian 
was anprehended, and 400 of his frienda immediately flud to Athens. 
Complaint waa made at Sparta of this treacherous aggreivion in time 
of peace. Agetilaua was, in general, more just and liberal than tho 
nsst of his countrymen ; but he contended that it waa necessary to 
ezamiue whether the possession of the Cadmeia was of advantage to 
Sparta. The decree of the Spartans was, at we might expect, In 
tbalr own favour. The aaaembly roaolred to keep the citndel, and to 





bring Ismenias to trial. But a counter-revolution was soon effected ; 
aud the Spartans were compelled to evacuate the citadel. 

That the Lacedxmonian?, when now at the height of power, were 
all at once involved iu a train of misfortunes which effectually broke 
their supremacy, is ascribed by Xenophon to the divine anger against 
their perfidious seizure of Thebes. Agesilaus probably had come 
round to the same opinion ; for lie excused himself from the com- 
mand of the army sent to reduce the Theban revolutionists, on the 
plea of being weighed down by age. His colleague, Cleombrotus, was 
appointed iu his stead. The events which occurred during the absence 
of Agesilaus, form no part of the present subject. On returning 
home, Cleombrotus left Sphodrias at Thespiae, io command of part of 
his army. Sphodrias, whether from his own folly, or, as many 
belieied, induced by Pelopidas, made a most unwarrantable and faith- 
leas inroad upon Attica. The Athenians complained to Sparta, and 
Sphodrias was recalled, and brought to triaL Unfortunately, Agesilaus 
was persuaded to exert his influence in the delinquent's favour, and 
he was! acquitted ; at which the Athenians were so much offended, 
that they immediately concluded an aUiance with Thebes against 
Sparta. Agesilaus then resumed the command and held it through 
two successive campaigns, till obliged to resign through failing 

The battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), in which the Lacedaemonians under 
Cleombrotus were overcome by inferior numbers, produced a striking 
iustanca of Spartan character. The news arrived at Sparta during a 
religiotM festival, but the ephori did not allow the celebration of it to 
be interrupted. The list of the slain was sent to the houses of their 
kindred, and the women were told to bear their sorrows in silence. 
Those parents whose children had met with a glorious death went 
abroad the next day to receive congratulations; the friends of the 
survivors kept their houses, as if in shame and sorrow. On this 
occasion, a number of the combatants having fled, Agesilaus was 
allowed to suspend the law which visited cowardice with disgraceful 
punishment. He prudently announced that it might sleep for one 
day only, and then resume its power. 

There was a proverb, frequently repeated by Agesilaus, that "a 
Spartan woman had never seen the smoke of an enemy's camp ; " 
but he had the mortification to tee his proverb belied. The Theban 
army increased daily by the defection of the allies of Sparta ; it pene- 
trated into Laconia, and laid waste the whole country ; the city how- 
ever was saved by the prudence of Agesilaus, who shut himself up iu 
.SpaHa, and avoided an engagement. Epaminondaa did not venture 
to assault the city ; and at last, his allies growing weary of the service, 
the winter approaching, and relief coming to Sparta from Athens, the 
Theban general found it necessary to retreat. 

After the death of Kpamiuondas, at the battle of Mantinea (b.c. 862), 
the weariness of all parti>-s produced a partial cessation of hostilities. 
Agesilaus was now above eij^hty years old, but he had still vigour enough 
left to lead an army into Kgypt, to assist the Egyptians who had 
rebelled agaiust the Persian king. According to Plutarch, Agesilaus 
went expressly to help Tachos against his master King Artaxerxes II.; 
but a rival to Tachos starting up in the person of ^ectanebos, another 
Egyptian, Agesilaus found it convenient to change sides. After esta- 
blishing Nectanebos in the government of Egypt, the old king set out 
on his voyage homewards, loaded with money aud presents, the reward 
of bis services and his treachery. Being driven by contrary winds on 
the coast of Africa, he died there at the advanced age of eighty-four. 
His attendants preserved the body in melted wax, and took it to Sparta 
to bo bui-ieil, consistently with the usages of their country, which did 
not allow the body of a king to rest in a foreign land. 

The character of Agesilaus is exalted by Xenophon far above its 
merits. The historian w,^s on terms of personal intimacy with the 
Spartan king, and was besides no great admirer of the constitutional 
forms of Athens, his native city, which he loved to contrast disadvan- 
tageously with those of Sparta. We may admire the energy and 
vigour of Agesilaus, and grant him a full share of those peculiar 
virtues which characterised his country. He may have been temperate 
in his habits, kind to bis friends, and not cruel to his enemies ; but 
more than one public act of his life throw suspicion on his integrity 
as an individual and a statesman. 

(Plutarch, Life of Agailaut ; Xenophon, HeUenica, and Panegyric 
on AgetUaui; Pausanias, iii. 9.) 

AQLS L, king of Spai-ta, was the son of Eiirysthenes, and grandson 
of Aristodemus, to whom Laconia was allotted after the Heracleid 
invasion. Aristodemus had two sons, Eurysthenes aud Procles : and 
this Agis was, therefore, the second in one of the series of that double 
race of kings, which reigned conjointly. His reign is said to have 
commenced about B.a 1032, but no certain dates can be assigned to 
these early times. Agis deprived the conquered people of the equal 
political rights to which his father had admitted them. The inhabit- 
ants of the town of Hclos having attempted to regain their freedom 
were reduced by him to the abject bondage so long endured by the 
class of the Helots. (Pausanias, iii. 2.) 

AGIS II., the son of Archidamus II., reigned from B.C. 427 or 420 
to 897. In the fourteenth year of the Peloponnesian war the Lace- 
damonians endeavoured to recover their influence in Peloponnesus, 
asd marclied out with all their force under Agis. The Argeian army, 
against which his operations were directed, was completely hemmed 

in. Two Argeians went privately to Agis, and pledged themselves to 
effect a i-econciliation if he would grant a truce of four months. To 
this he consented. The order to retreat was heard with astonish- 
ment by the army of Agis, and the Argeians, on their part, were 
highly incensed against their countrymen for having defrauded them 
of an opportunity, as they thought, of destroying the enemy. Agis 
was called to account, and it was proposed to fine him, and demolish 
his house ; but his humble demeanour and earnest entreaty prevailed, 
and he was allowed to resume the command, under the mortifying 
restriction of a superintending council. He made amends, a short 
time after, by defeating the Argeians, and their allies the Athenians, 
in the great battle of Mantineia. (Thucydides, v. ; Pausanias, iii. 8.) 
At the siege and surrender of Athens, B.C. 40i, accompanied with the 
mortifying demolition of the long walls, and the fortifications of 
Peiraeus, Pausanias and Agis, the two kings of Sparta, conducted the 
operations by land, while Lysauder blockaded the city with his fleet. 
In B.C. 401 Agis conducted an army into Elis, which yielded him 
abundant spoil, since, as the scene of the Olympic games, it had 
usually been held sacred, aud exempted from the ravages of war. 
Having gone to Delphi to dedicate a tenth of the spoil, lio fell sick 
on his return, and died a few days after he reached Sparta. Agis 
was succeeded by his brother Agesilaus. 

AGIS III., the son of Archidamus III., reigned from B.c, 338 to 
331 or 330. At the time of t,ho battle of Issus (333) he communi- 
cated with the Persian commanders in the Mg,ea.n, to obtain supplies 
for carrying on the war against Alexander iu Greece. While Alex- 
ander was engaged iu his fourth campaign in Asia, Agis laid siege to 
Megalopolis, a town in Peloponnesus, which held out till the arrival 
of Antipater, the governor of Macedonia. A bloody battle was fought, 
in which the Lacedaemonians behaved with their accustomed gallantry, 
but were overpowered by superior numbers. Agis fell after his 
phalanx was broken, and with him above 5300 of the Lacedaemonians 
and their allies. The Lacedajmonians sued for peace, and obtained 
it ; giving hostages that they would submit to Alexander's decision ou 
their fata (Pausan., iii. 10 ; Arrian, ii. 13.) 

AGIS IV., son of Eudamidas II., reigned from B.C. 244 to 240. 
The year after his accession he was defeated in an engagement with 
Aratus, the general of the Achaean league. But the chief interest of 
his reign lies in the attempt he made to restore the institutions of 
Lycurgus. Public manners had degenerated from their ancient 
severity ; the privileged class, to whom the name of Spartans was 
confined no longer, enjoyed the equal portion of laud prescribed by 
the ancient discipline. Of 700 families, to which theh- number was 
now reduced, not more than 100 possessed estates. These were rich, 
haughty, and licentious ; the poor were oppressed and burdened with 
debt. The two great features of the proposed reformatiou were, a 
new partition of the lands, and the abolition of all debts. Agis also 
proposed to abolish the distinction between Spartans and Lacedaemo- 
nians, retaining that between the Lacedcomonians and the Perioeci, or 
people of the smaller towns. These latter, however, were to be 
trained in the strict discipline of Lycurgue, and to succeed to the 
privilege of citizenship as vacancies occurred. In laying his propo- 
sals before the senate Agis recommended them by the offer of the 
first personal sacrifice, in the contribution of his own lands aud money 
to the common stock. His mother and his kindred followed his 
example. The multitude applauded : but his colleague Leouidas aud 
the rich men opposed the plan, aud persuaded the senate to reject it ; 
the question was lost by a majority of only a single vote. To rid 
himself of Leonidas, Agis contrived to get Lysander appointed one 
of the ephori ; who forthwith accused Leouidas of having violated tl'.j 
laws, by marrying a stranger, aud residing for a time iu a foreign 
land ; two acts forbidden to the race of Hercules. Leonidas could 
not venture to make his appearance : he was therefore deposed, and 
his crown devolved to his sou-in-law, Cleombrotus, who co-operated 
with Agis iu his measures of reform. On the expiration of Lysander's 
office, a reaction took place. As the reformers despaired of succeeding 
by mild means, Agis and Cleombrotus went to the place of assembly, 
plucked the ephori, now of the anti-reforming party, from their seats, 
and placed others iu their room. The life of Leouidas, who had 
returned into the city during the short triumph of his faction, was 
threatened ; but Agis himself protected him from assassination, 
meditated against him by Agesilaus, who was the uncle of Agis. 
The want of sincerity in this unworthy relation of the reforming 
king occasioned the failure of the scheme, when all its difficulties 
seemed to have been nearly overcome. Agesilaus was deeply in- 
volved in debt : he therefore persuaded tho two kings to burn all 
deeds, registers, and securities in the first instance. When the divi- 
sion was proposed he devised repeated pretexts for delay. Before the 
iirst measure, owing to these underhand practices, could bo completed, 
the Achseans, who were allies of Sparta, applied for assistance against 
the JEUAinna, who threatened to lay wiiste the country of Pelopon- 
nesus. Agis was sent to command the army, and exhibited the same 
republican virtues hi his military office as in his civil administration. 
He joined his forces to those of Aratus, whose over-caution gave no 
opportunity for enhancing the glory of the Lacedic^onian soldiery : 
but the conduct of the troops, and the rigid performance of every 
duty on the part of their commander, impressed both the allies and 
the enemy with respect for the commonwealth. 




Ih» nnifl^-n of Us oo — tnr . Tlw poor, 4iigwtod by flndiiic, Uwi 
•HkoMh iiMJItM wa tmm ooa of th« onlMri. Um Usda wot* not 
MdXiMonaag to vnm ,hti Ihrowa OmbmItm Into tb. pwty 
~ ' ' to datiuPOD* Cloombrotiu 
I to powrr. Acta wm aampdbd to fly to mm- 
bimAt MMMMd hin, and dncs«> l>io> *<> 

taHT. Bom* niiuliwnin Widt fw y paa mn, hm an|8*a ■"<» " 
■rim. Briw Qullirniil bj lb* oiikoci wbotbar bo did not repent of 
Zmlug hrti o J neod tBDontioMt bo i«|ili«l, tbat in tba bo* of dastb 

bavvoM Mi lapaikt 

of ao wortby ao (otarptwe. Ha waa eoo' 

■tod wttbfaidaaeatbaato: tb* plaa for tbia waa the 
tt a laaona. Ona of U* muMaamu waa mored to taara. 
Agia aaid to bfai, *■ UiaaBl ma aot ; aoflWring oqjoatly, I am happier 
Ihu mr Mwderara," Tba aniai^ of tba Tietoriou* party did not 
Md tea: bb aolbar and madaoUMr were atnuigl«l on bis body. 
Hb widow WM tondttily taken out of ber booaa by Leonidaa, and 
■Hitad M>lnet bOT wiu to bia mmi Claomenea. Tbouffa a huaband 
by MMBBohoB, ClaooMBea waa attaebad to bia wife, whoee oonTena- 
tta ImFirad Urn with tba deaira of aooompliabing tba projected 
[Clcowib^ (Flatanib, Lift ^ Agit.) 
' Tnere ware two di(tio(aiabad Oreek painters of 

Bottiger auppoaea that the 
the fiaadaoa of tlia elder, and tba son of Ariatophon the 

tbb aama, wbo were probably related. 


Tba elder A^kopbon Ured about aa SOO, and waa a natire of the 
itlsad of Tliaana. where Ua son Poljgnotos waa also bom. Aglao- 
pbon'a tiaataal dklinetiaB ia that of barine been the father and the 
tiialiiiiliii of Vv i jg uatat, wbo b the first ptinter reoorded in history 
who attained great bna. QnintQian ia tba only writer wlio speaks of 
tba atyk of Agbophoo, but be indieeriminately couples him with 
IVitjgiiutua. He aayi^ " NotwitbstandioK the simple colouring of 
rViljglMMua and A^bophon, which was little mors than the crude 
Iwtliiiiii^ nf what iraa aftanrards aeeompUnhed, many haTe, certainly 
witk aooM aawtatioii. pnfetrad their works to those of tho greatest 
I who iwi fft eitfii tbam." There oan be aa UtUe doubt that this 
I nliB to tba aider, aa tliat the following, from Cioero, refers to 
ha r>*"«* '• Cioero aaya, spaaldng of stylea, Aglaophon, Zenzis, and 
Apdiaa were all diSbtant in tlieir aararal styles, yet each was perfect 
ia Ida own styl<!. 

Nona of the works of tlie alder Aglaophon are particularly mentioned, 
lilllaM tlie winged Vietoiy apoken of by the scholiast on the ' Birds ' 
of Arbtnphanaa (▼. S7S) may be attributed to him. 

The two pietoraa of Aldbiadea mentioned by Atheninus must liave 
baaa lif tba you^ar. After Aldtriadaa, says Atbenoina, returned to 
Alheaa • vielor at tba Olympic gamee, he ezbibitad two picturea of 
Uaualf, oo* rfpnaentlng Ulympiaa and Pythias crowning him, and in 
tha athar be waa paintad extremely iMautiful, lying on the knees of 
RaoMa. Philareb attiibatea the Utter of tb eee piotorea to Ariatophon, 
the brother of Polygootua, and the snppoaad fttbar of the younger 
Agbwrtt'^ ; but aa the aooonnt of AtliaMaaa aeeords better with the 
Maa, n ia mon probably eomet« at leaat under the supposition that 
lliMa were two arUsto of tbb name. The beautiful horse apoken of by 
JDiaa waa probably the work of the younger Agbopbon. 

(Satdaa; QoiDtiUan, Jmtl. Orator, xii. 10, 8; AlheMSua, ziL 684 ; Flu- 
lM«h.i>eaiiiifs^l«; aoaro,Z» Oral, iii.7; JBXiMa,DtA*im.mBpUogo.) 

AOMESI, If ARU OABTANA, was bom at Milan in 1718. When 
traiy eovac, she dJsHngniahad berself by the acquisition of tlie Latin, 
Oiial. Haanw, VMoeh, Oaftaaa, and Spanish languagoa. She then 

to mathainatica and philoeopby, and at the age 
•r 19 wfoto ia dafceee of 1»1 thesaa, which were pubUshed in 1738, 
r Iha Ulb of • Propoaitiaaee Pbiloeophicn.' In 1748 she pub- 
l Imt stoat oalshratsil work, ' Inatituiiani Analitiche ad Uso dells 
abaaa.' ia two volomea 4to Tha first Tolume oontoina 
I of A%abi% with the application of Algebra to Oeometry ; 
oataiBa aa asadbat traatlaa on the Diiferential and Integn^ 
la 17(0, bar fbthar. wbo waa then a profeaeor of the unirei^ 
iMj af Boloana, being ill, aba obtained permiarion from the Pope 
Haaailllit XIV. to sap|3y bis place. She ended her career, but in what 
yaar wo oaaaot aaoaitain, Inr retiring into a oonraat, and taking the 
MflL SwdbdiaJaaMry, im.aaodSl. 

Tha aaaead voloaM of tlia 'AnJytical Institutions' was transUted 
tato rraaeh tnr ITAntalay, with addiUons by Boaaut, and publbhed 
fai 177&, Tba whole wis tranabtad into Eogliab, and pub- 
I of Bartm Xaaerea ia 1801. 

AOM OLO, BAOCiO U'. a Flocaatiaa, waa at first a woodHngrarer, 
aad rfbtwavdi aa •rsUtaet. Ha waa bora hi 1480. and badiOready 

^* "— ihio waatettoa in tba ptaeliea of hU earlier profea- 

wh« ho was attraolad to tba atady of architecture, 
■ao it aaioaR tba toeiaioa of antiquity there, 
doiiag hb rseidaBoa bi Rome, to bare con- 
Ito aaploy Uaeelf ia bb art sad boainaea aa a wood.engT«Ter, 
IMhab^ for Iha Maaa of aaba bt aaes , aad bb atodio, or workshop, 
«asfk«fa«to<bythoMoa*aBta*at aiaa of taste and learning then 
te ■■MAMKttMS war* RaflbaDs^ Miehal Aapio, SaaaoTino, aad 


aa aa anhitaet ia norteoat Baooio waa aogagad 
af lapoitMea thars, aad aeqnirad notoriety of a 
aalan Ihreagh devbiioirt from the ordinary imetioe of 

the tima. He adorned the windowa of a mansion or palozio (as tlio 
Italiana tarm the large town-house of a dutinguished person), in the 
Piaaw di Santo Trinitl^ with firontupieoee, and put a flroctinpiecp, 
i«tn H *!^lg of eolnmna with a regular entablature, to the portal, in thu 
manner, indeed, which baa been so cuminoDly practised over since, 
and b at the present time in rogue, but which had been restricted to 
churebea up to tbb time. All the wits in Florence set upon poor 
Baodo, wbo was lampooned and ridiculed in every possible way, for 
making, aa it was said, a palace into a church ; indeed, he wns almoat 
induced to retrace his atepa, but being conscious that he had done 
wall, " be took baart and stood firmly." It was a norrlty, and as the 
biogiapber of all the architect* saja, " like almoat all other noreltiea, 
it was at the first scorned and afterwards worshipped." But the aama 
writer b somewhat eerere on him for making perhaps too bold a 
crowning comioe to the front of this identical edifice, saying that it 
looked like a boy with a huge hat on hia bead. 

Baocio had been engaged to complete the architectural arrangements 
about the tholobate or drum of the cupola of the metropolitan church 
of Santa Harb del I^ore, which were left incomplete by Hrtmelleschi, 
and whose derign for that part was lost Baccio waa about to supply 
what was wantTng after hu own invention, and had begun to cut away 
tbe toothings lefll>y Brunelleschi in the work because they did not suit 
what he proposed to do. At this juncture Michel Angelo happened 
to come to Florence from Home, and attacked him so violently on the 
unfitness of hb design, that Baocio was stopped, and in conaeqaenoe 
of subsequent disputes on the subject, the edifice, in that partioubr, 
still remains incomplete. 

Ibcdo d'Agnolo died in 1543, being eighty-three years of age, and 
left a son Qiuliono, an engraver and orohitect, who succeeded to the 
direction of his father's works. The most esteemed of Boccio's pro- 
ductions are the villa Boi^hesini, near Florence, and the campanile 
or bell-tower of tho church di Santo Spirito (a production of Bruncl- 
leachi's), in Florence. By some writers, the great paloz/.o Salviati, in 
the Transtiberino portion of Home, is attributed to this architect, 
but it ia mora commonly referred to Nanni di Baccio Bi^jio, a man of 
far inferior merit and reputation to Baccio d'Agnolo. 

AGKICOLA, CNjEUS JULIUS, was bora June 13, a.d. 37, at 
Forum Julii, now Fr<5jus, in Provence. Hb father was Julius Onc- 
cinus, a writer of some eminence on agriculture, and distingtiished aa 
a senator for bis eloquence and integrity. His virtues were the cause 
of hb destruction. The emperor Caligula, desirous to get rid of his 
father-in-law, M. Silonus, called upon Qrsecinus to undertake the accu- 
sation which was to be the pretext for his destruction. Qnccinus 
refused, and met with the same fate as the unfortunate Silanus. 
Agricola was an infant at tho time of his father's death. His mother 
was Julb Procilla, who appears to have watehed with great care over 
the education of her son. After having studied philosophy at MossUia, 
now Harseilles, the principal seat of learning in Gaul, Agricola was 
sent to Britain, where he served under the immedbte eye of Suetonius 
PauUnus, the period of hb aervice including the grand insurrection 
under Boadicea, in 61. In 62 he returned to Rome, where he married 
Domitb Deoidiana, a Udy belonging to one of the first families. In 63 
he went as qunator to Asia, where he proved his integrity by refusing 
to unite with the proconsul Solvius Titunus in the system of extortion 
so common in the Roman provinces. During the latter part of Nero's 
reign he was tribune and prater, but from a regard to the jealousy 
of the emperor remained comparslively inactive. On the accession of 
Qalba in 68 he was appointed to examine the property of the temples, 
and to restore whatever had been taken away by Nero. In the con- 
teete between Otho and Vitellius his mother was murdered by a detach- 
ment from Otho's fleet, which landed in Liguria and ravaged the estates 
of the family near Intemelium <\'intimiglia). On his way from tho 
funeral of his mother, he learned that Vespasian had been proclaimed 
by the legions of the east He declared in his favour, and was rewarded 
by tlie command of the 20th legion in Britain. On his return to Romu 
about 73 he was enrolled by the emperor among the patricians, and 
appointed governor of Aquitania, a province which included the south- 
western port of Oallia, from the Pyrenees to the Loire. After a suc- 
cessful adminbti-ation of nearly three years, he was recalled to receive 
the still higher honour of the consubhip. HU daughter was now 
betrothed to the butorbn Tacitus, and tne next year she was givou 
to him in marriage. Agricola, at the expiration of hb consulship, was 
appointed governor of Britain, and prooeeded thitlier about 78. He 
passed seven or perhap* eight summon in Britain ; in the first of 
which he added North Wales and tha sacred bland of Anglesey to the 
Roman province. By the end of the fourth camimign the whole bland 
south of the Clyde and the Fortli.was secured to the Romans by a line 
of forte running from the one owtuary to the other. Every summer 
extended tho dominion of the Itoman arms, but it was only in the last 
year of his government that he entirely broke the spirit of the Britou» 
by the dsfeat of Oalgaoua on the Grampian Hills. At the close of 
this campaign a Roman fleet, for the first time, sailed round the bland. 
Agricob taught the Britons to settle in towns, to improve their dwelt- 
iluB, to erect temples, and to cultivato the arte of civiliaed life. Ho 
*« up a system of education for the sons of the chiefs, who adopted 
ia time the bognaga and the drcas of Rome. By these means he in a 
great meaaore reconciled thu natives to tho yoke which they had pre- 
viously so ill enilured. Tb(i<e splsndil auocnsset wcra unpalntabia to 





the suspicious Domitian, aud Agricola was honourably recalled, under 
the pretext of being sent as governor to Syria. By order of the 
emperor he entered Rome at night, and, after a cold reception, retired 
into private life. When his consular rank a few years after entitled 
him to the proconsulship of Asia or Africa, he wisely declined an 
appointment which had been fatal to the previous possessor. He died 
on August 23, a.d. 93, in the 56th year of his age, not without suspicion 
of poison. The emperor could not endure the presence of one who was 
universally regarded as the only man equal to the exigency of the 
times. Dion Cassius asserts that he was killed by Domitian. His 
property was left between his wife Domitia, his only child the wife of 
Tacitus, and the emperor Domitian. All that we know of Agricola, 
with the exception of a single chapter in Xiphilin (66, 20), which is 
very inaccurate, is from the pen of Tacitus, whose interesting narrative 
exhibits him in the character of a great, wise, and good man. 
(Tacitus, Agricola.) 

AGRICOLA, RODOLPHUS, one of the most learned and remark- 
able men of the 1 5th century, was bom at a village variously written 
Bafflon, Baffeln, Bafflen, Eaffel, or Bafflo, two or three miles from 
Grouingen, in Friesland, about the end of August, 1443, not in 1442, 
as often stated. (See the inscription on his tombstone as given in 
M. Adam's 'Apograph. Monument Haidelburgens,' p. 22.) In a short 
notice of Agricola by M. Guizot, in the ' Biographie Universelle,' it is 
said, but we do not know upon what authority, that his name was 
properly Huesmann. His first master is also there said to have been 
the famous Thomas h Kempis. After distinguishing himself at school 
he prooceded to the college of Louvain, where he remained till he took 
his degree of Master of Arts. He was then Bolicite<l to accept a professor- 
ship in that college, which he declined, and set out on his travels. He 
went to Paris, whence, after remaining some time, he proceeded to 
Italy, and arrived in 1476 at Ferrara, where he resided during that 
and the following year, and attended the prelections of Theodore Gaza 
on the Greek language. He also extended his own reputation by giving 
a similar course on the language and literature of Rome. The favour 
of the duke, Hercules D'Este, and the admiration of the most famous 
scholars of Italy, were liberally bestowed upon the accomplished 
foreigner, who used to contend, we are told, in amicable rivalry with 
the younger Guarino in writing Latin prose, and with the Strozzis in 
verse. After visiting Rome and some of the other cities of Italy, he 
left that country, probably in 1479. On his return to Holland he 
appears to have occupied a chair for a short time in the university of 
Groningen, and he was also chosen a syndic of that city, in which 
capacity he spent about half a year at the court of the emperor 
Maximilian I. In the year 1482 be removed to Heidelberg on the 
invitation of Joannes Dalburgius, the bishop of Worms, whom he 
had taught Greek, and by whom he was appointed to one of the pro- 
fessorships in the univei-sity of Heidelberg. The remainder of his life 
seems to have been i^pent partly at Heidelberg and partly at Worms, 
where lie lodged in the house of his friend the bishop. At the request 
of the Elector Palatine, who greatly delighted in his conversation, he 
composed a course of lectures on ancient history, which he deUvered 
at Heidelberg, the Elector being one of his auditors. He also, after 
coming to reside in the Palatinate, commenced the study of the Hebrew 
tongue. In this new study Agricola had made great progress, when a 
sudden attack of illness carried him off at Heidelberg on October 28, 
1485, at the early age of 42. There wa.s certainly no literary name out 
of Italy so celebrated as that of Agricola during his age; and, if we 
except Politian and Mirandola, perhaps not even Italy could produce 
a acbolar equal to him. The most eminent cultivators of classical 
learning in the next age have united in placing Agricola among the 
first of his contemporaries. We need only mention Cardinal Eembo, 
Ludovico Vivcs, the elder Scaliger, and, above all, Erasmus. Agricola 
indeed may be regarded as the immediate forerunner of the last great 
writer, and in some degree as the model on which he was formed. 
Agricola, in the same manner as Erasmus, appears to have clearly 
discerned many of the ecclesiastical abuses of his time, and to have 
anticipated the revolution in the opinions of men that was at hand, 
although he refrained from doing anything to urge on the crisis. 
lieaidLS his skill in ancient learning, Agricola was a skilful practitioner 
of the arts of music and painting. His collected works were published, 
OS it is commonly stated, in two volumes 4to at Cologne, in 1539, under 
the title of ' R. Agricolso Lucubrationes aliquot,' &c According to 
Gesner's ' Bibliotheca Universalis,' and the • Bibliotheca Belgioa ' of 
Foppcns, the principal contents of this collection are his three books 
' De Inventione Dialectica ;' some letters, orations, and poems ; and 
some translations from Aphthonius, Lucian, Isocrates, and other 
Greek authors. It does not appear to contain, as commonly stated, 
his abridgment of ' Universal History.' The work ' De Inventione 
Dialectica' is the most celebrated of Agricola's performances. It has 
been repeatedly printed with ample scholia : in 1534 a compendium of 
it, by iloannea Visorius, appeared at Paris ; and au Italian translation 
of it was published in 4to at Venice, in 1567, by Oratio Toscanelliu It 
ia con."idered to have been one of the earliest treatises which attempted 
to change the scholastic philosophy of the day. Morhof speaks of it 
a.1 having anticipated in several respects the ' Logic ' of Peter Ramus. 
In the injunctions given by Henry VIII. to the University of Cambridge 
in 1 535, che ' Dialectics ' of Agricola and the genuine ' Logic ' of Aristotle 
are ordered to be taught instead of the works of Scotua and Barkcus ; 


and iu the statutes of Trinity College, Oxford, founded some years 
later, we find a similar recommendation. 

(Besides the works already mentioned, the following authorities may 
be refeiTed to for further information respecting Agricola : — Bayle, 
Bictionnaire ; Baillet, Jugemens da Sarans ; Vitce Germanorum Philo- 
sopkorum, a Melchiori Adamo; Vie d'Erasme, par Burigny, Paris, 
1757, vol. i., p. 17 ; Vita R. Agricolw, autore Ger. Geldenhaurio Novio- 
mago, in Vii-oi-um Eruditione et Doctrina Illmtrium Vitis, Francfort, 
1536, p. 83, &o. See also an interesting letter on the habits and cha- 
racter of Agricola, from Melancthon, dated Frankfort, March 28, 1539, 
in the edition of Agricola's works published at Cologne.) 

AGRIPPA, HENRY CORNELIUS, a remarkable person.ige, who 
may be ranked with his contemporaries, Paracelsus and Cardan, as at 
once a man of learning and talent, and a quack. Agrippa was bom 
at Cologne, of a noble and ancient family, on September 14, 1486. 
His first employment was as secretary at the court of the Emperor 
Maximilian, after which he served in the wars in Italy, where, having 
repeatedly signalised himself by his bravery, he obtained the honour 
of knighthood. About his 20th year be seems to have assumed the 
character of a scholar, and to have commenced a wandering life. The 
profession which he took up was that of a physician ; but he allowed 
himself also to be regarded as an alchemist, an astrologer, and even as 
a practitioner of magical arts. Not satisfied with this extensive range, 
he thought proper to set up likewise for a great theologian, as well as 
to indulge himself with occasional excursions into other departments 
of literature and science. The efiect of all this pretension, supported 
as it was by unquestionable talent and by real acquirements of great 
extent, was to raise Agrippa, for a time at least, to high estimation 
and importance. Pressing invitations were sent to him by several 
monarchs that he would enter into their service — by our Henry VIII. 
among the rest. He appears to have visited England before this, one 
of his pieces being d-ited from London in 1510. His excessive impru- 
dence however was continually involving him in difficulties ; and 
especially, having by some of the effusions of his satiric spirit pro- 
voked the enmity of the monks of the church, he experienced the 
consequences to the end of his days. After having led for many 
years what may almost be called a fugitive life, he died at Grenoble, 
in 1535. He had been thrice married, and had several children. Tha 
works of Agrippa were published in two volumes, 8vo., at Leyden, in 
1550, and also at Lyon in 1600. The most remarkable of them, and 
the only one which is now remembered, is his treatise ' On the Vanity 
of the Sciences,' which is a caustic satire on the kinds of learning 
most in fashion in that age. 

(Bayle, Didimmaire Iliitorique, art. Agrippa ; Gabriel Naudd, 
Apology for the Great Men who have been suspected of Magic.) 


AGRIPPA, MARCUS VIPSANIUS, was bom B.C. 63, within a 
few months of Octavius, afterwards the Emperor Augustus, with 
whom throughout life he was so intimately associated. They studied 
together at Apollonia in Illyria. The death of Julius CiEsar brought 
them both to Rome, and Agrippa was charged by Octavius to receive 
the oath of fidelity from the legions that were favourable. In B.C. 43 
he was chosen consul, and conducted the prosecution of Cassius, one 
of the murderers of Cicsar. Two years later he had a command as 
pnctor, in the war against Lucius Antonius, whom he besieged in 
Perusia. In B.C. 40 the town was taken by him, and towards the closo 
of the same year he recovered Lipontum from M. Antonius. In 
B.C. 38 he added to his reputation by a victory over the Aquitani, and 
rivalled the glory of Julius Ccesar by leading a second Roman army 
across the Rhine. Octavius, now Octavianus, offered him a triumph, 
which he declined; but the consulship was conferred on him in B.C. 37. 
Su'xtus Pompeius, being at this time master of the sea, Agrippa was 
charged with the construction of a fleet. By cutting a passage through 
the barrier of Hercules, which separated the Lucrine Lake from the 
sea, he converted that lake and the interior lake of the Avernus into 
a serviceable harbour, giving it the name of Portus Julius. Having 
there prepared a fleet and exercised his mariners, he, in B.C. 30, 
defeated Sextus Pompeius at Mylje, and completely broke his naval 
supremacy at Naulochus, on the coast of Sicily. For these victories 
he received a naval crown, .and was most probably the first on whom 
that honour was conferred. In the year B.C. 33, though of consular 
rank, he accepted the office of xdilc, his administration of which was 
distinguished by the restoration of the numerous aqueducts, and the 
erection of fountains throughout the city. The victory of Actium, 
B.C. 31, which left Augustus without a rival, was mainly owing to tho 
skill of Agi-ippa as admiral of the fleet. In reward for his services, 
he shared with Micoenas the confidence of Augustus, who associated 
him with himself in the task of reviewing the senate ; and in B.C. 23 
again raised him to the consulate, giving him, at the same time, in 
marriage his own niece, the sister of the young Marcellus. Agrippa 
had been previously married to tho daughter of Cicero's friend, 
Attious. Attica, by whom he had Vipsania, afterwards the wife of 
Tiberius, may have been dead, or it is not improbable that he divorced 
her to make room for Mnrcella. A third consulate awaited him tho 
year following, in which he dedicated to Jupiter, in commemoration 
of the victory near Actium, the celebrated Pantheon, which remains 
to the present day, perhaps the most beautiful specimen of Roman 
architecture. It ia now called, from its form, Santa Maria della 




Wl rtfll h«i «lw immipntm, -U. AplM* L. F. Coii 
hah.' la &c IS Im aataMl A uga i *u i in tt« ledaetion of 
Ik* OutaM, aad ■ ftw^ fc lud tb* hMonr of r*pr<«rntini; thr 
I bMwMBtlM oafbttanala JuU> and Marcvlhiii, 
d est M th« naannr of Anguitoi. Y*t the 


' Mv <Im Boomh; nrf «iw iplMMUd awidi of Agrippk, 

, of Ui waMMMMi wHh MaitoUa, gmr* him in lome 

I • oopwfa r tMt. A iffSiry nnuv op botwatn U>«ni, whidi 

I br Mw uatilvoM eoodiMt of Aagtuta^ mar* capMially 

toliif Ml M^«i« UhMM ia aa M; when, nnpamitiy on liii daoth-bed, ba 

~ I UM roooTery of tli« w n poror, 

I WM NDt by Aogu^tui 

' Brria.' ' Death in ■ few months 

MbMd^ Mrt Ui rial to Afrippa. Oa the roe 
■■tiwlfno naoiaod Ui ialaaiM*, aad Agrippa 
tato I wuMi w* exilo m a m o iiiui of Brm. I 

I Ui rirol, mA bo wo* aet nofrly neellfd to Rome, hot, at the 
of Hm oMporer, dtrorard hii wife MateeUa la 

n iiowl of IIm o Mp w ui, dtrarerd hii wife MateeUa to marry the yonng 
widow Jolk. la *.& 19 b* ilnally nbdoed the Canta)>ri, who htA 
•fda booa la omo for mot* tbaa two jmn. Agrippa wai now looked 
apoa 00 tbo nadoabUd wiwiw nr of Angnrtui; and in the following 
Mar wai as to laoeiatod la tb* impCTial diiinity ai to share the 
MbaaUM pow« with tho eiaporor fbr fire years. In bc. 17 he pro- 
' tha* to tlM Kaet, where hi* adminintnttion aeeme to 

■rtirfbetioD, mora eipeeially amonf; the Jewisli 
who baoediod larK^ly by hia protectioa On liia return he 
la wt TOd tb* tribanieian power for a leeond period of fire yean. His 
bit military doty waa to qaeU an initirrection amoni; the Pannonians, 
for which hia pm i a il wa« itiflftrient. After this expe<tition he 
iHui uo J to OMBpasia, where he died iiiddenlT in March, n.c. 12. Hia 
(MBily by Jalia war* Oaini and l.uriiK, whom Au^stni adopte<1, 
Jolia, Agripplna, and Arrinpa Postuinus, Imru, as his name imports, 
altar llM daath of hii father. It has been olwerred that erery 
oa* of tbaa* cbbm to a prematnre end. (Appian, riutarcb, Dion, 
BoatoBioa, Ac.) 

AORIPPIKA, tba daogbter of M. Vipianioi Agrippa and Jnlia, the 
only eUld of Aanitai, married Oermanieua, the ion of Drusus, and 
B«l**w of TibariiM, to whom she bora nine ehildrvn. Of tbeae three 
diad la tbair iafbaey, but among the remaining six were Caligula, 
aftarwarda omperor, aad the leeond Agrippina, the mother of Nero. 
On Iha daath of Atignaloi, A.n. 14, Qermanicus nod liis wife were 
wl»b the army on the banlu of tlic Rhine, where tliey Und much 
diffienlty in restraining the soldiery from proclaiming OtrmsnicuB in 
opporitiaa to Mi ande. On thii occasion Aprippin^, by her detor- 
miaad baarfa g, ih owed henelf worthy of her de«eetit from Augustus, 
aad tba (bUnwing year she had an opportunity of erincing tlio same 
spirit, in a naaie oocaaioaad by a report that the army of Cocina had 
Men eat on by Armiaios, and that the riotorious Oerroana were on 
tbo point of eroaaing the Rhine an<l inrading Oaul It waa proposed 
t odostf oy lb* bridge ; but Agrippina, in the absence of her huibRnd, 
INOiaulad tba diagraeeful expedient, and herself received the worO'Out 
tWOfi of CW iiBi, nipplying them with clothing^ and all that was 

pa^td b*r bmbaad to ttaa Eaal, and waa with him in Syriu 

Ml a TloUm, aaba aaapaetad, to the arts of the emi>eror and his 

1' that she would restrain her 
anding at Cnindisium with 
two of bar eUldrea, aad l>earing hemrlf the funeral urn of German!- 
I to eoorl tb* attention of the people, who received her in 

ity fcr tba aore of tb*ir wounds. In a.d. 17 Agrippina acoom- 

I bw hmbaad to tb* Eaal, and waa with him in Syria when be 
Tlolim, aa ba aaapaetad, to the ai 

r, IMk. Diarogardins his entreaty 

•Mat, iba prooMded to Ilalr, and li 

r bar ebfldrm, aad bearing hemrlf t 

eaa, aaaoMd to eeort tba attention of the , , .„ 

erowdfcTwo pnatoHaa eoborti^ sent l^" Tib«ius for the purpo>e, 
■ oiiMraaiid b« to Real*, wber* *b* was met by the consuls, the 
■* —» ■» ••* • "1* Jxxly of tb* dtiaens. The lubaequont tenor of 
MrMldaal waa raab aa to exasparala Tiberius, and when her cousin 
QW'^F'lobra (aj». M) waa aboot to \>e the object of a proaecutiou 
aaaawapd^tba *ap«ui, ib* rantured to exprcM her rorentment 
I* ^M^J^^S"* »o"»— "r*d Uttos. Agrippina had now remained 
in widowbood far aoraa ysora, when she asked his p<TmiMiion to 

f^T,T?5?L!!?*''^ ^"' Tiberins knew too well that the hus- 
l«»dor Agrinpte woald b* a daagmns enemy, and he partod from 
Itl! ??!??'* .*!*'** *"/ Miswer. The artiflcei of Sejsnus competed 
^^UlZt-S*^ T*"' ^' *''" ■f*°'" ''• 'Odocwl her to believe 
H?* T*? *'''* H***""*" *• rWDOT* her by prison, and Agrippina faUUy 
MaaMtboMipMmrby openly exhibitinc her luspioTons. She was 
h a a M l ii i t o tbo la laadof FtadaUuHa. and at last closed her life by 
staitillia Oitobw IS, A.D^ H-r two eldest .ons, Nero and, 
"^'fc.H;*..'?'**™ "^ TIbarin.. (Tacitus ; Suetonini) 

AOBIPIINA.Ih. daojAUr of Oermsnicus and the Agrippina of 
lb* prjawling article, waa bom in the chief town of tho Ubii, which 
Sr^n?!?!?!'. T ^- *?* ' ""^ "f.'.Koman colony, calling it after 

' ne. She was but fourteen 

marrisge, a.I). 2S, to On. 

1 son, who at firiit bore tlie 

^^ _^. -- at of Nero became Kmperor 

A T? ^'*'*^ ** Domitius, A.n. <0, her disKraoeful 
l-a . .. ? * "^ "y y>°*^ Caligula a pretext for banishment ; 

mTIZ^.!. rllyy- - !! ' "" *- "y "-"^""Hng her husband 
r—*? ,77?. — ***??'' " *<»!" I '"•■ rrciwl her 

I -*"??* "* *y*"" "f •>'«• "" Cl.u-liuP. 

IB vm waa brut u> ba b>castu,^>.., ..uv uu mo death of 

Veoalioa it waa legalhwd by a daere* of the lenate, and Agrippina 
bwama the fifth wife of tba emperor. Her first object wai to aecure 
to her own aon those axpaotationa to which Britauniens, the ion of 
Clandioi by the infamoni MeawUna, wai more equitably entitled. 
The marriage of Domltini to Octavia. daughter of tlie emperor, and 
hia adoption by thi> emperor himself, from which ho derived the name 
of Nero, at onoe placed him above Britannieus ; and in the year 54 
Agripntna completed the objaet of her ambition by poisoning her 
impetlal bnibamd. Her power over her son, who wai now at the 
bead of the empire, soon diaappeared ; and though for a time she 
partially recovered it by means of an inoistuoni intercourse with him, 
the boiaty of Popp»a destroyed even this influence ; and in the sixth 
year of hia reign Kero determined, luider the eneoniagement of 
Poppica, to remove his mother by her own arts. But it was not easy 
to poison one, who, familiar herself with poison, waa ever on her 
guard. Nero therefore changed his course. After an nnsuecessful 
attempt to effect her death near Bain by me.ins of a vessel with a 
false bottom, she was dispatched by nssaasins in March in the year 60. 
Her last words, as she presented herself to the iword of her 
murderer were, " Ventrem feri," strike the womb (which gave birth 
to such a son). To enumerate all her debaucheries, murders, and 
other crimes, would require a much larger space than we think it 
necessary to assign to them. Agrippina wrote some commentaries 
concerning herself and her family, which Tacitus says he consulted. 
They are alpo quoted by Pliny, vit 8. (Tacitus ; Suetonius ; Dion.) 

AOUESEAU, HKNHI FRANCOIS D*, a chsncellor of Prance. 
He was born November 27, 1C68, at Limoges, the principal town of 
the then province of Limousin, and now the chief town of the depart- 
ment of Hsute-Vicnne. His father, who was intendant of that 
province, devoted himself to the education of his son. The abilities 
of Aguesseau brought him early into notice. At the age of twenty- 
one he was admitted an advocate at the ChAtelet ; and, three months 
after, he was made one of the three advocates general. It has been 
said that this high office was conferred upon him through the recom- 
mendation of his father, in whom Louis XIV., the then reigning 
monarch, placed great confidence. During ten years that he filled 
the situation, he obtained the great reputation which secured his 
future elevation. 

In the year 1700 he was appointed Prooureur-G^n(5ral (Solicitor- 
General). His oppo<:ition to the registration in parliament of the 
papal bull Unigenitus, which he considered as an assumption of the 
papacy inconsistent with the rights of the French nation, and de- 
structive of tho independence of the Gsllioan church, had nearly 
caused his dis;mce with the king. But he maintained his position 
by the force of his talents and integrity. He employed his authority 
as Procureur-Mi^ndral in most cages wisely and honestly. He reformed 
the syntem of the manairement of public hospital.i; improved the 
discipline of courts of justice ; and instituted a quicker mode in the 
investigntion of criminal cases previous to their being brought to 
judgment. Aguesseau aspired through life to the high hut difficult 
reputation of a legal reformer : and it is in this particular that his 
character has the greatest claim upon our respect. His principal 
objects were to define the limits of i>articular jurisdictions ; to intro- 
duce uniformity in the administration of justice through the various 
provinces; and to secure the right to the subject of a just testa- 
mentaiT disposition of his property. His praiseworthy attempts were 
resisted no doubt by all those whose mistaken interests suggested to 
them that tho attaininpnt of justice ought to be kept expensive and 
uncertain, instead of being rendered cheap and secure. He is laid 
to have confeiMd that ho did not go so far as lie wished, because he 
did not like to reduce the profits of his professional brethren. This 
waa a mistake oven in mere worldly policy ; for when law, as Wfll 
as any other article of exchange, is dear and worthless, the purchasers 
will be few. D'Agueaseau was not much before his age, jirobably, in 
the knowledge of politicnl economy, or he yielded to popular clamour. 
During the famine which afflicted France in 170!), ho carried on 
vigorous proaeoutions against what were called forestallers and mono- 
polists, that is, holiicrs of corn — a class of persona who, by equalising 
th» price of com, by buying in times of plenty, and selling at a profit 
in times of scarcity, have done tho only thing whioli could relieve 
the pressure of bad harvests upon the people. 

In 1717 Aguesseau succeeded Voysin in the chancellorship. His 
appointment to this high office by the Regent (Due d'0rli5ans), in 
tlie minority of Louis XV., gave general satixfaction. However he 
did not retain it long, for he was dismissed and exiled the following 
year, on account of his op|)osition to Law's financial system. His 
perception of the falUcy of this adventurer's schemes for substituting 
fictitious wealth for real capital showed that in some points of 
politicsl philosophy his views wen sound. His recall, two years 
afterwards, at the moment of tho great crisis brouKht about by Law's 
system, was a signal triumph for Agueaaeau. His hii;h sense oi 
integrity and justice would not allow him to hear of a national bank- 
ruptcy : he insisted on making good the government obligations, or 
at least allowing those who hem its paper to lose only a proportionate 
part ; and, by Ibui preventing a banlcruptcy, he contributed in sumo 
degree to restoring general confidence. 

New agitations were again raised on account of the bull Unigenitus. 
tb* registering of which parliament still opposed. Aguesseau, by 




endeavouring to conciliate both parties, exposed bimself to the charge 
of a change of opinion in this matter. The parliament were on the 
eve of being exiled to Blois, when they at last consented to register 
the bull with modifications. 

Cardinal Dubois, the unworthy favourite of the Regent, claimed 
precedence in the council; and Aguesseau retired from office in 1722, 
rather than yield to him. He lived in the quiet cultivation of his 
literary tastes at Freane, until 1727, when he was reappointed chan- 
cellor. From his reappointment to office, till 1750, he continued to 
administer justice uninterruptedly; he was then eighty -two yeais of 
age, and feeling himself unable to discharge the high duties of his 
station, he sent in his resignation to the king, who accepted it, and 
granted bim an annuity of 100,000 francs. This he did not enjoy 
long, as he died the following year, on the 9th of Februai-y. Aguesseau 
was buried by the side of his wife, in the churchyaitl of his parish 
church ; but during the first French revolution the remains of the 
chancellor were removed to another place, into which they were 
thrown with the bones of thousands. A statue of him was erected 
in front of the Palais L<5gialatif, by command of Napoleon, by the 
side of the one erected in honour of L'HdpitaL 

The principal features of Agueaseau's character, says the Due of 
St. Simon, were much natural talent, application, penetration, and 
general knowledge ; gravity, justice, piety, and purity of manners. 
According to Voltaire, he was the most learned magistrate that France 
ever possessed. Independently of his thorough acquaintance with 
the lawH of his counti-j-, he understood Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Italian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, &c His knowledge of general literatui-e, assisted 
by his intimacy with Boileau and Racine, gave an elegance to his 
forensic speeches which was previously unknown at the French bar. 
His works now extant form 13 vols. 4to : they consist principally of 
his pleadings and appeals (' nSquisitores'), when advocate and solicitor- 
general, and of his speeches at the opening of the sessions of 

AHASUERUS, or ACHASHVEROSH, u the name of the Persian 
monarch whose feastings, revelry, and decrees are recorded in the 
book of Esther. The apocryphal additions to that book, as well as 
the Septuagint, and Joaephus, call him Arthasastha or Artaxerxes. 
He is probably the same king as the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the 
Ureek historians, whose reign commenced B.c. i65. The name Achash- 
verosh occurs also, Dan. ix. 1, where some interpreters take it for 
As^ageg, king of the Medes ; and Ezr. iv. 6, where Cambyaes seems 
to be meant by it (Eicbbom's ' Repertorium fiir Bibliscbe und 
Orlentoliache Literatur,* voL xv. p. 1, seq.) The word Achashverosh 
has been explained by means of the modem Persian as signifying ' an 
excellent or noble prince.' (Winer's ' Lexic. Hebr.,' a. v.) This would 
nearly agree with Uie explanation given by Herodotus (vi. 98) of the 
name Artaxerxes, which according to him means a great warrior. 
The signification of the name accounts for its being given to various 

AHAZ, or ACHAZ, the son of Jotham (2 Kings, xv. 38 ; xvL *c.), 
a king of Judah, who reigned B.C. 742-726, and was contemporary 
with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah. (Isoiab, L 1 ; viL 1, 
Hoe. i. 1, Mich. i. 1.) He made the dial mentioned Is. xxxviii. 8. 
Another Achaz is mentioned, 1 Chron. viii, 35 ; ix. 42. 

AHAZIAH, aUo written ACHAZIAH or AHAZIAHU, the son of 
Abab, n king of Israel, who reigned B.C. 897-896 (1 Kings, xxii. 40 ; 
2 Chron. xx. 35). Another Ahaziab, the son of Jehoram, was king of 
Judah, RC. 884-888 (2 Kings, viii. 24; ix. 18), who occurs also under 
the name of Jehoahoz (2 Chron. xxL 17) and Azariah (xxii. 6). The 
name, according to its Hebrew etymology, is interpreted as signifying 
' the property or poaaesaion of the Lord. 

AHMED I., the fourteenth sultan of the Ottoman empire, was the 
son of Sultan Mohammed IIL He come to the throne in the year 
1603, and contrary to the practice of many of his predecessors, spared 
the life of bis brother Mustafa. He was unfortunate in a war with 
Shah Abbas of Persia, during which he lost the important town of 
Erivan. [Abbas.] He at the same time supported an insurrection in 
Hungary and Transylvania against the German emperor, Rudolph II. : 
in 1606 however a treaty of peace was concluded at Komorn and 
Situarok between the two monarcbs. The efforts of Ahmed's govern- 
ment were then directed towards the suppression of revolutionary 
movements in the Asiatic part of the Ottoman dominions, which had 
been instigated chiefly by two daring adventurers K.ilendcr Ugli and 
Janbulad-zode : both were finally subdued, and in 1609 tranquillity 
was restored in the interior of the empire. Ahmed I. died in 1617. 
He was of a mild and moderate disposition, and fond of the enjoy- 
ments of a quiet and luxurious life : it is said that his seraglio con- 
tained 3000 women, and that not less than 40,000 falconers were in 
his pay. A magnificent mosque, which he built at Constantinople, 
and a richly-ornamented curtain which ho sent to the sanctuary at 
Mecca, attest, at the same time, that he was not indifferent about the 
Mobammndan religion. 

AHMKI) II., the non and successor of Sultan Soleiman III., occupied 
the throne of the Ottoman empire from 1691 till 1695. He owed his 
elevation to the throne chiefly to the influence of the celebrated 
grand-viair Kiuprili or KiuperU, who soon afterwards fell in a battle 
against the Austriaus near Salankemeu or Slankeiuent. Ahmed II. 
waa a weak and superstitious prince. His reign is marked by many 

dijiastrous events. The plague, a famine, and an earthquake desolated 
the empire, and the capital was afflicted with a destructive fire. The 
Beduins of the Arabian desert, in defiance of the impei-ial safeguard, 
dai-ed to attack the caravan of the Mecca pilgrims; and at sea the 
Tm'kish empire was infested by the Venetians, who took possession 
of the island of Chios, and even thi-eateued Smyrna. Ahmed II. died, 
it is said, from grief, in 1695, at the age of 50 years. His successor ' 
was Mustafa IL, who reigned from 1695 till 1702. 

AHMED III., the son of Sultan Mohammed IV., was raised to the 
throne of the Ottoman Empire in consequence of a revolt of the 
Janissaries, in 1702. When, after the loss of the battle of Pultowa 
(1709), King Chajles XII. of Sweden took refuge at Bender in the 
Turkish dominions, he was well received by Ahmed, who even made 
him a present of ready money to the amount of 16,000 ducats. 
Charles XII. succeeded in kindling a war between the Ottoman Porte 
and Russia, which turned out favourably for the Turks. During 
several days Czar Peter the Great was cut off, and placed in a most 
embarrassing situation on the banks of the river Pruth, almost within 
the grasp of the Turkish army; and though the unskilfulness of the 
Tiu:kish commander Battaji Mohammed let him escape from this 
difficulty, he was yet soon afterwards obliged to resign to the Turks 
the important town of Azof. Ahmed III. was also fortunate in a war 
with the Venetians, who were compelled to quit the Morea, and to 
give up the islands of Cerigo and Cerigotto, and their possessions in 
Candia. But he failed in an attempt to take Hungary from the 
Austrians. Prince Eugene of Savoy won an important victory over 
tho Turks near Belgrade, and by the subsequent peace (made at Passa- 
rowitz, in 1718) that town, as well as Orsowa, and part of Servia and 
Wallachia, came under the Austrian dominion. In 1723 Ahmed 
entered int04i treaty with Russia, and soon afterwards commenced a 
war with Persia, which brought the frontier towns and provinces of 
Erdilan, Kermanshah, Hamadan, Urmia, ArdebU, and Tebriz into the 
possession of the Turks, and a peace subsequently concluded with the 
Persian king, Ashraf Khan, secured to the victors the possession of 
their conquests : but Nadir Shah, the successor of Ashraf Khan, 
disregarded these stipulations, and by degrees retook the conquered 
provinces. The news of the capture of Tebriz by the Persians caused 
a revolt at Constantinople, in consequence of which Ahmed III. abdi- 
cated the throne in favour of his nephew, Mahmud I. (1730). He died 
six years afterwards in pi-ison at the age of 74. 

AIKIN, ARTHUR, the eldest son of John Aikin, M.D., the subject 
of the following article, was bom in 1784. Arthur Aikin began his 
literary career, we believe, as editor of 'The Annual Review;' upon 
the title-page of the first six volumes of which — 1803-1803 — his name 
appears as editor. His earliest scientific work was ' The Manual of 
Mineralogy,' of which the first edition was published in 1814. Besides 
these he is tho author of a ' Tour in North Wales,' a ' Dictionary of 
Chemistry and Mineralogy,' and a ' Dictionary of Arts and Manufac- 
tures ;' and also of numerous papers in various scientific journals. 
For a long series of years Mr. Aikiu was the resident secretsu-y of the 
Society of Arts, and a frequent contributor to its ' Transactions.' He 
was also one of the oldest fellows of the Linna;an and Geological 
societies. Mr. Aikin was a man of quiet retiring habits, and outlived 
his scientific reputation ; but was well known in scientific circles as 
one of the most regular frequenters of the meetings of the learned 
societies in the metropolis, and was generally esteemed. He died at 
his house in Bloomsbury April 15, 1854, in his eighty-first year. 

AIKIN, JOHN, M.D., born in 1747, waa the only son of the Rev. 
John Aikin, D.D., for many years tutor in divinity at the dissenting 
academy at Warrington, in Lancashire. He was educated chiefly at 
Warrington, and having chosen the medical profession, he studied at 
the University of Edmburgh, and was subsequently a pupil of Dr. 
William Hunter. As a surgeon, he first settled at Chester, and after- 
wards at Warrington; but finally took the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine at Leyden, and established himself as a physician in London. He 
is now chiefly remembered as a popular author; and to him, in con- 
junction with his sister, Mrs. Barbauld, we owe some of the first and 
b^st attempts to take science out of the narrow confines of the profes- 
sionally learned, and to render it the means of enlarging the under- 
standings and increasing the pleasures of the general body of readers. 
The moat popular as well as the moat useful of Dr. Aikius works 
still maintains its reputation, ' Evenings at Home.' The volumes of 
this work appeared successively, tho sixth and last in June, 1795. 
This was the joint production of Dr. Aikiu and Mrs. Barbauld, whose 
contributions however did not exceed half a volume in the whole. 
The object of these volumes was a favourite ono with their authors, 
who desired to teach things rather than words. In the execution of 
their task they presented, in a manner sufficiently attractive to engage 
the attention of young persons, a good deal of natural history, with 
some of the elements of chemistry and mineialogy ; but the principal 
charm and value of the work consist in its just views of human cha- 
racter, and in thq imcom promising integrity visible in every line. 
Another work of Dr. Aikin's has been the foundation of many descrip- 
tions of the appearances of nature; but none have surpassed 'Tlie 
Natural History of tho Year ' in conciseness and accuracy. 

The professional success of Dr. Aikin seems to have been impeded 
by his zealous endeavours to obtain a recognition from tho state of the 
great principle of liberty of conscience ; he was, moreover, of delicate 




la irw b« NltenUMd hh inolMrinB. Md pMMd Um 

of to UCi al 8tak* V««ii««M(, ooo rt M rtl y «m|4<7wl in 

IHwiij wrfatikiM^ of whkii ikt mMfumhttinm rttj 

ImotK.a bMMdioliM monk. Md • hiMotiw. B«WM»iiatir« 
of VOU-KrmsciM^ in Ik* ptoriBM of PMifard. H« wrote, or nUbtr 
kMM, • kbtay of Um FMMh, wUeh b* d*dl«iU«l to hii pfttroo ud 
Bt&fd> Abb«a, abbot oT nMri^tr-LoiriL It fa Mtd in bii praboa 
IhM ha inlMdid to giro Ml «DoaiiBt o( lb* otUa of lb* Frcaeh Mrtian, 
■Ml to bri^ kfa Bunrii** d«WB to FiMl»l»A(«i', fttbar of CbwUMfD* 
(Ttl); b«t wbat w* b««« of lb* worii bifap w down only to IboMz- 
teralb )r«*r of Qovfa IL (690). T«ro boob woo >Aarw«rdt lUitd by 
•B unknown writtr. Tbb hfatnrj of Almoin fa incomct, uiJ be doe* 
not dw«U ■oMMrtty oa lb* OTaBte bs ba* to raUtai HU b«*t ud 
•Mat IrtwaallaK work fa an aoeonnt of the life of Abbon. Aimob 
diadia 1008. 

AOrewURTH, ROnERT, tba author of a weU-known < UUa 
DIaliMBn.' H* wa« bom at Woodralt, about four milea from Man- 
•haalar, u 8*pt«atb*r, IMa Having complatad bfa adocation ak 
Bahoa, b* aiWwaida tagcbt a aebool for lome time in that town. He 
thw eaoM to Loodoo, aadfonnad an ottaUiibnwnt at Betbnal Green, 
fran which b* rusoTod, flnt to Hackney, and aftarwarda to other 
*ittl(t* in lb* n^bboorbood of tb* metropdia. About 1714 be waa 
tadnaad hj Ih* ooan of tba bookaiUan to eommaooa tba compila t ion 
of hfa DicUoaanr ; but th* executioo of tha work waa frequently 
anapidad, and it did not appear till 1736. Ainiwortb died near 
Ldodoa oo tba 4tb of April, 17 4S, and wa* buried at Poplar, where 
■B ineeriplion of bfa own compoaition, in Latin vene, was placed over 
bfa ramain* and the** of bfa wife. Haring acquiml a competency, 
b« bad rrtirad from tcaobing for eome time before bis death. Ur. 
K^fit, in hfa adition of tha 'Bicgraphu Britannica,' saya, from 
Mtvato infonnation, that in tha lattar part of hfa life he uaed to be 
nod of nuniBHing in lb* abop* of tb* low broken ; by which means 
b* oftan picked up old coins and other Taluable ouriositiea at little 
omoask H* fa aaid to baTa written com* Latin poema ; and he also 
poUisbad ' Propcaafa for making Education less Chargeable,' and some 
odiar U sa U aa a , tha Ifat of which may be seen in Watt's ' Bibliotheca ;' 
bat hfa Dic^ jo n a r y fa the ouly work for which he is now rememberetL 
A aaoond adition of it, aditod by Hr. Samuel Patrick (with a notice of 
Ainmrottb'a Ufa ptaAxed), appeared in two volumes, 4to, ITIO, and it 
ha* Bisce b*ea ftiequantly republished. One edition, whioh oame out 
in I75S, fa in two folio rolumes, and used to be in some request as a 
bandaome specimen of typography. It was superintended by the 
B«T. William Youog, the supposed original of Fielding's Parson 
Adamik Another, in two volumes, 4to, waa publithed in 1773, by 
Dr. Thonaa MonlL Both Young and Morall also edited abridgments 
of Ainsworlb's Dictionary, which, until latclv, wore much used in 
aebooU Tb* best edition of tb* larger work la that which appeaml 
in 1818, in on* volume, 4to, under th* care of Dr. Carey. This 
Dfatiooajy, rsgardad as a mere word-book, fa a laborious and useful 
weak ; but it has no claim to be cooaidered as a philosophical ezposi- 
lioa of tb* *tvmology of tho Latin language, or as anything like a 
•Msplate ashiUtico of tba usag* of worda by Latin authora. Not- 
withatandlng tha correctiooa which it haa rsceivod from th* labours 
«f it* mceaaa'va aditon, it atill remains dfa8gnrod by many errors 
and d*fici*Dd*a, which leave the book a great way behind the present 
state of philolMical leaning. 

•AWSWOKrHTwiLUAM HARRISON, wa* bom at Manchester, 
la Fabtuaiy 1805. Ha was originally intended for the profession of 
• banMar, but ba at an eariy age quitted hfa legal studies for the 
■Mce attractive pursoite of Utaratur*. For some time he waa chieBy 
kaowo aa a proUflc contributor of easaya and aketche* to the Maga- 
lb**; but bfa fin* novel, Rookwood, publfahed in 1834, at onoe gave 
him a place among th* most popukr novol writers of the day. Ufa 
peMdkr popularity aroae mainly from tho circumstance of hfa having 
MMtod a* tha haroe* of hfa tale* Jack Shoppard aud others who 

TSU* ... y^ "^ "*^ ^"»«* *•»» ^ "<»»••« *•" •«»>d upon 
«rWi avlditv by a eartain oUa* of dnunatiste aa furnishing the stimu- 
Mtag coadiBent so much in raqoaat at the lower suburban theatros— 
1 J .?f irl' ~'»'<>^'» leputatioo came to be eoupled in the public 
alad wit* hia baroc* ntber mora nnpltasanUy than the novofa alone 
y M pwha pa hava efceted. In later tafaa, aa the 'Star Chamber,' 

*^i!?%£L^'S*^ AcdlectodedhioohaabeeapubUshZrin 
a tiMsiB fam, «r Mr. Aiaswonh's aove)* aad romuioaa. ^^~' 

lJ??Il 3?'5?lw°"'£5"5 V-.P?-"» Aatronomer-Royal, was 
edMalka at variooa private aehoofa, eodlng with the Onmmar school 
afOMcrtMv aad at the aga of 18 entered Trinity College, Cam- 
*■•■"■ ■■ ■— ."• ««* bfa de|i«o of RA., and won the dUtinoUon 

» ■>» w aan la-mnM ID* duties by delivenog courses of pub 
Urtw- on^pwfaMnW I-hdojophy, amen, which th. pi^octions on 
*^. P"* 't**y Theaty of U^j m. sepscaiy lamariabl.. Mr. Airy 
M^IMdlkb appoiataMAl laT8S«, on beiagJact«l Plumfan Profe*«i 
of l il i w . i i. y-a peat which. ntotalKtha Eapariaaatri Lcctu^ 

AJAX. n 

involved also the maii^(*m*nt of th* then newly-erected Cambridge 
ni— lilni/ He devoted himself oanastly to that work, and devised 
a lyataB of caloolation and publication of hfa observations ao muoh 
Bon completo and aerriceable than any preceding that it has bean 
adopted by other observatories ; and be introduced many important 
improvemento in the mounting of the instruments. 

In 1835, on the resignation of Mr. Pond, then Astronomer-llojal, 
Mr. Airy was appointed to the honourable post, which he has smco 
bald, with signal advantage to scienoe and to our national reputation. 
Under hfa adniinfatratioo, the obaervatory at Qreenwioh haa beoomo 
semnil to none in tho world. The yearly observations are publiabed 
in a form and with a regularity never before attempted ; and, aealous 
for tbe cause of sdeuce, Mr. Airy has reduced and published the 
long-negleotad observations of the Moon and Planets from 1750 to 
1830, "by which" — to quote the words of Admiral Smyth — "an 
immanse magazine of dormant facts, contained in the annals of tho 
Royal Obaervatory, are rendered available to astronomical use," and 
from whidi " we may perhaps date a new epoch in planetary 
astronomy." The observatory itself, with new methods and new 
instrumenti), fa more efficient than ever ; and since 1S43 magnetioal 
and meteorological observationa have been taken, as well as astifonomi- 
cal, and regularly published. 

A long list might be written of Mr. Airy's claims to scientific 
distinction. His writings on meclianics and optics are n-oU linowD. 
He wrote the articles ' Figure of the Earth ' aud * Tides and Waves ' 
for the ' EncydopsBdia Metropolitana,' and ' Qraritation ' for tho 
' Penny Cyclopaedia ; ' and, to mention but a few of his labours 
which have a national character : he has been for many years Chair- 
man of the Commission for the liestoration of the Standards of 
Weight and Measure ; he reported on the comparative merits of the 
broad and narrow gauge of railways, and on the national clock to bo 
erected at Westminster; he has undertaken the determination ot 
longitude by means of the electric telegraph ; has suggested a remedy 
for the devUtion of the compass in iron ships ; aud has accomplished 
a series of pendulum experiments for the determination of that 
difficult question, the density of the earth. On the two latter sub- 
jects he has communicated elaborate papers to the Royal Society ; and 
the ' Philosophical Transactions,' the ' Memoirs of the Astronomical 
Society,' and the * Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society,' contain numerous highly valuable papers from hfa pen. 

Mr. Airy was elected a Fellow of the Astronomical Society in 1S23, 
and became President in 1SS5, since when he has repeatedly filled the 
Cliair and sat on the Council He has received two of the Society's 
medals — one for the planetary observations before mentioned; tho 
other, "for lus discovery of the long inequality of Venus and the 
Earth," the investigation of which was published in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions.' He was elected a Fellow of tho Royal Society in 1836, 
has reoeived their Copley and Royal medals, and has been often 
chosen into tho Council He hss afao received tho Lahrndo medal 
of tho French Academy of Sciences; he is a corresponding member 
of the Academy, aud a member of other scientific societies in Europe 
aud America. 

AJAX, a son of Telamon, ouJ tliird in direct male descent from 
Jupiter, was one of tho most i-enowned heroes of the Trojan War. 
According to Homer aud Pindar, he was next in beauty and in war- 
like proweas to Achilles. Ho is said by later poets to have been 
invulnerable. Pindar (Isthm. 6) relates the story fully ; but, as in tho 
case of Achilles, it fa not found in Homer. Telamon, banislied from 
JE^OA by hu father ..Kacus, for killing his brother I'hocus, retired to 
the island of Salamis, and was chosen king. During hfa father's life, 
Ajax led the forces of Sahunfa to Troy, in conjunction with the Athe- 
nians. His chief exploits, recorded in tho ' Iliad,' are hfa duel with 
Hector, in tho 7th book, when tho Trojan prince challenged any of 
the Qrcck army to single combat ; aud hfa obstinate defence of the 
ships, in the protracted battlo described in the 13th, 14th, IStb, 16tli, 
and 17th books. In the funeral games of Patroclus ho contended for 
three prices : in wrestling with Ulysses, single combat with Diomedes, 
and throwing the quoit; but without obtaining tlie prize iu any. 
Blunt in manners, rugged in temper, nnd somewhat obtuse in intellect, 
hfa strength and stubborn cuur.nge made liiui a uiost valuable soldier, 
but no fsvourite ; and hfa confidence iu these qualities induced him 
to despise divine aid, by which he roused the anger of Pallas, tho 
author of hfa subsequent mUfurtunes. After Achilles's death, the 
armour of that hero was to be given as a prize to him who had 
deserved best of the Oreeks. Ajoz and Ulyssee alone advanced their 
claims : the former depending on hfa pre-omiuonco in arms ; tho latter, 
on tho service* which his inventive genius had rendered ; tho assembled 
priuces awarded tho splendid prize to Ulysses (Ovid's 'Met.' b. 14.) 
Ajax waa so much mortified at this, that ho went mod, and in his fury 
attacked the herds and flocks of tho camp, mfataking them for the 
Orecian leaden, by whom he thought himself so deeply injured. On 
recovering hfa senses, and seeing to what excesses lie had been trans- 
ported, he slew himself with the sword whioh Hector bad given him 
after their combat. Thfa catestrojiho fa the subject of that noble 
tragedy of Sophocles, ' Ajax the Soourge-Bearer.' The circumstances 
of nfa death are difiercutly told by other authors. The Qreeks 
honoured him with a splendid funeral, and raised a vast tumulus on 
tho promontory of lUimteum, opposite that of Achilles, on tho pro- 





montory of Sigeum. He left a son named Eurysaces, who succeeded 
TelamoQ on the throne of Salamia. One of the Attic tribes was 
named after Ajax. Some of the most illustrious Athenians, as Mil- 
tiades, Cimon, and Alcibiades, traced their descent from him. He 
was worshipped as the tutelary hero of Salamis, where there was a 
temple to him with a statue ; and with all the .32acidK, or descendants 
of ^Eacus, was honoured as a demi-god in Attica. The traditions 
concerning him supplied not only themes to the poets, but subjects to 
the paintei-s and sculptors of antiquity. (Herod., viii 61, 65.) 

AJAX, son of Oileus, a leader in the Trojan War, remarkable for 
swiftness of foot, and skill in using the bow and javelin. He is called 
the Lesser Ajax, and fills a less important part in the ' lUad ' than his 
namesake, though he is distinguished by his defence of the ships in 
company with Ajax, son of Telamon. At the sack of Troy he offered 
violence to Cassandra in the temple of Pallas. For this profanation, 
the goddess, on his voyage home, raised a tempest, which wrecked his 
vessel, with many others of the Grecian fleet. Ajax escaped to a rock, 
and might have been preserved, had he not said he would escape in 
spite of the gods. Neptune cleft the rook with his trident, and 
tumbled him into the sea. ('Od.' iv. 502.) Virgil relates his death 
differently. ('Ma.' i. 39.) Some authors say that the charge of 
violating Cassandra was a fiction of Agamemnon's, who wished to 
secure her for himself. 

AKBAR, JALAL-UD-DIN MOHAMMED, the greatest and wisest 
of all the monarchs who have swayed the sceptre of Hindustan. At 
the early age of 13 he succeeded hia father Humayun, Feb. 15, 1556. 
About the time of Akbar's birth, his father Humayun, a mild and 
Itnient prince, was deprived of hia kingdom through the restless 
ambition of his brothers Kamrau and Hindal. The dissensions thus 
excited enabled Sher Khan, a Patau, or Afghan chief, to usurp the 
government of India. Humayun, attended by afew faithful adherents, 
became a wanderer and an exile. In his Sight through the western 
desert towards the banks of the Indus, he and his little band experi- 
enced a train of calamities almost unparalleled. The country through 
which they fled being an entire desert of sand, they were in the 
utmost distress for water. Some went mad, others fell down dead. 
At length those that lived reached the town of Amerkote, where, on 
Oct, 14, 1542, the wife of Humayun gave birth to a son, Akbar. 
Humayun sought shelter in Persia, where he was hospitably received 
by Shah Tahmasp. After twelve years' exile, he was once more 
restored to his throne at Delhi, but in less than a year died from the 
effects of a fall down the palace stairs. When Akbar ascended the 
throne the whole empire of India was in a very distracted state ; and 
though he was possessed of unusual intelligence for bis age, ha was 
incapable of administering the government. Sensible of his own 
inexperience, he conferred on Bahram Khan, a Turkoman noble who 
bad ever proved faithful to his late father, a title and power equivalent 
to that of regent or protector. Bahram for some time proved him- 
self worthy of the young king's choice; but he was more of the 
soldier than the statesman, and there were numerous complaints of 
his arbitrary if not cruel disposition, though these qualities were 
essential for maintaining subordination in his army, which consisted 
of licentious adventurers, and for quelling the rebellious chiefs who 
abounded in every province of the empire. In the course of a few 
years the energy of Bahram succeeded in restoring the country to 
comparative tranquillity. Hitherto his domination was submitted to 
even by Akbar himself, because the general safety depended on his 
exercise of it ; but now that tranquillity was restored, the pressure of 
his rule became less tolerable. Akbar therefore, in 1558, made a 
successful effort to deliver himself from the thraldom which he had 
hitherto endured. He concerted a plan with those around him, and 
took occasion, when on a hunting party, to make an unexpected 
journey from Agra to Delhi on the plea of the sudden illness of his 
mother. He was no sooner beyond the reach of his minister's 
influence than he issued a proclamation announcing that he had taken 
the government into his own hands, and forbidding obedience to any 
orders not issued under his own seah The proud Bahram perceived, 
when too late, that his authority was at an end. He endeavoured to 
establish an independent principality in Malwa ; but, after two years 
of unsuccessful rebellion, he came, in the utmost distress, to throw 
himself at the feet of his sovereign. Akbar, mindful of his former 
services, raised him with his own hands, and placed him in his former 
station at the head of the nobles. He gave him his choice of a high 
military command in a distant province or an honoured station at 
court. Bahram replied that the king's clemency and forgiveness were 
a sufBcient reward for his former services, and that he now wished to 
turn bis thoughts from this world to another. He therefore begged 
that bis majesty would afford him the means of perfonning the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. The king assented, and ordered a proper retinue 
to attend him, at the same time assigning him a pension of 50,000 

The first objects of Akbar's attention were to establish his authority 
over his chiefs, and to recover the various portions of his empire that 
had been lost during so many revolutions. When he ascended the 
throne his territory was limited to the Paiijiib and the provinces of 
Agra and Delhi In the fortieth year of his reign, according to Abu-1- 
FmI, the empire comprised fifteen fertile provinces, extending from the 
Uindu-Cgosb to the borders of the Deccim, and from the Brahmaputra 

to Candahar. These provinces were not recovered without great 
efforts and the sacrifice of many lives, yet we have no reason to attri- 
bute this career of conquest to mere restless ambition on the part of 
Akbar. The countries which he invaded had been formerly subject 
to the throne of Delhi, and he would have incurred more censure than 
praise among hia contemporaries if he had not attempted to recover 
them. To every province thus recovered a well-qualified subahdar, 
or viceroy, was appointed, whose duty it was to administer justice and 
give protection to all, without any regard to sect or creed. Thus his 
conquests, when once concluded, were permanent, for good govern- 
ment is the surest safeguard against rebellion. Of the vigilance with 
which Akbar watched the proceedings of his viceroys, and the extreme 
attention which he paid to the administration of his more remote pro- 
vinces, we have ample proofs in his letters preserved by Abu-1-Fazl. 
Unlike most eastern princes, hia fame is founded on the wisdom of 
his internal policy, not on the vain-glorious title of subduer of regions. 
One of the moat striking traits in his character as a Mohammedan 
prince was the tolerant spirit which he displayed towards men of other 
religions, and he felt great interest in all inquiries respecting the 
religious belief and forms of worship prevalent among mankind. In 
the summer of 1582 he wrote a letter to the " wise men among the 
Franks," that is, the Portuguese ecclesiastics at Goa, requesting them 
to send him a few of their more learned members, with whom he 
might converse respecting the Chriatian religion. Thia curious docu- 
ment is preserved in Abu-1-Fazl's collection, and was translated by 
Fraser in his ' History of Nadir Shah.' Eraser makes a mistake 
however in saying that it was addressed to the king of Portugal. 
Accordingly, on the 3rd of December following, three learned padres, 
by name Aquaviva, Monaerrate, and Enriques, departed on thia im- 
portant mission. Travelling by easy stages by way of Surat, Mandoo, 
and Ougein, they reached Agra in about two months. They were 
immediately admitted into the presence of Akbar, who gave them a 
most gracious reception. The missionaries theu solicited a public 
controversy with the mullas, or doctors of the Mohammedan religion, 
which was readily granted. Of this disputation the Christians and 
Mohammedans give different accounts. Akbar, who is strongly sus- 
pected to have sought amusement as well as instruction from these 
discussions, informed the padres that an eminent muUa had under- 
taken to leap into a fiery furnace with a Koran in his hand, to prove 
by this ordeal the superior excellence of his faith ; and he trusted that 
they would do the same with the Bible. The worthy fathers, who had 
during the discussion made some pretensions to supernatural powers, 
were considerably embarrassed by this proposal, which however they 
wisely declined. Abu-1-Fazl says that " the disputants having split on 
the divinity of their respective scriptures, the Christian offered to walk 
into a flaming furnace bearing the Bible, if the Mohammedan would 
show a similar confidence in the protection of the Koran ; to which 
the Moslems only answered by a ton-ent of abuse, which it required 
the emperor's interference to stop. He reproved the mullas for their 
intemperate language, and expressed hia own opinion that God could 
only be worshipped by following reason, and not yielding implicit faith 
to any alleged revelation." The missionaries seeing that Akbar showed 
60 little partiality to the Mussulman religion, naturally concluded that 
they had made him a convert. At that time however his attention 
was distracted by disturbances in Cabul and Bengal, and his visitors 
returned under a safe conduct to Goa, which they reached in May, 
1583., It appears that Akbar requested and received two other similar 
missions in the course of hia reign, which, after going through the same 
round aa their predeceasors, returned without any further result. It 
would appear also that at Akbar's request one of the miasionaries, 
Jeronymo Xavier, remained at Agra, for the purpoae of translating 
the Goapels into Persian. He was assisted in hia task by Mulana 
'Abd-ul-sitar-ben-Kasim of Lahore, and the work was completed in 
1602. It is very much on the plan of our Diatessaron, and divided 
into four books. The first book is entirely occupied with the history 
and life of the Virgin Mary, and our Saviour's infancy. These puerile 
legends have been long declared apocryphal even by the Church of 
Rome, oud it is difficult to conceive why the worthy padre should 
have ventured to interweave them with the sublime truths of the 
Gospel : yet thia compilation, such as it is, has had considerable cir- 
culation among the Moslems of India, who have naturally viewed it as 
a standard authority in judging of the Christian religion, from the 
circumstance of its being issued forth under the patronage of Akbar. 

Of the encouragement which general literature received under this 
enlightened monarch there are numerous monuments extant. Ho 
established schools throughout the country, at which Hindoo as well 
as Moslem children were educated, each according to his circumstances 
and psirticular views in life. He encouraged the translation of works 
of science and literature from the Sanscrit into Persian, the language 
of his court. In this he was ably seconded by the two brothers Faizi 
and Abu-1-Fazl ; the former the most profound scholar and the latter 
the most accomplished statesman then existing. Faizi was the first 
Moslem who appUed himself to the language and learning of the 
Brahmins. Assisted by qualified persons, ho translated into Persian 
two works on algebra, arithmetic, and geometry, tho ' Vija Ganita ' 
and ' Lilavati,' from the Sanscrit of Bhaskara Acharya, an author of 
tho 12th century of our era. Under Faizi's able superintendence were 
also translated the Vcdas, or at least the more interesting portions of 



lUa: Ito BWt ■yiai of Ik* MaUUuisU Md lUnayau : and »!m 
• Mvim ibanr of OiAwnw dwiBg Um MOO jraan prarioiu to iU 
•H^M* bjr AkUr, ww>rfc«W> u Um oalr meimaii of imtariMl 
linwiiirftliB b tk* SMwaril bi^uag*- Abul-Wii iooc t**!^ ^* l>>ciM*t 
lMU.boUBittlM7Mdat*il,udarAilwr. Biin«*t«ork,Uu'AklMr 
Vtmt,' k • l-tHif BMinnMot of U* idmUt'i luua. and of ItU own 
M l«MM Md indaittx. llMuiaariiit oepiM of it baTo baea 
i« aVunimr*. iwrttonUriy tlw tainl toIubm oallad tha 

• Ali»i^Allb•Ii,' which iadaaaripUr* of (ha UdUa ampin. 

ror • Dtort aopla and dalailad aoooiwt of tlia many admirabla 
wwka, original aod teanalatad, whiok wcra writtao uodar tb« patronaaa 
of Akbar. th» riadar ia rafatrad to tha Ant Toluma of QUJwm's traoa- 
Utiaa of tlia * ATia-i-Akbari' But of all tlia maaauiva of AkUr'a 
aiipt. patha^ iMn ia nooa vliiob ndouada mon to iiit tnia glonr 
Ifaa Ua kuMM md UbanI poUar towaida Uia Hiodooa, wiio formad, 
•a ainadj alalad, tha m^ioitty of hia aobiaota. Tbia iqjund raoa had 
iMg hMM auVjaeiad to a eapitatioa tax. impoaad upon thant bj tbair 
haagj^r Moauann aa a punithaant for what they wara plaaaad to 
call thiair isAdalitjr. Thia odiooa impoat, wliiab aarvcd to kaap up 
aabaoailjr batwaao tha paopla and thair nilan. waa alioliahad aarly iu 
Akbai'a raign. Ha at tha aama tima aboliibed all tazaa on ptlgrimagaa, 
ofaaKTiiV ** that it iraa wroo^ to throw any obataola in tha war of tha 
daftMS or of iatamptiac th«r moda of intoraouna with thair Maker." 
Bat Ihiigh Akbar abowad araty indiilgnnoa to tha Hindooa in tha axar- 
^m al thair nligioo, ha waa not blind to the abuaea of tha Brt hmi ninal 
naUm. He dwhada triala by ordeal, and the alaughtcr of animala 
lor aawJBf* H* alao enjoinad widow* to many a aeoond time, coa- 
llHT to tha Hindoo law. Aboro all, ha poutirely prohibitod the burniug 
of Hiwdoo widowa againat their will ; and uaed every precaution to 
I in tha oaaa of a auttaa, that tha reaolation waa frao and 
mad. It iaatalad in tha 'AkbarKama' (hat on onaooeaaioD, 
J (hat the n\ia of Joudpoor waa about to foroe bia aon'a widow 
ta Iha pila^ ha mnnntad hia bona^ and rode with all ipeod to the epot 
in order to prrrant tha iataadad aaoi&oe. It may be obaerrad, that 
•U Ihoaa aaaM in which Akbar interfered with tha religion of the 
Hilinoa wan nally abaaaa originatiog with the corrupt priaatcraft of 
iatm timm. Soah proUbitiooa, being of a pardy banaTolent nature, 
we«U nowiaa afcnt tha toyalty and attaabmrnt of the great body of 
tha jMopU. In faet, we have an intereating memorial of the impreaaion 
aHaaafon tha Hindooa by tha mildearay of Akfaarinaapiritod nmoo- 
■ti—ia, addwaami a owtory after to the l>igoted Aurungiebe, by tha 
JMcan d a nt of tha very n^ of Joudpoor above mentioned. Ttie then 
n^ eaya :— ''Tour a n aee t o r Akbar, whoaa throne ia now in heaven, 
eaadaalad tha aflhin of hia ampin in equity and lacurity for tha apaoe 
at Mty yeara. Ua pnaarrod efary tribe of man in aaaa and bappineea, 
■hathii they wan foUowen of Jaaua or of Uoaea, of Brahma or of 
Mnhaanmad Of whatovar aaot or creed they might be, they all 
a^naHy arqioyad hia ooontaoaaaa and favoor; inaomuoi that hia people, 
ia gWMtuda (or tha iodiaciiniinata proteetion which he alTorded them, 
ilUlMwiihi* him by the apprllatioa of 'Onardian of Mankind.' " 
la tha nvaana dapartoaat Akbar eOtatad raat refonna. He aatab> 
naiform etaadard of waiglita and maaauraa, and oauaed a 
■aaat of tha had to be made througiiout tha empire. 
iiw valaa of tha aoU in every inhabited diatriot, aod 
ftud Um mta of tataWnn that aaeh ahonld pay to goTammanb Ha 
atriatly pra hiMt a d hia nilJaara from fanning any branch of tha nvcnue, 
tha aoUaaton bal^ a^ioiaad to deal dinotiy with individual culU- 
Tataa^ aad aat to da p a n j an tha headman of a village or diatrict. 
Far liM iilailalatwllf «f Joatiae ha appointed ootirta oompoeed of 
twaoAaaw with iHffaria^ powan; tha oaa for eondocting the trial 
aad aspaaadkag tha law, aad tha oUiar. who waa tha luparior authority , 
(ar waiag J adiait . Thaaa won eajoiaed to be aparing of capital 
y a nl ihBiial, and, nnlaaa in aaaee of dai^erniia aaditioii, to inOiot none 
mMI tha p fon ea H i n p (ran aent to aoort, and tha emperor'e eonfirma- 
ttoa Mtnaad. Healao an joined that in ao oaaa ihould oapital puniah- 
Maak ha aa eon iiaiilil by aa^ additiooal aavaiity. Akbar waa fully 
aaaAlaof tha an port aaee of commene, whioh ha greatly promoted. 

Ua lanMMd tha raada laadiiM to all parti of tha anpira, and nudarad 
traaalliaa aafc by tha aataWiahiuaut of an aOoiant poUoe. Above alL 
ha aboUhad a vaat number of vasaHooa imnoata whidi merely fettered 
Inde without eaiiahia| tha traaraiy. Ila atrioUy proUbitad hU 
■ fraaa naeiviaf bee of any kind, and thna out off one great 
I ef aboCK *maag the numerooe eONte made by Akbar for 
af Ua aaaatfj, aarhapa tha laaat aaooeeaful waa hia 
_ to MMlpla • mm nttdoa. On thU aabjaet tha ra«ler 
I f i l l la fti iB u ll i a la tha 'tw n aaa ti oaa of the Literary Sociaty 
of Baaahqr/ f»I.IL,aoalraMtadb*Caloaal Kaaaadyof that piiaideney. 
It daaaaot appear that Akhai'a kith aMda any gnMpregiliee bayoi^ 
tha paaaiaata of hk palaaa. Infcatithad aambarlaaeroeatoeneouoter 
a«e^ tha prieathoed both of Mohammad and Bnhraa, who throve 

^L.!^S?t!5r!*^!{** ••»"**~ •«** "-"on 
Akfaai'a d«Mk ftaaftoi alilBrfi; aad tha Hahaauaadaa bith nauuied 
tmi li li l i na ii aadar Jahaa<hir. Akb 

all iu 

Two af them 

fahaa-g hir . Akbar had thne 

by whaea niaaaaiMt the latter dm of hia lil* wen ambittand. 

oat off ia aariy yoalh throogfa haUta of dioip*. 

law (aftamuda Jehan-ghir), repeatedly nieed 

1^ hi* ttthm. Thaaa aflietfeaa, together 

MMa l llwili f il wi i . begMi to pny upon 

Ika hand at 

Akbar'* luinJ. Ua died in Saptembar 1602, in the 61tb year of bia 
age, after a proaperoua and beneficent rcigu uf half a century. Iu 
penon Akbar i* deacribed aa stropgly built, with an agreaabla of prea- 
(ion of oouotcuauoe aud veiy captivating manner*. UJe waa poaiaia ed 
of great bodily •trengtb and activity; temperate in hia habita, aud 
iudulging in little iileep. He fnqueQtly spent whole uighta in tboas 
philoaopuical diacuaiioDi of n-bioL bo wo* ao foud. His early life 
aboonda with ioitanc<.* of romantic courage, better *uited to a luiight 
errant than the ruler of a mighty empire. The firtt lialf of bia reixn 
required almcat bia oou«taut pretMmoe at the bead of hia army, yut be 
never neglected tha improvomeut of the civil goverumeut; aod by a 
judioiou* diatribution of hi* time be waa enabled not ouly to diapatch 
all eaaential buaiueaa, but to enjoy leuure for study aud amusement 

(Agiii-i-Akiari ; ^phinitoue, llUtory of India; FL'riiibta, Uittory ; 
and TVoiuoc/ioN* of the Literarg Society uf Bumhay, voL iL) 

AKEMSIOE, MABK, was the sccoud son of Mark Akenside, a 
butcher of lfewoaatleH>n-Tyue, and of hia wife Mary LumaJeu, and 
was bom in tha atreet called Butchers' Bank in that towu, on Nov. 8, 
1721. The R«T. John Brand, who waa also a native of Nowcaatle, 
atata*, in bia ' ObMrvatious on Popular Autiiiuities,' that a halt wiiich 
Akenaide bad in hi* gait was occaeioued by the falling of a cleaver 
firum hi* father'a atall upon him when he was a boy ; aud " this," adds 
Brand, who waa himself bred a shoemaker, " must bavo been a per- 
petual remembrance uf Lis bumblo ori^^u." It ia said tliut Akenside 
was for from ngarding the ever-present memouto either with com- 
placency, or even with the most pbiloeopbic composure. The butcher 
vras a atrict Presbyterian ; and young Mark's original destinatiou waa 
to be a clergyman in that communion, with whiuh view, according to 
the common account, be waa aent to a disseutiug academy iu bis native 
toam, witence, at about the age of eighteen, that is to say, probably in 
Kovembcr 1789, he proceeded to the University of Edinburgh. But 
it appear* from a Memoir of Richard Dawes (the author of tbo ' Mis- 
cellanea Critica') by the Rev. Mr. Hodgson, in Uxo 2nd volume of the' 
' Arcbuologia i£liana,' 4to,, Newcastle, 1832, that Akeuside waa a 
pupil under Dawes, who was appointed head master of the Royal 
Ununmar School at Xewuastle iu July 1733. If this was the case, bis 
attendanoa at the school could not have beeu loug. The expense of 
hia teaidenaa at Edinburgh, or port of it, was defrayed by the Dissen- 
ters' Society. But after studying diviuity for oue session, he deter- 
mined to change hia intended profession, and the remaining two years 
of bis attendance at college were given to tbo medical classes. He 
afterworda returned the money be had received from the Dissenters' 
Society. In 1712 he went to finish his medical course at Leyden, and 
he waa admitted by the university to the degree of M.D. May Iti, 1741, 
on which occaaion he published a tbesia, or Latin inaugural discourse, 
on the human foetus (' De Ortu at Incramanto Fcstua Uumani '), iu 
which be ia said to liave displayed eminent aoientific ingenuity aud 
judgment in attacking oome opinions of Laeuwenhoak, and other 
euthoritiea of the time, which have now been generally or univeraaliy 
abandoned. But if the date of bis graduation (given by Jobnaon, and 
eopiad by all hia subaequent biographen) be correct, Akenside had 
already mads a brilliantly auooeaaful Uterary ddbut before the appear- 
anoa of tbia profeaaional eaaay. Hi* Knglish didactic blank verae poem, 
in three hooka, entitled < The Pleaautea of Imagination,' which, accord- 
ing to one aooount, be had begun, and even, it ia abaurdiy said, finished, 
while he was on a visit to aome relatione at Morpeth, before he went 
to college at Edinburgh, waa pubii^ed at London in February 1714. 
He had taken to varae-making at an early age ; in the 7th volume of 
the ' Oentleman'a Magaaine,' publislied in 1737, ia a poem, entitled 
'The Virtuoso, in imitation of Spenaer's Style and Stance,' dated 
from Newcastle, having tha signature of Marcus, and atatad to be the 
production of a writer in bis sixteenth year, which is undoubtedly bis ; 
this waa followed by other poetical contributions to the same miscel- 
lany ; aud while at Edinburgh be had written some of the odes and 
othiur minor pieoo* which have aiuoe been printed among his works. 
But be bod as yet published nothiug in a separate form or with his 
name, and wsa oonsequeutly altogether unknown, when be took or 
■ant hi* ' Pleaauraa of Imnginatiou' to Dodnley the tioolueller, with a 
demand of 12(M. for the copyright. Johnson, who mentions this, gays 
that he bad heard Dodaley himself relate that, hesitating to give so 
large a price, "ho carried the work to Pope, who, liaving looked into 
it, advised him not to make a niggardly oii'er, for thia waa no every- 
day writer." Pope, who died in the end of May of the year iu wiiich 
it appeared, lived novertheleaa long enough to see biit judgment ratified 
by tha extraordinary auooeaa of the poem. It reached a second edition 
in May, and oontinuad in oonatant demand. The poem waa first pub- 
liahad anonymooaly, and a atory is told by Boawell, on Johnson's 
authority, of the authonhip being claimed by a parson of the name 
of Bolt, who ia even said to have had an edition of it printed iu Dublin 
with hia name on the title-page ; but in England, at least, the name of 
the true author appean to have been very well known all along. Aken- 
side waa oertainly in EngUnd baf(M« his poem waa publidied : if the 
date of bis graduation ba correct, he probably returned to Leyden to 
go through that ceremony. Hia first attempt to cummeoco practice 
aa a phyaioiao waa at Northampton ; but be uuly continued there for 
about a year aod a half, during wiiich he appean to have written 
man poetry thao praaoriptioua. It aeems however to have been before 
ha settled at Korthampton that he wrote hi* ' Bpistle to Curio,' a satire 





on Pulteney, recently created Earl of Bath, which was published by 
Dodsley in a quarto pamphlet in 1744. While at Leyden, Akenside 
had formed an intimacy with one of his fellow-students, Jeremiah 
Dyson, a man of fortune, who afterwards became clerk of the House 
of Commons, then one of the members for Horsham, subsequently 
secretary to the Treasury and a lord of the Treasury, and ultimately 
cofferer to the household and a privy councillor. They had returned 
from Holland together, and on Akenside, shortly after the publication 
of his great poem, being attacked by Warburton in a preface to a new 
edition of his 'Divine Legation,' for something he had said in a note 
in support of Shaftesbury's notion about ridicule being a test of truth, 
Dyson took up his pen in defence of his friend, and published, anony- 
mously, ' An Epistle to the Reverend Mr. Warburton, occasioned by 
his Treatment of the Author of the " Pleasures of Imagination." ' 
Warburton took no notice of this appeal ; but he afterwards reprinted 
his strictures at the end of his ' Dedication to the Freethinkers ' in 
another edition of his work. Dyson now gave Akenside a more sub- 
stantial proof of his friendship by making him an allowance of 300Z. 
a year, to be continued till he should be able to live by his practice. 
Thus secured in an income, he came up to London, and established 
himself in the first instance at Hampstead, and after being two years 
and a half there he removed to London, and fixed himself in Blooms- 
bury-square, where he resided till his death. This change of residence 
occurred in 1748. In 1745 he had published, in quarto, ten of his odes, 
under the title of ' Odes on Several Subjects ;' his ' Ode to the Earl of 
Huntingdon' appeared in 1743 in the same form; and several others 
of his poems appeared afterwards from time to time in ' Dodsley's 
Collection,' then in course of publication. An ' Ode to the Country 
Gentlemen of England,' 4to., 1753, and an 'Ode to Thomas Edwards, 
Esquire, on the late Edition (by Warburton) of Mr. Pope's Works,' 
foL 1 766, are almost his only separate poetical productions after this 
date. Besides being admitted by mandamus to the degree of M.D. in 
the University of Cambridge, he became in course of time physician 
to St. Thomas's Hoepital, a Fellow of the College of Physicians, and 
one of the physicians to the Queen ; but he was probably indebted for 
these honours as much to his literary as to his professional reputation. 
His practice is said never to have been considerable. The late Dr. .John 
Aikin, who himself attempted to combine the pursuit of literature 
with the practice of physic, says, in his ' Select Works of the British 
Poets,' " It is affirmed that Dr. Akenside assumed a haughtine«B and 
ostentation of manner which was not calculated to ingratiate him with 
his brethren of the faculty, or to render him generally acceptable." 
Another account that has been given is, that his manner in a sickroom 
was so grave and sombre as to be thought more depres.^iing and inju- 

i rious to bis patients than his advice or medicines were serviceable. 
Yet bis latest and most elaborate biographer, Mr. Bucke, haa noted 
that he had practice enough to enable him, with his pension, to keep 
a carriage ; and he also sustained bis reputation at a i-espectable point 
by various professional publications. In 1755 he read the Qulstonian 
Lectures before the College of Physicians ; and an extract from them 
containing some new views respecting the lymphatic vessels being 
afterwards read before the Royal Society (of which he was elected a 
fellow in 1753) was published in the ' Philosophical Transactions' for 
1757. This publication drew Akenside into a controversy with Dr. 
Alexander Monro of Edinburgh, who in a pamphlet, entitled 'Obser- 
vations Anatomical and Physiological,' both accused him of some 
inaccuracies, and also insinuated a charge of plagiarism from a treatise 
of his own published the preceding year. Akenside replied to these 

I charges in a small pamphlet published in 1758. In 1750 he delivered 
the Uarveiaa Oration before the College of Physiciam ; and it was 
published by Dodsley, in 4to, in the beginning of the next year, under 
the title of ' Oratio Anniveraaria,' &c. An ' Account of a Blow on the 
Heart, and its EiTects,' by Akenside, appeared in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1763. In 1764 he published, in 4 to, what is 
accounted the most important of his medical works, his treatise on 
dysentery, in Latin, ' De Dysenteria Commentarius,' — " considered," 
says Johnson, "as a very conspicuous specimen of Latinity, which 
entitled him to the game height of place among the scholars as he 
possessed before among the wits." It has been translated into English 
both by Dr. Dennis Ryan and by Motteux. To these performances 
are to be added several papers in the first volume of the ' Medical 
Transactions,' pulilished by the College of Physicians in 1767 ; and, 
having been appointed Krohnian Lecturer, he also delivered three 
lectures before the college on the history of the revival of learning, 
which have not been printed. He might probably have risen to 
greater professional eminence and more extended practice if his life 
bud been protracted ; but he was cut off by a putrid fever on the 23rd 
of June, 1770, in his forty-ninth year. 

As a poet, Akenside has been very differently estimated. He must 
bo judged of principally by his 'Pleasures of Imagination,' which is 
admitted on all hands to be his greatest work. Jobnson, who hated 
both the kind of verse in which it was written and the politics of the 
nnthor, which, always whig, were at the time when it was composed 
almost republican, admits that " ho is to be commended as havine; 
fewer artifices of di.'gust than most of his brethren of the blank song;" 
but seem* to regard the poem on the whole as having more splendour 
than rabatance, more sound than sense. Akenside had a warm and 
suiceptible, but not a creative imagination ; there is probably not in 

his whole poetry a thought which can properly be called his own, or 
even a new and striking image or metaphor, or a felicity of expression 
not borrowed or imitated. He interests and affects his readers cbiafly 
through the sympathetic glow which he excites by his enthusiasm in 
behalf of truth and beauty, and other elevating conceptions ; he has 
no touches of nature, no pathos, no dramatic power, little or no 
invention ; and even his pictures of natural scenery, which are 
perhaps what he has done best, are brought out always by an elabo- 
rate accumulation of details, never by those happy characteristic 
strokes which flash forth at once the lineaments and spirit of a scene 
like sudden sunshine. All is operose, cumbrous, and cloudy, witli 
abundance of gay-colouring and well-sounding words, but filling the 
eye oftener than the imagination, and the ear oftener than either. 
Something of all this was natural enough in a poem written at so 
early an age as the ' Pleasures of Imagination ; ' and Akenside him- 
self, after a time, became so dissatisfied with the work, that he 
proceeded not so much to rewrite it as to compose a new poem on the 
same subject. Of this second poem, which was to have been muoli 
more extended than the first, he had finished three books and part of 
a fourtli before his death ; and he had even priuted the first and 
second books, although he did not publish them. Both poems were 
published by his friend Mr. Dyson, in a complete edition of Akenside'g 
works, 4to and also 8vo, London, 1773 ; but his admirers have con- 
tinued to prefer their original favourite, its rapid flow being felt to 
have more of pleasurable excitement than the greater correctness and 
more matured thought of the later composition. Akenside's minor 
pieces have the same beauties and defects with his chief work. They 
are mostly odes and hymns, and are full of lofty sentiments and 
swelling verse, which are farther made impressive by a spirit of 
earnestness and ardour coming from the thorough conviction and 
sincerity of the writer. A few are in a less ambitious style, consisting 
of plain sense neatly expressed ; but, altliougli he sometimes 
attempted the gayer flights of the muse, he had no wit or humour, 
and what he has done in tliis way is wholly unsuccessful. 

(Kippis, Biographia Brilannica ; Johnson, Lives of the Poets; Bucke, 
Life, Writinija, and Ocnius of Akermde, 8vo, London, 1832.) 

AKEHBLAD, JOHN DAVID, a Swedish scholar, who distin- 
guished himself by his researches in Runic, Phcenioian, Coptic, and 
hieroglyphic literature. He enjoyed in early life an opportunity of 
travelling over several countries in the East in consequence of being 
appointed secretary to the Swedish embassy at Constantinople. While 
holding this appointment he made a journey to Jerusalem, in 1792. 
In 1797 he visited the Troad. Some years after he was appointed 
Charg<S d' Affaires to the king of Sweden in France. He spent his last 
days in Rome, where he was supported by the boimty of the Duchess 
of Devonshire and other admirers of his talents. He died in that 
city at an early age, on the 8th of February, 1819. The following 
are the titles of some of his publications : — ' Lettre ^ M. Silvestre de 
Sacy Bur I'Eoriture cursive Copte,' published in the 'Magasin Ency- 
clop(Sdique ' for 1810. ' Inscriptionis Phoenicise Oxouiensis Nova 
Interpretatio,' Paris, 1802; 31 pp. 8vo. 'Lettre sur I'lnscription 
Egyptienne de Rosette, adressde h. M. Silvestre de Sacy,' Paris, 1802; 
70 pp. 8vo. ' Notices sur Deux Inscriptions en Caract^res Runiques, 
trouvdes !i Venise, et sur los Varanges ; avec les Remarques de 
M. d'Ansee de Villoison,' Paris, 1804; 55 pp. 8vo. ' Insorizione 
Qreca sopra una Lamina di Piombo, trovato in uno Sepolcro nello 
Vicinanze d'Atene,' 4to, Rome, 1813. He was preparing a new and 
enlarged edition of this work at the time of his death. ' Lettre sur 
uno Inscription Phdnicienne trouvde Ji Athfenes,' Rome, 1817 ; 23 pp. 
4 to. M. Akerblad is said to have been able to speak as well as read 
various eastern and European languages. He was a corresponding 
member of the French National Institute, and a member of several 
ofcliGi* Ififtmod societies 

dramatic writer of the reign of Philip IV. Of the writers of Spain, 
unless pre-eminent in reputation as well as talent, biographical notices 
are by uc means abundant. Nicolas Antonio did not know the place 
of his birth nor the time of his death, but supposed him to have been 
a native of Mexico. Ferdinand Denis however, in the ' Nouvelle 
Biographic Universelle,' states, that he was born towards the end of 
the 16th century, at Tlaseo, or Tlaohco, in the ancient province of 
Mexico, of a noble family, which was originally from the little town 
of Alarcon, in the province and diocese of Cuenza in Spain. His 
time is generally fixed about the middle of the 17th centmy ; but in 
a preface to a second volume of his 'Comedias,' published in 1634, iie 
says that he is the author of twenty pieces, and complains that some 
of them had been attributed to others, as indeed they had, by certain 
booksellers, to Lope de Vega and Montalvan. This fact carries back 
his labours to a much earlier date, and places him among the compe- 
titors of the most celebrated dramatists of his country ; and it also 
indicates the reputation he enjoyed. It has been conjectured that he 
was an actor ; but of this there is no sufficient evidence. He \vas a 
licentiate, a jurisconsult by profession, and instances appear iu his 
dramas of researcli into the ancient laws of Spain. Though witiiout 
positive data, we have a strong persuasion that he was a cadet of the 
noble family of Ruiz de Alarcon ; but his best history is la his works. 
They show, not only that his attainments wore of a very high order, 
but that he was deservedly esteemed for his noble qualities and 



iTiTT-'h- -^-'"-' "--• "■- *— * r*"*— - ^ SpuWi 
ttwnifli of tk« PhlUp* ia eiMUiMd in Um BpuiUb 
Hon to Ik* aWr ■" "" ^ ' - ^ 


t divto* uoiUa*. m BoUwn bikI I* Harp* 

lh«B, Uttf ai««rtlMlMi tnilT "hald Ui* mirror up to 

•ad ■kowwl UM ntr ■■• ud bod j of Um tfm* hi* fona and 

• : * and tktr ««« aLo oe ataw hiatoriMia of Ui* ehiralroaa 

l«Ugh|Me«i*dtlMm; Ihn !•*• tko baat paita of Uia Ticormu 

Mklm oTlMr aueaitan, to iMr owa aooorooa aad n^i«*tie 
MMk far ovwy Sfwaiah dnna U a piaea oT Irrieal poatir. Alareoa 
Ui Mi oMar potttaitoMa of tlMk dJniA«l daportaMat, that (MMToaa 
aad BMalT aaeliaMal. that poootifioaa aaoaa of boaoar, and tlut 
iMfivr of bnach of faith, which chanuHmiaad th« oU aobiUty of hii 
coatrj (aqaaOoa Ckiatiaaoa Tiejoa) ; and ha baa aketehad them with 
no la« tUStj aad afMt than Lopi, CalderoD, and Do Caatro. No 
writM' baa arar acta baaatiAiUy delinaatwl that tnia and dalieata 
l a ui d fw iMaab diarattar ia tha bigb-bom Spaniah eavalier, for 
«U^ ha hM ba« and ia atiU diatingaidMd. 

TImm ia norfomr in aoat of bit dramai a tone of morality which 
daaa biai boaonr, aad plaoaa thaoi onqoaitionably among the beat 
•MMBha of tUa bfaaeh of Utaiatare. It hat been truly obaerred 
byafipM^ah annoUlor, "Hia pieeaa not only amoae, but generally 
aver a naeful moral" The ttiaatlaament of the backbiter in ' Lat 
s' (' Walla bare Kara'), and of the Liar in ' La Verdad 
('Soapidooa Truth'), are ezamplea of thit. It ia no 

i proof of the merit of the Utt-named piece, that Coroeilla, who, 

to ate bb own phraae. partly tnnaUted, partly imitated it for ths 
I^iWaa aUga^ tnder the title of ' Le Menteur,' affirma that he had 
oAm aaid ba would gire two of hia beat pleoea if he could call the 
iafiBtiao of that diama bia own. Alarcan'i plota are iogenioui, hit 
wall marked, bia atyla Barrooa, pure, and elegant, and hit 
a aaay and karmonioac Hia pieeea are alto free from the 
I and eztraTagaaoe iriiieb diifignre the workt of moit of hit 

tempocariM, and the object of which aecmt to hare be«n to mys- 
tify and taaaa, rather than to inttruct and delight Among the 
Boaaroaa Spaaiib poeta of thit data, none could be more fitly 
aalaetad at a modal for a real national drama than Alarcon. Huerta 
ri««a the titlea of thirty of hit eomcdiea. The 'Oanar Amiso*,' ' U 
Vardad aoapeeboM/ ' Lat Parcdaa oyaa,' and ' El Examen de Maridoa,' 
ai* beat known. The ' Tejcdor de Segovia' wot Tenr popubu'. Like 
Sdiillei'a ' Robbert,' to which it bean a great retemblancc, it hat been 
the inbjeet both of much oenture and much pratte. No oomplete 
•dilioB of Alarooo't workt haa appeared, nor any Tolumea except the 
two BMntimied in the article, Hit piecet are only found in mitcel- 
lanaoaa eaUaotiooa. 

(Kleolaoa Antonhia, BiblioAtem Bitpa^ ; CoUteitm General de 
OmMdim, Kadrid, 182644.) 

ALARI(^ oaa of the moat eminrnt of thoto northern chiefs who 
aaeceaaJTaly overran Italy during the decline of tbo weatem empire, 
■ad Ike ftnt of them who gained pocaeaaion of imperial Rome. He 
laamtd the art of war under the celebrated emperor of the Eaat, 
Tbaodoaina, who cnrbad tha depredationa of the Qotha, aettled them 
fai diftnot prorinoaa <tf the aopira, and recruited hit armiea from the 
yootk of the nation ; bat tbcy threw off tlio yoke aa aoon at the 
powaifal band which had imposed it ceased to hold the aoeptre, and 
Alarie, bata of one of the noblatt familice of the nation, waa cboaen 
by hia conntrTBteo aa tkair leader. I'nder bis guidance the Vitigotbt, 
tbo diTiiiaa of tka Ootkie nation to which he belonged, issued from 
Tkiaat^ wbera Ihay bad bani sattlad, and OTerran Oreece, A.a 396. 
Akwie laak Alkaaa; but inataad of tnating it with aarerity and 
iwlini'lin Ha ediflraa. aa baa tometimea be«i aaaerted, it is most 
ptabaalt Ikat ka did very little damage to ita workt of art, although 
■• carrM off anck aa were moTaable. The Ootht were toon com- 
paUad br Stiliebo to eraeuate that country, and to return into Kpirus. 
About Ike year A.D. 898, Alarie on the grounds of his high military 
ckaiartar, waa proolainad King of the Viogotha; and about the tame 
ttea Areadfat^ tka aueaiHor of Thaodoaiaa, alarmed at hia repeated 
•aaatiaaik attaaplcd to idaatify bia intereaU with those of the empire 
b* dtahrina him HasterOciianl of th« Eastern lUyrian Prefecture. 
1\a ViaigotM who obeyed hit ordara were thoroughly organised at an 
amy. bat aa yet bad nw claima to the ciTQ cbaraoter and stability of 
a aaiUoo. Tbay tbreateoad both empires aaually at the aame time, 
aad aoU tkair aOiaaea to taok altsmately. AJaric at Ust determined 

Mate kit wiy into tka aanpita of the waat, for the purpose of 

_ a UafdoB by ooaonaat. 

Bartr ia tka yaar a.i>. 408 be appeared before Hilan, wliich was 
iataMiUatoljr araeoatad by the Emperor Honoriua. Baaiagcd in the 
(tftraaa of Asia, Honoriua waa on the point of Bumndeting, when 
B t Wieh o came to bia asaistanoe, with an army hastily recalled from the 
fttaaliata «f Oa«l aad Oenaaay. On Eaat«r-day, a.d. 403, waa fought 
tkakaMia of PoDtali^ Tba taatimony of hij|V>rians t^riee aa to the 
•reflt af it : bat tka advaatafa laa oi s to have bean on tho tide of the 
B et a a. In a aabaaqocat battle^ near Terona, Alarie waa completely 
dafaated by 8tUldM. aad waa eompalled by the Toioo of hia people to 
aeeept tmna wbieh bia pride would baTa rejected— to ratify a trea^ 
with the empire of Ik* west, and to retire from Italy with the remains 
of hit army. (Claadiaa, « De IMlo Ortico.') 

AiUr kiia lalraat from Italy, A Uric concluded a preoariout peace 
witk BeMrloa, and avca tottrid into bia aerriea, being nominated 

Master-Oeoeral of the Weatem IllTrian Prefecturo. In thit capacity 
he wai required to enforce the claims of the court of Kavenna to 
certain proTioces held by the ea«tem empire ; but hia efforts were 
ineffeetual, and at the end of a few years, when his army waa recruited 
by the Oerman youtha who were attracted by bis fame, he renewed 
hia deaign of ettablithing himtelf in Italy. Claiming an eztravagant 
rewaHfor the aerrioea which he had performed, he plainly intimated 
that war would be the oooaequence of a rofuial. The demand waa 
made in the year A.D. 408. The emperor wat then at Rome, and it 
wai debated in the senate what itepi were proper to be takeu. The 
majority were for war; but by Stilioho's advice it was determined to 
buy off the enemy by a oontribution of four thousand ponndt weight 
of gold. One of tha aenaton exclaimed, in the language of Cicero, 
" Thit it not a treaty of peace, but a contract of slavery." Tho 
minister maintained Uie demand to be nothing more than just, as 
Alarie had remained three yean in Epirua for the service of Honorius. 
While the Visigoths were at the foot of the Alps, tho cowardly and 
weak Honorius procured the assassination of Stilicho, the only man 
who could still have defended the empire. His son and almost all his 
ofBoen were murdered along with him. Those Visigoths who were 
serving in the pay of the empire had left their wives and children iu 
the Roman citiea : they were all maaiacred at the some time. All the 
treaties concluded by Stilicho with Alarie were annulled, and tho 
court of Ravenna teemed to take pleasure in provoking on euemy 
whom it was unable to resist. Alarie crossed Venetia witliout encoun- 
tering any Roman soldiers; with the rapidity of a traveller who meets 
with no obstruction, he advanced under the very walls of Rome, and 
formed the siege. An application for terms was made on the part of 
the Romans, with an intimation that if once they took up arms they 
would fight desperately. AJaric returned thit pithy answer : " Tho 
closer hay it pressed, the more easily it is cut. Ue demanded all 
the wealth of Rome. The ambatsodors asked what he would leave 
to the inhabitants ; — " Their lives." He at length however consented 
to retire, on condition of receiving a heavy ransom. But Honorius, 
although he hod taken no measures for the defence of his capital, 
refused to ratify the treaties by which it might have been saved. 
.\Iaric laid siege to Rome a second time in A.D. 409. The imposing 
name of the Eternal City seemed to inspire the barbarian with 
involuntary respect. He endeavoured to save it from the consequences 
to which he was otherwise pledged, by appointing a new emperor in 
the person of Attains, prefect of tho city ; but the weakness of Attains 
rendered it necessary for the Visigoth conqueror to undo the work of 
his ^n hands, and Honorius was reinstated on a powerless throne. 
A treacherous attadc on the Qoths at Ravenna, while the conferences 
were still open, exhausted the patience of Alarie The city was a 
third time bended, and Alarie entered at midnight on the 24th of 
August, 410, when he gave the town up to be pillaged for six days, 
but with orders to his soldien to be sparing of blood, to res]>ect the 
honour of the women, and noVto bum buildings dedicated to religion. 
After the limited period of plunder and vengeance he hastened to 
withdraw his troops, and led them into the southern provinces of 
Italy ; but he died in the oourae of a few months, after a very short 
illnrss, while besieging Cosenza in Calabria. Alarie not only displayed 
great courage and military skill in his various campaigns, but was 
distinguished by his moderation and justice in the intervals of peace. 
The works of art and the usages of civilised life were respected by 
him, and his humanity restrained not a little the excesses of his 
followers. He showed by his rcvercnoe for the churches of Rome 
during tho sack of the city, that he was in some measure under the 
influence of the Christian faith, which he had learned from Arian 
teachen, and while some regarded him as an instrument of vengeance 
against the remaining paganism of Rome, he seems to have mado 
pretensions at times to an impulse from Heaven. 

(Zosimus; Claudion ; Jomandez, DeJiebui OtUeu; Qibbon, oh. xxiz., 

ALARIC II., ALARICUS, king of the West Qoths, succeeded his 
father Eudcs in A.D. 484. Qothia, the then name of the West Gothic 
kingdom, had been considerably enlarged by Eudes, and extouded 
over Hispunia Tarraoonenais and Bntica, and in Qaul as for as tho 
Loire and the Rhone, by which rivers it was separate<l from the king- 
doms of the Franks, the Burguudinns, and the East Qoths, who were 
masten of the province. If we can trust Isidorus, Alario had spent 
bia youth in idleness and luxury, though the truth seems to be that, 
preferring a peaceful reign to war, wliich in the eyes of the Qotha was 
the only occupation worthy of kings, ho incurred that reproach because 
he was not fond of bloodshed. Ho was an Arian, like most of hia 
countrymen, but very tolerant, as we tee from the acts of the Council 
of Agde, which was held in a.d. COO, and by which many privileges 
were granted to the orthodox Catholics. Clovis, king of the Kranks, 
having overthrown the last remnants of the Romnu power in Qaul, 
coveted the fine countries west of the Loire; and there being still 
many Catholics in Qothia who were dissatisfied because their king 
did not adopt tho Catholic faith, he declared war against Alarie. The 
old East Gothic king, Thcodoric the Qrcat, whoso daughter Tlieudi- 
BOtha was the wife of Alario, foresaw the war, and tried to prevent it 
by conciliatory means : the letters which he wrote to that ofiect to 
the kings of tha fVsnka, the West Qoths, and the Burgundians, are 
given by Oatiiodonu; but his endeavoun were in vain, and the war 



broke out in 507. In a pitched battle near VougM, in the environs 
of Poitiers, the result proved fatal to King Alaric, whose army was 
entirely defeated. Alaric fled, but was overtaken and killed. The 
Goths made a halt at Narbonne, and quarrelled among themselves 
about the choice of a new king. One part of them chose Gesalic, or 
GiBolcc, the elder but bastard son of Alaric; and another Amalario, 
the lawful son of Alaric and Thcudigotha. This prince being too 
young to rule, the regency over the West Gothic kingdom was 
intrusted to his grandfather, the East Gothic king Theodoric, who 
drove out Gesalic, and compelled the Franks to restore their con- 
quests. A proof that Alaric was peaceful because he appreciated the 
blessings of peace, and that he was able to consolidate that peace 
by a regular system of legislation, is the code called Breviarium 

(Cassiodorus, Variai: 3, ep. !,*;&; Gregorius Turonensis, ii. 36; 
Procopius, De Bell Quth. iL 12; Jomandez, Dc Reb. Golh. p. 129; 
Mascou, Hist, of the Ancient Germans, translated by Lediard; Asch- 
bach, Geschichle der Watgothen.) 

ALA V A, MIGUEL RICARDO D', wag bom at Vitoria, in Spain, 
in 1771. He first entered the naval service of his country, in which 
he attained the rank of captain of a frigate, which he then exchanged 
for a corresponding rank in the army. At the beginning of the 
French occupation of Spain in 1807, Alava, as a member of the 
assembly of Bayonne, signed the new constitution given on the 
nomination of Joseph Bonaparte as kin;; of Spain ; and be subse- 
quently accompanied Joseph to Madrid. He soon however saw reason 
to be dissatisfied with the side he had taken, and he joined the army 
of the independents. In the progress of the war the Duke of Wel- 
lington appointed him one of his aides-de-camp, in which capacity, 
after the battle of Vitoria, he was enabled to save his native town 
from pillage ; he ultimately attained the rank of general of brigade. 
When Ferdinand VII. was restored, ho remembered Alava'a first 
defection more vividly than his recent services, and he was thrown 
into prison, but the intervention of the Duke of Wellington procured 
his liberation within a few days. Alava at length succeeded in ingra- 
tiating himself with Ferdinand, who appointed him amba-ssador to 
the Netherlands, where his kindness to his banished countrymen 
occasioneil, it is said, his recal in 1S19. At the commencement of 
the revolution of 1820 he was elected member of the Cortes for the 
province of Alava, and was President in May 1822. When in June of 
that year the insurrection took place against the Cortes, he fought 
with Ballastcros and Murillo against its enemies at Madrid, and 
followed the Cortes to Cadiz, whither they had conveyed the king. 
When Cadiz was invested by the French army in 1823, .\Java was 
commissioned by the Cortes to negociate with the Due d'Angoulume, 
and under the assurance of the Due that he would use his influence 
to obtain from Ferdinand (whose liberty was first stipulated for) a 
constitution insuring the freedom of Spain. Ferdinand was conveyed 
to the quarters of the French general, having previous to his leaving 
Cadiz repeated the assurances in proclamations published in his name. 
Arrived in the French camp, Ferdinand lost no time in declaring the 
promises null, as well as all the acts of the government during his 
captivity. Alava, with many other members of the Cortes, retired to 
Gibraltar, and thence to England. After the death of Ferdinand VII. 
he returned to Spain, embraced the cause of the Queen Dowager and 
her daughter against Don Carlos, was ap|)ointed ambassador to 
London in 1834, and to Paris in 1835. After the insurrection of La 
Granja he refused to take the oath of allegiance to the constitution 
of 1812, retired to France, and died at Bareges in 1843. 

(Nouvelle Bioffraphie Univcrselle, 1852.) 

OF, General of the imperial army, and Minister of State of Charles V., 
was bom in 1 508. He was the son of Don Garcia, and grandson of 
Don Fadriquc, or Frederic, who was first-cousin of King Ferdinand 
the Catholic, and the second Duke of Alba de Tormes. His father 
having lost his life in an engagement against the Moors of Gelvez, 
his grandfather superintended his education. He entered very young 
into the service of the emperor, and accompanied him in his expe- 
ditions to Algiers, Tunis, and Pavia. He afterwards followed him to 
Hungary ; and it is said that the emperor promoted him to the first 
rank in the army, more as a mark of favour than from any considera- 
tion of his military talents. His reserved disposition, and the pecu- 
liar bent of his mind to politics, bad at first given an unfavourable 
idea of his talents as a general On the emperor wishing to know 
his opinion about attacking the Turks, he advised him rather to build 
them a golden bridge than offer them a decisive battle. Through his 
wise measures, however, the emperor obtained a complete victoi-y 
over Frederic of Saxony at Muhlbcrg, where the elector was made 
prisoner. Alba subsequently commanded at the siege of Mentz. 

About 1556 Pope Paul IV. had deprived the house of Colonna of 
their states, and added them to the territory of the church. The 
French favoured the Pope ; and the duke was ordered by Philip II. 
to proceed thither against the united French and papal army. Having 
obtained the title of Lieutenant of all the Austrian dominions in 
Italy, with imlimited power, he entered the Italian teiritory. Imme- 
diately upon his arrival, he obliged the Count of Brisac to raise the 
siege of Ulpian ; placed Milan in a state of security ; and, proceeding 
to Naples, Where the Pope by his intrigues had caused serious distur- 

Dloa. Dir, VOL. I. 

bances, he restored tranquillity, and secured respect for the Spanish 
authority. He then entered the Papal States, and made himself 
master of the Campagna of Rome, with a determiuation to humblo 
both the Pope and the French; but having received fresh orders from 
his court, he was obliged to conclude an honourable treaty of peace 
with the Pope, not without telling his master that timidity and scru- 
pulousness were incompatible with the policy of war. This proud 
warrior, before whom the bravest trembled, was subjected to tho 
humiliation of asking the Pope's pardon; and, as he himself con- 
fessed, was so struck with awe at the ceremony, that he could scarcely 
utter a word. 

About 1560 the Flemish provinces of Spain began to manifest 
symptoms of discontent. Philip, a bigoted Catholic, was determined 
to maintam the Roman religion in all its purity throughout his 
dominions. He disliked the Belgians as much as his father had been 
well-disposed towards them ; and his whole conduct was calculated 
rather to alienate than to gain their aflection. He attempted to 
destroy their liberty and privileges, and to establish the Inquisition at 
any hazard. When one of his ministers represented to him, that if 
he did not abolish the inquisitorial edicts, he exposed himself to the 
risk of losing the states, he answered, that he " would rather have 
no subjects at all than have heretics for his subjects." A rebellion 
was the result of this ungenerous policy. To quell it, Alba was 
furnished with troops and money, and invested with unlimited powers. 
He set sail from Spain in 1567, and landed at Genoa, where he 
strengthened his army with some Italian troops, and proceeded to 
Brussels. On his arrival, the country, which, through the mild and 
conciliatory measures adopted by the amiable regent, Margaret of 
Parma, was comparatively tranquil, became full of alarm. Events 
proved that the fears of the people were not unfounded. TUe Prince 
of Orange fled to Germany, and in vain urged the counts of Egmont 
and Horn to do the same. Alba summoned a council of state to his 
house, to consult about the best means of restoring tranquillity and 
repressing sedition. The two counts came as councillors, when Alba 
seized them, with the secretary, Cassenbrot, and put them in prison. 
The princess-regent, seeing herself deprived of her authority, retired 
to Italy, and left the government of the country in the bauds of 
the duke. 

Immediately upon the imprisonment of D'Egmont, Alba instituted 
a council, composed of twelve judges, whom ho named ' Judges of 
the Tumults ; ' by his victims they were called the ' Court of Blood.' 
He was himself president. He summoned the Prince of Orange, and 
all the other nobles and citizens who had fled from tho country, to 
appear before his tribunal, under the penalty of confiscation of their 
property. All the prisons were filled with victims, who were speedily 
condemned and executed. The principal cities were fortified, and 
filled with soldiers; and a country which had hitherto enjoyed all 
the benefits of rational liberty, imder one of the mildest governments 
of Europe, was now conveited into a military camp. More than 
30,000 persons sought refuge in the neighbouring countries. All the 
laws which curb the strong and protect the weak, were virtually 
abolished : there was no other rule but the will of the tyrant. 

The Prince of Orange had collected an army in Germany, with 
which he advanced into Friesland, and defeated a body of Spaniards 
at Groningen. The news of this reverse exasperated the duke. He 
hurried the trials of the counts of Egmont and Horn to a speedy 
conclusion. They were condemned and beheaded; and the secretary 
of D'Egmont was torn alive by four horses. The Prince of Orange 
was desirous to give battle to the Spaniards, but the duke avoided an 
engagement ; and by his prudent movements, without losing a single 
man, he caused the patriot army to disband. Alba returned to 
Antwerp to carry on the fortifications of the citadel. The works 
wore soon finished ; and in the middle of the fortress the duke 
caused his/>wn statue in brass to be erected. This statue represented 
him in full armour, and at his feet a two-headed monster, referring 
allegorically to the nobility and the people. The whole was sup- 
ported by a pedestal of marble, with the following inscription : — " In 
honour of the Duke of Alba, for having restored the Belgians to 
their allegiance to the king and the church, and the country to tran- 
quillity, peace, and justice." This insult was greater than a nation 
could endure. It was so revolting, that it alienated even his friends ; 
and from that moment his dictatorship was virtually ended. His fall 
was hastened by the cruelty practised towards the inhabitants of 
Haarlem, where he caused more than 2000 persons to be executed, 
after having led them to expect forgiveness if they surrendered. 

Ho now began to encounter misfortunes and disappoiutments on 
every side. His health was in a weak state ; the greater part of 
Holland had openly revolted, and proclaimed the Prince of Orange 
stadtholder ; his armies had ceased to be invincible ; and he earnestly 
requested to be recalled. In December, 1573, he published a general 
pardon, and left a country which he had rendered desolate ; in which 
he had delivered into the hands of the executioners 18,000 victims, 
and kindled a war which raged for thirty-seven years, and cost Spain 
the blood of her Best troops, immense treasures, and the final loss of 
some of her richest provinces. The first act of his successor's 
authority was to demolish his statue ; so that nothing remained in 
Flanders after his departure but the memoiy of his cruelty. 

On his arrival iu Spain, iixt from being well received at court, he 




WW iMl M • prtmMT to Uf «mU« oT Ue«lk. Four nu* alUr hU 
•m«,H«n7lLori>«HMd<U«LI«i«teKnerWhlA>!b«ir. Philip II. 
ef aiMia put U k diUm. wUek k* Milbrowl by Of iworl Albk wm 
M* mmateoti fram hU nttrMMBt, and at tb* bawl of 11,000 men 
wtaNd Ftetocal by Btb*. In two wwka ha pUaad Philip in po* 
aMion of Um crown of PottagaL ThiM jwn after, I5S3, ha died 
ai I hlwii. at ttia adraiMad afa of 74. 

Tin l>aka ut Alba waa nndoobtadly Hie aUart gananl of hia wa. 
Ha WM BcteeipallT diiliii«niAad for bia tkUl and pradanea in obooaing 
hb raidoH, and ft>r hia i%U anforoamaat of tba atriet«at diadpUne 
iabbarmy. HaaAanabtaLaadby patiaaeatraticrai tboaaadrantagea 
wUah would bava baas thrown away or daarlr aoqoirad bj a pre- 
cifiMa aMoantw with hia aaaoy. Balng at Cologna, and aToidlnc, 
a« ba atwaya did, an angagmnant with Uia Dutch troopa, tha aroh- 
biabop nrgad him to flgbL « Tha objaet of a general," aiuwered tho 
daka, "la net to fight, bat to eonquer; ba figbti enongh who bbtiuoa 
tho rieton.* Daring a eaiaer of ao many yeara' warfare, ha nerer 
lent a battla. Tba flrmnaaa, energy, and caution of auoh a character 
aa Alba, aorroondtd aa ba waa by all tba evil drcumatanooa which 
bakog to intoleruiea and deapoUam, were only initrumenta to render 
•ba b%ai and tyrant mora dangeroua and odioua. Under mora favour- 
' I of aoeiety, they might hare produced a juit and benerolent 

(Variana. ffUL di &p.,- BentirogUo, Omit, di PUmdr.; Do Campo, 
BuL d€ PortugaL) 

ALBAKI, a natHdan Roman family, originally from the town of 
Urfafao. One of ita members. Cardinal Oian Pranceeoo Albani, waa 
lalaad to tha papal aee in 1700^ when he aaaumed Uie name of 
da man a XL SiMa that time the Albaoi have been olaaaad among 
tha Bomaa prlneea, and have furniahed tbe Choroh of Rome with a 
aoee i a ri on ot cardinal*, who bare been In general men of taste aud 
abilitica. Cardinal Aleaiandro Albani, in tba laat century, was known 
as a patroo of tba arts. During the course of fifty yean he enriched 
his Tills outside of Porta Salaria with a magnifioant eallection of 
okjoela of art, which rendered the Villa Albani one of the moat 
iBtaosUng apota about Rome. When the Frendi republican army 
iotmdod Rome in 1793, this rilla waa stripped of all ita treasarea. 
Tbe oardinal, however, eecapcd to Naplae. After the death of Plus VI., 
Cardinal Albani npahrsd to the oonclava at Venice, which elected 
Fhia VIL, and soon after died at an advanced age. The lay repre- 
aeatative of the Albani family ia poaaeased of the eatato of Soriano 
near Viterbo, and of other domains in the papal states. [Cleme.nt XI.] 
ALBANI. FRANCESCO, was born at Bologna, March 17, 1578, 
and was placed under the tuition of Denys Calvert, to be instructed 
in painting. Guido Rani was atudying at tbe same time under that 
maatrr, and being more advanced in art than Albani he was enabled 
to afford him cffaetual aadstance in bis studies. The two youths 
quitted Calvert, and placed themaelvea umlcr Ludovico Carracci, whose 
eehobi began about this time to be oonspiouous in Lombardy, aud 
mder tba* grtat maatar th«y porsaed their studies with an emulation 
advoBtagaoai to both. Having made conaiderable profioienoy, Quido 
proeeedad U> Rome, whither he waa followed by Albuii, whcea talenta 
aooa ozeited attention in that metropolis of art. Annibale Carraoci 
bad ba«B employed to ornament the chapel of San Diego, in tbe 
Kaliooal Cbardi of the Spaniards; but being diublcd by illness, he 
reeommeaded Albani to oontinuo tha work, which ho finished so 
l ur eiw ft illy aa to oUabi universal applaoae. Ha afterwards painted 
•avatal large pietorsa at Roma, Mantua, and Bologna, but it is on his 
aOMll pletttrsa that AlbanrirapuUtion Is ehiafiy founded. The natural 
bant it bia mind waa towards subjscta of feminine and infantine 
aoAaaa, to high finiahfaig ratlier than bold effect All his latter works 
U* aoail and elaborate; they became extremely fubionable during 
hia day. Albani was well aoqnainted with ancient sculpture, but 
diapiaya no indication of auoh knowledge hi faU male figurea; his 
woaaa and cbildrea an better drswa He might have become a good 
eoiovriat, bat for that anxious and elaborate mode of finishiug which 
faaiiain tU brOUaacy of hU thita, and gives hU flesh the appoanuice 
wivofy. There are at Burghlav Bouse, the seat of tho Marquis of 
Bialar, sons tapeetriea from bia dasigoa. Three of his pictures, 
auMly, tba Three Marys at the Sepulchre, and two Holy Families, 
•J» ** aapavwl by Sir Robert Straogei Albani died Oct. i, 1800. 
(*WnaK 'wwa PiUrieti Paaaeri, VUt di Pitlori. Ac) 

ALBANY, LOUISA, COUNTESS OF, daugUt«r of Prince Stolberg 
Oedem, io OenaanT, waa bom in 1758, and was married in 1772 to 
Cbariaa Jama EdwrnL called the Young PreUnder, grandson of 
Jamaa IL Thajr resided at Rome, and had a Uttle court, by which 
IhOT ««« addiMaad aa king and queen. In 1780 Louisa left her 
nwaad, who waa laaoh older than benelf, and with whom she did 
■a* agrsa, and ratirsd to a aoovenk She afterwards went to France ; 
bat npoB her hnsfaasd'a death in 1788, she returned to Italy, and 
T!^L*^!r*r ^ "«»•««>«* BU waa th»n aeoreUy married to Count 
AUari, the Italian poet, who died at bar house in 1803. She however 
weot by the name of CoonlsM of Albany, as the widow of tbe lost of 
?• ^Jj^.""* •«»»>• «ta»a of ber death, which happened at Florence, 
Jaa. », WW. SU waa food of Utantue snd ^the arts, sad hm 
Moaa was fMCisd lo by the moat distinguished penoos at Floronoa 
a^aaoa^ a Am moMMs^ hf Oanova to bo iceoted in 1810, in the 

ALBATKONIUS (Astronomer). D'Herbelot calls him Mohammed 
Ben Qiaber, but Mr. Uayangos, who has given more particulars of him 
than any one else (in the ' liiogr. Diet' of the Sodety for D. U. K.), 
naioae him Mtlkamwud Ibn Mhir /in Sendn Ab6 AbdiUah. The term 
Albatesnius is the Latinised form of £1 Batani, or £1 Bateni, from 
BatenUi Meaopotamia, where he waa bora He lived in parts of the 
9th and lOth centuries, beginning his astronomical observations in 
X.9. 877, and continuing them till his death iu 029. He generally 
raaided at Rakkah (Aracta) or at Baghdad. His writings comprise 
abridgements of Ptolemteus and Archimedes, with comments; a work 
on astronomy, chronology, and geography; a treatise on the riahig of 
the constellations, and various other points of astronomy ; an elemen- 
tary treatise on astronomy, and one on astrology, with minor works. 
The treatise on the rising of tbe constellations (Lalnnde in verb. 
' I>eUmbn') was transUted from Arabic by one Plato Tiburtinus, but 
badly (as was detected by Hallcy). This translation was twice printed : 
first as ' Al&agani Rudimenta Astronomiic, ot Albategnii Liber do Motu 
Stellarum . . . cum Job. de Regiomonte Orationo Introductoria . , . 
Norimbcrgw, 15S7,' 4to: next as 'AlbsUguii de ScientiA Stdlarum 
Liber, cum aliquot Additionibus J. Regiomoiitani . . . edidit Bernar- 
dinus Ugulottus, Bononite, 1645,' 4to. Both editions leave out the 
tables which the book was written to explain, from which it is difficult 
to form a very accurate idea of the labours of Albategnius ; bat there 
is enough to show that he was an astronomer of great merit and of a 
very independent turn of thought : it is likely that he was among tbe 
first if "°t the very first to find out tbut the data used by Ptolemseus 
required correction. He seems to huve hnd no other guide : the Indian 
numerals are not found in his work, so that it is difficult to suppose 
that he derived any astronomy from that quarter. 

He was the first who rejected tho chords, and substituted sines in 
thdr place, and of this apparently trifling improvement we aro reaping 
the fruits to this day : he also used versed sines and (though without 
seeing tlie full extent of their utility) taugente. He determined the 
obliquity of the ecliptic with tho parallactic instrument as described 
by Ptolemasus, in such manner that liis observation, compared with 
those of our time, gives 0'505" for tho annual diminution of that 
element; our modem tables give it at this time, 0'475''. His sines 
gave trigonometry, even iu bia own bonds, quite a new appearance 
aud a new power ; and he had a much greater number of methods in 
spherical trigonometry than the Greeks. It is most likely that he 
invented these himself, for he distinctly intimates himself to be tho 
first who abandoned tbe chords : the rules for finding the third side 
from two sides and the iucluded angle, aud the angles from the sides, 
must be attributed to him; with great simplifications in the doctrine 
of rightHmgleil triangles. He determined the length of the tropical 
year, msking it only 2m. 26s. too short ; a result much more exact 
than that of Ptolemious. The same may bo said of his determina- 
tions of tho precession of the equinoxes, of the place of the solar 
apogee, and of the ecoentridty of the earth's orbit Looking at his 
determinations of the two latter, and seeing that he does not infer 
that they are changeable dements, we aro left to conclude that he 
attributed the difliennce between himself and Ptolemteus to errors of 
obasrvation. But as it is by the rewarch of Albategnius that succeeding 
astronomers were able to infer the variability in question, and as the 
only reason for his not inferring it was his well-grounded want of 
confldenoe in Ptolemteus's results, he has the merit of tho discovery. 
Several writers have afiSrmed that he did announce it; but iocon-ectly. 
The changes which ha made in the lunar theory uf Ptolemicus are 
slight and in his plnnetary theory be has very little success. For a 
fuUer account of his work, see Delambre, ' Hist de I'Astrou. Moyenne,' 
p. 10-62. This learned and excellent historian, who rarely lets an 
author go without stripping a few leaves from bis crown, shows 
Albategnius to great advantage in comparison with Ptolemnus as an 
observer, and with his European follower Itegiomoutanus aa a theorist : 
and tho subject of our article may fairly take rank as the greatest of 
the Arabia school, which forms the link between that of the Greeks 
and our own. 


ALBEKONI, GUILIO, CARDINAL, was born la the sUte of 
Piooenza, in May, 1664. He was bred to the church, and became 
curate of a country parish. The Duke of Vendume, who commanded 
the French army m Italy during the war of the Spanish Succession 
in 1702-1704, happening to be in the states of Parma, and being in want 
of com for his troops, sent for AlberonL The curate bad become 
pcrsoually known several years before to Campistrou, the poet, one of 
tbe duke s followers, when the latter, travelling through Italy, and 
beUig stripped by robbers in the same neighbourhood, Wiis kindly 
taken home by him, and his wants supplied. Alberoni, who was a 
man of natural abilities and quickness, rendered bimsdf useful to tbe 
French general ; on which account however he became obnoxious to 
the opposite, or imperial party. When Vvnddme was recalled from 
Italy lie took Alberoni with him, nnd obtained for him a pension of 
lOOO French crowns from Louis XIV. Alberoni followed the duke 
into Spain, where the war was then raging iu Catalonia. Vendome 
employed Alberoni in hU negoeiations with the court of Philip V., 
where at that time the Princess d«s Ursius enjoyed the greatest mflu- 
enoe. Alberoni found favour with the princess, whose intriguing mind 
was congenial to his own, and he became her confidant Through her 




means he was constituted agent of the Duke of Parma at the court 
of Madrid, in which capacity he was instrumental in bringing about 
the marrias^e of Philip V. with Elizabeth Farnese, dausjhter of the 
Prince of Parma. He set off for Parma to stipulate the marriage- 
contract in the king's name. In the meantime the Princess des Uraius, 
having understood that the character of the future bride was not so 
mild as it had been represented by Alberoni, and that she was likely 
to endanger her own influence at court, prevailed on the king to 
despatch a courier to Parma, with orders to Alberoni to suspend the 
negociation. Tlie courier arrived on the eve of the day appointed for 
affixing the signatures, Alberoni, it was said, by threats or bribe, 
prevailed upon the man not to make his appearance until the day 
after. The marriage-contract was signed in December, 1714, and the 
new queen set off for Spain. The first favour she asked of her husband, 
in writing, was to dimiss the Princess des Ursins from court. The 
latter, who had set off from Madrid to meet her, received an order 
from PhiUp to quit Spain immediately. The new queen, in gratitude 
to Alberoni, had him appointed a member of the king's council, bishop 
of Malaga, and, lastly, prime minister of Spain. He now devoted all 
his energies to rouse Spain from the state of weakness into which she 
had fallen during the preceding century, and make her act a principal 
part in the affairs of Europe. Alberoni was not scrupulous about 
means. In violation of the Peace of Utrecht he suddenly invaded the 
island of Sar'iinia, which had been secured to the emperor, and after- 
wards in like manner conquered Sicily — the Duke of Savoy being then 
at peace with Spain. All Europe was astounded at this new war stured 
up by Alberoni; England, France, and the emperor resented bis con- 
duct; and an alliance waa formed against Spain in 1719. Alberoni 
defied them all : he favoured the Pretender, in order to find employ- 
ment for the English at home ; he tried to excite disturbance in 
France, especially among the Protestants in the south, by claiming 
for Philip V. the regency of that kingdom during the minority of 
Louis XV, ; and he even corresponded with Ragotski of Transylvania, 
and with the Sultan, in order to divert the attention of the Emperor. 
The latter sovereign was in consequence obliged to recal Prince Eugene 
in the midst of bis successful campaigns against the Turks, and to 
conclude with the latter a disadvantageous peace at Passarowitz. The 
clamour against Alberoni, on account of these intrigues, was universaL 
Pope Clement XI., who had been induced by Philip V. to make Albe- 
roni a cardinal, was loud in his remonstrances against him. The fall 
of Alberoni was resolved by the allied powers as the only means of 
restoring peace to Europe. The Duke of Parma was prevailed upon 
to use his influence with the court of Spain, and especially with the 
queen, who being already weary of the haughty and overbearing tone 
of the cardinal-minister, induced Philip V. to write with his own hand 
an order for Alberoui's deposition, aud his banishment from the Spanish 
territories. This happened at the end of 1719, after Alberoni had been 
minister al)Out three years. Alberoni repaired to Italy, where he had 
transmitted large sums of money. Orders had been given by the Pope 
for his arrest, which Alberoni however evaded. A process was insti- 
tuted at the same time against him at Rome, which be also contrived 
to protract. Pope Clement XI. having died in March, 1721, Alberoni 
suddenly repaired to Rome to attend the conclave, to the astonishment 
of the people, who crowded to see this famous personage. The new- 
elected Pope, Innocent XIII., quashed the proceedin^B against him. 

Some time after, Alberoni waj sent as legate to Romagna. But ho 
had not yet totally forgotten his habits of intrigue ; and being now 
nnable any longer to disturb the peace of Europe, he contrived to 
embroil the diminutive republic of San Marino, which unfortunately 
was placed in the neighbourhood of his government. Under the pretence 
of remedying some discontents he entered the town of iSan Marino, and 
called upon the citizens to swear allegiance to the Pope, Some ran 
away, others refused, and the rest complied through fear. The Pope 
however disapproved of Alberoni's conduct, and sent another legate, 
who reinstated the republican government. This occurred at the 
beginning of 1740. Alberoni after this retired to Piacenza, his native 
country, where he lived in affluence, and built a large religious house. 
He remained in retirement, forgotten by the world, till the 26th of 
June, 1752, when he died at the advanced age of 88. 

Alberoni left a quantity of manuscripts, from which a work, called 
his ' Political Testament,' published at Lausanne in 1753, was said to 
be derived. He is remarkable as one of the most prominent examples 
of that clasa of statesmen who rose to power by the most pitiful 
intrigue*; and who, being imcontrolled by public opinion, thought 
their own ambition and their pretended zeal for their despotic masters 
a sufficient motive to plunge the people of Europe into continual 
wnm, in which they had no real interest, and whose effects have bo 
long retarded the natural progress of mankind in civilisation by the 
efforts of peaceful industry. 

{MuT&tcTi, Annali d^ Italia ; BoiiA, Sloria d' Italia ; Cox, Memoirt of 
the KinrjK of Spain of the Noute of Bourbon.) 

ALBERT I., Duke of Austria, and afterwards Emperor of Germany, 
was the son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, the founder of the imperial Austrian 
dynasty. Albert married the beiren of the former dukes of Austria. 
After his father's death in 1291 be assumed the imperial title, in oppo- 
sition to the Totea of the eleotcrs, who hail chosen Adolphus of Kassau. 
After Bflvend yean' war between the two competitors, Albert defeated 
Adolphoa, who was killed in battle in 1293, Albert then ascended the 

imperial throne, and received after many difficulties the confirmation of 
the Pope, Boniface VIII. He was next engaged iu wars with the Bohe- 
mians, whose country he attempted to conquer, but without success. 
Soon after this the Swiss forest cantons revolted, on the Ist of Jauuary, 
1308, against Albert's lieuteuauts, whose government was arbitrary and 
oppressive : this was the beginning of the Swiss Confederation. [Swit- 
zerland, in Geog. Div.] Albert, full of indignation, came with troops 
to chastise them : he advanced as far as Badeu iu Aargau, where he 
summoned his vassals, aud held a council for the reduction of tha 
revolted cantons. On the 1st of May, 1308, Albert left Badeu to 
return to Rheinfelden, where the Empress Elizabeth was. As he 
crossed the river Reuss at Windisoh iu a boat, he was sejiarated from 
the greater part of his suite, liis nephew, John of Hapsburg, and three 
other noblemen only, crossing over with the emperor. John, who had 
lately come of age, had been importunate with his uncle to restore to 
him his father's estates in Suabia, which Albert seemed detormiued 
to keep in his owu possession. The nephew, despairing of justice, 
had formed a conspiracy with the three noblemen already mentioned; 
and as the party landed on the opposite bank of the Reuss, the con- 
spirators fell upon the emperor and murdered him, in sight of his 
attendants on the other side of the river, who could give their master 
no assistance. Albert expired in the arms of a poor countrywoman 
who happened to pass that way. The murderers fled : two of them 
were afterwards taken and executed, as well as a number of other 
persons mostly innocent, who were suspected to have been concerned 
in the conspiracy. Agnes, Albert's daughter, and queen of Hungary, 
carried her vengeance for her father's death to a most dreadful extent. 
Nearly one hundred noble familie.s, and one thousand persons not 
noble, of every age and sex, were involved in this inhuman proscription. 
The executions lasted several months. After this butchery Agnes built 
a monastery on the spot where Albert had been murdered, which was 
called Kbnigsfelden, and here she shut herself up for the rest of her 
days. The remains of this monastery and church are still to be seen, 
aa well as the apartments which Queen Agnes occupied. KiJuigsfeldeu 
is on the high road from Basle to Baden and Zurich in Switzerland, 
and in sight of the castle of Hapsburg, whence the house of Austria 
originally sprung. (Johann Miiller, Geschichte der Schweitzer.) 

ALBERT, Archduke of Austria, son of the Emperor Maximilian II., 
was made a Cardinal and Archbishop of Toledo. He was appointed 
by Philip II. in 1590 governor of the Low Countries, and succeeded 
the Duke of Parma in the difficult task of cari'ying on the war against 
the Dutch, who had revolted from Spain. He resigned the cardinal- 
ship, and married Elizabeth of Austria, daughter of Philip II., who 
brought him Flanders and Franche-Comt(5 as her dowry : he thus 
became sovereign, nominally at least, of the Belgian provinces. In 
July, 1600, be fought the battle of Nieuport against the Dutch under 
Mavirice of Nassau : this engagement, in which Albert was defeated, 
decided the independence of Holland. Albert next besieged Ostend, 
which he took after a long and murderous siege, in which 100,000 
men are said to have lost their lives on both sides. In 1609 Albert 
concluded a truce with the Dutch for twelve years, before the expiration 
of which he died, in 1621. He left no children, and the dominion of 
Flanders reverted to Spain. 

ALBERT, Prince of Mecklenburg, was called to the throne of 
Sweden iu 1364 by the nobility who had deposed King Magnus. The 
partisans of the latter, joined with Haquin, king of Norway, carried 
on the war for several years ; at last Magnus formally gave up the 
crown to Albert in 1371. Waldemar, king of Denmark, dying in 1376, 
his daughter Margaret, widow of Haquin, king of Norway, became 
queen of both Denmark and Norway ; and soon after the Swedes, being 
dissatisfied with Albert, who favoured his German counti'ymen at their 
expense, offered to Margaret the crown of Sweden. After several mora 
years of war, a decisive battle was fought at Talkoping in West Goth- 
land, in which the queen's forces defeated Albert, and took him prisoner 
in 1388. Peace however was not re-established in Sweden till 1396, 
when Albert consented to give up his claims to the crown. He then 
retired into Mecklenburg, where he died. Margaret of Waldemar thus 
united ihe three northern kingdoms under one sceptre. 

ALBERT, Margrave of Brandenburg, and first duke of Prussia, was 
bom in 1490. He was elected in 1511 Grand Master of the Teutonic 
Order, who held dominion over Prussia proper, that part of the present 
kingdom of Prussia which borders on the Baltic Sea. He fought 
against Sigismund, king of Poland, for the defence of his order, who 
had been for ages at war with the Poles. Peace was made in 1525 at 
Cracow, in which Albert managed to have the duchy of Prussia secured 
to himself and hia descendants as a fief of the crown of Poland, thus 
laying aside the rights of the order. Albert some time after embraced 
the Protestant faith, and married a princess of Denmark. One of hia 
descendants, Frederic William, elector of Brandenburg, threw off the 
allegiance of Poland ; and his son, Frederic I., changed the title of Duko 
into that of King of Prussia iu 1701. [Bbandenbubg, inGEOU. Div.] 


•ALBERT, PRINCE. Albert Francis Augustus Charles Emmanuel, 
prince of Saxa-Coburg-Gotha, and consort of Queen Victoria, was born 
August 26, 1819, and was the second son of the Duke Ernest I., who 
died in 1 844, Prince Albert was educated along with his elder brother, 
Prince Ernest, the present Dukeregnant of SaxeCoburg-Gotha, under 
the Consistorial Councillor Florschiitz, and subsequently at the 



UnivMvMr of Uottu. Hi* •UtJU* >i« dMoribad u inolading, b«id« 

M uid hiaiocy, lh« phyaUal aad natant Mi«oeM ; wid >i«o 

palBti^ in both of whidi uta h* UUiowl eoD*ldarabl« 

,. Priaw Alkwrt WW nurriwl to Qiimd Viokwia on the 10th 

«r Mtewiry lUO a Si. Jamm't ehapd, h*Tiii( • bw tUjm b«for« bMn 
MtaratiMd by Aet of FkriiuMBt Bjr u Aet wUoh raMivwl the royal 
MMil Awwt 4, 1840, it WM providM that, ia caM of the domiaa of 
hm M^Mtr Mbi« bar nnt liMal daoMdaat thall hava attaiiwd the 
Ma «r iMiiaaii. tha Prinoa ia to ba RogMit ODifl aueh an ii raaohad. 
rLt Maea «a* not unminafol of tha giava raapouibaiUaa wUdi hia 
iinJUwi aal opoa him, or of thoaa whieh might poadbly aoorna. 
Almoat imnadialalj attar hia aottlaoiant in thia countn ha raad a 
flomaa of BwUib aoaaUtatioiial Uatory and law with one of our highaat 
aothotiliaarMr. Salwja ; and whilst ha hM moat judidoaaly bald him- 
artf aloof tmn all pottlieal pailiaii, ba haa at difleraat timea shown an 
iatiawla aeqaalBlaiMa with tha (naral baariog of graat public moTo- 
■Makv aaah m eoold only ranill from a eareful atudy of tas principles 
of ear seeial aeooomy, a ciaar knowladge of English institutions, and 

a uu iMti l ii itt - rl i I 1^ !*•* [""y** '■f «'»">* In many of those 

pobUe qnasHnni which are diatUiet from partv politici, and in nearly 
■U tlMsa wUok baar on tiie improreiasnt of the phTsioal oondition of 
lbs Morar timma, oo tha p t ogr esa of tha manhanlml and fine arts, 
•ad m varions baoeroleiit projeets, the Prinoe hss taken a Tsry aotiTe 
patt; and his speacbas on publio oocssions bare always shown an 
htalUfsot apprsdation of the objects sought to be aooomplished. As 
the head of Um Fine Arts Commission the Prinoe did much towards 
; hi motiott that eSbrt to reach the higher purposes of art which 
artsrissil tha painting and scolptare of the last twelve or 
jraais; and he has, by hia ceaious patronage of schools of 
ilitjn. erinesd an equal daidrs to aid in rai^ng the artistio chanoter 
of our manofMtaras. But it was ss the Chaiman of the Conncil of 
lbs Orsat KihiHtkn of 1851 that his aetivity and knowledge found 
its widest scope and fuUsat derelopment ; and it seemed to be admitted 
by all who were intimately connected with the origin and progress of 
that mat andartaking, that it owed rery much of ita high position 
aad oitimata aooasai to tha taste, judnnant, and tact of Prinoe Albert. 

The Prioea ia a &eld-marslul in the English army and a oolonel of 
the Qteoadier Qnards, and he is said to take much interest in the state 
of tha army and the condition of the soldier ; but his tastes and pur- 
suits are Yor the moat part entirely of a pacific character. The fine 
and meciianical arts do not, howeTer, engross his attention. His 
aaoM appean in the lisls at the Smithfield Club, and other leading 
■picoltwal ash!bition% as a competitor, and generally as a suooessful 
•oiapslUor, for tha prisea annuaiiy adjudicated for superior breeds of 
cattle, Ac. He hss indeed giran a good deal of time to agricultural 
pntnlti^ and his 'model farms' at Windsor are said by practical 
fttoMn to ba really entitled to their designation. 

Bsaidaa thoaa aboTC mentioned, the Prince holds eeTeral offices under 
the efown. Ha waa elected in 1842, after a sharp contest, Chancellor 
of lbs Univetaity of Cambridge ; and he ia president of the Society of 
AtH Qrsad Master of the Freemasons, and patron or president of 
vaiioos baaerolent and other iusUtntions. 

ALBERTI. LEON BATTISTA, a dutiugniahed mstbematician, but 
mors celofantod as an architect, and hardly less so as a philosopher, 
poat, painter, and sculptor. He was of the ancient aad noble family 
of lb* Alberti of Floranoe, but wss bom in Oanoa in 1404. He was 
a ap b ow of tha Cardinal Alberto degl' Alberti, and he himself became 
• asma of tha OMtropoUtan ehnroh of Florence. Having devoted 
maob of Us s U s oti oa to the aoqnisitioa of the principles of architec- 
tors, by tha obssrratioa and admeasurement of the remains of andent 
it l B sss is Tsrioos parts of Italy, Alberti became diaUngaishad among 
tha nrooMtan of tba Ihaa new style, which haa been called a restoiatiou 
of taa aaoiant and nIsaJnal, Whan at Rome he waa employed by tho 
Pm Woho l aa V^ to repair tha aaeient aqueduct of the Aqua Veigiue, 
■ad to ooeslraot tba Fonlana diTravi ; but the structure was so much 
daooratsd by Salri, in tba ponttfioate of Qement XII., that not a 
T«Mifs aow rsmaina of tba dadgn of Alberti. 

At Floraoos, Albsrti succoadad to tha direction of several works 
«U«b bad baso commenosd by BronaUeachi, and Un unfinished at 
bb dsalb. Ha hiaaaaif deaicnsd aad executed in Florence tho Palasco 
B« w llri . tba oboir aad triboDa of the church of the AnnundaUon ; 
■■4 soao BtMbota to Alberti tba principal front of tha church of 
SbdU Maiia NovelU. At Maatna ba aMcutod aararal edifices for the 
&ika LodoTioo Oooaga. But lbs ntost asteemed arohiteotuial work 
of Alberti is tba ebnrdi of Sk FrHids at Rimini, which he wns 
anployed to daootBia by SigisaiaBdo Malatasta, lord of that city. He 
wrata a work oa sealptnrs^ ' DelU SUtoa,' which was followed by 
aaolhar oa pafartiac 'De notorii,' which he calla " pnedileotissimA 
•Im^asasBtia hodaU aria " ("a moat delightfnl art, never suffl- 
MsMlyrniasil ); bat bis last aad noot fataaaiad work is his treatise 
o«arobitartai«,'DeIUiBdiflastari4.' Tbia waa not published untU 
aftOT hia daatb, wbea it waa adilod by Us teotber Bertnnd, and at 
Us owa daaiM d a di ea t s d to Lorsaio 4^ Madid. Ha died in 1473. 
n^MooaaaMof UibBilyyolasiats in the chureh of SanU Crooc, 

(▼•■vi I^MdV Ailir4,*«L,od.8obani.; Tiimboaehi. fto.) 
ALBBRTIKKLLI. MAWOTTO, oa. W thTS-t of 'the early 
norartiaa fia»ma, waa bon al nonaea about 147S. Ha waa the 

pupil of Cosimo Roselli, but he bocame eventually the friend nnd 
tmltator of Fra Bartolomeo, whom he aasisted in some of his works. 
In tone Albartinelli equalled, if he did not excel, Fra Bartolomeo. 
Thai* are thiaa of hu works in the gallery of the academy at 
FUmaca, one of which, the Annunciation of the Virgin, is a master- 
piaeo in tonsi Ha excelled for bin period also in design, and some of 
bis work* ara drawn in a style worthy of the best of the Cinqueceu- 
tisti, as the Italians term the painters of the 16th centoiy. He drew 
from the antiques in the garden of Lorenzo de' MedicL His master- 
piece is considared the Visitation of Elizabeth to the Virgin, in the 
wiperial gallery of Florence ; it contains however only the two saints, 
but beneath it is a predeUa in three compartments, illustrating in 
small figures the Annunciation, tho Nativity, and the Presentation in 
the Temple ; it has been engraved by V. della Uruua. 

Albertinelli was of a very singular disposition, and of dissipated 
habits. At one time he forsook painting, having taken offence at 
some oriUcisms upon hia works, and turned publican, an occupation 
however which he soon exchanged for liis original profession. He 
painted several works in partnership with his friend Fra Bartolomeo, 
and when that painter joined the order of the Dominioans, Alberti- 
nelli completed his imfinished works, among which was the Lost 
Judgment, for the cemetery of Santa Maria Nuova, which, says 
Vasari, many suppose to have been the entire work of liartolomeo. 
Albertinelli was so much distressed at losing the society of Bartolomeo, 
when the latter turned monk, that his friends had much difficulty in 
preventing him from following his example. Vasari says that he died 
about 1520, aged 45, tho victim of his own debaucheries. He had 
some distinguished scholars ; the best was Visino, who, according 
to Vasari, died in Hungary ; others were Giuliouo Bugiardini, 
Franciabigio, and Innooenzio da Imolo. 

Albertinelli painted in fresco in Florence, in Viterbo, and in Rome. 
Visori mentions a very excellent portrait by him of the mother of 
Lorenzo de' Medici, Donna Alfonslna Orsini, daughter of Roberto 
Orsini, the constable of Naples. A picture in the Louvre by him is 
inscribed " Maricocti Debertinellis Opus. Anuo. Dom. M.D.V1." lu 
tbe chapter-house of the Carthusians at I'^orence, a crucifixion in 
fresco, with the same date, is marked " Moriotti Florentiui Opus." 

(Vasari, Vite de' PUtori, ke.) 

bishop of Zenopolis, was bom at Warsaw in the year 1731. Hia 
father was by birth an Italian. On the death of bis mother, which 
occurred when he was yeiy young, be was placed entirely under the 
care of the Jesuits, and educated iu their publio school. Here his 
progress was so rapid, and the ability he diapl.iyed so extraordinary, 
that at the age of 15 he was admitted into tbe order, aad immediately 
on the completion of his novitiate, namely, iu his 19th year, was sent 
as public tutor to the college of Pultusk ; be subsequently filled the 
same important post at Plovzko, Nieswiez, and Wilna. In the year 
1760, Bishop Zoluski, having determined to throw his extensive library 
open for the benefit of the public, appointed Albertrondy bis librarian. 
This post he occupied four years, during whicli time he drew up a 
very elaborate catalogue of the entire collection, stated to contain 
200,000 volumes. In 1704 tbe Prince Lubienski confided to his 
charge his grandson. Count Felix Lubienski, afterwards minister of 
justice in the duchy of Warsaw. In the year 1770 he accompanied 
his pupil into Italy, to tbe Academy of Siena, and afterwards to 
Rome. The growing inclination of the young Lubienski for the study 
of antiquities, p.'u-ticularly numismatics, attracted tho attention of his 
instructor, who ajiplioJ himself with redoubled diligence to thia 
science, and in the course of two years gained for himself a place 
amongst the first numismatists of Europe. Two years later. Count 
Felix Lubienski, having presented his collection of coins to King 
Stanislaus, with a request that they might be continued under tbe 
care of Albcrtrandy, the king appointed turn keeper of his medals, and 
subsequently his lecturer and librarian, and keeper of his prints. 
Albcrtrandy, anxious to avail himself of the royal confidence for the 
good of his country, proposed to the king to collect from foreign 
countries the various scattered notioes relating to Poland. He was iu 
consequence sent into Italy in 1782, and in the course of three yean 
bad gleaned from the Vatican and sixteen other libraries in Rome, and 
also from various collections iu other pbtces, their most important 
contents relative to Poland. He shortly afterwards went to Sweden 
upon a similar mission. The product of these two journeys formed 
a most valuable collection of historical materials in almost 200 folio 
volumes, which aro stated to have been deposited in the library of 
Pulawy, by Prince Czsrtoryski. King Stanislaus, as an acknowledg- 
ment of the extraordinary merit of Albcrtrandy, presented him with 
th* great medal of merit, and tho cross of the order of St. Stanislaus, 
and made him Bishop of Zenopolis. When 70 years of age he was 
unanimously called upon to preside over the newly-formed Royal 
Sodety of the Friends of Science of Warsaw, and he continued to 
direct ita operations with the greatest activity aud zeal, enriching its 
transaoUont with numerous papers, until his death, which took place 
on the 10th of AuKUst, liJOS. (Bioj/rapHical DidUmary of the Hociety 
for the Viffiuicn of Vt^id Knowledge.) 

ALBEJITUS MAQNUa It is a matter of controversy whether 
thia celebrated scholar derived hia laudatory name from the admi- 
ration of his contemporaries, or whether it was a Latinised form of 




the samame Qroot, or Grot, He was bom at Laaingen, in Suabia, 
according to some in 1205, according to otiiera in 1193. In 1222 he 
entered the order of Dominicans. During a long series of years he 
gave public lectures at Cologne, which were frequented by the prin- 
cipal scholars of the age ; and he filled many places of trust and 
dignity. He was however unambitious of worldly honours, and he 
resigned even a bishopric which was forced upon him by the Pope, 
that he might enjoy the retirement of hia cell, teach, and compose 
books. He died in 12S0. His works form 21 volumes in folio, and 
are devoted to logic, physics, metaphysics, and theology. 

There is great difficulty in classifying the works of Albertus, so as 
to obtain a correct estimate of his system, owing to his having been 
more a man of great erudition than a comprehensive and coherent 
thinker. He had read more than he had thoroughly digested ; his 
mind in some measure broke down beneath the extent and variety of 
bis learning. He had a taste for information of every kind ; but the 
multiplicity of inquiries into which this universality prompted him 
to enter, rendered it impossible for him to retain them except by the 
mere formal memory. When any branch of science was mentioned, 
his tenacious memory recalled what the authors he had read delivered 
concerning it, their arrangement, and manner of dividing the subject. 
He had a vigilant and sharp eye to the phenomen.i of external nature, 
and a singular talent for clear exposition. His style and manner are 
too formal ; the logical framework is pedantically ostentatious ; but 
what be knows himself he makes clear to others. 

All that we know of Albertus as an author or as a man is calculated 
to inspire us with respect for him. If his writings do not evince the 
subtle intellect of his scholar Thomas Aquinas, or the comprehensive 
genius of hU master Aristotle, they evince an enthusiastic love of 
knowledge, an extraordinary power of pei-severing labour, and a pure 
and elevated disposition. Though frequently called to take part in 
public business, both civil and ecclesiastical, he was free from 
ambition ; his cloister-cell was his favourite abode ; adding to his 
store of knowledge, and communicating it to others, his favourite 
occupations. Yet such was his reputation for integrity, that laymen 
selected him as umpire in disputea with dignitaries of the church who 
were his personal friends, and popes consulted him even when the 
interests of his order might have been supposed to bias his opinion. 
When, in addition to these qualities, his influence in promoting the 
progress of knowledge in Europe is taken into account, his being the 
first to present the students of the middle ages with an encyclopccdia 
of knowledge, it is easy to enter into the feelings of those who 
bestowed upon him the name of ' Great' There are not many 
among those to whom that abused epithet has been applied who have 
BO well deserved it. 

(Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffation of Utefid 

ALBINU3, BERNARD SIEGFRIED, one of the most celebrated 
anatomists of the 18th century, was bom at Frankfurt, in the year 
WjT, His father was professor of the practice of medicine in the 
University of Frankfurt, but subsequently filled the chair of anatomy 
at Leydeu, then the most celebrat^ school of medicine in Europe. 
The position of his father afforded him the advantage of studying 
.' -om his early youth imder the greatest masters of the age — Boerbaave, 
'inysch, and Rau. In 1718 he went to Paris to study at the hospitals, 
but in the following year was recalled to Leyden to take the office of 
reader in anatomy and surgery. In 1721, on the death of hia father, 
he vraS unanimously elected to the professorship of those sciences, 
and for more than twenty years from that time he entirely devoted 
himself to the study and teaching of them. In 1745 he was chosen 
professor of therapeutics, and be remained in this office till his death 
in 1770. 

Bernard Siegfried Albinus, though the best anatomist of his time, 
was not a great discoverer. The knowledge of many single facts is 
due to hia investigations j but he was not the author of any impoi'tant 
principle in anatomy or physiology. His merit consists in the accuracy 
with which he investigated all the subjects of bis study, the clearness 
and completeness of bus descriptions, and the care which he bestowed 
on the delineation of the various structures of the body. In all these 
he was unequalled ; and he thus contributed more than any of his 
predecessors to render descriptive anatomy an exact science. The 
commencement of that close study of anatomy by which it is now 
Dearly perfected in its adaptation to surgery may be traced in the 
publication of his works. The engravings of the bones and muscles, 
by Vandelaar, have never been surpassed in fidelity, and have rarely 
been equalled in beauty of execution. They are said to have cost 
Albinus 30,000 florins, for the artist lived several years under bis roof, 
and many of the first engravings were destroyed for trivial inacouracies 
or defects. (For a liit of the works of Albinus, see Watt's ' Biblio- 
theca Britannica,' vol. L p. 14, :.) 

ALBITTE, ANTOINE LOUIS, one of the most violent Jacobins of 
the French revolution, and afterwards a humble satellite of the Emperor 
Napoleon I. At an early age the violence of his principles procured 
his election as a member of the Legislative Assembly for the depart- 
ment of the Lower Seine, in September, 1791. His profession was 
that of an advocate, which he carried on at Dieppe. On the morning 
after tl>« memorable 10th of Augdst, 1792, he and his colleague Sers 
proposed and carried the resolution that every statue of a king should 

be destroyed, and a statue of Liberty erected in its stead. He was 
sent in September with Lecointre-Puyraveau to the department of the 
Lower Seine, to disarm suspected persona, and deport the priests who 
refused to take the oath. He executed his commission with great 
severity, and in return was elected by the department to the National 
Convention. Here he was of the number of those who voted, on the 
21st of December, agamst allowing Louis XVI. counsel on his trial, 
and shortly afterwards for putting him to death. On the 23rd of 
March, 1793, he carried the decreo that emigrants taken prisoners in 
foreign countries should be massacred, whether found with or without 
arms. In Paris he was always the ardent opponent of the Giroudins, 
and the proposer or supporter of the most violent measures ; but it 
was in the country, and as commissioner to the armies of the republic, 
in which he attained the military rank of adjutant-general, that his 
atrocities were carried farthest. He was present in this character at 
the siege of Lyon, and at the partial demolition of that city after its 
capture, at the operations of Carteaus against the insurgents of the 
south, and at the opening of the siege of Toulon, where he made the 
acquaintance of Bonaparte, which was useful to him in after-life. His 
cruelty was accompanied with luxury and avarice : at Bourg he is said 
to have bathed every morninij in the milk that was brought for the 
consumption of the town. His success and his excesses seem at this 
time almost to have turned his brain : he amused himself by having 
the pope, the king of England, &c., guillotined in effigy ; and when one 
day at the Th<Sa.tro Franjais, the pit applauded the hemistich in 
Chenier's ' Caius Gracchus,' which may be translated " Let us have 
laws, not blood," he rose in anger, and vociferating imprecations on the 
audience, shouted out, " Let us have blood, not laws." On the fall of 
Robespierre numerous denunciations of his conduct were sent in to 
the Convention from the departments, and one from the adminis- 
trators of the district of Bourg was referred to a committee. Albitte, 
thus pressed by danger, joined in a conspiracy to re-establish the reign 
of terror, which burst out in the insurrection of the first of Prairial 
in the year 3 (the 20th of May, 1795), one of the most terrible days of 
the whole revolution. It was on this occasion that the insurgents 
broke into the Convention, compelled that assembly to pass several 
decrees at the point of the sword ; and after murdering Ferand, one of 
the members, presented his head on a pike to the president Boissy 
d'Anglas. After a desperate contest in the hall of the Convention, 
the insurgents were defeated and driven out ; and the legislative body 
revoked the decrees it had passed under the influence of force, and 
voted, at the proposal of TaUien, the instant arrest of the members 
who had dared to bring them forward, or to countenance the conduct 
of the insurgents. Albitto was ably defended by his younger brother 
Jean Louis, also a representative of the Lower Seine, who, on this 
occasion, broke through a course of habitual inaction ; the decree for 
bis arrest was nevertheless passed, but it was found that during the 
confusion he had escaped. He was condemned in default of appear- 
ance ; his colleagues were sentenced to death, and committed suicide 
in a body to avoid the guillotine. Albitte remained concealed till the 
general amnesty for revolutionary offences issued on the 26th October, 
1795 (the 4th Brumaire, year 4), soon after which he was appointed 
by the Directory municipal commissary at Dieppe. On the overthrow 
of the Directory by Bonaparte, he became a warm partisan of his old 
acquaintance, who rewarded his zeal by naming him sub-inspector of 
reviews, a post which ho maintained during the imperial government. 
He accompanied Napoleon I. in this capacity in the invasion of Russia, 
and died of cold, fatigue, and hunger, on the retreat from Moscow, on 
the 2oth December, 1812. It is said that he maintained existence 
during three days with the remains of a flask of brandy, which in his 
last moments he shared with one of his unfortunate companions, cne 
only act of benevolence that is recorded in his history. (Abridged 
from the Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowledge.) 

ALBOIN, one of those northern princes who established kingdoms 
in Italy upon the ruins of the Roman empire. He was the son of 
Audoin, king of the Lombards [Longobaros], who, about the middle 
of the Ith century, were settled in Pannonia. Here they became 
engaged in hostilities with the rival monarchy of the Gepidsa ; and in 
the early stage of this contest, Alboin, then a youth, signalised hia 
courage, strength, and skill in arms ; and the prince of the Gepidie fell 
by his hand. After his accession to the Lombard throne he became 
enamoured of Rosamond, daughter of Cunimond, king of the Oepidaj, 
and sister of him whom he had slain, and sought her in marriage. His 
suit being rejected, he carried her oS by force. The Oepida), supported 
by a Roman army, were strong enough to compel the restoration of 
the princess. But the love or resentment of Alboin led to the renewal 
of hostilities : he obtained the assistance of the Avars ; the Qepidte, 
abandoned by the Romans, were defeated with great slaughter (a.d. 5()6), 
and tlieir name and nation passed away. Cunimond fell by the hand 
of Alboin ; and Rosamond became the bride of the victor, whose savago 
temper led him to fashion the skull of the deceased monarch into a 
drinking-cup, long_ preserved as a trophy by the Lombard princes. 

In the year 56S Alboin led the Lombards into Italy, and overran 
the whole inland district, to the gates of Rome and Ravenna, without 
meeting an army in the field. Milan opened its gates on the 4th of 
September, 609. Before Pavia he was detained more than three 
years ; and, in anger, he vowed to put all the inhabitants to the sword. 



TU «<IT ■* )««tk yMiM to hmlot. A* h« anUrwl Um g*to bU 
hamt ML aod opaU nol b« imia»l from Uw ground : aail Ui* buouoity 
oC «m» ot bb aMMKUnK *bo InUrpivUil tbi* aoadHit m a tokni of 
HMVVM'tWTmtii MaiiMl bU bloody dsaifn, iiulacvd blm to ooaoUr- 
Mwd U* fatwiJrf MMMMra. IMigbtod with tb* lituation, b« axw) 

Ut abod* at ^wk, aod it rMMiMd for ■mm i^m tbe obiof city of tb« 

Bf dM JwliM and mUdoaa of bia (orcramaot Alboio Mcortd tba 
albmlfi «f Ui rabjwtJL Tba eoaqoatt of tb« U>mbard« wai in aoma 
aort (ba apooh of iba K fa u a i ation of tb« peopla. Indapaodant prinei- 
pitt'lTT. eommanitiaa, and rapablioa, bagao to b« formod on all ildei ; 
« |)ciacipk of Ufa wu iaftuMi into iba ooontry, wbiob bad been ao 
leaf boriad in lalfaatfia aloinbar. Tba aeriaa of monarob* who auo- 
aaadad Alboia wara loag diatincuiabed by thair prudanoa, and by 
■akiag the lawa thair rule of eonuuct. 

Alboin'a Ufa waa tanainatad br domeitic treachery. HaTiog drunk 
d«ap at a faut with Iha chief of hi* oountryman, ht oallad for the cup 
of Tidofy. the akuU of Cunimood ; and when it bad paaaed round the 
efavlak Ofdarad H to ba carried to Roaamond, with bia requait tint she 
warn tMta lh« wine^ and rejoioo with her departed father. Ilia 
«MM obajrad, bat aba de tanu med on rsTeoge. One eTenlur, whun 
JUbaia, oppreiaeJ by wine and aleep, had retired to hi* ehambar, aha 
vaboMed tlie door to bar paramour, the king'i anuonrbearor, after 
dia htii bataalf fattened hie iword to the aoabbard. Alboin wa* the 
beat aad b raTaet of the liombard warrion; but, unarmed and iiir- 
priaad, ba fell an aaay *!otim. Hia valour, geoeroaity, and luooeaaea 
ware aaUbratad in tba aongi of the Qarmtti nalioni even to tbe age of 

(FaalwaiBaAid, D* GiMfw Umgtittrditnm .• Muratori; Gibbon, 
ofaan. slv. : Kcsaal, Biilcrp iff Anaana, Lond. 1819.) 

ALBORNO'Z, OIL CARRILLO DE, a celebrated cardinal, wu 
bora at Cuaofa, about the beginning of tho Hth century, and became 
j^MlibiUiop of Toledo. In thoae daya churchmen were lometimea 
warriota, aa wall a« politieiaaa Albomoc aavad the life of hia king, 
▲Iphooao XL, in an encaganant with the lloora at Tarifa ; wai at tbe 
riapa of AlfMiraa; and waa dubbed a knight by tbe king himaelf. 
Dnraa from S|i«in by hia conaeientioiu oppoaition to tiie criminal life 
of Pater the Cruel, be aought refuge in Avignon u-ith Pope (.'leaient VL, 
aad waa oraatad a cardinaL In 135b be waa appuintod legate, and 
•Dtrnatad with the important miaaion of the reoonqueat of the Papal 
atatec Whan Urban V. came to Italy, Albomos went to meet him 
at Vitatho, and tba Pope called hi* legate to give him an account of 
hia adminiatration. Tha cardinal ordered a cart loaded with old keys 
and loeka to be brooght into the court of the hotue, and showing 
it to the pontile aaid, " I have apent all my fund* in placing your 
holinen in poaaaaiion of all the town* and oaatlaa, the key* of which I 
praeeot to you." Tha pope, aenaiUe of hi* ungrateful mistrust towarda 
a nan who had dona ao much for liim, embraced him cordially, and 
alwaya aflar aotarlained tor him the greatest eateem. Having been 
appointed legate of Bologna, ba nve to that city a new conatitution, 
aad at bia own eipenaa fbnnded there a college for the Spaniards. 
Cardinal Albomoz died at Vitcrbo in 1364. 

ALBKECUT, WILHELM, waa bom in Qermany, in 1786. He 
waa one of tbe moat di*tingui*hed pupil* of Thaer, in the agricultural 
aolMol at li<ighin, in Pruaiia ; and he alterwarda taught rural economy 
ia fallMibef^a acbool at Hofwyl. In 1819 ha vra* employed by the 
fovarMMBl of Maaaau to edit a woekly publication devoted to agri- 
•oltoml aobjaela ; and in tbe following year he wa* made director of 
aa espaHmeatal agricultural aehool, «atabli*hed at Idatoin. The 
aspatiotaatal hnn wa* traaaferred to Qeiabcrt;, near Wieabaden, Atid 
U ■■■■!■ at ooea diatiagwahed a* the eouroe of agricultural improve- 
MMta far tba waat of Oarmaay. Aa it waa found impouible con- 
alaatly to employ all tba pupil* on tbe farm, Albr«cht determined to 
ooaa Iha aehool, during the aix wintor-montb*, for inatruotion iu the 
thoeay of acriaolture ; while in April of each year tbe atudents went 
le tha hoBea of their parents or to aoma farming aatabliahment, iu 
otdar to fcmiUariae tbanaalvai with the praolical laboura of an agri- 
enltoriat. During tbe life of Albiaabt the aehool wa* highly aucooaa- 
ftiL " Tba beat aludeat* for our inatituta," aaid be, *' are young meu 
from abeat atgblean to twenty-two, who, after diatinguiahing tbem- 
Mlvea at tba primaiy ichoola, have followed afrionlture for aome 
yaan at home, or on aoma wall-managed farm ; they bring a well- 
diapoMd mfatd, not latigaad wltli atudy, nor diatracted by too many 
panuiia** While managing theaa aatabliahment*, Albrecbt, baaidea 
hia waakly paper, edited tha 'AnnaU of tha Agricultural Society of 
Ka*Mu>;' to which aociaty ba wa* perpetual aecratary. Albrecbt 
diad tn lUi, at hia booaa in FranooiUa, whitbar ha had retired on 
imi gl iiag tha diraolion of tbe aalahliahmant at Oaiaberg, a abort time 
pMvtoudT. <Are«e*U«£i«arapA)«&m**ra(U«,1862.) 

▲L3UQ0KKgUB, ALrONSU DK (or, aa tha Portogoeae write hU 

AVyONSU D-ALBoqUERQUK), aurnamad 'the Qrtat,' and 
■O Marta PortogMa' (tba Portugoeae Mara), owing to hia great 
asploiH waa born hi 1468, at a country villa near tha town of 
AlUadn, aboat tO milaa from Uaboa, aad not at Malimia, in Africa 
•a fMMnUjr alaled. Uo wa* tha aaaond aoa of Clonaalvo d'Albu- 
qMrqna, lorl of VOIatank deaoaaded of a baalard branch of tba 
twal IhiaUy of l^wtaari. Ia bU vouth ba waa Arat aequira to King 
Mm U.} but ha Aiat kaoooiea wall known to ua in the year 160S, 

when, in conjunction with Frandioo Albuquerque, bia cousin, or 
uucle, be cooduotad a fleet to India, and aecui«d tlio King of Cochin 
un bis throne, which bad been endangered by hia powerful uoiKlibour, 
the Zamorin of CaliouL In gratitude for thuir aervioaa thi-y obtained 
leave to build a fort at CJochin, which, according to the Portugueae 
authora, i* to be oonaidered aa tha foundation of thair national empire 
in tbe East Franeiaco Albuquerque waa wrecked on hia voyage home. 
Al^-^n*" reached Lisbon safely, July 16, 1504, and was favourably 
raoeivad by tha king, who sent him out to India again, in 1506, ht 
oommand of a Bquadix>n of five abipa, composing part of a fleet of 
sixteen, under the orders of Tristan da Cunba. For a time the 
generals carried on a prosperous warfare against the Moorish cities on 
tha eastern ooaat of Africa, Da Cunba, aailing for India, Urt Albu- 
quarqno to command in the Arabian seas; who appeared l>efore 
Ormus, 35th September, having already in his course reduced most of 
tho chief trading towns between tbe Red Sea and the Peraian Qulf. 
Tbe term* of bis meseage to the prince whose territory he invaded 
arc worthy of attention. He came, he said, not to bring war, but 
peace, — peace however to be obtained only by paying tribute to tbe 
King of Portugal, instead of the King of Persia; but then the Portu- 
guese monarch was so great a lord, that it wa* better to l>e his vaaaal 
than to oommand empirea. Zeifadiu, king of Ormu::, wa* oUiged to 
submit, after the shipping and pnrt of the town had been burnt. 
Cogi-Atar, his prime-miniater, however, concerted n revolt, which 
proved succeasfuL Albuquerque was compelled to evacuate the 
place; and aft«r an unsuccessful attempt to reduce it by famine, 
returned to the island of Socotra, oQ' Cape Quardafui, leaving his 
chief purpose unaccomplished. 

Being joined by three ships bound to India, he set sail for the 
Malabar oooat, in 150S. He had received a secret commisoion, 
autborioing him to supersede Don Francisco d' Almeida, governor of 
tbe Indies, when the period of bis commission should have expired. 
On arriving at Cauanor be informed Almeida of this ; but the governor 
received him very coldly, declined either to surrender tbe govern- 
ment, or to accept his services in any subordinate capacity, and finally 
threw him into pi-ison, where he remained three months. The arrival 
of the Oraud Jtarabal of Portugal, with a powerful fleet, restored him 
to liberty. Almeida returned home, and Albuquerque was acknow- 
ledged Oeneral and Commander-in-Chief in India. 

This fleet waa intended to act against the Zamorin of Calicut, whose 
long-ooutiuued hostility had made him very obnoxious to tha Portu- 
guese. The fiuet accordingly was divided into two squadrona, of 
which tha marshal commanded one Albuquerque's division gained 
the atart in landing, and emulation induced the raarahol to venture 
too far with a amall number of followers, in hopes of gaining possession 
of the Zamoriu's palace. He aucceeded in this; but the Indians 
rallied, and he was surrounded and slain, with moat of bia principal 
officers. Albuquerque, in attemptbg to rescue him, vraa desperately 
wounded ; and the Portuguese were forced to return to their vessels 
with considerable loss, paving done much injury to the town and 

The court of Portugal had now divided their Indian government 
into three portions — one oouiprohending the eastern coast of Africa 
and the coast of Asia, from the tropic of Capricorn to Cambay ; the 
second, Hindustan, which waa allotted to Albuquerque; the third, the 
rest of India east of the Gauges. Ita chief object was to prosecute 
its conquests in the Red Sea, and to monopolisa the Indian trade by 
destroying that carried on between India and Egypt. With this view 
tbe ifjrent^r p»rt of tlie reinforcements sent to the Bast were ordered 
to act in the lied Sea, under the command of George d'Aguiar ; and 
Albuquerque thus seemed placed in a secondary oommand : but by 
good fortune and good policy he succeeded in frustrating, iu aome 
degree, tbe deaigna of the court, and contrived to gain nearly aa 
extensive authority as hia predeceaaors had held. After aome intrigue* 
to avoid aaaiating his unauooeaaful coadjutors, he reeolved to saU to 
Cioa ; and that rich and prosperous city fell into bis hand* almost 
without reiistance. His energy may be judged from the rapidity 
with which his enterprises were oonduoted. He appeared before 
Calicut Januanr 2, 1610, and though eeverely wounded there, he 
enter>-d Uoa February 17th following. Uut be waa unable to hold it, 
That town, iu name belonging to tbe Deooan, was governed by a 
Moor named Idalcan, who. Tike other powerful Indian subjectii, paid 
little obedience to hi* nominal sovereign. He waa absent when Albu- 
querque took bia town, but ha lost no time in collecting a powerful 
force, and by dint of numbers regained posasssion of it, and ahut the 
Portuguese up in tho citadel. Albuquerque's dllTioulties were in- 
creased, and in great measure produced, by the discontent, mutinous 
condu<^ and almoat treachery, of his officers. At laat he wa* reduced 
to the alternative of abandoning tbe citadel and taking to hia abips, 
or suflfering tbe river to be blocked up, and all chance of escape loat. 
Ho oboae the former, lint the bar being impassablo during the south- 
west monsoon, which had already set in, he was obliged to remain iu 
tha harbour, comni'lleil by tbe enemy's fire oonstantly to shift his 

Claoe, and exposed to all tbe evils of famine. His energy and the 
ravery of bia troops triumphed over their embarrasamenta; and 
they maintained their ground, though not without mnoh loas and 
aaSiring, till tba navigation was again open. Finally he left tho 
harbour, Auguat 15, 1610. 





In the course of the year strong reinforcements were sent out from 
Portugal, and, at the same time, Lemoa was recalled, and bis com- 
mand made over to Albuquerque. The same autumn Albuquerque 
attacked Goa a second time, and carried it by storm, Nov. 25. Early 
in the next year he meditated new conquests. A detachment of the 
fleet, which had been sent out in the preceding year, was eapecially 
ordered to proceed to Malacca under the command of Diego de 
Vasconcellos. This Albuquerque forcibly prevented, seizing Vascon- 
cellos, and sending him back to Portugal, and three of his officers 
were put to death. As soon as Vasconcellos was removed, Albu- 
querque sailed himself on the expedition against Malacca, which 
hitherto he had put off on different pretexts, and, with some diffi- 
culty, captured the town, which was given' up to plunder. Immense 
wealth was obtained. The fifth of the booty, which was set apart for 
the king, was valued at 200,000 gold cnisadoes, exclusive of naval 
and military stores, among which 3000 cannon were said to have 
been found. In this expedition his troops amounted ouly to 800 
Portuguese, and 200 Malabar auxiliaries : the Malayan prince is said 
to have had 30,000 men under arms. 

Albuquerque had it much at heart to establish the Portuguese 
power as firmly at Malacca as at Goa. He built a citadel, coined 
money, established a new system of law and police, and lost no oppor- 
tunity of conciliating the natives. He received and sent embassies 
to the kings of Siam, Pegu, and other neighbouring princes, who 
were deeply impressed by the rapid growth of the power of these 
European strangers. After remaining at Malacca near a year, he set 
sail for Goa. On his voyage he encountered a violent storm ; his ship 
was wrecked, and he himself, washed into the sea, narrowly escaped 
with his life. He reach>-d Cochin with the scattered remains of his 
squadron at the end of February, 1512. His first object was to proceed 
to the relief of Goa, which in his absence was hard pressed by Idalcan, 
and where he arrived Sept. 13, 1512. He was received with lively 
joy ; his presence soon removed all cause for disquietude, and estab- 
lished the power of the Portnguea« more firmly than ever. He 
relaxed the king's dues, and gave every encouragement to commerce, 
and Uoa soon, became the most flourishing city of the Portuguese 
dominions. It was observed, even then, that the king's revenue was 
increased, instead of suffering, by the reduction of duties. Idalcan 
and the Zamorin of Calicut, thinking further resistance hopeless, sued 
for peace, and the Portuguese influence was effectually and surely 
established along the Malabar coast from Cape Comorin to Goa. 

The orders of the court were still urgent to prosecute the war in 
the Red Sea; and seeing India quiet, he now, in 1513, directed his 
efforts to the reduction of Aden, a considerable commercial town 
of Arabia. His force, much larger than usual, consisted of 20 ships, 
and 1000 Portuguese and 400 Malabar troops (Barros, 'Decad.' 
II. lib. vii. cap. 9) ; but he reaped neither honour nor profit by this 
voyage. Repulsed at Aden, ho entered the lied Sea, leadmg the first 
European fleet that ever sailed in its waters ; but ho experienced 
much biirdship and danger from heat, want, and difficulty of naviga- 
tion, and returned to India without striking a blow. 

His last enterprise was a second attempt upon Ormuz, in which he 
succeeded (1507) without recourse to arms, by the effects of terror 
and negociatiou ; and the place remained in the hands of the Portu- 
guese till it was taken from them in 1622, by the English and Shah 
Abbas. [Abbas.] 

Albuquerque, after his first failure, vowed never to cut his beard 
till he had regained Ormuz, and it is said that he wore it till he could 
knot it to his girdle. Soon after the accomplishment of this favourite 
wish he fell sick, and was obliged to return to Goa. At the mouth of 
the Gulf he met a vessel bearing dispatches from Europe. They 
signified his recall; that Lopez Soarez d'AIbergaria was nominated 
his successor ; and that Diego Pereira and Diego Mendez de Vascon- 
cellos were appointed to high offices. His proud spirit was deeply 
hurt. " What ! " he said, " Soarez governor I Vasconcellos and 
Pereira, whom I sent home as criminals, sent out again in posts of 
honour I I have gained the hate of men for the love of the king, 
and am disgraced by the king for the love of men. To the grave, 
miserable old man ! to the grave, it is time I " He might have seen 
something more in this— a just return for his unworthy treatment of 
Vasconcellos. His illness, aggravated by vexation, proved fatal. He 
died December 16, 1515, in hia sixty-third year. His body was con- 
veyed to Goa, and buried in the church of Our Lady, which he had 
built; and in future years — a touching testimony to the uprightness 
of his government — Moon and Indians repaired to his tomb, as to 
that of a father, to implore redress from the injustice and tyranny of 
his successors. His bones, more than fifty years after his death, 
wore transported to Portugal 

Albuquerque has undoubted claims to the name of a great man. As 
a public servant he was scrupulously honest; as governor of an 
obedient people, scrupulously just; though his temper was austere 
and arbitrary, and his punishments were awfully severe. His views 
as a statesman were enlarged and judicious, his skill great as a 
general, hia courage as a soldier daring to rashness. On the other 
band, where territory was to be gained to his country, or renown to 
himself, he was stopped by no considerations of right or wrong. 
The attac'ic on Malacca admits of justification ; but the capture of 
Ormuz and Qoa were provoked by no acts of hostility, and can be 

sanctioned by no law but that of the longest sword. His character 
is well exemplified in a scheme which he is said to have proposed to 
the Emperor of Ethiopia for destroying the commerce of Egypt by 
turning the course of the Nile into the Red Sea, and thus converting 
that fruitful land into a barren desert. The project is called grand 
by historians : it is certainly great ; but the very idea of such an im- 
possible undertaking throws some discredit upon the General's know- 
ledge. And it seems never to have occurred either to them or to him, 
that there would have been any moral guilt in blotting' out from the 
earth a fertile, populous, and extensive country, to gratify the grasping 
thirst for monopoly of a second-rate European kingdom. 

(The second decade of Barroa's Ilislory of the Portuguese Conquests 
in the East is entirely occupied by the transactions of which we have 
here given a short sketch, from the sailing of Da Cunha and Albu- 
querque to the death of Albuquerque. Those who do not read 
Portuguese may consult Maffei, Ilistoria Indica ; Lafitau, Hist, dcs 
Conijultes des Portugais dans le Nouveau Monde; and the Modem 
Universal History.) 

ALCjEUS, one of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece. Of 
his compositions, once so much admired, nothing but fragments 
remain, consisting for the most part only of a few lines, or even words. 
These have been preserved in quotations by later authors. Horace 
makes frequent mention of him, and always in terms of the highest 
admiration. Alcaeus was a native of Mitylene, in Lesbos ; and wrote 
about the forty-fourth Olympiad, or B.C. 600 ; being the contemporary 
and countryman, and, it is said, the admirer also, of the celebrated 
poetess Sappho. He is spoken of by ancient writers as a brave and 
skilful warrior, although in a battle with the Athenians he sought 
safety in flight, and he threw away his armour, which the victors 
dedicated in the temple of Athene, at Sigeum. From Alcaeus, tho 
Alcaic, one of the most beautiful of Ijrio metres, derives its name. 
His poems, we learn from Quintilian and Horace, were more severe 
and elevated in style and subject than those of most of the followers 
of the lyric muse ; of the fragments preserved however, many are in 
praise of wine. The most striking is one which has been finely 
expanded by Sir W. Jones. Alcseus aspired to be the poet of liberty ; 
and directed the full vigour of his genius against Pittacus, who had 
raised his power above that of his fellow-citizens, or in Greek language 
made himself tyrant of Mitylene. (The best collection of the frag- 
ments of Alcaius is in the Cambridge Museum Criticum, vol. i. p. 421, 
and in Gaisford's Minor Poets, Leipzig, 1823. For additional frag- 
ments see the Rhenish Museum fur 1829, 1833, and 1836; Jahn's 
Jahrbiich fur Philolog. for 1S30 ; and Gamer's Anecdota Grieca, yol. i. 
Oxf. 1835.) 

Other persons of the name of Alcseus are named by ancient writers. 
We shall only mention two — a comic poet, also of Mitylene, who con- 
tended with Aristophanes for the prize, when he produced the ' Plutus,' 
01. 98-1, B.C. 388 ; and a Messeniau, the author of a number of 
epigrams in the Greek anthology. He was contemporary with 
Philip III. of Macedonia, against whom several of his epigrams are 

ALCA'MENES, a celebrated ancient sculptor, and a native of 
Athens. He was the pupil of Phidias, and lived therefore in tho 
middle of the 5th century, B.C., and later. Phidias, Alcamenes, and 
Polycletus, were the three greatest sculptors of ancient Greece ; 
Alcamenes survived Phidias some time, as he was still living in the 
95th Olympiad, according to Pausanias, about 400 B.C., for he made 
two colossal statues of Minerva and Hercules, to commemorate the 
victory of Thrasybulus over the thirty tyrants, which he dedicated 
in the temple of Hercules at Thebes ; this victory took place in the 
second year of the 94th Olympiad, or B.C. 403. 

Alciimenes was sculptor in marble and statuary in bronze; his 
most celebrated work was a Venus, known as the 'Venus in the 
Gardens ; ' it was in the temple of Venus Urania at Athens. In the 
dialogue of the Portraits, Luoian makes Polystratua term this statue 
the noblest of all the works of Alcamenes. Mimy other ancient 
writers -peak of this statue. Pliny says that Phidias finished it; by 
which must be understood that he made a few alterations on tho 
finished statue of Alcamenes, which, according to his riper judgment, 
it required; mere technical finishing is not the work of a great 

Alcamenes contended, according to Tzetzes, with Phidias ; the 
subject was a statue of Minerva ; and the work of Alcamenes was at 
first, on account of its higher finish and proportions, preferred to the 
work of his master, but when fixed in their destined places, the 
superiority of the statue of Phidias was evident; the latter gained 
effect, the former lost it. In this instance, Phidias gave Alcamenes 
a lesson, from which modern artists might derive a benefit. The 
great majority of the statues and works of sculpture in the modem 
churches or other buildings of Europe, appear to have beeu uade 
without any allowances for either tho elevation or the distance from 
tho eye, of the destined locality of tho work ; that a work in which 
this principle is carried fully out is unfitted for any but a similar 
situation, is not a sufficient apology for its neglect, though it may 
satisfy the artist's vanity. 

Another celebrated statue by Alcamenes was one of Dionysus, of 
ivory and gold, placed in a temple to that god in Athens. The 
sculptures also of the posterior pediment of the temple of Jupiter at 



Oipnh, iiMwillM^lfci khk or llw UpMut ud ih» OMitoiu*, 
TfiTi Y/llwMriiiwiitii ■wi tt oM b«idM »*. AiImm • iteuie 
of Man ia «ka taapU cf Man ; a tr^pU-bodM lUtue of Haeato on 
tha AaropolK Ika Ant ia that fom ; and atatoai of rnxaie and Ityt, 
ia Ika aaoMplaoa. Thar* wm alao a Valoaa or ilephaaatu* at AiImim, 
ia wkieh Iha liiiiwaai waa asofanad without daitroriog the baanty 
«f Ika alataa ; it h aotiead tj Ciaaw and bv Valariu* Maximiuk 
rimnliii MMliaM alw aa ilTtiwilMilin at Mantinaa, and Pliay 
apaakaoT a bnaaa igmt of a raitalhUta, or rietor in tha {Motathlaa, 
or tva alUaUa aiwcbw. iriiioh waa eallad liooriDoiiMiiaa; tbaaa At* 
KaoMB ■■! t laaiJin. maaing. tha diaoaa or qooit, throwing tha 
Jiidlii. anil aiaallli^ 

(FUm, MuL SU. udT. 8, zxstL f ; Lnoiaa. Imagimtt, 4, < ; Fan- 
MaiMkl8,19. MlM.SS: tIO; viiL »; is. 11; Ciearo, A'a<. />Mr. i. 
SO: Vafariaa MasimiH, viii. U ; TtetaM, CkiL riiL 193; Wiaokalmaan, 
ir<ri«, ToL Ti. ; Thianah, XftOu ia- biimdm Ktutt, Ac) 

ALCEDO, AKTONIO D& Laaa ii luowii than eould h» daiirad 
of tha lifi of thia ilnw iIm mooaphsr. He waa a natira of Spaniab 
*wiartM, H* pvbUabad hta^lNetiooaiy of Amerioaa Oaography ' at 
Madrid, 17S4, alW lianng baan twantj jaan aagacad in oompiling it 
Ha WM at tha tima of ita pobliaatiao a oolooal in tha rojal guard, and 
alata% ia hia ftwbet, that hia atodiaa liad bean oftan mtetruptad by 
Ua aiiUtafy afoeatiooa. lUa btiaf aeconat oomprdiaoda almoit 
•ntythiag that ia Imown of liioi. Aloado mantiona tiiat aome of hii 
a fi coaa t a of plaon war* dnwn from panooal obaarration, but mora 
obtaiaad from tiia library of printad and manuaeript worka relatira to 
AoMriea, and oommnnioatioaa of a diaHngtiiihed panon who liad filled 
for fofty yaan Ugh offlcn in tha Indite He alao ttatea that be had 
aaean to oOoial documeota, and had raoatred valuable original 
infoc mati o n . Tlia work ii oompilad with a good deal of critical 
aeeoraqr, aad filla agap in the hiitory, ai wall aa the geography, of 
BpuiiA A marina. The jealouiy of the Spaniah goTenunaot ocoa- 
Moaad tha aappraatton of tha woric There are two oopiet of the 
Spaaiah Aleado (1786) in tha libnrr of the Britiah Moaeum. It baa 
baan tnaalatad into Engliah b^ Mr. O. A. Thompaon, whoie trana- 
ktioa (with oooddaiabla additiooa fhun mora recent anthon) waa 
pohliahad in Leodoo, in five rolnmaa, in 1812-15. An atlat to Aloedo 
waa pabliahad in 1S16 by A. Airowamith. 

ALCIBIADES, eon of Cleiuiaa, an Athenian remarkable for hia 
ahiUty aa a aoldicr and atateaman, for the great and Taried influence 
wliieh ha esardaed over the fortunea of Oraece, aad for the Terutility 
and apkndoor of hia talenta, waa bom about ac. 4S3-fiO, when Athena 
waa npidly riainf to ita highest power. In early youth he seemed 
narked oat for distinction I7 the most brilliant endowments of per- 
son, of atation, and of intellect. Though high ancestry oonfored no 
direct political priTilcges, it was not indiifersnt in his own eyes, or 
those of his fellow-eitiaaaa, that he descended ih>m the noblrst 
families of Athens. Br his fatbet's side he tnoed his anceattr into 
tha hatoie »gm, throa|^ Ajax up to Jupiter ; and his mother, Deino- 
w a A a , waa one of tha AlcmtsanidM. He inherited one of the Uigeet 
fet taaas ia Athena, aweUrd by the aavinga of a long minority ; and 
with hia wlfc, Bipparalc, daughter of Hipponicna, he reoeired ten 
talaata^ tha largcat dowiy that had been giran in Oreeoe. Hia penon 
waa rmarkable for beauty, an adrantage which ha abused to lioen- 
tiooHMsa. His powen of mind were extraordinary, and ho etyored 
peeollar adTaatagea in their cnltiTation, bemg the ward of Periolea, 
who was eo aa ae t ad iriA hfaa on the mother's aide, and the farourite 
MpO and eempaaioa of Soentaa. But his great qualiUea were alloTed 
Bj a friralilj of miad, shown in the importance which he attached to 
ITC iiuiuauua aad diaplay, and in a childiah loTe of notoriety, which 
eaaaiaatly lad him into wanton and oflensire excesses: and he ia 
Uahb lo tha gnrer cliarg* of an intenae salBahneaa, which postpone*! 
Iratb, JoMie*, aad patriotiam to self-aggrandiaement, or to the gratifl- 
caMoa of a baadatnoK «iU- The adrioa which he U said to have 
girta to ParieUa, wheo at a loss in what pahUble shape to Rndor 
hia aoeoonu to the states may be taken aa an index of hia character : 
•* It would be batter to stod/bow to aToid rendering them at all." 

TbeUfe of Aleibiadca by Plutarch begina with a long series of veiy 
aaariag ttorita, to which wo can only refer. At the age of 18, 
acMritqc to tha Athenian law, be Utained his majority. In ac. 432 
In Mrrad at the aiage of Potidaea, in company with Socntea, who 
ilMrs sared his lib ialtattle. On that oooaaiou, the crown and suit of 
amow, the ptlaa of tha aiort d lat fa <gnished combatant, was awarded 
lo A ld MaJa^ U tha iartuioe of Soontas, to whom it appean to hare 
ban mors JosUy due. Klght yaan UUr, at the Uttfe of Delium, 
"Odea in his torn tared the life of the pbiloeopber. Their inti- 
r has caaaed Alcihiadaa to ftU a prominent plaoe in the dialogues 
"-^ najr MUtbt each others sodety fh>m widely different 
_^L^ . .*?'•** •»* •» him naay elatoenU of a noble chancter, 
**!ii.!^ **.?^' parrartad ; ahfUUea whieh might gieaUy aerre 
arftteOy faQonhto eonntiy ; a strength of wUl capSile of the moat 
Maeoi sMlaipriaaa, and tha mora dangsroos if it took a wrong 
"'••*'«; •« ardsBt lore of glory, wliieh needed to be purified and 
aa lM i t s wi d ; aad ho aadaaToand to win all thcaa adTantagea for 
tmfc, nrtM, aad «h« Mihlie good. It waa ooe of tha best tokens of 
a ■■■las artvn to AWUadee, that ha could strongly nliah the 
1 of Somta^ and deeply admire hia exalted datmcter, not- 
ihia f ap iMu artadBr, and tha wide dlffarrnos of staUon 

nan has 
«r tUla. 

and habits by which they were parted But their intimacy 

produced no laating fruita," 

To keep himself before the area of the people auitad both the 
temper aad the policy of Aleibiades. Many of hia eooentriotties seem 
tp have been directed to this end. He served, like all Qroek citizens, 
in the army, and, as has been stated, with credit. He had a powerful 
and parsttsaive eloquence^ which he uaed unsempuloualy, " flattering 
the people in the mass," says Andoddea, " and despitefuUy using any 
IndividuaL" He lavished his wealth, sometimes in idle frolic or pro- 
digal magnifioenoe, sometimes in a more aerioua and well-considered 
apleodonr. " Ha was not only liberal to profusion in the legal and 
enstomary contributions with which at Athens the affluent charged 
themselves, as well to provide for certain parts of the naval aervioe aa 
to defray the expense of the publia spectacles, but aspired to dazsle 

all Oreeoe at the national gamea. Ho contended at Olympia 

with seven chariota in the same race, and won the first, second, and 
third or fourth crown — auooeas unexampled as the competition. Ha 
afterwards feasted all the apectaton ; and the entertainment was not 
more remarkable for ita profuaion, and for the multitude of the guests, 
than for the new kind of homage paid to him by the subjects of 
Athens. The Ephesians pitched a splendid Persian tent for him ; the 
Chiana furnished provender for his horses ; the C^zicenea, victims for 
the sacrifice ; the Lesbians, vine and other requiaitea for the banquet. 
.... Reflecting men could not but ask, whether any private fortune 
could support such an expeuditure, and whether such hunourg were in 
harmony with a spirit of civic equality," (Thirlwall, ' History of 
Qreece.') And such a doubt might well be increased by hia light and 
fearless violations, not only of individual rights and persons, but of 
the majesty of the public tribunals and of religion. "At these things," 
says Plutarch, " the best citizens of Athena were much offended, and 
were a&aid withal of his rashness and insolency ; " and be goes on to 
quote a passage from .lEscbylus applied to Aleibiades by Aristophanes, 
to the effect that a lion's whelp should not be brought up in a city, but 
that whosoever rears one must let him have his owu way. 

The family of Aleibiades had been connected with Sparta by the 
respected tie of hereditary hospitality. That tie, which had been 
broken by bis grandfather, Aleibiades wished to renew, aud to consti- ' 
tnte himself the head of the Spartan party. But the S|)artan govern- 
ment, jealous probably of bis temper and iguorant of his power, 
preferred to retain their connection with Kicios, the recognised leader 
of the aristocratic par^ ; and theieon Aleibiades went over to the 
opposite extreme. His first public measure seems to have been a 
proposition for increasing the tribute paid by the Athenian allies, 
which was doubled in amount, be being one of the commiasionors 
appointed to effect the change. This appears to have been before the 
peace between Athena and Sparta, lJ.a 421. Soon after that peace be 
came forward as the advocate of the democratic party against the 
Spartan alliance ; and by a clever and unscrupulous trick, in which he 
outwitted the Spartan ministers, obtained the enactment of a treaty 
of alliance with Argos, EUs, and Mantineia (b.c. 420). This meant 
little less than a declaration of hostilities against Sparta, and soon led 
to open war. In b.c. 419 Aleibiades was elected one of the board of 
generals (strategoa), and he bore an active part in the complicated 
wan and negodations carried on in Peloponnesus during the next 
three yean, a period unmariced by any leading events in his personal 
history. He ia however charged with having oecn a leading agent ia 
procuring the atrocious decree by which the male citizens of Melos 
were put to death by the Athenians, their lauds occupied by Athenian 
settlers, and their families enslaved — a transaction infamous in history 
under the name of the Helian massacre. 

At this time Aleibiades and Nicias were the unquestioned loaders of 
the democratic and aristocratic, the war and peace parties ; the latter 
deoirotts above all things to secure, by a good understanding with 
Sparta, that power and wealth which had grown up so wonderfully in 
aome lizty yean ; the former eager to extend tbem, and open new 
prospects of oonquaate, gain, and glory to the young, the needy, and 
that laige class of citizens who were in one wsy or another to be fed 
at the public expense. The only man who could be formidable to 
either waa Hyperbolus, Cleon's suoceesor as leader of the lowest class 
of citizens. He had the boldneas to threaten Aleibiades with ostra- 
cism, but was himself banished tmder that strange law, through the 
co-operation of the two leaders, of whom Kioias hated him on political 
oa heartily as Alciliiadea on personal grotmds. Soon after (ac. 415), 
the cardinal event of the war came under diacossion, the iuterfercnca 
of Athens with the affoin of Sicily. That she did interfere was 
principally due to Aleibiades, whose alignments are presumed to be 
faithfully represented by Tbucydidas, in the speech ascribed to him 
(vl 16-18). A powerful armament was voted, in the command of 
which he waa joined with Nicias and Lamachus; but before it sailed, 
the general exultation was damped by a strange occurrence, never 
olearly explained. One morning most of the Hernue (stone figures of 
Mercury placed in the streets as guardian imagta) were found debcod. 
This was a great sacrilege, and raised an extraordinary oommoUoa. 
Inuuiry was made ; rewards were offered to wituosaes and informers ; 
and finally a change of profaning the Kleusiuian mysteries, connected 
vnth the mutilation of the Hermgo aSd the existence of a plot against 
the democracy, was brought ngainst Alcibiadsa. To tlic charge of 
profanation the exoeaiea of his youth gavo colour ; the rest of it had 




uot even plausibility. Alcibiades begged for a trial before ho was sent 
out in BO high a command; but his enemies had the ear of the people, 
and it was not their object to give him a fair hearing; it was therefore 
Toted that he should proceed with the fleet, and return when sum- 
moned to answer the things laid to his charge. On reaching Sicily, 
those hopes of powerful support by which the expedition had been 
recommended were found to be futile. The commanders differed in 
their views : finally, those of Alcibiades were adopted; but before his 
talents could tell he was recalled to stand his trial, and trial, in the 
then temper of the people, he held equivalent to condemnation. He 
escaped on the voyage ; and, not appearing, was pronounced accursed, 
and sentenced to death with confiscation of property. 

Whether or not Alcibiades was capable of carrying to a prosperous 
issue the great hopes with which the Sicilian expedition was under- 
t.iken is doubtful, but his colleagues and successors proved unequal to 
the task. [NiciAS; Demosthenes.] He threw his talents into the 
opposite scale, and appeared at Sparta as the enemy of his country. 
(Thucyd., vi. 89-92.) By his advice, a Spartan given to command 
the Syracusans, a very sparing yet eflcctual aid; and a permanent 
Bt-ition was fortified and garrisoned by the Spartans at Deceleia, a 
town of Attica, about 15 miles from Athens, to the great inconvenience 
and injury of that city. The total loss of the Sicilian armament 
(b,c. 413) gave new spirits both to the open enemies and the discon- 
tented allies of Athens. By the ready agency of Alcibiades, the 
islands and Ionia were urged into revolt ; and a treaty was concluded 
between Spai-ta and Tissaphemes, satrap of Ionia, on terms more 
favonrable to the Persian interests than to the honour of Greece 
(D.c. 412). But about this time the cordiality and unity of purpose 
of Alcibiades and the Spartans declined. By the annual change of 
magistrates, a party unfriendly to him came into oflace ; and the king, 
Agis, bated him, believing him to have seduced his wife, Timosa. 
This indeed Alcibiades is said to have avowed, intimating that he 
was governed not so much by any preference for the lady as by 
ambition that his posterity should till the throne of Sparta ; and it is 
a remark.ible but not solitary instance of the levity with which he 
would let the indulgence of a whim cross deep schemes of policy. In 
this, and in other respect?, he strikingly resembles a man much 
inferior to himself, the second duke of Buckingham. According to 
the secret and crafty policy of Sparta, the commander of the army in 
Asia was instructed to get rid of Alcibiades as a dangerous person ; 
but he was warned of the danger, and took refuge with Tissaphernes, 
the Persian satrap above named. ♦ 

Whatever party Alcibiades attached himself to, that party always 
seems to have taken a start from that moment. Such had been the 
case when he was driven from Athens ; such was now the case when 
he was driven from Sparta. He soon estranged Tissaphemes from 
his new allies ; made him reduce their pay, upon which the Spartan 
power of maintaining a fleet greatly depended ; and led hira to see 
that the policy of Persia was, not to substitute the ascendancy of 
Sparta on the coasts of Asia Minor for that of Athens, but to preserve 
the one to counterpoise the other. He fascinated Tissaphemes by 
his unrivalled talents of social interconrse ; and the notoriety of his 
favour, and belief in his power, soon reached and made a deep impres- 
sion in the Athenian armament then quartered at Samos. Of the 
rich Athenians a large proportion was disgunted by the length of the 
war, and by the pressure upon property which it occasioned. One 
heavy burden was the obligation of acting aa trieraroh, or captain of 
a ship, which involved a great expense for the equipment of the vessel, 
and was compulsory upon men of a certain fortune. An influential 
party in the Samian armament was therefore well disposed to embrace 
the advantages consequent on the restoration of Alcibiades, backed 
by the wealth of Persia : and that he coupled his restoration with 
the establishment of an oligarchy, professing that he could not feel 
secure so long as the govemment rested in the party which had 
banished him, was probably an additional inducement to further his 
plans. A deputation was sent to Athens, headed by Pisander, who 
speedily obtained a decree by which he with ten others was authorised 
to negotiate with Tissaphemes and Alcibiades. But nothing was 
effected, in consequence of the excessive demands of Alcibiades, who 
appears to have resorted to that method of concealing the truth, that 
Ilia influence was not sufficient to induce the satrap to break abso- 
. lutely with the Peloponnesians. Meanwhile that revolution at Athens 
still proceeded which lodged (b.c. 411) the sovereign power in the 
council of Four Hundred. But the temper of the Samiuu armament 
was changed. Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus, officers of subordinate 
rank, but men of talent, had gained a commanding influence in the 
absence of the leading oligarchists. An oath to support the demo- 
cracy was imposed upon persons suspected of favouring the new 
government ; and Alcibiades was recalled by a vote of the soldier- 
citizens, who, in the abeyance of the constitution, claimed the 
sovereignty as vested in their assembly. His first action was an 
important benefit to his country, inasmuch as he prevented the army 
from returning to Athens to restore the constitution by civil war. 
And in the course of the same year which had witnessed the revolu- 
tion, the Fonr Hundred were overthrown without the agency of the 
luroy ; the sovereign power was vested in a selected body of 5000 
citizens ; and Alcibiades and other exiles were recalled. 

His promises to bring the gold of Persia to relievo the Athenian 
tlOO. DiV. VOL. t. 

exchequer proved vain : as Tissaphemes had deserted the Pelopou- 
nesian, so now he deserted the Athenian interest. But under the 
command of Alcibiades a succession of brilliant victories — at Cynos- 
sema and Abydos (b.c. 411); at Cyzicua (u.c. 410); in the two 
following years the acquisition of Chalcedou and Byzantium ; the 
renewal of Athenian supremacy throughout the Hellespont and Pro- 
pontis, whereby the control of the Euxiue, and a lucrative revenue 
derived from tolls levied on ships passing through the straits, were 
secured ; — all these successes testified the ability with which the 
affaii-s of Athens were now conducted. Four years after his recall 
(b.o. 407), Alcibiades for the first time since his banishment returned 
to Athens : he was enthusiastically received ; his property was 
restored ; the records of the proceedings against him were sunk in 
the sea ; the curse publicly laid on him was as solemnly revoked, and 
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the forces by land and sea. 
He signalised his abode in Athens, where he stayed four months, by 
conducting the annual procession to celebrate the mysteries at Eleusis ; 
a ceremony which had been discontinued since the occupation of 
Deceleia. Ketumiug to the scene of war, his first action was an un- 
successful attempt on the island of Andros. Soon after, while tha 
fleet was quartered at Notium, near Ephesus, a general engagement 
was brought on, in his absence and against his express orders, by the 
rashness of his lieutenant, Antiochus ; when the Peloponnesian fleet, 
commanded by Lysauder, gained the advantage. This, though 
attended with no material loss, was enough to disgust the Athenians, 
who seem to have considered Alcibiades' past successes only as giving 
them a claim on him for more brilliant exploits. It \Yas urged that 
the wealth of the state was squandered upon himself and his favourites ; 
and the luxurious indulgence of his habits gave plausibility to tha 
charge. He was superseded, and thereon retired to his estates in the 
Thracian Chersonese, on which, in anticipation of such an event, he 
had built a castle, thinking it unsafe to return to Athens. Formerly, 
when he made his escape on being recalled from Sicily, he is reported 
to have replied to the question, whether he did not dare trust his 
country ! " In everything else ; but as to my life, not even my mother, 
lest by mistake she should put in a black ball for a white." 

Here ends the public life of Alcibiades. He held no further ofiSoe ; 
and the only thing recorded of him is that he endeavoured by his 
advice, being then resident on the spot, to prevent the final defeat of 
the Athenians at ..ligos-potami, B.C. 405. After the capture of Athens 
and the establishment of the tyranny of the Thirty he was condemned 
to banishment. Not thinking himself safe in Thrace, he passed into 
Asia, and was honourably received by Fharnabazus. He was about 
to visit the court of Persia, or probably had begun his journey, 
apparently with the hope of gaining over Artaxerxes to help in the 
enfranchisement of Athens, when the house in which he slept was 
surrounded at night by a bimd of men, who set it on fire, and wheu 
he rushed out sword in hand (for no one, says Plutarch, awaited his 
onset) despatched him with missiles, isx. 404. The authors of this 
deed are unknown : it is charged soverally upon the jealousy of 
Fharnabazus, the fear and hatred of the Spartan govemment, and 
the revenge of a noble family, one of whose sisters ha had seduced. 
Alcibiades left a son of the same name, of no repute or eminence, and 
a fortune which, contraiy to public expectation, proved smaller than 
his patrimony. From the t^;-ms of the statement we may infer that 
hia patrimony had not been greatly diminished, which is quite as 
surprising. A speech in defence of the younger Alcibiades was written 
for him by Isocrates. Two of the speeches of Lysias (xiv. and xv.) are 
against him. 

(Thuoydides; Xenophon, UeUen. ; Plutarch, Alcibiadei ; Thirl wo'l, 
//«r(. of Greece, vols, iii and iv. ; Biographical Dictionary of the 
Society for the Diffution of Useful Knowledge.) 

ALCMAN, the lyric poet of Sparta, was originally a Lydian of 
Sardis, and for some time a slave in tho house of Agesidas, a Spartan. 
He was however subsequently emancipated, though it is not probable 
that he gained the full rights of Spartan citizenship. In ono of the 
fragments (No. 11) of his poetry, still extant, he makes a chorus of 
virgins sjiy of himself "that he was no man of rough and unpolished 
manners, no Thessaliau or /Etolian, but sprung from the lofty Saidis." 
The statement of Suidas that he was of Messoa, one of the districts 
of Sparta, is incorrect, or only means that the residence of his old 
master was situated there. According to the ancient chronologists, by 
some of whom he is called Alcmseon, he lived about B.C. 671 — 631, 
and was a contemporary of the Lydian king Ardys. This period 
agrees with the statement in Suidas, that he was older than Stesi- 
chorus and the preceptor of Arioii ; and there are some allusions in 
his extant poems which refer to the same age : consequently he lived 
at a time when music had already been improved by the Spartan 
poets Thaletas and Terpander, and whuii the Spartans themselves, 
after the successful termination of the first Messenian war, had both 
leisure and inclination for the arts and refinements of life. From 
some'of the fragments of his poetry it would appear that he devoted 
himself to the cultivation of poetic art, and invented some new 
metrical forms. According to the Latin metrical writers, several 
different forms of verses were known by tho name of 'Alcmanicn 
motra.' The poetry which he composed was generally choral, aud 
consisted of Parthenia, or songs sung by choruses of virgins, besides 
hymns to the gods, paians, prosodia, or processional songs, and bridal 





Hmm ««• gmmHf Mac "^ r i yrH witiJ bj dwrii Mi «f 
jiwn mm nf nwHw. whehomvnr wn« not, MiaUMehonl ad** 
of Ptodw, iBTwtebiT itattUUd wiUi Ui« ehuMtar of Um po«*, nor 
I otfu b^ whUk h» vxpraatd hb Ihoo^ta ud faalbag^ On 
J, mtmj «t Akann'i ft»< limit eoalaln • diaJon* Ut ipw n 
TirgiM ud tlM fot/k, nd k meat eww tha viirgfaM ipMk 
MMh StOl b* WM both tha )mim and taadiar of 
■d aamatluiii «a maal with addiim of tba m a Mrn ia 
to Iba pool, iijiiiillmii of Um poat to tba mald«M joined witb bim. 
In aaa baauliftil fragaaal writton in Umbiea ba tbui addraaMa tbam : 

Ko mora, ya boaajr- to Mwad boiy^faifing rirgins, ara my limba able 
tobaaroM; would tbatfware • OaiylDi^ wbicb with tba baloyona 
akhaa Ibe foam of tba wmraa wUb faarlaaa braart, tba aaa-bloe bird 
ef Wtii^'' Alemnn waa alao noted for arotio poaai, of whioh ba 
«M agr aoma eoMidarad tba flnt Oraak writer, and to tba lioentioiu 
nirit of wbieh bii ebaraetar waa aaid to oorraapood. (AtbenniM, 
zUi. 400^ ed. Dind.) Tbaea ware probably anng by a liiigla mrformer 
to tba oilbank Another inedee of bii oompoaitiona waa the depsi- 
•mbia^ finiiihtlni partly of •ioging and partly of common diicourae, 
the aoeoBpanimant of wbiob waa an inatrument aimilarly named. 
(Haaycbioa, a. t.) In thi% aa well aa in other form* of hia poetty, ha 
ia tlKNi|fat to hare imitatad an older poet, Arobiloohna. Tba metre 
of the pcouliar aoapasatie Taraaa aun|; by the Spartans aa they advanced 
to battle, waa alto attributed to Aloman ; but we cimnot from this 
infer that be eompoaed wareonga, for there ia no trace of it in any of 
Ua fknipacnta, nor anything correaponding in the general character of 
hk poetry ; and though he made uie of the anapiettio metre, it wa« 
o^y in eoaneetiaa with other rhythms, and not in the same way as 
fta war-poat T jtUtu a. It appears, tiien, that the compoeitions of 
Aleaan ware aotnewhat Taried in metre and poetic character, aa they 
«at« indialret 

The extant fragmenta of Alcman, though some of them are very 
b aa uti fbl, scarcely warrant the admiration which the ancients have 
eiiiia— il of him ; bat this may be from their extreme shortness, or 
beoraaa tbar are rety uniavounibls specimena. They are however 
dttiliacidabed by lively conceptions of nature, and abound in tboaa 
peraooifleatioas of the uanimate which characterised the earlieat Greek 
poetry : thus the dew (in Oreek ' hena') is called by him tha daughter 
of 2eas and Selene, of the god of heaven and the moon. Muller (' Lite- 
rature of Oreeoe,' p. 1»7) thus speaka of him :— " He is remarkable for 
simple and cheerful viawa of human life, connected with an intense 
aotbuaiaam for the beautiful in whatever age or aex, es|>eeially for the 
gnwa of virgin*. A corrupt, refined aenauality neither belongs to the 
a|a in which he lived nor to the character of his poetry ; and although 
parfaapa ba is ehie8y conversant with aensual existecce, yet indications 
ara not wanting of a qnick and profound conception of the spiritual." 
We may liowaver obaerve, that the terms in which the andenta apoke 
of tba Ueentionansas of Alcman'a erotic poetry ore so strong that we 
oanaot well acqnieace in such a favourable representation of it 
Aeeordiag to Pfatarrh and other writers, Alcman died of the same 
Had «r diaaaaa aa Sulla, the morbus pedicnUria. The Fragmenta of 
Akmaa ware first printed in H. Stephens's ' Collection of U>e Poems 
of tba Nina CUaf Lyrio Poets,' Paris, 1650, 8vo. The Uat ediUon is 
by F. T. Wtlckar, OiiaMan, 1816, 4to. 

(PluMBDiaa, UL 16, 8; Bnidaa, Aleman; Euaebina, CKron. i4rm<n. 
Olmm JO, 4; Pliny, JIuL NaU, xi 83; Plutarch, Sulla, o. 36: 
CUntoo, P<ul. HdL, i. 189, 195.) 

(F»om the Biognfhiaal Diaimary of the Sotidy for the Diffation of 
Vnful KwamUdgt.) 

ilCVtS, or, aa ha eallad bimaelf in Latin, Plaecus A Ibinm A Icuinut, 
waa OM of the most laaraad parsons of the 8th centnty. He appeara 
to have been bom about tba rear 785, and probably in the city of 
YoA or the DeiKhbourbood, though some authoritiea make him a 
"■*'»e of Beothwd. He tolhi us himself that he received his education 
■t Tork, when ho had aaeosaaively for his maatars Egbert and Elbert, 
whoimo aftorwarda sneceasirely archbishops of that see. He there 
aMobod a knowledga of tlio Latin language, and aome acquaintance 
alao, A woBld »pp«Mr, with the OwA and tba Hebrew. He afterwards 
bMamo Umaaif maalsr of tbe-aobool, and tanght with much reputaUon. 
Ho wao alwanMiatod keeper of the Ubrary which Egbert had founded 
te thowtbodnl, of the qpntenU of whioh he baa given na a minute 
SiT"^ . ""y * ta one of bis poama. Being equally eminent for 
ni^ •• Air laaniDg, bo waa Ukewiae ordained a deaoon of the oithe- 
dial: ■■* wo nsqr mMitioa bare that through modeaty, as is stated, 
n 2I!!^l?n!?^'?^ ""^ '^ "y ''««'»• '»"'' •"> ^« priesthood! 
2!S*^ Tij' A*'^ • r*""^*' E«i»»lde, to Rome to procure 
far htothopa mm, Atein on bis rstam passed through I'armsl, where 
y *-T'^*f"^ Cbariainigiis then waa. At the invitotion of ths emperor 
. !?"*'" '' •• ■"•• ■• 1^ "boold have axeented his inisaion, to come 
tofta»aa; and moordtaglv iu the mom y«u- (TSO) he prooee<lcd to 

IvT S??^ J!?5J^*' r* "^"^ •**• P*'''"' bestowed upon him 
^ ^IT ** '^"rilraa bi the Ottinois and of St-Loup at Troyea, and 
lirJ^ ?J!5?*y "^ 8tJo.Ni in FOnthien ; but thi princi,ia occu- 
E^ of Aloabi wao aa a pobUo taadier of what was then cdled the 
aH!^ '"^.'^ *"'*^ **'• "^ ''"*»«> leamhig. In thU capacity be 

IZ; 2Stt TS^tHL "U-r ^ t»« ~p««r. hi. Vhii-iren, 

2: Zljmr ^ ^.T^. ^' P'*»» *•»*• »•• principally teught 
«a vnhMf AiiU^b^dK w»«i«k wa. the chic/ reddenoi of the 

a tn po r ot . The achool thoa eatabUshed bv Aleuin ia oonsidered by 
FVeoeh antiquaries aa the «rm from which the University of Paria 
originated ; and tha example and exertions of this foreigner were 
ODOoabtedly mainly instrumental in rekindling in the country of his 
adoption the extinguished light of soienee and literature. Much of 
Alouin's time was also ooeupad in theological controversy and other 
taboura connected with hie clerical calling. In 796, on the death of 
Itbiar, abbot of St Martin of Tours, the emperor gave him that abbey 
alao ; and aome time after, having obtained leave to retire from court, 
he established a achool here, which soon became greatly celebrated 
In his old age Alcoin gave himself up almost exclusively to theological 
studiea; and beaidea compoeing many treatiaea in that department, 
copied with his own band the whole of the Old and New Teataments, in- 
troducing nnmeroua corrections as he proceeded. Tiiis edition came to 
be looked upon aa a standard, and many transcripts were made from it 
There is still to be seen in the library of the Fathers of the Oratory 
of St Philip of Neri, at Rome, a Bible, which is believed to be, as 
some verses writton on it state, a copy given by Aleuin to Charlemagne. 
Aleuin died on the 19th of May, SUl, and was buried iu the church 
of St Martin. 

Of the writings of Aleuin several have been printed separately, both 
in France and England ; but the first edition of his collected works 
was that published at Paris in 1617 by AndnS Duch&ane (Andreaa 
Quercetanus), in one volume, folio. A much more complete edition 
however appeared at Ilatisboo, in two volumes, folio, in 1777, under 
the superintendence of M. Froben, the prince-abbot of Ratisbon. It 
contains many pieces which had never before been publiahed, but 
which were found in manuscript in the libraries of France, England, 
and Italy. The epistles of Aleuin in Frobon's edition amount to 232, 
among which ore included a few epistles of Charlemagne in answer to 
Aleuin. There is prefixed to them a 'Synopsis Epistolaruui,' which 
gives a general riew of the contonte of each letter : the {period which 
they comprise extends from the year 787 to the beginning of the next 
century. It is however certain that this is not a complete collection 
of Alouin's epistles, and indeed Ports has unoe discovered others. The 
correspondence of Alcnin generally relates to topics of business or to 
eccleaiastical matters ; it never assumes the character of learned dis- 
quisition or philosophical discussion. The letters are addressed, among 
others, to popes Adrian L and Leo III. ; Offa, king of the Mercians ; 
and to various bishops and other eccleriaatioal persona. In one of 
them, addressed to Buhop Aginus, he reepeotfully reminds him of his 
promise to give him some relics ' of satnte (" aliquas sanctorum 
reliquias "). The letters to Charlemagne, thirty in number, are the 
most interesting in the collection. The mild temper, the sincere piety, 
aud the unaflboted humility of the man, are apparent in all his cor- 
respondence. Towards Charles his letters show the most profound 
devotion and respect, and yet the correspondence between the great 
king and his teacher is in the style of friendship. Aleuin addressee 
Charlea by his assumed name of JUavid, to which he sometimes adds 
" most beloved " (dileetissimus). Though his Latin style is far from 
being firee from unolaaaioal expressions, it is flowing and perspicuous : 
he wrote Latin with ease and perfect freedom from aU affectation. 
His letters are often concluded by some Latin verses. They are among 
the beat specimens of the Latioity of the middle agea. 

Aleuin, the most learned man of his age, was the friend and adviser 
of one of the most energetic and able princes that ever sat on a throne 
In his enlarged schemes for the restoration and encouragement of 
learning, Charles wss aided by the industry and knowledge of Aleuin. 
Theology was the principal pursuit of Aleuin, but with him it was 
practical rather than speculative : ite object was to secure a virtuous 
life. From some ill-understood expressions of his own, and from a 
passage or two in the anonymous ' Life,' it has been inferred that 
Alouiu waa unfavourable to secular studies. That the founder of 
schools, the restorer of ancient learning, the diligent student of Roman 
antiquity, ahould, even in his old age, have condemned or discouraged 
such pursuits, would require strong evidence. The fact is exactly the 
reverse. He distinctly stetes that secular learning is the true founda- 
tion on which the education of youth should rest ; grammar and dis- 
cipline in other philosophical subtleties are recommended; and he 
states, consistently enough, as any Christian may do at the preaent 
day, that by certain steps of (human) wisdom the scholar may ascend 
to the highest point of Christian (evangelical) perfection. With him. 
everything is subordinate to religion ; and, when secular studies come 
in oomparison with theological, the superiority of the theological is 
emphatioally asserted. But this does not lend to the inference, and 
his writings distinctly contradict it, that ho was unfavourable to the 
otudies in which he excelled, and which he recommended by his pro- 
cepts and his teaching. The activity of Aleuin waa the striking part 
of his intellectual character. In originality, in large and comprehensive 
views, he was eminently deficient ; he did not possess more than a 
reasonable amount of dialectic skill ; abstmse speculation and philoso- 
phical inquiry were beyond his sphere. He was too good a sou of Uio 
Church to transgress the limiU which were prescribed to her children. 
His learning and his prodigious industry made him the first man of 
his age, and liis honesty of purpose and his services to education entitle 
him to our grateful remembrance. 

A list of the editions of Aleuin is given by Mr, Wright in his very 
useful work entitled 'Biographia Britannica Literario,' London, 1842. 





The latest life of Alcuin is by F. Lorenz, Halle, 1829, which was trans- 
lated into English by Jane Mary Slee, London, 1837, 8vo. A particular 
account of Alcuiu's works is given in the ' Biographical Dictionai-y of 
the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge,' from which passages 
of this article have been taken. 

ALDAY, JOHN. We know nothing of this writer except as the 
translator of a French work that was highly popular in the middle of 
the ICth century — 'Theatrum Mundi; the Theatre or Rule of the 
World, wherein may be scene the running Race and Course of every 
Man's Life, as touching Miserie and Felicitie, &c., written in the French 
and Latin Tongues by Peter Boaistuau,' &c. There were three editions 
of this translation, the last and the most correct of which appeared at 
London in 1581. Boaistuau's work contains many passages of quaint 
satire upon the manners of his age, which Alday has translated with con- 
siderable spirit. (See extracts in Dibdin's edition of More's ' Utopia.') 
There are also in Boaistuau's work several pieces in verse, which are 
also translated by Alday with some elegance. (See Ritson's ' Biblio- 
graphia Poetica," also 'Bibliographical Memoranda,' Bristol, 1816.) 
Dr. Dibdin is of opinion that there are resemblances between particular 
passages in Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy' and Alday's translation 
of Boaistnau ; and he gives a page or two in support of this opinion, 
referring generally to Burton's ' Love Melancholy,' which occupies more 
than two hundred pages of that remarkable work. Burton, the most 
ToisciouB of readers, was no doubt familiar with Alday's book. But 
such supposed general resemblances are often more fanciful than real. 
(Biagraiihical lUclionary of the Society for the Diffution of Useful 

ALDEGRE'VER, HEINRICH, a celebrated German painter and 
engraver of the 16th century, was bom at Soest in Westphalia in 
1502. He became the pupil of Albert Diirer, being attracted to Niim- 
berg by the great fame of that artist ; and he imitated his style so 
closely that he acquired the name of Albert, or Albrecht, of West- 
phalia — a circums*ance which has misled some writers to call him 
Albert Aldegrever. There can be no doubt of his name having been 
Heiurich, or Henry, as it is so engraved in two different portraits both 
executed by himselt As a painter, Aldegrever executed little; be 
was chieSy occupied in engraving his own designs. His plates are 
generally small, and are executed in a very minute and laboured 
manner, whence he is reckoned among the so-called little masters, of 
whom he is one of the most distinguished. Hia prints are very nume- 
rous, exceeding three hundred, and they bear dates between 1522 and 
1562, which is supposed to have been the year of his death ; it is how- 
ever a mere conjecture. His designs are conspicuous for the sharp and 
angular lines of the gothio style ; but though hard and wiry, many of 
his figures display good anatomical drawing. His subjects are sacred 
and .profane. Thirteen plates of the Labours of Hercules are among 
his very best works : they are very scarce. A print of the Count 
D'Archambaud, just before his death, killing his son lest he should 
leave the paths of virtue for those of vice, is also a remarkably good 
plate. Among the portraits engraved by Aldegrever are those of 
Luther, dated 1510 ; Melancthon ; John of Leyden, king of the Ana- 
baptists; and the fanatic Bernard Knipperdollhig. He engraved also 
many designs for silversmiths and for booksellers. 

Hu paintings are in the same style of design as his engravings, but 
they impress, still more than hia prints, with the feeling of the pains 
they cost him : his colouring is very high. In the gallery at Berlin 
there is a small picture of the Last Judgment by him ; in the gallery 
of Munich there is an excellent portrait of a man with a red beard ; 
there are a few of his works at Schloissheim, at Vienna, and at 
Niimberg, and at Soest, in some churches. 

In a print of Titus Manlius ordering the execution of his son, 
Aldegrever has introduced an instrument very similar to the guillotine 
used by the terrorists of the French revolution : it is dated 1533, 

(Heinekcn, Dictionnaire cUi Artittet dont noiu avom de$ Ettampet ; 
Bartsch, Peintre-Gravcur.) 

ALDI'NI, GIOVANNI, nephew of Galvani, the discoverer of gal- 
vanism, and brother of the Count Antonio Aldini, a distinguished 
Italian statesman, was bom at Bologna on the 10th of April, 1762. 
From his earUeat years be showed a predilection for the study of 
natural philosophy. In 1798 ho was appointed to succeed Canterzani, 
who had been his own instructor in physics, in the university of 
Bologna. He was one of the earliest and most active members of the 
National Institute of Italy, to the foundation of which he contributed ; 
and in 1807 he was made a knight of the Iron Crown, and a member 
of the Council of State at Milan. Though thus in favour with Napo- 
leon's government, ho preserved, like his brother, his credit with the 
Auatrians ; and continued in the enjoyment of their patronage and 
protection till his death on the 17th of January, 1834. He left his 
philosophical instruments and a large sum in money to found a public 
institution in Bologna for the instruction of artisans in physics and 

The most conspiououa merit of Aldini was his activity in cndea- 
Touring to render pubUo such discoveries either of himself or others 
as he conceived likely to be of public use. He was well acquainted 
with the modem languages, fond of travelling, and indefatigable in 
conveying scientific intelligence from one end of Europe to the other. 
The three principal objects which engaged his attention at diil'ereut 
periods were— the medical uses of galTanism, the discovery of his 

illustrious uncle ; the utility of gas, particularly hi the illummation of 
lighthouses ; and the advantages of a fire-proof dress for persons 
engaged in extinguishing conflagrations. Several of his treatises were 
published in English, and were derived from observations and experi- 
ments made in England. 

ALDRICH, HENRY, eminent as a scholar, a divine, and a musician, 
the son of a gentleman of the same name in Westminster, was bom 
there in 16i7, and educated in the collegiate school of that city under 
Dr. Busby. He was admitted a student of Chi-ist Church, Oxford, in 
1662, and having been elected on the foundation, took his master of 
arts degree in 1 669. He soon afterwards took holy orders, and obtained 
the living of Wem in Shropshu-e ; but he continued to reside in his 
college, of which he became one of the most eminent tutors and dis- 
tinguished ornaments. On the 15th of February, 1631, he was installed 
a canon of Christ Church, and in the following May took the degrees 
of bachelor and doctor in divinity. During the reigu of James II. ho 
was a consistent and able champion of Protestantism, both by preaching 
and writing ; and when, on the accession of King William, Massey, 
the Roman Catholic dean of Christ Church, fled his country. Dr. Aldi'ich 
was appointed hia successor, and was installed on June 17, 1689. For 
the remainder of his life he continued to discharge the duties of his 
station in the university with dignity, urbanity, and assiduity ; he was 
zealous to improve and adorn hia college, to increase its usefulness, to 
extend its resources, and to perpetuate its reputation. In 1702 he 
was chosen prolocutor of the convocation, and closed his laborious 
and exemplary career at Christ Church on the 14th of December, 

Himself a sound and accomplished scholar, he endeavoured by 
every means in his power to foster the love of classical learning among 
the students of his college, and presented them annually with an 
edition of some Greek classic which he printed for this special purpose. 
He also published a system of logic for their use, and at his death 
bequeathed to his college his valuable classical library. Dr. Aldrich 
was a proficient in more than one of the arts : three sides of what ia 
called Peckwater Quadrangle, in Christ Church College, and the 
church and campanile of All Saints in the High-street, Oxford, were 
designed by him ; and he is also said to have furnished the plan, or 
at least to have had a share in the design, of the chapel of Trinity 
College, Oxford. 

Dr. Aldrich, among other sciences, cultivated music with ardour 
and success. As dean of a college and a cathedral he regarded it as a 
duty, as it imdoubtedly was in his case a pleasure, to advance the 
study and progress of church music. His choir was well appointed, 
and every vicar, clerical as well as lay, gave hia daily and efficient aid 
in it. He contributed also largely to its stock of sacred music ; and 
some of his services and anthems, being preserved in the collections 
of Boyce and Arnold, are known and sung in every cathedral in the 
kingdom. His musical taste was foundeil on the best and purest 
models of church writing — those especially which Palestrina and 
Carisaimi have bequeathed to the world ; and, in addition to his own 
compositions, he adapted words from the English version of the 
Scriptures to many movements from their masses and motets, a task 
which he executed with consummate skill. Of these it is to be 
regretted that a few only are in print or in use. Nor did Dr. Aldrich 
disdain to employ his musical talents in the production of festive and 
social harmony. Catch singing was much in fashion in his time ; and 
the well-known catch, ' Hark, the bonny Christ Church Bells,' ia his 

(Abridged from the Siographkal Dictionary of the Society for the 
Diffiuion of UiefiU Knowledge.) 

ALDROVANDUS, ULYSSES {Aldrovandi), a great naturalist, was 
bom of a noble family at Bologna, on the 11th of September, 1522. 
He lost his father at the age of six years, and his mother placed him 
out as page in the family of a bishop. He occupied this situation 
only a short time, and when twelve years old was placed with a 
merchant at Bresse. He was however soon tired of a mercantile life; 
and during his early years applied himself first to legal .and subse- 
quently to medical studies. He travelled much; and especially made 
botanical collections. In 1553 he graduated in medicine, and in 1560 
he was appointed lecturer on natural history in the chaii- that had 
been occupied by Luca Ghino. lu 1568 he succeeded in inducing the 
senate of Bologna to establish a botanic garden. 

Whilst Aldrovandus was thus publicly engaged, in private he was 
pursuing natural history with an ardour that has been seldom 
equalled, perhaps never surpassed. Tho great object of his life was 
to obtain a knowledge of the external world, and to this object ha 
devoted his time, his talents, and his fortune. He travelled much 
himself in search of objects of natural history, and employed others 
to collect for him. In this way he formed an extensive museum, 
which to this day remains at Bologna, a monument to his industry 
and perseverance. His dried plants alone occupied sixty large volumes. 
He spared no expense in obtaining the first artists of the day to make 
original drawings in natural history. Christopher Coriolauus and 
his nephew of Niimberg were employed as his engravers. By these 
means he was prepared for the gigantic task of becoming the histo- 
rian and illustrator of all external nature. The first work that ho 
pubUshed, in 1699, on natural history, was devoted to birds. Ilia 
next work was on insects, in 1603. A third work came out in 1606, 




Thb WM Ih* lut work tut WM pablhhed 
dwi^ liU Mfrtii* B«^ how«T«r, left abui»Uoc« of materiab for 
fnHk«r voriu. and Ui* MMto of Boiocoi^ wbo bad Ubwall/ uhUImI 
AUraraBdtM mhtn alit •, afipataUd pwaOM t« adit bii worU. Tba 
MtknqtMal Tolanaa all apprar in bit nana, with tba addition of that 
«f lb* adilar : tba oely diffcrrooa ooodata in ttyUDg AldroTandiu 
MllMaa ia IIm PoatbuMem voIuom^ wbartaa ba ia eallad profoaor 
btboM paUUbtd is bb UMiM 

Tba gnat ■•rit of tba writfagi of Aldroraodui ii their oomplcta- 
MM ; IMr gTMt fault ia tha oradulily of tba author. Cuviar aayi 
tba vwka of AldiOTaodoa tDigbt ba raduocd to ona-tanth without 
injur}', and Buffoo ridieolaa bia eomprabmaira mods of traatinK bia 
tubiKta in tho foUowiag laofuaga :— " In writing tha hiatoty of the 
cock and tba bal^" Mya BofloD. " AMrorand taUa 70a all that hai 
anar baan taid «f aoeka and bulla ; all that the anoient* have thought I 
«r Imaglnad with ngaiti to thair Tirtuaa, eharaotar, and coonge ; all > 
tha thkip for whioh thay bare baan emplojad ; all the talaa that old 
woetcB tall of tbao; all tha miraclaa that hava bean wrought upou ; 
or bv tbao in diflVnnt raligiooa; all the luperatitiona regarding them; ' 
*U tba companaoaa that poala bare made with them ; all the attri- 
bvtaa tbiU earlain nationa hara aooorded them ; all the repreeentationii 
that bava baan mada of tbein by biarogljpbioa or ia hanldry ; in a 
wofd, all tb« biatoriaa and all the fablea witL which we are acquainted ^ 
on the subject of oooba and bulla." Ttita ii bardi; an orerdrawn 
|.ictura of tba nunner in which Aldrovandua treats each animal, { 
plant, and minetal in bis poodaroas Tolumea, But theaa works must 
Mit ba criticised as if they were something which they are not. They ' 
are not mannals, ontiinea, or introductions to natunl history : they . 
profaas to ba biatoiiaa of the snbjaets on which they treat, and as such 
tbcy at* tba moat predooa storchonaa of facts, references, and obser- 
TatMoa in natural history extant. Nor are these works mere oompila- I 
Thay are illuatntad with many hundreds of original drawings ; 1 
teaa are mada to objects in tha museum of AldroTsndus, and he 
giran tba reaolt of numeroos diaaeetions made with his own | 

AldroTandus regarded objeeta in nature more as individuals than 
in tbair ra l a t ions to each other, and hence he made no progreas iu 
syataaaatio artanaamaat; and in thia respect his works are not supe- 
rior to tboaa of AriatoUa or Qeaaoer. He has however supplied facts, 
and whaterrr may be the confusion in which they are arranged, on 
aeoount of the period at which they are recorded, they stiU claim 
tba attaoUon of erety naturalist. 

Aldronndua died on the 10th of November, 1607, in his eighty- 
fifth year. Nearly all hia biogiaphers state that this event occurred 
in the hospital at Bologna, where he was compelled to spend his last 
days OD account of the great expense he had been at in coUecUug his 
mnssnm and publishing his works. The secret archives of the scuate 
of BoloBia, as quoted by Fantuzsi, proved that they assisted Aldro- 
vandosln tha muat liberal manner. They doubled his salary soon 
alter his appointment to the chair of natural history, and when he 
waa no longer able to lecture, they appointed a suooeaaor but con- 
Unoad bia salary. At rnrioun timea they granted him no le«s than 
40,000 crowns to carry on his reaearcbes and publish bis works. He 
was borird with grrat pomp, at the public expense, in the church of 
St. Stephen in Bologna; and all the works that appeared after his 
death were publiabed under the direction and at the expense of the 
senate. From these ctreumstanoea we are inclined to think, that if 
Aldrorandua did die in an hospital, it may have arisen from some- 
thiaf paeallar ia hia case, and not from any want of public sympathy 

(FantUBi. if csMTM dtlla Vila Uliui Aldrovamdi; Jocher, AUgeui. 
GtUkrtm'ltxiMn, and Adelung, Supp. ; Carr6re, BMiotkiquc de la 
MMtint; Bayle, IlitUxrical Diet.; Haller, Bibliolhtca Jiolanica.) 

(Abridged from tha Bicgrapkicai Diclimary vf the Socielv for the 
Ihfvwm of Utdta Knowltdgt.) 

ALDUS. [lUnmua.] 

ALBMAN, MATEO. This celebrated Spanish writer was bom at 
Bovm^ about tba middle of tha 16th century. Ho held an importnut 
oOoe in the ftnaoeial department, under Philip II., which he filled 
wHb bcoonr foe a long period. Diaguated at last with the broils of 
tba eoact, ba rtqoastod Us dismiseal; and having obUinwl it, ho 
rsUrad to davoto bbaaelf aatirel* to study. In 1 604 be published the 
• Lifc tt St Aatoalo da Padua.'^ Wa are ignorant of the motive or 
oWart of bU voyaf* to Kaxioo, and only know, that in 1609 he pub- 
Usbwl tb«« aa ■OrtograOa.CaaUllana.'^ But the work whicli entitles 
bim to the notioa of pcalOTity is his ' auxman de Alfarache,' which lie 
pablUiad at Madrid b ISM. This amusing and interesting work is 
a Uttar aalira 00 tba eotrapt«l mannen of Spain at that period. 
Tha ettlacprisiac |Miaa of Oharlaa V. bad inspired the Spanish youth 
^J*! •■. "»*»»?• '•* "JBtary rfoiy, and drawn them off from the 
Mlthatiai of (bo tMafnl arta antfadwicta. HU suoeesson weca inca- 
rabu of prfacrriag tba immroaa empira rahwd by bim, and tha hngo 
adiftaa bsfaa to Ul already ondnr bis aon. Tba naUon waa then 
■•Btmlaf wilb a aaltitoda of man, who, thinking it degrading to eani 
2 y^"^ UraUbood, did sot acraple to Uve by cheating and swindling. 
raa waa tba orf|te «f tba onMtada of tboaa novels called • PioaroacM' 
«M*.frnBtfcs feiliMlagartha leth to tba Uttar end of the 17tb 
entarias, apfwand ta Bpaia. hitaadad to dcNriba the life and man- 

nars of rogues, ragabondf, and beggara, bringing also the other claasaa 
of aoeiaty upon Uie stage, either aa their victims, abettora, or pro- 
taetotiL AJamaa seams in his retirement to have recurred to past 
srimaSL and to have set down the vices, tho follies, and the hypocrisies 
of tha more elevated oUssea whioh he had witnessed, wliilu at tlio 
same time he details with axtraordinarr minutaneas the tricks and 
adventures of rcffues of inferior degree. Guxman is a worthy follower 
of Lasarillo de Tonnes, and a precursor of Oil Bias. The horo is of 
doubtful descent, with the pranouen of one of the proudest fnmilics 
of Spain; tenderly reared, be throwa hiiuMlf, a boy, upou tho world; 
becomaa sneoeasivaly stable-boy, beggar, porter, thief, man of fashion, 
soldier in Italy, valet to a canliual, and pander to a French ambas- 
sador; is subsequently a merchant and beoomea bankrupt, tlien a 
atndent at the university of Alcald, marries, is deserted by his wife, 
commits a robbery, is sent to the galleys, ia liberated, and then writes 
an account of bis life. The narrative is interwoven with shrewd 
maxims and acute obserrations. The author is classed by Mayans 
among the prose writers best adapted for the formation of a good 
Castilian style, and is named by him, whioh is no small merit, with 
Fray Luis de Leon, Hurtado do Hendoza, Cervantes, Marians, and 
Herrera, the great masters of this rich, harmonious, and noblo 
lauguKge. The book waa first printed iu 1599, went through fiveand- 
tweuty editions iu ^pain, and was translated into all the languagea of 
Kurope; it appeared in London, in 1G23, as from an auouymous 
translator, for Uio Spanish name afExed, Don Diego Pucde-ser (May- 
be4o), is evidently sssumed ; probably by the indofatigable Howell, 
who was at Madrid immediately prior to the date of its publication. 
(NicoUo Antonio, SMiolheta Jlitpana Nova.) 

ALEMBEKT, JEAN-LE-ROND D'. On Nov. tho 17th, 1717, a 
new-bom infant was found exposed in a public market by tho church 
of St-Jean-le-Rond, near the cathedral of Nutre-Dame, at Paris. 
This infant was the celebrated D'Alembei-t, and from the place of his 
expostire he derived his christian name. How he obtained his sur- 
name is not mentioned. He was found by a commissary of police, 
and instead of bein); conveyed to the hoapitul of Eufans-TrouT<Ss, was 
intrusted to the wife of a i>oor glazier, on account of the care whioh 
his apparently dying state required. It has been supposed that the 
discovery, aa well as the exposure, w.ts arranged beforehand, as iu a 
few days tho father made himself known, and settled an allowance of 
1200 francs a-year for bis support. Other accounts state that the 
abandonment was the act of the mother, and that the father, upon 
hearing it, came forward for the protection of his eon. This father 
was M. Oestouches, commissary of artillery ; the mother was Madame 
or more properly Mademoiselle de Teucin, a lady celebrated for her 
talents and adventures, and authoress of several works, in one of 
which, ' Les Mallieurs de 1' Amour,' she is supposed to have given a 
sketch of her own life. She was sister of Peter Guerin de Tenciu, 
Cardinal Archbishop of Lyons, and took the veil in the convent of 
Montfleuri, near Grenoble, which place she afterwards quitted, and 
settled at Paris, where she beaime more celebrated for wit than 
virtue. It ia said that when D'Alembcrt began to exhibit proofs of 
extraordinary talent, she scut for him, and acquainted him with tho 
relationship which existed between them ; and that bis reply was, 
" You are only my step-mother ; the glacier's wife is my mother." 

D'Alembert commenced his studies at the College des Quatre 
Nations, at the age of twelve years. The professors were of the 
Janseuist party, and were not long in discovering the talents of their 
pupiL In the iir>t year of bis course of philosophy, he wrote a 
commentary ou the Epistle to the Romans, from which, as Condorcet 
remarks, they imagined they had found n new Pascal ; and to make 
the resemblance more complete, turned his attention to mathematics. 
The attempted parallel probably never existed except in the ingenious 
head of the author of the 'Eloge;' for D'Alembert himself informs 
us, that liis professors did their best to dissuade bim both from 
mathematica and poetry, alleging that the former, in particular, dried 
up the heart, and recommending as to the latter, that he should 
confine himself to the poem of St. Prosper upon Grace. They per- 
mitted him, nevertheless, to study the rudiments of mathematics, and 
from that time he persisted in the pursuit. When be left college, he 
returned to his foster-mother, with whom he lived altogctlier forty 
years, and continued his studies. Not that she gave him much 
encouragement, for when he told her of any work be bad nTitten, or 
discovery which bo had made, she generally replied, " Vous no seroz 
jamais qu'un philosophe; et qu'est ce qu'uu philosophe? c'est un fou 
qui sa tourmente pendant ea vie, pour qu'on i>arle do lui lorsqu'il n'y 
sera plus;" which we may English thus, " You will never be anything 
but a philosopher — and what is that but a fool who plagues himscU 
all his life, that he may be talked about after he is dead t" 

With nothing but his income of 1200 francs, and tho resource of 
the public libraries for obtaining those books which he could not 
buy, he gave up all hopes of wraith or civil honoum, that ho might 
devote himself entirely to hia favourite studies. Hero ho was 
dispirited by finding that ho had been anticipated in most of what he 
imagine<l to have been his own discoveries. In the meanwhile his 
friends urged him to enter a profession, to whioh he at last agreed, and 
choaa the law. After being admitted an advocate, he abandoned this 

gt>fession and took to physic, as more congenial to his own pursuits, 
elormloed to porsevere, b« sent all his mathematical books to a 




friend, resolved that the latter should keep them till he was made 
doctor ; but he soou found that be could not send bis mathematical 
genius with them. One book after another was begged back, to 
refresh his memory upon something which be found he could not 
keep out of bis head. At last, 6ndiug his taste too strong for any 
prudential consideration, he gave up the contest, and i-esolved to 
devote himself entirely to that which be liked best. The happiness 
of bis life, when he bad made this resolution, is thus described by 
himself. He says that he awoke every morning thinking with pleasure 
on the studies of the preceding evening, and on the prospect of con- 
tinuing them during the day. When his thoughts were called off for 
a moment, they turned to the satisfaction ha should have at the play 
in the evening ; and between the acts of the piece he meditated on 
the pleasures of the next morning's study. 

Some memoirs which he wrote in the years 1739 and 1740, as well 
as some corrections which h» made in the ' Analyse Ddmontrde ' of 
Keynau, a work then much esteemed in France, procured him admis- 
sion to the Academy of Sciences, in 1741, at the age of twenty-four. 
From this time may be dated tlie cai-eer of honour which ranks him 
among the greatest benefactors to science of the last century. We 
will now interrupt the order of his life to specify his principal works. 
In 1743 appeared his 'Treatise of Dynamics,' founded upon a general 
principle which afterwards received the name o-f ' D'Alembert's 
Principle.' The deductions from this new and fertile source of 
analytical discovery appeared in rapid succession. In 1744 he pub- 
lished bis ' Treatise on the Equilibrium and Motion of Fluids.' In 
1746 hia 'Reflections on the General Causes of Winds' obtained the 
prize of the Academy of Berlin. This treatise will always be remark- 
able, na the first which contained the general equations of the motion 
of iluida, as well as the first announcement and use of the calculus of 
partial dlfTerence.?. In 1747 he gave the first analytical solution of 
the problem of vibrating chords, and the motion of a column of air ; 
in 1749 he did the 'same for tlie precession of the equinoxes and the 
nutation of the earth's axis, the latter of which had been just dis- 
covered by Bnwlley. In 1752 he published bis ' Essay on the Resist- 
ance of Fluids,' a treatise originally written in competition for a prize 
proposed by the Academy of Berlin, but the decision of which was 
postponed, and finally awarded to a production whi9b has not since 
gained any reputation for its author. A misunderstanding between 
Euler and D'Alembert is asserted by some French writers as the 
grotmd of this rejection, which, resting on the well-known character 
of Euler, we must be permitted to doubt. In the same year he also 
edited Kameau's * Elements of Music,' though his opinions did not 
entirely coincide with that celebrated system. In 1747 be presented 
to the Academy of Sciences his 'fjsay on the Problem of Three 
Bodies,' and in 1754 and 1756 he published 'Researches on Various 
Points connected with the System of the Universe.' We must com- 
]>Iete the list of his mathematical works by mentioning bis ' Opus- 
cules,' collected and published towards the end of his life, in eight 
volumes. Though D'Alembert wrote no large system of pure analysis, 
the various methods and hints which are so richly scattered in his 
pbysico-mathematical works have always been considered as rendering 
them a mine of instruction for mathematicians. 

We now turn to bis philosophical productions. The French ' Ency- 
clop<Sdie,' aa is well known, was commenced by Diderot and himself, 
aa editors; and it is needless to speak of his celebrated Introductory 
Diacourae, a work which, aa Condorcet expreaaea it, there are only 
two or three men in a century capable of writing. D'Alembert con- 
tributed several literary articles ; hut on the stoppage of the work by 
the government, after the completion of the second volume, be 
retired from the editorship, nor would he resume his functions when 
permission to proceed was at length obtained. From that time be 
confined himself entirely to the mathematical part of the work, and 
bia expositions of the metaphysical difficulties of abstract science are 
among the clearest and best on record. While engaged on this under- 
taking, he wrote his ' Mdtanges de Fbilosophie,' &c., ' Memoirs of 
Christina of Sweden,' ' Essay on the Servility of Men of Letters to 
the Great,' ' Elements of Philosophy,' and a treatise on ' The De- 
struction of the Jesuits.' He also published translations of several 
parts of Tacitus, which are admitted by scholars to possess no small 
degree of merit In 1772. when elected perpetual secretary of the 
Academy, he wrote the 'Eloges ' of the members who had died from 
1700 up to that date. His correspondence, and some additional 
pieces, were published after his death. The whole of his works have 
been collected in one edition by M. Basticn, in eighteen volumes, 
octavo, Paris, 180S. 

In 1752 Frederic of Prussia, who had conceived the highest esteem 
for his writings, endeavoured to attract him to Berlin. D'Alembert 
refused the offer, but in 1754 he accepted a pension of 1200 francs. 
In 1756, through the friendship of M. D'Argenson, then minister, he 
obtained the same from Louis XV. In 1755, by the recommendation 
of Benedict XIV., he was admitted into the Institute of Bologna. In 
1762 Catharine of Russia requested him to undertake the education of 
her son, with an income of 100,000 francs. On his declining the 
offer, afae wrote again to press him, and says in her letter, " I know 
that your refusal arises from your desire to cultivate your studies and 
your friendships in quiet. But this ia of no consequence : bring all 
your friends with you, and I promise you that both you and they 

shall have every accommodation in my power." D'Alembert was too 
much attached to his situation and his income of 150^. a-year to acce|)t 
even this princely offer. The letter of Catharine it was unanimously 
agreed to enter on the records of the Academy of Sciences. lu 1759 
Frederic again pressed his coming to Berlin, in a letter in which he 
says, " I wait iu silence the moment when the ingratitude of your own 
country will oblige you to fly to a laud where you are already natu- 
ralised in the minds of all who tbiuk." In 1763, when D'Alembert 
visited Frederic, the latter again repeated bis offer, which was again 
declined ; the king assuring him that it was the only false calculation 
he bad ever made iu bis life. 

We now come to relate the history of a connection which ended by 
embittering the last years of the life of D'Alembert, and finally, it is 
supposed, had no small share iu sending him to his grave. At the 
bouse of a common friend he was in the habit of meeting Mile, de 
I'Espinasae, a young lady whose talents caused her society to be sought 
by the elite of the literary world of Paris. Between her and D'Alem- 
bert a mutual attachment grew up, which though, as appeared after- 
wards, not very strong on her part, became the moving passion of his 
future life. Wheu, in 1765, he was attacked by a violent disorder, 
she insisted on being his attendant, and after his recovery they lived 
in the same bouse. It is said that friendship was their only bond of 
union ; and this may be believed, since iu the then state of opinion, 
the assertion, if untrue, would have been unnecessary. The friend- 
ship, or love, of the lady however found other objects ; and though 
D'Alembert still retained all his former affection for her, she treated 
him with contempt and uukiudness. Her death left him inconsolable; 
and his reflectious upon her tomb, published in bis posthumous work, 
present the singular spectacle of a lover mouruing for a mistress 
whose regard for him, as ho was obliged to admit to himself, had 
entirely ceased before her death. After that event, he fell into a 
profound melancholy, nor did he ever recover his former vivacity. 
His death took place October 29, 1783. Not having received extreme 
unction it was with great difficulty that a piiest could be found to inter 
him, and then only on condition that the funeral should be private. 

The character of D'Alembert was one of great simplicity, candied 
even to bluntness of speech, and of unusual benevolence, mixed with 
a keen sense of the ridiculous, which exerted itself openly and without 
scruple upon those who attempted the common species of flattery. 
He was the friend of Frederic of Prussia, because that monarch 
exacted no servility ; and to him only, and two disgraced ministers, of 
all the great ones of the earth, did D'Alembert ever dedicate a work. 
He was totally free from envy. Lagrange and Laplace owed some of 
their first steps in life to bim ; though the former had settled a 
mathematical coutroveriy in favour of Euler and against him. In bis 
dispute with Clairaut on the method of finding the orbit of a comet, 
and with Rousseau on the article 'Calvin' in the ' Encyclopddie,' bo 
gave his friends no reason to blush for his want of temper. It was 
his maxim, that a man should be very careful in his writings, careful 
enough in his actions, and moderately careful in his wonls ; his 
observance of the last part of the maxim sometimes made bim enemies. 
The Due de Choiseul, when minister, refused the imited solicitations 
in his favour of the Academy of Sciences for a pension vacant by the 
death of Clairaut, for more than six mouths, because be had said, iu 
a letter to Voltaire which Wiis opened at the jiost-office, " Your 
protector, or rather your protegiS, M. de Choiseul." He cared nothing 
for those iu power, at a time when the latter exacted and obtained 
deference in very small matters. Madame de Pompadour, who hated 
all the friends of Frederic, refused the request of Marmontel that she 
woiUd employ her influence with the king in favour of D'Alemboit 
on one occasion, alleging that the latter bad put himself at the bead 
of the Italian party in music. It was his m;ixim that no man ought 
to spend money in superfluities while others were in want ; and a 
friend, who knew him well, declared to the editor of bis works, that 
when bis income amounted to 8200 francs, he gave away the half. 
His attentions to his foster-mother, to the end of her life, were those 
of a son. In his account of his own character, a singular mixture of 
vanity and candour, written in the third person, he speaks as follows : 
" Devoted to study and privacy till the age of twenty-five, ho entered 
late into the world, and was never much pleased with it. Ho coidd 
never bend himself to learn its usages and language, aud perhaps even 
indulged a sort of petty vanity iu despising them. He is never rude, 
because he is neither brutal nor severe ; but he is sometimes blunt, 
through inattention or ignorance. Compliments embarrass him, 
because he never can find a suitable answer immediately ; wheu he 
says flattering things, it is always because he thinks them. The basis 
of his character is frankness and truth, often rather blunt, but never 
disgusting. He is impatient and angry, even to violence, when any- 
thing goes wrong, but it all evaporates in words. He is soon satisfied 
and easily governed, provided be does not see what you are at ; for 
his love of independence amounts to fanaticism, so that he often 
denies himself things which would bo .agreeable to him, because he is 
afraid they would put him imder some restraint; which makes some 
of his friends call him, justly enough, the slave of his liberty." This 
account agrees very well with that of bis friends. 

D'Alembert has been held up to rejirobation in this country on 
account of his religious opinions. But on this point we must observe, 
that there is a wide line of diotinctiou between him aud somo of his 




1 1» Mil 'ftinjiimitim' mnli ir^t-* — ' ""* ^-'»-^— Wbin 

T-T *-'--n- lb* two ktta', it b not for th« epinloiM Ihay ImU (for wUch 
IImv m« Mi aMwwmbU to soy m*i>)> but for thair olfoiwiTs muiaer 
oCoM^riac IbMD. •ml Um odiow iololarasM of all opinion* azotpt 
iMr owawUeh mst Utrwub tiioir writiagi. M«a of th* bast and of 
Ih* ««nl Ihraa tapmnA toM eqaatly oSniiT* to thwa, if Uwy pro- 
fcMd niblbiifif TtiT poblUad wriUiMi of IT Almlwrt oontaio 
no iiwiMhMM ownrir* to nUgiao; thar Uro nevar baan forbidden 
oo Uiat aosouBl, » L* lUrpo obavfM, in any ooontry of Europe. 
lUJ it not baan for liia ptirato caii«ai>o«ida n oa witli Voltaira and 
o4fcM% whieh waa pablialkad aflar hia daaUi, tha world would not 
Iht« known, axeapl by impUeatton, wbat the opiniooa of D'Alembert 
w«i« Ob tUi pom w» Ml eita two raapactabla CathoUo MithotitieL 
Tha Bbhop of Umefaa anid. doling tha lira of lyAlambart, " I do not 
know hia nanoaallr; but I bsra alwaya baard thU hia nunnera are 
mmaiU, aalkfacaadoot without a al«in. Ai to hia woriu, I read them 
«tm aad evar aflun, and I find nothing there except plenty of talent, 
giaak Infill inaUiai and a good ayatem of morali. If hia opinions are 
not aa aoondaaUi writings ho ia to be pitied, but no one baa a right 
to inlana«ate hb eonaoiaoea." I« Uaipe aaya of him, " I do not 
thfatt ihat ba arar printad • aentanoa which marka either hatred or 
flOMtampkaf idU|^: bntwa may oita a great many paasagea where, 
Mf««0liy drawn into onthuaiaam by Uta beroea of Cbristianity, he 
maaka of them with dignity, and, what in him ia even more stroiige, 
with aaotiraaot'' — " I knaw D'Alembert well enough to be able to 
mj, that ha waa aoaptioal in ereiything except mathematics. He 
woold DO mora haTa aaid poaitively that there was no religion than 
U»t there mu a Qod: ha only thought the probabilitiea were in 
tuour of theism, and againat teTelation, On this aubjeot he tolerated 
.11 ^ fpi»l~i^ tai thia dispoaitioo made him think the intolerant 
•nvgaoca of tha atheista odious and unbearable." — " Uo lia3 pniiaed 
Maasillrrn. F^ntSon, Bossuet, Fl(<ehier, and Fleury, not only na writers, 
but aa pcieatik He n'as just enough to bo struck with the constant 
and Ht''— M« oonneetion whieh exiated between their faith and their 
ntmetiea, b a t wean thair pciestlT character and their vii-tues." To these 
MrtiaMaiaa w* need add nothing, exeept to desire the reader to turn 
to tba part of the latter of the Empreaa Catharine which wo have 
qnotad, and than to raeollaet that it waa tha same Empress Catharine 
wh& rafaaad a Tisit from Yoltaire, saying, " that she had no Parnassus 
in bar dominions for those wiu> apoke disrespectfully of religion." 

The style of D'Alembert aa a writer is a^jreeable, but he is not placed 
by tha Freoeh in tha first rank. His mathematiod works show that 
ba wroto aa be thought, without taking much trouble to finish. His 
•spraiaiao was, " Let us find out the thing, there will be plenty of 
naoplatopnt it into shape;" an aaaertion abundantly verified since 
bis time. He said of lumself that he had " some talent and great 
facility.'' Ha liked tha mathematical part of natural philosophy 
bsttar than any other, and took but little interest in purely expen- 
maalal lasaainhaa Henoa ha remained in ignorance of some of the 
■oat atrikiiM foeta disoovered in his day ; and when laughed at on 
th« avbjaet, ba always aaid, " I shall have plenty of time to learn all 
tbaaa us a ttj thiafk" The time however, aa Boasuet remarks, never 

Hioaa raadata who would know more of D'Alembert should consult 
tba first volume of Bastien's edition of bis works. 

ALKXAKDEa [Pabii.] 

▲LKXAKDER L, eon of Amyntas L, said to be the tenth king of 
Manadon, wia aliva at tba time of tha grsat Peraian invasion of Orecce, 
■A 480, Hk history, as far as it is known, and his share in the 
ttooblaa «t tba Ptaita wars, are contained in the Uat five books of 

AI.BXANI)ER IL, tha aixteenth king of Macedonia, was the son 
«t Amyntas IJ., and aaoandad tha throne about &c. 370. 

ALKXAXDER IlL, sumamad the-Oreat, king of Uocedonia, waa 
tba son of Philip and Olympias, and bom at PelTa in the autumn of 
tba year ■.& 864. Oo hia bUher'a side he was deaoendod from 
Chnana tba HataoUd, who waa tha fint king of Maoodonia; his 
to «*b* T balooged to tha royal house of Epirua, which traced its 
MdigMa op to AaUUaa, tba moat oalabntad hero of tha Trojan War. 
Hba waa tba daogbtar of Naoi>tolamn% prince of tha lloloaauna, and 
tba sMar of AUzandar of Epirus, who lost hia life hi Ifady. The 
bAaloviaaa of A l ai a n dsr ngard it as a aignifloant coincidenoa that 
PUttp «■ tba aama dM raeaivad tha iotdllgaoca of the birth of his 
M^ «f tba vie«ai7 of U* Oananl Pannanio over the lUyrians, and of 
bii own yUltaif at lb* Olympic gamaa; on the same day also the 
'Aaant taanpla of Diana at Ephasu* was burnt down. Ocour- 
I Uk« tbaaa war* aflarwarda thought to bo indications of the 
of Alanadar, and varioos marvellous storiea were 

fcMoated, whisb ware baliavwl and eagerly spread by the flattery 
tbo ainiMililiua of tba Oraaka, and rsiidily listaoad to by Alaxand 
Utmm ia tha aldat of bis wondarfbl career of oonquosV, Mai 

-' oonquosk Many 
ia tba early adnaation of Alexander, but the 
t «•■ iatraitod to Loooidaa, a Nlalion of Olympias, 
I a Dtaa «f aostH* ahanMar. Lraimaohna, an Aoamanian, appears 
into the favour of the royal family of 
kMdof UapapU VfralgsrAattary; haia nported to have 
.-.. ■??*»^*V»>»J^««"««'Achilla^aiid I'hiUpbythat 
ofPriiML Abort tba flaiawbaaAtoWDdar had rsaohad his thirteenth 

to bat* 

nar, FUlip thought it adviaable to prooora for Um aon the bait 
Tnitmotor of ^e age, aad his dioioe fell upon Aristotle. A letter 
which Philip is said to have written to this philosopher on the ooe*> 
sion is preserved in Qellioa. Under the instruction of such a master 
the powerftd mind of Alexander was rapidly developed, and enriched 
with stores of practical and useful knowledge. With the view of 
preparing bis pupil for his high stotion, Aristotle wrote a work on 
the art of government, which is no longer extant. No royal pupil 
ever had the advantage of such a master. His short life was spent in 
gigantic undertakings, and in the midst of war; but the results of 
Aristotle's twmhing an apparent in all Alexander's plans for consoli- 
dating hi* empire : his love of knowledge manifested itself to the 
last months of his life and in the midst of all his labours. His 
physical education also waa not neglected. In horsemanship he is 
said to have excelled all his contemporaries ; and it is a well-known 
story, that n-hen tho celebrated hone Bucephalus was brought to the 
Macedonian capital, no one but young Alexander was able to manage 
him. His alleged descent from Achilles, and the flattery of those by 
whom ho waa surrounded, made a deep and lasting impression upon 
his youthful mind ; tho * Iliad ' became his favourite book, and its 
hero, Achilles, his great model. Ambition waa his ruling passion ; 
everything which appeared to limit the sphero within which he hoped 
to gain distinction, seemed to him an encroachment upon his own 
rights. When intelligence was brought of his father's victories, he 
would lament that nothing would be left for him to do : he refused 
to contend for the prize at the Olympic games because he could not 
have kings for his competitors. In the same spirit he r^retted that 
Aristotle published one of his profound works, because the wisdom 
which he wished to possess alone was thus communicated to maziy. 
He would always pardon and honour an enemy whose resistance had 
added to his own glory, but a cowardly opponent was the object of 
his contempt. 

Bead of Alexander tho Great, enlarged, from a coin In the RodleUa Library, 
Oxford. The bead is repeated beneath, with the rerene, ehowinir tbo sise of 
the coin. 

When Alexander had reached hia sixteenth year, Philip was obliged 
to leave his kingdom to carry on a campaign against Byzantium ; and 
as his son had already shovrn extraurdionry judgment in public affair*, 
Philip intnuted him with the admiuistration of Maoodonia, During 
the abaenoe of his father, he is said to have led an army ogainit 
some revolted tribe, and to have made himself master of their town. 
Tha fint occasion on which he specially aignaliaed himself was two 
years later, in tha battle of Chteronea (B.O. 338), and the victory on 
that day is mainly aaoribed to hia courage ; he broke the lines of the 
enemy, and.orushed the aaorad band of tha Theban*. Philip was 
proud of such a son, and waa even pleaaed to hear tha Macedonians 
call him their king, while they called Philip their general. But the 
good understanding between him and his father was disturbed during 
the laat yaara of Philip's life, owing to hi* father repudiating Olym- 
phu, and giving his band to Cleopatra, the niece of Attain*. A 
reconciliation took place, but on the very day that it was to be sealed 
by tha marriage of Philip's daughter with a brother of Olympian 
Philip waa aaaasainated (&c. 336J, and it was even nported that 
Alexander waa compromised in the conspiracy. There is however no 
evidence to prove the truth of this report, though it is possible that 
Alexander at least knew of the plot, notwitlutauding the severe 
punishment which ho inflicted on most of the guilty pcr^ouEi. 





At the age of twenty Alexander was thus suddenly called to the 
throne of Macedonis. But while the attachment of the people of 
Macedonia, who had always been accustomed to look up to him with 
admiration, was seciired by a reduction of taxes and other politic 
measures!, dangers were threatening on all sides, and he had to secure 
by wars the throne which was his lawful inheritance. His father had 
during the last years of his life made extensive preparations for 
invading Persia, and Attains and Parmenio had already been sent into 
Asia with a force. The realisation of these plans, in the midst of which 
Alexander had grown up to manhood, and in which he had taken a 
most lively interest, now devolve<l upon him ; but before he could 
carry them into effect it was necessary to secure his own dominions. 
Attains, the uncle of Cleopatra, aimed at usurping the crown of 
Macedonia, under the pretext of securing it to Philip's son by Cleo- 
patra ; Greece was stiiTcd up by Demosthenes against Macedonia, and 
the barbarians in the north and west were ready to take up arms for 
their independence. Everything depended upon quick and decisive 
action. Alexander wag well aware of this, and at the same time he 
was determined not to surrender any part of his dominions, as some 
of his timid or cautious friends advised him. His first measure was 
to send his general, Hecatacus, with a force to Asia, with instructions 
to bring Attalus back to Macedonia either dead or alive. All the 
professions of attachment and fidelity that Attalus made were of no 
avail ; he was put to death, and bis army joined that of Parmenio, 
who ha<l remained faithful. While this took place in Asia, Alexander 
marched with an army into Greece. Thessaly submitted without 
resistance, and transferred to him the supreme command in the pro- 
jected expedition against Persia. After having marched through the 
pass of 'J'hermopylse, he assembled the Delphic Amphictyons, and 
was received a member of their confederacy, and the decree of the 
Thessalians was confirmed by a similar one of the Amphictyons. 
Advancing into Dccotia, be pitched his camp in the neighbourhood of 
the Cadmea, the citadel of Thebes. His sudden appearance struck 
terror into the Thebans, who had been indulging in dreams of recover- 
ing their liberty. The Athenians also, who, pretending to despise 
young Alexander, had talked much about war, but as usual had made 
no preparations for it, were greatly alarmed when they heard of his 
sudden arrival before the gates of Thebes. They immediately des- 
patched an embassy to beg his pardon for not having sent ambassadors 
to the assembly of the Delphic Amphictyons, and for not having 
conferred upon him the supremo command against Persia in their 
name also. Alexander received their ambassadors kindly, and only 
required the Athenians to send deputies to a general council of the 
Greeks which was to be held at Corinth. At this meeting all the 
states of Greece, with the exception of Sparta, transferred to the 
Macedonian king the command of all their forces against Persia, an 
ofBce which they had before conferred upon his father. The Greeks 
overwhelmed the young king with affiurances of attachment, marks 
of honour, and the meanest flattery. The refusal of the Spartans to 
join the other Greeks did not make Alexander in the least uneasy ; he 
knew that he had nothing to fear from them, and that they were 
without the power to give effect to their wishes. 

After having thus settled the affairs of Greece, he returned in the 
spring of B.C. 385 to Macedonia, to put down an insurrection of the 
northern barbarians. Ho marched from Amphipolis towards Mount 
Hffimos (Balkan), which he reached in ten days. He forced his way 
across the mountains, penetrated into the country of the Triballians, 
and pursued their king Syrmus as far as the Danube, where the 
barbarians took refuge in a strongly fortified island in the river. 
Before Alexander attacked them there, he wished to subdue the 
Geta: who occupied the north bank of the river. A fleet which had 
been sent up the Danube from Byzantium enabled him to cross the 
river. Tlie Get.x, terrified at seeing the enemy thus unexpectedly 
invading their territory, left their homes and fled northward. Laden 
with booty, Alexander and his army returned to the south bank of 
the Danube, where he received embassies from the tribes which 
inhabited the plains of the Danube, and from king Syrmus, suing 
for peace and alliance. After having secured this frontier of his 
kingdom he hastened against Clitus and Glaucias, the chiefs of the 
lllyri.ins and Taulantiaiis, who were threatening an attack upon 
Macedonia, while another tribe was to engage the army of Alexander 
on his return from the north. This plan however was thwarted, and 
Alexander compelled, the barbarians to recognise the Macedonian 

While he was thus saccesafuUy engaged with the barbarians to the 
north and wect of Macedonia, new dangers threatened in the south. 
The spirit of insnrrection, stirred up by Demosthenes and other 
friends of the independence of Greece, had revived, especially at 
Tliebcs, which perhaps suffered more than any other Greek city from 
its Macedonian garrison ; and on the arrival of a report that Alex- 
ander had lost his life in his Illyrian campaign, some of the Greek 
states resorted to hostile measures. The Thebans expelled their 
Macedonian garrison and sent envoys to other Greek states to invite 
them to aid in recovering their independence. Tlieir summons was 
favourably received by most of tlio Greeks, but they were slow in 
carrying their resolutions into effect; and before a force was assembled, 
an<l even before tlie intelligence of Alexander being still alive reached 
Tiiobct, ho waa with his army at Onohestua in B<notia. He immedi- 

ately marched against Thebes, and attempted a peaceful reconciliation; 
but the Thebans answered him with insult. Perdiccaa, one of 
Alexander's generals, availed himself, without his master's command, 
of a favourable opportunity for an attack with his own detachment, 
out of which a general engagement arose. Notwithstanding the 
brave resistance of the Thebans the city was taken, and this event 
was followed by one of the most bloody massacres in ancient history. 
Tlie city, with the exception of the citadel, the temples, and the 
seven ancient gates, was razed to the ground; 6000 Thebans, men, 
women, and children, were put to the sword ; and 30,000 others were 
sold as slaves. The priests, the friends of the Macedonians, and the 
descendants of Pindar alone retained their liberty. Of the private 
dwellings none was spared except the house of Pindar. 

The other Greek states which had been willing to join Thebes, and 
more especially Athens, sought and obtained pardon from the con- 
queror, who afterwards showed on several occasions in his behaviour 
towards some of the surviving Thebans that he had not destroyed 
their city out of wanton cruelty. Convinced that the fearful fate of 
Thebes was a sufiicieut warning to the rest of Greece, Alexander 
returned to Macedonia to devote all his energy to preparations for the 
war against Persia. His friends advised him, before setting out for 
Asia, to maiTy, and give an heir to the throne of Macedonia ; but he 
had already been too long prevented from carrying his Asiatic expe- 
dition into effect, and he thirsted for the possession of Asia. Before 
setting out he lavished nearly all his private possessions among his 
friends, and when Perdicoas asked him what he meant to retain for 
himself, he answered, "Hopes." Antipater was appointed regent of 
Macedonia during his absence, with a force of 12,000 foot and 1500 
horse. Alexander set out for Asia in the beginning of the spring, 
B.C. 334, with an army of about 30,000 foot and 5000 horse, which 
mainly consisted of Macedonians and Thessalians, while the iufantry 
consisted of 7000 allied Greeks, Thracians, Agrianians, and a number 
of mercenaries. His financial means were very small. The army 
advanced along the coast of Thrace, and after a march of twenty 
days reached Sestos on the Hellespont, where the Macedonian fleet 
lay at anchor ready to convey the army to the coast of Asia. This 
fleet consisted of 160 or, according to others, of 180 triremes, and a 
number of transports. While the greater part of the army lauded at 
Abydos and encamped near Arisbe, Alexamler, accompauied by his 
friend Hephrestion, paid a visit to the mound which was believed to 
contain the remains of Achilles, whose successor it was his ambition 
to be considered by his soldiers. Ag soon as he had joined his army 
again, he began his march against the Persians, who, although they 
had long been acquainted with the plans of the Macedonians, were 
not fully prepared, and had a force of about 20,000 horse and as 
many Greek mercenaries stationed near Zeleia. There was in the 
Persian army a llhodian Greek, of the name of Memnon, whose 
military talent might have made him a formidable opponent to Alex- 
ander ; but his advice to retreat before the Macedonians, who were 
scantily supplied with provisions, and to lay waste the country, was 
rejected by the Persians, and they advanced as far as the river 
Granicus, in order to check the progress of the invader. Alexander 
found the Persians drawn up in order of battle on the east bank of 
the river, and without listening to the advice of his cautious friend 
Parmenio, he boldly forced a passage in the face of the enemy with 
his cavalry, which kept the enemy engaged until the infantry came 
up. The discipline of the Macedonians, and the impetuosity of their 
attack, broke the line of the Persians, who were completely beaten, 
although the number of their dead was not very groat ; they aro said 
to have lost about 1000 horsemen ; but the mercenaries, wlio, as loi;;^ 
as the Persians were engaged had, by the command of the Persians, 
been obliged to remain inactive, were for the most part cut down, and 
2000 of them were made prisoners and sent to Macedonia to be em- 
ployed aa public slaves for having engaged in the service of the 
Persians against their own countrymen. Alexander had himself been 
active in the contest, and killed two Persians of the highest rank ; 
after the victory he visited his soldiers who had been wounded. The 
parents and children of those who had fallen in the battle were 
honoured with privileges and immunities. In the first assault twenty 
of the king's horse-guard (jToipoi) had fallen, and he honoured their 
valour by ordering Lysippus to execute their figures in bronze, which 
were erected in the Macedonian town of Dium, whence they were 
afterwards canned to Rome. 

Before advancing into the interior of Asia Minor, Alexander wished 
to make himself master of the western and southern coasts of the 
peninsula. As he proceeded southw-ird, nearly all the towns on the 
coast opened their gates to him ; and to show tliat he had really 
come as their liberator, he established in all the cities a democratical 
form of government. Miletus was taken by storm. In the mean 
time a Persian fleet, consisting principally of Phoenician ships, lay off 
Mycale. The king, contrary to the advice of his generals, would not 
engage in a sea-fight, but kept his fleet quiet near the coast of Miletus ; 
he thus prevented the Persians from lauding and taking in water and 
provisions, the want of which compelled them to retreat to Samos. 
It was now late in the autumn of tho year B.C. 334, and Alexander 
wanted to take possession of Caria and the capital Halicarnasaus. 
The occupation of the country was easy enough : a princess of the 
name of Ada surrendered it to him without resistance, for which she 





«M w wirttd »Hh th« til)* of QoMii of Owk ; bat Halieaniaaiu, 
Um i<ic* ot wbieb ii Ui« noct aMBOcabIa arant of tUa eunpaign, 
Md oak to Iha tut oadtr tha coamaad of Mamioa, but waa takao. 
Aa tha vfatar wm afiprgacliiaf, and Almcudar bad no apprabanaiaa 
af kaviM to wuauntot aootbar Paraiaa armjr dnrint tbii aaawo, ha 
■Uovcdbta MaaadaalMa wbo wiahad it to •peud tha wintar with Uuir 
fri^iM— ia Maaailnnli. an cooditiaB of their rtturaiog at the beginoiog 
«f aariM with tha laiuforeaBaata which were to be leried in Maoe- 
daUL^l nail dataohmaat of tha rrmaioder of the army, which had 
baM gmllj isertaaad by tha Aaiatie Oreolu, waa allowed under 
raiuiaiilii to taka up thair wintar quartcra in the plaioa of Lydia. 
^ fTff«tf4«f hioMaU flTT'''-^ along tha eowt of Lyoia. From Phaielii 
ha choaa tha nad idoaf thia daafarooa ooaat to FamphyUa, took the 
towMof Paiia, aida,aiid Aapandnt, and, foroing hia way through the 
Boonlaina of PWdia, whioh were inhabited by barbaroiu tribea, into 
Fhrygia, ha pitdied hi* oamp near Oordium, on tha river Sangariua. 
Uaraha daitarooaly aTaflcd himaelf of a prophecy which in tha eye> 
of tha etadulooa made him appear aa tlie man called by the Deity to 
rslo orar Aaia. Tha aeroroUa of Oordium contained the Qordian 
kaot Inr whUb tha yoka and oollata of the horaaa were faatened to the 
pob of tha ehariot. The aorareignty of Aaia waa promised to him 
who ahonld be able to untie this complicated knot. After vainly 
atto«|lUi^ to untie the knot, Alexander relieved himaelf from hia 
difloolty by cutting it, according to ooa account ; but the particulars 
of tha atory vary. It waa conaidered however Uiat he had fulfilled 
tha oraola^ and tha general opinion waa confirmed by a ttorm of 
thnadar and lii^taing. 

la tha qiring of tha year &c. 3SS, the varioaa detachmenta 
MMcahlad at Oardinni. Toeethar with those who returned from 
tiiair i^t to thoir bomta, there oama from Macedonia and Qreeoe 
3000 foot, 300 horaa, and 200 Theaaalians, and 150 allies from Elis. 
kUf^^ led hia army along the aonthem foot of the Paphlagonian 
Mooataina to Anoyra, recaived the aaaurance of tha submission of the 
FapUsvaaiana, and croaaing the river Halys entered Cappodocia. 
Sawaftw with mating himMlf master of the south-western part of 
thia province, be dire^ad hia march southward to the Cilician Gates, 
or one of the mountain paaaea which led over Taurus from Cappadoeia 
into Cilida, and prooeaded as far aa Tarsua on the Cydnua. Here his 
Ufa araa endangered by a fever wbioh attacked him cither in consa- 
qtianee of hia p«at exertiona, or, aooording to other accounts, in 
oooaequenoa of having bathed in the oold water of the river Cyduus ; 
bat tha akill of hia ^ysidan Philip, an Acamanian, soon restored 
him to health. The p oss e ss i on of Cilicia was of the greatest import- 
asoa to him on account of the communication with Asia Minor. 
Wbila therefore Parmenio occupied tho Syrian Gates or pass in the 
Boath^astom comer of Cilicia, Alexander compelled the western parts 
of tha country to submission. About tha time that his conquests in 
thia part were completed, he reoeived intelligence of king Darius 
haviag aaiamblad an inunanaa force near the Syrian town of Sochi. 
Tha rWaian king had now loat the ablest man in hi^ service. Mem- 
Mo, who after the taking of Haliearmasus had fled to Cos, and with 
bis powaribl fleet had gained poaassaion of nearly tha whole of the 
Jigcaa, died at the moment when he waa ou the point of sailing to 
EwMoa ; a movemaot by which Alexander would perhaps have been 
eoaapallad to give up for the present all thoughts of Eastern conquests. 
OaHaa had levied all tha foroea that his extensive empire could fur- 
aiab, hooiag to enuh tho invadera by hia numerical superiority. 
Though ha poaaaaaed no military talent, be commanded bis own army, 
which ia aald to have oonaiatad of £00,000 or 600,000 men, among 

dua in Syria. Dariua left hia favourable position in tho n-ide plain of 
Sochi, contrary tu the advice of Amyntoa, a Greek deserter, and 
antat«d the narrow plain of Isaoa, east of the little river Pinarus. 
By thia movement he was in tha rear of Alexunder'n army, who had 
left behind him at Isau* thoaa wbo were unfit for further service. 
Dariua bad probably boen led to this unfortunato atep by the tielief 
that tha long atay of Alexander in Cilicia was the result of fear. 
The Macedouiana at lasus fell into the handa of the Peraiana, and 
wore treated cru^Uy. Dariua now haatened to attack Aloxaudci', 
appreheudiug that he might make hia escape ; but Alexander, without 
waiting fur the approach of Darius, returued by the same road by 
which be hod come. Tho armiea met in the narrow and uneven |Jaiu 
of the river Piuams — a position most unfavourable to the unwieldy 
masses of the Persiana, Tha contest began at day-break, in the 
autumn of the year B.C. 833, Notwithstanding the groat resistance of 
the encn>y, especially of the 30,000 Greek mercenaries, Alexander, 
towards the end of the day, gained a complete victory. The number 
of the aUin on the part of the Peraiana was prodigious ; the loss of 
the Macedonians is stated to have been very small. Aa aoon aa 
Darius saw bis left wing routed he took to flight, nnd was followed by 
the whole army. The Persian king escaped across tho Euphrates by ' 
the ford at Thapsacua. His chariot, cloak, shield, and bow were after- 
wards found in a narrow defile through which he had fled; his 
mother, Sisygambis, his wife Statira, and her children, fell into the 
handa of Alexander, who treated them with the utmost respect and 
delicacy. The booty which Alexander made after this victory was 
very great, but yet was iusiguificaut compared with the treaaurea 
which Parmenio found at Daiuascus, whither tbey bad been carried by 
the Persians before they left the plain of SochL 

The Persian army was now dispersed, the Greek mercenariea had 
fled, and Asia waa thrown open to the invader. For the present 
Alexander did not think it necessary to penetrate into the interior : 
be wished first to make himself complete master of tho coasts of the 
Mediterranean. Ue therefore advanced into Phoenicia, where all the 
towns'opened their gates. TjTe alone, wbioh waa tituated ou an islaud 
about half a mile from the main land, and was strongly fortified by 
lofty walls, for some time checked his progress, and it was not till after 
the lapse of seven months (about August of the year B.a 332) that he 
succeeded in taking the city by constructing a causeway to connect 
the island with the continent, and by the use of a fleet which had been 
furnished him by other Phoeaiciau towns and by Cyprus. The cause- 
way of Alexander still remains, and Tyre is now part of the main land. 
The obstinacy of the Tyrians, the immense exertion and expense which 
their i-esistance rendered necessary, and the cruelty with wliioh they 
had treated the Macedonians who fell into their hands, were followed 
by tho most fearful revenge : 8000 Tyrians were put to death, and all 
the rest of the population sold into elavorj' ; the highest magistrates 
alone and some Carthaginian ambassadors were spared, who hod takeu 
refuge in the tcmjile of Hercules. The city itself was not destroyed, 
but received a new population consisting of Phoenicians and Cyprians ; 
and Alexander, who knew the importance of the place, encouraged 
the revival of its commerce and prosperity. 

During the siege of Tyre, Darius hod sent to Alexander with pro- 
posals of peace, but the humiliation of the Persian king only convinced 
Alexander of his weaknesa All the proposals of Darius were rejected 
with the declaration that the Persian king must petition and appear 
in person if he wished to ask for favour. During the siege of Tyre, 
Alexander had also made excursions with separato detachments of bis 
army against other towns of Syria and some Arab tribes about the 


V > 








Ftaas a Mosaic (oand at Fonpall, snppoMd to reproscat the Battle of luiu. 

whom th»i« war* ■boat 30,000 Greek tnaroanariesL Alexander I 
marchtd from Tarau alaaf the Bay of lastii to tho town of Myrian- | 

southern foot of Lebanon. In the autumn he proceeded with his army 
southward along the coaat of Polcatine, and, according to Josephus, he 





paid a visit to Jerusalem, where he worshipped and sacrificed in the 
Temple, and was made acquainted with an ancient prophecy, that a 
king of Greece should conquer the king of Persia. But this long 
episode in Josephus is not supported by any other testimony. In 
the same autumn Alexander besieged the strong town of (Jaza, near 
the southern frontier of Syria. It was vigorously defended for two 
months by the Persian commander Batis, and did not surrender until 
nearly all the garrison had fallen. Alexander, who had himself been 
severely wounded during the siege, sold the inhabitants as slaves, and 
repeopled the town with Syrians from the neighbouring country. 

The last province of Persia on the coasts of the Mediterranean that 
now remained was Egypt. In seven days Alexander marched with his 
army from Gaza through the desert to the gates of Pelusium, on the 
north-eastern frontier of Egypt, where he found the fleet at anchor, 
with which Phoenicia and Cyprus had suppUed him. The Persian 
satrap of Egypt, having no means of defence, surrendered to Alex- 
ander without striking a blow. The Egyptians themselves, who had 
always hated the oppressive rule of the intolerant Persians, were little 
inclined to take up arms, and gladly surrendered to the invader, who 
justified their confidence in him by tlie restoration of several of their 
civil and religious institutions which the Persians had suppressed. 
The Greeks, of whom great numbers resided in Egypt, may also have 
helped the matter. After having paid visits to Heliopolis and Memphis, 
he sailed down the Canopic, or most western branch of the Nile, to 
the Lake of Marea, and here he founded, on a strip of barren land, 
the city of Alexandria, which still exists as a flourishing place of trade. 
The place was judiciously selected for the purpose of the Mediter- 
ranean trade on the one side, and the communication with the lied 
Sea through the Nile on the other. After the foundations of the new 
city were laid, Alexander marched along the coast to Panctonium, and 
thence in a southern direction, and through the desert to the renowned 
oracle of Jupiter Ammon in the oasis now called Siwah. What may 
have induced him to visit this sacred island of the desert is only matter 
of conjecture ; buc it is not improbable that it was the desire to sec 
his wiahea respecting the sovereignty of the world sanctioned by the 
oracle of Jupiter Ammon, and thus to inspire his soldiers with con- 
fidence ; or it may be that the visit was connected with the foundation 
of Alexandria, and had a commercial object, as Ammonium was the 
centre of a considerable inland trade. Whatever his wishes may have 
been, Alexander was perfectly satisfied with the results of his visit : 
there was a report that the oracle had declared him the son of Jupiter 
Ammon, and promised him the sovereignty of the world ; a report 
which miut have been of incalculable advantage to Alexander with 
his Boldien and the inhabitants of Asia. After having richly rewarded 
the temple and its priests, he returned to Memphis, according to Aris- 
tobulus, by the same road by which he had gone ; but according to 
Ptolemasus he took the shortest way across the desert. 

In the spring of the year B.c. 331, after having received fresh rein- 
forcements from Macedonia and Greece, Alexander set out on his 
march towards tlie interior of Asia. He visited Tyre, from whence 
he marched to the Euphrates, which he crossed at the ford of Thap- 
sacus. From Thapsacus his march was in an eastern direction, across 
the plain of Mesopotamia towards the river Tigris, in the direction of 
Oaugamela, a distance of no less than 800 miles from Memphis. 
Darius had again assembled an immense army, the amount of which 
is stated at 1,000,000 infantry, 40,000 horse, 200 chariots with scythes, 
and about 15 elephants. He had chosen a favourable position in the 
plains of Gnugaoiela, east of the Tigris, on the banks of the small 
river Bumadus. After having allowed his soldiers four days' rest, 
Alexander moved in the night against the enemy, whom he found 
drawn up in battle array. On a morning of the month of October, 
in the year B.& 331, the battle which put an end to the Persian 
monarchy began. Some parts of the Persian army fought courage- 
ously, and the Macedonians sustained some loss : but when Alexander, 
by an impetuous attack, succeeded in breaking the centre of the Persian 
army, which was commanded by Darius himself, the king took to 
flight, and was followed by his army in utter confusion. Alexander 
pursued the fugitives as far as Arbela (Erbil), about fifty mrles east 
of Gangamcia, where he found the treasures of the king, and got an 
immense booty. Darius fled through the mountainous country to 
Ecbatana (Hamadou). The loss of the Persians on this day is said to 
have been enormous : that of the Macedonians is stated to have been 
very inconsiderable. It now only remained for Alexander to subdue 
the Persian satraps whose provinces had not yet been conquered, and 
who continued faithful to their king. In accomplishing this he was 
greatly assisted by the policy that he adopted ; he promised to leave 
the satraps who would submit in possession of their former power, 
with the exception of the military command, which was given to 
Macedonians, The attachment of the people was gained in another 
way. Alexander, elated by his success, began to surround himself 
with all the pomp and splendour of an eastern king ; ho respected 
the religion and customs of bis new subjects, and protected them from 
the oppression to which they had long been subjected. From this time 
a great change is manifest in the character and conduct of Alexander, 
lid excrciseil no control over his passions; he commited acts of 
cruelty and excess such as are common with eastern despots. But he 
did not sink into indolence : active occupation, both mental and physical, 
remained now as before the only element in which he could exist. 


From Arbela, Alexander marched southward to the ancient city of 
Babylon, which opened its gates without resistance ; and he gained 
the good-will of the people by ordering the temple of Belus, which 
had been damaged by the Persians, to be restored, and by sacrificiug 
to the god according to the rites of the Chaldtcans. After a short stay 
there he set out for Susa (Sus) on the Choaspes (Kerah, or more pro- 
perly Kerkhab), which he reached after a march of twenty days, and 
where ho found immense treasures, which had been accumulated in 
this ancient capital. The Macedonians, following the example of their 
master, plunged into the enjoyment of the pleasures of this wealthy 
city ; and the more readily, as they had hitherto been exposed to all 
kinds of hardship, with scarcely any interval of repose. Towards the 
end of the year Alexander left Susa for Persepolis, the original seat of 
the Pei-sian kings, and where many of them were buried. The road 
which he took is described thus : — He first marched towards the river 
Pasitigris (Karoon), and thence along the valley of Ram-Hormuz to 
the mountain pass now called Kala-i-Sifld, which forms the entrance 
into Persia Proper. After having met with some resistance at this 
spot, he took Persepolis by surprise, so that none of the treasures were 
carried away before his arrival. To avenge the destruction of the 
Greek temples by the Persians, Alexander, contrary to the advice of 
his friend Parmenio, set fire to the palace of Persepolis, and part of 
it was burnt down. According to another account he was instigated 
to this act of madness by Thais, an Athenian courtezan, duriug tho 
revelry of a banquet. Immense ruins (Tohil-Miuar) still point out 
the site of this ancient city; but its complete destruction, which is 
usually ascribed to Alexander, belongs most probably to a much later 
period. After a stay of four months, during which he subdued Persis 
and several of the neighbouring mountain tribes, he left, as he had 
done at Babylon and Susa, the country under the administration of 
a Persian eatrap. Early in the year B.C. 330 he began his marcli on 
Ecbatana, where Darius, on seeing that Alexander after the battle of 
Gaugamela turned to the south, had collected a new force witli whicli 
he hoped to maintain himself in Medi.i. But while he was expecting 
reinforcements from the Scythians and Cadusians, ha was surprised by 
the tidings of Alexander's arrival on the frontiers of Media. Unable 
to maintain his ground, Darius fled through Rhaga! (lley, near Tehran), 
and the mountain pass, called the Caspian gates (the Elburz moun- 
tains), to his Bactrian provinces. After a short stay at Ecbatana, 
where he dismissed his Thessalian horse and other allies who had 
served their time, with rich presents, Alexander hastened after the 
fugitive king ; but on reaching the Caspian gates he was informed that 
Darius had been made a prisoner by Iiis own satrap, Bessus. Tho 
Alacedonians continued their pursuit with great rapidity through tliu 
arid deserts of Parthia, and when they were near upon Bessus and his 
associates, who were unable either to make a stand against Alexander 
or to carry their victim any further, the traitors wounded the king 
mortally, left him near a place called Hecatompylos, and dispersed in 
various directions. Darius died before Alexander came up to the spot. 
Moved by the misfortunes of the Persian king, Alexander covered the 
body with his own cloak, and sent it to Persepolis to be buried in the 
tomb of his ancestors. 

From this moment Alexander was in the undisputed possession of 
the Persian empire : all the satraps, who had hitherto been faithful to 
their king, now seeing that resistance had become hopeless, submitted 
to Alexander, who know how to value their fidelity, and he rewarded 
them for it, Bessus, who had escaped to Bactria, assumed under the 
name of Artaxerxes the title of king, and endeavoured to get together 
an army. Alexander marched into Hyrcania, where the Greeks who 
had served in the army of Darius were n.ssembled. After some nego- 
ciation Alexander induced them to surrender ; he pardoned them for 
what was past, and engaged a great number of them in his service ; 
but some Lacedajmonians who had been sent as ambassadors to Darius 
by their government were put into chains. At Zadracarta, tho ca]>ital 
of the Parthians, the site of which is unknown, Alexander spent fifteen 
days; after which he proceeded along tho northern extremity of tho 
great salt desert towards the frontier of Aria, which submitted to him. 
Ho left this province in the hands of its former satrap, Satibarzaucs, 
and marched farther east towards Bactria ; but he was soon called 
back by the news that Satibarzimes had revolted, had formed an alli- 
ance with Bessus, and had destroyed the Macedonians who had been 
left in his province. In order to secure his rear, Alexander hastened 
back with almost incredible speed, and in two days surprised the 
faithless rebel in his capital of Artacoana. The satrap took to flight, 
and Alexander, after having appointed a new governor, instead of 
returning on his former road to Bactria, thouglit it more expedient to 
secure the south-eastern part of Aria. After a march througli an 
almost impassable country — to ascertain the piecise road is impussiblo 
—he took possession of the countries of tlie Zaianga:, Drangte, Dragoga;, 
and other tribes on the banks of the river Etymandrus (Helmund), 
which flows into the Lake of Aria (Zerrah). During his stay at 
Prophthasia, the capital of the Dranga), things occurred which showed 
the altered character of Alexander in the light in which we are only 
accustomed to see au oriental despot. Pliilotas, the son of Alexander's 
friend Parmenio, was charged with having formed a conspiracy against 
the life of the king. He was accused by Alexander before a court of 
Macedonians : distinct proof was not produced, though circumstantial 
evidence seemed to warrant tho truth of tho charge. Philotas was 



ALXzjLirDiB m. 



toftaiad, atatmmi Um erioM, and wu pot to daatii. So far all ml-ht 
ba {«»: bok PtraMBiOk who aw thm with a part of tba amy at 
~ ' ■• to fuaid th* twMuraa eooTajcd thitJiar bom Pania, waa 
a Ml to fiaath by tha eommand of AUsandar, apparaotly ooly 
t S'-T"'*— iaand bat tba hubm nicbt avaoc* tha daatb of 
kk aoa. Sbom othar Maimlnniam ohuvad mm h»^ takan part in 
tko aan a p lf aay d FhOotaa, and AlaxaBdar, aeo of Aaropoa, wan alao 
Mt to daalh. Thaaa uwiuii aneaa alio ahow tba atat« of feeling that 
ba^n to apiwd amoiw tba lUeadoniaiia in the army. They inuat 
Imm Mt grieved at thalr king abaodooing tha eoatoma of their native 
■■ad, and thair griaf waa iacnaaed by oory and jealooay aa they law 
I of rank pla«ad by JUaandMr on the Huue footing with 

Vnm ProohUuMia tiia amy adraaoad probably up the river Btyman- 
draa throogh tha aovali^ of tha Ariaapiani into that of tha Araohoti, 
whoaa oooqaaak ooeaplatad that of Aria. The detail of this campaign 
la unkaewn, bat it ia avidant that Alaiandar must have had to contend 
with aztiaoidinaty difleoMaa. On hia march towarda the monntaina 
b tha north ha founded a town, Alexandria, which ia aoppcaed to be 
tha Bodam Oandahar. Be wm now separated fh>m Baotria by the 
twiniaa moontaina of the Paropamisus, the western ranges of the 
Hindoo Oeoah. Alesandar er oaaad theae lofty monntains, which were 
I with daap anow, and did not even snpply his army with fire- 
After fourteen days of great exertions and sufferings the army 
i Drnaaoa, or Adnpsa, the fint Baotrion town on the northern 
aida of tba Paropamiana. Baotria aubmitted to the conqueror without 
taaialaaea, for aa aooo aa Baaaoa t>ad beard of the approach of Alex- 
ander ba liad fled aeroaa tha Oxna to Nautaca in So^iana. Here he 
waa overtaken and mada priaoner by PtolenuDOi, the son of Lagus, and 
waa brooght by Alexander befbra a Fenian oourt, which condemned 
him to death as a rvfrioide. 

In the month of May or June, &a 8S9, Alexander with his whole 
army i rus a ad the river Oxua, wliidi reema to hare been swelled by the 
melted Boow of the mountains, aa Arrian atates that ita breadth -wan 
about aiz atadia. Boata or rafta oonld not be constructed for want of 
aaaiariala, and tha paaaaca waa effected in the space of five days by 
waana of floats made of uta tent^ldna of the soldiers, filled with light 
matariala Previous to crossing this river, Alexander sent home those 
Xaoadoaiana and ThaaaalJan horeemen who were no longer fit for 
aarvieaL When be readied the northern bank of the Oxus he directed 
hia contae to Maiacaada, the modem Samarcand, then the capital of 
Sogdiana. Alter aevetal engagementa with the warlike inhabitants of 
that province, he advanced aa far aa the river Jaxartes (Sir), which be 
meant to m^e the frontier of hia empire against the Scythians. 
QrropoUa on tha Jaxartea waa taken by storm ; and, to strike terror 
into the Bcythiana, he croased the river, defeated the Scythian cavalry, 
and pnrauad the enemy until hia own army became exhausted in 
thoae dry ateppea, and began to auCTer from thirst and the unwhole- 
aoDM walar of the oount^. After founding a town, Alexandria, on 
tha Jaxartea, which waa to ba a frontier fortresa against Scythia, he 
Ntonad to Zariaspa, where he apent the winter of 829 and 828. 
Daring the winter montha he received various embasaiea from distant 
tribes^ and reinforcements for hia army, which had been somewhat 
diminiafaed by the garrisons which he had been obliged to leave in 
aavctal pfaMsa. Ounog thia same winter Alexander gave another 
proof or hii uogovcmable passion by the murder of Clitua, Arrian 
ramaiks that, among other Asiatic ciutoms, the king had adopted the 
P«rian foahion of bard drinking, while the miserable flatterers, by 
wlM>m ha was snrrouodad, encouraged his vanity by exalting hira 
above tha demigods and heroea of Qreeoe. Clitus, who was drunk 
hlma>l( had the boldnesa and imprudence to deny Alexander's claim 
to aoeh extravagant honours, and the furious king, whom his attend- 
ants ware unable to restrain, pierced bis friend through with a javelin 
aa tha apoL Unavailing honours to the dead, and bitter remorae on 
tba part of the murderer, were tha natural termination of this tragical 

Inthe spring of B.a S38 Alexander again marched into Sogdiana 
aanaa tha river Oxus, near a apot which waa marked by a fountain of 
watar and a fountain of oil Sogdiana abounded in mountain fortresses, 
aadAi aiandar had to take them before he could be said to have poa- 
•■■OBoMha eoontiy. Aa the winter in thoae regions ia too oold for 
WMrrMantioli^ ha took up hia winter quarteta at Nautaca. In 
wafoUowlu apring ba renewed hia attacka upon the mountain for- 
!" *"'' y ^ ■ «■• of tham, which waa situated upon a steep and almoit 
Ininnsa slbla rock, and was compelled, or rather frightened, into a 
awnmdOT, AlMandar mada Oxyartoa. a Bactrian prinoe, and his 
beaaUlU daoghter Boiana, bis prisoner*. Alexander waa captivated 
3 «• bsMtj of Ronaa, and made her his vrife, to the great delight 
•fWaaartaia anVtaeti^ Aflar having raduoad all the strongholds in 
ZfVi^i; retwnad throi^ Bbolria and aoroaa the Hindoo Coosh 
to AInaadria b Aria, whichlM rsaehad afUr a match, it is aaid, of 
Ma daya. paring the aasuiog winter new symptoms of the disaatis- 
forttoa of Uw Maeadaaiaaswrth tbeir king showed themselves. While 
IHS'i^T^L'*"''***'**' '" •" expsdilion to India, the plan of 
VMM ba badbaaa iMtaHag for the last two years, a conspiracy was 
formadagabat Urn. b wbiah even those bdivldoals took jwirt who 
yy* * ^» "M '•'^ oootamptibJe flattarsra, aa CallUthenes of 
Olft»m. HsmoUna was at tha head of it, and b conjunction vrilh 

a number of U>e royal pages a plan waa furmed for murdering the 
king. But the conspiracy was discovered, and Callisthenes and 
Hermolaus with his young asaooiataa were put to death. 
The time for his Indian expedition had now coma, aa all the oon- 

Soared countries oontinued obedient to their new master. Late m 
le spring of b.c. 327, be sot out from Alexandria in Aria with an 
army of about 120,000 men, of whom about 40,000 Haoedoniana 
formed the nuolaus. Ptolemfflua and UephtBStion were aent a-bead with 
a atrong detachment to make a bridge of boats aoroaa the river Indua. 
Alexander and hia army marched to a place called Cabura, whioh waa 
baooeforth called Nic»a, croasad tha rivera Cboaapes and Oyrmus, and 
on his road took Aomos, another mountain fortress, notwithstanding 
the obstinate resistance of the beaiagad. He then crossed the Indus, 
probably a UtUe north of the modem place called Attock, where tha 
river is very deep, and about a thousand feet wide. It must have 
been early in the year 826 when Alexander entered India, or rather 
that part of it wlilch is now called the Panjab, that is, tha Five 

His march towards the Indns had not been accomplished without 
various struggles with the mountain tribes ; while on the other hand 
several Indian chiefs, such as Toxiles of Taxilo, welcomed him vrith 
rich presents and surrendered their cities. In tliis manner Alexander 
got possession of Taxila, the largest place between the Indus and the 
Hydaspes. Alexander proceeded from Taxila to the river Hydaspes 
(now Bebut, or Beilunta), whither the boats whioh had been used on 
the Indus had been conveyed by taking them in pieces. On the 
Hydaspes he met a meet reaolute enemy in the Indian king Forua, who 
poasesaed the whole country between the Hydaspes and Aceaiues, and 
was boatile to Taxiles, which ciFcumstanoe seems to have induced 
Taxilea to surrender to Alexander and make him his friend. On 
reaching the Hydaspea, Alexander perceived the immense army of 
Porus drawn up in batUe array on the opposite bank. The river waa 
much swollen, and there seemed to be no possibility of crossing it. 
But Alexander contrived to cross it unobserved with a detachment 
of his troops and with his invincible cavalry in a plaoe somewhat above 
the part where Poms was posted. Porus began the attack with hia 
best troops, 200 elephants and 800 war chariots. But Alexander, who 
was superior in cavalry, drove back upon their infantry the Indian 
cavalry, which, as well as the elephants, had been placed in front of 
their Unes ; and these were thrown into utter confusion. After a hard 
struggle Alexander gained a complete victory, iu which the Indians are 
said to have lost 23,000 men, and among them their best generals and 
two sons of Porus. The war chariots were destroyed, and the elephants 
partly killed and partly taken. The loss of the Macedonians is esti- 
mated by Arrian so low that it is scarcely credible, and we are probably 
justified in preferring the statement of Oiodorus, according to whom 
the Macedonians lost upwards of 12U0 foot and 300 horsemen. Poms 
was among the lost who fled from the field : he was taken by the 
soldiers of Alexander, who, full of odmiratiou at his coursge, not only 
restored to him his kingdom, but increased it considerably afterwards, 
in order to make him a faithful vassaL But by this means he excited 
a jealousy between Taxiles and Porus. 

After this victory Alexander stayed thirty days on the Hydaspea, 
where he celebrated sacrifices and games, and founded two towns, one 
on each bank of the Hydaspea ; that on the western bank was called 
Bucephala, in honour of bis famous war-horse, and the other Nicica, 
to commemorate the victory over Porus. Hereupon the army advanced 
towards the third river of the Panjab, the Acesines (Chenaub), which 
waa crossed b boata and on skins. Alexander then traversed the barren 
plam between the Acesines and Hydraotes (Ravee), the latter of which 
rivers he likewise crossed to attack a new enemy. But the second 
Porus, who ruled over the country between these two rivera, had fled 
across the Hydraotes on the approach of Alexander, and his dominions 
were given to the first Porus. Alexander thus met with no obstada 
until he reached the eastern bank of the Hydraotes, Here the Cathici, 
the moat warlike of the ludiau tribes, made a most resolute resistance. 
Their army waa stationed on an eminence in their capital Soogala, 
which was surrounded by walls and a triple line of waggons ; but 
thia fortress was taken, and the power of this brave tribe, whose 
desoendanta some modem travellers have supposed that they have 
discovered in the modem Kattia, was broken, and their territory 
was divided among those Indian tribes which had submitted without 
reaistanoe. Alexander had now pressed forward aa far aa the river 
Hyphaaia (Oarra), and the reports of a rich country beyond it offered 
a temptation to cross this river also. But his exhausted army did not 
feel the strength of the temptation. The troops hod suffered so much 
from the incessant toil and marches through barren and hostile coun- 
tries, and their hopes and expectations had so frequently been dis- 
appobted, that tbey were determined to proceed no farther, and neither 
perauaaion nor threats could induce them to move. Alfxaader at last, 
advised, as be aaid, by the signs of the sacrifices, determined not to 
lead his army farther. Twelve gigantic towers were erected on the 
banks of the Hyphaais to mark the limits of his adventures. He 
returned across the rivera which he had passed before b a western 
direction as far as the Hydanpes, and the whole country between this 
river ami the Hyphasis was given to the brave Porua, who thus became 
the most powerful prince of India. 
On reaching the Hydaspes the army did not march farther west, as 





Alexander wished to conquer the country around the Indus and to 
explore the course of the river down to its mouth. This had been 
his plan when he crossed the Hydaspes for the first time, and he had 
accordingly given oi-ders to build a fleet on the Hydaspes, for which 
there were then, as there are now, abundant materials. On his arrival 
a great number of ships were ready for sailing, and after a short time 
their number was increased to 1800, or, according to others, to 2000. 
In the beginning of November, B.C. 326, the army began to move. 
Alexander himself embarked in the fleet with about 8000 men, under 
the admiral Nearchus, who commanded the ship in which the king 
sailed. The remainder of the army was divided between Craterus 
and Hepha!8tion, the former of whom led his forces along the right, 
and the latter on the left bank of the river. The tribes through 
whose territory the army passed submitted without resistance, except 
the Halli, whom Alexander hastened to attack before they were fully 
prepared. Their greatest and best fortified place — perhaps the modem 
Moultan, or HalU-tban — was taken by an assault, in which Alexander 
himself was severely wounded. This accident threw the army into 
the greatest consternation ; but he was soon restored, and the rest of 
the Malli sent envoys with offers to recognise his sovereignty. The 
submission of the Indian tribes south of the Malli took place without 
any diflBculty. \VTien the army reached the point where the four 
united rivers join the Indus, he ordered a town, Alexandria, and 
dockyards to be built, which were garrisoned by some Thraciana under 
the satrap Philip, to keep the country in subjection. After having 
reinforced his fleet, he sailed down the Indus, and visited Sogdi, where 
ho likewise ordered dockyaixls to be built. All the Indian chiefs on 
both aides of the river submitted. Musicanus, one of them, was 
seduced by the Brahmins to revolt, but he was taken and put to death. 
All the important totvua that fell into the conqueror's bands received 

Before Alexander reached the territory of the Prince of Pattala, 
who submitted without a blow, about the third part of the army was 
sent, under the command of Craterus, westward through the country 
of the Arrachoti and Drangse into Carmania. At Pattala, the apex 
of the Indian delta, Alexander built a naval station, and then sailed 
down the western branch of the river into the Indian Ocean, a 
voyage which was not without danger on account of the rapid changes 
of the tides. He then also explored the eastern branch of the river 
as well as the delta inclosed by 'the two arms. The end he had in 
view was the establishment of a commercial communication by sea 
between India and the Persian Gulf. For this purpose he ordered 
dockyards to be built, wi-Us to be dug, and the land round Pattala to 
be cultivated. Pattala itself was garrisoned. Nearchus now received 
orders to sail with the fleet from the mouth of the Indus through the 
unknown ocean to the Persian Gulf [Nearchus], while Alexander 
moved from Pattala, in the autumn of 325, and took the nearest road 
to Persia through the country of the Arabitie and Oritic, whose prin- 
cipal town, Kambacia, he extended and fortified. After having 
appointed a governor he proceeded towards Gcdrosia (Mekran). As 
the army advanced, the country became more barren and desolati?, and 
the road< were almost impassable. The march through the arid and 
sandy desert of Oedroaia in the burning heat of the sun, while water 
and provisions were wanting, surpassed all the difTiculties and suffer- 
ings which the army had hitherto experienced. Alexander did every- 
thing in his power to alleviate the sufferings of his men, but during 
sixty days of exhaustion and dif^ease a considerable part of the army 
perished. After unspeakable sufferings they at last reached Pura. 
Here the soldiers were allowed a short rest, and then proceeded with- 
out any difficulty to Carmana (Kirman), the capital of Carmania, 
where Alexander was joined by Craterus with his detachment and 
the elephants. Soon after Nearchus also landed on the coast of 
Carmania near Harmozia (Ormuz). The king, delighted with the 
success of his bold enterprises, offered thanks and sacrifices to the 
gods, and rewarded his men by festivities and amusements. 

After a short stay Nearchus continued his voyage along the coast 
to the mouth of the Tigris and Euphrates; Hephaistion led the 
greater part of the army, the beasts of burden, and the elephants 
along the sea-coast to Persia ; and Alexander, with his light infantry 
and his horseguards, took the nearest road across the mountains to 
Paaargada;, the burial-place of the great Cyrus. His tomb had been 
plundered by robbers, and the body thrown out of the golden cofiin. 
Alexander ordered the body to bo restored to its place of rest, and 
the damage of the tomb to be repaired by skilful artists. After 
having paid this honour to the dead, he went to PersepolL*, where he 
is said to have felt bitter remorse at seeing the destruction which 
he had caused. As few had expected that Alexander would return 
from his Indian expedition, some of the Persian satraps had during 
his absence oppressed their province.^. The Persian governor at 
Persepolis was put to death, and the Macedonian, Pcuccstas, was 
appointed in his stead, who, by adopting the manners of the Persians, 
gave great satisfaction to the people. From Persepolis Alexander 
marched to Susa on the Chaispea, in ac. 324. Here the army was at 
length allowed to rest and recover from their fatigues, which the king 
luad't them forget by brilliant festivities. All the governors who bad 
mii!Conducted themselves during his absence were severely punished, 
and after this was over, he began the great work of consolidating the 
union between the Western and Eastern world by intermarriages. 

The king himself set the example, and took a second wife, Barsine, 
the eldest daughter of Darius, and according to some authorities, a 
third, Parysatis, the daughter of Ochus. About eighty of his generals 
also received each an Asiatic wife, who was assigned by the king, and 
Hephaestion, the dearest friend of Alexander, received another daughter 
of Darius, that their children might be of the same blood. About 
10,000 other Macedonians chose Persian women for their wives, with 
whom they received rich dowries from the king. These mamages 
were celebrated with the most brilliant festivities and amusements 
that Greek tastq and ingenuity could devise. Another stsp was also 
taken towards establishing a union between Europeans and Asiatics. 
The Asiatics, who had hitherto been regarded as an inferior race, and 
only served as auxiliary troops in the army of AleXiinder, were now 
trained and armed in the European fashion : they were organised in 
separate regiments, and partly incorporated with those of the Mace- 
donians, and placed on an equality with them. This policy was wise 
and necessary ; for, not to mention more obvious reasons, Macedonia 
must at that time have been nearly exhausted by the frequent rein- 
forcements sent into Asia. While he was thus engaged in Persia, 
Alexander did not neglect his plans for the extension of commerce ; 
he made the rivers Eulsous and Tigris more suitable for navigation by 
removing the bunds, or masses of masonry, by which the current of 
the water was impeded, for the purpose of irrigation. To carry his 
plans into effect, and to gain a clear view of the matter himself, he 
sailed down the Eulaeus and returned up the Tigris as far as Opis. 

The Macedonians were dissatisfied with the new arrangements 
which Alexander had made in the army, and also with his conduct : 
he seemed to despise the customs of his forefathers. They only 
waited for an opportunity to break out in open rebellion. This 
opportunity was offered in 324, during a review of the troops at Opis, 
when Alexander expressed his intention to dismiss the Macedonians 
who had become unfit for further service, which they took as an 
insult. He succeeded however in quelling the mutiny, partly by 
severity and partly by prudence, and at last a solemn reconciliation 
took place, and 10,000 Macedonian veterans were honourably sent 
home under the command of Craterus, who at the same time was to 
take the place of Autipater as governor of Macedonia, while Antipater 
was to come to Asia with fresh reinforcements. Soon after the 
departure of these veterans Alexander paid a visit to Ecbatana, and 
while in the autumn the festival of Dionysus (Bacchus) was cele- 
brated there, his friend Hephaestion died : au event which caused 
Alexander the deepest grief, and is said to have thrown him into a 
state of melancholy from which ho never recovered. Hephajstion'a 
body was conveyed to Babylon, and buried there in a manner worthy 
of the friend of Alexander. Soon after the king with his army like- 
wise marched to Babylon, and on his way thither he endeavoured to 
dissipato his grief by warring with the Cosssei, a race of mountaineers, 
whom he nearly extirpated. Before he reached Babylon, there 
appeared before him ambassadors from tho remotest parts of the 
world to do homage to the conqueror of Asia. Among other nations 
of Western Europe the Romans also are asdd to have honoured him 
with an embassy : and there is indeed nothing surprising iu this, for 
at that time the name of Alexander must have been familiar to all ' 
nations from the shores of the Atlantic to the borders of China. 

On the arrival of Alexander at Babylon vast plans of conquest, and 
the establishment of useful institutions in his new dominions, occu- 
pied him, and he seems now more than over to have required active 
occupation. His next object was the conquest of Arabia ; and to 
open the navigation from the Persian Gulf round the Peninsula of 
Arabia into tlie Red Sea. This conquest, according to some accounts, 
was to be followed by expeditions against Africa, Sicily, Italy, and 
Iberia. Babylon, as the centre between the Western and Eastern 
world, was chosen for the capital of this gigantic empire, and prepara- 
tions were made to restore the ancient splendour of the city. But 
Alexander's body sank under the exertions which were required for 
the superintendence of his great preparations, combined with excesses 
in which he is said to have endeavoured to forget his grief. At the 
end of May B.C. 323, he was attacked by a fever which terminated 
his life in the course of eleven days. Alexander died at the early age 
of thirty-two years, after a reigu of twelve years and eight months, 
during which he had extended his empire from the coasts of the 
Mediterranean to the eastern tributaries of tho Indus. Ho died 
without having declared his successor, which was probably owing to his 
having lost the power of speech during tho last days of his illness. 
He gave his seal-ring to Perdiccas ; but this may have meant no moro 
than that Perdiccas should be regent during the minority of the 
lawful heir ; Roxana was pregnant at the time of Alexander's death. 
His body was embalmed, and in B.C. 321 it was conveyed to Memphis, 
and thenco to Alexandria. A sarcophagus now in tho British Museum, 
which was brouglit over from Alexandria, has been called the sarco- 
phagus of Alexander, but without suSicient evidence. 

Alexander belongs uot to the history of Macedonia only. From tho 
borders of China to the British islands iu the West, his name appears 
in the history of tho early poetry of every country. In Asia he is 
still the hero of ancient times ; and the tales of the great exploits of 
Iskandcr are even now listoued to with deliijht by tho people of Asia. 
As a military commander he had great merit. His movements were 
rapid and well directed. He knew what might be neglected, and 





mhA ««il b« i>W|ilMiwl. bilbc« ha eould rnblj ailvBoea, MThaa 
Um ■■■faMj MMwa of tba Mny of Dariua wan oaee brokan, eoo- 
IWm BMMi foUo* : uid aeooHiogly in hii ousMifiia b* iiMda gtMk 
«N «f kb limbllUi eatmtrr, that ■rm to whka M Bttinlj owod all 
kii Ttotciaa Ba aooM aibpt hioiaolf to all circuoMtaiioea, be waa 
at*«r <MMaal ia raaooroaa, and alwa^a raaJjr to anil bimMlf of ertrj 
OMOftoaity. Hi* cniM)i>aata made a laatiog improMion upon Aaia 
aM Africa; and altboogh hia empiro waa dijinfmbrrsd after bia 
dwUt, Iba Ormk oolonica be bad founded long aorriTed bim. FVom 
Um niina of bia empire Greek kincdoma were formed aa far aa India, 
aad ^aiatainad ihe u we l tea for eeoturioa. New flelda were opened to 

I ■iliHwmiwj ; and to bim it iaowiog tbat Eaatcm Aaia beeame 

bia to Bniopaaa enterpriee. 
Tb«« ia aeaiedy aa aodeat writer after tbe time of Alexander 
tnm wbom aome information rea p e ot ing bim may not be oollectetL 
Many of bb oootempoiatiea and eonpaniona wrote of hia life and 
esploita, bat all tbeae original worka are lost Tbe biograpbira of 
Alasaader, aa tbat br Ptatardi. Arrian, Cur^ui, and what ia told of 
bl» ia Diodema and Jnttio, are eompilationa derived from earlier 
Mwaaik Tbe moat important and moat truatworthy work for the life 
of Alexander i» tbe ' Kxpedition of Alcxandrr,' by Arrian, who pro- 
famee to follow the acoonnla of Ptolemeai, the ion of LaKui, and of 
Aiiatobnlua of Caaasdria, and who it bimaelf a careful and Jiidicioua 

(From the BioyrofJucal Dittimarg of the Sociely for Ike Vifution 
e/ tWa/ Kuoicltdift.) 

ALKXANDKR I., aamamed BALAS, or BoAAqt, rcif^ied as king of 
Syria ftxMn ac. 150 to 145. According to aome authoritiea, Alex- 
•Mcr took bia aoi name from bit mother Bala or Balle. Others regard 

Alexandtr Daliit. 

it aa a title aignifjiog lonl or king. The governor of Babylon, 
Hcraclidea, being exiled to Rbodea by Demetrius I., persuaded Alex- 
ander, who waa of low birth, to feign himself a son of Antiochus 
B pi phan ea, and to claim aa such tbe right of sucoeediog bim. The 
Booan aanate, to revenge themselrea on Demetrius, acknowledged 
tbe p r eten der eo bia appearing at Rome. The edict in bia favour 
iadoeed Aiiaratbea, king of Cappadooia, Ptolemnus, and Attalus 
IL, kiof of Pergamua, to send troopa to aasist him. Many dis- 
eoolentad Syriana joined hia army. Demetrius I., as well as 
Alcsaiider Balaa, endeaToored to obtain the support of Jonatbau, 
tba M aoeabaa, who beaded at that time the Jewish patriots. Jona- 
tbaa eobtaeed tbe party of Alexauder, who conferred upon him the 
bkb priea th ood, styled bim fricad of the king, and preaented him 
vitb a purple robe and a diadem. Alexander Balaa baviag been 
i rf w t li f in the first baUle, 152, received reinforcements and gaioetl 
■-* '- "^' 150. Demetrius I., who was wounded 

swamp. Alexander Balaa tlien mounted 
. 1 married, at Ptolcmaia, Cleopatra, a daughter 
of P te lea w aa PUlMMtor. When Balaa oonaidered bis government 
— g al g tly irta bl l A si l , be left the oarea of administration to his 
CsToarita Amrnwit oa, in ocder to enjoy without restraint a luxurious 
life. Ammooios pat to death thoaa members of the royal family of 
tbe Seieoeidai wbom be ooold get into his power, but there still lived 
ia tbe Uaad of Cnidos two eons of tbe but king, tbe elder of wbom, 
Ueuetiios It, Uaded in Cilicia, whilst the governor of Cmleayria, 
ApoUooioa, rabellad against Balaa in tbe year a.c 148. Apollooius 
«M b«taa by Jonatbaa, bat Balaa bfanself waa oblig) ' 

oasaawa lo uia am uauie, lox 
a daeiaive victory in the year ] 
kw aa arrow, pertabed in a swiu 
tM tbrona of Syria, and marrie< 


^ — jbliged to march 

FtoiaiBwas, who had apparently como to aaaist 

Atexsadsr Balaa. 

"• "!*■•!:;'?•• ""W«'y embc^ied tbe eaoae of Demetrius, after 
•• — '~T B*» of M int»ii»i« to murder bim. Balaa, being defeated 

by PtolouuDos, escaped into Arabia, where he waa murdered by an 
Arabian chieftain, in the town of Abaa, which was afkerwarda called 
Motbo ('his death'). Demetrius II., suroiuned Niketor, then ascended 
tbe throne of Syria. 

Juatin (xxxv. 12) states that Balaa was the original name by which 
Alexander was known during the period of hia private life. He ia 
called by Strabo Balaa Alexandros ; where the word Balaa appears to 
be uaed by bim aa aynonymoua with king. In the British Huaeum 
there are maav ailver and copper ooina of Alexander Balaa. On aome 
ooina tba bead of Alexander Balaa ia aaaociatad with that of Cleopatra, 
who oocupiea tbe foreground with a modiua on her head, — an indica- 
tion of bis subordination to this proud woman. 

ALEXANDER II., ZEBINAS, or ZEBINJ^.US, reigned over a 
part of the kingdom of Syria from B.C. 1 23 to 122. The inhabitants of 
Apamea, Aiitiocbeia, and some other cities, disgusted with the tyranny 
of Demetrius II., requested Ptolemtsus Physoon to appoint another 
king. Ptolemseus sent tbem tbe son of a broker, Protarehoa of Alex* 
aadria, wbom he represented as having been adopted by Antioehua 
.Sidetes. The prett'oder took the name Alexander; but Uie people 
called him Zobiuas, tbe ' bought one,' from a report that be had been 
purchased by Ptolemojus aa a slave. Demetrius being defeated near 
Damaa c us, fled to Tyre, where he waa murdered. Zobioas thinking his 
kingdom firmly established, refused tbe annual tribute to Ptolemicua, 
who now encouraged Antiochus VIII., tbe son of Demetrius II. 
Zebioas waa in bis turn defeated by the Egyptian army, and retreated 
to Antiooh ; where, being unable to pay his troops, he peniiitted them 
to pillage the temple of Victory, and took for himself the golden statue 
of Jupiter. Expelled by the people of Autioch from their city, and 
deserted by his troops, he endeavoured to escape on board a small 
vessel into Qreece, but was token by a pirate, and delivered into the 
hands of Ptolemieus, who put him to death. The British Museum 
contains rilver and copper coins of Alexander Zebinas. 

Alexander Zebiau. 

ALE3CANDER JANNiEUS, third ion of Johannes Hyrcanus, suc- 
ceeded his brother Aristobulus I., as king of the Jews, and as higb- 
priest, in ac. 104, having put to death a brother who claimed the 
crown. Taking advantage of tbe disturbances in Syria, ho attockeil 
Ptolemais (Acre), which, with some other cities, had made itself iode- 
pendeut The inhabitants called ItolemiBus Lathyrus, of Cvprus, to 
their assistance, by whom Alexander Jannseus was beaten on the banks 
of the Jordan, and Palestine horribly ravaged, until, by the aid of 
Cleopatra, the mother of Lathyrus, Alexander was enabled to repel 
his enemy. Alexander then conquered Qaza, burned the city, and 
massacred the inhabitants who had joined the party of Lathyrus. 
Jannrous embraced the party of the Sadducees ; and, of course, was 
hated by the Pharisees and by the people. On the Feast of Taber- 
nacles, after being pelted by the people with lemons, and insulted by 
their opprobrious language, he caused 6000 men to be cut down, and 
in future protected himself by a body-guard of Libyans and Pisidians. 
Having lost his srmy in an unfortunate expedition against the Ara- 
bians, the Phariseea made an insurrection, and carried on for six years 
a civil war against the king, in which 50,000 Jews ore said to have 
perished. The rebels, supported by the Arabians, the Moabitea, and 
by Demetrius Eukroros, compelled Alexander to escape into the moun- 
tains. But a port of tbe auxiliaries coming over to the king'a party, 
be was now enabled to crush the rebels ; and to gratify his vengeance, 
he crucified on one day 800 of the most distinguished captives. Their 
wives and children were massacred before their eyea; whilst the king 
dined with hia wives in sight of the victims. On account of this 
cruelty be waa sumamed 'the Thracian.' 

'y A^ ^ • y 'J ^ ^ I 

Alexander Janntcus. 

Alexander after this engaged to several wars, by which he onlaivcd 
his dominiona, Desirous to reconcile his subjects, ho asked them what 





he should do to make them quite content ? " Die," they replied. He 
did die at the siege of Raguba, in Gerascna, in consequence of his 
gluttony, in the 27th year of his reign. He had two sons ; but left 
the government to his widow. (Joseph., 'Archa;oIog.,' xiii.o. 12-15.) 
There is a small copper coin of Jannseus in the British Museum, but 
the Samaritan inscription between the rays of the stars, mentioned by 
others, is not discernible. (Compare Bayeri ' Vindiciae Num. Hebr.,' 
plate, fig. 5.) There is another coin extant, which shows that Jona- 
than was his Hebrew name, and that Alexander was the name assumed 
by him according to the prevalent custom. 

ALEXANDER, a son of king Aristobulus IL, ^d grandson of 
Jannxus, was taken captive in Judiea by Pompaius, who. intended to 
exhibit him with his father and brother in his triumph at Rome. 
Alexander escaped on the journey, and returned to Judaea, where he 
raised an army of 10,000 foot and liOO horse to attack Hyrcanus, who 
had been appointed by Pompseus to govern Judsea. Alexander took 
several castles in the mountains; but Uyrcauus imploring the assist- 
ance of the Romans, Marcus Autonius, who was sent by Gabinius, 
governor of Syria, defeated Alexander near Jenisalem, B.C. 67, and 
besieged him in Alexandrion, a small town with a fine castle, about 
six miles south of Tyre, where he capitulated. After his father Aris- 
tobulus had escaped from Rome to Judtca, and been again defeated 
and put into prison, Alexander once more took up arms, conquered 
JudoA, put many Romans to death, and besieged the rest in Garizin. 
But bia army of 30,000 men was finally defeated by Gabinius, in a 
battle near Mount Tabor, in which 10,000 Jews perished. Alexander 
at last fell ^nto the hands of Metellus Scipio, and was beheaded at 
Antioch, in the year B.C. 49. 

ALEXANDER I., one of the earliest bishops of Rome, succeeded 
Evaristus about the beginning of the 2nd century of our era, but the 
precise epoch is not well ascertained. 

ALEXANDER IL, a Milanese, succeeded Nicholas IL in 1061. 
This was at the beginning of the dispute between the see of Rome and 
the emperors of Germany, concerning the investitures. The imperial 
party araembled a concUve at Basle, where they elected Cadalous, 
bishop of Parma, who took the name of Honorius II. Cadalous was 
taken prisoner, and confined in the castle of St. Angelo at Rome, and 
Alexander was generally acknowledged as pope. He died in 1073, and 
was succf eded by Gregory VII. 

ALEXANDER UL, Cardinal Ruialdo of Siena, succeeded Adrian IV. 
in 1159. His long pontificate of twenty-one years was agitated by 
wars against the emperor Frederick I., and by a schism in the church, 
during which three successive antipopes were raised in opposition to 
Alexander. The latter took pai-t with the Lombard cities in their 
struggle against Frederick. [Frkdeuick I., Bakbarossa.] At last 
peace was made, and Alexander was universally acknowledged as pope. 
He held a great council in the Lateran palace in 1180, when a decretal 
waa passed, that two-thirda of the cardinals should be requisite to 
mi^e an election valid. He died at Rome in 1181, and was succeeded 
by Lucius II. Alexander took part with Thomas h Becket in his 
contest with King Henry II., and canonised him after he had been 

ALEXANDER IV., of Anagnj, succeeded Innocent IV. in 1254. 
He inherited the ambition, but not the talents of his predecessor. 
He manifested the same inveterate hostility against the house of 
Saabia, and its representative Manfred, king of the Two Sicilies, but 
did not succeed in his attempt at overthrowing the latter, which 
became the work of bis two immediate successors. Alexander died in 
1261, and was succeeded by Urban IV. 

ALEXANDER V., a native of Candia, and monk of the Franciscan 
order, was elected in 1409, and died the following year. He was suc- 
ceeded by John XXIII. 

ALEXANDER VL, Roderic Borgia, of Valencia in Spain, a man of 
great personal wealth, and of some ability, but of loose conduct. He 
had been made a cartiinal by his uncle Calixtus III., and was elected 
pope in 1492, after the death of Innocent VIII. At the time of his 
election, he had four children by his mistress Vanozia ; and, during 
his reign, he made no scruple at employing every means in his power 
to confer on them honour and riches. The politics of the pope were 
capricious and faithless in the extreme. At first he was hostile to the 
house of Aragon then reigning at Naples, and showed himself favour- 
able to the French, who were at that time attempting to invade Italy, 
but afterwards his younger son, GioSVedo, having married a daughter 
of Alfonso II. of Naples, Alex.auder allied himself with the latter, for 
the purpose of arresting the progress of the invaders. As, however, 
Charles VIII., at the head of his army, advanced upon Rome, the 
pope received him with honour, and promised him his support for the 
conquest of Naples, and even gave him his son. Cardinal Ca:sar, as a 
hostage. But the cardinal found means to escape ; and Alexander 
joined the league formed in the north by the Venetians and Sforza 
ogainst the French, which led to the expulsion of the latter. He 
afterwards allied himself to Lewis XII. of France, successor of 
Charles VIII., who wanted the pope's sanction for divorcing his first 
wife : bo waa also a party to the double treachery by which Ferdinand 
of Spain firot betrayed the cause of his relative, Frederic of Naples, 
partitioning that kingdom between Lewis XII. and himself; and then. 

breaking his engagement with the French, he seized upon the whole of 
the conquest by means of his general, Gonsalvo. Alexander's internal 
policy was, if possible, still more perfidious. He was bent upon the 
destruction of the great Roman families of Colonna, Orsini, and 
Savelli ; and either by treachery or open violence he succeeded in 
putting most of them to death, and seizing on their extensive pos- 
sessions. He sent his son, the Duke Valentine, into the Romagna, 
where, by means of similar practices, the latter made himself master 
of that country. Alexander gave his only daughter, Lucretia Borgia, 
in marriage, first, to Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, whom she after- 
wards divorced ; then to a prince of the house of Aragon, who was 
murdered by her brother Csosar. She was married a third time, in 
1501, to Alfonso d'Este, son of Hercules, duke of Ferrara, to whom 
she brought as a dowry 100,000 golden pistoles, besides jewels. Alex- 
ander's eldest son, John, duke of Gandia, was murdered one night 
while returning from a debauch, by unknown assassins, and thrown 
into the Tiber. (Roseoe's ' Leo X.,' vol. i.) At last Alexander himself 
died on the ISth of August, 1503, being 74 years of age. It was 
said, and several historians have repeated the assertion, that he died 
of poison which was intended for his guest, the Cardinal of Corneto. 
This crime however is not clearly proved. He was succeeded nomi- 
nally by Pius III., who died twenty-six days after his election, and 
then by the famous Julius II. The pontificate of Alexander VI. is 
certainly the blackest page Jn the history of modern Rome. The 
general demoralisation of that period, of which abundant details are 
found in John Burchard's ' Diarium,' as well as in Panvinius, Mura- 
tori, Fabi'e's continuation of Fleury's 'Ecclesiastical History,' and 
other writera. Catholic as well as Protestant, appears in our times 
almost incredible. 

Alexander YI. 

ALEXANDER VII., Fabio Chigi of Siena, succeeded Innocent X. 
in 1 655. He embellished Rome, and protected learning, but was accused 
of favouring too much his relatives and connexions. He was embroiled 
in a dispute with the imperious Louis XIV. of France, in consequence 
of some insult which had been offered by the populace to the Duke of 
Crequi, French ambassador at Rome. Ho died in May, 1CC7, and waa 
succeeded by Clement IX. 

ALEXANDER VIII., Cardinal Ottoboni of Venice, succeeded 
Innocent XI. in 1689. He assisted his native country in its wars 
against the Turks. He died in February, 1691, at the age of eighty- 
two, and waa succeeded by Innocent XII. 

ALEXANDER I., king of Scotland, was a younger son of 
Malcolm III. (Canmore), and succeeded his eldest brother Edgar, who 
died without issue, on the 8th of January, 1107. In those times, in 
Scotland, as well as in other countries, the succession to the throne 
was frequently regulated, at least to a certain extent, by the will of 
the reigning king ; and Edgar, at his death, left part of his dominions 
to his younger brother David. Lord Hailes thinks that David's share 
was only the Scottish portion of Cumberland ; but it probably included 
the whole territory that waa considered subject to the Scottish crowu 
to the south of the Forth, except the Lothiaus. Alexander eventually 
acquiesced in this apportionment. The instructions of his mother, 
Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, and the advantages which he 
enjoyed from the society of the English exiles, who crowded, after the 
Conquest, to his father's court, had given to Alexander a degree of 
literary cultivation which none of his predecessors had possessed. 
His natural talents seem also to have been of a superior order ; while 
he possessed in an eminent degree the energy of character suited to 
the times in which he governed. His reign was agitated by successive 
insurrections ; every one of which, however, he promptly put down. 
One of the most serious was that excited in the district of Moray, in 
1120, by Angus, the grandson of Lulach, son of the wife of Macbeth, 
and the occupant of the throne for a few months after the death of 
that usurper. Angus claimed the crown in virtue of this descent ; 
but Alexander speedily quelled the attempt. From his energy ou 





Ikk riptirirn. k* <UfirMl Um aailhit or wnuuw by wfaioh b* U kMwn 
taSMfMMkMMy. TM old •kmhte, WyatoB. «7^ 

•• fn UM *r Itetk kk V»$m dl 
Tm^ Ua Altinte U< Plan* to nU." 

•iM««d aqiuU i|)irit ia Mriitiag forsicn wioroaehraMiU 
• JDiliyiMioi of U« kiofdom. Duriaff m* raifn tlie arch- 
«f QuilaAaiy aad York oUiaad tylieopol Jnitaliction ia 
I ; b«» Um dMtrmiiwUoa of tho SoottUh kin); at length eom> 
p«Uod Um BsfUUi piolmtM to giro np Uia oootMt SL Amlrew'*, ud 
Mvonl of Um otkw oeaMMUoil feaadaUaw of 8eotUnd, were largely 
la di U oJ to tho bo— ^ of AWwiidw . Ho fotuidcdoeharch, in 1123. 
oa Um iolo of lawbnnlni, ia tho PHth of ForU>, ia tka neiflibourhood 
of whioh bo had wmtif p«1ikod ia • tooipaat. Ho died at Stirling, 
wttkoot laoviiv My liglliioolo ianio, on tho S7th of April, 1124, and 
WM a u eooodad by bli kroUMr Darid I. Alexander had married 
SikOK tho aatanl daaghtor of Heury L of England. She died lud- 
daalT, at LoehteT, on lie ISth of Juno, 11S2. 

ALKXANDKK It., kini; of ScoUand, was bom at Haddington on 
tho Stth of Augurt (St BartboloiMw'a Day), 1198. He succeeded 
Ui fatbofv WdUam tho Uon. on the 4tb of Deoamber, 1214, and was 
otoa u ad at Sooaa oe the ItUowiag day. Ha began hi* rtrign by enter- 
iag iato a leojue with the BogUah baron* who were confederated 
•gahiat King Juhn— aogwiag t« aid them in their iniurrection, on 
of baiag put ui poMeaaion of tiie northern counties of 
TUo lad to aararU deTaatatiug iDcuroions into each other's 
by tho two kingSL The death of John, in October, 1216, 
pat OB Md to their hoaUUtiaa ; and the following year Alexander con- 
eludod a treaty of peoee with Henry III., one of tbc cooditious being 
that Alexander abonld aepouae Henry's eldest siitter, the Princess 
Joan. This mairiigaaooonlitigly took pUce on the 25th of June, 1221. 
In the eonrae of the fallowing thirtean year* Seotland was disturbed 
by inaiUTeetioQa which broke out •ucoaasiTely in Ai^le, in Caithness, 
in Hurray, aad ia Qalloway ; all of which, however, Alexander put 
down. Uia eoaaoxioo with the royal family of England preserved 
peoee between Um two oounlries, and led to considerable intercourse 
betweeo the Seottiah lung and his brother-in-law, whom he rcpoattnlly 
Tiaitad at Loadon. The death of Queen Joan without issue, on the 
Ith of Mareii, 1288, and the marriage of Alexander, on the 15th of 
May ia the following j«ar, with Mary, daughter of a French nobleman, 
Ingelram da Ooad, brolte this bond of amity ; and after some years of 
mutual dia«tiabetion and complaint, the two kings -prepared to decide 
their difforenocs bT arm* in 1244. By the intervention however of 
•oms of the Bngliah aobility, bloodshed was prevented, after Alex- 
aader bad approadMd the border with an army, it is said, of 100,000 
nea ; and a peace wa* concluded at Newcaatie in August of that year. 
Ia 1247 aootW inaurraetion broke out in Galloway, which Alexander 
aooa aoppraascd. In the tummcr of 1249 he had set out at the head 
of aa army to reprees a rebellion raised by Angus, Lord of Argyle, 
when be was taktn ill at Kerarry, a amaU island off the coast of 
Argyle, aod died there on the 8th of July. liy his second marriage 
bo left an only eon, bia socoeesor, Alexander IlL Alexander II. bears 
a high character in the pagoa of the ancient historians and chrouiclera 
of SeoUaad ; aad be appears to have been a prince endowed with many 
paa qaalitie a. Bnidoa the ability with which he preserved both the 
taaMNMoae* aad the iotemal order of his kingdom, he is particularly 
owantad for hi* rofird to juitiee, and the wisdom and impartiality 
wUah ho aoenred in Use administration of the laws among lOl classes 
of hi* aabjeet*. This virtue in a king or governor never fails to attract 
popular atta ch ment aad reepect ; accordingly, we aie told by a con- 
tmpanfyBasUah writer, MatUiew Paris, that Alexander wu deser%-. 
•W ■••"••Jt ■«♦ "nly by bia own subjects, but by the people of 
■f * "" •iko'ioa. He b usually characteriiod as altogether one of 
the ablest aad best of the Scottish king*. 

.A''??*?.^** I"" •^IL"' ScoUand, the son and successor of 
AJnaador IL, waa bora at Roxburgh on the 4lh of September, 1241. 
f"^ **:^? •'f'" y^ »'«' »t '"» '•"•ei's death, he was crowned at 
T^.V.PT ,''• ''•"^Mn. bishop of 8t Andrew's, on the 18th of 
Jaly. 1119. having prrrions to that ceremony been knighted by the 
aaas aiolsalaalie. Me bad already, when only a year old, been betroUied 

-fSiRTSlr !r^ <»"fb««- of the Englisb king. Henry III. ; 

lUntfstaatfac Um youth of boUinarUea, the oele^iation of the 
•r* ^ ^'** ** *•»• ****" ">' December, 1261. The 


riifO t«ak pUe* rt York oa Um &Ui of December, 1261. The oon- 
ST"** -y'''^^y^*yy •*"» *»>• "Inority of his son In-Uw, gave 
^^TT^.^'^f^^T^* *? t»«*Wnf. « be WM anxious to dS/in 
^*^. i "f™; ««« ^ dbtrscted sute of that kingdom, 
oaaaatoad by the fhcKoaa Maont Um nobilitv. faciliiatiMl hu iu«. 

1. A,...^ i«a« u. .**y^ *^ "'"'"y. fccllitaled hk views. 

la Ays*, 1>M, ho t pnro ae h o d tho borden at the head of an army : 
ayd byaow ifaaof iatokoe wiUi Um poliUoa] narUee oonUnding Li 
u Tf ^r **''*'*— ^ *« oobJopU SooUaod to Um Englkh crown. 
■tJ!!! ^^y rf**"^ * "^ "*• "^ ** F*W««rt»ily pursued by 
^^ ^ ■J1L"'*"T"' *" '*'''•• **" ■•ottish kings to the condiilon 
orwamlk Tho oataMat taloaU boworer which Alexander began to 
^lyj'y*' .y* r.*^ odmlaiatrmUon of affair, cam. into hifown 
??* ?' *yrr ** **** *?«'?«*«««>" to n.«lntaln his own rights and 
lao ■nay aiaii ac M9 dnanlaiiiia^ effeotoally tbwattad the further 
Cm?!5_ • "^.''rrL ■«»*>>lle he kept oa good terme with 
b* Csth«>la4aw. Ia iseo ho vtsiied Loadoa wlttTUj queen. Id 

February, IMI, the queen waa daliTared at '^^adaor of a daughter, 
who ina named Margaret, 

Oathe latof October, 1284, Haoo, king of Norway, after having 
rav^^ the Western Islands, approached the coast of Ayrshire at the 
head of a numerous fleet. Every preparation had been made by the 
Seottisb king to meet this formidable armament ; but when only a 
small portion of the Norwegian troops had landed, a tempest of unu- 
sual fury suddenly arose, and drove nearly all the ships on shore or 
otherwiae dastroyed them. The attack of the Scottish soldiers and 
peaaantij completed the destruction of the invading foroe ; aod Haco 
with dilBculty made his escape, only to die of a broken heart a few 
mouths afterwarda Next year, Magnus. Haoo's successor, agreed to 
relinquisli to tlie king of Scotland the Hebrides and the Isle of Han 
for the sum of 4000 marka, and a small yevly quit-rent. In 1282 the 
l>eaoe between the two kingdoms was further consolidated by the 
marriage of Alexander's daughter, Margaret, to the Norwegian king 
Eric, then a youth of fourteen. Margaret died in 1283, but left a 
daughter of the same name, commonly designated the 'Maiden of 
Norway,' who eventually became the succeasor of hor grandfather on 
the Scottish throne. 

The successful resistance whioh, seconded by his clergy, ho offered 
to an attempt of the Pope to levy certain new imposts in his dominions, 
is almost the only other act in Alexander's reign which history baa 
commemorated. Under his sway, Scotland appears to hnre enjoyed 
a tranquillity to which she had long been a stranger, and which she 
did not regain for many years after his deceasei The death of his 
daughter Margaret however was the first of a succession of calamitiea. 
Soon after her nuptiahi, Alexander, tlie prince of Scotland, tlio king's 
ouly SOD, who waa born in 1263, bad espoused Margaret, daughter of 
Quy, earl of Flanders ; but he also died without issue on the 28th of 
January, 1284. On the leth of April, 1286, tho king, having some 
time before lost his first wife, married Joletta, daughter of the Count 
de Dreux, in the hope of leaving a male heir. But on the 10th of 
Mareh, 12S6, as he was riding in a dark night between Burntisland 
anil Kinghom, on the banks of the Frith of Forth in Fifeshire, be was 
thrown with hia horse over a precipice, at a turn of the road about a 
mile west from Kinghom, and killed on the spot. The place, whioh is 
called the King's Wud End, is still pointed out A cross wag erected 
upon tho spot, but it has long since disappeared. The death of Alex- 
ander, followed as it was in a few years by that of the Maiden of 
Norway, left Scotland to contend nt once with the internal distractions 
arising JTrom a disputed succeisaioD, and with all the art and force 
employed by a powerful neighbour to effect its subjugation. Alex- 
ander was also lamented by his subjects on account of his own wisdom 
and virtues. The country bad never before enjoyed such prosperity, 
and Scotland may be said, during this reign, to have passed from semi- 
barbarism to civilisation. It was then that its intercourse with Kngland 
first became considerable, aud that it b^an to acquire an acquaintance 
with the arts and manners of what we may call European life. Alex- 
ander also improved and completed the system for the dispensation of 
justice which had bcou introduce<l by hia father; he divided the 
oountiy into four distriote for tliat purpose, and made an annual pro- 
gress through it in person for hearing appeals from the decisions of 
the ordinary iudges. He was long affectionately remembered in Scot- 
land ; and the old chronicler Wynton has preserved the following 
veraes respecting him, which are extremely interesting, as being tho 
most ancient specimen of the Scottish dialect now extant : — 

" Quben Alexander oure King was dcde, 
Dat BcoUaad led In luwc (love) and le (lav), 
Away wes sons of ale and bredc. 
Of wyne and wax, of gamyn (gamboUnj) and gle. 
Onre gold was changed into lede. 
ChiUi, born into vlrgyn^t^, 
Succour .Scotland, and rrmcde, 
Diit stad (placed) is in porplexftv." 

among his countrymen for bravery, prudence, and religious zeal : ho 
has t)ecn celebrated in many a Russian ballad, and is still venerated 
by tho present generation. He was the second son of the Grand Duke 
Jaroslaw II. Wscladowita, and was born at Vladimir in 1219. At the 
period when his father ruled over Novogorod (in 1237), tho Tartars, 
with a very laiwc army, under the command of the Khan of Eaptshak, 
a grandson of Qeogis Khan, invaded Russia, desolated the country in 
the most cruel maimer, overran it oven to the Upper Volga, and 
exacted the moat degrading submission from the Russian princes, 
JarosUw, thouijh notlmmediatelv attacked by the Tartars in his own 
Principality of Novogorod, found it advisable to repair to tho great 
Tartar horde staUoned at that time in the region of the modern city 
of Kosau, to pay homage to BatuKhan. From this khan he received 
the grand duchy of Vla^limir, to be held as a fief, made Perjaslawl his 
residence, and as his elder son Feodor bad died in 1232, he entrusted 
Alexander the younger with the government of Novugor"! '? '^-itig 
a second time to the great horde, and thei-e remonsti ist 

certain unreasonable Tartarian commands, he met with i iit, 

and dlid on his homeward joumoy, in tho month of .September, 1245. 

Alexander succeeded his father in tho fief of Vladimir, the poa- 
•easion of which was confirmed to him by Batu-Khnn. Alexander, 
while hia father w»s still alive, had distinguished himself by two great 



victories — ono over the Swedes, and another over the united order of 
the Livonian and Teutonic Knights of the Sword. A crusade against 
the Russians had been instigated by Pope Gregory IX., who, by a bull 
of 1229, enjoined the bishops of Liibeck, Linkjbping, and Livlond, to 
prohibit all intercourse and commerce with the schismatic Russians, 
as long as they should resist the conversion of the .ipostate Fiulanders. 
This however was only a negative measure ; but the bull of the 14th 
of May, 1237, by which the Livonian and Esthonian Knights of the 
Sword were united to the Teutonic order, evidently by way of strength- 
ening them for a Russian crusade, tended in a more direct and positive 
manner towards the destruction of the Greek Church in the north-east 
of Europe. The Roman Court also opened negociations with Eric XL, 
king of Sweden, who, at the Pope's instigation, gladly sent an army 
against the Finlanders, which landed near the mouth of the Neva, on 
the spot where St. Petersburg has since been built. Alexander marched 
against this army, and, on the 15th of July, 1240, totally defeated it 
at the confluence of the Ishora and the Neva. By this victory he 
obtained the honourable surname of Kevskoj, or Alexander of the 
Neva. While he was thus engaged, the Knights of the Sword, com- 
manded by their chief, Hermann von Balk, had taken Pleskow. Early 
in the year 1241, Alexander marched against them from Novogorod, 
and drove tliem out of Pleskow; but having allowed his army to dis- 
perse in the autumn, he next winter saw the enemy again in the 
field. The Knights of the Sword had advanced within thirty versta of 
the city of Novogorod. With great speed Alexander again collected 
his army, pursued the retreating enemy, and on the 5th of April, 1242, 
fought them on the ice of the lake of Peipus, where he gained a deci- 
sive vii:t<jry : four hundred Teutonic Knights were slain, and fifty 
were taken prisoners ; those of the prisoners who were Germans were 
pardoned, but the Esthonians Alexander ordered to be hanged, con- 
sidering them at Russian rebels. Alexander returned in triumph to 
Pleskow, having liberated that city and its commerce, which at that 
time was considerable, from the yoke of foreigners. 

Arms proving unavailing, the Roman Court had recourse to diplo- 
macy as a surer means for converting Alexander. Several attempts 
of this kind had been made in vain with hia predecessors, by the popes 
Innocent III., Honorius III., and Gregory IX. Innocent IV. made a 
new trial, and in the year 1251 sent two cardinals, who in Russian 
chronicles are called Oald and Qemont, as ambassadors to Alexander 
Nevskoj ; they brought a letter from this pope, dated January 23, 1248, 
probably so long antedated in order to show how long his Holiness had 
been big with the scheme of the embassy, but Alexander remained 
inflexible, and the cardinals returned without effecting anything for 
the Church of Rome. 

Though Alexander was successful agamst the Pope, he continued a 
vassal of the Tartars as long as be lived. It does not however appear 
that Russia was, daring his reign, actuaUy invaded or plundered by 

He repaired to the great horde three times, and died on his return 
from the lost of these journeys at Kassimcow in 1263; from that 
place his body was removed to Vladimir, and there interred. It is a 
tradition that shortly before his death he took holy orders ; but it 
probably has no good foundation. Alexander's wife was a daughter 
of Wrateslaw, Prince of Polotsk, by whom he had four sons — Vassilj, 
Dmitrij, Andrej, and Danilo. It is uncertain whether the valiant 
Jueje (George) who ruled over Novogorod till 1270, was also his son. 
The foundation of St. Petersburg in 1703, on the very spot where the 
national hero had gained such an important victory, naturally recalled 
the memory of Alexander Nevskoj in a lively manner. The Czar 
Peter on this occasion instituted St, Alexander Nevsknj's Order of 
Knighthood, but did not himself give that decoration to any man ; 
this was first done after his death by his consort Catharine. 'There is 
also in St Petersburg a St. Alexander-Nevskoj Monastery, which is well 
endowed, to which is attached a seminary for the education of young 
divineK, called St. Alexander-Nevskoj's Academy. 

ALEXANDER, Emperor of Russia, called by his countrymen 
Alexander Paulowitsch (that is, the son of Paul), was born on the 23rd 
of December, 1777. He was the son of the emperor Paul and of Maria, 
daughter of Prince Eugene of WUrtemberg. From his infancy he was 
distinguished for a gentle and affectionate disposition, and a superior 
capacity. His education was directed not by his parents, but by his 
grandmother the reigning empress, Catharine II., who lived until he 
had attained his nineteenth year. Under her superintendence he was 
carefully instructed by La Harpe and other able tutors in tho different 
branches of a liberal education, and in the accomplishments of a 

Catharine was succeeded, in 1796, by her son Paul, whose mad reign 
was put an end to by his ass.-Msination on the 24th of March, 1801. 
No doubt can be entertained that Alexander, as well as his younger 
brother Constantine, was privy to the jjreparations which were made 
for tha dethronement of his father, which had indeed become almost a 
measure of necessity ; but all the facts tend to make it highly impro- 
bable that he contemplated the fatal issue of the attempt. The imme- 
diate seqnel of this tragedy was a slight domestic dispute, occasioned 
by a claim being advanced by the widow of the murdered emperor to 

'too vacant throne, who had not been admitted into the conspiracy. 

[After a short altercation she was prevailed upon to relincjuisli her 
and the Grand Duke Alexander was forthwith proclaimed 

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias. This collision does not 
seem to have left any unpleasant traces on the mind either of Alex- 
ander or his mother, to whom during his life he always continued to 
show respect and attachment. The Empress Maria survived her son 
about thieo years. 

The history of tho reign of Alexander is the history of Europe for 
the first quarter of the present centmy. We can here only attempt a 
slight outline of the course of events during that busy time, with a 
reference to the movements of the Russian emperor. When Alexander 
came to the throne he found himself engaged in a war with England, 
which had broken out in the course of the preceding year. He imme- 
diately indicated the pacific character of his policy by taking steps to 
bring about a termination of this state * f things, which was already 
seriously distressing the commerce of Russia ; and a convention was 
accordingly concluded between the two powers, and signed at St, 
Petersburg on the 17th of June, 1801. The general peace followed on 
the Ist of October, and lasted till the declaration of war by England 
against France on the 18th of May, 1803. Meanwhile Georgia, hitherto 
under the protection of Persia and Turkey, had been occupied, on the 
invitation of the people themselves, by the troops of Russia, and incor- 
porated with that empire. Alexander also, during this interval, showed 
his disposition to extend the influence of Russia in another direction, 
by entering into a negociation with France respecting the compensa- 
tion to be granted to certain of the minor powers of Germany, with 
which country he was connected both through his mother and through 
his father, who was born head of the house of Holstein-Qottorp. It 
was in the course of these negociations that he had his first interview 
with the king of Prussia, which is understood to have laid the founda- 
tion of an intimate friendship between the two sovereigns, and to have 
established a concurrence of views which powerfully influenced the 
future policy of each. In a dispute with Sweden, with regard to the 
frontier of Finland, although hostilities were averted by the con- 
cession of the Swedish king, the extensive military preparations which 
were immediately made by Russia, showed how little that power was 
disposed to allow the invasion of any of her rights. 

Alexander did not immediately join England in the war against 
France ; but even in the early part of 1804 symptoms began to appear 
of an approaching breach between Russia and the latter country. Ou 
the 11th of April, ISOa, a treaty of alliance with England was con- 
cluded at St Petersburg, to which Austria became a party on the 
9th of August, and Sweden on the 3rd of October following. This 
leagne, commonly called the third coalition, speedily led to actual 
hostilities. The campaign was eminently disastrous to the allifd 
powers. A succession of battles, fought between the 6th and the 1 8th 
of October, almost annihilated the Austrian army before any of the 
Russian troops arrived. Alexander made his appearance at Berlin on 
the 25th, and there, in a few days after, concluded a secret convention 
with the king of Prussia, by which that prince, who had hitherto pro- 
fessed neutrality, bound himself to join the coalition. Before leaving 
the Prussian capital, Alexander, in company with the king and queen, 
visited av midnight the tomb of the great Frederick, and, after having 
kissed the coffin, is said to have solemnly joined hands with his brother 
sovereign, and pledged himself that nothing should ever break their 
friendship. He then hastened by way of Leipzig and Weimar to 
Dresden, from whence he proceeded to Olmutz, and there, on the 18th 
of November, joined the emperor of Austria. On the 2nd of the fol- 
lowing month, the Austrian and Russian troops, commanded by the 
two emperors in person, were beaten in the memorable and decisive 
battle of Austerlitz. The immediate consequences of this great defeat 
were the conclusion of a convention between France and Austria, and 
Alexander's departure to Russia with the remains of his army. 

Although Alexander did not accede either to the convention between 
France and Austria, or to the treaty of Presburg, by which it was 
followed, he thought proper, after a short time, to profess a disposition 
to make peace with France, and negociations were commenced at Paris 
for that object. But after a treaty had been signed on the 20th of 
July, 1806, he refused to ratify it, on the pretence that his minister 
had departed from his instructions. The true motive of his refusal 
no doubt was, that by this time arrangements were completed with 
Prussia and England for a fourth coalition ; and it is even far from 
imi>robabls that the nei,'ociations which led to the signature of the 
treaty had from the first no other object beyond gaining time for 





Ob lb* Stii of FMnary ImmUUUm rMomnMoeed, ud 

^^rUorj el Jm, g>ia«) by Bmmh*^ » '•» *V« •«»•. 1^ *• 
Prw^H uiuiMuliJ ai bia feai, Wboi lUa gmt Uttk wm foucht, 
Akn»te aad hb Hiirl-|- U<1 fearedy rMsbad Uw frootin* of (W- 
Mfuy: ea werfTJi^ Um am th^ imoMdktaly nUwtod Mroa Um 
VMak. RMhw tk^ ««« paiauad by Boiu|»ito, and harinc bcm 
Mntd by Um rafaaaot of tb« PraaiaD army, were betUa on the 8th 
of rbbrauy, 1807. io the dMinioUTa battle oT Eylau. Finally, od the 
lilh of Jnaai, the unitwl anaiaa weM H^ dafaated in the great battle 
of FHedlaDd. and oompellad to ratraat behind the Hiaioen. Thia 
«rownivdtaBrtartaraiiaatadUMeaintiai«B. An armiaUoe waa arranged 
«■ Ik* SUt; and t«* dan afUr, Alexander and Napolaon met in a 
iMrtaiMladeoanAiathamiddteof theXiemeo; and at that ioUr- 
Tiaw not only amagad their diflaranoea, but, if we may tnut tho 
anhaeqaeot iiiufeailiiM et both, were eoaverted from enemiea into 
warmly-attachMi friends A treaty of peaee wa< signed between the 
two at Tiliit ou the 7ih of July, by a leerct article of which Alexander 
«MMed to join Kranee i^ainat England. He accordingly dedared 
BMMilail his Uto ally on the SSth of October following. The treaty 
of Tliirt indeed eooTertad th* Ruaian emperor into the enemy of 
almoat all kia former fHaadj^ and the friend of all hia former enemies. 
ToriMy, thoogb anpportad by France, had for aome time been hard 
DTHMd l^ the united military and naral operations of England and 
Eiaria; but upon Alexander't coalition with the French emperor, a 
tmoo wa* condoded between Turiiey and Ruaaia at Sloboaia, August 
3 Itk, md tb* TuiUak empire waa aaved from the rain which threatened 
it. A war with Persia, commenoed in 1802, continued to be carried 
on with varying sim k iias The meeting of the emperors of France and 
Roasia at TUait is an importut event not only in the life of Alex- 
Bodar, bat in tho history of Europe. It produced a total change in 
tko poUey of Ruaaia, as well as in the personal sentiments of the two 
omperon, who from deadly enemies became to all appearance cordial 
IHsod^ At their Ant interriew, on the 25th of June, 1807, each left 
the booka of the NieoMO in a boat attended by his suite. The l>oat 
of Napolaon dearod tho distaao* firrt; and Napoleon, stepping on the 
raft appointed for the ooofsrsooe, passed over, and reoeiring Alexander 
oo the oppoeita aide, embraoed him in the (right of both armies. The 
first woras of Alexsinder wore directed to flatter the ruling paasion of 
Kapoleoo. " I hate the Engli&h," he exclaimed, "as much as you do : 
whatever you take in hand against them, I will be your second." 

** In that oaae^" replied Napoleon, " everything can be easily settled, 
ia already madei" In the first couference they remained 

aad peaea 

togallMr two koni* ; the next day they met ajain, and Alexander pre- 
aaated to Napoleon the King of Prussia, who was soon after joined 
by his qoeen. During the remainder of the conferences, which lasted 
tweoty days, the two emperora were daily in the habit of meeting and 
torma of intimacy; while the Klug of Pniaaia was 

traatod by Napoleon with haughtiness, and the queen with rudeness, 
and Alexander appeared almost ashamed to make any exertion in their 
fanmr with his new friend. He even conduded a separate treaty with 
Kapoleon to the bitter mortification of Frederick William, the treaty 
aaade with whom aooo after was of a very difierent character from 
tkat bo t ween the two emperon, 

Ob tha S4th of Febniarv, 1S08, Alexander, in obedience to the plan 
araaatad with Napoledn, dedared war against Sweden ; and followed 

r"ua doeUration by diapateking an army to Swedish Finland, wliioh, 
a great deal of fighting, succeeded in obtaining complete poaseaeion 
of that ooutttry. On the 27th of September the Russian and French 
CBperon met again at Erfurt Many of the Qermaa princes, with 
repraaaataUvaa of the King of Praasia and the Emperor of Austria, 
alao a H aaded tk* Coagraaa, which continued to sit till the 16th of 
Ortobar. Oa tkia oocaaion a proposal for peace was made to England 
ia tk* oaitad aaaM* of Napoleon and Alexander, but the negociatious 
wan brokea off after a few woeka. 

Tha (Heudly relations of Alexander with Franoe continued for nearly 
five yean; but, notwithstanding lair appearances, various causes were 
ia the meanwlule at work which could not fail at last to bring about 
a raptarsb The Russian autocrat having failed in the pUn of policy 
with whiek k* liad began his reign, and which aeema to have contom- 
pUtodtk* avoidaae* of war, but at the aame time the exerdse of a 
powatfiil fofaiga {aflueaoe, appears tu have rraolved to try another 
gam^ aad to aae what he oonld gain by entning into coufedemcy 
wltk tk* paat ooaqoeror of nationa But the peaoe of Tilsit, and the 
MW w la l baa into wkioh Raaaia waa thrown, however much they may 
kavo bean to th* mind of the aovardgn, antailed such privation aud 
•saaanial ssdMaf on tk* people of that conntry, by severing the 
MMMrtka with KagUad, aa made it at length impossible to persist 
la tu* OMUa* of policy. In tk* maanwhil* however the treaty of 
»>»M^ dfBod OB tk* 14th of October, 1809, which, following the 
mMIm of ■allng aad Wwram, disaolved the fifth coalition against 
rnae% iaanawd tk* RoaaUn dominion by the annexation of Eastern 
OaUiai^ aaded by Aaabla. The war with Turkey also, which had 
b«8 iMniaaiiuiil, ooathiaed to be pioeeontwl with aucoeaa. But by 
tk* a^af Ik* yaar ISU tk* disputaa witk th* ooarta of Paria, which 
kiliiAly ana* oot of Ik* adsur* by Booapart* of tb* dominion* of 
(ha pok* ef Oldsabari, had asMimed such a hdght aa left it no longer 
doabtfal tkst war woald follow. A tivaty of aUiaaoe bavbig been 
prattowlr dCMd witk 8w•dM^ on the IDlk of Mardt 1813 AUxandrr 

deeUred war against France; aad on the 2Uh of April he left St. 
Petanburg to join his army on the western frontier of Lithuania. Oo 
tk* S8tk of May pea e e waa conduded at Bucharest on advantageous 
terms with Turkey, which relinquished everything to the left of the 
Pnith. The immense army of Kranoo, led by Napoleon, entered the 
Roaaian t<>rritory on the 25th of June. Aa they advanced the inlia- 
bitanta fled as one man, and left the invaders to march through a 
silent desert In this manner the French reached Wilna. On the 14 th 
of July Alexander had repaired to Mosoow, whence he proceeded to 
Finland, where he had an interview with Bernadotte, then crown princ* 
of Saradaa Hera he learned the entry of the French into Smolensk. 
He immediately dedared that he never would sign a treaty of peaoa 
witk Napoleon while he was on Russian ground. " Should St. Peters- 
burg be taken," he added, " I will retiro into Siberia. I will then 
resume our ancient customs, and, like our long-bearded ancestors, will 
return anew to conquer the empire." " This resolution," exclaimed 
Bernadotte, " will liberate Europe." 

On the 7th of September took place the first serious encounter 
between the two armies, the battle of Borodino, iu which 25,000 men 
perished on each nde. On the 1 4th the French entered Mosoow. In 
a few hours the city waa a smoking ruin. Napoleon's homeward march 
then commenced, and terminated in the destruction of bis magniliceut 
army. Not fewer than 800,000 Frenchmen perished in this cauipaign. 
The remnant, which was above 150,000, rejHUsed the Niemen ou the 
16th of December. 

In the early part of the following year Prussia and Austria succes- 
sively iMcame parties to the alliance against France. Alexander, who 
had joined his army while iu pursuit of Bonaparte at Wilna, continued 
to accompany the allied troops throughout the campaign of this 
summer. On the 26th and 27th of August he was present at the battle 
of Dresden, and on the 18th of October at tho still more sanguinary 
conflict of Leipzig. On the 24th of February, 1814, he met the King 
of Pmssia at Chaumout, where the two sovereigns signed a treaty 
binding themselves to prosecute the war against France to a successful 
condusion, even at the cost of all the resources of their dominions. 
Un the 30th of March 150,000 of the troops of the allies were before 
the walls of Paris, and on the following day at noon Alexander and 
William Frederick entered that capital. 

We shall not enter into the detail of the transactions which followed 
this event Alexander, owiug in a great measure to his engaging 
aSability, as well as to the liberal sentiments which he mode a practice 
of professing, was a great favourite with the Parisians. The conquerors 
having determined upon the deposition of Bonaparte, and the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons, Alexander spent the remainder of the time he 
stayed in inspecting the diflereut objects of interest in the city and its 
vicinity, as if he had visited it in the course of a tour. He leH the 
French capital about the Ist of June, and proceeding to Boulogne, was 
there, along with the King of Prussia, taken on board an English 
ship-of-war, commanded by tho Duke of Clarence, and conveyed to 
Calais, from which port the royal yachts brought over the two sove- 
reigns to this country. They landed at Dover on the evening of the 
7th, and next day came to London. They remained in this country 
for about three weeks, during which time they visited Oxford and 
Portsmouth, and wherever they went, ns well as in the metropolis, 
were received with honours and festivities of unexampled inaguificenco, 
amidst the tumultuous reJoiciiigB of the people. From ICiiglaiid Alex- 
ander proceeded to Holland, aud thence, after a short stay, to Carlsruhe, 
where he was joined by the Empress. On the 25th of July he arrived 
at his own capital St Petersburg, where hia appearance was greeted 
by illuminations and other testimonies of popular joy. 

The Congress of European sovereigns at Vienna opened on the 8rd 
of Novemhcr, 1814. In the political arrangements made by this 
assembly Alexander obtained at least his fair share of advantages, 
having been recognised as King of Poland, which country was at tho 
same time annexed to the Itussian empire. Before the members of the 
Congress separated however news arrived of Bonaparte's escape from 
Elba. They remained together till after the battle of Waterloo ; when 
Alexander, with the Emperor of Austria and tho King of Prussia, 
proceeded to 1*008, where they arrived in the beginning of July, 1815. 
On tho 20th of the following September, tho tliree sovereigns signed 
an agreement, professedly for tho preservation of universal peace ou 
the principles of Christianity, to which, with some presumption, if uot 
impiety, they gave the name of the Holy Alliance. On leaving Paris 
Alexander proceeded to Brussels, to arrange tlia mamage of his sister, 
the Grand Duchess Anno, with the Prince of Urangc ; and thence, by 
the way of Dijon and Zurich, to Berlin, where ho concluded another 
family alliance, by the marriage of his brother Nicholas, afterwards 
emperor, with the I'riuoeas Charlotte, daughter of the King of Prussia. 
On the 12th of November he arrived at Warsaw, and after publishing 
tho heads of a constitution for Poland, he left this city on the 3rd of 
December, and on tlie 13th reached St. Petersburg. 

No great events mark tho next years of the reign of Alexander. 
On the 27th of March, 1818, he opened in person the first Polisli diit 
at Warsaw, on the close of which he set out on a journey through the 
southern provinces of his empire, visiting Odessa, the Crimea, and 
Moscow. The congreaa of Aix-la-Chapelle, at which ho waa present 
with tlie Emi>eror of Austria and the King of Prussia, met in Septem- 
ber, and on tno IStb of the following month promulgated a declaration, 





threatening, in reference to the then state of Spain, the suppression of 
all insurrectionary movements wherever they might take place. The 
congresses held in 1820 and 1821 at Troppau and Laybach, on the 
affairs of Naples and Piedmont, and that of Verona in 1822, were also 
mainly directed by the Russian autocrat. Meanwhile the insurrection 
of the Greeks in 1820, although publicly condemned by Alexander, 
was attributed by Turkey to the secret encouragement of Russia, and 
seemed to threaten a renewal of hostilities between the two countries; 
but for the present Alexander determined to persevere in his pacific 
policy. In 1823 several tribes of the Kalmucks, who had formerly 
acknowledged the sovereignty of China, exchanged it for that of 

In the beginning of the winter of 1825 Alexander left St. Petersburg 
on a journey to the southern provinces, and on the 25th of September 
arrived at Taganrog on the Sea of Azof. From this town he some 
time after set out on a tour to the Crimea, and returned to Taganrog 
about the middle of November. Up to nearly the close of this latter 
excursion, be had enjoyed the highest health and spirits. But he was 
then suddenly attacked by the common intermittent fever of the 
country, and when he arrived at Taganrog he was very ill. Trusting 
however to the strength of his constitution, he long refused to submit 
to the remedies which his physicians prescribed. When he at length 
consented to allow leeches to be applied, it was too late. During the 
last few days that he continued to breathe, he was insensible; and on 
the morning of the Ist of December he expired. 

It was for some time rumoured in foreign countries that Alexander 
had bean carried off by poison ; but it is now well ascertained that 
there is no ground whatever for this suspicion. It appears however 
that his last days were embittered by the information of an extensive 
conspiracy of many of the nobility and officers of the army to subvert 
the government, and even to take away his life ; and it is not improbable 
that this news, which is said to have been brought to him by a courier 
during the middle of the night of the 8th, which he spent at Alupta, 
may have contributed to hasten the fever by which he was two or 
three days after attacked. For full details upon this subject, and a 
translation of the Report of the Commission appointed to inquire 
into the affair by the Emperor Nicholas, we refer the reader to vol. ii. 

£p. 833-435 of Webster's ' Travels in the Crimea, Turkey, and Egypt,' 
ondon, 1830. 

The deatli of Alexander took place exactly a century after that of 
Peter the Great, under whom the civilisation of Russia may be said to 
have commenced. The state of the empire did not change so com- 
pletely during Alexander's reign as it did during that of Peter ; but 
still the advancement of almost every branch of the national pros- 
perity in the course of the quarter of a centurj' during which Alexan- 
der filled the throne was probably, with that one exception, greater 
than had ever been exhibited in any other country. He founded or 
reorganised seven universities, and established 204 gymnasia, and 
above 2000 schools of an inferior order. The literature of Russia was 
also greatly indebted to his liberal encouragement, although he con- 
tinued the censorship of the press in a modified form. He greatly 
promoted among his subjects a knowledge of and taste for science and 
the fine arts by his munificent purchases of paintings, and anatomical 
and other collections. The agriculture, the manufactures, and the 
commerce of Russia were all immensely extended during his reign. 
Finally, to Alexander the people of Russia were indebted for many 
political reforms of great value. Certain checks were applied to the 
arbitrary authority of the monarch, by rights granted to or recognised 
in the senate ; the provincial governors were subjected to more effective 
control ; the laws were improved by a mitigation of the severity of the 
old punishments, and in various other respects ; personal slavery was 
entirely abolished ; and even of the serfs attached to the soil, great 
numbers were emancipated, and arrangements made for the eventual 
elevation of all of them to a state of freedom. Under Alexander also 
both the extent and the population of the Russian dominions were 
greatly augmented ; the military strength of the nation was developed 
and organised ; and the country, from holding but a subordinate rank, 
took its place as one of the leading powers of Europe. 

Alexander was married on the 9th of October, 1793, to the Princess 
I>ouisa Maria Augusta of Baden, who, on becoming a member of the 
Imperial family, assumed the name of Elizabeth Alexiewua. By her 
however he had no issue. On his death, his next brother, the Grand 
Duke Cunstantine, was proclaimed king at Warsaw ; but he imme- 
diately surrendered the throne to his younger brother, the late Emperor 
Nicolas, according to an agreement made with Alexander during his 

•ALEXANDER II., surnamed NICOLAEWITCH, the present 
Emperor of all the Russias, was the eldest son of the late Emperor Nico- 
las and the Empress Alexandra Feodorowna. This name his mother 
assumed on her marriage, as it is the custom with females on marrying 
into the Imperial family to change their names with their religion on 
being admitted into the Greek Church ; before marriage she was the 
Princess Frederics Louisa Charlotte Wilhelmina, sister to the present 
Frederick W illiam I \'., king of Prussia. Alexander was bom on the 29th 
of April, 1818, was educated with great care, and entered very early into 
the military service, in which of course during his father's lifetime he 
was invested with a numerous variety of honorai-y commands, but is 
■aid not to have evinced any remarkable military aptitude, though by 


no means destitute of talent or intelligence. On the 28th of April, 
1841, he married Maximilienne Wilhelmina Augusta Sophia Maria 
(now Mario Alexandrowna), daughter of Louis II., Grand-Duke of 
Hesse, by whom he has had four sons and a daughter ; the eldest son, 
Nicolas Alexandrowitch, now the Czarowitch, or Crown Prince, was 
bom on September 20, 1343. On the death of the Emperor Nicolas, on 
March 2, 1855, Alexander succeeded to the throne, and to the conduct 
of the war against the united forces of Turkey, France, England, and 
Sardinia. As Crown Prince he had been represented as opposed to 
the warlike policy of the late Emperor ; but almost his first step after 
his accession was to issue a proclamation expressing his determination 
to carry out completely the plans and intentions of his predecessor, 
and to this determination he has hitherto held with great firmness. 
On September 8, 1855, the allies obtained possession of Sebastopol, as 
they had somewhat earlier of Kertoh and Yenikale, and somewhat 
later of Kinburn. In October and November following he in person 
visited the scene of the most active hostilities, Nicolaiefi', Odessa, and 
the Crimea, encouraging the soldiery to renewed efforts, and at other 
times has made progresses through various parts of his dominions, 
endeavouring to lessen as much as possible the unpopularity of the 
contest with a great portion of his subjects, occasioned by the enor- 
mous conscriptions levied upon them in order to supply the terrible 
losses experienced by his armies. 

of Alexander Alexander of Menstrie. The date of his birth is not very 
satisfactorily fixed. His father died in 1594. An engraved portrait 
of the Earl of Stirling found in a few copies of the collected edition of 
his poems published in 1637, bears the inscription " setatis sua) 57." 
According to this very imperfect evidence, he would have been bora 
in 1580. But the print is of extreme rarity and very high value, being 
considered the finest production of William Marshall, the celebrated 
engraver of that day. The probability therefore is, that it was not 
originally attached to the edition of 1637, andf beaiing no date itself, 
does not fix the age of the person represented. AVilliam Alexander, 
having succeeded to his father's landed property in the counties of 
Clackmannan and Perth, travelled for some time with Archibald the 
seventh Earl of Argyle. After his return to Scotland, he published 
in 1603 ' The Tragedy of Darius;' which was followed in 1604 by two 
other tragedies, 'Julius Cajsar' and 'Croesus.' In 1604 he published 
' A Parasnesis to the Prince,' the object of which was " to speak of 
princely things," and especially to enforce the choice of patriotic and 
disinterested councillors. In the same year he also printed 'Aurora, 
containing the first Fancies of the Author's Youth, William Alexander 
of Menstrie.' A collected edition of his plays, including a fourth, called 
' The Alexandrsean Tragedy,' was published in London in 1607, under 
the title of ' The Monarchicke Tragedies.' These were reprinted in 
1616, and again in J 637, when they appeared with 'Doomsday,' a 
poem (originally published in 1614), containing something more than 
ten thousand lines ; the ' Parscuesis ; ' and ' Jonathan,' an unfinished 
poem. This collection was entitled ' liecreations with the Muses.' 
In these successive editions of his works, Alexander took very com- 
mendable pains to free them from those Scotticisms with which they 
originally abounded. Langbaine, speaking of the ' Darius,' says : " It 
was first composed in a mixed dialect of English and Scotch, and even 
then was commended by two copies of verses. The author has since 
polished and corrected much of his native language." In the last 
collected edition of these plays it is almost impossible to detect any 
of this dialect, which Langbaine seems to have considered as another 

The poems of Alexander can scarcely now be regarded in a higher 
light than as literary curiosities. The quantity of verse which this 
author poured out in the course of teu years is remarkable enough ; 
and this apparent facility is more remarkable, when it is considered 
that he was composing in a language which in many respects was to 
him a foreign one. But to this circumstance may be attributed not 
only what the critics of a later generation would have called the 
correctness of his versification, but the circumstance that the author 
is always labouring to express the commonest thoughts in the most 
high-sounding words, and by the moat wearisome circumlocutions. It 
is in vain that we turn over his pages to find a single natural image 
expressed with force and simplicity. His genius, if genius it can be 
called, was exclusively of the didactic character. All his productions, 
whatever form they assume, are a succession of the most cumbersome 
preachments, unenlivened by any variety of illustration ; without 
adaptation, when they take the dramatic form, to the character of his 
speakers, and altogether wanting in applicability to the habits and 
feelings of mankind, and the practical business of human life. It is 
almost incomprehensible how such productions as the 'Four Monarch- 
icke Tragedies ' could have appeared in the ago of Shakespeare and 
his great dramatic contemporaries. Their author must undoubtedly 
have fancied that he was doing a higher and a better thing than 
presenting a poetical view of real life, when he produced such a tragedy 
as his ' Julius Caes&r,' where the great interest of the action is utterly 
lost in the tumid dialogues and interminable soliloquies, and the 
personages talk, not only unlike Romans, but unlike men. Oldys, who 
has written his life in the ' Biographia Britanuioa,' says of his plays : 
"Ho calculated them not for the amusement of spectators, or to be 
theatrically acted, so much as for readers of the highest rank ; who, 






hf tk» 

b« dmwB from Ui« 
•r lb* lU aOMi af ■ fato t«t M Wl> and aoaftdaat 
I gnmimt, orickk ba Uoghk la unmA thair own 

I* ih^ ova y Mil Mil aad Ihair powar orar all in 

to Ikaai : and If th»j hava bot tiiia (od artUi auoh raadar^ 
«a tana lte« kktariaal dkl<«ttaa, or aaythiac tlm> cao ba oodbaradit 
ta Umm." Akawdtr wm arUaaUT aoaapaj m thaa* UandiM upon 
• Ma% taba Itiiiij a( ait; bat it waa cm atiitad to hU aatunl 
■oawa mi bh waiuhaiaaata Thaahanotar of apoat, with wbidi ha 
4baM to hmat bUaaif, bad la Ua viaw do n«ard to tha highaat 
oMaota af poabj. Vataa wai for him a eonTantioDal thing. auiUMl a* 
U tfcdatht far tha daUwry of a Mriaa of laotuna upon atals polior 
awl tha aiotal viitaM. is wbiab Iba introdoetion of hirtorioal oamaa 
lathaifaakanoftiMiaid Uetona might giro tha teataiMai a graatar 
aalhniilT tbaa if thay appaaiad to oama whoUr from tha month of 
WiUkm llnaadM la aar gnat aga of dnunatio poetry, thaw 
a laoaritaUa oootrut to the living ipirit 
I the aethw pky* of area the humbleat of Alaundar'a 

^ a, A ifafuUr notion ha* premiled, nerertbeleu. that 

Skahvpeaia benovtd from Alezai»ler, particularly in hi* own 'Julias 
Onar.' Malooa MMpaota thi*, although he baa tha good mdm to 
abawii that what ba calla the parallel panagea " mijibt prrhapn have 
proeaadod only tmn th* two authors drawing from the same souroe." 
Varilbsr otitic^ of whom it would bo diffioult to say whether his 
bia ignocanoe is the moat coospiouooa, affirms the 

M dogmaUeally :" Tbera is a great similarity between 

Um ' JoUna Ctaiar' of Shahaapaare and that of Lord Stirling. Which 
waa wiittao the fliat > In other words, which of these writers borrowed 

froM tbo olbart Tbia, wa fear, eaonot be aaoertained Tha 

■wibahUity ii^ that Bbakaspeora borrowed from the northern poet" 
(Lardaai'a 'Cyalopadia:' ' Liteiary and 8oi«>tifia Men.' vol. ii.) 

Tha Boaaia of Alaxandar ware aofieiently bepraiaed in his own day. 
Om aalM bim " Iba mosiareb^mgis of this i*le ; " another compares 
btai with Bopboelaa, Eoripidea, and iEsohylos. Even Drummoad 
addnasaa bim witb— 

" Tbjt Phiealx rnnw, >t:ll « ing'd wltli voDilcri, diet." 

John Davis of Harafonl, in his Epigrams published about 1611, thinks 
that AlataiwW the Orest had not won moro glory by his sword than 
litis Alaiaiwlar with his pen. Yet iu leas tliao forty years after bis 
death bia poems were furgotten. E<lwanl I'hillips, the nephew of 
Mih*mi does not even meotiuu him iu his ' Theatrum Poetarum,' 
allboagb Drammond is spoken of as writing in a stylo " sufficiently 
smooth and driightfuL" 

Abiaadar ba^ui to pay to Kini; James the homsge of versa aJuIs- 
lioo at Iba exact momeut whrn the king waa in a condition to confer 
anhatatial bansAla in return. In 1004 he addressed two poems to 
Jamra, wbiob have not been reprinted in his collected works: the 
' Moasinbicka Tragedies ' ars dedicated to his Mujeaty iu a poem of 
f a art aa u stanma, in which the king is told — 

"Tkc aoild lost'il for thjr Mrth three hundrcth fcan." 

Hanasiw and aabalautial offices were bestowed by James on the 
■aa alwm ba caUad "bis philoaophioal poet,'* Alexander became 
g sa ^ la m a n u i hi i, in 1613, to Prinoe Charlea; and in the same year 
baigbtMl, and maile Master of tha Requests. The subsequent 

Kbile oarrar of Hir William AUxandrr is altogether very singular. 
tail, King Junes, by eharter, granteil to him the whole territory 
of ^Kova Scotia, eonplad with the famous tcbeme of extending the 
' of baraaala br pwMag parahaasd honour* in oonnection with 

I however laid aside during the lost 
fmn af JaaMs'a laign ; bat it waa revivad by Charlea ; and .Sir William 
A Wi w ri e r held oat tlM graataat inducement to adventurers in liis 
naopblalt publishad in 1626,*Dtitled 'AnEneourngementto Colonies.' 
In Iba ant year of hia rsign Charles created Sir William Alexander 
baalss i an lg s H iial of New SootUod. In a few years aftcrvrards be 
bad Iba iim n i h abia privilaga granted him of coining amalt copper 
■ «aa y . la Uii* ba was appointed seeretary oP state for Scotland. 
h ItM ba waa enaUd Viaeount Stirling. and in 163:) Kail ofStiriing. 
laaddiliaa to hia grant of Nova Scotia, ha reeaivrti a cliarUr of the 
lnikbl|i €t Onoda ia 1«'J8 and obtained from the council of New 

aa aaowar grant of a Isrite tract of country, including Long 

I, «hsa a^Bad Iba isUad of SUriing. He applie<l bimselr with 

•aaoHi witb bia aldeat son, \o culnnise this island, 

tha St Lawrence. Uut be does not 

^ ., aa Urqnhart* Uia tranMator of 

Babelaia, ami paMiabad ia IMl aadtr tba Mtte of 'Tba DiaeoTsry of 
> mastesasUsat Jawai Aol. fsaad fa Iba KMaatof Woniaatar Steoala.' 
r* If !*"?•■ •* **■ V"^ fraadoBS, allbongh tbo ebiaf objaet of the 
boablalba iiwai ■lilliuaf ■aotenaB. 


bm BHMml Hoiaali 

U bava had a notion that 
1>H*^ wwa a^oally conducive to the 

art of mooay-msking. His base copper coins were called ' turners, ' 
and Doogias in his ' Peerago' tails us that the favourite of Jamas and 
Charl* having built a larifa houss in Stirling on which he inscribed 
"Per mare, per terras," hi* motto, it wai whimsically read "Per 
malra, et turners.' He oortainly obtained very aubstantial tokens of 
tba royal fnvnur, for, besidea tba American grants, tho baroniea of 
Xaoatnaa, of I>argis an<l Tullibody, of Tulliuultre and of Uartmora 
warn aaooaasively conferred upon bim ; ami in addition to bis o6&oa 
of aaaratary of state, he was kee|>er of tba signet, oommissioner of 
exdMqoar, and an extraordinary lord of session. Yet after bis death, 
wbiah took pUce in 1640, hia family estates were given up tu his 
ovditon by his third son, Anthony. By bis wife Janet, the daughter 
of Sir William Erskine, tl>e Earl of Stirling bad seven sons and two 
daugfatars. The eldest son, William, died in the lifetime of hia father, 
and the grandson suooeeded to tho earldom, but died about a month 
after the subject of this article. The second son, Henry, became than 
Kari uf Stirling. The title ia now extinct; the last of the mala 
descendants died in 1739. 

(fiecreolioiu vitA the Jfasst, 1637; Bacouragement to (Maniti, 1625 ; 
Hop and Iklimxttion of Nnw t'ngland, 1630 ; Urqidiart, Ducoverf o/ 
a aioif ejcquuitt Jewel, Aa., 1032 ; Langbaino, Dramatic PoiU ; Kippis, 
Biographia Britatinica.) 

ALEXEI MICHAILOWITZ, bom at Moscow in the year IC80, waa 
a aon of the Czar Micbiiilo Feodorowita Komanow, the 6rst of tha 
house of Itomanow that held the sceptre of Russia, and of his second 
consort, Eudokia Lukianowna Streshnew. At the death of his father, 
July 12th, 16-13, ho succeeded to the crown, and aa he was still vary 
young, he was mainly guided by the advice of his cotmoillois, Moroaow, 
his tutor and brother-in-law ; MUoslawskoj ; and Pleaaow, a judge in 
one of the high courts at ICosoow. The exoaativa avarice and dea- 
potism of these men caused an insurrection in Moscow, in 16i8. in 
which Plessow and several of their creatures were murdered. The 
Czar's intoroeaaion with difficulty saved Moroaow from tbo people's 

'The reign of Alexei was disturbed by two pretenders to the throne, 
of whom one waa the celebrated Demetrius ; the other was Ankudi- 
now ; and the support of thiir pretended claiut^ by I'olaiui led to a 
war with that country, in wliich tho Polish commamier-inchiur, John 
Kadzivil, was completely defeated at Sklovo; the Russians took 
Smolensko in 1654, and almost the whole of Lithuania was conquered 
and devastated by them. The Poles, bein;; at this time severely 
pressed by the Swedes, found it advisable, after two yean' war, to 
agree to an armistice, whicli was concluded .it Nienietz, in November, 
1656, Austria being on this occision the mediator. Tba Poles agreed 
to oede the provinces of Smolensko, Tshernigow, and Seweria to the 
Russians, for a sum of money. 

Alexei's second war was against Charles Qustav of Sweden, which 
commenced before the armistice with Poland was concluded. The 
cause of complaint on the part of the Russians was, that Guittav had 
hindered the operations of their army in Lithuania. The war was 
long and destructive, but inconclusive, and Alexei at length agreed 
to an armistice with Sweden, which woj signed on the 23nl of April, 
1658, and three years after, on tlie 21st uf June, 1661, was converted 
into a treaty of peace nt K:irdis, by which tbeir former possessions 
were mutually secured to each party, A peace hod also been oon- 
eluded between Poland and Sweden, in 1660, at Oliva; but before its 
conclusion, Uie war between Russia and Poland hod been renewed ; 
this war waa occasioned by the Cossaks on the Dnieper, who had 
revolted from Russia, and sought protection from tbo Poles. It Uutcd 
till 1667, and by an armistice concluded at Andmszow, Itusssia gained, 
in addition to former conquests, that part of the Ukraine on the other 
side of the Dnie|>er of which she bad already got posaession. 

Immediately after tlie conclusion of the Polish war a formidable 
insurrection broke out among the Don Cossaks. Stenko Razuu, a 
Coesak, reaented the death of liis brother, who bad been executed by 
order of a Russian general, and seduced his countrymen to revolt ; 
they burnt and devastated the country from the lower Wolga to Jaik, 
took Astrakhan in 1670 (where Stenko ordered the Woiewod Proso- 
rowskny to be thrown over the walU), and several other citiea. 

Hopes were held out to Stenko which prevailed on him to present 
himself at Moscow, whera he waa executed as a traitor and rebel ; 
aller this, tranquillity was easily restored among the Coasaka. Alexei's 
last war was against the Turks, Lad by tbeir hetman Dorosensky, 
the Saparogian Coasaka had revolted against the Poles, and made a 
treaty of alliance with Mohammed IV., receiving from him the pro- 
vince of Ukraine in fief. From tbia cause naturally arose a war 
between the Polea and the Turks ; and Russia was not alow in inter- 
fering, and demanded that Azow, which originally belonged to Russia, 
and in 1642 had been taken from the Cosnka by the Turks, should 
again be oeded to Russia. But Mohammed's success did not dispose 
him to listen lo the demands of RoasMt : he took the Polish frontier 
fortrsaa Kaminieck, conquered tha whole of PoHolia in le<a than two 
OMmths, aod alarmed the Ruaaians by tha rapidity and suoceas of bis 
oparationa. The King of Poland, Michael, drew no advantage from 
the victory over the Tartan gained by Sobiesky at Kalusso on the 
18th of October, 1672, but made a hasty peace which was diagroceful 
to his country. Bnt the King of Poland's peaoe was rejected by the 
Poliah diet, and Alexei was glad to aisiat even a constitutional power 





in renewing hostilities againat the formidable Turks ; but finding hia 
expected advantages not so great as he anticipated, his zeal abated, 
and be died before a peace with the Turks was concluded, on the lOth 
of February, 1676, in his forty-sixth year. 

AJexei MichiSilowitz did much for the improvement of Russia ; 
agriculture and manufactures were constant objects of his solicitude : 
he invited many foreigners to Russia, especially mechanics, artists, 
and military men, whom he treated liberally. He ordered many 
works, particularly on applied mathematics, military science, tactics, 
fortifiaition, geography, &c, to be translated into Russian ; he enlarged 
the city of Moscow, and built two of its suburbs. He likewise com- 
pletely reformed the Russian laws. He moreover commenced and 
partly effected an extensive ecclesiastical reform, chiefly in matters 
concerning the liturgy. Alexei was twice married ; his first wife 
was Maria lijinishna Miloslawakoy, by whom he had five sons (two of 
whom, Feodor Alexeiewitz and Iwhn Alexeiewitz, were his successors 
on the tlirone of Russia), and seven daughters. His second wife was 
Natalia Kirillowna Narishkin, by whom he had one son, Peter Alexeie- 
witz (Peter the Great), and one daughter, Natalia Alexeiewna. 

ALEXEI PETROWITZ, the eldest son of Peter the Great of 
Russia, and of Eudoxia the first wife of that monarch. He was bom 
at .Moscow, in 1695. From his boyhoo>I Alexis showed a headstrong 
dispueitioD, and an inulination for low pleasures, which, as lie grew up, 
assumed the ckariicter of a decided aversion and opposition to that 
reformation of the ancient manners of the country wiiich it was the 
object of Peter's life to effect. It was in 1710 however, while the 
Czar was absent on bis second tour through Europe, that the Prince 
may be aaid to have first thrown off his allegiance, by secretly quitting 
Russia, and taking Sight to Vienna, whence he some time after retired 
to Naples. Peter, hfiving returned from abroad, foresaw the confu- 
sion and misch'.f which this conduct in the heir apparent might 
eventually occasioc, and went to work with his usual energy to 
counteract and defeat a plan which threatened the destruction of 
whatever he had done for the improvement of Russia. It was some 
time before he succeeded in discovering his son's retreat; but having 
at length learned where he was, he gave instnictions to some noble- 
men, who proceeded to Naples, and induced the prince to return to 
Russia, and to solicit hi) fither's forgiveness. The determined 
character of Peter's extraordinary mind now displayed itself with 
fearful sternness. As soon as ho had secured the person of his son, 
he proceeded to treat him as a criminal. Buiu? deprived of his sword, 
he was brought before an assembly of the clergy and nobility, and 
there compelled to execute a formal resignation of his pretensions to 
the crown. At the same time, effectually to crush the sedition of 
which he was the head, bis principal partisans were all arrested, and 
some of them put to death. His mother was shut np in a monastery. 
But all this was not deemed enough. The prince himself was finally 
brought to trial, and condemned to suffer death. This was in the 
year 1718. The day after he was informed of his sentence, Alexis 
was found dead in prison, and it was given out that he had been 
carried off by some natural illness ; but suspicions have been naturally 
enough entertained tliat a private execution accomplished the end, 
without incurring the ri-iks or inconveniences of a public one. The 
Prince, whoso unhappy career was thus terminated, left a son, a cliild 
of three years old, who in 1727, on the death of Catharine I., became 
emperor under the title of Peter II. He only reigned for three years. 
After the death of Alexis, Peter declare<l hia second son his heir, but 
be also died soon after, to the great grief of bis father. These events 
opened the snccessiou to the Empress, who, on the death of her 
illustrious husband in 1725, assumed the title of Catharine I. 

ALEXLS COMNENUS I., Emperor of Constontinople, ascended 
the throne in lOSl. I'he Comneni were a family of Italian origin 
transplanted into Asia Minor. Isaac Comneuua I., whose fatlier 
Manuel had served the empire with distinction, was elected Emperor 
in 1057 by the troops, in opposition to Michael VI. Isaac having 
abdicated two years after, and his brother John having declined to 
succeed him, the imperial purple was assumed by Constantine Ducas, 
a friend of the Coinneni. After several reigns interrupted by revolts, 
Altxi", the third son of John C'omnenus, was raised by the soldiers 
to the throne, from which his predecessor, Nicephorus Botaniates, 
himself a usurper, was hurled down, and forced to retire into a 

Alexis assumed the reins of the empire at a critical moment. The 
Turks had spread from Peri<ia to the Hellespont ; the frontiers of the 
Daonbe were threatened by swarms of barbarians; the Normans, who 
were masters of Apulia and Sicily, attacked the provinces on the 
Adriatic ; and, to crown the whole, the first crusade came with its 
countless multitudes, threatening to sweep away the eastern empire, 
and Constantinople itself, in their passage. " Yet, in the midst of 
these tempest*, Alexis steered the imperial vessel with dexterity and 
conrage. At the head of his armies ho was bold in action, skilful in 
stratagem, patient of fatigue, ready to improve his advantages, and 
rising from his defeat with inexhaustible vigour. Tlie discipline of 
the camp was revived, and a new generation of men and soldiers was 
created by the example and the precepts of their leader. In a long 
reign of thirty-seven years ho subdned and pardoned the envy of his 
equals ; the laws of public and private onler were rcctored ; the arts 
of wealth and science were cultivated ; the limits of the empire were 

enlarged in Europe and Asia, and the Comuenian sceptre was trans- 
mitted to his children of the third and fourth generation." (Gibbon's 
' Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,' ch. xlviii.) 

The most important event of Alexis's reign is tlie passage of the 
Crusaders through his dominions. His conduct ou that occasion has 
given rise to the most conflicting statements by various historians. 
Alexis had solicited some assistance from the western princes against 
the invading Turks ; but he was alarmed at the approach of hundreds 
of thousands of undiscipliued and riotous fanatics led by Peter the 
Hermit, who ravaged the Christian countries on their way with as 
little scruple as if they had been Mohammeilau. This promiscuous 
multitude however was safely passed by Alexis's care .across tlie 
Bosporus into Asia, where they were drawn by the Turks into the 
plains of Nicea, and there destroyed in 1096. The regular part of the 
expedition came after in several divisions, under the command of Godfrey 
of Bouillon, of several French princes, and of Bohemoud ami Tancred, 
son and nephew to Robert Guiicard, the Norman conqueror of Sicily. 
After a long and painful march the Crusaders encamped under the 
walls of Constantinople. Alexis supplied them with provisions, but 
carefully guarded the city against any surprise on thfir part. Fre- 
quent affrays however took place between the Franks and the Greeks, 
who looked upon their unwelcome guests with as much fear and 
aversion us they did on the Turks. The leaders of the crusaders wore 
admitted to the imperial presence, where they paid homage to Alexis, 
who found means to tame and to conciliate the rude chiefs by gifts, and 
by promises of assistance in their expedition to the Holy Laud, while 
he induced them one after the other to pass quietly over to Asia. This 
being accomplished, Alexis assisted them in the capture of Nicea from 
the Turks, which conquest however he kept for himself. In the same 
manner he profited by the progress of the Crusaders, following as it 
were in their wake, and reconquering from the Turks all the coasts of 
Asia Minor and the neighbouring islands, and driviug the Turkish 
sultans into the interior to the foot of Mouut Taurus. While intent 
upon this, Alexis neglected or forgot to lend any further succour to 
the Crusaders, who were figliting ou their own account in Syria and 
Palestine^ The Latin historians therefore accuse him of bad faith, 
whilst his daughter, Anna Comnena, who wrote her father's life, extols 
his wise policy, dwelling with haughty indignation on the insolence 
and rapacity of the western barbarians. The Byzantine Greeks were 
a refined, but effeminate and corrupt race ; cunuing, suspicion, and 
dissimulation were tlieir principal weapons of defence against the 
headlong violence of the feudal Eemibarbarous Franks. Alexis died 
in 1118, and was succeeded by hia son John Comnenus, a good and 
wise prince. His other son, Isaac, was the father of smother John, 
who apostatised to the Turks, and married their sultan's daughter, 
and through whom, apparently, Mahomet II., oeuturiea aftcT, boasted 
of his Cumnenian descent; and of the famous AnJronious, who, after 
a most adventurous career, usurped the throne in 1183, causing his 
relative, the youthful heir Alexis Comnenus II., to be strangled, 
together with hia mother Maria, the Emperor Manuel's widow. 
Andronicus was himself overthrown and put to a cruel death three 
years after, and iu him ended the Imperial line of the Comneni on tlie 
throne of Constantinople. Andronicus's posterity reigned afterwards 
over the province of Trebizond, with the pompous title of Emperor. 

(See the various Mitlories of the Crunadet, and the collection of tho 
Byzantine Hittoriam ; and particularly the Hillary of Anna Comnena.) 
[Anna Com.nena.] 

ALFENUS VARUS, one of the Roman jurists whose Excerpts are 
contained in the 'Digest.' He was one of the most distiuguishei 
pupils of the great jurist Servius Sulpicius, the friend of Cicero. 
Pomponius (' Dig.' i. tit. 2) states that he became consul, .and it is 
generally assumed that he is the P. Alphinius who was consul a.d. 2, 
and the same person as the P. Alfinius, or Alfenua Varus, of Dion 
Cassius (lib. Iv. Index). But as Sulpicius, the master of Varus, was 
bom B.C. 106 and died B.C. 43, it is not probable that Alfenus the 
jurist could be consul so late as ad. 2. 

Acron, the scholiast (Horatius, 'Sat.,' i. 3., v. 130), has a story that 
Alfenus was a shoemaker at Cremona, who came to Rome, where ho 
became the pupil of Servius Sulpicius, and attained such distiuctiou 
for his legal knowledge that he was made consul and had a public 
funeral. The passage of Horace and the remark of the scholiast 
have occasioned much discussion. (Wioland, ' Horazens Satiron iibur- 
setzt,' note on ' Sat,' i. 3., v. 130 ; Heindorf, 'Des. Q. Horatius Satircn 
orkliii-t.') It is very difficult to form any conclusion from tho passago 
of Horace, though it may perhaps be assumed that he does refer to 
the jurist Alfenus ; but this will not determine whether the story of 
his early life as given by Acron and alluded to by Horace is true, 

Alfenus wrote a work entitled ' Digesta,' iu forty books. He is 
often cited by other jurists. The Excerpts iu the ' Digest' show that 
his style was clear. 

ALFIERI, VITTORIO, w.oa born at Asti, in Piedmont, Jan. 17, 
1749, of a noble and wealthy family. He lost his father when a child, 
and his mother having married again, young Vittorio and his sister 
Julia were placed under the guardianship of their uncle, Pellogrino 
Alfieri. Vittorio at 9 years of age was sent as a boarder to the 
Acadumia, or College of tho Nobles, at Turin. At tho age of 13 ho 
was admitted to study philosophy in the university of Turin. At 
tho age of 14, by the laws of Piedmont, he was master of his own 




only •abjrct to hU ipwrdiaa ia to br m h* ooald not 

tMwMlii Iris monrrtT. He Uimi rntorad Uw wmy, M all yoan( noblo- 

• bouoJ to do, with U>« rank of ciuipi in • prorinewl 

, wkkh in time of pcwse only MnmbM for k few dayi twioa 

At thTiM* af IT k* obtainwl tba Unc'i Imv* to trarel umler tbe 
•Mort of an g-^i* Bobmb CkthoUa tutor. Ua want firat through 
Ifif. aad, hutiam got iM itf Uis tutor, naxt noeaadwl to Franoe, 
vImi* ha m* introdoeail at tlM laroa of Looia XV. at VarniUea. 
Ha «M itniflk with "tha Japitar-lika anpardUoomaM of that 
who stared at tba panoua introdoeed to him without oon- 
_, to aay a wotd to tham." Alfiari'a pride was eridenUy 
rntm Fraaea ka oacna to Bnglaad, with which coontry he was 
ftram tiia firat. AfW apsadinf in EoeUnd the winter of 1 < 68, 
' orcr to HoUaad, wUdi country he liked V>est next to 
Ha attributed the adranti^ea of both to their inatitutioDS, 
tba la^ babit of ntiooal freedom. Hu life was for soreral yean 
and diadpalad. 

ka «rM 

In 1773 ha rstumed to Turin, sad began to write some scenes of a 
drama oo tba aobjaot of Cleopatra. This was his first essay in Italian 
Tetaifieatiao. In 1777- he went first to Siena and then to Florence, 
wbars ha applied himarlf seriously to drsmatia composition. He there 
also made the aeqnaintance of a lady who fixed his heart for ever. 
This waa the wife of Charioa Edward Stuart, called the Young 
Pntaoder [Albakt, Covmtess or], at whoeo bouse most foreigners 
riaited. The lady afterwardi separated from her husband, and retired 
into a conrent at Rome. Alfieri continued attached to her, and 
followed her to sereral placea; at last, after her husband's death in 
1788, it appears that they were privately married, although the 
marriaga waa never made public, and by some is doubted. 

In 1782 Alfieri had completed fourteen tragedies, ten of which were 
printed at Siena. In 1785, the Counteas of Albany having gone to 
live in France, Alfieri also repaired thither, and resided firat at a villa 
near Colmar, and afterwards in Paris, where ha superintended the 
•ditioo of his tngsdiea by Didot. Soon after he published bis other 
mboaUaaaooB wosks at Kebl. Alfieri and the counteas were living 
qoiatiy at Paria, when the French revolution drove them away. 

Alfieri and bis companion hastened through Belgium and Germany 
*»ck to Florence, from which city he never stirred after. Here he 
wrote Ua 'llisi»llo,' a collect iou of satirical sonnets, letters, and 
cfignna, in whMi he has embodied all bis early prejudices and his 
mot* raesBt fselings of dislike to the French people. At 46 years of 
aga be began studying Oreek, and by hia own unasaisted application 
be waa SBs bl ad in two years to understand and translate the Greek 
wiitaia. He lived quietly at Florence^ seeing nobody except the 
ooooteaa and hia old friend the Abbate Coluso, tUl 1803, when an 
■ttaj^ of the gout, to which he was subject, added to hia constant 
apalieation and an extremely sparing diet, Urminated his life on the 
>tb of October, at the i«s of 66. He expired without much pain, his 
"y y " * *"" bifal avldsatly won out The Countess of Albany waa 
S fC_.'' '*** moBaata. He waa buried in the church of 
■"J'^'l"^ ^ Florence Pantheon, where many years before the 
JJP*^^*"** ^^"t;^»'« mauaoleum had inspired him with a desin 
far Htanry fsna. The Ceimteaa of Albany caused a fine monument 
by Onava to be eteetad to his memory. 

AMari ««»^ I»^y the fiirt trsKediea deserriog the name. The 
■■Wai ara atnoUy praaaiiad, tba characters are few, the action one, 
y "T-H*/ * «ibottfiiiaU faiddeDU ; and yet, notwithstanding aU this 
!Vy"*^ **"» *• «> ""wb power in the sentimenta, so much 
■an Mtiiisas to tba laacaag^ aoeh a ooudenaation of aingle paaaion, 
!■■» »a ps tfonaanca of oaa of AlAeri'a tngadiss keeps the audience 
J2«j«awa. Bach at least is tba effect tbey produce upon an Italian 

.- T^_'.^ '.**.?** «««» ot Alfieris playa ; the aotbor has imparted 
S '"***"*' "™!f' oolottring to tba langnaga and the situaUona of 
-r •C^SSEiT^iLl?''"^ with tba fine lyric paaaagsa ezpraaaive 
r.*** «^->" »■ a*«»l'e meotal alieoatieti, give a>^iar alad epic 

'm-J^.C^:.w"* 'Filippo' ia conaidaNd as the next in 
~^i-fg* **■■*** ■°***" •»• on UPwk and Roman aubjeota. Two 
j S TT iCT..^ '^*?y^"°"°°«- Alfieri-s oUssio dnuna U very 
«nmt ftva that of tba FVaoeb ataga; it b chiefly distinguished by 

ita axttame simplicity, the abaenee of all aaperflooas dadamation and 
tadiooa narrative, and the exciting abruptueas of his blank verse. This 
arrangement of words, which has been called harsh, was by him 
purposely stu'lie<l, to supply the deficiencies of the measure. 

Alfieri a abhorrence of the ezeeaaes of the French during the first 
revolution, and of their subsequent servility under military despotism, 
has caused some tu imsgine that he tuul renonnoed all his liberal ideaa 
before bis death. Alfieri's idea of liberty was inseparably connected 
with that of order and aeourity for peraous and property, and he saw 
the Utter violated every day both in Franoe and in Italy. Hia violent 
temper led him aometimee into paradox and seaming contradictiona ; 
but ho waa, upon the whole, an independent, candid, hone8t-hearted 
writer, and hia example and his precepts gave a temper to the Italian 
mind which has not lieen lost 

( I'lYa di VUtorio AffieH da Atli, teritta da Btto.) 

ALFONSO is the name of sevcnil kings of Spain and Portugal, and 
of some kings of Naplea and Sicily. Thia name ia written by the 
Spaniards, Ildefonso, Alphonso, Alfonso, and Alonso ; and by the 
Portuguese, Afibnso. We have chosen the form Alfonso, as being 
that in most common use. 

ALFONSO L, sumamed the Catholic, was chosen King of Asturias 
and Leon in 739. He was the son-in-law of Pelayo, and a descendant 
of King Leovigild. He wrested from the Uoors Lara and SaldaBa in 
Caatile, extended his empire over nearly one-fourth of Spain, and 
inflicted a severe retribution on the descendants of the sanguinary 
hordes of Tarik and Muza. Alfonso founded new churches in the 
towns which he conquered, and rebuilt or repaired tho old ; it is 
owing to his zeal for religion, that the epithet of Catholic was given 
him. He died in 757, and was succeeded by hia son, Frucla I. 
(Mariana, vii. 6.) 

ALFONSO II., called the Chaste, elected King of Asturias and 
Leon in 791, was the nephew of Bermudo the Deacon. Hia reign 
was a continual scene of warfare both against the Moors and against 
bis rebellious subjects. To this king ia attributed the abolition of the 
disgracefiil tribute of a hundred maidens, which tho Spaniards were 
bound from the time of Mauregato to pay to the Moors. The amouia 
of hia sister Donna Ximena with the Count of Saldaiia — tlie wonderful 
exploits of Bernardo del Corpio, who waa the oflspring of thia love, 
against the no less famous French hero Roland — ailao bflong to this 
period. All this history however ia considered by the best critics as 
belonging to the region of fable and romance. Alfonao died about 
the year 843 ; ha was succeeded by Ramiro I., son of Bermudo the 
Deacon. (Mariana, vii. 9, 12.) 

ALFONSO III., Bumamed El Magno (the Great), king of Asturias 
and Leon, succeeded bis father Ordolio I. in 866, at the age of four- 
teen. Successful against hia rebellious subjects and his Christian 
enemies in the beginning of his reign, Alfonso next turned hia attention 
to the Mohammedans, and in thirty yeara of continual warfare his 
arma were always crowned with victory. He extended the boundaries 
of his empire to the banks of the Guadiana. But his son Garcia, 
aided by tne ever-rebellious barons, by hia father-in-law the Count of 
Castile, by his brother Ordofio, governor of Qalicia, and oven by his 
own mother, attempted to dethrone the aged monarch. Alfonso suc- 
ceeding in crushing the rebellion and taking hia son prisoner; but 
fearing the evils of a civil war, he called a junta in 910, and abdi- 
cated the crown in favour of Garcia. After his abdication, he led the 
troops of his eon agaiuat the Moalems, and gained a brilliant victory, 
shortly after which he died at Zamora, in 910. (Mariana, viL 17-20.) 

ALFONSO IV., called El Mouge, the Monk, king of Leon, suc- 
ceeded Fruela II. in 921. Six yeara after hia accession to the throne, 
he abdicated in favour of his brother Kamiro, and retired to tho 
monastery of Sahagun. Within two years he attempted to regain his 
kingdom, but was defeated by his brother, who consigned him to a 
monastery, and sentenced him to the loss of hia eyes. He died ten 
years afterwards. (Mariana, viil 5.) 

ALFONSO V. succeeded his father Bermudo on the throne of Leon 
in 999, being only five years of age. The government, during his 
minority, was intrusted to a regency, which was a very eventful one. 
During it, the great Al-Mansur was defeated, and thia success led to 
tho conquest of Cordova. Alfonao V. rebuilt and repcopled the city 
of Leon, and made some salutary laws in the Cortes at Oviedo in 
1020. He was killed at the siege of Viseu in 1028; his sou Ber- 
mudo III. succeeded him. (Mariana, viiL 10, 11.) 

ALFONSO VI. was the son of Fernando I. He was crowned king 
of Leon in 1066. Fernando had committed the same fault as his 
father in dividing his states among hia children. He loft Leon to 
Alfonao, Castile to Sancho, Galicia to Qaroia, aud the cities of Toro 
and Zamora to Urraca and Elvira, his two daughters. Alfonso and 
Sancho lived in peace with each other only two years. In 1068 
Sancho invaded the states of his brother, took him prisoner after 
some vicissitudes, and confined him in the monastery of Sahagun, 
from which he escaped, aud sought a refuge at the Moorish court of 
Toledo. In 1072 Sancho waa assassinated while besieging Zamora, 
and Alfonso hastened from hia exile to take possession of the vacant 
throne. Asturias, Leon, and Castile acknowledged his authority. He 
inrited his brother Oareia to hia court, and shut him up in the castle 
of Luna, where he remained until his death, and Galicia was thus 
added to tba states of Alfonao. 





Having remained undisputed lord of so large a portion of the 
peninsula, Alfonso turned his arms against the Saracens. He invaded 
Portugal, and made moat of the Moorish petty chiefs his tributaries. 
He afterwards took Coria, and then attacked Toledo ; and had not 
the Almoravides with a powerful army invaded Spain, he would have 
expelled the Moors from the peninsula. He gave his illegitimate 
daughter, Theresa, in marriage to Henry, count of Besangon, with his 
conquests in Portugal, and the title of count. During his reign the 
famous hero Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, surnamed the Cid or Sidi, the 
Moorish word for Lord, performed those exploits which have fur^ 
nished abundance of materials to romance-writers. 

King Alfonso died in 1109, at Toledo, in the seventy-ninth year of 
hia age. His son Sancho having fallen in a battle against the Moore, 
the crowns of Leon and Castile fell to his eldest daughter Urraca. 
(Mariana, ix., x., ch. 8-20 ; 1-S.) 

ALFONSO VU. [Alfonso I., of Aragon.] 

ALFONSO VI IL, king of Castile and Leon, styled the Emperor. 
At the death of hia mother, Queen Urraca, he became king in 1126. 
The misrule of that princess's govemraeut, and the wars which had 
devastated Castile during the latter part of the preceding reignj ren- 
dered the beginning of his own very stormy. Several places were 
held by his step-father, Alfonso VII., until they were subdued, but 
at last the two princes were reconciled, and Alfonso VIII. remained 
sovereign lord of Castile and Leon. About the year 1137 he was 
obliged to march an army into Galicia agamst the Count of Portugal, 
Alfonso Henriquez. Though the Portuguese had the advantage, 
Henriquez sued for peace, which Alfonso readily granted. 

In 1140 he attempted to conquer Navarre, but failed. In his wars 
with the infidels, Alfonso was more auccessfuL He obtained many 
signal victories over them, and advanced the Castiliau frontiers to 
Andalusia. His last battle against the Almohades was undecisive ; 
after which he returned towards Toledo, and died in hia tent in 
August, 1157. At the close of his reign, the military order of Alcilii- 
tara, to which Christian Spain owed so much, was instituted. He 
was succeeded in Castile by Sancho IIL, and in Leon by Femaudo II, 
(Mariana, x., xL, 8-20; 1-7.) 

ALFONSO IX., king of Leon, succeeded his father Fernando in 
1188. He was dubbed a knight by his cousin, Alfonso III. of 
Castile. For a short time the two relatives lived on good terms ; but 
in 1189, a dispute about the possession of some territory in Kstrema- 
dura led to repeated wars. Alfonso first married the Princess 
Theresa of Portugal, from whom he was forced to separate by Pope 
Celestine III. ; he then married the daughter of his cousin of Castile, 
and the marriage was again annulled by the Pope on the same plea 
of relationship. Alfonso then conquered Merida, Caceres, and other 
important places in EUtremadura, and while on his road to Santiago, 
he died at Villanueva de Sarria, in 1230, Hia son Fernando III. 
succeeded to the crowns of both Leon and Castile, (Mariana, xi, xii., 
16-22; 1, 2 ; Chronicle of Alfonso el Sabio.) 

ALFONSO X. of Castile and Leon, surnamed 'El Sabio' (the 
Learned), owing to his legislative, scientific, and literary labours, was 
the son of Ferdinand IIL, whom he succeeded in 1262. Ono of the 
first acts of his reign was so dishonourable that it throws an indelible 
spot on his character. Being discontented with his queen, Doria 
Violante of Aragon, because she had no children, he sent his ambas- 
sadors to the King of Denmark, stating that he was about to divorce 
hia wife, and requesting him to send him one of his daui;hters as a 
bride. The Princess Christina accordingly set out from her father's 
court, and having traversed France and Germany arrived at Valla- 
dolid. By this time the queen had a daughter, and Alfonso was 
reconciled to her, and the Princess of Denmark, mortified and dis- 
appointed in her hopes of an honourable mairiage, died a few months 
•her. In 1253 Edward, the son of Henry III. of England, paid him 
a Tisit. He waa magnificently entertained by that prince, who con- 
ferred on him the honour of knighthood, and married him to his 
daughter, Leonor, commonly called Kleonor. In 1256 he became a 
competitor for the imperial crown, but Richard, earl of Cornwall, was 
elected by a small majority of the Diet. On the death of Richard in 
1271, Alfonso renewed his application, but Rudolph of Habsburg was 
elected. In vain did Alfonso, who had assumed the title of emperor, 
protest against the validity of this new election; in vain did he 
lavish his wealth to form a party in his own favour ; his pretensions 
only served to involve him in perpetual dispute with the secular 
princes of the empire, as well as with the Pope, who, weary of his 
importunities, went so far as to excommunicate his adherents. The 
enormous expense which the ambitious projects of Alfonso entailed 
upon him, and the adulteration of the coin, to which he is known to 
have resorted in order to raise money, made him unpopular with his 
(objects, who began loudly to complain of his expensive follies. 
This state of things was taken advantage of by a few discontented 
borons who formed a league against Alfonso, at the head of which 
was his own brother the Infante Don Felipe. Having obtained the 
assistance of Mohammed L, sultan of Qronada, who promised to make 
a diversion in their favour on the frontiers of Castile, they rose in 
arms in 1270 ; but upon Alfonso promising them that their grievances 
should be redressed, they dispersed, and the most turbulent retired 
to Granada, where they were kindly received by the Moorish king. 

In 1275, during the absence of Alfonso on a fruiUees visit to Pope 

Gregory, then at Beaucaire in France, respecting his pretensions to 
the empire, hia eldest sou, the Infante Fernando de la Cerda, died. 
This was the cause of fresh disturbances, for a question now arose 
whether the offspring of the Infante, who had left two sons by a 
French princess, was to be preferred to the second son, Don Sancho. 
This led to a series of distressing civil wars. Sancho was disinherited 
by a junta at Seville and Wiis solemnly cursed by his father, but he 
succeeded in reducing Alfonso to such extremity that he applied to 
Abd Yiisuf, sultan of Marocco, and requested his aid in money and 
troops, offering to pawn him his crown. The African crossed the 
straits at the head of considerable forces ; Sancho, on the other hand, 
concluded an alliauce with Mohammed II. of Granada, and the civil 
war which now raged was rendered more than usually destructive 
and atrocious by the iuterferenoe on both sides of foreign powers 
professing a hostile religion. Both parties ravaged the country 
without gaining any decisive advantage, until at length Alfonso waa 
prevailed upou to pardon his rebellious son, and to restore him to hia 
favour. He died shortly after, in 1284, in the eighty-first year of hia 
age. The character of Alfonso waa a curious compound of weakness 
and vindictiveness, and of the best as well as of the worst qualities 
of human nature. Upon the whole, fickleness rather than incapacity 
seems to have been hia leading fault. That in the midst of such 
troubles Alfonso should have been able not only to devote himself to 
the cultivation of science and literature, but to acquire learning so 
extensive for the age in which he lived, is really wonderful. Not- 
withstanding the few momenta of rest which his immoderate ambition 
and the revolt of his subjects allowed him, he conferred such services 
both upon his own country and upon the world at large, as few royal 
persons have done, Spain owes to him not only her earliest national 
history, and a translation of the Scriptures, but the restoration of her 
principal university, that of Salamanca, the introduction of the ver- 
nacular tongue in public proceedings, and the promulgation of an 
admirable code of laws. Science is greatly indebted to him for the 
celebrated astronomical tables known by his name, which were still 
universally used in Europe at the beginning of the 16th century. It 
is probable that Alfonso employed in their construction several 
Moorish astronomers of Granada, who visited his court for the express 
purpose of superintending, if not of making them. Their epoch is 
the 30th of May, 1252, the day of his accession to the throne. They 
were printed for the first time at Venice, 1492, 4to, and went subse- 
quently through several editions. It baa been asserted by Salazar 
(' Origen de las Diguidadea Soculares de Castilla y Leon,' p. 1 05) that 
in the promulgation of the body of laws known as ' Las Siete 
Partidas,' because it is divided into seven sections or parts, Alfonso 
had only a small share, that code having been begun in the reign of 
his father Ferdinand III. But this has since been discovered to be 
an error. Ferdinand perceived, no doubt, the defects of the Visigothio 
code, but he never attempted to remedy them, and the task was 
reserved for his son. The revival of the study of Roman law, which 
was then taught in the Italian universities, and hia wish to appear as 
a legislator in the hope of obtaining the imperial crown, the favourite 
object of his ambition, urged him on to the arduous task of legis- 
lating for a warlike and chivalrous nation. How cautiously he pro- 
ceeded in his great design will appear from the fact that his first 
compilation for actual use was the ' Fuero Real,' which consisted of 
ordinances or laws taken from the local ' fueros ' or charters, with a 
few monarchical axioms from the Justinian code, and that neither 
Alfonso nor his immediate successors, Don Sancho el Bravo and 
Fernando IV., attempted to enforce them as the law of the land, 

ALFONSO XI., king of Castile and Leon, succeeded hia father 
Fernando IV. in 1312, being only a few months old. A long series 
of convulsions attended his minority. When ho came of age he 
quieted the intestine disturbances, and seriously pursued the wars 
against the Infidels. He took Tarifa and Algeciras from them, but 
died of the plague while besieging Gibraltar, in 1350. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Pedro the Cruel. (Villasau, Cronica del liey Don 
Alfomo el Onceno; Mariana, xv.) 

ALFONSO 1., king of Aragon, surnamed El Batalladdr, ' the 
Battler,' succeeded his brother Pedro in 1 1 04, and marrying Queen 
Urraca of Castile and Leon, waa styled king of those provinces also. 
This marriage was annulled iu 1114, In a succession of victories he 
rescued from the Mohammedans almost all the territory south of the 
Ebro. He laid siege to Saragossa, and after four years of struggle he 
entered it by capitulation in 1118, and made it the capital of Aragon. 
Iu 1120 he defeated a numerous army of the Almoravides near 
Daroca. Tarragona, Meguinenza, and Calatayud were also among his 
conquests ; and he carried his victorious arms even to Andalusia. 

In 1134 he invested Fraga, when the wall of Valencia, Abea Gama, 
advanced with a considerable force to relieve the town. A battle 
took place, in which the Christians were defeated and Alfonso killed. 
He was succeeded by his brother Ramiro II. 

(Florez, .Sipana Hagrada ; Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris, vol. xi. ; 
Rodericus Toletanus, De Rebua Hispanicia ; Mariana, x. 8.) 

ALFONSO II. succeeded his mother Petronila on the throne of 
Aragon when he was only eleven years of age. He extended the 
frontiers of his kingdom on the side of the Mohammedans, penetrated 
into the territory of Valencia, and aided Alfonso IX. of Castile in 
investing Cuen9a, For this important service Ai-agon was made 




^,_^ ^ to OkMik. AlftxModWiBUM; Md 

l*ia hS An^en ui<l hU Spanuh Hominioni by bb sldeit 
MB, FWdra II. (KodwteM TolaUnat; Manmoa, xt OlS.) 

ALFONSO IIL «M lb* Km oT Pnlro 111., king of Aragon. At 
tiM <i«a<b of bit laib«r io IS85, ba waa ai Itajorcii, wheru he had 
^^^ aaat by bk fatbrr to detlirona bia nooU Jaiina, wko bad uaurped 
lk«Wf««i|Bty of tbat itUod. Haring aoooMdad io bia expadiUoo, 
ha iitwiT'- Ancoo, and found tba Oottaa aaaembUd at Sa r a g oaii. 
TUi bodr aant a dapolalioa «e maak bim at Val<-ncta, to expreai 
' ) at bi* bafiiy MWiiiinil tba tiUa of king proriou* to bis 

jaatdoiarj oatb bafota tbe Corta< of the realm. Mot 

i giaat diSMiltT, and after many tomuHuoua dcbatea, Alfonio 

artnnirlailpil nog, npoo aubmittiog to all the oonditiona 

Mmiccd by tbak body. Hia raign waa oeonpied with wan against 
Piaaea, tba IVpa, and tbe detbroaed King of Majoroa, prodactiTe of 
a« otbar nault than tbe distraaa of the people. He died at Baraelona 
in 1191, aad waa suooeedctl by bia brother, Jaime II. (Zarita, Analet 
<b Artfrnt, tU. ; Uariaoa, xir.) 

ALFONSO IV., son of Jaims IL, ascended the throne of Aragon 
to 1SS7. Tba OaDOfaa not only fomented dissension in his new 
aoMfMHta of Shidinia, bat area darcd to attad him in bis own king- 
tarn. Tbcy made Tariooa desoents on Catalonia and Valencia, but 
wan rapolsed. At homa, his eon and snooessor Pedro mised the 
alaadaru of r«Tolt against him, because his father had given some 
iiiiMinabini to bis half-brother Alfonao. These dissensions were in a 
great maanuo tbe cause of bis death, which took plaoe in Barcelona 
m 1836. He waa succeeded by bis son, Pedro IV. (Zorita, Anala, 
riL ; Mariana, XTi.) 

ALFONSO V. of Angon, and I. of Sicily, succeeded, in 1418, his 
lUbar, Fardinaod L, who had annexed the crown of Sicily to that of 
Ai^on. To these two Alfonso added that of Naples. Queen 
Joanna IL baring adopted him for her heir and successor, Alfonso 
ropairad to Naples, but was driTen away by the party of the Angevin'*, 
baadad by tba famous Sform Attandolo, and the Queen was compelled, 
to 14SS, to name as her soooeaaor liouis III. of Anjon. At tbe death 
of Joanna, in 1436, Alfonao renewed his claims, but was opposed by 
Rao< of Ajijou, who after Louia'a death had been called to the throue 
by tba last will of tba Queen. Tbe court of Rome declared for Heni. 
Alfonso's fleet was attacked near the island of Ponza by the Qenoese, 
who bad taken Bend's part, and was totally defeated, Alfonso him- 
self being taken prisoner. The Qenoese sent him to Philip Maria 
Visconti, duke of Milan, who was then also lord of Genoa. Alfonso 
foond favour with his kee|>er, who waa pleased with his acutenesa of 
mind and bia auperior addrasa, and who, being also jealous of the 
Frsnefa dominion at Naplea, not only restored him to liberty, but 
made an alliance with him. Alfonso repaired to Qaeta, which his 
float bad taken by surprise, snd thence he went into the Abruzzi and 
Poglia, where he found partisans among the nobility. The war 
between bim and Rtu6 was csrried on in those remote provinces for 
Mvoral years, till at last the treachery of the younger Caldora, a coa- 
ihdliai I obia^ rained tba affairs of Rend, and Alfonso advanced 
a g a l mt Naplea in 1448. His soldiers entered the city through an old 

anaduct, and Itoo^ eaeaped by sea to Provence, where he reigned till 
I dfth, tbe last king of tbe bouse of Anjou. Alfonso now fixed bis 
rcaUaoce at Naples, and for the first time since the Sicilian Vespers, 
SieOy and Naples were unite<l under the same monarch. Alfonso 
applied himself to re-eatablish order and justioe throughout the king- 
dom, wkiob bad long beon a prey to miagovemment and confusion 
nnder tbe weak and oofTupt reign of Joanna IL In order to strengthen 
binissif with the uoblu, whose power was very great, be extended 
thair feudal privileges, nnd ha also increased largely tho number of 
tlM ftudatoriea of the crown. In return he obtained of them parlia- 
flMBtary grants of money, or gifts, as they were called, and fresh taxes 
to supply Ui oxpendiUuv. 

Alfouso waa ongaged in frequent disputes with the Popes, which 
wars tortninatad hjf tba treaty of Terraeina in 1443, when ha joined 
tba Papal troopa against FnncoMo Sfona, the son of his old anta- 
gonist, and dispcaaeased him of tbe Marches. Sfona having after- 
wards beooms, Urst, general, and then Duke of Milan, Alfonso joined 
tba Venolkns againat him and bii alliea, tbe Kloreotinet. Tho most 
(k«o<uabla tetnrs of Alfonso's reign is his patronage of letterai He 
alao waa fcnd of tba arte, and to bim Naplea owed several embelliah- 

AKhftso bad no legitimate children, having early sepamtcd from 
Ui wife. For bis natural son, Ferdinand, he procured the Pope's 
ball <4 fegitiiBacy, and left him as bis suocessor to the throne of 
Ks pl sa ; bia farotber John mnaining heir to tbe crowna of Aragon, 
▼iMlK Bwdtoia, and Sicily. Thi« John was aftorwarda succeeded 
by fWwMad, osUsd tho Catholic, who reconquered the kingdom of 
"■piss, whWi continued to be a dspendeuey of Spain for several 

In 1 467 Alfonso smt a fleet against Ocnoa, to favour tbe party of 
tba Adomi taotlo n, which l«-l been exiled ; the city was hsnl preswsd 
by Ibo badagan^ when Alfunso <lic<l at Na|>le«, on the 17th June, 

ALFONSO IIL, of Caalila (prsvioos to the union of Castile and 
Laos) waa only tbrr* years of age at tba daatb of bis father, Sancho 111., 
to IIM. Mis HinorHy wta a »ety alanay one. The two fiunUies of 

Caatroa and Laras quarrellod for tbe guardianship of tbe young Ung, 
and eaosed much blood to be shed. Alfonso married Eleanor, daughter 
of Henry II. of England, in 1170, and from that time he exercised 
the legal autliority without control In 1195 be waa defeatO'l by the 
Alraobadea at Alarcos, but he avenged this aflflront in the famous 
battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, where he destroyed the mo<t nume- 
rous army that ever crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, after the firot 
invasion. [Almohades,] Shortly after this memorable victory, be 
died at Qarci Mulkoz, in 1214 ; ha was succeeded by his son Enrique L 
(Mariana, zL, xii.) 

ALFONSO L, king of Portngal, was the son of Henry, count of 
Beaanron, who held Portugal in fief with the title of count At his 
fathers death, in 1U06, Alfonso being only two years oM, hia mother 
governed the state in his minority, and he was forced to apply to arms 
before he could wrvst the sovereignty from her. 

After a short war with Castile, he assembled his army at Coimbro, 
with a view to attack the Infidels. The King of BaJajoz and four 
other Moorish chieftains also mustered an army, far superior in num- 
bers to that of the Portugueae. Tbe struggle was severe on both 
sideaj and at last victory declared for the Cluistlans. An incredible 
multitude of Africans remained dead on tbe field, the number of 
which is estimated by the Portuguese historians at 200,000. In the 
exultation of victory, the Count was proclaimed King by his followers, 
which title he assumed from tbat day. This battle was fought in tbe 
plains of Ourique, in the province of Alemtejo, in the year 1139. 

In 1146 Alfouso took by assault the fortress of Santurem from tbe 
Saracens, and put to the sword all its inhabitants without distinction 
of age or sex. In the next year he took Lisbon, when tbe fleet of 
English crusaders, who were going to the Holy I<and, rendered him 
very eifeotual assistance. He afterwards reduced Cintra, crossed the 
Tagus, and possessed himself of several towns in l-jrtremadura and 
Alemtejo. In 1158 he reduced Alcazar-do-Sal after a siege of two 
months. In short, Alfonso almost freed all Portugal from the yoke of 
the Saracens. 

This king, the founder of tbe Portuguese monarchy, was not a 
warrior only — be waa also a legislator. Under bis reign a code of 
laws was promulgated at the Cortes of Lam^o. These laws chiefly 
treated on the sucoesaiou to the crown, the duties of tbe uobles and 
the people, and tbe independence of the kingdom. 

Alfonso died iu 118S, at Coimbra. He was succeeded by his son 
Sancho I. 

(Braudnon, ifonarchia Lmitana; Chrcnicon Lutilanwn; Mariana, 
X., xL ; Lemos, ix.) 

ALFONSO II. ascended the throne of Portugal in 1211, on tho 
death of his father Sancho L The principal event of his reign was 
his dispute with the church by attempting to subject the clergy to 
personal military service, and their possessions to contribute the 
same as the laity towards tbe support of the state The cousequence 
of these measures was that Pope Honoriua III. placed the kingdom 
under an interdict. Alfonso was forced to yield, and wa^ pardoned on 
bis promise of making ample satisfaction for bis past offencea. Before 
be could fulfil his promise be died, in 1223, and wsa succeeded by his 
son, Sancho 1 1. (Uoderious Toletanus, viil ; Lemos, xii.) 

ALFONSO III. succeeded his brother Sancho II., in 1248. Before 
his accession, he was a poor exile in France. His brother having 
been deprived by a decree of the Pope, Alfonso sailed for Lisbon, and 
on his arrival was received with enthusiasm by all classee of the 
nation. Sancho finding himself deserted by his subjects, retired to 
Toledo, where he died in 1248. Alfonso made some few conquests 
from the Mohammedans, and died in 1279; he was succeeded by his 
son Dennis. (C'Aronicon Conimbricaue ; Mariana, xiiu ; Lemos, xiii.) 

ALFONSO IV., Bumamed the Brave, ascended the throne of 
Portugal on the death of his father Dennis in 1325, agaiust whom he 
had been in rebellion several times. Through tho iotrigues of tho 
Infante Juan Manuel, he became embroiled with his souiulaw 
Alfonso XI. of Castile ; and scarcely was bis dispute with the Costiliau 
settled, when he had to encounter disturbances of a more serious 
nature, in the unlawful intercourse of bis son Pedro with Inez do 
Castro his mistress. His own weaknesa, and a mistakeu zeal for the 
welfare of his kingdom, induced him to give his consent to ttio 
barbarous mui-der of that unfortunate lady, which plunged tbe Htnto 
into a civil war. Pedro raised the standard of rebellion agaiust hii 
father, and possessed himself of almost all tho north of Poilugal. 
After much bloudalied a recoucili.ttion was i fleeted between father and 
son, and not long after Alfonso dietl, tormented by the remembrance 
of liis murderous deed. His death took place in 1357, and be was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Pedro 1. {^Chronicon C'onimbncauc ; Lemos, xvii) 

ALFONSO V. was tho son of Duarte. At tho death of his &tber 
in 1488 he was only six years of age. His minority was very disturbed 
and eventful. In 1446, Alfonso hating reached his fourteenth year, 
seized the reins of government, and suppressed a rebclliou raised by 
bis uncle Pedro the late regent. In 1457 Alfonso fitted out an expe- 
dition againat the Moors. He landed in Africa with 20,000 men, and 
took Alcazar, Seguer, an<l Tangier. He also engaged in an unfortunate 
war with Castile ; and not long after, having concluded a peace with 
that nation, died of the plague in 1479. lie was succeeded by his 
son JoAo II. (Ruiz de Pina, Chronica do Stnhor Stp Dom Affoiuo V. ; 
Mariana, xxL ; Lemos, xxrl) 





ALFONSO L, of Naples. [Alfonso V., of Aragon.] 

ALFONSO IL, of Naples, son of Ferdinand I., and grandson of 
Alfonso I., was the chief cause of the famous revolt of the barons 
under his father's reign, and of the cruelties that followed. On the 
death of Ferdinand In 1494, he succeeded to the throne ; but tlie 
approach of the French under Charles VIIL frightened him, and he 
ran away before he ha^l complete<l one year of his roign. He retired 
to a convent at Messina, and died soon after. Ferdinand II., his son, 
sneceeded him, and, with the assistance of the Spaniai-ds, drove away 
the French ; but dying in 1496, was succeeded by his uncle Frederic, 
-■Vlfonso Il.'a brother. (Guicciardini, Storia d' Italia; Porzio, La C'un- 
giura dei Baroni.) 

ALFRAGANIUS. properly AL-PARGANI, or with his complete 
name, AKmed-hen-Kothair-Al-Fai-gani, was a celebrated astronomer, 
who flourished under the reign of the Abbaside Kalif Mamun, in the 
earlier part of the 9th century of the Christian era. He was called 
Al-Fargani from his native place, Fargana, a town and province iu 
Transoxiana. We possess an elementary treatise on Astronomy by 
him, cliiefly founded on the system of Ptolemajus, which was printed 
with a Latin translation and notes by Golius in 1669. 

Great, king of the West .Saxons in England, was bom in 848 or 849, 
at Waoading, or Wannating, in Berkshire, generally supposed to be 
the village now called Wantage, which was then a royal town, and 
had been originally a Roman station. His father was King Ethcl- 
wulf, the son and sncccssor of Ei-bert the Great; his mother was 
Oaburga, or Osberga, daughter of Oslao the Goth, who held the high 
office of royal cupbearer (fnmosus pincerna), and was of the race of 
the sub-ki'igs of the Isle of Wight, who were sprung from a nephew 
of Cerdic, the founder of the West Saxon kingdom. Ethelwulf, who 
had been brought up aa a monk, had come to the throne above twelve 
years before the birth of Alfred, who was the youngest of his four 
sons. The favourite of both his parents, Alfred is supposed to have 
been from the first designed by Ethelwulf to succeed him on the 
throne ; and it was probably with this view that the boy was sent to 
Rome with a splendid retinue in 853, when, we are told by his bio- 
grapher Asser, the Pope Leo IV. bestowed upon him the royal unction, 
and adopted him as his son ; and that two years after Ethelwulf him- 
self took him a second time to Rome, and remained with him there a 
whole year. It was in returning through France from this visit that 
Ethelwulf fell in love with Judith, the young and beautiful daughter 
of Charles the Bald, king of that country, and was married to her in 
October 856, after a courtship of three months. It is natural to sup- 
pose that his former wife, Osberga, must have been dead when he 
contracted this new alliance. Yet Asser tells a story of Alfred having 
been first induced to learn his letters in his twelfth year by his 
mother (mater sua) tempting him and his brothers with the promise 
of a Saxon book of poetry, which she said she would give to the one 
who should first learn to understand and recite its contents. At this 
date .lu'iith had cease<l to be even Alfred's step-mother; Ethelwulf 
had died not long after his return home, and she had become the 
wife of Etbelbald, his eldest son. In 863, in his twentieth year, Alfred 
niBrried Alswitha, Elswitha, or Ealswitha, the dausjhter of Ethelred, 
Bumamed Hucil (thatis, the ' large '), a nobleman of Mercia. Alswiiha's 
mother, Eadbarb, was of the blood of the Mercian kings. During 
the festivities at the celebration of his marriage, Alfred, as Asser tells 
\x», was suddenly seized before the assembled multitude with a dis- 
tressing malady for which the physicians had neither name nor cure, 
and the attacks of which continued to torment him daily down to the 
time at which the biography professes to bo written, when Alfred was 
in his forty-fifth year. 

King Etheltwld bad been succeeded in 860 by hia next brother 
Ethelbert; aud Ethelbert having also died in 866, the throne at the 
time of Alfred's marriage was filled by Ethelwulf 's third surviving son, 
Ethelred, or Ethered (notwithstanding that Ethelbert appears to have 
left at least one son). At the time of bis marriage, Alfind, Asser tells 
us, held the rank of Secundarius, whatever that may mean. This 
title or rank, which be retained till he became king, he appears to 
bave enjoyed even before Ethelred came to the throne; for a little 
lower down he is spoken of as having been Secundarius while his 
brothers lived. During the reign of Ethelred he probably took s 
more active part than the king himself in the direction of public 
afiairs ; Asser's narration at least represents him as associated with 
his brother on all occasions, both in war and negotiation. Ever since 
the last years of the reign of Egbert, who died in 835, the Scandi- 
navian sea-rovers, or Danes, as they were called, had harassed Engknd 
with one descent after another ; on some occasions wintering in the 
country, aud holding the district where they settled iu complete 

subjection. Indeed it is probable that the effect of these invasions had 
already been to intermix a considerable number of foreigners with 
the native population of the eastern and northern counties. But the 
first year of the reign of Ethelred saw a hostile armament approach 
the coasts so formidable as to be evidently designed for nothiug less 
than the entire conquest of the island. It was uuder the command of 
three of the sons of the celebrated Ragnar Lodbrog, twenty-eight 
others of whose relations and associates, styling themselves kings aud 
earls, were captains in the fleet. Disembarking in East Anglia, the 
foreigners passed the winter in that kingdom ; in the spring of the 
next year marched into and overran Northumbria; and iu 868 crossed 
the Humber, and occupied part of Mercia. Both Mercia aud East 
Anglia, the only other kingdoms of the old Heptarchy, with the excep- 
tion of Northumbria, that still subsisted, had ever since the reign of 
Egbert been accustomed to look up to Wesaex as, if not actually their 
superior iu the feudal sense, at least the leading member of tlie An^lo- 
Saxoa confederacy of states ; and in this emergency Burrhed the 
Mercian king and his nobles immediately sent messengers to King 
Ethelred aud liis brother Alfred to supplicate their assistance iu 
repelling the invadei-s. The two brothers thereupon collected an army, 
with which they udvauoed as far as the towu of Nottiugham (Scuoten- 
gaham), where the Danes lay ; but the pagans, to use Asser's terms, 
refused to come out to battle, and the Christians were not strong 
enough to force their entry into the town ; so that the latter fouud 
themselves obliged to return home without effecting anytliiug, and 
the Mercians made the best peace they could with their enemy. The 
Danes now retired to York, iu the dominion of the Northumbrians, 
and remained there a whole year. In the spring of 870, embarking 
on the Humber, they landed at Humberstan in Lincolnshire, devastated 
all the eastern part of Mercia, and then passed into East Anglia, where 
they in like manner carried everything before them, and having seized 
and put to death King Edmuud (the St. Edmund of the calendar), 
set Oodrun, or Guthruu, one of their own leaders, on the vacant 
throne. After wintering in Thetford, their army, in the spring of 
871, advanced into the dominions of the West Saxons, aud taking 
possession of the royal towu of Reading (Raedigam), on the third 
day after their arrival, sent out part of their force mounted to plunder 
in the neighbourhood, while another baud employed themselves in 
erecting a defensive rampart on the right (that is, the west) side of 
tho town from the Thames to the Kenuet (Cyuetan). Tlie latter were ' 
attacked by Ethelwulf, earl of Berkshire, near the village of Ingles- 
field, and edfter a sharp conflict defeated, with the loss of one of their 
captains. Four days after, Ethelred and Alfred appeared with their 
forces before Readiug, when another engagement took place, which 
ended in the defeat of the Cliristiaus, Earl Ethelwulf being among 
the slain. After four days more the two armies met agaiu at a place 
called Aescesduu (probably Aston, near Wallingford), when the impo- 
tuoiiity of Alfred, who commanded one of the two divisions of the 
Saxon force, and who, Asser says, on tlie relation of an eyewitness, 
led his men to the attack with the courage of a wild boar, nearly 
lost the day ; but, Etiielred couiing up (after saying his prayers with 
unusual deliberation), the Saxons recovered themselves, and in the 
end the fonigners were defeated with great slaughter, and pursued 
back into Reading. A fortnight afterwards however, in another 
battle fought at Basing in Hampshire, the victory fell to the Danes ; 
and soon after this they were joined by another body of their country- 
men from beyond seas. Another battle, not noticed by \'ieev, but 
mentioned both in the Saxon Chronicle aud the Chronicle of Mailros, 
took place about two months after at Mertune (probably Morton, to 
the north-west of Re.iding), iu which the Danes were agaiu successful ; 
and in this conflict King Ethelred received a wound, of which he died 
soon after Easter 871. Upon this Alfred was immediately declared 
king, with the universal consent of all ranks of the people. Asser 
iutiuiates that he accepted the (jrown witli some reluctance, as dread- 
iug that he should never be ablo alone to sustain the hostility of the 

The first seven years of Alfred's reign abundantly justified this 
apprehension. The events of this space, as far as they are to be 
collected from Asser, the Saxon chronicler, and otlier early authorities, 
whose narratives however are iu many particulars very confused and 
iudistinct, are as follows : — In the of the year iu which Alfred 
ascended the throne (including apparently the portion of it that had 
elapsed before the death of Ethelred) eight or nine great battles, 
besides innumerable skirmishes, were fought between the Saxons and 
the Danes, iu most or all of which the Saxons seem to have been 
worsted. All that we are told is, that, after this course of ill success, 
Alfred made a peace with tlie invaders, on condition that they should 
leave Wesscx ; it is probable that he bought them off by a payment 
in money, or at least engaged to stand aloof while they fought out 
their quarrds with the other states. We know, at any rate, that they 
now overran the rest of the country without any further attempt ou 
his part to interfere with them. Having collected their forces at 
London, and wintered there, they waited for another year, till their 
strength had grown by accessions from their native north, and then 
sallying forth, they soon reduced both Mercia and Northumbria, 
pushing their conquests iu the latter direction as far as to the British 
kingdom of Strathclydc, in the heart of what is now called Scotland. 
Alfred appears to have remaiued quiet till tho year 875, when we are 





toU by Aaw ba Mvcad riz of th* sUp* of Uw piCMM U ■••, knd took 
«a*orthM.tlMOliMniiMUaf tk«irMe>|ML Thii nnu to har* brought 
llMn dewa ho^b ■P''* Wmmx Tbo not jmr, taiuing from Uirir 
■hW qawta* a Qmbridc* (anurtebi7«(«) bw night, » powerful 
bo4r «f tbMi, takii^ to mn wtd iiUUac bmc tb« •oalb ooMt, lor 
Lriad tb* «Mll« «( Wanbain in DanaMbin^ aad Alfrad wu obligsd 
lo brib* tb«n by • •«m of monajr to Unt bU domiuiona. Thajr did 
904 kowvvar kavp their oatha, tboogb ha bad awom them both ia the 
py^ and the Cbrfaitian (aahioa, but *oon after, attacliiug him in the 
iSl, tb«y alew all bia oafaby. and aaistng the horaaa, rode away on 
IhMB to Exatar, wbare tbqr aattled for tha winter. Enoounged by 

kk lata aaral ii. AU^«d ordarad boata and galleya to be built 

la dil««Bt porta, and manning them, AaMr tella ut, with pintei, 
■tatlnniil tbam to guard tba aaa, wbila, in the apring of 877, he 
w^mt^ffA at tba bead of a land foroa to Exeter, to expel the intnidera. 

rto Aaaar, tba Oeet attained ISO ahipa of the Danea which 
to the aadataaoa of their oouotiymen, and drore them 
I all on board pcriihed ; but it doea not appear that the 
kii^ Tentuvd to beaiegi tboae who bad taken poaaaaaion of 
; all that ia alatad k, t£tt another treaty waa concluded, and 
Minthar pnMaiaa giran \>j them on oath that they would aoou take 
tbair dapartare ; aiid in net in the month of August tliey removed 
faito Mereia. Bat they returned in the begiouing of the next year, 
878, in angmMitad uumbera ; and now they appear to hare met with 
BO i«aiitaaeaL Marching to Clup|>enham, they took poaaeasion of that 
loyal town, and making it their bead-quartera, aent out theuce thetf 
nniTi (.fi»t- |r banda OTer all the anrrounding country. Of tha nativM 
•eoa fladbeyood aaaa; thoaa who remained behind univerMlly sub- 
mhtad to the invadera, and AUVed himaelf, at 6rat attended only by a 
inr of bb nobility and aoldien, afterwarda without any followers, 
waadarad about in tha woods and marsfaee, till at last he found what 
uf Ofa d a aacure hiding-place in the hut of a poor peasant, who with 
bia wife tended a few oowa on a amall elevated piece of ground rising 
among the manbea on tha north bank of the Tone in Somersetshire, 
and atill known by tha name of Athelney; that is, Atbeliug-Eye, 
maanlng tha island of the noUea, or the ro^ island. He is said to 
baT* ra:>reeented himself to the cowherd as one of the king's tlianea, 
anapad from a rout of his countrymen. 

Statamonta are found in Tsrious old writers which distinctly impute 
to AUVed up to this time of his life a character and conduct in some 
reapaeta Tery different from what he afterwards displayed. Mr. Sharon 
Toner, who waa tha firat among the modem biographers of Alfred to 
mrtlTia tUa eircamatance, has, in bis ' Hiatory of the Aoglo-Saxoas,' 
oollartnd and exbibilad the ooncurriug testimonies in question with 
diUganoe and oleanieas, and with a good sense and right feeling, very 
oalSu tba spirit in which bia diacoTerios have been aeized upon, and 
abaurdly produced as a proof that all the so-called greatness of the 
Anglo-Saxon king is the mere creation of modem ignorance and 
bombast. It ia ooojeetared by Mr. Tumer that the facility with 
whiall tha Danaa appear to have at last obtained oompleto poaaeasion 
of Waasex may be accounted for on the supposition that Alfred 
had lost the sttaehmeot of his subjects through his uiisgovemmeot 
•ad bis immoralities ; and he reats this upon the belief that Asser 
•ay* that ba balisTed tbia adversity which befel the king happened 
to bim not undaearvedly, " baeause, he goes on, " in the first part 
of bia reign, when be waa a young man, and governed by a youthful 
adad, wtiim the men of his kingdom and his subjecta came to him and 
baaought bis aid in their neoesaitiea, when they who were depresse<l 
by tba powerful implored his aid and patronage, be would not hear 
tbam, nor aSord them any assistance, but treated them as of no esti- 
mation." This part of the proof may be aet aside ; it having been 
aaeartained that tlie passage is an interpolation of a later period. (See 
Pi a fa ea to ' Monnmeoto Historica Britannica.') The well-known story 
of kja being aeoldad one day by the oowhard's wife for allowing some 
loavaa, or cakaa, to bum which abe luul left bim to watoh, is told in the 
aaaiant Saxon and Latin Livea of St. Neot, which are in the Cotton 
Lihtaiy. According to William of Malmeabury and other later chro- 
aielen, the cowherd, whose name was Dennlf, having aftecwards, on 
AUVad's recommendation, applied himself to letters, was made by 
bia Bi aho p of Wincheatar, sotd was the same Denulf who died occupant 
«l that aaa in 909. After some time Alfred appears to have discovered 
hhaaslf to some of bia (Henda, or to have been diaoovered by tbam ; 
•ad ba waa abw Joined in his retreat br bia wife, if another atoiy be 
tnie wUeb ia told by Etbelward, Ingulfns, and Simeon of Durham, 
aboot bia ooa day ordering their acanty atore of breid to be divided 
whb a beggar who came bnngry to the door, although they bad no 
twiuaillala prOipMt of a further supply ; an sot of kind-beartedneaa 
«Uth, asMgbt ba expaoted, the monkiab narratora make to have bean 
fa »« b <W»fc booatifiilly TMompaised by Heaven, betidea embelliabing 
tka laaideet with suadry otbar miraculous circumstaucei. It is caT 
that Alfred raaiainad at Athelney about five months; but 


Iter part of bia time ba had an armed body of his sub- 

witb him, and tba place bad been converted into a well-defended 

bnm wbiah iaoonloM ware frequently made into the 


taf ao awhy, th « baaraa aad graoariea of 'bane or recreant 
ladiflbnalty, wa era 

resolved to attaok tbcir main army, which was encamped 
" ~ """ Wilt- 

tol^ to repleniab the royal larder. 
ir main army, which was encai 
Hill, betwaaa BddingtMi and Wastbniy in 

ahira. Ilia principal adherents having gathered on bis summons at n 

Elace known by tiio name of Egbert's Stone in Selwood Forest, he led 
ia united forces to a hill at a short distance from that occupied by 
tba Danaa, encamped im it for the night, and next morning coDiluctoil 
them to the attack. Tho Kortbmen were defeated with great slaii|;hter, 
and those who eacaped were beleaguered in a neighbouring fortified 
plaoe in which they hod abut themselves up, and after a short time 
were compelled to surrender at diacretion. The romantic adventure, 
mentioned by several of the old historians, of Alfred making bis way 
into the DaiUsb camp, and into the tout of the king, Qorm, Quthrun, 
or Oodrun, in the disguise of a harper, i« said to have happened the 
day before this victory of Kddiiigton, or Elhandune, gained early in 
May 878, which reatored him to his throne, and compelled the 
foreigners to quit Woesex without another blow. Qodrun even 
consented to Alfred's proposition that he and his followers should 
become Cbriatians ; he himself was baptised by the name of Atbelstan, 
Alfired standing as his godfather ; and it waa thereupon agreed that 
the converted Danes should occupy in peace the whole of the country 
called East Anglia, including the modem countiea of Norfolk, Suffolk, 
Cambridge, and perhaps Essex, with the small portions of Huotingdoo, 
Bedford, and Hertford, that might lie to the eastward of the old 
Koman road called Watling-street. A foruial treaty to that effect, the 
tonus of which have been preserved, was concluded between the two 

The effect of this arrangement was, that the Danes, no longer 
regarded as foreigners, were established in the dominion of a consider- 
able portion of Kugland, and iu the occupation of the country to a 
much greater extent ; for the population both of the northern countiea 
constituting the kingdom, or the two kingdoms, of Northumbria, and 
of the midland districts forming the kingdom of Mereia, waa also by 
this time in great part Dauish as well as that of £^t Auglia. The 
only part of the couutry that remained purely Saxon was the kingdom 
of Wessex (with which Kent and Sussex had long been incorporated), 
comprehending the region to the south of the Thames, or the modem 
countiea of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hants, Berks, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, 
Devon, and so much of Cornwall, as had been wTestod from tlie Britona. 
It has however been held by some that even in East Auglia Alfred waa 
understood to have reserved to himself the supreme dominion ; and 
it appears that, at least within a few years from this time, the whole 
or nearly the whole of Mereia fell under his power, and was given by 
him to be ruled by Ethelred, to whom he afterwards gave his daughter 
Ethelfleda in marriage. In Northumbria also he exercised a predo- 
minaut influence; and in S93, after the death of Qutbred, whom he 
had appointed king ton years before, he took the government of the 
country into his own hands. Meauwliile Quthrun had continued to 
reign in East Auglia till bis death iu 890, wUeu, according to the Danish 
historians, he was succeeded by another prince of the same name ; but, 
a few years aftor this kingdom also appears to have returned under the 
sway of Alfred, who may therefore be regarded as having been from 
about the year 894 king of all England. In the interval between bis 
restoration to his ancestral throne of Wessex and this dato be bad becm 
unremitting in his exertions both to re-establish order within his king- 
dom, and to strengthen it against oxtomal enemies. Ingulfus states 
that he divided it into hundreds and tithing^ with a view both to 
police and to military defence ; and that he not only restored the 
cities and castles which had boon destroyed or had fallen into ruin 
during the recent wars and confusions, but constructed additiona 
fortifications wherever they were required. He also engaged with 
ardour in the building of sliips, so that he was in a few years mastor 
of a respectable navy ; and, if wo may rely on the accouuta of Asser, 
the Saxon chronicler, and other ancient authorities, Alfred may be 
regarded as the true founder of this great English arm of war. 

In 894 a new invasion of Northmen, uuder a leader, Hastings, who 
bad already made his name torriblu by various descenta on the coast 
and incursions into the heart of France, once more involved England 
in a war, which was protracted over more than three years, and in the 
course of which nearly every part of the country, of tho interior as 
well OS of the coasts, was at one time or other the scene of bloodshed 
and devastation. The Northmen made their appearance in two fleets ; 
one consisting of 250 vessels, which landed its armed multitude on 
the south-west coast of Kent, near llomney Marsh ; the other of 
80 ships, under the conduct of Hastings himself, who, leading them 
up the Thamea, and thence into the East Swale, disombnrkeil his 
forces at Milton, near Sittingboume. Alfred immediatoly threw him- 
self between the two armiea ; and when, aftor confinmg itself for 
some time to iU encampment, the one which had landed on the south 
coait suddenly plunged into the iutorior, and attempted to cut across 
the country and effect a junction with the other by a routo to the 
weet of where he was stationed, he pursued and overtook it at Fam- 
bom, in Surrey, where an engagement took place, which soon ended in 
the defeat and flight of the Danea, The pursuit was continued across 
the Thames, and then across the whole of Esiex, till the foreigners 
took refuge in the small lale of Mersey, at the mouth of the Coluc. 
While Alfred lay blockading them here, an armament of a hundred 
ships, fitted out by the revolted Danish colonista of East Anglia, 
paaaed the North Foreland, and, sailing along the southern coast as 
far as Exeter, attacked that city ; and another fleet of forty vessels, 
which had aet sail from Northumbria, hod made its way round by 




the northern extremity of the islam), and reached the Bristol Channel. 
On receiving this intelligence, Alfred immediately marched across the 
country to Exeter ; and he soon rid that city of its assailants, who, 
sailing away to the east, attacked Chichester, but were there driven 
off by the inhabitants. Meanwhile, Hastings had got out of the 
Swale, and, having been joined by his countrymen from the Isle of 
Mersey, had sailed up the Thames, and was devastating Mercia ; but 
Alfred was soon after them, and pursued them till they threw them- 
selves into a fortress at Buttington on the Severn, whence, after being 
penned up for some weeks and reduced to extremities, they endea- 
voured to cut their way out by a desperate sally, in which some 
thousands were slain and driven into the river. Hastings however and 
a small number escaped to the coast of Essex, where they were joined 
by a large force of East Anglians and Northumbrians, and whence 
they soon after marched across the island in a new direction, and took 
pos.-e8&ion of the town of Chester ; but to this point too they were 
followed by Alfred, and, after ravaging part of North Wales, they 
returned by a circuitous route through Northumbria and East AngHa, 
to the Isle of Mersey, where they wintered. Here also they appear 
to have lain quiet during the whole of the year 895, watched by 
Alfred, who, by digging new canals for the river, is said to have 
drawn oflF the water from their ships, which were moored in the Lea, 
so that they were left immoveable, and had to be abandoned. But in 
the summer of 896 they again suddenly left the east coast, and, taking 
their way through Mercia, fixed themselves at Bridgenorth in Shrop- 
shire, and, though blockaded by Alfred, maintained their ground there 
throughout the following winter. The strength and hopes of the 
invadrra however were now nearly worn out Their leader Hastings 
indeed appears to have withdrawn to France before this time, and the 
long contest which Alfred had to sustain wag terminated in 897 by the 
dispersion of some and the capture of others of a number of Danish 
Tesi^els which attempted to plunder the coast of VVessex. He sent out 
against them, the S£.xon Chronicle tells us, ships of war of a new con- 
■truction, neither like those of the Danes nor the Frisians, but twice 
aa long, and also higher, some of them holding sixty rowera or more. 
Those of the Danish sailora, it is said, that fell into bis hands he 
treated as pirates, sending them to instant execution. 

After the Danes were thus got rid of, a depopulating pestilence 
ravaged the country for three years ; and the lapse of this space, 
unmarked by any other memorable events, also brought the life of 
Alfred to a close. He died on the 28th of October, most probably jn 
the year 901, although one account gives 900 and another 899 as the 
year ; nor is there any documentary or other evidence by which the 
matter can be absolutely determined. By his queen Alswitha he is 
said to have had four sous:— Edmund, who died in the lifetime of his 
father ; BMward, who succeeded him on the throne ; Athelstan, of 
whom little or nothing is known; and Ethelward, who became a 
scholar : and three daughters : — Etbelfleda, married to Ethelred, earl 
of Mercia ; Ethelgora, who became abbers of the monastery of Atbel- 
ney, founded by her father ; and Elfreda or Ethelswitha, who married 
Baldwin the Bald, earl of Flanders. 

Putting out of view the imputations already noticed, which refer 
exclusively to the first few years of his reign, and, rightly considered, 
rather set off and enhance tlie conquest over himself which he after- 
wards achieved, the lustre of Alfred's character, both as a man and as 
a king, is without spot or shade. He is charged with no vice ; and, 
besides the cheerful and unpretending exhibition of all the ordinary 
Tirtues in his every-day life, the untoward circumstances in which he 
was placed, and the afflictions with which he was tried, were con- 
tinually striking out from his happy nature sparks and flashes of the 
heroic and sublime. He triumphed over pain as he had triumphed over 
pasoion ; his active exertions in arms, and his unintermitted labours 
of every other kind, were carried on while he was suffering under the 
torment and debility of a disease which never left him, and which 
probably at lust brought him to hi) grave. The field in which he 
acted was limited and obscure ; but that too makes part of his glory; 
for of all the rulers who have been styled ' the Qreat,' there is no one 
to whom the epithet has been given with more general acclamation 
than to this king of the West Saxons. His fame transcends that of 
niokt conquerors, although he won it all by what he did for his own 
subjects and within his own petty principality ; but probably no king 
ever did more for bis country than Alfred, at least if we measure 
what he accomplished by his means and his difficulties. His preserva- 
tion of it from conquest by the Northmen in the latter part of his 
reign was perhaps as great an achievement as his previous recovery of 
its independence when all seemed to be lost, and the foreigner had 
actually acquired the possession of the soil ; the latter contest at least 
»as much the more protracted one, and appears to have called for and 
brought out more of Alfred's high qualities — his activity, his vigilance, 
his various military talent, his indomitable patience and endurance, 
his spirit of hope that nothing could quench, as well as his mere 
valour. That contest with Hastings too was marked by several 
generous actions on the part of Alfred, not admitting of notice in a 
brief outline, which displayed the magn.inimity of his character in 
tlie strongest light. Nor let it be said that Alfred's heroic efforts 
ifter all proved ineffectual, inasmuch as England notwithstanding was 
at last subjugated by those Danish invaders whom he twice drove off : 
this did not happcD till after more than a century of independence 

Bioa. DIV. VOL. I, 

and freedom obtained by his exertions ; and at any rate liis success, 
even if the Anglo-Saxons had preserved their liberties for a much 
shorter time, would still have given to the history of the world one 
of its most precious possessions, another example of persevering 
courage and strength of heart winning the battle over the darkest and 
most disastrous circumstances. This was a lesson of hope and encou- 
ragement which those who came after him could never lose by any 
change of fortune. The actual improvements in the department of 
the national defence for which his country was indebted to Alfred 
were the already mentioned commencement of the rojal navy, various 
improvements in the building of ships, the protection of the coast by 
(it is said) no fewer than fifty forts or ca^jtles erected in the course of 
hia reign on the most exposed or otherwise important points, and the 
establishment of a regular order of military service, according to 
which one half of the male population of the pmper age was called 
to the field and the other allowed to remain at home in turns, instead 
of the whole, as formerly, being obliged to serve for a limited time. 
In this way the demands both of war and of agriculture were pro- 
perly provided for. Alfred has been commonly represented as a great 
innovator in the civil institutions of the Anglo-Saxons ; but it is 
probable that he attempted little, if anything, more in this depart- 
ment than the restoration of the old laws and establishments of police, 
which had fallen into inefficiency in the confusions and troubles that 
preceded his reign. The body of laws which professes to be of his 
enactment consists almost entirely of a selection from those of Ethel- 
bert of Kent, Ina of Wessex, Offa of Mercia, and other preceding 
kings, with the addition of some portions of the Mosaic code. 
Ingulfus and other later writera attribute to him the division of the 
country into shires, hundreds, and tithings, and the establishment of 
a system which made every man in some degree responsible for the 
peace of his district and for the conduct of every other inhabitant ; 
but it is in the highest degree probable that all this, in so far as it 
does or ever did actually exist, is of much earlier origin. We may 
however believe that Alfred maintained a strict and efficient police in 
his dominions, without taking literally what is asserted by William of 
Malmesbury, that a purse of money or a pair of golden bracelets 
would in the time of this king remain for weeks exposed in the high- 
way without risk of depredation. It may also bo true, as Ingulfus 
relates, that he first appointed a justiciary, or special officer for the 
hearing of causes in every shire ; dividing the authority which had 
formerly resided in a single governor between that functionary and 
the viscount or sheriff. But that Alfred, as has often been said, was 
the founder or inventor of trial by jury, is certainly an erroneous 
notion ; the jury trial of the Anglo-Saxons was altogether a different 
thing from what is now known by that name, and was also undoubtedly 
much more ancient than the time of Alfred. The most important of 
Alfred's patriotic services, and those at the same time of which wo 
have the best evidence, consist in what he did for the literature of his 
country, and the intellectual improvement of his subjects. In addition 
to the establishment of schools in all the principal towns, having him- 
self at the late age of 39 began the study of Latin under the direction 
of some of the learned men whom he invited to his court from all 
parts — Qrimbold or Grimbald of St. Omer and John of Corvei from 
the continent, as well as Asser from St. David's in Wales, and Pleg- 
mund, Werferth, and others from Mercia— he diil not rest fatisQed 
till he had turned his new acquirements to account by translating into 
the popular tongue such treatises as he conceived to be best suited for 
his countrymen. The following translations by Alfred have come 
down to us : — 1. The Pastorale, or Liber Pastoralis Curse, of Pope 
Gregory the Qreat, a directory or manual of instruction for bisliopa 
and other clergymen. Of this all that has been printed is Alfred's 
highly curious and interesting preface. It is given in Latin in various 
editions of Asser, and in other works ; and, with an Eugli-fh trans- 
lation, in Mr. Wright's 'Biographia Britannica,' 8vo, London, 1842. 
" When I thought," says Alfred, in the conclusion of this preface (to 
adopt Mr. Wright's rendering), " how the learning of the Latin 
language before this was decayed through the English people, though 
many could read English writing, then I began, among other divers 
and manifold affairs of this kingdom, to translate into Ejjglish the 
book which is named in Latin Pa.stor»lis, and in English Herdsman's 
Book, sometimes word for word, sometimes meaning for meaning, aa 
I learnt it of Plegmund my archbishop, and of Asser my bishop, and 
of Grimbold my presbyter, and of John rny presbj ter. After I had 
thus learnt it so that I understood it as well as my understanding 
could allow me, I translated it into English ; and I will send omi copy 
to each bishop's see in my kingdom," &c. 2. The treatise of Boethius, 
entitled ' De Consolatione Philosophiaj.' Alfred's translation of this 
work is throughout very free, and contains many additions to the 
original — a fact which, we believe, was first noticed by Mr. Turner, 
who has given an ample analysis of the performance in his ' History 
of the Anglo-Saxons.' The following is the prooemium or preface to 
the Boethius, as translated by Mr. Cardalo ;— " Alfred, king, was 
translator of this bdok, and turned it froui book Latin into English, 
as it now is done. Sometimes he set word by word, sometimes 
meaning of meaning, as he the most plainly and most clearly could 
render it, for the various and manifold worldly occupations which 
often busied him both in mind and in body. The occupations are to 
us very difficult to be numbered which in bis days came upon the 






Uafdawi •Uoh h* had -mferit n ; umI bmmIMmRi who ba >m<I 
Vmrmi lU* Uook. wd tanwd [it] from Ulin iato tb« KnglUh 
UmmI^ ba k(Wr*aiitU eompowd it Id *n-M, •■ It U now dooa. And 
rW| ae* imjr*, aod for God « aaks implorca aTai7 ana of tlioM wkom 
It iWa to nad tbia UM>k. tliat b« wouM pray for him, aod not bUma 
biai if ba OMira (l((htljr uodaralood it tiian b« rouM. For aver; man 
iMBf^ aacordinc to tha maaaara of bia nndarataoiliDg, and aooordiog 
to Mi V^mtn, afwak that wbiok ba apaaka, and do tbnt which ba doaa.*' 
Katwit b itoBdlag wbal ia hara aaid. tba TWaion publiahod hj Mr. Cor- 
dala ajUiibita no Taraa; and Mr. W'rigbt haa atolad aoma oooiidctstiooa, 
freto ablcb ba oooclndaa tbat tba vrne traoaUtiona of tba matrical 
paaMiria bi tba ortgioal, which ara giTsn in Kawlioaon'a adition, cannot 
kava baaa eoai iiu aa il by Alfrvil. 8. The Oaoanil Uiatory of Oroaina, 
fb li abad by tba Hoo. ihunea Barrington, UD<)ar Uia title of 'Tba 
Aagjto-Saxon Varaion from tba ili<torian Onxiua, by Aelfrad tba 
Or*«tt «. »..ii -r ,>jt|, ,„ EngUab Tranalation from tha Anglo-Saxon,' 
^< This traoaUti'in ia rrnuu^abte oa containing, in 

O'i' -'irial text, a nkotcb of the geography of Oarmany in 

Alfr-ii'a o»u day, and a ourioiiii r«l.->tion of two Toyagaa mada in tha 
DortbriB araa, aa girrn to Alfred by tba navigators themaalroa, Ohtbeie 
oad WullatiB. Tltraa Toyagea bad been prariously printed mora than 
ooool *. Tba Ecoiaaiastieal Uiatory of the Kngliab by Bade. This ia 
olaa a vciy free tr an a l at io n, but ita deriations from the original oon- 
aial BMira frrqoantly of abridgementa than of additiona. 6. A trans- 
UtioD of a aaleotion from tba Soliloquiea of St. Augurtine, mentioned 
by Mr. Tomor oa oxtont in the Cottonian manuacript Vitelliiu, A 1 5. 
Of otber worka which hare boan attributed to Alfred, aomr, if they 
a*ar axirtad, ara loat, and othcra, anoh as the loetrical version of the 
Aalaia, tfaDilatiooa of oUier parta of Scripture, and the collection of 
»araoi oalHiad 'Alfced'a ProTarba,' are not beliered to be genuine. 
Alfrad'a will waa pabliabad io tto, at Oxford, in 1788, with a trans- 
latioo aod ootra bj tba Bar. Owen Manning. Alfred's Laws are in 
tba eoUoetioa pubfiahad by Wilkins foL, London, 1721 ; and also in 
tba new Saeonl Commiaaion adition by Mr. Benjamin Thorpe, foL 

(AManu, Ik Aef/rtdi iMas OeKit ; Chronicon Siuonicaai ; Ingul- 
pbtu, Hiilmia MamatttrH Orofkatdetuii ; Will Malmiburienaia Dt 
Gmti§ Jltffum Anglorum ; Lift of Alfred, by Sir John Spelman, 8to, 
l>x/ord, 1709 ; Turner, IliUuty of Ike A nglo-^axom ; Wright, Biograpkia 
JMtamtuea Littraria ; Paulli, Lift of Alfred.) 

ALKUIC, AELFKIO, or KLKRIC, styled idftiiu, or the Abbot, and 
also (Vraaiiaaftciu, or the Orammarian, ia the author, or supposed 
author, of more of the Anglo-Saxon literature that baa come down to 
ua tS-an any other writer. Eighteen distinct worits bare been nttributed 
to bim. It ia not quite certain however that all even of the worka 
tbat boar tba nana of Alfrio ara by the aame writer. In the greater 
munbor of them the author calla himaelf Alfrio the Abbot (in Saxon, 
Abboth; in Latin, Ab.boa); in othera, Alfric the Monk (Monachus or 
Mooue); in a few. Alfrio the Bishop (Episoopns or Biscop). The 
bsugiapby of the Alfho whom these several designations have com- 
"■"•Jy boon all auppooed to' indicate ia extremely obacure, and haa 
bean the subject of much controversy. He was probably bom before 
the middle of tl>e 10th century; and, if wo may believe Matthew 
Pari^ ha waa of very noble deacent, bis father being ealderman or 
earl of Kent In bia Prefitee to Oeneaia be apeaka of having once bad 
a aeeolar or maaa priaat for bia teacher, who ooaroely understood Latin ; 
bat he aftrrwarda became ons of the scholars of the learned Ethel- 
wold, aa be baa himaelf mentioned, both in a I.atin prefnoe to his 
Bwriliaa and in anoiber to bia Qrammar. He probably atudied under 
Slbalwold both at Abtagdon, and aflerwarda in the more famous 
aAool which tbat peroon aaparintended at Winoheater, of which see 
ba boeame bbbop in »«8. Tha naxt fiuit reganling him that ia cer- 
tainly known ia tbat about the year 988 he waa sent l^ the then 
Wabap af Wiaeboater. Alf heh, to take charge of the abbey of Cema 
ia Dnnetahira, at the request of iU founder, Ethelmer, carl of Corn- 
wall Tbia ba talla oa himaelf, in a .Saxon preface to his Homilies. 
He is also auppoaad to have been the Alfric who was bishop of 
Wilton (aow Saliabttry), and then arcUbiahop of Canterbury, and who 
i'*!.'" "*•; *''*'• o*bera MippoM be waa the Alfric, arclibii>hop of 

TujlI ""^ *"** *" **'^'' ^'" '*'**' '•>*«««jg»'''>n °f Ibo hi«tory of 
^"** *^ Oiam mari an, aod the most complete account that has been 
|i*w o* bia worka, ia eontoinad in Mr. Wright'a 'Biographia Ithtannioa 
"5|!f"ria,' vol. i pp. 480-494, under the bead of 'Alfrio of Canterbury.' 

The writings of Alfric attracted the atteution of the reformera in 
tlM letb eaatory, by aome paaaagea (ia bia Paaobal Sermon and elaa- 
wbesa) wbieb ara oppoaad to the Roman CatlioUo doctrine of tiansub- 
ateatistion ; aad tba diaoovrry of tbaaa paaaagea appeara to have bad a 
■Bain inflaonoe ia roviving the aiudy of the Anglo-Saxon language and 
»t»rrtowtTbe aatbor of tbe Preface to Arobbisbop Parker's edition 
" *•• ' ' Wttal g enpow,' atataa aoma oarioua foeu, making it probable 
• PMaagiaiB qvsatioa owad tlieir pteaarvation to the circum- 
_... .. l!^?r* **""• **"• **"""» Cooqnaat having been unable to 

••art tlten. AKHe'a wiMaga alao oontaiu many ootioaa of tbe mannan 
« *^.* *— 'b wbieb lie lived ; and aorae of them are of 
tti. . u^jjiJ^'ir*'^*^.^ Impartonoa in a phil.ilogical point of view. 
- IS." Jfrifbtobaarvea, " ara written in vary easy Anglo- 

M^aad «gf« oa 4ka* aaoamt tbe beat book for tbe student who ia 

ALOABDI, ALXMUlbll^ «, Itrfii. ^pU, ^ ,^,u^ 

chiefly distinguiabod boaraver aa a sculptor. He was tba aon of a silk- 
muroer of Bologna, wbera he waa bom about 1600, or even earlier, but 
the dat<'a given by the various writers who have written notices of him 
are so ooutradictory, tbat it is impoaoible to give a preferrnce with nny 
degive of oertaioty. He entered the oi-lebrated school of the Carraoci, 
but flodiug that aculpture was more auitable to bia taate than painting, 
he became tbe pupil of Qiulio Ceoare Conventi, a sculptor of celebrity 
in his day. " At tbe age of twenty," saya Bvtlori, " ha accompauied 
Oabrialle Bertaxxuoli, the architect, to Mantua, nud won introluct-d to 
the Duke Ferdinand, with whom be ap[)arently became a favnurit', 
aa he received many amnll commisnions from bim fur molds, and wai 
aft«rwar>ls sent by him to Rome with an introduction to tha |>ope'« 
nephew. Cardinal Ludovisi : he arrived in Rome in 1625, The cardi- 
ualemployed him chirfly in tbe restoration of ancient statues ; and he 
received some employment from tbe Koman jeweller*. llis first 
original productions in Kome were two atatues in atuooo, fur the 
Capella Boodiiii in the church of San Silvestro on Monte Cavallo. He 
obtained these commissions through tha iuterceasion of bis friend 
Domenichino : they were a John the Baptist, and a Magdalen, and 
obtained for Algardi a considerable reputetion ; he had however still 
to depend upon the jewellers for support. His patron Ferdinand, 
duke uf Mantua, died shortly after his arrival in Kome ; he quarrelled 
with Doinonichiuo, and fur many years be hod no other occupation aa 
a sculptor than that of restoring ancient fragmenta. But about 1640 
hia proiipecto changed ; he wus chosen by Pietro Buoncompagni to 
execute the atatue of San Filippo Neri for tha sacriaty of the Padri 
dell' Oratorio of Kome ; he made a group in marble of two coloaaol 
figurea, tha saint, and an angel kneeling by his aide presenting him a 
book ; and be displayed so muoh judgment and taste in working the 
marble, that he raised himaelf to an equality with the most favoured 
of bia contemporaries ; and tbe Cardinal Benordino Spoda, in conse- 
quence of the success of this group, gave him a commission to execute 
a colossal group in marble of two figures representing the decapitation 
of St. Paul, for the church of the Podri Beraabiti at Bologna. St. Paul 
waa represented kueeliug, with hia hands bound together before him ; 
the executioner, entirely naked, waa behind the saint, with bis sword 
raised ready to strike. The success of this group was complete ; it is 
teohoioally a work of very great excellence, but in tbe attitudes it is 
forced or aSiocted ; it however established for Algardi the reputetion 
of tbe greatest sculptor of bis age. He now produced many worka in 
rapid succession, chiefly in metel, both for Bologna and Rome. Tba 
principal of these were tbe monument of Leo XL in St. Peter's, and 
Attila checked by St. Leo, an alto rilievo of enormous size, for one of 
the altara of the same church. 

Algardi'a prosperity increased after tbe accession of Innocent X. 
in 1644, whoee niece, Costanza Panfili, was married to Algardi'a friend 
and patron. Prince Nicolo Ludovisi, the nephew of Qregory XV., 
and himself a Bolognese. Don Camillo Panfili, another of tbe pope's 
nephews, entrusted to Algardi the erection of a villa without the gate 
of San Pancrazio, now well known aa the Villa Panfili As an arehi- 
tectural design it is a work of little merit, though it is Algardi'a 
moat Buooessful effort in architecture : it is richly oruamontei with 

Algardi executed also tbe bronze statue of Innocent X., which wod 
decreed by the Roman people or senate in oonaideratiuu of hi« having 
completed tbe CapitoL Innocent built the north-oast wing, or Nuovu 
Palazzo da' Conserratori. The senate had voted the execution of tha 
work to Francesco Mochi : why it was not executed by Moobi does 
not appear ; Innocent probably interfered in Algardi'a favour. Tbe 
fint oaatiog failed ; tbe second however was completely successful. 
Innocent ia represented sitting, giving the papal benediction, and is 
placed in that part of tbe Capital which was built by him. When the 
stetue waa completed, the pope waa so well satisfied with it that he 
placed with hia own bands a cross and chain of gold upon Algardi'a 
neck, and created him a Cavaliere dell' Abito di Criato. 

The Attila, or La Fuega d'Attilo, as it ia called, ia the largest alto- 
rilievo in the world ; the two principal figures of St. Leo and Attila 
ara about ten feet high. The design conteins many other figures, and 
is treated picturiolly, which treatment however involves many disa- 
greeable efieots, OS the parte io high relief cast their shadows upon 
those in low relief, which are intended to be at a greater distance from 
tbe s|>ectetor, and destroy their effect entirely ; the high light alao of 
the principal figures coming in immediate contrast with their deep 
sbadowa, gives an insignificant and mottled effect to tbe accessory 
parts. In addition to these objections, there is another still mora 
detrimental to pictorial effect, tbat is, the fact of tbe shadows being 
vertical oa well oa horizontal, for they fall upon the ground to which 
the figures are attache<l, as well oa upon that on which they stand. 
This altorilievo, however, which is in marblo, is of itself a work of 
great merit, though it may not deserve all the praises it has obtained ; 
Dor perhaps, on the other band, does it merit all the censure it has 
received. (>>uDt Cicognara has aeverely oritiuiaed it. 

Algardi received for it 10,000 scudi, a sum probably equivalent at 
tbat time to fiOOOt. sterling now, and more than two hundred times as 
muoh as bia old friend Uameuichino received a few yeara before for 
bia ' Communion of St. Jerome,' one of tbe fineat pictures in Kome. 
Tha rilievo was executed io great part by Domenico Quidi of Naples, 
aod waa finished in 16S0. 




Algardi died of a fever in 1654. His biographers speak of his cha- 
racter as generally good, though when he became rich he became also 
avaricious ; he was never mairied, and in his youth he was very dissi- 
pated. The bulk of his property was inherited by a sister, whose 
marriage against Algardi'a consent was partly or perhaps chiefly the 
cause of his death. Algardi'a reputation is nearly exclusively that of 
a sculptor, and as such he ranks amongst the greatest of the moderns. 
HU deign is vigorous and natural, and his draperies are well studied ; 
but his style, when compared with the antique, is somewhat vulgar 
and aflTected. He excelled in representing infants. His architectural 
designs, of which there are not many, are purely ornamental; the 
design itself is subservient to its ornaments; they want mass and 

(Passeri, Vite de' Pittori, &o. ; Bellori, Vite de' Pittori, &c. ; Oicog- 
nara, Storia della Scvliura ; Milizia, Opere.) 

ALGAROTTI, FRANCESCO, was bom at Venice in 1712. His 
father was a wealthy merchant. He studied at Rome and Bologna, in 
which latter place he had for instructors Eustachio Manfredi and 
Francesco Zanotti, who afterwards continued his friends and corre- 
spondents. Algarotti made great progress in the study of languages, 
the mathematics, astronomy, and anatomy. Being at Paris at the age 
of twenty-one, he there wrote his ' Neutonianismo per le Dame,' or 
explanation of the system of Newton, adapted to the taste and under- 
standing of female students. This is still considered as bis best work. 
He Dt'Xt proceeded to London, whence he accompanied Lord Balti- 
more to St. Petersburg. He gave an account of this journey in his 
' Letters on Russia,' a country then comparatively little known. From 
Russia he went to Germany, where he became acquainted with Frederic, 
then Crown Prince of Prussia, who was living in philosophical retire- 
ment at Kheinsberg. The prince Was so much pleased with his society, 
that four days after his accession to the throne, he wrote to Algarotti, 
who was then in England, inviting him in the most pressing manner 
to come to Berlin. Algarotti accepted the invitation, and remained 
afterwards in the Prussian capital or at Potsdam the greater part of 
his life, not as a servile courtier, but as the friend and confidant of 
Frederic The king gave him the title of count, made him his cham- 
berlain, and employed him occasionally in diplomatic affairs. He was 
also commissioned by the Elector of Saxony to collect objects of art 
throughout Italy for the gallery of Dresden. For fiveandtwenty 
years from Algnrotti'a first acquaintance with Frederic to the moment 
of his death, their mutual friendship aud confidence were never inter- 
rupted. Towards the latter part of his life, Algarotti, finding the 
climate of Prussia too c>ild for his declining health, returned to Italy, 
where he lived first in his own house in Venice, afterwards at Bologna, 
among his literary friends, and lastly at Pisa, where the mildness of 
the air induced him to remain, as he was evidently sinking under con- 
sumption of the lungs. There he corrected the edition of his works 
then publishing at Leghorn ; the study of the fine arts and music filled 
up the remainder of bis time. In this calm retirement he waited for 
death, which came on the 3rd of May, 1764, in his fifty second year. 
Frederic, to whom Algarotti had bequeathed a fine painting, ordered a 
monument to be raised to him in the Campo Santo, or groat cemetery 
of Pisa, where it is to be seen. It is asserted by Ugoni, in his biogra- 
phy of Algarotti, that Frederic forgot to pay Count Bonomo the 
expense of this mausoleum. Algarotti was an honorary member of 
many universities and academies of Italy, Germany, and England. 
He wa§ the friend and correspondent of moat of the literary men and 
women of his time, among others, of Voltaire, Maupertuis, Metastasio, 
Bettinelli, Lord ChesterGeld, Lady Wortley Montague, Madame du 
Bocage, &c. Besides the two works above mentione<l, he wrote 
' Letters on Painting,' in which he has described several frescoes which 
are now lost ; he also wrote a number of essays on various subjects. 
His works have been swell-d, by the insertion of bis extensive corre- 
spondence, into seventeen volumes, octavo, Venice, 1791. Algarotti's 
style seldom rises above mediocrity ; his chief merit is that of having 
rendered science and literature fashionable among the upper classes of 
his time and country. He was a man of much information and con- 
siderable taste, but of a cold imagination, and not profound in any 
particular branch of leamiug. 

ALIIAZMN, or ALLACEN, properly Al-ffa»an, or, with his com- 
plete name, Abu Ali alHatan ben al-IIaaan ben Haitam, a distinguished 
mathematician, who lived during the earlier part of the 11th century. 
He was a native of Basra. Having boasted that he could construct a 
machine by means of which the inundations of the Nile could be 
predicted and regulated, the Fatimide kalif. Hakim biamr-allah, sent 
for him, in order to carry his plan into effect. But Al-Haaan soon 
found that he had imdertaken an impossibility, and in order to avoid 
the consequences of Hakim's anger at his disappointment, he feigned 
insanity till Hakim died (a.i>. 1020). He lived at Cairo, where ho 
supported himself by copying books, and devoted his leisure hours to 
study and original composition. He died in 1038. A long list of his 
works may be found in Casiri's ' Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana Escu- 
rialensia,' ToL i. p. 415. A treatise on optics, by Al-Hasan, was trans- 
lated into Latin by Risner, and printed at Basil, under the title of 
'Opticae Thesaurus,' in 1572. 

ALI BEN ABI TALEB, sumamed by the Kmhi Asad Allah, and 
by the Persians Shir-i-Khoda, that is, the Lion of God, was the fourth 
kalif or successor of Mohammed in the government founded by him, 

and occupied the throne during the years 35-40 after the Hegira, 
A.D. 655-660. He was the cousin-germau of Mohammed, lived from 
childhood under his care, aud when ten or eleven years old, was, 
according to tradition, the first to acknowledge him as a prophet. 
From these circumstances, and also on account of his marriage with 
Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed, Ali appeared to have stroug 
claims to the commandersliip over the Faithful, when the Prophet 
died, in 632, without leaving male issue. Three other associates of 
the Prophet, Abu Bekr, Omar, and Othman, were however successively 
appointed kalifs, before AH came to the throne in 655. The contro- 
versy concerning the respective rights of Abu Bekr, Omar, and Othman, 
on the one side, and of Ali ben Abi Taleb and his lineal descendants 
on the other, gave rise to the schism of the Suunites aud Shiites in the 
Mohammedan community. [Abu Bbkb.] Othman had been killed 
during a revolt at Medina, where a number of malcontents from dif- 
ferent parts of the empire were assembled; those from Egypt succeeded 
in elevating Ali to the kalifate. Two of his competitors, Zobair and 
Taiha, at first acknowledged him as sovereign ; but when Ali refused 
to appoint them governors of the important towus of Basra and Kufa, 
by the inhabitants of which their claims to the kalifate had been 
cliiefly supported, both deserted him, and in common with Ayeshah, 
the widow of Mohammed, formed a strong party against Ali. Thoy 
had already made themselves masters of Basra, when Ali, at the head 
of an army of 30,000 men, deffeated them in a battle near Khoraiba in 
656. Talha and Zobair were killed : Ayeshah, who had been present 
at the conflict, was taken prisoner, aud sent to Mecca. 

New disturbances soon arose at Damascus, where Moawia, a near 
relative of Othman, had by a strong party been appointed Amir, or 
chief. Ali encountered him near Saffein in 657, iu the neighbourhood 
of which place nearly a whole year was consumed in skirmishes 
between the two armies, but no decisive battle ensued. At last the 
two opponents agreed to withdraw, appointing each a delegate to 
arrange the controversy in a peaceable convention. This me.asure 
excited much dissatisfaction among the adherents of Ali, many of 
whom seceded, and assembled at Naharvan under the command of 
Abdallah ben Wabeb. They were however dispersed after a decisive 
battle in 658, in which Ali was victorious. 

The caution with which the governor of Egypt, Saad ben Kais, had 
conducted himself during these disputes rendered him suspected by 
the kalif. Ali removed him in 658, aud appointed Mohamuied, the 
son of Abu Bekr, who behaved with such rigour towards the adherents 
of Moawia, that much discontent was excited iu Egypt. Moawia 
availed himself of this opportunity to send an army into Egypt under 
the command of Amru ben al-As, who vanquished and killed Moham- 
med. Soon afterwards Moawia took posse-^sion also of Basra, which 
All's governor, Zayyad, made but a feeble eSbrt to defend. Abdallah 
ben Abbas however reconquered that town fur the kalif. 

In 660 Moawia sent an army under the command of Bosr ben Artha 
into Hcjaz, who took possession of the two sacred cities, Mecoi and 
Medina, and on his return defeated and killed Abdallah beu Abbas, 
the governor of Basra. 

About this time three of the zealots of Naharvan, with the design 
of restoring unity, entered into a conspiracy to murder Amru ben 
al-As, the kalif Ali, and Moawia. Amru beu al-As and Moawia escaped, 
but Ali was struck with a poisoned sword iu his residence at Kufa, 
and died after three days, in 660, at the age of fifty-nine, or according 
to others, sixty-five years. 

Ali had by Fatima three sons, Hassan, Hossain, and Mohsen. Hassan 
succeeded his father for a short time in the government, au<l with him 
terminated, according to Arabic historians, the legitimate kalifate, ttiat 
is, the succession of those kalifs who had been appointed by the free 
choice of the Faithful. 

ALI, HYDER. [Hydeb Au.] 

ALI PASHA, a celebrated Albanian chief, was bora about 1750, in 
the little town of Tepelen, in the pashalic of Berat, on the left bank of 
the river Voioussa, the ancient Aous, at the foot of the Klissoura 
Mountaiis. Ali's family was distinguished by the name of Hissas, 
and had been for ages settled in the country; it belonged to tiie 
Albanian tribe or clan of the Toske or Toxido, who boast of being old 
Mussulmans. One of Ali's ancestors, after being for some time a 
klephtis, or highwaj^robber, made himself master of Tepelen, and 
assumed the title of Bey, holding it as a fief of the pacha of Berat, 
Ali's grandfather distinguished himself in the Ottoman service by his 
bravery, and was killed at the siege of Corfu against the Venetians, iu 
the beginning of the 18th century. His son, Vehli Bey, the father of 
Ali Pasha, was a good, quiet, liberal-minded man, very partial towards 
the Greeks. The neighbouriug beys or feudal Albanian chiefs com- 
bined against him, and deprived him of the greater part of his estates; 
but the mother of Ali was a woman of masculine courage, though of 
cruel disposition, and, on her husband's death, secured the succession 
to her own son Ali, then fourteen years of ago, by the adoption of the 
most unscrupulous means. 

The early life of Ali was passed in the usual vicissitudes of predatory 
warfare, and sufficiently varied by a succession of adventures possessing 
the interest of romance, though marked by ferocity, treachery, ani 1 most 
other atrocities. His power however continued to become gradually 
consolidated, and several of the surrounding districts submitted to 
him, until at length his riches gave him the means of intriguing at 





Um I^rid. H* then obUiiMd Um Merit oommiaMon of exaoatiog tha 
'ItMMm of dMlh' ^{>iiMk Salim Puha of UelTioo. lo rewani for 
tbU aarriea ha waa aapoinUd liautcnaat to tha naw Darwcntl Paaha 
•r BoamUi. in wbieh oflea ha anriohad himaalf by ahuring with the 
kla|>hlii Um proilaea of thair apoiU. U oooaaqaanea of this traffic 
tha roaiia aooa awMmad with robban ; rapaatad oompUinta raached 
tha Porta, and tha Derwand Paaha waa iMallad and behoadad. Tha 
UaotaMOit alao, baiac atunmonad, tnataad of appaaring, aaot preaenta 
to aararal m^v^*"^ '^ tha diran, and thua avadad punii^ment 

Ali'a rapotatioa for faniTaty and daeiaioo waa bowevar aatabliahed 
ai Cooaiantinopla^ and whan tha war broka out in 1787, between the 
I^rto and the two oomta of Anatria and Ruaaia, he waa appointed to 
a oomaiaad in tha army under tha viiier JonaC Baring diatingoiahed 
hlmiilf in tha Said, ha waa next appolnt«] to the paabaUo of Tricala 
in Tbanaly, and waa moreover named Derwend Pasha of RoumilL 
Ha BOW laiaed a body of 4000 men, all Albaniana and old klephtis, 
with whom ha aoon cleared the roada of robbera, and thua won merit 
with tha Porta. He now turned hia viawa towarda Jaonina, tbe 
oapilal of aoothem Albania, or Epirua, where utter anarchy prevailed. 
ftMJitail by hia frienda in the town, ha entered it and took poaseaaion 
of tha citadaL Ha then, by bribery and other nieana, got himaalf 
•oaflnaad ia the paahalio which he had uaurped ; and by a vigorous 
ilBaiiiitiaiil •ztiogaiahad all fiwtiona, raatored tranquillity, aad the people 
ware aalwfiad inth tha change. The Porte, aeeiog thia ao long turbu- 
lent provinoe rvduoed to aubjeotion, foigave Ali for a deception of 
which tha divan had been appiiied only when it waa too late. 

Ali eztanded hia dominion over all Kpirua, and alao iuto Acamsnia 
and ^tolia, or waatam Oreeoe, by anooaaafully attacking the revolted 
Aimatolea or Oreek militias who, under tbe corrupt and supine Tuikish 
government, infeatad inataad of protecting tbe country. He attacked 
tha Soliotai^ a people iuhabitmg a mountainous district about 30 
milaa SL&W. from Jannino. After a brave and protracted resistance 
of more than tan years, the SuUotes agreed to evacuate their country 
ia Deoambar, 1803, bat on attempting to retreat, in order to embark 
at Patip, Ali'a aoldiera fall upon them, and the aoenes tbst followed 
were dreadful None of the Suliotes surrendered ; almost all perished. 
In ooe instance, a amall party, being completely surrounded, retreated 
towarda a precipice, tbe women leading the way; being arrived on the 
brink, thry first threw their children into the abysa below, after which 
they all, husbanda and wives, fathers and sons, brothers and sisters, 
linked hand in hand, ran down the declivity, and mutually impelled 
each other into the precipice, in sight of their disappointed enemies. 
Only a few, who escaped before the attack, managed to reach Parga, 
and thence embarked for Corfu, at that time occupied by tbe Kussiaus. 
A remnant of these unfortunate exiles were subsequently, under the 
auapicea of England, restored to their native oountiy. But Ali was 
ahaekled on the aea-aide of hia dominions : he therefore attacke<I and 
tadnoed in inooeiaion the fortress towns on the coast of the Adriatic 
and the Oolf of Arta, which, formerly dependencies of Venice, were 
then in the handa of the Freuch, of which Preveaa and Parga were 
the most eminent. Their capture was attended with almost every 
eircumstanco of ferocity aud cruelty that cun make war revolting. 

Ali extended his dominions to the north into Albania Proper, by the 
conqoeat of the pashalic of Berat, which he effected more by intrigue 
than by force. He likewise occupied the governmeat of Ochrida in 
Upper Albania, by joining in the attack ordered by the Porte against 
the rebellious pasha of Skodra, or Scuteri, and then kept it for himself. 
The Porte was obliged to wink at these usurpations. Ali waa even 
appointed for a twelvemonth Roumili-Valioy, or supreme inspector of 
the principal division of the empire, aud he went to reside at Monastir, 
at tha hrisd of 24,000 men. His extortions in Iloiimelia were very 
great. His own dominions in the latter part of his life extended over 
all Epirua, one half of Albania Proper, part of Thessaly, aud the whole 
of western Greece, from the Lake of Ochrida on tbe north, to the 
Onlf of Lepanto on the south, and from Mouut Piudus to the Adriatic. 
Ali was now vixier or pasha of three taila : his second eon, Vebli, was 
maile fat-ha of the Mores ; aud his elder son, Mouktar, a thorough 
aoldier, diathiguished himarif in the service of the Sultan during the 
eampalgn of 1800 ugainst tha RuMiana. The youngest of sll, Salib 
Bay, who waa his fathrr's favourite, and destined to succeed him, was 
faroocht up wiib particular care under good tutora and teachers. 
Ali Paaha. although bated by the Porte, might have ended his days in 
praoe; hia power made him feared, and his advanced ago was an 
lodaoemeiit to the Sulten to wait patiently for his natural death. But 
as attempt to prooora tha asaaaainstion of one of his confidants who 
had abaodoaed him, and obteinad an appointment in the seraglio at 
CooBiantioapU, arooaad tha ire of the Sulten. Ali was exoommuni- 
oatad, and ail the paabaa of Europe were ordered to march against 
him. This wsa at tha begioDiog of 1820, and at length Ali waa com- 
palled to abandon Junoina, Bn<t to surrrndcr himself on being promised 
the Sultan 'a pardon. His own perfidy wss now retorted on himself. 
He waa mordrrsd ; his head was out off, and sent to Conatantinople, 
wbara it was axbibitsd before the gate of tbe seraglio. His sons 
aharad thair fsthsr's fatr. Thus AU Paaha, at seventy-two years of 
age, cloaad hia xnUty but extraordinary oareer, in February, 1822. 

Tbe ebaraoiar of aueh a man is eaoily aaoartainad from the account 
of hia Ufi. Tha enialty of his revenge waa even fiendiah. His 
tAmb i Hn tian rastad npoa the principles of t«Tor ; he certainly extir- 

pated the robbers and other criminals, and rendered his territories 
perfectly secure from all deprodntions but bis own. This security, in 
a oonntry like Turkey, was felt ss a boon, aud oommeroo improved in 
aome measure by it. Jaunioa became one of the most flouriiihing 
towna of Turkey, and ita population had increased to 40,000 inhabit- 
ants. Ali was a Mussulman only by name : he fully protected tha 
Oreeks, and other Christians, in the exercise of their religion, and 
allowed them to have aehoola, and even a lyoeum aud a library. Ali 
treated all hia snbjecti, Albaniana, Turks, or Greeks, alike, and without 
partiality ; tha Turks were perhapR those who liked him the least, 
beoanae he did not allow them to ill-use the rest of the people, oa in 
other parte of Turkey. 

ALIMENTUS, CINCIUS. [Cincius Alimektus.] 

ALISON, RKV. ARCHIBALD, was bom in 1757 in Edinburgh, of 
which city his father, Andrew Alison, waa a magistrate. In 1772 
Archibald was sent to the University of Glasgow, whence he proceeded 
with an exhibition to Balliol College, Oxford, where he matriculated, 
November 9th, 1776. He took the degree of A.M. aud that of LL.B. 
March 23rd, 1784, in which year he entered into holy orders, and 
married the daughter of Dr. John Gregory of Edinburgh. He was 
soon afterwards appointed to the curacy of Branoa[>etb, Durham. He 
obtained the perpetual curacy of Kenley in Shropshire in 1790, a 
nrebendal utell iu Salisbury Cathedral in 1791, the vicarage of Ercall 
w Shropshire in 1794, and the living of Roddingtou in Shropshire in 
1797. In 1800 he was invited to become senior minister of the epis- 
copal chapel, Cowgate, Edinburgh. He accepted the iuvitatiun, and 
continued to officiate for the congregation, which afterwards removed 
to St Paul's chapel, a handsome new gothic building in York-place, 
till 1831, when severe illness compelled him to withdraw from the 
performance of bis public duties. He died in 1889, at tbe age of 82. 

The Rev. Mr. Alison was the author of ' Essays on the Nature and 
Principles of Taste ;' ' Sermons, chiefly on Particular Occasions,' 2 vols. 
8vo., 1814, 1815, and several editions since ; and ' A Memoir on the 
Life and Writings of the Hon. Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Wood- 
houselee,' in the ' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh," 

His literary reputation chiefly depends on his ' Essays on Taste,' 
which were first published in 1790, but which made little imprea-slon 
on the public till the second edition, with additions, came out in 1811, 
when tiie work became the subject of an encomiastic article by JeflVey 
in the ' Edinburgh Review,' and it then became popular ; iU popularity 
however was but evanescent. The work consists of two essays; the 
first ' Of the Nature of the Emotions of Sublimity and Beauty,' the 
second ' Of the Sublimity and Beauty of the Material World ;' the 
whole work is divided into chapters, sections, and parts, with much 
appearance of philosophical accuracy, but with little either of oonipre- 
hensiveness or precision iu tbe treatment of the subjects. His notion 
of sublimity is vague; sometimes he seems to understand the word in 
the common acceptation, as super-eminent grandeur of any kind ; 
sometimes in the sense in which it is used by Longinus, as anything 
calculated to produce a powerful emotion. The vagueness of his 
notion of beauty may be more easily excused, since, as the term is 
generally applied to any object of nature or art calculated to produce 
a pleasing feeling in tha mind, the causes of the emotion of beauty are 
necessarily multifarious, and subject to uo general rule. Alison docs 
not treat of taste as an appreciating and discrituiuating faculty of the 
mind depending on tbe judgment, or as the judgment applied to the 
fine arte and to tbe objecte and scenes of nature about which those 
arte are conversant; but as an emotion caused by objects or soues 
calculated to excite certain associations of ideas and trains of thought, 
which, according to him, are the real causes of the emotion. His 
views are indeed little better than a series of opinions formed with 
little power of thought, and falsified in many parts by tbe application 
of the doctrine of association, which, however true as applied to parti- 
cular cases, is not true when applied as the primary cause of tbe 
emotions of sublimity and beauty, or as the leading priuciple of taste 
it'elf. His style is not unpleosiug, but it is diffuse, and deficicut in 
distinctness and precision. 

•ALISON, SIR AHCHIBALD, Bait, son of the preoedinc, was 
bom December 29, 1792, at Kenley, Shropshire, of which place hia 
father was then vicar. His father removed to Edinburgh iu 1800, 
and carried his son with him. In the schools and university of tliat 
city the future historian received his education ; and there, in 1814, 
he was called as an advocate to tbe Scottish bar. His earlitst literary 
appearance was as a writer on the criminal law of Scotland, and as a 
contributor to the periodical publications. But the work on which 
his literary reputetion depends is the ' History of Europe, from the 
Commencement of the French Revolution in 1789 to the Restoration 
of the Bourbons in 1815,' the first volume of which appeared iu 1839. 
This work supplied a want in contemporary historical literature, and 
achieved a great success. It has sli'eady passed through numerous 
editions, the latest being a library edition (the eighth), in fourteen 
volumes, an edition of smaller size, in twenty volumes, besides a 
cheap edition ; and it has been translated iuto most of tbe European 
and more than one of the Eastern languages. The history is written 
with a strong party bias, is singularly verbose and perplexed in style, 
and is deficient in many of the qualities of a historical work of a Ugh 
claaa ; but it is full of matter, tbe result of great and compreheosive 




industry — displays constant animation, and an evident desire to deal 
fairly with all parties and persons concerned in the events described. 
No other English history of the period can be turned to with equal 
confidence for information, and the tendency to enforce a pre-conceived 
theory is counterbalanced by free quotations or fair statements of the 
views of opposing parties, and full references to oriijinal authorities. 
In 1852 Sir Archibald published the first volume of a continuation of 
his history, to the accession of Louis Napoleon, and four more volumes 
have since appeared. But the continuation has little chance of obtain- 
ing the popularity of the earlier work, of which it possesses all the 
faults with scarce any of the merits. In describing the conflict of 
opinions. Sir Archibald loses the animation which sustains him in 
narrating the more exciting events of the revolutionary war ; and the 
history becomes a series of heavy disquisitions, which tax the patience 
of the most persevering reader, yet add little to the knowledge of the 
least instructed. The other more importaut of Sir Archibald's works 
are — a ' Life of Marlborough,' in two volumes, which has reached a 
third edition ; * Essays : Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous,' origi- 
nally published in 'Blackwood's Magazine,' in three volumes; and 
the ' Principles of Population,' in two volumes. 

Mr. Alison was created a Baronet soon after the formation of the 
Derby administration in 1852. In 1828 he was appointed Sheriff of 
Lanarkshire. In 1851 he was elected Rector of Glasgow University ; 
and he has received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the 
University of Oxford. 

ALKMAK, HENRY VAN, or, as he himself wrote his name, Hinrek 
tan Alkmar, is the person to whom Germany owes the first edition and 
translation of the celebrated poem, 'Reynard the Fox.' He lived 
during the latter half of the 15th century, but of his circumstances 
we know no more than what he himself states in the preface to his 
' Reineke Voss ' — that he was a schoolmaster and teacher of virtue in 
the service of the Duke of Lon'aine, and that be translated the poem 
from the Walsch ^probably the Wallon) and French into German at 
the request of his master. He further divided the whole poem into 
four parts and into chapters, each of which is preceded by a sort of 
comnientai-y explaining the poet's meaning and the moral of the tale. 
This first German edition of ' Reynard the Fox ' is in Low German, 
and cmbt'llishe<l with woodcuts. It was printed at Liibeck in 149S in 
small quarto. The only copy which is known to exist of this edition 
is in the library of Wolfenbuttel. A reprint of it was edited by F. A. 
Von Hakemann, Wolfenbiittel, 1711. The second edition, which was 
perhaps made in the life of Alkmar himself, is that published at 
Rostock, 1517, 4to., of which also there exists only one copy in the 
library of Dresden. The woodcuts of this edition are somewhat better 
than those in the Liibeck edition. 

As to the faithfulness of the translation we are unable to judge, as 
the original which Alkmar used is uuknown; but it is certain that 
Alkmar produced one of the moat spirited and beautiful poems that 
exist in the German language. 

The version printed in 1493 at Liibeck bears the title of 'Reineke 
Vosa.' It is written in the Frisian dialect, which is only a modification 
of that spoken in Lower Saxony, and it consists of four booka, each 
of which is subdivided into chapters. The verses consist of iambics 
mixed with numerous spondees and anapicsts. The poem consists of 
the picture of a court of animals, of which Nobel, the Lion, is king, 
and at which many animals complain of the injuries suffered from the 
intrigues and rapacity of Reineke the Fox. He is summoned to 
Court, and after exercising his ingenuity in punishing the messengers 
he appears, is sentenced to be hung, but gets released by promising to 
ditcover a concealed treasure to the king. On the deception being 
discovered he is again summoned, appears, defends himself by an 
ingenious series of falsehoods, and ultimately undertakes a single 
combat against his principal opponent, the Wolf, whom he conquers 
by a vile trick, and is restored to the king's favour, with which the 
poem ends. The moral conveyed is of a low character, that cunniug 
and fraud constitute the true wisdom ; but an interest is raised for 
Reineke aa he acts a sort of retributive part, the sufferings of his 
victims being as much the consequence of their own evil dispositions 
aa of his tricks, except in the cases of Lampe the hare and Bellin the 
ram, towards whom his excuse is that they were " stupid." His 
apology for bis own conduct usually rests upon the bad example set 
by others, particularly by priests. The great number of editions which 
appeared in Germany after the first publication of it, and still more 
the numerous bad paraphrases in prose, which were sold by thousands 
at every fair, show the immense popularity which the story had in 

The best edition was edited by Hoffmann von Fallersleben (Breslau, 
1834), with an introduction, glossary, and commentary. The text is 
a correct reprint of the first edition. Guthe has made a most beautiful 
translation of ' Reineke Fuchs ' into modem High German, in hexa- 
meters (Berlin, 1794) ; D. W. Soltau has made another in doggrel verse 
(Iterlin, 1803), a much improved edition of which appeared at Hraun- 
schweig, 1823. It has also been translated into Latin by Hartmann 
Sohopper, under the title, ' Opus Poetioum de Admirabili Fallacia et 
Astutia Vulpeoulas Keinekes,' &c., Frankfort, 1574 ; this translation 
has often been reprinted. In 1706 there appeared in London a 
metrical English translation from the Latin of Schopper. 

The German version of ' Reineke ' was, notwithstanding the state- 

ment of its author, formerly thought to be an origiual composition ; 
but the subject wiis known for many centuries aud in several countries 
before the Germau poem was printed. A Dutch edition of the story 
of ' Reineke ' in proso, interspersed with occasional verses, was printed 
in \i%r> at Delft; it was reprinted in 1783 at Liibeck and Leipzig, 
under the title ' Die Historie va Reiuaert de Vos.' The author of this 
Dutch version, which is in many respects superior to the German, aud 
has probably served as the source from which the German poet drew 
his materials, calls himself William Matok, and also refers to a French 
work which had served him as his model. But oven this Dutch version 
cannot have been the first; for Caxton (1481), in his English trans- 
lation, states that he kept closely to a Dutch original. It may be 
inferred from the various subsequent corrected and enlarged editions 
of this poem, as well as from the allusions of our early dramatists, that 
it gained considerable popularity in England also. The Flemish like- 
wise possess an excellent metrical version, which was published in 1836 
at Ghent by Willems, with a very valuable introduction. The early 
French literature, however, is the richest iu poems founded on the 
story of Reynard. M(Son, in his 'Roman du Renard ' (Paris, 1820), 
has shown that most of these poems belong to the 13th century, and 
more modem researches have proved that the story was known as 
early as the 9th century. The subject is one which so readily presents 
itself to the imagination, that it would be impossible with any proba- 
bility to assign its invention to any particular time or nation. When- 
ever a work of fiction of commanding interest appears, impoetical 
minds are always ready to seek some real history disguised uuder it ; 
aud this has been the case with this poem ever since its publication, 
until Jacob Grimm, in his ' Reinhart Fuchs ' (Berlin, 1834), showed 
that there is no ground whatever for such a supposition. 

(Hogel, GtachiclUe der KomUchen Literatur ; Jiirdons, Lexikon 
Deuticher Dickter und Prosalsten ; Carlyle, Miscellanies, vol. iii. p 
197, &c.) ' ^ 

ALLAN, DAVID, called the Scottish Hogarth, was born at Alloa 
in Clackmannanshire in 1744, where his father was shore-master. The 
choice of his profession was partly owing to an accident : he burnt his 
foot, and while he was being nursed at home, having nothing else to 
do, he amused himself with drawing with a piece of chalk upon the 
floor; an amusement he got so much attached to, that when he » 
recovered he had a very great objection to going to school. But he 
soon obtained a happy release from this obligation, for his old school- 
master turned him away from the school for making a caricature of 
him punishing a refractory boy. Mr. Stuart, collector of the customs 
at Allua, w.os so much struck with the caricature that he recommended 
Allan's father to send him to the academy of Robert aud Andrew 
Foulis at Glasgow to learn to become a painter. He was accordingly 
apprenticed in 1755 to Robert Foulis. Allan remained at this academy 
nine years, and when he returned home he had the good fortune to be 
introduced by Lord Cathcart as a native prodigy to Erskine of Mar 
on whose estate he was bom, and by whom he was generously sent as 
a pensioner to prosecute his studies at Rome. Here he obtained first 
a silver medal for a drawing iu the academy of St. Luke, and after- 
wards the gold medal for a painting. The subject was the legend of 
the Corinthian maid who drew the profile of her lover arouud his 
shadow cast by a lamp upon the wall. The picture was well painted, 
and a good engraving of it by Cunego spread Allan's reputation 
throughout Italy ; and his praises reached even his own countrymen : 
it was however the first and last good picture he ever painted. His 
subsequent works were distinguished for humour and feeling, but in 
execution, whether as paintings or engravings, they are very inferior. 

He painted two other pictures at Rome, the ' Prodigal Son' forLo-d - 
Cathcart, and ' Hercules and Omphale ' for Erskine of Mar; aud he 
made also four humorous designs illustrating the Roman Carnival, 
which through Paul Sandby's prints of them became popular, aud 
gained Allan a considerable reputation for broad humour. But he no 
more deserved the title of the ' Scottish Hogarth,' which for these and 
a few other similar designs he obtained in Scotland, than his historical 
pictures would warrant his being called the Scottish Raphael. " He 
is amon,; painters," says Allan Cunningham, " what AUau Ramsay is 
among poets — a fellow of infinite humour, and excelling in all manner 
of rustic drollery, but deficient in fine sensibility of conception, and 
little acquainted with lofty emotion or high imagination." 

In 1777 Allan visited London, which however he left for Edinburgh, 
after practising there for a short time as a portrait-painter. After tho 
death of Ruuciman in 1786, Allan succeeded him as master of the 
Trustees' Academy, which office he held for ten years until his death 
iu 1796. Ha left a son and daughter; the former went iu 1806 as a 
cadet to India. 

Allan's most popular designs are his twelve illustrations of Ramsay's 
'Gentle Shepherd,' which he engraved himself in aquatinta, and pub- 
lished with an edition of the poem> with some prefatory remarks as a 
sort of apology for tho humbleness of the stylo of his designs. He 
made also some designs for the lyric poems of Bums, who compli- 
mented the paintei; in his letters to his friend Thomson on more than 
one occasion. Burns however found fault with Allan's 'stock and 
horn,' a rude musical instrument which he put into the hands of some 
of his characters. Burns offered to send him a real one, such as the 
shepherds used in the braes of Athol. " If Mr. Allan chooses," says 
Bums, " I will send him a sight of mine, aa I look on myself to be a 





Und of brellMr hruA iritlt hhn. ' Prida in piMta it dm tin ;' and I 
«fll «7 it. thtt I ' ''' AlUn uH Mr. Barn* to b« tha only 

■MttilM aoil mil 1 ^cottuh coctume in tlis world." Itut 

ADn did not think uiat i>iiniaa ' stoelc knd horn' wen any improTs- 
MMt apoD hi* own ; bn »id it wu only fit for " routing and roaring." 

(riintw:>fk>ni /.i. • , f HrHuk Patnlfri, he) 

> \M, wu bom iu Kdiuburgh in 178'1 After 

rac .'.ion at tha High School, b« was placed with 

• aoMlk-iMuiik'r ; but liuplaying a itrong attaohment to art, he was 
«arl«ad a* a pupil in the Troateaa' Aoademy, where Wilkie was bis 
Mlow-atadeot. When hi* tarm aspired he proceeded to London, and 
tiirami a (todent of tha Royal Aowlamy. In 180S his flnt picture 
of a * Oipay Boy aitd Aaa' appeared at tha exhibition of that institation. 
Not succoediog in at onoa attneting public attention, Allan resoWed 
to try bis (brtona abroad, and aeleetad St Petersburg for the scene of 
Us espcnUMBt ; in«ite<< portly, it is aaid, by the expectation of finding 
aorat aDd pieturvsque objects for the exercise of bis pencil. He 
lamafnad la Roam saaily ten years, making oocasioDal journeys to 
dialaat parts of tha eoontry, to Turkey, Tartary, the shores of the 
Bhnt Sai^ kc, and ererywhere industriously employing himself in 
fMharing materials for bis art. 

0* his return to Sootland in 1814, he made a public exhibition of 
hb akatehas and finished pictures of Ruraian, Tartarian, and Circassian 
aeaoas and eoatame. Among the pictures was a Urge one of 'Ciroaasian 
OaptiTas^' which at the suggestion of Sir Walter Scott was purchased 
by ona bnndred gentlemen, who subscribed ten guineas eadi ; it fell 
to Ot» lot of the Barl of Wemysa, in whose possession it now is. From 
this tiine Allan settled in his nalire city, sending regularly some of his 
woriu to the exhibition of the Royal Academy. For a while his pencil 
was eUafly employed on pictures suggested by the countries in which 
ha bad tmTeUed ; be then turned to the annahi of his native land, and 
for aareral years waa mostly engaged in illustrating tha history or the 
roaiBDea of Scotland. To thia period belong the ' Murder of Arch- 
bishop Sharpe,' 'Parting of PrinoeCharles Stuart and Flora Maodonald,' 

• Knox admonishing Mary Queen of Soots,' ' Murder of the Regent 
Mnrray,' and others of Us best works. In consequence of a disease 
in the eyes be was compelled for a year or two to cease from painting, 
sod being adrisad to try a change of climate, he viaited Italy, Asia 
Minor, and O reeee. On resuming bis pencil, bis 'Slave Market at 
Constantioople,' and pictorea of a like kind, ahowed that he had 
profited by hu tnvela. 

Meanwhile be had been gaining the distinctioDS awarded to success 
in his profeuion. In 1825 he waa elected associate of the Koyal 
Academy. In 1835 be became R.A. In ISXS he was chosen, on the 
death of Mr. Watson, to be preddent of the Scottish Academy. On 
tha death of Wilkie in 1840 Allan was appointed to succeed him as 
her Majeaty'a Limner for Sootland ; and in 1842 he received the honour 
of kntgfathood. Sir William AlUn was best known by his Russian and 
Olrcaadap pmr* piecaa, and by his Scottish historical works. In all of 
thaa there la mnoh akill and refinement, but in none any Teiy evident 
marks of a high order of genius. But he was also a very successful 

r Inter of a specisl class of portraits, such, for instance, as bis ' Scott 
his Study Writing,' and ita companion, 'Scott in bis Study Reading;' 
and in his later years he essayed with success the mote laborious task 
of dapietiag acenaa of sctnal warfare. Of theae the most important 
wata two pictorea of the ' Battle of Waterloo,' which met with the 
marked approval of the Duke of Wellington, and one of which his 
gimca purehssed ; the ' Rattle of Preston Pana ;' ' Nelson Boarding the 
San Nicolas ;' and the ' Battle of Bannockbum,' a large painting, on 
whish be waa angntcd at the time of hia death. One of his last con- 
aidaraUe worka, ' nitr the Great teaching his Subjects the Art of 
ShiptmiUiog,' was a oommiaaion from the Emperor of Russia. 

Sir WOUam AUan died on the 23nl of February, 1350. As a painter 
ha waa gaoarally acknowledged by his countrymen to be at the head 
of Soottish art, by right of his talent as well as of his office. 

ALLATID8, LEO, an eminent literary man of the 17th century. 
He was a Oreek, bom in tha island of Chios in 158G. Being carried 
over to Italy at an early age, be was taken under the protection of a 
powwful family in Calabria, and educated in the Greek college at 
Boom. Ha raviaited his native eoontry, bnt soon returned to Rome, 
whsta, after a s ncn sss lo n of litersiy employments, he waa appointed 
Kbrariaa to the Tatioan. For this post be waa well fitted by great 
bdaatry and a rstsotire memory ; and, in a long life, he edited manu- 
aaipta, tnaalat«l Greek anthon, and published many original works, 
wkiah diaplsy mare laaraiog and power of collecting maUrials than 
larta or jwfaaiattt A Oredi by birth, ha was one of tha most 
rtiauuMM aad Ufotad apholdan of the Roman Church and of papal 
taJkfllbaHy, aad haattatad not to invoke fire and sword aa the Ugiti- 
aMto Bi aa n a of oonvarting obetinata heretics. (See his treatise ' De 
B il l I <■ OsaMaatalls at OrlenUUs perpetua Consensione.') He founded 

• aoUaca la tha Ida of Chioa,aad diisd at Rome in the year 1669, 

ALLBCTITS, ooa of tha offiosrs of Canuuius, king of Britain, in 
*■• Xao of MnnlillaB Conataatioa Chloms (whom DiocleUan and 
aoDsagoa Mwlarfaa had raised to tha dignity of Cosar, and 
to tha e nmm a nd of Oaul and the conduct of the war 

■>■!■* OaimiihMl haviac •Uemptrd to ercaa over to Britain (a.d. 
SH), had baao 0M%ad, I7 atraai of weather, to retam 



interval which succeeded this attempt, Carausiua was murdered by 
AUeotus (A.D. 298), who was afraiil nf bring punished with death for 
some criuiea of which be waa •-■onrcioui*. AUoctus now assumed the 
sovereignty, and stationed his Beet near the Islo of Wight to prevent 
the enemy from crossing ; but Constantius sent forward Aaclupiodo- 
tos, pmtorinn pncfect, with a portion of his fleet and army, who, 
under cover of a dense fog, effected n landing. Allectus, f>-aring the 
arrival of that part of the expedition which was under Coustantius 
himself, leaving his fleet and the harbour near which he was encamped, 
marched against Asclepiodotus, who had burned his fleet immediately 
after landing, that his men might have no resource but in victory. 
Allectus did not attempt to draw up his forces in regular order, but 
rushed at once to the encounter, and was defeated and shun ^ith a 
great number of his men. He had laid aside his imperial robes, so 
that his body was recognised with some difficulty. Scarcely any of 
Asclepiodotus's soldiers fell. If the statement of Eutropius and 
Oraeius be correct, that Allectus held the sovereignty of the island 
for three years, we may place hia death in the year 296. Constantius 
landed shortly after the fall of Allectus, and was received with great 
demonstrations of joy; and the imprrial authority was fully re- 
established in the island. (Eutropius, Huloria Romana Breviariun ; 
Orosius, Hitioria.) 
ALLEQRI, C. ANTONIO. [ConnEooio.] 

ALLEN, JOHN, H.O., a writer on subjects connected with meta- 
physics, history, aud physiology, was born in January, 1770, at Red- 
ford, in the parish of Coliuton, near Edinburgh. The domain of 
Redibrd, situated on the slope of the Peiitland Hills, was his patem^ 
property, aud the mansion-house still attests the moderate but sub- 
stantial wealth of his ancestors. He studied at Edinburgh, where he 
took a degree in medicine in 1791. He soon afterwards connected 
himself with the movements in Scotland for the furtherance of 
parliamentary reform. In 1795 be published 'Illustrations of Mr. 
Hume's Essay concerning Liberty and Necessitv, in answer to Dr. 
Oregory of Edinburgh, by a Necessitarian.' This small tract is in 
many respects characteristic of his subsequent more dtstinguished 
works, in the felicity with which it adopts a broad and comprehensivo 
view, as Well aa in the cleamoaa with which it adheres to one unbroken 
line of reasoning, and keeps dc-ir of divergencies and incidental 
questions. In 1801 he translated from Cuvier, whose friendship he 
enjoyed, 'An Introduction to the Study of the Animal Economy.' 
It appears to have been about the commencement of this century that 
he formed an intimacy with T/ord Holland, with whom he continued 
to reside until that noblemau's death. After the peace of Amiens, 
Dr. Allen accompanied Lord and Lady Holland through France and 
Spain, and resided with them in the latter country untU the year 
1805. He made large collections relating to the past history of Spain, 
and to its social and political position. He became an extensive 
contributor to the ' Edinburgh lieviuw,' on subjects chiefly connected 
with the British constitution, and with French aud Spanish history. 
Forty-one articles in that periodical are attributed to him, and his 
researches in a great measure served to establish and characterise its 
opinions on constitutional questions. His earliest papers were on 
Spauiiih and South American subjects. The earliest article on con- 
stitutional subjects attributed to him is that on the Regency question. 
Hay, 1811. In the number for June, 1SI6, an elaborate essay on the 
constitution of parliament, full of original investigation, is believed 
to have been from bis pen. He wrote in the same periodical soma 
papers on the ' History of England ' by Lingard, which occasioned a 
pamphlet controversy with that author, chiefly relating to the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew, the authorities for which he charged Lingard 
with having referred to at second hand. Tha latest article which ha 
is supposed to have contributed to tho Review is that on Cliurch 
Rates, October, 1839. He wrote tha History of Europe in tho 
'Annual Register' for 1806; and in 1820 a 'Biographical Sketch of 
Mr. Fox.' In 1830 he published a small but valuable cuustitutioual 
work, called an 'Inquiry into the Rise and Growth of the Royal 
Prerogative in England,' which has been republished, with his final 
revisions, since bis death. Dr. Allen published several other pam- 
phlets, some of them on subjects of comparatively temporary interest. 
For some years before his death he held the lucrative appointment of 
Master of Dulwich College. Ho was a member of the Record Com- 
mission; and he held the office of under-seorotary of the com- 
missioners for treating with America in 1806. He died April 3, 
1843. His character has been eloquently drawn by his friend Lord 
Brougham, in the third series of the 'Historical Sketches of the 
Statesmen of the Time of George III.," pp. 342-343. 

ALLEN, JOSEPH W., a landscape painter of considerable repu- 
tation, waa bom at Lambeth, Surrey, in 1803. His father was a 
achoolmastcr, and the son was designed to follow the same profession. 
Having completed his education at St. Paul's school, ho for a time 
practised as an usher at Taunton, but he soon threw aside the pen 
and the ferula, and returned to London in tho hope of maintaining 
himself by the pencil While acquiring tho technicalities of his art 
he was often reduced to great straits. Ac first he was constrained to 
paint aigiis and transparencies for blind-makers ; und wheu ho was 
more advanced he had for a long period to manufacture paintings for 
picture-dealers. Under the necessity of producing many showy 
picturta at low prices be soon acquired considerable mecbanicd 




dexterity, and he was led not unnaturally to turn his attention to 
scene-painting for theatres— then a very popular branch of art After 
working for a while a.^ assistant to Stanfield and others, he obtained 
the situation of principal scene-painter at the Olympic Theatre, when 
that establishment first came under the management of Madame 
Vestris ; and his clear style and vigorous pencil did much to secure 
the success of the brilliant spectacles which formed the distinguishing 
feature of the management! Allen's early oil-paintings were gene- 
rally of small size, and represent quiet, homely, pastoral scenery, 
which was rendered with great delicacy and a nice appreciation of 
the freshness of natural colour. But though they found purchasers 
among well-known patrons of art, his reputation extended slowly, 
and he attributed his tardy progress to the placing of his pictures at 
the annual exhibition of the Koyal Academy. He joined himself 
therefore to the newly-founded Society of British Artists, and became 
one of its most ardent supporters. All his more important works 
were thenceforward exhibited in the first instance on its walls ; and 
he eventually became its secretary. 

Allen did not attain the position his early pictures promised. His 
inclination and his /orte lay towards pastoral scenery. He loved and 
he could well depict those fresh, open, country scenes, so characteristic 
of our ' home counties,' which Milton describes as affording constant 
delight to the city dweller. For these Allen had all a Londoner's 
relish, and while he painted them with continual reference to the 
reality, his pictures commanded the sympathy of all who enjoy this 
style of art But when he had obtained skill in producing those 
"brilliant eifects," which are so attractive in conjunction with gas- 
light and theatrical ' properties,' he be^an to employ them in his 
pictures, and though he succeeded by such means in sparing himself 
much thought and labour, while he rendered his pictures more 
attractive in the exhibition-room, it was at the expense of those 
higher qualities of truth and propriety which are essential to lasting 
fame. And the evil was fostered and strengthened by another influ- 
ence under which he fell, when he appeared to be about to escape from 
that of the theatre. From the first establishment of the Art-Union 
his landscapes won the f.ivour of the prize holders. Seldom possess- 
ing any knowledge of art, their taste is commonly caught by glare 
and glitter ; and Allen permitted himself to be driven by the pressure 
of his circumstano 8 to paint mora and more with a special regard 
to them. His earlier pictures have many admirable qualities, and 
his latest display great technical and manipulative skill ; but his life 
was not one of artistic progress, and his is not a name that can 
pei-manently take a high place among the artists of England. 

Allen died August 26, 1852, of disease of the heart, at the early 
age of 49 ; leaving a widow and eight children, for whom unhappily 
he had not b'en able to secure a sufficient provision. 

ALLEN, WILLIAM, was born August 29, 1770. His father was 
a Eilk-manufacturer in SpitalQelds, and a member of the Society of 
Friends. Having at an early period shown a predilection for chemical 
and other pursuits connected with medicine, William was placed in 
the establishment of Mr. Joseph Qurney Bevan, in I'lough-court, 
Lombard-street, London, where he acquired a practical knowledge of 
chemistry. He eventually succeeded to the business, which he carried 
on in connection with Mr. Luke Howaid, and acquired great reputa- 
tion as a pharnaceutical chemist About the year 1804 Mr. Allen 
was appointed lecturer at Guy's Hospital on chemistry and experi- 
mental philosophy, and he did not wholly retire from this institution 
until 1S27. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1807, 
and the Society's 'Philosophical Transactions' contain accounts of 
several of the mora important of his chemical investigations, which 
were earned on in conjunction with his friend Mr. Pepys. They 
established the proportion of carbon in carbonic acid, which was 
different from that adopted at the time in all systems of chemistry; 
and they also demonstrated that the diamond was pure carbon. The 
' Philosophical Transactions' for 1829 contain a paper by Mr. Allen, 
based on elaborate experiments and calculations which he had made 
on the changes produced on atmospheric air and other gases by 
respiration. Mr. Allen was mainly instrumental in establishing the 
Pharmsceulical Society, of which he was president at the time of his 
death. Besides his public labours as a practical chemist, he pursued 
with much delight in his hours of relaxation the study of astronomy. 
Many years before his death, Mr. Allen purchased an estate near 
Lindfield, Sussex, and withdrew from business. Here, while still 
zealously engaging in public schemes of usefulness and benevolence, 
ho carried out various philanthropic plans for the improvement of 
his immediate dependants and poorer neighbours. He erected com- 
modious cottnges on his property, with an ample allotment of land 
attached to each cottage; and he established schools at Lindfield for 
boys, girls, and infants, with workshops, out-houses, and play-grounds. 
About three acres of land were cultivated on the most approved 
system by the boarders, who ahio took a part in household work. 
'Ihe subjects tiught wore land-surveying, mapping, the elements of 
botany, the use of the barometer, rain-gauge, 4c., and there was a 
good library with various scientific and useful apparatus. Mr. Allen 
died at bis house near Lindfield, December 30, 1843. (Pharmaceutical 
Journal and TranmctUnu for February, 1841; Memoiri i.f William 
AlUn; Mmuta of ConuaiUee of Privg Council, 1842-3, 'Lindfield 
School,' p. 551.) 

ALLEYN, EDWARD. The lives of actors are seldom associated 
with any circumstances of permanent interest They strut and fret 
their little hour, are applauded, and are forgotten. It is of small 
consequence to us now, that N^ishe, in 1593, says that "the name of 
Ned Alleyu on the common stage was able to make an ill matter 
good;" that Ben Jonsoa compares AUeyn with the great actors o 
Rome, and Thomas Heywood pronounces him — 

" Proteus for shapes, and Roscius for a tongue ; " 

that a grave chronicler, Sir Richard Baker, says of Burbage and 
AUeyn, " They were two such actors as no age must ever look to see 
the like;" and that Fuller writes, "He was the llosoius of our age, 
so acting to the life tliat he made any part especially a majestic one, 
to become him." Strong as these testimonies are to the professional 
merits of Alleyn, they would scarcely warrant any lengthened notice 
of him, were there not circumstances connected with his public 
history and his private character which lend an interest and import- 
ance to his career rarely attaching even to the most celebrated of his 

Alleyn was born in 1566, in the parish of St Botolph without 
Bishopsgate, London. The register of this parish shows the day of 
his birth, .Sept 1, which corresponds with eutries in his own Diary. 
His father, Edward Alleyn, was a citizen and inn-holder in this parish, 
as we learn from his will, dated the 10th of September, 1570, and 
proved on the 22nd of the same month. He bequeathed to his wife 
a life interest in all his lauds and tenements, and afterwards to his 
three children. Mrs. Alleyn, who was of a good family in Lanca- 
shire, married a second time. Her husband, whose name was Brown, 
is described as a haberdasher, but he was also an actor ; and thus 
Fuller was no doubt correct when he states that Edward Alleyn was 
bred a stage-player. Born only two years later than his great con- 
temporary Shaksperc, and labouring in the same vocation with him 
for nearly thirty years, the career of Alleyn must offer many parallel 
circumstances with the career of Shakspere ; and it thus acquires a 
secondary interest of no inconsiderable value. John Alleyn, the elder 
brother of Edward, was, like his father, an inn-holder, as we learn 
from a document bearing the date of 1688-89, in which Edward 
Alleyn purchases of one Kiohard Jones, for the sum of thirty-seven 
pounds ten shillings, his share of " playing apparels, play books, 
instruments," &c., which Richard Jones has jointly with the brother 
and step-father of Edward. Mr. Collier conjectures, with great 
probability, from the circumstance of John being mentioned as an 
inn-holder whilst he was evidently engaged in a theatrical specula- 
tion, that " the old practice of employing inn-yards as theatres had 
not then been entirely abandoned ; and it is not at all impossible that 
in the time of their father, the yard of his iun had been converted to 
that purpose, and was so continued by his son John, who succeeded 
him." John Alleyn however became a distiller in 1594 ; and before 
this his brother is celebrated by Nashe (in another passage besides 
that just quoted) as "famous Ned Alleyn." It is established that 
he was famous in Greene's ' Orlando Furioso ' and Marlowe's ' Jew of 
Malta,' both of which belong to the early period of the drama. In 
1592 he married Joan Woodward, the daughter of Agnes Woodward, 
a widow, who previous to this period had become the wife of Philip 
Henslowe, one of the principal theatrical managers of that day. 
Alleyn and Henslowe now entered into partnership in their stage 
concerns. Within six months after his marriage the plague broke 
out in Loudon, and all the theatrical houses being as usual closed, to 
prevent the spread of infection, Alleyn and his company, then known 
as Lord Strange's players, went upon a strolling expedition into the 
provinces. In the collection of papers in Dulwich College there are 
letters to and from Alleyn at this period, which are priuted in Mr. 
Collier's 'Memoirs.' Alleyn left his wife and his father-in-law behind 
him during this temporary emigration, and it is not improbable that 
Henslowe, who appears to be an ignorant and rapacious person, had 
infringed the order against dramatic exhibitions, for Alleyn writes to 
his wife :— "Mouse, I little thought to hear that which I now hear 
by you, for it is well known, they say, that you were by my lord 
mayor's officer made to ride in a cart y"" aid all your fellows, which 
I am sorry to hear." At this period the players were in constant 
dispute with the corporation, and this was probably some petty exer- 
cise of tyranny from which the company of Henslowe and Alleyn 
were not protected. Even the queen's players, of whom Shakspere 
was one, supported as they were by the highest authority, had often 
to contend with the municipal love of power. And yet at this period, 
leading a life which was denominated vagabond as far as his pro- 
vincial excursions were concerned, Edward Alleyn was a man of 
property, derived either from marriage or inheritance, or from both. 
In 1596 he sells "the lease of the parsonage of Firle," near Bedding- 
ham in Sussex, for the large sum of 3000/., to be received in 
twenty annual payments of 160/. He was probably the lay impro- 
priator. Here alone was an ample provision for Alleyn aud his 
family, according to the value of money in those days, yet for many 
years he continued an actor and theatrical manager. The theatre 
which he aud Henslowe owned from the period of his marriage was 
the Rose on the Banksido; but in 1600 they built a new theatre, the 
Fortune, in Cripplegate, near Red Cross-street The inhabitants of 
the neighbourhood petitioned the Privy Council to sanction this 




BMMUal fcraur m a n t« bar* bMo rtrj tkiirully 
bai— lioldw kpiMo**)! tb* (obMiM "bmuM the 

of (b« Mid booM an oooitotrA to gir* > rtrj liberml portion 
of BMaajr wMkljr towmnU Ui« relief of our poor," and " becauM our 
paiWl b net abi« to rtbovo UMa." W* nwj thui foim (ome iJe* of 
tho f»utto of lb* aariy drusatio ptrformanoM when audienoes were 
Motaalad lo b* doUfbtad and iaatnieted with tba wonla of a play 
wilbmil tba aid of ooat^ deeoratiaM. But AUeyn and hia liitbar^iD- 
kw bod otbrr aoarcoi of noAt : tbov w«ra the ownen of tba dog* 
■ad boon wUeb won oxblutod at Fail* Qardon, and in time Henalowa 
■ad AUoTB booamo pataatiOi of tbo offlca of " tba niaaterabip of Hit 
ll^jaaty'a gaoiaa of boaio, boUa, and doaa." In 1603 Uie plague again 
dioTO Allna and bia oompaay out of London, and a letter from faia 
wife le hna •! tbia period bringa na doarr to Sbaliapera tban any 
■poratjr rreord. Tbo good lady aayt, in tliia torn and 
par, " Abonlo a weaka a goo tbara eama a youtbe wlio 
aaid ba waa Mr. F^nnda Cbalouer, who would have borrowed x"' to 
bava boogbt thiaga for ... . and aaid ha «aa known unto you, and 

Mi; Bbakrapcu* of tba Olobe, who oama aaid ha knewe bym 

■ot, oaaly na barda of bna tbat ha waa a roge ao ba waa 

riado wa did Dot land nim the monney." After the aeoeaaion of 
Jaaa^ AUaya'a eoapoay became ' the I'Tinoa'a Playara,' aa Shalu- 
para'a waa tho King a; and hariog purchaaed the natont office of 
■■■tar of tba kiog'a game*, Hcnalowe and AUcyn, m 1606, rebuilt 
I^iia Oordao for Utoaa di«giiattog exhibitiona in which the court and 
tbo popnlaoa cqoally de^pitcd. The pateuteoa had the right of 
•MidiBg boar-waida into tbo country ; and aocounta at Dulwich exhibit 
tbo ospaan aad proSta of aucb exhibitiona Thua accumulating 
ptoparty in Tariona way% Alleyn waa ao thriving a man in 1606 aa 
to bara poreband tba manor of Dulwich from Sir Francia Calton. 
Upon tba deat h of Henalowo in 1616, and of hit wife in the following 
year, Allayn aaooaaded to tba greater part of their theatrical property ; 
aad be bad ptaTioaaly aoquirod other property of the aame nature, 
particularly by a largo porobaae in the BUokfriara Theatre in 1612, 
wbiab Mr. ColUar aappoae* waa Shakapere'a thare, sold by him on bit 
WtiloMaot from L onooo. Tbara ia, bowarar, no diatiuot evidence for tliis 
aaaiimp<ion It it nowbare atated to whom the money, being a total of 
99K it. UL, waa paid for thia portion of the leaae and other property. 

Allayn oommoocad the building of Dulwich College in 1613. 
I*R*ioaa to tbia ha appeara to bare diacontinued apiwaring on the 
■toga a« an actor ; but Aubrey, in hia < Miacellaniet,' connecU the 
fcnnda t ioB of Dulwich College — 'the college of Qod'a Qift,' aa 
AOayn called it — with a circumetanoe which strongly rc-commenda 
i t a olf to the imagination of the credulous autiiiuariiin : " The tradition 
waa, that playing a demon with aix others in one of Shakspere's plays, 
be waa in the midtt of the play aurpriaed by an apparition of the 
devil, which ao worked on hia fancy that be made a tow which he 
peKormed at thit place " (Dulwich). This ia clearly an adaptation of 
Iha atoiy told with great aolamnily by Prynne, in bis 'Histrio-Mastix,' 
ia hia matal of the judgmenta against players and play-haunters : 
" Mor yet to recite tho sudden fearful burning, even to the ground, 
both erf tho Olobo and Fortune playhouaea, no man perceiving bow 
tkaaa firaa eaOM : tonther with the viaible apparition of the devil on 
tho atage at tba Bol Savage playbouae, in Queen Elizabeth'a days (to 
tbo great anaaaoMat both of the actora and spectators), whiles they 
w«t« tbore proCaoaly playing the History of Faustut (the truth of which 
I bavo baard from many now alive, who well remember it), there beiug 
■omo dirtiaotod with that fearful sight" It is evident tbat AUeyn, 
baviag oooaidecBblo ricliea and no family, had, before he resolved 
upon tba partieular appropriation of hit wealth, not only acquired a 
rtpalatioa for benevolence, but intimated an intention to make an 
oodawoMtnt for aame cbaritable inttitutioa Samuel Jeynena, pro- 
bably a datxymaa, appliea to Alleyn to render aome assittaoco for the 
eocaplotiaa of Cbabaa Colloge, by lattn-, in tba beginning of which 
bo taya, " Pl iasi rl bo Ood, who haa atirrod up your heart to do so 
laaaygraeioaa and good daada to Qod'a glory." The object of Chelaea 
OolUga waa "that laamad men miitbt thare have maintenance to 
aaawcr all the advenariaa of religion." Tho aame writer adda, " Or, 
if I mi[;ht move another projaot to yourself, that it would please you 
to buiU aome half a aoora lodging rooms, more or lass, near unto 
TOO, if it ba DO more bat to give lodging to divera aoholara that come 
from tba univacalty." Allayn took hU own course. In 1616 he had 
Doariy eoaptaied bia astaUiabmeut at Dulwich, and in the autumn of 
tbat yoar Ibo Eari of Anindel writse to him with a familUrity which 
aboWB tba napaet aot^taiaod for Alleyn's character, and the know- 
bdfs aoMOOt lb« higbar lanka of hia banarolent purposes. Ilia earl 
■ fl i tw a M tba piamr aa bw " loving frieo.l," and saya, " Wheivaa 
I an gtwa to nnd a wt aa d that you are m hand with an hoapltal for 
tba annaniirln tl poor M people aud the nwintenaooe and eduoatian 
of yooag, aad have now almoat pcrfectwl your duriubia work, I am 
at tbo iattoot rsqnaat of tbia bearer to deairs you to accept of a poor 
CttbaHoM boy to ba oaa of your number." The incumbent ofSt. 
■•»l»'«;*ka pariab la which Allayn w»a bom, was at this period 
"**>■'*" Ooaaou, who six and thirty yoara before was the furioua adver- 
""^.'ff"^ •■** ?•■»«* "^ "aucb liko caterpilUrs of a oommon- 
WWtlb. Tba papan of Dulwich College ahow tbat Alleyn waa 
■WMMaa to give a pcafaranoa to tha poor of bU native pariah lo 
•ilarting the laoalaa of hia boapUal; and tbat Ooawm waa parUou- 

laily diligent in raoommanding individuals to his favour. There 
were le^ difflcultiea in the aatablishmeot of ' Qod's Oift Colloge ' aa 
a foundation ; and no leea a |>eraon than the Chancellor Bacon thought 
it hia duty to raaist the completion of Alleyn's wishes. The chan- 
cellor thus writes to the Marquis of Buckingham : " I now write to 
give the king an account of tba patent I have atayed at the seal : it 
is of license to give in mortmain eight hundred pounds land, though 
it be of tenure in chief, to Allen that was the player, for an hospital. 
I like well that Allen playeth the last act of bis life so well, but if 
Hia Uigeaty give way thus to amortize his tenures, the Court of 
Wards will decay, which I had well hoped should improve. But that 
which moved ma chiefly ia, that Hia M^esty now lately did abac- 
lately deny Sir Henry Saville for two hundred pounds, and Sir Edward 
Sandya for one hundred pounds, to the perpetuating of two lecturea, 
the one in Oxford, the other in Cambridge, foundations of singular 
honour to His Majesty, and of which there is great want; whereaa 
boapitala abound, and beggars aliound never a whit less. If His 
Majesty do like to pasa the book at all, yet if he would be pleased to 
abridge the eight hundrod pounds to five hundred pounds, and then 
give way to the other two books for the universities, it were a princely 
work, and I would make an bumble suit to the king, and desire your 
lordship to join in it, that it might bo so." The opposition of the 
chancellor waa however overruled, and Alleyn was allowed to dispose 
of his munificent endowment of eight hundred fwundsayear aocording 
to hia own wishes. The college waa for the support and mainteuanoe 
of ooe master, one warden, and four fellows, three of whom were to 
be ecclesiastics, and tho other a skilful organist ; also six poor men, six 
women, and twelve boys to be educate<l in ^-uod literature. The 
patent passed the great aeal on the Slst of June, 1619; and on the 
13th of the following September Alleyn formally and publicly dispos- 
sessed himself of this the greater part of his property, and thence- 
forward be and his wife lived in this foundation upon a footing of 
equality with those whom they had raised into comfort and compara- 
tive opulence. Thomas Hey wood, in his 'Vindication of Actors' (a 
remodelling of hia 'Apology for Actors '), says, "When thii college 
was finiabed, this famous man waa so equally mingled with humility 
and charity tbat he became his own pensioner, humbly s\ibmitting 
himself to that pro|X)rtioQ of diet aud clothes which he hod bestowed 
on others." AUeyn appears to lukve hsd a full and earnest enjoyment 
in his rare munificence. In bis diary, under the date of May 26, 
1620, is this passage : " My wife and I acknowledge the fine at the 
Common Pleas' bar of all my lands to the college : blessed be God 
that has lent us life to do it" Ue had proi>erty enough to bestow on 
other charitable objects. In 1620 we find him founding almshouses 
in Finsbury. His diary gives us a curious picture of his habits aftor 
his retirement to Dulwich. He was still master of the king's games ; 
and thus we find him on one day baiting bofore the king at Orean- 
wich ; on another, giving the twelve brothers and sisters of tha 
college their new gowns ; and on another, going to Croydon fair to 
sell bis brown lunre. His property still went on accumulating. In 
162U ho bought the manor of Lewisham. In 1621 the Fortune 
Theatre, of wbiuh he was tha chief proprietor, was burnt. He enters 
the fact in his diary, n-ithout a aingle observation, and quietly sets 
about rebuilding it His wife Joan died in 1623. He was very soon 
married agam, to a lady whose Christian name waa Constance, and 
who is sup|>osed to have been a daughter of the celebrated Dr. Donne. 
AUeyn lived with his second wife only about two years. His will, 
dated Noveml>er 13, 1626, states tbat he was sick in body; and on 
the 25th of the same month he died, and was buried in tho chapel of 
his college, called Christ Chapel, in a plain manner, accoiding to his 
special direction. By bis will he endowed twenty almshouses, ten in 
the parish of St Botolph, and ten in St Saviour's, Southwork ; and 
he left considerable legacies to his wife and other relations. Fuller, 
some forty yeara after the death of Alleyn, when the opinions of the 
Puritans had thrown discredit upon the itoblest as well aa the most 
innocent actions of those who had been connected with the theatio, 
thus writes of the fouuder of Dulwich College : " He got a very great 
estate, and in his old age, following Christ's counsel (on what forcible 
notice belongs not to me to inquire), ' he made friends of his un- 
righteoiu mammon,' building therewith a fair college, at Dulwich in 
Kent, for the relief of poor people. .Some, I coufess, count it built 
on a fotmdered fouudation, seeing in a apiritual avnse none ia good aud 
lawful money aavo what ia honeatly and industrioiuly gotten. But per- 
chance aucb who condemn Master Alleyn herein have as bad shillings 
in the bottom of their own bags, if aearch were made therein." 

The founder of Dulwich Collega had a singular partiality for persona 
bearing hia own name. Advantage waa probably taken of this 
peculiarity, which we must call a weakneaa. Dckkcr writes to him to 
introduoe the sou of a Kentish yeoman : " He is a youug man loving 
you, being of your name, and deaires no greater happiness than to 
depend upon you." Howes, the continuator of Stow'a ' Clirunicle,' 
mentions about 1014, that Alleyn wai building his college, aud that 
he intended the master alwaya to be of the name of Allen, or AUeyn. 
This limitation continues to exist Dulwich College now possesses 
very large revenues ; and the situation of master especially is one of 
great value. Alleyn left a collection of picturea there, to which 
additions were gradually made; but in 1810 Sir Francis Bourgeois 
bequeathed to the college bis valuable collection, which he bad pre- 





viously offered, but without success, to the government, upon the con- 
dition of building a gallery for its reception. Thia collection is easily 
accessible to the public, without fee. 

Within the last few years considerable discussion has arisen with 
rcfffeuee to the proper distribution of the funds of the college, and 
at the beginning of 1856 a scheme was recommended by the Charity 
Commissioners, with consent of the college authorities, for the future 
management of the charity. The present members are to be paid 
annually as follows: — Master, 1015?.; Warden, 855^ (to be raised to 
10152. should he survive the master) ; First and Second Fellows, 6002. ; 
Third and Fourth Fellows, 466i; poor brethren and sisters, 1502. 
from )(ichaelma!i next for their respective lives. Twelve governors 
are to be appointed : an upper, or classical, school to be constituted, 
* the head-master with a salary of 3502. a year, and 30«. half-yearly for 
each scholar over fifty, to have the general superintendence of the 
charity, subject to the governors ; the under-master to have 2502., 
with 10*. half-yearly for each boy above fifty, in addition to his own 
pupils. Day scholars and boarders to be admitted to this school. 
Foundation scholars, not to exceed twenty-four in number, may be 
maintained at the expense of the charity. Scholarships, not exceed- 
ing eight in number, at 1002. a year each, tenable for four years, may 
be provided for scholars (not private boarders) in the upper school. A 
lower Bcbool, for foundation scholars and day boys, is to be carried on 
at Dnlwich, the master to receive 1502. a year, and 10». half-yearly 
for every boy exceeding fifty. Twelve boys may be allowed exhibi- 
tions, or scholarships, not exceeding 302. a year each, for four years. 
The number of alms-people not to exceed twenty-four iu the first 
instance, half to be brethren, and the other half to be sisters ; who 
are to bare residences and a weekly stijiend not exceeding 20«. Out- 
pensioners may be appointed, not exceeding sixteen, with stipends of 
not more than 10«. weekly. 

The papers at Dulwich College, whether in the writing of AUeyn or 
bis partner Henslo-ve, throw some light upon the literary history of 
the drama. Alleyn appears to have taken much of the management 
with regard to the authors who wrote for the theatres in which he 
was so deeply interested. For example, there is an entry in Henslowe's 
papers, " Lent unto my sonne K AUeyn, the 7th of November, 1602, to 
give unto Thomas Deckers for mending of the play of Tasso, the 
some of xxxx«. : '° and again, " Lent unto Mr. AUeyn, the 25th of 
September, 1601, to lend unto Benjamin Johnson, upon bis writing of 
his adycions in Jerouymo, xxxxi." Uenslowe again lends unto " lien- 
gemy Jolmsone, at the apoyntment of E. AUeyn and William Birde," 
in earnest for plays undertaken, "the some of x2." The caution with 
which the elder partner makes his son-in-law a sort of security for 
needy authors is very curious. Alleyn appears to have been a man of 
a kindly heart towards those with whom he was brought in contact ; 
and all these documents show that the theatrical writers — men who 
have earned their immortality — were for the most part poor and 
wretched. The partners however in all probability screwed their 
authors very hanl. There is a letter from Itobert Dabome to Henslowe, 
in wliich he earnestly begs for twenty shillings, saying, *' Good sir, con- 
sider how for your sake 1 have put myself out of the assured way to get 
money, and from twenty pounds a play am come to twelve." There 
is a heart-rending document also from Field, Dabome, and Massinger, 
in which they earnestly beg for five pounds to deliver them from prison. 
Xhe number of eminent men who were associated with Uenslowe and 
Alleyn in producing dramatic novelties was very great, including 
Munday, Drayton, Dekker, Cbettle, Massinger, Jonson, Rowley, Uey- 
wood, Porter, and Chapman. These men were dependent upon the 
players for the small gratuities which they received for works of high 
genius and laborious art. Yet AUeyn is not to be blamed for this 
penurious reward of authors. The writers for the theatres were 
almost innumerable ; and excellence up to a certain point was very 
generally attainable by them. Perhaps some of the higher excellence 
of Shaks|)ere may be attributable to the fact that he was at ease in 
pecuniary matters; that almost alone he could produce the most 
attractive novelties for his own theatres; that he was not dependent 
upon managerial caprice ; that in fact bo was making a fortune, as 
Alleyu himself was making it, by his property in a species of enter- 
prise which batl universal supporters, and which in his case had the 
esp'cial support of the wealthiest and best educated of the com- 
munity. The details of the life of AUeyn ought to be attentively 
stmlied by those who desire to form a competent notion of that 
imcqualled chapter in literary history, the annals of the English 
stage during the half century of its greatness. 

( Fuller, Wortkia of England ; Kippis, Biographia Britannica ; 
Collier, Memoirt of AUeyn, published by the Shakespeare Society; 
Malone, Hittorical Account of the Engluh Stage) 

ALLINGHAM, JOHN TILL, a very successful dramatic writer, 
some of whose farces especially were what is called stock pieces at 
the beginning of the 19th century. They have no great pretensions 
to wit or humour ; but they are full of liveliness and bustle, and were 
adapted to the peculiar talents of the most popular comedians of the 
time. ' The Weathercock ' and ' Fortune's Frolic ' are the best known 
of his productions. Allingham was the son of a wine-merchant in 
London, and was brought up to the legal profession. We neither can 
ascertain the date of his birth nor the exact period of his death. In 
an edition of ' Fortune's Frolic,' forming one of the series of dramatic 
BIOO. Oir. VOL. I, 

pieces published by a bookseller named Cumberland, about twelve 
years ago, we find this notice of Allingham : " We remember him 
some twenty years since in the busy throng about 'Change, in the 
capacity, we believe, of a stock-broker. Ho has been dead some 

ALLORI, the name of two distinguished Italian painters, father 
and son. The father, Alessandro, was born at Florence in 1535, and 
was brought up by his uncle Angelo Bronzino, likewise a very dis- 
tinguished painter. AUori, from his connection with his uncle, was 
also frequently called Bronzino, and he sometimes wrote the name 
upon his pictures. He was one of the most distinguished painters of 
the anatomical school, and was a devoted admirer of Michel Angelo ; 
but he appropriated nothing more of that great master than his 
affected display of anatomy, which AUori seems to have considered 
the greatest quality in art. In 1590 he published a treatise upon 
anatomy for the use of artists. He died in 1607, and his portrait by 
himself was placed in the Florentine gallery of painters' portraits. 

AUori's works, both in oil and fresco, are numerous, and many on a 
large scale. His greate.-t work is the Montaguti Chapel in the church 
of the Aununciata, painted in oil in 1582. He has painted there, a 
Last Judgment, Christ disputing with the Doctors, and Christ driving 
the Money Changers from the Temple. In the second he lias intro- 
duced the portraits of Michel Angelo and Giacomo da Pontormo in 
their own costume, besides several other portraits of his contem- 
poraries. He was an excellent portrait-painter, and he constantly 
introduced portraits of his friends into his historical pieces. 

The son, Crulofano AUori, born at Florence in 1577, was a better 
painter than his father, whose style he abominated ; he used to call 
him a heretic. He studied with Gregorio Paijaui, and rivalled that 
painter in richness of colour, and surpassed him in delicacy of execu- 
tion. But he was idle and fastidious, and his works are scarce. In 
execution he was equal to anything, and he had of course a corre- 
sponding skill in copying. Ho is said to have made some copies of 
Correggio's Magdalen with some slight alterations in the background, 
which now pass as duplicates by Correggio ; ho generally made a slight 
variation in the background ; the original of this work is at Dresden. 
Cristofano was an excellent landscape-painter. His masterpieces are 
considered the Miracle of San Giuliano, in the Pitli gallery ; San 
Manetto, in the church de'Servi; Judith and Holopherues; and a 
Magdalen, which was the portrait of his own mistress, a very beauti- 
ful woman. The Judith is also her portrait, and the Holophernes was 
painted from himself: it was engraved by Gondolfi for the 'Mus^e 
Napoleon.' He died in 1621 ; liis portrait is likewise in the Floren- 
tine portrait gallery. 

(Baldinucci, Notizie dc Profetaori del Disegno, &c. ; Lanzi, Storia 
Pittorica, &o.) 

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON, a distinguished American historical 
and landscape painter, was born in South Carolina in 1779, and was 
educated at Harvard College, which he entered in 1796, having spent 
a preparatory term, by the advice of his physicians, at Newport, 
Rhode Island. Having determined to follow painting as a profession, 
he resolved to visit Euglaud for that purpose ; he accordingly set out 
in ISOl with another artist for London, and entered the Ruyal Academy 
of Arts of London as a student, in which he remained three years, 
during the presidency of West. 

In ISOl be went with a friend to Paris, and thence to Rome, where 
he remained four years. In 1S05 he attracted considerable notice 
there by a picture of 'Jacob's Vision.' He excelled chiefly in colouring, 
and is said to have created considerable sensation among the painters 
in Rome, by the peculiar ellects which he accomplished, through % 
great use of asphaltum after the manner of Rembrandt. He painted 
several pictures at Rome, which were admired for their colour and 
chiaroscuro ; among them a portrait of himself, and several landscapes. 
In 1809 Allston returned to America, and at Boston married the 
sister of Dr. Channing. In 1811 be again visited England, where he 
obtained the 200 guineas' prize from tho British Institution for a 
picture of the ' Dead Man raised by Elisha's Bones,' which was after- 
wards booght by the Pennsylvauian Academy of the Arts for 3500 
doUars. In 1813 he had the misfortune to lose his wife, at a time 
when he was himself in a very weak state of health. In 1811 ho pub- 
lished a book entitled ' Hints to Youug Practitioners in the Study of 
Landscape Painting.' In 1817 he paid a second visit to Paris, with 
LesUe the Academician; and he returned in the following year to 
America, to Cambrid^eport, a village in Massachusetts, where he 
re-^ided until his death in July, 1843. He was an Associate of tho 
Royal Academy of London ; his election took place in 1819. 

Allston was regarded with deep affection by friends in England. 
Of him Coleridge said he was " gifted witli an artistic and poetic 
genius unsurpassed by any man of his age." His residence was not 
far removed from Boston or from Harvard University ; but Allston 
lived in much seclusion. The American writers notice that, although 
somewhat neglected by his countrymen, Lord Morpeth (Earl of CarUsle), 
Mr. Labouchere, and M, de TocquevUIe, sought him in his retreat to 
offer their tribute of respect. 

ALMAGRO, DIEGO DE, one of the adventurers who went from 
Spain to the conquest of America. He Wiis a foundling and brought 
up by a clergyman of Almagro, according to Qomara ; but according 
to Zarate, of Malagon. When the success of Columbus's voyago 




t ItaMra fai Spda, natalMn of tdwmtann, praai«tod aithar by 
M wd, or by aoiMliaa for militarj gluty. or th« imn of (ain, 
I *• Ik* Mw WDcU ; and aaaay ratBaisad in ofaaeiiriu until an 
«il]r WM afcrad to ikaoB to faaoocM known. Of Almagro 
b aaid bj tko htat-nrinn- prartona to tha yoar 1S2S, whau ha 
[iM*«aDf«orparlMnfaip with Kaarro and a wealthy elarnf 
H«raHMla da Laqoa, at PaaaaMt, to undartake jointly 
of Para. Piaam took tiM command of tha troopa; 
Ala^po' — gigad to prooora tha ■up|>liaa of man, arm*, proTiaiooa, 
kc : and Laona waa U> mnaia at PMaiad, to forward, with the gonr- 
»ar of that plaea, tlia intrnsaU of tba company. Piaarra aat out Ant, 
and Almagro atWwarda joiaad him. Soma tima aftar tba asaoutioo 
•r mnrdar oTtho PWuTiaa Atahualpn, FVanoiaoo Piaarro waa informad 
•rthaaniralcf Padroda Alvarado with aoma troopa to nndartidia 
tha 9 mv* of P*". mmI aant Almacro to tham to aaoartein thair 
JilwtiMi, Aimagro aat tbam on tba ccaat, naar tha preaaot port of 
OUIm. Aftar aooa nagaahiHun, tba giaatcr part of the troopa of 
Alnwrafc baiag fran latiamailnra. and Umpted with the offer of 
lOtlOM foU erwwBt to ba dividad nmonc tbam, joined their fellow- 
MMliynun^ i«d — rahad tagathar to Cnnea 

Hiii^iii waa infaaoMd ij one of hia party that ha had beau 
Mputotad gorancr of Nnara Toledo. He interpreted thia to mean 
tMt Caaeo alaa waa part of hia govenionhip, and aaMmbling the 
linntamiintii. opaoly daelarad to them hia views. The two brothen 
at Piaarro^ Joan and Oooaalo, rafoaad to obey tha aalf-made goTemor, 
and were pat under a ir aa t Ftaaciaoo Piniro, upon bearing thia 
n<wa, Irft TruzUlo, wbara ho than waa, and prooaadad to Coioo in 
grant baata ; when Alaagro acknowledged hia Ctolt, and Piaarro not 
«mif pardonad him, but area lent him a conaiderabla aiim of money. 
Piaarro and Aloagro anteced now into an agrermant by which the 
iMHar prnmiaail upon hia aolemn oath to leaTe Cnico, and never to 
return within thirty leaKuea of it, eren thongh tha Emperor Charlva 
ifcoal.t orier him to do lo. In 1685 be waa tent to tha oonqneet of 
Chili, which be partially effected, after having anfferad much fiuigue 
aad privation ; and it i« naid that ba waa proMnted by wveral caoiquea 
with «00,000 dueata in piaeaa of gold. 

VWa mootha after, Joan de Rada and Roi Dias, whom be had left 
at Cnaeo to reemit men for hia army, brongbt him the intelligence 
that Fanuado Piaarro, whom hia brother FraneiMO liad sent to Spain 
to aalidt Imnaura and titlea for the diaooTerera, had returned from 
I h wai, bringing the title of Marqui* of Peru for Piaarro, GoTemor of 
Voam Toiado km- Almagro, and Biabop of Peru for Luque. Some of 
Alaaagro'e frianda adrfaed bim to return to Cuaoo, On his way thither 
ha met Noguera, an officer who bod been sent by Piaarro to ascertain 
whathar ha was in want of any aaaiatanoe to pursue hia conquests, 
PiauTO himself being then employed in building Lima. Almagro 
•••ilad liimaalf of this opportunity to get full information of the state 
«f aSuia at Cnzoo, tha aafe^ of whidi, at that time, was much endan- 

1 that hemii^ht 
J proceeded thither. 
I without opposition ; 
imptiaauad Oonialo and Fernando Piaarro, and pillaged thrir house. 
Vkaacteo Piaarro, upon bearing of tbeae eventa, aent from Lima two 
aaoasaaiTO dataefamenla against Almagro; and after baring obtained 
tha Ubatty of bis two brothers, joined the army with tbo rest of 
hi* (oroaa; a u o ia a rfto Uy atta^ad Cuaoo; and, having token Almagro 
priaoaar, aaaaed Idm to ba tried by a court-martial, which comlemued 
hia to death for having rabeUed against his general and abandoned 
hia poet. Tbia aantaoca waa executed at Cuaoo on the 25th April, 
1584, Almagro being then in the sevrntyfiftb year of his age. 

Aloagro ia daaoribad both by Oomon and Zarata as a brave, liberal, 
attd open eliaraelar. He never married, but left a son by an Imlian 
waaao, who waa also sailed Diego da Almagro, and bad as eventful 
• lifo aad aa tragical an end aa bis father. 

{OomatK Bmotim Onerai, Ac., oh. 125-128; Zarate, Hutoria dt 
fa ft a|u W a dd Ptm, b. iii ; Piaarro, Vantui IluMtra dd Nnevo 

ALMAN80R, propOTly Al-Mmuitr, or, with Us complete name, 
A*n J^fmr MkdolUk ml-Mmtm; tba aeoond kalif of the Abbaaide 
*I««««T [AMUtum\ waa bora at Hooaima in Syria. a.o. 713, and 
■**« "" »1» brather and predeeeaaor Al-Saffidi, in 768. HU reign 
y*^P*** •••••■y with coiiteata for the throne, and in ropreaaing 
iiHiraatiotia, aooM of which wars of a aeotarian character. From one 
of thaaa ha took a diaiika to bU rsaideooa at Kufs, and laid the founda- 
tloB of th« town of Bmh4ad, wbioh baeame from this time the abode 
af thakalifs. 

Al-Maaaiir died, Saplember, 77«, at Bir Maimuna, on a pilgrimage 
la Ibcaa. Hia aon AIMobdi snooeedod bim in the kaUfat. Al-Hanaur 
i abowad that prwlilaetioa for literature which for aeveral canturlea 
'• di«t»nf«l.hlng fratora fat tha aharacter of the Mohammedan 
aovsrngna. ■'nriat bis reign traaaUttoaa into Arabic were commenced 
tf tha worts of aaeieat Uraak writart on meUphyaics, matbematica, 
•a»roBoiny, aad madiainc. 

AUUlDAjraAVOIBCO, aaveath aon of the Conde de Abraotaa, 
*?.**;■** P* •■»•*• Tiaaray of India. In hia youth he diatln- 
lM*^UMtfagdiM tba Uoan ia tha BwhaaahL aMtiMbkriy in the 
— -— * of Oiaaad*. la IMM, wUla payiag a^iHto hi« hrother, 

farad b* a ravolt of tba Indiana ; and having ascertained < 
taailv (Main pn aaasa i a u of that city, ha immediately proo 
Baring anbdned the Indiana, be entered Cnzeo withou 

the Bishop of Coimbra, he waa aent for by King Manoel, or Emanuel, 
and intrusted with the important uffioe of vioeroy of the recently 
scqiiired poaaassiona in India. On the 25th of March, 1605, he set 
Mul fnim LiatMn. " Hia eiubarkstion," saya Barroa, " waa the met 
brilliant that had aver tak«n place in PortugaL Hia force consisted 
of 1600 men, all belonging to vai7 respectable familiea; many of thorn 
wars noblemen of the king'a bouaehold, all anxioua to aarre under ao 
distinguished a leader." 

After a proeperoua voyage Almeida arrived at Quiloa, on the 22ad 
of July. The Moorish king of that city Habraemo, or Ibraliim, was 
not friendly to the Portugueaa. Almeida oomplaineil of bis not having 
paid due respect to the Portuguese flag, whan Ibrahim apologised, and 
promised to visit the viceroy on the morrow. But instead of tlie kiug, 
a meeaenger from him came to make a freah apology. Almeida told the * 
meaacnger to inform his master that he himself would pay him a visit 
at hia own house. At the approach of the Portuguese, Ibrahim lied, 
aad Almeida gave the crown of Quiloa to Mohammed Anconi, a worthy 
man, and a great friend of the Portuguese. Almeida received the 
bomnge of the new king in the name of his master, built a fortresa to 
keep the inhabitants in subjection, and then proceeded to the town of 
Mombaz.%, which he deetroyed. On his arrival at Cananor, on tha 
Malabar coast, he received an embassy from the King of Bisnagur, 
who was desirous to form an alliance with the Portuguese. Almeida 
erected here another fortress to protect the factories, or commercial 
establi«hments, of Cananor, Cochin, and Coulan, and loaded eight 
veasels with spiuery, which ho sent to PortugaL This squadron on its 
way to Europe discovered the island of Madagascar. 

The governor of Cochin, Trimumpara, had resigned in favour of one 
of his relations, and the viceroy went to that town with the object of 
renewing the alliance with the new king. Almeida sent hia son 
Lorenzo against the King of Calicut, who had offered some injuries to 
the Portuguese merchants. lK>renzo, after having taken ample satisfac- 
tion for the insult, went to make on establishment at Ceylon, and also 
took the Mal<iive Islands. At the same time, four vessels, wbiuh had 
come from Portugal, formed a commercial alliance with the King of 
Malacca, and established two factories in the island of Sumatra. 

The Soldan, or kalif of Egypt, with the aid of the republic of Venice, 
which always looked with an envious eye on the success of the Portu- 
guese, had fitted out a naval expedition, and given the command of it 
to an experienced Persian, named Mir Hocem. The King of Calicut, 
expecting this assistance, made pre^taralions for war, upou which the 
viceroy rent his son against bim. When Lorenzo waa in the port of 
Chaul, the Egyptian fleet, which had been reinforced with twenty-four 
vessels of the governor of Diu, appeared. Lorenzo at flr^t mistook 
them for the squadron of Albuquerque, which ho was expecting. 
The fire of Mir Hocem however soon made him discover his error. 
The two squadrons fought till uight-fall without any considerable 
advantage ou either side. Some ot his officera advised Lorenzo to 
avail himself of the obscurity of night in order to cross the bar, and 
get out into the sea ; but the gallant young, though severely 
wounded, said, that to go away at night was U'jthing else than to run 
away, and that waa a thing which be never would do. As the Portu- 
gueae squadron was sailing out in the morning, the Egyptians optned 
a brisk fire upon it. Lorenzo's vessel was the last, and the enemy 
directed their principal fire against her. At last she was separated 
from the rest of the vessels in a very sandy and rocky place. As tha 
tide was running out with great rapidity, the other vessels could not 
render her any assistance, and the enemy showered their fire upon her 
with a sure aim. Lorenzo was requested by his men to save himself 
in the boat, but he would not consent to abandon them. A shot 
carried off one of his legs. He caused himself to be tied to the mast, 
where he continue<l to animate bis men until another abot carriod off 
the left side of his chest. The galley was by this time upon a sand- 
bank; it wa< boarded without difficulty, aud twenty-four men, who 
remained in it, were carried away captives. The rest of the vessels 
proceeded to Cananor, and informad Almeida of the disaster. He bom 
it with fortitude, and was making preparations to revenge bis loss, 
when Alfonso de Albuquerque, who was appointed governor of India 
in bis place, arrived. Almeida received him very coolly, and a quarrel 
ensuing, Albuquerque was sent to Cochin, where he was kept three 
months under arrest. [ALBUQDERquE.] 

Almeida, whose only object now waa to gratify bis vengeance, sailed 
to Onor, where he burnt some vessels of the king of Caliuut, entered 
the port of Dabal, or Dubul, belonging to the king of Ooa, on the 13th 
of December, 1508, took the town, and after having plundered it 
reduced it to asbea. He then went in search of the Egyptian fleet, 
and found it near Diu in the kingdom of Cambay, aud obtained a 
complete victory over it. Mir Hocem, with only twenty-four men, 
eaoaped : eight of his veaaela were taken, and the rest sunk. 

Almeida, luving thus punished bhi enemies, returned to Cochin, 
wfaare Marshal Coutinho, who bad arrived from Portugal, urged him 
to return home. The viceroy released Albuquerque, surrendered his 
government, and sailed from Cochin on the 13th of November, 1509. 
On bis way to Portugal, after having doubled the Cape of Oood Hope, 
be stopped at Saldanha Bay to procure a supply of fresh water. His 
ioldiara had a dispute with the natives, and an affray ensued. One of 
Ilia oAoan, Mello, aeeing the venerable old man alone in the midst of 
that Inhoapitable oountty, obaerved to him in a sarcastic manner, 




" Here I should wish to eee by your side one of those whom you 
favoured in India." Almeida very composedly answered, " This is not 
the time to think of that ; think rather how to save the royal standard ; 
as for me, I am old enough, both in years and in sins, to die here, if 
that be the will of the Lord." From this moment Mello never aban- 
doned either the standard or his general, until Almeida fell pierced by 
a lance. 

" That the man who had trampled over countless thousands of the 
Asiatics," says a contemporary writer, " who had humbled their sove- 
reign princes, and annihilated in the seaa the powers of the Egyptian 
Soldan, should perish on an obscure strand, by the hands of a few 
savages, should be a salutary lesson for human ambition." 

Almeida was a man of noble appearance, prudent, courteous, and 
rery much esteemed for his generosity. During his administration of 
India he made the Portuguese name respected. He is represented by 
some writers as a conceited man, who thought nobody so well qualified 
to govern India as himself; but perhaps we only do him justice in 
believing that his ruling motive was a desire to elevate the fame and 
power of his native state. 

(Barros, History of the Portagueie Conqueatt in, the Eatt, decade i., 
book 8 to the end — ii., book 1-4 ; Damian K Goes, Chronica do Senhor 
Rey Horn Manoel ; Mariana, book xxix. chap. 16; Lardner, Cabinet 
Cyclojiadia, Hittory of Spain and Portugal, vol. iii., p. 806.) 

ALMOHADES, the name of a Mohammedan dynasty, which began 
in Africa and Spain with Abdelmumen, in the year 642 of the Hegira, 
A.D. 1147. Mohammedben-Abdallah, a native of Herga, in Africa, 
was the son of a lamplighter in a mosque. He received his education 
at Cordova ; and having finished his studies, he travelled to the East 
to improve his knowledge, and visited Cairo and Baghdad. In Baghdad 
he attended the school of the philosopher Abu-Hamid-Algezali, who 
had written a book on the revival of learning and the law, which was 
condemned at Cordova as dangerous to the faith of Islam. Ali, the 
Almoravidiau king of Cordova, approved of this decision, and the book 
was given up to the dames. Algezali peiceiving a stranger in his 
school, and having ascertained that he was from the nest, asked him 
whether he bad ever been at Cordova, and heard of his book. Abdal- 
lah informed him of the fate of his work. The doctor turned pale, 
tore the book which he had in his hands, and looking to heaven, 
exclaimed, *' May Qod thus tear the kingdom from the impious Ali ! " 
AbdalUh joined him in his prayer, and added, " Pray Qod to make me 
an instrument of thy vengeance." 

After three years' residence at Baghdad, Mohammed returned to 
Mauritania in 610 (a.d. 1116), where he rendered himself conspicuous 
by the simplicity of his dress, by his austerity, and by his bold preach- 
ing against the vices both of the king and the people. On his arriving 
at a village called Tejewo, he met a youth of prepossessing appearance, 
by name Abdelmumen, who was going with his uncle to study in the 
East. Abdallab promised to give him the instruction which he 
desired, but taught him all that was most conducive to his own 
designs. He communicated to him a prophecy in which it was fore- 
told that the empire of life and of the law would only arise with 
Abdelmumen. Having thus prepared him, he named him his vizier. 
They both went to Fez, and thence to Marooco. Entering one day 
into the mosque of the latter city, Mohammed placed himself in the 
■eat of the Imam. One of the ministers represented to him that 
nobody could occupy that place except the king of the faithful. 
Mohammed answered him with much gravity in these words of the 
Koran, " Inna '1 mesajida lillalii "- — " certainly the temples only belong 
to God." Shortly after the king entered, and prayers being said, 
Mohammed arose, and addressing himself to Ali, said to him, " Put a 
remedy to the evils and injustices prevailing in thy kingdom, for God 
will require of thee an account of thy people." The king at first 
treated him with contempt ; but as he continued to preach and attract 
the multitude, Ali at last assembled his council, and though severe 
measures were proposed, the king contented himself with expelling 
him from the city. 

Mohammed now built a hut in a burial-ground, and multitudes 
flocked there to hear his doctrine. He preached to them about the 
coming of the great Mehedi, who was to establish the empire of justice 
upon earth. The king ordered him to be imprisoned and beheaded, 
but he escaped to Agmat, and thence to TinmftI in the land of Sous. 
One day while be was expounding the prophecy of the coming of the 
great Hefaedi, Abdelmumen observed, " That prophecy evidently 
applies to thee ; thou art the true MehedL" Upon this, Abdelmumen, 
with fifty others of big disciples, acknowledged him as their Mehedi. 
After these, seventy more swore allegiance to him. Mohammed estab- 
lished two councils. The fifty who first acknowledged his authority 
were those with whom he entrusted the afialrs of greater consequence, 
and to the latter seventy he confided those of less importance. 

He then went to the mountains, preaching the unity of Qod, and 
was followed by 20,000 men of the tribe of Mai-amuda, to whom he 
gave the name of Mowahedun, that is. Unitarians, from which the 
name of Almohades is derived. The command of this army was given 
to Mohammed Alakhir. 

Abu-ls'bac-Ibrahim, All's own brother, marched against the rebels ; 
and the two armies were ready to fight, when a sudden terror seized 
the foremast ranks of Ilirahim, who, turning their horses, began to fly 
in all directions, trampling down their own fellow-soldiers. The 

Almohades possessed themselves of the rich baggage, and in conse- 
quence of this success several other tribes joined them. Ali now 
called his brother Temin from Spain, and with a powerful army sent 
him against the Mehedi, who had retired to the mountains. This 
general, though more successful than the preceding, never could defeat 
the Almohades. They fortified themselves at Tinmal, and from this 
place they sallied forth to devastate the surrounding country. 

In 1125 (513 of the Hegira), they laid siege to Marocco, but were 
defeated in a vigorous sally made by the besieged. Three years after - 
wards, Abdelmumen marched at the head of 30,000 men, and obtained 
a complete victory over the Almoravides. Ou his return to Tinmal, 
the Mehedi came out to greet the victorious general ; and the next 
day he called his men at the mosque, and took his last leave of them. 
Shortly after Abdelmumen waited upon him. The Mehedi gave him 
the book of Algezali, and departed from this world. He had made 
several reforms in the Mohammedan religion, among which was the 
adoption of a more simple profession of faith, and of prayers which 
they were allowed to say ou their march, and even when fighting, 
which gave them a superiority over their enemies. 

The chiefs of tlie Almohades now assembled to determine the fonn 
of government tliey should adopt after the death of the Mehedi ; and 
having decided in favour of a moderate monarchy, the election fell 
upon Abdelmumen, who was declared Imam and Amiral-Mumeuin. 
Ho pursued his conquests with vigour,_and in three years reduced the 
empire of the Almoravides to very narrow limits. He took Gran and 
Fez, and laid siege to Marocco, the only city now left to the Almora- 
vides in Africa. Whilst Abdelmumen was engaged in reducing that 
city, he sent Abu-Amran with a numerous army to invade Andalusia. 
Many of the petty chiefs of Spain joined the Almohades. In the meau 
time the siege of JIarocco was pursued with vigour, and the inhabit- 
ants defended it heroically. The besieger swore he would not retire 
until he had sifted the town through a sieve. Famine had carried off 
three-fourths of the population, and the remaining part could make 
but a feeble defence, when the city was taken by a general assault in 
the year S43 of the Hegira, a.d. 1148. The young emperor Ibrahim 
was put to death, the few surviving inhabitants inhumanly massacred, 
and the town demolished. According to Marmol, Abdelmumen lite- 
rally fulfilled his oath. He afterwards rebuilt the city, and called 
some tribes from the desert to re-people it. 

The arms of the Almohades were not less successful in Spain than 
in Africa. Almost all Andalusia acknowledged their dominion. Cor- 
dova, the last hold of the Almoravides, was taken by Abu-Amran, 
and Abdelmumen was proclaimed sovereign both of Mauritania and 

Not content with the territory he possessed in Spain, Abdelmumen 
published in 557 (a.d. 1161) the Jihdd, or holy war, with an intention 
of subduing the whole of the Peninsula. He levied an army of 100,000 
horse and 300,000 foot, but in the midst of his preparations death 
overtook him in 658. 

His youngest son, Yussef-Abu-Yacub, succeeded him. This prince, 
not being so warlike as bis father, dismissed the army which he had 
assembled at Sul^, and in the first few years of his reign he cultivated 
the arts of peace. In 666 (a.d. 1170) however, he invaded Spain, and, 
after conquering the rest of the Mohammedan dominions in the 
Peninsula, fell in an engagement with the Christians. 

Yusaef-ben-Yacub, better known by the name of Almansor, landed 
at Algeciras, and defeated Alfonso III. of Castile in the plains of Alarcos. 
The prisoners he had made in this battle he immediately restored to 
liberty — an example of very rare occurrence among the Mohammedans. 
After this signal victory he took Calatrava, Guadalajara, Madrid, and 
Salamanca, and afterwards returned to Africa, where he died in 695 
( A.D. 1198). This prince was the ornament of his age, and the most 
liberal and magnanimous of the Almohadian dynasty. 

His son Mohammed-Abu-Abdalla, who succeeded him, though an 
effeminate and weak prince, was not insensible to the glory of arms. 
He mustered a most powerful army, one of the five divisions of w hich, 
if we are to give credit to the Arabic and Spanish historians, amounted 
to 160,000 men: his design was to conquer the whole Peninsula. 
Such was the terror which this vast armament inspired among the 
Cliristians, that Innocent III. proclaimed a crusade, and several bishops 
went from town to town to rouse the Christian princes. The kings of 
Castile, Aragon, and Navarre, with a numerous body of foreign volun- 
teers, advanced to stop the progress of the Moslems. The two armies 
met in Las Navas do Tolosa, between Castile and Andalusia ; and on 
the 12th of June, 1211, the Christians obtained so complete a victory 
over the Africans, that Mohammed himself had a narnnv escape, and 
left no less than 170,000 men on the field ; the rest fled for safety. 
After this signal defeat he retired to Marocco, gave up the care of the 
government to his son, Yussef-Abu-Yacub, who was only eleven years 
of age, and passed the last days of his life iu licentious pleasures. 
He died in 610 (1213). 

Abu-Yacub died without issue in 620 (1223). His death was the 
signal of a civil war which ended with the destruction of the Almo- 
hades. After several disputes, Almamun-Abu-Ali, brother of the 
governor of Valencia, was proclaimed emperor. He projected a reform 
in the constitution, and piepared the way towards it by writing a 
treatise against the institutions of the Mehedi. The two councils 
instituted by the Mehedi, against whom Altnamun's reform was priuci- 




^■njr dinetad, dMOMd hte, Md cImm TiUiyik-bMi-Anuir in Ua i^md, 
■■■HtM Ua wUi trMm «e oppan Alauano. YabT* laadad in 
ilihlMJi. Md WM dHhatod by th* ampwar mw Medina Sidonia. 
AkMUaaa arMdlly aroi— d anr to Afriet, and arriTiDg •! Maroooo 
lttnmi*T" y ■■emtilid Um wnaU. and a(W npbnldinK Ut«m for 
llMir «owliMl, OMMBd thain lo b« bahtadiil in th* eourt of tita pdaoe. 
AO Um waUt ai Mp aeltd of partiaUty fer Oil body tiDd«rw«it tba lanM 
lri%wd thatr b«ad« www left to patevtyoo tito nunparta of Haroooo. 

b Spain, Ibo-Had, an «ndilniian (bailc, who lud formad tlie projeet 
uf laawillH Ihii oouatry f^«m tlia yoka of the Almobadoa, after a leriaa 
tt Tio to iiaa aspallad thatn fruo tba I'eninauU. Almaman. harHaad 
by ao many diaatwi, diad in 0S9 (1231). Hia ntooaaaon in AMoa 
U*ad in a eontinoal atata of intaatina warfar*. Tba laat of tbam waa 
Uita, wko fell in a battla i^dMt tha Maiini, and witti liim ended the 
dyMMta of the AlaMhadaai 

(OMiii BMidlma AnMet-Bitpamm ; Oonda, UUtoria dt ta Dumi- 
•octoa dt lot AnbmnBip a Um, iL M-M ; Xarmol, Dtteripeitm Qmenl 
dt Africa; Koderiena Tolatanna, Dc Rebut Biipaaieii: CHarbelot, 
SMioOi^me Orwm/al<.) 

ALUuKAVinKS, an Arabian tribe, who came oat of the countir of 
Himyar, and ettabliebad themaelrca in Syria in the time of the firat 
kalif. Abo-b^r. Tiiay paaaad aftarwarda into Bgypt, penatratad into 
Africa toward* the wait, and aatUed about the Daaart of Sahara. They 
astandad themaalraa gradoally, and gave the name to a aaet called 
Moilhamin, or Holatbemin, on aoooont of their wearing veils. Their 
laligioD aaami at a vary early period to hare been Cluristian, but by 
minnf with the Mobammadana they lost erery traoe of it ; and even 
of tka religion of Islam they hardly luiow anything beyond the formula, 
* La ilah iUa Allah Mohammed lasol Allah ;' that is, ' There is but one 
Qod, and Mohammed is hia enroy.' 

Tahyarben-Ibiahim, a vary patriotic man of the tribe of Qudala, 
wUdt waa one of these tribea, on hia return from Mecca, meeting with 
Abn-Amran, a funoos Fakih (that is, lawyer and theologian), of Fez, 
iofonnad him of the state of ignoranoa of iiis tribe, and of their tract- 
able dispoailion. and requested him to send some teachers. Abdaltah- 
ban-Ysarim, a disciple <n another Fakih, offered to accompany Tahya. 
Having mat with an enthuaiaBtio rroeption from the tribe, he induced 
tliem to wage war against the tribe of Lametounah, who were made 
to acknowledge his spiritual authority ; and he gave his follawers the 
name of Marahaiith, or Morabitin, which signifies men devoted to the 
aarvica of religion. AbdiUlah bavin? fallen in battle in the year 450 
of the Hegira, a.d. 1058, Abu-bekr-ben-Omar.Lametoum was appointed 
■ovaraigD prinor. This chief led his tribe westward, rstablisbed the 
aaat of hia empire at the city of Agmat, and laid the foundation of 

The tribe of Qudala had declared war againat that of Lametounah, 
and Abu-bekr marched apeedily to its aaeistaoce, leaving the command 
of tba army to his relation, Yuaaer-b<-n-Taxfin. Yuasef subdued the 
Battwfa, eomplatad the building of the city of Maroooo, and entirely 
•spaOad tha Zeiaridaa, oommooljr known by the name of Zegriea, from 
Manritania. Having by hi* exi>loit« and by hia affability won the 
a fca tj nns o{ hia meo, he declared himself sovf reign prince, and married 
tha baantiful Zaioab, siitar of Abo-bekr. Thi* chief having rstumed 
firma hi* expedition, encamped before Agmat ; but finding his oppo- 
Bsot too strong to be attaigked, had an interview with Yusaef, and 
r i fn isl to his native deaerta. Tnsaef made him a magnificent present, 
wkkh ha eontinnad to aend to Abu.|>ekr every year till hi* death. 

Toaaf DOW aaaiimad tba title of Amir-al-Mualemin, or ' Prinoe of 
tha Beliarsra.' Having baan invited by some of the Mohammedan 
Una of Spain to aaiist thsm wainst Alonao VI., he sailed in 1086 at 
tha Mad of a nnmerous army, laadsd on the coast of Andalusia, and 
■atabad to Bslnmadura. Kin< Alonso hsstened from Arsgon to stop 
hia pTBgrasa, and mat tba Almoravidea in the plaina of Zdaca. The 
Chrto ia u i Cuogfat lika haroaa, bat were compelled to retreat at night- 
bSL and tha king himaalf was severely wounded. 

Tnasaf was oallad back to Africa, and left the command of the 
AlMsvidaa to ^rr^an-Ababekr. The next year he returned with 
aaarideiable rainioreamaDta, and defeating one by one the Moiirish 
Uai^ of Spain, aaNbHahad tha aaat of hia empire at Cordova, and 
•naad hia aon Ali to ba proolaimad hia s u oeassor. Ynssef disd at 
Maioaeo U lbs year 1100, at tha advanced ua of 07. Clemency and 
hnnaaltjr wars prominent virtues in his ^araotor. Contemporary 
hiatafiaaa state that ha never pronouooed a sentence of death. The 
vart amnirs of the Almoravidaa, which now reached from Mount Atlaa 
to th* Han a Mortna, waa destroyed by the Almohadea in tha year £43 
«r tha Begin, aAlI4«. [Almohaoh.] 

(irBarbalat, AUmKWvbs OnauUt; dmdi, DomimuUm dt lot 
Aratmm M t f » a ; Tk* OnmieU of Bodarieoa Tolataoaa; Caairi, 
iWMf s rt s c a ArmbiM-Bitpama.) 

ALOMPRA, founder of the reigning dynasty of Birma, appaan to 
have bean bom about the year 1711. When Bsinga Dalla, king of 
An. aoaqosred Binna (175042), Alompra was known by the deaig- 
MUM A nm dnsa, or • tha hunUman.' Ha was at tliat time chief of the 
laaoaddaiaUa vUhtga of MuDO)>aboo, aitoalad to Uia west of Keoum- 


. „ — - aching hia 

. that Bima waa annaied as a oonquaTMl provinoe 
oailad grsat asaaparatioa among tha Birmaaa. 

I, and ahovt »wai«a mUaa diataat dram tha Irawaddy. 
af tha pwa la m a ti ao iaaoad by Bainga DaUa on rrachii 

tQ y» 

Alompra, who had ooUactad a band of about one hundred devoted 
foUowera, atrvngthaned and repaired the atockade around his village. 
There waa a garrison of about fifty Peguaii soldiers placed iu Mon* 
ohaboo, which Alouiprs attacked and captured unexpectedly aome 
time in the autumn of 1753, putting every man to tha aword. 
Apporasa, the brother of Uoiuga Dalla, and governor of Birma, gave 
directions to place Alouipra in strict confinement when he should ba 
brouKlit in by the party which bad been dispatched against Mouchaboo 
aa aoon as the maasacre of the garriaou ha<i been heard of The Peguan 
troopa exf>ected no reaiatance from the much inferior foroe aaaembled 
in Monoliaboo, and were coufoimded at fiudmg the atockade closed 
and manned againat them. At daybreak next morning Alompra made 
a sally, and, taking the besiegers by surprise, defeated and pursued 
them for the spaoe of about two miles. Ketuming to Monchaboo, he 
aent emissariea to all the neighbouring towna and villagea, inviting the 
Birmeee to join his standard. Many hesitated to engage in what 
appeared a desperate undertaking, but as many obeyed the summons 
as placed him at the head of a thousand men. Dotachew, the son of 
Apporaza, who waa at the hfad of three tUouaand men, hesitated 
whether to advance and crush the iosurrectiun, or wait fur reinforce- 
ments. Alompra, learning his indeciaion, took the bold part of march- 
ing at once upon Ava. Before he reached the city Uotaohew fled from 
it, and the Birmeae rose and overpowered the troops he left behind 
him. Alompra, on reoeiviog this intelligence, sent his second son 
Shembuan to take possession of Ava, and returned to Munchaboo. 
All these events took place before the close of 1753. 

A large foroe was assembled at Pegu, placed under the command of 
Apporaxa, and diapatched up the Irawaddy in war-boats. The fleet 
set sail in January, 1754, at the time of tbe year wheu the river is 
lowest and barely navigable. The obstructions it met with left the 
Birmeae time to collect their forces. Alompra recruited his army, and 
aaaembled a fleet at Keoum-meoum. In the vicinity of Ava the Peguana 
were moleatod by frequent desultory attacks; but their leader, after 
Bummoning the city without effect, judged it more advisable to proceed 
at once against the main force of the enemy than to waste time on a 
aiega. A battle took place near Keoum-meoum, which, although only 
the fleeta were engaged, was obstinate and bloody, and ended in the 
defi-at of the Peguans. Apporaza, with the wreck of his army, sought 
shelter within tbe frontier of Pegu. 

The Peguans avenged themaelves by a massacre of all tbe Birmeae 
within their power. Un tbe 13th of October they put to death tha 
King of Birma, who was a prisoner at Pegu, and several hundreds of 
his subjeote of both sexes and all ages. The Birmese, who were 
numerous in tbe frontier towns, flew to arms and revenged their friends 
with equal barbarity. The eldeat son of the murdereU king found his 
way to Monchaboo at the head of a strong body of Quois. He attempted 
to assert his hereditary claim to the throne ; but seeing Alompra deter- 
mined not to recognise it, and doubtful of his personal security, he 
retired to Siam. After the departure of the prince, Alompra caused 
nearly a thousand of the Quois to be put to death, idleging that they 
had conapired against him. Their kinsmen threatened vengeance, and 
at the same time Alompra received intelligence that a fleet from Pegu 
had blockaded Prume. A Birmese officer, dispatehed by Alompra, 
succeeded in throwing a reinforcement of men and provisions into 
Prome ; and in the spaoe of forty days Alompra collected his troops, 
left his two eldest sons in command of Ava and Monchaboo, and 
deaoended the river at the head of a formidable fleet. Immediately 
on his arrival at the blockaded town he attacked the fleet of P^u. 
The enemy fled ; he pursued them immediately, and without loss of 
time pushed on hia troops to within a few leagues of Bassein. Beinga 
DaUa retired to Pegu, and his forces, discouraged by bis retreat, 
evacuated Baasein on February 17, 1755. On the 28rd the Birmese 
entered the town, and having aet it on fire, returned the same day to 
a stetion where tlio branch of tbe river flowing towardit Syriam sepa- 
rates from that which passes Bassein. About the middle of April be 
defeated Apporaaa at Svnyagong, and obliged tbe forces of Pegu to 
fall back upon 8yriam, leaving the whole delta west of that town in 
possession of the Birme-e. K:irly in May Alompra fixed his head- 
quarters at Dagon, a few miles fiom Syriam, to which he afterwards 
gave the name of Rangoon. 

About tbe middle of Juno Alompra was obliged to leave his post 
at Dagon by an inaurrection in Birma, and a simultaneoua advance of 
tha Siamese upon his frontier. Having restored tranquillity ho made 
soma stoy at Monchaboo, where in the month of September he con- 
cluded an alliance with the envoy of the British resident at Negrais, 
and immediately afterwards returned to Dagon. 

Alompra remained apparently inactive before Syriam till the mouth 
of July, 1756; the enemy, imagining he calculated on reducing it by 
famine, were lulled into leourity. Availing himself of thi^ir negligence^ 
be carried the pUoe by a night attack. Advancing thence, he shut up 
the King of Pegu in his capiul, cut him off from all communication 
with hia own fertile territoriea of Dalla and Baasein, and from the 
(KMsibility of foreign aid. As roon as the rainy season was at an end, 
and the swamps of Syriam and Pegu had emerged from the iuundation, 
Alompra ordered his gaueral, Meinla-Heingaing, to advance upon Pegu 
with a strong detachment. He followed himself with the whole army 
iu a few daya Tha surrounding country was laid waste, the city 
invaated, and shortly afterwards Uken by storm. 




Oa his return to Monchaboo, Alompra spent some months in that 
town, which he had enlarged and made his capital. In 1758 a revolt 
in Pegu broke out. His preatnoe crushed the insurrection ; but the 
impression entertained by the Birmese that it had been excited by 
foreign intrigues, stimulated Alompra to seek revenge on other 

The English at Negraia were suspected. An alliance, offensive and 
defensive, had been concluded between Alompra and the British 
resident at Negrais ; notwithstanding which it was alleged that British 
traders had supplied the people of Pegu with arms. The position of 
the British government in India at that time had rendered it expedient 
to recal the resident at Negraia (he reached Calcutta on May 14, 1759), 
but a few persons were left to preserve the right of possession in case 
it should be resolved at any future period to re-establish the settle- 
ment. On the 6th of October following, Negraia was treacherously 
attacked by a party of Birmese who had entered it as guests, a number 
of Europeans and Hindoos slain, the rest carried off prisoners, and 
the place destroyed, though it does not appear that this assault was 
made by command of Alompra, or even with his previous knowledge ; 
but he tacitly sanctioned the outrage after it had been committed. 

The Siamese too were suspected of having stirred up the insurrection 
in Pegu ; upon them Alompra sought to tak>! open vengeance. Mergui 
and Tenas^^erim fell an easy prey ; and, inspirited with these successes, 
the victor resolved to carry the war into the heart of Siam without 
delay. The enemy harassed his army as it advanced, but did not 
vesture upon a general engagement. They retarded its march how- 
ever, and a month elapsed before he approached Bankok. Two days 
after the Birmese had completed their lines of circumvallation and 
erected their stockades, Alompra was tiiken ill. He felt that his 
disease was mortal, and anxious to reach bis capital in order to settle 
the succession, and take other precautions for averting civil disorder 
after his death, he broke up the siege, and commenced bis retreat by 
the most direct routa The progress of his disease however was so 
rapid that death overtook him within two days' march of Martaban, 
about May 15, 1760. 

Alompra at th's time of his death had not completed his fiftieth 
year. It is said that his person did not exceed the middle size, but 
was strong and well proportioned ; that his features were coarse and 
dark. He was prone to auger, severe in punishing. He waa as deceitful 
and reckless of human life as most Asiatic conquerors. He was a 
bracgart, like all his successors ; but he did something to brag of. As 
a soldier, he commanded success by the promptitude and vigour of 
his movements. " The wisdom of his councils," says Major Symes, 
speaking of his civil government, ** secured what his valour had 
acquired; he reformed the Rhooms, or courts of justice ; he abridged 
the power of the magistrates, and forbade them to decide at their 
private bouses on criminal causes, or property where the amount 
exceeded a certain sum ; every process of importance was decided in 
public, and every decree registered." 

(Symes, Account of an Embaay to the Kingdom of Ava in the Year 
1795 ; Crawfurd, Journal of an Embamy to the Court$ of Siam, and 

ALP-Ali.SLAN (that U, ' the Brave Lion '), or, with his complete 
name, Mohammed-hen-Daad-AlpArtlan, bom in 1030, was the nephew 
of the Seljukide Sultan Togrul-Beg, whom the Abbaside Kalif Kaim- 
biamr-illah had, for the protection of his throne, invested with the 
dignity of Emir-al-Omara, or Commander-in-Chief of the whole 
empire, and who, when nearly 75 years old, had also married a very 
young daughter of that kalif. Togrul-Beg died in 1063, and, as he 
left no children, his nephew, Alp-Aralan, who had till then been 
governor of Khorassan, succeeded him as Sultan of the Seljukea. 
Alp-Arslan restored the youthful widow of Togrul-Beg to her father, 
demanding at the same time to be appointed Emir-al-Omara in the 
place of his uncle, a request which the kalif could not refuse. One 
of the first acta of Alp-Arslan's reign was to put to death the grand 
vizir of Togrul-Beg, together with 600 of his adherents. Nizam-al- 
Mulk, who was chosen fur that office by Alp-Arslan, has earned the 
reputlition of one of the greatest statesmen of the East. Alp-Arslan 
waa about to extend his dominions by conquests in Transoxiana, when 
a revolt in Azerbijan, instigated by Kutulmish, required his presence 
there. He defeated the rebellious prince near the city of Kei, and 
resumed in the ensuing year (1065) his conquests in Transoxiana, 
while his vizir Nizam-al-Mulk endeavoured to promote the welf>re of 
the interior, and to advance the interests of literature and education 
by establishing colleges in the principal towns of the empire. The 
greater part of Syria waa at this time already in the hands of the 
Turks, and the troops of the Greek emperor offered but little resist- 
ance to their further progress. Romanus Diogenes, who camo to the 
throne in 1063, resolved to take more vigorous measures against them. 
He joined his army in person, and defeated the Turks in several battles 
in Cilicia and near Malatia; but he waa unsuccessful in an expedition 
sgainat Khelat, and waa, in 1071, tak^-n priaoner in a battle near 
Malazkurd (or Helezgbird) in Armenia. Alp-Arslan treated him 
generously, and on his promise to pay a conaiderable ransom, released 
Dim and all the no><le prisoner! from their captivity. But the Greeks 
had in the meantime placed Michael Parapinaciua upon the throne, 
by which circumstance Diogenes was prevented from fulfilling his 
engagement. Thia caused a renewal of hostilities, Alp-Arslan's son, 

Malek-Shah, conquered Georgia, while the Sultan himself was pre- 
paring au expedition agaiust Turkistau. He ctossed the Jihon, and 
commenced the war by takiug the fort of Berzem ; its governor, 
Yussuf-Kothual, was led before Alp-Arslan as a prisoner, and when 
reproached by him for the trouble he had given him by his long acd 
useless resistance, became so incensed, that he rushed upon the Sultan 
and with a dagger indicted a mortal wound upon him, of which he 
died (1072). Alp-Arslan was buried at Merw in Khorassan. His son 
Malek-Shah succeeded him in the government. 

ALSTUOMER, JONAS, was born on Jan. 7, 1685, at Alingsoes, at 
that time a small town of about 150 inhabitants. His parents were 
so poor, that after being taught to read and write, he was sent to 
service at the house of a colonel in the neighbourhood ; but he soon 
left this place for the shop of a small trader in Eksjo, where he con- 
tinued till the ill-treatment of his master forced him to leave : after a 
few more changes he set out for Stockholm to seek his fortune. Here 
a merchant of the name of Alberg, who had resolved to set up in 
business in London, engaged him to accompany him as book-keeper. 
The young adventurer assumed the name of Aktrbm, from the name 
of the stream on which he was bom, being the first of the family who 
had aspired to the dignity of a surname. On his passage he took his 
share of work with the sailors, a circumstance which had nearly 
turned much to his injury, for he had scarcely set foot on land in 
London, May 1, 1707, when he was laid hold of by a press-gang, and 
rescued with difficulty out of their hands by a comrade, who could 
hsirdly persuade them that he was a clerk. In the course of three 
years Alberg failed. In the same year, 1710, the clerk set up in 
business on his own account as a ship-broker, and procured letters of 
naturalisation. His first thought, on his success, was to impart a 
share of it to his family. His father was dead, but he sent suppoit 
to his mother, who was still living, and be invited over to Enj;land 
his younger brother and two sisters. The brother he instructed in 
trade, and then sent out to Portugal, where he died in 1710. Of the 
two sisters, the elder managed the household affairs, and the younger 
learned book-keeping and trade, at which she became so clever, that 
during Alstrom's occasional absences from the counting-house she 
used to carry on the business and maintain an extensive correspond- 
ence. Alstrom was now comfortably settled, if it had not been for 
the contrast which he could not help drawing between the prosperity 
of the couutry he lived in and the misery of that he had left behind. 
'* As a citizen he was an Englishman," says his biographer, "but he 
was at heart a Swede." He watched impatiently for the return of 
Charles XIL from his captivity at Bender to lay before him his plans 
of improvement ; and when the welcome news arrived he hurried off 
to Sweden, but soon fouud that during the life of that king there was 
no chance of his schemes being listened to. He did not return how- 
ever without effecting something ; for, having observed that the 
English woollen manufactures ooustituted the principal exports to 
Sweden, he took with him a stock of thirty sheep for the purpose of 
improving the Swedish wool, and presented them to friends at Gotten- 
burg and Uddevalla; and this flock was the origin of a great improve- 
ment in the wool of Sweden. On Iciving Stockholm he went to 
Germany, and the ship in which he sailed being captured on the 
voyage by a Danish cruiser, he claimed and obtained his liberty in the 
character of an English merchant. For the next four or five years he 
travelled in different parts of Euj-ope, still with the view of finding 
manufactures to transplant, and then found it necessary to attend 
closely for two or three years to business in London, where he was 
nominated Swedish consul. In 1723 he left London for Paris, and 
sent on before him to Sweden a Dutchman, who established the first 
cotton-printing manufactory in the country at Sickla. From Paris he 
wrote to Stockholm to obtain the privileges he considered necessary 
for the establishment of a factory for weaving, and at St.-Germain 
engaged some English stocking-weavers to accompany him to Sweden. 
The privileges were granted, and in 1724 weaving was fairly com- 
menced at Alingsoes, the native place of Alstrom, which he had 
Selected eight years before as an eligible spot for his purpose : after 
a time he found that his capital was not sufficient to carry on the 
undertiiking, and his neighbours were more disposed to be a hindrance 
than a help. When just on the point of throwing everything up and 
returning to England, he heard that a meeting of forgemasters was 
about to take place at Carlstad on business, and he determined to 
make a lost effort. He travelled to Carlstad, got into conversation 
with one of the forgemasters, and by his assistance the whole body 
was prevailed on to advance Alstrom some money for present needs, 
and appoint a meeting at the fair of Christinaehamn. 'I'he crisis was 
now past ; at the fair a joint-stock company waa foi'med, and soon 
after the king, Frederick of Hesse-Cassel, took forty chares, and as a 
matter of course, many of the nobility and the senate followed the 
royal example. From this time the main interest of Alstriim's 
biography ceases, and nothing remains to be told but a series of useful 
efforts and merited honours. He procured, with difficulty and 
expense, we are told, a skilful 'spinster' from England, who first 
instructed the Swedish women in the art of spiijning wool. He 
imported flocks of sheep from England, Spain, and Eiderstedt, and 
goats from Angora. He made experiments for the introduction of 
different kinds of dyeing-plants, and also of tobacco and potatoes. 
He introduced improvementa in the manufacture of cutlery, in 





tkui to Umm(i 

•liMi ha oNteSUtad m«(« to Um I 

I multi- 
) bravfit of bia oountnr 
Btatfoo of hto ovB fortoiM. What h« lort is wadtli 
> up m koMoor. In 17S9 h» wm nud* • nambw of 
lh« OooaeU of Hiwiiiii iii. with aa OBdantaadiiv tbat b« wm to ^ira 
M Mwli of Ua tiaa to it aa b« ooold apai* froa tlio ihetoty at Aling- 
MM! b«l k* took aaak u intaiwl te tho oooapstioB that ba oftaa 

ri aU bia toM totkaOMudL la 1748. whan tha royal order of 
Notik Bur waa ImlHatirl, k« vm on* of tb« aarii«at knigbU; and 
la 1751, at tka ooroaaliaa of Kiag Adolphui Krederiek, be wu 
oanoMad, and alao koBo uw d, aa b eoalomary on niob ooeaaiooa, witk 
aa aiUit4oaal ayUablo to kia aama, wbiek waa ebaocad from Alitrum 
to AbtnwMr. Pl«m tkat tima ba bad a great iaflaaoee on all the 
iMolutiooa of tko atataa wilk rayarl to o u ai n iarea and nuaufaotorea, 
and tkay taaltfadtkairrtgardtoMlB OB variooa ooeaaiaaa. So early 
M 17l», wkaa a i^vat part of tka boUdiagi at Alingwaa waa daatroyed 
by ti% thtf voted a public eontribotion for their rettoration. In 
I7M ikay pM«ad a reeolBtion that a bait of Alatromer abould be 
laaili at tka pablio eipcnae, aad plaoad in the Eiokanga at Stockholm. 
Akoat tko aaaia tioM tha Aoadeiny of Seienoea ordered a medal to be 
■tnwfc ia kia kooour. He did not long aornre the disUnctions 
••aided kim by tke Stataa aad Aeademy. He dird on June 2, 1761. 
Ba waa twioa aauiiad, aad had ais sona and two daugbtvre, but only 
fanr of the aooa aarrlTad bim, three of whom, Patrick, August, and 
Claa, but mofo aapaeiaUy CU*, roae to eminence. It ia aUted by 
Huadiiag, that at the time of thrir fathrr'a death, 18,000 persona 
w«l« eapioytd in the silk and woollen manufacture in Sweden. 

Alatrtoar waa tka author of a few abort worka on the practical 
fiaalioaa wkiok oaonpiad bis life. 

(Kiygar, AananaCie-IW tfur J. Altlr6mer; Roaenhane, Anleckningar 
klraarfi till KKirfapi ita«<«iteii« Hutoria, pp. 173, 444 ; Aunvillius, 
C W a l ^f M ihWiertw V/mitimtu, i 2S ; Uinchiog, UiMoritckLUera- 
ritAn UauMmdk, L M.) 

ALTIXtRFKU, ALBBECBT, painter and engtarer, and one of the 
■oal oalafatatad of the old Ocrmaa maatera, was bom at Altdorf in 
Baeuia fai 1488. Thia haa been shown by Heineken, who acquired 
kia iafanaatioa trota a aeaator of KeMoabiuK (Ratisbon), who found 
doenoirata ooooeming the family of Altdorfer in that city. Those who 
apeak of him aa a Swiaa kaTe tMen mided by Sandrart, who waa the 
origiaator of Ike error. 

Altdorfer was himself a member of tha iotorior senate of Regena- 
kwg, of which city he waa enrolled a burgesa in Ifill ; be waa also 
•ivkitMt to the city of Regenabutg. He waa probably the son of 
UIiMi Altdorfer, an artbt of Rcgensborgi who gave up his right of 
koii^ankip in 1491. 

Altdorfer did not paint much, but his pictures show a surprising 
Wtiaaea aad iadiutry. There is in the Pinakothek at Munich a picture 
by kfaa. r a pi aaa MU ng Alexander's battle of Arbels, of which the labour 
b pndifioaiL It bears the date 1529 ; it is not of large dimensions, 
batMBtHaa almost an innumerable mass of small figures, all in the 
Oanaaa oUUtary costume of the day, evrry article of dreas or military 
impbBcat being made out with the greatest exactness ; and all tho 
varioaB aad probable iocideuU of a battle profusely introduced. 
Thaie ia perbapa not another picture in existence which contains so 
maar Agaraa ; tka design is however strictly gotliic, and Altdorfer haa 
wkoily oagiaeted tko powerful aid of aerial |>erspectiTe. This picture 
waa totmttf at SaUeiasbeim, whence it was taken by the French to 
PMia, atid MapoleoB waa ao much delighted with it, that ho ordered 
U to ba boog up in hia bath-room at St. Cloud, where it remained 
aatil 181&. Iliough one of the moat interesting and remarkable pro- 
diw ^ wi a of Oenaaa painting, it has never been engraved ; the very 
a^tof it kowaear would nrobably ap[«l many engravers. His other 
pMam are ia a similar style ; he searoely ever painted large flguree : 
wa larioar with Mary aad John, St Peter, St Ostkerine, and another 
mkt^ at tko eoevsat of llolk, which are the aixe of life, are the ouly 
kaowa cxeepUowL aad tkaae kave beta attributed to Albert I>Urer, 
wko ia aappoaad by soma to have been tke master of Altdorfer, but 
H la a BMre ooejeature. 

to Albert D«rar akoa, of the old Qennan or little maatera; 
ka ia oaOad by tka Ftaaek U Petit Albert : bia cuU, amounting to 
about eighty, are alMit, aad oeeaaioaally iU drawn, but they ato 
WMtod with mat iSaadoai. Hotbefai b said to have studied Alt- 
datte'a auta, wbiek, tnm • eartaia aimUarity of style. notwithatandinK 
lkaa«perioiityoriIalkrfa,iaaotlmprDUble. ' ' "'""^""^ 

Hiaaartal pialaa oa aoppar aad pewter are mora numerona than kia 
wasdMl^ndaaMBat to aboot 1 », bat ikey are inferior to bU cuta, 
Mdawjiafrffaralaototkaaagravingaof DiirsraudAldegrever; they 
HaestrsMaiy hard, oaeaaionally very bMlly drawn, aad Kenerally bad 
la the aitroaiitiaa. ' 


I aa kia worka ka appaan to have been in earlier life 

■■•■???•• TS. ■•*•»•» >lw> J*" lft«* *o kave given up engraving 
tl'T**?*-. *"• l"<^"» dated Ihwa 1600 to ItSfi, and on two ij 
Mi prioaipal pialana wa bare tka dataa MSA aad 1SS9 : 16»8, Ika 
y*« af Ilia «tatk, it ibaad opoa ona plcton. Ha iivwl 

diiaBy at Regenaborg, and died without issue, Regenaburg at one 
tima jinaarsinrt many of Altdorfer's works, but they have been removed 
to Moaicb ; among them is nearly a complete ooUeotion of hia priati^ 
which werepreaentadto the town library by the StadtgeriebU-Aaaeaaor 
PeacheL The snbjecto of Alt<lorfer's prints are historical, aacred and 

{irofanc, and mythological; witli a few landacapea, and some daigna 
or goldamitks. Heineken, Uuber, and Bartaok have given lists, more 
or less complete, of Altdorfer'a prints. 

(Sandrart, Ttultche Atademie, fto. ; Heineken, JHctitmnaire del 
ArtuH$,kc.i Fiorillo, (iackicku dtr Xachntnden KH%iU,tui.; Hubar, 
Mwmutt dtt Amateun, tx.; liartach, i'o«(re-(?raM«r.) 

ALTUEN, EHAN, or JEAN, who introduced madder into France, 
was bom in I'eraia in 1711; died 1774. His infancy and the fiiat 
yeara of hia life were paaaed amidst luxury and opulence. The son 
of the governor of a province, he might aatici|>ate tho mo»t brilliant 
future, and confidently hope to auoceed to the honoun of his father, 
who had been ambassador at the court of Joaeph I. of Qennaoy. The 
nsurpation of Tbamas-Kouli-Khan overthrew the Persian empire, and 
with it the fortunes of the Altbeo family. They were all uaaaacred, 
with the exception of Ehan, or Jean, who escaped b; flight, but only 
to fall into the hands of a horde of Arabs, who, without pity fur bia 
tender age, aold him into slavery, lie waa carried into Aoatolia, where, 
for fourteen years, he laboured in the cultivation of madder aud of 
cotton ; but even the bard condition of a slave could not break kia 
spirit, nor drive from his heart the remembrance of the past, and tha 
hope of a happier future. Endowed with that persevering charaoter, 
that true energy which obataolee only tend to stimulate, be auocoedad 
iu escaping from his master's house, and took refuge in Smyrna with 
the French consul. He waa afterwarda brought under the notice of 
the French ambassador at the Porte ; the ambassador wrote to the 
consul at Ver<>aille«, and Jean Althen embarked in a vessel bound for 
Marseille. He carried with him the means of amply repaying the 
hospitality of France : among bia modest luggage he baid aecretod 
some of the madder-seeda, taken from the soil of Smyrna. In thua 
acting he endangered his life ; for the ex[>ortation of these precious 
seeds waa puniahable with death. It so happened however that he 
eluded all the researches of a suspicious and despotic power ; but on 
arriving at Marseille be met with no support in that city ; aud want 
of money prevented bis proceeding to Versailles, where the recom- 
mendations of the ambassador were already forgotten. 

The Persian was not discouraged. He Icnew the power of an ener- 
getic will, and trusted to time and hia own exertioca. He wearied 
the autboritiea with cousteui solicitations, but au uLlooked-for event 
promoted his views more than all his own endeavours. He was young 
and handsome ; a young girl of Uorseille fell in love with the foreigner : 
she became bis wife, and brought him a portion of a huudred thousand 
crowns. Marriages of a nature aimilar to thia were of frequent occur- 
rence, and no one in Maneiile waa aatoniahed at it Allhcu embraced 
the Catholic religion. 

He then went to Venailles ; the letters of the ambassador and the 
consul, to which he referred, gave him access to the ministerial saloons : 
he even obtained an audieuce of Louis XV. This audience lasted two 
hours, and the Fecsian's judicious language mode a lively imprraaion 
on the king, who vraa not wanting in sense and penetration. Althen 
gained the perminion he desired. He wi>hed to introduce a new 
system for toe cultivation and manufacture of silk. He began bia 
enterprise near Montpi-Uier, but the prejudices of an ignorant popu- 
lation impeded his progress. Louis X V. forgot him ; the government, 
absorbed in important mattera, gave him no pecuniary aid. Althen 
consumed hia wife'a patrimony in fruitleas endeavours. He wrote, he 
implored, he made several journeys to Venoillea; be was invariably 

He returned to Maneiile. In his various journeys he had several 
times paaaed through the Comtat Venaisaiu; be waa atruck by the 
similarity of the nature of this soil and that of Smyrna ; the tem- 
perature and the climate were similar. He thought that uiaddur might 
be cultivated successfully in the Comtet With the |iroujptitudewitli 
which be carried out all his decisions, ho immediately converted into 
money the remainder of his property and went to Avignou, which was 
then mduded in the Stetes of the Church. He there met with power- 
ful patronage from Madame de Clauseaette, who allowed him to make 
Ilia fint experiment on one of her estates. The cultivation of madder 
waa auoceaafuL 

In 1708 another attempt at the cultivation of madder was made on 
the left bank of the KkAne, upon an estate belonging to M. de Cnu- 
mont ; the trial was successful, but there was as yet no market for 
this produce. It waa the union of Avignon and the Comtet Venaiasin 
with France, the immenae riae iu the cotton trade produced by the 
continental blockade, and the development of every kind of manu- 
facture, which causod the cultivation of madder to jield, in the 
deportment of Vauduse, on an average twenty million francs a year 
in agricultural produce. One fact will suffice to prove the immense 
service which Altlien rendered to the Comtat Tlie whole territory 
of Monteux, in the arrondiasement of Carpentras, has since increased 
one hundredfold in value. Althen could foresee these results, which 
were faat rvaliaing, whilst his own life was closing in circumstances 
bordering on indigence. He expired at Caumont, leaving an only 
daughter, who died as poor as her father. 





At last, in 1821, the council-general of Vaucluse remembered Althen, 
and to acquit its debt of gratitude, voted a marble tablet to be placed 
in the Calvet Museum at Avignon, with the following:; inacription : — 
" To Jean Althen, a Persian, who introduced and first cultivated madder 
in the territory of Avignon, under the auspices of M. le Marquis de 
Caumont in m.dcc.lxv., the Council-OBneral of Vaucluse m.dccc.xxi." 

{Portraili et Bittoira des liomme* Utiles, publiet par la Societi 

ALTHORP, LORD. [Spewcer, Earl.] 

ALUNNO, NICCOLO, one of the old Umbrian painters of the 
15th century, less known than he deserves to be. Tliere are very few 
of his works extant, and Vasari notices him only in the ' Life of Pin- 
turicchio,' and treats him as his contemporary. Mariotti however, in 
his ' Lettere Pittoriche Perugine,' states that Alunno was established 
.18 a painter at Foligno a? early as 1460, and that he painted at least 
two years before that date. He ii native of Foligno, and his works 
are signed ' Opus Nicolai Fulginatis,' or ' Nicolai Fulginatis Opus ;' 
but there was a Nicoolo Deliberatorc, likewise of Foligno, and there- 
fore all the works with this signature may not be by Alunno. 

His chief works were in a chapel of the cathedral of Assisi, of which 
there is now scarcely a trace left ; Vasari speaks of a Pietii as a part, 
with two angels bearing torches, and weeping so naturally, that in his 
opinion do painter could have done them much better. Besides which 
Vasari mentions as capital works, a Nativity, in the church of Sant' 
Agostino, at Foligno ; an altar-piece for San Francesco, and another 
for the high altar of the cathedral of Assisi. There is still at Foligno, 
over a side altar of the church of San Niccolo, a picture of that saint 
and the infant Christ, which was painted by Alunno in 1492 : it had 
formerly a predella, or a long picture in various compartments, which 
served it originally as a base, according to the old Italian custom with 
altar-pieces ; but being one of the paintings which the French thonght 
fit to send to Paris, it was returned at the general restoration of the 
plundered works oi art, without its predella, which is now in the 
gallery of the Louvre. It contains six pictures, one of which is an 
allegorical piece, of two angels holding a scroll, upon which are written 
some verses which are legible with diflScnIty, celebrating the abilities 
of Alunno, and the generosity of a lady of the name of Brensida. The 
other five pictures are from the life of Christ They are drawn in a 
dry and meagre style, and are very brown in colouring, and have 
strong contrasting lizhti ; but they have much expression, and arc 
executed with facility. Alunno excelled in expression ; he was in the 
habit, in his large pictures, of painting the beads from the life, which 
gave them a truth and reality not found in the works of many of his 
contemporaries. The period of his death is not known, but he painted 
afttrr 1 500 ; he painted in the old manner in water-colours, or h tem- 
pera. Alunno painted also some standards used in religious proces- 
sions; they are called Oonfaloni. There is still extant a gonfalone 
of this description by him, made of very fine canvass, in the church 
of Santa Maria Nuova, at Perugia, with the inscription — " Societas 
Annunciata fecit fieri hoc opus, 1466." 

(Vasari, Vile rfe" PUtori, 4c. ; Land, Sloria PUtorica, &c. ; Rumohr, 
Ilalimische Porschumjen.) 

ALURED, ALRED, or ALFRED, of Beverley, an English historian, 
who lived in the 12th century. He is the author of an Epitome of 
British History, from the time of the fabulous Brutus to the 29th year 
of the reign of Henry L, which Thomas Heame published at Oxford 
in 1716, under the title of ' The Annals of Alured of Beverley.' It 
is written in a Latin style remarkable for its correctness, considering 
the age in which the author lived : and more attention appears to be 
paid in it to the dates of the evente recorded than in most of our 
ancient chronicles. It exhibits however in many places so strong a 
resemblance to the similar work which bears the name of Qcofirey of 
Honmouth, that Leland, and others after him, have considered it to 
be merely an abridgment of Qeoffrey's work. On the other hand, it 
would rather seem that Alured's History was really published before 
that of Geoffrey, so that, where they agree in expression, the plagiarism 
or copying ought probably to be charged upon the Litter. Geofi'rey's 
work has always been regarded as principally a translation from a 
British or Armoric original ; and he and Alured may have drawn their 
information, to a considerable extent, from the same sources. Of the 
personal history of Alured, the little that has been banded down rests 
entin^ly on the worthless authority of Bale, in his ' Illustrium Magnse 
Britannia Scriptorum Catnlogus, a Japheto, per 3620 Annos.' He is 
said to have been bom in the town of Beverley, in Yorkshire ; to have 
received his education at Cambridge, where he became distinguished 
for his skill in divinity, as well .is in various branches of profane 
learning; and bavin; afterwards turned secular priest, to have beeu 
made one of the canons and treasurer of the church of St John in 
bis native town. His death is conjectured to have taken place in 
1129, the year in which his annals terminate. Bale makes him the 
author of many other works ; but the catalogue appears to be manu- 
factured by the process of representing each of the books of his annals 
9fl a distinct treatise. Among the works that have been attributed to 
Alured is a History of St. John of Beverley ; which the writer of his 
life in the 'Biographia Britannica' considers to be a collection of 
charters and other records respecting that ecclesiastical foundation 
still precerved among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British 
Museum. But for the opinion that this collection is the history said 

to have been written by Alured, there do not appear to be sufficient 

ALVARADO, PEDRO DE, one of the most distinguished of the 
companions of Hernan Cortes in the conquest of Mexico. He was 
born at Badajoz in Spanish Estremadura at the close of the 16th cen- 
tury. His father was a kuight of the order of St James, and had the 
* Encomienda' of Lobon in that province. Pedro was one of many 
sons. Having, with four or five of his brothers, crossed the Atlantic, 
he was at Cuba in 1518, and was appointed to one of three vessels 
fitted out by Velasquez, the governor, for exploring the American 
coast, under the command of Grijalva. After touching at the island 
of Cozumel (or Acozamil, the ' Islo of Swallows'), and several places 
in Yucatan, they sailed up the rivers Tabasco and de Banderas. They 
were so much pleased with the appearance of the country, the culti- 
vation of the fields and inclosures, the beauty of the Indian edifices, 
and the signs of civilisation, that Grijalvi gave it the name of New 
Spain. Here the Spaniards first heard of Montezuma and his exten- 
sive empire. Alvarado was despatched to Cuba with a report of the 
regions which they had explored; and all the gold which they had 
collected. As Grijalva, by his instructions, was strictly forbidden to 
colonise, he continued his course along the coast, visiting several points 
and collecting more treasure. 

In February 1519 Cortes sailed from Havanna with 11 vessels; his 
force amounted to 508 officers and soldiers, and 109 seamen and 
artificers. Alvarado had command of one of the vessels, and four 
of his brothers embarked with him. The fleet was separated by a 
storm, and Alvarado arrived at Cozumel, the appointed rendezvous, 
three days before the rest Cortes here reviewed his little army, held 
council with his eleven captains, and prepared for immediate service. 

As Alvarado, although eminently distinguished in this campaign, 
was only a secondary personage, the main events of it belong to the 
biography of Cortes, but we occasionally fall upon individual traits 
of a marked character peculiarly his own, and which, painting to the 
life the Spanish soldier of the age of Charles V., deserve a briet 
record. In the first voyage with Grijalva he entered alone the river 
Papaloava, and trusting himself among the natives, who were in that 
quarter of doubtful temper, obtiined from them fish, fruits, and other 
supplies. Grijalva reprimanded him for ruunius into danger ; but the 
sailors, admiring his intrepidity, gave the river the name of the young 
officer, which it still retains — El Rio Alvarado, the mouth of which 
is about forty miles to the south-east of Vera Cruz, The estimation 
in which he was held by Cortes is attested by the unbounded con- 
fidence which he reposed in him. At the fight of Tabasco, the great 
battle of Otumba, and the final reduction of the capital city after many 
and great difficulties, dangers, and reverses, Alvarado was intrusted 
with the most important operations, and mainly contributed to success. 
When the shrewd vigilance of Cortes prompted him to oppose per- 
sonally any interruption to his great design — for the envious spirit 
of Velasquez, the governor of Cuba, caused him frequent anxiety and 
trouble — on all such occasions he left the command with Alvarado, who 
discharged his duties with unswerving fidelity. 

When Cortes was called away to meet Narvaez, who had been sent 
by the governor of Cuba, with a force very superior to his own, to 
dispossess him of his command, he left the city and the royal captive 
in Alvarado's charge, with a force of a hundred and fifty men, accord- 
ing to Herrera, but by Solis sUted not to have exceeded eighty. During 
the absence of the chief a dangerous commotion took place in the 
capital, and when Alvarado sent messengers to tell Cortes that he was 
hard pressed by the Mexicans, Montezuma sent with them others to 
say that he could not restrain the fury of his subjects, but that ha 
was well content in the hands of Alvarado, and had no desire to be 
separated from him. 

Las Casas charges Alvarado with an atrocious attack upon the 
Mexicans for the purpose of plunder ; but Herrera and Solis assure 
us that a plot was laid for the massacre of the Spaniards, and that 
Alvarado kept the whole Mexican population at bay with his small 
band untd the return of Cortes from his victory over Narvaez, and 
with the troops of that captain incorporated with his own. In the 
valuable series of original memoirs published at Paris by Mons. 
Temaux-Compans, there are statements by native Mexican authors, 
contemporary and other, which increase the difficulty of coming to a 
satisfactory decision on many points of the conquest of Mexico. 

Alvarado was in every fight until the final reduction of Mexico. 
Afterwards, in 1523, he was sent with 300 foot, 160 horse, and four 
pieces of cannon, with some Mexican auxiliaries, against the tribes of 
Indians on the coast of the Pacific in the direction of Guatemala. He 
reduced the provinces of Zacatulan, Tecoantepec (now Tehuantepec), 
Soconusco, and Utlatlan. In a conflict at Cayacatl on the coast of 
the Pacific, where the Indians fought with great courage, Alvarado 
was lamed in one of his legs by an arrow, and it was ever after three 
inches shorter than the other. Having beaten off all opponents, he 
passed on to Guatemala, called by the natives Quahtemallau, and on 
the border of the Lake Atitlan took some Indian prisoners. He sent 
them to their chiefs with overtures of peace. The chiefs answered 
that they had never been conquered, but since he behaved so bravely, 
they were willing to be his friends ; accordingly their chiefs came, 
touched his hanils, and remained peaceable. As be proceeded, all the 
people round the lake brought him presents, and assurances of 





ftlmiMill -rnr-T^fi — *"* H« tbM foondwl > dtf, wLieh b« okllvd 
8uth«o d« ka CkballOTW (bow OoatMula U Viri>), with ■ ohuroh of 
llw MB* MUM. and Oaiim Mat him SOO SMuUnia to incraue iu 
iMiMihliMi Alrmimrfo lima wat bla farotlMr Dirgo to form a ••■tUo- 
■mM la Taeoltnui. which b* oaliad San Joik*. and he Uieo MUl>li«h»d 

• Mrt oa the I'wifir. 6(ta«n kafvaa from tha oitr of Satitia{;o, which 
ha otlWd Panto a* U Poaaaioii. Ha than ambarked for Spain, whcra 
ha «aa neaiTcd with a diatiastiea woUhj of bia fama. The Emparor 
Charka \\ <m hh laodii^ daairad ha would go poat baMa to eoart 
Ib aakaowladgniaal of bk aarrioaa, Alrarado obtainad tha |o*amor- 
A^» of Ooataiaala, and all tba gold and ruluablaa wbioh ba bad 
hrawM w«t« daolarad bia own. DurioK tbii ritit he formed a roatri- 
aoiSil alUaaea with Doha Baatris d* U CueTa, a ladr of an •noirnt 
aad Mobla Spaskh homa, (kwn which the duka* of Albuquerque are 
dnawdad, aad Awllj aftarwarda he rvtumed with a numeroui band 
of koiKhli^ giallaw, kaanneo, and friends, to Guataniala, which 
apeadiiy baeaoM a haadaoma and nroaprrooa eity ; and the provinoa, 
•ayi Uanara, flovrUiad while be bad the oommand of it. (■ Dec.' 4,. 

bbi J, «a|^ l) . „ ^ , . :, 

Qnat eiitniiitOT ware ttill in proaeeution in South America under 
FtMRO aad Almagro, wbo had gained poaaeasion of Prru, and pro- 
Ivetad the coeqoeat of Chili. A Warado wat not of a temper to b« 
uia whik otheia were in armi. Qaito with it* rich city w«s not 
um t M»n d within the hoandaiy of Piaarro'a oommand ; and Alvani'lo, 
haTing aotbority from the Emperor Charlea to extend hi* diaooveriee, 
bat inth apcdal eantton not to interfere with the conquests of other 
tr tp'*'— deteraiaed to go thither. Aftnr sending one of liis offioers, 
Oareia da HulgoJa, who had signalised himaelf in the Mexican cam- 
naigaa, to raeonBoHre, and reoaiving from him eucouragiug accounts, 
hambarkad on the Pacific with 600 soldiers, 227 of whom were 
honMnen, with an iut«ntion to land at Puerto Tirjo ; but tho voyage 
brii^ napropitioua, and a mortality spreading among the horses, he 
laadcd at a bay oallrd Babia de loa Caraqaea, near Cape San Francisco, 
adding oo at the same time bis pilot, Juan Fernandez, to ascertain 
tha limits of Pixarro's gorenment, on which he declared be bad no 
wish to intrude. From Caraqnes he marched into the interior, and 
with a courage and peraererance almost without a pareilel, which may 
be t«ad with interaat in tha 'Decads' of Herrera, he reached thu 
eonntry he waa in quest of. Notwithstanding all his care (for he set 
aa aiample to the hardiest of liis men by frequently dismounting bia 
bona aad placing a sick man upon it), he lost in the morasses near 
tha eoMt aad in Uie saowa of the Andee serenty-nine of his soldiers ; 
ais Spaniab women ako wbo aocompaoied them perished, and many 
horasa. On ascending the Andes, Alraiado learnt that an armed 
lofea nndar Almagro was in rradineaa to meet him. He took some of 
tlklir aooata, tteated them well, and tent them hack, with a civil 
BMaa^ that be did not come to breed diaturbances, but only to dis- 
CDTer, nnder the royal oommiasion, new lands along the South Sea, 
aad that ha was ready to meet them on friendly terms. They met at 
Riobamba, on the plau of that name, and it was adjusted that Alva- 
lado should relinquish hk project, leave such of his fuUowcrs as were 
willing to remain, together with all the vessels except those necessary 
for hk reton, aad ricvive 120,000 castellanos, or pieces of eight, aa 
iS faidaaMriBoatioa for his outlay and losses^ Thk he did, as he 
■flnaad. to avoid injury to his sovereign, and the evils of civil war- 
fare. Piiarro came up with an additional force, but being informed 
of what bad taken place, the aflair ended with lively rejoicings, and 
Alrarado departed arith valuable presents. 

His rtnowD spreading throughout the Spanish possessions, he was 
aaUad to Hoadoraa to help tha settlers out of some difficulties. He 
waa r t o e h red with gicat joy, aad the government waa resigned into 
hk baadsL He fouaded there a town, which be called 'Qradaa a 
Dioa,' beca t i a e hk men, having suffered much in travelling over 
barren nooalaiai^ exclaimed, when they reached that place, " Thanks 
la Ood, we are come into a gooil land." lie also formed another 
astllmeat, which be called San Juan de Puerto de Caballos, iu the 
BM of Honduras. 

Fardlnuid I'iurro having, in 15S4, gone to Spain with a great 
aiaiiaiit «f irrssur* from Peru, and represented among other things 
the etavnowlancrs of Alvarado's expedition to Quito, the emperor 
had dacbrtd it an entire ooutmveution of his orders, and exprea«ed 
neat iadigaatiae. He bad aent out orders for Alvarado's arreat, and 
H waa oe tbk aeeount, it k said, that bs so readily answered the 
•all to go to Roodnraa. The aflairs of that district bring brought 
bio good ofder, Alvarado rsaolved to visit Spain a second time. lie 
enbarksd with hk arife at the port of Truxillo in Honduras Bay, on 
board a caravel bound for Havanna, and thence proceeded to his 
deatiaaiioB. He found means, by hU arguments, or by the influence 
of hk fritads, ae to soften the Kmpcror, tbst not only bk dia- 
ohsdkaca waa oretiooked, bat hk government was enlarged with the 
a dd l thw of the proviaes of Hondnraa to that of (luateroala. He 
NlarBed with bk wits, aad landed at Pocito d* Caballon. Honduras 
was Mda ia gnat dkorder, but ba reatored it to onler, and " from 
that UBMb' aaya Herrera, "Honduras, which hul been continually 
Iraafakd with broik and suffered great oppr>s*ion, was pracaabk 
mdsr tha govaraaaat of Alvarado." Tbcaamattaa being adjusted, he 
| < u e»ed« d to OaalMnli, and »et aboat aaw diaooTCTka. He equipped 

• iaet af twelve klja ahipa aad tw9 tow-piliMj§, one of twenty, the 

other of thirteen baaohes, aad embarked at El Puerto de U Poaetion, 
with 800 eoldiera, 150 horaaa, aad a oooaiderablo retinue of Indiana. 
He aailed ^ong the eoaat, but, the weather being very uufAVourabla, 
put into the port of Loa Pueblos de Avalos on the coast of Miohoacaii. 
At this period (1541) the Cbichimeoas of New Oalicia, a brave race 
of men, from whom, according to Clavigero, the Tlascalana, alliea of 
Cortea, were deeoended, had revolted. Onata had marched against 
them, and been worsted : hearing that Alvarado waa on the coast, ha 
aent him advicea of what had happened. Alvarado immediately 
landed at Los Pueblos with a part of hk horse and foot, oroaaed in a 
night and a day the morass of Tonala, generally reckoned a three 
days' marob, and on reaching the encampment of tha Spaniards, held 
a oonaultation with the officers. The Indians bad withdrawn, and 
fortified themselves on the mountain tops in a position difficult of 
access: they were numerous, obstinate, hardy, expert bowmcu, and 
very dexterous in tha uee of the jsvelin. The Spauiarda and their 
Indian alliea attaoked them with vigour, but were repulsed and driven 
back to the plain. The Indians followed iu great numbera, and the 
ground being marshy and unfit fur cavalry operations, the Spaniards 
continued their retreat to a river, which they forded ; but the farther 
bank was so steep, that the troopers were compelled to dismount and 
lead their boraes up it. Alvarado stayed, as usual, to bring up the 
rear : a horse climbing the bank slipped, and fell upon him. As be 
was iu armour, the weight of the auimal crushed bis breast so severely 
thfct lie died in three days. His death put a Btop to the expedition. 

(Herrera, Hutoria General de lot Cattellanot, Ac. ; Solis, Cun^uisfa de 
Sfejrico ; Humboldt, Politicai Euay on New Spain ; JIutoire da 
Chichiiniquet par Don Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, publi<Se en 
Franfais par H. Teruaux-Compans, Paris, 1840.) 

ALVAREZ, FRANCISCO, was mass priest and chaplain to Dom 
Manuel, king of Portugal, about the year 1616. Ha was a native of 
Coimbra, aud at that time advanced in life. (Damiam de Goes oalk 
him "senez moribus iuculpatis.") Uf his early history nothing u 
known. In the year above mentioned Alvarez was appointed by the 
king to accompany Duarte Ualvam on a mission to the Negus of 
Abyssinia, or as he was at that time called by the Portuguese, ' ho 
Presto Joam.' The missiou, along with the Armenian, .Mattlieus, wbo 
had visited Portugal as ambassador from the Negus, arrived at Qoa 
in 1516 ; but Lopo Soarez, wbo was at that time governor of the 
Portuguese possessions in India, detained it there under various pre- 
tences. After the death of Soarez, his successor, Diogo Lopez de 
Sequeira, undertook to accompany the missiou in person to the Red 
Sea. The expedition reached Massua on the 16th of April, 1520. 
Duarte Galvam died a few days previously at tlie island of Camaran, 
and Rodrigo de Lima was nominated to proceed to the court of 
Abyssinia in bis stead, by De Sequeira, who said to the new ambaa- 
sador, " Dom Rodrigo, I do not send Father Francisco Alvarez with 
you, but you with hiu, and you sre to do nothing without his advice." 

The mission waa detained in Abyssinia till April 25,